WorldWideScience

Sample records for hawaiian hylaeus nesoprosopis

  1. Molecular biogeography and diversification of the endemic terrestrial fauna of the Hawaiian Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Cowie, Robert H; Holland, Brenden S

    2008-01-01

    Oceanic islands have played a central role in biogeography and evolutionary biology. Here, we review molecular studies of the endemic terrestrial fauna of the Hawaiian archipelago. For some groups, monophyly and presumed single origin of the Hawaiian radiations have been confirmed (achatinelline tree snails, drepanidine honeycreepers, drosophilid flies, Havaika spiders, Hylaeus bees, Laupala crickets). Other radiations are derived from multiple colonizations (Tetragnatha and Theridion spiders...

  2. Rapid diversification in Australia and two dispersals out of Australia in the globally distributed bee genus, Hylaeus (Colletidae: Hylaeinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayaalp, Pelin; Schwarz, Michael P; Stevens, Mark I

    2013-03-01

    Hylaeus is the only globally distributed colletid bee genus, with subgeneric and species-level diversity highest in Australia. We used one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes to reconstruct a phylogeny using Bayesian analyses of this genus based on species from Australia, Asia, Africa, Europe, Hawai'i, the New World and New Zealand. Our results concord with a ca. 30Mya Hylaeus crown age inferred by earlier studies, and we show that Hylaeus originated in Australia. Our phylogeny indicates only two dispersal events out of Australia, both shortly after the initial diversification of extant taxa. One of these dispersals was into New Zealand with only a minor subsequent radiation, but the second dispersal out of Australia resulted in a world-wide distribution. This second dispersal and radiation event, combined with very extensive early radiation of Hyleaus in Australia, poses a conundrum: what kinds of biogeographical and ecological factors could simultaneously drive global dispersal, yet strongly constrain further successful migrations out of Australia when geographical barriers appear to be weak? We argue that for hylaeine bees movement into new niches and enemy-free spaces may have favoured initial dispersal events, but that subsequent dispersals would not have entailed the original benefits of new niche space. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hawaiian birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, J. Michael; Sincock, John L.; Di Silvestro, Roger L.

    1985-01-01

    Hawaii's 132 islands, reefs, and shoals extend 1,523 miles from the southernmost island of Hawaii to the northernmost islands at Kure Atoll. The northernmost islands, now eroded almost to sea level, are about 27 million years old, whereas the still-forming island of Hawaii is only about 750,000 years old. The Hawaiian Islands are the most isolated in the world and, as such, have developed many species and subspecies of plants and animals found nowhere else. the arrival of few ancestral species and the isolation of the islands, with their varying ages, elevations, climates, and microhabitats, were ideal for creating this great endemic biota through adaptive radiation.

  4. The Hawaiian Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navalta, Wilfred

    1981-01-01

    The history and tradition of the ceremonial games of ancient Hawaii are described. A physical education unit was developed for grades 7-12 to preserve this part of Hawaiian culture. The legend of the origin of games and various athletic activities unique to the Hawaiian people are presented. (JN)

  5. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... non-Hispanic white adults to die from a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ...

  6. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  7. Hawaiian Islands Wilderness proposal announcement

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife stating that documents pertaining to the Hawaiian Islands Wilderness proposal have been...

  8. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains records of Hawaiian monk seal and green turtle sightings in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) since 1982 at Lisianski Island, and since...

  9. Aloha Aina: Native Hawaiians Fight for Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kealoha, Gard

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the history, values, and cultural background of the native Hawaiian population, asserting that Hawaiians want to recapture and reaffirm the native rights guaranteed by the constitution of Hawaii in 1846. (Author/JM)

  10. Health disparities in the Native Hawaiian homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, David P; Oeser, Steffen G; Omori, Jill

    2010-06-01

    While it is well accepted that Native Hawaiians have poor health statistics compared to other ethnic groups in Hawaii, it is not well documented if these disparities persist when comparing Native Hawaiian homeless individuals to the general homeless population. This paper examines the Native Hawaiian homeless population living in three shelters on the island of Oahu, to determine if there are significant differences in the frequency of diseases between the Native Hawaiian and non-Native Hawaiian homeless. A retrospective data collection was performed using records from the Hawaii Homeless Outreach and Medical Education (H.O.M.E.) project. Data from 1182 patients was collected as of 12/05/09. Information collected included patient demographics, frequency of self reported diseases, family history of diseases, risk factors, prevalence of chronic diseases, and most common complaints. The data from Native Hawaiians and non-Native Hawaiians were examined for differences and a 1-tail Fisher exact analysis was done to confirm significance. The data reveals that the Native Hawaiian homeless population is afflicted more frequently with asthma and hypertension compared to other ethnic groups. While diabetes constituted more visits to the clinics for Native Hawaiians compared to the non-Native Hawaiians, there was no significant difference in patient reported prevalence of diabetes. The Native Hawaiian homeless also had increased rates of risky behaviors demonstrated by higher past use of marijuana and methamphetamines. Interestingly, there was a lower use of alcohol in the Native Hawaiian homeless and no significant difference between Native Hawaiians and non-native Hawaiians in current use of illicit drugs, which may represent a hopeful change in behaviors. These troubling statistics show that some of the health disparities seen in the general Native Hawaiian population persist despite the global impoverished state of all homeless. Hopefully, these results will aid

  11. Resilience, family adversity and well-being among Hawaiian and non-Hawaiian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Barry S; Goebert, Deborah A; Miyamoto, Robin H; Andrade, Naleen N; Hishinuma, Earl S; Makini, George K; Yuen, Noelle Y C; Bell, Cathy K; McCubbin, Laurie D; Else, Iwalani R N; Nishimura, Stephanie T

    2006-07-01

    Minorities and indigenous peoples are likely to have poor mental health and physical outcomes. This study examines resiliency indicators in Hawaiian adolescents. Multiple resiliency indicators were examined across different domains including individual, family and community in relation to increased psychological well-being. Existing data from the Native Hawaiian Mental Health Research Development Program (NHMHRDP) were used. These data included information from a community sample of five high schools on three islands from the state of Hawai'i. The sample included 1,832 students, where 64% were Native Hawaiian and 36% were non-Hawaiian. This study found that Native Hawaiian youth experienced more family adversity compared with non-Hawaiians, but Native Hawaiians were also more likely to have higher levels of family support. For internalizing symptomatology, the most robust resiliency factors were family support and physical fitness/ health for Native Hawaiian and non-Hawaiian adolescents. For externalizing symptomatology, achievement and family support were consistently strong resiliency factors. The indicator for physical fitness and health was more influential among Native Hawaiians than non-Hawaiians for externalizing symptoms, while academic achievement was more influential among non-Hawaiians than for Native Hawaiians for the protection against internalizing symptoms. Our findings support the need for intervention programs designed to promote resilience in adolescents, including highlighting the importance of the family. Further research is needed to design and evaluate programs that promote well-being, enhance resilience and improve mental health in culturally appropriate ways.

  12. Chronic Liver Disease and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Native Hawaiian/Pacific ... times more likely to be diagnosed with chronic liver disease in 2006. American Samoans were 8 times more ...

  13. Kula Kaiapuni: Hawaiian Immersion Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kame'eleihiwa, Lilikala

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaii State Department of Education offers a growing number of Hawaiian language immersion schools for its students. The article presents the history of immersion schools in Hawaii, examining criticisms of immersion schools, discussing their benefits, and explaining necessary components for success. (SM)

  14. Integrating Sustainability and Hawaiian Culture into the Tourism Experience of the Hawaiian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Agrusa

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The travel industry in Hawaii has been experiencing a trend towards more authentic tourism, which reintegrates Hawaiian culture into the visitors’ experience. This study investigated the reintegration of Hawaiian culture into the tourism experience on the Hawaiian Islands by reviewing existing literature, and by analyzing primary data collected through visitor surveys. The purpose of the study was to determine whether there is a visitors’ demand for a more authentic tourism experience in Hawaii through the reintegration of Hawaiian culture, and if so, which efforts should be made or continue to be made to achieve this authenticity. Important aspects that were taken into consideration in this research effort arethe changes Hawaiian culture has experienced with the arrival of outsiders, and the authenticity of the Hawaiian tourism experience today. Further aspects that were examined include the visitors’ image of Hawaii, their expectations, their experiences and satisfaction during their stay, their interest in and understanding of Hawaiian culture, as well as the type of Hawaiian cultural experiences they are interested in. According to the findings of this study, English speaking visitors are interested in Hawaiian culture and feel that Hawaiian culture is not represented enough in the tourism experience today. The conclusion is, therefore, that efforts to integrate Hawaiian culture into the tourism experience need to be increasedbeyond what is currently being done. Ideas for reintegrating Hawaiian culture are discussed and possible solutions are provided.

  15. Native Hawaiian Community College Students: What Happens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Linda Serra; Lester, Jaime; Moon, Hye Sun; Tibbetts, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    Using a weighted database of approximately 3,000 students, this study involves the tracing of the postsecondary history of 2,516 students who identified as Native Hawaiian, graduated from high school between 1993 and 1995, and attended college. Virtually none of the students are 100% Hawaiian. Due to a long history of intermarriage, the Hawaiian…

  16. Hawaiian Starlight: Sharing the Beauty of the Hawaiian Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuillandre, J. C.

    Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Corp. The summit of Mauna Kea (14,000 feet) offers the best viewing of the Cosmos in the northern hemisphere, and the film "Hawaiian Starlight" delivers a pure esthetic experience from the mountain into the Universe. Seven years in the making, this cinematic symphony reveals the spectacular beauty of the mountain and its connection to the Cosmos through the magical influence of time-lapse cinematography scored exclusively (no narration) with the awe-inspiring, critically acclaimed, Halo music by Martin O'Donnell and Michael Salvatori. Daytime and nighttime landscapes and skyscapes alternate with stunning true color images of the Universe captured by an observatory on Mauna Kea, all free of any computer generated imagery. An extended segment of the film will be presented at the Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies Conference to celebrate the international year of Astronomy 2009, a global effort initiated by the IAU (International Astronomical Union) and UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) to help the citizens of the world rediscover their place in the Universe through the day- and night-time sky, and thereby engage a personal sense of wonder and discovery. Hawaiian Starlight is true to this commitment. The inspiration and technology of the film will be shortly presented by the film's director.

  17. Hydrogeology of the Hawaiian islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Oki, Delwyn S.; Cabrera, Maria del Carmen; Lambán, Luis Javier; Valverde, Margarida

    2011-01-01

    Volcanic-rock aquifers are the most extensive and productive aquifers in the Hawaiian Islands. These aquifers contain different types of groundwater systems depending on the geologic setting in which they occur. The most common groundwater systems include coastal freshwater-lens systems in the dike-free flanks of the volcanoes and dike-impounded systems within the dike-intruded areas of the volcanoes. In some areas, a thick (hundreds of meters) freshwater lens may develop because of the presence of a coastal confining unit, or caprock, that impedes the discharge of groundwater from the volcanic-rock aquifer, or because the permeability of the volcanic rocks forming the aquifer is low. In other areas with low groundwater-recharge rates and that lack a caprock, the freshwater lens may be thin or brackish water may exist immediately below the water table. Dike-impounded groundwater systems commonly have high water levels (hundreds of meters above sea level) and contribute to the base flow of streams where the water table intersects the stream. Recent numerical modeling studies have enhanced the conceptual understanding of groundwater systems in the Hawaiian Islands.

  18. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Telemetry Tag Deployments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project investigates foraging behavior of Hawaiian monk seals by conducting telemetry studies. During these studies, live seals are instrumented with dive...

  19. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Argos Location Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project investigates foraging behavior of Hawaiian monk seals by conducting telemetry studies. During these studies, live seals are instrumented with satellite...

  20. Hawaiian Electric Company Demand Response Roadmap Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, Roger [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-12

    The objective of this project was to develop a “roadmap” to guide the Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) demand response (DR) planning and implementation in support of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) 70% clean energy goal by 2030.

  1. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Photo Identification Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This photo collection contains identification and other images and video of Hawaiian monk seals taken by PSD personnel and cooperating scientists as part of the...

  2. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Handling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains records for all handling and measurement of Hawaiian monk seals since 1981. Live seals are handled and measured during a variety of events...

  3. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Crittercam video

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project investigates foraging behavior of Hawaiian monk seals by conducting telemetry studies. During these studies, live seals are instrumented with dive...

  4. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Tag Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains records for all tags applied to Hawaiian monk seals since 1981. These tags were applied by PSD personnel and cooperating scientists as part of...

  5. Principal Hawaiian Islands Geoid Heights (GEOID96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' geoid height grid for the Principal Hawaiian Islands is distributed as a GEOID96 model. The computation used 61,000 terrestrial and marine gravity data held...

  6. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Fisheries Interactions data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set contains records of all documented hookings and/or entanglements of Hawaiian monk seals with actively fished gear, both commercial and recreational. The...

  7. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Microsatellite Genotypes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Currently ~2,400 Hawaiian monk seal specimens have been analyzed genetically, providing genotypes at 18 microsatellite loci. These data are organized by individual,...

  8. Hillshades for the main 8 Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These hillshade datasets were derived from USGS 7.5' DEM Quads for the main 8 Hawaiian Islands. Individual DEM quads were first converted to a common datum, and...

  9. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seals on Social Media

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — As social media platforms develop, they potentially provide valuable information for wildlife researchers and managers. NOAA’s Hawaiian Monk Seal Research Program...

  10. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Necropsy Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains information on Hawaiian monk seal gross necropsy (in some cases only field notes or minimal information) and histopathology results beginning...

  11. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Entanglement data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set contains records of all entanglements of Hawaiian monk seals in marine debris. The data set comprises records of seals entangled by derelict fishing...

  12. Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders While the overall ... Recent data for this ethnic group is limited. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  13. Monitoring population size of endangered Hawaiian duck and prevalence of Mallard/Hawaiian duck hybrids: Hanalei National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Hawaiian duck or Koloa maoli (Anas wyvilliana) is endemic to Hawai‘i and one of three extant waterfowl species occurring on the Hawaiian Islands. Relatively...

  14. Predicting the Timing and Location of the next Hawaiian Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Joseph; Mattox, Stephen; Kildau, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    The wealth of geologic data on Hawaiian volcanoes makes them ideal for study by middle school students. In this paper the authors use existing data on the age and location of Hawaiian volcanoes to predict the location of the next Hawaiian volcano and when it will begin to grow on the floor of the Pacific Ocean. An inquiry-based lesson is also…

  15. Na Mele o Hawai'i Nei; 101 Hawaiian Songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbert, Samuel H., Comp.; Mahoe, Noelani, Comp.

    The songs in this collection of Hawaiian traditional and Christmas songs are postmissionary and owe their musical origin to missionary hymns dating from the mid-1850's to 1968. Nearly all are sung often today and are well known to Hawaiian singers. Many have not been translated before. Each song appears in Hawaiian and English, prefaced by brief…

  16. Growth and degradation of Hawaiian volcanoes: Chapter 3 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, David A.; Sherrod, David R.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    The 19 known shield volcanoes of the main Hawaiian Islands—15 now emergent, 3 submerged, and 1 newly born and still submarine—lie at the southeast end of a long-lived hot spot chain. As the Pacific Plate of the Earth’s lithosphere moves slowly northwestward over the Hawaiian hot spot, volcanoes are successively born above it, evolve as they drift away from it, and eventually die and subside beneath the ocean surface.

  17. Profile: Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer, heart disease, unintentional injuries (accidents), stroke and diabetes. Some other health conditions and risk factors that are prevalent among Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders are hepatitis B, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis. Other Health Concerns: It is significant to note ...

  18. Hawaiian Performance Cartography of Kaua'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akana, Kalani

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a discussion that examines Hawaiian performance cartography as described by Oliveira--but only as it relates to the island of Kaua'i. Section I begins with a chant asking permission to "enter" into the cultural landscape described in "mele" (songs) and "hula" (dance). Section II looks briefly at…

  19. Trichomoniasis in the Hawaiian barred dove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, R.M.; Banko, W.

    1974-01-01

    Two barred doves found in the south Kona district of the island of Hawaii were diagnosed as having trichomoniasis on the basis of gross and microscopic lesions. This brings the confirmed list of columbid species susceptible to natural trichomoniasis to four and is the first report of the disease from columbids in the Hawaiian Islands.

  20. Energy Systems Integration Partnerships: NREL + Hawaiian Electric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-23

    NREL and the Hawaiian Electric Companies are collaborating with the solar and inverter industries to implement advanced inverters, allowing greater solar photovoltaic (PV) penetrations that will support the State of Hawaii's goal to achieve 100% renewable energy by 2045. Advanced inverters will help maintain stable grid operations by riding through grid disturbances when the PV output is needed, operating autonomously to smooth voltage fluctuations, and coordinating the start-up and reconnection of PV systems and other distributed energy resources.

  1. Antioxidant Activity of Hawaiian Marine Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D. Wright

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine algae are known to contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, many of which have commercial applications in pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries. Natural antioxidants, found in many algae, are important bioactive compounds that play an important role against various diseases and ageing processes through protection of cells from oxidative damage. In this respect, relatively little is known about the bioactivity of Hawaiian algae that could be a potential natural source of such antioxidants. The total antioxidant activity of organic extracts of 37 algal samples, comprising of 30 species of Hawaiian algae from 27 different genera was determined. The activity was determined by employing the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays. Of the algae tested, the extract of Turbinaria ornata was found to be the most active. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of a variety of different carotenoids as the active principles. The major bioactive antioxidant compound was identified as the carotenoid fucoxanthin. These results show, for the first time, that numerous Hawaiian algae exhibit significant antioxidant activity, a property that could lead to their application in one of many useful healthcare or related products as well as in chemoprevention of a variety of diseases including cancer.

  2. Mesophotic coral ecosystems in the Hawaiian Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, J.; Donham, E.; Montgomery, A.; Spalding, H.; Parrish, F.; Boland, R.; Fenner, D.; Gove, J.; Vetter, O.

    2010-06-01

    Efforts to map coral reef ecosystems in the Hawaiian Archipelago using optical imagery have revealed the presence of numerous scleractinian, zoothanthellate coral reefs at depths of 30-130+ m, most of which were previously undiscovered. Such coral reefs and their associated communities have been recently defined as mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs). Several types of MCEs are found in Hawai‘i, each of which dominates a different depth range and is characterized by a unique pattern of coral community structure and colony morphology. Although MCEs are documented near both ends of the archipelago and on many of the islands in between, the maximum depth and prevalence of MCEs in Hawai‘i were found to decline with increasing latitude. The Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) had significantly deeper and greater percentages of scleractinian coral, and peaks in cover of both scleractinian corals and macroalgae occurred within depth bins 20 m deeper than in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Across the archipelago, as depth increased the combined percentage of living cover of mega benthic taxa declined sharply with increasing depth below 70 m, despite the widespread availability of hard substrate.

  3. Creating Active Learners on Hawaiian Adventures through Project ALOHA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Claire; Anderson, Thomas; Sakuda, Katherine

    1998-01-01

    Describes an integrated curriculum project for fourth graders in a Hawaiian elementary school with a highly transient population. The project, ALOHA (Active Learners on Hawaiian Adventures) was developed to motivate students in learning about Hawaii's culture and ecosystems. Cooperation between the library media specialist, technology coordinator,…

  4. Pacific plate motion change caused the Hawaiian-Emperor Bend

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torsvik, Trond H.; Doubrovine, Pavel V.; Steinberger, Bernhard; Gaina, Carmen; Spakman, Wim; Domeier, Mathew

    2017-01-01

    A conspicuous 60° bend of the Hawaiian-Emperor Chain in the north-western Pacific Ocean has variously been interpreted as the result of an abrupt Pacific plate motion change in the Eocene (∼47 Ma), a rapid southward drift of the Hawaiian hotspot before the formation of the bend, or a combination of

  5. 78 FR 29089 - Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI... Safety Zones; Hawaiian Islands Commercial Harbors; HI. (a) Location. The following areas are safety zones...

  6. 78 FR 63381 - Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI.... 14-1414 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Islands Commercial Harbors; HI. (a) Location. The following commercial...

  7. The Native Hawaiian Insect Microbiome Initiative: A Critical Perspective for Hawaiian Insect Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten E. Poff

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Insects associate with a diversity of microbes that can shape host ecology and diversity by providing essential biological and adaptive services. For most insect groups, the evolutionary implications of host–microbe interactions remain poorly understood. Geographically discrete areas with high biodiversity offer powerful, simplified model systems to better understand insect–microbe interactions. Hawaii boasts a diverse endemic insect fauna (~6000 species characterized by spectacular adaptive radiations. Despite this, little is known about the role of bacteria in shaping this diversity. To address this knowledge gap, we inaugurate the Native Hawaiian Insect Microbiome Initiative (NHIMI. The NHIMI is an effort intended to develop a framework for informing evolutionary and biological studies in Hawaii. To initiate this effort, we have sequenced the bacterial microbiomes of thirteen species representing iconic, endemic Hawaiian insect groups. Our results show that native Hawaiian insects associate with a diversity of bacteria that exhibit a wide phylogenetic breadth. Several groups show predictable associations with obligate microbes that permit diet specialization. Others exhibit unique ecological transitions that are correlated with shifts in their microbiomes (e.g., transition to carrion feeding from plant-feeding in Nysius wekiuicola. Finally, some groups, such as the Hawaiian Drosophila, have relatively diverse microbiomes with a conserved core of bacterial taxa across multiple species and islands.

  8. The origin of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvorak, John [University of Hawaii' s Institute for Astronomy (United States)

    2011-05-15

    I first stepped through the doorway of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1976, and I was impressed by what I saw: A dozen people working out of a stone-and-metal building perched at the edge of a high cliff with a spectacular view of a vast volcanic plain. Their primary purpose was to monitor the island's two active volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. I joined them, working for six weeks as a volunteer and then, years later, as a staff scientist. That gave me several chances to ask how the observatory had started.

  9. The call to life: revitalizing a healthy Hawaiian identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullin, Juliet

    2005-08-01

    The meaning of health is typically defined as the absence of disease. This definition, while highlighting our ability to measure the physiological attributes of health through morbidity and mortality statistics in turn obscures alternative meanings of health. In this paper, I ask three questions about the meaning of health. First, is health simply the body without disease? Second, are there alternative meanings of health that are not solely informed by Enlightenment views of science and biomedicine? Third, in what ways does health give meaning to and inform social orders and our place within them? Drawing on interviews with Native Hawaiians conducted on the islands of Maui and Hawaii, this paper examines what it means to be a "healthy Hawaiian", and in doing so, problematizes meanings of health. For those I interviewed, definitions of health were embedded in understandings of what it means to be a Native Hawaiian and presented an opportunity to talk about the cultural and material dispossession of Native Hawaiians. These definitions also remind the present generation of the vitality of their ancestors. In remembering the life, health and subsequent dispossession of Hawaiian ancestors, contemporary Hawaiians are provided with an alternative definition of what it means to be a "healthy Hawaiian", thus raising serious questions about "health" as defined by biomedicine and how best to achieve it. This case illustrates how a focus on concepts of health elucidates the relationship between health and inequality as well as Native Hawaiian's agency in charting a positive direction for health that has meaning in the everyday life of Hawaiians.

  10. Social determinants of health for Native Hawaiian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, David M K I; Alameda, Christian K

    2011-11-01

    Traditional Hawaiian thought places children in a position of prominence in the family. Yet in Hawai'i, Native Hawaiian children and adolescents face significant inequity in health outcomes. From prenatal alcohol and tobacco use, late or no prenatal care, macrosomia as well as low birth rates, to exclusive breastfeeding rates at 6 months, and high rates of infant mortality, Native Hawaiians face inequities in pre and early childhood indicators. During childhood and adolescence, Native Hawaiians experience high rates of obesity, and physical, mental and sexual abuse. This review examines the determinants behind the health inequities encountered by Native Hawaiian children and adolescents, and contextualizes those inequities s in a human rights-based approach to health. A literature review was conducted for relevant research on Native Hawaiian and other indigenous children and adolescents. Existing data sources were also reviewed for relevant Native Hawaiian data. There is a significant dearth of data on the determinants of health for Native Hawaiian children and adolescents. Some prenatal data is available from the Prenatal Risk Assessment Monitoring System, while selected youth data is available from the Youth Behavioral Risk Factor system. Available data show significant inequities for Native Hawaiian children and adolescents, compared to other groups in Hawai'i. Based on comparisons with other indigenous and marginalized peoples, the etiology of these disparities may be a lack of health equity, deriving from multigenerational trauma and discrimination as well as poverty and inequities of housing, education, environment, healthcare access, and social capital. The significant barriers facing Native Hawaiian children and adolescents achieving their full potential constitute a challenge to the fulfillment of the human right to health. Future research needs to more fully articulate the linkage between the health status of Native Hawaiian children and adolescents, the

  11. Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative Report: 1988: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Hawaiian Islands NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1988 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  12. Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative Report: 1990: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Hawaiian Islands NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  13. Hawaiian Islands Terrain Corrected Free Air Anomalies (96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' gravity anomaly grid for the Principal Hawaiian Islands is NOT the input data set used in development of the GEOID96 model. This gravity grid models the...

  14. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Main Hawaiian Islands: Data Assimilating

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 3-day, 3-hourly data assimilating hindcast for the region surrounding the main Hawaiian islands at approximately 4-km...

  15. Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative Report: 1970: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Hawaiian Islands NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1970 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the...

  16. Hawaiian Islands North-South Deflections (DEFLEC96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' surface deflection of the vertical grid for the Principal Hawaiian Islands is the DEFLEC96 model. The computation used about 61,000 terrestrial and marine...

  17. Hawaiian Islands East-West Deflections (DEFLEC96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' surface deflection of the vertical grid for the Principal Hawaiian Islands is the DEFLEC96 model. The computation used about 61,000 terrestrial and marine...

  18. Hawaiian Islands Gravity Data per 2 min Cell (96)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' gravity density grid for the Principal Hawaiian Islands displays the distribution of about 61,000 terrestrial and marine gravity data held in the National...

  19. Northwest Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Division Reef Fish Biomass

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents island-scale mean and Standard Error of biomass for 4 trophic groups using all data from North West Hawaiian Islands gathered using NOAA's...

  20. Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative Report: 1989: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Hawaiian Islands NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  1. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Master Identification Records (annual)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains records of all individually identified Hawaiian monk seals since 1981. These seals were identified by PSD personnel and cooperating scientists...

  2. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Master Identification Records (seal)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains records of all individually identified Hawaiian monk seals since 1981. These seals were identified by PSD personnel and cooperating scientists...

  3. Legacy HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Scat-spew data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project investigates the dietary consumption of Hawaiian monk seals using traditional dietary analysis of fecal and regurgitate samples. Samples are collected...

  4. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Main Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 7-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding the main Hawaiian islands at approximately 4-km resolution. While...

  5. Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative Report: 1987: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Hawaiian Islands NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1987 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  6. Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative Report: 1969: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for the Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities and accomplishments during the 1969 calendar year. The...

  7. Fire vs Water: Erosional/Depositional Geology, Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Even a casual, untrained observer will see evidence that opposing forces have formed the Hawaiian Islands. The massive and lofty volcanoes have been scoured,...

  8. Observations of an indigenous Hawaiian planetarium operator: Astronomy content knowledge of Hawaiian school children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Ahia G.; Ha`o, Celeste; Slater, Timothy F.; Slater, Stephanie J.

    2015-08-01

    Not so long ago, astronomers visiting schools in Hawaii tried to build awareness among school children and teachers about how stars move across the sky, the nature of planets orbiting our sun, and the physical processes governing stars and galaxies. While these efforts were undertaken with all good intentions, they were often based on our collective understanding of how Mainland children come to know astronomy topics, and with a Western worldview. Research observations of Hawaiian elementary school children indicate that Hawaiian children understand far more about the skies than could have been predicted from the behavior of Mainland children, or from the body of literature on children’s understanding of astronomy. Analysis of elementary students’ responses to a kumu’s, or teacher’s questions relating to the celestial sphere indicate that these students posses a deep knowledge of the night sky and celestial motions. This knowledge base is fluent across two cultural systems of constellations, and is predictive. In an era of curriculum development based upon learning progressions, it appears that Native Hawaiian students possess unexpected knowledge that is well poised to interfere with conventional educational and public outreach approaches if not taken into account. Further, these findings suggest that further inquiry must be made into the astronomical thinking of minority populations prior to the unilateral implementation of national science education standards.

  9. Microbial Interactions and the Ecology and Evolution of Hawaiian Drosophilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy eO'Connor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive radiations are characterized by an increased rate of speciation and expanded range of habitats and ecological niches exploited by those species. The Hawaiian Drosophilidae is a classic adaptive radiation; a single ancestral species colonized Hawaii approximately 25 million years ago and gave rise to two monophyletic lineages, the Hawaiian Drosophila and the genus Scaptomyza. The Hawaiian Drosophila are largely saprophagous and rely on approximately 40 endemic plant families and their associated microbes to complete development. Scaptomyza are even more diverse in host breadth. While many species of Scaptomyza utilize decomposing plant substrates, some species have evolved to become herbivores, parasites on spider egg masses, and exploit microbes on living plant tissue. Understanding the origin of the ecological diversity encompassed by these nearly 700 described species has been a challenge. The central role of microbes in drosophilid ecology suggests bacterial and fungal associates may have played a role in the diversification of the Hawaiian Drosophilidae. Here we synthesize recent ecological and microbial community data from the Hawaiian Drosophilidae to examine the forces that may have led to this adaptive radiation. We propose that the evolutionary success of the Hawaiian Drosophilidae is due to a combination of factors, including adaptation to novel ecological niches facilitated by microbes.

  10. Distinct and extinct: genetic differentiation of the Hawaiian eagle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailer, Frank; James, Helen F; Olson, Storrs L; Fleischer, Robert C

    2015-02-01

    Eagles currently occur in the Hawaiian Islands only as vagrants, but Quaternary bones of Haliaeetus eagles have been found on three of the major islands. A previous study of a ∼3500-year-old skeleton from Maui found its mtDNA more similar to White-tailed (H. albicilla) than to Bald (H. leucocephalus) Eagles, but low intraspecific resolution of the markers and lack of comparative data from mainland populations precluded assessment of whether the individual was part of the diversity found in Eurasia, or whether it represented an endemic Hawaiian lineage. Using ancient DNA techniques, we sequenced part of the rapidly evolving mtDNA control region from the same specimen, and compared it to published range-wide control region data from White-tailed Eagles and newly generated sequences from Bald Eagles. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Hawaiian eagle represents a distinct (>3% divergent) mtDNA lineage most closely related to those of extant White-tailed Eagles. Based on fossil calibration, we estimate that the Hawaiian mtDNA lineage diverged from mainland sequences around the Middle Pleistocene. Although not clearly differentiated morphologically from mainland forms, the Hawaiian eagle thus likely constituted an isolated, resident population in the Hawaiian archipelago for more than 100,000 years, where it was the largest terrestrial predator. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Coping With Breast Cancer at the Nexus of Religiosity and Hawaiian Culture: Perspectives of Native Hawaiian Survivors and Family Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue I.; Mitschke, Diane B.; Kloezeman, Karen C.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes research to develop a breast health intervention for women in Hawaiian churches. Native Hawaiian women are disproportionately burdened by breast disease and tend to be diagnosed at advanced stages when treatment options are more limited. Research suggests that cultural conflict may be a factor in Hawaiian women's underutilization of conventional health services. Phenomenological approaches guided data collection and analysis to explore the influence of religiosity and ethnocultural tradition in coping with breast cancer. The overarching theme was kakou (we or us), which emphasized ways of coping oriented to the family collective and focused on family well-being. Findings offer a portal for understanding the lived experience of survivors and families in Hawaiian churches. Considerations are suggested for those practitioners assisting clients from collectivist-oriented cultures. PMID:20835303

  12. Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Narrative Report: 1985: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex (including Baker, Hanalei, Hawaiian Islands, Howland, Huleia, James...

  13. 76 FR 77779 - Availability of Seats for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... Council: Native Hawaiian Representative, Ocean Related Tourism Representative, Conservation Alternate... of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, extending approximately 1200 nautical miles long and 100 nautical miles wide. The Reserve is managed by the Secretary of Commerce pursuant to the National Marine...

  14. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Contaminants (Blubber, serum, and whole blood persistent organic pollutants) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains information on persistent organic pollutant analysis of Hawaiian monk seal whole blood and blubber samples from the northwestern Hawaiian...

  15. Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Narrative Report: 1978-1980: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex (including Baker, Hanalei, Hawaiian Islands, Howland, Huleia, James...

  16. Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Narrative Report: 1981: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex (including Baker, Hanalei, Hawaiian Islands, Howland, Huleia, James...

  17. Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Narrative Report: 1983-1984: Calendar Years

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex (including Baker, Hanalei, Hawaiian Islands, Howland, Huleia, James...

  18. Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Narrative Report: 1975: Fiscal Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex (including Baker, Hanalei, Hawaiian Islands, Howland, Huleia, Jarvis,...

  19. SWFSC/MMTD/PI: Hawaiian Islands Cetacean and Ecosystem Assessment Survey (HICEAS) 2002, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hawaiian Islands Cetacean and Ecosystem Assessment Survey, called HICEAS, is a marine mammal assessment survey of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Hawaiian...

  20. Agar from some Hawaiian red algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, G.A.; Doty, M.S.

    1983-08-01

    From describing the agars of Gelidiella acerosa Forskk., Gelidium pluma Loomis, G. pusillum (Stackh.) Lejolis, Gracilaria abbotiana Hoyle, G. bursapastoris (Gmelin) Silva, G. canaliculata (Kutzing) Sonder, G. coronopifolia J.Ag., G. epihippisora Hoyle, Pterocladia caerulescens (Kutzing) Santelices and P. capillacea (Gmelin) Born. and Thur. as found in Hawaiian samples of these species, it is concluded that the species of Gelidium and especially Pterocladia and Gelidiella may merit more consideration for usage due to their agar gel strengths. The nature of the gel from Gracilaria abbottiana suggests the generic status might well be reexamined. The agars from the Gelidiella and the other Gracilaria species should be studied further for their prospective values to the food industry other than gel strength. Mixtures of the agars from G. bursapastoris and G. coronopifolia would merit attention for the taste texture of their mixtures. (Refs. 18).

  1. Na Mele Ho Ona Auao (The Songs That Instruct). Hawaiian Studies Music Resource Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    This music resource book is a compilation of traditional Hawaiian mele (songs) for use as a tool in music instruction and as a means to educate students in both the Hawaiian language and in various aspects of Hawaiian culture. Music and words are provided for each song as well as an English translation. The first section is comprised of songs or…

  2. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section 409.70 Protection of Environment... CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70 Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges...

  3. 34 CFR 402.1 - What is the Native Hawaiian Vocational Education Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Native Hawaiian Vocational Education... (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIVE HAWAIIAN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAM General § 402.1 What is the Native Hawaiian Vocational Education Program? The Native...

  4. 76 FR 54689 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hawaiian Islands, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hawaiian Islands, HI AGENCY: Federal Aviation... for the Hawaiian Islands, HI. The FAA is taking this action in response to a request from the Honolulu... E airspace extending upward from 1,200 feet above the surface for the Hawaiian Islands, HI. This...

  5. The traditional Hawaiian diet: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Ruth; Braun, Kathryn L; Hughes, Claire K

    2004-09-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing among all Americans, including Native Hawaiians. Because obesity is a risk factor for major chronic diseases and shortens lifespan, it is important to develop and test interventions to prevent and reduce it. Traditional Hawaiian Diet (THD) programs, conducted over the last two decades, were examined in the context of national information on weight loss and obesity prevention programs. This review reveals that THD programs appeal to Native Hawaiians, especially the education about the health and cultural values of native foods and the support of peers. The majority of participants realize short-term weight loss and improvements in health, but few individuals sustain a significant weight loss. Most participants have difficulty adhering to the THD, citing barriers to accessing fresh, affordable produce and the lack of support systems and environments that embrace healthy eating. Any THD program offered in the future should address these barriers and engage participants for at least a year. This review includes a logic model that can be used to help program providers improve THD programs and increase the rigor of evaluation efforts. Additionally, public health professionals and Native Hawaiians should advocate for environmental changes that will support healthy lifestyles, for example: increase access by Native Hawaiians to the land and ocean; provide land for home, neighborhood and community gardening; support local farmers; remove junk-food vending machines from public buildings (including schools); improve school lunches; and mandate daily, enjoyable physical education classes in schools and after-school programs.

  6. Roots of the Hawaiian Hotspot. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Exploration--Grades 9-12 (Earth Science). Seismology and Geological Origins of the Hawaiian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD.

    This activity is designed to introduce to students the processes of plate tectonics and volcanism that resulted in the formation of the Hawaiian Islands and the difference between S waves and P waves. Students are expected to explain how seismic data recorded at different locations can be used to determine the epicenter of an earthquake, infer a…

  7. ROV Tiburon Investigation of Hawaiian Submarine Canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, C. K.; Greene, H. G.; Caress, D. W.; Clague, D. A.; Ussler, W.; Maher, N. M.

    2001-12-01

    MBARI conducted ROV dives around the Hawaiian Islands during an expedition of the R/V Western Flyer and Tiburon in the spring of 2001. Eight ROV dives were made to investigate five major submarine canyons offshore of Oahu, Molokai, and Hawaii in up to 3,434 m water depths. Four of these canyons are located off the windward (northern) side of these islands where onshore canyons are also well developed. Those canyons located offshore of Molokai and Oahu incise the head scars of the giant Nuuanu and Wailai submarine landslides. ROV observations and sediment and rock outcrop sampling were made in these canyons to determine their origin and present-day activity. The fifth canyon investigated is located on the leeward (southern) side of Molokai. The canyons along the windward side expose extensive stratigraphic sections that reveal the history of the islands' formation. In composite, these sections contain marine pillow basalt overlain by a substantial sequence of alternating subaerial lava flows, rounded boulder conglomerates, shallow water carbonates, and hyaloclastites that indicate coastal and marine deposition. These sequences illustrate the accretion and subsequent subsidence of the islands' flanks. These canyons also have morphologically distinct upper and lower sections. The upper reaches of the canyons are incised into the shallow water marine facies and contain broad axial channels through which active sediment transport is occurring. In contrast, the morphology of the lower canyons are strongly influenced by the giant landslides that massively altered the northern flanks of the Hawaiian chain. The lower canyons contain plunge pools and steep headwall scarps that are generally comprised of mechanically competent subaerial lava flows. The presence of multiple plunge pools with differentially eroded head scarps suggests retrogressive erosion (bottom-up process) with headward advancement of the various heads. Undercutting of the headwalls also produce periodic

  8. Historical trauma and substance use among Native Hawaiian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2014-05-01

    To test the relationships among historical trauma, perceived discrimination, and substance use (cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use) among Native Hawaiians. Cross sectional self-report data were collected online from 128 Native Hawaiian community college students (M age = 27.5; SD = 9.5; 65% Women). Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. Historical trauma had 2 paths to substance use: an indirect path to higher substance use through higher perceived discrimination and a direct path to lower substance use. Thoughts, knowledge, or experience associated with historical trauma may enhance substance use behavior via increased perceived discrimination and may also be protective against substance use, possibly via increased pride in one's cultural heritage. This research has implications for historical trauma, discrimination, and substance use research concerning Native Hawaiians.

  9. Stronger or longer: Discriminating between Hawaiian and Strombolian eruption styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Bruce F.; Taddeucci, Jacopo; Andronico, D.; Gonnerman, H; Pistolesi, M; Patrick, Matthew R.; Orr, Tim; Swanson, Don; Edmonds, M; Carey, Rebecca J.; Scarlato, P.

    2016-01-01

    The weakest explosive volcanic eruptions globally, Strombolian explosions and Hawaiian fountaining, are also the most common. Yet, despite over a hundred years of observations, no classifications have offered a convincing, quantitative way of demarcating these two styles. New observations show that the two styles are distinct in their eruptive timescale, with the duration of Hawaiian fountaining exceeding Strombolian explosions by about 300 to 10,000 seconds. This reflects the underlying process of whether shallow-exsolved gas remains trapped in the erupting magma or whether it is decoupled from it. We propose here a classification scheme based on the duration of events (brief explosions versus prolonged fountains) with a cutoff at 300 seconds that separates transient Strombolian explosions from sustained Hawaiian fountains.

  10. Phylogenetics of the antopocerus-modified tarsus clade of Hawaiian Drosophila: diversification across the Hawaiian Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard T Lapoint

    Full Text Available The Hawaiian Drosophilidae radiation is an ecologically and morphologically diverse clade of almost 700 described species. A phylogenetic approach is key to understanding the evolutionary forces that have given rise to this diverse lineage. Here we infer the phylogeny for the antopocerus, modified tarsus and ciliated tarsus (AMC clade, a lineage comprising 16% (91 of 687 species of the described Hawaiian Drosophilidae. To improve on previous analyses we constructed the largest dataset to date for the AMC, including a matrix of 15 genes for 68 species. Results strongly support most of the morphologically defined species groups as monophyletic. We explore the correlation of increased diversity in biogeography, sexual selection and ecology on the present day diversity seen in this lineage using a combination of dating methods, rearing records, and distributional data. Molecular dating analyses indicate that AMC lineage started diversifying about 4.4 million years ago, culminating in the present day AMC diversity. We do not find evidence that ecological speciation or sexual selection played a part in generating this diversity, but given the limited number of described larval substrates and secondary sexual characters analyzed we can not rule these factors out entirely. An increased rate of diversification in the AMC is found to overlap with the emergence of multiple islands in the current chain of high islands, specifically Oahu and Kauai.

  11. Arsenic chemistry and remediation in Hawaiian soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Nguyen V

    2013-01-01

    Past use of arsenical pesticides has resulted in elevated levels of arsenic (As) in some Hawaiian soils. Total As concentrations of 20-100 mg/kg are not uncommon, and can exceed 900 mg/kg in some lands formerly planted with sugarcane. With high contents of amorphous aluminosilicates and iron oxides in many Hawaii's volcanic ash-derived Andisols, a high proportion (25-30%) of soil As was associated with either these mineral phases or with organic matter. Less than 1% of the total As was water soluble or exchangeable. Furthermore, the soils can sorb As strongly: the addition of 1000 mg/kg as As (+5) resulted in only between 0.03 and 0.30 mg/L As in soil solution. In contrast, soils having more crystalline minerals (e.g., Oxisols) sorb less As and thus often contain less As. Phosphate fertilization increases As bioaccessibility, whereas the addition of Fe(OH)3 decreases it. Brake fern (Pteris vittata L.) can be used to remove some soil As. Concentrations of As in fronds varied on average from 60 mg/kg when grown on a low-As Oxisol to 350 mg/kg when grown on a high-As Andisol. Ratios of leaf As to CaCl2-extractable soil As were 12 and 222 for the Oxisol and Andisol, respectively.

  12. Middle Ear Disorders and Hearing Loss in Native Hawaiian Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang-Ching, Glenn; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Native Hawaiian preschoolers (n=172) received a battery of tests that included pure-tone audiometry, tympanometry, acoustic reflectometry, and pneumatic otoscopy. Approximately 15% of children failed a majority of the tests. Results are discussed in comparison to other indigenous groups at risk for middle ear disorders and hearing loss.…

  13. An Olivine-free mantle source of Hawaiian shield basalts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobolev, A.V.; Hofmann, A.W.; Sobolev, S.V.; Nikogosian, I.

