WorldWideScience

Sample records for hautes performances energetiques

  1. Architectural design and energy performance; Conception architecturale et performance energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaud, Ph. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, (ADEME), 06 - Valbonne (France); Pouget, A. [Bureau Etude Thermique, 75 - Paris (France); Sesolis, B. [TRIBU, 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    This day was organized around the energy performance of the architecture in three parts. A first time dealt with the design of new buildings and private houses. Simulation tools for the energy optimization and practice of design are discussed. The second part was devoted to the new 2000 regulation with an open discussion on the regulatory costs. The last part forecasted the evolution until 2015 taking into account the french program of fight against the greenhouse effect, the limitation of the air conditioning consumption and the definition of a quality label concerning the energy performances. (A.L.B.)

  2. Comportement d'un béton à hautes performances à base de laitier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'utilisation de béton à hautes performances (BHP) intégrant des ajouts cimentaires comme les cendres volantes, les fumées de silice ou le laitier hydraulique ... armatures qui sont, à leur tour attaquées. Il est possible de modifier la ... refroidissement brutal par l'eau sous pression, c'est un sable de granulométrie 0/5 mm.

  3. Energy efficiency performance contracts in the school environment; Contrats de performance energetique dans le milieu scolaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drouin, J. [Quebec Ministere de l' Education, Ste-Foy, PQ (Canada)

    1999-12-01

    An overview of new regulations concerning the awarding of energy performance contracts by school boards in the province of Quebec is provided. The article deals with buildings belonging to boards of education that are wholly or primarily utilised for educational purposes. It provides an inventory of such buildings and statistical information about about energy consumption and energy-related costs of educational facilities during the school years 1996/1997 and 1997/1998. Regarding the new regulations, the principal change appears to be that school boards are required to award construction or building services contracts estimated to cost between $50,000 and $100,000 either by public requests for tenders, or by invitation; construction or building services contracts whose cost exceeds $100,000 must be awarded by public tender. In effect, to meet the energy efficiency criteria specified in the new regulations, school boards are obliged to call for bids on any project that contribute to the energy efficiency of school buildings whose cost is estimated to exceed $50,000. The objective of the new regulation is to encourage the consideration of energy efficiency standards by school boards, and by potential contractors. The regulations also prescribe the method of requesting bids and specifies the energy efficiency criteria bidders must meet in order to be eligible.

  4. Performance of Cubic Eos At High Pressures Performance des équations d'état cubiques à hautes pressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamataki S.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an evaluation of the performance of cubic equations of state in the prediction of the phase behavior of hyperbaric mixtures. It points out a number of problems that should be resolved in a cooperative way. Items related to EoS parameter definitions such as interaction coefficients, critical properties of hydrocarbon compounds and volume translation are investigated. VLE experimental data, isothermal flash compositional and volumetric data up to 4000 bar as well as PVT data up to 2000 bar for binary mixtures and synthetic multicomponent systems have been considered in this study. Correlation and prediction results are presented with the translated and modified Peng-Robinson (t-mPR EoS. It is shown that serious problems are encountered at high pressure, when extrapolated interaction coefficients are used. Prediction of saturation pressures of gas condensates is more satisfactory when binary interaction parameters are obtained from high pressure dew point correlations. Compositional and volumetric predictions are remarkable under the assumption that definition of the EoS parameters is based on high pressure VLE binary data. Contradictory results are obtained with different methods for estimating the critical properties of high molecular weight hydrocarbons. Generalized expressions for the volume translation appear to be very efficient even at very high temperatures and pressures (up to 2000 bar. Cet article présente une évaluation des performances des équations d'états (EoS cubiques pour la prévision des comportements de phases des mélanges hyperbares. Il met en évidence un certain nombre de problèmes auxquels il devrait être répondu d'une manière coopérative. Les points relatifs à la définition des paramètres des EoS, tels que les coefficients d'interaction, les propriétés critiques des composants hydrocarbonés et la translation de volume sont examinés. Plusieurs types d'informations ont été pris en compte

  5. Energy diagnosis; Diagnostic energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivien, P. [Centre Technique des Industries Mecaniques (CETIM), Franche-Comte (France)

    1996-12-31

    Through a partnership with regional authorities and the French Energy Conservation Agency (ADEME), the CETIM (Technical Agency for Mechanical Industries) is proposing energy audits in industrial plants with the aim to increase the plant performances, reduce energy costs and work out environmental issues. Concrete improvement solutions are proposed with profitability calculations. The audit procedure is presented. The most efficient solutions generally involve energy tariff rate shifts, heating regulation, power cut-off, reactive energy compensation and lighting management

  6. Méthode simplifiée de formulation d’un béton à haute performance avec et sans fibre métallique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadj Sadok Ahmed

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Le présent travail, propose une méthodologie simplifiée, s’appuyant sur des méthodes de formulation de béton connues dans la littérature et sur des essais d’optimisations au laboratoire, permettant la détermination d’une composition d’un béton à haute performance « BHP » et de béton de fibre à haute performance « BFHP ». Pour ce faire, une large caractérisation (physique et mécanique des matériaux utilisés a été conduite. Suivie d’une étude préliminaire, ayant pour objectif d’optimiser le dosage en Superplastifiant (0,65-1% et du ciment (500-700 kg/m3 en se basant sur des essais de résistance à la compression (3, 7, 28 jours et des mesures d’ouvrabilité. Les caractéristiques mécaniques ainsi que la porosité du BHP optimale ont été mesurées. Ainsi, l’effet d’une nouvelle génération de superplastifiant, qui a permis la réduction du rapport E/C à 0,29, a pu être examiné. Ce dernier a permis l’obtention d’un BHP de bonne performance mécanique et de faible porosité. La méthodologie proposée a permis, à ce stade de l’étude, de formuler des bons BHP et reste à ajuster et à compléter pour la formulation des BFHP.

  7. Water pollution control. High performances finishing processing; Lutte contre la pollution des eaux. Finitions a haute performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilles, P.

    1999-04-01

    The sewage recovery or recycling is an efficient way to control the water resources conservation. This paper characterizes in a first part the residual pollutants of an effluent rejected in the natural medium. It deals then the recycling and the water recovery objectives to present the possible processing. The author emphasizes some modern high performances engineering as, granular material filtration, membrane filtration, osmosis, UV disinfection, flocculation activated carbon or chemical oxidation. (A.L.B.)

  8. Energy performance control of local collectivities. Good practices of european towns; Mesure des performances energetiques des collectivites locales. Bonnes pratiques de villes europeennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacassagne, S.; Schilken, P.

    2003-01-01

    Some european towns developed a specific energy and environmental policy, function of many factors. Policies are implemented to favorite the energy consumption and the pollutant emission control. The actions of local collectivities in the domain have been analyzed following three axis: the measure of the energy performance of local collectivities, the territorial energy management tools, the energy integration in sectoral policies. This report takes stock on the first axis analysis. (A.L.B.)

  9. Etude de la performance des radars hautes-frequences CODAR et WERA pour la mesure des courants marins en presence partielle de glace de mer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamli, Emna

    Les radars hautes-frequences (RHF) mesurent les courants marins de surface avec une portee pouvant atteindre 200 kilometres et une resolution de l'ordre du kilometre. Cette etude a pour but de caracteriser la performance des RHF, en terme de couverture spatiale, pour la mesure des courants de surface en presence partielle de glace de mer. Pour ce faire, les mesures des courants de deux radars de type CODAR sur la rive sud de l'estuaire maritime du Saint-Laurent, et d'un radar de type WERA sur la rive nord, prises pendant l'hiver 2013, ont ete utilisees. Dans un premier temps, l'aire moyenne journaliere de la zone ou les courants sont mesures par chaque radar a ete comparee a l'energie des vagues de Bragg calculee a partir des donnees brutes d'acceleration fournies par une bouee mouillee dans la zone couverte par les radars. La couverture des CODARs est dependante de la densite d'energie de Bragg, alors que la couverture du WERA y est pratiquement insensible. Un modele de fetch appele GENER a ete force par la vitesse du vent predite par le modele GEM d'Environnement Canada pour estimer la hauteur significative ainsi que la periode modale des vagues. A partir de ces parametres, la densite d'energie des vagues de Bragg a ete evaluee pendant l'hiver a l'aide du spectre theorique de Bretschneider. Ces resultats permettent d'etablir la couverture normale de chaque radar en absence de glace de mer. La concentration de glace de mer, predite par le systeme canadien operationnel de prevision glace-ocean, a ete moyennee sur les differents fetchs du vent selon la direction moyenne journaliere des vagues predites par GENER. Dans un deuxieme temps, la relation entre le ratio des couvertures journalieres obtenues pendant l'hiver 2013 et des couvertures normales de chaque radar d'une part, et la concentration moyenne journaliere de glace de mer d'autre part, a ete etablie. Le ratio des couvertures decroit avec l'augmentation de la concentration de glace de mer pour les deux types

  10. Haute-Savoie at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 10 to 14 November, twenty-two companies presented their latest technology at the Haute-Savoie exhibition at CERN. With hedges of green plants, wooden lawn chairs, and even a small fountain like the ones near mountain chalets, the exhibitors transformed the hall of the main building into a little natural corner. They not only brought local flair but also a multitude of interesting information about their know-how of innovative technologies. In addition to the exhibition, presentations on topics ranging from multiplexing over materials to nano-technologies were given at the end of each afternoon in the Council Chamber. One of the exibitors at the "Haute-Savoie at CERN" shows (from left to right) Roland Pascal, Service Director General of the Haute-Savoie Département, Claude Birraux, Vice-President of the general council of Haute-Savoie and Member of the French Parliament, Robert Aymar, designated CERN Director General, and Ernest Nycollin, President of the general council of Haute-Savoie one of the stand...

  11. Groundwater flow reference model of the Meuse/Haute-Marne region: implications on performance analysis of high and intermediate level and long lived radwaste repository in clay formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benabderrahmane, H.; Plas, F.; Yven, B.; Cornaton, F.; Perrochet, P.; Kerrou, J.; Stucki, J.; Caloz, P.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. An integrated multi-scale hydrogeological conceptual model of the Paris basin and the Meuse/Haute-Marne sector was developed to study the groundwater flow and solute transport behaviour in the multi-layered aquifer system and around the Callovo-Oxfordian clay formation as potential host for the French high and intermediate level and long lived radioactive waste. The Paris basin system (200000 km 2 ) consists of 27 aquiferous and semi-permeable (aquitard) hydrogeological units from Trias to Quaternary affected by 80 regional faults. It produces boundary conditions to the refined aquifer system of the 250 km 2 Meuse/Haute-Marne site, which includes 27 layers from Trias to Portlandian. The Callovo-Oxfordian clay formation is located at a mean depth of 500 m, with a minimum thickness of 130 m and hydraulic conductivity values of the order of 10-14 m/s. The numerical steady-state flow solution is calculated on a finite element mesh of about 3 million 2-D and 3-D linear elements (GEOS-CHYN 2009). At the top surface, the mesh refinement (250 m to 50 m) is locally constrained by the fault lineaments and the river network. At depth, it takes into account the 10 m to 500 m throw of the faults and the vertical flow through semi-permeable units. Triangular elements are used to represent a top surface layer that includes the weathered part of the outcropping formations, and quadrangular elements allow for the representation of the faults planes at depth. The layers are discretized into 6-nodded wedge elements, while 4-nodded tetrahedrons and 5-nodded pyramids are used to handle the pinching and the outcrop of the layers. The flow boundary conditions and source-sink terms are: - Specified hydraulic heads (Dirichlet) along the rivers and elsewhere on the top surface inflow fluxes (Neumann) derived from hydrological balance (with a mean inflow of 240 mm/year). - Specified hydraulic heads (Dirichlet) at the Manche coast side. - No

  12. Analysis of the energy efficiency of the transport system in Algeria; Analyse de l'efficacite energetique du systeme de transport en Algerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamdani, Sid Ahmed

    2010-09-15

    The objective of this communication is analyze the energy efficiency of the transport system in Algeria and to show the areas of possible rationalization in this sector. Our approach is to analyze the existing configuration of the sector and its impact on energy consumption, by developing a sectional model Bottom Up, where the transport park has been modified by the means used. We have shown that the potential to improve the transport system energy efficiency is important and have recommended some options aimed at the sector organisation and aimed at increasing the relative part of transport systems to make it more energy efficient. [French] L'objectif de cette communication est d'analyser l'efficacite energetique du systeme de transport algerien et de montrer les gisements de rationalisation possibles dans ce secteur. Notre approche consiste a analyser la configuration existante du secteur et son impact sur la consommation d'energie, en elaborant un modele sectoriel Bottom Up, ou le parc de transport a ete desagrege par moyen utilise. Nous avons montre que le potentiel d'amelioration de la performance energetique du systeme de transport est important et avons recommande quelques options ciblant l'organisation du secteur et visant a augmenter la part relative de moyens de transport plus efficace energetiquement.

  13. Optimisation structurelle des systemes energetiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloux, Etienne

    The development of renewable energies is growing over the last decade to face environmental issues due to the world fossil fuel consumption increase. These energies are highly involved in houses and commercial buildings and numerous systems have been proposed to meet their energy demand. Therefore, improving both efficiency and use of systems, i.e. improving energy management, appears essential to limit the ecological footprint of humanity on the planet. However, system integration yields a very complex problem to be solved due to the large number of units and theirs technology, size, working conditions and interconnections. This situation highlights the lack of systematic analysis for comparing integrated system performance and for correctly pointing out their potential. As a result, the objective of this thesis is to develop and to present such a method, in other words the structural optimization of energy systems. It will be helpful to choose the optimal equipment by identifying all the possibilities of system arrangements and for comparing their performance. Combinations have then been subjected to environmental (climate), structural (available area) and economical constrains while assessment criteria have considered both energy, economic and ecological aspects. For that reason, as well as energy and economic analyses, the exergy concept has also been applied to the equipment. Nevertheless, the high degree of complexity of integrated systems and the tedious numerical calculations make the resolution by using standard software very difficult. It is clear that the whole optimization project would be considerable and the aim is to develop models and optimization tools. First of all, an exhaustive review of energy equipment including photovoltaic panels, solar collectors, heat pumps and thermal energy storage systems, has been performed. Afterwards, energy and exergy models have been developed and tested for two specific energy scenarios: a) a solar assisted heat

  14. Development of a high performances heat pipe (HPHP) for space applications; Developpement d`un caloduc hautes performances (HPHP) pour applications spatiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moschetti, B; Voyer, E [Aerospatiale, 06 - Cannes (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the research program for the development of a prototype of high performances heat pipe (HPHP) intended to be installed on the STENTOR telecommunication satellite. A trade-off study was performed and led to the selection of a reliable and simple concept with axial grooves, ammonia and a minimum heat transport capacity of 500 W.m. A first model with a 17 mm diameter, a 2.8 m length and a mass lower than 500 g/m has been manufactured and tested. First results indicate a 600 W.m heat transport capacity at 20 deg. C (horizontal position) and a 400 W.m capacity with a 5 mm tilt, and allow to validate this concept. (J.S.) 6 refs.

  15. Development of a high performances heat pipe (HPHP) for space applications; Developpement d`un caloduc hautes performances (HPHP) pour applications spatiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moschetti, B.; Voyer, E. [Aerospatiale, 06 - Cannes (France)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the research program for the development of a prototype of high performances heat pipe (HPHP) intended to be installed on the STENTOR telecommunication satellite. A trade-off study was performed and led to the selection of a reliable and simple concept with axial grooves, ammonia and a minimum heat transport capacity of 500 W.m. A first model with a 17 mm diameter, a 2.8 m length and a mass lower than 500 g/m has been manufactured and tested. First results indicate a 600 W.m heat transport capacity at 20 deg. C (horizontal position) and a 400 W.m capacity with a 5 mm tilt, and allow to validate this concept. (J.S.) 6 refs.

  16. HAUTE-SAVOIE AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    From 10 to 14 November 2003 Administration Building Bldg 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs Twenty-two companies will present their latest technology at the "Haute-Savoie at CERN" exhibition. It is organised by the Conseil Général de la Haute-Savoie. Dates Thématiques Firmes concernées Conférences (Salle du Conseil) Horaires à fixer Evénements Lundi 10 nov. Electronique, Connectique et Multiplexage ALPES DEIS AMPHENOL-SOCAPEX NSI SENSOREX SCAIME "Présentation des Procédures d'Achats" -"Le multiplexage: technologie d'avenir" par M. Medan (NSI). - Visite du Conseil Général. - Vernissage de l'exposition. - Signature de la nouvelle convention CG74 / CERN. Mardi 11 nov. Les institutionnels UNIVERSITE DE SAVOIE ESIA SITE D'ARCHAMPS ESI "Infrastructures et facilités offertes par le site d'Archamps aux ...

  17. HAUTE-SAVOIE AT CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Twenty two companies will present their latest technology at the "Haute-Savoie at CERN" exhibition. It is organised by the Conseil Général de la Haute-Savoie. From 10 to 14 November 2003 Administration Building Bldg. 60/61 - ground and 1st floor 09.00 hrs - 17.30 hrs DatesThématiquesFirmes présentesConférences(Salle du Conseil) 14:30 - 15:30Evénements Lundi 10 nov. Electronique, Connectique et Multiplexage ALCATELALPES DEISAMPHENOL-SOCAPEXC4iNSISENSOREXSUSS MICROTEC "Présentation des Procédures d'Achats"–"Le multiplexage: technologie d'avenir" par M. Medan (NSI).- Visite du Conseil Général.- Conférence de presse.- Vernissage de l'exposition. Mardi 11 nov. Les institutionnelsALCATELC4i ESILAPP SITE D'ARCHAMPSSUSS MICROTECTHESAMEUNIV. DE SAVOIE"Infrastructures et facilités offertes par le site d'Archamps aux créateur...

  18. Estimation of the energy needs; Estimation des besoins energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ailleret, [Electricite de France (EDF), Dir. General des Etudes de Recherches, 75 - Paris (France)

    1955-07-01

    The present report draws up the balance on the present and estimable energy consumption for the next twenty years. The present energy comes mainly of the consumption of coal, oil products and essentially hydraulic electric energy. the market development comes essentially of the development the industrial activity and of new applications tributary of the cost and the distribution of the electric energy. To this effect, the atomic energy offers good industrial perspectives in complement of the energy present resources in order to answer the new needs. (M.B.) [French] Le present rapport dresse le bilan sur la consommation energetique actuelle et previsionnelle pour les vingt prochaines annees. L'energie actuelle provient principalement consommation de charbon, de produits petroliers et d'energie electrique essentiellement hydraulique. l'evolution du marche provient essentielement du developpement l'activite industriel et de nouvelles applications tributaire du cout et de la distribution de l'energie electrique. A cet effet, l'energie atomique offre de bonne perspectives industrielles en complement des sources actuelles energetiques afin de repondre aux nouveaux besoins. (M.B.)

  19. Terre Haute and the Normal School Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Allen

    1974-01-01

    This paper examines the short history of the Terre Haute Normal School before its tragic burning on April 9, 1888 and relates that story to the course of events immediately following the fire. (Author)

  20. Biological monochromator with a high flux in the visible spectrum; Un monochromateur biologique a haut flux dans le visible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, M; Guerin de Montgareuil, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    The object is to carry out research into photosynthesis using energetic illuminations similar to those employed with white light studies. The limitations are due mainly to the source. A comparison of various possible solutions has led to the choice of the sun used in conjunction with 4 large gratings. In an intermediate stage, a description is given of a medium-aperture monochromator with a 3 kW xenon arc and a single grating. With this set-up it is possible to obtain the following performance, given as an example; energy illumination, 1.3 mW/cm{sup 2} over a surface of 50 cm{sup 2} and for a bandwidth at half-height of 50 Angstroms. (authors) [French] L'objectif est de poursuivre en lumiere monochromatique des etudes de photosynthese avec des eclairements energetiques analogues a ceux qu'on utilise en lumiere blanche. Les limitations se situent principalement au niveau de la source. Une comparaison effectuee entre differentes solutions possibles conduit a preconiser l'emploi du soleil associe a 4 grands reseaux. En etape intermediaire on decrit un monochromateur de moyenne ouverture, avec un arc au xenon de 3 kW et un seul reseau, qui permet d'atteindre les performances suivantes donnees a titre d'exemple: eclairement energetique de 1,3 mW/cm{sup 2} sur une surface de 50 cm{sup 2} et pour une bande passante a mi-hauteur de 50 Angstroems. (auteurs)

  1. Report of controls performed by the CRIIRAD laboratory level with the 'Les sauvages' source harnessing at Saint-Sylvestre (Haute-Vienne)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-05-01

    This document reports analyses performed on drinkable waters distributed in Saint-Sylvestre (France), and more particularly in situ measurements of radioactivity levels, performed within the so called 'Les sauvages' spring catchment. Several aspects are discussed: the volume activity of radon 222 in the water at different moments, and the need to protect the catchment exploitation personnel

  2. Annual report of the Meuse/Haute-Marne Centre - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-09-01

    This report first presents the installations of the Meuse/Haute-Marne Centre, its equipment, its research laboratory in which the deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes is studied. Highlights of 2011 are outlined; they concern the exploitation, an inspection performed by the ASN, new installations, works and researches. The following chapter discusses the actions undertaken to limit incidents and accidents, and measures regarding radiation protection. The next parts address the impacts on the environment, the management of wastes produced by the Centre, and the actions undertaken with respect to information and transparency (visits, exhibition, publications, and relationships with local people, associations and social stakeholders)

  3. Mobility energy label: An indicator for a sustainable city; Les etiquettes energetiques de mobilite: Un indicateur pour la ville durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flety, Yann; Antoni, Jean-Philippe; Vuidel, Gilles; de Sede-Marceau, Marie-Helene

    2010-09-15

    Perspectives of energy consumption reduction linked to global warming are bringing a desire for actions relating to the mastering and the improvement of energy efficiency. In this context, from the French example of greater Besancon (Communaute d'Agglomeration du Grand Besancon (CAGB)), the research presented here wants to define an energy indicator useful to planners called 'Territory energy label': to measure how the urban area is situated energy wise in terms of the daily mobility of its inhabitants, the behaviour of whom is looked at in a prescriptive manner. [French] Les perspectives de reduction des consommations energetiques en lien avec le rechauffement climatique se traduisent par une volonte d'actions en matiere de maitrise et d'amelioration de l'efficacite energetique. Dans ce contexte, a partir de l'exemple francais de la Communaute d'Agglomeration du Grand Besancon (CAGB), la recherche presentee vise a definir un indicateur energetique utile aux amenageurs intitule 'etiquette energetique Territoriale' : il s'agit de mesurer comment 'se situent energetiquement' les differents espaces que regroupent une meme aire urbaine du point de vu des mobilites quotidiennes de ses habitants, dont le comportement est apprehende de maniere normative.

  4. Energy accounting. Comptabilite de la gestion energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This manual is intended to assist Canadian firms and organizations in the industrial, commercial and institutional sectors to design and implement an appropriate energy accounting system capable of monitoring energy productivity and performance. The manual provides a standard account format applicable to both single- and multi-unit organizations, and is presented through the use of text, forms, and numerical examples. It includes the basic concepts and relevant approaches, reporting considerations, the measurement of production outputs and energy inputs, and the measurement of energy productivity. Appendices provide a glossary of terms, calorific contents of energy commodities, metric conversion factors and prefixes, and a set of blank forms. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. The influencing factors of energy poverty in rural Cameroon; Les determinants de la pauvrete energetique en milieu rural au Cameroun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamdem, Maxime; Edzengte, Joseph

    2010-09-15

    The objective of this study is to assess the influencing factors of energy poverty in rural Cameroon. The method used is in two stages: the first stage is a statistical analysis that has allowed to determine the level of energy poverty in rural areas, which is 7.5%. The second stage assesses the influencing factors of this poverty type. The results show that the revenue impacts on energy poverty, as well as the size of the household, in which the arrival of an additional person increases by 1.16% the chances that the household will suffer from energy poverty. [French] L'objectif de cette etude est d'evaluer les determinants de la pauvrete energetique en milieu rural au Cameroun. La methode mise en oeuvre procede en deux etapes : la premiere est une analyse statistique qui a permis de determiner le seuil de pauvrete energetique en milieu rural, qui se situe a 7,5%. La deuxieme etape evalue les determinants de ce type de pauvrete. Les resultats indiquent que le revenu explique la pauvrete energetique, de meme que la taille du menage dont l'arrivee d'une personne supplementaire accroit de 1,16% les chances de ce menage d'etre pauvre sur le plan energetique.

  6. Andra in Meuse/Haute-Marne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazoyer, David

    2016-11-01

    Every year, France generates tens of thousands of cubic metres of radioactive waste. This waste comes from various sectors which make use of the properties of radioactivity, including nuclear power generation, defence, industry, health care and research. At present, Andra operates two waste disposal facilities in the Aube where 90% of the total volume of radioactive waste generated every year is managed. For safety reasons, the remaining 10% cannot be disposed of at these surface facilities. Some of this waste, known as high-level waste (HLW) and intermediate-level long-lived waste (ILW-LL), is highly radioactive and can remain hazardous for several hundred thousand years. A suitable solution must be implemented to manage such waste, as set down in the Act of 28 June 2006: reversible disposal in a deep geological formation. Starting with its Underground Research Laboratory in Bure (in the Meuse department), on which construction began in 2000, Andra has gradually expanded the facilities at the Meuse/Haute-Marne Centre (CMHM) in the area. In 2007, the Perennial Observatory of the Environment (OPE) was set up to better understand changes over time in the natural environment around Andra's facilities and, in 2009, the Technological Exhibition Facility opened in Saudron (in the Haute-Marne department), to present the Cigeo geological disposal facility project. Last, the Environmental Specimen Bank opened in 2014. Here, environmental monitoring samples taken in connection with the OPE are conserved for at least one hundred years. In addition to contributing to development of the two departments by creating jobs and purchasing from local suppliers, Andra has been committed to working alongside local players for the last twenty years, becoming an integral part of economic, social and cultural life in the region. If the Cigeo project is approved, the site will become a leading industrial, research and education cluster for the region. This document presents: the Andra

  7. Contributing to the design of run-time systems dedicated to high performance computing; Contribution a l'elaboration d'environnements de programmation dedies au calcul scientifique hautes performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perache, M

    2006-10-15

    In the field of intensive scientific computing, the quest for performance has to face the increasing complexity of parallel architectures. Nowadays, these machines exhibit a deep memory hierarchy which complicates the design of efficient parallel applications. This thesis proposes a programming environment allowing to design efficient parallel programs on top of clusters of multi-processors. It features a programming model centered around collective communications and synchronizations, and provides load balancing facilities. The programming interface, named MPC, provides high level paradigms which are optimized according to the underlying architecture. The environment is fully functional and used within the CEA/DAM (TERANOVA) computing center. The evaluations presented in this document confirm the relevance of our approach. (author)

  8. Contributing to the design of run-time systems dedicated to high performance computing; Contribution a l'elaboration d'environnements de programmation dedies au calcul scientifique hautes performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perache, M

    2006-10-15

    In the field of intensive scientific computing, the quest for performance has to face the increasing complexity of parallel architectures. Nowadays, these machines exhibit a deep memory hierarchy which complicates the design of efficient parallel applications. This thesis proposes a programming environment allowing to design efficient parallel programs on top of clusters of multi-processors. It features a programming model centered around collective communications and synchronizations, and provides load balancing facilities. The programming interface, named MPC, provides high level paradigms which are optimized according to the underlying architecture. The environment is fully functional and used within the CEA/DAM (TERANOVA) computing center. The evaluations presented in this document confirm the relevance of our approach. (author)

  9. 76 FR 22009 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Terre Haute, IN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ...-1034; Airspace Docket No. 10-AGL-22] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Terre Haute, IN AGENCY: Federal... Terre Haute, IN, to accommodate new Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures at Union Hospital Heliport, Terre Haute, IN. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and...

  10. 76 FR 5302 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Terre Haute, IN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ...-1034; Airspace Docket No. 10-AGL-22] Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Terre Haute, IN AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Terre Haute, IN. Controlled airspace is necessary to... (POINT-IN-SPACE) SIAP at Union Hospital Heliport, Terre Haute, IN. Controlled airspace is needed for the...

  11. Meuse/Haute-Marne Centre. Activity report 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-09-01

    The National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), was established by the December 1991 Waste Act as a public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste, under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (formerly the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Environment), and the Ministry of Research. The Andra operates 3 facilities at its Meuse/Haute-Marne site: the Bure underground laboratory (Meuse), a Technological space (Haute-Marne), and an ecological samples library in front of the underground lab. This document is the 2013 activity report of the Meuse/Haute-Marne center. It presents a review of the activities of the center: presentation of the installations, 2013 highlights in pictures, incidents, provisions made for safety, security and radiation protection, environmental impacts, public information and communication

  12. Annual report of the Meuse/Haute-Marne Centre 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-09-01

    The National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), was established by the December 1991 Waste Act as a public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste, under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (formerly the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Environment), and the Ministry of Research. The Andra operates 3 facilities at its Meuse/Haute-Marne site: the Bure underground laboratory (Meuse), a Technological space (Haute-Marne), and an ecological samples library in front of the underground lab. This document is the 2012 activity report of the Meuse/Haute-Marne center. It presents a review of the activities of the center: presentation of the installations, 2012 highlights in pictures, provisions made for safety, security and radiation protection, environmental impacts, public information and communication

  13. Meuse/Haute-Marne Centre. Annual report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-09-01

    The National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), was established by the December 1991 Waste Act as a public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste, under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (formerly the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Environment), and the Ministry of Research. The Andra operates 2 facilities at its Meuse/Haute-Marne site: the Bure underground laboratory (Meuse), and a Technological space (Haute-Marne). This document is the 2010 activity report of the Meuse/Haute-Marne center. It presents a review of the activities of the center: presentation of the installations, 2010 highlights in pictures, incidents, provisions made for radiation protection, environmental impacts, public information and communication

  14. Passing through: queer lesbian film and Fremde Haut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Expanding the horizons of lesbian film, Fremde Haut is located within three broad frames: the cross-dressing genre, the New Queer Cinema (NQC) movement, and an Accented or diasporic film aesthetic. While strong connections exist between the cross-dressing film and NQC, less addressed are the links between the New Queer and the Accented yet these are of more radical, that is queerer, potential. Through Fremde Haut, this article illustrates how intimately tied to race and nation, gender and sexuality are, to reveal the accented as queer and the queer as accented. Ultimately, what is distinguished is the potency of a new "quare" cinema.

  15. Build together the problem, obligatory passage for the conception of acceptable energy solutions?; Construire ensemble le probleme, passage oblige pour la conception de solutions energetiques acceptables?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortin, Marie-Jose; Le Floch, Sophie

    2010-09-15

    Social acceptance is a condition in performing energy projects. This notion is however complex: just like 'build', it is based on several factors and is changing. We would like to show that its construction requires that some time be spend at a stage often neglected, that of the formulation of the problem. So that the 'awareness' would be aimed not only to the public, but also to the decision makers and promoters, so that everyone has a good knowledge of the concerns of the others, and of their limits. To this end, the 'participation' could take several forms, complementary to the 'public' one generally accepted. [French] L'acceptabilite sociale est une condition de realisation de projets energetiques. Cette notion est toutefois complexe : comme 'construit', elle se fonde sur plusieurs facteurs et est evolutive. Nous voudrions montrer que sa construction exige qu'un temps soit consacre a une etape souvent negligee, celle de la formulation du probleme. Ainsi, la 'sensibilisation' serait destinee non seulement au grand public, mais aussi aux decideurs et promoteurs, afin que tous aient une bonne connaissance des preoccupations des uns et des autres, comme de leurs contraintes. A cette fin, la 'participation' pourrait prendre plusieurs formes, complementaires a celle 'publique' generalement adoptee.

  16. Rhéologie des bétons fluides à hautes performances : relations entre formulations, propriétés rhéologiques, physico-chimie et propriétés mécaniques

    OpenAIRE

    Yammine , Joumana

    2007-01-01

    The High Performance Concrete, from high to low plastic consistency, develops high long term mechanical resistances. Nevertheless, it presents the disadvantage of a very hard filling in dense steel reinforcements rebars like in the Millau's viaduct piles, which constitute a framework of barriers for the concrete casting by vibration. To guarantee a total filling in the framework, the self compacting concretes are the issue and are adopted respecting mechanical performances and durability main...

  17. Incorporation des sables concassés à différents taux de fillers dans la composition des bétons à très hautes performances : Comportement mécanique et Durabilité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chiheb

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chiheb, D., Belaoura, M., Oudjit, M.N. and Bali, A. 2016. Incorporation of crushed sand at different rates of fillers in the composition of concretes with very high performances: mechanical behavior and durability. Lebanese Science Journal, 17 (2: 146-165. This study focuses on the characterization of concretes Very High Performance comparing crushed sand to high levels of fine limestone available in large quantities in Algeria as an alternative resource to rolled sand. The parameters studied were the sand substitution rate to roll crushed sands, and the dosage of silica fume, cement and superplasticizer. Several tests were performed such as mechanical strength, shrinkage and a sustainability study to identify the mechanisms that govern the behavior of these new concretes. The results showed that the crushed sand is a very promising material; it opens up great horizons to optimize VHPC in Algeria, since it provides good compactness, better mechanical performance, very good different behavior and excellent sustainability indicators when combined with rolled sand.

  18. Request by the Bure (Haute-Marne) CLIS related to the reading of well logging performed by the ANDRA from drilling located around Bure, to check rock characterization and properties. Report made by the ANCCLI's Scientific Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    After having recalled the first conclusions of a work group built up by the Scientific Committee at the request of the Bure CLIS to assess studies performed by the ANDRA regarding the geological properties of the Bure site (site of deep geological storage of long life and high level radio-elements), this report proposes a critical discussion of measurements performed by the ANDRA, and more particularly of methodological aspects of this assessment of rock characteristics and properties based on well logging data. Thus, it comments the available raw data, the used instrumentation, the assessment of clay containment capacities (containment horizon homogeneity, stability of petrophysical properties, hydraulic studies with a focus on a noticed overpressure, modelling and data integration). Some brief propositions are stated. The appendix contains a set a questions to be submitted to the ANDRA by the Bure CLIS on the available data, on data calibration and homogenization, and on the assessment of containment capacities

  19. Détermination des performances aéro-thermo-propulsives des avions civils par une analyse exergétique de solutions haute-fidélité CFD-RANS

    OpenAIRE

    Arntz , A.

    2014-01-01

    A new exergy-based formulation is derived for the assessment of the aerothermopropulsive performance of civil aircraft. The choice of exergy is motivated by its ability to provide a well-established and consistent framework for the design of aerospace vehicles. The output of the derivation process is an exergy balance between the exergy supplied by a propulsion system or by heat transfer, the mechanical equilibrium of the aircraft, and the exergy outflow and destruction within the control vol...

  20. Influence d'une période de restriction alimentaire sur les marqueurs salivaires du stress, les paramètres psychologiques et la performance chez des haltérophiles de haut niveau

    OpenAIRE

    Durguerian , Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Restricting dietary intake is a widespread method for losing weight in weight categories sports. Reduction of calorie intake results in an activation of the physiological stress systems, both at central and peripheral levels, aiming at preserving energy homeostasis. Nevertheless, the influence on physiological, psychological and physical parameters remains controversial and do not allows to clearly defining a negative impact of dietary restriction on health and performance level. The objectiv...

  1. HAUTE-SAVOIE AT CERN - French version only

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Vingt-deux entreprises présenteront le dernier cri de leur technologie à l'exposition "La Haute-Savoie au CERN". Elle est organisée par le Conseil Général de la Haute-Savoie. Une erreur s'est glissée dans le précédent agenda de l'exposition: il n'y aura pas de signature de convention entre le Conseil Général de la Haute-Savoie et le CERN à cette occasion. Du 10 au 14 novembre 2003 Hall du Bâtiment de l'Administration Bât. 60/61 - rez-de-ch. et 1er étage 09h00 - 17h30 Dates Thématiques Firmes concernées Conférences (Salle du Conseil) Horaires à fixer Evénements Lundi 10 nov Electronique Connectique et Multiplexage ALCATEL ALPES DEIS AMPHENOL-SOCAPEX NSI SENSOREX SETIUS SUSS MICROTEC "Présentation des Procédures d'Achats" "Le multiplexage: technologie d'avenir&quo...

  2. Geothermal potential of the Meuse/Haute-Marne site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This report aims to analyze the geothermal potential of the Meuse/Haute-Marne site selected for the Cigeo project, primarily based on data available in the literature and particularly on those recently Acquired by Andra near this site. It also analyzes the report made on the same topic by Geowatt AG at The request of the CLIS of Bure. For the Meuse/Haute-Marne area relevant to Cigeo, the present report concludes to the existence of A low-energy geothermal resource in the lower Triassic. For the Permian and the basement, a medium To high-energy geothermal resource is conceivable, but its occurrence is hypothetical. Beneath the site, exploiting the Triassic would depend on the possibility of re-injecting the produced Brine. National and international experiences show the difficulty to carry out such a reinjection in Silty-clayey formations. The profitability of such exploitation in the Triassic, the Permian or in the basement is questionable. Indeed, the Meuse/Haute-Marne area neither shows an exceptional nature nor a specific interest Compared to other formations or zones for which either the geothermal potential is better Demonstrated, such as for instance the Dogger formation in the central part of the Paris basin with Easier exploitation conditions, or where the geothermal gradients are higher. (authors)

  3. Hauts-de-France. A pioneer in the French energy transition; Hauts-de-France. Vorreiter in der franzoesischen Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, Thomas

    2016-08-15

    France had established in advance of last year's climate summit in Paris on ambitious energy policy goals. Especially the 2016 newly formed Region Hauts-de-France stands out as a pioneer here. There one drives innovation and investments with the objective of fulfilling by 2050 their own needs completely by renewable sources. The orientation to supplies Jeremy Rifkin idea of the third industrial revolution. If successful, the region would be on climate protection well ahead of the national targets, the 2050 ''only'' provide a CO{sub 2} emission reduction of 75%. In addition to the Research and development (R and D) to many future ideas in Hauts-de-France but also some major projects for Security of European energy supplies are realized that show the local agility. [German] Frankreich hatte sich im Vorfeld des letztjaehrigen Pariser-Klimagipfels auf ambitionierte Energiewendeziele festgelegt. Insbesondere die 2016 neu gebildete Region Hauts-de-France sticht dabei als Vorreiter heraus. Dort treibt man Innovationen und Investitionen mit dem Ziel an, bis 2050 den Eigenbedarf vollstaendig mittels erneuerbarer Quellen zu decken. Die Orientierung dazu liefert Jeremy Rifkins Idee der dritten industriellen Revolution. Im Erfolgsfall laege die Region beim Klimaschutz deutlich vor den nationalen Zielen, die bis 2050 ''nur'' eine CO{sub 2}-Emissionsreduktion von 75 % vorsehen. Neben der Forschung und Entwicklung (F and E) zu vielen Zukunftsideen werden in Hauts-de-France aber auch einige Grossprojekte zur Absicherung der europaeischen Energieversorgung realisiert, die Ausweis der dortigen Agilitaet sind.

  4. Energetic modeling and performance improvement of a free piston-kinematic displacer Stirling engine, used for electric power generation; Modelisation energetique et amelioration des performances d'un moteur Stirling a piston libre et deplaceur cinematique, destine a la production d'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seraj Mehdizadeh, N.

    1998-07-01

    This work deals with the different methods of energetic analysis that can be used to simulate a free piston-kinematic displacer Stirling engine. The free pistons directly carry the mobile part of a linear alternator, so there is a strong coupling between the thermodynamical behaviour of the engine and the characteristics of the electric circuit to which the alternator is connected. Various aspects of the engine operation are simulated: the triggering of the over-driven mode and its consequences, the influence of the excitation frequency of the displacer on the engine performance, the operation in a transient frequency mode, and the advantage of taking a non-continuous movement for the displacer. We show that if the circuit is made up of only R-L-C components whose characteristics are steady, the shift between the movement of the free pistons and that of the displacer is far from being optimized. We show that we can increase the net electric power produced by a factor varying from 4 to 10, simply by adapting the value of the resistance of the circuit.

  5. 76 FR 14697 - Aleris Blanking and Rim Products, Inc., a Division of Aleris International, Inc., Terre Haute, IN...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... Products, Inc., a Division of Aleris International, Inc., Terre Haute, IN; Notice of Revised Determination... workers of Aleris Blanking and Rim Products, Inc., a division of Aleris International, Inc., Terre Haute... Blanking and Rim Products, Inc., a division of Aleris International, Inc., Terre Haute, Indiana, who became...

  6. Haute Couture in the Bronze Age: A History of Minoan Female Costumes from Thera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nosch, Marie-Louise Bech

    2008-01-01

    Haute Couture in the Bronze Age from Thera is investigated via frescoes and with a historiographical approach on the reception of Minoan culture in contemporary Greek history......Haute Couture in the Bronze Age from Thera is investigated via frescoes and with a historiographical approach on the reception of Minoan culture in contemporary Greek history...

  7. MANPOWER PROJECTIONS AND TRAINING NEEDS FORECAST TO 1975 FOR THE TERRE HAUTE AREA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana State Univ., Terre Haute.

    USING U.S. CENSUS BUREAU AND INDIANA EMPLOYMENT SECURITY DIVISION DATA, A PREVIOUS STUDY WAS UPDATED TO INCLUDE PROJECTIONS OF MANPOWER AND TRAINING NEEDS FOR THE TERRE HAUTE AREA. GRAPHS SHOW TRENDS FOR EIGHT OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS IN THE UNITED STATES, THE NATION'S URBAN AREAS, INDIANA, AND THE TERRE HAUTE STANDARD METROPOLITAN AREA. MANPOWER NEEDS…

  8. Increasing the energy performance of cement works; Des solutions pour ameliorer la performance energetique des cimenteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolliger, M.; Gallestey, E.; Crosiey, G.; Kiener, M.

    2009-07-01

    Cement works are consuming much thermal and electric energy and this affects the production cost. In the past years, much effort has been put on how to reduce this consumption and cost. Alternative fuels and raw materials have been introduced. As a result the optimization of the production process has become more sophisticated. This article describes a series of computerized tools developed by the company ABB Ltd., which were designed to improve quality assurance and productivity. They apply to the whole production process, including the rotary kiln, the pollutants' emissions in exhaust gases, the numerous ventilators and the crushers. Variable speed drives for ventilators and temperature control in the kiln are amongst the key factors. The optimizers also consider the different cement qualities to be produced in successive batches and the time-dependent electricity prices.

  9. The Meuse/Haute-Marne Centre. Activity report 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-09-01

    This activity report first presents the installations of the Meuse/Haute-Marne Centre (an underground laboratory, a technological centre, and 'ecotheque'), proposes some commented photos of important events (a sealing test, tunnel excavation and setting up of voussoirs, a visit of a minister, so on). The third part presents the arrangements related to safety and radiation protection, and the fourth part addresses the survey and control of impacts on the environment. Actions related to transparency and information are indicated: visits, exhibitions, animations, publications

  10. COMPARAISON ENERGETIQUE ET EXERGETIQUE DE SYSTEMES DE DESSALEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne , Paul; Diaby , Ahmadou ,; Sarray , Yemna; Ghoubali , Redouane; Loulergue , Patrick; Balannec , Béatrice; Maré , Thierry; Sow , Ousmane

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Dans certaines zones du monde, l'eau potable n'est pas une ressource abondante et est produite par des systèmes de dessalement. Par ailleurs, les ressources en énergie doivent être rationalisées. Les performances des systèmes de dessalement sont difficiles à comparer car les technologies peuvent être très différentes et faire appel à des procédés thermiques, électriques ou mécaniques, membranaires ou non. L'exergie correspond à l'énergie mécanique potentiellement produ...

  11. The ANDRA in Meuse/Haute-Marne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the project of creating a deep reversible storage centre for radioactive high- and intermediate-level long-life wastes. It recalls the researches and laws on which this project is based. It describes the different facilities of this centre, specifies the selection criteria for the site, presents the underground laboratory of Bure which is a unique tool for directly studying the geological environment, briefly reviews experiments performed in this laboratory, presents the 'Espace technologique' (an exhibition and information centre), reviews the activity of environment surveillance, outlines the objectives of a reversible storage and the challenges of a memory-keeping activity

  12. Meuse/Haute-Marne Centre. Annual report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Meuse/Haute-Marne Centre belongs to the ANDRA (the French national agency for radioactive waste management) and is a site dedicated to investigations and researches on deep and reversible storage of high and medium activity long life wastes. This report briefly presents its installations, evokes some activities, events and works which occurred in 2009. It addresses how possible releases are controlled through a survey of the environment by means a range of different kinds of measurements. It describes the specific measures which have implemented in terms of radioprotection for the dismantling of a peculiar operation. It also describes measures implemented to ensure work security and evokes work accidents which occurred in 2009. It presents actions in the field of public information

  13. Performance testing of an air/water heat pump using CO{sub 2} (R744) as refrigerant for the preparation of sanitary hot water in a hospital; Mesures des donnees energetiques d'une pompe a chaleur air/eau au CO{sub 2} (R744) pour preparation d'eau chaude sanitaire dans un hopital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anstett, P.

    2006-07-01

    This final report prepared for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the monitoring equipment and the results of performance tests made on a prototype heat pump of 60 kW power output used for hot water production at the hospital of Le Locle, Switzerland. The heat pump uses carbon dioxide (R744) as the working fluid and ambient air as the heat source. The heat output and the coefficient of performance for various values of cold water temperature and air temperature have been measured. The practically measured values of heat output and COP showed a low reproducibility and remained far behind the theoretical values given by the manufacturer. Instead of producing hot water at 80 {sup o}C as intended originally the authors recommend to use the heat pump only for preheating the water to 60 {sup o}C.

  14. Nutrition et sécurité alimentaire dans les hautes terres du Vietnam et ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Nutrition et sécurité alimentaire dans les hautes terres du Vietnam et de la Thaïlande. La malnutrition demeure un problème grave au Vietnam et en Thaïlande, surtout dans les hautes terres, où vivent la plupart des minorités ethniques. Ces collectivités connaissent actuellement des changements socioéconomiques ...

  15. CERN pursues its partnership with the Department of Haute-Savoie

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The third framework agreement between CERN and the Department of Haute-Savoie was signed at an official ceremony in Archamps, Haute Savoie, on 4 February 2010. The main theme of the agreement, which lays down the guidelines for collaboration between the two parties, is the transfer of knowledge and technology.   Christian Monteil (left), Chairman of the General Council of Haute-Savoie and Rolf Heuer, Director-General of CERN after the third signature of the convention-cadre between Haute-Savoie and CERN. CERN and Haute Savoie have a long tradition of cooperation. Fourteen years after their first agreement (see box), the two parties have just signed a third framework agreement that adds knowledge transfer to the range of items covered. The Department of Haute-Savoie wishes to place the focus on advanced and unique training in areas where CERN has considerable expertise. "Two highly successful schools in which CERN is directly involved, one on accelerator physics and the other on medical ap...

  16. The Conseil Général of Haute-Savoie comes to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On Tuesday, 27 May 2008, in the framework of cooperation between CERN and the French Department of Haute-Savoie, the new president of the Conseil Général of Haute-Savoie, Christian Monteil, visited CERN, accompanied by newly-elected Department representatives and officials. The Conseil Général of Haute-Savoie visited the CLIC-CTF3 site.The cooperation between CERN and Haute-Savoie, which dates back to 1996, concerns scientific activities and technology transfer. In his introductory remarks, CERN Director-General Robert Aymar stressed the importance that CERN attaches to good relations with the Department of Haute-Savoie. Then J.J. Blaising, Head of the PH Department and CERN’s liaison officer for Haute-Savoie, presented a short introduction to CERN, which was followed by a lively question-and-answer session underlining our guests’ interest in and curiosity about CERN. The visitors toured ATLAS, then went on to see a small exh...

  17. The ANDRA in Meuse/Haute-Marne; L'Andra en Meuse/Haute-Marne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This document presents the project of creating a deep reversible storage centre for radioactive high- and intermediate-level long-life wastes. It recalls the researches and laws on which this project is based. It describes the different facilities of this centre, specifies the selection criteria for the site, presents the underground laboratory of Bure which is a unique tool for directly studying the geological environment, briefly reviews experiments performed in this laboratory, presents the 'Espace technologique' (an exhibition and information centre), reviews the activity of environment surveillance, outlines the objectives of a reversible storage and the challenges of a memory-keeping activity.

  18. Current and future activities of the Observatoire de Haute Provence in Education and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boër, M.; Ducerf, D.

    The Haute Provence Observatory OHP is an observation station located 100km North of Marseille France It performs both astronomical observations and routine atmospheric measurements in the NDSC Network for Data on Stratospheric Changes and several other geophysics national and international networks The site offers also a program directed to the general public the teachers the pupils and the students at all levels In the past two years we reinforced these activities following few guidelines enhance the scientific diffusion activities towards the general public by presenting an exhibition a stronger program for the teachers and the implementation of a project oriented program for the high school and university students We participate also to a curriculum for planetarium attendants We are currently defining the general long term plan for the observatory including a strong EPO program taking advantages of the site visitors facilities guesthouse research group EPO personnel This program will be oriented to the general space and planetary sciences and is prepared in cooperation with both the academic and regional authorities

  19. Visit of the President of the Conseil Général of Haute-Savoie

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    On 23 October 2012, Christian Monteil, President of the Conseil Général of Haute-Savoie, visited CERN accompanied by a delegation of Departmental representatives and members of the Departmental services.   Christian Monteil, signing the official guest book. From left to right: Philippe Bloch (CERN), Frederick Bordry (CERN), Felicitas Pauss (CERN), Rolf Heuer (CERN Director-General), François Excoffier (Conseil Général, President of the Economy, Research and Higher Learning Commission), Christian Heison (Vice-President of the General Council, delegate for the economy and research – Department of Haute-Savoie representative to CERN) and Jean-Louis Mivel (Conseil Général, member of the Economy, Research and Higher Learning Commission). The Department of Haute-Savoie has been cooperating with CERN in the field of technology and knowledge transfer since 1996 in the form of finan...

  20. Measurement and analysis of high energy radiation through activation detectors. Application in dosimetry; Sur la mesure et l'analyse des rayonnements de haute energie par detecteurs a activation. Application a la dosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklavenitis, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-10-15

    This work is concerned with the possibility of measurement and analysis of radiation fluences within objects of small volume submitted to a high energy proton beam. The first part, consecrated to the establishment of a method of analysis, comprises a detailed study of the radiation nature and energy spectra as well as of the various dosimetry methods. In order to select a group of detectors, high energy nuclear reactions were systematically studied and for some of them cross sections were measured or calculated: for example the cross section of the reaction {sup 11}B (p,n) {sup 11}C between 150 and 3000 MeV and of the reaction {sup 34}S (p,2pn) {sup 32}P between 50 and 3000 MeV. The second part is relative to the application of the fore-mentioned analysis to radiation within a tissue equivalent phantom irradiated by 3 GeV protons. This analysis is sufficiently detailed to allow the reconstitution of the absorbed doses, the dose equivalent and, contingent on a better knowledge of the dose due to heavy particles, the quality factors. It allowed also to follow the evolution of the various dosimetric data as a function of the depth inside the phantom and to verify calculations already done by other researchers. The comparison of the measured doses and the corresponding detector activities revealed the possibility that some detectors could give directly the absorbed dose, or even the dose equivalent, by a simple activity measurement. (author) [French] Le travail porte sur la possibilite de mesure et d'analyse, a l'aide de detecteurs a activation, des fluences de rayonnements a l'interieur d'un objet de petit volume soumis a un faisceau de protons de tres haute energie. La premiere partie, consacree a la mise au point de la methode d'analyse des fluences, comporte une etude detaillee de la nature des rayonnements et de leurs spectres energetiques ainsi que des differentes methodes de dosimetrie. Pour arriver au choix d'un groupe de

  1. Measurement and analysis of high energy radiation through activation detectors. Application in dosimetry; Sur la mesure et l'analyse des rayonnements de haute energie par detecteurs a activation. Application a la dosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklavenitis, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-10-15

    This work is concerned with the possibility of measurement and analysis of radiation fluences within objects of small volume submitted to a high energy proton beam. The first part, consecrated to the establishment of a method of analysis, comprises a detailed study of the radiation nature and energy spectra as well as of the various dosimetry methods. In order to select a group of detectors, high energy nuclear reactions were systematically studied and for some of them cross sections were measured or calculated: for example the cross section of the reaction {sup 11}B (p,n) {sup 11}C between 150 and 3000 MeV and of the reaction {sup 34}S (p,2pn) {sup 32}P between 50 and 3000 MeV. The second part is relative to the application of the fore-mentioned analysis to radiation within a tissue equivalent phantom irradiated by 3 GeV protons. This analysis is sufficiently detailed to allow the reconstitution of the absorbed doses, the dose equivalent and, contingent on a better knowledge of the dose due to heavy particles, the quality factors. It allowed also to follow the evolution of the various dosimetric data as a function of the depth inside the phantom and to verify calculations already done by other researchers. The comparison of the measured doses and the corresponding detector activities revealed the possibility that some detectors could give directly the absorbed dose, or even the dose equivalent, by a simple activity measurement. (author) [French] Le travail porte sur la possibilite de mesure et d'analyse, a l'aide de detecteurs a activation, des fluences de rayonnements a l'interieur d'un objet de petit volume soumis a un faisceau de protons de tres haute energie. La premiere partie, consacree a la mise au point de la methode d'analyse des fluences, comporte une etude detaillee de la nature des rayonnements et de leurs spectres energetiques ainsi que des differentes methodes de dosimetrie. Pour arriver au choix d'un groupe de detecteurs, une etude systematique des

  2. B-Zell-Lymphome der Haut - Pathogenese, Diagnostik und Therapie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolay, Jan P; Wobser, Marion

    2016-12-01

    Primär kutane B-Zell-Lymphome (PCBCL) beschreiben reifzellige lymphoproliferative Erkrankungen der B-Zell-Reihe, die primär die Haut betreffen. Die Biologie und der klinische Verlauf der einzelnen PCBCL-Subtypen variieren untereinander stark und unterscheiden sich grundsätzlich von primär nodalen und systemischen B-Zell-Lymphomen. Primär kutane Marginalzonenlymphome (PCMZL) und primäre kutane follikuläre Keimzentrumslymphome (PCFCL) werden auf Grund ihres unkomplizierten Verlaufs und ihrer exzellenten Prognose zu den indolenten PCBCL gezählt. Demgegenüber stellen die diffus großzelligen B-Zell-Lymphome, hauptsächlich vom Beintyp (DLBCL, LT) die aggressiveren PCBCL-Varianten mit schlechterer Prognose dar. Für die Ausbreitungsdiagnostik und die Therapieentscheidung sind eine genaue histologische und immunhistochemische Klassifizierung sowie der Ausschluss einer systemischen Beteiligung in Abgrenzung zu nodalen oder systemischen Lymphomen notwendig. Die Diagnostik sollte dabei durch molekularbiologische Untersuchungen unterstützt werden. Therapeutisch stehen für die indolenten PCBCL primär operative und radioonkologische Maßnahmen im Vordergrund sowie eine Systemtherapie mit dem CD20-Antikörper Rituximab bei disseminiertem Befall. Die aggressiveren Varianten sollten in erster Linie mit Kombinationen aus Rituximab und Polychemotherapieschemata wie z. B. dem CHOP-Schema oder Modifikationen davon behandelt werden. Auf Grund der in allen seinen Einzelheiten noch nicht vollständig verstandenen Pathogenese und Biologie sowie des begrenzten Therapiespektrums der PCBCL besteht hier, speziell beim DLBCL, LT, noch erheblicher Forschungsbedarf. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Quebec energy development in a sustainable development context; Le developpement energetique du Quebec dans un contexte de developpement durable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laplatte, Benjamin; Bourque, Francis; Granger, Francois P.

    2010-09-15

    Quebec is a net importer of oil and it is clear that the reduction of its dependence with regards to hydrocarbons must be a main preoccupation. Moreover, the energy consumption per habitant of Quebec is higher than that of the majority of the other developed countries. This analysis looks at the choice on offer to the society of the province of Quebec, in terms of energy resources and technologies of today and tomorrow, in a context of sustainable development. [French] Le Quebec est un importateur net de petrole et il est clair que la reduction de sa dependance a l'egard des hydrocarbures doit etre une preoccupation de premier plan. De plus, la consommation energetique par habitant du Quebec est plus elevee que celle de la majorite des autres pays developpes. La presente analyse adresse les choix qui s'offrent a la societe quebecoise, en matiere de ressources et de technologies de l'energie d'aujourd'hui et de demain, dans un contexte de developpement durable.

  4. The engineer, sustainable development craftsman at the center of the global energy challenge!; L'ingenieur, artisan du developpement durable au centre du defi energetique mondial!

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laplatte, Benjamin; Bourque, Francis; Granger, Francois P.; Dery, Gaston; Berube, Martin

    2010-09-15

    By its omnipresence in society, the energy question is at the heart of sustainable development issues. The engineer, as a central actor of human society development, is therefore tightly linked to the energy issue and he must actively contribute to resolve it by integrating to his practices the principles of sustainable development and by applying the solutions that arises. Part of these elements include as the main ones, listening to the consideration of citizens, becoming aware of the environment importance and reducing costs at all levels. The engineer is a social actor that cannot be ignored in the resolution of these issues. [French] Par son omnipresence dans la societe, la question energetique est au coeur des enjeux du developpement durable. L'ingenieur, etant un acteur central du developpement des societes humaines, est donc inextricablement lie a la question energetique qu'il doit contribuer activement a resoudre en integrant a sa pratique les principes du developpement durable et en appliquant les solutions qui en decoulent. Parmi ces elements, l'ecoute des considerations citoyennes, la prise de conscience de l'importance de l'environnement et la reduction des couts a tous les niveaux sont des elements centraux. L'ingenieur est un acteur social incontournable pour la resolution de ces enjeux.

  5. English Department Reforms at the Hautes Etudes Commerciales: Entering the Nineties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the reforms made in the fall of 1990 in the English department at the Ecole Hautes Etudes Commerciales (Paris, France), which were based on the basis of a combination of literature-culture and second- and foreign-language acquisition pedagogical biases. (four references) (VWL)

  6. Étude floristique et ethnobotanique de la flore médicinale du Haut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study is considered as a contribution to the study of medicinal plants that are used in traditional herbal medicne by the local population of the Haute Moulouya. Methods and results: Using 320 questionnaires, a series of ethnobotanical surveys was conducted in the field during the years of 2012 and 2013.

  7. Planificateur des activités de la haute direction | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Il incombe à la planificatrice des activités de la haute direction et du conseil de veiller ... et du CHD aux fins de discussion et de recommandations auprès de la secrétaire et ... Concevoir et tenir à jour un système de suivi fiable sur les sujets de ...