    2005-01-01

    More than 50 per cent of the Earth's upper mantle consists of olivine and it is generally thought that mantle-derived melts are generated in equilibrium with this mineral. Here, however, we show that the unusually high nickel and silicon contents of most parental Hawaiian magmas are inconsistent

  14. Coral: A Hawaiian Resource. An Instructional Guidebook for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Ann; Moniz, Barbara

    Described are eight field trips to various sites on the Hawaiian island of Oahu. These experiences are designed to help teachers develop middle school students' awareness and understanding of Hawaii's natural resources, with particular emphasis upon coral. Each field trip unit contains a physical and biological description of the area and two to…

  15. Field Keys to Common Hawaiian Marine Animals and Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    Presented are keys for identifying common Hawaiian marine algae, beach plants, reef corals, sea urchins, tidepool fishes, and sea cucumbers. Nearly all species considered can be distinguished by characteristics visible to the naked eye. Line drawings illustrate most plants and animals included, and a list of suggested readings follows each…

  16. Repelling invaders: Hawaiian foresters use ecology to counter invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim Kling; Julie Featured: Denslow; Tracy Johnson; Susan Cordell

    2008-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are one of the United States' most treasured natural resources. Their natural beauty attracts legions of visitors every year, and they represent a unique set of ecosystems. Despite their limited geographic size, Hawai‘i hosts a remarkable range of habitats. On some islands, dry tropical forest, wet rain forest, and alpine ecosystems are found...

  17. Recommendations for medical training: a Native Hawaiian patient perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaka, Martina L; Paloma, Diane S L; Maskarinec, Gregory G

    2011-11-01

    Culturally competent health care providers are needed to eliminate healthcare disparities. In the State of Hawai'i, Native Hawaiians suffer some of the worst health disparities. Prior to implementing a cultural competency curriculum to address these disparities, the John A. Burns School of Medicine's Department of Native Hawaiian Health Cultural Competency Curriculum Development team asked Native Hawaiian patients about their experiences and recommendations. We conducted four focus groups of Native Hawaiians to obtain recommendations on physician training, to be incorporated into the curriculum. Participants came from both rural and urban areas. Classical qualitative analysis of data identified recurrent themes. Five primary themes, arising in all four groups, were: (1) customer service; (2) respect for the patient; (3) inter-personal skills; (4) thoroughness of care; and (5) costs of medical care. Secondary themes, occurring in three of the four groups, were: (1) cultural competency training; (2) the training of medical office staff; (3) continuity of care; and (4) the role of the patient. Participants specifically requested that medical students receive cultural competency training about the host culture, its history, values, and traditional and alternative healing practices. The emphasis participants placed on the need for cultural competency training of physicians supports the need to address the role of culture in medical education. Although most of the issues raised are not unique to Hawai'i, participants' recommendations to teach students about the host culture and traditional healing practices identify important themes not usually found in medical school curricula.

  18. Consumer preference study of characteristics of Hawaiian koa wood bowls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eini C Lowell; Katherine Wilson; Jan Wiedenbeck; Catherine Chan; J. B. Friday; Nicole Evans

    2017-01-01

    Koa (Acacia koa A. Gray), a species endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, has ecological, cultural, and economic significance. Its wood is prized globally but today, most woodworkers only use koa wood from dead and dying old-growth trees. The general perception of wood from young-growth koa is that it lacks the color and figure of old-growth wood and is...

  19. Fungal diversity associated with Hawaiian Drosophila host plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian S Ort

    Full Text Available Hawaiian Drosophila depend primarily, sometimes exclusively, on specific host plants for oviposition and larval development, and most specialize further on a particular decomposing part of that plant. Differences in fungal community between host plants and substrate types may establish the basis for host specificity in Hawaiian Drosophila. Fungi mediate decomposition, releasing plant micronutrients and volatiles that can indicate high quality substrates and serve as cues to stimulate oviposition. This study addresses major gaps in our knowledge by providing the first culture-free, DNA-based survey of fungal diversity associated with four ecologically important tree genera in the Hawaiian Islands. Three genera, Cheirodendron, Clermontia, and Pisonia, are important host plants for Drosophila. The fourth, Acacia, is not an important drosophilid host but is a dominant forest tree. We sampled fresh and rotting leaves from all four taxa, plus rotting stems from Clermontia and Pisonia. Based on sequences from the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA gene, we identified by BLAST search representatives from 113 genera in 13 fungal classes. A total of 160 operational taxonomic units, defined on the basis of ≥97% genetic similarity, were identified in these samples, but sampling curves show this is an underestimate of the total fungal diversity present on these substrates. Shannon diversity indices ranged from 2.0 to 3.5 among the Hawaiian samples, a slight reduction compared to continental surveys. We detected very little sharing of fungal taxa among the substrates, and tests of community composition confirmed that the structure of the fungal community differed significantly among the substrates and host plants. Based on these results, we hypothesize that fungal community structure plays a central role in the establishment of host preference in the Hawaiian Drosophila radiation.

  20. Fungal Diversity Associated with Hawaiian Drosophila Host Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ort, Brian S.; Bantay, Roxanne M.; Pantoja, Norma A.; O’Grady, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    Hawaiian Drosophila depend primarily, sometimes exclusively, on specific host plants for oviposition and larval development, and most specialize further on a particular decomposing part of that plant. Differences in fungal community between host plants and substrate types may establish the basis for host specificity in Hawaiian Drosophila. Fungi mediate decomposition, releasing plant micronutrients and volatiles that can indicate high quality substrates and serve as cues to stimulate oviposition. This study addresses major gaps in our knowledge by providing the first culture-free, DNA-based survey of fungal diversity associated with four ecologically important tree genera in the Hawaiian Islands. Three genera, Cheirodendron, Clermontia, and Pisonia, are important host plants for Drosophila. The fourth, Acacia, is not an important drosophilid host but is a dominant forest tree. We sampled fresh and rotting leaves from all four taxa, plus rotting stems from Clermontia and Pisonia. Based on sequences from the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA gene, we identified by BLAST search representatives from 113 genera in 13 fungal classes. A total of 160 operational taxonomic units, defined on the basis of ≥97% genetic similarity, were identified in these samples, but sampling curves show this is an underestimate of the total fungal diversity present on these substrates. Shannon diversity indices ranged from 2.0 to 3.5 among the Hawaiian samples, a slight reduction compared to continental surveys. We detected very little sharing of fungal taxa among the substrates, and tests of community composition confirmed that the structure of the fungal community differed significantly among the substrates and host plants. Based on these results, we hypothesize that fungal community structure plays a central role in the establishment of host preference in the Hawaiian Drosophila radiation. PMID:22911703

  1. Developing a Culturally Responsive Breast Cancer Screening Promotion with Native Hawaiian Women in Churches

    OpenAIRE

    Ka’opua, Lana Sue

    2008-01-01

    This article presents findings from research to develop the promotional component of a breast cancer screening program for Native Hawaiian women associated with historically Hawaiian churches in medically underserved communities. The literature on adherence to health recommendations and health promotions marketing guided inquiry on screening influences. Focus groups and individual interviews patterned on the culturally familiar practice of talk story were conducted with 60 Hawaiian women recr...

  2. Surface Wave Tomography for the Hawaiian PLUME Project and the Seismic Structure of the Hawaiian Swell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markee, A.; Laske, G.; Orcutt, J. A.; Collins, J. A.; Wolfe, C. J.; Solomon, S. C.; Detrick, R. S.; Bercovici, D. A.; Hauri, E. H.

    2008-12-01

    During the two-stage seismic component of the Hawaiian PLUME (Plume-Lithosphere Undersea Melt Experiment) project from January 2005 through June 2007, we collected continuous seismic data at ten land stations and nearly 70 ocean bottom sites which were occupied with broad-band seismometers. This provides an ideal basis to analyze surface waves across a broad frequency band to image the crust and mantle of the Hawaiian swell. In the first OBS deployment phase from January 2005 through January 2006, 35 sites were occupied in an elongated array centered on the island of Hawaii, with a station spacing of roughly 75~km and an aperture of 500~km. In the second phase from May 2006 through June 2007, 37 sites were occupied in a larger array with a station spacing of roughly 200~km. Our current analysis concentrates on long-period teleseismic Rayleigh waves. During the first phase we collected records from upward of 95 suitable large, shallow earthquakes with scalar seismic moment M0≥ 0.015 × 1020~Nm (MS≥ 5.6) or larger and source depths of 200~km or less. We also identified 70 smaller events with signal levels suitable for analysis. For the second phase, our initial analysis includes 163 larger earthquakes. We currently have over 5000 unique single-station phase measurements for the first deployment stage and 2500 for the second. We use this primary phase database to obtain two-station path-averaged phase velocity curves. These path-averaged dispersion curves are each well constrained by many earthquakes and are internally consistent between 15 and 50~s, allowing us to image the lithosphere and upper asthenosphere. Some larger events provide constraints beyond 100~s, thereby illuminating the lower asthenosphere. Using these dispersion curves we determine path-averaged depth profiles for nearly 300 two-station legs for the first deployment. The analysis of the second stage has provided over 100 legs and is still ongoing. We combine these profiles in an inversion for 3

  3. 24 CFR 203.439 - Mortgages on Hawaiian home lands insured pursuant to section 247 of the National Housing Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgages on Hawaiian home lands... Mortgages on Hawaiian home lands insured pursuant to section 247 of the National Housing Act. (a) Exemptions... mortgages insured pursuant to section 247 of the National Housing Act on leaseholds of Hawaiian home lands...

  4. 75 FR 40759 - Initiation of Review of Management Plan/Regulations of the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    .../Regulations of the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary; Intent To Prepare Draft...) has initiated a review of the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary (HIHWNMS or... Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary will be considered if received on or before...

  5. Toxoplasmosis in three species of native and introduced Hawaiian birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Massey, J. Gregory; Lindsay, D.S.; Dubey, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii was found in endemic Hawaiian birds, including 2 nene geese (Nesochen sandvicensis), 1 red-footed booby (Sula sula), and an introduced bird, the Erckels francolin (Francolinus erckelii). All 4 birds died of disseminated toxoplasmosis; the parasite was found in sections of many organs, and the diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining with anti–T. gondii–specific polyclonal antibodies. This is the first report of toxoplasmosis in these species of birds.

  6. Progressive island colonization and ancient origin of Hawaiian Metrosideros (Myrtaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, Diana M; Garver, Adam M; Wagner, Warren L; James, Helen F; Cunningham, Clifford W; Miller, Scott E; Fleischer, Robert C

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of the evolutionary history of plants that are ecologically dominant in modern ecosystems is critical to understanding the historical development of those ecosystems. Metrosideros is a plant genus found in many ecological and altitudinal zones throughout the Pacific. In the Hawaiian Islands, Metrosideros polymorpha is an ecologically dominant species and is also highly polymorphic in both growth form and ecology. Using 10 non-coding chloroplast regions, we investigated haplotype diversity in the five currently recognized Hawaiian Metrosideros species and an established out-group, Metrosideros collina, from French Polynesia. Multiple haplotype groups were found, but these did not match morphological delimitations. Alternative morphologies sharing the same haplotype, as well as similar morphologies occurring within several distinct island clades, could be the result of developmental plasticity, parallel evolution or chloroplast capture. The geographical structure of the data is consistent with a pattern of age progressive island colonizations and suggests de novo intra-island diversification. If single colonization events resulted in a similar array of morphologies on each island, this would represent parallel radiations within a single, highly polymorphic species. However, we were unable to resolve whether the pattern is instead explained by ancient introgression and incomplete lineage sorting resulting in repeated chloroplast capture. Using several calibration methods, we estimate the colonization of the Hawaiian Islands to be potentially as old as 3.9 (−6.3) Myr with an ancestral position for Kaua'i in the colonization and evolution of Metrosideros in the Hawaiian Islands. This would represent a more ancient arrival of Metrosideros to this region than previous studies have suggested. PMID:18426752

  7. Tracing the Hawaiian Mantle Plume by Converted Seismic Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohui Yuan; Xueqing Li; I. Wölbern; Rainer Kind

    2007-01-01

    Hotspots and seamount chains belong to the fundamental components of the global plate tectonics. The Hawaii-Emperor seamount chain is believed to have been created when the oceanic lithosphere continuously passed over a stationary mantle plume located under the Hawaiian Islands. Hot buoyant material rises from great depth within a fixed narrow stern to the surface, penetrating the moving lithosphere and creating the volcanic seamounts and islands. We use teleseismic converted waves to look at...

  8. Hawaiian Electric Advanced Inverter Test Plan - Result Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoke, Anderson; Nelson, Austin; Prabakar, Kumaraguru; Nagarajan, Adarsh

    2016-10-14

    This presentation is intended to share the results of lab testing of five PV inverters with the Hawaiian Electric Companies and other stakeholders and interested parties. The tests included baseline testing of advanced inverter grid support functions, as well as distribution circuit-level tests to examine the impact of the PV inverters on simulated distribution feeders using power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) techniques. hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) techniques.

  9. Instability of Hawaiian volcanoes: Chapter 4 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger, Roger P.; Morgan, Julia K.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    Hawaiian volcanoes build long rift zones and some of the largest volcanic edifices on Earth. For the active volcanoes on the Island of Hawai‘i, the growth of these rift zones is upward and seaward and occurs through a repetitive process of decades-long buildup of a magma-system head along the rift zones, followed by rapid large-scale displacement of the seaward flank in seconds to minutes. This large-scale flank movement, which may be rapid enough to generate a large earthquake and tsunami, always causes subsidence along the coast, opening of the rift zone, and collapse of the magma-system head. If magma continues to flow into the conduit and out into the rift system, then the cycle of growth and collapse begins again. This pattern characterizes currently active Kīlauea Volcano, where periods of upward and seaward growth along rift zones were punctuated by large (>10 m) and rapid flank displacements in 1823, 1868, 1924, and 1975. At the much larger Mauna Loa volcano, rapid flank movements have occurred only twice in the past 200 years, in 1868 and 1951.

  10. Restoration of Native Hawaiian Dryland Forest at Auwahi, Maui

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medieros, Arthur C.; vonAllmen, Erica

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND The powerful volcanoes that formed the high islands of the Hawaiian archipelago block northeasterly tradewinds, creating wet, windward rain forests and much drier, leeward forests. Dryland forests in Hawai'i receive only about 20 inches of rain a year. However, the trees in these forests intercept fog and increase ground moisture levels, thereby enabling these seemingly inhospitable habitats to support a diverse assemblage of plants and animals. Dryland forests of the Hawaiian Islands, like those worldwide, have been heavily impacted by humans both directly and indirectly. Less than 10% of Hawai'i's original dryland forest habitat remains. These forests have been severely impacted by urban development, ranching and agriculture, and invasive species. In particular, browsing animals and alien grasses have caused significant damage. Feral ungulates, including goats, sheep, cattle, and pigs, consume sensitive plants. Alien grasses have become dominant in the understory in many dryland habitats. In addition, these introduced grasses are fire-adapted and have increased the incidence of wildfire in these ecosystems. Native Hawaiian plants did not evolve with frequent fires or mammalian herbivores and typically do not survive well under these pressures.

  11. Diversity of Zoanthids (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) on Hawaiian Seamounts: Description of the Hawaiian Gold Coral and Additional Zoanthids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinniger, Frederic; Ocaña, Oscar V.; Baco, Amy R.

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian gold coral has a history of exploitation from the deep slopes and seamounts of the Hawaiian Islands as one of the precious corals commercialised in the jewellery industry. Due to its peculiar characteristic of building a scleroproteic skeleton, this zoanthid has been referred as Gerardia sp. (a junior synonym of Savalia Nardo, 1844) but never formally described or examined by taxonomists despite its commercial interest. While collection of Hawaiian gold coral is now regulated, globally seamounts habitats are increasingly threatened by a variety of anthropogenic impacts. However, impact assessment studies and conservation measures cannot be taken without consistent knowledge of the biodiversity of such environments. Recently, multiple samples of octocoral-associated zoanthids were collected from the deep slopes of the islands and seamounts of the Hawaiian Archipelago. The molecular and morphological examination of these zoanthids revealed the presence of at least five different species including the gold coral. Among these only the gold coral appeared to create its own skeleton, two other species are simply using the octocoral as substrate, and the situation is not clear for the final two species. Phylogenetically, all these species appear related to zoanthids of the genus Savalia as well as to the octocoral-associated zoanthid Corallizoanthus tsukaharai, suggesting a common ancestor to all octocoral-associated zoanthids. The diversity of zoanthids described or observed during this study is comparable to levels of diversity found in shallow water tropical coral reefs. Such unexpected species diversity is symptomatic of the lack of biological exploration and taxonomic studies of the diversity of seamount hexacorals. PMID:23326345

  12. Diversity of zoanthids (anthozoa: hexacorallia on Hawaiian seamounts: description of the Hawaiian gold coral and additional zoanthids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Sinniger

    Full Text Available The Hawaiian gold coral has a history of exploitation from the deep slopes and seamounts of the Hawaiian Islands as one of the precious corals commercialised in the jewellery industry. Due to its peculiar characteristic of building a scleroproteic skeleton, this zoanthid has been referred as Gerardia sp. (a junior synonym of Savalia Nardo, 1844 but never formally described or examined by taxonomists despite its commercial interest. While collection of Hawaiian gold coral is now regulated, globally seamounts habitats are increasingly threatened by a variety of anthropogenic impacts. However, impact assessment studies and conservation measures cannot be taken without consistent knowledge of the biodiversity of such environments. Recently, multiple samples of octocoral-associated zoanthids were collected from the deep slopes of the islands and seamounts of the Hawaiian Archipelago. The molecular and morphological examination of these zoanthids revealed the presence of at least five different species including the gold coral. Among these only the gold coral appeared to create its own skeleton, two other species are simply using the octocoral as substrate, and the situation is not clear for the final two species. Phylogenetically, all these species appear related to zoanthids of the genus Savalia as well as to the octocoral-associated zoanthid Corallizoanthus tsukaharai, suggesting a common ancestor to all octocoral-associated zoanthids. The diversity of zoanthids described or observed during this study is comparable to levels of diversity found in shallow water tropical coral reefs. Such unexpected species diversity is symptomatic of the lack of biological exploration and taxonomic studies of the diversity of seamount hexacorals.

  13. Diversity of zoanthids (anthozoa: hexacorallia) on Hawaiian seamounts: description of the Hawaiian gold coral and additional zoanthids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinniger, Frederic; Ocaña, Oscar V; Baco, Amy R

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian gold coral has a history of exploitation from the deep slopes and seamounts of the Hawaiian Islands as one of the precious corals commercialised in the jewellery industry. Due to its peculiar characteristic of building a scleroproteic skeleton, this zoanthid has been referred as Gerardia sp. (a junior synonym of Savalia Nardo, 1844) but never formally described or examined by taxonomists despite its commercial interest. While collection of Hawaiian gold coral is now regulated, globally seamounts habitats are increasingly threatened by a variety of anthropogenic impacts. However, impact assessment studies and conservation measures cannot be taken without consistent knowledge of the biodiversity of such environments. Recently, multiple samples of octocoral-associated zoanthids were collected from the deep slopes of the islands and seamounts of the Hawaiian Archipelago. The molecular and morphological examination of these zoanthids revealed the presence of at least five different species including the gold coral. Among these only the gold coral appeared to create its own skeleton, two other species are simply using the octocoral as substrate, and the situation is not clear for the final two species. Phylogenetically, all these species appear related to zoanthids of the genus Savalia as well as to the octocoral-associated zoanthid Corallizoanthus tsukaharai, suggesting a common ancestor to all octocoral-associated zoanthids. The diversity of zoanthids described or observed during this study is comparable to levels of diversity found in shallow water tropical coral reefs. Such unexpected species diversity is symptomatic of the lack of biological exploration and taxonomic studies of the diversity of seamount hexacorals.

  14. Developing a Culturally Responsive Breast Cancer Screening Promotion with Native Hawaiian Women in Churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaopua, Lana Sue

    2008-01-01

    This article presents findings from research to develop the promotional component of a breast cancer screening program for Native Hawaiian women associated with historically Hawaiian churches in medically underserved communities. The literature on adherence to health recommendations and health promotions marketing guided inquiry on screening…

  15. 77 FR 16211 - Availability of Seats for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... Council: Native Hawaiian Representative, Ocean Related Tourism Representative, Conservation Alternate... approximately 1200 nautical miles long and 100 nautical miles wide. The Reserve is managed by the Secretary of... Hawaiian). 2. One (1) Ocean-Related Tourism Representative (Ocean-Related Tourism). 3. One (1) Native...

  16. "Bloodline Is All I Need": Defiant Indigeneity and Hawaiian Hip-Hop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teves, Stephanie Nohelani

    2011-01-01

    During the late twentieth century, Kanaka Maoli have struggled to push back against these representations, offering a rewriting of Hawaiian history, quite literally. Infused by Hawaiian nationalism and a growing library of works that investigate the naturalization of American colonialism in Hawai'i, innovative Kanaka Maoli representations in the…

  17. Chapter 11: Fire and nonnative invasive plants in the Hawaiian Islands bioregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Marie LaRosa; J. Timothy Tunison; Alison Ainsworth; J. Boone Kauffman; R. Flint Hughes

    2008-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are national and global treasures of biological diversity. As the most isolated archipelago on earth, 90 percent of Hawaii's 10,000 native species are endemic (Gagne and Cuddihy 1999). The broad range of elevation and climate found in the Hawaiian Islands supports a range of ecosystems encompassing deserts, rain forests and alpine communities...

  18. 75 FR 57441 - Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... the following vacant seats on the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory..., and other various groups that help to focus efforts and attention on the humpback whale and its... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback...

  19. 75 FR 970 - Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ... and alternate members of the following seats on its Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine... other various groups that help to focus efforts and attention on the humpback whale and its habitat... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback...

  20. 77 FR 27185 - Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... the following vacant seats on the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council was... groups that help to focus efforts and attention on the humpback whale and its habitat around the main...

  1. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory: a natural laboratory for studying basaltic volcanism: Chapter 1 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilling, Robert I.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Brantley, Steven R.; Neal, Christina A.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    In the beginning of the 20th century, geologist Thomas A. Jaggar, Jr., argued that, to fully understand volcanic and associated hazards, the expeditionary mode of studying eruptions only after they occurred was inadequate. Instead, he fervently advocated the use of permanent observatories to record and measure volcanic phenomena—at and below the surface—before, during, and after eruptions to obtain the basic scientific information needed to protect people and property from volcanic hazards. With the crucial early help of American volcanologist Frank Alvord Perret and the Hawaiian business community, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) was established in 1912, and Jaggar’s vision became reality. From its inception, HVO’s mission has centered on several goals: (1) measuring and documenting the seismic, eruptive, and geodetic processes of active Hawaiian volcanoes (principally Kīlauea and Mauna Loa); (2) geological mapping and dating of deposits to reconstruct volcanic histories, understand island evolution, and determine eruptive frequencies and volcanic hazards; (3) systematically collecting eruptive products, including gases, for laboratory analysis; and (4) widely disseminating observatory-acquired data and analysis, reports, and hazard warnings to the global scientific community, emergency-management authorities, news media, and the public. The long-term focus on these goals by HVO scientists, in collaboration with investigators from many other organizations, continues to fulfill Jaggar’s career-long vision of reducing risks from volcanic and earthquake hazards across the globe.

  2. Marine Resource Management in the Hawaiian Archipelago: The Traditional Hawaiian System in Relation to the Western Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Jokiel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over a period of many centuries the Polynesians who inhabited Hawai‘i developed a carefully regulated and sustainable “ahupua‘a” management system that integrated watershed, freshwater and nearshore marine resources based on the fundamental linkages between all ecosystems from the mountain tops to the sea. This traditional scheme employed adaptive management practices keyed to subtle changes in natural resources. Sophisticated social controls on resource utilization were an important component of the system. Over the past two centuries a “Western system” gradually replaced much of the traditional Hawaiian system. There are major differences between the two systems in the areas of management practices, management focus, knowledge base, dissemination of information, resource monitoring, legal authority, access rights, stewardship and enforcement. However, there is a recent shift toward incorporating elements of the traditional scheme using methods and terminology acceptable and appropriate to present day realities. This trend is exemplified by the management plan for the newly formed Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. This is one of the largest protected areas in the world and is being managed with a focus on Native Hawaiian cultural values in relation to conservation, ecological, historical, scientific, and educational resource protection.

  3. Conservation status and recovery strategies for endemic Hawaiian birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banko, Paul C.; David, Reginald E.; Jacobi, James D.; Banko, Winston E.

    2001-01-01

    Populations of endemic Hawaiian birds declined catastrophically following the colonization of the islands by Polynesians and later cultures. Extinction is still occurring, and recovery programs are urgently needed to prevent the disappearance of many other species. Programs to recover the endemic avifauna incorporate a variety of conceptual and practical approaches that are constrained by biological, financial, social, and legal factors. Avian recovery is difficult to implement in Hawai‘i because a variety of challenging biological factors limit bird populations. Hawaiian birds are threatened by alien predatory mammals, introduced mosquitoes that transmit diseases, alien invertebrate parasites and predators that reduce invertebrate food resources, and alien animals and plants that destroy and alter habitats. Life in the remote Hawaiian Archipelago has imposed other biological constraints to avian recovery, including limited geographical distributions and small population sizes. Recovery of the endemic avifauna is also challenging because resources are insufficient to mitigate the many complex, interacting factors that limit populations. Decisions must be made for allocating limited resources to species teetering on the brink of extinction and those in decline. If funds are spent primarily on saving the rarest species, more abundant species will decline and become more difficult to recover. However, critically rare species will disappear if efforts are directed mainly towards restoring species that are declining but not in immediate danger of becoming extinct. Determining priorities is difficult also because management is needed both to supplement bird populations and to restore habitats of many species. Rare species cannot respond quickly to management efforts intended only to improve habitat and reduce limiting factors. Recovery is slow, if it occurs at all, because years or decades are generally required for habitat rehabilitation and because small populations

  4. Soundscape Ecology of Hawaiian Spinner Dolphin Resting Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenehan, Heather Leigh

    Sound is a key sensory modality for Hawaiian spinner dolphins. Like many other marine animals, these dolphins rely on sound and their acoustic environment for many aspects of their daily lives, making it is essential to understand soundscape in areas that are critical to their survival. Hawaiian spinner dolphins rest during the day in shallow coastal areas and forage offshore at night. In my dissertation I focus on the soundscape of the bays where Hawaiian spinner dolphins rest taking a soundscape ecology approach. I primarily relied on passive acoustic monitoring using four DSG-Ocean acoustic loggers in four Hawaiian spinner dolphin resting bays on the Kona Coast of Hawai'i Island. 30-second recordings were made every four minutes in each of the bays for 20 to 27 months between January 8, 2011 and March 30, 2013. I also utilized concomitant vessel-based visual surveys in the four bays to provide context for these recordings. In my first chapter I used the contributions of the dolphins to the soundscape to monitor presence in the bays and found the degree of presence varied greatly from less than 40% to nearly 90% of days monitored with dolphins present. Having established these bays as important to the animals, in my second chapter I explored the many components of their resting bay soundscape and evaluated the influence of natural and human events on the soundscape. I characterized the overall soundscape in each of the four bays, used the tsunami event of March 2011 to approximate a natural soundscape and identified all loud daytime outliers. Overall, sound levels were consistently louder at night and quieter during the daytime due to the sounds from snapping shrimp. In fact, peak Hawaiian spinner dolphin resting time co-occurs with the quietest part of the day. However, I also found that humans drastically alter this daytime soundscape with sound from offshore aquaculture, vessel sound and military mid-frequency active sonar. During one recorded mid

  5. Disparate rates of persistent smoking and drug use during pregnancy of women of Hawaiian ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Tricia E; Tam, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Significant disparity in smoking rates has been previously reported in pregnant and non-pregnant women of Native Hawaiian ancestry. Disparities in drug use rates have also been reported in non-pregnant women of Native Hawaiian ancestry. We undertook this study to compare rates of smoking and drug use during pregnancy among women in Hawaii to see if these differences are associated with disparities in pregnancy complications among Native Hawaiian women. Women were enrolled in the Pacific Research Center on Early Human Development study from July 2007 to January 2008, according to approved protocols. Persistent smoking was defined as self-reported smoking within 1 week of admission for labor. Drug use data was assessed by self-report, or if available, toxicology tests at the time of labor. There were 868 women enrolled in the study during this period. Women of Hawaiian/part-Hawaiian ancestry comprised 22% of the study population. Rates of persistent smoking and drug use among Hawaiian women were significantly higher than the remainder of the study population (21% and 8.3% vs. 7.8% and 2.1%, respectively, P Women of Hawaiian ancestry continue to smoke and use illicit drugs during pregnancy at significantly higher rates than women of other ethnic groups in Hawaii. In addition to the immediate effects on pregnancy, long-term adverse outcomes of in utero exposures of the offspring remain an important health disparity.

  6. From tides to mixing along the Hawaiian ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, Daniel L; Boyd, Timothy J; Brainard, Russell E; Carter, Glenn S; Egbert, Gary D; Gregg, Michael C; Holloway, Peter E; Klymak, Jody M; Kunze, Eric; Lee, Craig M; Levine, Murray D; Luther, Douglas S; Martin, Joseph P; Merrifield, Mark A; Moum, James N; Nash, Jonathan D; Pinkel, Robert; Rainville, Luc; Sanford, Thomas B

    2003-07-18

    The cascade from tides to turbulence has been hypothesized to serve as a major energy pathway for ocean mixing. We investigated this cascade along the Hawaiian Ridge using observations and numerical models. A divergence of internal tidal energy flux observed at the ridge agrees with the predictions of internal tide models. Large internal tidal waves with peak-to-peak amplitudes of up to 300 meters occur on the ridge. Internal-wave energy is enhanced, and turbulent dissipation in the region near the ridge is 10 times larger than open-ocean values. Given these major elements in the tides-to-turbulence cascade, an energy budget approaches closure.

  7. Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a : Astronomy of the Modern Hawaiian Wayfinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha`o, Celeste; Dye, Ahia G.; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.; Baybayan, Kalepa

    2015-08-01

    This paper provides an introduction to Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a, the astronomy of the Hawaiian wayfinders. Rooted in a legacy of navigation across the Polynesian triangle, wayfinding astronomy has been part of a suite of skills that allows navigators to deliberately hop between the small islands of the Pacific, for thousands of years. Forty years ago, in one manifestation of the Hawaiian Renaissance, our teachers demonstrated that ancient Hawaiians were capable of traversing the wide Pacific to settle and trade on islands separated by thousands of miles. Today those same mentors train a new generation of navigators, making Hawaiian voyaging a living, evolving, sustainable endeavor. This paper presents two components of astronomical knowledge that all crewmen, but particularly those in training to become navigators, learn early in their training. Na Ohana Hoku, the Hawaiian Star Families constitute the basic units of the Hawaiian sky. In contrast to the Western system of 88 constellations, Na Ohana Hoku divides the sky into four sections that each run from the northern to the southern poles. This configuration reduces cognitive load, allowing the navigator to preserve working memory for other complex tasks. In addition, these configurations of stars support the navigator in finding and generatively using hundreds of individual, and navigationally important pairs of stars. The Hawaiian Star Compass divides the celestial sphere into a directional system that uses 32 rather than 8 cardinal points. Within the tropics, the rising and setting of celestial objects are consistent within the Hawaiian Star Compass, providing for extremely reliable direction finding. Together, Na Ohana Hoku and the Hawaiian Star Compass provide the tropical navigator with astronomical assistance that is not available to, and would have been unknown to Western navigators trained at higher latitudes.

  8. Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a : Astronomy of the Hawaiian Navigators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Stephanie; Slater, Timothy F.; Baybayan, Kalepa C.

    2016-01-01

    This poster provides an introduction to the astronomy of the Hawaiian wayfinders, Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a. Rooted in a legacy of navigation across the Polynesian triangle, wayfinding astronomy has been part of a suite of skills that allows navigators to deliberately hop between the small islands of the Pacific, for thousands of years. Forty years ago, in one manifestation of the Hawaiian Renaissance, our teachers demonstrated that ancient Hawaiians were capable of traversing the wide Pacific to settle and trade on islands separated by thousands of miles. Today those same mentors train a new generation of navigators, making Hawaiian voyaging a living, evolving, sustainable endeavor. This poster presents two components of astronomical knowledge that all crewmen, but particularly those in training to become navigators, learn early in their training. Na Ohana Hoku, the Hawaiian Star Families constitute the basic units of the Hawaiian sky. In contrast to the Western system of 88 constellations, Na Ohana Hoku divides the sky into four sections that each run from the northern to the southern poles. This configuration reduces cognitive load, allowing the navigator to preserve working memory for other complex tasks. In addition, these configurations of stars support the navigator in finding and generatively using hundreds of individual, and navigationally important pairs of stars. The Hawaiian Star Compass divides the celestial sphere into a directional system that uses 32 rather than 8 cardinal points. Within the tropics, the rising and setting of celestial objects are consistent within the Hawaiian Star Compass, providing for extremely reliable direction finding. Together, Na Ohana Hoku and the Hawaiian Star Compass provide the tropical navigator with astronomical assistance that is not available to, and would have been unknown to Western navigators trained at higher latitudes.

  9. Historical Reconstruction Reveals Recovery in Hawaiian Coral Reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittinger, John N.; Pandolfi, John M.; Blodgett, Jonathan H.; Hunt, Terry L.; Jiang, Hong; Maly, Kepā; McClenachan, Loren E.; Schultz, Jennifer K.; Wilcox, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are declining worldwide, yet regional differences in the trajectories, timing and extent of degradation highlight the need for in-depth regional case studies to understand the factors that contribute to either ecosystem sustainability or decline. We reconstructed social-ecological interactions in Hawaiian coral reef environments over 700 years using detailed datasets on ecological conditions, proximate anthropogenic stressor regimes and social change. Here we report previously undetected recovery periods in Hawaiian coral reefs, including a historical recovery in the MHI (∼AD 1400–1820) and an ongoing recovery in the NWHI (∼AD 1950–2009+). These recovery periods appear to be attributed to a complex set of changes in underlying social systems, which served to release reefs from direct anthropogenic stressor regimes. Recovery at the ecosystem level is associated with reductions in stressors over long time periods (decades+) and large spatial scales (>103 km2). Our results challenge conventional assumptions and reported findings that human impacts to ecosystems are cumulative and lead only to long-term trajectories of environmental decline. In contrast, recovery periods reveal that human societies have interacted sustainably with coral reef environments over long time periods, and that degraded ecosystems may still retain the adaptive capacity and resilience to recover from human impacts. PMID:21991311

  10. “Points requiring elucidation” about Hawaiian volcanism: Chapter 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, Michael P.; Carey, Rebecca; Cayol, Valérie; Poland, Michael P.; Weis, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Hawaiian volcanoes, which are easily accessed and observed at close range, are among the most studied on the planet and have spurred great advances in the geosciences, from understanding deep Earth processes to forecasting volcanic eruptions. More than a century of continuous observation and study of Hawai‘i's volcanoes has also sharpened focus on those questions that remain unanswered. Although there is good evidence that volcanism in Hawai‘i is the result of a high-temperature upwelling plume from the mantle, the source composition and dynamics of the plume are controversial. Eruptions at the surface build the volcanoes of Hawai‘i, but important topics, including how the volcanoes grow and collapse and how magma is stored and transported, continue to be subjects of intense research. Forecasting volcanic activity is based mostly on pattern recognition, but determining and predicting the nature of eruptions, especially in serving the critical needs of hazards mitigation, require more realistic models and a greater understanding of what drives eruptive activity. These needs may be addressed by better integration among disciplines as well as by developing dynamic physics- and chemistry-based models that more thoroughly relate the physiochemical behavior of Hawaiian volcanism, from the deep Earth to the surface, to geological, geochemical, and geophysical data.

  11. Mercury sources and trophic ecology for Hawaiian bottomfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackett, Dana K; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Choy, C Anela; Popp, Brian; Pitz, Gerald L

    2015-06-02

    In Hawaii, some of the most important commercial and recreational fishes comprise an assemblage of lutjanids and carangids called bottomfish. Despite their importance, we know little about their trophic ecology or where the mercury (Hg) that ultimately resides in their tissue originates. Here we investigated these topics, by analyzing muscle samples for mercury content, nitrogen, carbon, and amino acid specific nitrogen isotope ratios in six species distributed across different depths from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) and the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI). Fishes had different sources of nitrogen and carbon, with isotopic values suggesting benthic food sources for shallow nearshore species. High trophic position lutjanids that foraged in deeper water, benthic environments generally had higher Hg levels. Model results also suggested that benthic Hg methylation was an important source of Hg for shallow benthic feeders, while deepwater sources of mercury may be important for those with a diet that derives, at least in part, from the pelagic environment. Further, despite the lack of freshwater sources of Hg in the NWHI, statistical models explaining the variation in tissue Hg in the MHI and NWHI were nearly identical, suggesting freshwater Hg inputs were not a major source of Hg in fish tissue.

  12. Quaternary subsidence of the Oahu Coastal Plain, Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, M.; Sandstrom, R. M.; Huppert, K.; Taylor, F. W.; Cronin, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    Inter-plate hotspots continue to test our understanding of how the Earth's lithosphere deforms in response to an applied load, in part, because many current models are based on short or discontinuous observational datasets. Here we reconstruct a record of relative sea level rise spanning nearly two million years using the strontium isotope stratigraphy (SIS) of shallow water carbonates (e.g. corals, mollusks) recovered from a >300 m long drill core through the coastal plain of Oahu. We then compare it to model-predicted subsidence histories for our site that incorporate displacements at Ewa Beach, Oahu, due to the flexural isostatic response of the lithosphere to loading of each volcano along the Hawaiian Ridge as well as its migration over the Hawaiian Swell. Preliminary results indicate Oahu experienced relatively rapid rates of subsidence ( 0.45 mm/yr) during the mid-Pleistocene—vertical displacements our model largely attributes to loading of West Molokai. An abrupt slowing of subsidence over the past million years may be driven by the relative eastward progression of volcanism, including construction of large shields on Maui and Hawaii. Shallowly buried, late Pleistocene aged corals, however, may suggest: (1) a more limited flexural response to this loading for southeastern Oahu than has been inferred from raised marine isotope stage (MIS) 11/13 dated, shallow-water, deposits found elsewhere on the island and/or (2) substantial dissolution of coastal plain carbonates between MIS 31 and 11.

  13. Landsat 7 ETM/1G satellite imagery - Hawaiian Islands cloud-free mosaics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cloud-free Landsat satellite imagery mosaics of the islands of the main 8 Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii, Maui, Kahoolawe, Lanai, Molokai, Oahu, Kauai and Niihau). Landsat...

  14. LEGACY - EOP Habitat and reef fish assemblages of banks in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Relational data table for SCUBA diving surveys on the bank of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, which were published in a manuscript named in the title above. These...

  15. Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge : Master Plan/Environmental Impact Statement

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Proposed is a management plan and accompanying EIS for the Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge. The plan places primary emphasis on protecting and enhancing...

  16. Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative Report: 1967: September-December

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Hawaiian Islands NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1967. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  17. Reson 8101ER Multibeam Sonar Data from Cruise AHI0605 - Main Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reson 8101ER multibeam Data were collected in 19-24 April and 28 April-11 May 2006 aboard NOAA Survey Launch Acoustic Habitat Investigator (AHI) in the Main Hawaiian...

  18. High Resolution Aerial Photography of the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial photographs were acquired for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands Benthic Mapping Project in 2000 by NOAA Aircraft Operation Centers aircraft and National...

  19. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Kure Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — One, 25-m line transect was surveyed at 50-cm intervals as part of the Rapid Ecological Assessment conducted at 9 sites at Kure Atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian...

  20. Association between acculturation modes and type 2 diabetes among Native Hawaiians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Nacapoy, Andrea H; Grandinetti, Andrew; Chang, Healani K

    2008-04-01

    To examine the association between acculturation modes (integrated, assimilated, traditional, and marginalized) and type 2 diabetes prevalence in Native Hawaiians. Cross-sectional data were analyzed from 495 Native Hawaiians, including acculturation modes, diabetes status, triglycerides, fasting insulin, BMI, age, and education level. Acculturation modes were assessed using an eight-item cultural affiliation questionnaire. Native Hawaiians in a traditional mode of acculturation were more likely to have type 2 diabetes (27.9%) than those in integrated (15.4%), assimilated (12.5%), or marginalized (10.5%) modes. The higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes among Native Hawaiians in a traditional mode of acculturation could not be attributed to any of the sociodemographic or biological factors included in this study. We discuss the role of psychosocial factors as possible mediators in the relationship between acculturation modes and type 2 diabetes.

  1. Gridded bathymetry of Kaneohe Bay, Windward Side Oahu, Main Hawaiian Islands, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 4-m grid of bathymetric data of Kaneohe Bay, Windward Side Oahu, Main Hawaiian Islands, USA. These netCDF and ASCII grids include multibeam bathymetry from the Reson...

  2. CRED Gridded Bathymetry near Northampton Seamounts (100-004), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-004b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Northampton Seamounts in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been...

  3. Predictive modeling of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thorne, Lesley H; Johnston, David W; Urban, Dean L; Tyne, Julian; Bejder, Lars; Baird, Robin W; Yin, Suzanne; Rickards, Susan H; Deakos, Mark H; Mobley, Jr, Joseph R; Pack, Adam A; Chapla Hill, Marie

    2012-01-01

    ... (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands. Spinner dolphins in Hawai'i exhibit predictable daily movements, using inshore bays as resting habitat during daylight hours and foraging in offshore waters at night...

  4. EOP Settlement colonization and succession patterns of gold coral Kulamana haumeaae in Hawaiian deep coral assemblages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Relational tabular data on corals relevant to the parasitic life history of gold coral. Surveys conducted throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago with attention on...

  5. Mantle Shear-Wave Velocity Structure beneath the Hawaiian Hot Spot

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cecily J. Wolfe; Sean C. Solomon; Gabi Laske; John A. Collins; Robert S. Detrick; John A. Orcutt; David Bercovici; Erik H. Hauri

    2009-01-01

    .... Three-dimensional images of shear-wave velocity beneath the Hawaiian Islands, obtained from a network of sea-floor and land seismometers, show an upper-mantle low-velocity anomaly that is elongated...

  6. 76 FR 77214 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2012 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notification of lobster harvest guideline. SUMMARY: NMFS establishes the annual harvest guideline for the commercial lobster fishery in the...

  7. 75 FR 1597 - Western Pacific Crustacean Fisheries; 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notification of lobster harvest guideline. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the annual harvest guideline for the commercial lobster fishery in...

  8. Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Regional Atmospheric Model: Main Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale numerical weather prediction model 7-day hourly forecast for the region surrounding the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI)...

  9. Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Assessment, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, October 2000, (NODC Accession 0002301)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northwestern Hawaiian lslands were sampled during October 2000 at 63 stations on 9 atolls or islands under the lead of NOAA. This work is affiliated with the...

  10. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — One, 25-m line transect was surveyed at 50-cm intervals as part of the Rapid Ecological Assessment conducted at 9 sites at Midway Atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian...

  11. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Maro Reef, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — One, 25-m line transect was surveyed at 50-cm intervals as part of the Rapid Ecological Assessment conducted at 9 sites at Maro Reef in the Northwestern Hawaiian...

  12. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Laysan Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — One, 25-m line transect was surveyed at 50-cm intervals as part of the Rapid Ecological Assessment conducted at 3 sites at Laysan Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian...

  13. Reson 8101ER Multibeam Sonar Data from Cruise AHI0902 - Main Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reson 8101ER multibeam Data were collected in May 21 - June 15, 2009 aboard NOAA Survey Launch Acoustic Habitat Investigator (AHI) in the Main Hawaiian Islands at...

  14. CRED 60 m Gridded bathymetry of UTM Zone 4, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA (Arc ASCII format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (60m) of the shelf and slope environments of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA within UTM Zone 4. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths...

  15. CRED 20m Gridded bathymetry of Necker Islands, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA (NetCDF format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Necker Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Hawaii, USA. This netCDF includes multibeam bathymetry from...

  16. CRED 20 m Gridded bathymetry of Gardner Pinnacles, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA (NetCDF format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (20m) of the shelf and slope environments of Gardner Pinnacles, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Hawaii, USA. This netCDF includes multibeam...

  17. HMSRP Observation of Hawaiian monk seal behavioral interactions - Oahu and Laysan Island, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Infectious disease has the potential to pose serious risk to Hawaiian Monk Seal populations. HMSRP is currently researching and evaluating methods to minimize...

  18. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) photo-quadrat monitoring data table : Site number MAR P15

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a 50-meter transect line at Underwater Site P15 off Maro Reef in the Northwestern Hawaiian...

  19. The dynamics of Hawaiian-style eruptions: a century of study: Chapter 8 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Margaret T.; Cashman, Katharine V.; Swanson, Donald A.; Poland, Michael P.; Takahashi, T. Jane; Landowski, Claire M.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter, prepared in celebration of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatoryʼs centennial, provides a historical lens through which to view modern paradigms of Hawaiian-style eruption dynamics. The models presented here draw heavily from observations, monitoring, and experiments conducted on Kīlauea Volcano, which, as the site of frequent and accessible eruptions, has attracted scientists from around the globe. Long-lived eruptions in particular—Halema‘uma‘u 1907–24, Kīlauea Iki 1959, Mauna Ulu 1969–74, Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō-Kupaianaha 1983–present, and Halema‘uma‘u 2008–present—have offered incomparable opportunities to conceptualize and constrain theoretical models with multidisciplinary data and to field-test model results. The central theme in our retrospective is the interplay of magmatic gas and near-liquidus basaltic melt. A century of study has shown that gas exsolution facilitates basaltic dike propagation; volatile solubility and vesiculation kinetics influence magma-rise rates and fragmentation depths; bubble interactions and gas-melt decoupling modulate magma rheology, eruption intensity, and plume dynamics; and pyroclast outgassing controls characteristics of eruption deposits. Looking to the future, we anticipate research leading to a better understanding of how eruptive activity is influenced by volatiles, including the physics of mixed CO2-H2O degassing, gas segregation in nonuniform conduits, and vaporization of external H2O during magma ascent.

  20. Pathways to Higher Education for Native Hawaiian Individual Development Account Participants

    OpenAIRE

    David W. Rothwell

    2013-01-01

    As the cost of higher education rises, a growing body of theory and research suggests that asset holding in the form of savings and net worth positively influence education expectations and outcomes. Native Hawaiians, like other Indigenous peoples, have disproportionately low college enrollment and graduation rates tied to a history of colonization. Using data from an Individual Development Account (IDA) program for Native Hawaiians, I examine the trajectories through the program and find: (a...

  1. Supports for and Barriers to Healthy Living for Native Hawaiian Young Adults Enrolled in Community Colleges

    OpenAIRE

    Jamie K. Boyd, PhD, APRN; Kathryn L. Braun, DrPH

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Physical inactivity and lower levels of education are associated with increased risk for obesity and chronic disease. Compared with other racial/ethnic groups in Hawai'i, Native Hawaiians have a higher prevalence of chronic disease, including diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. In 2000, 72.5% of Native Hawaiians were overweight, 54.4% met national recommendations for physical activity, and about 10% enrolled in college. Methods We conducted four focus groups involving 3...

  2. Studies in Hawaiian Diptera II: New Distributional Records for Endemic Scatella (Ephydridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick O'Grady

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we summarize the known distributional data for the Hawaiian Scatella (Ephydridae. We report on four new island records; S. amnica and S. stagnalis from Kauai, S. oahuense from Lanai, and S. terryi from Maui. A list of material present, comprising over 3100 individual specimen records in the collections of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, University of Hawaii at Manoa, and Essig Musuem of Entomology at UC Berkeley is included, along with details distributional maps for the Hawaiian endemic species.

  3. The Hawaiian Algal Database: a laboratory LIMS and online resource for biodiversity data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauvage Thomas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organization and presentation of biodiversity data is greatly facilitated by databases that are specially designed to allow easy data entry and organized data display. Such databases also have the capacity to serve as Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS. The Hawaiian Algal Database was designed to showcase specimens collected from the Hawaiian Archipelago, enabling users around the world to compare their specimens with our photographs and DNA sequence data, and to provide lab personnel with an organizational tool for storing various biodiversity data types. Description We describe the Hawaiian Algal Database, a comprehensive and searchable database containing photographs and micrographs, geo-referenced collecting information, taxonomic checklists and standardized DNA sequence data. All data for individual samples are linked through unique accession numbers. Users can search online for sample information by accession number, numerous levels of taxonomy, or collection site. At the present time the database contains data representing over 2,000 samples of marine, freshwater and terrestrial algae from the Hawaiian Archipelago. These samples are primarily red algae, although other taxa are being added. Conclusion The Hawaiian Algal Database is a digital repository for Hawaiian algal samples and acts as a LIMS for the laboratory. Users can make use of the online search tool to view and download specimen photographs and micrographs, DNA sequences and relevant habitat data, including georeferenced collecting locations. It is publicly available at http://algae.manoa.hawaii.edu.

  4. The Hawaiian Algal Database: a laboratory LIMS and online resource for biodiversity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Norman; Sherwood, Alison R; Kurihara, Akira; Conklin, Kimberly Y; Sauvage, Thomas; Presting, Gernot G

    2009-09-04

    Organization and presentation of biodiversity data is greatly facilitated by databases that are specially designed to allow easy data entry and organized data display. Such databases also have the capacity to serve as Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS). The Hawaiian Algal Database was designed to showcase specimens collected from the Hawaiian Archipelago, enabling users around the world to compare their specimens with our photographs and DNA sequence data, and to provide lab personnel with an organizational tool for storing various biodiversity data types. We describe the Hawaiian Algal Database, a comprehensive and searchable database containing photographs and micrographs, geo-referenced collecting information, taxonomic checklists and standardized DNA sequence data. All data for individual samples are linked through unique accession numbers. Users can search online for sample information by accession number, numerous levels of taxonomy, or collection site. At the present time the database contains data representing over 2,000 samples of marine, freshwater and terrestrial algae from the Hawaiian Archipelago. These samples are primarily red algae, although other taxa are being added. The Hawaiian Algal Database is a digital repository for Hawaiian algal samples and acts as a LIMS for the laboratory. Users can make use of the online search tool to view and download specimen photographs and micrographs, DNA sequences and relevant habitat data, including georeferenced collecting locations. It is publicly available at http://algae.manoa.hawaii.edu.

  5. Hawaiian submarine manganese-iron oxide crusts - A dating tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.G.; Clague, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Black manganese-iron oxide crusts form on most exposed rock on the ocean floor. Such crusts are well developed on the steep lava slopes of the Hawaiian Ridge and have been sampled during dredging and submersible dives. The crusts also occur on fragments detached from bedrock by mass wasting, on submerged coral reefs, and on poorly lithified sedimentary rocks. The thickness of the crusts was measured on samples collected since 1965 on the Hawaiian Ridge from 140 dive or dredge localities. Fifty-nine (42%) of the sites were collected in 2001 by remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). The thinner crusts on many samples apparently result from post-depositional breakage, landsliding, and intermittent burial of outcrops by sediment. The maximum crust thickness was selected from each dredge or dive site to best represent crusts on the original rock surface at that site. The measurements show an irregular progressive thickening of the crusts toward the northwest-i.e., progressive thickening toward the older volcanic features with increasing distance from the Hawaiian hotspot. Comparison of the maximum crust thickness with radiometric ages of related subaerial features supports previous studies that indicate a crust-growth rate of about 2.5 mm/m.y. The thickness information not only allows a comparison of the relative exposure ages of two or more features offshore from different volcanoes, but also provides specific age estimates of volcanic and landslide deposits. The data indicate that some of the landslide blocks within the south Kona landslide are the oldest exposed rock on Mauna Loa, Kilauea, or Loihi volcanoes. Crusts on the floors of submarine canyons off Kohala and East Molokai volcanoes indicate that these canyons are no longer serving as channelways for downslope, sediment-laden currents. Mahukona volcano was approximately synchronous with Hilo Ridge, both being younger than Hana Ridge. The Nuuanu landslide is considerably older than the Wailau landslide. The Waianae

  6. Eruptions of Hawaiian volcanoes - Past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilling, Robert I.; Heliker, Christina; Swanson, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Viewing an erupting volcano is a memorable experience, one that has inspired fear, superstition, worship, curiosity, and fascination since before the dawn of civilization. In modern times, volcanic phenomena have attracted intense scientific interest, because they provide the key to understanding processes that have created and shaped more than 80 percent of the Earth's surface. The active Hawaiian volcanoes have received special attention worldwide because of their frequent spectacular eruptions, which often can be viewed and studied with relative ease and safety. In January 1987, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), located on the rim of Kilauea Volcano, celebrated its 75th Anniversary. In honor of HVO's Diamond Jubilee, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) published Professional Paper 1350 (see list of Selected Readings, page 57), a comprehensive summary of the many studies on Hawaiian volcanism by USGS and other scientists through the mid-1980s. Drawing from the wealth of data contained in that volume, the USGS also published in 1987 the original edition of this general-interest booklet, focusing on selected aspects of the eruptive history, style, and products of two of Hawai'i's active volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. This revised edition of the booklet-spurred by the approaching Centennial of HVO in January 2012-summarizes new information gained since the January 1983 onset of Kilauea's Pu'u 'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption, which has continued essentially nonstop through 2010 and shows no signs of letup. It also includes description of Kilauea's summit activity within Halema'uma'u Crater, which began in mid-March 2008 and continues as of this writing (late 2010). This general-interest booklet is a companion to the one on Mount St. Helens Volcano first published in 1984 and revised in 1990 (see Selected Readings). Together, these publications illustrate the contrast between the two main types of volcanoes: shield volcanoes, such as those in Hawai'i, which generally

  7. Chasing lava: a geologist's adventures at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Wendell A.

    2003-01-01

    A lively account of the three years (1969-1972) spent by geologist Wendell Duffield working at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory at Kilauea, one of the world's more active volcanoes. Abundantly illustrated in b&w and color, with line drawings and maps, as well. Volcanologists and general readers alike will enjoy author Wendell Duffield's report from Kilauea--home of Pele, the goddess of fire and volcanoes. Duffield's narrative encompasses everything from the scientific (his discovery that the movements of cooled lava on a lava lake mimic the movements of the earth's crust, providing an accessible model for understanding plate tectonics) to the humorous (his dog's discovery of a snake on the supposedly snake-free island) to the life-threatening (a colleague's plunge into molten lava). This charming account of living and working at Kilauea, one of the world's most active volcanoes, is sure to be a delight.

  8. Skin pathology in Hawaiian goldring surgeonfish, Ctenochaetus strigosus (Bennett)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-eight goldring surgeonfish, Ctenochaetus strigosus (Bennett), manifesting skin lesions and originating from the north-western and main Hawaiian Islands were examined. Skin lesions were amorphous and ranged from simple dark or light discolouration to multicoloured tan to white sessile masses with an undulant surface. Skin lesions covered 2–66% of the fish surface, and there was no predilection for lesions affecting a particular part of the fish. Males appeared over-represented. Microscopy revealed the skin lesions to be hyperplasia, melanophoromas or iridophoromas. The presence of skin tumours in a relatively unspoiled area of Hawaii is intriguing. Explaining their distribution, cause and impact on survivorship of fish all merit further study because C. strigosus is an economically important fish in the region.

  9. Radiocarbon Based Ages and Growth Rates: Hawaiian Deep Sea Corals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roark, E B; Guilderson, T P; Dunbar, R B; Ingram, B L

    2006-01-13

    The radial growth rates and ages of three different groups of Hawaiian deep-sea 'corals' were determined using radiocarbon measurements. Specimens of Corallium secundum, Gerardia sp., and Leiopathes glaberrima, were collected from 450 {+-} 40 m at the Makapuu deep-sea coral bed using a submersible (PISCES V). Specimens of Antipathes dichotoma were collected at 50 m off Lahaina, Maui. The primary source of carbon to the calcitic C. secundum skeleton is in situ dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). Using bomb {sup 14}C time markers we calculate radial growth rates of {approx} 170 {micro}m y{sup -1} and ages of 68-75 years on specimens as tall as 28 cm of C. secundum. Gerardia sp., A. dichotoma, and L. glaberrima have proteinaceous skeletons and labile particulate organic carbon (POC) is their primary source of architectural carbon. Using {sup 14}C we calculate a radial growth rate of 15 {micro}m y{sup -1} and an age of 807 {+-} 30 years for a live collected Gerardia sp., showing that these organisms are extremely long lived. Inner and outer {sup 14}C measurements on four sub-fossil Gerardia spp. samples produce similar growth rate estimates (range 14-45 {micro}m y{sup -1}) and ages (range 450-2742 years) as observed for the live collected sample. Similarly, with a growth rate of < 10 {micro}m y{sup -1} and an age of {approx}2377 years, L. glaberrima at the Makapuu coral bed, is also extremely long lived. In contrast, the shallow-collected A. dichotoma samples yield growth rates ranging from 130 to 1,140 {micro}m y{sup -1}. These results show that Hawaiian deep-sea corals grow more slowly and are older than previously thought.

  10. Diversity, origins and virulence of Avipoxviruses in Hawaiian Forest Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvi, S.I.; Triglia, D.; Giannoulis, A.; Farias, M.; Bianchi, K.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2008-01-01

    We cultured avian pox (Avipoxvirus spp.) from lesions collected on Hawai'i, Maui, Moloka'i, and 'Oahu in the Hawaiian Islands from 15 native or non-native birds representing three avian orders. Phylogenetic analysis of a 538 bp fragment of the gene encoding the virus 4b core polypeptide revealed two distinct variant clusters, with sequences from chickens (fowlpox) forming a third distinct basal cluster. Pox isolates from one of these two clusters appear closely related to canarypox and other passerine pox viruses, while the second appears more specific to Hawai'i. There was no evidence that birds were infected simultaneously with multiple pox virus variants based on evaluation of multiples clones from four individuals. No obvious temporal or geographic associations were observed and strict host specificity was not apparent among the 4b-defined field isolates. We amplified a 116 bp 4b core protein gene fragment from an 'Elepaio (Chasiempis sandwichensis) collected in 1900 on Hawai'i Island that clustered closely with the second of the two variants, suggesting that this variant has been in Hawai'i for at least 100 years. The high variation detected between the three 4b clusters provides evidence for multiple, likely independent introductions, and does not support the hypothesis of infection of native species through introduction of infected fowl. Preliminary experimental infections in native Hawai'i 'Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) suggest that the 4b-defined variants may be biologically distinct, with one variant appearing more virulent. These pox viruses may interact with avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum), another introduced pathogen in Hawaiian forest bird populations, through modulation of host immune responses. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  11. Pesticide sorption and leaching potential on three Hawaiian soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kathleen E; Ray, Chittaranjan; Ki, Seo Jin; Spokas, Kurt A; Koskinen, William C

    2015-08-15

    On the Hawaiian Islands, groundwater is the principal source of potable water and contamination of this key resource by pesticides is of great concern. To evaluate the leaching potential of four weak acid herbicides [aminocyclopyrachlor, picloram, metsulfuron-methyl, biologically active diketonitrile degradate of isoxaflutole (DKN)] and two neutral non-ionizable herbicides [oxyfluorfen, alachlor], their sorption coefficients were determined on three prevalent soils from the island of Oahu. Metsulfuron-methyl, aminocylcopyrachlor, picloram, and DKN were relatively low sorbing herbicides (K(oc) = 3-53 mL g(-1)), alachlor was intermediate (K(oc) = 120-150 mL g(-1)), and oxyfluorfen sorbed very strongly to the three soils (K(oc) > 12,000 mL g(-1)). Following determination of K(oc) values, the groundwater ubiquity score (GUS) indices for these compounds were calculated to predicted their behavior with the Comprehensive Leaching Risk Assessment System (CLEARS; Tier-1 methodology for Hawaii). Metsulfuron-methyl, aminocyclopyrachlor, picloram, and DKN would be categorized as likely leachers in all three Hawaiian soils, indicating a high risk of groundwater contamination across the island of Oahu. In contrast, oxyfluorfen, regardless of the degradation rate, would possess a low and acceptable leaching risk due to its high sorption on all three soils. The leaching potential of alachlor was more difficult to classify, with a GUS value between 1.8 and 2.8. In addition, four different biochar amendments to these soils did not significantly alter their sorption capacities for aminocyclopyrachlor, indicating a relatively low impact of black carbon additions from geologic volcanic inputs of black carbon. Due to the fact that pesticide environmental risks are chiefly dependent on local soil characteristics, this work has demonstrated that once soil specific sorption parameters are known one can assess the potential pesticide leaching risks. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Hawaiian Stream Ecology, Preservation, and Management held in Hilo, Hawaii on November 1 - 2, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Hawaiian stream gastropod, Nritina Smum (Prosobranchia: Neritidae ) M.H. Hodges 1100-1130 Computer image-based identification of Hawaiian stream...L.L. Loope, and M.H. Hodges 1400-1430 Population genetics of the endemic Hawaiian stream gastropod, Neritina gm (Prosobranchia: Neritidae ): high...Population biology of the endemic Hawaiian stream gastropod Nerutina grazmsa (Prosobranchia: Neritidae ) Marc H. Hodges Haleakala National Park, P.O. Box

  13. "Na Wahine Mana": A Postcolonial Reading of Classroom Discourse on the Imperial Rescue of Oppressed Hawaiian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaomea, Julie

    2006-01-01

    "White men are saving brown women from brown men." Gayatri Spivak suggests that this phrase is for her as fundamental for an investigation of colonial dynamics as Freud's formulation "a child is being beaten" was for his inquiry into sexuality. Through a deconstructive interrogation of elementary Hawaiian history textbooks, Hawaiian studies…

  14. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Q of... - Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Description and Coordinates...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale... Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. Q, App. A Appendix A to Subpart Q of Part 922—Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Description and Coordinates of...

  15. A Comparison of Health Education and Physical Activity Practice in Four Regions of the Hawaiian Island of Oahu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Donna; Eburne, Norman; Donnelly, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare four distinct Hawaiian districts on the island of Oahu regarding their efforts in presenting quality health education and physical activity. The ethnic groups represented in this study included Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, Asian and Caucasian. Questionnaires based on the Action for Healthy Kids Healthy…

  16. Self-Reported Experiences of Discrimination and Depression in Native Hawaiians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Mapuana Ck; Ahn, Hyeong Jun; Ing, Claire Townsend; Dillard, Adrienne; Cassel, Kevin; Kekauoha, B Puni; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku

    2016-09-01

    Discrimination is an acute and chronic stressor that negatively impacts the health of many ethnic groups in the United States. Individuals who perceive increased levels of discrimination are at risk of experiencing psychological distress and symptoms of depression. No study to date has examined the relationship between perceived discrimination and mental health in Native Hawaiians. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between perceived discrimination and depression based on the Homestead Health Survey mailed to Native Hawaiian residents of Hawaiian Home Lands. This study also explores the role of cultural identity and how it may impact experiences of discrimination and symptoms of depression. Based on cross-sectional data obtained from 104 Native Hawaiian residents, a significant positive correlation was found between perceived discrimination and symptoms of depression (r= 0.32, Pdiscrimination or depression. Multiple linear regression analyses indicate that the relationship between depression and discrimination remained statistically significant (coefficient estimate of 0.18; PNative Hawaiian and American cultures. These findings are consistent with other studies that have focused on the effects of discrimination on psychological wellbeing for other ethnic minority populations.

  17. Association between perceived racism and physiological stress indices in Native Hawaiians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Grandinetti, Andrew; Keller, Stefan; Nacapoy, Andrea H; Kingi, Te Kani; Mau, Marjorie K

    2012-02-01

    The association between racism and the physical health of native U.S. populations has yet to be examined despite their high risk for stress-related disorders and a history of discrimination toward them. We examined the correlation between perceived racism and the two physiological stress indices of cortisol level and blood pressure in 146 adult Native Hawaiians. Attributed and felt racism were assessed with a 10-item shortened version of the Oppression Questionnaire. Height, weight, blood pressure, and salivary cortisol samples (AM and PM) were collected and analyzed along with information on Hawaiian ancestry, BMI, age, sex, marital status, education level, general psychological stress, and ethnic identity. The results indicated that Native Hawaiians reporting more attributed racism had significantly (P Hawaiians reporting more felt racism had a significantly higher systolic blood pressure than those reporting less, but this association was not significant after adjusting for the aforementioned confounders. Racism appears to be a chronic stressor that can "get under the skin" of Native Hawaiians by affecting their physical health and risk for stress-related diseases, possibly, through mechanisms of cortisol dysregulation.

  18. Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Stocks of Different Hawaiian Sugarcane Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Tirado-Corbalá

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane has been widely used as a biofuel crop due to its high biological productivity, ease of conversion to ethanol, and its relatively high potential for greenhouse gas reduction and lower environmental impacts relative to other derived biofuels from traditional agronomic crops. In this investigation, we studied four sugarcane cultivars (H-65-7052, H-78-3567, H-86-3792 and H-87-4319 grown on a Hawaiian commercial sugarcane plantation to determine their ability to store and accumulate soil carbon (C and nitrogen (N across a 24-month growth cycle on contrasting soil types. The main study objective establish baseline parameters for biofuel production life cycle analyses; sub-objectives included (1 determining which of four main sugarcane cultivars sequestered the most soil C and (2 assessing how soil C sequestration varies among two common Hawaiian soil series (Pulehu-sandy clay loam and Molokai-clay. Soil samples were collected at 20 cm increments to depths of up to 120 cm using hand augers at the three main growth stages (tillering, grand growth, and maturity from two experimental plots at to observe total carbon (TC, total nitrogen (TN, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and nitrates (NO−3 using laboratory flash combustion for TC and TN and solution filtering and analysis for DOC and NO−3. Aboveground plant biomass was collected and subsampled to determine lignin and C and N content. This study determined that there was an increase of TC with the advancement of growing stages in the studied four sugarcane cultivars at both soil types (increase in TC of 15–35 kg·m2. Nitrogen accumulation was more variable, and NO−3 (<5 ppm were insignificant. The C and N accumulation varies in the whole profile based on the ability of the sugarcane cultivar’s roots to explore and grow in the different soil types. For the purpose of storing C in the soil, cultivar H-65-7052 (TC accumulation of ~30 kg·m−2 and H-86-3792 (25 kg·m−2 rather H-78

  19. Increasing participation in cancer research: insights from Native Hawaiian women in medically underserved communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue; Mitschke, Diane; Lono, Joelene

    2004-09-01

    The cancer burden falls heavily on Native Hawaiian women, and of particular concern are those living in medically underserved communities where participation in potentially helpful clinical studies may be limited. Difficulty in accrual of Native Hawaiian women to a culturally-grounded intervention led researchers to conduct focus groups aimed at exploring attitudes towards research, use of a traditional Hawaiian practice for family discussion, and study promotion. Social marketing theory guided the development of discussion questions and a survey. Through purposive sampling, 30 women from medically underserved communities were recruited. Content analysis was used to identify major discussion themes. Findings indicate that lack of informational access may be a major barrier to participation. Study information disseminated through community channels with targeted outreach to social and religious organizations, promotion through face-to-face contact with researchers, and culturally tailored messages directed to families were preferred. Community oriented strategies based on linkages with organizational networks may increase participation.

  20. Connecting culturally and spiritually to healthy eating: A community assessment with Native Hawaiians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Frances Oneha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many of the chronic illnesses disproportionately experienced by Native Hawaiians are directly related to poor diets and long-standing obesity beginning in childhood. We report on the findings of in-depth key informant interviews (N = 14 that took place in two Native Hawaiian communities as part of a larger, community-based participatory research study that included a community assessment through individual interviews and focused group discussions, and a pilot intervention targeting pregnant women, their infants, and families. Four categories emerged from the qualitative analysis of interview transcripts that described an understanding of “healthy eating”: family roles and responsibilities, aspects of community and physical environment, deeper spiritual meaning of food, and ways of operationalizing personal eating choices. The findings revealed previously undocumented intergenerational influences on healthy eating patterns and informed the design of the next study phases and are of significance in targeting nutritional interventions for Native Hawaiians.

  1. Type 2 diabetes in native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furubayashi, Jill K; Look, Mele A

    2005-09-01

    There is significant disparity between the prevalence of diabetes in Native Hawaiians and Pacific People (includes Pacific Islanders and Filipinos) in comparison with other ethnic groups in Hawaii. In this article, prevalence, risk factors, complications and intervention studies are reviewed. Native Hawaiians and Pacific People have significantly higher prevalence rates of diabetes in comparison to other ethnic groups in Hawaii. They also have higher prevalence rates for the risk factors and complications associated with diabetes, such as obesity and end stage renal disease, respectively. Although the reasons for these disparities are complex and not clearly understood, literature suggests that genetics, acculturation, lifestyle, and cultural beliefs may be related. There is also a lack of specific research on diabetes in Native Hawaiians and Pacific people. Future research needs to include the collection of more comprehensive data on age, ethnic group and socioeconomic status.

  2. Genetic Structure of the Polymorphic Metrosideros (Myrtaceae) Complex in the Hawaiian Islands Using Nuclear Microsatellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbaugh, Danica T.; Wagner, Warren L.; Percy, Diana M.; James, Helen F.; Fleischer, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Five species of Metrosideros (Myrtaceae) are recognized in the Hawaiian Islands, including the widespread M. polymorpha, and are characterized by a multitude of distinctive, yet overlapping, habit, ecological, and morphological forms. It remains unclear, despite several previous studies, whether the morphological variation within Hawaiian Metrosideros is due to hybridization, genetic polymorphism, phenotypic plasticity, or some combination of these processes. The Hawaiian Metrosideros complex has become a model system to study ecology and evolution; however this is the first study to use microsatellite data for addressing inter-island patterns of variation from across the Hawaiian Islands. Methodology/Principal Findings Ten nuclear microsatellite loci were genotyped from 143 individuals of Metrosideros. We took advantage of the bi-parental inheritance and rapid mutation rate of these data to examine the validity of the current taxonomy and to investigate whether Metrosideros plants from the same island are more genetically similar than plants that are morphologically similar. The Bayesian algorithm of the program structure was used to define genetic groups within Hawaiian Metrosideros and the closely related taxon M. collina from the Marquesas and Austral Islands. Several standard and nested AMOVAs were conducted to test whether the genetic diversity is structured geographically or taxonomically. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that Hawaiian Metrosideros have dynamic gene flow, with genetic and morphological diversity structured not simply by geography or taxonomy, but as a result of parallel evolution on islands following rampant island-island dispersal, in addition to ancient chloroplast capture. Results also suggest that the current taxonomy requires major revisions in order to reflect the genetic structure revealed in the microsatellite data. PMID:19259272

  3. Engaging Participants in Design of a Native Hawaiian Worksite Wellness Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Jodi Haunani; Hughes, Claire Ku‘uleilani; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Native Hawaiians today face a disproportionately high rate of obesity. The Designing Healthy Worksites (DHW) project investigated existing administrative policies and supports for healthy eating and physical activity at eight Native Hawaiian-serving organizations in Hawai‘i, along with employee preferences for worksite wellness programming. Objectives We describe the process by which Native Hawaiian researchers and community members worked together to gather formative data to design future worksite wellness programs. Methods A Native Hawaiian doctoral student (JHL) and a Native Hawaiian activist (CKH) spearheaded the project, mentored by a Caucasian professor (KLB) who has worked in Hawaii communities for 30 years. Advisors from the worksites supported the use of environmental assessments (n = 36), administrative interviews (n = 33), focus groups (n = 9), and an employee survey (n = 437) to collect data. We used an interactive process of data collection, sharing, and interpretation to assure mutual agreement on conclusions and future directions. Results Worksites were at different stages of readiness for worksite wellness programming, suggesting that a toolkit be developed from which agencies could create a program that fit. Activities preferred by large proportions of employees included support groups, experiential nutrition education (e.g., cooking demonstrations and field trips for smart food shopping), food buying clubs, and administrative policies supporting healthy lifestyles. High participation in data collection and interpretation suggest that our methods fostered enthusiasm for worksite wellness programming and for Native Hawaiians as researchers. The team continues to work together to develop and test interventions to promote worksite wellness. Conclusion Native-directed research that engages administrators and employees in designing programs heightens program acceptability and applicability. PMID:20543487

  4. Modernization of the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Seismic Processing Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolik, L.; Shiro, B.; Friberg, P. A.

    2016-12-01

    The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) operates a Tier 1 Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) seismic network to monitor, characterize, and report on volcanic and earthquake activity in the State of Hawaii. Upgrades at the observatory since 2009 have improved the digital telemetry network, computing resources, and seismic data processing with the adoption of the ANSS Quake Management System (AQMS) system. HVO aims to build on these efforts by further modernizing its seismic processing infrastructure and strengthen its ability to meet ANSS performance standards. Most notably, this will also allow HVO to support redundant systems, both onsite and offsite, in order to provide better continuity of operation during intermittent power and network outages. We are in the process of implementing a number of upgrades and improvements on HVO's seismic processing infrastructure, including: 1) Virtualization of AQMS physical servers; 2) Migration of server operating systems from Solaris to Linux; 3) Consolidation of AQMS real-time and post-processing services to a single server; 4) Upgrading database from Oracle 10 to Oracle 12; and 5) Upgrading to the latest Earthworm and AQMS software. These improvements will make server administration more efficient, minimize hardware resources required by AQMS, simplify the Oracle replication setup, and provide better integration with HVO's existing state of health monitoring tools and backup system. Ultimately, it will provide HVO with the latest and most secure software available while making the software easier to deploy and support.

  5. Mortality patterns in endangered Hawaiian geese (Nene; Branta sandvicensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Dagenais, Julie; Rameyer, Robert; Breeden, Renee

    2015-01-01

    Understanding causes of death can aid management and recovery of endangered bird populations. Toward those ends, we systematically examined 300 carcasses of endangered Hawaiian Geese (Nene; Branta sandvicensis) from Hawaii, Maui, Molokai, and Kauai between 1992 and 2013. The most common cause of death was emaciation, followed by trauma (vehicular strikes and predation), and infectious/inflammatory diseases of which toxoplasmosis (infection with Toxoplasma gondii) predominated. Toxicoses were less common and were dominated by lead poisoning or botulism. For captive birds, inflammatory conditions predominated, whereas emaciation, trauma, and inflammation were common in free-ranging birds. Mortality patterns were similar for males and females. Trauma predominated for adults, whereas emaciation was more common for goslings. Causes of death varied among islands, with trauma dominating on Molokai, emaciation and inflammation on Kauai, emaciation on Hawaii, and inflammation and trauma on Maui. Understanding habitat or genetic-related factors that predispose Nene (particularly goslings) to emaciation might reduce the impact of this finding. In addition, trauma and infection with T. gondii are human-related problems that may be attenuated if effectively managed (e.g., road signs, enforcement of speed limits, feral cat [Felis catus] control). Such management actions might serve to enhance recovery of this endangered species.

  6. Modeling of Seismic Anisotropy Near the Hawaiian Mantle Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chenghao

    Seismic anisotropy, the dependence of velocity on direction, is often induced by mantle flow. Here, I studied the influence of a proposed mantle plume beneath Hawaii on the azimuth dependence of Rayleigh wave phase velocity. I used a two-layer forward modeling code to explore how the orientation of a transversely isotropic Pyrolite mantle model controls the fast direction and strength of azimuthal anisotropy. Two layers are assumed because plate motion of the Pacific plate rearranged about 45 Million years ago. It is thought that the fossil spreading direction was 'frozen' into parts of the lithosphere while the asthenosphere below carries the signature of current mantle flow. Depending on how different the horizontal orientation of Pyrolite is in both layers, the strength of anisotropy can vanish for some frequencies but not others. This can ultimately be used to estimate the thickness of the anisotropic layers and the orientation of Pyrolite. In the second part, I forward-modeled data collected for the Hawaiian PLUME project. At high frequencies, the overall pattern of azimuthal anisotropy follows the fossil spreading direction while this coherency breaks down at low frequencies. I find that anisotropy in the upper lithosphere is largely intact, but the pattern is incoherent in the lower lithosphere and asthenosphere. These results provide strong evidence for the presence of a mantle plume beneath Hawaii.

  7. Possible solar noble-gas component in Hawaiian basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, M.; McDougall, I.; Patterson, D.B.; Doulgeris, A.; Clague, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    THE noble-gas elemental and isotopic composition in the Earth is significantly different from that of the present atmosphere, and provides an important clue to the origin and history of the Earth and its atmosphere. Possible candidates for the noble-gas composition of the primordial Earth include a solar-like component, a planetary-like component (as observed in primitive meteorites) and a component similar in composition to the present atmosphere. In an attempt to identify the contributions of such components, we have measured isotope ratios of helium and neon in fresh basaltic glasses dredged from Loihi seamount and the East Rift Zone of Kilauea1-3. We find a systematic enrichment in 20Ne and 21Ne relative to 22Ne, compared with atmospheric neon. The helium and neon isotope signatures observed in our samples can be explained by mixing of solar, present atmospheric, radiogenic and nucleogenic components. These data suggest that the noble-gas isotopic composition of the mantle source of the Hawaiian plume is different from that of the present atmosphere, and that it includes a significant solar-like component. We infer that this component was acquired during the formation of the Earth.

  8. Seismic instrumentation plan for the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Weston A.

    2014-01-01

    The seismic network operated by the U.S. Geological Survey’s Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) is the main source of authoritative data for reporting earthquakes in the State of Hawaii, including those that occur on the State’s six active volcanoes (Kīlauea, Mauna Loa, Hualālai, Mauna Kea, Haleakalā, Lō‘ihi). Of these volcanoes, Kīlauea and Mauna Loa are considered “very high threat” in a report on the rationale for a National Volcanic Early Warning System (NVEWS) (Ewert and others, 2005). This seismic instrumentation plan assesses the current state of HVO’s seismic network with respect to the State’s active volcanoes and calculates the number of stations that are needed to upgrade the current network to provide a seismic early warning capability for forecasting volcanic activity. Further, the report provides proposed priorities for upgrading the seismic network and a cost assessment for both the installation costs and maintenance costs of the improved network that are required to fully realize the potential of the early warning system.

  9. Recent Progress in Understanding the Origin of the Hawaiian-Emperor Bend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, R. G.; Morgan, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Two main explanations have been proposed for the origin of the Hawaiian-Emperor Bend (HEB): (1) that it records a change in motion of the Pacific plate relative to a stationary Hawaiian plume [Morgan, 1971]; (2) that Pacific plate motion has been uniform but the HEB records a change from rapid (>40 mm/yr) southward motion of the Hawaiian plume, while the Emperor chain was formed, to a stationary plume while the Hawaiian chain was formed [Tarduno et al. 2003]. We summarize recent progress on this issue. Recent work invalidates prior studies that inferred significant rates of motion between hotspots since the time of the HEB. Nominal rates of motion are 2-6 mm/yr with a lower bound of zero and upper bounds of 8-13 mm/yr (95% c. l.) [Koivisto et al., 2014]. In this context, Hawaiian plume drift as great as 40 mm/yr before 50 Ma B.P. seems unlikely. Other recent work demonstrates the viability of using the orientation of seismic anisotropy in the upper mantle, combined with relative plate motions, to estimate absolute plate motions independently of hotspot tracks. Wang et al. [this meeting] show that the two reference frames agree with each other within their 95% confidence limits, thus lending credibility to both estimates. To infer motion of the Hawaiian hotspot relative to the mantle from paleomagnetic data one must ignore true polar wander (TPW), but TPW is too big to ignore and is occurring today—it is an important part of explaining the apparent polar wander of the Pacific and other plates. New evidence shows that the Hawaiian hotspot was fixed in latitude during formation of most, if not all, of the Emperor seamount chain [Seidman et al., this meeting], in contradiction to the southward motion found by Tarduno et al. [2003]. Revised timing and age-dating of the HEB (now 50 Ma; Clague [this meeting]) implies that the change in plate motion coincides with a change in Pacific-Farallon motion and other circum-Pacific tectonic events. Barkhausen et al [2013] show

  10. Genetic structure and evolved malaria resistance in Hawaiian honeycreepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J.T.; Woodworth, B.L.; Eggert, L.E.; Hart, P.J.; Palmer, D.; Duffy, D.C.; Fleischer, R.C.

    2007-01-01

    Infectious diseases now threaten wildlife populations worldwide but population recovery following local extinction has rarely been observed. In such a case, do resistant individuals recolonize from a central remnant population, or do they spread from small, perhaps overlooked, populations of resistant individuals? Introduced avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) has devastated low-elevation populations of native birds in Hawaii, but at least one species (Hawaii amakihi, Hemignathus virens) that was greatly reduced at elevations below about 1000 m tolerates malaria and has initiated a remarkable and rapid recovery. We assessed mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers from amakihi and two other Hawaiian honeycreepers, apapane (Himatione sanguinea) and iiwi (Vestiaria coccinea), at nine primary study sites from 2001 to 2003 to determine the source of re-establishing birds. In addition, we obtained sequences from tissue from amakihi museum study skins (1898 and 1948-49) to assess temporal changes in allele distributions. We found that amakihi in lowland areas are, and have historically been, differentiated from birds at high elevations and had unique alleles retained through time; that is, their genetic signature was not a subset of the genetic variation at higher elevations. We suggest that high disease pressure rapidly selected for resistance to malaria at low elevation, leaving small pockets of resistant birds, and this resistance spread outward from the scattered remnant populations. Low-elevation amakihi are currently isolated from higher elevations (> 1000 m) where disease emergence and transmission rates appear to vary seasonally and annually. In contrast to results from amakihi, no genetic differentiation between elevations was found in apapane and iiwi, indicating that slight variation in genetic or life-history attributes can determine disease resistance and population recovery. Determining the conditions that allow for the development of resistance to disease is

  11. Multi-scale habitat selection of the endangered Hawaiian Goose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Christina R.; Hess, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    After a severe population reduction during the mid-20th century, the endangered Hawaiian Goose (Branta sandvicensis), or Nēnē, has only recently re-established its seasonal movement patterns on Hawai‘i Island. Little is currently understood about its movements and habitat use during the nonbreeding season. The objectives of this research were to identify habitats preferred by two subpopulations of the Nēnē and how preferences shift seasonally at both meso-and fine scales. From 2009 to 2011, ten Nēnē ganders were outfitted with 40-to 45-g satellite transmitters with GPS capability. We used binary logistic regression to compare habitat use versus availability and an information-theoretic approach for model selection. Meso-scale habitat modeling revealed that Nēnē preferred exotic grass and human-modified landscapes during the breeding and molting seasons and native subalpine shrubland during the nonbreeding season. Fine-scale habitat modeling further indicated preference for exotic grass, bunch grass, and absence of trees. Proximity to water was important during molt, suggesting that the presence of water may provide escape from introduced mammalian predators while Nēnē are flightless. Finescale species-composition data added relatively little to understanding of Nēnē habitat preferences modeled at the meso scale, suggesting that the meso-scale is appropriate for management planning. Habitat selection during our study was consistent with historical records, although dissimilar from more recent studies of other subpopulations. Nēnē make pronounced seasonal movements between existing reserves and use distinct habitat types; understanding annual patterns has implications for the protection and restoration of important seasonal habitats.

  12. Hawaiian temples and their orientations: issues of method and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    2015-08-01

    In 2002 I began a collaboration with Pat Kirch (Berkeley) to survey the temple sites (heiau) in the Kahikinui and Kaupo districts of southern Maui, and study their orientations and potential astronomical significance. Our investigations of over 70 temples in the area were completed in 2011 and are due for publication in 2016. Pat Kirch will present some of our main conclusions in his keynote talk within FM2. In this paper I propose to concentrate on issues of field methodology and procedure that have wider implications for developments in method and practice within archaeoastronomy. Methodologically, temple sites in the Hawaiian Islands constitute a "halfway house" between prehistoric monuments in Europe, where the only evidence is archaeological and studies of orientations tend to follow formal, "data-driven" or statistical, approaches, and Mesoamerica, where the existence of pre-conquest written records and inscriptions and post-conquest ethnohistory relegate "alignment studies" to a secondary role. In Hawai‘i, cultural data, including oral histories recorded after conquest, provide a finer balance between historical accounts and the physical evidence. Selection issues at the Maui temple sites include distinguishing marginal temple sites from house sites and identifying the intended direction of orientation at complex structures. Initial analyses of the principal orientations identified clusterings in orientation which were interpreted as relating to different gods, and particular the war-god Ku and the god of dryland agriculture, Lono. Later, more comprehensive surveys revealed evidence of observing platforms and foresights at some of the Lono temples, suggesting that systematic observations were made of the Pleiades, known from the ethnohistory to be of particular calendrical significance. This type of alignment evidence is too subjective to be sustained on the basis of a formal analysis alone but, given the historical context, provides a more robust cultural

  13. Large-scale climatic effects on traditional Hawaiian fishpond aquaculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel McCoy

    Full Text Available Aquaculture accounts for almost one-half of global fish consumption. Understanding the regional impact of climate fluctuations on aquaculture production thus is critical for the sustainability of this crucial food resource. The objective of this work was to understand the role of climate fluctuations and climate change in subtropical coastal estuarine environments within the context of aquaculture practices in He'eia Fishpond, O'ahu Island, Hawai'i. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first study of climate effects on traditional aquaculture systems in the Hawaiian Islands. Data from adjacent weather stations were analyzed together with in situ water quality instrument deployments spanning a 12-year period (November 2004 -November 2016. We found correlations between two periods with extremely high fish mortality at He'eia Fishpond (May and October 2009 and slackening trade winds in the week preceding each mortality event, as well as surface water temperatures elevated 2-3°C higher than the background periods (March-December 2009. We posit that the lack of trade wind-driven surface water mixing enhanced surface heating and stratification of the water column, leading to hypoxic conditions and stress on fish populations, which had limited ability to move within net pen enclosures. Elevated water temperature and interruption of trade winds previously have been linked to the onset of El Niño in Hawai'i. Our results provide empirical evidence regarding El Niño effects on the coastal ocean, which can inform resource management efforts about potential impact of climate variation on aquaculture production. Finally, we provide recommendations for reducing the impact of warming events on fishponds, as these events are predicted to increase in magnitude and frequency as a consequence of global warming.