  8. Les reseaux de politique publique comme facteur d'influence du choix des instruments de politique energetique canadienne a des fins environnementales de 1993 a nos jours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathy El Dessouky, Naglaa

    Au cours de la derniere decennie, les modes de la gouvernance ont pris place dans un contexte totalement different de celui qu'ils avaient auparavant. Les gouvernements modernes se rendent compte qu'ils perdent de plus en plus leur capacite a elaborer et a gerer les changements d'une maniere autonome. Ainsi, les fonctions et les activites traditionnellement accomplies exclusivement par le gouvernement engagent de nos jours une gamme d'acteurs etatiques et non etatiques. A l'encontre du concept traditionnel de l'Etat controleur, la gouvernance contemporaine est ainsi devenue moins une question d'offre de service et davantage une gestion indirecte des reseaux de politique publique. Dans cette entreprise, les gouvernements contemporains, cherchant plus d'information, de soutien et de legitimite en matiere de formulation des decisions, ont besoin d'etablir des relations avec les divers groupes d'interet qui, a leur tour, voulaient plus de promotion et de protection en faveur de leurs interets a travers leur implication au processus de l'elaboration et de la mise en oeuvre des politiques publiques. Ainsi, l'approche des reseaux de politique publique represente aujourd'hui un courant considerable au sein du champ d'analyse des politiques publiques. Toutefois, les preoccupations des chercheurs pour cette approche, dans le domaine des politiques energetiques a des fins environnementales, semblent recentes, et les etudes realisees sont encore trop peu nombreuses. Au Canada, au debut des annees 1990, le gouvernement ainsi que plusieurs groupes d'interets, des differents secteurs energetique, industriel et environnemental, ont commence a intensifier leurs efforts pour s'attaquer au probleme du changement climatique d'origine energetique, genere surtout par le secteur de l'industrie. Au cours de la derniere decennie, la question touchant plutot le sujet du developpement energetique durable represente le plus important domaine des politiques publiques ayant surgi recemment dans

  9. The Emergence, Development and Influence of French Haute Cuisine on Public Dining in Dublin Restaurants 1900-2000: an Oral History

    OpenAIRE

    Mac Con Iomaire, Máirtín

    2009-01-01

    The words Dublin or Ireland do not immediately come to mind when haute cuisine is mentioned. However, two leading French chefs, the brothers Francois and Michel Jammet, opened a restaurant in Dublin in 1901 which, up until its closure in 1967, remained one of the best restaurants serving haute cuisine in the world (Mac Con Iomaire 2005a; Mac Con Iomaire 2006). Haute cuisine was served in many Dublin hotels, clubs and restaurants during the twentieth century and came under similar influences a...

  10. Problems and energy choices in Burkina Faso[Energie ; Economie domestique ; Bois de feu ; Produits petroliers ; Legislation fonciere ; Electricite]; Burkina : Problemes et choix energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1986-01-15

    This document is about the evaluation of the energy sector in Burkina Faso. It reports about the main issues of energy: poverty of the households, the lack of fund to finance the sector, desertification...The main resources of energy are firewood, fuel and electricity. The energy needs of Burkina Faso are related to the cooking of food, with liquid fuels intended for the railway transport and fuels used in industry and for the production of electricity. With regard to the transport sector, there is currently no possibility of substitution for the fuel, except the use of ethanol diluted in the gasoline. At the industrial level, agro-industrial, bagasse and the other residues constitute right now the independent source of energy for the production of industrial heat as well as for that of electricity. For the public network of electricity supply, the production rests exclusively on diesel power stations. Regarding the immense needs for its populations in energy, Burkina has only very limited resources. The biomass used for domestic needs cannot continuously ensure the households with the necessary energy supply for food cooking. As for the agro-industrial residues, they cannot reduce the industrial consumption of fuels. There are also hydraulic resources whose conscientious exploitation could contribute to decrease the fuel consumption in terms of electricity. In sum, it would be necessary to improve the regulation as regards firewood supply, to promote the use of improved hearths with wood, to plan the fuel supplies and to assist the SONABEL in the electric production capacities reinforcement of its fuel-based power stations. [French] Ce document traite de l evaluation du secteur de l energie au Burkina. Il fait etat des principaux problemes energetiques : pauvrete des menages, manque de financement dans le secteur, desertification... Les principales ressources energetiques sont le bois de feu, les produits petroliers et l electricite. Les besoins energetiques du

  11. Hauts-de-France. A pioneer in the French energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    France had established in advance of last year's climate summit in Paris on ambitious energy policy goals. Especially the 2016 newly formed Region Hauts-de-France stands out as a pioneer here. There one drives innovation and investments with the objective of fulfilling by 2050 their own needs completely by renewable sources. The orientation to supplies Jeremy Rifkin idea of the third industrial revolution. If successful, the region would be on climate protection well ahead of the national targets, the 2050 ''only'' provide a CO 2 emission reduction of 75%. In addition to the Research and development (R and D) to many future ideas in Hauts-de-France but also some major projects for Security of European energy supplies are realized that show the local agility. [de

  12. Établissement d'une gouvernance efficace de l'eau dans les hautes ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ce projet vise à faciliter une gestion efficace des ressources hydriques dans les hautes terres d'Asie en intégrant les analyses d'impact des changements climatiques à l'évaluation de la vulnérabilité, des moyens de subsistance et des politiques sur l'eau. Les chercheurs du Kunming Institute of Botany en Chine élaboreront ...

  13. Établissement d'une gouvernance efficace de l'eau dans les hautes ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La plupart des grandes rivières d'Asie, qui alimentent près de trois milliards de personnes en aval, prennent leur source dans les hautes terres d'Asie, y compris l'Himalaya et le plateau tibétain. Selon les prévisions, le réchauffement planétaire et les changements climatiques qui y sont associés influeront sur le débit des ...

  14. Odraz haute couture v českých zemích

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmannová, Soňa

    2014-01-01

    "Reflection of Haute Couture in The Czech lands" deals with fashion in the second half of the 19th century and early 20th century in the Czech lands. Before confirmation of national independence in the form of Czechoslovak republic the Czech fashion was evolving between two opposing tendencies. First, there was acceptance of influence from abroad, especially from France, England and Germany particularly through fashion magazines, and second, there was an effort to preserve national originalit...

  15. Etude expérimentale du cliquetis à haut régime Experimental Study of Hight-Speed Knocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guibet J. C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La première partie de cette étude a consisté à observer et à tenter d'interpréter l'action des conditions de fonctionnement et des paramètres de réglage du moteur sur la tendance au cliquetis à haut régime. On a montré ensuite que les différentes familles chimiques d'hydrocarbures qui constituent les carburants classiques présentent chacune un comportement bien distinct en fonction de la richesse, de la pression et de la température d'admission. On a également étudié l'influence de la teneur en plomb du carburant et du type d'alkyle de plomb employé. Quelques expériences ont été effectuées afin de déterminer l'incidence d'une réduction de un point de taux de compression sur l'exigence en octane à haut régime et sur l'action des caractéristiques de composition du carburant. Enfin, en déterminant le pourcentage de cycles soumis au cliquetis pour différentes avances à l'allumage, il a été possible de fournir quelques indications permettant de mieux caractériser l'intensité du phénomène. The first part of this study consists in observing and trying to interpret the effect of operating conditions and engine tuning parameters on the tendency for high-speed knocking to appear. The different chemical families of the hydrocarbons making up conventional fuels are shown to each have a quite different behavior depending on the fuel-air equivalency ratio and the admission pressure and temperature. The influence of the lead content in the fuel and of the type of lead alkyl used is also studied. Some experiments were performed to determine the influence of a one-point reduction in the compression ratio on the high-speed octane requirement and on the effect of fuel composition properties. Lastly, by determing the percentage of cycles accompanied by knocking at different spark advances, some indications were found for better characterizing the intensity of the phenomenon.

  16. Experimental characterization of the hydro-mechanical behaviour of Meuse/Haute-Marne argilites; Caracterisation experimentale du comportement hydromecanique des argilites de Meuse/Haute-Marne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escoffier, S

    2002-04-01

    Within the framework of a feasibility study of underground radioactive waste repository the experimental characterization of the coupled behavior of the host layer is of first importance. This work concerns the experimental characterization in laboratory of the poro-elastic behavior of argillite which constitutes the host layer of the future underground laboratory of ANDRA located at the limit of the Meuse/Haute-Marne. The theoretical approach is the Mechanics of Porous Media defined by Coussy [1991] which has the advantage of providing a formulation of the behavior laws using measurable parameters in laboratory. The difficulties or the feasibility of the characterization tests of these rocks coupled behavior are related to their very low permeability which requires an adaptation of the experimental devices initially used on more permeable rocks. Initially a synthesis on the knowledge of the poro-elastic parameters of Meuse/Haute-Marne argillite is given. Thereafter a first approach of the use of the studies of sensitivity as tools of decision-making aid is proposed. The experimental difficulties encountered by the various experimenters are illustrated by the diversity of the experimental choices, the test duration or by the results disparity. Because of economic, political and ecological stake, the studies of sensitivity could make it possible to direct the experimental efforts by giving indications on the dominating parameters in the coupled behavior of a rock. In the second time after the presentation of the test results of physical characterization 3 types of tests are described: permeability test (pulse test), determination of Biot coefficient under odometric loading and isotropic drained test. The complexity of these tests is related to the attack of the experimental limits. They are presented in detail: theoretical recalls, experimental set up, experimental protocol, unfolding and test results. (author)

  17. Monitoring and surveillance of former uranium sites in Haute-Vienne (France): main outcomes of the review of a ten-year environmental report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallerand, Marie-Odile; Gay, Didier; Andres, Christian

    2008-01-01

    For more than 50 years, more than 200 sites were prospected and mined to extract uranium in France. Haute-Vienne, in the Midwest of the country, played a leading position. Up to the present, rehabilitation of the sites is nearly complete and surveillance is the way of assessing its efficiency. In 2003, AREVA NC was asked to produce a report presenting the results of the ten-year (1994-2003) monitoring and surveillance of the rehabilitated sites and their environment. In 2006, the Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) was asked to perform the technical review of this report. This review led IRSN to recommend actions to improve the monitoring systems and minimise discharges to the environment. Results and recommendations were presented to and discussed with the pluralistic expert group (GEP) created in 2006 by the French ministries of environment, health and industry. (author)

  18. Flood-inundation maps for the Wabash River at Terre Haute, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.3-mi reach of the Wabash River from 0.1 mi downstream of the Interstate 70 bridge to 1.1 miles upstream of the Route 63 bridge, Terre Haute, Indiana, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Indiana Department of Transportation. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent of flooding corresponding to select water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage Wabash River at Terre Haute (station number 03341500). Current conditions at the USGS streamgage may be obtained on the Internet from the USGS National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/in/nwis/uv/?site_no=03341500&agency_cd=USGS&p"). In addition, the same data are provided to the National Weather Service (NWS) for incorporation into their Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) flood warning system (http://water.weather.gov/ahps//). Within this system, the NWS forecasts flood hydrographs for the Wabash River at Terre Haute that may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated using the most current stage-discharge relation at the Wabash River at the Terre Haute streamgage. The hydraulic model was then used to compute 22 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-ft interval referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bank-full to approximately the highest recorded water level at the streamgage. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system digital elevation model (derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data having a 0.37-ft vertical accuracy and a 1.02-ft horizontal accuracy) to delineate the area flooded at each water

  19. Couches minces supraconductrices à haute température critique pour l'électronique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilloux-Viry, M.; Perrin, A.

    1998-08-01

    High critical temperature superconductors (HTCS) are very promising for applications in microelectronics due to the control of high quality epitaxial thin films, in spite of a number of specific constraints. Active and passive devices are already available in various laboratories, prooving that applications are actually expected soon. We report here on the interest of HTCS thin films, on preparation processes including materials and substrates choice, and also on characterization methods which are required in order to chek the quality of the samples. Finally some illustrative examples of applications are presented. Les supraconducteurs à haute température critique ouvrent des perspectives prometteuses dans le domaine de l'électronique en raison de la maîtrise de la croissance de films minces de haute qualité cristalline et physique, malgré des difficultés spécifiques. Des dispositifs, aussi bien actifs que passifs, commencent à être réalisés dans divers laboratoires, montrant que des applications peuvent être effectivement envisagées à relativement court terme.

  20. Medicinal Plants Used for Neuropsychiatric Disorders Treatment in the Hauts Bassins Region of Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosper T. Kinda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Burkina Faso, phytotherapy is the main medical alternative used by populations to manage various diseases that affect the nervous system. The aim of the present study was to report medicinal plants with psychoactive properties used to treat neuropsychiatric disorders in the Hauts Bassins region, in the western zone of Burkina Faso. Methods: Through an ethnobotanical survey using structured questionnaire, 53 traditional healers (TH were interviewed about neuropsychiatric disorders, medicinal plants and medical practices used to treat them. The survey was carried out over a period of three months. Results: The results report 66 plant species used to treat neuropsychiatric pathologies. Roots (36.2% and leaves (29% were the main plant parts used. Alone or associated, these parts were used to prepare drugs using mainly the decoction and the trituration methods. Remedies were administered via drink, fumigation and external applications. Conclusions: It appears from this study a real knowledge of neuropsychiatric disorders in the traditional medicine of Hauts Bassins area. The therapeutic remedies suggested in this work are a real interest in the fight against psychiatric and neurological diseases. In the future, identified plants could be used for searching antipsychotic or neuroprotective compounds.

  1. U-Pb geochronology on zircon from the Aouli pluton, Haute Moulouya area, Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oukemeni, D.; Krogh, T.E.

    1995-01-01

    The Aouli Pluton consists of four units: (1) granodiorite; (2) grey granite; (3) pink granite - these three units constituting a spatially continuous massif, and (4) muscovite granite, which is exposed in two small stocks somewhat removed from the other units. U-Pb ages obtained on zircon and titanite are 333 ± 2 Ma and 319 ± 1.5 Ma for the granodiorite and grey granite respectively. The 14 ma age difference between the granodiorite and the grey granite supports the multiple injection hypothesis which was the outcome of geochemical studies (Oukemeni and Bourne, 1993). These two rocks also contain an inherited component which has been dated at 1520 Ma in the granudiorite and at 1245 ma and 1804 Ma in the grey granite. The inherited components suggest the possible presence of Precambian crust below the Haute Moulouya. Since the intrusion is late-to post-tectonic (Oukemeni and Bourne, 1993), the age of the granodiorite (333 ± 2 Ma) indicates that the Hercynian deformation is pre-Visean in the Haute Moulouya area, and, by extension, throughout the eastern meseta region. (authors). 14 refs. 4 figs. 3 tabs

  2. Lambeaux autofermants pour le traitement des brulures electriques du scalp par haut voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafidi, J.; El Mazouz, S.; El Mejatti, H.; Fejjal, N.; Gharib, N.E.; Abbassi, A.; Belmahi, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Les brûlures électriques par haut voltage sont responsables de gros dégâts tissulaires en immédiat et dans les jours suivant l’accident du fait de la chaleur importante dégagée par effet joule et de la thrombose microvasculaire évolutive. Les pertes de substances du scalp secondaires à ces brûlures nécessitent une couverture par lambeaux vu la destruction du périoste et du calvarium en regard. De juin 1997 à juin 2008, 15 patients ont été traités pour des pertes de substance du scalp secondaires à des brûlures électriques par haut voltage de diamètre allant de 8 à 11 cm et siégeant dans la région tonsurale. Ces patients ont été opérés dans la première semaine suivant l’accident. Les pertes de substance du scalp de taille moyenne secondaires à ces brûlures peuvent être couvertes per primam de façon fiable par des lambeaux locaux axialisés et multiples. Nous relatons l’expérience du Service de Chirurgie Plastique du Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Ibn-Sina, Rabat, Maroc, dans la gestion et la prise en charge de ces brûlures. PMID:22262963

  3. Situation of methanization installations in Haute-Normandie. Phase 2: Assessment of the regional sector. Phase 3: Development perspectives for the methanization sector in Haute-Normandie. To understand methanization. Haute-Normandie Commission of expertise on methanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Convert, Mathilde

    2012-10-01

    A first report proposes an analysis of the situation of methanization installations in the Haute-Normandie region while recalling the national context. It briefly reports an analysis and assessment of waste flows, processed effluents, by-products and biomass displaying an energetic potential. It describes methanization installations by addressing the different steps of the methanization process, by presenting the different digestion indicators, by briefly evoking the issue of the return-to-soil of digestates, and by presenting various operational data. Financial aspects are then addressed (investments and subsidies, financial balance of farm-based and collective installations), and an overview of methanization projects in the region and development perspectives is proposed. The second report more precisely analyses development perspectives for the methanization sector in the region through a brief assessment of the methanizable organic substrate resource, a discussion of different associated challenges (energy, agronomic, environmental and societal), a discussion of development levers and brakes, and an analysis of competitions (related to the use of industrial by-products, between processing installations, and related to agricultural soils). Another document proposes an overview of various aspects of methanization: a tool for territorial development, regulatory framework, evolution of installations in the region, assets of methanization, and role of the regional commission of expertise on methanization

  4. 75 FR 9436 - Aleris Blanking and Rim Products, Inc., a Division of Aleris International, Inc., Terre Haute, IN...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-72,041] Aleris Blanking and Rim Products, Inc., a Division of Aleris International, Inc., Terre Haute, IN; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By application dated January 29, 2010, the petitioner...

  5. Jasrouxite, a new Pb-Ag-As-Sb member of the lillianite homologous series from Jas Roux, Hautes Alpes, France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topa, Dan; Makovicky, Emil; Favreau, Georges

    2013-01-01

    The thallium-rich sulfosalt deposit of Jas Roux, situated in the Pelvoux Massif (Hautes-Alpes de´partement, France), occurs in a Triassic sedimentary series. Jasrouxite belongs to the early lead-containing stages of the Tl–As–Sb period of mineralization. It occurs in a silicified gangue, along wi...

  6. Loi constitutive chimioplastique pour le beton expose aux hautes temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammoud, Rabah

    Concrete is the most widely used construction material in the world. Even though it has been used for several centuries, its behavior to high temperature remains to be understood. In the light of recent extreme events, including accidents, and arson, special attention has been focused on the performance of concrete in the fire safety assessment of buildings and tunnels. Fire represents one of the most severe conditions encountered during the life-time of a structure. Concrete exposed to high temperature can significantly jeopardize the structural integrity and load bearing capacity of the structure. Spalling of concrete remains one of the main issues to be addressed in the case of fire in buildings and tunnels. Successful modeling of this phenomenon depends not only on the accurate prediction of the temperature distribution through structural concrete but also on its mechanical response to the heating and boundaries restrains conditions and the migration of moisture and associated pore pressures. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a reliable formulation of concrete with all required information to understand its behavior during and after exposure to elevated temperature. It is also necessary to properly assess the effects of thermal degradation in order to develop predictive tools and validate design codes. Many structural problems can be adequately worthy by an elastoplastic model. The ultimate goal of this study is the development of a new constitutive model under a chemoplastic framework. To do this, an experimental program is carried out. The purpose of this program is twofold. First, it is essential to calibrate the proposed constitutive law that will be developed, and, second, for defining an inverse a problem. Usually, uniaxial and triaxial tests, conducted with confining pressure varied between 1.3 and 24 MPa and a temperature up to 700°C, allow us to identify the constitutive law parameters. This law reproduces the reduced field strength due to

  7. Local energy policies: Planning devices and coaching tools - Example of the French case; Politiques energetiques locales: Dispositifs de planification et outils d'accompagnement - Exemple du cas francais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanard, Camille; de Sede-Marceau, Marie-Helene

    2010-09-15

    Collectivities traditionally have multiple responsibilities linked to energy. They act directly on the energy chain (production-distribution-consumption) through their heritage, but also on the tripych space-environment-society, in particular through their planning choices. Hence, all the public policies are concerned by the energy theme. However, collectivities seem to suffer from an information deficit, both on planning devices that can be mobilized and on the territory features. This article proposes to realise an overview tour of the coaching tools that can be used by the French territories collectivities to build efficient energy policies. [French] Les collectivites ont traditionnellement des responsabilites multiples en lien avec l'energie. Elles agissent directement sur la chaine energetique (production-distribution-consommation) a travers leur patrimoine, mais aussi sur le triptyque espace-environnement-societe, en particulier a travers leurs choix d'amenagement. Ainsi, toutes les politiques publiques sont concernees par la thematique ' energie '. Cependant, les collectivites semblent souffrir d'un deficit d'information, tant sur les dispositifs de planification pouvant etre mobilises que sur les caracteristiques du territoire. Cet article propose de realiser un tour d'horizon de l'ensemble des outils d'accompagnements pouvant etre mobilises par les collectivites territoriales francaises pour construire des politiques energetiques efficaces.

  8. Metering and energy audit : the key to success; Mesurage et verification energetique : la cle du succes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milot, J. [Econoler, Quebec, PQ (Canada)

    2010-01-01

    The most widely used measurement and verification (M and V) procedure for energy performance contracting (EPC) projects is the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol (IPMVP). This article discussed the IPMVP as a tool for measuring the success of energy efficiency projects. The IPMVP provides an overview of current best practice techniques available for verifying results of energy efficiency, water efficiency and renewable energy projects in commercial and industrial facilities. Facility operators can use the IPMVP to evaluate and improve facility performance. Energy conservation measures (ECMs) covered in the protocol include fuel saving measures, water efficiency measures, load shifting and energy reductions through installation or retrofit of equipment, or modification of operating procedures. 2 figs.

  9. Les Hauts de la Réunion conquis par les loisirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick BOUCHET

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available En un peu plus d'une décennie, les Hauts de la Réunion sont devenus très fréquentés en raison de la conjonction d'une demande croissante et d'une offre qui s'est améliorée et diversifiée. Trop rapidement assimilée à du tourisme rural, cette conquête n'est pas homogène. L'analyse des pratiques contrastées des visiteurs permet de mettre en évidence une nouvelle organisation spatiale de l'intérieur de l'île.

  10. Experimental characterization of the hydro-mechanical behaviour of Meuse/Haute-Marne argilites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escoffier, S.

    2002-04-01

    Within the framework of a feasibility study of underground radioactive waste repository the experimental characterization of the coupled behavior of the host layer is of first importance. This work concerns the experimental characterization in laboratory of the poro-elastic behavior of argillite which constitutes the host layer of the future underground laboratory of ANDRA located at the limit of the Meuse/Haute-Marne. The theoretical approach is the Mechanics of Porous Media defined by Coussy [1991] which has the advantage of providing a formulation of the behavior laws using measurable parameters in laboratory. The difficulties or the feasibility of the characterization tests of these rocks coupled behavior are related to their very low permeability which requires an adaptation of the experimental devices initially used on more permeable rocks. Initially a synthesis on the knowledge of the poro-elastic parameters of Meuse/Haute-Marne argillite is given. Thereafter a first approach of the use of the studies of sensitivity as tools of decision-making aid is proposed. The experimental difficulties encountered by the various experimenters are illustrated by the diversity of the experimental choices, the test duration or by the results disparity. Because of economic, political and ecological stake, the studies of sensitivity could make it possible to direct the experimental efforts by giving indications on the dominating parameters in the coupled behavior of a rock. In the second time after the presentation of the test results of physical characterization 3 types of tests are described: permeability test (pulse test), determination of Biot coefficient under odometric loading and isotropic drained test. The complexity of these tests is related to the attack of the experimental limits. They are presented in detail: theoretical recalls, experimental set up, experimental protocol, unfolding and test results. (author)

  11. CARACTERISATIONS ENERGETIQUE ET ENVIRONNEMENTALE DE LA BIOMETHANISATION PILOTE APPLIQUEE AUX DEJECTIONS ANIMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M’SADAK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study interested in monitoring energy (quantitative and qualitative and environmental performances at various pilot digesters of animal biomass.Main results are:The combined effect of the diet and the substrate on quantitative experimental productivity of gas is in favor of poultry digesters continuously fed. The biogas produced has better potential especially in industry. The environmental evaluation virtually shows a certain interest on the depollution for industrial digester.

  12. Experimental study on poro-mechanical behavior of saturated Meuse-Haute/Marne argillite subjected to triaxial compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Dawei; Zhang, Fan; Xie, Shouyi; Shao, Jianfu

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Due to its low permeability (10 -18 to 10 -20 m 2 ), the Meuse-Haute/Marne argillite is chosen as the candidate host rock for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste by 'Agence Nationale de gestion des Dechets Radioactifs' (ANDRA). During the excavation of the underground tunnel in argillite formation, the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) is expected to develop due to the stress redistribution during excavation and subsequent rock convergence. The nucleation and propagation of microcracks in EDZ can consequently affect the poro-mechanical behavior of the host rock. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to study the poro-mechanical behavior of Meuse-Haute/Marne argillite under the influence of stress induced microcracks. For this purpose, this paper presents the original experimental results of drained and undrained triaxial compression tests as well as evolution of Biot's coefficient during hydrostatic and deviatoric loading of saturated Meuse-Haute/Marne argillite. The size of samples used in the present work is 20x20 mm in order to reduce the saturating time. The axis of the cylindrical sample is perpendicular to the bedding planes. The test system is placed in an insulated room and a temperature control system is used to maintain a constant temperature of 20 ±0.2 C. The saturation condition is an important factor for the determination of the mechanical and poro-elastic properties of saturated argillite. Thus, for each sample, after putting into the triaxial cell, the confining pressure is loaded to 2 MPa and we inject distilled water both at the injection and outlet faces in order to insure the pore pressure at the two faces hold at 1 MPa. This procedure will be keep to 72 hours. Then, the pore pressure at the injection face is increased to 1.5 MPa, and we record the pore pressure at the outlet face. Once the pore pressure at the outlet face reaches the same value at injection face, the sample is

  13. Changement climatique et domaines skiables: simulation en Savoie et Haute-Savoie à l’horizon 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Loubier

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Les domaines skiables et le changement climatique posent des questions importantes et nouvelles pour les espaces montagnards. Dans les hautes vallées où ces domaines sont souvent le moteur principal du développement local, on peut s'interroger sur la pérennité du modèle économique de l'or blanc à moyen terme quand les modèles de simulation du climat tablent sur une élévation de la température moyenne comprise entre 1,5° et 5° en 2100. Nous avons tenté de simuler les effets du changement climatique à l'horizon 2015, sur les domaines skiables de Savoie et Haute Savoie.

  14. Microbial investigations in Opalinus clay from Mont Terri and in Callovo-Oxfordian argillite from Meuse/Haute-Marne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulain, S.

    2006-12-01

    The subject of this Ph.D. thesis deals with research achieved in the context of the Axis 2 of the law Bataille voted on December 30, 1991 about the possibility of building a deep geological repository for medium or high activity and long living nuclear waste. Nearby such a site, some microorganisms may influence the mobility of radionuclides coming from the waste canisters. This work consisted in looking for autochthonous microorganisms in the Opalinus clay formation from Mont Terri (Switzerland) and in the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite from Meuse/Haute-Marne (France). Microbial Investigations in these unknown unperturbed environments suggested very low microbial densities in the clayey sediments. However, new bacterial species could be isolated from those samples. In addition, a part of the allochthonous population, which has been introduced by air and human activity, could be identified in the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory. (author)

  15. Automobile air-conditioning its energy and environmental impact; La climatisation automobile impact energetique et environnemental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbusse, St.; Gagnepain, L.

    2003-05-01

    Over the last three decades, automobile manufacturers have made a lot of progress in specific fuel consumption and engine emissions of pollutants. Yet the impact of these improvements on vehicle consumption has been limited by increased dynamic performances (maxi-mum speed, torque), increased safety (power steering and power brakes) and increased comfort (noise and vibration reduction, electric windows and thermal comfort). Because of this, the real CO{sub 2}-emission levels in vehicles is still high in a context where road transport is a major factor in the balance sheet of greenhouse gas emissions, thus in complying with the inter-national climate convention. Although European, Japanese and Korean manufacturers signed an important agreement with the European Commission for voluntarily reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from their vehicles, with a weighted average emission goal by sales of 140 grams per km on the MVEG approval cycle by 2008, it has to be noted that the European procedures for measuring fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions do not take accessories into account, especially air-condition ng (A/C). The big dissemination of this equipment recognized as a big energy consumer and as using a refrigerant with a high global warming potential ed ADEME to implement a set of assessments of A/C's energy and environmental impact. In particular these assessments include studies of vehicle equipment rates, analyses of impact on fuel consumption as well as regulated pollutant emissions in the exhaust, a characterization of the refrigerant leakage levels and an estimate of greenhouse gas emissions for all air-conditioned vehicles. This leaflet summarizes the results of these actions. All of these studies and additional data are presented in greater detail in the document,-'Automobile Air-conditioning' (ADEME reference no. 4985). (author)

  16. Gerbstoffe aus Potentilla officinalis wirken entzündungshemmend im UV-Erythem-Test und bei Anwendung auf atopischer Haut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Julia; Wölfle, Ute; Schempp, Christoph M; Casetti, Federica

    2016-09-01

    Das Rhizom von Potentilla officinalis (PO) ist reich an Gerbstoffen und wird traditionell zur äußerlichen Behandlung von Entzündungen der Haut und der Schleimhäute verwendet. Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war die Bestätigung der antiinflammatorischen Eigenschaften von PO mittels eines UV-Erythem-Tests und einer klinischen Anwendungsstudie bei atopischer Haut. Die antiinflammatorische Wirkung eines PO-Extrakts (standardisiert auf 2 % Trockensubstanz) wurde in einer prospektiven, randomisierten, placebokontrollierten Doppelblindstudie mit 40 gesunden Erwachsenen im UV-Erythem-Test im Vergleich zu 1 % Hydrocortisonacetat untersucht. Im Rahmen einer prospektiven nicht kontrollierten Studie wurde die Wirkung und Verträglichkeit der 2 % PO-Creme an zwölf Erwachsenen und zwölf Kindern mit atopischer Haut nach Anwendung über zwei Wochen in einem definierten Testareal anhand eines Teil-SCORAD untersucht. Zusätzlich wurde die Beeinflussung der Hautrötung im Testareal photometrisch gemessen. Im UV-Erythem-Test zeigte die PO-Creme eine signifikante Reduktion des Erythemindex im Vergleich zum Vehikel. Die antiinflammatorische Wirkung des Verums entsprach der der 1 % Hydrocortisonacetat-Creme. Die klinische Studie bei Atopikern zeigte eine signifikante Abnahme des Teil-SCORAD und des Erythems im Testareal. Es wurden keine Unverträglichkeitsreaktionen beobachtet. PO als 2%ige Zubereitung besitzt entzündungshemmende Eigenschaften und ist wirksam und gut verträglich auf atopischer Haut. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Comparison of single and dual continuum representations of faults and fractures for simulating groundwater flow and solute transport in the Meuse/Haute-Marne aquifer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, R.; Sudicky, E.; Therrien, R.; Benabderrahmane, H.

    2010-01-01

    aquifers, accounting for minor and diffuse fracturing, and a discrete fracture approach is used to represent the major fracture zones. The hydraulic properties of the fracture continuum are obtained by assuming that the calibrated hydraulic conductivities of the single continuum model represent the bulk fracture-matrix properties. Using the measured hydraulic conductivity of the rock matrix, and the observed fracture spacing and aperture, the resulting hydraulic conductivity of the fracture system is obtained from the bulk hydraulic conductivity. The major fracture zones that are aligned along the regional principal stress direction (NW-SE) are treated as permeable discrete fractures, while those major zones perpendicular to that direction are assumed to have a lower permeability. Because the bulk hydraulic conductivity remains similar for the single continuum and dual continuum models, similar hydraulic heads are obtained. A sensitivity analysis of dual continuum transport properties, for several transport scenarios representing solute migration from a potential repository, is then conducted to investigate the difference between single continuum and dual continuum representations of the confining aquifers. The discrepancy or the uncertainty associated to the single continuum is measured regarding the performance of the repository. The trajectories length and transit time distributions from repository emplacements within the Meuse/Haute-Marne site to potential and/or real outlets of the aquifer system are analysed. (authors)

  18. Energy efficiency; Efficacite energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the energy efficiency. It presents the energy efficiency and intensity around the world with a particular focus on Europe, the energy efficiency in industry and Total commitment. (A.L.B.)

  19. Groundwater flows in Meuse/Haute-Marne aquifer system and the importance of the evolution of the geomorphology over the next million of years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmen, J.; Benabderrahmane, H.; Brulhet, J.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. A clay-stone formation of Callovo-Oxfordian age is found throughout the multilayered sedimentary fill of the Paris Basin. It is considered as a potential host rock for France's high and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste. The Callovo-Oxfordian layer is located between an overlying limestone of Oxfordian age and an underlying limestone of Dogger age.. The Meuse/Haute-Marne sector area is located in the East of France, the area includes the Bure investigation site and a domain referred to as the 'transposition zone' selected as a suitable location for France's high- and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste The objective of the study was to estimate how the groundwater flow in the Meuse/Haute- Marne aquifer system will change because of the geomorphologic evolution over the next 1 million of years. The future groundwater flows and the future evolution of the vertical hydraulic gradient in the transposition zone are of importance in the performance assessment and the safety analysis of a future repository for radioactive waste. The study is based on numerical modelling and the established model covers the whole of the Paris basin. The studied time period corresponds to 1 million years into the future. The initial geometry of geological layers as well as the conductivity and the porosity of the layers are input data to model, and defined by the single-continuum multi-scale hydrogeological model of the Paris Basin and the Meuse/Haute-Marne Sector area as developed by Andra. A description of the transient geomorphologic evolution was used as input data to the groundwater flow modelling. The description include: (i) The deformation of the geological layers as a result of a non-symmetric tectonic uplift of the Paris basin and (ii) The movement of the topography because of mechanical erosion along valleys, chemical erosion along plateaus and sedimentation along valleys. The modelling of the

  20. The development of a very high stability electrostatic generator (1962); Etude et realisation d'un generateur electrostatique a tres haute stabilite (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonckheere, R E.L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    This thesis deals with the study of an electrostatic high voltage generator having a voltage stability of the order of 10{sup -6} per minute. This equipment should be very useful in electron microscopy. The electrostatic generator is studied as a control system element: transfer function, parasitic signals and noise are determined and a mathematical model is proposed. A theoretical study of the open loop transfer function, stability, transient response, voltage stabilization of five different control systems shows which one should be able to fulfill the requirements There follows a detailed study of drift, a description of the actual system and performance data. (author) [French] Cette etude concerne un generateur electrostatique capable de fournir une tres haute tension continue dont la stabilite relative est de l'ordre de 10{sup -6} pendant une minute. Une telle performance rend cet appareillage tres utile en microscopie electronique. La generatrice electrostatique est etudiee en tant qu'element d'un systeme asservi: on determine successivement la fonction de transfert, les perturbations, le bruit de fond et le modele mathematique. L'etude de cinq differents circuits de regulation en ce qui concerne leur fonction de transfert, stabilite, reponse en regime transitoire, attenuation des perturbations, permettra de choisir le systeme qui semble le mieux repondre aux exigences. Viennent ensuite une etude detaillee de la derive, la description de la realisation pratique et les resultats de mesure. (auteur)

  1. The development of a very high stability electrostatic generator (1962); Etude et realisation d'un generateur electrostatique a tres haute stabilite (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonckheere, R.E.L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    This thesis deals with the study of an electrostatic high voltage generator having a voltage stability of the order of 10{sup -6} per minute. This equipment should be very useful in electron microscopy. The electrostatic generator is studied as a control system element: transfer function, parasitic signals and noise are determined and a mathematical model is proposed. A theoretical study of the open loop transfer function, stability, transient response, voltage stabilization of five different control systems shows which one should be able to fulfill the requirements There follows a detailed study of drift, a description of the actual system and performance data. (author) [French] Cette etude concerne un generateur electrostatique capable de fournir une tres haute tension continue dont la stabilite relative est de l'ordre de 10{sup -6} pendant une minute. Une telle performance rend cet appareillage tres utile en microscopie electronique. La generatrice electrostatique est etudiee en tant qu'element d'un systeme asservi: on determine successivement la fonction de transfert, les perturbations, le bruit de fond et le modele mathematique. L'etude de cinq differents circuits de regulation en ce qui concerne leur fonction de transfert, stabilite, reponse en regime transitoire, attenuation des perturbations, permettra de choisir le systeme qui semble le mieux repondre aux exigences. Viennent ensuite une etude detaillee de la derive, la description de la realisation pratique et les resultats de mesure. (auteur)

  2. Coupled HM modelling of the mine-by test at Meuse-Haute-Marne (MHM) URL France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildizdag, K.; Shao, H.; Hesser, J.; Soennke, J.; Noiret, A.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In order to test the feasibility of disposing High-Level and Long-Lived Wastes (HLW-LL) in Callovo- Oxfordian clay formation (COx), the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA) has carried out scientific and engineering investigations in the Meuse-Haute-Marne Underground Research Laboratory (URL) since November 1999. The COx (Figure 1) is of a special interest because of its very favourable characteristics for being a possible host rock for the disposal of radioactive waste. The project OHZ (Observation and Monitoring of the EDZ) was initiated in 2008 by ANDRA. In the framework of this project, a Mine-by experiment was performed in the niche GCS. The excavation was started on 29.01.2008. Displacement and pore pressure evolution during the excavation was measured by different sensors. Within the cooperation between BGR and ANDRA numerical calculations have been done using the code RockFlow to understand the hydraulic and mechanical (HM) coupling mechanisms of Callovo-Oxfordian clay-stone observed during the Mine-by experiment. Modelling results: With regard to the bedding of COx a transverse isotropy approach was applied. Thus the anisotropy effects caused by the bedding have been considered in coupled HM models (Massmann, 2009). Intensive parameter studies in comparison with measured deformation and pore pressure data have been conducted to reduce modelling uncertainties. Fully saturated models yield very precise results in the far field wherein excavation effect has its lower impact. Rapid decline of pore pressure and continuously increasing deformation subsequent to excavation in the near field could not be interpreted even taking shrinkage and partially saturation into consideration. During the Mine-by test, overpressures on sidewalls and reduced pressures on roof and floor were measured due to the mechanical effect on pore pressure which is induced by the bedding. Good agreement between

  3. Off-axis Doas Measurements At Observatoire De Haute Provence During 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roozendael, M. Van; de Mazière, M.; Fayt, C.; Hendrick, F.; Hermans, C.

    Since December 2000, a ground-based off-axis DOAS spectrometer has been operated by BIRA-IASB in the South of France at the Observatoire de Haute Provence (OHP, 44°N). The design of the instrument allows automated observations of the scattered light alternatively in the zenith direction and at 10° above the horizon (off-axis geometry). The spectrometer is polarised and follows the azimuth of the sun. Its temperature is regulated and it is equipped with a Princeton Instruments/ Hammamatsu cooled diode array detector. Observations are made every 5 minutes in the 320-390 nm range. The analysis of the spectra recorded between January and December 2001 demonstrates the sensitivity of the measurements to tropospheric contents of NO2, HCHO, O3 and BrO. Results show a large seasonality in the HCHO content with maximum values in summer. The tropospheric BrO column is found to be stable over the year in the range of approximately 1.5-2 x1013 molec/cm2, roughly consistent with GOME observations at Northern mid-latitudes. Large increases of the BrO concentration are observed in summer likely due to local pollution in the vicinity of the station.

  4. A heating experiment in the argillites in the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wileveau, Yannick; Su, Kun; Ghoreychi, Mehdi

    2007-01-01

    A heating experiment named TER is being conducted with the objectives to identify the thermal properties, as well as to enhance the knowledge on THM processes in the Callovo-Oxfordian clay at the Meuse/Haute Marne Underground Research Laboratory (France). The in situ experiment has being switched on from early 2006. The heater, 3 m length, is designed to inject the power in the undisturbed zone at 6 m from the gallery wall. A heater packer is inflated in a metallic tubing. During the experiment, numerous sensors are emplaced in the surrounding rock and are experienced to monitor the evolution in temperature, pore-water pressure and deformation. The models and numerical codes applied should be validated by comparing the modeling results with the measurements. In parallel, some lab testing have been achieved in order to compare the results given with two different scales (cm up to meter scale). In this paper, we present a general description of the TER experiment with installation of the heater equipment and the surrounding instrumentation. Details of the in situ measurements of temperature, pore-pressure and strain evolutions are given for the several heating and cooling phases. The thermal conductivity and some predominant parameters in THM processes (as linear thermal expansion coefficient and permeability) will be discussed. (authors)

  5. R. F. plasmoids and resonant discharges; Plasmoides a haute frequence et decharges resonnantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taillet, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-06-15

    In R.F. discharges at reduced pressure a resonance can increase by an order of magnitude the intensity of the plasma R.F. electric field. The electron density of the plasma adjusts itself to keep the resonant frequency equal to the excitation frequency. This behaviour has been observed by an electron beam technique. When such a discharge is excited in electronegative gases, the negative ion density may be higher than the electron density. Therefore, the D.C. potential distribution in plasma and sheath is modified. The plasma appears as a luminous body isolated from the walls by a large sheath (R.F. plasmoid). (author) [French] Dans les decharges H.F. a faible pression une resonance peut elever d'un ordre de grandeur l'intensite du champ electrique interne du plasma. La densite electronique s'ajuste elle-meme de facon a rendre egales la frequence d'excitation et la frequence de la resonance. Ce mecanisme a ete observe a l'aide de faisceaux electroniques. Lorsqu'une telle decharge est excitee dans un gaz electronegatif, la densite des ions negatifs peut etre plus elevee, que la densite electronique, ce qui modifie la distribution du potentiel continu dans le plasma et la gaine. Le plasma apparait comme un corps lumineux isole des parois par une large gaine (plasmoide a haute frequence). (auteur)

  6. R. F. plasmoids and resonant discharges; Plasmoides a haute frequence et decharges resonnantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taillet, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-06-15

    In R.F. discharges at reduced pressure a resonance can increase by an order of magnitude the intensity of the plasma R.F. electric field. The electron density of the plasma adjusts itself to keep the resonant frequency equal to the excitation frequency. This behaviour has been observed by an electron beam technique. When such a discharge is excited in electronegative gases, the negative ion density may be higher than the electron density. Therefore, the D.C. potential distribution in plasma and sheath is modified. The plasma appears as a luminous body isolated from the walls by a large sheath (R.F. plasmoid). (author) [French] Dans les decharges H.F. a faible pression une resonance peut elever d'un ordre de grandeur l'intensite du champ electrique interne du plasma. La densite electronique s'ajuste elle-meme de facon a rendre egales la frequence d'excitation et la frequence de la resonance. Ce mecanisme a ete observe a l'aide de faisceaux electroniques. Lorsqu'une telle decharge est excitee dans un gaz electronegatif, la densite des ions negatifs peut etre plus elevee, que la densite electronique, ce qui modifie la distribution du potentiel continu dans le plasma et la gaine. Le plasma apparait comme un corps lumineux isole des parois par une large gaine (plasmoide a haute frequence). (auteur)

  7. A study on the dynamic behavior of the Meuse/Haute-Marne argillite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, M.; Kaiser, P. K.; Suorineni, F.; Su, K.

    Excavation of underground tunnels can be conducted by tunnel boring machines (TBM) or drill-and-blast. TBMs cause minimum damage to excavation walls. Blasting effects on excavation walls depend on the care with which the blasting is executed. For blast-induced damage in excavation walls, two issues have to be addressed: rate of loss of confinement (rate of excavation) and dynamic loading from wave propagation that causes both intended and unintended damage. To address these two aspects, laboratory dynamic tests were conducted for the determination of the dynamic properties of the Meuse/Haute-Marne argillite. In the present study, 17 tensile (Brazilian) and 15 compression split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) tests were conducted. The test revealed that the dynamic strengths of the argillite are strain rate dependent. The average dynamic increase factors (ratio of dynamic strength to static strength) for tensile and compressive strength are about 3.3 and 2.4, respectively. A high-speed video camera was used to visualize the initiation of failure and subsequent deformation of the specimens. The direct compression specimens were found to deform and fail uniformly around the circumference of the specimen, by a spalling process. The SHPB Brazilian tests indicated that failure occurred in tension along the line of load application. Radial fractures were also observed. The test results can be used for the development of a dynamic constitutive model for the argillite for the prediction of damage in underground excavation utilizing the drill-and blast method.

  8. Effets des rayonnements de haute energie sur le cristallin de la souris

    CERN Document Server

    Di Paola, M; Bianchi, M; Bianchi, M no 1; Baarli, J no 1; Di Paola, M no 1

    1973-01-01

    L'opacification du cristallin après irradiation par des neutrons et d'autres rayonnements ionisants a été largement étudiée, vu l'importance de telles recherches en radioprotection et la possibilité offerte par ce système d'analyser les effets produits par de petites doses de rayonnement. Les neutrons de haute énergie sont d'un intéret particulier pour la radioprotection près des accélérateurs et dans l'espace, mais jusqu'à présent les études ont été limitées aux neutrons d'énergie inférieur à 14 MeV. L'opacification du cristallin chez la souris, après irradiation par des neutrons de 400 MeV produits par le Synchro-Cyclotron du CERN, a été étudiée. Le valeurs d'E.B.R. ont été déterminées par comparaison avec des rayons X de 250 kV. Une breve discussion des résultats obtenus est inclue dans la présentation.

  9. IRSN's opinion on criteria retained by the ANDRA for choosing a 'zone of interest for deepened investigation' (ZIRA, zone d'interet pour la reconnaissance approfondie) for the HA-MAVL-Site de Meuse/Haute-Marne project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-12-01

    Within the context of selection of a site for a future deep storage for high- and intermediate-level activity and long life wastes, this report comments the various results of geological investigations and characterizations performed on this site during the past years. It notices that the most recent results (2007 and 2008) do not put previous conclusions (2005) into question. It recalls the required geological characteristics for such a storage site and compares them with the site characteristics. The IRSN agrees with the technical criteria adopted by the ANDRA for the choice of a zone of interest for a deepened investigation, and more particularly for this particular zone located on the territory of both French departments of Meuse and Haute-Marne

  10. Multiplexeurs numériques haut débit sur arséniure de gallium pour des applications au-delà de 1,5 Gbit/s

    OpenAIRE

    Kamdem , J.; Le Rouzic , M.; Thébault , C.

    1988-01-01

    Deux types de circuits intégrés GaAs de multiplexage haut débit (multiplexeurs à rang fixe et à rang programmable sur 2, 3 ou 4 entrées), capables de fournir des débits numériques jusqu'à 1,9 Gbit/s, ont été conçus et réalisés en logique BFL à grille de 1 μm. On présente ici la méthode de conception mise en oeuvre, et les performances des circuits obtenus. L'architecture de ces multiplexeurs est basée sur des compteurs de type Johnson, sans logique d'établissement de cycle, utilisant des basc...

  11. Water flow in the Oxfordian and Dogger limestone around the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linard, Y.; Vinsot, A.; Delay, J.; Scholz, E.; Lundy, M.; Garry, B.; La Vaissiere, R. de; Cruchaudet, M.; Dewonck, S.; Vigneron, G.; Vincent, B.; Wechner, S.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Within its scientific program to study the feasibility of a high level radioactive waste disposal in the Callovo-Oxfordian argillaceous rock (COx) of the eastern Paris Basin, Andra has conducted an extensive characterization of the Oxfordian and Dogger limestone formations above and below the COx. More than 35 wells ranging from 400 to 700 meters deep were drilled over 15 years to study a 400 km 2 area around the Andra's Meuse / Haute-Marne Underground Research Laboratory (URL). An original methodology was applied in these wells to characterize the geology, the hydrogeology and the geochemistry of the Jurassic carbonates. This multidisciplinary effort provided a unique set of 3D data. The first purpose of this study is to integrate the geological, hydrogeological and geochemical data into a water flow conceptual model. Geological data include the study of cored wells, complete modern wire-line log sets in both cored and un-cored wells, and outcrop analogues. Hydrogeological data include transmissivity and hydraulic head measurements in the Oxfordian and Dogger limestone formations. Geochemical data include several on site measurements (pH, alkalinity, electrical conductivity, temperature) and chemical and isotopic analyses performed on water samples taken at selected depths. More than one hundred hydraulic tests have been performed since 1994 to measure transmissivity distribution in the Oxfordian and Dogger limestone. Several hydraulic testing methods were used in each well: global pumping tests, fluid logging tests, thermal flow logging tests and packer tests. After completion of the hydraulic tests, hydraulic heads were deduced from long term pressure measurements in open wells or in multi-packer completions; pressure monitoring lasted between a few months and more than 10 years. Long term/high volume pumping tests were also performed after the hydraulic tests to obtain a stationary composition of the well

  12. Les monticules micritiques sinemuriens sur la transversale de Midelt-Errachidia (Haut Atlas Central, Maroc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taj Eddine, K.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In the central High Atlas of Morocco, the Liassic series present different mud-moundtype carbonate buildups, well developed in the Midelt area, towards the boundary between the Lower and the Upper Sinemurian. Near Foum Tillicht, these structures show a real evolution within the Upper Sinemunan interval, from simple small-scale bodies at the base, up to big and complex forms at the top. Their sedimentological and palaeontological features indicate microbolites and sponge buildings developed in deep and open marine conditions, within the subphotic zone, at the lower part of the storm wave interval. These buildups are closely linked to tectonic processes as they grow on the normal synsedimentary faults which affected the central atlasic area during the Lower Liassic period, leading to the breakup of the Early Sinemurian carbonate platform and the induced installation of the Upper Sinemurian subsiding basin. Silting by hemipelagic sediments led to death of buildings. Similar palaeogeographic changes and geodynamic evolution have been recently described from different structures in North Africa, Western Europe and North America.Le Lías du Haut Atlas central marocain présente diverses"bioconstructions carbonatées de type Mud-mound bien développées au passage Sinémurien inférieur- Sinémurien supérieur au Sud de Midelt. Ces structures évoluent très localement, a Foum Tillicht, dans tout l’intervalle Sinémurien supérieur. Elles présentent des formes et des tailles respectivement simples et réduites a la base de la série et deviennent complexes et de grande dimension au sommet. Leurs caractéristiques sédimentologiques et paléontologiques montrent qu’il s’agit de constructions a microbolites et a spongiaires développées dans un milieu marin ouvert et profond, dans la zone subphotique, a la partie inférieure de la zone d’action des vagues de tempête. L’apparition et le grand développement des bioconstructions boueuses sin

  13. The Crouzille (Haute-Vienne, France) uranium ores. Half a century of human and industrial adventure in Limousin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bavoux, B.; Guiollard, P.C.

    1998-01-01

    The 16 uranium deposits of the Crouzille (Haute-Vienne, France) have produced 25000 tons of uranium between 1950 and 1995. The uranium content of the ores ranges from 1 to 10/1000. The main production came from the underground exploitation up to 300 m of depth. This book presents the historical aspects of this industrial and human epopee and describes with details the underground exploitation of the ore, its processing and the rehabilitation of the site after the mines have closed down. (J.S.)

  14. Représentation haute résolution du système de mousson ouest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le RegCM3 est piloté à ses frontières latérales et initialisé par deux jeux de données : la dernière version de réanalyses haute résolution produite par le centre européen pour les prévisions météorologiques à moyen terme (CEPMMT) et les sorties du modèle de circulation générale couplé Océan-Atmosphère ECHAM5.

  15. Une autre nature en ville: l'aménagement de la boucle nord des Hauts-de-Seine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Carré

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Confined to parks and forests, nature in French urban areas has been used as an instrument for urban planners and developers. Recent urban projects have sought to give natural systems a fuller role in territorial development. This new function can be considered a radically new approach. At the same time, current redevelopment projects must also integrate existing facilities. The redevelopment of the banks of the Seine by the Hauts-de-Seine council is a good example of this new role that nature can play in urban revitalisation. Maps show the constraints and issues that must be taken into account.

  16. TRANSFORMATION ISOTHERME D'UN ACIER A HAUTE RESISTANCE 40 CDV 13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A BOUTEFNOUCHET

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available L'étude dilatométrique du comportement de l'austénite en condition isotherme d'un acier ternaire, à haute résistance mécanique de nuance 40 CDV 13, nous a permis de tracer son diagramme TTT. L'austénitisation a été réalisée pendant 10 minutes à  qg = 950°C (utilisée dans  l'industrie. Les températures de maintien sont comprises entre Ac1 = 810°C et Ms  = 310°C. Dans ce diagramme TTT, on distingue deux domaines de transformation isotherme de l'austénite. Le domaine I (625°C £  qiso < Ac1 = 810°C dans lequel l'austénite se transforme en ferrite et en perlite, et le domaine II (325°C  £  qiso £ 475°C où l'austénite se transforme en bainite ou en ferrite probainitique. Ces transformations sont précédées pour toutes les températures de maintien isotherme d'une précipitation de carbures. En outre, ces deux domaines de transformation de l'austénite sont séparés par une large zone de stabilité de l'austénite comprise entre 500°C et 600°C. L'analyse approfondie des courbes dilatométriques enregistrées durant le maintien isotherme et le refroidissement final jusqu'à l'ambiante, nous a permis de déterminer qualitativement et quantitativement les phase mises en jeu par ces transformations isothermes de l'austénite.

  17. Les Brulures Electriques par Haut Voltage - A Propos de 10 Cas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmir, R.; Fejjal, N.; El Omari, M.; El Mazouz, S.; Gharib, N.; Abassi, A.; Belmahi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Les accidents électriques par haute tension (AEHT) provoquent des brûlures profondes par effet Joule le long des axes vasculo-nerveux entre les points d'entrée et de sortie, qui sont le siège de lésions délabrantes. Les Auteurs rapportent une série de dix cas d'AEHT admis au service de chirurgie réparatrice et de brûlés de l'Hôpital Ibn Sina de Rabat à travers laquelle ils étudient les caractéristiques épidémiologiques, cliniques et thérapeutiques. Tous les patients étaient des adultes de sexe masculin dont l'âge moyen était de 31 ans. Dans 70% des cas, ces brûlures étaient secondaires à un contact avec les distributeurs d'électricité avec une surface brûlée inférieure à 20%. Le traitement des lésions électrothermiques a nécessité des interventions itératives avec amputation des segments de membres nécrosés dans 70% des cas, dont les suites étaient marquées par des séquelles fonctionnelles invalidantes. La prévention des AEHT, en particulier pour les accidents du travail au sein des professions exposées, reste fondamentale. PMID:21991124

  18. Theory of high frequency discharge in gases under low pressures. Experimental investigation of high-frequency type ion sources; Theorie de la decharge haute frequence dans les gaz aux faibles pressions. Etude experimentale des sources d'ions du type haute frequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, Jean

    1955-03-02

    The first part of this research thesis addresses the theory of high frequency discharge in gases under low pressures, and first proposes a calculation of the distribution function for electrons present within the gas. The author then studies the evolution of electron density within a discharge tube by assigning the governing role in electron multiplication to the secondary emission of tube walls. The second part proposes a detailed description of a source operating at 96.5 Mc/s, a discussion of measurements performed on this source, and the search for a theoretical explanation of some of its properties. The author then briefly analyses various existing types of high frequency sources, and finally discusses their use in corpuscular microscopy and in particle accelerators [French] La presente these comprend deux parties. La premiere est consacree a la theorie de la decharge haute frequence dans les gaz aux faibles pressions et comporte tout d'abord le calcul de la fonction de distribution des electrons presents au sein du gaz. Nous etudions ensuite l'evolution de la densite electronique a l'interieur d'un tube a decharge en attribuant, a l'emission secondaire des parois de ce dernier, le role essentiel dans la multiplicalion des electrons. Nous obtenons ainsi les conditions d'amorcage. Tout au long de cette etude, on doit distinguer soigneusement le cas ou le libre parcours moyen des electrons dans le gaz est inferieur aux dimensions de l'enceinte et le cas ou il leur est superieur. La deuxieme partie comprend la description detaillee d'une source fonctionnant sur 96.5 Mc/s, l'expose des mesures effectuees sur celle-ci et la recherche d'une explication theorique de certaines de ses proprietes. Nous faisons ensuite une breve analyse des divers types de sources d'ions haute frequence existant a l'heure actuelle et nous terminons en traitant de leur utilisation en microscopie corpusculaire et dans les accelerateurs de particules.

  19. The Schoonebeek Oilfield: the Rw-2e High Pressure Steam Injection Project Gisement de Schoonebeek : le projet RW-2E d'injection de vapeur à haute pression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holtam V. R.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The daily oil production from the Schoonebeek Oilfield amounts to some 1400 m3 /d, of which ca. 65% is produced from a high pressure (85 bar steam injection project. This project was started in 1981 and originally consisted of 7 structurally downdip/middip steam injectors. However, following the initially somewhat disappointing project performance, steam injection was moved to 4 middip/ updip injectors in 1984. This change in the location of the steam injectors, together with an increase in the level of surveillance and a more pragmatic reservoir management policy, has resulted in improved project performance. The ultimate extra oil/steam ratio for the total project is now expected to be 0. 7 m3 oil/ton of steam injected. La production de pétrole du gisement de Schoonebeek est d'environ 1400 m3/jour, dont près de 65% sont obtenus par injection de vapeur à haute pression (85 bar. Ce projet lancé en 1981 comportait initialement 7 injecteurs de vapeur orientés vers l'aval-pendage. En raison de performances décevantes, l'injection de vapeur a été transférée en 1984 sur 4 injecteurs travaillant vers l'amont-pendage. Ce changement de position des injecteurs, accompagné d'une surveillance renforcée et d'une politique de gestion du gisement plus pragmatique, a donné des résultats favorables. On pense que le rapport pétrole/vapeur pour l'ensemble du projet devrait être en dernière analyse de 0,7 m3 de pétrole par tonne de vapeur injectée.

  20. Influence de l'introduction de défauts colonnaires amorphes sur les propriétés de transport d'un monocristal supraconducteur à haute Tc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmont, Franck; Hébert, Sylvie; Hardy, Vincent; Martin, Christine; Simon, Charles; Provost, Jackie

    1997-12-01

    Columnar defects can be introduced in high T_c superconductors by irradiation with high energy heavy ions. The concentration of these artificial pinning centers with a well characterized morphology is easily controlled. The pinning efficiency of these defects has been often demonstrated, mainly from magnetization measurements. In the present work, measurements of the electrical resistance along the c axis, R_c(T), in the presence of columnar defects are presented. They show the ability of these defects to prevent the thermal fluctuations effects. The measurements have been performed on the same crystal before and after the heavy ion irradiation. L'irradiation aux ions lourds de haute énergie permet d'introduire des défauts colonnaires amorphes dans les supraconducteurs à haute T_c. Ces centres de pinning artificiel, de morphologie connue, sont introduits en concentration facile à maîtriser. L'efficacité de ces défauts a été très souvent démontrée à partir de mesures d'aimantation. L'étude présentée ici : mesure de la résistance selon l'axe c, R_c(T), en présence de défauts colonnaires parallèles à l'axe c, montre que ces défauts sont capables de s'opposer efficacement à l'effet des fluctuations thermiques. Les mesures ont été faites sur le même monocristal avant et après l'irradiation.

  1. Characterisation of the hydraulic properties within the EDZ around drifts at level -490 m of the Meuse/Haute-Marne URL: A methodology for consistent interpretation of hydraulic tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baechler, S.; Lavanchy, J. M.; Armand, G.; Cruchaudet, M.

    In order to investigate potential changes of the hydraulic properties of the EDZ over time in the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory (URL), several hydraulic tests campaigns have been carried out between 2005 and 2008 in dedicated boreholes. After several test series, inconsistencies were noticed in the results, indicating, in particular cases, erratic, inexplicable property changes over time and spatial contrasts. It was therefore difficult to determine reliably potential trends of the EDZ hydraulic properties. It appeared necessary to re-evaluate both the interpretation concepts and assumptions applied to the numerical analyses of test data on the EDZ, trying to better constrain the flow model and the parameter variables. In order to improve the understanding of the geometrical, geomechanical and hydraulic properties of the EDZ, independent information from other investigation methods has been used to critically revise the conceptual model and formation parameters. In particular, results from a diffusion experiment and ultrasonic measurements allowed constraining the extent of the mechanical damaged zone around the borehole (BDZ). Storativity parameters were fitted due to their expected variability. Indeed, high storativity values can be presumed under the unsaturated conditions of the EDZ. The results of the reanalyses, performed with the numerical borehole simulator MULTISIM, demonstrated the good quality and consistency of the revised conceptual model with constrained BDZ and variable storativity. Overall the new simulation results obtained from selected test series are now very consistent. The revised conceptual model demonstrated its capacity to better represent the evolution and extension of the EDZ around a drift in Meuse/Haute-Marne URL. Further consistency checks are proposed to confirm the new model assumptions and the estimates of the single phase flow model in the EDZ.