  14. Large-scale climatic effects on traditional Hawaiian fishpond aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Daniel; McManus, Margaret A; Kotubetey, Keliʻiahonui; Kawelo, Angela Hiʻilei; Young, Charles; D'Andrea, Brandon; Ruttenberg, Kathleen C; Alegado, Rosanna ʻAnolani

    2017-01-01

    Aquaculture accounts for almost one-half of global fish consumption. Understanding the regional impact of climate fluctuations on aquaculture production thus is critical for the sustainability of this crucial food resource. The objective of this work was to understand the role of climate fluctuations and climate change in subtropical coastal estuarine environments within the context of aquaculture practices in He'eia Fishpond, O'ahu Island, Hawai'i. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first study of climate effects on traditional aquaculture systems in the Hawaiian Islands. Data from adjacent weather stations were analyzed together with in situ water quality instrument deployments spanning a 12-year period (November 2004 -November 2016). We found correlations between two periods with extremely high fish mortality at He'eia Fishpond (May and October 2009) and slackening trade winds in the week preceding each mortality event, as well as surface water temperatures elevated 2-3°C higher than the background periods (March-December 2009). We posit that the lack of trade wind-driven surface water mixing enhanced surface heating and stratification of the water column, leading to hypoxic conditions and stress on fish populations, which had limited ability to move within net pen enclosures. Elevated water temperature and interruption of trade winds previously have been linked to the onset of El Niño in Hawai'i. Our results provide empirical evidence regarding El Niño effects on the coastal ocean, which can inform resource management efforts about potential impact of climate variation on aquaculture production. Finally, we provide recommendations for reducing the impact of warming events on fishponds, as these events are predicted to increase in magnitude and frequency as a consequence of global warming.

  15. Invasion patterns along elevation and urbanization gradients in Hawaiian streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasher, A.M.D.; Luton, C.D.; Goodbred, S.L.; Wolff, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    Hawaii's extreme isolation has resulted in a native stream fauna characterized by high endemism and unusual life history characteristics. With the rapid increase in the human population, the viability of Hawaiian stream ecosystems is threatened by development and the associated habitat alteration. Thirty-eight sites on three islands (Oahu, Kauai, and Hawaii) were sampled to determine how habitat alteration resulting from urbanization and development was associated with the establishment of introduced species. Undeveloped sites had higher streamflow velocities, more riffles, lower embeddedness, deeper water, larger substrate, and lower water temperature than developed sites. Developed sites additionally had more pools and greater sparseness of riparian canopy cover. Overall, 23 fish species from 11 families and 5 crustacean species from 3 families were collected. Of these, 16 fish species and 3 crustacean species were introduced. Developed sites had on average almost twice as many species as undeveloped sites and were dominated by introduced species. Low-elevation sites were the most developed and supported the highest number of introduced species. However, species composition at some relatively undeveloped sites was impacted by downstream habitat alteration, since all native species must pass through the lower reaches to complete their life cycles. With increasing urbanization and development, the habitat features required by native species are disappearing and streams are becoming more suitable for generalist introduced species, which are typically better adapted for altered habitats than are native species. As development pressures in tropical island ecosystems increase worldwide, this will become an increasingly important issue globally. An understanding of which habitats are most likely to support nonnative species provides information necessary for developing a management strategy to protect aquatic ecosystems from invasive nonnative species.

  16. Comparative demographics of a Hawaiian forest bird community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaumet, Alban; Woodworth, Bethany L.; Camp, Richard J.; Paxton, Eben H.

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of demographic parameters such as survival and reproductive success are critical for guiding management efforts focused on species of conservation concern. Unfortunately, reliable demographic parameters are difficult to obtain for any species, but especially for rare or endangered species. Here we derived estimates of adult survival and recruitment in a community of Hawaiian forest birds, including eight native species (of which three are endangered) and two introduced species at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, Hawaiʻi. Integrated population models (IPM) were used to link mark–recapture data (1994–1999) with long-term population surveys (1987–2008). To our knowledge, this is the first time that IPM have been used to characterize demographic parameters of a whole avian community, and provides important insights into the life history strategies of the community. The demographic data were used to test two hypotheses: 1) arthropod specialists, such as the ‘Akiapōlā‘au Hemignathus munroi, are ‘slower’ species characterized by a greater relative contribution of adult survival to population growth, i.e. lower fecundity and increased adult survival; and 2) a species’ susceptibility to environmental change, as reflected by its conservation status, can be predicted by its life history traits. We found that all species were characterized by a similar population growth rate around one, independently of conservation status, origin (native vs non-native), feeding guild, or life history strategy (as measured by ‘slowness’), which suggested that the community had reached an equilibrium. However, such stable dynamics were achieved differently across feeding guilds, as demonstrated by a significant increase of adult survival and a significant decrease of recruitment along a gradient of increased insectivory, in support of hypothesis 1. Supporting our second hypothesis, we found that slower species were more vulnerable species at the global

  17. 78 FR 35877 - Applications for New Awards; Native Hawaiian Career and Technical Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... continuing education or training, or the impact the project had on Native Hawaiian economic development or... entrepreneurship, of an individual. Projects may include prerequisite courses (other than remedial courses) that...) Increasing the opportunities for high-quality preparation of, or professional development for, teachers or...

  18. 78 FR 38304 - Applications for New Awards; Native Hawaiian Career and Technical Education Program (NHCTEP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; Native Hawaiian Career and Technical Education Program (NHCTEP); Correction... Education, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: On June 14, 2013, the Office of...

  19. Length-based assessment of coral reef fish populations in the main and northwestern Hawaiian islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc O Nadon

    Full Text Available The coral reef fish community of Hawaii is composed of hundreds of species, supports a multimillion dollar fishing and tourism industry, and is of great cultural importance to the local population. However, a major stock assessment of Hawaiian coral reef fish populations has not yet been conducted. Here we used the robust indicator variable "average length in the exploited phase of the population ([Formula: see text]", estimated from size composition data from commercial fisheries trip reports and fishery-independent diver surveys, to evaluate exploitation rates for 19 Hawaiian reef fishes. By and large, the average lengths obtained from diver surveys agreed well with those from commercial data. We used the estimated exploitation rates coupled with life history parameters synthesized from the literature to parameterize a numerical population model and generate stock sustainability metrics such as spawning potential ratios (SPR. We found good agreement between predicted average lengths in an unfished population (from our population model and those observed from diver surveys in the largely unexploited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Of 19 exploited reef fish species assessed in the main Hawaiian Islands, 9 had SPRs close to or below the 30% overfishing threshold. In general, longer-lived species such as surgeonfishes, the redlip parrotfish (Scarus rubroviolaceus, and the gray snapper (Aprion virescens had the lowest SPRs, while short-lived species such as goatfishes and jacks, as well as two invasive species (Lutjanus kasmira and Cephalopholis argus, had SPRs above the 30% threshold.

  20. Length-based assessment of coral reef fish populations in the main and northwestern Hawaiian islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadon, Marc O; Ault, Jerald S; Williams, Ivor D; Smith, Steven G; DiNardo, Gerard T

    2015-01-01

    The coral reef fish community of Hawaii is composed of hundreds of species, supports a multimillion dollar fishing and tourism industry, and is of great cultural importance to the local population. However, a major stock assessment of Hawaiian coral reef fish populations has not yet been conducted. Here we used the robust indicator variable "average length in the exploited phase of the population ([Formula: see text])", estimated from size composition data from commercial fisheries trip reports and fishery-independent diver surveys, to evaluate exploitation rates for 19 Hawaiian reef fishes. By and large, the average lengths obtained from diver surveys agreed well with those from commercial data. We used the estimated exploitation rates coupled with life history parameters synthesized from the literature to parameterize a numerical population model and generate stock sustainability metrics such as spawning potential ratios (SPR). We found good agreement between predicted average lengths in an unfished population (from our population model) and those observed from diver surveys in the largely unexploited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Of 19 exploited reef fish species assessed in the main Hawaiian Islands, 9 had SPRs close to or below the 30% overfishing threshold. In general, longer-lived species such as surgeonfishes, the redlip parrotfish (Scarus rubroviolaceus), and the gray snapper (Aprion virescens) had the lowest SPRs, while short-lived species such as goatfishes and jacks, as well as two invasive species (Lutjanus kasmira and Cephalopholis argus), had SPRs above the 30% threshold.

  1. CRED Gridded Bathymetry of French Frigate Shoals (100-019) in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-019b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near French Frigate Shoals in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been...

  2. Multiple, independent colonizations of the Hawaiian Archipelago by the family Dolichopodidae (Diptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goodman, K.R.; Evenhuis, N.; Bartošová-Sojková, Pavla; O'Grady, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, NOV 17 (2016), č. článku e2704. ISSN 2167-8359 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : colonization history * Diptera * divergence dating * Dolichopodidae * evolutionary radiation * long distance dispersal * Hawaiian islands Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.177, year: 2016

  3. CRED Gridded Bathymetry near South Maro Reef (100-008), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-008b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near south Maro Reef in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced as...

  4. 76 FR 78309 - Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex; Wilderness Review and Legislative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... Forest, Hanalei, Hawaiian Islands, Howland Island, Hul `ia, James Campbell, Jarvis Island, Johnston... completed wilderness inventories and subsequent WSA studies for the Baker Island, Howland Island, and Jarvis.... possible wilderness proposal submitted to recommendation. Congress. Howland Island\\1\\ September 2008, WSA...

  5. Language Socialisation and Korean as a Heritage Language: A Study of Hawaiian Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byon, Andrew Sangpil

    2003-01-01

    Transcripts were made of teacher-student conversations in four Hawaiian classrooms in which Korean is taught as a heritage language. The study examines the use of the sentence-ending particle "yo," the meaning of the particle, the way it is used in interaction, and its sociopragmatic implication. The following research questions are…

  6. Reclaiming Celestial Navigation Using a Contemporary Hawaiian Worldview of the Heavens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Ahia G.; Ha`o, Celeste; Slater, Timothy F.; Slater, Stephanie J.

    2015-08-01

    The immense challenges of successfully navigating the vast Pacific basin without modern instruments are well-known. At the same time, the precise methods used by ancient Polynesian wayfinders are largely undocumented, the strategies being wholly unfamiliar to early European navigators from higher latitudes with formal training in charts and tables. Leading the wave of a Hawaiian-Renaissance, contemporary Hawaiian seafarers are boldly reclaiming their heritage by recreating and sailing double hulled canoes by instrument-free, navigation techniques. Many of these navigational techniques are probably reminiscent of earlier strategies, and are proving to be highly successful. The result is that numerous canoes are now making repeated trips throughout the Polynesian Triangle, and reaching beyond to soon circumnavigate the globe. Not surprisingly, a vital component of any navigational system far from terrestrial landmarks is based on the changing positions and predictable motions of the Sun and stars. Although many of the indigenous star names are lost to history, some of the most important star names for celestial navigation have been painstakingly re-claimed. Other critically important navigational stars are being named by the respected Hawaiian Guild Navigators and their teams of educators who are conducting navigation training for Hawaiian sailing crews. The authors are collecting and documenting these new star names along-with their identifiable asterisms-in the service of educating both the public and the next generation of navigators.

  7. Familial social structure and socially driven genetic differentiation in Hawaiian short-finned pilot whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cise, Amy M; Martien, Karen K; Mahaffy, Sabre D; Baird, Robin W; Webster, Daniel L; Fowler, James H; Oleson, Erin M; Morin, Phillip A

    2017-12-01

    Social structure can have a significant impact on divergence and evolution within species, especially in the marine environment, which has few environmental boundaries to dispersal. On the other hand, genetic structure can affect social structure in many species, through an individual preference towards associating with relatives. One social species, the short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus), has been shown to live in stable social groups for periods of at least a decade. Using mitochondrial control sequences from 242 individuals and single nucleotide polymorphisms from 106 individuals, we examine population structure among geographic and social groups of short-finned pilot whales in the Hawaiian Islands, and test for links between social and genetic structure. Our results show that there are at least two geographic populations in the Hawaiian Islands: a Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) population and a Northwestern Hawaiian Islands/Pelagic population (F ST and Φ ST p social structure, or high relatedness among social units and clusters (p socially organized clusters are genetically distinct, indicating that social structure drives genetic divergence within the population, likely through restricted mate selection (F ST p = .05). This genetic divergence among social groups can make the species less resilient to anthropogenic or ecological disturbance. Conservation of this species therefore depends on understanding links among social structure, genetic structure and ecological variability within the species. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. 75 FR 70169 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Proposed Endangered Status for the Hawaiian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... whales (range 50-835; mean = 180) have been documented in many regions, including New Zealand, Australia... other highly social animals. Although some aspects of the behavior and ``culture'' of Hawaiian insular... reanalysis of photographic data has yielded two new estimates of population size for the 2006-2009 period...

  9. The Role of Deep Mantle Flow in Shaping the Hawaiian-Emperor Bend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, R.; Müller, D.; Gurnis, M.; Williams, S.; Flament, N. E.

    2016-12-01

    Age-progressive volcanic hotspot tracks are typical surface expressions of plate tectonic movement on top of narrow plumes of hot material within Earth's mantle. Seismic imaging reveals that these plumes can be of deep origin, potentially rooted on thermochemical structures in the lower mantle. Although palaeomagnetic and radiometric age data suggest that mantle flow can advect plume conduits laterally, the flow dynamics underlying the formation of the sharp bend occurring only in the Hawaiian-Emperor hotspot track in the Pacific Ocean remains enigmatic. The north Pacific features long-lasting subduction systems, unlike those in the south Pacific. We present palaeogeographically-constrained numerical models of thermochemical convection demonstrating that flow in the deep lower mantle under the north Pacific was anomalously vigorous between 100 Ma and 50 Ma. These models show a sharp bend in the Hawaiian-Emperor hotspot track arising from the interplay of plume tilt and the lateral advection of plume sources. We show that the different trajectories of the Hawaiian and Louisville hotspot tracks arise from asymmetric deformation of thermochemical structures under the Pacific between 100 Ma and 50 Ma. This asymmetric deformation waned just before the Hawaiian-Emperor bend developed, owing to flow in the deepest lower mantle associated with slab descent in the north and south Pacific.

  10. Energy Systems Integration: NREL + SolarCity and the Hawaiian Electric Companies (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-02-01

    This fact sheet describes the collaboration between NREL, SolarCity, and the Hawaiian Electric Companies at the Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) to address the safety, reliability, and stability challenges of interconnecting high penetrations of distributed photovoltaics with the electric power system.

  11. CRED Gridded Bathymetry near Lisianski Island (100-001), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-001b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Lisianski Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced as...

  12. CRED Gridded Bathymetry of Necker Island (100-021) in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-021b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Necker Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced as...

  13. Nekton communities in Hawaiian coastal wetlands: The distribution and abundance of introduced fish species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Ames MacKenzie; Gregory L. Bruland

    2012-01-01

    Nekton communities were sampled from 38 Hawaiian coastal wetlands from 2007 to 2009 using lift nets, seines, and throw nets in an attempt to increase our understanding of the nekton assemblages that utilize these poorly studied ecosystems. Nekton were dominated by exotic species, primarily poeciliids (Gambusia affinis, Poecilia...

  14. The Power of Storytelling: A Native Hawaiian Approach to Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, K. L.

    2016-12-01

    Generational assimilation of observational data enabled Native Hawaiians to preserve a holistic understanding of the connectivity, structure and function - from mountain to sea - within their island ecosystems. Their intimate understandings of the geographic and temporal variability in winds, rains, and currents, and how these factors governed the extent and distribution of biodiversity were perpetuated through stories, songs and chants. Many of these oral histories - which conveyed information via anthropomorphized characters in entertaining and engaging plots - preserved the scientific integrity of traditional phenomenological observations and remain shockingly consistent with contemporary biogeochemical and geophysical observations. These indigenous methods of communicating scientific knowledge are clear models for contemporary best practices in geoscience communication. Storytelling is a tried and true mechanism that both engages and teaches diverse audiences of all ages, ethnicities and skill levels. Scientific storytelling - which can either be examinations of indigenous stories through scientific lenses, or generations of new stories based on scientific observation - enables multiple layers of meaning and levels of knowledge acquisition that bridge cultural and historical place-based knowledge with contemporary knowledge systems. Here, I will share my journey of optimizing the engagement of Native Hawaiian communities (students, land managers, stewards, practitioners, etc…) with my biogeochemical research on a Native Hawaiian coastal estuarine environment (Héeia Fishpond). I will speak about the importance and effectiveness of disseminating research in culturally accessible formats by framing research in the context of traditional knowledge to help elevate the perception of "science" in the Hawaiian community.

  15. 76 FR 4551 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2011 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-XA159 Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2011 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  16. 78 FR 9327 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2013 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-XC453 Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2013 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  17. CRED Gridded Bathymetry of East Necker Seamount (100-023) in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-023b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near E. Necker Seamount in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced...

  18. CRED Gridded Bathymetry near Kure Atoll (100-101), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-101b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Kure Atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced as part...

  19. CRED Gridded Bathymetry near Northampton Seamounts to West Laysan Island (100-005) Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-005b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Kure Atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced as part...

  20. CRED Gridded Bathymetry of Southeast Maro Reef (100-010) in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-010b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near SE Maro Reef in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced as part...

  1. CRED Gridded Bathymetry of Raita Bank (100-009), in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-009b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Raita Bank in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced as part...

  2. CRED Gridded Bathymetry near Midway Atoll (100-102), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-102b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Midway Atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced as part...

  3. CRED Gridded Bathymetry of Nihoa Island (100-025) in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-025b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Nihoa Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced as part...

  4. CRED Gridded Bathymetry near Maro Reef (100-007), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-007b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Maro Reef in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced as part of...

  5. CRED Gridded Bathymetry of North Gardner Pinnacles (100-014) in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-014b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near N Gardner Pinnacles in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced...

  6. CRED Gridded Bathymetry of Southwest Gardner Pinnacles (100-012) in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-012b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near SW Gardner Pinnacles in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced...

  7. CRED Gridded Bathymetry of West St. Rogatien Bank (100-017) in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-017b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Kure Atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced as part...

  8. CRED Gridded Bathymetry of Northwest Gardner Pinnacles (100-011) in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-011b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Kure Atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced as part...

  9. CRED Gridded Bathymetry near South Pioneer Bank (100-003), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-003b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near south Pioneer Bank in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced...

  10. CRED Gridded Bathymetry near Laysan Island (100-006), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-006b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Laysan Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced as...

  11. CRED Gridded Bathymetry of East Gardner Pinnacles (100-016) in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-016b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near E Gardner Pinnacles in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced...

  12. CRED Gridded Bathymetry of Northeast Gardner Pinnacles (100-013) in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-013b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near NE Gardner Pinnacles in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced...

  13. Exploring Culturally Specific Drug Resistance Strategies of Hawaiian Youth in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Scott K.; Po'a-Kekuawela, Ka'ohinani; Chin, Coralee I. H.; Nebre, La Risa H.; Helm, Susana

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the drug resistance strategies of Hawaiian youth residing in rural communities in Hawai'i. Forty seven youth participated in 14 focus groups which focused on the social and environmental context of drug use for these youth. The findings indicated that there were 47 references to resistance strategies used in drug…

  14. Comparing Native Hawaiian Education with Native American and African American Education during the Nineteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kalani

    2014-01-01

    This chapter is a detailed investigation of education for Native Hawaiians during the 19th century. However, adhering to Ronald Takaki's assertion (2000) that it is important to demonstrate that America's racial policies involved common practices across culturally diverse groups, this paper incorporates prior studies on the education of African…

  15. The Family in Hawaiian Culture: Lessons from Nature [and] The Family in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Wanda; Azevedo, Helen Selma

    1994-01-01

    Young discusses three functions of the Hawaiian family--environment, nourishment, and family relationships--using chants, proverbs, stories, oral histories, and readings as illustrations. Azevedo describes families in Brazil, where the extended patriarchy was predominant, but simple family models have prevailed among poor people and in the south.…

  16. CRED Gridded Bathymetry near Pearl and Hermes Atoll (100-103), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-103b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Pearl and Hermes Atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been...

  17. Ecological drought in the Hawaiian Islands: unique tropical systems are vulnerable to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave Helweg; Christian Giardina

    2017-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are among the most isolated and recently inhabited places on Earth. Discovered by Polynesian voyagers some 1000 years ago, people arrived to find unique wildlife and plants arrayed across a remarkable range of ecosystems. Polynesian settlers relied on traditional methods to cultivate canoe crops across the wide range of climate and soils. Early...

  18. Hawaiian Culture-Based Education and the Montessori Approach: Overlapping Teaching Practices, Values, and Worldview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonleber, Nanette S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to investigate why the Montessori approach has been viewed as a culturally congruent educational model by some Hawaiian language immersion and culture-based (HLIC) educators and how aspects of it have been used in HLIC classrooms. Data collection included semi-structured interviews and focus group…

  19. The Ecology and Acoustic Behavior of Minke Whales in the Hawaiian and Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-30

    whales are poorly understood, especially for populations in the North Pacific. We have already determined that there are certain characteristics of...populations exist. We will continue to examine the acoustic characteristics of boings for additional insights. RELATED PROJECTS A related NOPP funded...A Visual Sighting and Acoustic Detections of Minke Whales, Balaenoptera acutorostrata ( Cetacea : Balaenopteridae), in Nearshore Hawaiian Waters

  20. 77 FR 70915 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Main Hawaiian Islands...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... still uncertainty about false killer whale behavior and the association of the MHI insular and NWHI... Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Main Hawaiian Islands Insular False Killer Whale Distinct... insular false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) distinct population segment (DPS) as an endangered...

  1. Response of native Hawaiian woody species to lava-ignited wildfires in tropical forests and shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alison Ainsworth; J. Boone Kauffman

    2009-01-01

    Wildfires are rare in the disturbance history of Hawaiian forests but may increase in prevalence due to invasive species and global climate change. We documented survival rates and adaptations facilitating persistence of native woody species following 2002–2003 wildfires in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Fires occurred during an El Niño drought and were...

  2. Barriers to Increasing Native Hawaiian, Samoan, and Filipino Nursing Students: Perceptions of Students and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Rosanne C.; Gollin, Lisa X.; Casken, John

    2003-01-01

    A survey of parents, high school students, and community members (n=92) and focus groups with 34 current and potential nursing students indicate that Asian Pacific Islanders are composed of distinct groups that have diverse concerns. Results suggest ways to increase the recruitment and retention of native Hawaiian, Filipino, and Samoan nursing…

  3. Genetic evidence for the origin and relationships of Hawaiian honeycreepers (Aves: Fringillidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ned K. Johnson; Jill A. Marten; C. John Ralph

    1989-01-01

    Using starch gel electrophoresis of proteins, we examined variation at 36 genetic loci in nine species (eight genera) of Hawaiian honeycreepers (Class Aves; Family Fringillidae; Subfamily Drepanidinae). Two species of cardueline finches and two emberizids served as outgroup taxa. Twenty-three loci (64%) were either polymorphic within taxa and/or were fixed at...

  4. An Assessment of Mobile Predator Populations along Shallow and Mesophotic Depth Gradients in the Hawaiian Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Jacob; Williams, Ivor D; Harvey, Euan S

    2017-06-20

    Large-bodied coral reef roving predators (sharks, jacks, snappers) are largely considered to be depleted around human population centers. In the Hawaiian Archipelago, supporting evidence is primarily derived from underwater visual censuses in shallow waters (≤30 m). However, while many roving predators are present or potentially more abundant in deeper strata (30-100 m+), distributional information remains sparse. To partially fill that knowledge gap, we conducted surveys in the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) and populated Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) from 2012-2014 using baited remote underwater stereo-video. Surveys between 0-100 m found considerable roving predator community dissimilarities between regions, marked conspicuous changes in species abundances with increasing depth, and largely corroborated patterns documented during shallow water underwater visual censuses, with up to an order of magnitude more jacks and five times more sharks sampled in the NWHI compared to the MHI. Additionally, several species were significantly more abundant and larger in mesophotic versus shallow depths, which remains particularly suggestive of deep-water refugia effects in the MHI. Stereo-video extends the depth range of current roving predator surveys in a more robust manner than was previously available, and appears to be well-suited for large-scale roving predator work in the Hawaiian Archipelago.

  5. 75 FR 77615 - Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Honolulu County (primary only), Research..., and other various groups that help to focus efforts and attention on the humpback whale and its... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback...

  6. CRED Gridded Bathymetry near Lisianski Island and Pioneer Bank (100-002), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-002b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Lisianski Island and Pioneer Bank in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has...

  7. Captive Women in Paradise 1796-1826: The "Kapu" on Prostitution in Hawaiian Historical Legal Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arista, Noelani

    2011-01-01

    This article begins the arduous work of undermining the firmly entrenched image of the wanton "wahine", starting with stories about Hawaiian women resisting the amorous advances of foreign ship captains who assumed that women should be made available to them if they offered material or monetary remuneration. What emerges is a picture of…

  8. Noble gas systematics of submarine alkalic lavas near the Hawaiian hotspot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanyu, T.; Clague, D.A.; Kaneoka, I.; Dunai, T.J.; Davies, G.R.

    2005-01-01

    Noble gas isotopic ratios were determined for submarine alkalic volcanic rocks distributed around the Hawaiian islands to constrain the origin of such alkalic volcanism and hence understand the details of mantle upwelling beneath Hawaii. Samples were collected by dredging or using submersibles from

  9. The spatial context of free-ranging Hawaiian spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) producing acoustic signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, MO; Schotten, M; Au, WWL

    To improve our understanding of how dolphins use acoustic signals in the wild, a three-hydrophone towed array was used to investigate the spatial occurrence of Hawaiian spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) relative to each other as they produced whistles, burst pulses, and echolocation clicks.

  10. CRED Gridded Bathymetry of South Gardner Pinnacles (100-015) in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-015b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near S Gardner Pinnacles in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced...

  11. Nā Inoa Hōkū: Hawaiian and Polynesian star names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.; Kaipo Mahelona, John; Kawena Johnson, Rubellite

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we report on a 15-year project to construct a comprehensive catalogue of Hawaiian star names documented in historical sources, which is being published this year.While a number of Hawaiian star names are well known, a major challenge is to separate reliable first-hand information, mostly in Hawaiian-language archival sources dating back to the mid-19th century, from later commentaries and interpretations, many of which have introduced assumptions and errors that have become embedded in the literature. Some new star names have also been introduced recently, in the traditional style, as part of the living tradition of Hawaiian and Polynesian voyaging.The starting point for our project was a catalogue of Hawaiian and Polynesian star names published by two of the authors (Johnson and Mahelona) 40 years ago, which contained many first-hand translations of primary sources researched in archives during the 1950s to 1970s. Since that time, a number of new primary sources have been identified, and these and other primary sources have been translated or re-translated as part of the project. The sources, often fragmentary, reveal much more than just the use of star observations for navigation and wayfinding, hugely important as this was. There was no single tradition but a complex and dynamic body of astronomical knowledge. Particular star names are not always consistently applied to the same stars. Accounts of physical characteristics such as the dates and times of appearance and disappearance of particular stars do not necessarily make sense in a Western, objective sense: they may, for example, represent times when the asterisms in question became important for divinatory purposes.Such challenges make it all the more important to construct a resource that is as reliable as possible for future scholars, not only within Hawaiian cultural studies but also for comparative analyses with star names in other parts of Polynesia, which have the potential to shed

  12. Marine Biogeographic Assessment of the Main Hawaiian Islands: Synthesized physical and biological data offshore of the Main Hawaiian Islands from 1891-01-01 to 2015-03-01 (NCEI Accession 0155189)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains analyses and data products used in a marine biogeographic assessment of the main Hawaiian Islands. The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management...

  13. Mālama Wai: A science and native Hawaiian integrated case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Valle, F. F.; Camvel, D. A. K.; Thomas, F. I. M.; Aikau, H. K.; Lemus, J. D.

    2016-02-01

    Hawaiian mo`olelo (stories, legends, literature), especially those recorded and written in Hawaiian language, function as a record of traditional and customary practices that are critically relevant to current scientific research. This is especially true of scientific studies measuring water quality parameters that might depend on land management practices. The following study aimed to use mo`olelo to integrate water-related research by two doctoral students from different disciplines, native Hawaiian studies and marine biology, from the University of Hawai`i at Mānoa. We compared the relationship between water quality, mo`olelo, and historical land usage at three sites. Two sites are in the urbanized Maunalua Bay, on the southern coast of Oahu. One site is in an undeveloped kuleana (property) in `Ioleka`a, on the windward side of Oahu. Nutrient concentrations along with other water quality parameters were measured in fresh water streams in `Ioleka`a and coastal areas, in Maunalua Bay, that receive inputs from subterranean groundwater discharge. Research on site-specific mo`olelo was conducted and an analysis made on the associative values pertaining to the gods as elements, their kinolau (body form), and the connections with the water quality. Based on our findings, we created a lexicon of Hawaiian language science terms that are not solely transliterated but take into account the processes (scientific and Hawaiian) involved in the terms' definitions. This project provided a deeper understanding of the intricacies in relating water quality-based science and traditional customary and contemporary practices (TCCP). To conclude, we reflected on lesson learned, challenges, and future directions for similar interdisciplinary projects.

  14. Leg 197 synthesis: Southward motion and geochemical variability of the Hawaiian hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Robert A.; Tarduno, John A.; Scholl, David W.

    2006-01-01

    The bend in the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain is an often-cited example of a change in plate motion with respect to a stationary hotspot. Growing evidence, however, suggests that the bend might instead record variable drift of the Hawaiian hotspot within a convecting mantle. Paleomagnetic and radiometric age data from samples recovered during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 197 define an age-progressive paleolatitude history, indicating that the Emperor Seamounts volcanic trend was formed principally by rapid (4–5 cm/yr) southward motion of the Hawaiian hotspot during Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary time (81–47 Ma). Paleointensity data derived from Leg 197 suggest an inverse relationship between field strength and reversal frequency, consistent with an active lower mantle that controls the efficiency of the geodynamo. Petrochemical data and observations of volcanic products (lava flows and volcaniclastic sediments) from Detroit, Nintoku, and Koko Seamounts provide records of the evolution of these volcanic systems for comparison with recent activity in the Hawaiian Islands. We find that the Emperor Seamounts formed from similar mantle sources for melting (plume components and lithosphere) and in much the same stages of volcanic activity and time span as the Hawaiian volcanoes. Changes in major and trace element and Sr isotopic compositions of shield lavas along the lineament can be related to variations in thickness of the lithosphere overlying the hotspot that control the depth and extent of partial melting. Other geochemical tracers, such as He, Pb, and Hf isotopic compositions, indicate persistent contributions to melting from the plume throughout the volcanic chain.

  15. Untangling reticulate evolutionary relationships among New World and Hawaiian mints (Stachydeae, Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Tilottama; Cole, Logan W; Chang, Tien-Hao; Lindqvist, Charlotte

    2015-08-01

    The phenomenon of polyploidy and hybridization usually results in novel genetic combinations, leading to complex, reticulate evolution and incongruence among gene trees, which in turn may show different phylogenetic histories than the inherent species tree. The largest tribe within the subfamily Lamioideae (Lamiaceae), Stachydeae, which includes the globally distributed Stachys, and one of the largest Hawaiian angiosperm radiations, the endemic mints, is a widespread and taxonomically challenging lineage displaying a wide spectrum of morphological and chromosomal diversity. Previous molecular phylogenetic studies have showed that while the Hawaiian mints group with Mexican-South American Stachys based on chloroplast DNA sequence data, nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) sequences suggest that they are most closely related to temperate North American Stachys. Here, we have utilized five independently inherited, low-copy nuclear loci, and a variety of phylogenetic methods, including multi-locus coalescence-based tree reconstructions, to provide insight into the complex origins and evolutionary relationships between the New World Stachys and the Hawaiian mints. Our results demonstrate incongruence between individual gene trees, grouping the Hawaiian mints with both temperate North American and Meso-South American Stachys clades. However, our multi-locus coalescence tree is concurrent with previous nrDNA results placing them within the temperate North American Stachys clade. Our results point toward a possible allopolyploid hybrid origin of the Hawaiian mints arising from temperate North American and Meso-South American ancestors, as well as a reticulate origin for South American Stachys. As such, our study is another significant step toward further understanding the putative parentage and the potential influence of hybridization and incomplete lineage sorting in giving rise to this insular plant lineage, which following colonization underwent rapid morphological and

  16. 75 FR 60780 - Announcement of Funding Awards for Fiscal Year 2010 Alaska Native/Native Hawaiian Institutions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., property demolition or acquisition, public facilities, economic development, business entrepreneurship, and... localities, including neighborhood revitalization, housing and economic development, principally for persons... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Announcement of Funding Awards for Fiscal Year 2010 Alaska Native/Native Hawaiian...

  17. CRED 60 m Gridded bathymetry of UTM Zone 4, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA (NetCDF format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (60m) of the shelf and slope environments of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA within UTM Zone 4. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths...

  18. Kauai Photomosaic 2000 (109-111-0420-0430) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  19. Molokai Photomosaic 2000 (328c-0516) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  20. Kauai Photomosaic 2000 (112-113-0530-0531) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  1. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Niihau (115-0511)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  2. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Lanai (318n-0506)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  3. Molokai Photomosaic 2000 (331-0524) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  4. Kauai Photomosaic 2000 (103-104e-0430) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  5. Hawaii Photomosaic 2000 (421n-0429) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  6. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Kauai (109w-0430)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  7. Kauai Photomosaic 2000 (103-104w-0430) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  8. Fish Species Observed in the Hawaiian Exclusive Economic Zone from the 1750s through 2003 (NODC Accession 0001486)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A list of Hawaiian fish species was created from contemporary and historical documents dating back to 1758. For each species, the name of the person who described...

  9. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Hawaii (417-0620)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  10. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Kauai (113-0531)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  11. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Maui (313-0524)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  12. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Maui (301w-0603)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  13. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Molokai (328e-0516)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  14. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Molokai (326s-0601)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  15. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Hawaii (420s-0619)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  16. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Kauai (103-104c-0430)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  17. Maps of Shallow-water Banks in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Derived from Moderate Resolution Landsat Satellite Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shallow-water (generally, less than 30 meters) bank areas in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands were identified using semi-automated image analysis of Landsat 7 ETM+...

  18. Molokai Photomosaic 2000 (326s-0601) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  19. Lanai Photomosaic 2000 (318n-0506) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  20. Maui Photomosaic 2000 (301w-0603) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  1. Lanai Photomosaic 2000 (321-0411) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  2. Maui Photomosaic 2000 (310-0620) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  3. Molokai Photomosaic 2000 (326n-0601) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  4. Maui Photomosaic 2000 (312-313-0524) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  5. Kauai Photomosaic 2000 (109w-0430) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  6. Niihau Photomosaic 2000 (115-116-0511-0430) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  7. Oahu Photomosaic 2000 (208-209-0516) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  8. Hawaii Photomosaic 2000 (421s-0429) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  9. Kauai Photomosaic 2000 (103-104c-0430) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  10. Kauai Photomosaic 2000 (113-0531) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  11. Hawaii Photomosaic 2000 (420n-0619) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  12. Maui Photomosaic 2000 (301e-0603) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  13. Molokai Photomosaic 2000 (328e-0516) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  14. Maui Photomosaic 2000 (312-310-0524-0613) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  15. Oahu Photomosaic 2000 (213-214w-0516) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  16. Molokai Photomosaic 2000 (330-0613) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  17. Hawaii Photomosaic 2000 (420s-0619) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  18. Oahu Photomosaic 2000 (213-214e-0516) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  19. Hawaii Photomosaic 2000 (417-0620) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  20. Niihau Photomosaic 2000 (115-0511) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  1. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Molokai (328c-0516)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  2. Kauai Photomosaic 2000 (109e-0430) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  3. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Molokai (330-0613)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  4. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Kauai (109e-0430)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  5. Lanai Photomosaic 2000 (318s-0506) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  6. CRED 60m Gridded bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of UTM Zone 3, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA (Arc ASCII format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of the shelf and slope environments of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA within UTM Zone 3. Bottom coverage was...

  7. CRED 60 m Gridded bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of UTM Zone 2, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA (Arc ASCII format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of the shelf and slope environments of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA within UTM Zone 2. Bottom coverage was...

  8. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Maui (312-313-0524)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  9. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Hawaii (420n-0619)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  10. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Kauai (109-111-0420-0430)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  11. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Lanai (321-0411)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  12. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Kauai (103-104w-0430)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  13. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Kauai (103-104e-0430)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  14. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Niihau (115-116-0511-0430)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  15. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Hawaii (421s-0429)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  16. Molokai Photomosaic 2000 (328w-0516) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  17. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Oahu (213-214e-0516)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  18. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Maui (312-310-0524-0613)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  19. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Kauai (112-113-0530-0531)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  20. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Maui (301e-0603)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  1. Maui Photomosaic 2000 (313-0524) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  2. Niihau Photomosaic 2000 (116-0430) - Orthorectification and Mosaicing of Color Aerial Photography Main Eight Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  3. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Maui (310-0620)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  4. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Molokai (331-0524)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  5. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Molokai (326n-0601)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  6. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Hawaii (421n-0429)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  7. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Lanai (318s-0506)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  8. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Niihau (116-0430)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  9. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Molokai (328w-0516)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  10. Orthorectification and Mosaicking of Color Aerial Photography for the Main Eight Hawaiian Islands: Oahu (213-214w-0516)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps of the main Hawaiian Islands were created by visual interpretation of aerial photos and hyperspectral imagery using the Habitat Digitizer extension....

  11. Nutrition and Diet as It Relates to Health and Well-Being of Native Hawaiian Kūpuna (Elders): A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kamomilani Anduha; Kataoka-Yahiro, Merle R

    2017-07-01

    The key to improving the health and well-being of Native Hawaiians is to understand the historical events that have caused change to their diet and nutrition, and identify the connection between food, life, and the land. The purpose of this article is to (a) present a review of the literature addressing nutrition and diet as it relates to health and well-being of Native Hawaiian kūpuna (elders) and (b) identify limitations and gaps to promote future research. This systematic literature review focused on 29 studies. Native Hawaiians have the highest body mass index levels, highest daily energy (kilocalorie) intake, and lowest multivitamin use. They have the highest prevalence of diabetes and hypertension compared with Whites. Traditional Hawaiian diet programs and family support were beneficial to improving health and well-being. Future research of traditional Hawaiian diet programs and revitalization of the culture may lead to improving the health and well-being of Native Hawaiians.

  12. Convergent evolution of morphology and habitat use in the explosive Hawaiian fancy case caterpillar radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, A Y; Rubinoff, D

    2013-08-01

    Species occurring in unconnected, but similar habitats and under similar selection pressures often display strikingly comparable morphology, behaviour and life history. On island archipelagos where colonizations and extinctions are common, it is often difficult to separate whether similar traits are a result of in situ diversification or independent colonization without a phylogeny. Here, we use one of Hawaii's most ecologically diverse and explosive endemic species radiations, the Hawaiian fancy case caterpillar genus Hyposmocoma, to test whether in situ diversification resulted in convergence. Specifically, we examine whether similar species utilizing similar microhabitats independently developed largely congruent larval case phenotypes in lineages that are in comparable, but isolated environments. Larvae of these moths are found on all Hawaiian Islands and are characterized by an extraordinary array of ecomorphs and larval case morphology. We focus on the 'purse cases', a group that is largely specialized for living within rotting wood. Purse cases were considered a monophyletic group, because morphological, behavioural and ecological traits appeared to be shared among all members. We constructed a phylogeny based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences from 38 Hyposmocoma species, including all 14 purse case species and 24 of non-purse case congeners. Divergence time estimation suggests that purse case lineages evolved independently within dead wood and developed nearly identical case morphology twice: once on the distant Northwest Hawaiian Islands between 15.5 and 9 Ma and once on the younger main Hawaiian Islands around 3.0 Ma. Multiple ecomorphs are usually found on each island, and the ancestral ecomorph of Hyposmocoma appears to have lived on tree bark. Unlike most endemic Hawaiian radiations that follow a clear stepwise progression of colonization, purse case Hyposmocoma do not follow a pattern of colonization from older to younger island. We

  13. Antiviral Activities and Putative Identification of Compounds in Microbial Extracts from the Hawaiian Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jing; Trapido-Rosenthal, Hank; Wang, Jun; Wang, Youwei; Li, Qing X.; Lu, Yuanan

    2012-01-01

    Marine environments are a rich source of significant bioactive compounds. The Hawaiian archipelago, located in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, hosts diverse microorganisms, including many endemic species. Thirty-eight microbial extracts from Hawaiian coastal waters were evaluated for their antiviral activity against four mammalian viruses including herpes simplex virus type one (HSV-1), vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), vaccinia virus and poliovirus type one (poliovirus-1) using in vitro cell culture assay. Nine of the 38 microbial crude extracts showed antiviral potencies and three of these nine microbial extracts exhibited significant activity against the enveloped viruses. A secosteroid, 5α(H),17α(H),(20R)-beta-acetoxyergost-8(14)-ene was putatively identified and confirmed to be the active compound in these marine microbial extracts. These results warrant future in-depth tests on the isolation of these active elements in order to explore and validate their antiviral potential as important therapeutic remedies. PMID:22611351

  14. Asian and native Hawaiian family caregiver satisfaction with palliative care services in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka-Yahiro, Merle R; McFarlane, Sandra; Kealoha, May; Sy, Angela

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to gauge Asian and native Hawaiian family satisfaction with palliative care services in two nursing homes in Hawaii, US. This is a mixed-method study using a convergent design. Nine nursing home family caregivers who had received palliative care services took part. They completed a Famcare-2 satisfaction survey and participated in a 1-hour interview. Descriptive analyses and directed content analysis were completed and results were compared. The Famcare-2 results indicated that family caregivers were satisfied with palliative care services. The interviews provided in-depth information on the major areas discussed in the survey-management of patient physical symptoms and comfort, information, family support, and patient psychological care. There is a need to address family caregiver and interdisciplinary nursing home staff communication based on culturally appropriate approaches for palliative as well as end of-life care services among Asians and native Hawaiians.

  15. Antiviral Activities and Putative Identification of Compounds in Microbial Extracts from the Hawaiian Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanan Lu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine environments are a rich source of significant bioactive compounds. The Hawaiian archipelago, located in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, hosts diverse microorganisms, including many endemic species. Thirty-eight microbial extracts from Hawaiian coastal waters were evaluated for their antiviral activity against four mammalian viruses including herpes simplex virus type one (HSV-1, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, vaccinia virus and poliovirus type one (poliovirus-1 using in vitro cell culture assay. Nine of the 38 microbial crude extracts showed antiviral potencies and three of these nine microbial extracts exhibited significant activity against the enveloped viruses. A secosteroid, 5α(H,17α(H,(20R-beta-acetoxyergost-8(14-ene was putatively identified and confirmed to be the active compound in these marine microbial extracts. These results warrant future in-depth tests on the isolation of these active elements in order to explore and validate their antiviral potential as important therapeutic remedies.

  16. Pathways to Higher Education for Native Hawaiian Individual Development Account Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Rothwell

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As the cost of higher education rises, a growing body of theory and research suggests that asset holding in the form of savings and net worth positively influence education expectations and outcomes. Native Hawaiians, like other Indigenous peoples, have disproportionately low college enrollment and graduation rates tied to a history of colonization. Using data from an Individual Development Account (IDA program for Native Hawaiians, I examine the trajectories through the program and find: (a welfare receipt and unemployment reduces the chances of IDA enrollment; (b net worth increases the probability of IDA graduation; and (c IDA graduates were more likely to gain a college degree over time compared to non-graduates. The study provides empirical evidence to the debate on asset-based interventions for Indigenous peoples.

  17. Hawaiian oral tradition describes 400 years of volcanic activity at Kīlauea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Culturally significant oral tradition involving Pele, the Hawaiian volcano deity, and her youngest sister Hi'iaka may involve the two largest volcanic events to have taken place in Hawai'i since human settlement: the roughly 60-year-long ‘Ailā’au eruption during the 15th century and the following development of Kīlauea's caldera. In 1823, Rev. William Ellis and three others became the first Europeans to visit Kīlauea's summit and were told stories about Kīlauea's activity that are consistent with the Pele–Hi'iaka account and extend the oral tradition through the 18th century. Recent geologic studies confirm the essence of the oral traditions and illustrate the potential value of examining other Hawaiian chants and stories for more information about past volcanic activity in Hawai‘i.

  18. Reconciliation at a Crossroads: The Implications of the Apology Resolution and "Rice v. Cayetano" for Federal and State Programs Benefiting Native Hawaiians. Summary Report of the August 1998 and September 2000 Community Forums in Honolulu, Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilla, Thomas V.

    This report focuses on a 1998 community forum that examined the impact of the 1993 Apology Resolution enacted to recognize the 1893 overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy, subsequent meetings in 2000 with Na Kupuna (Hawaiian elders), and a 2000 community forum to collect information on concerns of Native Hawaiians and others regarding the impact of…

  19. Understanding the Foraging Ecology of Beaked and Short-Finned Pilot Whales in Hawaiian Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Finned Pilot Whales in Hawaiian Waters Whitlow W. L. Au Marine Mammal Research Program Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology phone: (808) 247...foraging in. To this end, the various tools were used almost independently. Having obtained some basic but important information, the project will...also influenced by cyclonic eddies, which can affect the distribution of pelagic fish and melon headed whales (Peponocephala electra). Also there is

  20. Self-Reported Experiences of Discrimination and Depression in Native Hawaiians

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio, Mapuana CK; Ahn, Hyeong Jun; Ing, Claire Townsend; Dillard, Adrienne; Cassel, Kevin; Kekauoha, B. Puni; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe‘aimoku

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is an acute and chronic stressor that negatively impacts the health of many ethnic groups in the United States. Individuals who perceive increased levels of discrimination are at risk of experiencing psychological distress and symptoms of depression. No study to date has examined the relationship between perceived discrimination and mental health in Native Hawaiians. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between perceived discrimination and depression based o...

  1. Generation of Mesoscale Eddies in the Lee of the Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    the regional HYCOM 4 of 18 (11009 JIA ET AL.: GENERATION OF HAWAIIAN LEE MESOSCALE EDDIES C1KMW 20.5N JUL 2007 JAN 2008 JAN 2009 -2.5 -2...gyres, / Atmos. Set., 51, 773-790, doi: 10.1175/1520-0469( 1994)051 򒫅:IVMOTB>2.0.CO;2. van Dyke, M. (1982), An Album of Fluid Motions, 174 pp

  2. Cranial shape evolution in adaptive radiations of birds: comparative morphometrics of Darwin's finches and Hawaiian honeycreepers

    OpenAIRE

    Tokita, Masayoshi; Yano, Wataru; James, Helen F.; Abzhanov, Arhat

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive radiation is the rapid evolution of morphologically and ecologically diverse species from a single ancestor. The two classic examples of adaptive radiation are Darwin's finches and the Hawaiian honeycreepers, which evolved remarkable levels of adaptive cranial morphological variation. To gain new insights into the nature of their diversification, we performed comparative three-dimensional geometric morphometric analyses based on X-ray microcomputed tomography (µCT) scanning of dried ...

  3. The quest to resolve recent radiations : plastid phylogenomics of extinct and endangered Hawaiian endemic mints (Lamiaceae).

    OpenAIRE

    Welch, A.J.; Collins, K.; Ratan, A; Drautz-Moses, D.I.; Schuster, S C; Lindqvist, C.

    2016-01-01

    The Hawaiian mints (Lamiaceae), one of the largest endemic plant lineages in the archipelago, provide an excellent system to study rapid diversification of a lineage with a remote, likely paleohybrid origin. Since their divergence from New World mints 4–5 million years ago the members of this lineage have diversified greatly and represent a remarkable array of vegetative and reproductive phenotypes. Today many members of this group are endangered or already extinct, and molecular phylogenetic...

  4. A new species of Cyanea (Campanulaceae, Lobelioideae) from Maui, Hawaiian Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Hank Oppenheimer; David Lorence

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Cyanea kauaulaensis H. Oppenheimer & Lorence, sp. nov., a new, narrowly endemic species from Maui, Hawaiian Islands is described, illustrated with field photos, and its affinities and conservation status are discussed. It is currently known from 62 mature plants and is restricted to Kaua`ula and Waikapu valleys on leeward western Maui. It differs from all other species of Cyanea by its combination of many-branched habit; glabrous, unarmed, undivided leaves; small, narrow, glabrous co...

  5. Differences in ecological structure, function, and native species abundance between native and invaded Hawaiian streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara Holitzki; Richard A. MacKenzie; Tracy N. Wiegner; Karla J. McDermid

    2013-01-01

    Poeciliids, one of the most invasive species worldwide, are found on almost every continent and have been identified as an ‘‘invasive species of concern’’ in the United States, New Zealand, and Australia. Despite their global prevalence, few studies have quantified their impacts on tropical stream ecosystem structure, function, and biodiversity. Utilizing Hawaiian...

  6. Modeling future conservation of Hawaiian Honeycreepers by mosquito management and translocation of disease-tolerant Amakihi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbelen, Peter H. F.; Samuel, Michael D.; Lapointe, Dennis; Atkinson, Carter T.

    2012-01-01

    Avian malaria is an important cause of the decline of endemic Hawaiian honeycreepers. Because of the complexity of this disease system we used a computer model of avian malaria in forest birds to evaluate how two proposed conservation strategies: 1) reduction of habitat for mosquito larvae and 2) establishment of a low-elevation, malaria-tolerant honeycreeper (Hawaii Amakihi) to mid-elevation forests would affect native Hawaiian honeycreeper populations. We evaluated these approaches in mid-elevation forests, where malaria transmission is seasonal and control strategies are more likely to work. Our model suggests the potential benefit of larval habitat reduction depends on the level of malaria transmission, abundance of larval cavities, and the ability to substantially reduce these cavities. Permanent reduction in larval habitat of >80% may be needed to control abundance of infectious mosquitoes and benefit bird populations. Establishment of malaria-tolerant Amakihi in mid-elevation forests increases Amakihi abundance, creates a larger disease reservoir, and increases the abundance of infectious mosquitoes which may negatively impact other honeycreepers. For mid-elevation sites where bird populations are severely affected by avian malaria, malaria-tolerant Amakihi had little impact on other honeycreepers. Both management strategies may benefit native Hawaiian honeycreepers, but benefits depend on specific forest characteristics, the amount of reduction in larval habitat that can be achieved, and how malaria transmission is affected by temperature.

  7. Cranial shape evolution in adaptive radiations of birds: comparative morphometrics of Darwin's finches and Hawaiian honeycreepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokita, Masayoshi; Yano, Wataru; James, Helen F; Abzhanov, Arhat

    2017-02-05

    Adaptive radiation is the rapid evolution of morphologically and ecologically diverse species from a single ancestor. The two classic examples of adaptive radiation are Darwin's finches and the Hawaiian honeycreepers, which evolved remarkable levels of adaptive cranial morphological variation. To gain new insights into the nature of their diversification, we performed comparative three-dimensional geometric morphometric analyses based on X-ray microcomputed tomography (µCT) scanning of dried cranial skeletons. We show that cranial shapes in both Hawaiian honeycreepers and Coerebinae (Darwin's finches and their close relatives) are much more diverse than in their respective outgroups, but Hawaiian honeycreepers as a group display the highest diversity and disparity of all other bird groups studied. We also report a significant contribution of allometry to skull shape variation, and distinct patterns of evolutionary change in skull morphology in the two lineages of songbirds that underwent adaptive radiation on oceanic islands. These findings help to better understand the nature of adaptive radiations in general and provide a foundation for future investigations on the developmental and molecular mechanisms underlying diversification of these morphologically distinguished groups of birds.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evo-devo in the genomics era, and the origins of morphological diversity'. © 2016 The Authors.

  8. Foraging range movements of the endangered Hawaiian hoary bat, Lasiurus cinereus semotus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Todd, Christopher M.; Miles, Adam C.; Gorresen, P. Marcos

    2015-01-01

    We documented nightly movements of Hawaiian hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) on the island of Hawai’i. Based on data from 28 radiotagged individuals mean foraging range (FR) was 230.7±72.3 ha, core-use area (CUA) was 25.5±6.9 ha (or 11.1% of mean FR), and the mean long axis (LAX) across the FR was 3,390.8±754.3 m. There was almost no overlap in CUAs among 4 adult males having overlapping foraging areas and tracked simultaneously or within a 90-day window of each other. CUAs of subadults partially overlapped with multiple adult males or with one other subadult. High variance in FRs, cores use areas, and LAX across the FR perhaps reflect localized stochastic variables such as weather, habitat, and food resources. Hawaiian hoary bats use moderately large FRs among insectivorous bats studied with comparable methodologies; however, foraging activity indicated by documentation of acoustic feeding buzzes is concentrated within one or a few disjunct areas cumulatively forming the 50% fixed kernel of CUA. The concentration of feeding activity, low values of individual overlap, and agonistic chasing behavior within CUAs all demonstrate a structured use of individual space by Hawaiian hoary bats.

  9. The geographic origin of the plants most commonly used for medicine by Hawaiians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, I A; Shimazu, C

    1985-01-01

    Twelve common Polynesian plants, 8 of which were probably brought in the canoe voyages perhaps 1500 years ago from southern and central Polynesia, constitute the most commonly used plants by Hawaiians for medicinal purposes. Herbal treatments of the most frequently encountered illnesses or physical conditions--purge or constipation, skin affections, respiratory affections, indigestion, fever, bruises and sprains--were tallied from all available sources. The herbs most frequently used are common species, grown around habitations and in adjoining agricultural fields. The hypothesis is advanced that while the Hawaiian Islands contain one of the world's largest percentages of endemic species in the flora, only a few of these species were used for illnesses, though many endemic species were used for building, tapa making, and the foundation of the elaborate and renowned feather cloaks. Owing to approximately 1200 years of geographic isolation, the Hawaiians probably did not find it necessary to exploit the native flora for more than a token number of species for their relatively mild illnesses.

  10. Who's there? - First morphological and DNA barcoding catalogue of the shallow Hawai'ian sponge fauna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Núñez Pons

    Full Text Available The sponge fauna has been largely overlooked in the Archipelago of Hawai'i, notwithstanding the paramount role of this taxon in marine ecosystems. The lack of knowledge about Porifera populations inhabiting the Hawai'ian reefs limits the development of ecological studies aimed at understanding the functioning of these marine systems. Consequently, this project addresses this gap by describing the most representative sponge species in the shallow waters of the enigmatic bay of Kane'ohe Bay, in O'ahu Island. A total of 30 species (28 demosponges and two calcareous sponges living associated to the reef structures are here reported. Six of these species are new records to the Hawai'ian Porifera catalogue and are suspected to be recent introductions to these islands. Morphological descriptions of the voucher specimens are provided, along with sequencing data of two partitions involving the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI marker and a fragment covering partial (18S and 28S and full (ITS-1, 5.8S and ITS-2 nuclear ribosomal genes. Species delimitations based on genetic distances were calculated to valitate how taxonomic assignments from DNA barcoding aligned with morphological identifications. Of the 60 sequences submitted to GenBank ~88% are the first sequencing records for the corresponding species and genetic marker. This work compiles the first catalogue combining morphological characters with DNA barcoding of Hawai'ian sponges, and contributes to the repository of public databases through the Sponge Barcoding Project initiative.

  11. Geochemical characteristics of West Molokai shield- and postshield-stage lavas: Constraints on Hawaiian plume models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guangping; Frey, Frederick A.; Clague, David A.; Abouchami, Wafa; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Cousens, Brian; Weisler, Marshall

    2007-08-01

    There are systematic geochemical differences between the Hawaiian shields forming the subparallel spatial trends, known as Loa and Kea. These spatial and temporal geochemical changes provide insight into the spatial distribution of geochemical heterogeneities within the source of Hawaiian lavas, and the processes that create the Hawaiian plume. Lavas forming the ˜1.9 Ma West Molokai volcano are important for evaluating alternative models proposed for the spatial distribution of geochemical heterogeneities because (1) the geochemical distinction between Loa and Kea trends may end at the Molokai Fracture Zone and (2) West Molokai is a Loa-trend volcano that has exposures of shield and postshield lavas. This geochemical study (major and trace element abundances and isotopic ratios of Sr, Nd, Hf, and Pb) shows that the West Molokai shield includes lavas with Loa- and Kea-like geochemical characteristics; a mixed Loa-Kea source is required. In contrast, West Molokai postshield lavas are exclusively Kea-like. This change in source geochemistry can be explained by the observed change in strike of the Pacific plate near Molokai Island so that as West Molokai volcano moved away from a mixed Loa-Kea source it sampled only the Kea side of a bilaterally zoned plume.

  12. Range-wide genetic connectivity of the Hawaiian monk seal and implications for translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Jennifer K; Baker, Jason D; Toonen, Robert J; Harting, Albert L; Bowen, Brian W

    2011-02-01

    The Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) is one of the most critically endangered marine mammals. Less than 1200 individuals remain, and the species is declining at a rate of approximately 4% per year as a result of juvenile starvation, shark predation, and entanglement in marine debris. Some of these problems may be alleviated by translocation; however, if island breeding aggregates are effectively isolated subpopulations, moving individuals may disrupt local adaptations. In these circumstances, managers must balance the pragmatic need of increasing survival with theoretical concerns about genetic viability. To assess range-wide population structure of the Hawaiian monk seal, we examined an unprecedented, near-complete genetic inventory of the species (n =1897 seals, sampled over 14 years) at 18 microsatellite loci. Genetic variation was not spatially partitioned ((w) =-0.03, p = 1.0), and a Bayesian clustering method provided evidence of one panmictic population (K =1). Pairwise F(ST) comparisons (among 7 island aggregates over 14 annual cohorts) did not reveal temporally stable, spatial reproductive isolation. Our results coupled with long-term tag-resight data confirm seal movement and gene flow throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago. Thus, human-mediated translocation of seals among locations is not likely to result in genetic incompatibilities. ©2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. Why Are Native Hawaiians Underrepresented in Hawai‘i's Older Adult Population? Exploring Social and Behavioral Factors of Longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Sue Ka‘opua

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Native Hawaiians comprise 24.3% of Hawai‘i's population, but only 12.6% of the state's older adults. Few published studies have compared health indicators across ethnicities for the state's older adult population or focused on disparities of Native Hawaiian elders. The current study examines data from two state surveillance programs, with attention to cause of death and social-behavioral factors relevant to elders. Findings reveal that Native Hawaiians have the largest years of productive life lost and the lowest life expectancy, when compared to the state's other major ethnic groups. Heart disease and cancer are leading causes of premature mortality. Native Hawaiian elders are more likely to report behavioral health risks such as smoking and obesity, live within/below 100–199% of the poverty level, and find cost a barrier to seeking care. Indicated is the need for affordable care across the lifespan and health services continuum. Future research might explain behavioral factors as influenced by social determinants, including historical trauma on Native Hawaiian longevity.

  14. Kahua A'o—A Learning Foundation: Using Hawaiian Language Newspaper Articles for Earth Science Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, P. W.

    2012-12-01

    Kahua A'o, an NSF OEDG project, utilizes Hawaiian language newspaper articles written between 1843 and 1948 as a foundation for culturally responsive geoscience curriculum and professional development. In Hawaii, a lack of qualified teachers limits students' awareness of Earth Science in their lives, as careers and a way to understand past, present, and future. This particularly impacts Native Hawaiians, 28% of students in Hawaii''s public schools but underrepresented in STEM majors and careers. Guided by sociocultural theories that view learning as experiential and culturally situated, geoscientists, Hawaiian translators, and science educators utilize articles to develop meteorology and geology modules for middle school teachers. Articles provide insights about living sustainably on islands exposed to volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunami, drought, and storms. Hawaii's remoteness and diverse topography supported the development of mountain-to-sea, sustainable, social ecosystems called ahupuaa. Hawaiians recognized each ahupuaa's unique winds, rains, fauna, flora, cultivars, and geologic features. The story of Pele chanting the winds of Kauai to prove she was not a stranger grounds identity and status in environmental knowledge. The story is culturally congruent with science explanations of how the Hawaiian Islands' diverse shapes and topography interact with heating, cooling, and large scale wind systems to create hundreds of local winds and rains. This presentation reports on "Local Winds and Rains of Hawaii, I Kamaāina i Na Makani a Me Nā Ua and "Weather Maps and Hazardous Storms in Hawaii, Nā 'Ino Ma Hawaii Nei." Highly detailed observations of an 1871 severe wind event enable students to estimate winds speeds using the Beaufort Scale, determine the storm's path and decide if it was the first recorded hurricane on the island of Hawaii. A visit to NOAA's National Weather Service triggered discussions about Hawaiian language weather reports. A Hawaiian

  15. Data characterizing the chloroplast genomes of extinct and endangered Hawaiian endemic mints (Lamiaceae and their close relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreanna J. Welch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available These data are presented in support of a plastid phylogenomic analysis of the recent radiation of the Hawaiian endemic mints (Lamiaceae, and their close relatives in the genus Stachys, “The quest to resolve recent radiations: Plastid phylogenomics of extinct and endangered Hawaiian endemic mints (Lamiaceae” [1]. Here we describe the chloroplast genome sequences for 12 mint taxa. Data presented include summaries of gene content and length for these taxa, structural comparison of the mint chloroplast genomes with published sequences from other species in the order Lamiales, and comparisons of variability among three Hawaiian taxa vs. three outgroup taxa. Finally, we provide a list of 108 primer pairs targeting the most variable regions within this group and designed specifically for amplification of DNA extracted from degraded herbarium material.

  16. Large-scale range collapse of Hawaiian forest birds under climate change and the need 21st century conservation options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Lucas B.; Vorsino, Adam E.; Amidon, Fred A.; Paxton, Eben H.; Jacobi, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Hawaiian forest birds serve as an ideal group to explore the extent of climate change impacts on at-risk species. Avian malaria constrains many remaining Hawaiian forest bird species to high elevations where temperatures are too cool for malaria's life cycle and its principal mosquito vector. The impact of climate change on Hawaiian forest birds has been a recent focus of Hawaiian conservation biology, and has centered on the links between climate and avian malaria. To elucidate the differential impacts of projected climate shifts on species with known varying niches, disease resistance and tolerance, we use a comprehensive database of species sightings, regional climate projections and ensemble distribution models to project distribution shifts for all Hawaiian forest bird species. We illustrate that, under a likely scenario of continued disease-driven distribution limitation, all 10 species with highly reliable models (mostly narrow-ranged, single-island endemics) are expected to lose >50% of their range by 2100. Of those, three are expected to lose all range and three others are expected to lose >90% of their range. Projected range loss was smaller for several of the more widespread species; however improved data and models are necessary to refine future projections. Like other at-risk species, Hawaiian forest birds have specific habitat requirements that limit the possibility of range expansion for most species, as projected expansion is frequently in areas where forest habitat is presently not available (such as recent lava flows). Given the large projected range losses for all species, protecting high elevation forest alone is not an adequate long-term strategy for many species under climate change. We describe the types of additional conservation actions practitioners will likely need to consider, while providing results to help with such considerations.

  17. Phylogenetic relationships, breeding implications, and cultivation history of Hawaiian taro (Colocasia esculenta) through genome-wide SNP genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmkampf, Martin; Wolfgruber, Thomas K; Bellinger, M Renee; Paudel, Roshan; Kantar, Michael B; Miyasaka, Susan C; Kimball, Heather; Brown, Ashley; Veillet, Anne; Read, Andrew; Shintaku, Michael

    2017-08-14

    Taro, Colocasia esculenta, is one of the world's oldest root crops and of particular economic and cultural significance in Hawai'i, where historically more than 150 different landraces were grown. We developed a genome-wide set of more than 2400 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from 70 taro accessions of Hawaiian, South Pacific, Palauan, and mainland Asian origins, with several objectives: (a) uncover the phylogenetic relationships between Hawaiian and other Pacific landraces, (b) shed light on the history of taro cultivation in Hawai'i, and (c) develop a tool to discriminate among Hawaiian and other taros. We found that almost all existing Hawaiian landraces fall into five monophyletic groups that are largely consistent with the traditional Hawaiian classification based on morphological characters, e.g., leaf shape and petiole color. Genetic diversity was low within these clades but considerably higher between them. Population structure analyses further indicated that the diversification of taro in Hawai'i most likely occurred by a combination of frequent somatic mutation and occasional hybridization. Unexpectedly, the South Pacific accessions were found nested within the clades mainly composed of Hawaiian accessions, rather than paraphyletic to them. This suggests that the origin of clades identified here preceded the colonization of Hawai'i, and that early Polynesian settlers brought taro landraces from different clades with them. In the absence of a sequenced genome, this marker set provides a valuable resource towards obtaining a genetic linkage map, and to study the genetic basis of phenotypic traits of interest to taro breeding such as disease resistance. © The American Genetic Association 2017.

  18. Behavior of the Hawaiian Hawaiian Hoary Bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) at wind turbines and its distribution across the North Ko'olau Mountains , O'ahu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorso, Frank; Gorresen, P.M.; Cryan, Paul M.; Huso, Manuela M.P.; Hein, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael; Johnson, Jessica H.; Montoya-Aiona, Kristina; Brinck, Kevin W.

    2015-01-01

    We studied the landscape distribution of endemic Hawaiian hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) on the north Ko‘olau Mountains of O‘ahu, Hawai‘i, from May 2013 to May 2014, while simultaneously studying their behavior at wind turbines within the broader landscape. This research aimed to assess the risk that wind turbines pose to bats on the island and integrated a variety of methods, including acoustic monitoring, thermal videography, and fatality searches.Our findings indicate that hoary bats were acoustically cryptic and occurred sparsely in the region. Overall site occupancy rate was 55% during the 1-year period of acoustic monitoring at 23 sites, and there was only an 8% chance of acoustically detecting a bat on a given night if it was present. We detected bats less frequently in windward northern parts of the study area and at windy, lower-elevation sites with rough terrain. Bats were detected more frequently in leeward southern parts of the study area and at wind-sheltered, higher-elevation sites with flat ridgetops. Acoustic detections were consistently low from October through February and increased at most sites to peak in April through August. However, meteorological conditions were not found to be associated with the acoustic prevalence of bats on a night-to-night basis. We observed more than three thousand events involving bats during six months of nightly video surveillance at four wind turbines. Video monitoring revealed several links to weather at the local scale, despite acoustic detections not clearly relating to weather in our broader landscape analysis. Video demonstrated bats occurring near turbines more often on nights with little rain, warmer temperatures, moderate wind speeds, low humidity, and the low but rising barometric pressures indicative of fair weather and improved foraging conditions. Video monitoring also demonstrated that the presence of bats near turbines strongly correlates with insect presence. We detected bats on video

  19. Can lowland dry forests represent a refuge from avian malaria for native Hawaiian birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Mohl, Katherine; Hart, Patrick; Atkinson, Carter T.

    2010-01-01

    Hawaii's native birds have become increasingly threatened over the past century. Introduced mosquito borne diseases such as avian malaria may be responsible for the near absence of endemic Hawaiian forest birds in low-elevation habitats. The recent recognition that some native Hawaiian forest birds may be repopulating moist lowland habitats as a result of evolved resistance to this disease has increased the conservation value of these areas. Here, we investigate whether remnant low elevation dry forests on Hawaii Island provide natural 'refuges' from mosquito-transmitted malaria by nature of their low rainfall and absence of suitable natural sources of water for mosquito breeding. Unlike lowland wet forests where high rates of disease transmission may be selecting for disease resistance, lowland dry forests may provide some refuge for native forest birds without natural resistance to malaria. We mistnetted forest birds in two lowland dry forests and tested all native birds by microscopy and serology for avian malaria caused by the Plasmodium relictum parasite. We also conducted surveys for standing water and mosquito larvae. Overall prevalence of infections with Plasmodium relictum in the Hawaii Amakihi Hemignathus virens virens was 15%. Most infected birds had lowlevel parasitemias, suggesting chronic infections. Although avian malaria is present in these lowland dry forest Amakihi populations, infection rates are significantly lower than in wet forest populations at similar elevations. Sources of breeding mosquitoes in these forests appeared to be largely anthropogenic; thus, there is potential to manage dry forests as mosquito-free habitat for Hawaii Amakihi and other Hawaiian forest birds.

  20. Phylogeographic patterns of Hawaiian Megalagrion damselflies (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) correlate with Pleistocene island boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Stephen A.; Simon, C.; Foote, D.; Englund, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    The Pleistocene geological history of the Hawaiian Islands is becoming well understood. Numerous predictions about the influence of this history on the genetic diversity of Hawaiian organisms have been made, including the idea that changing sea levels would lead to the genetic differentiation of populations isolated on individual volcanoes during high sea stands. Here, we analyse DNA sequence data from two closely related, endemic Hawaiian damselfly species in order to test these predictions, and generate novel insights into the effects of Pleistocene glaciation and climate change on island organisms. Megalagrion xanthomelas and Megalagrion pacificum are currently restricted to five islands, including three islands of the Maui Nui super-island complex (Molokai, Lanai, and Maui) that were connected during periods of Pleistocene glaciation, and Hawaii island, which has never been subdivided. Maui Nui and Hawaii are effectively a controlled, natural experiment on the genetic effects of Pleistocene sea level change. We confirm well-defined morphological species boundaries using data from the nuclear EF-1?? gene and show that the species are reciprocally monophyletic. We perform phylogeographic analyses of 663 base pairs (bp) of cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) gene sequence data from 157 individuals representing 25 populations. Our results point to the importance of Pleistocene land bridges and historical island habitat availability in maintaining inter-island gene flow. We also propose that repeated bottlenecks on Maui Nui caused by sea level change and restricted habitat availability are likely responsible for low genetic diversity there. An island analogue to northern genetic purity and southern diversity is proposed, whereby islands with little suitable habitat exhibit genetic purity while islands with more exhibit genetic diversity. ?? 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Reexamining the Underrepresentation of Indigenous Peoples in Astronomy: A Hawaiian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-08-01

    As we look toward a future of ever increasing challenges in astronomy, there is widespread consensus that solutions depend on expanding human capitol. While we contemplate pathways to increase astronomy/STEM capacity across multinational settings, we are theoretically hindered by our failure to fully develop the capacity of ethnic and racial groups. Indigenous peoples continue to be underrepresented in astronomy at one-sixth of their share of the total U.S. population, despite investment of substantial resources from the public and private sectors. At the extreme, Native Hawaiians participate in astronomy at rates that are almost incalculably low. This 14-year case study of astronomy in the Hawaiian context suggests that national efforts (e.g. standards-based reform and agency-funded education and public outreach) have been, and are likely to continue to be, ineffective, as these efforts do not address the source of the problem. An examination of K-12, informal science, and "broader impacts" settings in Hawai'i, suggest that the disparity is ultimately rooted in a failure of relationships. Research across these settings indicates that many current common-sense efforts fail to transmit across cultures, and that effective efforts must primarily foster authentic trust and respect between Western and Indigenous perspective-holders. Specifically, findings suggest that much of our failure has been a result of human resource decisions. Although extensive research on effective practices at the indigenous/mainstream culture interface suggests that appropriate “bridge” persons are essential to creating authentic trust and respect between groups, in the Hawaiian context, we have often failed to do the work required to employ and empower “bridge” people. With critical examination of best- and worst-practices, this session focuses on immediate actions that can be taken to positively impact diverse participation in astronomy.

  2. Patterns of coral disease across the Hawaiian archipelago: relating disease to environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta S Aeby

    Full Text Available In Hawaii, coral reefs occur across a gradient of biological (host abundance, climatic (sea surface temperature anomalies and anthropogenic conditions from the human-impacted reefs of the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI to the pristine reefs of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI. Coral disease surveys were conducted at 142 sites from across the Archipelago and disease patterns examined. Twelve diseases were recorded from three coral genera (Porites, Montipora, Acropora with Porites having the highest prevalence. Porites growth anomalies (PorGAs were significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the MHI and Porites trematodiasis (PorTrm was significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the NWHI. Porites tissue loss syndrome (PorTLS was also important in driving regional differences but that relationship was less clear. These results highlight the importance of understanding disease ecology when interpreting patterns of disease occurrence. PorTrm is caused by a parasitic flatworm that utilizes multiple hosts during its life cycle (fish, mollusk and coral. All three hosts must be present for the disease to occur and higher host abundance leads to higher disease prevalence. Thus, a high prevalence of PorTrm on Hawaiian reefs would be an indicator of a healthy coral reef ecosystem. In contrast, the high occurrence of PorGAs within the MHI suggests that PorGAs are related, directly or indirectly, to some environmental co-factor associated with increased human population sizes. Focusing on the three indicator diseases (PorGAs, PorTrm, PorTLS we used statistical modeling to examine the underlying associations between disease prevalence and 14 different predictor variables (biotic and abiotic. All three diseases showed positive associations with host abundance and negative associations with thermal stress. The association with human population density differed among disease states with PorGAs showing a positive and Por

  3. Patterns of coral disease across the Hawaiian Archipelago: Relating disease to environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeby, G.S.; Williams, G.J.; Franklin, E.C.; Kenyon, J.; Cox, E.F.; Coles, S.; Work, Thierry M.

    2011-01-01

    In Hawaii, coral reefs occur across a gradient of biological (host abundance), climatic (sea surface temperature anomalies) and anthropogenic conditions from the human-impacted reefs of the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) to the pristine reefs of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Coral disease surveys were conducted at 142 sites from across the Archipelago and disease patterns examined. Twelve diseases were recorded from three coral genera (Porites, Montipora, Acropora) with Porites having the highest prevalence. Porites growth anomalies (PorGAs) were significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the MHI and Porites trematodiasis (PorTrm) was significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the NWHI. Porites tissue loss syndrome (PorTLS) was also important in driving regional differences but that relationship was less clear. These results highlight the importance of understanding disease ecology when interpreting patterns of disease occurrence. PorTrm is caused by a parasitic flatworm that utilizes multiple hosts during its life cycle (fish, mollusk and coral). All three hosts must be present for the disease to occur and higher host abundance leads to higher disease prevalence. Thus, a high prevalence of PorTrm on Hawaiian reefs would be an indicator of a healthy coral reef ecosystem. In contrast, the high occurrence of PorGAs within the MHI suggests that PorGAs are related, directly or indirectly, to some environmental co-factor associated with increased human population sizes. Focusing on the three indicator diseases (PorGAs, PorTrm, PorTLS) we used statistical modeling to examine the underlying associations between disease prevalence and 14 different predictor variables (biotic and abiotic). All three diseases showed positive associations with host abundance and negative associations with thermal stress. The association with human population density differed among disease states with PorGAs showing a positive and PorTrm showing

  4. An invasive fish and the time-lagged spread of its parasite across the Hawaiian archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle R Gaither

    Full Text Available Efforts to limit the impact of invasive species are frustrated by the cryptogenic status of a large proportion of those species. Half a century ago, the state of Hawai'i introduced the Bluestripe Snapper, Lutjanus kasmira, to O'ahu for fisheries enhancement. Today, this species shares an intestinal nematode parasite, Spirocamallanus istiblenni, with native Hawaiian fishes, raising the possibility that the introduced fish carried a parasite that has since spread to naïve local hosts. Here, we employ a multidisciplinary approach, combining molecular, historical, and ecological data to confirm the alien status of S. istiblenni in Hawai'i. Using molecular sequence data we show that S. istiblenni from Hawai'i are genetically affiliated with source populations in French Polynesia, and not parasites at a geographically intermediate location in the Line Islands. S. istiblenni from Hawai'i are a genetic subset of the more diverse source populations, indicating a bottleneck at introduction. Ecological surveys indicate that the parasite has found suitable intermediate hosts in Hawai'i, which are required for the completion of its life cycle, and that the parasite is twice as prevalent in Hawaiian Bluestripe Snappers as in source populations. While the introduced snapper has spread across the entire 2600 km archipelago to Kure Atoll, the introduced parasite has spread only half that distance. However, the parasite faces no apparent impediments to invading the entire archipelago, with unknown implications for naïve indigenous Hawaiian fishes and the protected Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument.

  5. New Ulvaceae (Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyta) from mesophotic ecosystems across the Hawaiian Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, Heather L; Conklin, Kimberly Y; Smith, Celia M; O'Kelly, Charles J; Sherwood, Alison R

    2016-02-01

    Ulvalean algae (Chlorophyta) are most commonly described from intertidal and shallow subtidal marine environments worldwide, but are less well known from mesophotic environments. Their morphological simplicity and phenotypic plasticity make accurate species determinations difficult, even at the generic level. Here, we describe the mesophotic Ulvales species composition from 13 locations across 2,300 km of the Hawaiian Archipelago. Twenty-eight representative Ulvales specimens from 64 to 125 m depths were collected using technical diving, submersibles, and remotely operated vehicles. Morphological and molecular characters suggest that mesophotic Ulvales in Hawaiian waters form unique communities comprising four species within the genera Ulva and Umbraulva, each with discrete geographic and/or depth-related distributional patterns. Three genetically distinct taxa are supported by both plastid (rbcL and tufA) and nuclear (ITS1) markers, and are presented here as new species: Umbraulva kaloakulau, Ulva ohiohilulu, and Ulva iliohaha. We also propose a new Umbraulva species (Umbraulva kuaweuweu), which is closely related to subtidal records from New Zealand and Australia, but not formally described. To our knowledge, these are the first marine species descriptions from Hawai'i resulting from the collaboration of traditional Hawaiian nomenclature specialists, cultural practitioners and scientists. The difficulty of finding reliable diagnostic morphological characters for these species reflects a common problem worldwide of achieving accurate identification of ulvalean taxa using solely morphological criteria. Mesophotic Ulvales appear to be distinct from shallow-water populations in Hawai'i, but their degree of similarity to mesophotic floras in other locations in the Pacific remains unknown. © 2015 Phycological Society of America.

  6. Stage, transfer, and academic achievement in dialect-speaking Hawaiian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, C F; Stone, A; Renderer, B

    1990-04-01

    The study reported here is concerned with certain dialect-speaking groups in the United States who do poorly in high school while giving their teachers an impression that they have great intellectual ability and doing well on formal operational tasks. We examined the relation between stage of cognitive development, transfer ability, production ability in Standard English, and school achievement among a sample of high school students in rural Hawaii, speakers of Hawaiian Creole English. A path analysis suggests that transfer ability is the missing ingredient in school performance, and that a habit of active encoding in the classroom, in turn, facilitates transfer.

  7. The Consequences of eating with men : Hawaiian women and the challenges of cultural transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Dudzinska, Paulina Natalia

    2007-01-01

    Summary Before 1819 Hawaiian society was ruled by a system of ritual laws called kapu. One of these, the aikapu (sacred eating), required men and women to eat separately. Because eating was ritual, some food items, symbolically associated with male deities, were forbidden to women. It was believed that women had a “haumia” (traditionally translated as “defiling”) effect on the male manifestations of the divine and were, as a consequence, barred from direct worship of male gods and work tas...

  8. Hyperspectral Time Series Analysis of Native and Invasive Species in Hawaiian Rainforests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory P. Asner

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The unique ecosystems of the Hawaiian Islands are progressively being threatened following the introduction of exotic species. Operational implementation of remote sensing for the detection, mapping and monitoring of these biological invasions is currently hampered by a lack of knowledge on the spectral separability between native and invasive species. We used spaceborne imaging spectroscopy to analyze the seasonal dynamics of the canopy hyperspectral reflectance properties of four tree species: (i Metrosideros polymorpha, a keystone native Hawaiian species; (ii Acacia koa, a native Hawaiian nitrogen fixer; (iii the highly invasive Psidium cattleianum; and (iv Morella faya, a highly invasive nitrogen fixer. The species specific separability of the reflectance and derivative-reflectance signatures extracted from an Earth Observing-1 Hyperion time series, composed of 22 cloud-free images spanning a period of four years and was quantitatively evaluated using the Separability Index (SI. The analysis revealed that the Hawaiian native trees were universally unique from the invasive trees in their near-infrared-1 (700–1,250 nm reflectance (0.4 > SI > 1.4. Due to its higher leaf area index, invasive trees generally had a higher near-infrared reflectance. To a lesser extent, it could also be demonstrated that nitrogen-fixing trees were spectrally unique from non-fixing trees. The higher leaf nitrogen content of nitrogen-fixing trees was expressed through slightly increased separabilities in visible and shortwave-infrared reflectance wavebands (SI = 0.4. We also found phenology to be key to spectral separability analysis. As such, it was shown that the spectral separability in the near-infrared-1 reflectance between the native and invasive species groups was more expressed in summer (SI > 0.7 than in winter (SI < 0.7. The lowest separability was observed for March-July (SI < 0.3. This could be explained by the

  9. Mitigating Future Avian Malaria Threats to Hawaiian Forest Birds from Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei; Atkinson, Carter T; LaPointe, Dennis A; Samuel, Michael D

    2017-01-01

    Avian malaria, transmitted by Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in the Hawaiian Islands, has been a primary contributor to population range limitations, declines, and extinctions for many endemic Hawaiian honeycreepers. Avian malaria is strongly influenced by climate; therefore, predicted future changes are expected to expand transmission into higher elevations and intensify and lengthen existing transmission periods at lower elevations, leading to further population declines and potential extinction of highly susceptible honeycreepers in mid- and high-elevation forests. Based on future climate changes and resulting malaria risk, we evaluated the viability of alternative conservation strategies to preserve endemic Hawaiian birds at mid and high elevations through the 21st century. We linked an epidemiological model with three alternative climatic projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project to predict future malaria risk and bird population dynamics for the coming century. Based on climate change predictions, proposed strategies included mosquito population suppression using modified males, release of genetically modified refractory mosquitoes, competition from other introduced mosquitoes that are not competent vectors, evolved malaria-tolerance in native honeycreepers, feral pig control to reduce mosquito larval habitats, and predator control to improve bird demographics. Transmission rates of malaria are predicted to be higher than currently observed and are likely to have larger impacts in high-elevation forests where current low rates of transmission create a refuge for highly-susceptible birds. As a result, several current and proposed conservation strategies will be insufficient to maintain existing forest bird populations. We concluded that mitigating malaria transmission at high elevations should be a primary conservation goal. Conservation strategies that maintain highly susceptible species like Iiwi (Drepanis coccinea) will likely benefit

  10. Formation of cyclonic eddies in the lee of the Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Y.; Calil, P. P.; Hacker, P. W.; Richards, K. J.

    2008-12-01

    Satellite altimetry shows an enhancement of mesoscale eddy variability in the lee of the Hawaiian Islands. The study of Calil et al. (2008) using the regional ocean modeling system (ROMS) suggests that the increased variability is largely caused by the spatial and temporal variations in the wind forcing. As the northeasterly trade wind blows around the high mountains of the islands of Maui and Hawaii in particular, regions of weak wind leeward of the islands and strong wind jet between the islands are created. These local wind anomalies, positively correlated with the strength of the trade wind, are one of the key forcing mechanisms for the generation of cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies in the lee of the Hawaiian Islands. The study of formation and propagation of cyclonic eddies in the lee of the Hawaiian Islands, in particular, is of great relevance, as the eddies bring nutrient-rich water at depth to the euphotic zone and enhance primary production in a region of generally low productivity in the subtropical gyre. Through numerical experiments performed with the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM), we find that high resolution of surface wind, both temporal to capture the intensity of the trade wind and spatial to resolve the strong funneling effect between the islands is necessary for the formation of cyclonic eddies. The HYCOM implementation for the Hawaii region at a horizontal resolution of 0.04 degree is downscaled from the global HYCOM and uses its output for initial and lateral boundary conditions. The wind products used include ECMWF, NOGAPS, QuikSCAT and output from regional atmospheric models; their temporal resolutions range from 3 hourly to daily and spatial resolutions range from approximately 1 to 0.16 degree. The formation of a cyclonic eddy requires the occurrence of strong and persistent trade wind that gives rise to a strong jet between the islands but cyclonic eddies do not always form during periods of strong trade wind. We discuss other

  11. Mitigating future avian malaria threats to Hawaiian forest birds from climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei; Atkinson, Carter T.; LaPointe, Dennis; Samuel, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    Avian malaria, transmitted by Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in the Hawaiian Islands, has been a primary contributor to population range limitations, declines, and extinctions for many endemic Hawaiian honeycreepers. Avian malaria is strongly influenced by climate; therefore, predicted future changes are expected to expand transmission into higher elevations and intensify and lengthen existing transmission periods at lower elevations, leading to further population declines and potential extinction of highly susceptible honeycreepers in mid- and high-elevation forests. Based on future climate changes and resulting malaria risk, we evaluated the viability of alternative conservation strategies to preserve endemic Hawaiian birds at mid and high elevations through the 21st century. We linked an epidemiological model with three alternative climatic projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project to predict future malaria risk and bird population dynamics for the coming century. Based on climate change predictions, proposed strategies included mosquito population suppression using modified males, release of genetically modified refractory mosquitoes, competition from other introduced mosquitoes that are not competent vectors, evolved malaria-tolerance in native honeycreepers, feral pig control to reduce mosquito larval habitats, and predator control to improve bird demographics. Transmission rates of malaria are predicted to be higher than currently observed and are likely to have larger impacts in high-elevation forests where current low rates of transmission create a refuge for highly-susceptible birds. As a result, several current and proposed conservation strategies will be insufficient to maintain existing forest bird populations. We concluded that mitigating malaria transmission at high elevations should be a primary conservation goal. Conservation strategies that maintain highly susceptible species like Iiwi (Drepanis coccinea) will likely benefit

  12. A new species of Hibiscadelphus Rock (Malvaceae, Hibisceae from Maui, Hawaiian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hank Oppenheimer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscadelphus stellatus H. Oppenheimer, Bustamente, & Perlman, sp. nov., a new, narrowly endemic species from West Maui, Hawaiian Islands is described, illustrated and its affinities and conservation status are discussed. It is currently known from three populations totaling 99 plants in Kaua`ula valley on leeward western Maui. It differs from H. wilderianus, its nearest congener, in its denser white or tan stellate pubescence on most parts; larger externally purple colored corollas that are 5–6.5 cm long; linear-subulate to lanceolate, acute to acuminate involucral bracts; globose-cuboid to ovoid capsules; and endocarp with scattered hairs.