  2. Characterisation of the hydraulic properties within the EDZ around drifts at level -490 m of the Meuse/Haute-Marne URL: A methodology for consistent interpretation of hydraulic tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baechler, S.; Lavanchy, J. M.; Armand, G.; Cruchaudet, M.

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate potential changes of the hydraulic properties of the EDZ over time in the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory (URL), several hydraulic tests campaigns have been carried out between 2005 and 2008 in dedicated boreholes. After several test series, inconsistencies were noticed in the results, indicating, in particular cases, erratic, inexplicable property changes over time and spatial contrasts. It was therefore difficult to determine reliably potential trends of the EDZ hydraulic properties. It appeared necessary to re-evaluate both the interpretation concepts and assumptions applied to the numerical analyses of test data on the EDZ, trying to better constrain the flow model and the parameter variables. In order to improve the understanding of the geometrical, geomechanical and hydraulic properties of the EDZ, independent information from other investigation methods has been used to critically revise the conceptual model and formation parameters. In particular, results from a diffusion experiment and ultrasonic measurements allowed constraining the extent of the mechanical damaged zone around the borehole (BDZ). Storativity parameters were fitted due to their expected variability. Indeed, high storativity values can be presumed under the unsaturated conditions of the EDZ. The results of the reanalyses, performed with the numerical borehole simulator MULTISIM, demonstrated the good quality and consistency of the revised conceptual model with constrained BDZ and variable storativity. Overall the new simulation results obtained from selected test series are now very consistent. The revised conceptual model demonstrated its capacity to better represent the evolution and extension of the EDZ around a drift in Meuse/Haute-Marne URL. Further consistency checks are proposed to confirm the new model assumptions and the estimates of the single phase flow model in the EDZ. (authors)

  3. Lévitation magnétique par association d'aimants permanents et de supraconducteurs à haute température critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebel, P.; Tixador, P.; Chaud, X.

    1995-06-01

    Since their discovery in the years 1986/87, the high critical temperature superconductors have reached nowadays performances interesting enough to conceive passive magnetic bearings and suspensions which would combined permanent magnets and naturally stable superconducting pellets. After underlining the principal factors that affect the superconductormagnet interaction, different experimental results are given about vertical and axial forces with some stiffness values. The magnetization curve of a superconductor help to understand the hysteretic behavior of the force as a function of the distance between superconductor and magnet. So called simple and hybrid structures of superconducting magnetic suspension are presented. Finally simple numerical simulations allow to draw some interesting conclusions about both geometry and best fitting structure of permanent magnets. Depuis leur découverte dans les années 1986/87, les supraconducteurs à haute température critique ont désormais atteint des performances intéressantes et rendent envisageables des paliers et suspensions magnétiques passives associant aimants permanents et pastilles supraconductrices naturellement stables. Après avoir indiqué les termes importants influençant l'interaction supraconducteur - aimant, différents relevés expérimentaux sont donnés pour les forces verticales et transversales avec quelques valeurs de raideurs. La courbe d'aimantation d'un supraconducteur permet de comprendre le comportement hystérétique de la force en fonction de la distance supraconducteur-aimant. Les structures dites simple et hybride des suspensions magnétiques supraconductrices sont présentées. Enfin quelques simulations numériques simples permettent de dégager quelques conclusions intéressantes quant aux géométries respectives et aux structures d'aimants permanents les mieux adaptées.

  4. Report on Action Research: An Analysis of the Effects of Selected Instructional Strategies on Student Achievement at Terre Haute North Vigo High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haystead, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the findings of an analysis of a series of action research projects conducted by Vigo County School Corporation at Terre Haute North Vigo High School. During the 2009-2010 school year, 17 teachers participated in independent action research studies regarding the extent to which selected instructional strategies enhanced the…

  5. [The Future Of The City As A Community: Vigo County Public Library Staff Institute (13th, Terre Haute, Indiana, June 4, 1971).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigo County Public Library, Terre Haute, IN.

    The topic of the all day institute was: What planning is going on that will work for a revitalized Terre Haute and Vigo County? The goals were: (1) to arouse interest and awareness of city needs by presenting a brief overview of the physical characteristics of the city, (2) to identify the governmental services that have responsibility for city…

  6. Report on Action Research: An Analysis of the Effects of Selected Instructional Strategies on Student Achievement at Terre Haute South Vigo High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haystead, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the findings of an analysis of a series of action research projects conducted by Vigo County School Corporation at Terre Haute South Vigo High School (hereinafter referred to as South Vigo). During the 2009-2010 school year, 20 teachers at South Vigo participated in independent action research studies regarding the extent to…

  7. La haute mer : un espace aux frontières de la recherche géographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Parrain

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La haute mer est un espace encore peu étudié au sein de la géographie. Ses caractéristiques en font un espace complexe et reflètent son altérité. L’océan est un terrain difficile et original permettant de se confronter à l’interdisciplinarité (géographie, océanographie, climatologie, biologie, histoire, économie. Les approches menées au sein de la géographie sont souvent régionales, sectorielles, côtières et appliquées et peu cherchent à s’orienter vers des approches théoriques ou vers la haute mer. Nous ferons ici un état des lieux de la place de l’océan au sein de la géographie et tâcherons d’ouvrir des perspectives de recherche en prenant l’exemple de la navigation à voile et de la notion de territoire en haute mer que nous qualifierons de « merritoire ». Pour le définir, nous proposons d’ouvrir sur les notions de mobilité, discontinuités, réseaux et de paysage marin. Le paysage, reflet de l’interdisciplinarité, apparaît également comme étant une piste pour la gestion de l’espace maritime.The high sea has been little studied within geography. Its characteristics show that it is a complex space and do reflect its alterity. The ocean is a difficult and original fieldwork that invites to be analyzed with interdisciplinary methods (geography, oceanography, climatology, biology, history, economy. The geographical approach has so far mainly been an applied geography and has focused on regional, sectorial and coastal aspects. Few are aiming at theoretical approaches or on the high seas. We will overview the position of the ocean within geography and will try to explore new research perspectives by taking into account sailing and the concept of territory in the high sea that we will define as « maritory ». To define it, we offer to discuss on the terms of mobility, discontinuity, network and seascape. Seascape - example of an interdisciplinary tool- could appear as a method for marine

  8. Initial status of the environment. Environmental marks of the Meuse-Haute Marne underground research laboratory; L'etat initial de l'environnement. Reperes environnementaux du Laboratoire de Recherche souterrain de Meuse/Haute-Marne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    On August 3, 1999, the French government gave the permission to the national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) to build up a research laboratory devoted to the feasibility study of a facility for the reversible disposal of high level and long living radioactive wastes in deep geologic beds. The site retained is located at Bure, at the boundary of the Meuse and Haute-Marne departements. Before starting the construction of this research facility, the ANDRA has carried out a careful survey of the initial environmental status of the site which will serve as a reference. This brochure presents the results of this survey: geo-morphology, agriculture, natural ecosystems, radioecology, sound levels, air quality, surface and groundwater quality. The ANDRA has implemented an environmental monitoring plan for each phase of the development of the project. (J.S.)

  9. Structure et fonctionnement des écosystèmes du Haut-Rhône français.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KRAIEM M. M.

    1980-07-01

    Full Text Available L'examen qualitatif de contenus stomacaux de Barbeaux du Haut-Rhône français met en évidence un régime alimentaire assez varié, essentiellement zoophage, avec une composante permanente constituée, par ordre de dominance décroissante, de larves de Diptères, d'Ephéméroptères, de Trichoptères et de Nématodes. Ce régime parait, d'autre part, davantage lié à la taille, à l'âge du poisson et au faciès du cours d'eau, qu'à la composition de la faune benthique. Le Barbeau est planctonophage et microbenthophage pendant son jeune âge ; il devient essentiellement benthophage en vieillissant.

  10. The process of constructing a project for producing electricity from wind power in Haute Saintonge and its social unacceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canel-Depitre, Beatrice

    2017-01-01

    In front of increase of conflicts finding big environmental projects, approval of social players quickly became an essential condition in their realization, raising social acceptability to rank of priorities. To illustrate my search on social acceptability, I chose to study project of presence of an industrial wind farm on municipalities of Allas Bocage and Nieul-le-Virouil in Haute Saintonge. Methodology rests on participating observation which authorizes understanding of a group. If the social acceptability is a fragile and slow process to be built, the social unacceptability takes root durably. My problem rests on the process of construction of the social unacceptability, fruit of a different logic between promoter and local actors. My results allow me to highlight the processual dimension of the social unacceptability of one project. (author)

  11. The uranium of two 'private': from Jouac (Haute-Vienne) to Bertholene (Aveyron) through Saint-Pierre (Cantal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiollard, P.Ch.; Milville, G.

    2003-01-01

    In this book, the author tells us the short but intense history of some French uranium mines among the most famous ones: Jouac-Le Bernardan (Limousin) and Bertholene (Aveyron). It gives also a precious description of the discovery of the spar-fluor ore of La Charbonniere mine (Haute-Vienne) initially discovered thanks to its radioactivity (anthozonite bed) and which supplied a huge amount of fluorine. It presents the main companies (Scumra and Charbonnages du Dong-Trieu) which have exploited these deposits and also some less-known uranium mines of Aveyron, Creuse, Correze, Cantal and Limousin. The text is fully illustrated with cross sections and photos and gathers a large amount of geological and historical documents about mining techniques. (J.S.)

  12. Geoscientific (GEO) database of the Andra Meuse / Haute-Marne research center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabani, P.; Hemet, P.; Hermand, G.; Delay, J.; Auriere, C.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The GEO database (geo-scientific database of the Meuse/Haute-Marne Center) is a tool developed by Andra, with a view to group in a secured computer form all data related to the acquisition of in situ and laboratory measurements made on solid and fluid samples. This database has three main functions: - Acquisition and management of data and computer files related to geological, geomechanical, hydrogeological and geochemical measurements on solid and fluid samples and in situ measurements (logging, on sample measurements, geological logs, etc). - Available consultation by the staff on Andra's intranet network for selective viewing of data linked to a borehole and/or a sample and for making computations and graphs on sets of laboratory measurements related to a sample. - Physical management of fluid and solid samples stored in a 'core library' in order to localize a sample, follow-up its movement out of the 'core library' to an organization, and carry out regular inventories. The GEO database is a relational Oracle data base. It is installed on a data server which stores information and manages the users' transactions. The users can consult, download and exploit data from any computer connected to the Andra network or Internet. Management of the access rights is made through a login/ password. Four geo-scientific explanations are linked to the Geo database, they are: - The Geosciences portal: The Geosciences portal is a web Intranet application accessible from the ANDRA network. It does not require a particular installation from the client and is accessible through the Internet navigator. A SQL Server Express database manages the users and access rights to the application. This application is used for the acquisition of hydrogeological and geochemical data collected on the field and on fluid samples, as well as data related to scientific work carried out at surface level or in drifts

  13. VALEUR PATRIMONIALE DE SERRASALMINAE HERBIVORES DU HAUT MARONI (GUYANE FRANÇAISE : APPROCHES BIOLOGIQUE ET SOCIOCULTURELLE EN PAYS WAYANA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAGEZY H.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available La valeur patrimoniale des kumaru, espèces de poissons appartenant à la sous-famille des Serrasalminae, a été approchée selon des critères faisant référence à leur place au sein de la biodiversité ou de la sociodiversité. Du point de vue de l’anthropologue, les kumaru apparaissent indéniablement comme les espèces de poissons ayant globalement les plus fortes valeurs sociale, hédonique, économique, non seulement chez les Amérindiens Wayana du Haut Maroni, mais aussi chez les Noirs Boni du cours moyen. On peut les qualifier à ce titre d’espèces patrimoniales. Du point de vue du biologiste, les trois espèces de kumaru du Haut Maroni se situent à des niveaux d’endémicité différents, mais toutes participent au fonctionnement du biotope particulier des herbiers à Podostemaceae, au moins dans leurs jeunes stades. Au-delà de la simple conservation des espèces, le mode de distribution de l’asitau (Prosomyleus rhomboidalis et la position du watau yaikë (Tometes lebaili dans la phylogénie des Serrasalminae leur confèrent un ensemble de qualités entrant dans l’évaluation de leur valeur patrimoniale. L’habitat de ces espèces, milieu fragile et très particulier, participe aussi à la patrimonialité.

  14. Ornithological monitoring of the wind farms of the Garrigue high plateau (Aude); Suivi ornithologique des parcs eoliens du Plateau de Garrigue Haute (Aude)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document presents the monitoring of the premarital migration 2001 in the wind farm of Corbieres-Maritime on the Garrigue Haute plateau. It aims to study the wind turbines impacts and risks on the migration. In spite of a weak mortality, the number of observed modifications in the birds habits at the approach of the wind turbines confirms the necessity of taking into account the migration phenomena in the wind farms projects. (A.L.B.)

  15. Combining functional weed ecology and crop stable isotope ratios to identify cultivation intensity: a comparison of cereal production regimes in Haute Provence, France and Asturias, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaard, Amy; Hodgson, John; Nitsch, Erika; Jones, Glynis; Styring, Amy; Diffey, Charlotte; Pouncett, John; Herbig, Christoph; Charles, Michael; Ertuğ, Füsun; Tugay, Osman; Filipovic, Dragana; Fraser, Rebecca

    This investigation combines two independent methods of identifying crop growing conditions and husbandry practices-functional weed ecology and crop stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis-in order to assess their potential for inferring the intensity of past cereal production systems using archaeobotanical assemblages. Present-day organic cereal farming in Haute Provence, France features crop varieties adapted to low-nutrient soils managed through crop rotation, with little to no manuring. Weed quadrat survey of 60 crop field transects in this region revealed that floristic variation primarily reflects geographical differences. Functional ecological weed data clearly distinguish the Provence fields from those surveyed in a previous study of intensively managed spelt wheat in Asturias, north-western Spain: as expected, weed ecological data reflect higher soil fertility and disturbance in Asturias. Similarly, crop stable nitrogen isotope values distinguish between intensive manuring in Asturias and long-term cultivation with minimal manuring in Haute Provence. The new model of cereal cultivation intensity based on weed ecology and crop isotope values in Haute Provence and Asturias was tested through application to two other present-day regimes, successfully identifying a high-intensity regime in the Sighisoara region, Romania, and low-intensity production in Kastamonu, Turkey. Application of this new model to Neolithic archaeobotanical assemblages in central Europe suggests that early farming tended to be intensive, and likely incorporated manuring, but also exhibited considerable variation, providing a finer grained understanding of cultivation intensity than previously available.

  16. The guide to sustainable energy technologies for schools; Un guide pour les technologies energetiques durables dans les ecoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    There are significant attractions for municipalities to opt for sustainable solutions which involve energy efficient technologies and measures. This is the challenging background which led to the production the Guide to Sustainable Energy Technologies for Schools. This guide is a decision-making tool intended for European municipalities and school managers. Its aim is to: assist them in choosing between the energy technologies that will be used in school building or retrofitting projects and provide them with a framework for measuring and comparing different aspects of energy performance that can be used to convince decision-makers to select sustainable energy technologies and measures. The guide is composed of three parts: an illustrative list of sustainable energy technologies, an introduction to energy performance indicators and fifteen case studies describing practical sustainable energy solutions applied to schools in seven European countries. (A.L.B.)

  17. Geological investigations contributing to the hydrogeological conceptual model in the Meuse/Haute-Marne area, Eastern France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocher, M.; De Hoyos, A.; Hibsch, C.; Viennot, P.

    2010-01-01

    Callovian-Oxfordian (COX) indurated clay formation is currently studied by Andra in the 'Meuse/Haute-Marne' (MHM) area for hosting a potential repository of high level, long-lived radioactive waste. IRSN is conducting studies in support of the safety evaluation of the geological disposal programme developed by Andra. IRSN, in collaboration with the Paris School of Mines, develops conceptual and numerical models of the underground water flows throughout the Paris sedimentary basin. The calibrated numerical model correctly represents the hydraulic heads and water salinities collected throughout the basin. At the MHM scale however, several flow patterns can still reproduce the measured heads, some of them assuming specific flow pathways along regional tectonic trends. Considering or not such tectonic trends in the model has however an impact on the estimated radionuclide transfer times to the outlets. Even though most ANDRA and IRSN geochemical analyses suggest a dominant diffusive transport across the COX between the underlying Dogger and overlying Oxfordian aquifers, few data point out the possible existence of local vertical connections across major tectonic structures. In order to select the most plausible options for the numerical modelling, IRSN compiled published studies and carried out fieldwork analysis to provide new data for its hydrogeological conceptual model. Relevant geological data can be considered both at the kilometre scale and at the metre scale. At the kilometre scale, the litho-stratigraphic scheme both for Dogger and Oxfordian series had previously been documented in the MHM area. Regional sedimentologic and diagenetic models are available for the Oxfordian aquifer and partially for the Dogger aquifer. Our fieldwork analysis complete these models thanks to new correlations pointed out during detailed iso-hyps mapping performed by G2R laboratory, southeast from the MHM area. Unlike the Kimmeridgian and COX sedimentary piles, which are

  18. Territorial energy planning tools. Good practices of european towns; Les outils de planification energetique territoriale. Bonne pratiques de villes europeennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacassagne, S.; Schilken, P.

    2003-07-01

    Some european towns developed a specific energy and environmental policy, function of many factors. Policies are implemented to favorite the energy consumption and the pollutant emission control. The actions of local collectivities in the domain have been analyzed following three axis: the measure of the energy performance of local collectivities, the territorial energy management tools, the energy integration in sectoral policies. This report takes stock on the second axis analysis. (A.L.B.)

  19. Integrated Multidisciplinary Design of High Pressure Multistage Compressor Systems (la Conception integree des compresseurs multi-etage a haute performance)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    development ONERA and SNECMA and is described in [Nicoud, 91]. This methodology [ Karadimas , 1997]. The aim of all efforts method solves the Quasi-3D...computer power, 1994 2-11 BERTHILLIER, M., DUPONT, C., MONDAL, R., KARADIMAS , G. : New Ways for the Design the BARRAU, J.J. : Blade Forced Response

  20. La fibroscopie digestive haute chez 2795 patients au centre hospitalier universitaire-campus de Lomé: les particularités selon le sexe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson-Ananissoh, Laté Mawuli; Bouglouga, Oumboma; Bagny, Aklesso; Kaaga, Laconi; Redah, Datouda

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Notre étude consistera à rapporter les indications et les lésions objectivées à la fibroscopie digestive haute et relever les particularités selon le sexe. Méthodes Étude rétrospective, descriptive sur des résultats de compte-rendu de la fibroscopie digestive haute menée en unité d'endoscopie digestive du service d'hépato-gastro-entérologie du CHU Campus de Lomé du 15 Mai 2009 au 31 Décembre 2013. Résultats La fibroscopie digestive haute a été réalisée chez 2795 patients dont 1188 hommes et 1607 femmes. L’âge moyen était de 40,65 ans (Extrêmes: 5 et 93 ans). La fibroscopie digestive haute était normale chez les femmes que chez les hommes avec une différence statistiquement significative (p = 0,000). Les principales indications étaient: les épigastralgies chez les femmes (p = 0,000); les hémorragies digestives hautes (p = 0,000) et l'hypertension portale (p = 0,000) chez les hommes; 3485 lésions pathologiques ont été observées. La pathologie inflammatoire prédominait (56,3%), la pathologie ulcéreuse (13,89%), la pathologie tumorale (2,01%). Les varices et la candidose œsophagiennes étaient significativement notées chez les hommes. Les ulcérations gastriques (p = 0,000), le reflux biliaire duodéno-gastrique (p = 0,017) étaient plus retrouvés chez les femmes et la gastropathie hypertensive beaucoup plus chez les hommes (p = 0,000). Que les lésions duodénales soient inflammatoires ou ulcéreuses associées ou non à une sténose bulbaire, elles étaient plus fréquentes chez les hommes. Conclusion De manière générale, il y avait une prédominance des lésions inflammatoires chez les femmes, les lésions tumorales et ulcéreuses chez les hommes PMID:25852805

  1. Evolutions structurales et effets de pression dans des céramiques supraconductrices à haute T_c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavarri, J. R.; Carel, C.; Monnereau, O.; Vacquier, G.; Vettier, C.; Hewat, A. W.

    1991-11-01

    Using structural evolution data and a method permitting the calculation of elastic constants and Grüneisen parameters, the thermal expansion of two high T_c superconductors is interpreted. It is shown that the superconductors YBaCuO (123) and BiSrCaCuO (2212) present strongly different elastic and anharmonic properties. En appliquant une méthode déjà mise au point sur d'autres composés (Gavarri, 1981), l'évolution structurale de deux supraconducteurs à haute T_c est interprétée par le biais de leurs compressibilités anisotropes et de leurs coefficients de Grüneisen, obtenus par diffraction de neutrons et de rayons X. On montre ici que les supraconducteurs YBaCuO (123) et BiSrCaCuO (2212) diffèrent considérablement par leurs compressibilités anisotropes et par leurs coefficients de Grüneisen.

  2. In-situ experiments for the determination of rock properties and behaviour at the Meuse/Haute Marne Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conil N.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Andra is in charge of studying the feasibility of a disposal facility for longlived high-level nuclear waste (LL-HLW in a deep geological environment. With this aim, dedicated experiments have been carried out for several years at the Meuse/Haute Marne Underground Research Laboratory excavated in a 500 m deep argillaceous rock formation. These experiments include determining the feasibility of the excavation of disposal cells for LL-HLW, consisting of 40 meter long, 70 cm in diameter, horizontal cased micro tunnels. The hydro mechanical impact of the excavation of such openings on the rock mass behaviour is continuously monitored as well as their mean term mechanical behaviour. Since LL-HLW produce heat, the impact of temperature on the surrounding rock mass and on the micro tunnel steel casing will also be studied. Specific instrumentation has been developed to study this impact. The first step of the microtunnel excavation tests, carried out in 2009, has led to improving the excavation method and the drilling machine. These improvements will be tested in the next step of the excavation tests planned for 2010. The THM experiment dedicated to studying the behaviour of the rock mass under thermal solicitation started early 2010. The behaviour of a steel casing in contact with the rock mass and under thermal solicitation will be studied in an experiment scheduled to start in September 2010.

  3. Physical and numerical modelling of permafrost dynamic during a climatic cycle: implications for Meuse - Haute-Marne site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnier, D.

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript deals about works realized on the permafrost modelling in porous media and its impact on the hydrogeological circulations. These are parts of the Andra's studies on the nuclear waste storage and, on the environmental studies of the Meuse/Haute-Marne (MHM) site. During a climatic cycle, cold periods can generate permafrost (ground with temperature lower than 0 C for 2 consecutive years). This peri-glacial structure propagates towards deep geological layers, and, due to its very low permeability, can stop the flow of water bodies like aquifers. This work presents the elaboration of two numerical models (with Cast3M code (CEA)): (i) a model with thermal conduction, used for the study of a cold wave propagation in porous media with phase transition (water-ice); (ii) a more complex model, managing the thermo-hydraulic coupling of ground phenomenon (conduction, convection and transition of phase). After validation, these two models offer three axes of development: (i) benchmark proposition by the study of two generic test-cases; (ii) study of the local air temperature signal on MHM site: importance of high frequency temperature variations (centennial scale) for permafrost depth and stability; (iii) study of the dynamics of a thermal discontinuity in a typical hydrological system river-plain: closure time of the system by the permafrost according to various parameters (temperatures, geothermal flow, hydrological flow directions). (author) [fr

  4. Water vapor total column measurements using the Elodie Archive at Observatoire de Haute Provence from 1994 to 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sarkissian

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Water vapor total column measurements at Observatoire de Haute Provence (5°42´ E, +43°55´ N, south of France, were obtained using observations of astronomical objects made between July 1994 and December 2004 on the 193-cm telescope with the high-resolution spectrometer Elodie. Spectra of stars, nebulae, and other astronomical objects were taken regularly during 10 years. More than 18 000 spectra from 400 nm to 680 nm are available on-line in the Elodie Archive. This archive, usually explored by astronomers, contains information to study the atmosphere of the Earth. Water vapor absorption lines appear in the visible in delimited bands that astronomers often avoid for their spectral analysis. We used the Elodie Archive with two objectives: firstly, to retrieve seasonal variability and long-term trend of atmospheric water vapor, and secondly, to remove signatures in spectra for further astronomical or geophysical use. The tools presented here (the workflow, the interoperable Elodie Archive and the web service Tellodie are developed following, when possible, formats and standards recommended by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance.

  5. Microbial investigations in Opalinus clay from Mont Terri and in Callovo-Oxfordian argillite from Meuse/Haute-Marne; Caracterisation microbiologique de l'argile a opalinus du Mont Terri et de l'argilite du callovo-oxfordien de Meuse/Haute-Marne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulain, S

    2006-12-15

    The subject of this Ph.D. thesis deals with research achieved in the context of the Axis 2 of the law Bataille voted on December 30, 1991 about the possibility of building a deep geological repository for medium or high activity and long living nuclear waste. Nearby such a site, some microorganisms may influence the mobility of radionuclides coming from the waste canisters. This work consisted in looking for autochthonous microorganisms in the Opalinus clay formation from Mont Terri (Switzerland) and in the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite from Meuse/Haute-Marne (France). Microbial Investigations in these unknown unperturbed environments suggested very low microbial densities in the clayey sediments. However, new bacterial species could be isolated from those samples. In addition, a part of the allochthonous population, which has been introduced by air and human activity, could be identified in the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory. (author)

  6. Microbial investigations in Opalinus clay from Mont Terri and in Callovo-Oxfordian argillite from Meuse/Haute-Marne; Caracterisation microbiologique de l'argile a opalinus du Mont Terri et de l'argilite du callovo-oxfordien de Meuse/Haute-Marne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulain, S

    2006-12-15

    The subject of this Ph.D. thesis deals with research achieved in the context of the Axis 2 of the law Bataille voted on December 30, 1991 about the possibility of building a deep geological repository for medium or high activity and long living nuclear waste. Nearby such a site, some microorganisms may influence the mobility of radionuclides coming from the waste canisters. This work consisted in looking for autochthonous microorganisms in the Opalinus clay formation from Mont Terri (Switzerland) and in the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite from Meuse/Haute-Marne (France). Microbial Investigations in these unknown unperturbed environments suggested very low microbial densities in the clayey sediments. However, new bacterial species could be isolated from those samples. In addition, a part of the allochthonous population, which has been introduced by air and human activity, could be identified in the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory. (author)

  7. Statistical characteristics of sudden stratospheric warming as observed over the observatoire de Haute Provence (44°N, 6°E) during the 1981-2001 period

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sivakumar, V

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available of stratospheric sudden warming as observed over the Observatoire de Haute Provence (44°N, 6°E) during the period 1981-2001 D.V. Acharyulu, V. Sivakumar*, H. Bencherif, B. Morel, Laboratoire de l’Atmosphère et des Cyclones (LACy), CNRS–UMR 8105, Université de... La Réunion, FRANCE. * Also at National Laser Centre, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Pretoria, SOUTH AFRICA. A. Hauchecorne Service d’Aéronomie, CNRS, Paris, FRANCE. D.N. Rao National Atmosphere Research Laboratory...

  8. The Meuse-Haute Marne underground research laboratory. A scientific research tool for the study of deep geologic disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Meuse-Haute Marne underground research laboratory, is an essential scientific tool for the achievement of one of the ANDRA's mission defined in the framework of the law from December 30, 1991 about the long-term management of high-level and long-living radioactive wastes. This document presents this laboratory: site characterization, characteristics of the Callovo-Oxfordian clay, and laboratory creation, coordinated experiments carried out at the surface and in depth, and the results obtained (published in an exhaustive way in the 'Clay 2005' dossier). (J.S.)

  9. L'érosion dans les environnements glaciaires : exemple du Glacier des Bossons (Massif du Mont-Blanc, Haute-Savoie, France)

    OpenAIRE

    Godon , Cécile

    2013-01-01

    The study presented in this PhD memory aim at better define and quantify the present timeerosion processes in glacial and proglacial domain. The Glacier des Bossons, situated in theMont-Blanc massif (Haute-Savoie, France), is a good example of a natural and nonanthropizedsystem which allows us to study this topic. This glacier lies on two mainlithologies (the Mont-Blanc granite and the metamorphic bedrock) and this peculiarity is usedto determine the origin of the glacial sediments. The sedim...

  10. Study of thermocouples for control of high temperatures; Etude de thermocouples pour le reperage des hautes temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villamayor, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Faculte des Sciences de l' Universite de Lyon - 69 (France)

    1967-07-01

    Previous works have shown that the tungsten-rhenium alloys thermocouples were a good instrument for control of high temperatures. From its, the author has studied the W/W 26 per cent and W 5 per cent Re/W 26 per cent Re french manufactured thermocouples and intended for control of temperatures in nuclear reactors until 2300 deg. C. In 'out-pile' study he determines the general characteristics of these thermocouples: average calibration curves, thermal shocks influence, response times, and alloys allowing the cold source compensation. The evolution of these thermocouples under thermal neutron flux has been determined by 'in-pile' study. The observations have led the author to propose a new type of thermocouples settled of molybdenum-columbium alloys. (author) [French] Des travaux anterieurs ont montre que les thermocouples des alliages tungstene-rhenium etaient susceptibles de reperer avec precision des hautes temperatures. A partir de la, l'auteur a etudie las thermocouples W/W 26 pour cent Re et W 5 pour cent Re/W 26 pour cent Re de fabrication francaise et destines au controle des temperatures dans les reacteurs nucleaires, jusqu'a 2300 deg. C Dans l'etude 'hors-pile' il a determine les caracteristiques generales de ces thermocouples: courbes d'etalonnage moyen, influence des chocs thermiques, temps de reponse, et alliages assurant la compensation de soudure froide. L'etude 'en-pile' a permis de rendre compte de l'evolution de ces thermocouples sous flux neutroniques. Les phenomenes observes ont conduit l'auteur a proposer un nouveau type de thermocouples constitues d'alliages molybdene-niobium. (auteur)

  11. Hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow at the Green Valley reclaimed coal refuse site near Terre Haute, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, E. Randall; Arihood, Leslie D.; Fowler, Kathleen K.

    2011-01-01

    The Green Valley reclaimed coal refuse site, near Terre Haute, Ind., was mined for coal from 1948 to 1963. Subsurface coal was cleaned and sorted at land surface, and waste material was deposited over the native glacial till. Approximately 2.7 million cubic yards of waste was deposited over 159 acres (92.3 hectares) in tailings ponds and gob piles. During 1993, the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Reclamation, improved the site by grading gob piles, filling tailings ponds, and covering the refuse with a layer of glacial drift. During 2008, the Division of Reclamation and U.S. Geological Survey initiated a cooperative investigation to characterize the hydrogeology of the site and construct a calibrated groundwater flow model that could be used to simulate the results of future remedial actions. In support of the modeling, a data-collection network was installed at the Green Valley site to measure weather components, geophysical properties, groundwater levels, and stream and seep flow. Results of the investigation indicate that (1) there is negligible overland flow from the site, (2) the prevailing groundwater-flow direction is from northeast to southwest, with a much smaller drainage to the northeast, (3) there is not a direct hydraulic connection between the refuse and West Little Sugar Creek, (4) about 24 percent of the groundwater recharge emerges through seeps, and water from the seeps evaporates or eventually flows to West Little Sugar Creek and the Green Valley Mine Pond, and (5) about 72 percent of groundwater recharge moves vertically downward from the coal refuse into the till and follows long, slow flow paths to eventual dischage points.

  12. Exemple d'imagerie de puits par diagraphie acoustique et sismique haute résolution An Example of Acoustics and Very High Resolution Seismic in a Highly Deviated Well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari J. L.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La diagraphie acoustique est classiquement utilisée pour fournir la lenteur des formations. Les enregistrements en champ total obtenus dans des puits fortement déviés ou horizontaux peuvent être traités pour fournir des sections de microsismique de puits qui ont une investigation latérale d'une dizaine de mètres par rapport au drain. Cet article présente les résultats d'expérimentations réalisées dans une carrière calcaire située en Bourgogne (France. Un puits fortement dévié (10 degrés a été foré dans l'unité géologique oolithe blanche qui a une épaisseur de 80 m environ. Des diagraphies acoustiques et de la sismique haute résolution ont été enregistrées dans le puits dévié. En diagraphie acoustique, deux jeux de données ont été enregistrés : une section à déport constant et un point de tir commun à très grand nombre de traces et à distance entre traces centimétrique. Le traitement des données met en évidence des réflexions internes a l'oolithe blanche situées à quelques mètres par rapport au drain. La diagraphie acoustique ne permet pas d'éclairer le toit et le mur de l'unité oolithe blanche. Cet objectif est partiellement atteint par une sismique très haute résolution de puits. Ce type de sismique travaille dans une bande de fréquences intermédiaire entre la sismique de puits classique et la diagraphie acoustique. Elle nécessite le développement d'outils particuliers, notamment au niveau des sources de puits. Une collection point de tir commun de données de sismique très haute résolution obtenues avec une source prototype de type impulsionnel montre des réflexions correspondant à des réflecteurs situés à plusieurs dizaines de mètres (~40 m par rapport au drain. Les résultats des expérimentations montrent le potentiel de la diagraphie acoustique et de la sismique haute résolution de puits à décrire une unité réservoir à différentes échelles. Acoustic logging is

  13. Conception d'instrument pour une mission d'observation haute resolution et grand champ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayret, Jean-Philippe; Gaudin-Delrieu, Catherine; Lamard, Jean-Luc; Devilliers, Christophe; Costes, Vincent

    2017-11-01

    The future Earth observation missions aim at delivering images with a high resolution and a large field of view. The PLEIADES mission, coming after the SPOT satellites, lead to enhance the resolution to submetric values with a swath over 20km. Panchromatic and multispectral images will be proposed. Starting with the mission requirements elaborated by the CNES, Alcatel Space Industries has conducted a study to identify the instrument concepts most suited to comply with these performance. In addition, to minimise the development costs, a mini satellite approach has been selected, leading to a compact concept for the instrument design. During the study, various detection techniques and the associated detectors have been investigated from classical pushbroom to supermode acquisition modes. For each of these options, different optical lay-outs were proposed and evaluated with respect to performance as well as interfaces requirements. Optical performance, mechanical design constraints and manufacturing processes were taken into account to assess the performances of the various solutions. Eventually the most promising concept was selected and a preliminary design study performed. This concept, based on a Korsch optical scheme associated with TDI detectors, complies with the mission requirements and allows for a wide number of possibilities of accommodation with a minisatellite class platform.

  14. Les statuts sociaux dans les Hautes Terres malgaches à la lumière des archives missionnaires norvégiennes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lolona Nathalie Razafindralambo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Les statuts sociaux sur les Hautes Terres malgaches à la lumière des archives de Vig. Les statuts sociaux semblent avoir figuré parmi les thèmes de recherche et de réflexion des missionnaires norvégiens du xixe siècle, avec la religion et l’histoire des différents royaumes du Betsileo (Sud des Hautes Terres de Madagascar, auxquels ils sont liés. Les textes portent notamment sur les groupes princiers qui détiennent le pouvoir et, à l’autre extrémité de l’échelle sociale, les groupes d’andevo (« esclaves ».Social status in Madagascar’s Highlands in light of the Vig Archives. Social status seems to have figured among the themes for research and reflection by the Norwegian missionaries of the 19th century, together with the religion and history of the different kingdoms of Betsileo (in Madagascar’s Southern Highlands to which they are linked. The texts mainly concern the princely groups who were in power, and, at the other end of the social scale, the groups of andevo (slaves.

  15. Maison, immeuble et compagnie : le singulier pluriel du logement de banlieue : enquêtes dans les Hauts-de-Seine 1840-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Le Bas

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Familier du paysage de proche banlieue parisienne (Hauts-de-Seine, le logement sous appentis a séduit les spéculateurs malgré une promiscuité que rejettent des ouvriers rêvant d’un toit familial. Des philanthropes leur bâtiront des maisons complexes tandis qu’une mixité fonctionnelle (travail, commerce, service de plus en plus rare à Paris, affecte le logement de proche banlieue. En organisant la complexité de l’espace urbain et de ses flux, l’urbanisme opère une distinction fonctionnelle dissolvant cette mixité, par le dépassement des types architecturaux.The tenement building, a familiar type in the suburbs of the Hauts-de-Seine department, close to Paris, was frequently put up by speculative builders, even if the promiscuity they supposed was generally rejected by workers who would have preferred their own, individual homes. Some philanthropical builders offered complex housing types, and buildings associating accommodation and other functions (work, commerce, services affected housing in the suburbs, although such types were rare in the capital itself. Organising the complexity of urban space and its circulations, town planning operated a functional division that dissolved this mixity by going beyond existing building types.

  16. Final Report on an Analysis of the Education and Training Systems at Milan, Michigan and Terre Haute, Indiana to Federal Prison Industries Incorporated, U.S. Department of Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, William D.; And Others

    Existing education and training (E&T) programs at the Terre Haute Penitentiary, Indiana, and the Milan Federal Correctional Institution, Michigan, were described and evaluated. Needs, objectives, inmate classification and placement, staff, and other aspects were covered. Reports, staff and inmate interviews, study of instructional materials, and…

  17. Oral Language and Reading; Proceedings of the Annual Reading Conference of the Department of Elementary Education at Indiana State University (3rd, Terre Haute, June 14-15, 1973).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, David C., Ed.; Gibbs, Vanita M., Ed.

    This pamphlet is a collection of the speeches given at the Third Annual Reading Conference at Indiana State University, Terre Haute. The theme of the conference was "Oral Language and Reading." The contents include: "Official Program"; opening remarks, "They Led and Followed," by William G. McCarthy; opening address, "Strategies for Reading…

  18. 20-year LiDAR observations of stratospheric sudden warming over a mid-latitude site, Observatoire de Haute Provence (44°N, 6°E): Case study and statistical characteristics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Charyulu, DV

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study delineates the characteristics of Stratospheric Sudden Warming (SSW) events observed over the Observatoire de Haute Provence (OHP: 44°N, 6°E). The study uses 20 years of Rayleigh LiDAR temperature measurements for the 1982...

  19. Measurement of the local void fraction at high pressures in a heating channel; Mesure du taux de vide a haute pression dans un canal chauffant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Void fraction measurements were made in two phase flow boiling systems at high pressures in a uniformly heated, rectangular channel with a high aspect ratio. The local void fraction values were calculated from measurements of the absorption of a thin collimated X-ray beam (2 mm x 0.05 mm). The mean void fraction in a horizontal section results from integration of the local values across the section. At a fixed measuring station the quality and- void fraction were varied by changing the heat flux, flow rate and pressure systematically. Two channels were used differing in length and thickness (150.8 cm x 5.3 cm x 0.2 cm and the significant features of this study are: -1) The void fraction measurements are among the first obtained at such high pressure (80 to 140 kg/cm{sup 2}); -2) In the experimental region under consideration the measurements are systematic and numerous enough to allow accurate interpolations: mass velocity from 50 to 220 g/cm{sup 2}.s, heat flux from 40 to 170 W/cm{sup 2} and calculated steam quality from -0.2 to 0.2; -3) Many tests were performed under local boiling conditions with the mean temperature of the fluid below the saturation temperature; and -4) These results were compared to the predictions of certain models presented in the literature and simple empirical formulae were developed to fit the experimental results. (author) [French] Des mesures de taux de vide ont ete effectuees sur un ecoulement eau-vapeur a haute pression dans un canal vertical, de section rectangulaire tres allongee et chauffe a flux uniforme. Les valeurs du taux de vide local sont obtenues a partir des mesures de l'absorption d'un faisceau de rayons X finement collimate (2 mm x 0,05 mm). La valeur du taux de vide moyen dans une section droite s'en deduit par integration. Cette section droite ou sont realisees les mesures est fixe et, a pression, debit et flux donnes, les variations du titre et du taux de vide sont obtenues par variations de l'enthalpie d'entree. Deux

  20. Effect of carbon on the oxidation of zirconium; Influence du carbone sur l'oxygenation du zirconium a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvin, G; Boudouresques, B; Coriou, H; Hure, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    The study of specimens contaminated by different amounts of carbon shows a deleterious effect of this element in the resistance of zirconium to high temperature oxidation (700 to 900 deg. C). We drew the following results: a) the white spots or 'pimples' observed by numerous authors seem to be caused by the oxidation of precipitated carbides. We suggest a mechanism of formation and growth of these pimples; b) for a certain carbon content, the resistance to oxidation is increased by an uniform dispersion of the carbide phase and decreased, for instance, by extrusion textures. In this case, for the more marked textures, the more oriented corrosion was observed; c) by burning of the carbide phase it can result a second reaction increasing the corrosion rate; d) thin zirconium foils undergoes dimensional changes when scaling in oxygen. This unusual feature is also subordinated to carbon content and specially to the carbide phase dispersion. (author) [French] L'etude d'echantillons differemment contamines par le carbone nous a permis de mettre en evidence l'action particulierement nocive de cet element sur la resistance du zirconium a la corrosion par l'oxygene a haute temperature (700 a 900 deg. C). Nous avons pu degager les resultats essentiels suivants: a) l'origine des pustules d'oxyde blanc signalees par de nombreux auteurs doit etre recherchee dans l'oxydation des carbures precipites. Nous suggerons un mecanisme de formation et de croissance de ces pustules, b) la tenue du metal est d'autant meilleure que, pour une meme teneur en carbone, la phase 'carbure' est plus uniformement dispersee. En consequence, si la dispersion est mauvaise, on observe selon l'axe des textures de filage, par exemple, une corrosion preferentielle d'autant plus accentuee que les textures sont plus marquees, c) la combustion de la phase 'carbure' peut engendrer une reaction secondaire susceptible d'accroitre la cinetique de corrosion, d) l'expansion des grandes faces d

  1. Logiques touristiques en station de haute-montagne : quelles évolutions possibles vers la durabilité ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Arcuset

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ce texte part des enseignements issus d’une évaluation des pratiques touristiques à l’aune des principes du tourisme durable, réalisée en 2004 dans le cadre d’un réseau national piloté par l’Agence Française d’Ingénierie Touristique (aujourd’hui ODIT France, pour la station de Valloire, station de première génération de Maurienne dont le développement et la modernisation dans les années 2000 sont allés de pair avec un vaste programme immobilier. L’article explore les enjeux et les difficultés de la mise en œuvre du développement durable à Valloire, pose la question de la « révolution culturelle » que les acteurs devraient accomplir pour changer de modèle de développement économique, et suggère quelques pistes pour y parvenir. L’approche locale du « tourisme durable », en effet, semble pour l’heure plutôt tendre – comme dans bien d’autres stations de haute montagne – vers une gestion plus environnementale des fonctions urbaines de base que vers une véritable remise en cause d’un modèle touristique reposant sur le triptyque développement du domaine skiable, sécurisation de la ressource neige et programmes immobiliers de tourisme.This text starts from the teachings stemming from an evaluation of the tourist practices in the light of sustainable tourism principles, realized in 2004 within the framework of a national network piloted by the French Agency of Touristic Engineering (today ODIT France, for the ski resort of Valloire, first-generation resort in the Maurienne, which development and modernization in the 2000s kept pace with a vast real estate program. The article investigates the stakes and difficulties of the implementation of sustainable development in Valloire, asks the question of the "cultural revolution" which the actors should achieve to change the model of economic development, and suggest some tracks to reach there. The local approach of "sustainable tourism", indeed

  2. Modelling of the damaged zone induced by the shaft sinking of the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground laboratory (East argilites)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miehe, Baptiste

    2004-01-01

    From a geomechanical point of view, the safety of an underground storage for the radioactive waste requires to characterize the damaged zone induced by the shaft sinking for the storage cavities. Then, the objective of this thesis is to simulate the hydro-mechanical response of the East argilites to the shaft sinking for the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground laboratory, in order to compare the results to the in situ measurements which will be recorded in 2005 (REP experiment). Firstly we have analysed all the mechanical tests which had been carried out from 1995 to 2001. We have observed that each series has his own coherence, in terms of elastic parameters, mechanical strength or creep capacity. But there are some strong differences between the series. These differences, which are due to the experimental protocols and not to the material itself, have shown three important results: the re-saturation phases imposed by several laboratories have deteriorated the mechanical properties of the East argilites, the existence of an effective stress is not evident for these argilites, and their mechanical strength increases when they are dried. From these tests, we have distinguished three mechanisms that produce irreversible strains: compaction, pre-failure, failure. We have described each of them by a straightforward elasto-plastic model, based on the Mohr-Coulomb or Drucker-Prager criterion, with a linear softening. Thus we obtain a complete rheological model for the East argilites by considering simultaneously the three mechanisms (multi-criterion plasticity). Lastly, from the modelling we carried out, we can conclude that: to take into account the irreversible strains that occur before the failure has a great influence on the seize of the failure zone around the shaft (it is very small with respect to the case where the behaviour is elastic until the failure); the pore pressure diffusion modifies very little the mechanical response of the massif (the plastic strains created

  3. High temperature heat recovery systems; Les recuperateurs de chaleur a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, L.

    2003-07-15

    A state-of-the-art of high temperature heat recovery systems has been made to highlight the advantages of recovery in different energy cycles, and to compare the different geometries, materials and fabrication processes used by the different manufacturers. This leads to define the criteria that a heat recovery system must satisfy in gas turbine cogeneration applications. The pre-dimensioning of a recovery system has been performed in order to compare different geometries and to evaluate them with respect to the criteria defined in the bibliographic study. Finally, the new configuration of the 'Claire' loop has permitted to experimentally characterize a recovery system with an innovative technology based on an helical geometry. These tests have permitted to obtain the global data of the recovery system (efficiency, pressure drop, global exchange coefficient, friction coefficient, velocity and temperature profiles) and to position it with respect to the criteria defined in the bibliographic study. (J.S.)

  4. High vacuum high temperature x-ray camera (1961); Chambre de diffraction de rayons x a haute temperature sous vide pousse (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, J L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    - This camera makes it possible to carry out X-ray studies on highly oxidisable materials, up to about 900 deg. C. Most of the existing models do not provide sufficient protection against the formation of surface oxide or carbide films on the sample. The present arrangement makes it possible to operate at very low pressures: 5 x 10{sup -8} to 10{sup -7} torr, thanks to an entirely metallic apparatus. The radiation heating system consists of an incandescent lamp, outside the evacuated portion, and a reflector which concentrates the energetic flux into the sample through a silica window. The heated parts have thus only a small thermal inertia. With the apparatus it has been possible to determine the phase parameters of uranium-{alpha} up to 650 deg. C with a precision of {+-} 0.0015 A. A similar study has been carried out on a uranium-chromium alloy in the {beta}-phase up to 740 deg. C. (author) [French] Cette chambre permet l'etude, par diffraction de rayons X, de materiaux tres oxydables, ceci jusqu'a 900 deg. C environ. La plupart des modeles existant a l'heure actuelle n'assurent pas une protection suffisante de l'echantillon contre la formation de films superficiels d'oxydes ou de carbures. La disposition d'ensemble permet d'operer sous des pressions tres basses: 5.10{sup -8} a 10{sup -7} torr, grace a une construction entierement metallique. Le systeme de chauffage par rayonnement associe une lampe a incandescence, exterieure a l'enceinte sous vide, et un reflecteur, qui concentre le flux energetique sur l'echantillon, a travers un hublot de silice. Les pieces echauffees ne presentent ainsi qu'une faible inertie thermique. L'appareil a permis la determination des parametres de l'uranjum en phase a, jusqu'a 650 deg. C, avec une precision de {+-} 0,0015 A. Une etude similaire a ete effectuee sur un alliage uranium-chrome, en phase {beta}, jusqu'a 740 deg. C. (auteur)

  5. PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cilli

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the kinematic and kinetic changes when resistance is applied in horizontal and vertical directions, produced by using different percentages of body weight, caused by jumping movements during a dynamic warm-up. The group of subjects consisted of 35 voluntary male athletes (19 basketball and 16 volleyball players; age: 23.4 ± 1.4 years, training experience: 9.6 ± 2.7 years; height: 177.2 ± 5.7 cm, body weight: 69.9 ± 6.9 kg studying Physical Education, who had a jump training background and who were training for 2 hours, on 4 days in a week. A dynamic warm-up protocol containing seven specific resistance movements with specific resistance corresponding to different percentages of body weight (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% was applied randomly on non consecutive days. Effects of different warm-up protocols were assessed by pre-/post- exercise changes in jump height in the countermovement jump (CMJ and the squat jump (SJ measured using a force platform and changes in hip and knee joint angles at the end of the eccentric phase measured using a video camera. A significant increase in jump height was observed in the dynamic resistance warm-up conducted with different percentages of body weight (p 0.05. In jump movements before and after the warm-up, while no significant difference between the vertical ground reaction forces applied by athletes was observed (p>0.05, in some cases of resistance, a significant reduction was observed in hip and knee joint angles (p<0.05. The dynamic resistance warm-up method was found to cause changes in the kinematics of jumping movements, as well as an increase in jump height values. As a result, dynamic warm-up exercises could be applicable in cases of resistance corresponding to 6-10% of body weight applied in horizontal and vertical directions in order to increase the jump performance acutely.

  6. Acquisition de donnees a haute resolution et faible latence dediee aux capteurs avioniques de position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubaa, Zied

    The communication network and the detection mechanisms are two critical systems in a plane. Their performance has a direct impact on aircrafts. This is of particular interest for avionics designers, who have increasingly invested more and more in the development of these elements. As a part of a project in this domain, we introduce the design and the development of a smart interface for position sensors dedicated to flights (Smart Sensor Interface - SSI). This interface will serve to connect sensors of different technologies (electromagnetic, optical and MEMS) to the new communication network, AFDX. The role of this interface is to generate an appropriate excitation signal for certain types of sensors (R/LVDT), and to treat, demodulate, and digitize their output signals. The proposed interface is thus composed of a Signal Acquisition Path (SAP) and an Excitation Signal Generation (ESG). By adopting the Integrated Modular Avionics architecture (IMA), we can minimize the size of the classic interface, reduce its energy consumption and improve its reliability and its performance. The focus of our design is particularly on the Data Acquisition Path (DAP). An Architecture characterized by a high resolution (14 bits) and a low latency (1.2 ms) of this module is introduced and developed in this prestigious work. This architecture was developed after a wellconducted study of existing solutions found in literature work and a detailed analysis of the problems arise in the design and implementation of this system (DAP). The conversion of the sensor signal into a digital signal is the most important step in acquiring data, as it sets the resolution of the acquired information and generates the majority of its latency. This module can also affect the reliability and stability of the system. Among different models and architectures, the Delta-Sigma analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is preferred for this application (for better resolution). This converter is formed by an analog

  7. Mise en valeur de l'andalousite dans des betons a haute teneur en alumine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebouillat, Lionel

    Andalusite is an aluminosilicate mineral from the sillimanite group. It transforms into mullite by firing. Mullite is the stable component within the alumina-silica binary phase diagram. Mullite is a well known material in the refractory industry due to its high refractoriness, its high creep resistance and its high thermal shocks resistances. The mullitization of andalusite is a combination of one phases separation mechanism and different phases transitions mechanisms. Andalusite transforms into mullite and silica at temperatures higher than 1250°C. The kinetic of the reaction is a function of the temperature of firing, the size of the grains, and the chemical and mineralogical purity of the raw materials. The global reaction is topotactic with a low volume expansion, about 4%. The volume distribution of the phases after mullitization has to be considered according to the size of the grains which affects the final microstructure. About 20vol% of the total amount of silica formed has to be expelled on the surfaces on the grains. In refractory castables, only a small quantity of the silica has to be considered as free within the matrix. The new industrial applications in the refractory field mainly concern the monolithic products. The castables are the best example. The presence of free silica within the matrix of castables could be an inconvenience for refractory applications. But an excess of alumina in the matrix of high alumina castables allows to recover this free silica formed from the first mullitization in order to synthesize a complementary phase of mullite, called secondary mullite. In order to reach the final objective, to quantify the direct influence of the andalusite on the thermomechanical behaviour on castables, hot mechanical properties (modulus of rupture) were correlated with the final mullite content. Among the different mixes, the best performances for the hot moduli of rupture at 1200°C and 1500°C were obtained by combining hydratable

  8. The Meuse-Haute Marne underground research laboratory. A scientific research tool for the study of deep geologic disposal of radioactive wastes; Le Laboratoire de Recherche souterrain de Meuse/Haute-Marne. Un outil de recherche scientifique pour etudier le stockage geologique profond de dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The Meuse-Haute Marne underground research laboratory, is an essential scientific tool for the achievement of one of the ANDRA's mission defined in the framework of the law from December 30, 1991 about the long-term management of high-level and long-living radioactive wastes. This document presents this laboratory: site characterization, characteristics of the Callovo-Oxfordian clay, and laboratory creation, coordinated experiments carried out at the surface and in depth, and the results obtained (published in an exhaustive way in the 'Clay 2005' dossier). (J.S.)

  9. Ifp's New Flexible Hydrocracking Process Combines Maximum Conversion with Production of High Viscosity, High Vi Lube Stocks Le nouveau procédé IFP d'hydrocraquage à haute flexibilité combine conversion maximum et production de bases, huile à haute viscosité et à indice de viscosité élevé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennico A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP has developed a new dual catalytic system for its hydrocracking process that enables high conversion to middle distillates and production of high viscosity, high VI lube stocks. Although the hydrocracking process is mainly devoted to the conversion of vacuum distillates, deasphalted oil or mixture of both into high quality middle distillates, it can also produce a residue, that after dewaxing will be a very high VI lube base oil. In this presentation major emphasis is put on the possibility to produce very high VI lubes with high viscosity thanks to the development of the new catalytic system. Large flexibility in feedstock selection and easy control of operating variables allow the production of all grades of lube oils associated with high quality middle distillates for a large range of conversion levels. L'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP a mis au point, pour son procédé d'hydrocraquage, un nouveau système catalytique à 2 catalyseurs qui permet une forte conversion en distillats moyens et la production de fractions lubrifiantes à haute viscosité et indice de viscosité élevé. Si le procédé d'hydrocraquage est essentiellement utilisé pour la conversion de distillats sous vide, d'huile désasphaltée ou d'un mélange des deux en distillats moyens de haute qualité, il peut aussi produire un résidu qui, après déparaffinage, fournira une base pour lubrifiant à indice de viscosité très élevé. Cet article souligne particulièrement la possibilité de produire des lubrifiants à indice de viscosité très élevé et haute viscosité, grâce à ce nouveau système catalytique. Une grande flexibilité dans le choix des produits à traiter et la facilité de contrôle des paramètres opératoires permet la production de toutes les qualités d'huiles lubrifiantes associées à des distillats moyens de haute qualité, pour une large gamme de niveaux de conversion.

  10. Energy transition and security: which voluntary codes? Energy efficiency: IEA, IEC and ISO dialogue. The European Commission's safety, solidarity and efficiency measures. Securing natural gas supplies and favoring cogeneration. Less energy consuming buildings: rework of the energy efficiency directive. Energy efficiency inside buildings: GDF Suez report; Transition et securite energetiques: quels codes volontaires? Efficacite energetique: dialogue AIE, CEI et ISO. Les mesures de securite, solidarite et efficacite de la commission europeenne. Securiser l'approvisionnement en gaz naturel et favoriser la cogeneration. Des batiments moins gourmands en energie: refonte de la directive sur la performance energetique. Efficacite energetique dans les batiments: GDF Suez au rapport (volontaire)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tourneur, J.C

    2009-10-15

    This dossier gathers a series of short articles about energy security and efficiency in a context of policy transition. The first paper deals with the use of international standards to promote energy efficiency thanks to efficient public policies and private sector actions. This was the main topic of the mixed workshop organized by the International electrotechnics Commission (IEC) in spring 2009. The second paper presents the new strategic analysis of the European commission in the domain of energy which stresses on the '20-20-20' climate change proposals approved in December 2008. A new European action plan for energy security and solidarity defines 5 domains requiring an extra action to warrant a sustainable energy supply. The commission is also examining the challenges that Europe will have to face between 2020 and 2050. The third article treats of the security of natural gas supplies which represents a quarter of the European Union (EU) energy mix. The supply crises susceptible to occur may have serious economic and social consequences. Therefore, the EU must be prepared to warrant its security of supplies. Cogeneration allows the EU to stay close to its energy goals. Buildings play a key role in the realisation of the EU's energy saving objectives and fight against climate change. The new directive on buildings energy efficiency (2002/91/CE) will allow to exploit this potential of saving and to stimulate sustainable investment and employment as well. Finally, the publication of the second WBCSD (World business council for sustainable development) international report on buildings energy efficiency has led GDF Suez utility to reaffirm its commitment in favour of energy saving and efficiency. (J.S.)

  11. Development of a 14-inch ID High-Pressure Hybrid Riser for SBOP Drilling Développement d’un riser hybride 14”ID haute pression pour le forage SBOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persent E.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the development of a 14-inch ID high-pressure hybrid riser (10 000 psi for surface BOP drilling in ultra-deep water (10 000 ft. The high-pressure hybrid riser system is obtained by adapting and combining two existing technologies, previously developed by the IFP for other applications: – the Clip connector, a double breech-block type connector to provide a quick and safe connection for riser joints; – hybrid pipe technology, a steel pipe hoop-wound with tapes of carbon fibers impregnated with polyamide thermoplastic resin. IFP has developed a new 14-inch ID HP Clip connector for the hybrid riser application. The connector is capable of withstanding a 2.8 million pound tension and a 10 000 psi operating pressure. In addition, a 16-inch nominal OD hybrid riser pipe has been designed to replace the steel riser pipe with a thinnerwalled hoop-wound steel pipe. The significant weight savings that can be achieved with the hybrid riser pipe make it possible to design an effective riser architecture to withstand the high pressure and deep water requirements. Pursuant to design studies, a 14-inch ID prototype assembly consisting of two hybrid riser pipe sections with a high-pressure Clip connector was manufactured. A test program, including burst and collapse tests as well as cyclic fatigue testing, was formulated and carried out to qualify the performance of the Clip connector and hybrid riser pipe system. Completion of hybrid pipe additional fatigue testing and realization of a scale-one field testing of the hybrid riser are considered as the next steps of the project. To date, the main test results (burst, collapse, fatigue resistance confirm that the Clip connector and the hybrid pipe technologies are well suited for ultra-deep sea drilling with a surface BOP. However, the fatigue resistance of hybrid riser pipes still needs to be better characterized. Cet article présente le développement d’un riser hybride 14”ID haute

  12. Mécanismes de la non-stœchiométrie dans les nouveaux supraconducteurs à haute Tboldmath_c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervieu, M.; Michel, C.; Martin, C.; Huvé, M.; van Tendeloo, G.; Maignan, A.; Pelloquin, D.; Goutenoire, F.; Raveau, B.

    1994-11-01

    Two new families of high T_c superconductors have been recently discovered : ll the mercury based oxides gg and the ll oxycarbonates gg. The main characteristics of the structural mechanisms were studied by high resolution electron microscopy. This paper deals with the description of the numerous order-disorder phenomena which have been observed on the cation and anion networks. Deux nouvelles familles de supraconducteurs ont récemment vu le jour : ll les oxydes à base de mercure gg et les ll oxycarbonates gg. Les caractéristiques essentielles des mécanismes structuraux ont été étudiées par microscopie électronique haute résolution. Les nombreux phénomènes ordre-désordre observés tant sur le réseau des cations que sur celui des anions sont exposés.

  13. The Cigeo project, Meuse/Haute-Marne reversible geological disposal facility for radioactive waste. Project Owner File, Public debate of 15 May to 15 October 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, Marie-Claude; Gonnot, Francois-Michel

    2013-07-01

    Andra is exploring several options for the disposal of low-level long-lived waste (LLW-LL). With the French Government's approval, in June 2008 Andra began looking around France for a site to build an LLW-LL repository. In late 2008 it provided the Government with a report analysing the geological, environmental and socio-economic aspects of the forty odd municipalities that expressed an interest in the project. After the withdrawal of the two municipalities chosen in 2009 to conduct geological investigations, the government asked Andra to re-explore the various management options for graphite and radium-bearing waste, focusing in particular on ways to manage these types of waste separately. The High Committee for Transparency and Information on Nuclear Safety (HCTISN) created a working group to provide feedback on the search for a site for LLW-LL. Andra submitted a report to the Government in late 2012. This report contains proposals for continuing the search and draw in particular on the HCTISN's recommendations. Contents: 1 - Radioactive waste (Sources, Types, Management, Waste to be disposed of at Cigeo, Cigeo's estimated disposal capacities, Where IS HLW and ILW-LL being stored until Cigeo is commissioned? 2 - Why deep geological disposal? (A 15-year research programme, Presentation and assessment of the research results, The public debate of 2005-2006, Deep geological disposal ratified by the 2006 Planning Act, The 2006 Planning Act: other areas of research complementary to deep geological disposal, The situation in other countries); 3 - Why the Meuse/Haute-Marne site? (Selection of the Meuse and Haute-Marne site to host an underground research laboratory, The geological formation in the Meuse and Haute-Marne site, Callovo-Oxfordian clay, Siting of Cigeo's installations); 4 - How will Cigeo operate? (The installations at Cigeo, Construction of Cigeo, Transport of waste packages, Operation of Cigeo, Closure of Cigeo); 5 - Safety at Cigeo

  14. Caractérisation de la croissance spatiale urbaine de la ville de Lubumbashi (Haut-Katanga, R.D. Congo entre 1989 et 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikuzani, YU.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of the Spatial Urban Growth of the city of Lubumbashi (Haut-Katanga, D.R. Congo between 1989 and 2014. A quantification of the spatio-temporal dynamics of urbanization is crucial to apprehend urban morphology and its ecological effects, in order to support sustainable urban planning. This study aimed at understanding the spatial urban growth of Lubumbashi city based on the analysis of six SPOT satellites images. With the exception of the 1996-2002 period, Lubumbashi city underwent a high average annual growth rate exceeding that observed for other cities in sub-Saharan Africa. Between 1989 and 2014, the built-up percentage increased from 6 % to 20 %. Our results suggest that the urbanization of Lubumbashi city followed a complex diffusion-coalescence model. The main reason of this perturbation is the combination of the rapid demographic growth with an inappropriate urban growth management.

  15. U-Pb dating on zircons for the la Borie eclogite (Haut-Allier, France) and consequences for the pre-Variscan evolution of the Western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducrot, J.; Lancelot, J.R. (Montpellier-2 Univ., 44 (France). Lab. de Geochimie-Isotopique); Marchand, J. (Nantes Univ., 34 (France). Lab. de Petrologie et Minerologie)

    1983-03-01

    A crystallization age of 432sub(-10)/sup +20/Ma has been determined for the 'La Borie' eclogite (Haut-Allier, France), by U-Pb dating on zircons. This age is yielded by the upper intercept with the Concordia curve. In agreement with recent dates obtained in the southern part of the Massif Central, in Brittany and in Vendee, these data indicate that the high-pressure/high-temperature-metamorphic phase representative of the pre-Variscan evolution of the western Europe, took place at the Silurian/Ordovician boundary. This high-pressure/high-temperature metamorphism could be significant of subduction processes more or less synchronous, preceeding the main continental collision responsible of the Variscan belt.

  16. The Penly nuclear power plant, at the service of a safe, competitive and CO2-free power generation in the heart of the Haute Normandie region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In less than 20 years, Electricite de France (EDF) has built up a competitive park of 58 nuclear power plants, with no equivalent elsewhere, which represents an installed power of 63.1 GW (85% of EDF's power generation). Inside this nuclear park, the national power generation centre of Penly comprises 2 production units of 1300 MW each (2600 MW as a whole). The facility generated 18.5 billion kWh in 2009, i.e. 3.57% of the French national power generation and 80% of the energy consumed in the Haute-Normandie region. This brochure presents the life of the power plant under various aspects: power generation, safety priority and culture, maintenance investments, respect of the environment, long-term fuel and wastes management, local economical involvement, transparency and public information, key figures and dates. (J.S.)

  17. U-Pb dating on zircons for the la Borie eclogite (Haut-Allier, France) and consequences for the pre-Variscan evolution of the Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducrot, J.; Lancelot, J.R.; Marchand, J.

    1983-01-01

    A crystallization age of 432sub(-10) +20 Ma has been determined for the 'La Borie' eclogite (Haut-Allier, France), by U-Pb dating on zircons. This age is yielded by the upper intercept with the Concordia curve. In agreement with recent dates obtained in the southern part of the Massif Central, in Brittany and in Vendee, these data indicate that the high-pressure/high-temperature-metamorphic phase representative of the pre-Variscan evolution of the western Europe, took place at the Silurian/Ordovician boundary. This high-pressure/high-temperature metamorphism could be significant of subduction processes more or less synchronous, preceeding the main continental collision responsible of the Variscan belt. (s.s.). (orig.)

  18. Mais qui a attrapé le bison de Higgs ? ... et autres questions que vous n'avez jamais osé poser à haute voix

    CERN Document Server

    Louapre, David

    2015-01-01

    Les premiers hommes, le Big-Bang et le boson de Higgs vous intriguent ? Vous fourmillez de questions sans toujours oser les poser à haute voix ? Ce livre est fait pour vous ! Laissez le créateur de la chaîne YouTube "Science étonnante" (près de 100 000 abonnés) vous révéler ses découvertes préférées. Vous n'avez qu'une vague idée de ce qu'est un atome ? Un gène ? Une probabilité ? Embarquez, vous en savez bien assez !

  19. Etude expérimentale du séchage convectif à haute température d'un milieu granulaire

    OpenAIRE

    Messai , Souad; Sghaier , Jalila; Lecomte , Didier; Belghith , Ali

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Dans ce travail on présente une étude expérimentale et numérique du séchage convectif à haute température d'un milieu granulaire formé par des particules poreuses sphériques. La partie expérimentale a été consacrée à l'utilisation de l'air humide comme agent séchant. En prenant deux valeurs d'humidité relative de l'air, nous avons mis en évidence l'importance de ce paramètre sur le processus du séchage. Nous avons mesuré simultanément la cinétique de séchage du lit fix...

  20. A high current high frequency ions gun; Etude et realisation d'un canon a ions du type haute frequence a debit eleve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutant, J; Prevot, F; Vienet, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    A 10 mA protons gun has been developed for different purposes. The first part of the report studies the plasma production with a RF electromagnetic field. Then the ion extraction process is analysed with particular reference to space charge phenomena. The last part describes a three electrode electrostatic lens which focusses the beam. (author) [French] Un canon a ions capable de delivrer un faisceau de protons d'une intensite de l'ordre de 10 mA a ete developpe pour differents usages. Dans la premiere partie les problemes relatifs a la production et a l'entretien d'un plasma excite par un champ electromagnetique de haute frequence sont exposes. Ensuite les auteurs analysent le mecanisme de l'extraction des ions et montrent en particulier le role de la charge d'espace. Enfin on decrit un dispositif de focalisation electrostatique a 3 electrodes. (auteur)

  1. Developpement d'une methode calorimetrique de mesure des pertes ac pour des rubans supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolez, Patricia

    Le travail de recherche effectue dans le cadre de ce projet de doctorat a permis la mise au point d'une methode de mesure des pertes ac destinee a l'etude des supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique. Pour le choix des principes de cette methode, nous nous sommes inspires de travaux anterieurs realises sur les supraconducteurs conventionnels, afin de proposer une alternative a la technique electrique, presentant lors du debut de cette these des problemes lies a la variation du resultat des mesures selon la position des contacts de tension sur la surface de l'echantillon, et de pouvoir mesurer les pertes ac dans des conditions simulant la realite des futures applications industrielles des rubans supraconducteurs: en particulier, cette methode utilise la technique calorimetrique, associee a une calibration simultanee et in situ. La validite de la methode a ete verifiee de maniere theorique et experimentale: d'une part, des mesures ont ete realisees sur des echantillons de Bi-2223 recouverts d'argent ou d'alliage d'argent-or et comparees avec les predictions theoriques donnees par Norris, nous indiquant la nature majoritairement hysteretique des pertes ac dans nos echantillons; d'autre part, une mesure electrique a ete realisee in situ dont les resultats correspondent parfaitement a ceux donnes par notre methode calorimetrique. Par ailleurs, nous avons compare la dependance en courant et en frequence des pertes ac d'un echantillon avant et apres qu'il ait ete endommage. Ces mesures semblent indiquer une relation entre la valeur du coefficient de la loi de puissance modelisant la dependance des pertes avec le courant, et les inhomogeneites longitudinales du courant critique induites par l'endommagement. De plus, la variation en frequence montre qu'au niveau des grosses fractures transverses creees par l'endommagement dans le coeur supraconducteur, le courant se partage localement de maniere a peu pres equivalente entre les quelques grains de matiere

  2. Calage thermodynamique du point mort haut des moteurs à piston Thermodynamic Calibration of Top Dead Center in Piston Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinchon P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Lorsqu'on utilise un système d'acquisition rapide de données sur moteur, il se pose souvent le problème d'associer des grandeurs calculées, comme le volume de la chambre de combustion, à des grandeurs mesurées comme la pression dans le cylindre. II est alors indispensable de synchroniser avec une grande précision absolue ces deux grandeurs en repérant avec soin au moins un point de référence de la cinématique bielle-manivelle. Dans la méthode développée ici on a choisi de déterminer la position angulaire du vilebrequin correspondant au Point Mort Haut (PMH grâce à l'exploitation du signal de pression-cylindre acquis en compression-détente sans combustion, le moteur étant entraîné en rotation. Le principe du calage consiste à calculer l'écart existant entre le PMH et l'angle de la pression maximale qui est aisément repérable. Basée sur des considérations thermodynamiques théoriques, cette méthode de calage a été testée avec succès au cours d'essais effectués sur divers moteurs dont on a fait varier en particulier le rapport volumétrique, le remplissage et les pertes à la segmentation. La précision de la méthode est de l'ordre de 1/10e de degré de rotation vilebrequin. When a fast data-acquisition system is used for an engine, the problem often arises of associating both calculated data, such as combustion chamber volume, and measured data, such as pressure inside the cylinder. It then becomes indispensable to synchronize these two data with great absolute accuracy by carefully determining at least a reference point in the kinematics of the connecting-rod/crank shaft assembly. In the method developed here, we have chosen to determine the angular position of the crankshaft corresponding to top dead center (TDC by making use of the cylinder-pressure signal recorded during compression/expansion without combustion for motored engine. The calibration principle consists in calculating the shift between TDC and the

  3. Artificial snowmaking and potential water conflicts in mountain resorts. The case of Avoriaz (Haute-Savoie, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnier, E.; Reynard, E.

    2012-04-01

    The practice of artificial snowmaking is recent (1990s), and may use large volumes of water. In the French Alps, the total consumption is on average 20 Mm3 per year (Miquel, 2003), which corresponds to the annual consumption of drinking water for a city of more than 300,000 inhabitants such as Nice (France). Moreover, snowmaking does not represent the only use of water in winter sport resorts. The available water resource is used for drinking water, artificial snowmaking and leisure activities (swimming pools, golf spas). One can speak in this context of a multifunctionality of the resource. Of particular concern is the winter season when streams reach their lowest level (from December to April). These activities require that water is drawn from resources created at other times of the year. Water for snowmaking production is pumped from drinking water reservoirs, rivers, groundwater tables, artificial hydropower reservoirs, as well as from hill water reservoirs, specifically built for storing water for snow production, themselves supplied from surface water capture. In Avoriaz (Haute-Savoie, France) the risk of shortages is important. The reason is that the resort is supplied by a unique lake or hillside reservoir (Lake 1730), which satisfies two particularly high-consuming water uses (the water supply for production of snow and drinking water). On a finer scale, namely that of a single day in January 2011, considerable volumes are drawn off in the space of a few hours (10,114 m3 on 24 January), while pumping for drinking water spreads out over several months. Intensity of use for the production of snow can trigger water scarcity and water conflicts with other uses such as drinking water. Good management of the resource is, therefore, especially important. However, no legislation specific to artificial snowmaking has been established. Even if, at present, there is no situation involving shortages and conflicting uses at Avoriaz, the situation needs to be monitored

  4. Study of high frequency instabilities on a cold cathode reflex discharge; Contribution a l'etude des instabilites a haute frequence dans la decharge reflex a cathodes froides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregoire, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-06-01

    The cold cathode reflex discharge develops a cathode sheath of several hundreds of volts, which accelerates electrons released from the cathode to high velocities along the lines of the axial magnetic field. On the studied pressure range (4.10{sup -4} torr < p < 2.10{sup -2} torr) the plasma density is about 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}. Under certain conditions high frequency (1 5000 MHz) instabilities appear. These instabilities are found to profoundly modify the mean characteristics of the discharge. In particular, particle flow across the lines of magnetic field is found to be considerably greater than that predicted by classical diffusion theory. Theoretical considerations are presented with complementary experimental results. They show that the high frequency instabilities are a result of the fast electronic assembly accelerated through the cathode sheath. (author) [French] Dans certaines conditions, qui sont precisees, des instabilites a haute frequence (1 5000 MHz) se developpent dans la decharge reflex a cathodes froides. Lorsque le plasma (n {approx_equal}10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}) est instable, les caracteristiques moyennes de la decharge sont profondement alterees. Les fuites de particules a travers les lignes de forces du champ magnetique statique applique deviennent en particulier trop importantes pour que le seul effet classique des collisions binaires puisse les expliquer. L'ionisation du gaz est assuree par une assemblee electronique qui acquiert dans les gaines cathodiques ({approx_equal} 500 volts) une vitesse, parallele au champ magnetique, importante. La discussion de resultats theoriques et une experience complementaire montrent que cette population d'electrons rapides, tres distincte de celle des electrons lents du plasma pour les pressions les plus faibles du domaine etudie (4.10{sup -4} torr < p < 2.10{sup -2} torr), est responsable des instabilites a haute frequence observees. (auteur)

  5. Gas injection test in a borehole of the Meuse/Haute Marne underground research laboratory: experimental overview and basic data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Vaissiere, Remi de; Talandier, Jean; Piedevache, Mederic; Helmlinger, Benjamin; Lavanchy, Jean-Marc; Croise, Jean; Senger, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Understanding of the fate and of the impact of gas produced by corrosion of metals, microbial degradation and the radiolysis of water within a deep geological disposal repository for radioactive waste, is of major relevance in the performance assessment including the long-term evolution of the repository. To address these issues, the French national Agency for the management of radioactive waste (Andra) has directed a field scale experiment examining the mechanisms controlling gas entry and gas migration in the Callovo-Oxfordian (COX) clay, the proposed host rock of the French deep geological repository project. This experiment, called PGZ1, studies the migration of nitrogen in the COX based on gas injection tests performed in a borehole of the Meuse/Haute Marne URL. This experiment is currently being performed under the auspices of the Euratom 7. Framework FORGE project. In this poster, we provide an overview on the field data and a basic analysis of the data. The advanced interpretation of the data was based on numerical modeling of the two-phase flow with 3 different approaches and numerical codes. The experimental layout consists of three boreholes. Two parallel boreholes (PGZ1201 and PGZ1202) were drilled from the GED drift and are equipped with a triple interval system to monitor the pressure evolutions in 3 intervals, associated with the hydraulic and gas injection tests in the selected test interval (PGZ1201, middle interval). The third borehole (PGZ1031) was drilled from the GEX drift and is equipped with an extensometer probe, to monitor potential deformation associated with the resulting stress changes. An initial hydraulic test (HYDRO1) was performed in the test interval to estimate the hydraulic conductivity of the COX prior to gas testing. The hydraulic test consisted in a sequence of injections of synthetic formation water (pressure pulse followed by a constant pressure and a final shut-in phase

  6. Earth tidal and barometric responses observed in the Callovo-Oxfordian formation at ANDRA Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delcourt-Honorez, M.; Scholz, E.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Fluid pressure or hydraulic head measured in wells in geological formations can respond to Earth tidal forces and atmospheric pressure variations. At Andra Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory located in Bure (France), water level and fluid pressure are measured in several boreholes in the Callovo-Oxfordian clay formation (COX) and in overlying geological formations. One of these boreholes (EST207) is equipped with a multi-packer system monitoring 11 intervals, including 8 in the COX. The recorded fluid pressures in EST207 were analyzed to determine possible Earth tidal responses. In this borehole, the fluid pressure and atmospheric pressure variations data are recorded every fifteen minutes and 6.5 years of such data from 2004/06/02 to 2010/12/31 were analyzed. Various perturbed data, gaps, drift and abnormal data were corrected through a data preprocessing process. Data interpolation and filtering processes were performed to have data available every 15 minutes at 0, 15, 30 and 45 minutes on the hour. A spectral analysis (Fast Fourier Transform) of each pressure data series shows amplitude peaks at frequencies corresponding to various Earth tidal frequencies: diurnal and semi diurnal waves can be identified. Spectral analyses were also performed on the atmospheric pressure data. The solar semi diurnal wave (S2) was identified. The 'Earth Tides ETERNA package' was used to separate the waves according to the frequencies bands. The analyses performed using ETERNA are indicated as 'Earth Tidal Analyses' (ETAN). Tidal parameters are estimated from ETAN: amplitudes A and its standard deviation σ(A)[hPa], phase φ for the main waves in diurnal and semi diurnal frequencies bands before and after atmospheric pressure variations correction. The barometric efficiency (BE) and its standard deviation σ (BE) as regression coefficient is calculated. The atmospheric pressure data are also analyzed with ETERNA; the

  7. Experimental thermal study and numerical simulation of a composite solar wall. Optimization of the energetic performances; Etude thermique experimentale et simulation numerique d`un mur solaire composite. Optimisation des performances energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalewski, L.

    1996-11-27

    The objective of this work is the analysis of a passive solar component: the composite solar wall, a building component, which includes an insulating panel located behind the massive wall. This panel has two vents located at the top and at the bottom, which allow the air to circulate from the room to the layer in contact with the back of the massive wall, where it is heated, and then back to the room. The solar energy is transferred to the building by conduction through the massive wall, and then by convection using a thermosyphon phenomenon. The monitoring of 2 solar houses in Verdun-Thierville (Meuse, France) has clearly shown, control issues of the air layer. The wall must be operated as autonomously as possible, to not be a constraint for the occupants and to get an optimization of the energy gains. To solve these problems, a composite solar wall prototype was erected in a test cell at Cadarache and tested in real operating conditions. This allows to use a more complete instrumentation, to have access more easily to the sensors and to study various configurations. The first experiments revealed an inverse thermosyphon phenomenon. To avoid this effect, two systems were designed, tested at Cadarache and then implemented in the walls at Verdun. (author) 77 refs.

  8. Ejemplos de represión contra comunistas españoles y franceses en 1939 en el centro-oeste de Francia (departamento de la Haute-Vienne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Leger

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available La Haute-Vienne acogió en febrero de 1939 a más de 2.700 civiles españoles refugiados en Francia. Se trata de un departamento esencialmente rural, excepto la capital, conocida por su tradición obrera muy fuerte. Esta tierra fue bastante hospitalaria para los españoles, a pesar de los ataques de la prensa de derecha, entreteniendo el mito del “rojo” español. Entonces, los refugiados fueron objeto de una estricta vigilancia por parte del Estado francés (gobierno Daladier. Se impidió todo tipo de contacto entre los comunistas españoles y franceses, en un contexto de repatriaciones, a veces forzadas, hacia la España franquista. En este artículo, me propongo presentar algunos casos de represión contra los españoles y contra los comunistas, a partir de informes policiales o prefectorales de la Haute-Vienne.Palabras Claves: memoria histórica; exilio; republicanos; Francia; Guerra Civil española___________________________ABSTRACT:In February 1939, Haute-Vienne department accommodated more than 2700 spanish civilians’ refugees.  This department is mainly rural except the capital where there is a strong working class tradition. This land was in general welcoming for refugees, in spite of the attacks of conservative press, which maintained the myth of the “red spanish”. Thus, Spanish refugees were under a strong surveillance by the French state (the Daladier’s government. Any contact between Spanish communists and French was avoided, in a context of repatriation, sometimes forced, back to pro-Franco Spain. This article will present some cases of repression against Spanish and communists that appear in reports from the police and the prefecture of the Haute-Vienne.Keywords: France, Spanish Civil War, exile, historical memory

  9. Study of some ion exchange minerals which can be used in water at high temperature; Etude de quelques echangeurs mineraux utilisables dans l'eau a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hure, J; Platzer, R; Bittel, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Fourre, J [Societe le Carbone Lorraine, 75 - Paris (France); Wey, R [Faculte des Sciences de Strasbourg, Lab. de Mineralogie, 67 (France)

    1958-07-01

    these impurities (that is to say capable of de-mineralizing polluted water). This paper describes the preliminary results of the investigation. (author) [French] L'etude de l'utilisation des echangeurs d'ions a haute temperature a ete essentiellement faite en vue de l'epuration de l'eau des reacteurs. On connait l'interet qu'il y a a garder dans un circuit de reacteur de l'eau de tres haute resistivite (plusieurs centaines a quelques millions {omega}.cm): abaissement de la corrosion, abaissement du taux de radiolyse, abaissement de la radioactivite des circuits et canalisations, les elements autres que les constituants de l'eau transportes par celle-ci devenant generalement radioactifs par leur passage au coeur du reacteur. Si la circulation d'eau se fait a des temperatures inferieures a 45 deg. C, les resines echangeuses d'ions organiques utilisees en lit melange resolvent tres bien le probleme de l'epuration en continu. Par contre, pour des temperatures plus elevees surtout au-dessus de 100 deg. C, leur utilisation n'est pas possible, la degradation de ces hauts polymeres etant tres rapide. De meme, l'action des rayonnements, par exemple ceux des produits fixes par les echangeurs d'ions, detruit irremediablement les chaines organiques constituant le squelette de ces echangeurs. Nous avons donc cherche d'es composes pouvant assurer une bonne deionisation de l'eau, mais de structures telles qu'elles ne soient pas deteriorees par l'action de la temperature et des rayonnements. Nous nous sommes particulierement orientes dans trois voies: - echangeurs d'ions naturels a structure minerale (argile du type montmorillonite), - composes mineraux naturels traites pour leur conferer les proprietes d'echangeurs d'ions (charbons actives), - composes mineraux synthetiques (sels tres peu solubles, phosphate et hydroxyde de zirconium et de thorium). Dans ces etudes, nous nous sommes attaches a obtenir des produits stables en presence d'eau a haute temperature, tres insolubles et non

  10. Deposition of radon decay products on the skin of balneotherapy patients in Gastein; Anlagerung von Radon-Folgeprodukten auf der Haut von Patienten bei der Baedertherapie in Gastein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempfer, H.; Schober, A.; Lettner, H.; Hofmann, W. [Inst. fuer Physik und Biophysik, Univ. Salzburg (Austria); Foisner, W. [Thermentempel Bad Hofgastein (Austria); Steger, F. [Oesterreichisches Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf GesmbH (Austria)

    2001-07-01

    ). Eine der Anwendungen des Thermalwassers ist die Exposition der Patienten in einer 450 1 fassenden Wanne (Best'sche Wanne) mit anschliessender Ruhephase. Um die Hypothese, dass die Zerfallsprodukte des Radons eine wichtige Rolle bei der therapeutischen Wirkung spielen, zu ueberpruefen, sollte das Anlagerungsverhalten der Rn-Folgeprodukte untersucht werden. Nach einem Aufenthalt der Testpersonen von 20 Minuten in der Wanne wurde der Aktivitaetsverlauf an verschiedenen Punkten des Koerpers (Unterarme, Bauch, Unterschenkel) alpha-spektrometrisch gemessen. Aus den Spektren und den Zerfallskurven koennen die Aktivitaeten der einzelnen Folgeprodukte {sup 218}Po, {sup 214}Pb und {sup 214}Bi/{sup 214}Po unterschieden werden. Um den zeitlichen Verlauf der Zerfallsproduktanlagerung zu untersuchen, wurde eine Versuchsperson dem Wasser jeweils fuer 10, 20, 30, 40 und 60 Minuten ausgesetzt; danach wurde wieder der Aktivitaetsverlauf ueber 30 Minuten aufgezeichnet. Die Messungen zeigten, dass sich die Aktivitaeten der einzelnen Zerfallsprodukte auf der Haut stark unterscheiden. Einerseits scheint die Verteilung am Koerper keineswegs homogen zu sein, andererseits konnten individuelle Unterschiede zwischen den einzelnen Person beobachtet werden. So schwankten die Mittelwerte der Aktivitaeten auf der Haut zwischen 1,2 Bq/cm{sup 2} und 4,1 Bq/cm{sup 2}. Die Exposition und Messung von Kupfer- und PVC-Platten bestaetigten fruehere Ergebnisse, nach denen sich Radonzerfallsprodukte auf unbelebten Flaechen weniger stark anlagern als auf belebten. Aus der Tatsache, dass die Zerfallsprodaktivitaeten auf der Haut bemerkenswert hoch sind, erscheint ein moeglicher Zusammenhang mit der Heilwirkung seht wahrscheinlich. (orig.)

  11. Study of current instabilities in high resistivity gallium arsenide; Etude des instabilites de courant dans l'arseniure de gallium de haute resistivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barraud, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    gallium de haute resistivite. Nous montrons que ces oscillations sont associees a la progression lente d'un domaine de fort champ electrique a travers tout l'echantillon. L'etude experimentale des proprietes de ces instabilites nous a permis de differencier ce phenomene de l'effet Gunn, des effets acoustoelectriques et des effets de contacts. Nous proposons pour rendre compte de ce type d'instabilites un mecanisme de piegeage differentiel sur des impuretes repulsives, capable de depeupler la bande de conduction a champ electrique eleve et de donner naissance a un domaine de champ intense. Le developpement qualitatif de ce modele nous permet de rendre compte de toutes les proprietes des cristaux d'arseniure de gallium de haute resistivite soumis a un champ electrique eleve: augmentation de la constante de Hall, existence d'un seuil de tension pour ces oscillations, formation de domaines de champ intense, lenteur de la propagation de ces domaines, enfin possibilite de renverser le sens de la propagation du domaine sans detruire celui-ci. Le developpement quantitatif du modele permet de calculer les differentes grandeurs caracteristiques de ces instabilites. La comparaison avec l'experience montre une bonne concordance, les legeres divergences provenant surtout de la meconnaissance actuelle des proprietes de transport dans l'arseniure de gallium aux champs electriques eleves. A la lumiere de ce modele, il apparait que le phenomene d'instabilite etudie peut se produire pour une gamme etendue de concentrations en centres repulsifs, et pour toute une gamme de resistivites. Ceci explique qu'il apparaisse systematiquement dans l'arseniure de gallium de moyenne et haute resistivite. (auteurs)

  12. La différence épidémiologique des hémorragies digestives hautes entre les hommes et les femmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mekkaoui, Amine; Saâda, Kaoutar; Mellouki, Ihssane; El Yousfi, Mounia; Aqodad, Nourdin; El Abkari, Mohammed; Ibrahimi, Adil; Benajah, Dafr-Allah

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Des différences épidémiologiques, étiologique voire pronostique des hémorragies digestives hautes (HDH) entre les deux sexes opposés ont été cité par différentes études. Méthodes Nous avons essayé de déceler ces différences à travers une analyse rétrospective nichée sur une étude prospective sur les hémorragies digestives hautes ayant inclus 945 patients. Résultats Six cents trente-sept patients étaient des hommes (67,4% Vs 32,6%). Un antécédent d'HDH était trouvé chez 24,2% des cas sans différence significative entre les deux sexes. L'âge de survenue de l'hémorragie était plus élevé chez les femmes que chez les hommes : 51,5 ans ± 18,8 Vs 47,8 ans ± 18,3 (p : 0,003). Les étiologies de l'HDH étaient différentes entre les deux sexes. Alors que l'hémorragie liée à l'HTP était la première cause chez la femme (38 % Vs 23,5 % chez l'homme, psexe masculin contre 35,4 % des patientes avec un p = 0,03. Le taux de récidive et de décès global étaient de 7,5 % et de 5,7 % des cas respectivement, sans différence significative entre les deux sexes. Conclusion L'étude trouve un profil épidémiologique, clinique et étiologique différent selon le sexe des patients. PMID:23077715

  13. Installation of a bitumen coating plant for high-activity concentrates; Installation pilote d'enrobage par le bitume de concentrats de haute activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodier, J; Lefillatre, G; Seyfried, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule

    1969-07-01

    Following the excellent results obtained on the industrial coating of radioactive sludges, the possibility of solidifying also the evaporation concentrates with bitumen has been considered. For high activity concentrates, the use of bitumen is however limited by two main parameters: temperature resistance, irradiation resistance. By making use of the characteristics of a blown bitumen, it has been possible to design a high activity coating pilot plant treating concentrations of several tens of curies per litre. This plant will make use of a screw-type extrusion machine capable of coating treated concentrates at a rate of 20 l/hr. Before being coated, the concentrates will be subjected to a coprecipitation treatment designed to make the radioelements insoluble. This installation will make possible, apart from technological studies, laboratory experiments on the coated material (measurements on self-heating, on electrical charges, on radiolytic gases, and also lixiviation tests. It is at present believed, on the basis of available data, that it is possible to coat concentrates having an activity of 20 Ci/l at a price of 1840 F per cubic metre. (authors) [French] A la suite des excellents resultats obtenus pour l'enrobage industriel des boues radioactives, il a ete envisage de solidifier egalement les concentrats d'evaporation par le bitume. Pour les concentrats de haute activite, l'emploi du bitume est cependant limite par deux parametres essentiels: tenue a la temperature, tenue a l'irradiation. Grace aux caracteristiques d'un bitume souffle, il a ete possible de concevoir une installation pilote d'enrobage haute activite contenant plusieurs dizaines de curies par litre. Cette installation utilisera une machine du type extrudeuse a vis qui peut enrober 20 l/h de concentrats traites. Avant leur enrobage, les concentrats subiront un traitement de coprecipitation destine a insolubiliser les radioelements. En dehors des etudes technologiques, cette installation

  14. Redécouverte d’un milliaire romain. La borne de Chaspuzac (Haute-Loire, cité des Vellaves (province d’Aquitaine The rediscovery of a Roman milestone. The stone of Chaspuzac (Haute-Loire, city of the Vellaves (Aquitaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Dacko

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Les recherches initiées dans le cadre d’une thèse en archéologie sur les voies romaines en territoire arverne et vellave ont récemment conduit à la redécouverte d’une borne milliaire, perdue dans la réserve du musée Crozatier au Puy-en-Velay (Haute-Loire depuis la fin du xixe s. Le réexamen approfondi de l’inscription permet de réviser les précédentes lectures à la lumière de données nouvelles. Complément pour la série des milliaires de l’empereur Maximin, cette borne constitue un témoin des vastes travaux de réfection entrepris sur la voie “ Bolène ” tout au long du iiie siècle.The research started as part of a thesis on Roman roads in the Arverne and Vellave territory has recently led to the rediscovery of a milestone, lost in the storerooms of the Crozatier museum at Puy-en-Velay (Haute-Loire since the end of the 19th century. A thorough reexamination of the inscription has enabled a revision of previous writings in the light of new information. An addition to the series of milestones of the Emperor Maximinus, this stone is evidence of the great repair works undertaken on the Bolène Way throughout the 3rd century.

  15. The ANDRA, two years after the June 2006 28. programming law. Assessment and perspectives in Meuse/Haute-Marne. Press conference of June 2008, 12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This report first presents the main activities of ANDRA (the French national agency for radioactive waste management) in the studies for the development and construction of a high-activity and long-life waste storage site, and particularly for a project located in Meuse/Haute-Marne region, and more briefly for a low-activity and long-life waste storage (for graphite and radiferous wastes). It presents and comments the legal frame (programming law of June 2006, 28) which introduces a national plan for radioactive materials and wastes (PNGMDR) which is to be updated once every three years. Then, it describes ANDRA's missions, its role as industrial operator, its financing, and its certification level. It describes its general interest missions: national inventory of radioactive materials and wastes, collection and processing of common usage radioactive objects, and decontamination of sites polluted by radioactivity. It presents its project of reversible deep storage of high and intermediate level and long life wastes (a facility is foreseen to operate in 2025), the technology centre, the 'open doors day', and the project of a hollow storage site for low activity and long life wastes

  16. Fragilisation par le zinc liquide des aciers haute résistance pour l'automobile Liquid zinc embrittlement of high strength automotive steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frappier Renaud

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude présente les investigations menées sur la fragilisation par le zinc liquide d'un acier électro-zingué. La caractérisation mécanique par essais de traction à haute température montre un important puits de ductilité entre environ 700 ∘C et environ 950 ∘C. L'observation au MEB des éprouvettes de traction indique que, dans la gamme de température observée pour laquelle il y a fragilisation, on a mouillage intergranulaire des joints de grains de l'acier à l'interface acier/revêtement par des films de Zn. La corrélation entre mouillage intergranulaire thermiquement activé d'une part, et propagation de fissure lors du chargement d'autre part, est discutée. This study deals with liquid zinc embrittlement for electro-galvanized steel. Mechanical characterization by high temperature tensile tests shows a drastic loss of ductility between 700 ∘C and 950 ∘C. SEM investigations show that steel grain boundaries under the steel/coating interface are penetrated by a liquid Zn channel, only in the temperature range of embrittlement. A correlation can be drawn between i thermal activated-grain boundary wetting and ii crack propagation in presence of external stress.

  17. Le rapprochement Chercheur-Consultant en aménagement du territoire : un apport à haute valeur ajoutée ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Chemin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available En aménagement du territoire, de nouvelles pratiques partenariales semblent émerger lors de la réalisation d'expertises (études, ingénierie de projets, audits, etc.. Si le recours aux cabinets-conseils – au Consultant – et aux laboratoires scientifiques – au Chercheur – par les services de l'Etat ou les collectivités territoriales existe depuis de nombreuses années, le rapprochement et le partenariat entre les consultants et les chercheurs est récent. Certes, cette pratique n’est pas encore systématique en aménagement du territoire mais elle constitue, selon les commanditaires publics, un apport à haute valeur ajoutée dans les prestations de services.In urban planning new partnership practices seem to appear through the realization of expertises (studies, projects engineering, audits…. Although the appeal to consulting firms – to consultants – and in the scientific laboratories – to researchers – by the State services or local government, exists for a long time now, the partnership between consultants and researchers is recent. Even though this partnership is not systematic in urban planning, it brings a contribution with a high added value in the services, according to the public partners.

  18. Soil Lead Testing at a High Spatial Resolution in an Urban Community Garden: A Case Study in Relic Lead in Terre Haute, Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Jennifer C; Van Halen, David; Speer, James; Krull, Stephanie; Weaver, Patricia; Pettit, Joseph; Foxx, Heather

    2016-10-01

    Industrial emissions, deteriorating or improperly removed lead paint, and the use of lead additives in fuel have left a substantial burden of heavy metals, such as lead, in urban soils. Much of this lead remains near the surface where it has the potential to impact human health. Exposure to lead, especially in children, can have lasting impacts on neurological development and academic achievement. Urban gardening, in particular, is an activity that could result in increased exposure to soil lead for many unsuspecting gardeners. During the summer of 2012, more than 1,061 surface soil samples were collected from an approximately 1.25 acre urban community garden in Terre Haute, Indiana. Samples were collected to evaluate the spatial distribution of lead across the community garden on the plot level. The results highlight the variability that can be seen within small areas of a former residential property, for example lead concentrations that are low (garden plot as concentrations that are considered high (>600 ppm). Based on the results of this work, several areas of concern were identified and the community garden was reconfigured to reduce potential lead exposure to gardeners and the local community.

  19. Electrohydrodynamics: a high-voltage direct energy conversion process; L'electrohydrodynamique: Un procede de conversion directe d'energie a haute tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-04-15

    This analysis consists of a theoretical and practical study of a high-tension electrical power generator based on the Van de Graaff generator principle, the main difference being that the charges produced are transported by a gas in motion and not by a belt. The electrical and thermal properties of such a generator are studied, as well as the difficult problem of the production of the ionised particles used in the conversion. A certain number of results already published on this process for converting kinetic energy into electrical energy is given, as well as some possible applications in the field of space technology. (author) [French] Cette analyse est une etude theorique et pratique d'un generateur de puissance electrique a haute tension, base sur le principe du generateur Van de Graaff, la difference principale etant que les charges produites sont transportees pur un gaz en mouvement et non par une courroie. Les proprietes electriques et thermiques d'un tel generateur sont etudiees ainsi que le probleme delicat de la production des particules ionisees utilisees dans la conversion. Un certain nombre de resultats publies sur ce procede de conversion d'energie cinetique en energie electrique sont reproduits, ainsi que les applications possibles aux problemes spatiaux. (auteur)

  20. Preparation of plutonium fluoride to obtain metal of high purity; Preparation de fluorures de plutonium pour l'obtention de metal de haute purete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faugeras, P; Brut, A; Helou, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    In the process of treating irradiated uranium, plutonium can be separated from the majority of the fission products and from the uranium by TBP extraction cycles. The high purity necessary for metallurgical and nuclear physics experiments led us to consider more elaborate purification processes, and a specially adapted method of fluoride preparation. The first part of the paper describes purification cycles of plutonium in solution on ion exchange resins, and the results are given. The second part contains the description and results of the fluoride preparation method. (author) [French] Dans le processus du traitement de l'uranium irradie, les cycles d'extraction au TBP permettent la separation du plutonium de la majorite des produits de fission et de l'uranium. La haute purete exigee pour les experiences de metallurgie et de physique nucleaire nous a conduit a envisager des purifications plus poussee et un mode de confection des fluorures specialement adapte. La premiere partie de l'expose decrit et donne les resultats de cycles de purification du plutonium en solution sur des resines echangeuses d'ions. La seconde partie decrit et donne les resultats du mode de confection des fluorures. (auteur)

  1. Recent advances in the designing and the equipment of high activity laboratories; Progres recents dans la conception et l'equipement des laboratoires de haute activite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazire, R; Duhamel, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    The authors described the general principles governing the design of a laboratory for experimenting and handling radioactive substances. The difficulties encountered are of two types: 1) those due to the dangers of external irradiation; 2) those due to the dangers of internal contamination. As an example, the authors describe the French achievements in this field and in particular: - the high-activity laboratories at Saclay; - the laboratory for the examination of irradiated fuels at Saclay; - the 'hot' laboratory of the CEN-Grenoble; - the alpha, beta and gamma laboratories of the CEN-Fontenay-aux-Roses. Finally, the report describes the protective materials used for these installations. (author) [French] Les auteurs exposent quels sont les principes generaux qui president a la conception d'un laboratoire a des travaux et des manipulations sur des substances radioactives. Les difficultes a surmonter sont de deux ordres: 1) celles qui proviennent du danger d'irradiation externe; 2) celles qui proviennent du danger de contamination interne. A titre d'exemple, les auteurs decrivent les realisations francaises dans ce domaine et en particulier: - le laboratoire de haute activite de Saclay, - le laboratoire d'examen des combustibles irradies de Saclay, - le laboratoire chaud du CEN-Grenoble, - les laboratoires alpha, beta, gamma du CEN-Fontenay-aux-Roses. Enfin, le rapport decrit les materiaux de protection mis en oeuvre pour ces realisations. (auteur)

  2. Health impact assessment resulting from water pollution by the activities of extraction and treatment of uranium in the department of Haute-Vienne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenetier, Nicolas

    2002-01-01

    From the middle to the end of the twentieth century, several thousands tons of uranium have been extracted from the ground of the French department of Haute-Vienne. These activities have not been without any environmental consequences. Water is an environmental compartment particularly vulnerable because several polluting factors may release radionuclides from 238 U chain a long time after the end of the mining activities. It has been shown that water used for drinking water fabrication for the City of Limoges, 140 000 inhabitants, and for a group of 22 communes with 20 000 inhabitants and leisure water of Saint-Pardoux lake have activities which are unusually high. A health risk quantitative assessment has been carried out. The results show for radiological risk that 226 Ra is, in the most realistic hypothesis, the main responsible for the annual effective dose; moreover, the annual effective dose are lower than the radioprotection standards and the WHO's recommendations of 0.1 mSv per year in drinking water. The results also show that it would not be pertinent to carry out an epidemiological study because of a lack of statistical power. (author)

  3. High-resolution reconstruction of atmospheric deposition of trace metals and metalloids since AD 1400 recorded by ombrotrophic peat cores in Hautes-Fagnes, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Mohammed; Le Roux, Gaël; De Vleeschouwer, François; Bindler, Richard; Blaauw, Maarten; Piotrowska, Natalia; Sikorski, Jaroslaw; Fagel, Nathalie

    2013-07-01

    The objective of our study was to determine the trace metal accumulation rates in the Misten bog, Hautes-Fagnes, Belgium, and assess these in relation to established histories of atmospheric emissions from anthropogenic sources. To address these aims we analyzed trace metals and metalloids (Pb, Cu, Ni, As, Sb, Cr, Co, V, Cd and Zn), as well as Pb isotopes, using XRF, Q-ICP-MS and MC-ICP-MS, respectively in two 40-cm peat sections, spanning the last 600 yr. The temporal increase of metal fluxes from the inception of the Industrial Revolution to the present varies by a factor of 5-50, with peak values found between AD 1930 and 1990. A cluster analysis combined with Pb isotopic composition allows the identification of the main sources of Pb and by inference of the other metals, which indicates that coal consumption and metallurgical activities were the predominant sources of pollution during the last 600 years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Swiss energy research programme on solar heat and storage for 2008-2011; Programme de recherche energetique. Chaleur solaire et stockage pour la periode 2008-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadorn, J.-C.

    2009-07-15

    This report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the research programme on solar heat and heat storage for the years 2008 - 2011. This document presents some aspects of the solar thermal market in 2007, summarizes the main solar thermal technologies for buildings and sketches the main topics of the 'Solar Heat and Heat Storage' research programme. Research and development issues looked at focus mainly on the heating and cooling of buildings. The research and development issues for solar thermal technologies during the period 2008-2011 include improved performance and durability of solar collectors and components, new coatings for solar collectors based on nano-materials as well as simplified and standardised systems for solar heating and cooling. Building Integration and integration in existing heating systems and long-term work with a focus on new materials for storing heat for use in residential buildings are discussed. Also, calculation methods and simulation tools are examined. Pilot and demonstration projects are reviewed.

  5. Géopolitique du district spécial de Bogotá et du Haut-Sumapaz (1900-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Le «District Spécial» de Bogotá est doublement singulier: par son statut administratif, promulgué sous État de Siège en 1954, qui en fait une entité territoriale à part, à mi-chemin entre la commune et le département, et par l’immense zone rurale qu’il inclue au sud de la ville, le Haut-Sumapaz, une région difficile d’accès, très peu peuplée et totalement sous-intégrée à la capitale colombienne. L’annexion du Haut-Sumapaz au District de Bogotá répond à des impératifs militaires, liés au particularisme géopolitique de la région. Ce no man’s land a constitué à plusieurs reprises au XXème siècle une sorte de ligne de front entre les «subversions» successives (guérilla libérale, mouvements agrariens, puis guérilla communiste et l’État central, à Bogotá. GEOPOLÍTICA DEL DISTRITO ESPECIAL DE BOGOTÁ Y DEL ALTO SUMAPAZ (1900-1990. El «Distrito Especial» de Bogotá es singular desde dos puntos de vista: por su estatuto administrativo, promulgado bajo Estado de Sitio en 1954, que lo convirtió en una entidad territorial entre el Municipio y el Departamento y por la inmensa zona rural que incluye al sur de la ciudad, el Alto Sumapaz, una región de difícil acceso, muy poco poblada y completamente subintegrada a la capital colombiana. La anexión del Alto Sumapaz al Distrito Especial de Bogotá responde a unos imperativos militares, que tienen que ver con el particularismo geopolítico de la región. Este no man’s land constituyó en varias ocasiones en el siglo XX una especie de línea de frente entre las distintas «subversiones» sucesivas (guerrilla liberal, movimientos agrarios, y después guerrilla comunista y el Estado Central, en Bogotá. GEOPOLITICS OF THE SPECIAL DISTRICT OF BOGOTÁ AND ALTO SUMAPAZ (1900-1990. Bogotá, as a Special District, has a twofold singularity. On the one hand, it became an independent administrative entity, intermediate between a Municipality and a State, after the State of

  6. Evaluation du risque de déstabilisation des infrastructures de haute montagne engendré par le réchauffement climatique dans les Alpes françaises

    OpenAIRE

    Duvillard, Pierre-Allain; Ravanel, Ludovic; Deline, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Dans le contexte du changement climatique actuel, les milieux de haute montagne sont soumis à de profonds bouleversements tels que la fonte des glaciers ou la dégradation du permafrost, à l’origine de mouvements de versant au sein des parois rocheuses comme des formations superficielles. Ces processus impliquent des risques directs de déstabilisation pour les infrastructures (refuges, remontées mécaniques, etc.). Dans un but de prévention de ces risques, un recensement des infrastructures de ...

  7. The Cigeo project - Industrial centre of deep reversible storage of radioactive wastes in Meuse/Haute-Marne - Synthesis of the commissioner's file. Public debate from the 15 May to the 15 October 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-03-01

    This synthesis of the commissioner's file of the Cigeo project (project of an industrial center of deep reversible storage of radioactive wastes in Meuse/Haute-Marne region, France), explains the reason of the project, the waste management choices made by other countries, the planning of the project, the type and volume of wastes that will be stored at Cigeo, the operation of the facility, the reversibility aspect, the selection and sitting of the site (surface and underground installations), the safety warranties, and the socio-economic benefits of the project

  8. Scientific investigation in deep wells for nuclear waste disposal studies at the Meuse/Haute Marne underground research laboratory, Northeastern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delay, Jacques; Rebours, Hervé; Vinsot, Agnès; Robin, Pierre

    Andra, the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency, is constructing an underground test facility to study the feasibility of a radioactive waste disposal in the Jurassic-age Callovo-Oxfordian argillites. This paper describes the processes, the methods and results of a scientific characterization program carried out from the surface via deep boreholes with the aim to build a research facility for radioactive waste disposal. In particular this paper shows the evolution of the drilling programs and the borehole set up due to the refinement of the scientific objectives from 1994 to 2004. The pre-investigation phase on the Meuse/Haute-Marne site started in 1994. It consisted in drilling seven scientific boreholes. This phase, completed in 1996, led to the first regional geological cross-section showing the main geometrical characteristics of the host rock. Investigations on the laboratory site prior to the sinking of two shafts started in November 1999. The sinking of the shafts started in September 2000 with the auxiliary shaft completed in October 2004. The experimental gallery, at a depth of 445 m in the main shaft, was in operation by end 2004. During the construction of the laboratory, two major scientific programs were initiated to improve the existing knowledge of the regional hydrogeological characteristics and to accelerate the process of data acquisition on the shales. The aim of the 2003 hydrogeological drilling program was to determine, at regional scale, the properties of groundwater transport and to sample the water in the Oxfordian and Dogger limestones. The 2003-2004 programs consisted in drilling nine deep boreholes, four of which were slanted, to achieve an accurate definition of the structural features.

  9. À la recherche du 1 % : que nous apprennent les travaux d’Atkinson, Piketty et Saez sur la concentration des hauts revenus ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Zorn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Les inégalités de revenu se font croissantes dans la plupart des pays avancés et la richesse se concentre davantage au sommet de la pyramide sociale. Les deux principaux courants de pensée, l’école institutionnaliste et l’école du marché, peinent à expliquer pourquoi la hausse des inégalités de revenus se concentre principalement dans le centile le plus fortuné. Partant de ce constat, un nouveau courant de pensée s’est plutôt concentré, à l’instigation entre autres d’Atkinson, Piketty et Saez, sur les statistiques fiscales des très hauts revenus, fortement sous-estimés dans les enquêtes par sondage. Cet article présente une synthèse critique de leurs hypothèses, de leur méthodologie et de leurs résultats.Income inequalities are increasing in most advanced countries and most of the wealth has become concentrated at the top of the social pyramid. Institutionalist and market-based theories, the two main schools of thought on the subject, struggle to explain why the rise in income inequality is mainly concentrated in the most fortunate percentile. Based on this observation, Atkinson, Piketty and Saez have opened a new field of study specifically on top incomes (severely underestimated in surveys, based on tax statistics. This article presents a critical overview of their assumptions, their methodology and results.

  10. Contribution to the phenomenological study of two-body reactions at high energy; Contribution a l'etude phenomenologique des reactions a deux corps a haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen-Tannoudji, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    A phenomenological model suited for the description of arbitrary two-body reactions at high energies is presented and applied to the analysis of {pi} - nucleon, K - nucleon, et K-bar - nucleon scattering.The idea is that the Regge-pole model does not take into account the whole content of the unitarity relation and has to be modified, as is currently done in one-particle exchange models, so that it may include absorptive corrections.In terms of a rather economical set of free parameters,we obtain a satisfactory agreement with all available data, including the recent evidence for a nonvanishing polarization in {pi}{sup -} p {pi}{sup 0} n reaction. We then reinterpret our parametrization of the amplitudes in terms of poles and branch points in the complex angular-momentum plane for the crossed channel. (author) [French] Un modele phenomenologique adapte a la description des reactions a deux corps a haute energie est presente et applique a l'analyse des diffusions {pi} - nucleon, K - nucleon, et K-bar - nucleon. L'idee essentielle est que le modele d'echange de poles de Regge ne tient pas compte du contenu total de la relation d'unitarite et doit etre modifie, comme cela a ete propose dans le cas de l'echange de particules, de facon a tenir compte de corrections de type absortif. Au moyen d'un ensemble relativement economique de parametres libres nous obtenons un accord satisfaisant avec tous les resultats disponibles, y compris l'existence recemment mise en evidence d'une polarisation non nulle dans la reaction {pi}{sup -} p {pi}{sup 0} n. Nous interpretons notre fa n d'ecrire les amplitudes au moyen de poles et de points de branchement dans le plan complexe du moment angulaire pour la voie croisee. (auteur)

  11. Modelling of permafrost freezing and melting and the impact of glaciation on groundwater flow at the Meuse/Haute-Marne site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmen, J.; Buoro, N.A.; Barret; Benabderrahmane, H.; Brulhet, J.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The Meuse/Haute-Marne site covers an area of approximately 250 km 2 and it is located in the eastern part of the Paris Basin (200 000 km 2 ). The Callovo-Oxfordian clay formation, which is found throughout the Paris Basin, is considered as a potential host rock for France's high- and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste. At the project site (the Sector area), the Callovo-Oxfordian Formation is encountered at a depth of roughly 500 m, with a minimum thickness of approximately 130 m and a very low (on the order of 10-14 m/s) hydraulic conductivity. The Callovo-Oxfordian layer is confined between an overlying limestone aquifer of Jurassic-Oxfordian age and an underlying limestone of Jurassic-Dogger age. Analyses of the possible transfer of solute from the host formation into the surrounding aquifer system during the next million of years are required for safety calculations. These analyses are based on estimates of the future geomorphologic and climatic evolution of the area and on calculations of the future evolution of groundwater flow and solute transport behaviour in the units surrounding the Callovo-Oxfordian clay. To support the analyses of the future regional and local hydrogeological evolutions, a single-continuum multi-scale hydrogeological model of the Paris Basin and the Meuse/Haute-Marne sector has been developed. The model represents 27 hydrogeological units at the scale of the Paris Basin, and it is refined at the scale of the studied domain (the Sector area) to represent 27 different layers that range in age from Trias to Jurassic-Portlandian. The model has been calibrated to observed hydraulic heads. The present work deals with permafrost generation and retreat during a glacial cycle and the resulting consequences on the groundwater flow patterns within the Meuse/Haute-Marne aquifer system. The conceptual model of permafrost generation is that the pore water is frozen to create ice

  12. Energy Research in Switzerland in 2005; Energie-Forschung 2005/Recherche energetique. Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter/Rapports de synthese des chefs de programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    This very comprehensive annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) contains the overview reports for the year 2005 that were made by the heads of the following Swiss energy research programmes: Efficient use of energy in buildings, traffic, vehicles and accumulators, electricity, ambient heat and combined heat and power generation, fuel cells, process engineering, solar heat and storage, photovoltaics, solar chemistry and hydrogen, biomass, small hydropower, geothermal energy, wind energy, nuclear safety and nuclear waste disposal, regulatory nuclear safety research, nuclear fusion and energy economy basics. In the following, just a selection of the large number of topics covered are mentioned. Under the topic of efficient energy use in buildings, the introduction of energy standards for buildings, labelling, component catalogues, passive dwellings, high-performance insulation systems, sustainable cities, 'Minergie' buildings, the use of solar energy are mentioned. In the building technologies area, electricity consumption, fuel cells and daylighting were looked at, as were airing, ventilation and hot-water preparation. A number of pilot and demonstration projects are noted. Traffic-related projects reported on include financial incentives for energy-efficient vehicles, the EU's 'cleaner Drive' project, infrastructures for gas fuels, gas-fuelled buses and various mobility projects. A review of drive systems is presented, including hybrid systems and a hydro-pneumatic recuperation system. Projects on small and lightweight vehicles are reviewed, including projects on bicycles and weather protection. The record-breaking PAC-Car project is noted. Developments concerning trolley-buses and electric cars as well as a driverless cabin-vehicle running on rails are noted. Accumulators and 'Zebra' batteries are noted. Electrical topics include high-temperature superconductors, thermo-electricity, power storage and transmission, energy efficiency in computer

  13. Developpement d'un estimateur d'etat energetique d'un chauffe-eau pour un controle par champ moyen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Jerome

    of temperature stratification at the heating elements, hence breaking the linearity. The multi-nodal model is used primarily to simulate the load of a large water heater population on the power grid. It is also useful to the scheduler, which generates the desired temperature for the whole population, as well as by mean field controller, which generates the optimal control for this same group. The estimation process takes place in two distinct steps: estimating the sequence of hot water draw (discrete state of the system) and the reconstruction of the temperature inside the tank (continuous system state). To perform the estimation of the drawing sequence, a maximum likelihood test is used with a set of measurements of the average temperature of the system. Under the assumption that the statistics of random events, modeled by a two state Markov chain (active and inactive) are known a priori, a set of possible drawing scenarios is generated. By comparing the prediction for each scenario with the actions of the system, the one minimizing the error between the predicted and measured temperature is retained. This method predicts the discrete state of the system correctly 93.7 % of the time. Then, based on the multi-nodal model, a routine for estimating the continuous state of an EWH is developed. This model should be simplified by removing the temperature correction routine in order to keep it linear. This is required in order to build more easily a state observer, a tool that allows the full reconstruction of the temperature state from measurements. This simplification results in limiting the use of the observer to periods of drawing, because without drawing, there is no heat exchange in the system, resulting in aberrations in the simplified model. Those aberrations are corrected under the assumption that the power of the heating elements is distributed in all layers of the system in proportion to their respective volume. Each node is hence heated by an intermediate

  14. Energy Research in Switzerland in 2005; Energie-Forschung 2005/Recherche energetique. Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter/Rapports de synthese des chefs de programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-15

    This very comprehensive annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) contains the overview reports for the year 2005 that were made by the heads of the following Swiss energy research programmes: Efficient use of energy in buildings, traffic, vehicles and accumulators, electricity, ambient heat and combined heat and power generation, fuel cells, process engineering, solar heat and storage, photovoltaics, solar chemistry and hydrogen, biomass, small hydropower, geothermal energy, wind energy, nuclear safety and nuclear waste disposal, regulatory nuclear safety research, nuclear fusion and energy economy basics. In the following, just a selection of the large number of topics covered are mentioned. Under the topic of efficient energy use in buildings, the introduction of energy standards for buildings, labelling, component catalogues, passive dwellings, high-performance insulation systems, sustainable cities, 'Minergie' buildings, the use of solar energy are mentioned. In the building technologies area, electricity consumption, fuel cells and daylighting were looked at, as were airing, ventilation and hot-water preparation. A number of pilot and demonstration projects are noted. Traffic-related projects reported on include financial incentives for energy-efficient vehicles, the EU's 'cleaner Drive' project, infrastructures for gas fuels, gas-fuelled buses and various mobility projects. A review of drive systems is presented, including hybrid systems and a hydro-pneumatic recuperation system. Projects on small and lightweight vehicles are reviewed, including projects on bicycles and weather protection. The record-breaking PAC-Car project is noted. Developments concerning trolley-buses and electric cars as well as a driverless cabin-vehicle running on rails are noted. Accumulators and 'Zebra' batteries are noted. Electrical topics include high-temperature superconductors, thermo-electricity, power storage and

  15. Réalisation d'un appareillage a lame vibrante pour l'étude des lignes de flux dans les supraconducteurs à haute température critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woirgard, J.; Salmon, E.; Gaboriaud, R. J.; Rabier, J.

    1994-03-01

    A very sensitive apparatus using the vibrating reed technique in a magnetic field is described. This new technic is an internal friction measurement which has been developed and applied to the study of vortex pinning in high T_c type II superconductors. The vibrating reed is simply used as a sample holder for the superconductor which can be oriented thin films, bulk samples or powders. The salient feature of this experimental set-up is the excitation mode of the reed for which the imposed vibration frequency can be freely chosen in the range 10^{-4}-10 Hz. Furthermore, the measurement sensitivity improves the performances obtained up to now by such similar apparatus as forced torsion pendulums. Damping values corresponding to phase lags between 10^{-5} and 10^{-4} radian can be readily obtained for vibration frequencies in the range 10^{-1} 10 Hz. Some preliminary results show damping peaks which might be due to the so-called fusion of the vortex network obtained with thin films whose thickness is 1000 Å and with textured bulk samples of YBaCuO. Une nouvelle technique basée sur la mesure du frottement intérieur en vibrations forcées est appliquée à l'étude de l'ancrage des vortex dans les oxydes supraconducteurs à haute température critique. Dans cette méthode la lame, excitée électrostatiquement, voit son rôle limité à celui de porte-échantillon sur lequel peuvent être disposés des couches minces, des échantillons massifs ou des poudres. L'originalité de cet appareillage réside dans la conception du mode d'excitation de la lame : la fréquence d'oscillation forcée peut être choisie dans une large gamme allant de 10^{-4} Hz à quelques dizaines de hertz. D'autre part, la sensibilité de la mesure améliore sensiblement les performances obtenues jusqu'à ce jour en vibrations forcées. Des amortissements correspondant à des déphasages compris entre à 10^{-5} et 10^{-4} radian peuvent être facilement mesurés. Les premiers essais r

  16. Classification d'images RSO polarimétriques à haute résolution spatiale sur site urbain.

    OpenAIRE

    Soheili Majd , Maryam

    2014-01-01

    In this research, our aim is to assess the potential of a one single look high spatial resolution polarimetric radar image for the classification of urban areas. For that purpose, we concentrate on classes corresponding to different kinds of roofs, objects and ground surfaces.At first, we propose a uni-variate statistical analysis of polarimetric and texture attributes, that can be used in a classification algorithm. We perform a statistical analysis of descriptors and show that the Fisher di...