  13. A new species of Cyanea (Campanulaceae, Lobelioideae from Maui, Hawaiian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hank Oppenheimer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyanea kauaulaensis H. Oppenheimer & Lorence sp. nov., a new, narrowly endemic species from Maui, Hawaiian Islands is described, illustrated with field photos, and its affinities and conservation status are discussed. It is currently known from 62 mature plants and is restricted to Kaua`ula and Waikapu valleys on leeward western Maui. It differs from all other species of Cyanea by its combination of many-branched habit; glabrous, unarmed, undivided leaves; small, narrow, glabrous corollas with small calyx lobes that do not persist in fruit; and bright orange, subglobose to obovoid fruits.

  14. A new species of Cyanea (Campanulaceae, Lobelioideae) from Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Hank; Lorence, David H

    2012-01-01

    Cyanea kauaulaensis H. Oppenheimer & Lorence, sp. nov., a new, narrowly endemic species from Maui, Hawaiian Islands is described, illustrated with field photos, and its affinities and conservation status are discussed. It is currently known from 62 mature plants and is restricted to Kaua`ula and Waikapu valleys on leeward western Maui. It differs from all other species of Cyanea by its combination of many-branched habit; glabrous, unarmed, undivided leaves; small, narrow, glabrous corollas with small calyx lobes that do not persist in fruit; and bright orange, subglobose to obovoid fruits.

  15. A new species of Hibiscadelphus Rock (Malvaceae, Hibisceae) from Maui, Hawaiian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Hank L; Bustamente, Keahi M; Perlman, Steven P

    2014-01-01

    Hibiscadelphus stellatus H. Oppenheimer, Bustamente, & Perlman, sp. nov., a new, narrowly endemic species from West Maui, Hawaiian Islands is described, illustrated and its affinities and conservation status are discussed. It is currently known from three populations totaling 99 plants in Kaua`ula valley on leeward western Maui. It differs from H. wilderianus, its nearest congener, in its denser white or tan stellate pubescence on most parts; larger externally purple colored corollas that are 5-6.5 cm long; linear-subulate to lanceolate, acute to acuminate involucral bracts; globose-cuboid to ovoid capsules; and endocarp with scattered hairs.

  16. Deformed Wing virus absence/presence data across three genera on two Hawaiian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessika Santamaria

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article relates to the research article, “Evidence of Varroa-mediated Deformed Wing virus spillover in Hawaii” (Santamaria et al., 2017 [3]. The article presents data collected throughout August 2014 to November 2015, on the two Hawaiian Islands of Oahu and Maui. Apis and non-Apis specimens – a total of four species – were collected and tested for Deformed Wing virus (DWV absence or presence, only. Specific island locations are noted. This data is made publicly available to be analyzed or used in future relevant research.

  17. Erosion of Fluted Cliffs on the Na Pali Coast, Kauai, Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, G.; Mohr, S.; Blay, C.

    2015-12-01

    Precipitous sea cliffs on the northwest side of Kauai, sculpted into deep bedrock gullies and sharp divides, are known as "Na Pali", Hawaiian for "the cliffs", and are commonly referred to as fluted cliffs. Rising 500 m above the coast, they constitute some of the most dramatic scenery on planet Earth and are a world famous tourist attraction. After the discovery of flank collapses on some Hawaiian volcanoes the great Na Pali escarpment was hypothesized to have been generated by a megalandslide, but bathymetric data show the shallow submarine shelf off the Na Pali coast bears no landslide deposits. It is likely that wave erosion at the base of the local thin-bedded lavas, particularly in winter, is responsible for the escarpment. Superimposed on the escarpment are the deep gullies, or grooves, and divides, which constitute drainage networks that happen to be developed on very steep slopes. Networks are poorly developed on relatively young parts of the escarpment and well developed on older parts, which feature coalescing tributaries and very deep gullies. In most cases gullies shallow going upslope, and many fade out completely just below drainage divides, just like in drainage networks developed on more gently sloping landscapes. The drainage networks show that the basalts along this coast are relatively easily eroded by runoff. Rocks easily eroded by runoff generally do not stand in 500-m-high cliffs because they are not mechanically strong enough to resist failure and mass movement. The key to development of high fluted cliffs is a mix of mechanical strength and erodibiity, a combination whose rarity explains why analogs to the Na Pali cliffs are not found outside the Hawaiian Islands. The combination here is provided by basalt which is strong where unweathered but rotten and in some case completely decomposed close to the surface, courtesy of the Hawaiian climate. Weathering must proceed downward at about the same rate as removal of mass by runoff erosion

  18. Kahua A'o: A Learning Foundation: Using Hawaiian Language Newspaper Articles for Place and Culture-based Geoscience Teacher Education and Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellinwood, I.; Stone, K.; Spencer, L.

    2012-12-01

    Kahua A'o is a collaborative project funded by the National Science Foundation aimed at developing science curriculum grounded in Hawaiian culture and place-based education. The project team is composed of members who contribute expertise in meteorology, geology, curriculum development, and Hawaiian language. To date, six lessons have been produced, four with a focus in meteorology and two with a focus in geology. The lessons are geared towards the middle school level, but can easily be adapted for other levels. Each lesson combines a scientific topic with relevant Hawaiian language resources. Serving as the main source for resources is the Hawaiian language newspaper archive, which is an online database of 75,000 pages from newspapers that were published between 1834 and 1948. By incorporating Hawaiian language newspaper articles into science lessons, we aim to teach science through culture and show a history of scientific inquiry intrinsic to Hawaiian culture in order to generate more interest in science among Hawai'i students, especially native Hawaiian students, who are underrepresented in scientific fields. Since most of the articles are specific to the Hawaiian Islands, all students will find more relevance with the lesson through place-based education. Kahua A'o lessons are currently being piloted with groups of public school teachers. Bishop Museum is also incorporating elements of the meteorology lessons into their science education curriculum. The goal of Kahua A'o is to become the first of many such interdisciplinary collaborations, especially those that utilize the rich repository of untapped knowledge in the Hawaiian language newspaper archive.

  19. Place-based Pedagogy and Culturally Responsive Assessment in Hawai`i: Transforming Curriculum Development and Assessment by Intersecting Hawaiian and Western STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, P. W. U.

    2016-12-01

    Context/Purpose: The Hawaiian Islands span 1500 miles. Age, size, altitude and isolation produced diverse topographies, weather patterns, and unique ecosystems. Around 500 C.E. Polynesians arrived and developed sustainable social ecosystems, ahupua`a, extending from mountain-top to reef. Place-based ecological knowledge was key to personal identity and resource management that sustained 700,000 people at western contact. But Native Hawaiian students are persistently underrepresented in science. This two-year mixed methods study asks if professional development (PD) can transform teaching in ways that support K12 Native Hawaiian students' engagement and learning in STEM. Methods: Place-based PD informed by theories of structure and agency (Sewell, 1992) and cultural funds of knowledge (Moll, Amanti, Neff, & Gonzalez, 1992) explicitly intersected Hawaiian and western STEM knowledge and practices. NGSS and Nā Hopena A`o, general learner outcomes that reflect Hawaiian culture and values provided teachers with new schemas for designing curriculum and assessment through the lens of culture and place. Data sources include surveys, teacher and student documents, photographs. Results: Teachers' lessons on invasive species, water, soils, Hawaiian STEM, and sustainability and student work showed they learned key Hawaiian terms, understood the impact of invasive species on native plants and animals, felt stronger senses of responsibility, belonging, and place, and preferred outdoor learning. Survey results of 21 4th graders showed Native Hawaiian students (n=6) were more interested in taking STEM and Hawaiian culture/language courses, more concerned about invasive species and culturally important plant and animals, but less able to connect school and family activities than non-Hawaiian peers (n=15). Teacher agency is seen in their interest in collaborating across schools to develop ahupua`a based K12 STEM curricula. Interpretation and Conclusion: Findings suggest PD

  20. Hui Malama O Ke Kai: A Positive Prevention-Based Youth Development Program Based on Native Hawaiian Values and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishinuma, Earl S.; Chang, Janice Y.; Sy, Angela; Greaney, Malia F.; Morris, Katherine A.; Scronce, Ami C.; Rehuher, Davis; Nishimura, Stephanie T.

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation of after-school programs that are culturally and place-based and promote positive youth development among minority and indigenous youths has not been widely published. The present evaluation is the first of its kind of an after-school, youth-risk prevention program called Hui Malama O Ke Kai (HMK), that emphasizes Native Hawaiian values…

  1. Feral goats in the Hawaiian Islands: understanding the behavioral ecology of nonnative ungulates with GPS and remote sensing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Chynoweth; Creighton M. Litton; Christopher A. Lepczyk; Susan Cordell

    2010-01-01

    Nonnative feral ungulates have both direct and indirect impacts on native ecosystems. Hawai`i is particularly susceptible to biological invasions, as the islands have evolved in extreme geographic isolation. In this paper we explore the ecological impacts of nonnative feral goats (Capra hircus) in the Hawaiian Islands, including both the current...

  2. CRED Gridded Bathymetry along a transit to Nihoa Island (100-027) in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-027b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Transit to Nihoa in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced as...

  3. CRED Gridded Bathymetry of Twin Banks and Northwest Nihoa Island (100-024) in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-024b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Twin Banks NW Nihoa in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced...

  4. CRED Gridded Bathymetry of Bank 66 and east French Frigate Shoals (100-020) in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-020b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Bank 66, East French Frigate Shoals in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid...

  5. Restoration of native plant communities in a Hawaiian dry lowland ecosystem dominated by the invasive grass Megathyrsus maximus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selita A. Ammondt; Creighton M. Litton; Lisa M. Ellsworth; James K. Leary

    2012-01-01

    How does a highly degraded Hawaiian tropical dry lowland ecosystem dominated by the non-native invasive Megathyrsus maximus (guinea grass) respond to different restoration treatments (three native species outplanting treatments; four native broadcast seed treatments)? What effect do restoration treatments have on invasive and native species...

  6. COINFECTION OF CALIFORNIA SEA LION ADENOVIRUS 1 AND A NOVEL POLYOMAVIRUS IN A HAWAIIAN MONK SEAL (NEOMONACHUS SCHAUINSLANDI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Hinojosa, Galaxia; Doescher, Bethany; Kinsel, Michael; Lednicky, John; Loeb, Julia; Waltzek, Thomas; Wellehan, James F X

    2016-06-01

    The Hawaiian monk seal (Neomonachus schauinslandi) is an endangered species. Here, we present a clinical case of a 26-yr-old male Hawaiian monk seal (HMS) kept in an aquarium with a history of intermittent anorexia and evidence of renal disease. Histologic examination revealed eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions in the liver. Conventional nested PCR protocols were used to test for viruses, and it tested positive for adenovirus and polyomavirus, and negative for herpesvirus. The adenovirus partial polymerase gene is 100% homologous to that of California sea lion adenovirus 1 (CSLAdV-1). CSLAdV-1 causes viral hepatitis in CSL, and has recently been reported in different species of otariids in an aquarium in Japan ( Otaria flavescens and Arctocephalus pusillus ) and a sequence from Spain has been submitted in NCBI as Otaria flavescens adenovirus-1. The polyomavirus in this animal is a novel virus, and is the first polyomavirus discovered in Hawaiian monk seals. This new virus is designated Hawaiian monk seal polyomavirus (HMSPyV-1), and is 83% homologous to California sea lion Polyomavirus-1 (CSLPyV-1). This is the first report of viral coinfection in a HMS and clinical significance in this case remains unclear but may be associated with advanced age.

  7. Persistence of Native Trees in an Invaded Hawaiian Lowland Wet Forest: Experimental Evaluation of Light and Water Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodie R. Schulten; T. Colleen Cole; Susan Cordell; Keiko M. Publico; Rebecca Ostertag; Jaime E. Enoka; Jené D. Michaud

    2014-01-01

    Hawaiian lowland wet forests are heavily invaded and their restoration is most likely to be successful if native species selected for restoration have efficient resource-use traits. We evaluated growth, survival, and ecophysiological responses of four native and four invasive species in a greenhouse experiment that simulated reduced light and water conditions commonly...

  8. Utilizing Pro-bono Commercial Assets for Marine Mammal Surveys in High Naval Activity Area in Hawaiian Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    Fri-pm Arr: Sat-am Pacific Ocean Island oi Hawaii Hawaii Volcanoes Nafl Park 70 mi Figure 1. Map of the main Hawaiian Islands and three...collected so far has been synced with GIS , and will be compared to remotely sensed oceanographic data as shown in Figure 7. Custom matlab programs have

  9. Biogeography of planktonic and coral-associated microorganisms across the Hawaiian Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Jennifer L; Bowen, Brian W; Rappé, Michael S

    2016-08-01

    Factors driving the distribution of marine microorganisms are widely debated and poorly understood. Recent studies show that free-living marine microbes exhibit geographical patterns indicative of limited dispersal. In contrast, host-associated microbes face a different set of dispersal challenges, and hosts may function as habitat 'islands' for resident microbial populations. Here, we examine the biogeographical distributions of planktonic and adjacent coral-associated bacterial communities across the Hawaiian Archipelago, Johnston Atoll (∼1400 km southwest of Hawaii) and American Samoa in the Pacific Ocean and investigate the potential underlying processes driving observed patterns. Statistical analyses of bacterial community structure, determined using a small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene-based approach, showed that bacterioplankton and coral-associated bacterial communities were distinct, and correlated with geographical distance between sites. In addition, biogeographical patterns of bacterial associates paralleled those of their host coral Porites lobata, highlighting the specificity of these associations and the impact that host dispersal may have on bacterial biogeography. Planktonic and coral-associated bacterial communities from distant Johnston Atoll were shown to be connected with communities from the center of the Hawaiian Archipelago, a pattern previously observed in fish and invertebrates. No significant correlations were detected with habitat type, temperature or depth. However, non-distance-based geographical groupings were detected, indicating that, in addition to dispersal, unidentified environmental factors also affected the distributions of bacterial communities investigated here. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. A Test for Gene Flow among Sympatric and Allopatric Hawaiian Picture-Winged Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Lin; Garner, Harold R; Price, Donald K; Michalak, Pawel

    2017-06-01

    The Hawaiian Drosophila are one of the most species-rich endemic groups in Hawaii and a spectacular example of adaptive radiation. Drosophila silvestris and D. heteroneura are two closely related picture-winged Drosophila species that occur sympatrically on Hawaii Island and are known to hybridize in nature, yet exhibit highly divergent behavioral and morphological traits driven largely through sexual selection. Their closest-related allopatric species, D. planitibia from Maui, exhibits hybrid male sterility and reduced behavioral reproductive isolation when crossed experimentally with D. silvestris or D. heteroneura. A modified four-taxon test for gene flow was applied to recently obtained genomes of the three Hawaiian Drosophila species. The analysis indicates recent gene flow in sympatry, but also, although less extensive, between allopatric species. This study underscores the prevalence of gene flow, even in taxonomic groups considered classic examples of allopatric speciation on islands. The potential confounding effects of gene flow in phylogenetic and population genetics inference are discussed, as well as the implications for conservation.

  11. Will a warmer and wetter future cause extinction of native Hawaiian forest birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei; Timm, Oliver Elison; Zhang, Chunxi; Atkinson, Carter T.; LaPointe, Dennis; Samuel, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Isolation of the Hawaiian archipelago produced a highly endemic and unique avifauna. Avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum), an introduced mosquito-borne pathogen, is a primary cause of extinctions and declines of these endemic honeycreepers. Our research assesses how global climate change will affect future malaria risk and native bird populations. We used an epidemiological model to evaluate future bird-mosquito-malaria dynamics in response to alternative climate projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP). Climate changes during the second half of the century accelerate malaria transmission and cause a dramatic decline in bird abundance. Different temperature and precipitation patterns produce divergent trajectories where native birds persist with low malaria infection under a warmer and dryer projection (RCP4.5), but suffer high malaria infection and severe reductions under hot and dry (RCP8.5) or warm and wet (A1B) futures. We conclude that future global climate change will cause significant decreases in the abundance and diversity of remaining Hawaiian bird communities. Because these effects appear unlikely before mid-century, natural resource managers have time to implement conservation strategies to protect this unique avifauna from further decimation. Similar climatic drivers for avian and human malaria suggest that mitigation strategies for Hawai'i have broad application to human health.

  12. Changes in Timing, Duration, and Symmetry of Molt of Hawaiian Forest Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Leonard A.; Cann, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    Food limitation greatly affects bird breeding performance, but the effect of nutritive stress on molt has barely been investigated outside of laboratory settings. Here we show changes in molting patterns for an entire native Hawaiian bird community at 1650–1900 m elevation on the Island of Hawaii between 1989–1999 and 2000–2006, associated with severe food limitation throughout the year beginning in 2000. Young birds and adults of all species took longer to complete their molt, including months never or rarely used during the 1989–1999 decade. These included the cold winter months and even the early months of the following breeding season. In addition, more adults of most species initiated their molt one to two months earlier, during the breeding season. Suspended molt, indicated by birds temporarily not molting primary flight feathers during the months of peak primary molt, increased in prevalence. Food limitation reached the point where individuals of all species had asymmetric molt, with different primary flight feathers molted on each wing. These multiple changes in molt, unprecedented in birds, had survival consequences. Adult birds captured during January to March, 2000–2004, had lower survival in four of five species with little effect of extended molt. Extended molt may be adaptive for a nutrient stressed bird to survive warm temperatures but not cool winter temperatures that may obliterate the energy savings. The changing molt of Hawaiian birds has many implications for conservation and for understanding life history aspects of molt of tropical birds. PMID:22279547

  13. Spawning pattern of the neon flying squid Ommastrephes bartramii (Cephalopoda: Oegopsida around the Hawaiian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmamony Vijai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The neon flying squid, Ommastrephes bartramii, is an oceanic squid species that is widely distributed in the North Pacific, with the winter-spring cohort spawning around the Hawaiian Islands. Here, we investigated the spawning characteristics of O. bartramii by analyzing various reproductive parameters of individuals (622 males, 108 females collected in this region. Female spawning status was determined from the somatic indices and histological characteristics of the ovaries. At all developmental stages, the ovaries of spawned females contained oocytes, and oviduct fullness was not correlated with body size. Thus, because the eggs mature asynchronously, with multiple filling and evacuation events, this species is considered an intermittent spawner. Mature males with developed accessory glands were also present within the distribution range of healthy spawned females, indicating that mating occurs between spawning events. Our data indicate that the first spawning event occurs at a mantle length of ~520-540 mm for Hawaiian O. bartramii. Subsequently, the squid forage and grow, and refill the oviducts, before the second spawning event occurs.

  14. Structure of Mesophotic Reef Fish Assemblages in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuko Fukunaga

    Full Text Available Mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs support diverse communities of marine organisms with changes in community structure occurring along a depth gradient. In recent years, MCEs have gained attention due to their depths that provide protection from natural and anthropogenic stressors and their relative stability over evolutionary time periods, yet ecological structures of fish assemblages in MCEs remain largely un-documented. Here, we investigated composition and trophic structure of reef fish assemblages in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI along a depth gradient from 1 to 67 m. The structure of reef fish assemblages as a whole showed a clear gradient from shallow to mesophotic depths. Fish assemblages at mesophotic depths had higher total densities than those in shallower waters, and were characterized by relatively high densities of planktivores and invertivores and relatively low densities of herbivores. Fishes that typified assemblages at mesophotic depths included six species that are endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. The present study showed that mesophotic reefs in the NWHI support unique assemblages of fish that are characterized by high endemism and relatively high densities of planktivores. Our findings underscore the ecological importance of these undersurveyed ecosystems and warrant further studies of MCEs.

  15. DNA barcoding reveals high diversity of deep-sea octocorals on Hawaiian seamounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baco-Taylor, A.; Morgan, N.; LaBelle, B.; Figueroa, D.; Ormos, A.; Cairns, S.; Driskell, A.

    2016-02-01

    Globally, studies of deep-sea octocoral distribution and diversity have been hampered by a lack of keys and a plethora of unidentified specimens. Even in areas where intensive morphological work has been done, as many as half of the specimens remain unidentified to species or even genus. Recently, a suite of genetic markers have been identified as barcoding proxies for octocorals. Here, we make one of the first attempts at broad-scale application of 3 of these markers, to recent and museum collections of octocorals of approximately 1000 specimens from the Hawaiian Archipelago, to gain a better understanding of the diversity and distribution of deep-sea octocorals there. Sequence results for all 3 markers show a greater number of haplotypes than morphological species. Each of these markers as taken alone has been shown to underestimate species richness. Extrapolating from this we show that morphological work to date on these specimens underestimates species richness by 30-40%, suggesting the diversity of octocorals in the Hawaiian Archipelago is substantially greater than previously thought. The large percentage of haplotypes represented by single individuals suggests that the full diversity of deep-sea octocorals in Hawaii remains drastically undersampled. This work also shows that species ranges based on current species designations are overestimated, with multiple smaller-range haplotypes for given morphological operational taxonomic units. We evaluate these results to assess the usefulness of application of these markers to understanding deep-sea coral distributions in the broader Pacific and beyond.

  16. Interpolity exchange of basalt tools facilitated via elite control in Hawaiian archaic states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirch, Patrick V; Mills, Peter R; Lundblad, Steven P; Sinton, John; Kahn, Jennifer G

    2012-01-24

    Ethnohistoric accounts of late precontact Hawaiian archaic states emphasize the independence of chiefly controlled territories (ahupua'a) based on an agricultural, staple economy. However, elite control of unevenly distributed resources, such as high-quality volcanic rock for adze production, may have provided an alternative source of economic power. To test this hypothesis we used nondestructive energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) analysis of 328 lithic artifacts from 36 archaeological features in the Kahikinui district, Maui Island, to geochemically characterize the source groups. This process was followed by a limited sampling using destructive wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) analysis to more precisely characterize certain nonlocal source groups. Seventeen geochemical groups were defined, eight of which represent extra-Maui Island sources. Although the majority of stone tools were derived from Maui Island sources (71%), a significant quantity (27%) of tools derived from extraisland sources, including the large Mauna Kea quarry on Hawai'i Island as well as quarries on O'ahu, Moloka'i, and Lāna'i islands. Importantly, tools quarried from extralocal sources are found in the highest frequency in elite residential features and in ritual contexts. These results suggest a significant role for a wealth economy based on the control and distribution of nonagricultural goods and resources during the rise of the Hawaiian archaic states.

  17. Predictive Modeling of Spinner Dolphin (Stenella longirostris) Resting Habitat in the Main Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Lesley H.; Johnston, David W.; Urban, Dean L.; Tyne, Julian; Bejder, Lars; Baird, Robin W.; Yin, Suzanne; Rickards, Susan H.; Deakos, Mark H.; Mobley, Joseph R.; Pack, Adam A.; Chapla Hill, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Predictive habitat models can provide critical information that is necessary in many conservation applications. Using Maximum Entropy modeling, we characterized habitat relationships and generated spatial predictions of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands. Spinner dolphins in Hawai'i exhibit predictable daily movements, using inshore bays as resting habitat during daylight hours and foraging in offshore waters at night. There are growing concerns regarding the effects of human activities on spinner dolphins resting in coastal areas. However, the environmental factors that define suitable resting habitat remain unclear and must be assessed and quantified in order to properly address interactions between humans and spinner dolphins. We used a series of dolphin sightings from recent surveys in the main Hawaiian Islands and a suite of environmental variables hypothesized as being important to resting habitat to model spinner dolphin resting habitat. The model performed well in predicting resting habitat and indicated that proximity to deep water foraging areas, depth, the proportion of bays with shallow depths, and rugosity were important predictors of spinner dolphin habitat. Predicted locations of suitable spinner dolphin resting habitat provided in this study indicate areas where future survey efforts should be focused and highlight potential areas of conflict with human activities. This study provides an example of a presence-only habitat model used to inform the management of a species for which patterns of habitat availability are poorly understood. PMID:22937022

  18. Induced and natural break sites in the chromosomes of Hawaiian Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonzetich, J.; Lyttle, T.W.; Carson, H.L.

    1988-03-01

    Gamma-irradiation of a laboratory strain of the Hawaiian species of Drosophila heteroneura yielded 310 breaks in the five major acrocentric polytene chromosomes. Their map positions conform to the Poisson distribution, unlike most of the 436 natural breaks mapped in 105 closely related species endemic to Hawaii. Genome element E is longer and has more induced breaks than the others. Both in Hawaiian and related species groups, this element shows increased polymorphism and fixation of naturally occurring inversions. The X chromosome (element A) also accumulates many natural breaks; the majority of the resulting aberrations become fixed rather than remain as polymorphisms. Although size may play a small role in initial break distribution, the major effects relative to the establishment of a rearrangement in natural populations are ascribed to the interaction of selection and drift. Nonconformance of the natural breaks to the Poisson distribution appears to be due to the tendency for breaks to accumulate both in the proximal euchromatic portion of each arm and in heterochromatic regions that are not replicated in the polytene chromosomes.

  19. Imperfect replacement of native species by non-native species as pollinators of endemic Hawaiian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Clare E; Zavaleta, Erika S; Tershy, Bernie; Croll, Don; Robichaux, Robert H

    2014-04-01

    Native plant species that have lost their mutualist partners may require non-native pollinators or seed dispersers to maintain reproduction. When natives are highly specialized, however, it appears doubtful that introduced generalists will partner effectively with them. We used visitation observations and pollination treatments (experimental manipulations of pollen transfer) to examine relationships between the introduced, generalist Japanese White-eye (Zosterops japonicus) and 3 endemic Hawaiian plant species (Clermontia parviflora, C. montis-loa, and C. hawaiiensis). These plants are characterized by curved, tubular flowers, apparently adapted for pollination by curve-billed Hawaiian honeycreepers. Z. japonicus were responsible for over 80% of visits to flowers of the small-flowered C. parviflora and the midsize-flowered C. montis-loa. Z. japonicus-visited flowers set significantly more seed than did bagged flowers. Z. japonicus also demonstrated the potential to act as an occasional Clermontia seed disperser, although ground-based frugivory by non-native mammals likely dominates seed dispersal. The large-flowered C. hawaiiensis received no visitation by any birds during observations. Unmanipulated and bagged C. hawaiiensis flowers set similar numbers of seeds. Direct examination of Z. japonicus and Clermontia morphologies suggests a mismatch between Z. japonicus bill morphology and C. hawaiiensis flower morphology. In combination, our results suggest that Z. japonicus has established an effective pollination relationship with C. parviflora and C. montis-loa and that the large flowers of C. hawaiiensis preclude effective visitation by Z. japonicus. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Demographic patterns in the peacock grouper (Cephalopholis argus), an introduced Hawaiian reef fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Mary K.; Friedlander, Alan M.; DeMartini, Edward E.; Donahue, Megan J.; Williams, Ivor D.

    2013-01-01

    This study took advantage of a unique opportunity to collect large sample sizes of a coral reef fish species across a range of physical and biological features of the Hawaiian Archipelago to investigate variability in the demography of an invasive predatory coral reef fish, Cephalopholis argus (Family: Epinephelidae). Age-based demographic analyses were conducted at 10 locations in the main Hawaiian Islands and estimates of weight-at-length, size-at-age, and longevity were compared among locations. Each metric differed among locations, although patterns were not consistent across metrics. Length-weight relationships for C. argus differed among locations and individuals weighed less at a given length at Hilo, the southernmost location studied. Longevity differed among and within islands and was greater at locations on Maui and Hawaii compared to the more northern locations on Oahu and Kauai. Within-island growth patterns differed at Kauai, Oahu, and Hawaii. This work provides a case study of fundamental life history information from distant and/or spatially limited locations that are critical for developing robust fishery models. The differences observed both among and within islands indicate that variability may be driven by cross-scale mechanisms that need to be considered in fisheries stock assessments and ecosystem-based management.

  1. Integration of Wireless Sensor Networks into Cyberinfrastructure for Monitoring Hawaiian ``Mountain-to-Sea'' Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Michael H.; Mundt, Carsten W.; Montgomery, Kevin N.; Asquith, Adam; Goodale, David W.; Kaneshiro, Kenneth Y.

    2008-10-01

    Monitoring the complex environmental relationships and feedbacks of ecosystems on catchment (or mountain)-to-sea scales is essential for social systems to effectively deal with the escalating impacts of expanding human populations globally on watersheds. However, synthesis of emerging technologies into a robust observing platform for the monitoring of coupled human-natural environments on extended spatial scales has been slow to develop. For this purpose, the authors produced a new cyberinfrastructure for environmental monitoring which successfully merged the use of wireless sensor technologies, grid computing with three-dimensional (3D) geospatial data visualization/exploration, and a secured internet portal user interface, into a working prototype for monitoring mountain-to-sea environments in the high Hawaiian Islands. A use-case example is described in which native Hawaiian residents of Waipa Valley (Kauai) utilized the technology to monitor the effects of regional weather variation on surface water quality/quantity response, to better understand their local hydrologic cycle, monitor agricultural water use, and mitigate the effects of lowland flooding.

  2. Genetic diversity and evidence for recent modular recombination in Hawaiian Citrus tristeza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Michael J; Borth, Wayne B; Sether, Diane M; Ferreira, Stephen; Gonsalves, Dennis; Hu, John S

    2010-02-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are home to a widespread and diverse population of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), an economically important pathogen of citrus. In this study, we quantified the genetic diversity of two CTV genes and determined the complete genomic sequence for two strains of Hawaiian CTV. The nucleotide diversity was estimated to be 0.0565 + or - 0.0022 for the coat protein (CP) gene (n = 137) and 0.0822 + or - 0.0033 for the p23 gene (n = 30). The genome size and organization of CTV strains HA18-9 and HA16-5 were similar to other fully sequenced strains of CTV. The 3'-terminal halves of their genomes were nearly identical (98.5% nucleotide identity), whereas the 5'-terminal halves were more distantly related (72.3% nucleotide identity), suggesting a possible recombination event. Closer examination of strain HA16-5 indicated that it arose through recent recombination between the movement module of an HA18-9 genotype, and the replication module of an undescribed CTV genotype.

  3. Predictive modeling of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley H Thorne

    Full Text Available Predictive habitat models can provide critical information that is necessary in many conservation applications. Using Maximum Entropy modeling, we characterized habitat relationships and generated spatial predictions of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands. Spinner dolphins in Hawai'i exhibit predictable daily movements, using inshore bays as resting habitat during daylight hours and foraging in offshore waters at night. There are growing concerns regarding the effects of human activities on spinner dolphins resting in coastal areas. However, the environmental factors that define suitable resting habitat remain unclear and must be assessed and quantified in order to properly address interactions between humans and spinner dolphins. We used a series of dolphin sightings from recent surveys in the main Hawaiian Islands and a suite of environmental variables hypothesized as being important to resting habitat to model spinner dolphin resting habitat. The model performed well in predicting resting habitat and indicated that proximity to deep water foraging areas, depth, the proportion of bays with shallow depths, and rugosity were important predictors of spinner dolphin habitat. Predicted locations of suitable spinner dolphin resting habitat provided in this study indicate areas where future survey efforts should be focused and highlight potential areas of conflict with human activities. This study provides an example of a presence-only habitat model used to inform the management of a species for which patterns of habitat availability are poorly understood.

  4. Pliocene and Pleistocene alkalic flood basalts on the seafloor north of the Hawaiian islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, D.A.; Holcomb, R.T.; Sinton, J.M.; Detrick, R. S.; Torresan, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    The North Arch volcanic field is located north of Oahu on the Hawaiian Arch, a 200-m high flexural arch formed by loading of the Hawaiian Islands. These flood basalt flows cover an area of about 25,000 km2; the nearly flat-lying sheet-like flows extend about 100 km both north and south from the axis of the flexural arch. Samples from 26 locations in the volcanic field range in composition from nephelinite to alkalic basalt. Ages estimated from stratigraphy, thickness of sediment on top of the flows, and thickness of palagonite alteration rinds on the recovered lavas, range from about 0.75-0.9 Ma for the youngest lavas to somewhat older than 2.7 Ma for the oldest lavas. Most of the flow field consists of extensive sheetflows of dense basanite and alkalic basalt. Small hills consisting of pillow basalt and hyaloclastite of mainly nephelinite and alkalic basalt occur within the flow field but were not the source vents for the extensive flows. Many of the vent lavas are highly vesicular, apparently because of degassing of CO2. The lavas are geochemically similar to the rejuvenated-stage lavas of the Koloa and Honolulu Volcanics and were generated by partial melting of sources similar to those of the Koloa Volcanics. Prior to eruption, these magmas may have accumulated at or near the base of the lithosphere in a structural trap created by upbowing of the lithosphere. ?? 1990.

  5. Evidence for retrovirus infections in green turtles Chelonia mydas from the Hawaiian islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, R.N.; Quackenbush, S.L.; Work, Thierry M.; Balazs, G.H.; Bowser, P.R.; Casey, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Apparently normal Hawaiian green turtles Chelonia mydas and those displaying fibropapillomas were analyzed for infection by retroviruses. Strikingly, all samples were positive for polymerase enhanced reverse transcriptase (PERT) with levels high enough to quantitate by the conventional reverse transcriptase (RT) assay. However, samples of skin, even from asymptomatic turtles, were RT positive, although the levels of enzyme activity in healthy turtles hatched and raised in captivity were much lower than those observed in asymptomatic free-ranging turtles. Turtles with fibropapillomas displayed a broad range of reverse transcriptase activity. Skin and eye fibropapillomas and a heart tumor were further analyzed and shown to have reverse transcriptase activity that banded in a sucrose gradient at 1.17 g ml-1. The reverse transcriptase activity purified from the heart tumor displayed a temperature optimum of 37??C and showed a preference for Mn2+ over Mg2+. Sucrose gradient fractions of this sample displaying elevated reverse transcriptase activity contained primarily retrovitalsized particles with prominent envelope spikes, when negatively stained and examined by electron microscopy. Sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of gradient-purified virions revealed a conserved profile among 4 independent tumors and showed 7 prominent proteins having molecular weights of 116, 83, 51, 43, 40, 20 and 14 kDa. The data suggest that retroviral infections are widespread in Hawaiian green turtles and a comprehensive investigation is warranted to address the possibility that these agents cause green turtle fibropapillomatosis (GTFP).

  6. The Three Domains of Conservation Genetics: Case Histories from Hawaiian Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The scientific field of conservation biology is dominated by 3 specialties: phylogenetics, ecology, and evolution. Under this triad, phylogenetics is oriented towards the past history of biodiversity, conserving the divergent branches in the tree of life. The ecological component is rooted in the present, maintaining the contemporary life support systems for biodiversity. Evolutionary conservation (as defined here) is concerned with preserving the raw materials for generating future biodiversity. All 3 domains can be documented with genetic case histories in the waters of the Hawaiian Archipelago, an isolated chain of volcanic islands with 2 types of biodiversity: colonists, and new species that arose from colonists. This review demonstrates that 1) phylogenetic studies have identified previously unknown branches in the tree of life that are endemic to Hawaiian waters; 2) population genetic surveys define isolated marine ecosystems as management units, and 3) phylogeographic analyses illustrate the pathways of colonization that can enhance future biodiversity. Conventional molecular markers have advanced all 3 domains in conservation biology over the last 3 decades, and recent advances in genomics are especially valuable for understanding the foundations of future evolutionary diversity. PMID:27001936

  7. Molecular phylogeny and adaptive radiation of the endemic Hawaiian Plantago species (Plantaginaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar-Co, Stephanie; Wieczorek, Ania M; Morden, Clifford W

    2008-09-01

    Insular oceanic islands provide excellent opportunities for the study of evolutionary processes and adaptive radiation. The Hawaiian Plantago radiation comprises six endemic taxa showing considerable inter- and intraspecific morphological and ecological diversity. The rDNA internal (ITS) and external (ETS) transcribed spacers and two recently described chloroplast spacers, ndhF-rpl32 and rpl32-trnL, were sequenced to study phylogenetic relationships within this morphologically complex group. Phylogenetic analysis provided strong evidence for the monophyly of Hawaiian Plantago, suggesting that the lineage arose from a single long-distance dispersal event. Inconsistencies between nuclear and chloroplast phylogenies suggest a history of hybridization. The basal, unresolved dichotomy of the combined phylogeny is consistent with rapid phenotypic diversification of the major lineages early in the history of this group. Speciation has largely occurred allopatrically, with divergence a result of intraisland ecological shifts between bog and woodland habitats and interisland dispersal events. Most interisland colonizations were from older to younger islands with initial colonization of Kaua'i. In our analysis, P. pachyphylla is paraphyletic and taxonomic separation of the distinct morphotypes of this species appears justified. Furthermore, the apparent hybrid ancestry and unique morphology and habitat of the endangered P. princeps var. longibracteata support its recognition at the specific rank.

  8. Predictive modeling of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Lesley H; Johnston, David W; Urban, Dean L; Tyne, Julian; Bejder, Lars; Baird, Robin W; Yin, Suzanne; Rickards, Susan H; Deakos, Mark H; Mobley, Joseph R; Pack, Adam A; Chapla Hill, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Predictive habitat models can provide critical information that is necessary in many conservation applications. Using Maximum Entropy modeling, we characterized habitat relationships and generated spatial predictions of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands. Spinner dolphins in Hawai'i exhibit predictable daily movements, using inshore bays as resting habitat during daylight hours and foraging in offshore waters at night. There are growing concerns regarding the effects of human activities on spinner dolphins resting in coastal areas. However, the environmental factors that define suitable resting habitat remain unclear and must be assessed and quantified in order to properly address interactions between humans and spinner dolphins. We used a series of dolphin sightings from recent surveys in the main Hawaiian Islands and a suite of environmental variables hypothesized as being important to resting habitat to model spinner dolphin resting habitat. The model performed well in predicting resting habitat and indicated that proximity to deep water foraging areas, depth, the proportion of bays with shallow depths, and rugosity were important predictors of spinner dolphin habitat. Predicted locations of suitable spinner dolphin resting habitat provided in this study indicate areas where future survey efforts should be focused and highlight potential areas of conflict with human activities. This study provides an example of a presence-only habitat model used to inform the management of a species for which patterns of habitat availability are poorly understood.

  9. Structure of Mesophotic Reef Fish Assemblages in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Atsuko; Kosaki, Randall K; Wagner, Daniel; Kane, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) support diverse communities of marine organisms with changes in community structure occurring along a depth gradient. In recent years, MCEs have gained attention due to their depths that provide protection from natural and anthropogenic stressors and their relative stability over evolutionary time periods, yet ecological structures of fish assemblages in MCEs remain largely un-documented. Here, we investigated composition and trophic structure of reef fish assemblages in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) along a depth gradient from 1 to 67 m. The structure of reef fish assemblages as a whole showed a clear gradient from shallow to mesophotic depths. Fish assemblages at mesophotic depths had higher total densities than those in shallower waters, and were characterized by relatively high densities of planktivores and invertivores and relatively low densities of herbivores. Fishes that typified assemblages at mesophotic depths included six species that are endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. The present study showed that mesophotic reefs in the NWHI support unique assemblages of fish that are characterized by high endemism and relatively high densities of planktivores. Our findings underscore the ecological importance of these undersurveyed ecosystems and warrant further studies of MCEs.

  10. Integration of wireless sensor networks into cyberinfrastructure for monitoring Hawaiian "mountain-to-sea" environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Michael H; Mundt, Carsten W; Montgomery, Kevin N; Asquith, Adam; Goodale, David W; Kaneshiro, Kenneth Y

    2008-10-01

    Monitoring the complex environmental relationships and feedbacks of ecosystems on catchment (or mountain)-to-sea scales is essential for social systems to effectively deal with the escalating impacts of expanding human populations globally on watersheds. However, synthesis of emerging technologies into a robust observing platform for the monitoring of coupled human-natural environments on extended spatial scales has been slow to develop. For this purpose, the authors produced a new cyberinfrastructure for environmental monitoring which successfully merged the use of wireless sensor technologies, grid computing with three-dimensional (3D) geospatial data visualization/exploration, and a secured internet portal user interface, into a working prototype for monitoring mountain-to-sea environments in the high Hawaiian Islands. A use-case example is described in which native Hawaiian residents of Waipa Valley (Kauai) utilized the technology to monitor the effects of regional weather variation on surface water quality/quantity response, to better understand their local hydrologic cycle, monitor agricultural water use, and mitigate the effects of lowland flooding.

  11. Muscle fiber type distribution in climbing Hawaiian gobioid fishes: ontogeny and correlations with locomotor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cediel, Roberto A; Blob, Richard W; Schrank, Gordon D; Plourde, Robert C; Schoenfuss, Heiko L

    2008-01-01

    Three species of Hawaiian amphidromous gobioid fishes are remarkable in their ability to climb waterfalls up to several hundred meters tall. Juvenile Lentipes concolor and Awaous guamensis climb using rapid bursts of axial undulation, whereas juvenile Sicyopterus stimpsoni climb using much slower movements, alternately attaching oral and pelvic sucking disks to the substrate during prolonged bouts of several cycles. Based on these differing climbing styles, we hypothesized that propulsive musculature in juvenile L. concolor and A. guamensis would be dominated by white muscle fibers, whereas S. stimpsoni would exhibit a greater proportion of red muscle fibers than other climbing species. We further predicted that, because adults of these species shift from climbing to burst swimming as their main locomotor behavior, muscle from adult fish of all three species would be dominated by white fibers. To test these hypotheses, we used ATPase assays to evaluate muscle fiber type distribution in Hawaiian climbing gobies for three anatomical regions (midbody, anal, and tail). Axial musculature was dominated by white muscle fibers in juveniles of all three species, but juvenile S. stimpsoni had a significantly greater proportion of red fibers than the other two species. Fiber type proportions of adult fishes did not differ significantly from those of juveniles. Thus, muscle fiber type proportions in juveniles appear to help accommodate differences in locomotor demands among these species, indicating that they overcome the common challenge of waterfall climbing through both diverse behaviors and physiological specializations.

  12. New and resurrected Hawaiian species of pilo (Coprosma, Rubiaceae) from the island of Maui.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantley, Jason T; Sporck-Koehler, Margaret J; Chau, Marian M

    2016-01-01

    Two species of Coprosma (Rubiaceae) J.R.Forst. & G.Forst. are described from the island of Maui of the Hawaiian Archipelago. A newly described taxon, Coprosma cordicarpa J.Cantley, Sporck-Koehler, & M.Chau, sp. nov. is locally common in medium to high elevation dry forests and shrublands of leeward East Maui. The second taxon is resurrected from the synonymy of Coprosma foliosa A.Gray as Coprosma stephanocarpa Hillebr. and occurs in mesic to wet rainforests of both East and West Maui. Both taxa are segregated from Coprosma foliosa, with which they share similar morphological characters. A conspicuous and persistent calyx of the fruit and various floral characters most easily differentiate both taxa from other Hawaiian taxa. The newly described Coprosma cordicarpa is further distinguished from Coprosma stephanocarpa by a central constriction of the fruit with a depressed apex, which gives it a characteristic heart shape. Furthermore, the taxa are largely separated phenologically, ecologically, and geographically. Descriptions, conservation status, and specimens examined for the new species are included.