  17. Modélisation prospective des paysages de la Forêt Classée du Haut Sassandra (Côte d'Ivoire après la fin des conflits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vignal, M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Landscapes Prospective Modeling of the landscapes of the Haut Sassandra Classified Forest (Côte d'Ivoire After the End of The Conflicts. It has been demonstrated that armed conflicts cause biodiversity's degradation, especially in its ecosystemic and specific dimensions. The Haut Sassandra Classified Forest is an interesting case study for this kind of process. Indeed, during the conflicts, a massive migrants infiltration caused a forest cover decline and a plant diversity loss. We created a multi-agent system able to simulate the actors' movements and behaviors. The social simulation generates scenario in the form of clearing maps in classified forest. This model was first conceived as a retro-prospective model in order to test hypotheses on the social dynamics underlying this process, after having worked on its accuracy by confronting reality. This model being validated, the aim of this paper is to present a prospective modeling to illustrate, in terms of forest cover's conservation, the possible consequences of different demographic and political scenarios. Across a geoprospective logic, two scenarios are mentioned such as the continuation of conflict period trends and a proposition of ecological restoration.

  18. Modélisation et caractérisation des joints collés à hautes vitesses de déformation Modeling and characterization of bonded joints at high strain rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourel B.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ce papier traite de la modélisation de joints collés pour les structures soumises à des sollicitations de type crash. Cette nouvelle modélisation basée sur un élément cohésif tient compte du comportement viscoplastique, de l'endommagement ainsi que de la rupture de l'adhésive. Sensible à la vitesse de déformation l'identification du critère de rupture nécessite une base expérimentale allant jusqu'à de très hautes vitesses de déformations. Un nouveau dispositif d'essais a donc été mis en place sur les barres de Hopkinson afin de solliciter des assemblages à haute vitesse et sous différents angles de chargement. This paper deals with the modeling of bonded joints for structures subjected to dynamic crash loading. This new model based on a cohesive element takes into account the viscoelastic behavior, the damage and the failure of the adhesive. Due to the strain rate sensitivity, the identification of failure criterion requires experimental tests, up to very high strain rates. A new testing device has then been set up on the Hopkinson bar in order to load the assemblies with high strain rates and with different angles.

  19. Optimisation multi-objectif des systemes energetiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipama, Jean

    The increasing demand of energy and the environmental concerns related to greenhouse gas emissions lead to more and more private or public utilities to turn to nuclear energy as an alternative for the future. Nuclear power plants are then called to experience large expansion in the coming years. Improved technologies will then be put in place to support the development of these plants. This thesis considers the optimization of the thermodynamic cycle of the secondary loop of Gentilly-2 nuclear power plant in terms of output power and thermal efficiency. In this thesis, investigations are carried out to determine the optimal operating conditions of steam power cycles by the judicious use of the combination of steam extraction at the different stages of the turbines. Whether it is the case of superheating or regeneration, we are confronted in all cases to an optimization problem involving two conflicting objectives, as increasing the efficiency imply the decrease of mechanical work and vice versa. Solving this kind of problem does not lead to unique solution, but to a set of solutions that are tradeoffs between the conflicting objectives. To search all of these solutions, called Pareto optimal solutions, the use of an appropriate optimization algorithm is required. Before starting the optimization of the secondary loop, we developed a thermodynamic model of the secondary loop which includes models for the main thermal components (e.g., turbine, moisture separator-superheater, condenser, feedwater heater and deaerator). This model is used to calculate the thermodynamic state of the steam and water at the different points of the installation. The thermodynamic model has been developed with Matlab and validated by comparing its predictions with the operating data provided by the engineers of the power plant. The optimizer developed in VBA (Visual Basic for Applications) uses an optimization algorithm based on the principle of genetic algorithms, a stochastic optimization method which is very robust and widely used to solve problems usually difficult to handle by traditional methods. Genetic algorithms (GAs) have been used in previous research and proved to be efficient in optimizing heat exchangers networks (HEN) (Dipama et al., 2008). So, HEN have been synthesized to recover the maximum heat in an industrial process. The optimization problem formulated in the context of this work consists of a single objective, namely the maximization of energy recovery. The optimization algorithm developed in this thesis extends the ability of GAs by taking into account several objectives simultaneously. This algorithm provides an innovation in the method of finding optimal solutions, by using a technique which consist of partitioning the solutions space in the form of parallel grids called "watching corridors". These corridors permit to specify areas (the observation corridors) in which the most promising feasible solutions are found and used to guide the search towards optimal solutions. A measure of the progress of the search is incorporated into the optimization algorithm to make it self-adaptive through the use of appropriate genetic operators at each stage of optimization process. The proposed method allows a fast convergence and ensure a diversity of solutions. Moreover, this method gives the algorithm the ability to overcome difficulties associated with optimizing problems with complex Pareto front landscapes (e.g., discontinuity, disjunction, etc.). The multi-objective optimization algorithm has been first validated using numerical test problems found in the literature as well as energy systems optimization problems. Finally, the proposed optimization algorithm has been applied for the optimization of the secondary loop of Gentilly-2 nuclear power plant, and a set of solutions have been found which permit to make the power plant operate in optimal conditions. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  20. Energy statistics. France; Statistiques energetiques. France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the energy statistical data for France: consumption since 1973; energy supplies (production, imports, exports, stocks) and uses (refining, power production, internal uses, sectoral consumption) for coal, petroleum, gas, electricity, and renewable energy sources; national production and consumption of primary energy; final consumption per sector and per energy source; general indicators (energy bill, US$ change rate, prices, energy independence, internal gross product); projections. Details (resources, uses, prices, imports, internal consumption) are given separately for petroleum, natural gas, electric power and solid mineral fuels. (J.S.)

  1. Energy statistics France; Statistiques energetiques France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    This document presents statistical data on energy accounting in France compared to other european countries. Many tables and charts on energy consumption, energy invoice and prices are provided by sectors. (A.L.B.)

  2. Multivariate and spatial statistical analysis of Callovo-Oxfordian physical properties from lab and borehole logs data: towards a characterization of lateral and vertical spatial trends in the Meuse/Haute-Marne transposition zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.H.; Rabaute, A.; Yven, B.; Guillemot, D.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The geological exploration of the Meuse/Haute-Marne area began in 1994. Several boreholes were drilled, and the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite, thought to become a potential storage formation, were cored and logged. 2D and 3D seismic surveys were completed, as well as geological field observations, and an underground research laboratory was created. A 250 km 2 -wide Transposition Zone was delimited, which was subject to further investigations in 2007 and 2008, including another series of coring and logging in four additional boreholes, and a tighter 2D seismic survey. The main objective of this study was to improve the knowledge of the spatial variability of geological and physical properties of the Callovo-Oxfordian formation. The paper focuses on the three following aspects of the study to present and discuss the methods that have been used and the results that have been obtained: - Use of well-log data to identify equivalent homogeneous log-units on the boreholes. - Relating log attributes to physical properties of argillites measured on cores in laboratory. - Study of lateral and vertical spatial trends of selected physical properties across the Transposition Zone (TZ). To identify equivalent homogeneous log-units, a combination of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fuzzy Cluster Analysis (FCA) was used. PCA was classically performed to reduce the number of variables to retain principal components gathering most of the original dataset variance. PCA was also used to identify isolated groups of correlated variables that could be associated to different properties of the formation. Then, FCA was applied to identify homogeneous log-units on the eight boreholes across the TZ. Well-logs data being much more numerous and better distributed along boreholes than lab data measured on rock samples, relations and correlations were sought between the two types of data to identify log attributes that were likely to provide

  3. High resolution and high precision absorption spectroscopy using high finesse cavities: application to the study of molecules with atmospheric interest; Cavites de haute finesse pour la spectroscopie d'absorption haute sensibilite et haute precision: application a l'etude de molecules d'interet atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motto-Ros, V.

    2005-12-15

    High finesse cavities are used to measure very weak absorption features. Two different methodologies are investigated and applied to the study of molecules with atmospheric interest. First, Continuous Wave - Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CW-CRDS) is used to study the atmospheric spectra of water vapour in the near infrared range. These measurements are performed for temperature and pressure of atmospheric relevance for DIAL applications (Differential Absorption Lidar). This study, financed by the European Space Agency (ESA), goes with the WALES mission (Water Vapour Lidar Experiment in Space). The experimental setup was conceived in order to control pressure, temperature and relative humidity conditions. A particular attention is done to characterize and describe the spectrometer. Then, measurements of red Oxygen B band are performed to demonstrate the huge performance of Optical Feedback Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (OF-CEAS). The desired optical feedback is obtained by light injection into the high finesse cavity through a glass plate placed inside the cavity and closed to the Brewster angle. We show a measurement dynamical range of 5 orders of magnitude (10{sup -5} to 10{sup -10} /cm) and a sensitivity of 10{sup -10} /cm/{radical} Hz. Also, sampling absorption spectra by the super linear cavity frequency comb allows very precise frequency measurements. This is demonstrated by the determination of Oxygen pressure shifts with an absolute accuracy of around 5 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup -1}/atm. To our knowledge, we provide the highest accuracy ever reported for this parameter. (author)

  4. High resolution and high precision absorption spectroscopy using high finesse cavities: application to the study of molecules with atmospheric interest; Cavites de haute finesse pour la spectroscopie d'absorption haute sensibilite et haute precision: application a l'etude de molecules d'interet atmospherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motto-Ros, V

    2005-12-15

    High finesse cavities are used to measure very weak absorption features. Two different methodologies are investigated and applied to the study of molecules with atmospheric interest. First, Continuous Wave - Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CW-CRDS) is used to study the atmospheric spectra of water vapour in the near infrared range. These measurements are performed for temperature and pressure of atmospheric relevance for DIAL applications (Differential Absorption Lidar). This study, financed by the European Space Agency (ESA), goes with the WALES mission (Water Vapour Lidar Experiment in Space). The experimental setup was conceived in order to control pressure, temperature and relative humidity conditions. A particular attention is done to characterize and describe the spectrometer. Then, measurements of red Oxygen B band are performed to demonstrate the huge performance of Optical Feedback Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (OF-CEAS). The desired optical feedback is obtained by light injection into the high finesse cavity through a glass plate placed inside the cavity and closed to the Brewster angle. We show a measurement dynamical range of 5 orders of magnitude (10{sup -5} to 10{sup -10} /cm) and a sensitivity of 10{sup -10} /cm/{radical} Hz. Also, sampling absorption spectra by the super linear cavity frequency comb allows very precise frequency measurements. This is demonstrated by the determination of Oxygen pressure shifts with an absolute accuracy of around 5 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup -1}/atm. To our knowledge, we provide the highest accuracy ever reported for this parameter. (author)

  5. Corrosion of metallic materials by uranium hexafluoride at high temperatures (1963); Corrosion de materiaux metalliques par l'hexafluorure d'uranium a haute temperature (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlois, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    trop rapidement pour pouvoir etre utilises au-dela de 500 deg. C, le monel et surtout le nickel paraissant seuls susceptibles de presenter une tenue acceptable aux hautes temperatures. L'etude detaillee du comportement du nickel met en evidence la volatilisation du fluorure metallique et son influence sur la vitesse de corrosion. D'autre part, elle revele l'existence d'une zone de temperature, comprise entre 550 et 700 deg. C dans laquelle se manifeste une Intense corrosion intergranulaire, dont la cause semble etre la presence d'impuretes au sein du metal. (auteur)

  6. Reconstruction de la surface de Fermi dans l'etat normal d'un supraconducteur a haute Tc: Une etude du transport electrique en champ magnetique intense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Boeuf, David

    Des mesures de resistance longitudinale et de resistance de Hall en champ magnetique intense transverse (perpendiculaire aux plans CuO2) ont ete effectuees au sein de monocristaux de YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) demacles, ordonnes et de grande purete, afin d'etudier l'etat fondamental des supraconducteurs a haute Tc dans le regime sous-dope. Cette etude a ete realisee en fonction du dopage et de l'orientation du courant d'excitation J par rapport a l'axe orthorhombique b de la structure cristalline. Les mesures en champ magnetique intense revelent par suppression de la supraconductivite des oscillations magnetiques des resistances longitudinale et de Hall dans YBa2Cu 3O6.51 et YBa2Cu4O8. La conformite du comportement de ces oscillations quantiques au formalisme de Lifshitz-Kosevich, apporte la preuve de l'existence d'une surface de Fermi fermee a caractere quasi-2D, abritant des quasiparticules coherentes respectant la statistique de Fermi-Dirac, dans la phase pseudogap d'YBCO. La faible frequence des oscillations quantiques, combinee avec l'etude de la partie monotone de la resistance de Hall en fonction de la temperature indique que la surface de Fermi d'YBCO sous-dope comprend une petite poche de Fermi occupee par des porteurs de charge negative. Cette particularite de la surface de Fermi dans le regime sous-dope incompatible avec les calculs de structure de bande est en fort contraste avec la structure electronique presente dans le regime surdope. Cette observation implique ainsi l'existence d'un point critique quantique dans le diagramme de phase d'YBCO, au voisinage duquel la surface de Fermi doit subir une reconstruction induite par l'etablissement d'une brisure de la symetrie de translation du reseau cristallin sous-jacent. Enfin, l'etude en fonction du dopage de la resistance de Hall et de la resistance longitudinale en champ magnetique intense suggere qu'un ordre du type onde de densite (DW) est responsable de la reconstruction de la surface de Fermi. L'analogie de

  7. Method for estimating potential wetland extent by utilizing streamflow statistics and flood-inundation mapping techniques: Pilot study for land along the Wabash River near Terre Haute, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon H.; Ritz, Christian T.; Arvin, Donald V.

    2012-01-01

    Potential wetland extents were estimated for a 14-mile reach of the Wabash River near Terre Haute, Indiana. This pilot study was completed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). The study showed that potential wetland extents can be estimated by analyzing streamflow statistics with the available streamgage data, calculating the approximate water-surface elevation along the river, and generating maps by use of flood-inundation mapping techniques. Planning successful restorations for Wetland Reserve Program (WRP) easements requires a determination of areas that show evidence of being in a zone prone to sustained or frequent flooding. Zone determinations of this type are used by WRP planners to define the actively inundated area and make decisions on restoration-practice installation. According to WRP planning guidelines, a site needs to show evidence of being in an "inundation zone" that is prone to sustained or frequent flooding for a period of 7 consecutive days at least once every 2 years on average in order to meet the planning criteria for determining a wetland for a restoration in agricultural land. By calculating the annual highest 7-consecutive-day mean discharge with a 2-year recurrence interval (7MQ2) at a streamgage on the basis of available streamflow data, one can determine the water-surface elevation corresponding to the calculated flow that defines the estimated inundation zone along the river. By using the estimated water-surface elevation ("inundation elevation") along the river, an approximate extent of potential wetland for a restoration in agricultural land can be mapped. As part of the pilot study, a set of maps representing the estimated potential wetland extents was generated in a geographic information system (GIS) application by combining (1) a digital water-surface plane representing the surface of inundation elevation that sloped in the downstream

  8. Les Gorges de Trévans dans le front subalpin – Un site exceptionnel des Alpes de Haute-Provence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Nicod

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Les canyons de Trévans sont incisés dans des unités calcaires jurassiques, dans la zone frontale subalpine, proche du piémont de Valensole. Ces reliefs sont en rapport avec les phases néotectoniques. Ce secteur fait principalement partie de la forêt domaniale du Montdenier, avec des écosystèmes montagnards et supra-méditerranéens, bois de hêtres et de chênes pubescents, large extension des brousses et d'importants reboisements en pins noirs. Les hautes surfaces conservent des traces d'un ancien aplanissement et des sols résiduels paléokarstiques. Sur les pentes, sous des escarpements démembrés, les éboulis et convois de blocs témoignent des processus périglaciaires hérités et, localement, des évènements séismiques. De nombreux processus dynamiques s'observent dans les canyons : éboulements provenant des parois affectées des effets de détente, coups de gouge et marmites de géant dans leur fond excavé par les écoulements turbulents dans les cascades… et le Pont de Tuf.The canyon system of Trevans has cut the blocks of the jurassic limestones, in subalpine over thrust front, near the Valensole piedmont. These landforms are in relationship with the neotectonic movements. This area belongs to the State Forest of Montdenier, woodland of various mountain and supra-mediterranean ecosystems, with beeches and white oaks Quercus pubescens, large extent of bush and important reforestation in black pines (Pinus nigra. The high surfaces preserve some relics of the old planation and paleokarstic forms and residual soils. On the slopes, under the break-up escarpments, the screes and landslides give the part of the periglacial processes and, locally, of the seismic events. Numerous dynamic processes occur in the canyons: rock-slides, in relationship with open fractures, scallops and pot-holes in the bottom excavated by the turbulent flows in the waterfalls of the creeks and, only case, a travertine bridge.

  9. Bilan des introductions de salmonidés dans les lacs et ruisseaux d'altitude des Hautes-Pyrénées

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DELACOSTE M.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Les introductions de Salmonidés ont été importantes au cours des 60 dernières années dans les lacs et ruisseaux d'altitude des Hautes-Pyrénées. Six espèces de Salmonidés ont été introduites dans des milieux qui, pour la plupart, étaient vierges de populations piscicoles : la truite commune (Salmo trutta L., la truite arc-en-ciel (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, l'omble de fontaine (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchill, l'omble chevalier (Salvelinus alpinus L., le cristivomer (Salvelinus namaycush Walbaum et le splake (Salvelinus fontinalis x Salvelinus namaycush. Dans de très nombreux cas, ces introductions ont abouti à des acclimatations. En revanche, les naturalisations sont beaucoup plus rares. Seules les espèces lacustres (cristivomer et omble chevalier se sont naturalisées dans la majorité des lacs où elles ont été introduites. Les conditions de reproduction constituent le facteur clé permettant d'expliquer la naturalisation des espèces. En ruisseau, il faut y ajouter la compétition avec l'espèce indigène (la truite commune, la pression halieutique ainsi que les conditions hivernales très rigoureuses. Les incidences écologiques des introductions sur les populations de truites communes indigènes sont faibles. En revanche, elles ne sont pas négligeables pour les populations de batraciens. Cette politique d'introduction a largement participé au développement de l'halieutisme dans ces milieux d'altitude. En cela, les introductions ont parfaitement répondu aux objectifs halieutiques qu'on leur avait fixés. L'acquisition de connaissances sur l'ensemble de la chaîne pyrénéenne constitue aujourd'hui une étape incontournable pour une politique de gestion globale des introductions.

  10. Les anophèles et la transmission du paludisme à Ambohimena, village de la marge occidentale des Hautes-Terres Malgaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaonarivelo V.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Une étude a été menée dans le Moyen-Ouest de Madagascar à 940 mètres d'altitude dans le village d'Ambohimena. Ce village est situé en dehors de la zone d'aspersions intra-domiciliaires d'insecticides rémanents. Deux vecteurs, An. funestus Giles, 1900 et An. arabiensis Patton, 1905 y sont présents. An. funestus est abondant au cours de la saison chaude et humide, avec deux pics d'abondance en décembre et avril. L'endophagie d' An. funestus est faible (taux d'endophagie = 35,3 % . C'est une espèce endophile (Taux d'endophilie = 78 % et anthropophile (taux d'anthropophilie = 64 %. Son infectivité est faible (taux d'infectivité = 0,20 %. Le taux d'inoculation spécifique de Plasmodium falciparum par l'espèce An. funestus a été de moins de 10 piqûres par homme et par an. Cette espèce présente une capacité vectrice maximale à la fin du premier tour de riz (janvier alors que son abondance maximale est observée à la fin du deuxième tour (avril-mai An. arabiensis est abondant entre décembre et janvier et est lié à la présence des gîtes pluviaux favorables au développement larvaire. C'est une espèce exophage (taux d'endophagie = 27,5 % et zoophile (taux d'anthropophilie = 7,8 %. An. arabiensis jouerait un rôle secondaire dans la transmission du paludisme car la présence des plasmodies n'a pas été mise en évidence (effectif testé = 871. Dans ce village, la stabilité du paludisme est modérée ou intermédiaire ; plus proche de l'instabilité que de la stabilité avérée. Il est suggéré que la lutte antivectorielle soit étendue aux zones de transition stabilité-instabilité qui constitueraient un réservoir de vecteurs et de plasmodies, afin de prévenir l'émergence de nouvelles épidémies sur les Hautes-Terres.

  11. Towards a Highly Efficient Meshfree Simulation of Non-Newtonian Free Surface Ice Flow: Application to the Haut Glacier d'Arolla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, V.; Ahlkrona, J.

    2016-12-01

    In this work we develop a highly efficient meshfree approach to ice sheet modeling. Traditionally mesh based methods such as finite element methods are employed to simulate glacier and ice sheet dynamics. These methods are mature and well developed. However, despite of numerous advantages these methods suffer from some drawbacks such as necessity to remesh the computational domain every time it changes its shape, which significantly complicates the implementation on moving domains, or a costly assembly procedure for nonlinear problems. We introduce a novel meshfree approach that frees us from all these issues. The approach is built upon a radial basis function (RBF) method that, thanks to its meshfree nature, allows for an efficient handling of moving margins and free ice surface. RBF methods are also accurate and easy to implement. Since the formulation is stated in strong form it allows for a substantial reduction of the computational cost associated with the linear system assembly inside the nonlinear solver. We implement a global RBF method that defines an approximation on the entire computational domain. This method exhibits high accuracy properties. However, it suffers from a disadvantage that the coefficient matrix is dense, and therefore the computational efficiency decreases. In order to overcome this issue we also implement a localized RBF method that rests upon a partition of unity approach to subdivide the domain into several smaller subdomains. The radial basis function partition of unity method (RBF-PUM) inherits high approximation characteristics form the global RBF method while resulting in a sparse system of equations, which essentially increases the computational efficiency. To demonstrate the usefulness of the RBF methods we model the velocity field of ice flow in the Haut Glacier d'Arolla. We assume that the flow is governed by the nonlinear Blatter-Pattyn equations. We test the methods for different basal conditions and for a free moving

  12. Corrosion of metallic materials by uranium hexafluoride at high temperatures (1963); Corrosion de materiaux metalliques par l'hexafluorure d'uranium a haute temperature (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langlois, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    precieux et l'inconel sont attaques beaucoup trop rapidement pour pouvoir etre utilises au-dela de 500 deg. C, le monel et surtout le nickel paraissant seuls susceptibles de presenter une tenue acceptable aux hautes temperatures. L'etude detaillee du comportement du nickel met en evidence la volatilisation du fluorure metallique et son influence sur la vitesse de corrosion. D'autre part, elle revele l'existence d'une zone de temperature, comprise entre 550 et 700 deg. C dans laquelle se manifeste une Intense corrosion intergranulaire, dont la cause semble etre la presence d'impuretes au sein du metal. (auteur)

  13. Texturation à froid sous contraintes triaxiales de phase à haute T_c de Bi(Pb)SrCaCuO préréagie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, P.; Massat, H.; Suryanarayanan, R.

    1994-11-01

    The alignment of grains in isostatically precompacted samples of prereacted Bi{1,8}Pb{0,4}Sr{2,0}Ca{2,2}Cu{3,0}O{10,3 + x} powder has been achieved by compressive plastic deformation under isostatic pressure at room temperature. Isostatic pressures were in the range 0.1 to 1 GPa and deformation rates were led up to 57 %. Prior to sintering, X-ray diffraction measurements corroborate an expected high- T_c phase purity of nearly 85 % and indicate that the as-deformed samples have been textured with the (c-axes parallel to the pressing direction whilst a.c. susceptibility measurements ascertain a high transition temperature around 107 K. Intergranular connection does not occur until sintering at 850 ^{circ}C for 80 h and measurements indicate then that the texture has been retained. Superconducting properties themselves show sensitivity to texture through anisotropy-related distinctive irreversibility lines. L'alignement de grains de poudre Bi{1,8}Pb{0,4}Sr{2,0}Ca{2,2}Cu{3,0}O{10,3 + x} préréagie a été réalisé par déformation plastique à température ambiante d'échantillons précompactés isostatiquement et comprimés sous pression isostatique, la gamme des pressions isostatiques allant de 0,1 à 1 GPa et les taux de déformation atteignant 57 %. Les mesures de diffraction de rayons X corroborent la pureté de phase à haute T_c proche de 85 % attendue et indiquent que les échantillons ainsi déformés ont été texturés avec les plans ab perpendiculaires à la direction de compression. Les mesures de susceptibilité alternative avèrent une température élevée de transition à environ 107 K mais la connexion intergranulaire n'est assurée qu'après un frittage à 850 ^{circ}C pendant 80 h dont on vérifie qu'il conserve la texture. Enfin, la sensibilité des propriétés supraconductrices à la texturation est évaluée par le biais de lignes d'irréversibilité distinctes en fonction de l'anisotropie.

  14. Rotational atherectomy as endovascular haute couture: a road map of tools and techniques for the interventional management of burr entrapment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdouh, Ziad; Abdel-Massih, Tony; Roule, Vincent; Sarkis, Antoine; Grollier, Gilles

    2013-12-01

    Rotational atherectomy (RA) is used as a debulking technique prior to stenting in some specialized cardiac centers for calcified coronary lesions amenable to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). A specific possible complication, burr entrapment, is unusual but carries serious risks and may sometimes necessitate surgery as a rescue procedure. However, different modalities using a percutaneous approach were proposed as a bail-out. We aim to propose a framework for possible management for trapped RA burr. A literature review of the most relevant cases of entrapped burr during PCI was performed. Twelve cases were reported and different solutions were discussed. Surgery was needed in only 1 patient to retrieve the trapped burr, and in all the other cases, different percutaneous solutions were successful to retract the trapped device. These cases illustrate that burr entrapment during RA, albeit rare, may occur and may transform a relatively simple PCI to a procedure failure. Although prevention is better than treatment, the operators should be aware of such serious complication and they should keep in mind that various possible percutaneous solutions may be successful to retrieve the burr and to avoid surgery. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Dynamical recrystallization of high purity austenitic stainless steels; Recristallisation dynamique d'aciers inoxydables austenitiques de haute purete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavard, L

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work is to optimize the performance of structural materials. The elementary mechanisms (strain hardening and dynamical regeneration, germination and growth of new grains) occurring during the hot working of metals and low pile defect energy alloys have been studied for austenitic stainless steels. In particular, the influence of the main experimental parameters (temperature, deformation velocity, initial grain size, impurities amount, deformation way) on the process of discontinuous dynamical recrystallization has been studied. Alloys with composition equal to those of the industrial stainless steel-304L have been fabricated from ultra-pure iron, chromium and nickel. Tests carried out in hot compression and torsion in order to cover a wide range of deformations, deformation velocities and temperatures for two very different deformation ways have allowed to determine the rheological characteristics (sensitivity to the deformation velocity, apparent activation energy) of materials as well as to characterize their microstructural deformations by optical metallography and electron back-scattered diffraction. The influence of the initial grain size and the influence of the purity of the material on the dynamical recrystallization kinetics have been determined. An analytical model for the determination of the apparent mobility of grain boundaries, a semi-analytical model for the dynamical recrystallization and at last an analytical model for the stationary state of dynamical recrystallization are proposed as well as a new criteria for the transition between the refinement state and the state of grain growth. (O.M.)

  16. Diversité de la macrofaune des sols cultivés sur les Hautes-Terres de Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakotomanga, D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Crop management and soil macrofauna diversity in the Highlands of Madagascar. Description of the subject. This article deals with soil macrofauna as a key component of soil biological functioning. Objectives. This original study, performed in 2015, aimed to compare the effect of contrasted land uses and cultural practices on soil macrofauna in a crop-livestock area in the Madagascar Highlands. Five cropping systems were investigated: annual crops under tillage with low (LAMF and high (LAEF manure inputs, permanent tilled forage crops with high manure inputs (CFEF, crops under conservation agriculture without tillage or permanent mulch cover and with medium manure inputs (ACMF, and permanent pastures without tillage and without manure (PP0F. Method. In each of these five cropping systems, soil macrofauna was sampled in 12 plots from experimental trials and smallholder farms at the end of the rainy season. In each plot, soil macrofauna was hand-sorted from five soil monoliths at a 0-30 cm depth. Results. Fifty-two species were identified and organized into 15 orders and six functional groups. In the annual cropping systems (ACMF, the absence of tillage and the presence of a permanent soil cover increased soil macrofauna diversity and density without reducing harmful white grubs (Scarabeoid beetle larvae, while earthworm density was reduced in comparison with the CFEF system. In conventional tillage cropping systems, manure input intensity (LAMF versus LAEF had no specific effects on white grubs or earthworms. Conclusions. This study on soil macrofauna in the Highlands of Madagascar helped to establish which agricultural practices and farming systems are favourable to beneficial soil invertebrates such as earthworms, and unfavourable to harmful insects such as white grubs. This will help farmers to achieve a more sustainable crop management.

  17. Study and realisation of a high frequency analyzer; Etude et realisation d'un analyseur de signaux a haute frequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourbigot, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay aux Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-07-01

    This device is designed for the amplitude and frequency analysis of electric or electromagnetic signals in the frequency range of 0 to 55 MHz. The frequency spectrum of a preset bandwidth is displayed on the screen of an oscilloscope. Conceived to analyse the electromagnetic oscillations that can be generated in a plasma, its main characteristics are the following: extended bandwidth of analysed frequencies, on both sides of the ion cyclotron frequency in a magnetic field up to 20 kGs; linear amplitude and frequency response; possibility of analysing a narrow band; high sensitivity; analysis repetition rate of 25 per second. The different parts of the analyzer are described after a discussion of the choice of the techniques used in their design. In addition to its present use, the device can be applied to perform all the functions of a commercial spectral analyzer. (author) [French] Cet appareil est destine a l'analyse en frequence et amplitude de signaux electriques ou electromagnetiques dans une gamme de frequences de 0 a 55 MHz. Couple a un oscillographe, il permet de faire apparaitre sur l'ecran, le spectre de frequences dans une gamme choisie. Etudie dans le but d'analyser les oscillations electromagnetiques pouvant apparaitre dans un plasma, ses principales caracteristiques sont les suivantes: une bande etendue de frequences analysees, de part et d'autre de la frequence cyclotronique des ions dans un champ magnetique pouvant atteindre 20 kGs (valeur maximum 55 MHz); une reponse lineaire en amplitude et en frequence; la possibilite d'analyser, une bande restreinte de frequences; une grande sensibilite La frequence d'analyse est de 25 periodes par seconde. Les diverses parties de l'analyseur sont decrites apres l'expose des motifs ayant guide le choix des solutions adoptees pour sa realisation. Les schemas electriques sont egalement presentes. En dehors du but precis qui a motive la realisation de cet appareil, son usage peut s'etendre a toutes les applications

  18. Experimental study and modeling of the propagation of an alkaline concentration wave coming from a cement matrix an passing through the argilite of the Meuse / Haute-Marne laboratory; Etude experimentale et modelisation de la propagation d'une onde de concentration alcaline issue d'une matrice cimentiere a travers l'argilite du site du laboratoire Meuse / Haute-Marne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel, Th

    2001-12-01

    The propagation of an alkaline wave through a clay rock has been investigated- The wave is generated by a cementitious matrix through the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite of the Meuse Haute-Marne Laboratory (-480 m depth). The argillite itself is composed of quartz, micas, calcite and an interstratified l/S. In order to characterise the interactions between the alkaline fluid and the argillaceous medium, dynamic column experiments have been carried out. The originality of the investigation methodology consists in exploiting the data generated from the breakthrough curves as well as from the characterisation of the solids extracted from the columns. Two types of processes having totally different reaction times have hence been thoroughly studied: - Fast surface adsorption and condensation reactions: On the one hand cation adsorption reactions by site ionisation have been characterised. They are responsible of the buffering effect of the clays. On the other hand an original reaction of calcium compound condensation in the interlayer space of the swelling clays has been revealed. These processes have been modelled and their simulations with the IMPACT calculation code showed that the models elaborated were very satisfying. - Strongly kinetically limited dissolution/precipitation reactions: The main primary phases dissolved are quartz and interstratified l/S. The precipitation of secondary phases are mainly C(A)SH and zeolites. After the injection of an alkaline fluid for 6 months at 60 deg C, the argillite is strongly amorphized but only 20 to 30% of the quartz and the interstratified I/S are dissolved. Therefore, dissolution kinetics of the primary phases and the solubility products of the main secondary phases have been determined. (author)

  19. Entre clémence et extrême sévérité. Les juges de la Haute Cour de Namur face aux femmes criminelles dans la seconde moitié du XVIIIe siècle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Auspert

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Au XVIIIe siècle, une nouvelle conception de la femme, développée par les esprits des Lumières, tend à se diffuser dans la société. Au discours religieux qui diabolisait les représentantes du « sexe faible », se substitue progressivement une image plus positive de la femme fondée sur ses fonctions « naturelles » d’épouse et de mère. À travers l’analyse de la répression de la criminalité féminine exercée par la Haute Cour de Namur dans la seconde moitié du XVIIIe siècle, notre mémoire de maîtr...

  20. Modelling of permafrost freezing and melting and the impact of a climatic cycle on groundwater flow at the Meuse/Haute-Marne site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmen, J.; Benabderrahmane, H.; Buoro, A.; Brulhet, J.

    2011-01-01

    A fully coupled three-dimensional groundwater flow and heat transport (convection-conduction) model has been developed, including permafrost. The model covers the entire Paris basin and is focused on the Meuse/Haute-Marne Sector area and the Bure investigation site. The model was calibrated on the basis of the present hydro-thermal situation. The studied time period corresponds to what is considered a typical climatic cycle of length 130,000 year. A build-up of a superficial glacial ice mass is not included in the model; it is assumed that accumulated snow will melt during the summer months. The temperature boundary condition on top of the model is specified as a time-varying surface temperature. The temperatures are derived from an estimate of the future climatic evolution. It is the changes with time of the prescribed temperatures along the topography that drives all changes in groundwater flow, temperature and permafrost inside the model. The simulations are transient, but the initial condition of the base case represents a steady state situation. The simulated time period, for reaching a steady state situation of groundwater flows and temperatures in the deep and highly permeable layers of the Dogger (in the Sector area) is considerable (in the range of 50,000. years), depending on perturbation studied (e.g. a change in surface temperature of 5 deg.) and convergence criteria. The simulated depth of the permafrost varies in space and time during the studied glacial periods. Within the area studied (the Sector area), the simulated permafrost reaches a maximum depth of approx. 110 m. This is a median depth taking into account the spatial distribution of the permafrost. The lowest simulated temperature in the lower parts of the Callovo-Oxfordian clay stone, in the immediate vicinity of the Bure investigation site (in the Sector area), is approx. 14.5 deg. C, which is approx. 7.5 deg. C lower than the initial temperature (22 deg. C). A full reversion back to the

  1. Contribution to the study of the conductivity of high purity water; Contribution a l'etude de la conductivite de l'eau de haute purete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nens, Ch [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    In this work a study is made more particularly of two points: the production of high purity water and the estimation of this purity by means of conductivity measurements. As far as water purification is concerned it is observed that the de-ionisation produced by ion exchange resins in mixed beds leads to a water having a lower conductivity than that obtained by distillation. This low conductivity however, measured at the column exit before the water comes into contact with air is not stable. In fact the carbon dioxide in the water gives rise to an equilibrium with production of the ions HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, CO{sub 3}{sup --}. These ions are retained during the passage of the water through the resins. They reappear again at the column exit as a result of the displacement of the hydration equilibrium of CO{sub 2}; because of this the conductivity of the water increases with time. The water obtained by successive distillations does not behave in the same way because no carbon dioxide is present. Distillation is however a costly purification process on an industrial scale, especially if large quantities of water have to be treated. The measurement of these low conductivities is very delicate. The method employed makes use of a direct current and gives reproducible results if care is taken to exclude interfering electric fields by screening the apparatus. (author) [French] Au cours de ce travail nous etudions plus particulierement deux points: l'obtention d'eau de haute purete et l'estimation de cette purete grace a la mesure de sa conductivite. En ce qui concerne la purification de l'eau nous constatons que la deionisation effectuee par les resines echangeuses d'ions en lits melanges conduit a l'obtention d'une eau de conductivite plus faible que celle recueillie par distillations. Mais cette faible conductivite, mesuree a l'abri de l'air immediatement a la sortie de la colonne, n'est pas stable. En effet, dans l'eau, le gaz carbonique donne lieu a l'etablissement d

  2. Partenariat de recherche en Hautes écoles spécialisées Santé Travail social de Suisse occidentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Stroumza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Au cœur des nouvelles politiques de la recherche tournée vers l’innovation, les Hautes écoles spécialisées suisses, récemment portées au niveau universitaire, ont pour mandat la recherche appliquée et le développement. Si la valorisation scientifique des travaux réalisés sous ce régime est visible dans les supports habituels, il n’en va pas de même de l’activité partenariale elle-même et des processus qui participent à sa constitution. L’analyse des narrations des protagonistes des partenariats permet de mettre en visibilité les phénomènes qui font la spécificité de cette activité, que les modèles de la diffusion sont impuissants à saisir. Prise entre pratique ordinaire, activité professionnelle et activité scientifique, soumise à la temporalité du processus, l’activité partenariale interroge la conception même du savoir qui sous-tend les modèles de recherche appliquée.Research partnership in the Swiss Universities of applied sciencesAt the heart of the new research policies tending towards innovation, the Swiss Universities of applied sciences, recently promoted to tertiary academic rank, have been given, as primary mission, to extend their activities in Applied Research and Development. If scientific valorization of this kind of research is visible in current media and publications, it is not so apparent for the partnership itself or the processes which constituted its development in the first place. The analysis of the narrations of the protagonists of the partnership shows the phenomenon which illustrates the specificity of this activity, that valorization models are unable to grasp. Caught between regular practice, professional and scientific activities, subject also to the temporality of the process, partnership activities question the very concept of the knowledge which underlines the models of applied research.Investigaciones conjuntas en Escuelas Superiores de Sanidad y Trabajo Social en Suiza

  3. The Subcritical Assembly for High-Temperature Use; Assemblage Sous-Critique Pour Emploi a Haute Temperature; K voprosu o podkriticheskoj sborke dlya ispol'zovaniya pri vysokikh temperaturakh; Conjunto Subcritico para Temperatura Elevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Y.; Sekiya, T.; Suita, T. [Osaka University (Japan); Hishida, H.; Hamada, H.; Nagashima, K. [Sumitomo Atomic Energy Industries Group (Japan)

    1964-04-15

    intended to study the influence of high temperature upon the reactor parameters. (author) [French] Les assemblages sous-critiques sont a uranium naturel et a graphite. L'assemblage qui fait l'objet du memoire est caracterise par une partie a haute temperature qui peut etre placee au centre d'assemblages a basse temperature, et peut fournit des renseignements a la fois pour le futur reacteur a haute temperature refroidi par un gaz et pour la conversion directe de l'energie d'un milieu gazeux a haute temperature en electricite. En outre, il est prevu qu'il sera utilise pour renseignement. L'assemblage a ete place dans une structure de 2 x 2 x 3 m, composee de manchons en graphite de barres carrees de 10 cm de cote. La partie a haute temperature, de 1 m3, est chauffee par effet Joule et peut etre maintenue a une temperature de 2000 Degree-Sign C. Pour la partie a basse temperature, on utilise comme combustible des pastilles d'UO{sub 2} , et pour la partie , a haute temperature, des pastilles d'UC{sub 2}. Le combustible est introduit dans les manchons en graphite de barres de section carree. Les sources Am-Be de 5 c sont placees sous le socle fixe a la base des assemblages; d'autre part, les neutrons puises sont injectes dans l'assemblage a un point pris arbitrairement. La cible placee a l'extremite d'un tube branche sur un accelerateur est bombardee par un faisceau de deutons. Les connexions du dispositif de chauffage par effet Joule sont refroidies a l'eau et l'ensemble de la surface des parios de la partie a haute temperature a l'helium. Les circuits d'helium a haute temperature sont concus de maniere a servir pour les travaux de recherche relatifs a la conversion directe. Ces assemblages sont equipes d'appareils de controle et de mesure comparables a ceux dont sont dotes les petits reacteurs nucleaires. L'auteur met au point une methode experimentale de determination du laplacien du systeme; il a cherche quelle est la meilleure disposition pour la source de neutrons puises

  4. Study of some ion exchange minerals which can be used in water at high temperature; Etude de quelques echangeurs mineraux utilisables dans l'eau a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hure, J.; Platzer, R.; Bittel, R. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Fourre, J. [Societe le Carbone Lorraine, 75 - Paris (France); Wey, R. [Faculte des Sciences de Strasbourg, Lab. de Mineralogie, 67 (France)

    1958-07-01

    these impurities (that is to say capable of de-mineralizing polluted water). This paper describes the preliminary results of the investigation. (author) [French] L'etude de l'utilisation des echangeurs d'ions a haute temperature a ete essentiellement faite en vue de l'epuration de l'eau des reacteurs. On connait l'interet qu'il y a a garder dans un circuit de reacteur de l'eau de tres haute resistivite (plusieurs centaines a quelques millions {omega}.cm): abaissement de la corrosion, abaissement du taux de radiolyse, abaissement de la radioactivite des circuits et canalisations, les elements autres que les constituants de l'eau transportes par celle-ci devenant generalement radioactifs par leur passage au coeur du reacteur. Si la circulation d'eau se fait a des temperatures inferieures a 45 deg. C, les resines echangeuses d'ions organiques utilisees en lit melange resolvent tres bien le probleme de l'epuration en continu. Par contre, pour des temperatures plus elevees surtout au-dessus de 100 deg. C, leur utilisation n'est pas possible, la degradation de ces hauts polymeres etant tres rapide. De meme, l'action des rayonnements, par exemple ceux des produits fixes par les echangeurs d'ions, detruit irremediablement les chaines organiques constituant le squelette de ces echangeurs. Nous avons donc cherche d'es composes pouvant assurer une bonne deionisation de l'eau, mais de structures telles qu'elles ne soient pas deteriorees par l'action de la temperature et des rayonnements. Nous nous sommes particulierement orientes dans trois voies: - echangeurs d'ions naturels a structure minerale (argile du type montmorillonite), - composes mineraux naturels traites pour leur conferer les proprietes d'echangeurs d'ions (charbons actives), - composes mineraux synthetiques (sels tres peu solubles, phosphate et hydroxyde de zirconium et de thorium). Dans ces etudes, nous nous

  5. Aerodynamic Engine/Airframe Integration for High Performance Aircraft and Missiles (L’Integration Aerodynamique des Moteurs et des Cellules dans les Avions et les Missiles a Hautes Performances)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    baisse du niveas da plateau supersonique (Fig.9). L’onde de choc DCZ 0,30 0068avance de 1% dc Ia corde ci cc dilplacement ye rilperesic sur toute CX 104...propulsion component, which is very helpful for a better understanding of the underlying pheno- mena and finding possible areas of improve- men t.I...of excessive, and for a plane and plug nozzle of a hypersonic aircraft, for probably prohibitive, fine meshes. It has to be men - a highly integrated

  6. Development of the high temperature ion-source for the Grenoble electromagnetic isotope separator; Etude et realisation de la source d'ions a haute temperature du separateur electromagnetique d'isotopes de Grenoble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouriant, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-12-01

    The production of high purity stable or radioactive isotopes ({>=} 99.99 per cent) using electromagnetic separation require for equipment having a high resolving power. Besides, and in order to collect rare or short half-life isotopes, the efficiency of the ion-source must be high ({eta} > 5 to 10 per cent). With this in view, the source built operates at high temperatures (2500-3000 C) and makes use of ionisation by electronic bombardment or of thermo-ionisation. A summary is given in the first part of this work on the essential characteristics of the isotope separator ion Sources; a diagram of the principle of the source built is then given together with its characteristics. In the second part are given the values of the resolving power and of the efficiency of the Grenoble isotope separator fitted with such a source. The resolving power measured at 10 per cent of the peak height is of the order of 200. At the first magnetic stage the efficiency is between 1 and 26 per cent for a range of elements evaporating between 200 and 3000 C. Thus equipped, the separator has for example given, at the first stage, 10 mg of {sup 180}Hf at (99.69 {+-} 0.1) per cent corresponding to an enrichment coefficient of 580; recently 2 mg of {sup 150}Nd at (99.996 {+-} 0.002) per cent corresponding to an enrichment coefficient of 4.2 x 10{sup 5} has been obtained at the second stage. (author) [French] La production d'isotopes stables ou radioactifs de haute purete isotopique ({>=} 99.99 pour cent), par separation electromagnetique, exige des appareils de haut pouvoir de resolution. En outre, et en vue de collecter des isotopes de tres faible abondance ou de periode tres courte, le rendement des sources d'ions doit etre eleve ({eta} > 5 a 10 pour cent). Dans ce but, la source realisee fonctionne a haute temperature (2500-3000 C) et utilise l'ionisation par bombardement electronique, ou la thermoionisation. Dans la premiere partie de ce travail, on resume d'abord les caracteristiques

  7. Geoscientific Data Acquisition and Management System (systeme d'Acquisition et de Gestion des Donnees, S.A.G.D.) of the Andra Meuse / Haute-Marne research center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabani, P.; Hermand, G.; Delay, J.; Mangeot, A.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. ANDRA is directly responsible for all scientific data acquired in real time and wire-line at the Meuse Haute- Marne underground research laboratory. To fulfil the needs for the acquisition, storage and display of realtime data, Andra decided to develop and install a system called SAGD (Systeme d'Acquisition et de Gestion des Donnees). With this view, a system was designed to: - Determine the acquisition tools and methods so that technical failures would not result in the loss of data or the acquisition of erroneous data, - Store (conservation) in the long-term all data in a single place in a single form, - Allow the diffusion and free access of data to the large community of ANDRA researchers, partners and service contractors in a single fluid way whatever the source of the data. - Help external communication through a user friendly and easy to understand presentation of the recorded data. S.A.G.D fulfils these objectives by: - Making available in real time, and through a single system, all experimental data under acquisition at the MHM Center and Mont Terri laboratory, - Displaying the recorded data on temporal windows and specific time step, - Allowing remote control of the experimentations, - Ensuring the traceability of all recorded information, - Ensuring data storage in a data base. S.A.G.D has been deployed in the first experimental drift at -445 m in November 2004. It was subsequently extended to the underground Mont Terri laboratory in Switzerland in 2005 and to the entire surface logging network of the Meuse / Haute-Marne Center in 2008. The SAGD computer network is an autonomous network consisting of optical fiber links which transmits experimentation data to the servers and computers in the control room, whether they originate from the bottom of a borehole or surface level. A high speed link between Mont Terri and Bure allows remote control of all the experimentations and the centralization of all

  8. Distribution spatio-saisonnière des cyanobactéries le long du cours d'eau, la Lobo, haut Sassandra (Daloa, Côte d'Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groga, N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatio-seasonal Distribution of the Cyanobacteria along the river stream, Lobo Haut Sassandra (Daloa, Ivory Coast. Cyanobacteria populations were studied through in situ records along the Lobo River, source of drinking water supply for the 261,789 inhabitants of the city of Daloa in Ivory Coast. .This environment is characterized by a an average depth of 5 m and an average temperature of 30ºC. This river is mostly influenced by human activities that favour the growth of aquatic plants by enrichment in nutrients. The nitrate concentration varied between 0 and 1.54 mg.l -1(NO3- and phosphate concentration ranged from 0.001 to 0.71 mg.l-1 (PO43-. The analyzes of biological parameters carried out in six stations between September 2013 and June 2014 identified 13 taxa of cyanobacteria with a dominance of Oscillatoria sp. (OSSP and Pseudanabaena sp. (PSSP genera each representing 11%. Very little difference was observed between the cyanobacterial populations of each station. They proliferated more in the dry season than in the rainy season. The species Aphanocapsa sp. (APSP presented a maximal density of 24.10³ cells. ml-1 on St5 station in dry season whereas in the rainy season it was only 5.10³ cells .ml-1 at the same location.

  9. Les Basaltes de l’Atlas de Béni-Mellal (Haut Atlas Central, Maroc : un Volcanisme Transitionnel Intraplaque Associé aux Stades de L’évolution Géodynamique du Domaine Atlasique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaouad Guezal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Les roches basaltiques de l’Atlas de Béni-Mellal (Haut-Atlas Central, Maroc, mises en place, dans les différents bassins synclinaux de la région, se manifestent en deux horizons volcaniques B1 et B2. Les deux événements éruptifs sont d’âge Jurassique moyen pour les coulées de l’horizon B1 et d’âge Crétacé inférieur pour celles de l’horizon B2. Les roches sont caractérisées par un faciès des basaltes à olivines. La composition de leurs clinopyroxènes est marquée par deux tendances : augite au niveau des basaltes à olivine du B1 et diopside au niveau de ceux du B2. La composition géochimique sur roche totale dévoile le caractère transitionnel de ces roches. La relative dissimilitude géochimique signalée au niveau des basaltes des deux horizons peut être expliquée par un début du changement de la nature du magmatisme de la région en relation avec l’évolution géodynamique du domaine atlasique.

  10. Étude de la réponse en courant de détecteurs silicium opérés en environnement de très hautes radiations

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Patrick

    Ce travail se situe dans le cadre de l'expérience ATLAS auprès du Grand Collisionneur Hadronique (LHC) qui sera construit au CERN. Il consiste en l'étude de la réponse en courant de détecteurs au silicium de grande surface, irradiés par des neutrons ou des protons de façon à reproduire l'environnement de hautes radiations auquel le détecteur ATLAS devra faire face. A l'aide d'une modélisation du transport des charges produites par le passage de particules alpha ou bêta dans un détecteur au silicium et d'un ensemble de données expérimentales, il est possible d'obtenir certaines caractéristiques électriques importantes des détecteurs. Ces caractéristiques sont: la concentration effective de dopants (ce qui détermine la tension de désertion d'un semi-conducteur), le piégeage des porteurs de charge (donnant l'efficacité de la collection des charges), et les mobilités des électrons et des trous (influençant le temps nécessaire à la collection des charges). En connaissant l'évolution de...

  11. Développement de services de monitoring et de haute disponibilité pour le système de contrôle de l'expérience LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Lepinette, M; Mesnard, E; Neufeld, N

    2009-01-01

    L'expérience LHCb, menée dans le cadre du CERN, dispose d'un réseau standard pour acquérir les données produites par les collisions du LHC. Les différents serveurs qui font partie de ce réseau, supportent de nombreux services. En l'état, une panne physique peut rendre un service complètement indisponible, et peut-être interrompre l'acquisition de données. C'est pour cela qu'il faut que le système d'acquisition de données et le système de commande soient les plus fiables possibles. Pour résoudre ce problème, il existe une solution: la haute disponibilité, basée sur une redondance de matériel et la mise en place de cluster. Cette solution peut être amélioré par l'utilisation conjointe de mécanismes de virtualisations. Ma tâche a été d'étudier et de comparer différents types d'outil de virtualisation et de les implémenter sur un cluster.

  12. Calcul des efforts de deuxième ordre à très haute fréquence sur des plates-formes à lignes tendues Computing High-Frequency Second Order Loads on Tension Leg Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen X.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le problème considéré ici est celui de l'évaluation des efforts excitateurs de deuxième ordre (en mode somme, c'est-à-dire prenant place aux sommes deux à deux des fréquences de houle sur des plates-formes à lignes tendues. Ces efforts sont tenus pour responsables de comportements résonnants (en roulis, tangage et pilonnement observés lors d'essais en bassin et pourraient réduire sensiblement la durée de vie en fatigue des tendons. Des résultats sont tout d'abord présentés pour une structure simplifiée, consistant en 4 cylindres verticaux reposant sur le fond marin. L'intérêt de cette géométrie est que tous les calculs peuvent être menés à terme de façon quasi analytique. Les résultats obtenus permettent d'illustrer le haut degré d'interaction entre les colonnes, et la faible décroissance du potentiel de diffraction de deuxième ordre avec la profondeur. On présente ensuite des résultats pour une plate-forme réelle, celle de Snorre. Tension Leg Platforms (TLP's are now regarded as a promising technology for the development of deep offshore fields. As the water depth increases however, their natural periods of heave, roll and pitch tend to increase as well (roughly to the one-half power, and it is not clear yet what the maximum permissible values for these natural periods can be. For the Snorre TLP for instance, they are only about 2. 5 seconds, which seems to be sufficiently low since there is very limited free wave energy at such periods. Model tests, however, have shown some resonant response in sea states with peak periods of about 5 seconds. Often referred to as springing , this resonant motion can severely affect the fatigue life of tethers and increase their design loads. In order to calculate this springing motion at the design stage, it is necessary to identify and evaluate both the exciting loads and the mechanisms of energy dissipation. With the help of the French Norwegian Foundation a joint effort was

  13. Study of superconductors with high critical temperature by using the vibrating blade technique: anelastic properties, vortices dynamics; Etude des supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique par la technique de la lame vibrante: - proprietes anelastiques, - dynamique des vortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Brion, Sophie

    1991-10-04

    This research thesis reports the application of the vibrating blade technique to the study of high critical temperature superconductors, first for the anelastic properties, and then for vortices dynamics. As far as the study of anelastic properties is concerned, the author reports the measurement of dissipation and of Young modulus, between 4 K and 300 K and at about 1 khz, in YbaCuO ceramics with various oxygen content. A detailed study of the tetragonal phase reveals the existence of a single relaxation process, the magnitude of which depends on the compound oxygen content and on its thermal treatment. In the second part, the author reports the measurement, under magnetic field and within a temperature range lower than the superconducting critical temperature, of a YbaCuO crystal with two different oxygen concentrations. At low temperature, the author studies the contribution of vortices trapped in an irreversible state. At high temperature, this contribution disappears and thus defines an irreversibility line beyond which vortices are in a reversible regime. This line is studied for different magnetic field orientations with respect to CuO planes. It is interpreted in terms of de-trapping thermally activated by vortices [French] La technique de la lame vibrante a ete appliquee a l'etude des supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique, pour leurs proprietes anelastiques d'abord, pour la dynamique des vortex ensuite. Dans la gamme de temperature 4 K - 300 K, nous avons mesure la dissipation et le module d'Young, a une frequence de 1 kHz environ, dans des ceramiques YBaCuO (phase 123) de differentes teneurs en oxygene (variant de O{sub 6} a O{sub 7}). Nous avons observe plusieurs pics de dissipation. Une etude detaillee de la phase tetragonale (de O{sub 6} a O{sub 6,4}) a mis en evidence un seul processus de relaxation, active thermiquement avec une energie de 0,1 eV et dont l'ampleur depend de la teneur en oxygene du compose et de son traitement thermique. Cette

  14. PREFACE: Peyresq Physics Workshops 11 and 12—'Micro and Macro Structure of Spacetime', Peyresq, Alpes de Haute Provence, France (17 23 June 2006 and 16 22 June 2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, D.; Verdaguer, E.

    2008-08-01

    This special issue is devoted to the proceedings of the workshops Peyresq Physics 11 and Peyresq Physics 12 on 'Micro and Macro Structure of Spacetime', which were held on the 17 23 June 2006 and 16 22 June 2007, respectively, in Peyresq, Alpes de Haute Provence, France, and organized by E Gunzig, B-L Hu and one of us (EV). These workshops are part of a series of annual meetings which bring together around 20 physicists active in different areas of theoretical physics. Uncovering the microscopic structures of spacetime is the goal of quantum gravity and string theory. It is often considered as the 'holy grail' of theoretical physics because it is believed that all fundamental forces are unified at that level of description. Macroscopic spacetime refers to astrophysical and cosmological structures and processes in the observable physical world, from black holes to the cosmos, from the second law to the arrow of time. The challenge theoretical physicists now face is to infer the micro structure of spacetime from the observed macro phenomena, and to deduce the multifarious manifestations of our world from any such candidate theory. To do so demands a careful re-examination of the foundational issues of quantum physics and general relativity (such as intrinsic and quantum gravity decoherence), the origin and nature of symmetries in spacetime (such as Lorentz symmetry) and the conditions where they may be violated, as well as their intersections (such as the physics of the early universe and the end states of black hole evolution). One asks how and why these two pillars of modern physics appear to be so incongruous with each other. Is it because their basic tenets and assumptions are at odds to each other? For these quests one needs to draw upon concepts and techniques from close disciplines such as those found in topology and geometry, or other subdisciplines of physics such as particle physics, strings and loops, statistical mechanics and mesoscopic phenomena, atomic

  15. Tubes légers à haute résistance pour des applications pétrolières marines Light High Strength Tubes for Offshore Petroeleum Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corteville J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les besoins nouveaux en tubes à haute résistance, créés par le développement actuel des gisements pétroliers marins, nous ont conduits à étudier des tubes composites particuliers, élaborés par enrouiement hélicoïdal de rubans d'acier minces à haute résistance enrobés d'une résine époxy polymérisable. Un mode de recouvrement adapté des rubans d'acier confère au composite une bonne étanchéité et des caractéristiques mécaniques élevées. Les propriétés physiques et chimiques de la matrice de résine permettent également d'obtenir une faible densité et une résistance convenable à la corrosion par les fluides pétroliers, l'eau de mer ou les boues de forage. Cette étude préliminaire comporte une analyse théorique simplifiée de ce type de structure composite, puis une partie expérimentale destinée a sélectionner les caractéristiques optimales de l'acier et de la résine et à vérifier les propriétés mécaniques et physico-chimiques obtenues sur ces tubes. Enfin, des exemples d'application en mer profonde destinés à comparer ces tubes composites aux tubes en acier sont présentés. Les premières conclusions de cette étude semblent confirmer l'intérêt de ce type de matériau pour ces applications. The new requirements for high-strength tubes created by thé current development of offshore oilfields led thé authors ta study thé development ot spécial composite tubes formed by thé spiral winding of high-strength thin steel strips coated with a polymerïzable epoxy resin. A particular method of overlapping thé steel strips makes the composite leakproof and leads to good mechanical properties: The physical and chemical properties of thé resin matrix also make for a low specific gravity and suitable résistance to corrosion coused by petroleum fluids, seawater or drilling mud. This preliminary article presents a simplified theoretical analysis of this type of composite structure, followed by an exp

  16. LIEN ENTRE LA LECTURE EN ARABE A VOIX HAUTE ET LA CONSCIENCE PHONOLOGIQUE CHEZ DES COLLEGIENS MAROCAINS DE LA REGION DE MRIRT, MAROC / RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HIGH-VOICE ARAB READING AND PHONOLOGICAL CONSCIOUSNESS IN MOROCCAN COLLEGIANS IN THE MRIRT REGION, MOROCCO

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal El Azmy; Ahmed Ahami; Benaissa Badda; Khalid Ahaji

    2018-01-01

    La population de cette étude comprend 200 enfants appartenant aux trois niveaux scolaires du collège el Moukaouama Mrirt. Pour vérifier la présence d’un lien entre la lecture en arabe à voix haute et la conscience phonologique, les sujets ont subi trois tests de lecture : Lecture en Une Minute (LUM) vocalisés en arabe, Lecture en Une Minute (LUM) non vocalisés en arabe et pseudo-mots vocalisés en arabe et deux tests métaphonologiques en arabe : suppression de phonème initial en arabe et comp...

  17. Experimental study and modeling of the propagation of an alkaline concentration wave coming from a cement matrix an passing through the argilite of the Meuse / Haute-Marne laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, Th.

    2001-12-01

    The propagation of an alkaline wave through a clay rock has been investigated- The wave is generated by a cementitious matrix through the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite of the Meuse Haute-Marne Laboratory (-480 m depth). The argillite itself is composed of quartz, micas, calcite and an interstratified l/S. In order to characterise the interactions between the alkaline fluid and the argillaceous medium, dynamic column experiments have been carried out. The originality of the investigation methodology consists in exploiting the data generated from the breakthrough curves as well as from the characterisation of the solids extracted from the columns. Two types of processes having totally different reaction times have hence been thoroughly studied: - Fast surface adsorption and condensation reactions: On the one hand cation adsorption reactions by site ionisation have been characterised. They are responsible of the buffering effect of the clays. On the other hand an original reaction of calcium compound condensation in the interlayer space of the swelling clays has been revealed. These processes have been modelled and their simulations with the IMPACT calculation code showed that the models elaborated were very satisfying. - Strongly kinetically limited dissolution/precipitation reactions: The main primary phases dissolved are quartz and interstratified l/S. The precipitation of secondary phases are mainly C(A)SH and zeolites. After the injection of an alkaline fluid for 6 months at 60 deg C, the argillite is strongly amorphized but only 20 to 30% of the quartz and the interstratified I/S are dissolved. Therefore, dissolution kinetics of the primary phases and the solubility products of the main secondary phases have been determined. (author)

  18. Study of dense-plasma properties using very high-frequency electromagnetic waves (light waves); Etude des proprietes des plasmas denses au moyen d'ondes electromagnetiques de tres haute frequence (ondes lumineuses)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gormezano, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    A study is made of methods based on the use of lasers for measuring the electronic density and temperature of dense plasmas (N{sub e} > 10{sup 15}e/cm{sup 3}): - an interferometric method using a gas laser, based on the. properties of the Perot-Fabry cavities; - a method making use of the 90 deg C scattering produced by the plasma on light emitted by a ruby laser. These methods have been applied to various dense plasmas: - high-frequency plasma torch; - azimuth compression; - plasma bursts produced by focussing a laser beam on a metal target. The measurements have also been carried out using conventional methods of diagnosis. It has thus been possible to measure densities of between 5.10{sup 15} and 10{sup 19} e/cm{sup 3} and temperatures of between 3 and 10 eV. These different-methods are then compared, (author) [French] On etudie la mesure de la densite et de la temperature electronique des plasmas denses (N{sub e} > 10{sup 15} e/cm{sup 3}) a I'aide de methodes utilisant des lasers: - une methode interferometrique utilisant un laser a gaz, basee sur les proprietes des cavites Perot Fabry; -- une methode utilisant la diffusion a 900 deg C par le plasma de la lumiere issue d'un laser a rubis. Ces methodes ont ete appliquees sur differents plasmas denses: - Torche a plasma haute-frequence; - Compression azimutale; - Bouffees de plasma produites par la focalisation d'un faisceau laser sur une cible metallique. Les mesures ont ete egalement faites a I'aide de diagnostics classiques. On a pu ainsi mesurer des densites comprises entre 5.10{sup 15} et 10{sup 19} e/cm{sup 3} et des temperatures comprises entre 3 et 10 eV. On compare ensuite ces differentes methodes. (auteur)

  19. Study of dense-plasma properties using very high-frequency electromagnetic waves (light waves); Etude des proprietes des plasmas denses au moyen d'ondes electromagnetiques de tres haute frequence (ondes lumineuses)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gormezano, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    A study is made of methods based on the use of lasers for measuring the electronic density and temperature of dense plasmas (N{sub e} > 10{sup 15}e/cm{sup 3}): - an interferometric method using a gas laser, based on the. properties of the Perot-Fabry cavities; - a method making use of the 90 deg C scattering produced by the plasma on light emitted by a ruby laser. These methods have been applied to various dense plasmas: - high-frequency plasma torch; - azimuth compression; - plasma bursts produced by focussing a laser beam on a metal target. The measurements have also been carried out using conventional methods of diagnosis. It has thus been possible to measure densities of between 5.10{sup 15} and 10{sup 19} e/cm{sup 3} and temperatures of between 3 and 10 eV. These different-methods are then compared, (author) [French] On etudie la mesure de la densite et de la temperature electronique des plasmas denses (N{sub e} > 10{sup 15} e/cm{sup 3}) a I'aide de methodes utilisant des lasers: - une methode interferometrique utilisant un laser a gaz, basee sur les proprietes des cavites Perot Fabry; -- une methode utilisant la diffusion a 900 deg C par le plasma de la lumiere issue d'un laser a rubis. Ces methodes ont ete appliquees sur differents plasmas denses: - Torche a plasma haute-frequence; - Compression azimutale; - Bouffees de plasma produites par la focalisation d'un faisceau laser sur une cible metallique. Les mesures ont ete egalement faites a I'aide de diagnostics classiques. On a pu ainsi mesurer des densites comprises entre 5.10{sup 15} et 10{sup 19} e/cm{sup 3} et des temperatures comprises entre 3 et 10 eV. On compare ensuite ces differentes methodes. (auteur)

  20. Agriculture itinérante sur brûlis (AIB et plantes cultivées sur le haut Maroni: étude comparée chez les Aluku et les Wayana en Guyane française

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Fleury

    Full Text Available Résumé Vers la fin du 18e siècle, les Noirs marrons Aluku, descendants d’esclaves rebelles fuyant les plantations hollandaises et les Amérindiens Wayana, arrivant du Brésil, où ils fuyaient les chasseurs d’esclaves, se sont rencontrés sur le haut Maroni, en Guyane française. Ce partage d’un même lieu de vie a été l’occasion d’échanger un grand nombre de techniques, notamment en ce qui concerne l’agriculture itinérante sur brûlis, et les plantes cultivées. Toutefois notre étude montre que le culte des ancêtres chez les Noirs marrons a modifié leur cycle cultural (via la culture du riz, influençant ainsi leur gestion de l’environnement. De même la nature et la diversité des plantes cultivées diffèrent sensiblement en fonction des usages traditionnels et habitudes culinaires des deux sociétés. Les Aluku ont sélectionné de nombreuses espèces et variétés de plantes qui leur sont propres et sont liées à leurs racines africaines. Les Amérindiens cultivent des plantes spécifiques utiles au chamanisme (tabac et à leur artisanat traditionnel. De plus, leur perception de la nature implique des pratiques cultuelles différentes notamment avant le défrichage. Cette étude illustre l’influence de la diversité culturelle sur la gestion de l’agrobiodiversité et, de manière plus générale, sur l’adaptation de l’homme à son environnement.

  1. Experimental study and modeling of the propagation of an alkaline concentration wave coming from a cement matrix an passing through the argilite of the Meuse / Haute-Marne laboratory; Etude experimentale et modelisation de la propagation d'une onde de concentration alcaline issue d'une matrice cimentiere a travers l'argilite du site du laboratoire Meuse / Haute-Marne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel, Th

    2001-12-01

    The propagation of an alkaline wave through a clay rock has been investigated- The wave is generated by a cementitious matrix through the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite of the Meuse Haute-Marne Laboratory (-480 m depth). The argillite itself is composed of quartz, micas, calcite and an interstratified l/S. In order to characterise the interactions between the alkaline fluid and the argillaceous medium, dynamic column experiments have been carried out. The originality of the investigation methodology consists in exploiting the data generated from the breakthrough curves as well as from the characterisation of the solids extracted from the columns. Two types of processes having totally different reaction times have hence been thoroughly studied: - Fast surface adsorption and condensation reactions: On the one hand cation adsorption reactions by site ionisation have been characterised. They are responsible of the buffering effect of the clays. On the other hand an original reaction of calcium compound condensation in the interlayer space of the swelling clays has been revealed. These processes have been modelled and their simulations with the IMPACT calculation code showed that the models elaborated were very satisfying. - Strongly kinetically limited dissolution/precipitation reactions: The main primary phases dissolved are quartz and interstratified l/S. The precipitation of secondary phases are mainly C(A)SH and zeolites. After the injection of an alkaline fluid for 6 months at 60 deg C, the argillite is strongly amorphized but only 20 to 30% of the quartz and the interstratified I/S are dissolved. Therefore, dissolution kinetics of the primary phases and the solubility products of the main secondary phases have been determined. (author)

  2. Optimisation of the energy-piles of the Midfield Dock at Zurich airport; Mesures et optimisation de l'installation avec pieux energetiques du Dock Midfield de l'aeroport de Zuerich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahud, D. [Scuola Universitaria Professionale della Svizzera Italiana (SUPSI), Istituto di Sostenibilita Applicata all' Ambiente Costruito (ISAAC), Dipartimento Ambiente, Costruzioni e Design DACD, Trevano-Canobbio (Switzerland); Hubbuch, M. [Hochschule Waedenswil (HSW), Abteilung Facility Management, Waedenswil (Switzerland)

    2007-06-15

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of measurements made on the energy-pile system of the Midfield Dock at Zurich airport. The measurements began in October 2004 and lasted for a period of two years. The system's heat balance, and, in particular, the annual heating and cooling demands are reported as being close to the design values. The report presents a description of the energy-pile and heat pump installations and discusses their performance. The results of measurements made are presented in graphical form. Ground-temperature profiles are looked at and the results of a simulation of thermal performance are discussed. The economical performance of the system is reported as being excellent. The cost of the thermal energy delivered (heating and cooling) is quoted at 0.06 CHF/kWh as compared with 0.08 CHF/kWh for a conventional solution. This means that the additional investment in the energy-pile system is paid back in about 8 years.

  3. M. G.-F. Leclerc, Préfet de la Haute-Savoie lors de sa visite dans le tunnel du LHC au Point 2 avec D. Delikaris, Département Technologie; dans la caverne de l'expérience ALICE avec B. Erazmus, Collaboration ALICE et lors de la signature du livre d'or avec F. Bordry, Chef du Département Technologie. P. Fassnacht, Conseiller au Bureau des Relations internationales présent.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2013-01-01

    M. G.-F. Leclerc, Préfet de la Haute-Savoie lors de sa visite dans le tunnel du LHC au Point 2 avec D. Delikaris, Département Technologie; dans la caverne de l'expérience ALICE avec B. Erazmus, Collaboration ALICE et lors de la signature du livre d'or avec F. Bordry, Chef du Département Technologie. P. Fassnacht, Conseiller au Bureau des Relations internationales présent.

  4. Unconventional gases: a North-American energy revolution not without consequences for Europe; Les gaz non conventionnels: une revolution energetique nord-americaine non sans consequences pour l'Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This paper gives a definition of the different existing unconventional gases (coal-bed methane, tight gases, shale gases), and outlines that, although these gases as well as the techniques to extract them have been well known for a long time, it is the combination of two of these techniques (hydraulic fracturing or fracking, and horizontal drilling) which enables the current technological development and the exploitation of these gases. It also outlines that the current situation in terms of natural resources favours such a development. It evokes projects in the United States, China, India, Europe, and more particularly in France, stressing that environmental issues and population density in Europe are obstacles to perform these drillings. The author questions the production cost issue and explains how these developments, notably in the USA, may change completely the world energetic landscape, and therefore entail a review of the European energy agenda. He explores the possible consequences of a durable decrease of gas prices

  5. Unconventional gases: a North-American energy revolution not without consequences for Europe; Les gaz non conventionnels: une revolution energetique nord-americaine non sans consequences pour l'Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This paper gives a definition of the different existing unconventional gases (coal-bed methane, tight gases, shale gases), and outlines that, although these gases as well as the techniques to extract them have been well known for a long time, it is the combination of two of these techniques (hydraulic fracturing or fracking, and horizontal drilling) which enables the current technological development and the exploitation of these gases. It also outlines that the current situation in terms of natural resources favours such a development. It evokes projects in the United States, China, India, Europe, and more particularly in France, stressing that environmental issues and population density in Europe are obstacles to perform these drillings. The author questions the production cost issue and explains how these developments, notably in the USA, may change completely the world energetic landscape, and therefore entail a review of the European energy agenda. He explores the possible consequences of a durable decrease of gas prices

  6. Energy saving potential of energy services - experimentation on the life cycle of energy conversion equipment; Potentiel d'economies d'energie par les services energetiques - application au cycle de vie des equipements de conversion de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, M

    2006-12-15

    Energy efficiency services are growing in Europe but their role is still limited. In order to evaluate the potential, we focused first of all on policy, economical and environmental mechanisms that support their development. European natural gas and electricity markets, that are now almost wholly de-regulated, are analysed and compared to their historical structure. By introducing uncertainty on energy prices, this new deal translates better the real energy costs. Energy performance contracts (EPC) limit the impact of these uncertainties on the customer energy bills by guaranteeing a financial result. As a result of the modelling of these contracts, namely operation and maintenance ones, we prove that they transfer technical and financial risks from building owners to energy service companies (ESCO) making energy saving measures easier and less expensive at the same time. These contracts are relatively widespread for heating or compressed-air processes but remain marginal for air-conditioning systems. So new methods were needed to guarantee on the long terms the efficiency of air-conditioning systems demand (1) to master the process and its performances and (2) to be able to determine precisely the energy saving potential and its realisation costs. A detailed energy audit is thus necessary for which we propose a guidance. Conclusions of audits carried out prove that energy saving potential is mainly located in equipment management and control. These optimizations are not always carried out because of a lack of contractual incentive and due to the weaknesses of audit methods. Through the involvement of an independent expert, the mandatory and regular inspection of air-conditioning systems may allow to verify and guide such practices. A three-step analysis procedure has been developed in order to maximize the inspection potential and to get higher benefits from service contracts. (author)

  7. Performing Performance Design Anglonationally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Video recording of pecha kucha style bricolage aural enactment of an international version of performance design......Video recording of pecha kucha style bricolage aural enactment of an international version of performance design...

  8. Remarks on the Cogema-Areva project of storage of contaminated sludge and sediments on the Bellezane site (Haute-Vienne). Investigation performed by the CRIIRAD laboratory on its own funds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    As sediments of several lakes are contaminated by uranium mines which are located upstream, and which have been exploited in the past by the Cogema (now Areva NC), this company asked for an authorization to use an old pit in Bellezane to deposit clearing sludge from water processing plants and from the clearing of ponds. This document describes the different problems raised by this project. It outlines that the site is not waterproof and that its legal status is not correct. It also reports and comments the radiological contamination of waters and soils due to site effluents, the chemical contamination of waters, and the existence of solid radioactive wastes at the vicinity of this site

  9. Reversibility of the SOFC for the hydrogen production by high temperature electrolysis; Reversibilite des SOFC pour la production d'hydrogene par electrolyse haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisse, A.; Marrony, M.; Perednis, D.; Schefold, J.; Jose-Garcia, M.; Zahid, M. [Institut Europeen de Recherche sur l' Energie (EIFER), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The behaviour of two SOFC cells in electrolysis mode is studied. The performances of these solid oxide cells, reversible at 800 C and for current densities between 0 and -0.42 A/cm{sup 2}, are presented. A weaker polarisation resistance has been measured for the cell containing a mixed conductor as oxygen electrode. For each cell, a limitation by gaseous diffusion has been observed under current. This phenomenon appears for current densities which are higher for the mixed conductor cell as oxygen electrode. (O.M.)

  10. Deliberated opinion of the Environment Authority concerning the prior definition of the Cigeo project, industrial centre of deep reversible storage of radioactive wastes in Meuse/Haute-Marne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This document first describes the project and its context: history and legal framework, types of wastes dedicated to Cigeo, definition of the warehousing, storage, notions of reversibility and retrievability, project location, program for the installation, transport of wastes to Cigeo. It describes the associated administrative procedures: creation authorization request, and other procedures including an impact study. It recalls the questions asked by the ANDRA and gives the corresponding answers. These questions concern the perimeter of the impact study to be performed, dates and modalities of submission to the Environment Authority, scenarios to be presented in the impact study, definition of impact study areas, and impacts after installation closure

  11. Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory examination, on a shaft wall, of pluri-decametric features induced by borehole hydro fracturing tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertrand, L.; Gros, Y. [ANTER, Direction Technique, 45 - Orleans (France); Reboursz, H.; Wileveauz, Y. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA/DP/EST/SS), 55 - Bure (France); Proudhon, B. [GEO-TER, subcontractor to EDF-TEGG, 13 - Aix en Provence (France)

    2005-07-01

    In the year 2000, prior to the sinking of the two shafts of the laboratory, two vertical cored boreholes were drilled according to the axis of each of the shafts. The EST205 borehole drilled along the axis of the auxiliary shaft intersects the Callovo-Oxfordian layers in its lower part. Stress measurements were performed there by hydraulic fracturing method, on the one hand at the bottom of the Oxfordian limestone (6 tests between 375 and 416 m depth), on the other hand in the more clayey Callovo-Oxfordian layer (8 tests between 417 and 500 m depth). Both boreholes were subsequently sealed by cement. During shaft sinking, a detailed geological survey of the walls was performed at each blast round. During this survey, positioned by means of a grid of targets whose locations are recorded by topographical measurements, lithological changes as well as structural features visible on the wall are carefully recorded. In this context, the wall of 3 successive blast rounds are seen to display, roughly aligned with the West and South generating lines of the shaft, two sub-vertical joints with nil aperture and an average strike of N155 degree. These joints can be traced over more than 15 m height, between levels -434 and -451 m. More at depth, the walls display four parallel sub-horizontal joints, recorded between 466,5 and 476 m depth. These smoothly undulating joints are observed over the entire shaft wall perimeter. (authors)

  12. Effects of long-term exposure to raod traffic imissions on the pathogenesis of diseases of the skin and respiratory tract in children; Auswirkungen langfristiger Expositionen gegenueber Strassenverkehrsimissionen auf die Entwicklung von Haut- und Atemwegserkrankungen bei Kindern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ising, H. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany); Lange-Asschenfeldt, H. [Bundesministerium fuer Gesundheit, Berlin (Germany); Lieber, G.F.; Weinhold, H.; Eilts, M.

    2002-10-01

    einer Kombinationsbelastung aus verkehrsbedingten Luftverschmutzungen und Laerm auf das Risiko fuer allergische Haut- und Atemwegserkrankungen bei Kindern untersucht. Die aerztlichen Diagnosen von 400 Kindern im Alter von 5-12 Jahren, die innerhalb eines Monats einen der beiden teilnehmenden Kinderaerzte aufsuchten, wurden zusammen mit Angaben der Eltern ueber die Verkehrsbelastung ihrer Wohnungen und ueber andere moegliche Einflussfaktoren ausgewertet. Multiple Regressionsanalysen ergaben fuer Asthma, chronische Bronchitis und Neurodermitis relative Risiken, die mit der Belastung signifikant anstiegen. Ein Vergleich mit der Literatur ueber entsprechende Wirkungen von Luftverschmutzung ergab, dass naechtlicher Verkehrslaerm wahrscheinlich eine verstaerkende (adjuvante) Wirkung bei der Entstehung der genannten Krankheiten hat. (orig.)

  13. Alize 3 - first critical experiment for the franco-german high flux reactor - calculations; Alize 3 - premiere experience critique pour le reacteur a haut flux franco-allemand. Calculs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharmer, K [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Dir. des Piles Atomiques, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The results of experiments in the light water cooled D{sub 2}O reflected critical assembly ALIZE III have been compared to calculations. A diffusion model was used with 3 fast and epithermal groups and two overlapping thermal groups, which leads to good agreement of calculated and measured power maps, even in the case of strong variations of the neutron spectrum in the core. The difference of calculated and measured k{sub eff} was smaller than 0.5 per cent {delta}k/k. Calculations of void and structure material coefficients of the reactivity of 'black' rods in the reflector, of spectrum variations (Cd-ratio, Pu-U-ratio) and to the delayed photoneutron fraction in the D{sub 2}O reflector were made. Measurements of the influence of beam tubes on reactivity and flux distribution in the reflector were interpreted with regard to an optimum beam tube arrangement for the Franco- German High Flux Reactor. (author) [French] Les resultats des experiences faites dans la maquette critique ALIZE III, refrigeree a l'eau legere et reflechie par l'eau lourde, ont ete compares aux calculs. On a utilise un modele de la theorie de diffusion a trois groupes rapides et epithermiques et deux groupes thermiques qui se recouvrent. Ce modele a permis de calculer la distribution de puissance dans le coeur en bon accord avec les mesures, meme dans le cas d'une forte variation du spectre des neutrons dans le coeur. L'erreur entre k{sub eff} calcule et mesure etait inferieure a 0,5 pour cent {delta}k/k. Le coefficient de vide et des materiaux de structure, la reactivite des barres 'noires', les variations du spectre (rapport Cd, rapport Pu/U) et la fraction des photo-neutrons retardes sont egalement calcules. Les mesures de reactivite et de perturbation de flux dans le reflecteur, dues aux canaux, ont ete interpretees du point de vue d'un arrangement optimum des canaux pour le Reacteur a Haut Flux Franco-Allemand. (auteur)

  14. Energetic conversion (biogas) of used edible oils by means of co-digestion together with various waste materials from the food industry; Valorisation energetique (biogaz) d'huiles comestibles usagees par codigestion avec differents dechets d'origine agroalimentaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Membrez, Y; Fruteau de Laclos, H

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this project was the valorisation of used edible oils by co-digestion together with agricultural or food waste, without any risk for human and animal health. It included the technical economical aspects. In the bibliographic part a state-of-the-art on fat digestion in Switzerland and Europe was done. The possible co-substrates were examined, under a biological aspect as well as economical and strategic aspects. Food waste from restaurants and canteens, that are used up to now for pig feeding, were retained. The co-digestion gives a new perspective for the valorisation of this kind of waste, whose traditional way of valorisation is compromised by the new EU directives. The experimental part aimed to define the possibilities and limits for the co-digestion of used edible oil with food waste as co-substrate. The study was done in a 690 litres bio-reactor. The results showed that co-digestion of edible oil with food waste is feasible with interesting performances, if oil doesn't account for more than 15% of the mixture (on dry matter). Biogas production amounted to 400-450 litres per kg input COD (chemical oxygen demand), with 60-65% CH{sub 4}. Based on the observed results a tender document was done, in order to consult manufacturers of co-digestion plants. An economical simulation was realised on the basis of the most complete offer. This simulation revealed that a benefit of CHF 3500 per year can be obtained for a plant processing 200 t/y edible oil and 9000 t/y food waste. Co-digestion allows for valorisation of edible oil, together with a co-substrate whose traditional utilisation will not be possible in the future. It leads to the production of renewable energy, with a positive economical balance. (author)

  15. Melatonin Production, Sleep Patterns and Modeled Performance Effectiveness in Subjects in the High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    de la photopériode liées aux saisons dans le Haut Arctique exercent une pression particulièrement forte sur le rythme circadien humain, ce qui peut...travaux décrits était d’étudier le rythme circadien du personnel envoyé dans le Haut Arctique en mesurant régulièrement la mélatonine fabriquée par...extrêmes de la photopériode liées aux saisons dans le Haut Arctique exercent une pression particulièrement forte sur le rythme circadien humain, ce

  16. Detection and localisation of very high energy particles in underwater acoustic; Detection et localisation de particules de tres hautes energies en acoustique sous-marine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juennard, N

    2007-12-15

    The theme of this thesis is included in the Antares international project whose object is to build a neutrino telescope located in a deep water environment in the Mediterranean sea. In deep water sea, a neutrino can interact with a water molecule. The collision generates a luminous flash and an acoustic wave. The goal of this work is to study this acoustic sound wave and develop a system able to detect the corresponding wave front and to estimate the initial direction of the particle. We first focus on the acoustic sound wave. Two different models are studied, and works made recently have led to a mathematical expression of both signal and wave front. Then, several detection methods are studied, from the most classical to the more recent ones. The experimental comparison in semi-real situation leads to the choice of a detection method: the Extended stochastic matched filter. Position and direction of the neutrino are now estimated with a Gauss-Newton inspired algorithm. This estimator is based on a wave front propagation model and on the time detection information given by the telescope hydro-phones. Performances of the system are then estimated. An antenna structure is then proposed and a global simulation finalizes this thesis. In this simulation, detection and estimation are based on the results found in the previous sections. Underwater sea noise is real and the results of the simulation valid our works. (author)

  17. High spin exotic states and new method for pairing energy; Etats exotiques a hauts spins et nouvelle methode pour l`energie d`appariement nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molique, H.

    1996-01-19

    We present a new method called `PSY-MB`, initially developed in the framework of abstract group theory for the solution of the problem of strongly interacting multi-fermionic systems with particular to systems in an external rotating field. The validity of the new method (PSY-MB) is tested on model Hamiltonians. A detailed comparison between the obtained solutions and the exact ones is performed. The new method is used in the study of realistic nuclear Hamiltonians based on the Woods-Saxon potential within the cranking approximation to study the influence of residual monopole pairing interactions in the rare-earth mass region. In parallel with this new technique we present original results obtained with the Woods-Saxon mean-field and the self-consistent Hartree-Fock approximation in order to investigate such exotic effects as octupole deformations and hexadecapole C{sub 4}-polarizing deformations in the framework of high-spin physics. By developing these three approaches in one single work we prepare the ground for the nuclear structure calculations of the new generation - where the residual two-body interactions are taken into account also in the weak pairing limit. (author). 2370refs.

  18. Experimental and theoretical study of phase transitions under ball milling; Etude experimentale et modelisation des changements de phases sous broyage a haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochet, P

    1998-12-31

    The aim of this work was to determine how phase transition s under ball-milling depend on the milling conditions and to find out if one can rationalize such transitions with the theory of driven alloys. We have chosen two phase transitions: the order-disorder transition in Fe Al and the precipitation-dissolution NiGe. In the case of Fe Al we have found that the steady-state long range order parameter achieved under ball milling intensity; moreover the same degree of order is achieved starting from an ordered alloy or a disordered solid solution. On the way to fully disordered state the degree of order either decreases monotonically or goes through a short lived transient state. This behaviour is reminiscent of a first order transition while the equilibrium transition is second order. All the above features are well reproduced by a simple model of driven alloys, which was originally build for alloys under irradiation. The stationary degree of order results of two competitive atomic jump mechanisms: the forced displacements induced by the shearing of the grains, and the thermally activated jumps caused by vacancies migrations. Finally we have performed atomistic simulations with a Monte Carlo kinetic algorithm, which revealed the role of the fluctuations in the intensity of the forcing. Moreover we have shown that specific atomistic mechanisms are active in a dilute NiGe solid solution which might lead to ball milling induced precipitation in under-saturated solid solution. (author). 149 refs.

  19. High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance of quadrupolar nuclei in solids; Resonance magnetique nucleaire haute-resolution des noyaux quadrupolaires dans les solides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charpentier, Th

    1998-10-23

    After a brief review of existing methods in high-resolution NMR of quadrupolar nuclei, the manipulation of multi-quantum coherencies by radiofrequency pulses is studied. Results are then applied to the determination of optimal conditions for performing the recently introduced multiple-quantum magic-angle experiment (MQMAS). The principles of this new method, the different pulse sequences and the data processing are described in detail. Applications on aluminum hydrates and cement pastes show the improvements of this new technique over the previous ones. In a second part, after an investigation of the Floquet theory, a new formalism has been devised for studying the behavior of a spin submitted to a strong quadrupolar interaction and radiofrequency field in a rotating sample. This formalism is then applied to a quantitative study of the phenomenon of rotational induced adiabatic transfer of coherencies (RIACT). The extension of our theoretical approach to two-dimensional experiments provides a powerful tool for quantitative analyses of MQMAS spectra. Agreement between experimental data and simulations demonstrates the reliability of our approach. Preliminary results concerning the application of MQMAS spectroscopy, using our simulation programs, to structural study of amorphous materials are presented. The third and last part presents a theoretical and experimental investigation of dipolar order in a rotating sample. Two theoretical models are described, the first for the slow spinning speed regime where an adiabatic approximation can be made, and the second for the fast spinning speed regime. (author)

  20. Experimental and theoretical study of phase transitions under ball milling; Etude experimentale et modelisation des changements de phases sous broyage a haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pochet, P

    1997-12-31

    The aim of this work was to determine how phase transition s under ball-milling depend on the milling conditions and to find out if one can rationalize such transitions with the theory of driven alloys. We have chosen two phase transitions: the order-disorder transition in Fe Al and the precipitation-dissolution NiGe. In the case of Fe Al we have found that the steady-state long range order parameter achieved under ball milling intensity; moreover the same degree of order is achieved starting from an ordered alloy or a disordered solid solution. On the way to fully disordered state the degree of order either decreases monotonically or goes through a short lived transient state. This behaviour is reminiscent of a first order transition while the equilibrium transition is second order. All the above features are well reproduced by a simple model of driven alloys, which was originally build for alloys under irradiation. The stationary degree of order results of two competitive atomic jump mechanisms: the forced displacements induced by the shearing of the grains, and the thermally activated jumps caused by vacancies migrations. Finally we have performed atomistic simulations with a Monte Carlo kinetic algorithm, which revealed the role of the fluctuations in the intensity of the forcing. Moreover we have shown that specific atomistic mechanisms are active in a dilute NiGe solid solution which might lead to ball milling induced precipitation in under-saturated solid solution. (author). 149 refs.

  1. High spatial and time resolutions with gas ionization detectors; Hautes resolutions en position et temps avec des detecteurs gazeux a ionisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouthas, J

    2001-09-01

    This document presents the principles and the characteristics of the gaseous ionisation detectors used in position and timing measurements. The first two parts recall the main notions (electron and ion motions, gaseous amplification, signal formation) and their applications to the proportional counter and the wire chamber. The explanation of the signal formation makes use of the Ramo theorem. The third part is devoted to the different types of wire chambers: drift or cathode strip chambers, TPC (time projection chamber). Some aspects on construction and ageing are also presented. Part 4 is on the detectors in which the multiplication is performed by a 'Parallel Plate' system (PPAC, Pestov counter). Special attention is paid to the RPCs (Resistive Plate Chambers) and their timing resolutions. Part 5 concentrates on 'Micro-pattern detectors' which use different kinds of microstructure for gaseous amplification. The new detectors MICROMEGAS, CAT (compteur a trous) and GEM (gas electron multiplier) and some of their applications are presented. The last part is a bibliography including some comments on the documents. (author)

  2. Measurement and Prediction of Volumetric and Transport Properties of Reservoir Fluids At High Pressure Mesure et prédiction des propriétés volumétriques et des propriétés de transport des fluides de gisement à haute pression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Sant'ana H. B.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Discoveries of oil and gas fields under severe conditions of temperature (above 150°C or pressure (in excess of 50 MPa have been made in various regions of the world. In the North Sea, production is scheduled from deep reservoirs at 190°C and 110 MPa. This brings with it important challenges for predicting the properties of reservoir fluids, both from an experimental and a theoretical standpoint. In order to perform fluid studies for these reservoir conditions, IFP has developed a specific mercury-free high pressure apparatus with sapphire windows, a phase sampling device and viscosity determination by the capillary tube method. Its application is illustrated here using examples of real fluids and model mixtures. This equipment was first used to measure volumetric properties for gases. It has been shown that very high compressibility factors can be found with HP-HT gas condensates. This has a strong influence on recovery factors during primary depletion. In order to predict more accurately the volumetric properties of mixtures under these conditions, we propose to use a conventional equation of state, such as Peng-Robinson, with two improvements :- a modified temperature-dependent volume translation method, calibrated for high pressure density data; the method is simple, more accurate than other volume translation methods and fully consistent with lumping procedures;- a quadratic mixing rule on the covolume. Specific phase behavior can also be found. At low temperatures, wax crystallization can occur from a fluid which is a gas condensate at reservoir temperature. This feature is due to the simultaneous presence of abundant methane and heavy paraffins. A study of model fluids in a sapphire cell has allowed us to identify the possible types of phase diagrams. Although generally not considered to be an important parameter, gas viscosity may have some importance in the production of HP-HT accumulations, because of high flow rates. Viscosity

  3. REFLECT: Logiciel de restitution des reflectances au sol pour l'amelioration de la qualite de l'information extraite des images satellitales a haute resolution spatiale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouroubi, Mohamed Yacine

    ) and on the dark targets method to estimated the aerosol optical thickness, representing the most difficult factor to correct. Substantial improvements have been made to the existing models. These improvements essentially concern the aerosols properties (integration of a more recent model, improvement of the dark targets selection to estimate the AOD), the adjacency effect, the adaptation to most used high resolution (Landsat TM and ETM+, all HR SPOT 1 to 5, EO-1 ALI and ASTER) and very high resolution (QuickBird et Ikonos) sensors and the correction of topographic effects with a model that separate direct and diffuse solar radiation components and the adaptation of this model to forest canopy. Validation has shown that ground reflectance estimation with REFLECT is performed with an accuracy of approximately +/-0.01 in reflectance units (for in the visible, near-infrared and middle-infrared spectral bands) even for a surface with varying topography. This software has allowed demonstrating, through apparent reflectance simulations, how much parasite factors influencing numerical values of the images may alter the ground reflectance (errors ranging from 10 to 50%). REFLECT has also been used to examine the usefulness of ground reflectance instead of raw data for various common remote sensing applications in domains such as classification, change detection, agriculture and forestry. In most applications (multi-temporal change monitoring, use of vegetation indices, biophysical parameters estimation, etc.) image correction is a crucial step to obtain reliable results. From the computer environment standpoint, REFLECT is organized as a series of menus, corresponding to different steps of: input parameters introducing, gas transmittances calculation, AOD estimation, and finally image correction application, with the possibility of using the fast option witch process an image of 5000 by 5000 pixels in approximately 15 minutes. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  4. 2005 dossier. ANDRA's researches on the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes. Results and perspectives; Dossier 2005. Les recherches de l'Andra sur le stockage geologique des dechets radioactifs a haute activite et a vie longue. Resultats et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-15

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations (argilites and granites). Content: 1 - Research on deep disposal of radioactive waste: general interest task: Legislative framework, ANDRA scientific objectives, Inspections and assessments; 2 - Designing a safe and reversible disposal system: Repository safety, Reversibility: an essential requirement; 3 - Clay Research on a repository in a clay formation, A long research programme, Dossier 2005 Argile; 4 - Meuse/Haute-Marne site clay: Expected properties of the rock formation, Choice of argillite, Meuse/Haute-Marne site, Conclusions from 10 years of research at the Meuse/Haute-Marne site; 5 - Repository installations: Safe and reversible architecture, Disposal of B waste, Disposal of C waste, Possible disposal of spent fuel (CU); 6 - The disposal facility in operation: From waste packages reception to their disposal in cells, Stages of the progressive closure of engineered structures; 7 - Reversible management: Freedom of choice for future generations, Various closure stages; 8 - Long-term evolution of the repository: Apprehending the repository complexity Main evolutions expected, Slow and limited release of radioactive substances; 9 - Repository safety and impact on man: Several evolution scenarios, Normal evolution, Altered evolution; 10 - Granite Research on a repository in a granite formation: A global approach, Scientific co-operations, Dossier 2005 Granite; 11 - Characteristics of French granite formations: What properties are required for a repository?, Different types of granite formations; 12 - Repository installations: Repository design adapted to granite fractures, Clay seals to prevent water flows, Waste disposal packages ensuring long-term leak-tightness, Physical and chemical environment favourable for waste packages, Architecture

  5. Energy situation september 2002; Conjoncture energetique septembre 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    The monthly situation analysis in France is presented. Statistics are given for energy consumption, demand, import and export. A special attention is given to the primary energy, the solid fuels, the petroleum products, the natural gas and the electric power. (A.L.B.)

  6. Energy situation - September 2007; Conjoncture energetique - septembre 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-10-15

    This report makes a status of the French energy expenses, prices, production, consumption, demand, import and export since January 2005 and up to August 2007. Details are given separately for primary energy, solid mineral fuels, petroleum products, natural gas and electric power. (J.S.)

  7. Simulation du potentiel energetique de la houle au port autonome ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , ont permis d'évaluer les potentiels de vitesses des houles et l'élévation verticale du niveau de la mer. A partir de ces deux paramètres fondamentaux et utilisant les mesures faites par le Millénium Challenge Account (MCA-Bénin) en 2011 ...

  8. Energetic situation. July 1998; Conjoncture energetique. Juillet 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1998-09-01

    This report presents a balance sheet of the French energy situation (domestic demand, national production, consumption, imports, exports, sales, prices, stocks..) in July 1998. Data are presented using graphics and tables and as follows: energy bill of all energy sources (evolution since January 1996), primary energy (energy dependency, consumption after climate correction, CO{sub 2} emissions), solid mineral fuels, petroleum products, natural gas and electric power. (J.S.)

  9. Overall energy situation, January 1998; Conjoncture energetique, janvier 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    This report is an economic review of the French energy data from January 1995 to January 1998: energy demand, imports, exports, prices, national consumption and production of primary energy, solid mineral fuels, petroleum products, natural gas and electric power with climate corrections. (J.S.)

  10. Energy independence versus world market; Independance energetique versus marche mondial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P

    2003-07-01

    The geo-policy is the unity of the rules and political actions coming from taking into account the problem of the national energy demands facing the world energy market. The aim of this paper is to show that these actions are confronted to two paradigms of public policy. One is the research of the energy policy, the other is the effort of building and safety of the world market. (A.L.B.)

  11. Energy situation - February 2009; Conjoncture energetique - fevrier 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-03-15

    This report makes a status of the French energy expenses, prices, production, consumption, demand, import and export since January 2005 or 2007 and up to February 2009. Details are given separately for primary energy, solid mineral fuels, petroleum products, natural gas and electric power. (J.S.)

  12. Energy situation - February 2008; Conjoncture energetique fevrier 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This report makes a status of the French energy expenses, prices, production, consumption, demand, import and export since January 2005 or January 2006 and up to January or February 2008. Details are given separately for primary energy, solid mineral fuels, petroleum products, natural gas and electric power. (J.S.)

  13. effet d'une complementation energetique en periode humide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    La production de lait des chèvres conduites selon le mode extensif. (chèvres du lot .... L'accès aux mères pour la tétée a été effectué comme suit ..... adaptatifs spécifiques se mettent en marche et .... 7th International conference on goats. Paris,.

  14. France: energy prospects for 2050; France: perspectives energetiques pour 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acket, C.; Bacher, P

    2005-07-01

    This study analyzes 4 simple energy policy scenarios and their impact on the abatement of carbon dioxide emissions. The first scenario considers the same consumption rates as today and assumes that no oil and gas shortage and no environmental policy pressure will lead to a significant abatement of CO{sub 2} emissions. Two other extreme scenarios, on the contrary, consider a maximum reduction of the use of fossil fuels, one with the development of nuclear energy and the other without. The last scenario is intermediate between the extreme ones and considers the development of renewable energy sources and the implementation of important energy saving. The backward analysis of these scenarios indicates that nuclear energy and the development of renewable energies is necessary to reach the CO{sub 2} abatement goals expected for 2050 and that energy saving must be a priority. (J.S.)

  15. Energy efficiency: utopia or reality?; Efficacite energetique: utopie ou realite?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2006-04-15

    In its 2006 allocution the world council on the energy WEC, analyzes the role of the energy efficiency in the energy life cycle. In spite of different objectives followed by the developing and developed countries, implement a world energy efficiency economy is a challenge possible by the cooperation.The WEC is an ideal forum for the information and experience exchange. (A.L.B.)

  16. Energy policy of France; Politique energetique de la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revol, H

    2001-07-01

    In November 1997, the French senate decided the creation of an inquiry commission in order to start up a study about the future of the French energy policy. The commission has interviewed the overall actors of the energy policy: ministers, heads of energy companies, higher officials, syndicates, consumer and environment protection associations, scientists and economists. The inquiry has been extended to other countries of the European community, and also to China, Japan, the USA and Canada. Despite various economical contexts and resources, all these countries have developed energy policies which aim at ensuring an energy independence and at supplying energy at the best price for a better economic competitiveness. This report presents first the French experience and the evolution of the French energy policy during the last 50 years with respect to the economical and political constraints encountered. The second part is a reflection about the principles that will guide the French energy policy in the context of deregulation of the European energy market and of the environmental constraints imposed by the Kyoto summit. Detailed proposals for the increase of the French energy independence are presented in conclusion of the report. (J.S.)

  17. Evolution of energy structures; Evolution des structures energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2005-07-01

    Because of the big inertia and long time constants of energy systems, their long-time behaviour is mainly determined by their present day state and by the trends of their recent evolution. For this reason, it is of prime importance to foresee the evolution of the different energy production sources which may play an important role in the future. A status of the world energy consumption and production is made first using the energy statistics of the IEA. Then, using the trends observed since 1973, the consequences of a simple extrapolation of these trends is examined. Finally, the scenarios of forecasting of energy structures, like those supplied by the International institute for applied systems analysis (IIASA) are discussed. (J.S.)

  18. The France energy situation; La situation energetique de la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This analysis of the french energy situation provides information and key data on some key facts about the energy in France, the France energy supply and demand, the major principles of energy policy, the challenges of french energy policy and the DGEMP (general directorate for energy and raw materials). (A.L.B.)

  19. Developing countries` energy requirements; Besoins energetiques des pays en developpement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arques, P. [Ecole Centrale Lyonnaise, 69 - Ecully (France)

    1995-03-01

    The amount of electric power and bacteriologically clean water produced in developing countries today is insufficient for the people`s needs. In order to develop successfully, these countries must necessarily achieve a threshold which, for the whole planet, will come to 1 000 000 MW of electricity. One way this can be done is by building several hundred power plants, with all the concomitant pollution problems. Another solution is Stirling motors, which use the power of sunlight to pump and pasteurize water and to generate electricity for one or more families, or for developmental home industries. (author). 4 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Which future energetic package?; Quel bouquet energetique futur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevallier, B.

    2011-01-15

    In this plenary session presided over by Olivier Appert (President of the IFP new Energies), are considered hypotheses, evolutions or constraints which will orient the making of this package while satisfying the need of people mobility and flashing a searchlight on the conditions and problems raised by the gas development. (O.M.)

  1. The energy situation. September 2008; Conjoncture energetique. Septembre 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Statistics are given on the energy and raw materials production and consumption levels in France in September 2008. Primary energy demand has increased for the petroleum products, stayed stable for the natural gas, decreased for the coal and the electric power. A special attention is given to the primary energy, the solid fuels, the petroleum products, the natural gas and the electric power. (A.L.B.)

  2. Energy situation - March 2008; Conjoncture energetique - mars 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This report makes a status of the French energy expenses, prices, production, consumption, demand, import and export since January 2006 and up to February-March 2008. Details are given separately for primary energy, solid mineral fuels, petroleum products, natural gas and electricity. (J.S.)

  3. Energy situation - April 2008; Conjoncture energetique - avril 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This report makes a status of the French energy expenses, prices, production, consumption, demand, import and export since January 2006 and up to March-April 2008. Details are given separately for primary energy, solid mineral fuels, petroleum products, natural gas and electricity. (J.S.)

  4. Energy statistics France - June 2008; Statistiques energetiques France - juin 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables and graphics the energy statistics for France for the last decades and up to 2007: resources, uses, prices, net imports and domestic market consumption for petroleum, natural gas, electricity, and solid mineral fuels (coal, lignite, coke). 2007 statistics are presented separately for each energy source (availability, uses). The evolution of the domestic energy production and consumption and the end-use consumption per sector is also summarized for the last decades. Some primary consumption forecasts are given for 2030. (J.S.)

  5. Energy situation. November 2007; Conjoncture energetique. Novembre 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-12-15

    This report makes a status of the French energy expenses, prices, production, consumption, demand, import and export since January 2005 and up to October 2007. Details are given separately for primary energy, solid mineral fuels, petroleum products, natural gas and electricity. (J.S.)

  6. Energy situation - May 2008; Conjoncture energetique - mai 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This report makes a status of the French energy expenses, prices, production, consumption, demand, import and export since January 2006 and up to April-May 2008. Details are given separately for primary energy, solid mineral fuels, petroleum products, natural gas and electricity. (J.S.)

  7. Energy situation. January 2008; Conjoncture energetique. Janvier 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-15

    This report makes a status of the French energy expenses, prices, production, consumption, demand, import and export since January 2005 and up to December 2007. Details are given separately for primary energy, solid mineral fuels, petroleum products, natural gas and electricity. (J.S.)

  8. Towards a new energy revolution?; Vers une nouvelle revolution energetique?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabourbin, Sabine

    2011-09-22

    At the time of the 19. century's 'energy revolution', a man was consuming about 20.000 kcal/day. Today, in industrialized countries and if we include all forms of energies (space heating, transport, production, feeding etc.) this consumption reaches up to 230.000 kcal/day. We have reached a 'power society' which has put no limit to its growth needs. However, this growth is based on an immoderate consumption of fossil fuels which are on the way of exhaustion. A new energy revolution appears as inevitable to us, but will it be similar or in opposition to the previous ones? This revolution will have to integrate a new parameter: the need to fit with a sustainable development philosophy. To determine the conditions of this revolution, it is useful to analyse the energy systems from the needs to the resources, in a historical, philosophical and technical manner. Starting from this analysis, this book explores the possibilities to build the transition towards this new energy revolution. (J.S.)

  9. Statistical data on energy. France; Statistiques energetiques. France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    This document summarizes in a series of tables the energy status of France for the year 2001: supplies, consumption and uses, national production, evolution per energy source and per sector of the national production and consumption since 1973, general indicators (evolution of the energy bill, prices, energy independence and gross internal product since 1973), projections. Details about the resources, uses and prices are given separately for petroleum, natural gas, electricity and solid mineral fuels and compared with the average data of the European Union. (J.S.)

  10. Energy situation. August 2000; Conjoncture energetique. Aout 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-09-01

    This report makes a statement of the French energy consumption, demand, import and export since January 1998 and up to August 2000. Details are given separately for primary energy, solid mineral fuels, petroleum products, natural gas and electric power. (J.S.)

  11. Energy situation. July 2002; Conjoncture energetique juillet 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-08-01

    This report makes a status of the French energy expenses, prices, production, consumption, demand, import and export since January 2000 and up to June or July 2002. Details are given separately for primary energy, solid mineral fuels, petroleum products, natural gas and electric power. (J.S.)

  12. Energy prospects in the USA; Les perspectives energetiques aux USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    This article summarizes the main trends of the US national energy plan sustained by the administration of President Bush: national energy policy development (diversification of energy supplies, development of an hydrogen economy), energy legislation (energy saving, development of renewable energy sources, promoting national production, budget discussion), re-launching of the nuclear sector: situation of the nuclear operators, competitiveness of nuclear energy, impact of deregulation on fusion/acquisition operations, role and liability of the federal administration (development of the Yucca Mountain (Nevada) disposal site for spent fuels, 'Nuclear Power 2010' initiative, long-term 'Generation IV' program, advanced fuel cycle program, hydrogen initiative and project of very high temperature reactor (VHTR) at the Idaho national laboratory). (J.S.)

  13. Another possible energy landscape; Un autre paysage energetique possible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-01

    This analysis presents the national energy balances from the national energy accounting. The first part presents the accounting analysis on the electric power consumption and production in France. The second part deals with the global energy accounting, for the energy sources and utilization, together. From these analysis the authors show how the global energy efficiency of production and utilization is possible. Solutions allowing the reduction of the non renewable energies consumption and solution for the nuclear power phaseout are also proposed. (A.L.B.)

  14. Energy situation August 2005; Conjoncture energetique aout 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    The monthly energy situation analysis in France at August 2005 is presented. Statistics are given for energy consumption, demand, import and export. A special attention is given to the primary energy, the solid fuels, the petroleum products, the natural gas and the electric power. (A.L.B.)

  15. Energy situation september 2005; Conjoncture energetique septembre 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-15

    The monthly energy situation analysis in France at september 2005, is presented. Statistics are given for energy consumption, demand, import and export. A special attention is given to the primary energy, the solid fuels, the petroleum products, the natural gas and the electric power. (A.L.B.)

  16. Energy situation, January 2006; Conjoncture energetique, janvier 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    The monthly energy situation analysis in France, at January 2006, is presented. Statistics are given for energy consumption, demand, import and export. A special attention is given to the primary energy, the solid fuels, the petroleum products, the natural gas and the electric power. (A.L.B.)

  17. amelioration de la viscosite et de la densite energetique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Les grains germés de riz et de mil ont été réduits séparément en farine (malt). Dans chaque formule, 95 % de la farine composée ont été ajoutés à 5 % de malt de mil ou de riz. La viscosité et la densité énergétique des bouillies infantiles ont été déterminées. La viscosité de la bouillie contenant le malt de riz a été plus fluide ...

  18. Fixation à haute et moyenne température de l'hydrogène sulfuré par des masses de captation régénérables Hydrogen-Sulfide Fixation At High and Medium Temperature by Regenerable Capture Masses

    OpenAIRE

    Hotier G.

    2006-01-01

    L'intérêt de la désulfuration haute température comparée à la même opération conduite à basse température est renforcé quand la désulfuration a lieu entre deux opérations de niveau thermique élevé comme la gazéification du charbon et la production d'électricité par cycles combinés turbine à gaz-turbine à vapeur. Les masses absorbantes à base d'oxyde de fer peuvent réaliser une bonne désulfuration mais résistent mal aux chocs thermiques. Un agent de régénération particulièrement efficace est l...

  19. On the non-linear nature of the variation, with intensity, of high energy cathode sputtering, and the variation of the latter with temperature (1960); Sur le caractere non lineaire en fonction de l'intensite de la pulverisation cathodique a haute energie et sa variation en fonction de la temperature (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassignol, C; Ranc, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    A new cathode sputtering theory at high energy is presented which has been elaborated in taking in account the non-linearity of this phenomenon with the density of the impinging ions. This theory allows to predict the influence of target temperature on the rate of cathode sputtering. This influence is experimentally demonstrated. (author) [French] On presente, au sujet de la pulverisation cathodique a haute energie, une theorie qui tient compte de la non-linearite de la variation de ce phenomene avec la densite des ions incidents. Cette theorie permet de predire l'influence de la temperature de la cible sur la vitesse de pulverisation cathodique. On demontre l'existence de cette influence par une methode experimentale. (auteur)

  20. Histoire tertiaire de l'Arche de Brahmaputra ; son rôle dans la prospection des hydrocarbures du Haut Assam (Inde (résumé Tertiary History of Brahmaputra Arch. Its Role in Hydrocarbon Prospects of Upper Assam, India (Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murty K. N.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available On analyse l'histoire tertiaire de la plate-forme du Haut Assam (Inde et on discute les facteurs géologiques responsables du caractère pétrolier de cette importante province ainsi que ses relations avec la ceinture mobile de Naga au Sud-Est et avec l'avant-fosse himalayenne au Nord-Ouest. A cette intention, on a préparé des cartes paléologiques pour différentes formations dans la vallée supérieure de l'Assam, basées sur de nombreux puits et levers géophysiques. A partir de ces cartes, on a construit une série de coupes paléogéologiques pour illustrer l'évolution structurale de la plate-forme du haut Assam. Cette étude montre que la structure régionale de la haute vallée de l'Assam est en subsurface une arche large - l'Arche de Brahrnaputra - parallèle à, et juste au sud de la rivière Brahmaputra, formée par un double basculernent opposé : un ancien talus vers le Sud-Est durant le Paléogène et l'autre tourné vers le Nord-Ouest pendant le Mio-Pliocène. On peut identifier deux phases de migration des hydrocarbures. L'étude permet l'affirmation d'objectifs futurs en Haut Assam. Cette arche a une histoire géologique voisine de celle de l'arche de Bend du centre-nord du Texas et de l'arche de Hunton-Seminole-Ozark en Oklahoma où de riches gisements ont été trouvés dans presque tous les terrains impliqués dans le bombement. The Tertiary history of Upper Assam shelf, India is analysed. The geological factors responsible for making this an important petroleum province and ifs relationship with the Nago mobile belt in the south-east and the Himalayan fore deep in the north-vvest ore discussed. Sub-crop maps of différent geological formations in Upper Assam Valley based on a number of drilled wells and various geophysical surveys ore prepared for this purpose. From these maps, a series of palaeogeological sections are constructed to illustrate the structural evolution of the Upper Assam shelf. The study reveals thot the

  1. Technological demonstrators. Researches and studies on the storage and disposal of long living intermediate level and high level radioactive wastes; Les demonstrateurs technologiques. Recherches et etudes sur le stockage et l'entreposage des dechets de haute activite et de moyenne activite a vie longue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This brochure presents the technological demonstrators made by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) and exhibited at Limay (Yvelines, France). These demonstrators, built at scale 1, have been an essential support to the establishment of the 'Dossier 2005' which demonstrates the feasibility of a reversible disposal of long living-intermediate level and high level radioactive wastes in the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite of Meuse-Haute Marne. Two type of demonstrators were built: demonstrators of storage containers for long living-intermediate level wastes and for spent fuels, and dynamic demonstrators for containers handling. This brochure presents these different demonstrators, their characteristics and the results of their tests. (J.S.)

  2. Mobility of Rb{sup +} and Cs{sup +} ions in gases at high pressures; Mobilite des ions Rb{sup +} et Cs{sup +} dans les gaz a haute pression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacconnet, E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    A theoretical study and mobility measurements have been made of Rb{sup +} and Cs{sup +} ions moving in gases at high pressures (10{sup -2} to 25 kg/cm{sup 2}). The theoretical study has been effected using the results of P. Langevin who considers the ions and molecules as elastic spheres and takes into account the electrical polarization forces. The practical work has been carried out using the Rb{sup +} and Cs{sup +} ions emitted by a thermal source; for the measurement of their velocity the method using an ionic beam cut by four grids was employed. Since the source does not work in atmospheres containing oxygen (even in the combined state) the tests only involved pure gases: nitrogen, argon, helium at pressures of from 10{sup -2} to 12 kg/cm{sup 2}. The overall results show that the Rb{sup +} and Cs{sup +} ionic mobilities are very similar and that for fairly-short times spent by the ions in the gas, the measurement results are in agreement with theory. An increase in these times favours a degradation of the ions, which always leads to a decrease in the mobility. This effect is most marked in helium. The gases argon and nitrogen behave identically towards Rb{sup +} and Cs{sup +} ions. (author) [French] Une etude theorique et des mesures de mobilite ont ete effectuees pour des ions Rb{sup +} et Cs{sup +} se deplacant dans des gaz a haute pression (10{sup -2} a 25 kg/cm{sup 2}). L'etude theorique a ete effectuee en utilisant les resultats de P. Langevin qui assimile les ions et les molecules a des spheres elastiques et tient compte des forces de polarisation electrique. L'etude pratique a ete realisee en utilisant des ions Rb{sup +} et Cs{sup +} emis par une source thermique et pour la mesure de leur vitesse, la methode de coupure du faisceau ionique au moyen de quatre grilles a ete adoptee. La source ne fonctionnant pas dans des atmospheres contenant de l'oxygene (meme a l'etat combine) les essais ont seulement porte sur des gaz purs: azote

  3. Influence du comportement des accompagnants sur le vécu des patients admis pour hémorragies digestives hautes au CHU campus de Lomé (Togo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagny, Aklesso; Dusabe, Angelique; Bouglouga, Oumboma; Lawson-ananisoh, Mawuli Late; Kaaga, Yeba Laconi; Djibril, Mohaman Awalou; Soedje, Kokou Mensah; Dassa, Simliwa Kolou; Redah, Datouda

    2014-01-01

    Introduction L'hémorragie digestive haute est une urgence, qui constitue souvent pour les patients un danger mortel suscitant inquiétude et agitation. Dans cet état, le patient dépend de ses accompagnants pour ses soins et pour honorer le traitement; mais souvent, il a été observé une discordance entre l'urgence et les comportements des accompagnants. Le but de cette étude était de décrire les facteurs socioéconomiques et psychologiques pouvant influencer les comportements des accompagnants des patients admis pour HDH, estimer l'indice de relation entre ces comportements et les facteurs associés d'une part et le vécu des patients admis pour HDH d'autre part. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude prospective menée de Septembre 2010 à Juin 2011 (soit 10 mois). Nous avions utilisé l'entretien semi-dirigé et l'observation directe pour collecter nos données, ces dernières avaient été traitées par les méthodes statistiques et d'analyse de contenu. Résultats Dans la présente étude, les comportements des accompagnants des patients admis pour HDH sont en majorité marqués par l'abandon (84%) et le manque de sollicitude (80,2%). Ces comportements sont souvent stimulés par les facteurs socioéconomiques tels que les difficultés économiques (83,2%), des conflits intrafamiliaux (85,1%) et des représentations (maladie incurable ou envoûtement) de la maladie par les accompagnants (73,3%) des cas. Quant aux patients, ils vivent ces comportements comme étant des menaces de mort ou des rejets (77,20%) et comme étant une dévalorisation ou une humiliation de la part de leurs accompagnants (70,30%). Les résultats confirment l'existence de lien significatif entre les comportements des accompagnants et les facteurs socio économiques, entre les comportements des accompagnants et des facteurs psychologiques, et entre le vécu des patients admis pour l'HDH et les comportements des accompagnants. Conclusion Des études ultérieures devraient aborder les points

  4. Mobility of Rb{sup +} and Cs{sup +} ions in gases at high pressures; Mobilite des ions Rb{sup +} et Cs{sup +} dans les gaz a haute pression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacconnet, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    A theoretical study and mobility measurements have been made of Rb{sup +} and Cs{sup +} ions moving in gases at high pressures (10{sup -2} to 25 kg/cm{sup 2}). The theoretical study has been effected using the results of P. Langevin who considers the ions and molecules as elastic spheres and takes into account the electrical polarization forces. The practical work has been carried out using the Rb{sup +} and Cs{sup +} ions emitted by a thermal source; for the measurement of their velocity the method using an ionic beam cut by four grids was employed. Since the source does not work in atmospheres containing oxygen (even in the combined state) the tests only involved pure gases: nitrogen, argon, helium at pressures of from 10{sup -2} to 12 kg/cm{sup 2}. The overall results show that the Rb{sup +} and Cs{sup +} ionic mobilities are very similar and that for fairly-short times spent by the ions in the gas, the measurement results are in agreement with theory. An increase in these times favours a degradation of the ions, which always leads to a decrease in the mobility. This effect is most marked in helium. The gases argon and nitrogen behave identically towards Rb{sup +} and Cs{sup +} ions. (author) [French] Une etude theorique et des mesures de mobilite ont ete effectuees pour des ions Rb{sup +} et Cs{sup +} se deplacant dans des gaz a haute pression (10{sup -2} a 25 kg/cm{sup 2}). L'etude theorique a ete effectuee en utilisant les resultats de P. Langevin qui assimile les ions et les molecules a des spheres elastiques et tient compte des forces de polarisation electrique. L'etude pratique a ete realisee en utilisant des ions Rb{sup +} et Cs{sup +} emis par une source thermique et pour la mesure de leur vitesse, la methode de coupure du faisceau ionique au moyen de quatre grilles a ete adoptee. La source ne fonctionnant pas dans des atmospheres contenant de l'oxygene (meme a l'etat combine) les essais ont seulement porte sur des gaz purs: azote, argon, helium et pour

  5. Hula Black - Eesti haute couture / Maria Ulfsak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ulfsak, Maria, 1981-

    2003-01-01

    Esitleti uut Hula noortekomplekti Black, mille autorid on Anu Lensmant, Marit Ahven, Reet Ulfsak, Eve Hanson, Ruta Tepp, Ketlin Bachmann ja ehtekunstnikud Andrus Rumm, Julia-Maria Pihlak, Tanel Veenre

  6. High temperature materials; Materiaux a hautes temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this workshop is to share the needs of high temperature and nuclear fuel materials for future nuclear systems, to take stock of the status of researches in this domain and to propose some cooperation works between the different research organisations. The future nuclear systems are the very high temperature (850 to 1200 deg. C) gas cooled reactors (GCR) and the molten salt reactors (MSR). These systems include not only the reactor but also the fabrication and reprocessing of the spent fuel. This document brings together the transparencies of 13 communications among the 25 given at the workshop: 1) characteristics and needs of future systems: specifications, materials and fuel needs for fast spectrum GCR and very high temperature GCR; 2) high temperature materials out of neutron flux: thermal barriers: materials, resistance, lifetimes; nickel-base metal alloys: status of knowledge, mechanical behaviour, possible applications; corrosion linked with the gas coolant: knowledge and problems to be solved; super-alloys for turbines: alloys for blades and discs; corrosion linked with MSR: knowledge and problems to be solved; 3) materials for reactor core structure: nuclear graphite and carbon; fuel assembly structure materials of the GCR with fast neutron spectrum: status of knowledge and ceramics and cermets needs; silicon carbide as fuel confinement material, study of irradiation induced defects; migration of fission products, I and Cs in SiC; 4) materials for hydrogen production: status of the knowledge and needs for the thermochemical cycle; 5) technologies: GCR components and the associated material needs: compact exchangers, pumps, turbines; MSR components: valves, exchangers, pumps. (J.S.)