  13. A review of the endemic Hawaiian Drosophilidae and their host plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnacca, K.N.; Foote, D.; O'Grady, P. M.

    2008-01-01

    The Hawaiian Drosophilidae is one of the best examples of rapid speciation in nature. Nearly 1,000 species of endemic drosophilids have evolved in situ in Hawaii since a single colonist arrived over 25 million years ago. A number of mechanisms, including ecological adaptation, sexual selection, and geographic isolation, have been proposed to explain the evolution of this hyperdiverse group of species. Here, we examine the known ecological associations of 326 species of endemic Hawaiian Drosophilidae in light of the phylogenetic relationships of these species. Our analysis suggests that the long-accepted belief of strict ecological specialization in this group does not hold for all taxa. While many species have a primary host plant family, females will also oviposit on non-preferred host plant taxa. Host shifting is fairly common in some groups, especially the grimshawi and modified mouthparts species groups of Drosophila, and the Scaptomyza subgenus Elmomyza. Associations with types of substrates (bark, leaves, flowers) are more evolutionarily conserved than associations with host plant families. These data not only give us insight into the role ecology has played in the evolution of this large group, but can help in making decisions about the management of rare and endangered host plants and the insects that rely upon them for survival. Copyright ?? 2008 Magnolia Press.

  14. Groundtruthing Notes and Miscellaneous Biological Datasets from Coral Ecosystems Surveys from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Rapid Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program of 2000-2002 (NODC Accession 0001448)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program (NOWRAMP) began in 2000 with the mission to rapidly evaluate and map the shallow water...

  15. Assessment of species composition, diversity, and biomass in marine habitats and subhabitats around offshore islets in the main Hawaiian islands, April 2 - September 20, 2007 (NCEI Accession 0042684)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The marine algae, invertebrate and fish communities were surveyed at ten islet or offshore island sites in the Main Hawaiian Islands in the vicinity of Lanai, (Puu...

  16. HW1_Q12.TIF - Hawaii I - Southeastern Hawaiian Ridge U.S. EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (12 of 29) (LCC, 50 m, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Survey of the southeastern Hawaiian Ridge was the fifth major segment of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) mapping program to have been initiated. Data acquisition...

  17. HW1_Q24.TIF - Hawaii I - Southeastern Hawaiian Ridge U.S. EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (24 of 29) (LCC, 50 m, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Survey of the southeastern Hawaiian Ridge was the fifth major segment of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) mapping program to have been initiated. Data acquisition...

  18. HW1_Q14.TIF - Hawaii I - Southeastern Hawaiian Ridge U.S. EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (14 of 29) (LCC, 50 m, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Survey of the southeastern Hawaiian Ridge was the fifth major segment of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) mapping program to have been initiated. Data acquisition...

  19. HW1_Q16.TIF - Hawaii I - Southeastern Hawaiian Ridge U.S. EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (16 of 29) (LCC, 50 m, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Survey of the southeastern Hawaiian Ridge was the fifth major segment of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) mapping program to have been initiated. Data acquisition...

  20. CRED SVP Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 24949 Data, between Maro Reef and Raita Bank in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands , 200109-200309 (NODC Accession 0049436)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED SVP drifter Argos_ID 24949 was deployed in the region of NW Hawaiian Islands to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. SVP drifter data files...

  1. CRED 60 m Gridded bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of UTM Zone 1, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA (NetCDF format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of the shelf and slope environments of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA within UTM Zone 1. Bottom coverage was...

  2. CRED 60 m Gridded bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of UTM Zone 3, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA (netCDF format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of the shelf and slope environments of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA within UTM Zone 3. Bottom coverage was...

  3. Feeding biology of the introduced fish roi, and its impact on Hawaiian reef fishes, January 2004 and January 2005, (NODC Accession 0002172)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Feeding biology of the introduced fish roi (Cephalopholis argus), and its impact on Hawaiian reef fishes and fisheries between January 2004 and January 2005. Roi...

  4. HW1_Q08.TIF - Hawaii I - Southeastern Hawaiian Ridge U.S. EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (8 of 29) (LCC, 50 m, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Survey of the southeastern Hawaiian Ridge was the fifth major segment of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) mapping program to have been initiated. Data acquisition...

  5. HW1_Q01.TIF - Hawaii I - Southeastern Hawaiian Ridge U.S. EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (1 of 29) (LCC, 50 m, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Survey of the southeastern Hawaiian Ridge was the fifth major segment of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) mapping program to have been initiated. Data acquisition...

  6. HW1_Q18.TIF - Hawaii I - Southeastern Hawaiian Ridge U.S. EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (18 of 29) (LCC, 50 m, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Survey of the southeastern Hawaiian Ridge was the fifth major segment of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) mapping program to have been initiated. Data acquisition...

  7. HW1_Q25.TIF - Hawaii I - Southeastern Hawaiian Ridge U.S. EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (25 of 29) (LCC, 50 m, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Survey of the southeastern Hawaiian Ridge was the fifth major segment of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) mapping program to have been initiated. Data acquisition...

  8. HW1_Q22.TIF - Hawaii I - Southeastern Hawaiian Ridge U.S. EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (22 of 29) (LCC, 50 m, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Survey of the southeastern Hawaiian Ridge was the fifth major segment of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) mapping program to have been initiated. Data acquisition...

  9. HW1_Q23.TIF - Hawaii I - Southeastern Hawaiian Ridge U.S. EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (23 of 29) (LCC, 50 m, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Survey of the southeastern Hawaiian Ridge was the fifth major segment of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) mapping program to have been initiated. Data acquisition...

  10. HW1_Q26.TIF - Hawaii I - Southeastern Hawaiian Ridge U.S. EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (26 of 29) (LCC, 50 m, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Survey of the southeastern Hawaiian Ridge was the fifth major segment of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) mapping program to have been initiated. Data acquisition...

  11. HW1_Q06.TIF - Hawaii I - Southeastern Hawaiian Ridge U.S. EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (6 of 29) (LCC, 50 m, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Survey of the southeastern Hawaiian Ridge was the fifth major segment of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) mapping program to have been initiated. Data acquisition...

  12. HW1_Q21.TIF - Hawaii I - Southeastern Hawaiian Ridge U.S. EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (21 of 29) (LCC, 50 m, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Survey of the southeastern Hawaiian Ridge was the fifth major segment of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) mapping program to have been initiated. Data acquisition...

  13. HW1_Q20.TIF - Hawaii I - Southeastern Hawaiian Ridge U.S. EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (20 of 29) (LCC, 50 m, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Survey of the southeastern Hawaiian Ridge was the fifth major segment of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) mapping program to have been initiated. Data acquisition...

  14. HW1_Q10.TIF - Hawaii I - Southeastern Hawaiian Ridge U.S. EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (10 of 29) (LCC, 50 m, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Survey of the southeastern Hawaiian Ridge was the fifth major segment of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) mapping program to have been initiated. Data acquisition...

  15. HW1_Q02.TIF - Hawaii I - Southeastern Hawaiian Ridge U.S. EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (2 of 29) (LCC, 50 m, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Survey of the southeastern Hawaiian Ridge was the fifth major segment of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) mapping program to have been initiated. Data acquisition...

  16. HW1_Q09.TIF - Hawaii I - Southeastern Hawaiian Ridge U.S. EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (9 of 29) (LCC, 50 m, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Survey of the southeastern Hawaiian Ridge was the fifth major segment of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) mapping program to have been initiated. Data acquisition...

  17. HMSRP Hawaiian Monk Seal Specimen Data (includes physical specimens, collection information, status, storage locations, and laboratory results associated with individual specimens)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes physical specimens, paper logs and Freezerworks database of all logged information on specimens collected from Hawaiian monk seals since 1975....

  18. 2002 EM1002 and EM120 Multibeam Sonar Data from Cruise R/V Kilo Moana KM-02-06 - Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — EM1002 and EM120 multibeam Data were collected in October/November 2002 aboard R/V Kilo Moana between Kauai Island and Lisianski Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian...

  19. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Hawaiian Archipelago since 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Hawaiian archipelago since 2013. Juvenile...

  20. Photographic Images of Benthic Coral, Algae, and Invertebrate Species in Marine Habitats and Subhabitats around Offshore Islets in the Main Hawaiian Islands 2007 (NODC Accession 0043046)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The marine algae, invertebrate and fish communities were surveyed at ten islet or offshore island sites in the Main Hawaiian Islands in the vicinity of Lanai, (Puu...

  1. Assessment of Species Composition, Diversity, and Biomass in Marine Habitats and Subhabitats around Offshore Islets in the Main Hawaiian Islands 2007 (NODC Accession 0042684)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The marine algae, invertebrate and fish communities were surveyed at ten islet or offshore island sites in the Main Hawaiian Islands in the vicinity of Lanai, (Puu...

  2. HW1_Q13.TIF - Hawaii I - Southeastern Hawaiian Ridge U.S. EEZ GLORIA sidescan-sonar data mosaic (13 of 29) (LCC, 50 m, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Survey of the southeastern Hawaiian Ridge was the fifth major segment of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) mapping program to have been initiated. Data acquisition...

  3. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Water Chemistry of the Coral Reefs in the Hawaiian Archipelago from Water Samples collected since 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water samples are collected and analyzed to assess spatial and temporal variation in the seawater carbonate systems of coral reef ecosystems in the Hawaiian and...

  4. CRED 20 m Gridded bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of Northampton Seamounts to Laysan Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA (NetCDF format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of the shelf and slope environments of Northampton Seamounts to Laysan Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Hawaii,...

  5. CRED SVP Drifting Buoy Argos_ID 30111 Data, French Frigate Shoals in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 200210-200309 (NODC Accession 0049436)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED SVP drifter Argos_ID 30111 was deployed in the region of NW Hawaiian Islands to assess ocean currents and sea surface temperature. SVP drifter data files...

  6. Nuclear and mtDNA phylogenetic analyses clarify the evolutionary history of two species of native Hawaiian bats and the taxonomy of Lasiurini (Mammalia: Chiroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Amy B; Braun, Janet K; Engstrom, Mark D; Holbert, Ashlyn C; Huerta, Maritza G; Lim, Burton K; Mares, Michael A; Patton, John C; Bickham, John W

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies on genetics of hoary bats produced differing conclusions on the timing of their colonization of the Hawaiian Islands and whether or not North American (Aeorestes cinereus) and Hawaiian (A. semotus) hoary bats are distinct species. One study, using mtDNA COI and nuclear Rag2 and CMA1, concluded that hoary bats colonized the Hawaiian Islands no more than 10,000 years ago based on indications of population expansion at that time using Extended Bayesian Skyline Plots. The other study, using 3 mtDNA and 1 Y-chromosome locus, concluded that the Hawaiian Islands were colonized about 1 million years ago. To address the marked inconsistencies between those studies, we examined DNA sequences from 4 mitochondrial and 2 nuclear loci in lasiurine bats to investigate the timing of colonization of the Hawaiian Islands by hoary bats, test the hypothesis that Hawaiian and North American hoary bats belong to different species, and further investigate the generic level taxonomy within the tribe. Phylogenetic analysis and dating of the nodes of mtDNA haplotypes and of nuclear CMA1 alleles show that A. semotus invaded the Hawaiian Islands approximately 1.35 Ma and that multiple arrivals of A. cinereus occurred much more recently. Extended Bayesian Skyline plots show population expansion at about 20,000 years ago in the Hawaiian Islands, which we conclude does not represent the timing of colonization of the Hawaiian Islands given the high degree of genetic differentiation among A. cinereus and A. semotus (4.2% divergence at mtDNA Cytb) and the high degree of genetic diversity within A. semotus. Rather, population expansion 20,000 years ago could have resulted from colonization of additional islands, expansion after a bottleneck, or other factors. New genetic data also support the recognition of A. semotus and A. cinereus as distinct species, a finding consistent with previous morphological and behavioral studies. The phylogenetic analysis of CMA1 alleles shows the

  7. Mālama nā makua i nā keiki me ka hānō: Native Hawaiian parents caring for their children with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May K. Kealoha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Native Hawaiian children have the highest prevalence rate of asthma among all ethnicities in the State of Hawai‘i. Literature is limited regarding native Hawaiian parents’ perception and experience caring for their children with asthma. The purpose of this study is to explore contemporary native Hawaiian parents’ perspective and experience of caring for their children with asthma in the context of uncertainty. We applied a descriptive qualitative approach by means of directed content analysis using focus groups. Directed content analysis applied Mishel’s Uncertainty in Illness Theory to guide data collection, organization, and analysis. We found that parents’ personal stories about their children to be rich and enlightening. Findings verified that native Hawaiian parents experience uncertainty regarding asthma care as commonly described in the literature. Contextual influences including indigenous worldview and cultural values affected native Hawaiian parents’ perceptions and experiences with conventional asthma care. Unique findings involved the etiology of asthma, features of social support (‘ohana, and differentiation between Western medicine and traditional healing practices. As nurses focus on supporting the family’s cultural values and preferences related to asthma care and alternative remedies, native Hawaiian parents’ care of their children with asthma will be strengthened.

  8. Steep spatial gradients of volcanic and marine sulfur in Hawaiian rainfall and ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bern, Carleton R., E-mail: cbern@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Department of Geography University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-4060 (United States); Chadwick, Oliver A. [Department of Geography University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-4060 (United States); Kendall, Carol [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Pribil, Michael J. [U.S. Geological Survey, Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225 (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Sulfur, a nutrient required by terrestrial ecosystems, is likely to be regulated by atmospheric processes in well-drained, upland settings because of its low concentration in most bedrock and generally poor retention by inorganic reactions within soils. Environmental controls on sulfur sources in unpolluted ecosystems have seldom been investigated in detail, even though the possibility of sulfur limiting primary production is much greater where atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic sulfur is low. Here we measure sulfur isotopic compositions of soils, vegetation and bulk atmospheric deposition from the Hawaiian Islands for the purpose of tracing sources of ecosystem sulfur. Hawaiian lava has a mantle-derived sulfur isotopic composition (δ{sup 34}S VCDT) of − 0.8‰. Bulk deposition on the island of Maui had a δ{sup 34}S VCDT that varied temporally, spanned a range from + 8.2 to + 19.7‰, and reflected isotopic mixing from three sources: sea-salt (+ 21.1‰), marine biogenic emissions (+ 15.6‰), and volcanic emissions from active vents on Kilauea Volcano (+ 0.8‰). A straightforward, weathering-driven transition in ecosystem sulfur sources could be interpreted in the shift from relatively low (0.0 to + 2.7‰) to relatively high (+ 17.8 to + 19.3‰) soil δ{sup 34}S values along a 0.3 to 4100 ka soil age-gradient, and similar patterns in associated vegetation. However, sub-kilometer scale spatial variation in soil sulfur isotopic composition was found along soil transects assumed by age and mass balance to be dominated by atmospheric sulfur inputs. Soil sulfur isotopic compositions ranged from + 8.1 to + 20.3‰ and generally decreased with increasing elevation (0–2000 m), distance from the coast (0–12 km), and annual rainfall (180–5000 mm). Such trends reflect the spatial variation in marine versus volcanic inputs from atmospheric deposition. Broadly, these results illustrate how the sources and magnitude of atmospheric deposition can exert controls

  9. Age-Distance Relations along the Hawaiian-Emperor Volcanic Chain: History and Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    The increase in age with distance along the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain is a key parameter in models of plate motions and mantle dynamics. Wilson (1963) proposed that the Hawaiian Islands formed sequentially as the Pacific Plate migrated over a hot spot in the Earth's mantle based on the inferred increase in age of the Islands to the west. Morgan (1971) proposed that Wilson's hot spot was a geographically fixed mantle plume originating at the core-mantle boundary, and that the orientation and age-distance relations of the chain provided a measure of absolute plate motion with the bend between the Hawaiian and Emperor chains reflecting a major change in motion of the Pacific Plate at 40 Ma. Defining and refining the age relations along the two chains has taken decades due largely to the remoteness of most of the chain, the difficulties in dating altered submarine lavas, and the presence of glacial debris as far south as 42°25'N in the Emperor Seamounts. Ocean drilling program legs 55 and 197 focused on the age and paleolatitude of Emperor Seamounts. Many of the early ages are K-Ar dates. Later dates are Ar/Ar incremental heating extractions of whole-rocks or, more recently still, of clean mineral separates that yield accurate and precise dates (e.g., Sharp and Clague, 2006). Many reported ages have ill-defined errors, especially those of tholeiitic shield lavas. Over-interpretation of the collected age data seemed to indicate coeval volcanism along large segments of the chain, instead of recognizing the errors inherent in many of the determined ages. Subsequent work, such as at Gardner Pinnacles, has eliminated some of these apparent non-linear age relations. The bend is now recognized as a gradual transition in orientation that occurred between 50 and 42 Ma (Sharp & Clague, 2006); it likely resulted from the collision of India and Eurasia that precipitated a worldwide chain reaction of relative and absolute plate motion changes (Dalrymple & Clague, 1976).

  10. Differential effects of human activity on Hawaiian spinner dolphins in their resting bays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. Heenehan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hawaiian spinner dolphins display predictable daily behavior, using shallow bays to rest during the daytime, bays that are also frequented by humans. All previous research on the potential response of Hawaiian spinner dolphins to human activity has been conducted visually, at the surface. In this study we take a different approach by using passive acoustic monitoring to analyze dolphin behavior and assess whether human activity affects the behavior of the animals. We used days (n=99 and hours (n=641 when dolphins were confirmed present in visual surveys between January 9, 2011 and August 15, 2012 and metrics generated from concomitant 30-second sound recordings (n=9615. Previous research found that the dolphins were predictably silent during rest and that acoustic activity matched general activity of the dolphins with higher acoustic activity before and after rest, and silence during rest. The daily pattern of dolphin whistle activity in Bay 2 and 4 (Kealakekua and Kauhako matched what would be expected from this earlier work. However, in Bay 1 and 3 (Makako and Honaunau there was no drop in dolphin whistle activity during rest. After assessing the relationship between time of day and dolphin acoustic activity, data on human presence were used to determine how variability in the dolphins’ acoustic activity might be explained by human activity (i.e. the number of vessels, kayaks and swimmer snorkelers present. Bay 2, the bay with the most human activity, showed no relationship between dolphin whistle activity and human presence (either vessels, kayaks, or swimmer/snorkelers. Although the relationships were weak, Bay 1 displayed a positive relationship between dolphin whistle activity and the number of vessels and swimmer/snorkelers present in the bay. Bay 4 also showed a positive relationship between dolphin whistle activity and the number of swimmer snorkelers. We also documented less sound being added to the soundscape with each additional

  11. Amphitheater-Headed Valleys: Unique or Non-Unique Origin? The Hawaiian Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, D. T.; Blay, C.

    2007-12-01

    While the formation and migration of amphitheaters (knickpoints) in unconsolidated sediment is fairly well understood the same cannot be said for amphitheaters formed in a variety of bedrock types, climate settings, and even planetary location. The question remains, is there a single knickpoint forming process at work or do multiple landscape forming processes have a convergence tendency because of cybernetic feedback? A simple example would be a waterfall creating a micro-environment that enhances and focuses specific landscape forming processes like weathering, microbial action, and vegetation growth aiding in the continuation of the knickpoint form. It should be noted that weathering, microbial growth and vegetation growth would have cybernetic feedback among them. In fact it may be difficult to determine the controlling process, if any. If one considers that knickpoints likely intercept the regional groundwater flow system there is an additional focused source of water supply which further contributes to the micro-environment of the knickpoint. Groundwater discharge has significant cybernetic feedbacks with landscape forming processes. The nature and composition of the bedrock and climatic factors may determine rates of knickpoint migration but the resulting morphologic features in different settings would likely be similar with cybernetic feedback. It should be noted that cybernetic feedback can either be damping or amplifying. Amphitheater-headed valleys have developed in many locations on the Hawaiian Islands. The islands have formed in a time sequence as the supporting oceanic plate moves over a focused mantle source for the basalts. The amphitheaters of Hawaii occur in "fresh" and "older" basaltic rock depending on island location. Weathering processes have acted longer on some islands. Because of the topography and its affect on trade winds the main islands have focused rainfall, significant recharge, and active groundwater flow systems. While climate is

  12. Origin of the Hawaiian rainforest and its transition states in long-term primary succession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mueller-Dombois

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the question of transition states in the Hawaiian rainforest ecosystem with emphasis on their initial developments. Born among volcanoes in the north central Pacific about 4 million years ago, the Hawaiian rainforest became assembled from spores of algae, fungi, lichens, bryophytes, ferns and from seeds of about 275 flowering plants that over the millennia evolved into ca. 1000 endemic species. Outstanding among the forest builders were the tree ferns (Cibotium spp. and the 'ōhi'a lehua trees (Metrosideros spp., which still dominate the Hawaiian rainforest ecosystem today. The structure of this forest is simple. The canopy in closed mature rainforests is dominated by cohorts of Metrosideros polymorpha and the undergrowth by tree fern species of Cibotium. When a new lava flow cuts through this forest, kipuka are formed, i.e., islands of remnant vegetation. On the new volcanic substrate, the assemblage of plant life forms is similar to the assemblage during the evolution of this system. In open juvenile forests, a mat-forming fern, the uluhe fern (Dicranopteris linearis, becomes established. It inhibits further regeneration of the dominant 'ōhi'a tree, thereby reinforcing the cohort structure of the canopy guild. In the later part of its life cycle, the canopy guild breaks down often in synchrony. The trigger is hypothesized to be a climatic perturbation. After the disturbance, the forest becomes reestablished in about 30–40 yr. As the volcanic surfaces age, they go from a mesotrophic to a eutrophic phase, reaching a biophilic nutrient climax by about 1–25 K yr. Thereafter, a regressive oligotrophic phase follows; the soils become exhausted of nutrients. The shield volcanoes break down. Marginally, forest habitats change into bogs and stream ecosystems. The broader 'ōhi'a rainforest redeveloping in the more dissected landscapes of the older islands loses stature, often forming large gaps that are invaded by the aluminum

  13. Rapid forest carbon assessments of oceanic islands: a case study of the Hawaiian archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory P. Asner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spatially explicit forest carbon (C monitoring aids conservation and climate change mitigation efforts, yet few approaches have been developed specifically for the highly heterogeneous landscapes of oceanic island chains that continue to undergo rapid and extensive forest C change. We developed an approach for rapid mapping of aboveground C density (ACD; units = Mg or metric tons C ha−1 on islands at a spatial resolution of 30 m (0.09 ha using a combination of cost-effective airborne LiDAR data and full-coverage satellite data. We used the approach to map forest ACD across the main Hawaiian Islands, comparing C stocks within and among islands, in protected and unprotected areas, and among forests dominated by native and invasive species. Results Total forest aboveground C stock of the Hawaiian Islands was 36 Tg, and ACD distributions were extremely heterogeneous both within and across islands. Remotely sensed ACD was validated against U.S. Forest Service FIA plot inventory data (R2 = 0.67; RMSE = 30.4 Mg C ha−1. Geospatial analyses indicated the critical importance of forest type and canopy cover as predictors of mapped ACD patterns. Protection status was a strong determinant of forest C stock and density, but we found complex environmentally mediated responses of forest ACD to alien plant invasion. Conclusions A combination of one-time airborne LiDAR data acquisition and satellite monitoring provides effective forest C mapping in the highly heterogeneous landscapes of the Hawaiian Islands. Our statistical approach yielded key insights into the drivers of ACD variation, and also makes possible future assessments of C storage change, derived on a repeat basis from free satellite data, without the need for additional LiDAR data. Changes in C stocks and densities of oceanic islands can thus be continually assessed in the face of rapid environmental changes such as biological invasions, drought, fire and land use

  14. Rapid forest carbon assessments of oceanic islands: a case study of the Hawaiian archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P; Sousan, Sinan; Knapp, David E; Selmants, Paul C; Martin, Roberta E; Hughes, R Flint; Giardina, Christian P

    2016-12-01

    Spatially explicit forest carbon (C) monitoring aids conservation and climate change mitigation efforts, yet few approaches have been developed specifically for the highly heterogeneous landscapes of oceanic island chains that continue to undergo rapid and extensive forest C change. We developed an approach for rapid mapping of aboveground C density (ACD; units = Mg or metric tons C ha-1) on islands at a spatial resolution of 30 m (0.09 ha) using a combination of cost-effective airborne LiDAR data and full-coverage satellite data. We used the approach to map forest ACD across the main Hawaiian Islands, comparing C stocks within and among islands, in protected and unprotected areas, and among forests dominated by native and invasive species. Total forest aboveground C stock of the Hawaiian Islands was 36 Tg, and ACD distributions were extremely heterogeneous both within and across islands. Remotely sensed ACD was validated against U.S. Forest Service FIA plot inventory data (R2 = 0.67; RMSE = 30.4 Mg C ha-1). Geospatial analyses indicated the critical importance of forest type and canopy cover as predictors of mapped ACD patterns. Protection status was a strong determinant of forest C stock and density, but we found complex environmentally mediated responses of forest ACD to alien plant invasion. A combination of one-time airborne LiDAR data acquisition and satellite monitoring provides effective forest C mapping in the highly heterogeneous landscapes of the Hawaiian Islands. Our statistical approach yielded key insights into the drivers of ACD variation, and also makes possible future assessments of C storage change, derived on a repeat basis from free satellite data, without the need for additional LiDAR data. Changes in C stocks and densities of oceanic islands can thus be continually assessed in the face of rapid environmental changes such as biological invasions, drought, fire and land use. Such forest monitoring information can be used to promote

  15. The Hawaiian freshwater algae biodiversity survey (2009–2014): systematic and biogeographic trends with an emphasis on the macroalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background A remarkable range of environmental conditions is present in the Hawaiian Islands due to their gradients of elevation, rainfall and island age. Despite being well known as a location for the study of evolutionary processes and island biogeography, little is known about the composition of the non-marine algal flora of the archipelago, its degree of endemism, or affinities with other floras. We conducted a biodiversity survey of the non-marine macroalgae of the six largest main Hawaiian Islands using molecular and microscopic assessment techniques. We aimed to evaluate whether endemism or cosmopolitanism better explain freshwater algal distribution patterns, and provide a baseline data set for monitoring future biodiversity changes in the Hawaiian Islands. Results 1,786 aquatic and terrestrial habitats and 1,407 distinct collections of non-marine macroalgae were collected from the islands of Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, Lanai and Hawaii from the years 2009–2014. Targeted habitats included streams, wet walls, high elevation bogs, taro fields, ditches and flumes, lakes/reservoirs, cave walls and terrestrial areas. Sites that lacked freshwater macroalgae were typically terrestrial or wet wall habitats that were sampled for diatoms and other microalgae. Approximately 50% of the identifications were of green algae, with lesser proportions of diatoms, red algae, cyanobacteria, xanthophytes and euglenoids. 898 DNA sequences were generated representing eight different markers, which enabled an assessment of the number of taxonomic entities for genera collected as part of the survey. Forty-four well-characterized taxa were assessed for global distribution patterns. This analysis revealed no clear biogeographic affinities of the flora, with 27.3% characterized as “cosmopolitan”, 11.4% “endemic”, and 61.3% as intermediate. Conclusions The Hawaiian freshwater algal biodiversity survey represents the first comprehensive effort to characterize the non

  16. The Hawaiian bobtail squid as a model system for selective particle capture in microfluidic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawroth, Janna; McFall-Ngai, Margaret; Dabiri, John

    2013-11-01

    Juvenile Hawaiian bobtail squids reliably capture and isolate a single species of bacteria, Vibrio fischeri, from inhaled coastal water containing a huge background of living and non-living particles of comparable size. Biochemical mechanisms orchestrate a chain of specific interactions as soon as V.fischeri attach to the squid's internal light organ. It remains unclear, however, how the bacteria carried by the squid's ventilation currents are initially attracted to the light organ's surface. Here we present preliminary experimental data showing how arrangement and coordination of the cilia covering the light organ create a 3D flow field that facilitates advection, sieving and selective retention of flow-borne particles. These studies may inspire novel microfluidic tools for detection and capture of specific cells and particles.

  17. Origins of Marslike spectral and magnetic properties of a Hawaiian palagonitic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard V.; Gooding, James L.; Lauer, Howard V., Jr.; Singer, Robert B.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on spectral, Moessbauer, static magnetic, petrographic, and compositional data for a Hawaiian palagonitic soil from Mauna Kea (HWMK1). It was found that reflectivity spectra of size separates smaller than 20 microns resemble spectra for Martian bright regions, while spectra of larger size separates show characteristics in common with spectra for Martian dark regions. Data on the HWMK1 soil are consistent with the partitioning of iron among the following minerals: olivine, titanomagnetite, hematite, and a superparamagnetic colored ferric oxide. These mineralogies are heterogeneously distributed within the soil with respect to both particle type and soil-particle diameter. The strongly magnetic titanomagnetite is associated with black particles and is responsible for the magnetic nature of the soil, while the colored weakly magnetic superparamagnetic ferric oxide and minor hematite are associated with orange particles.

  18. Temporal variability of marine debris deposition at Tern Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustin, Alyssa E; Merrifield, Mark A; Potemra, James T; Morishige, Carey

    2015-12-15

    A twenty-two year record of marine debris collected on Tern Island is used to characterize the temporal variability of debris deposition at a coral atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Debris deposition tends to be episodic, without a significant relationship to local forcing processes associated with winds, sea level, waves, and proximity to the Subtropical Convergence Zone. The General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment is used to estimate likely debris pathways for Tern Island. The majority of modeled arrivals come from the northeast following prevailing trade winds and surface currents, with trajectories indicating the importance of the convergence zone, or garbage patch, in the North Pacific High region. Although debris deposition does not generally exhibit a significant seasonal cycle, some debris types contain considerable 3 cycle/yr variability that is coherent with wind and surface pressure over a broad region north of Tern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Improving Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander health: national organizations leading community research initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Won Kim; Weir, Rosy Chang; Ro, Margeurite; Ko, Kathy Lim; Panapasa, Sela; Bautista, Roxanna; Asato, Lloyd; Corina, Chung; Cabllero, Jeffery; Islam, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Functionally, many CBPR projects operate through a model of academic partners providing research expertise and community partners playing a supporting role. To demonstrate how national umbrella organizations deeply rooted in communities, cognizant of community needs, and drawing on the insights and assets of community partners, can lead efforts to address health disparities affecting their constituents through research. Case studies of two Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander national organizations. Strategically engaging a diverse range of partners and securing flexible funding mechanisms that support research were important facilitators. Main challenges included limited interest of local community organizations whose primary missions as service or health care providers may deprioritize research. Efforts to make research relevant to the work of community partners and to instill the value of research in community partners, as well as flexible funding mechanisms, may help to promote community-driven research.

  20. The development of videos in culturally grounded drug prevention for rural native Hawaiian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Scott K; Helm, Susana; McClain, Latoya L; Dinson, Ay-Laina

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt and validate narrative scripts to be used for the video components of a culturally grounded drug prevention program for rural Native Hawaiian youth. Scripts to be used to film short video vignettes of drug-related problem situations were developed based on a foundation of pre-prevention research funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Seventy-four middle- and high-school-aged youth in 15 focus groups adapted and validated the details of the scripts to make them more realistic. Specifically, youth participants affirmed the situations described in the scripts and suggested changes to details of the scripts to make them more culturally specific. Suggested changes to the scripts also reflected preferred drug resistance strategies described in prior research, and varied based on the type of drug offerer described in each script (i.e., peer/friend, parent, or cousin/sibling). Implications for culturally grounded drug prevention are discussed.

  1. Marine debris accumulation in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: an examination of rates and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dameron, Oliver J; Parke, Michael; Albins, Mark A; Brainard, Russell

    2007-04-01

    Large amounts of derelict fishing gear accumulate and cause damage to shallow coral reefs of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). To facilitate maintenance of reefs cleaned during 1996-2005 removal efforts, we identify likely high-density debris areas by assessing reef characteristics (depth, benthic habitat type, and energy regime) that influence sub-regional debris accumulation. Previously cleaned backreef and lagoonal reefs at two NWHI locations were resurveyed for accumulated debris using two survey methods. Accumulated debris densities and weights were found to be greater in lagoonal reef areas. Sample weight-based debris densities are extrapolated to similar habitats throughout the NWHI using a spatial 'net habitat' dataset created by generalizing IKONOS satellite derivatives for depth and habitat classification. Prediction accuracy for this dataset is tested using historical debris point data. Annual NWHI debris accumulation is estimated to be 52.0 metric tonnes. For planning purposes, individual NWHI atolls/reefs are allotted a proportion of this total.

  2. Reconceptualizing Indigenous Parent Involvement in Early Educational Settings: Lessons from Native Hawaiian Preschool Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Kaomea

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous families are often perceived by teachers and school administrators as disinterested and uninvolved in their children’s education. This article aims to complicate that longstanding stereotype. A detailed, qualitative case study of two Native Hawaiian preschool families reveals compelling counterstories of Indigenous parents who are deeply concerned about their children’s education, but are limited in their family-school involvement by a range of (postcolonial, social, psychological, and economic challenges that make it difficult for them to engage with schools in conventional ways. The study raises awareness of the skillful resolve with which Indigenous families employ their limited resources to support their children’s education. It challenges educators and policy makers to imagine creative possibilities for drawing Indigenous families into collaborative activity with contemporary schools.

  3. Changes in mesophotic reef fish assemblages along depth and geographical gradients in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Atsuko; Kosaki, Randall K.; Wagner, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) extend from 30 to 150 m in depth and support diverse communities of marine organisms. We investigated changes in the structure of mesophotic reef fish assemblages (27-100 m) in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) along depth and geographical gradients using open- and closed-circuit trimix diving. There were clear changes in the assemblage structure from the southeastern to the northwestern end of the NWHI and from shallow to deep waters. Interactive effects of depth and location were also detected. MCEs in the NWHI can be treated as three regions: southeastern and mid regions primarily separated by the presence and absence, respectively, of the introduced species Lutjanus kasmira, and a northwestern region where fish assemblages are largely composed of endemic species. These spatial patterns may be explained, at least in part, by differences in temperature among the regions.

  4. A comprehensive investigation of mesophotic coral ecosystems in the Hawaiian Archipelago

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    Richard L. Pyle

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Although the existence of coral-reef habitats at depths to 165 m in tropical regions has been known for decades, the richness, diversity, and ecological importance of mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs has only recently become widely acknowledged. During an interdisciplinary effort spanning more than two decades, we characterized the most expansive MCEs ever recorded, with vast macroalgal communities and areas of 100% coral cover between depths of 50–90 m extending for tens of km2 in the Hawaiian Archipelago. We used a variety of sensors and techniques to establish geophysical characteristics. Biodiversity patterns were established from visual and video observations and collected specimens obtained from submersible, remotely operated vehicles and mixed-gas SCUBA and rebreather dives. Population dynamics based on age, growth and fecundity estimates of selected fish species were obtained from laser-videogrammetry, specimens, and otolith preparations. Trophic dynamics were determined using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic analyses on more than 750 reef fishes. MCEs are associated with clear water and suitable substrate. In comparison to shallow reefs in the Hawaiian Archipelago, inhabitants of MCEs have lower total diversity, harbor new and unique species, and have higher rates of endemism in fishes. Fish species present in shallow and mesophotic depths have similar population and trophic (except benthic invertivores structures and high genetic connectivity with lower fecundity at mesophotic depths. MCEs in Hawai‘i are widespread but associated with specific geophysical characteristics. High genetic, ecological and trophic connectivity establish the potential for MCEs to serve as refugia for some species, but our results question the premise that MCEs are more resilient than shallow reefs. We found that endemism within MCEs increases with depth, and our results do not support suggestions of a global faunal break at 60 m. Our findings enhance

  5. Forest structure in low-diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostertag, Rebecca; Inman-Narahari, Faith; Cordell, Susan; Giardina, Christian P; Sack, Lawren

    2014-01-01

    The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai'i Island. We compared the species diversity, tree density, basal area, biomass, and size class distributions between the two forest types. We then examined these variables across tropical forests within the CTFS network. Consistent with other island forests, the Hawai'i forests were characterized by low species richness and very high relative dominance. The two Hawai'i forests were floristically distinct, yet similar in species richness (15 vs. 21 species) and stem density (3078 vs. 3486/ha). While these forests were selected for their low invasive species cover relative to surrounding forests, both forests averaged 5->50% invasive species cover; ongoing removal will be necessary to reduce or prevent competitive impacts, especially from woody species. The montane wet forest had much larger trees, resulting in eightfold higher basal area and above-ground biomass. Across the CTFS network, the Hawaiian montane wet forest was similar to other tropical forests with respect to diameter distributions, density, and aboveground biomass, while the Hawai'i lowland dry forest was similar in density to tropical forests with much higher diversity. These findings suggest that forest structural variables can be similar across tropical forests independently of species richness. The inclusion of low-diversity Pacific Island forests in the CTFS network provides an ∼80-fold range in species richness (15-1182 species), six-fold variation in mean annual rainfall (835-5272 mm yr(-1)) and 1.8-fold variation in mean annual temperature (16.0-28.4°C). Thus, the Hawaiian forest plots expand the global forest plot network to enable testing of ecological theory for

  6. Investigating the potential role of persistent organic pollutants in Hawaiian green sea turtle fibropapillomatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Jennifer M.; Balazs, George H.; Nilsen, Frances; Rice, Marc; Work, Thierry M.; Jensen, Brenda A.

    2014-01-01

    It has been hypothesized for decades that environmental pollutants may contribute to green sea turtle fibropapillomatosis (FP), possibly through immunosuppression leading to greater susceptibility to the herpesvirus, the putative causative agent of this tumor-forming disease. To address this question, we measured concentrations of 164 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and halogenated phenols in 53 Hawaiian green turtle (Chelonia mydas) plasma samples archived by the Biological and Environmental Monitoring and Archival of Sea Turtle Tissues (BEMAST) project at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Marine Environmental Specimen Bank. Four groups of turtles were examined: free-ranging turtles from Kiholo Bay (0% FP, Hawaii), Kailua Bay (low FP, 8%, Oahu), and Kapoho Bay (moderate FP, 38%, Hawaii) and severely tumored stranded turtles that required euthanasia (high FP, 100%, Main Hawaiian Islands). Four classes of POPs and seven halogenated phenols were detected in at least one of the turtles, and concentrations were low (often sea turtles is a novel discovery; their concentrations were higher than most man-made POPs, suggesting that the source of most of these compounds was likely natural (produced by the algal turtle diet) rather than metabolites of man-made POPs. None of the compounds measured increased in concentration with increasing prevalence of FP across the four groups of turtles, suggesting that these 164 compounds are not likely primary triggers for the onset of FP. However, the stranded, severely tumored, emaciated turtle group (n = 14) had the highest concentrations of POPs, which might suggest that mobilization of contaminants with lipids into the blood during late-stage weight loss could contribute to the progression of the disease. Taken together, these data suggest that POPs are not a major cofactor in causing the onset of FP.

  7. Dispersal of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in a Hawaiian rain forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Introduced mosquito-borne pathogens avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum Grassi and Feletti) and avian pox virus (Avipoxvirus) have been implicated in the past extinctions and declines of Hawaiian avifauna and remain significant obstacles to the recovery and restoration of endemic Hawaiian birds. Effective management of avian disease will require extensive mosquito control efforts that are guided by the local ecology of the vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). During October and November 1997 and September through November 1998 five mark-release-recapture experiments with laboratory-reared Cx. quinquefasciatus were conducted in a native rain forest on Hawaii Island. Of the overall 66,047 fluorescent dye-marked and released females, 1,192 (1.8%) were recaptured in 43-52 CO2-baited traps operated for 10-12-d trapping periods. Recaptured mosquitoes were trapped in all directions and at distances up to 3 km from the release site. The cumulative mean distance traveled (MDTs) over the trapping period ranged from a high of 1.89 km after 11 d (September 1998) to a low of 0.81 km after 11 d (November 1998). Released mosquitoes moved predominately in a downwind direction and they seemed to use forestry roads as dispersal corridors. Applying an estimated MDT of 1.6 km to a geographical information system-generated map of the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge clearly demonstrated that the effective refuge area could be reduced 60% by mosquitoes infiltrating into managed refuge lands. These findings should have significant implications for the design of future refuges and development of effective mosquito-borne avian disease control strategies.

  8. Survival estimates of wild and captive-bred released Puaiohi, an endangered Hawaiian thrush

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWerf, Eric; Crampton, Lisa H.; Diegmann, Julia; Atkinson, Carter T.; Leonard, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Estimating and monitoring adult and juvenile survival are vital to understanding population status, informing recovery planning for endangered species, and quantifying the success of management. We used mark–recapture models to estimate apparent annual survival of the Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri), an endangered thrush endemic to the Hawaiian island of Kauai, from 2005 to 2011. Our sample included 87 wild birds and 123 captive-bred birds that were released at various ages. Survival was higher for wild adult males (0.71 ± 0.09) than for wild adult females (0.46 ± 0.12). Survival of wild juveniles (0.23 ± 0.06) was lower than that of wild adults of both sexes, indicating that recruitment may limit population growth. Captive-bred birds released when survival (0.26 ± 0.21) comparable with that of wild juveniles, but captive-bred birds released at 1–3 yr old had very low survival (0.05 ± 0.06). Only 8 of 123 (7%) captive birds were seen again after release. Two wild birds resighted five years after marking are the oldest known individuals, being at least six years of age. Malarial infection did not affect survival of wild Puaiohi, unlike many Hawaiian forest birds. The difference between adult male and adult female survival is consistent with rat (Rattusspp.) predation of females on the nest as a major source of mortality. As such, attempting to reduce nest predation by controlling rats may be the best available management option. Releasing captive-bred birds has had little effect on the wild population in recent years.

  9. Cryptic extinction of a common Pacific lizard Emoia impar (Squamata, Scincidae) from the Hawaiian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert; Ineich, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Most documented declines of tropical reptiles are of dramatic or enigmatic species. Declines of widespread species tend to be cryptic. The early (1900s) decline and extinction of the common Pacific skink Emoia impar from the Hawaiian Islands is documented here through an assessment of literature, museum vouchers and recent fieldwork. This decline appears contemporaneous with the documented declines of invertebrates and birds across the Hawaiian Islands. A review of the plausible causal factors indicates that the spread of the introduced big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala is the most likely factor in this lizard decline. The introduction and spread of a similar skink Lampropholis delicata across the islands appears to temporally follow the decline of E. impar, although there is no evidence of competition between these species. It appears that L. delicata is spreading to occupy the niche vacated by the extirpated E. impar. Further confusion exists because the skink E. cyanura, which is very similar in appearance to E. impar, appears to have been introduced to one site within a hotel on Kaua'i and persisted as a population at that site for approximately 2 decades (1970s–1990s) but is now also extirpated. This study highlights the cryptic nature of this early species extinction as evidence that current biogeographical patterns of non-charismatic or enigmatic reptiles across the Pacific may be the historical result of early widespread invasion by ants. Conservation and restoration activities for reptiles in the tropical Pacific should consider this possibility and evaluate all evidence prior to any implementation.

  10. Satellite SST-Based Coral Disease Outbreak Predictions for the Hawaiian Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie M. Caldwell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Predicting wildlife disease risk is essential for effective monitoring and management, especially for geographically expansive ecosystems such as coral reefs in the Hawaiian archipelago. Warming ocean temperature has increased coral disease outbreaks contributing to declines in coral cover worldwide. In this study we investigated seasonal effects of thermal stress on the prevalence of the three most widespread coral diseases in Hawai’i: Montipora white syndrome, Porites growth anomalies and Porites tissue loss syndrome. To predict outbreak likelihood we compared disease prevalence from surveys conducted between 2004 and 2015 from 18 Hawaiian Islands and atolls with biotic (e.g., coral density and abiotic (satellite-derived sea surface temperature metrics variables using boosted regression trees. To date, the only coral disease forecast models available were developed for Acropora white syndrome on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR. Given the complexities of disease etiology, differences in host demography and environmental conditions across reef regions, it is important to refine and adapt such models for different diseases and geographic regions of interest. Similar to the Acropora white syndrome models, anomalously warm conditions were important for predicting Montipora white syndrome, possibly due to a relationship between thermal stress and a compromised host immune system. However, coral density and winter conditions were the most important predictors of all three coral diseases in this study, enabling development of a forecasting system that can predict regions of elevated disease risk up to six months before an expected outbreak. Our research indicates satellite-derived systems for forecasting disease outbreaks can be appropriately adapted from the GBR tools and applied for a variety of diseases in a new region. These models can be used to enhance management capacity to prepare for and respond to emerging coral diseases throughout Hawai

  11. Sociodemographic, behavioral, and biological variables related to weight loss in native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Townsend, Claire K M; Ige, Arlene; Sinclair, Ka' imi A; Mau, Marjorie K; Leake, Anne; Palakiko, Donna-Marie; Yoshimura, Sheryl R; Kekauoha, Puni; Hughes, Claire

    2013-03-01

    Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs) have a high obesity prevalence compared to other ethnic groups. We examined socio-demographic, behavioral, and biological factors related to ≥3% weight loss in 100 overweight/obese NHs/PIs who completed a lifestyle intervention. Data were from 56 Native Hawaiians, 22 Chuukese, and 22 Other Pacific Islanders who participated in a randomized controlled trial of the Partnership for Improving Lifestyle Intervention (PILI) 'Ohana Project. All completed a 3-month weight loss program (WLP) to initiate weight loss and were then randomized into either a 6-month family/community focused WLP called the PILI Lifestyle Program (PLP; n = 49) or a standard behavior WLP (SBP; n = 51). We collected baseline, 3- and 9-month follow-up data on socio-demographics, weight (kg), a 6-min. walk test, dietary fat, exercise frequency, and blood pressure. Based on ANCOVA or logistic fit, ethnicity, sex, initial weight loss, fat in diet at baseline, change in systolic blood pressure, and intervention type were significantly associated (P ≤ .05) with ≥3% weight loss at 9-month follow-up. A logistic regression model indicated that Chuukese (OR = 6.04; CI = 1.14-32.17) and participants who had more weight loss in the first 3-months (OR = 1.47; CI = 1.22-1.86) and who were in the PLP (OR = 4.50; CI = 1.50-15.14) were more likely to achieve ≥3% weight loss [model; χ(2) (7, N = 100) = 45.50, P importance of initial weight loss to sustain motivation toward long-term weight loss maintenance. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  12. Mapping plant species ranges in the Hawaiian Islands: developing a methodology and associated GIS layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jonathan P.; Jacobi, James D.; Gon, Samuel M.; Matsuwaki, Dwight; Mehrhoff, Loyal; Wagner, Warren; Lucas, Matthew; Rowe, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This report documents a methodology for projecting the geographic ranges of plant species in the Hawaiian Islands. The methodology consists primarily of the creation of several geographic information system (GIS) data layers depicting attributes related to the geographic ranges of plant species. The most important spatial-data layer generated here is an objectively defined classification of climate as it pertains to the distribution of plant species. By examining previous zonal-vegetation classifications in light of spatially detailed climate data, broad zones of climate relevant to contemporary concepts of vegetation in the Hawaiian Islands can be explicitly defined. Other spatial-data layers presented here include the following: substrate age, as large areas of the island of Hawai'i, in particular, are covered by very young lava flows inimical to the growth of many plant species; biogeographic regions of the larger islands that are composites of multiple volcanoes, as many of their species are restricted to a given topographically isolated mountain or a specified group of them; and human impact, which can reduce the range of many species relative to where they formerly were found. Other factors influencing the geographic ranges of species that are discussed here but not developed further, owing to limitations in rendering them spatially, include topography, soils, and disturbance. A method is described for analyzing these layers in a GIS, in conjunction with a database of species distributions, to project the ranges of plant species, which include both the potential range prior to human disturbance and the projected present range. Examples of range maps for several species are given as case studies that demonstrate different spatial characteristics of range. Several potential applications of species-range maps are discussed, including facilitating field surveys, informing restoration efforts, studying range size and rarity, studying biodiversity, managing

  13. Population dynamics of Hawaiian seabird colonies vulnerable to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Jeff S.; Reynolds, Michelle H.; Seavy, Nathaniel E.; Krause, Crystal M.

    2012-01-01

    Globally, seabirds are vulnerable to anthropogenic threats both at sea and on land. Seabirds typically nest colonially and show strong fidelity to natal colonies, and such colonies on low-lying islands may be threatened by sea-level rise. We used French Frigate Shoals, the largest atoll in the Hawaiian Archipelago, as a case study to explore the population dynamics of seabird colonies and the potential effects sea-level rise may have on these rookeries. We compiled historic observations, a 30-year time series of seabird population abundance, lidar-derived elevations, and aerial imagery of all the islands of French Frigate Shoals. To estimate the population dynamics of 8 species of breeding seabirds on Tern Island from 1980 to 2009, we used a Gompertz model with a Bayesian approach to infer population growth rates, density dependence, process variation, and observation error. All species increased in abundance, in a pattern that provided evidence of density dependence. Great Frigatebirds (Fregata minor), Masked Boobies (Sula dactylatra), Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda), Spectacled Terns (Onychoprion lunatus), and White Terns (Gygis alba) are likely at carrying capacity. Density dependence may exacerbate the effects of sea-level rise on seabirds because populations near carrying capacity on an island will be more negatively affected than populations with room for growth. We projected 12% of French Frigate Shoals will be inundated if sea level rises 1 m and 28% if sea level rises 2 m. Spectacled Terns and shrub-nesting species are especially vulnerable to sea-level rise, but seawalls and habitat restoration may mitigate the effects of sea-level rise. Losses of seabird nesting habitat may be substantial in the Hawaiian Islands by 2100 if sea levels rise 2 m. Restoration of higher-elevation seabird colonies represent a more enduring conservation solution for Pacific seabirds.

  14. Speciation on a conveyor belt: sequential colonization of the hawaiian islands by Orsonwelles spiders (Araneae, Linyphiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormiga, Gustavo; Arnedo, Miquel; Gillespie, Rosemary G

    2003-02-01

    Spiders of the recently described linyphiid genus Orsonwelles (Araneae, Linyphiidae) are one of the most conspicuous groups of terrestrial arthropods of Hawaiian native forests. There are 13 known Orsonwelles species, and all are single- island endemics. This radiation provides an excellent example of insular gigantism. We reconstructed the cladistic relationships of Orsonwelles species using a combination of morphological and molecular characters (both mitochondrial and nuclear sequences) within a parsimony framework. We explored and quantified the contribution of different character partitions and their sensitivity to changes in the traditional parameters (gap, transition, and transversion costs). The character data show a strong phylogenetic signal, robust to parameter changes. The monophyly of the genus Orsonwelles is strongly supported. The parsimony analysis of all character evidence combined recovered a clade with of all the non-Kauai Orsonwelles species; the species from Kauai form a paraphyletic assemblage with respect to the latter former clade. The biogeographic pattern of the Hawaiian Orsonwelles species is consistent with colonization by island progression, but alternative explanations for our data exist. Although the geographic origin of the radiation remains unknown, it appears that the ancestral colonizing species arrived first on Kauai (or an older island). The ambiguity in the area cladogram (i.e., post-Oahu colonization) is not derived from conflicting or unresolved phylogenetic signal among Orsonwelles species but rather from the number of taxa on the youngest islands. Speciation in Orsonwelles occurred more often within islands (8 of the 12 cladogenic events) than between islands. A molecular clock was rejected for the sequence data. Divergence times were estimated by using the nonparametric rate smoothing method of Sanderson (1997, Mol. Biol. Evol. 14:1218-1231) and the available geological data for calibration. The results suggest that the

  15. A comprehensive investigation of mesophotic coral ecosystems in the Hawaiian Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Richard L; Boland, Raymond; Bolick, Holly; Bowen, Brian W; Bradley, Christina J; Kane, Corinne; Kosaki, Randall K; Langston, Ross; Longenecker, Ken; Montgomery, Anthony; Parrish, Frank A; Popp, Brian N; Rooney, John; Smith, Celia M; Wagner, Daniel; Spalding, Heather L

    2016-01-01

    Although the existence of coral-reef habitats at depths to 165 m in tropical regions has been known for decades, the richness, diversity, and ecological importance of mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) has only recently become widely acknowledged. During an interdisciplinary effort spanning more than two decades, we characterized the most expansive MCEs ever recorded, with vast macroalgal communities and areas of 100% coral cover between depths of 50-90 m extending for tens of km(2) in the Hawaiian Archipelago. We used a variety of sensors and techniques to establish geophysical characteristics. Biodiversity patterns were established from visual and video observations and collected specimens obtained from submersible, remotely operated vehicles and mixed-gas SCUBA and rebreather dives. Population dynamics based on age, growth and fecundity estimates of selected fish species were obtained from laser-videogrammetry, specimens, and otolith preparations. Trophic dynamics were determined using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic analyses on more than 750 reef fishes. MCEs are associated with clear water and suitable substrate. In comparison to shallow reefs in the Hawaiian Archipelago, inhabitants of MCEs have lower total diversity, harbor new and unique species, and have higher rates of endemism in fishes. Fish species present in shallow and mesophotic depths have similar population and trophic (except benthic invertivores) structures and high genetic connectivity with lower fecundity at mesophotic depths. MCEs in Hawai'i are widespread but associated with specific geophysical characteristics. High genetic, ecological and trophic connectivity establish the potential for MCEs to serve as refugia for some species, but our results question the premise that MCEs are more resilient than shallow reefs. We found that endemism within MCEs increases with depth, and our results do not support suggestions of a global faunal break at 60 m. Our findings enhance the scientific

  16. The Hawaiian cave planthoppers (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea: Cixiidae - A model for rapid subterranean speciation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannelore Hoch

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available After the successful colonization of a single ancestral species in the Hawaiian Islands, planthoppers of the cixiid genus Oliarus underwent intensive adaptive radiation resulting in 80 described endemic species. Oliarus habitats range from montaneous rain forests to dry coastal biotopes and subterranean environments. At least 7 independant evolutionary lines represented by different species have adapted to lava tubes on Molokai (1, Maui (3, and Hawaii Island (3. Behavioral and morphological studies on one of these evolutionary lines on Hawaii Island, the blind, flight- and pigmentless Oliarus polyphentus have provided evidence for reproductive isolation between allopatric populations which may in fact be separate species. Significant differences in song parameters were observed even between populations from neighbouring lava tubes, although the planthoppers are capable of underground migration through the voids and cracks of the mesocavernous rock system which is extant in young basalt: after a little more than 20 years, lava tubes within the Mauna Ulu 1974 flow had been colonized by O. ‘polyphenius” individuals, most probably originating from a near-by forestkipuka. Amazingly, this species complex is found on the youngest of the Hawaiian Islands, with probably less than 0.5 m.y., which suggests rapid speciation processes. Field observations have led to the development of a hypothesis to match underground speciation with the dynamics of vegetational succession on the surface of active volcanoes. Planthopper range partitioning and geographic separation of populations by young lava flows, founder events and small population size may be important factors involved in rapid divergence.

  17. Natural selection of the major histocompatibility complex (Mhc) in Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvi, S.I.; Tarr, C.L.; Mcintosh, C.E.; Atkinson, C.T.; Fleischer, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    The native Hawaiian honeycreepers represent a classic example of adaptive radiation and speciation, but currently face one the highest extinction rates in the world. Although multiple factors have likely influenced the fate of Hawaiian birds, the relatively recent introduction of avian malaria is thought to be a major factor limiting honeycreeper distribution and abundance. We have initiated genetic analyses of class II ?? chain Mhc genes in four species of honeycreepers using methods that eliminate the possibility of sequencing mosaic variants formed by cloning heteroduplexed polymerase chain reaction products. Phylogenetic analyses group the honeycreeper Mhc sequences into two distinct clusters. Variation within one cluster is high, with dN > d S and levels of diversity similar to other studies of Mhc (B system) genes in birds. The second cluster is nearly invariant and includes sequences from honeycreepers (Fringillidae), a sparrow (Emberizidae) and a blackbird (Emberizidae). This highly conserved cluster appears reminiscent of the independently segregating Rfp-Y system of genes defined in chickens. The notion that balancing selection operates at the Mhc in the honeycreepers is supported by transpecies polymorphism and strikingly high dN/dS ratios at codons putatively involved in peptide interaction. Mitochondrial DNA control region sequences were invariant in the i'iwi, but were highly variable in the 'amakihi. By contrast, levels of variability of class II ?? chain Mhc sequence codons that are hypothesized to be directly involved in peptide interactions appear comparable between i'iwi and 'amakihi. In the i'iwi, natural selection may have maintained variation within the Mhc, even in the face of what appears to a genetic bottleneck.

  18. Conversing with Pelehonuamea: A workshop combining 1,000+ years of traditional Hawaiian knowledge with 200 years of scientific thought on Kīlauea volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauahikaua, James P.; Babb, Janet L.; Kauahikaua, James P.; Babb, Janet L.

    2017-05-25

    The events surrounding volcanic eruptions and damaging earthquakes in Hawai‘i have often been described in journals, letters, and newspapers articles in the English language; however, the Hawaiian nation was among the most literate of countries in the 19th century, and many Hawaiian-language newspapers were in circulation through all but the earliest decades of the 19th century. Any modern reconstruction of the history of Hawaiian eruptions or earthquakes should take advantage of all available sources, and so we seek to add the Hawaiian-language newspaper articles, journals, stories, and chants to the volcano and earthquake literature. These sources have been used in many recent volcanological studies.Another aspect to the mix of science and traditional Hawaiian values is that many of the volcanic summits in Hawaiʻi are considered sacred to Hawaiians. Hawaiian travelers brought the first Western missionary team to the summit of Kīlauea and advised them of the proper protocols and behaviors while in this sacred area. The missionaries dismissed this advice as native superstition and they began a campaign of aggressively stamping out customs and protocols related to the Hawaiian volcano goddess Pelehonuamea. What has survived as native knowledge of the volcanoes is a few phrases from native guides included in some of the missionaries’ journals, and a few stories. Pualani and Kuʻulei Kanahele provide excellent introductions to the Pelehonuamea chants.In the 21st century, amid a reawakening of Hawaiian culture, modern Hawaiians are demanding protection of their sacred areas, and scientists must be aware of these interests. At the very least, scientists should show respect to Hawaiian values when working in these areas, and should try to minimize disruptions caused by their work. Kaeo Duarte, Peter Mills, and Scott Rowland describe taking this approach in their field work.Traditional knowledge is also contained in place names. It is important not only to preserve

  19. Two new paratanaid Tanaidacea (Crustacea: Malacostraca: Peracarida) from the Hawaiian Islands, with illustrated taxonomic keys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Núñez, Andrés G; Pelleteri, Sara; Heard, Richard W

    2016-08-15

    Two new tanaidomorphan tanaidaceans, Aparatanais hawaiensis, sp. nov. and Metatanais spinipropodus, sp. nov. represent the first members of the Family Paratanaidae to be described from the Hawaiian Islands. Aparatanais hawaiensis is distinguished from the other species of the genus by the setation of the antenna, maxilliped, chela, and pereopods. Metatanais spinipropodus is distinguished from the other three members of its genus by its chela having a strongly developed, chisel-like, spiniform seta on the inner face of propodus near the sub-distal margin of the fixed finger. The Hawaiian occurrence of M. spinipropodus extends the range for the genus Metatanais well-eastward into the mid-Pacific Ocean. This study presents the first description of a male attributable to the genus Aparatanais.

  20. Kahua A';o--A Learning Foundation: Using Hawaiian Language Newspaper Articles for Science and Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, P. W.; Businger, S.

    2013-12-01

    Kahua A';o, an NSF OEDG project, utilizes Hawaiian language newspaper articles written between 1843 and 1948 in lessons and professional development intended to increase participation of underrepresented Native Hawaiian students in earth science. Guided by sociocultural theories that view learning as experiential and culturally situated, geoscientists (Steven Businger, Scott Rowland, Floyd McCoy, UG student Kelly Lance); Hawaiian translators (M. Puakea Nogelmeier, GRAs Kapomaikai Stone and Iasona Ellinwood); science educators (Pauline Chinn, graduate student Lindsey Spencer), utilize articles to develop place-based meteorology and geology curricula for middle school teachers. Articles are valuable to science and science education: Native Hawaiians are citizen scientists who recorded, interpreted, and communicated findings to potentially critical audiences, while dated, descriptive, eye witness reports provide data on events unrecorded by westerners. Articles reveal Hawaiian intellectual tradition placed great value on environmental knowledge. Moolelo (traditional stories) e.g., Kuapākaa (Nakuina, 1905), translated as The Wind Gourd of Laamaomao, tells of Kuapākaa controlling all the winds of Hawai';i by chanting their names--a metaphor for the power of knowledge of winds, rains and their patterns. In the moolelo of Kalapana, a boy hero challenges and defeats the king of Kauai to a life-and-death riddling contest (Nakuina, 1902). Maly's (2001) translation of a riddle involving 22 zones spanning mountaintop to deep-sea underscores the knowledge base informing sustainable practices. Articles provide insight into indigenous maps (Nogelmeier, personal communication) while riddling contests (Beckwith, 1940/1970) establish demonstrations of knowledge as central to power, identity, and status. Eight field-based lessons have been presented to formal and informal science educators, with teachers adapting lessons for 3rd-12th grade students. Graduate students Spencer, Stone

  1. A taxonomic survey of the shallow-water (<150 m black corals (Cnidaria: Antipatharia of the Hawaiian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eWagner

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The shallow-water (<150 m antipatharian fauna of the Hawaiian Archipelago is described and illustrated based on a systematic examination of skeletal spine morphology, polyp morphology, colony branching pattern and in situ photographs. A total of 172 black coral specimens were examined, including all available type material of species previously reported from shallow waters off Hawaiʻi. The examined specimens were assigned to three families (Antipathidae, Aphanipathidae and Myriopathidae, six genera (Antipathes, Cirrhipathes, Stichopathes, Aphanipathes, Acanthopathes and Myriopathes, and eight species: Antipathes griggi Opresko, 2009, Antipathes grandis Verrill, 1928, Cirrhipathes cf. anguina (Dana, 1846, Stichopathes echinulata Brook, 1889, Stichopathes? sp., Aphanipathes verticillata mauiensis Opresko et al., 2012, Acanthopathes undulata (Van Pesch 1914 andMyriopathes cf. ulex (Ellis and Solander 1786. The biogeographical distribution of Hawaiian shallow-water black corals is presented and discussed.

  2. Defining Boundaries for Ecosystem-Based Management: A Multispecies Case Study of Marine Connectivity across the Hawaiian Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Toonen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining the geographic scale at which to apply ecosystem-based management (EBM has proven to be an obstacle for many marine conservation programs. Generalizations based on geographic proximity, taxonomy, or life history characteristics provide little predictive power in determining overall patterns of connectivity, and therefore offer little in terms of delineating boundaries for marine spatial management areas. Here, we provide a case study of 27 taxonomically and ecologically diverse species (including reef fishes, marine mammals, gastropods, echinoderms, cnidarians, crustaceans, and an elasmobranch that reveal four concordant barriers to dispersal within the Hawaiian Archipelago which are not detected in single-species exemplar studies. We contend that this multispecies approach to determine concordant patterns of connectivity is an objective and logical way in which to define the minimum number of management units and that EBM in the Hawaiian Archipelago requires at least five spatially managed regions.

  3. Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Evaluation of PV Inverter Grid Support on Hawaiian Electric Feeders: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Austin; Prabakar, Kumaraguru; Nagarajan, Adarsh; Nepal, Shaili; Hoke, Anderson; Asano, Marc; Ueda, Reid; Ifuku, Earle

    2017-05-08

    As more grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) inverters become compliant with evolving interconnections requirements, there is increased interest from utilities in understanding how to best deploy advanced grid-support functions (GSF) in the field. One efficient and cost-effective method to examine such deployment options is to leverage power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) testing methods. Two Hawaiian Electric feeder models were converted to real-time models in the OPAL-RT real-time digital testing platform, and integrated with models of GSF capable PV inverters that were modeled from characterization test data. The integrated model was subsequently used in PHIL testing to evaluate the effects of different fixed power factor and volt-watt control settings on voltage regulation of the selected feeders. The results of this study were provided as inputs for field deployment and technical interconnection requirements for grid-connected PV inverters on the Hawaiian Islands.

  4. Longitudinal Prediction of Suicide Attempts for a Diverse Adolescent Sample of Native Hawaiians, Pacific Peoples, and Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishinuma, Earl S; Smith, Myra D; McCarthy, Kayne; Lee, Mark; Goebert, Deborah A; Sugimoto-Matsuda, Jeanelle J; Andrade, Naleen N; Philip, Jacques B; Chung-Do, Jane J; Hamamoto, Reid S; Andrade, Joy K L

    2017-01-10

    The objective of this study was to determine the longitudinal predictors of past-6-month suicide attempts for a diverse adolescent sample of Native Hawaiians, Pacific peoples, and Asian Americans. The study used longitudinal data from the Hawaiian High Schools Health Survey (N = 2,083, 9th to 11th graders, 1992-1993 and 1993-1994 school years). A stepwise multiple logistic regression was conducted. The final model consisted of three statistically significant predictors: (1) Time 1 suicide attempt, odds ratio = 30.6; (2) state anxiety, odds ratio = 4.9; and (3) parent expectations, odds ratio = 1.9. Past suicide attempt was by far the strongest predictor of future suicide attempts. Implications are discussed, including the need for screening of prior suicide attempts and focused interventions after suicide attempts.

  5. Tosanoides obama, a new basslet (Perciformes, Percoidei, Serranidae from deep coral reefs in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L. Pyle

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The new species Tosanoides obama is described from two specimens collected at a depth of 90–92 m off Kure Atoll and Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. It differs from the other two species of this genus in life color and in certain morphological characters, such as number of pored lateral-line scales, pectoral-fin rays, snout length, anterior three dorsal-fin spine lengths, dorsal-fin profile, and other characters. There are also substantial genetic differences from the other two species of Tosanoides (d ≈ 0.10 in mtDNA cytochrome oxidase I. The species is presently known only from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands within the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument.

  6. Experimental encounters: Filipino and Hawaiian bodies in the U.S. imperial invention of odontoclasia, 1928-1946.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jean J

    2010-01-01

    Through extensive dietary and dental surveys among infants and children living in Hawai'i starting in the late 1920s, medical researchers transformed immigrant and indigenous children's mouths into objects of pathological comparison, establishing sites of alternative empirical and epistemological contact that are endemic to U.S. Pacific empire. These studies resulted in the extension of odontoclasia, a veterinary diagnosis, from dogs to humans. As a dietary antidote, researchers recommended the wider consumption of poi, a starchy Hawaiian staple. Although this appears to be a novel endorsement of indigenous foodways predating contemporary activist efforts to reinstate traditional food cultures to support indigenous health, narrow technocratic specificity and the biomedical emphasis on the cultural rather than structural etiology of odontoclasia marginalized Hawaiian health by reducing morbidity to failures to conform to U.S. imperial modernity, which included industrial medical surveillance on plantations. Conversely, doctors credited plantations for saving Filipinos through successful imperial and hygienic assimilation.

  7. The effects of perceived racism on psychological distress mediated by venting and disengagement coping in Native Hawaiians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Antonio, Mapuana C K; Ing, Claire K Townsend; Hermosura, Andrea; Hall, Kimberly E; Knight, Rebecca; Wills, Thomas A

    2017-01-12

    Studies have linked perceived racism to psychological distress via certain coping strategies in several different racial and ethnic groups, but few of these studies included indigenous populations. Elucidating modifiable factors for intervention to reduce the adverse effects of racism on psychological well-being is another avenue to addressing health inequities. We examined the potential mediating effects of 14 distinct coping strategies on the relationship between perceived racism and psychological distress in a community-based sample of 145 Native Hawaiians using structural equation modeling. Perceived racism had a significant indirect effect on psychological distress, mediated through venting and behavioral disengagement coping strategies, with control for age, gender, educational level, and marital status. The findings suggest that certain coping strategies may exacerbate the deleterious effects of racism on a person's psychological well-being. Our study adds Native Hawaiians to the list of U.S. racial and ethnic minorities whose psychological well-being is adversely affected by racism.

  8. Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Catches of Tiger Sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, in the Pelagic Longline Fishery Around the Hawaiian Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Polovina, Jeffrey J.; Lau, Boulderson B.

    1993-01-01

    Thirty-five tiger sharks, Galeocerdo cuvier, have been reported caught in pelagic longline gearfrom 25 to 265 n.mi. off the Hawaiian Archipelago during December 1990-May 1993. Fifteen sharks were caught farther than 50 n.mi. offshore, indicating that tiger sharks do occur well offshore and removed from benthic topography. About 89% of the sharks were caught during October-March, while only 56% of the fishing effort occurred during that period.

  9. A complex evolutionary history in a remote archipelago: phylogeography and morphometrics of the Hawaiian endemic Ligia isopods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Santamaria

    Full Text Available Compared to the striking diversification and levels of endemism observed in many terrestrial groups within the Hawaiian Archipelago, marine invertebrates exhibit remarkably lower rates of endemism and diversification. Supralittoral invertebrates restricted to specific coastal patchy habitats, however, have the potential for high levels of allopatric diversification. This is the case of Ligia isopods endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago, which most likely arose from a rocky supralittoral ancestor that colonized the archipelago via rafting, and diversified into rocky supralittoral and inland lineages. A previous study on populations of this isopod from O'ahu and Kaua'i revealed high levels of allopatric differentiation, and suggested inter-island historical dispersal events have been rare. To gain a better understanding on the diversity and evolution of this group, we expanded prior phylogeographic work by incorporating populations from unsampled main Hawaiian Islands (Maui, Moloka'i, Lana'i, and Hawai'i, increasing the number of gene markers (four mitochondrial and two nuclear genes, and conducting Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. Our study revealed new lineages and expanded the distribution range of several lineages. The phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the study area are complex, with Hawai'i, O'ahu, and the Maui-Nui islands sharing major lineages, implying multiple inter-island historical dispersal events. In contrast, the oldest and most geographically distant of the major islands (Kaua'i shares no lineages with the other islands. Our results did not support the monophyly of all the supralittoral lineages (currently grouped into L. hawaiensis, or the monophyly of the terrestrial lineages (currently grouped into L. perkinsi, implying more than one evolutionary transition between coastal and inland forms. Geometric-morphometric analyses of three supralittoral clades revealed significant body shape differences among them

  10. Simulation of Hawaiian Electric Companies Feeder Operations with Advanced Inverters and Analysis of Annual Photovoltaic Energy Curtailment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraldez Miner, Julieta I [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nagarajan, Adarsh [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gotseff, Peter [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnan, Venkat K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hoke, Anderson F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ueda, Reid [Hawaiian Electric Company; Shindo, Jon [Hawaiian Electric Company; Asano, Marc [Hawaiian Electric Company; Ifuku, Earle [Hawaiian Electric Company

    2017-07-26

    The Hawaiian Electric Companies achieved a consolidated Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) of approximately 26% at the end of 2016. This significant RPS performance was achieved using various renewable energy sources - biomass, geothermal, solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, hydro, wind, and biofuels - and customer-sited, grid-connected technologies (primarily private rooftop solar PV systems). The Hawaiian Electric Companies are preparing grid-modernization plans for the island grids. The plans outline specific near-term actions to accelerate the achievement of Hawai'i's 100% RPS by 2045. A key element of the Companies' grid-modernization strategy is to utilize new technologies - including storage and PV systems with grid-supportive inverters - that will help to more than triple the amount of private rooftop solar PV systems. The Hawaiian Electric Companies collaborated with the Smart Inverter Technical Working Group Hawai'i (SITWG) to partner with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to research the implementation of advanced inverter grid support functions (GSF). Together with the technical guidance from the Companies's planning engineers and stakeholder input from the SITWG members, NREL proposed a scope of work that explored different modes of voltage-regulation GSF to better understand the trade-offs of the grid benefits and curtailment impacts from the activation of selected advanced inverter grid support functions. The simulation results presented in this report examine the effectiveness in regulating voltage as well as the impact to the utility and the customers of various inverter-based grid support functions on two Hawaiian Electric distribution substations.

  11. Contrasting patterns of vesiculation in low, intermediate, and high Hawaiian fountains: A case study of the 1969 Mauna Ulu eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcheta, Carolyn E.; Houghton, Bruce F.; Swanson, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    Hawaiian-style eruptions, or Hawaiian fountains, typically occur at basaltic volcanoes and are sustained, weakly explosive jets of gas and dominantly coarse, juvenile ejecta (dense spatter to delicate reticulite). Almost the entire range of styles and mass eruption rates within Hawaiian fountaining occurred during twelve fountaining episodes recorded at Mauna Ulu, Kīlauea between May and December 1969. Such diversity in intensity and style is controlled during magma ascent by many processes that can be constrained by the size and shape of vesicles in the 1969 pyroclasts. This paper describes pyroclast vesicularity from high, intermediate, and low fountaining episodes with eruption rates from 0.05 to 1.3 × 106 m3 h− 1. As each eruptive episode progressed, magma ascent slowed in and around the vent system, offering extended time for bubbles to grow and coalesce. Late ejected pyroclasts are thus characterized by populations of fewer and larger vesicles with relaxed shapes. This progression continued in the intervals between episodes after termination of fountain activity. The time scale for this process of shallow growth, coalescence and relaxation of bubbles is typically tens of hours. Rims and cores of pumiceous pyroclasts from moderate to high fountaining episodes record a second post-fragmentation form of vesicle maturation. Partially thermally insulated pyroclasts can have internal bubble populations evolve more dynamically with continued growth and coalescence, on a time scale of only minutes, during transport in the fountains. Reticulite, which formed in a short-lived fountain 540 m in height, underwent late, short-lived bubble nucleation followed by rapid growth of a uniform bubble population in a thermally insulated fountain, and quenched at the onset of permeability before significant coalescence. These contrasting patterns of shallow degassing and outgassing were the dominant controls in determining both the form and duration of fountaining

  12. A complex evolutionary history in a remote archipelago: phylogeography and morphometrics of the Hawaiian endemic Ligia isopods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Carlos A; Mateos, Mariana; Taiti, Stefano; DeWitt, Thomas J; Hurtado, Luis A

    2013-01-01

    Compared to the striking diversification and levels of endemism observed in many terrestrial groups within the Hawaiian Archipelago, marine invertebrates exhibit remarkably lower rates of endemism and diversification. Supralittoral invertebrates restricted to specific coastal patchy habitats, however, have the potential for high levels of allopatric diversification. This is the case of Ligia isopods endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago, which most likely arose from a rocky supralittoral ancestor that colonized the archipelago via rafting, and diversified into rocky supralittoral and inland lineages. A previous study on populations of this isopod from O'ahu and Kaua'i revealed high levels of allopatric differentiation, and suggested inter-island historical dispersal events have been rare. To gain a better understanding on the diversity and evolution of this group, we expanded prior phylogeographic work by incorporating populations from unsampled main Hawaiian Islands (Maui, Moloka'i, Lana'i, and Hawai'i), increasing the number of gene markers (four mitochondrial and two nuclear genes), and conducting Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. Our study revealed new lineages and expanded the distribution range of several lineages. The phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the study area are complex, with Hawai'i, O'ahu, and the Maui-Nui islands sharing major lineages, implying multiple inter-island historical dispersal events. In contrast, the oldest and most geographically distant of the major islands (Kaua'i) shares no lineages with the other islands. Our results did not support the monophyly of all the supralittoral lineages (currently grouped into L. hawaiensis), or the monophyly of the terrestrial lineages (currently grouped into L. perkinsi), implying more than one evolutionary transition between coastal and inland forms. Geometric-morphometric analyses of three supralittoral clades revealed significant body shape differences among them. A taxonomic

  13. Asymmetric shallow mantle structure beneath the Hawaiian Swell—evidence from Rayleigh waves recorded by the PLUME network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laske, Gabi; Markee, Amanda; Orcutt, John A.; Wolfe, Cecily J.; Collins, John A.; Solomon, Sean C.; Detrick, Robert S.; Bercovici, David; Hauri, Erik H.

    2011-12-01

    We present models of the 3-D shear velocity structure of the lithosphere and asthenosphere beneath the Hawaiian hotspot and surrounding region. The models are derived from long-period Rayleigh-wave phase velocities that were obtained from the analysis of seismic recordings collected during two year-long deployments for the Hawaiian Plume-Lithosphere Undersea Mantle Experiment. For this experiment, broad-band seismic sensors were deployed at nearly 70 seafloor sites as well as 10 sites on the Hawaiian Islands. Our seismic images result from a two-step inversion of path-averaged dispersion curves using the two-station method. The images reveal an asymmetry in shear velocity structure with respect to the island chain, most notably in the lower lithosphere at depths of 60 km and greater, and in the asthenosphere. An elongated, 100-km-wide and 300-km-long low-velocity anomaly reaches to depths of at least 140 km. At depths of 60 km and shallower, the lowest velocities are found near the northern end of the island of Hawaii. No major velocity anomalies are found to the south or southeast of Hawaii, at any depth. The low-velocity anomaly in the asthenosphere is consistent with an excess temperature of 200-250 °C and partial melt at the level of a few percent by volume, if we assume that compositional variations as a result of melt extraction play a minor role. We also image small-scale low-velocity anomalies within the lithosphere that may be associated with the volcanic fields surrounding the Hawaiian Islands.

  14. Interaction between the Hawaiian dark-rumped petrel and the Argentine ant in Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krushelnycky, Paul D.; Hodges, Cathleen S.N.; Medeiros, Arthur C.; Loope, Lloyd L.

    2001-01-01

    The endemic biota of the Hawaiian islands is believed to have evolved in the absence of ant predation. However, it was suspected that this endemic biota is highly vulnerable to the effect of immigrant ants especially with regard to an aggressive predator known as the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile). First recorded in the Haleakala National Park on the island of Maui in 1967, this ant was believed to have reduced populations of native arthropods in high-elevation subalpine shrublands. In addition, concerns were raised that this immigrant ant may have also reduced the breeding success of the endangered Hawaiian Dark-rumped Petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia sandwichensis), a native seabird. If so, then it was believe that this ant could become another major threat to the survival of this endangered seabird in addition to the threat that was caused by the introduction of introduced mammals, the advent of hunting by the Polynesians, and a loss of breeding habitat. As a result, the purpose of this study was to determine if the Argentine ant affects the nesting success of this native Hawaiian seabird.

  15. Jaw muscle fiber type distribution in Hawaiian gobioid stream fishes: histochemical correlations with feeding ecology and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maie, Takashi; Meister, Andrew B; Leonard, Gerald L; Schrank, Gordon D; Blob, Richard W; Schoenfuss, Heiko L

    2011-12-01

    Differences in fiber type distribution in the axial muscles of Hawaiian gobioid stream fishes have previously been linked to differences in locomotor performance, behavior, and diet across species. Using ATPase assays, we examined fiber types of the jaw opening sternohyoideus muscle across five species, as well as fiber types of three jaw closing muscles (adductor mandibulae A1, A2, and A3). The jaw muscles of some species of Hawaiian stream gobies contained substantial red fiber components. Some jaw muscles always had greater proportions of white muscle fibers than other jaw muscles, independent of species. In addition, comparing across species, the dietary generalists (Awaous guamensis and Stenogobius hawaiiensis) had a lower proportion of white muscle fibers in all jaw muscles than the dietary specialists (Lentipes concolor, Sicyopterus stimpsoni, and Eleotris sandwicensis). Among Hawaiian stream gobies, generalist diets may favor a wider range of muscle performance, provided by a mix of white and red muscle fibers, than is typical of dietary specialists, which may have a higher proportion of fast-twitch white fibers in jaw muscles to help meet the demands of rapid predatory strikes or feeding in fast-flowing habitats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Acoustic surveys of Hawaiian Hoary Bats in Kahikinui Forest Reserve and Nakula Natural Area Reserve on the Island of Maui

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Christopher M.; Pinzari, Corinna A.; Bonaccorso, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The Kahikinui Forest Reserve and the adjoining Nakula Natural Area Reserve (KFR-NNAR) was established in 2011 as a conservation area on the leeward slope of Haleakalā Volcano on the island of Maui to protect unique natural features and endangered species including the Hawaiian hoary bat, Lasiurus cinereus semotus. We recorded bat vocalizations from July 2012 to November 2014 using automated echolocation detectors at 14 point locations in the KFRNNAR. Our study area included remnants of recovering mesic montane forest with interspersed grasses (1,250‒1,850 m elevation, hereafter called “forest”) and xeric subalpine shrubland plant communities (1,860‒2,800 m, hereafter called “shrubland”). Monthly detections of Hawaiian hoary bats, Lasiurus cinereus semotus, within the KFR-NNAR identified areas of high and low detection probability as well as foraging activity. Sixty per cent of all detector-nights had confirmed bat vocalizations and included detections in every month of the study. Monthly detection probability values were highest from July to November 2012; these values were significantly greater than values measured in any month thereafter. Pooled values of detection probabilities, mean pulses/night, percentage of nights with feeding activity, and acoustic detections all were greater in the recovering forest zone than corresponding values from the shrublands. Our data provide baseline levels of hoary bat echolocation activity that may be compared with future studies in the KFR-NNAR relative to success criteria for Hawaiian hoary bat habitat restoration.

  17. Geographic structure and host specificity shape the community composition of symbiotic dinoflagellates in corals from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stat, Michael; Yost, Denise M.; Gates, Ruth D.

    2015-12-01

    How host-symbiont assemblages vary over space and time is fundamental to understanding the evolution and persistence of mutualistic symbioses. In this study, the diversity and geographic structure of coral-algal partnerships across the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands archipelago was investigated. The diversity of symbionts in the dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium was characterised using the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene in corals sampled at ten reef locations across the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Symbiodinium diversity was reported using operational taxonomic units and the distribution of Symbiodinium across the island archipelago investigated for evidence of geographic structure using permutational MANOVA. A 97 % sequence similarity of the ITS2 gene for characterising Symbiodinium diversity was supported by phylogenetic and ecological data. Four of the nine Symbiodinium evolutionary lineages (clades A, C, D, and G) were identified from 16 coral species at French Frigate Shoals, and host specificity was a dominant feature in the symbiotic assemblages at this location. Significant structure in the diversity of Symbiodinium was also found across the archipelago in the three coral species investigated. The latitudinal gradient and subsequent variation in abiotic conditions (particularly sea surface temperature dynamics) across the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands encompasses an environmental range that decouples the stability of host-symbiont assemblages across the archipelago. This suggests that local adaptation to prevailing environmental conditions by at least one partner in coral-algal mutualism occurs prior to the selection pressures associated with the maintenance of a symbiotic state.

  18. Ecology of Hawaiian marine mammals emphasizing the impact of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) on endangered species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, S.F.; Hartwig, E.O.

    1982-06-01

    Twenty-two marine mammal species including 2 baleen whales, 20 toothed whales, and one pinniped occur in Hawaiian waters. Among these are two endangered species, the migratory humpback whale (Megaptera novaengliae) around the main islands, and the non-migratory Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) in the extreme northwestern island chain. The endangered species are among those most commonly sighted, while spinner dolphins (Stenella spp.), bottle-nosed dolphins (Tursiops sp.), and false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) are sighted less frequently. Most Hawaiian cetacean species are Odontoceti, or toothed whales, and feed on fish and squid. The Mysteceti or baleen whales feed on plankton, however the endangered humpback whale, which migrates to Hawaii to breed and calve, presumably does not feed there. The endangered monk seal feeds on cephalopods and fish. The impact of OTEC on endangered and non-endangered marine mammals results from several direct and indirect effects and is discussed in the text. Careful siting of OTEC plants away from humpback breeding areas and monk seal breeding and feeding areas will avoid adverse effects on these populations.

  19. Avian malaria Plasmodium relictum in native Hawaiian forest birds: epizootiology and demographic impacts on ‵apapane Himatione sanguinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    The role of introduced avian malaria Plasmodium relictum in the decline and extinction of native Hawaiian forest birds has become a classic example of the potential effect of invasive diseases on biological diversity of naïve populations. However, empirical evidence describing the impact of avian malaria on fitness of Hawai‵i's endemic forest birds is limited, making it difficult to determine the importance of disease among the suite of potential limiting factors affecting the distribution and abundance of this threatened avifauna. We combined epidemiological force-of-infection with multistate capture––recapture models to evaluate a 7-year longitudinal study of avian malaria in ‵apapane, a relatively common native honeycreeper within mid-elevation Hawaiian forests. We found that malaria transmission was seasonal in this mid-elevation forest; transmission peaked during fall and during some years produced epizootic mortality events. Estimated annual mortality of hatch-year birds typically exceeded 50% and mortality of adults exceeded 25% during epizootics. The substantial impact of avian malaria on this relatively common native species demonstrates the key role this disease has played in the decline and extinction of Hawaiian forest birds.

  20. Listening to the voices of native Hawaiian elders and ‘ohana caregivers: discussions on aging, health, and care preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Colette V; Mokuau, Noreen; Ka'opua, Lana S; Kim, Bum Jung; Higuchi, Paula; Braun, Kathryn L

    2014-06-01

    Native Hawaiians, the indigenous people of Hawai’i, are affected by varying social and health disparities that result in high prevalence of chronic disease, early onset of disability, and shorter life expectancy compared to other ethnic groups in Hawai’i. Six listening meetings were conducted, involving 41 community-dwelling kūpuna (Native Hawaiian elders) and ‘ohana (family) caregivers to investigate health and care preferences that offer the potential for improving well-being in later life for Native Hawaiian elders. As background, we provide three explanatory perspectives and theories—life course perspective, minority stress theory, and historical trauma—that guided the design of this study and provided the study’s context. A number of overarching themes and subthemes were identified, some of which point to universal concerns with age and caregiving (such as challenges and costs associated with growing old and caregiving) and others that are culturally specific (such as influence of culture and social stressors, including discrimination, on health needs and care preferences). Results give further support to the urgency of affordable, accessible, and acceptable programs and policies that can respond to the growing health and care needs of native elders and family caregivers.