  7. DEKOratsii haute couture v Tallinne / Anastasia Kutitskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kutitskaja, Anastasia

    2004-01-01

    Valentin Judashkini uuest kõrgmoekollektsioonist "Deco" sügis-talveks 2003-2004. Tallinnas demonstreeriti kollektsiooni 19. detsembril Sakala keskuses. Illustreeritud 14 värvifotoga Viktor Vesterinenilt

  8. Energy policy conference on the regulation of energy industries; Conference de politique energetique sur la regulation des industries energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-01

    This document is the report of the conference meeting jointly organized by the French general plan commission and the general direction of energy and raw materials on the regulation of energy industries: 1 - the changes in the regulation of public utilities in competition: harmonization, respect of impartiality and social cohesion, organization of a loyal competition, specialized regulation and regulation of competition, open debates; 2 - towards an homogenous model of regulatory authority?: the US model (collegial and hybrid organizations), the UK model (individual and independent), missions of regulation and institutional 'meccano', theory and practice, draft classification of the institutional approaches of IEA countries (role of ministries and regulatory agencies), independent regulatory authorities or not, significant differences in converging models, dominant types of regulation in the different sectors, situation of the French energy regulatory system (institutional plan, regulation processes, relations of the regulation authority with the government), reasons of the differences between different countries, expected evolution of the regulation systems in the coming years. (J.S.)

  9. Energy policy conference on the regulation of energy industries; Conference de politique energetique sur la regulation des industries energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-01

    This document is the report of the conference meeting jointly organized by the French general plan commission and the general direction of energy and raw materials on the regulation of energy industries: 1 - the changes in the regulation of public utilities in competition: harmonization, respect of impartiality and social cohesion, organization of a loyal competition, specialized regulation and regulation of competition, open debates; 2 - towards an homogenous model of regulatory authority?: the US model (collegial and hybrid organizations), the UK model (individual and independent), missions of regulation and institutional 'meccano', theory and practice, draft classification of the institutional approaches of IEA countries (role of ministries and regulatory agencies), independent regulatory authorities or not, significant differences in converging models, dominant types of regulation in the different sectors, situation of the French energy regulatory system (institutional plan, regulation processes, relations of the regulation authority with the government), reasons of the differences between different countries, expected evolution of the regulation systems in the coming years. (J.S.)

  10. High-voltage-powered transistorized preamplifier; Pre-amplificateur transistorise avec alimentation haute tension; Vysokovol'tnyj ehnergeticheskij predvaritel'nyj usilitel' na tranzistorakh; Preamplificador transistorizado alimentado con alta tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Jr, W E; Wakefield, A W [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1962-04-15

    utilise un cable coaxial a basse impedance pour la ligne de transmission et un circuit a cathode asservie ou du type emetteur asservi pour obtenir l'adaptation d'impedance necessaire. Les auteurs decrivent un circuit a emetteur asservi inedit, mis au point a l'Universite de l'Etat de Washington ou il a donne d'excellents resultats. Ce circuit emetteur asservi est inedit en ce sens que le circuit transistorise est branche sur la haute tension qui alimente le compteur de rayonnements. Les deux transistors a jonction pnp montes dans le preamplificateur donnent un gain de tension de un sur l'ensemble de la gamme dynamique, qui s'etend de 1 mV a 5 V. Une petite diode Zener assure la stabilite de la tension de travail dans le circuit emetteur asservi. La consommation de courant d'un ensemble type detecteur-emetteur asservi-cable intermediaire se situe entre 0,35 et 0,65 milliamperes lorsque la haute tension alimentant le detecteur varie de 800 a 1500 volts. Le dispositif permet de transmettre des signaux sur une ligne coaxiale de 500 pieds (152 m environ) de long et d'une impedance de 52 ohms, moyennant une perte d'amplitude de l'ordre de 25%; il a donne d'excellents resultats avec des detecteurs a scintillations et des detecteurs de neutrons a BF{sub 3}. (author) [Spanish] Uno de los problemas que suelen plantearse en la electronica nuclear es el de acoplar la senal procedente de un detector de radiaciones, de tipo de impulsos, cuya impedancia sea elevada a una linea de transmision de baja impedancia. Asi por ejemplo los detectores de radiaciones a menudo estan separados por distancias considerables de su equipo electronico asociado y es preciso encontrar una manera eficaz de transmitir la senal del detector a dicho equipo electronico. En la practica, para lograr el ajuste de impedancias requerido, se utiliza un cable coaxial de baja impedancia en la linea de transmision y un amplificador catodico o su analogo transistorizado. En este documento se describe un circuito

  11. Croissance epitaxiale de GaAs sur substrats de Ge par epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Simon

    La situation energetique et les enjeux environnementaux auxquels la societe est confrontee entrainent un interet grandissant pour la production d'electricite a partir de l'energie solaire. Parmi les technologies actuellement disponibles, la filiere du photovoltaique a concentrateur solaire (CPV pour concentrator photovoltaics) possede un rendement superieur et mi potentiel interessant a condition que ses couts de production soient competitifs. La methode d'epitaxie par faisceaux chimiques (CBE pour chemical beam epitaxy) possede plusieurs caracteristiques qui la rendent interessante pour la production a grande echelle de cellules photovoltaiques a jonctions multiples a base de semi-conducteurs III-V. Ce type de cellule possede la meilleure efficacite atteinte a ce jour et est utilise sur les satellites et les systemes photovoltaiques a concentrateur solaire (CPV) les plus efficaces. Une des principales forces de la technique CBE se trouve dans son potentiel d'efficacite d'utilisation des materiaux source qui est superieur a celui de la technique d'epitaxie qui est couramment utilisee pour la production a grande echelle de ces cellules. Ce memoire de maitrise presente les travaux effectues dans le but d'evaluer le potentiel de la technique CBE pour realiser la croissance de couches de GaAs sur des substrats de Ge. Cette croissance constitue la premiere etape de fabrication de nombreux modeles de cellules solaires a haute performance decrites plus haut. La realisation de ce projet a necessite le developpement d'un procede de preparation de surface pour les substrats de germanium, la realisation de nombreuses sceances de croissance epitaxiale et la caracterisation des materiaux obtenus par microscopie optique, microscopie a force atomique (AFM), diffraction des rayons-X a haute resolution (HRXRD), microscopie electronique a transmission (TEM), photoluminescence a basse temperature (LTPL) et spectrometrie de masse des ions secondaires (SIMS). Les experiences ont permis

  12. Basse-Normandie Energy and Climate Observatory - OBNEC: Renewable energy production and energy efficiency in Basse-Normandie (Situation 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 - Evolution 2004-2010, 2004-2011, 2004-2012, 2004-2013), Final energy production and consumption in Basse-Normandie (Situation 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 - Evolution 2004-2010, 2008-2011, 2008-2012, 2004-2014). Haute-Normandie Energy and Climate Observatory (Data 2012-2013), Haute-Normandie Climate-Air-Energy situation - Inventory of energies and of greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions (Reference year 2005 - Release 2011)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamy, Francoise; Lefrancois, Guillaume

    2005-01-01

    With slight differences from on year to the other, these publications propose a regional synthesis of renewable energy production and energy efficiency, and overviews of renewable electric production by different sources, of renewable heat production by different sources, of biogas production, of a follow-up of the regional Climate-Air-Energy scheme (SRCAE), and of energy efficiency in different sectors for the Basse-Normandie region. Another publication proposes a renewable energy assessment for the whole Haute-Normandie region with a presentation of the territory, an overview of its electric power production and consumption, a presentation of its regional schemes, and an overview of the situation and evolution of the different renewable energies for the 2012-2013 period with a distinction between those producing electricity, those producing electricity and heat, and those producing heat. The next publications present maps, graphs and comments of results obtained by an energy inventory and an inventory of greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions. These results are first presented as a whole, and then for the industrial, the housing, the office building, the transport, and the agriculture sectors

  13. Some properties of matter at very HTGH temperatures and high pressures (equations of state, opacity); Quelques proprietes de la matiere aux tres hautes temperatures et fortes pressions (equation d'etat, opacite)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervat, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-06-15

    studying the influence of compressions on the band structure. (author) [French] Les equations de Thomas-Fermi, apparues comme approximation d'ordre zero des equations d'Hartree-Fock permettent d'etudier certains comportements de la matiere a haute pression. Dans un premier chapitre nous envisageons le calcul de grandeurs ne necessitant pas la resolution de l'equation de SCHOEDINGER. La grandeur des corrections quantiques et d'echange definissent le domaine de validite de la theorie. Pour chaque couple R et T, on peut calculer la pression et l'energie, pans le calcul de cette derniere, nous ayons du, dans la region voisine du noyau ou les-corrections divergent, remplacer la densite donnee par la theorie de Thomas-Fermi par celle deduite des fonctions d'onde qui, dans cette petite region, different tres peu de celle d'un atome d'hydrogene de charge z. Le calcul du degre d'ionisation est particulierement simple et evite la resolution des equations de SAHA. En plus de la repartition des electrons dans l'espace des r on peut aisement determiner la repartition suivant la valeur du nombre quantique I, et ce, pour chaque valeur du couple R, T. Dans le second chapitre, l'introduction du potentiel de Thomas et Fermi dans l'equation de SCHROEDINGER permet d'obtenir le spectre des energies propres d'un atome isole modele, sense representer un atome moyen de la matiere chaude et comprimee. La variation des niveaux avec la pression et la temperature s'en deduit. L'interpretation du phenomene d'ionisation par pression est particulierement simple dans ce modele. La variation des niveaux avec la pression et la temperature s'en deduit. L'interpretation du phenomene d'ionisation par pression est particulierement simple dans ce modele. La connaissance des fonctions d'onde permet le calcul des probabilites de transition,lesquelles, couplees avec les probabilites d ccupation autorisent le calcul des coefficients d'opacite. Seules les transitions lie-libre et libre-libre ont ete envisagees, mais

  14. Difficulty in assessing low 3H, 14C and 36Cl concentrations in old groundwaters and its implication for groundwater dating - ANDRA 2007/2008 drilling program (Meuse/Haute-Marne)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-Baptiste, P.; Fourre, E.; Dapoigny, A.; Michelot, J.L.; Massault, M.; Noret, A.; Rebeix, R.; Le Gal La Salle, C.; Aquilina, L.; Labasque, T.; Vinsot, A.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In 2007-2008, the French Nuclear Waste Agency (Andra) carried out a drilling campaign in the vicinity of its underground laboratory of Bure (Meuse/Haute-Marne), over an area of ∼400 km 2 . The objective was to obtain a detailed description of the geophysical, geological and transport properties of the 150 m thick Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) clay layer in order to check the homogeneity of this geological formation which is potentially suitable for establishing a nuclear waste deep repository. As part of this program, water samples were taken from the two limestone formations adjacent to the COx, to analyse the geochemical and isotopic characteristics of these two deep aquifers and investigate their interactions with the COx layer. Multiple permeable layers were identified in the thickness of the carbonate formations which offered the very interesting opportunity to investigate groundwater circulation in individual permeable layers within the aquifer. As the age of these groundwaters is clearly beyond the detection limit for tritium and also presumably for radiocarbon, the analysis of both tracers was designed as a check of the quality of the samples and possible mixing with younger waters within the boreholes. Besides, CFC and SF 6 samples were collected in the same purpose. Tritium was measured at the LSCE-Saclay noble gas facility using helium-3 mass spectrometry, with a limit of detection limit of 0.1 TU (the detection limit is defined as the minimum concentration of a substance being analyzed that has a 99 percent probability of being identified, thus corresponding to 3-sigma at the blank level). The radiocarbon samples were prepared at IDES (Orsay) and measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LMC14 (Saclay, Artemis facility, INSU national service). The detection limit was usually lower than 0.2 pmC, corresponding to a radiocarbon apparent age of ∼50 Kyr. CFC and SF 6 were measured at Geosciences

  15. Utilisation des polymères organiques durant le forage et la cimentation des puits à haute température Using Organic Polymers During Drilling and Cementing of High Temperature Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans les puits pétroliers, par suite de l'accroissement de la profondeur, des températures statiques de fond voisines de 250 °C seront probablement atteintes dans un très proche avenir. Dans les puits géothermiques à haute énergie, cette limite est déjà largement dépassée avec des températures pouvant aller jusque 400 °C. II est indispensable que les fluides de forage et les matériaux de cimentation alors mis en oeuvre possèdent des stabilités suffisantes. Pour les fluides de forage, à base d'eau et à base d'huile, il convient de prévenir, à l'aide d'additifs, les évolutions réversibles et irréversibles des caractéristiques de viscosité et de filtration durant le cycle ou pendant des arrêts de circulation de quelques heures. Ces additifs sont, pour la plupart, des polymères susceptibles de se disperser dans la phase liquide. Mais actuellement leur stabilité ne permet guère d'envisager l'utilisation des fluides à base d'eau au-delà de 260 °C et celle des fluides à base d'huile au-delà de 285 °C. Pour les cimentations, il peut être souhaitable de remplacer le ciment hydraulique habituellement employé par un matériau de masse volumique plus faible et/ou de durabilité accrue. Pendant toute la vie du puits, prévue pour 20 à 30 ans, ce matériau devra assurer l'étanchéité de l'annulaire et conserver sa résistance mécanique. II devra, de plus, supporter l'environnement parfois agressif des eaux de formation. Des recherches de laboratoire sur de nouveaux matériaux de cimentation ont été orientées vers des résines organiques et des composés à base d'organosiloxanes. Elles conduisent à sélectionner des formules stables jusqu'à 300 °C. Mais les possibilités de mise en oeuvre sur puits restent encore à étudier et le coût élevé des produits de base risque de limiter leur application. Static downhole temperatures of around 250°C will probably be reached in the very near future in oil wells as the

  16. Caractérisation spatio-temporelle du régime pluviométrique du haut bassin du fleuve Sénégal dans un contexte de variabilité climatique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Dezetter

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Les écoulements et par conséquent les ressources en eau constituent la réponse des bassins versants aux impulsions pluviométriques. En Afrique de l'Ouest et Centrale, on assiste depuis les années 1970 à une sécheresse sans précédent, ainsi qu'à une grande variabilité spatiale et temporelle des pluies, caractéristique du domaine tropical. L'objectif de ce travail est de définir la variabilité spatio-temporelle des précipitations à l'échelle du haut-bassin du fleuve Sénégal à partir des données de dix stations de référence. Le choix des stations obéit à des critères de qualité des données (lacunes peu nombreuses et de proximité avec le bassin versant. Dans un premier temps, des tests statistiques d'homogénéité ont été appliqués aux séries de pluies annuelles de l'origine des stations à 2005. Les séries analysées présentent toutes des ruptures. Sur les dix stations étudiées, huit présentent une rupture comprise entre 1960 et 1970 et les déficits ultérieurs varient entre 12 et 24 %. À l'échelle mensuelle, après reconstitution des données manquantes, il apparaît que les précipitations ont diminué significativement pour presque tous les mois entre les deux périodes. À l'échelle journalière, l'analyse des fractions pluviométriques journalières met en évidence une tendance à la diminution du cumul annuel moyen des pluies supérieures à 40 mm (qui sont considérées comme les grosses pluies à partir des années de rupture. Nous avons ensuite caractérisé la variabilité spatiale des précipitations annuelles moyennes sur 30 et 10 ans, puis les écarts par rapport à la décennie de référence 1961-1970. Il apparaît ainsi que le sud du bassin présente les excédents les plus forts durant les périodes excédentaires, mais aussi les déficits les plus élevés en périodes déficitaires.Runoff and consequently water resources constitute the response of watersheds to pluviometric impulses

  17. 3D hydro-mechanical homogenization and equivalent continuum properties of a fractured porous clay-stone around a gallery: application to the damaged and fractured zone at the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ababou, Rachid; Canamon, Israel; Poutrel, Adrien

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The present work focuses on 3D homogenization, or 'up-scaling', of coupled Hydro-Mechanical (HM) equations and coefficients in a water-filled fractured and fissured porous clay rock. The parameters used in the up-scaling calculations correspond to the Meuse / Haute-Marne (MHM) Underground Research Laboratory (URL) located at Bure and operated by ANDRA (France). We focus on the fractured zone around a cylindrical excavation (gallery 'GMR') located in the Callovo-Oxfordian formation, a thick 130 m clay-stone layer between depths 400 m and 600 m. For up-scaling, we take into account two different sets of hydraulic and mechanical parameters: (i) the permeability and the stiffness coefficients of the intact porous matrix, and (ii) the crack properties, including their apertures, their hydraulic transmissivity (Darcy/Poiseuille), and their specific normal/shear stiffnesses. The geometry of cracks is summarized below. We consider two different types of 'cracks': (I) relatively small decimeter-scale 'dense fractures'; and (II) large distinct shear fractures organized in a 'chevron' pattern. A synthetic set comprising both the 'dense fractures' and the 'large fractures' is generated in 3D. Each subset is generated as follows: I. A statistical isotropic system of small fractures ('fissures'), consisting of isotropically oriented planar discs, with random diameters, apertures, and positions. All statistics are radially inhomogeneous, e.g., density decreases away from the wall. II. A periodic set of large curved fractures, organized along the axis of the gallery in a 'chevron' pattern. Each curved fracture is individually modelled as a parametric conoidal surface. Each surface is then discretized as a set of triangular patches. The local HM coefficients of the water-filled porous rock, with dense near-wall fractures and large distinct 'chevron' fractures, are homogenized using a quasi-linear superposition approach. This leads

  18. Soft Tissue Strain Rates in Side-Blast Incidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-02

    increase of strain rate is known to cause the stiffening of soft connective tissues ( Haut and Haut 1997 [49]; Panjabi et al. 1998 [50]; Crisco et al...Réseau Québécois de Calcul de Haute Performance, with a peak compute performance of 27 596 GFlops). Figure 2: Torso motion imposed in the model...Yan YP. 2003. Mechanical properties of nasal fascia and periosteum. Clinical Biomechanics. 18:760-764. [49] Haut TL, Haut RC. 1997. The state of

  19. System Properties and Control of Turbocharged Diesel Engines with High-and Low-Pressure EGR Propriétés système et contrôle de moteurs Diesel turbocompressés avec EGR haute et basse pression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrosek M.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available An extension of the air-and exhaust-system with a low-pressure EGR has the potential to significantly reduce the NOx emissions. Besides a cooled high-pressure EGR and the turbocharger with variable geometry turbine, the low-pressure EGR introduces an additional degree of freedom to control the cylinder charge. This increasing complexity of the air system can be handled with model based control structures and a model based controller calibration. Its static and dynamic properties are investigated. Besides the static couplings in the classical air path, additional couplings appear. A decentralised gain scheduled PI(D-control approach is chosen to control the variables air mass flow rate, high-pressure EGR mass flow rate and charge air pressure. An automated controller calibration, based on a semi-physical mean value model of reduced complexity, is presented. The controller maps depend on the engine operation point and are calibrated by a local linearisation of the semi-physical model. Further, a semi-physical control is capable to almost solely control the air mass flow rate via the low-pressure EGR actuators. This control implicitly accounts for couplings between charge air pressure, high-pressure EGR and the low-pressure EGR system. Finally testbed results are shown. Une extension du système d’air et d’échappement au moyen d’EGR basse pression peut potentiellement réduire significativement les émissions de NOx. À côté de l’EGR haute pression refroidi et du turbocompresseur à turbine à géométrie variable, l’EGR basse pression introduit un degré de liberté supplémentaire pour contrôler la charge du cylindre. Cette complexité croissante du système d’air peut être traitée à l’aide de structures de contrôle et d’un étalonnage de régulateur basés sur des modèles. Ses propriétés statiques et dynamiques sont étudiées. En dehors des couplages statiques dans la boucle d’air classique, des couplages

  20. Environmental Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Lindelof, Anja Mølle

    from the perspective of time and liveness as experienced in art on environmental performance discussing how environmental performances frame the temporality of the world. The paper engages with contemporary examples of environmental performances from various disciplines (sound, video, television...

  1. Highly Relevant Mentoring (HRM as a Faculty Development Model for Web-Based Instruction / Highly Relevant Mentoring (HRM (mentorat haute efficacité, un modèle de formation du corps professoral à l’enseignement en réseau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Carter

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a faculty development model called the highly relevant mentoring (HRM model; the model includes a framework as well as some practical strategies for meeting the professional development needs of faculty who teach web-based courses. The paper further emphasizes the need for faculty and administrative buy-in for HRM and examines relevant theories that may be used to guide HRM in web-based teaching environments. Of note is that HRM was conceived by the instructional design staff who contributed to this paper before the concept of high impact mentoring appeared in the recent literature (2009. While the model is appropriate in various disciplines and professions, the examples and scenarios provided are drawn from a Canadian university’s experience of using HRM, in conjunction with a pedagogical approach called ICARE, in a variety of nursing courses and programs. Cet article décrit un modèle de formation du personnel enseignant intitulé « highly relevant mentoring (HRM » (mentorat haute efficacité; ce modèle comprend une structure et des stratégies pratiques visant à combler les besoins en formation du corps professoral d’une faculté offrant des cours en réseau. L’article souligne la nécessité d’un appui facultaire et administratif au HRM et étudie les théories pertinentes pouvant servir à guider le HRM dans des milieux d’enseignement en réseau. On notera que le HRM a été conçu par l’équipe de conception de matériel pédagogique qui a contribué à cet article avant l’apparition, dans les publications récentes (2009, du concept de « high impact mentoring » (mentorat à haut rendement. Bien que ce dernier modèle convienne à diverses disciplines et professions, les exemples et les scénarios fournis ici sont tirés de l’expérience d’utilisation du HRM dans une université canadienne, conjointement à une approche pédagogique appelée ICARE, dans une variété de cours et de programmes

  2. Présentation d'une boucle prototype de pompe à chaleur à absorption haute température industrielle de 100 kW Description of a 100-Kw Prototype Loop for an Industrial High-Temperature Absorption Heat-Pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available II apparait indispensable, dans le contexte énergétique actuel, de mettre au point de nouvelles techniques de revalorisation d'énergie. Les pompes à chaleur à absorption peuvent, dans certains secteurs industriels, apporter des solutions particulièrement intéressantes par rapport aux pompes à chaleur à compression notamment, en particulier dans le domaine des hautes températures de revalorisation (120-150 °C. Pour mener à bien les études entreprises sur ce thème, le Gaz de France travaille en étroite collaboration avec l'Institut du Génie Chimique de Toulouse et la Société Creusot-Loire. Dans une première partie, les auteurs rappellent les principes de fonctionnement des pompes à chaleurs à absorption et leurs caractères spécifiques. Quelques exemples d'applications industrielles sont proposés. Ils présentent, dans une deuxième partie, la boucle prototype de 100 kW qui a été réalisée et décrivent ses caractéristiques, son cycle de fonctionnement et le programme des essais. Ce pilote de taille semi-industrielle utilise le couple eau-bromure de lithium. La définition d'un prototype industriel de pompe à chaleur à absorption haute température et les compléments de recherche entrepris dans ce domaine constituent la troisième partie de la communication. In the present energy context, it seems absolutely necessary to develop new techniques for energy upgrading. In some industrial sectors, absorption heat pumps may bring particularly interesting solutions compared, in particular, to compression heat pumps, especially in the field of high-temperature upgrading (120-150°C. Reasearch is being done in this field by Gaz de France in close collaboration with the Institut du Génie Chimique in Toulouse and with Creusot-Loire. ,The first part of this article reviews the operating principles of absorption heat pumps and their specific features. Some examples of industrial applications are then proposed. The second part

  3. Evaluation des bibliothèques HES, sélection et définition d'indicateurs de performance et de qualité: répondre à une directive

    OpenAIRE

    Bezençon, Christophe; Gorin, Michel

    2009-01-01

    La Commission spécialisée des bibliothèques HES (CBH), organe de la Conférence des recteurs d es hautes écoles spécialisées suisses (KFH), a identifié la nécessité, dans le contexte académique actuel, de joindre à son projet de Directive pour la bibliothèque HES une collection d’indicateurs de performance et de qualité pour permettre aux bibliothèques de mesurer leur degré d’accomplissement des exigences issues de cette Directive. La sélection, la définition et l’explicitation de ces indicate...

  4. Environmental Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelof, Anja Mølle; Schmidt, Ulrik; Svabo, Connie

    2017-01-01

    Do ants and grasshoppers perform? Do clouds, plants and melting ice? Do skyscrapers, traffic jams and computer vira? And what happens to our understanding of liveness if that is the case? This chapter takes ongoing theoretical disputes about the nature of live performance in performance studies...... as its starting point to investigate liveness within a specific kind of contemporary performance: ‘environmental performances’. Environmental performances are arts practices that take environmental processes as their focus by framing activities of non-human performers such as clouds, wind and weeds - key...

  5. BioDiesel as Additive in High Pressure and Temperature Steam Recovery of Heavy Oil and Bitumen Utilisation d’un biogazole comme additif pour la récupération d’huile lourde et de bitume par injection de vapeur à hautes pression et température

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babadagli T.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Use of additives to improve the efficiency of thermal heavy oil and bitumen recovery processes has been studied extensively over the decades. Two common types of additives used in thermal applications, mainly steam assisted recovery, are solvents and surfactants. Commercial use of solvents has setbacks due to their high costs and retrieval difficulties. Cost and stability of the surfactants under reservoir operating temperature and pressure are the major concerns. We propose the use of bioDiesel such as fatty acids methyl ester as a surfactant additive reducing heavy oil/bitumen-water interfacial tension in steam assisted recovery processes. Advantages of using bioDiesel as a surfactant additive are that bioDiesel is chemically stable under the operating pressure and temperature of the reservoir, it causes no harm on bitumen fuel quality and on release water chemistry and its use is economically feasible. We conducted a series of steam assisted bitumen recovery experiments to clarify the additional recovery potential and efficiency improvement capacity of bioDiesel. High pressure steam at 1.8 MPa pressure, 205°C was used in these tests at a 900 g/h feed rate. The porous media used was a normal grade oil sands ore obtained from a surface mine operation in Northern Alberta, Canada. Oil sands ore was packed in a basket and placed in a high pressure cell. Bitumen recovery experiments were performed by spraying canola oil fatty acid methyl ester on oil sands ore at a 2 g/kg-bitumen dosage. These tests show that bitumen recovery efficiency increases over 40%. In another series of tests, tall oil fatty acids methyl ester was injected into a high pressure steam line at a 8.3 g-bioDiesel/kg-steam dosage. Because of the solubility of bioDiesel in bitumen, the effect of bioDiesel on bitumen recovery could not be accurately concluded. Vapor pressure measurements performed on canola oil and tall oil derived bioDiesel samples suggest that saturation

  6. Caractérisation expérimentale du comportement mécanique d'assemblage haute température pour l'électronique de puissance Experimental characterization of the mechanical behavior of high-temperature assembly for power electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baazaoui Ahlem

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Le comportement mécanique de deux types de connexion haute température mises en œuvre pour l'assemblage de composants d'électronique de puissance a été étudié : une jonction réalisée par brasage en phase liquide transitoire (TLPB d'Ag-In et une autre par brasage d'un eutectique Au88Ge12. Les connexions réalisées à partir d'inserts de cuivre sont caractérisées mécaniquement au moyen d'essais de cisaillement. Une analyse de la microstructure des jonctions en coupe et des faciès de rupture des deux connexions a également été menée. The mechanical behavior of two types of high-temperature connection implemented in the assembly of electronic power components was studied: a joint made by brazing transient liquid phase (TLPB Ag-In and in another by brazing Au88Ge12. Connections made are mechanically characterized using shear tests. The microstructure of the junction section and the fracture surfaces of both connections was also observed.

  7. Etude métallurgique du soudage par friction malaxage sur un acier à haute limite élastique destiné à la construction navale : le 80 HLES Metallurgical study of friction stir welding on a steel high yield for shipbuilding: The 80 HLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allart Marion

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Le soudage par friction malaxage est un procédé de soudage relativement récent (début des années 90. Il est aujourd'hui utilisé couramment sur des alliages légers mais ne l'est que depuis peu sur les aciers. L'objectif de nos travaux est de chercher à caractériser la microstructure métallurgique et l'état de déformation et de contrainte après soudage par friction malaxage sur des échantillons d'aciers à haute limite élastique utilisés dans l'industrie navale. Nous chercherons à comprendre les phénomènes métallurgiques qui interviennent en cours de soudage. The friction stir welding is a welding process relatively recent (early 90s. It is now commonly used on light alloys but is only recently on steels. The objective of our work is to try to characterize the metallurgical microstructure and state of stress and strain after friction stir welding on samples of high strength steels used in the shipbuilding industry. We seek to understand the metallurgical phenomena that occur during welding.

  8. Performing Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wallpach, Sylvia; Hemetsberger, Andrea; Espersen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    performative approaches to branding, this study applies a performativity theory perspective. Brand performances—encompassing playing and liking, basement building and showcasing, creating and innovating, community building and facilitating, storytelling, missionizing, and marketplace developing—exhibit generic...

  9. Dj Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dj Performance at a late concert at The Hub, Plymouth, in support of Sileni, Superconductor and others.......Dj Performance at a late concert at The Hub, Plymouth, in support of Sileni, Superconductor and others....

  10. Performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-05-01

    This book introduces energy and resource technology development business with performance analysis, which has business division and definition, analysis of current situation of support, substance of basic plan of national energy, resource technique development, selection of analysis index, result of performance analysis by index, performance result of investigation, analysis and appraisal of energy and resource technology development business in 2007.

  11. The Application of Non-Metallic Core Materials in a High-Temperature Reactor Experiment; Utilisation de materes non metalliques dans le coeur d'un reacteur experimental a haute temperature; Ispol'zovanie nemetallicheskikh materialov dlya aktivnoj zony vysokotemperaturnogo opytnogo reaktora; Empleo de materiales no metalicos en el nucleo de un reactor experimental de alta temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huddle, R. A.U.; Shepherd, L. R. [Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development, Dragon Project, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1963-11-15

    The OECD High-Temperature Reactor Project (DRAGON) was set up to develop the technology of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors and, as part of this development, to construct and operate a 20-MW(t) reactor experiment. The reactor, which is now nearing completion, is a helium-cooled system with a coreoutlet temperature of 750{sup o}C; it employs U{sup 235} fuel with thorium as a fertile material. A particular feature of this system is the absence of any metals in the core. Because of the high temperatures involved, namely, up to 1050{sup o}C at fuel element surfaces and above, 1500{sup o}C in-the hottest regions of the fuel, refractory nonmetallic materials are employed. All the core material is incorporated within the fuel element which leads to a high ratio of heat transfer surface area to core volume and hence permits a high average power density leading to a relatively compact system. Each fuel element consists of a cluster of graphite tubes, containing the fissile and fertile materials as carbides incorporated in graphite pellets. A purge flow of the helium coolant passing through the centre of each fuel rod is extracted from the base whence it passes into a helium processing plant to remove fission products and other impurities before being returned to the reactor. This procedure reduces the escape of fission products from the very hot ceramic fuel into the primary coolant stream. Problems associated with the development and production of ceramic fuel bodies and graphite for this reactor, and the behaviour of these materials under operating conditions are outlined. Some experience from irradiation and in-pile loop investigations are reported. The main emphasis in this programme is on the development of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor for application as an economic power producing system. (author) [French] Les objectifs du Projet DRAGON de l'OCDE (reacteur a haute temperature) sont les suivants: ameliorer la technologie des reacteurs a haute temperature

  12. Performative Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beunza, Daniel; Ferraro, Fabrizio

    2018-01-01

    by attending to the normative and regulative associations of the device. We theorize this route to performativity by proposing the concept of performative work, which designates the necessary institutional work to enable translation and the subsequent adoption of the device. We conclude by considering...... the implications of performative work for the performativity and the institutional work literatures.......Callon’s performativity thesis has illuminated how economic theories and calculative devices shape markets, but has been challenged for its neglect of the organizational, institutional and political context. Our seven-year qualitative study of a large financial data company found that the company...

  13. Gender & performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röttger, K.; Buchheim, E.; Groot, M.; Jonker, E.; Müller-Schirmer, A.; de Vos, M.; Walhout, E.; van der Zande, H.

    2012-01-01

    This Yearbook for Women’s History (Jaarboek voor Vrouwengeschiedenis) examines the theme of gender and performance. It is supervised by guest editor Kati Röttger, professor in Theatre Studies at the University of Amsterdam. The term performance - a temporary and active presentation, expression, or

  14. Performing compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmelmann, Camilla Lawaetz

    2017-01-01

    the local policy workers front-staged some practices in the implementation process and back-staged others. The local policy workers deliberately performed ‘guideline compliance’ by using information control and impression management techniques. The findings suggest that local guideline compliance should...... be regarded as a staged performance in which deliberate techniques are used to produce and manage certain impressions of compliance....

  15. School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Héctor A.

    2015-01-01

    The school performance study of students is, due to its relevance and complexity, one of the issues of major controversy in the educational research, and it has been given special attention in the last decades. This study is intended to show a conceptual approach to the school performance construct, contextualizing the reality in the regular basic…

  16. Aesthetic Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landgrebe, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    -verbal actions, gaze orientation, active and static interactional strategies and props. From the data investigated, it seems that the performance act is divided into different stages which each calls for different strategies: the group's initiation of the entire performance act reveals that the group stand out......This article deals with how an aesthetic performance is enacted and coordinated by a performance group attracting attention and engaging commuters in a public space. Multimodal interactional resources and the way they are coordinated by interactants are investigated, and include verbal and non...... as uncoordinated and it may have a significance for whether the 'street' performers manage to stay in character or not. Once attention from commuters is obtained, a continued gaze from these commuters opens up for subsequent interaction, which then ultimately may result in the successful handing over of a card...

  17. Organizational Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Peregrino de Brito

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of the relationship between human resource management (HRM and organizational performance. Theoretically, we discuss the importance of HRM for the development of resources and its impact on business performance. Empirically, we evaluated articles published on Brazilian academic journals that addressed such relationships. The results showed a lack of studies conducted at this intersection. From the universe of 2,469 articles, only 16 (0.6% sought to relate HRM and organizational performance. We observed a dominance of isolated HR practices, which does not consider HRM as a system, and of operational performance measures, relative to financial and efficiency variables. Most studies show a positive relationship between HRM practices and performance, in line with the literature. However, we point out some methodological issues, such as the difficulty of isolating the HR practices from its context, the failure to consider the temporality of this relationship, and the comparison between companies from different industries.

  18. School Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Lamas

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The school performance study of students is, due to its relevance and complexity, one of the issues of major controversy in the educational research, and it has been given special attention in the last decades. This study is intended to show a conceptual approach to the school performance construct, contextualizing the reality in the regular basic education classrooms. The construct of learning approaches is presented as one of the factors that influences the school performance of students. Besides, an outlook of the empirical research works related to variables that are presented as relevant when explaining the reason for a specific performance in students is shown. Finally, some models and techniques allowing an appropriate study of school performance are presented.

  19. Performance managenemt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobi, Claus Brygger

    This paper attempts to identify barriers that prevent performance management from being genuinely result-based. By observing what happened when a Danish workfare reform was implemented by applying performance management, it becomes apparent that there exists internal decouplings on and between two...... levels; a decoupling between the monitoring/evaluation of established performance indicators and the revising of these for policy-making on future interventions, and a decoupling between the strategic political/administrative level and operational street-level, inhibiting its adaption to local...

  20. Performative Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bo Stjerne

    2008-01-01

    The paper explores how performative architecture can act as a collective environment localizing urban flows and establishing public domains through the integration of pervasive computing and animation techniques. The NoRA project introduces the concept of ‘performative environments,' focusing on ...... of local interactions and network behaviour, building becomes social infrastructure and prompts an understanding of architectural structures as quasiobjects, which can retain both variation and recognisability in changing social constellations.......The paper explores how performative architecture can act as a collective environment localizing urban flows and establishing public domains through the integration of pervasive computing and animation techniques. The NoRA project introduces the concept of ‘performative environments,' focusing...

  1. Fixation à haute et moyenne température de l'hydrogène sulfuré par des masses de captation régénérables Hydrogen-Sulfide Fixation At High and Medium Temperature by Regenerable Capture Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotier G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available L'intérêt de la désulfuration haute température comparée à la même opération conduite à basse température est renforcé quand la désulfuration a lieu entre deux opérations de niveau thermique élevé comme la gazéification du charbon et la production d'électricité par cycles combinés turbine à gaz-turbine à vapeur. Les masses absorbantes à base d'oxyde de fer peuvent réaliser une bonne désulfuration mais résistent mal aux chocs thermiques. Un agent de régénération particulièrement efficace est le dioxyde de soufre qui peut réoxyder le sulfure de fer par une réaction légèrement endothermique. Un des principaux avantages de cette réaction est la production directe de soufre élémentaire. Ses désavantages sont une faible conversion par passe et la sulfatation de l'oxyde de calcium (une des nombreuses impuretés des boues rouges qui composent la masse. Lorsque l'on emploie de la vapeur pour diluer le SO2 deux autres réactions ont lieu. La production de soufre est augmentée et la sulfatation disparaît. Les productions principales du procédé sont du soufre élémentaire et de la vapeur haute pression. On rencontre deux zones de réactions (l'une de captation, l'autre de régénération séparées par un tampon de gaz inerte et une circulation de la masse. Aucune autre unité de traitement de soufre n'est requise sur le site. Une évaluation économique préliminaire montre que ce procédé est compétitif lorsqu'on le compare à un lavage des gaz par solvant, à froid. The interest of a high temperature unit compared to a low temperature one is enhanced when desulphurization takes place between two hotoperations like coal gasification and power generation by combined cycles. Iron oxide based sorbents such as redmuds can achieve good desulphurization but cannot withstand high temperature gradients. An efficient regenerating agent is sulphur dioxide. SO2 can regenerate iron sulphide with a slightly endothermic

  2. Mise en solution et précipitation de l'uranium et du thorium dans les conditions de moyenne et haute température (résumé Solution and Precipitation of Uranium and Thorium under Average and High-Temperature (Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreau M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les études tant analytiques qu'expérimentales réalisées au cours des vingt dernières années ont bien montré le rôle joué par les complexes d'uranylcarbonates dans le transport de l'uranium en milieu hydrothermal oxydant ou faiblement réducteur. Les travaux expérimentaux actuels sur la mobilité de U et Th, à haute température et haute pression, montrent la très grande différence de solubilité entre UO2 et ThO2, comme l'influence des ions complexants et celles de fO2 et aH+. Ces résultats expérimentaux sont comparés aux données recueillies sur les leucogranites et les granites calcoalcalins (France et divers gisements ou anomalies en uranium (Québec, Rössing, Madagascar, etc.. Dans la catazone U et Th précipitent sous forme de solutions solides d'uranothorianite dans les milieux déficitaires en silice, et sous forme d'uranothorite dans les granites et les syénites La précipitation d'uraninite non thorifère dans les leucogranites français s'explique d'abord par la faible concentration en thorium des solutions aqueuses durant la phase deutérique. Au cours du métamorphisme progressif on peut observer un retard dans la mobilisation de l'uranium en conditions relativement oxydantes, quand U est associé à Ti et OH. Dans le domaine mésozonal la brannérite stabilise l'uranium en présence de titane jusqu'à l'anatexie. Au-delà elle se dissocie en donnant de l'uraninite non thorifère et du rutile. Both analytic and experimental research done over the Iast twenty years has revealed the role played by uranylcarbonate complexes in the transfer of uranium in an oxidant or slightly reducing hydrothermal medium. Recent experimental research on the mobility of U and Th, at high temperature and high pressure, shows the great difference in solubility between UO2 and ThO2, like the influence of complexing ions and of fO2 and aH+. These experimental findings are compared to data gathered on leucogranites and colcoalkaline granites

  3. 23 octobre 2012 - Le Président du Conseil général de la Haute-Savoie C. Monteil signe le livre d'or en présence du Directeur général R. Heuer, la chef des Relations Internationales F. Pauss, le chef du département Physique P. Bloch et le chef du département Technologie F. Bordry; visite du hall de test des aimants supraconducteurs du LHC avec F. Bordry.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    23 octobre 2012 - Le Président du Conseil général de la Haute-Savoie C. Monteil signe le livre d'or en présence du Directeur général R. Heuer, la chef des Relations Internationales F. Pauss, le chef du département Physique P. Bloch et le chef du département Technologie F. Bordry; visite du hall de test des aimants supraconducteurs du LHC avec F. Bordry.

  4. Effect of high energy electrons on the skin and on the underlying tissues of the rabbit. A clinical and histological study; Effets des electrons de haute energie sur la peau et les tissus sous-jacents du lapin. Etude clinique et histologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legeay, G; Vialettes, H; Adnet, J J; Court, L; Masse, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The authors consider in this report the effects of high-energy electrons on rabbit teguments and on the underlying tissues after a single high dose irradiation. After briefly considering the mechanism of interaction between the electrons and matter as a function of their energy, the authors describe the dosimetry carried out, as a function of the irradiation device. The animal received surface doses of 5700 to 22100 rads in the thigh; the electron energy varied from 21 to 30 MeV. A clinical study was carried out over a period of nine months with a view to following the evolution of the damage and the functional degradation of the underlying tissues. A histological study of the induced damage was made after a second irradiation using 30 MeV electrons to produce doses of 16400 rads. Interesting observations were made concerning the damage caused to muscular and nerve tissues. (authors) [French] Les auteurs etudient, dans ce rapport, les effets des electrons de haute energie sur les teguments du lapin et les tissus sous-jacents apres une irradiation unique a dose elevee. Apres un rappel du mecanisme de l'interaction des electrons avec la matiere en fonction de leur energie, la dosimetrie realisee est exposee en fonction du dispositif d'irradiation. Les animaux ont recu, au niveau de la cuisse, des doses en surface de 5700 a 22100 rads; les energies des electrons vont de 21 a 30 MeV. Une etude clinique des lesions, observees pendant 9 mois, decrit leur evolution ainsi que les alterations fonctionnelles des tissus sous-jacents. Une etude histologique des lesions induites a ete realisee au cours d'une seconde experience pour des doses de 16400 rads avec des electrons de 30 MeV. D'interessantes observations ont ete faites concernant les lesions des tissus musculaires et nerveux. (auteurs)

  5. Clay 2001 dossier: progress report on feasibility studies and research into deep geological disposal of high-level, long-lived waste; Dossier 2001 argile: sur l'avancement des etudes et recherches relatives a la faisabilite d'un stockage de dechets a haute activite et a vie longue en formation geologique profonde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    A French Act of Parliament passed on 30 December 1991 set out the main areas of research required to prepare solutions for the long-term management of high-level, long-lived radioactive waste. The three avenues of research listed in the Act included a feasibility study of the deep geological disposal of these waste, with responsibility for steering the study given to ANDRA, France National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management. Following government decisions taken in 1998, the study focused on two types of geological medium, clay and granite. The clay formations study is essentially based on results from an underground laboratory sited at the border between the Meuse and Haute-Marne departments, where the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite beds are being investigated. No site has yet been chosen for an underground laboratory for the granite study, so for the time being this will draw on generic work and on research carried out in laboratories outside France. ANDRA has decided to present an initial report on the results of its research programme, publishing a dossier on the work on clay formations in 2001 with a second dossier covering the work on granite due for release in 2002. This dossier is thus a review of the work carried out by ANDRA on the feasibility study into a radioactive waste repository in a clay formation. It represents one step in a process of studies and research work leading up to the submission of a report due in 2005 containing ANDRA conclusions on the feasibility of a repository in the clay formation. (author)

  6. Clay 2001 dossier: progress report on feasibility studies and research into deep geological disposal of high-level, long-lived waste; Dossier 2001 argile: sur l'avancement des etudes et recherches relatives a la faisabilite d'un stockage de dechets a haute activite et a vie longue en formation geologique profonde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    A French Act of Parliament passed on 30 December 1991 set out the main areas of research required to prepare solutions for the long-term management of high-level, long-lived radioactive waste. The three avenues of research listed in the Act included a feasibility study of the deep geological disposal of these waste, with responsibility for steering the study given to ANDRA, France National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management. Following government decisions taken in 1998, the study focused on two types of geological medium, clay and granite. The clay formations study is essentially based on results from an underground laboratory sited at the border between the Meuse and Haute-Marne departments, where the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite beds are being investigated. No site has yet been chosen for an underground laboratory for the granite study, so for the time being this will draw on generic work and on research carried out in laboratories outside France. ANDRA has decided to present an initial report on the results of its research programme, publishing a dossier on the work on clay formations in 2001 with a second dossier covering the work on granite due for release in 2002. This dossier is thus a review of the work carried out by ANDRA on the feasibility study into a radioactive waste repository in a clay formation. It represents one step in a process of studies and research work leading up to the submission of a report due in 2005 containing ANDRA conclusions on the feasibility of a repository in the clay formation. (author)

  7. Performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doe, T.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of performance assessment is to show that the repository is expected to serve its stated function - disposing of radioactive waste safely both during operation and for the postclosure period. Performance assessment is a straightforward concept, but its application may be very complicated. The concept of performance assessment has been clarified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in their Draft Generic Technical Position on Licensing Assessment Methodology for High-Level Waste Geologic Repositories (NRC, 1984). This document has gone a long way toward defining the criteria that the NRC will use to determine whether or not information from site characterization is adequate to meet the regulations of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A favorable determination is required for issuance of a construction authorization, which is the first major regulatory requirement for developing a working repository. It is, therefore, essential that a research program be developed that not only resolves the outstanding technical issues, but also does it in such a way that the results are clearly applicable to the formal performance assessment and licensing procedures. The definitions of performance assessment are reviewed and the current NRC thinking is summarized

  8. Performative Silences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupret, Katia

    2018-01-01

    static nor neutral. It has performative effects. Silencing as an act, rather than a noun, is conceptualised as a central ‘configurating actor’ of change. Through the description of minute details from a videotaped supervision session in the mental healthcare sector, it is shown how different performative...... configurations of silence makes people relate to each other in new ways and influence new work practices. In spite of its somewhat immaterial connotations, using an Actor-Network Theory approach to organization studies, silencing is conceptualised as both a means and an effect of change efforts, which are socio...

  9. High capacity orthorhombic LiMnO{sub 2} phases: role of piling up defects; Phases LiMnO{sub 2} orthorhombiques a haute capacite: role des defauts d`empilement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deniard, P.; Croguennec, L.; Brec, R. [IMN Laboratoire de Chimie des Solides, 44 - Nantes (France); Lecerf, A. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 35 - Rennes (France)

    1996-12-31

    The electrochemical performances of orthorhombic LiMnO{sub 2} compounds are analyzed in order to find a structural and/or morphological origin to the differences of electrochemical behaviours observed in compounds with different size of crystallites and different amounts of lattice defects. Energy capacity performances of 200 Ah/kg are reached for materials with crystallites of about 10{sup 7} Angstrom{sup 3} and with about 7% of defects, while energy capacities of only 80 Ah/kg are obtained for materials with ten times bigger crystallites. (J.S.) 3 refs.

  10. High capacity orthorhombic LiMnO{sub 2} phases: role of piling up defects; Phases LiMnO{sub 2} orthorhombiques a haute capacite: role des defauts d`empilement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deniard, P; Croguennec, L; Brec, R [IMN Laboratoire de Chimie des Solides, 44 - Nantes (France); Lecerf, A [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 35 - Rennes (France)

    1997-12-31

    The electrochemical performances of orthorhombic LiMnO{sub 2} compounds are analyzed in order to find a structural and/or morphological origin to the differences of electrochemical behaviours observed in compounds with different size of crystallites and different amounts of lattice defects. Energy capacity performances of 200 Ah/kg are reached for materials with crystallites of about 10{sup 7} Angstrom{sup 3} and with about 7% of defects, while energy capacities of only 80 Ah/kg are obtained for materials with ten times bigger crystallites. (J.S.) 3 refs.

  11. Performing Brexit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca; Galpin, Charlotte; Rosamond, Ben

    2017-01-01

    constructed from the outside. Brexit signifies more than the technical complexities of the UK withdrawing from the European Union. It works both as a promise of a different future and performatively to establish a particular past. Brexit works as a frame with potential to shape perceptions in three domains...

  12. Performance Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    Contribution to conference: Art and Presence The emerging field of Performance Design is unfolded as a bastard form of research/art/design/practice, with shapeshifting, monstruous, hybrid and transformational qualities. The potential for presencing, which emerges out of momentarily transgressing...

  13. Effect of Diffuser and Volute on Turbocharger Centrifugal Compressor Stability and Performance: Experimental Study Effet du diffuseur et de la volute sur la performance et la stabilité d’un compresseur centrifuge de suralimentation: étude expérimentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtar H.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Engine downsizing is potentially one of the most effective strategies being explored to improve fuel economy. A main problem of downsizing using a turbocharger is the small range of stable functioning of the turbocharger centrifugal compressor at high boost pressures. Several techniques were studied to increase the compressor operating range without sacrificing the compressor efficiency. This paper presents the effect of delaying diffuser stability on the compressor performance and surge line. Two different techniques were investigated, these are grooved and pinched diffuser. Moreover, the effect on retracting volute tongue on compressor performance is also studied. Pinched diffuser shifted surge line to low flow rates, while dropping pressure through compressor. On the other hand, some interesting results were obtained when using grooved diffuser, these are pressure increase at high flow rates, and choke line shift to high flow rates. While retracting volute tongue was interesting in improving compressor efficiency, and pressure lines at high speed. Le “downsizing” moteur est potentiellement l’une des stratégies les plus efficaces pour baisser la consommation carburant. Un problème majeur du “downsizing” à l’aide d’un turbocompresseur est la petite plage de fonctionnement stable du compresseur centrifuge à haute pression de suralimentation. Plusieurs techniques ont été étudiées pour augmenter la plage de fonctionnement du compresseur, sans sacrifier le rendement du compresseur. Cet article présente l’effet de la stabilisation du diffuseur sur la performance du compresseur et la ligne de pompage. Deux techniques différentes ont été étudiées, les sillons et le pincement diffuseur. De plus, l’effet de la diminution du bec de la volute sur les performances du compresseur a également été étudié. Le pincement du diffuseur a déplacé la ligne de pompage pour de faibles débits. Ce déplacement a été accompagn

  14. Urban performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    Through three different urban performances, the paper investigates how, when and under which circumstances urban space is transformed and distorted from its every day use and power relations. Distortion is an annual street festival in Copenhagen with the objective to distort the functional city...... creates an intensive space for the empowerment and liberation of the body. Occupy Wall street and its action in the autumn 2001 is the ultimate example of how urban political performances intensifies and transform every day spaces. Through examples of how OWS tactically appropriates and transforms urban...... space, I seek to show how representational space, for instance the public square, is transformed and distorted by heterogeneous and unforeseen modes of operating. Despite differing in their goal and outset, I wish to unfold an alternative to urban transformation practices in planning and architecture...

  15. Performative securitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Lise

    2018-01-01

    This piece develops a performative take on securitization theory. It argues that rather than seeing authority as a prerequisite for speaking security, we need to zoom in on how speaking security can be used to claim authority. Such acts of claiming authority are crucial to understand the current...... challenged and changed. Two, following Butler, we must open up who can speak security, seeing how speaking security can be used to take authority, rather than seeing authority as a precondition for speaking security....

  16. Modeling of the fatigue intragranular strain hardening of metals at high temperature with keeping up time; Modelisation de l'ecrouissage intragranulaire en fatigue des metaux a haute temperature avec temps de maintien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauzay, M.; Mottot, M.; Noblecourt, M.; Allais, L.; Monnet, I.; Perinet, J. [CEA Saclay, Service de Recherche en Metallurgie Appliquee, DMN/SRMA, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2003-07-01

    This study aims at foreseeing the behaviour of some alloys during high temperature fatigue-relaxation (creep) conditions when the maximum deformation is maintained during long times (about a month for each cycle). Such experiments can hardly be performed with laboratory tests. A simple modeling of the restoration occurring during the keeping of the conditions of deformation can explain the absence of dislocation microstructures. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  17. Focus : Évaluation de la protection contre l'endommagement des géomembranes en polyéthylène haute densité Evaluation of HDPE geomembranes protection against puncturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CROISSANT, Didier ; TOUZE-FOLTZ, Nathalie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available En fond d'installation de stockage des déchets, les géomembranes constituant la barrière d'étanchéité sont soumises à des sollicitations pouvant endommager leur fonctionnement. Pour éviter le risque de perforation et de fuite, un géotextile de protection est généralement mis en place. Focus sur les tests de performance de plusieurs types de géotextiles et premières recommandations quant aux caractéristiques minimales à respecter pour éviter l'endommagement.Geotextiles are used in the constitution of landfill lining systems in order to protect the geomembrane against puncturing effects during installation of the granular drainage layer, then during the life of the landfill site, in relation with the weight of waste. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the performance of nonwoven needlepunched geotextiles having an average mass per unit area equal to 1000 g/m² in protecting geomembrane, bases on static puncture tests performed in 1m diameter cells. Those tests were previously developed by Aufrère et al. (2009. Recommendations are given in the following as regards the length of fibers, the elasticity modulus, the masse per unit area and the thickness of the geotextile depending on the nature of granular material used.

  18. Meels: municipalities and energy efficiency in a liberalized system. Guidelines for municipalities: adapting to new roles in a liberalized market; Meels: les municipalites et l'efficacite energetique dans un systeme liberalise. Recommandations detinees aux municipalites: comment peuvent-elles s'adapter a leurs nouveaux roles dans un marche liberalise?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Even if the liberalization of energy markets seems to make it more difficult, it also creates opportunities for the committed local authority. Local authorities fulfill their functions in the energy sphere via a number of roles: as a consumer of energy, as a producer of energy, as a distributor of energy, as a trader of energy, as a regulator, planner and policy maker regarding energy using activities, as an awareness tool of the issues relating to energy use and as a provider of incentives to improve energy performance. There are impacts of liberalization on each of these roles. In most, liberalization has not actually changed what they do, only the degree of attention that should be given to it. Only in those areas where trading is involved are new skills necessary, for instance in purchasing energy, in transporting one own energy and in trading energy. In this framework, the following topics are successively analyzed: Improving performance as an energy consumer, improving performance as an energy producer, improving performance as an energy trader, improving performance as an energy distributor, improving performance in delivering sustainable, energy policies at local level and improving performance as a facilitator and awareness programs. (A.L.B.)

  19. Study of a power coupler for superconducting RF cavities used in high intensity proton accelerator; Etude et developpement d'un coupleur de puissance pour les cavites supraconductrices destinees aux accelerateurs de protons de haute intensite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souli, M

    2007-07-15

    The coaxial power coupler needed for superconducting RF cavities used in the high energy section of the EUROTRANS driver should transmit 150 kW (CW operation) RF power to the protons beam. The calculated RF and dielectric losses in the power coupler (inner and outer conductor, RF window) are relatively high. Consequently, it is necessary to design very carefully the cooling circuits in order to remove the generated heat and to ensure stable and reliable operating conditions for the coupler cavity system. After calculating all type of losses in the power coupler, we have designed and validated the inner conductor cooling circuit using numerical simulations results. We have also designed and optimized the outer conductor cooling circuit by establishing its hydraulic and thermal characteristics. Next, an experiment dedicated to study the thermal interaction between the power coupler and the cavity was successfully performed at CRYOHLAB test facility. The critical heat load Qc for which a strong degradation of the cavity RF performance was measured leading to Q{sub c} in the range 3 W-5 W. The measured heat load will be considered as an upper limit of the residual heat flux at the outer conductor cold extremity. A dedicated test facility was developed and successfully operated for measuring the performance of the outer conductor heat exchanger using supercritical helium as coolant. The test cell used reproduces the realistic thermal boundary conditions of the power coupler mounted on the cavity in the cryo-module. The first experimental results have confirmed the excellent performance of the tested heat exchanger. The maximum residual heat flux measured was 60 mW for a 127 W thermal load. As the RF losses in the coupler are proportional to the incident RF power, we can deduce that the outer conductor heat exchanger performance is continued up to 800 kW RF power. Heat exchanger thermal conductance has been identified using a 2D axisymmetric thermal model by comparing

  20. ORELA performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, T.A.

    1976-04-01

    The most recent information concerning the performance of ORELA that would be of interest to experimenters is presented. Included are characteristics of the beam in terms of both time and intensity and descriptions of systems routinely used to monitor these beam characteristics. For example, with klystron power and maximum electron gun output current at nominal values and for pulse repetition rates in the range above 800 pps, output beam energies per pulse vary from 5 J for 2.5 nsec-wide pulses to approximately 32 J for 10 nsec pulses and 65 J for 40 nsec pulses

  1. Study of alloy 600`S stress corrosion cracking mechanisms in high temperature water; Etude des mecanismes de corrosion sous contrainte de l`alliage 600 dans l`eau a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, R

    1994-06-01

    In order to better understand the mechanisms involved in Alloy 600`s stress corrosion cracking in PWR environment, laboratory tests were performed. The influence of parameters pertinent to the mechanisms was studies : hydrogen and oxygen overpressures, local chemical composition, microstructure. The results show that neither hydrogen nor dissolution/oxidation, despite their respective roles in the process, are sufficient to account for experimental facts. SEM observation of micro-cleavage facets on specimens` fracture surfaces leads to pay attention to a new mechanism of corrosion/plasticity interactions. (author). 113 refs., 73 figs., 15 tabs., 4 annexes.

  2. Study and development of a high resolution tomograph for the {gamma} radio-imagery in vivo of small animals; Etude et developpement d`un tomographe haute resolution pour la radio-imagerie {gamma} in vivo de petits animaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valda Ochoa, A

    1995-06-23

    By the use of molecular radio-labelled tracers, molecular biology can reveal some aspects of the functional organisation of the brain. Non invasive in vivo brain research on small laboratory animals, like mice or rats, require analysis of structures of some cubic millimeters present in a brain of the order of a cubic centimeter. Since imaging performances of positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) fail in this research field, we present here a high resolution tomograph (TOHR) based on an original principle that allows to overcome the compromise between detection efficiency and spatial resolution. TOHR is a radiation counter device having a large solid angle focusing collimator. By the use of radio-tracers decaying by a cascade of two photons, coincidence detection offers an accurate delimitation of the analysed region and improves spatial resolution. TOHR acts as a scanner, so the image is built voxel by voxel by moving the animal relative to the detector. A numerical feasibility study of such a system shows that a sub millimeter spatial resolution can be achieved. We show that the chemical etching technique is well suited for manufacturing a multi-module focusing collimator by building and testing two such modules. Finally a numerical simulation exhibits TOHR`s performance in a neuro-pharmacological experiment on a rat. From these results, other application of TOHR are envisaged, such as oncology (in vivo evolution of tumours) or gene therapy (distribution of viral particles in the brain). (author). 51 refs., 73 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Measurement of the cross-section of electron-positron scattering at high energy and quantum electrodynamics testing; Mesure de la section efficace de diffusion electron-positron a haute energie et validite de l'electrodynamique quantique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalanne, D.

    1970-07-17

    The experiment we have performed on the ACO (Orsay Collider Ring) is one of the most accurate tests of quantum electrodynamics over very short interaction distances (10{sup -14} cm). We have studied the electron-positron elastic scattering at very wide angle. This work is divided into 4 parts. The first part reviews recent tests of quantum electrodynamics and presents the electron-positron elastic scattering. The second part describes the measurement of brightness: the experimental device, data analysis and accuracy. The measurement of brightness has been performed by detecting the photons emitted in the double Bremsstrahlung reaction: e{sup +}e{sup -} → e{sup +}e{sup -}γγ. The third part deals with the measurement of the number of Bhabha events. The last part compares the experimental value of the Bhabha scattering with the theoretically expected value. We have got the following results: the number of Bhabha events: 757 events, the experimental value for Bhabha scattering cross-section: [1.97 ± 0.09 (stat.) ± 0.10 (syst.)]*10{sup -31} cm{sup 2}. The comparison of this experimental value with the expected value has allowed us to set the lower limit of the cutting parameter Λ: Λ > 2 GeV.

  4. The use of an experimental device for the determination of the concentration of artificial radioactive aerosols at high altitudes; Utilisation d'un missile experimental pour l'evaluation des concentrations en aerosols radioactifs artificiels en haute altitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boclet, D; Jehanno, C; Labeyrie, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Le Boiteux, H [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aeronautique, 92 - Chatillon sous Bagneux (France)

    1960-07-01

    By means of measurements with a Geiger counter on january, the 27{sup th}, in 1959 at an altitude reaching 65 km approximately, and following comparison with similar measurements made by Gangnes, Jenkins and Van Allen in 1949 at the same geomagnetic latitude (41 deg. North), it is concluded that radioactive aerosols above Southern France tropopause had a concentration less than 100.10{sup -12} curies/m{sup 3} at that time. The missile used for this purpose and its performance are quickly described in this paper. (author) [French] Au moyen de mesures faites au compteur Geiger le 27 janvier 1959 jusqu'au environ de 65 km et apres comparaison avec des mesures analogues faites en 1949 par Gangnes, Jenkins et Van Allen a la meme altitude geomagnetique (41deg. N), on conclut que les aerosols radioactifs au-dessus de la tropopause de la France meridionale avaient a cette epoque une concentration inferieure a 100.10{sup -12} curies/m{sup 3}. Une rapide description du missile utilise et de ses performances complete cette communication. (auteur)

  5. Performance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naema A. Ali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil collapse occurs when increased moisture causes chemical or physical bonds between the soil particles to weaken, which allows the structure of the soil to collapse. Collapsible soils are generally low-density, fine-grained combinations of clay and sand left by mudflows that have dried, leaving tiny air pockets. When the soil is dry, the cemented materials are strong enough to bond the sand particles together. When natural soil becomes wet, moisture alters the cementation structure and the soil’s strength is compromised, causing collapse or subsidence. Based on soil type and density, the potential for encountering collapsible soils throughout most of the project alignment is low. Conditions in arid and semi-arid climates like Borg El Arab, near Alexandria Egypt favor the formation of the most problematic collapsible soils. The behavior and performance of compacted sand replacement over treated collapsible soil by pre-wetting and compaction are investigated in the current study. Field investigation was performed in the form of plate loading tests conducted on compacted sand replacement over improved collapsible soil. Field plate load tests program was developed to explore the effect of compacted sand replacement thickness on collapsibility potential. Treated collapsible soil was replaced with imported cohesionless soil with variable thickness up to footing width. Results proved that the improvement of collapsible soils by sand/crushed stone replacement is possible to control/mitigate their risk potentials against sudden settlement when exposed to water. Replacement soil increases the rate and reduces the amount of footing settlement. For compacted collapsible soils, partial replacement by compacted sand/crushed stone layers decreases collapsibility potential risk. Results also, introduce the development of practical, economical and environmentally safe geochemical methods for collapsible soil stabilization and collapsible risk mitigation.

  6. High committee for transparency and information on nuclear safety: meeting of December 16, 2010; Haut Comite pour la Transparence et l'Information sur la Securite Nucleaire. Reunion du 16 decembre 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The discussion between members dealt with the following topics: the committee' program and implication with respect to the ACN approach (Aarhus Convention and Nuclear), the main orientations of the Transparency and Secret work group, the hearing of actors involved in a Tritium contamination incident in Valduc. These actors belonged to the CEA, to the 2M Process company, to the Nuclear safety authority or ASN, to the Institute for radiation protection and nuclear safety or IRSN, or to the Delegate to radiation protection and nuclear safety for installations of interest for the defence or DSND. Then the committee addressed the issue of old uranium mines and of places of use of uranium mining tailings. The committee members discuss the results of investigations performed around the Tricastin site (studies on cancers, on the presence of uranium in underground water sheets). Other topics are addressed: waste transportation to Germany, the French-British nuclear cooperation, the creation of a web site

  7. High pressure generation by laser driven shock waves: application to equation of state measurement; Generation de hautes pressions par choc laser: application a la mesure d'equations d'etat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benuzzi, A

    1997-12-15

    This work is dedicated to shock waves and their applications to the study of the equation of state of compressed matter.This document is divided into 6 chapters: 1) laser-produced plasmas and abrasion processes, 2) shock waves and the equation of state, 3) relative measuring of the equation of state, 4) comparison between direct and indirect drive to compress the target, 5) the measurement of a new parameter: the shock temperature, and 6) control and measurement of the pre-heating phase. In this work we have reached relevant results, we have shown for the first time the possibility of generating shock waves of very high quality in terms of spatial distribution, time dependence and of negligible pre-heating phase with direct laser radiation. We have shown that the shock pressure stays unchanged as time passes for targets whose thickness is over 10 {mu}m. A relative measurement of the equation of state has been performed through the simultaneous measurement of the velocity of shock waves passing through 2 different media. The great efficiency of the direct drive has allowed us to produce pressures up to 40 Mbar. An absolute measurement of the equation of state requires the measurement of 2 parameters, we have then performed the measurement of the colour temperature of an aluminium target submitted to laser shocks. A simple model has been developed to infer the shock temperature from the colour temperature. The last important result is the assessment of the temperature of the pre-heating phase that is necessary to know the media in which the shock wave propagates. The comparison of the measured values of the reflectivity of the back side of the target with the computed values given by an adequate simulation has allowed us to deduce the evolution of the temperature of the pre-heating phase. (A.C.)

  8. High temperature oxidation of 9% and 12% Cr steel: effect of water vapour; Oxidation haute temperature d'un acier 9% et 12% de teneur Cr. Effet de la vapeur d'eau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evin, H.; Heritier, D.; Chevalier, S. [Universite de Bourgogne, Institut Carnot de Bourgogne UMR 5209 CNRS, 21 - Dijon (France); Fojer, C. [OCAS N.V. ArcelorMittal Research Industry Gent, Zelzate (Belgium)

    2008-07-01

    Isothermal tests were performed on commercial 9%Cr and 12%Cr steels between 600 and 750 deg C in air under atmospheric pressure. The same steels were also tested in oxidizing atmosphere enriched with 12% H{sub 2}O at 700 deg C for 24 hours. Kinetics data were registered and the corrosion products were analyzed using different characterization tools such as scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffraction and secondary ions mass spectrometry. 9%Cr steels showed very limited high temperature corrosion behavior in air, because a breakaway appeared after less than 80 hours at 750 deg C. Spinel oxides composed of iron, chromium and manganese (Mn{sub 1.5}Cr{sub 1.5}O{sub 4} and MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) were identified over the surfaces of both steel grades after oxidation. (Cr,Fe){sub 2}O{sub 3} was also identified especially at 700 deg C and 750 deg C, whereas Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} mainly grew at 600 and 650 deg C. Differences in oxide morphology and composition were noticed between the samples oxidized under air and air + 12 % water vapor. (authors)

  9. The Cigeo project - Industrial centre of deep reversible storage of radioactive wastes in Meuse/Haute-Marne - the commissioner's file. Public debate from the 15 May to the 15 October 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, Marie-Claude; Gonnot, Francois-Michel

    2013-02-01

    After a brief presentation of the ANDRA, this report discusses the issue of radioactive wastes (where they come from, what they are, how they are managed, which wastes are to be stored in Cigeo, the foreseen waste volumes, where high activity and medium-activity long-life wastes are waiting to be stored there). It explains how and why the solution of a deep geological storage was adopted: various solutions studied during 15 years, research results and their assessment, public debate over the 2005-2006 period, storage location choice and additional researches according to the law of the 28 June 2006, situation in other countries. It explains the choice of the location (geological characteristics) and describes how Cigeo will operate (installations, construction, transport of waste parcels, exploitation, and closing). It addresses the safety issues: during exploitation and after closing, safety controls, radiological impact, storage and environment survey, storage memory keeping and transmission. It gives an overview of studies which have been performed by the ANDRA on deep storage, and indicates how these researches have been assessed. The next parts address the issues of governance and reversibility, the local economic and social impact of the Cigeo project, and the project planning (financing and assessed cost, time planning)

  10. Network based on statistical multiplexing for event selection and event builder systems in high energy physics experiments; Reseau a multiplexage statistique pour les systemes de selection et de reconstruction d'evenements dans les experiences de physique des hautes energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvet, D

    2000-03-01

    Systems for on-line event selection in future high energy physics experiments will use advanced distributed computing techniques and will need high speed networks. After a brief description of projects at the Large Hadron Collider, the architectures initially proposed for the Trigger and Data AcQuisition (TD/DAQ) systems of ATLAS and CMS experiments are presented and analyzed. A new architecture for the ATLAS T/DAQ is introduced. Candidate network technologies for this system are described. This thesis focuses on ATM. A variety of network structures and topologies suited to partial and full event building are investigated. The need for efficient networking is shown. Optimization techniques for high speed messaging and their implementation on ATM components are described. Small scale demonstrator systems consisting of up to 48 computers ({approx}1:20 of the final level 2 trigger) connected via ATM are described. Performance results are presented. Extrapolation of measurements and evaluation of needs lead to a proposal of implementation for the main network of the ATLAS T/DAQ system. (author)

  11. Corium spreading: hydrodynamics, rheology and solidification of a high-temperature oxide melt; L'etalement du corium: hydrodynamique, rheologie et solidification d'unbain d'oxydes a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Journeau, Ch

    2006-06-15

    In the hypothesis of a nuclear reactor severe accident, the core could melt and form a high- temperature (2000-3000 K) mixture called corium. In the hypothesis of vessel rupture, this corium would spread in the reactor pit and adjacent rooms as occurred in Chernobyl or in a dedicated core-catcher s in the new European Pressurized reactor, EPR. This thesis is dedicated to the experimental study of corium spreading, especially with the prototypic corium material experiments performed in the VULCANO facility at CEA Cadarache. The first step in analyzing these tests consists in interpreting the material analyses, with the help of thermodynamic modelling of corium solidification. Knowing for each temperature the phase repartition and composition, physical properties can be estimated. Spreading termination is controlled by corium rheological properties in the solidification range, which leads to studying them in detail. The hydrodynamical, rheological and solidification aspects of corium spreading are taken into account in models and computer codes which have been validated against these tests and enable the assessment of the EPR spreading core-catcher concept. (author)

  12. Influence of the atmosphere on the space detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays; Influence de l'atmosphere sur la detection spatiale des rayons cosmiques d'ultra-haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreggia, S

    2007-06-15

    EUSO (Extreme Universe Space Observatory) is a project of ultra-high energy (> 10{sup 20} eV) cosmic rays detection from space. Its concept relies on the observation of fluorescence and Cerenkov photons emitted by extensive air showers from a telescope located on the International Space Station. A simulation software has been developed to study the characteristics of this innovative concept of detection. It deals with the different steps of the detection chain: extensive air shower development, emission of fluorescence and Cerenkov light, and radiative transfer to the telescope. A Monte-Carlo code has been implemented to simulate the propagation of photons through the atmosphere, dealing with multiple scattering in clear sky conditions as well as in presence of aerosols and clouds. With this simulation program, the impact of atmospheric conditions on the performance of a space-located detector has been studied. The precise treatment of photons propagation through the atmosphere has permitted to quantify the scattered light contribution to the detected signal. (author)

  13. RANS / LES coupling applied to high Reynolds number turbulent flows of the nuclear industry; Application du couplage RANS / LES aux ecoulements turbulents a haut nombre de Reynolds de l'industrie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benarafa, Y

    2005-12-15

    The main issue to perform a computational study of high Reynolds numbered turbulent flows consists on predicting their unsteadiness without implying a tremendous computational cost. First, the main drawbacks of large-eddy simulation with standard wall model on a coarse mesh for a plane channel flow are highlighted. To correct these drawbacks two coupling RANS/LES methods have been proposed. The first one relies on a sophisticated wall model (TBLE) which consists on solving Thin Boundary Layer Equations with a RANS type turbulent closure in the near wall region. The second one consists on a RANS/LES methods have been proposed. The second one consists on a RANS/LES coupling method using a forcing term approach. These various approaches have been implemented in the TRIO-U code developed at CEA (French Atomic Center) at Grenoble, France. The studied flow configurations are the fully developed plane channel flow and a flow around a surface-mounted cubical obstacle. Both approaches provide encouraging results and allow a surface-mounted cubical obstacle. Both approaches provide encouraging results and allow unsteady simulations for a low computational cost. (author)

  14. Mascotte, a research test facility for high pressure combustion of cryogenic propellants; Mascotte, un banc d'essai de recherche pour la combustion a haute pression d'ergols cryogeniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vingert, L.; Habiballah, M.; Traineau, J.C. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), 92 - Chatillon (France)

    2000-07-01

    Detailed experimental studies of cryogenic propellant combustion are needed to improve design and optimization of high performance liquid rocket engines. A research test facility called Mascotte has been built up by ONERA to study elementary processes that are involved in the combustion of liquid oxygen and gaseous hydrogen. Mascotte is aimed at feeding a single element combustor with actual propellants, and the third version in operation since mid 1998 allows to reach supercritical pressures in the combustor. A specific high pressure combustor was developed for this purpose. Research teams from different laboratories belonging to CNRS and ONERA, regrouped in a common research program managed by CNES and SNECMA division SEP, may run experiments on Mascotte, with several objectives: - improve the knowledge and the modeling of physical phenomena; - provide experimental results for computer code validation; - improve and assess diagnostic techniques (especially optical diagnostics). Following diagnostics for instance, were used on Mascotte from 1994 to 1999: - OH imaging (spontaneous emission and laser induced fluorescence ); - CARS temperature measurements (using the H{sub 2} and simultaneously the H{sub 2}O molecules); - High speed cinematography (with a copper vapor laser synchronized to a high speed camera); - O{sub 2} vapor imaging (laser induced fluorescence); - Particle sizing (by means of a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer). (authors)

  15. The Pierre Auger observatory's project of detecting photons and neutrinos at very high energies; L'observatoire Pierre Auger vers la detection de photons et neutrinos a ultra haute energies?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertou, X

    2001-11-01

    Cosmic radiations of ultra high energy (RCUHE, beyond 10{sup 18} eV) are difficult to study because of their low flux on the earth surface: about 1 photon per year and per km{sup 2}. The observatory Pierre Auger proposes to study RCUHE by designing 2 sites of 3000 km{sup 2} (one in each hemisphere) allowing the observation of the shower initiated by cosmic radiation by using 4 fluorescence telescopes and a network of 1600 Cherenkov detectors. The identification of the primary particle is a very delicate point, the detection of neutrino or photon at these energies would bring valuable information for the understanding of potential sources of RCUHE. The first part of this work presents the project and its assets to perform its task. The second part is dedicated to the description of the Cherenkov detectors, of the trigger system, and of the centralized data acquisition system. The last part present the prototype installation that is under construction at Macargue in Argentina. (A.C.)

  16. Atomic mixing of metallic bilayers Ni/Ti irradiated with high energy heavy ions; Etude du melange ionique de bicouches metalliques Ni/Ti irradiees avec des ions lourds de haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leguay, R

    1994-09-26

    We have studied the ionic mixing of Nl(105 angstrom) bilayers irradiated, at 80 and 300 K. with GeV heavy ions. In this energy range, the energy transfer from the incident ions to the target occurs mainly through electronic excitations. We have shown that this energy transfer induces a strong ionic mixing at the Nl/Ti interface. The thickness of the mixed interlayer increases with the fluence. At low fluences (10{sup 12} ions/cm{sup 2}), the Nl/Ti interface is rough ; at higher fluences (10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}) a homogeneous mixed interlayer appears ; and at even higher fluences (some 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}) a preferential diffusion of Ni into Ti is clearly seen. The characterization techniques used are: (1) electrical resistivity measurements which allow to follow in situ the damage kinetic. (II) neutron and X-ray reflectometry. (III) elaboration of transverse cuts on which was performed energy loss spectroscopy. (II) and (III) allow the determination of the concentration profiles of the different species present in the sample. (IV) transmission electron microscopy on the transverse cuts which gives a direct image of the different layers. (author). 11 refs., 103 figs., 23 tabs., 2 appends.

  17. Influence of phase transformations on the mechanical behaviour of refractory ceramics at high temperature;Effets des transformations de phase sur la tenue mecanique a haute temperature des ceramiques refractaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, N. [LMT-Cachan, ENS de Cachan, UMR 8535 CNRS, Universite Paris 6, 94 - Cachan (France); IUFM de Creteil, Universite Paris-Est Creteil, 93 - Saint-Denis (France); Poirier, J. [CNRS-CEMHTI, 45 - Orleans (France); Polytech, Universite d' Orleans, 45 - Orleans (France)

    2009-07-01

    Refractories used at high temperature are subjected to high chemical and mechanical stresses. The mastery of their microstructure as well as the phase changes occurring in service is essential to ensure resistance to wear and failure of refractory linings. Great progress has been made: combining efficient techniques for the investigation of the microstructure with powerful numerical tools (thermochemical and thermo-mechanical computations) provides information (e.g., degradation mechanisms) that cannot be obtained directly. Also multi-physical and multi-scale models developing materials with high-performance for higher temperature and with longer lifetime. In this paper, through several examples we show some interactions between the mechanical behavior and the microstructure transformations of refractory ceramics. The tools developed to characterize their microstructure change in situ (e.g., at high temperature) and to identify their kinetics are described. Some methodologies and tools developed in recent years, today, provide a better understanding of in-service behavior of refractories while identifying the critical material and process parameters likely to increase life-time. (authors)

  18. Influence of the atmosphere on the space detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays; Influence de l'atmosphere sur la detection spatiale des rayons cosmiques d'ultra-haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreggia, S

    2007-06-15

    EUSO (Extreme Universe Space Observatory) is a project of ultra-high energy (> 10{sup 20} eV) cosmic rays detection from space. Its concept relies on the observation of fluorescence and Cerenkov photons emitted by extensive air showers from a telescope located on the International Space Station. A simulation software has been developed to study the characteristics of this innovative concept of detection. It deals with the different steps of the detection chain: extensive air shower development, emission of fluorescence and Cerenkov light, and radiative transfer to the telescope. A Monte-Carlo code has been implemented to simulate the propagation of photons through the atmosphere, dealing with multiple scattering in clear sky conditions as well as in presence of aerosols and clouds. With this simulation program, the impact of atmospheric conditions on the performance of a space-located detector has been studied. The precise treatment of photons propagation through the atmosphere has permitted to quantify the scattered light contribution to the detected signal. (author)

  19. Development of ODS ferritic-martensitic steels for application to high temperature and irradiation environment; Developpement d'une nouvelle nuance martensitique ODS pour utilisation sous rayonnement a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambard, V

    2000-07-01

    Iron oxide dispersion strengthened alloys are candidate for nuclear fuel cladding. Therefore, it is crucial to control their microstructure in order to optimise their mechanical properties at temperatures up to 700 deg C. The industrial candidates, ODS ferritic alloys, present an anisotropic microstructure which induces a weakening of mechanical properties in transversal direction as well as the precipitation of brittle phases under thermal aging and irradiation. For this purpose, we tried to develop a material with isotropic properties. We studied several 9Cr-1Mo ferritic/martensitic alloys, strengthened or not by oxide dispersion. The mechanical alloying was performed by attribution and powders were consolidated by hot extrusion. In this work, different metallurgical characterisation techniques and modelling were used to optimise a new martensitic ODS alloy. Microstructural and chemical characterization of matrix has been done. The effect of austenitizing and isochronal tempering treatments on microstructure and hardness has been studied. Oxide distribution, size and chemical composition have been studied before and after high temperature thermal treatment. The study of phase transformation upon heating has permitted the extrapolation to the equilibrium temperature formation of austenite. Phase transformation diagrams upon cooling have been determined and the transformation kinetics have been linked to austenite grain size by a simple relation. Fine grain size is unfavourable for the targeted application, so a particular thermal treatment inducing a coarser grain structure has been developed. Finally, tensile properties have been determined for the different microstructures. (author)

  20. Atmospheric sulfur and climate changes: a modelling study at mid and high-southern latitudes; Soufre atmospherique et changements climatiques: une etude de modelisation pour les moyennes et hautes latitudes Sud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castebrunet, H

    2007-09-15

    The mid and high-southern latitudes are still marginally affected by anthropogenic sulfur emissions. They are the only regions in the world where the natural cycle of the atmospheric sulfur may still be observed. Sulfur aerosols are well-known for their radiative impact, and thus interact with climate. Climate can in turn affect atmospheric sulfur sources, distribution and chemistry. Antarctic ice cores provide information on the evolution of climate and sulfur deposition at the surface of the ice sheet at glacial-interglacial time scales. The aim of this thesis is to develop and use modeling towards a better understanding of the atmospheric sulfur cycle in antarctic and sub-antarctic regions. Ice core data are used to validate model results under glacial climate conditions. An Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) coupled to a sulfur chemistry module is used: the LMD-ZTSulfur model, version 4. An update of both the physical and chemical parts of the model. The model was first performed. The impact of there changes on modelled sulfur cycle are evaluated for modern climate. Further, boundary conditions are adapted to simulate the atmospheric circulation and sulfur cycle at the Last Glacial Maximum, approximately 20,000 years ago. In the model, sulfur is found to be highly sensitive to antarctic sea-ice coverage, which is still poorly known during the ice age. An original dataset of ice-age sea-ice coverage was developed. Its impact on the oceanic emissions of dimethyl sulfide, main precursor of sulfur aerosols at high-southern latitudes, is discussed. Using the same oceanic sulfur reservoirs as for present day climate, the model broadly reproduces the glacial deposits of sulfur aerosols on the Antarctic plateau, suggesting little impact of climate on oceanic sulfur production in the Antarctic region. Sensitivity tests were carried out to draw an up-to-date status of major uncertainties and difficulties facing future progress in understanding atmospheric

  1. Local approach: fracture at high temperature in an austenitic stainless steel submitted to thermomechanical loadings. Calculations and experimental validations; Approche locale: fissuration a haute temperature dans un acier inoxydable austenitique sous chargements thermomecaniques. Simulations numeriques et validations experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poquillon, D

    1997-10-01

    Usually, for the integrity assessment of defective components, well established rules are used: global approach to fracture. A more fundamental way to deal with these problems is based on the local approach to fracture. In this study, we choose this way and we perform numerical simulations of intergranular crack initiation and intergranular crack propagation. This type of damage can be find in components of fast breeder reactors in 316 L austenitic stainless steel which operate at high temperatures. This study deals with methods coupling partly the behaviour and the damage for crack growth in specimens submitted to various thermomechanical loadings. A new numerical method based on finite element computations and a damage model relying on quantitative observations of grain boundary damage is proposed. Numerical results of crack initiation and growth are compared with a number of experimental data obtained in previous studies. Creep and creep-fatigue crack growth are studied. Various specimen geometries are considered: compact Tension Specimens and axisymmetric notched bars tested under isothermal (600 deg C) conditions and tubular structures containing a circumferential notch tested under thermal shock. Adaptative re-meshing technique and/or node release technique are used and compared. In order to broaden our knowledge on stress triaxiality effects on creep intergranular damage, new experiments are defined and conducted on sharply notched tubular specimens in torsion. These isothermal (600 deg C) Mode II creep tests reveal severe intergranular damage and creep crack initiation. Calculated damage fields at the crack tip are compared with the experimental observations. The good agreement between calculations and experimental data shows the damage criterion used can improve the accuracy of life prediction of components submitted to intergranular creep damage. (author) 200 refs.

  2. Energy perspectives of the France by 2020-2050. Energy scenario; Perspectives energetiques de la France a l'horizon 2020-2050. Scenarios energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    The aim of the working group was to realize quantitative approaches of the french energy system by 2020-2050 supporting the reflexions of the Energy Commission. The presented scenario are not prevision of the future. They just allow, in function of the hypothesis and the models used, to establish an approach of the consequences in term of the final energy demand. Two simulation tools were used and described in the chapter 3: Medpro-Poles and Markal-Times. The scenario are analyzed in the chapters 4 and 5. Results allow to see how the proposed measures are sufficient to reach in France the main objectives proposed by the european union. (A.L.B.)

  3. Control Rods in high-Flux Swimming-Pool Reactors; Les Barres de Controle dans les Piles Piscines a Haut Flux; Reguliruyushchie sterzhni dlya reaktorov bassejnovogo tipa s vysokoj plotnost'yu nejtronnogo potoka; Las Barras de Control en los Reactores Tipo Piscina de Flujo Elevado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ageroni, P.; Blum, P.; Denielou, G.; Denis, P.; Meunier, C. [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble (France)

    1964-06-15

    Control-rod problems in open swimming-pool high-flux and high specific power research reactors are examined in the light of the calibrations and experiments made during the construction of the SILOE reactor. Control-rod operating experience for this reactor at 13 MW is also described. 2. The following are considered in turn: (a) Reactivity balances and reactivity values for the different types of rod tested (cadmium, B4C , rare earths and combinations of these different elements). (b) Flux peaks set up in the core by the presence of the control rods, their incidence on the specific power, the fast fluxes that can be obtained and means of increasing them. (c ) The technological problems involved in constructing the rods. (d) In-pile cooling, vibration, deformation and scram-time problems. 3. In conclusion, current studies on control rods in open swimming-pool reactors operating in the 10 - 30 1W range are briefly summarized. (author) [French] 1. Les problemes poses par les barres de controle dans les reacteurs de recherche de type piscine ouverte a haute puissance specifique et haut flux sont examines a la lumiere des calculs et des experiences effectues pendant la construction du reacteur SILOE. Les resultats de l'experience de fonctionnement a 13 MW de ce reacteur sont egalement presentes en ce qui concerne les barres de controle. 2. On examine successivement: a) les bilans de reactivite et les valeurs en reactivite des differents types de barres qui ont ete essayes (Cadmium, B 4C , terres rares et combinaisons de ces differents elements). b) Les pics de flux crees dans le coeur par la presence de barres de controle, leur incidence sur la puissance specifique, et les flux rapides que l'on peut obtenir ainsi que les moyens correspondants d'accroitre ces flux. c) Les problemes technologiques poses par la construction des barres. d) Les problemes de refrigeration, de vibration, de deformation, de temps de chute en pile. 3. En conclusion on decrit sommairement les

  4. Study of the recrystallization mechanisms of ultra-high purity iron doped with carbon, manganese and phosphorus; Etude des mecanismes de recristallisation dans le fer de ultra-haute purete dope en carbone, manganese et phosphore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesne, L.

    2000-07-04

    High purity steels have the potential to improve deep drawing properties for automotive applications. Understanding the influence of the chemical composition on the recrystallization mechanisms and on texture development should help to improve their properties. We have studied the influence of 10 ppm of carbon, 1000 ppm of manganese and 120 ppm of phosphorus on the recrystallization mechanisms of ultra-high purity iron (UHP iron > 99.997%). For this purpose we used 4 materials: one undoped (UHP), one doped with C, one doped with C, Mn and one doped With C, Mn, P. In order to restrict grain coarsening in the hot strips, hot rolling was performed in the ferritic region, in one pass of 80% thickness reduction. The hot bands were then fully recrystallized but exhibited non-isotropic textures, with in particular an intense Goss [110]<001> component for the doped materials. The hot-bands were subsequently cold rolled down to a thickness of 0.8 mm corresponding to a thickness reduction of 80%, and then continuously annealed at 10 deg. C/s. The recrystallization kinetics are delayed with the addition of doping elements. In particular, the incubation time for nucleation is shifted towards higher temperatures while the recrystallization velocity increases. The textures of the fully recrystallized materials exhibit a strong Goss component prejudicial for deep drawing properties. We have established that this component can only appear if coarse grains and carbon in solid solution were simultaneously present in the material before deformation. Characterisation of the cold deformed state enabled us to evaluate the energy stored during deformation as a function of the material composition and the grain orientation: - the overall stored energy increases with the doping elements content. - the stored energy in the {gamma} fibre grains is greater than in the {alpha} fibre grains: 30 J/mol for the {gamma} fibre instead of 5 J/mol for the {alpha} fibre, in the undoped UHP iron. In the

  5. High temperature cracking of steels: effect of geometry on creep crack growth laws; Fissuration des aciers a haute temperature: effet de la geometrie sur la transferabilite des lois de propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabiri, M.R

    2003-12-01

    This study was performed at Centre des Materiaux de l'Ecole des Mines de Paris. It deals with identification and transferability of high temperature creep cracking laws of steels. A global approach, based on C{sup *} and J non-linear fracture mechanics parameters has been used to characterize creep crack initiation and propagation. The studied materials are: the ferritic steels 1Cr-1Mo-1/4V (hot and cold parts working at 540 and 250 C) used in the thermal power stations and the austenitic stainless steel 316 L(N) used in the nuclear power stations. During this thesis a data base was setting up, it regroups several tests of fatigue, creep, creep-fatigue, and relaxation. Its particularity is to contain several creep tests (27 tests), achieved at various temperatures (550 to 650 C) and using three different geometries. The relevance of the C{sup *} parameter to describe the creep crack propagation was analysed by a means of systematic study of elasto-viscoplastic stress singularities under several conditions (different stress triaxiality). It has been shown that, besides the C{sup *} parameter, a second non singular term, denoted here as Q{sup *}, is necessary to describe the local variables in the vicinity of the crack tip. Values of this constraint parameter are always negative. Consequently, application of typical creep crack growth laws linking the creep crack growth rate to the C{sup *} parameter (da/dt - C{sup *}), will be conservative for industrial applications. Furthermore, we showed that for ferritic steels, crack incubation period is important, therefore a correlation of Ti - C{sup *} type has been kept to predict crack initiation time Ti. For the austenitic stainless steel, the relevant stage is the one of the crack propagation, so that a master curve (da/dt - C{sup *}), using a new data analysis method, was established. Finally, the propagation of cracks has been simulated numerically using the node release technique, allowing to validate analytical

  6. Plasma Equilibrium in a Torus with High-Frequency Fields and Plasma Heating Resulting from the Development of a Powerful Beam of ''Escaping Electrons''; Plasma Torique: Stabilisation au Moyen de Champs de Haute Frequence et Chauffage par Formation d'un Flux Intense d'Electrons 'Emballes'; Ehksperimental'noe issledovanie ravnovesiya plazmy v tore pri nalichii vysokochastotnykh polej i nagreva plazmy za schet razvitiya moshchnogo puchka ''ubegayushchikh ehlektronov''; Equilibrio del Plasma en un Toro, en Presencia de Campos de Alta Frecuencia, y Calentamiento del Plasma por el Desarrollo de un Haz Potente de 'Electrones Desbocados '

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirkhanov, R. A.; Kirov, A. G.; Stotland, M. A.; Malykh, N. I.; Horasanov, G. L.; Vishnevskij, N. K.; Gutkin, T. I.; Jampol' skij, I. R. [Fiziko-Tehnicheskij Institut Gosudarstvennogo Komiteta po Ispol' zovaniju Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Sukhumi, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1966-04-15

    electron temperature of the order of a few eV. When a rotating quadrupole high-frequency field is applied, the plasma is forced away from the walls and is localized in the centre with an increase in temperature. Attention was also paid to heating by a strong electric field in the absence of a rotating high-frequency quadrupole field. In this case, when the electric field is E{sub z} = 100 to 200 V cm{sup -}{sub 1}, a current Jp=3 to 5 kA is developed in the plasma; on being strongly damped, this current becomes essentially ohmic in character. At the same time the voltage in the bypass is very strongly damped in comparison with the inactive condition, which indicates effective absorption of the loop energy by the plasma. The energy absorbed by the plasma during the first half-cycle of the current, that is during about 1{mu}s, represents about 20 J, and the conductivity of the plasma is anomalously low. When heating is performed by a strong electric field, an intensive burst of X-radiation with an energy of the order of 100 keV is observed, together with the emission of.micro-wave noises at frequencies close to that of the plasma. (author) [French] Le memoire decrit les experiences qui ont ete effectuees dans l'installation RT-0. Cette installation est constituee par un tore ayant un grand diametre de 100 cm et un petit diametre de 10 cm. Le long de la chambre, il se forme un champ magnetique torique d'environ 6 kOe. L'ignition du plasma se fait sous une pression superieure ou egale a 5 x 10{sup -4} Torr au moyen d'un champ electrique longitudinal tournant (8,3 MHz). Au voisinage de la paroi de la chambre se trouve un champ quadripolaire de haute frequence (540 kHz), qui tourne autour du plus petit diametre, avec H{phi} = 200 Oe. Lorsque le banc de condensateurs a faible induction envoie une decharge dans les spires disposees le long du tore, il peut se creer a l'interieur de la chambre un champ electrique turbulent du type decroissant, ayant une intensite maximum E{sub z

  7. The Biological Effect of Fast Neutrons and High-Energy Protons; Effets Biologiques des Neutrons Rapides et des Protons de Haute Energie; Biologicheskoe dejstvie bystrykh nejtronov i protonov vysokikh ehnergii; Efectos Biologicos de los Neutrones Rapidos y de los Protones de Elevada Energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskalev, Ju. I.; Petrovich, I. K.; Strel' cova, V. N.

    1964-03-15

    The paper gives the results of comparative experiments on the effects of fast neutrons and high-energy protons (500 MeV) on life expectancy, peripheral blood, incidence and rate of appearance of tumours in the rat as a function of administered dose and time of observation. The neutron experiment was performed on 573 and the proton experiment on 490 white rats. The animals irradiated with fast neutrons were given doses between 8.5 and 510 rad, and those irradiated with protons received doses between 28 and 1008 rad. The effective doses for the acute, sub-acute and chronic forms of sickness were established for fast neutrons and for protons. LD{sub 50/30} for neutrons was 408 and for protons 600 rad, and the corresponding LD{sub 50}/{sub 120} values were 380 and 600 rad. The conditions governing rat mortality were analysed both in the early and the later stages of the experiment. It is shown that the average life expectancy of rats irradiated with fast neutrons does not depend on sex. The shape of the dose-effect curve for the various peripheral-blood indexes is strongly dependent not only on the radiosensitivity of the blood cells in question but also on the time of observation. It may change greatly in time for one and the same index. A considerable time after irradiation with either fast neutrons or protons, benign and malignant tumours appear in different tissues of the rats, including the haemopoeitic tissues, mammary glands, pituitary, uterus, ovaries, prostate gland, testicles, liver, kidneys, lungs, gastro-intestinal tract, subcutaneous tissue, lymph nodes, urinary bladder, etc. The over-all incidence of tumours and the number of cases of multi centred neoplasms in females are two to three times higher than in males. The minimum tumour dose for the mammary glands with neutron irradiation is apparently rather less than 42.5 rad. The maximum incidence of tumours of the pituitary is found after irradiation with a dose of 42.5 rad.- At this same dose leucosis and

  8. Analysis of the accelerometric data applied to seismic hazard assessment in France; Anisotropies magnetique et de porosite des argilites du callovo-oxfordien du laboratoire souterrain de l'Andra (Meuse/Haute-Marne, Bassin de Paris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban, L

    2006-09-15

    0,3-5%, and the long axis (K1) is constantly trending around N-S in the clay-rich levels and around NW-SE in the silt-enriched levels. This linear fabric is argued to derive either from an anisotropic compaction toward the depocenter, or to parallel the direction of the currents coming from the NE (Bohemian and Rhenan massifs) or from the NW (London-Brabant massif) during sedimentation. This mineral fabric is compared to the anisotropy of the pore network connectivity in representative lithologies of the formation. We performed high pressure mercury injections parallel to the AMS axes, in order to reflect the anisotropy of connectivity, and AMS measurements after impregnation with a ferro fluid at different pressures, in order to obtain the shapes of the pore network. From these data, we tentatively propose three pore models, the first one for the silt-enriched specimens where vertically pathways seem to control the connectivity, the second one for the carbonate-enriched specimens where the highest connectivity is parallel to bedding, and which is almost isotropic in the bedding plane in spite of an anisotropic pore structure, and the third one for the clay-enriched specimens (at the site of the ANDRA Laboratory), where the highest connectivity, also parallel to bedding, parallels the magnetic lineation. In conclusion, in addition to this petrophysical modelling of the pore network, in relation with the rock texture at the micro-scale, our mineralogical approach helped to confirm (and locally refine) the sequential stratigraphy of this part of the Jurassic, corresponding to a colder event in-between two carbonaceous-platforms. Our mineralogical approach added to fabric considerations helped us to propose an original dynamical scenario of the sedimentary supplies. (author)

  9. A new geothermal source for spa and space heating in Lavey-les-Bains; Operation geothermique de Lavey-les Bains (VD). CESLA - Chaleur des Eaux Souterraines de Lavey S.A. Realisation du forage geothermique profond P600 et exploitation de la ressource energetique par pompage dans les puits P600 et P201 (juin 1997 - decembre 2002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchetti, G.

    2002-07-01

    This report presents the construction and the operating performance of a newly drilled borehole in Lavey-les-Bains in Switzerland, which is used to extract high-temperature geothermal water. Associated with an older geothermal source, this well delivering water at the temperature of 68 {sup o}C meets 95% of the heat demand of the Lavey medical and thermal centre, without any heat pump. The heat is used for space heating, ventilation and domestic hot water preparation as well as for the pools. The flow rate from this 517 meter deep well is typically 1,100 liters per minute. The report also describes in details the drilling process as well as the various measurements performed during this period of time. Plenty of figures and schematics are given concerning the technical characteristics of the well and its exploitation procedure. The author suggests the introduction of heat recovery, as water is rejected at a temperature of at least 30 {sup o}C.

  10. Determination of spectral, structural and energetic properties of small lithium clusters, within the density functional theory formalism.; Application et developpement de calculs type fonctionnelle de la densite pour la determination de proprietes spectrales structurales et energetiques d`agregats de lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardet, G.

    1995-06-14

    A systematic study of small lithium clusters (with size less than 19), within the Density Functional Theory (DFT) formalism is presented. We examine structural properties of the so called local level of approximation. For clusters with size smaller than 8, the conformations are well known from ab initio calculations and are found here at much lower computational cost, with only small differences. For bigger clusters, two growth pattern have been used, based upon the increase of the number of pentagonal subunits in the clusters by absorption of one or two Li atoms. Several new stable structures are proposed. Then DFT gradient-corrected functionals have been used for relative stability determination of these clusters. Ionisation potentials and binding energies are also investigated in regard to clusters size and geometry. Calculations of excited states of lithium clusters (with size less than 9) have been performed within two different approaches. Using a set of Kohn-Sham orbitals to construct wave functions, oscillator strengths calculation of the electric dipole transitions is performed. Transition energies, oscillator strengths and optical absorption presented here are generally in reasonable agreement with the experimental data and the Configuration Interaction calculations. (author).

  11. Assistance to a car heat engine by a self-controlled synchronous machine: engine energy control enhancement and pollutant emission reduction; Assistance d`un moteur thermique d`automobile par une machine synchrone autopilotee: amelioration de la gestion energetique et reduction des polluants du groupe moto-propulseur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouadio, L.

    1996-12-12

    A new method for spark-ignition engine control, more especially in idle conditions, has been developed to prevent engine stalling and improve its idling performances in terms of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions: the car synchronous machine, traditionally operating as an alternator, is used in certain phases to provide an external supplementary torque on the engine shaft. Methods are proposed for optimising the synchronous machine operation as a generator and as an engine, then the main engine control parameters are presented and a linear signal model is established around a nominal idling point, which is used for simulations. Experimental results show evident reductions of fuel consumption and a significant robustness improvement in the engine dynamics

  12. Energy saving potential of energy services - experimentation on the life cycle of energy conversion equipment; Potentiel d'economies d'energie par les services energetiques - application au cycle de vie des equipements de conversion de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, M

    2006-12-15

    Energy efficiency services are growing in Europe but their role is still limited. In order to evaluate the potential, we focused first of all on policy, economical and environmental mechanisms that support their development. European natural gas and electricity markets, that are now almost wholly de-regulated, are analysed and compared to their historical structure. By introducing uncertainty on energy prices, this new deal translates better the real energy costs. Energy performance contracts (EPC) limit the impact of these uncertainties on the customer energy bills by guaranteeing a financial result. As a result of the modelling of these contracts, namely operation and maintenance ones, we prove that they transfer technical and financial risks from building owners to energy service companies (ESCO) making energy saving measures easier and less expensive at the same time. These contracts are relatively widespread for heating or compressed-air processes but remain marginal for air-conditioning systems. So new methods were needed to guarantee on the long terms the efficiency of air-conditioning systems demand (1) to master the process and its performances and (2) to be able to determine precisely the energy saving potential and its realisation costs. A detailed energy audit is thus necessary for which we propose a guidance. Conclusions of audits carried out prove that energy saving potential is mainly located in equipment management and control. These optimizations are not always carried out because of a lack of contractual incentive and due to the weaknesses of audit methods. Through the involvement of an independent expert, the mandatory and regular inspection of air-conditioning systems may allow to verify and guide such practices. A three-step analysis procedure has been developed in order to maximize the inspection potential and to get higher benefits from service contracts. (author)

  13. Interaction Between Hf Waves and Plasma in Delta-2; Interaction dans 'Delta-2' d'une Onde Progressive Electromagnetique de Haute Frequence et d'un Plasma; Vzaimodejstvie vysokochastotnoj ehlektromagnitnoj begushchej volny s plazmoj na ustanovke ''Del'ta-2'; Interaccion de una Onda Progresiva Electromagnetica de Alta Frecuencia con el Plasma en la Instalacion 'Delta-2'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breus, S. N.; Kurdjumov, V. N.; Levin, M. L.; Osovec, S. M.; Popova, N. Ja.; Popov, I. A.; Hodataev, K. V.; Shimchuk, V. P. [Radiotehnicheskij Institut AN SSSR, Moskva, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1966-04-15

    than the phase velocity of the travelling wave, about 5 x 10{sup 7} cm/s, which is considerably smaller than the thermal velocity of the electrons. (author) [French] Le memoire expose les resultats de l'etude de l'interaction d'un plasma dense et du champ de haute frequenced'une onde magnetique progressant le long d'une chambre de decharge toroiedale (grand diametre - 700 mm, petit diametre - 85 mm). L'onde progressive est excitee a une frequence 2,4 MHz par un autogenerateur triphase d'une puissance d'environ 50 MW avec une duree d'impulsion comprise entre 250 et 350 {mu}s. Les pressions initiales etaient comprises entre 0,1 et 0,001 Tort, et le champ magnetique de haute frequence a la surface du plasma atteignait de 500 a '600 Oe. Dans ces conditions, les phenomenes essentiels qui determinent l'interaction sont lies aux effets non lineaires et avant tout a l'apparition d'une composante petmanente du courant longitudinal qui a atteint des valeurs de plusieurs milliers d'amperes. Au centre de la chambre, dans la zone des champs faibles, la conductivite du plasma etait de l'ordre de 3 a 4*10{sup 14} esu, ce qui pour un degre d'ionisation proche de 100% correspond a une temperature des electrons de 8 a 12 eV. Dans la zone des champs forts (zone de la couche ou se produit l'effet pelliculaite), la conductivite diminue d'un ordre de grandeur, ce qui produit une augmentation brutale de la puissance de haute frequence utilisable. Les auteurs ont decouvert aupres du courant longitudinal dans le plasma un champ magnetique longitudinal quasi stationnaire, forme par des courants transversaux. Ce champ a une structure complexe et il est possible qu'il soit conditionne, comme le montre la theorie de l'approximation, par un effet toroidal. Il est probable que les oscillations de plasma observees, de 20) a 500 kHz, correspondant par exemple aux oscillations particulieres d'Alfven dans ces champs, soient en rapportavecl'existencedeschampsmagnetiques quasi stationnaires. La presence

  14. Structural and energetical studies of the adsorption of para and meta-isomers of xylene on pre-hydrated zeolite BaX. Characterization by neutron diffraction and temperature programmed desorption; Etude structurale et energetique de l'adsorption des isomeres para- et meta- du xylene dans la zeolithe BaX prehydratee. Caracterisation par diffraction des neutrons et thermodesorption programmee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichon, Ch.

    1999-10-19

    The separation of p-xylene from C{sub 8} aromatics is performed industrially by selective adsorption on zeolitic materials. FAU-type zeolites are currently used for this separation and especially the partially hydrated BaX. The aim of this work is to characterize from a structural (by low temperature neutron powder diffraction) and an energetical (by temperature programmed desorption) point of view, the adsorption of para- and meta- isomers of xylene, for different fillings, as pure substances as well as mixtures, on pre-hydrated zeolite BaX. The influence of the water pre-adsorption on xylene adsorption selectivity is carefully discussed. The crystalline structure of the zeolite BaX (framework and compensation of charge cations) and of the adsorbed phase (water, p- and m-xylene molecules) are completely characterized by neutron diffraction. The location and the distribution of water and xylene molecules on their adsorption sites is especially followed as a function of the filling of the zeolite and of the composition of the adsorbed phase. Microscopic measurements were correlated to the energetical analysis (at a macroscopic level) in order to obtain a consistent description of adsorption phenomenon and to propose a possible origin for adsorption selectivity.

  15. Analysis of space and energy homogenization techniques for the solving of the neutron transport equation in nuclear reactor; Analyse des techniques d'homogeneisation spatiale et energetique dans la resolution de l'equation du transport des neutrons dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magat, Ph

    1997-04-01

    Today neutron transport in PWR's core is routinely computed through the transport-diffusion(2 groups) scheme. This method gives satisfactory results for reactors operating in normal conditions but the 2 group diffusion approximation is unable to take into account interface effects or anisotropy. The improvement of this scheme is logically possible through the use of a simplified P{sub N} method (SP{sub N}) for the modeling of the core. The comparison between S{sub N} calculations and SP{sub N} calculations shows an excellent agreement on eigenvalues as well as on power maps. We can notice that: -) it is no use extending the development beyond P{sub 3}, there is no effect; -) the P{sub 1} development is adequate; and -) the P{sub 0} development is totally inappropriate. Calculations performed on the N4 core of the Chooz power plant have enabled us to compare diffusion operators with transport operators (SP{sub 1}, SP{sub 3}, SP{sub 5} and SP{sub 7}). These calculations show that the implementation of the SP{sub N} method is feasible but the extra-costs in computation times and memory are important. We recommend: SP{sub 5}P{sub 1} calculations for heterogeneous 2-dimension geometry and SP{sub 3}P{sub 1} calculations for the homogeneous 3-dimension geometry. (A.C.)

  16. Analysis of space and energy homogenization techniques for the solving of the neutron transport equation in nuclear reactor; Analyse des techniques d'homogeneisation spatiale et energetique dans la resolution de l'equation du transport des neutrons dans les reacteurs nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magat, Ph

    1997-04-01

    Today neutron transport in PWR's core is routinely computed through the transport-diffusion(2 groups) scheme. This method gives satisfactory results for reactors operating in normal conditions but the 2 group diffusion approximation is unable to take into account interface effects or anisotropy. The improvement of this scheme is logically possible through the use of a simplified P{sub N} method (SP{sub N}) for the modeling of the core. The comparison between S{sub N} calculations and SP{sub N} calculations shows an excellent agreement on eigenvalues as well as on power maps. We can notice that: -) it is no use extending the development beyond P{sub 3}, there is no effect; -) the P{sub 1} development is adequate; and -) the P{sub 0} development is totally inappropriate. Calculations performed on the N4 core of the Chooz power plant have enabled us to compare diffusion operators with transport operators (SP{sub 1}, SP{sub 3}, SP{sub 5} and SP{sub 7}). These calculations show that the implementation of the SP{sub N} method is feasible but the extra-costs in computation times and memory are important. We recommend: SP{sub 5}P{sub 1} calculations for heterogeneous 2-dimension geometry and SP{sub 3}P{sub 1} calculations for the homogeneous 3-dimension geometry. (A.C.)

  17. Study of ultra-energetic cosmic rays at the Pierre Auger Observatory from particle detection to anisotropy measurement; Etude des rayons cosmiques ultra-energetiques avec l'Observatoire de Pierre Auger: de l'acceptance du detecteur a la nature des particules primaires et aux mesures d'anisotropies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aublin, J

    2006-09-15

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, still under construction in Argentina, is designed to study the cosmic rays with energies above a few EeV. The experiment combines two complementary techniques: the fluorescence light detection and the sampling of the shower with an array of detectors at ground, covering a surface of 3000 square kilometers. The calculation of the acceptance of the detector, which is of utmost importance to establish the energy spectrum, has been achieved. The method of computation of the acceptance is simple and reliable. The detection efficiency depends on the nature of primary cosmic rays, allowing to study the cosmic rays composition with the surface detector. The calculation of the cosmic rays energy spectrum has been performed, using different methods to estimate the energy of the events. A cross calibration between the fluorescence and the surface detector provides an estimation of the energy almost independent of hadronic interaction models. The study of large scale anisotropies in the cosmic rays angular distribution provides useful informations about the cosmic rays sources and the conditions of propagation. A new analysis method is presented, allowing to estimate the parameters of an underlying dipolar and quadrupolar anisotropy in the data. The method is applied to a preliminary Auger data set. (author)

  18. Study of ultra-energetic cosmic rays at the Pierre Auger Observatory from particle detection to anisotropy measurement; Etude des rayons cosmiques ultra-energetiques avec l'Observatoire de Pierre Auger: de l'acceptance du detecteur a la nature des particules primaires et aux mesures d'anisotropies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aublin, J

    2006-09-15

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, still under construction in Argentina, is designed to study the cosmic rays with energies above a few EeV. The experiment combines two complementary techniques: the fluorescence light detection and the sampling of the shower with an array of detectors at ground, covering a surface of 3000 square kilometers. The calculation of the acceptance of the detector, which is of utmost importance to establish the energy spectrum, has been achieved. The method of computation of the acceptance is simple and reliable. The detection efficiency depends on the nature of primary cosmic rays, allowing to study the cosmic rays composition with the surface detector. The calculation of the cosmic rays energy spectrum has been performed, using different methods to estimate the energy of the events. A cross calibration between the fluorescence and the surface detector provides an estimation of the energy almost independent of hadronic interaction models. The study of large scale anisotropies in the cosmic rays angular distribution provides useful informations about the cosmic rays sources and the conditions of propagation. A new analysis method is presented, allowing to estimate the parameters of an underlying dipolar and quadrupolar anisotropy in the data. The method is applied to a preliminary Auger data set. (author)

  19. Integration of an Informatics System in a High Throughput Experimentation. Description of a Global Framework Illustrated Through Several Examples Intégration informatique des outils d’expérimentation haut débit. Présentation d’une architecture globale via plusieurs exemples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celse B.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available High Throughput Experimentation (HTE is a rapidly expanding field. However, the productivity gains obtained via the synthesis or parallel testing of catalysts may be lost due to poor data management (numerous manual inputs, information difficult to access, etc.. A global framework has then been developed. It includes the HTE pilot plants in the global information system. It produces dedicated computer tools offering spectacular time savings in the operation of HTE units, information storage and rapid extraction of relevant information. To optimize the productivity of engineers, Excel has been included in the system by adding specific features in order to treat it as an industrial tool (development of additional modules, update of modules, etc.. The success obtained by setting up the information system is largely due to the chosen development method. An Agile method (Agile Alliance (2012 http://www.agilealliance.org/the-alliancel[1] was chosen since close collaboration between the computer specialists and the chemist engineers is essential. Rather than a global and precise description of the framework which might be boring and tedious, the global framework is presented through 3 examples: scheduling experiments applied to zeolite synthesis; data management (storage and access; real application to pilot plant: dedicated interfaces to pilot and supervise HTE pilot plants, comparison of tests runs coming from several pilot plants. L’Expérimentation Haut Débit (EHD est un domaine en plein essor. Cependant, les gains de productivité obtenus via la synthèse ou le test parallélisé de catalyseurs peuvent être annihilés par une mauvaise gestion de données (nombreuses saisies manuelles, difficulté d’accès à l’information, etc.. Dans ce document, une nouvelle architecture permettant d’intégrer les unités EHD dans un système d’information global est présentée. Des outils informatiques dédiés ont été développés. Ils permettent

  20. Characteristics of the Biological Effects and the RBE of High Energy Protons; Caracteristiques des Effets Biologiques et EBR des Protons de Haute Energie; Osobennosti biologicheskogo dejstviya i obeh protonov vysokikh ehnergii; Caracteristicas de los Efectos Biologicos y de la EBR de los Protones de Elevada Energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigor' ev, Ju. G.; Darenskaja, N. G.; Domshlak, M. M.; Lebedinskij, A. V.; Nefedov, Ju. G.; Ryzhov, N. I.

    1964-03-15

    The characteristics of the biological effects of high-energy protons (120, 240 and 510 MeV) were studied in experiments on mice, rats and dogs. It was shown that together with a certain resemblance or identity in radiation damage due to the effects of X-rays and protons, there were certain differences in the case of proton irradiation. In the proton irradiation of dogs the haemorrhagic syndrome was more pronounced. Haemorrhage appeared earlier in the animals and was more abundant. A difference was found in proton RBE levels for small animals (rats, mice) and large animals (dogs). This difference is quite large and equals respectively 0.7 and 1.0 * 1.15. Some considerations are presented in the report on the cause of these differences. (author) [French] Les auteurs ont etudie les caracteristiques des effets biologiques des protons de haute energie (120, 240 et 510 MeV) au cours d'experiences sur des souris, des rats et des chiens. Ils montrent que si les dommages causes par les rayons X et les protons presentent une certaine ressemblance ou des caracteres identiques, on observe des differences dans le cas de l'irradiation par les protons. Chez les chiens exposes aux protons, le syndrome hemorragique etait plus prononce. L'hemorragie s'est manifestee plus tot chez ces animaux et etait plus abondante. Les auteurs ont decele une difference dans l*EBRdes protons pour les petits animaux (rats, souris) et pour les grands animaux (chiens). Cette difference etait importante: 0,7 dans le premier cas et de 1,0 a 1,15 dans le second cas. On trouve dans le memoire quelques considerations sur la cause de ces differences. (author) [Spanish] Los autores estudiaron las caracteristicas de los efectos biologicos de los protones de elevada energia (120, 240 y 510 MeV) mediante experimentos con ratones, ratas y perros. Comprobaron que a pesar de ciertas semejanzas en las radiolesiones causadas por los rayos X y los protones, los efectos de estos ultimos acusan algunas diferencias. El

  1. Effect of cobalt-60 {gamma} radiation and of thermal neutrons on high resistance P and N silicon. Possibility of obtaining a nuclear compensation for P type silicon; Effects du rayonnement {gamma} du cobalt 60 et de neutrons thermiques sur du silicium P et N de haute resistivite. Possibilite de realiser une compensation nucleaire d'un silicium du type P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messier, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-11-01

    }s environ. Des detecteurs de particules de 2 a 5 mm d'epaisseur ont ete realises par ce procede et donnent, particulierement a basse temperature, de bons resultats. Par ailleurs, on a etudie le nombre et la nature des defauts du reseau produits par les neutrons thermiques dans des cristaux de haute resistivite de types N et P. On les a compares a ceux produits par les rayons {gamma} du {sup 60}Co. On a discute la validite du modele de Wertheim relatif a une recombinaison tres importante a basse temperature (77 deg. K - 300 deg. K) des paires lacune-interstitiel primaires. On a etudie la nature des defauts introduisant des niveaux d'energie dans la moitie inferieure de la bande interdite. (auteur)

  2. High-temperature superconductors. Les supraconducteurs a haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bontemps, N; Combescot, R; Monod, P [Ecole Normale Superieure, 75 - Paris (France)

    1992-02-01

    High-tc superconductivity was discovered in 1986. The prospects of being able to dispose of superconductors cooled by liquid nitrogen instead of liquid helium, and fundamental physics questions raised by these new compounds drag an unprecedented scientific mobilization. Today, the super conductive state nature become clearer. But, to all expectations, their normal state nature is proved to present quite more difficulties. 20 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Le CERN sous haute sécurité

    CERN Multimedia

    Scappaticci, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    1500 prestigious guests came to participate to the LHC inauguration on last Tuedday, among which the Swiss President and the French Prime Minister François Fillon. Picked unities of the polices (Swiss an French) were on a war-footing.. (2 pages)

  4. High energy hadronic physics; Physique hadronique a haute energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desgrolard, P.; Giffon, M. [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Lengyel, A. [Yinstitut Elektronnoyi Fyiziki, Uzhgorod (Ukraine); Martynov, E. [Bogolyubov Inst. Teoreticheskoj Fiziki, Kiev (Ukraine); Predazzi, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Turin (Italy); Samokhin, A. [Institut Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij, Protvino (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    We are interested in various problems in conventional diffraction: role of the Pomeron and Odderon, how to select among their models, eikonalization processes as a mean to preserve unitarity, previsions in view of expected new data. (authors)

  5. Radioactivity in a mountain ecosystem: the Haut Bassin du Var

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, the IPSN realized a study of the radioactive fallout in the mountain area of the Var (France). Today the main radionuclides are the cesium 134 and 137, others disappeared because of their short half-life. In this paper, the artificial radioactivity of soils and sediments is concerned. The study shows a concentration of the contamination in some specific areas, especially in soils abounding in organic matter. The dose measured can not lead to significant exposures. (A.L.B.)

  6. The Haute-Normandie Climate Air Energy Regional Scheme - Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This regional public and planning document (SRCAE) first proposes a regional diagnosis in terms of energetic situation, climatic situation, air quality situation, building condition (in terms of energy), transports (characteristics of regional transport, of person and goods transport), industries and enterprises (important role of oil and chemical activities, low level of renewable and recovery energies), agriculture and forest, renewable energies (biomass and wastes, wind energy, solar photovoltaic, hydroelectricity, renewable heat production), and territory vulnerability in front of climate change. The second part states objectives and orientations: definition of scenarios, and of sector-based objectives (in the building, transport, agricultural, and industrial sectors, in the development of renewable energies, and in terms of adaptation to climate change). Synthetic approaches are then stated in relationship with different challenges related to sustainable behaviours and consumption, promotion of professions related to energy transition, diffusion of good practices in the fields of energy efficiency and emission reduction, sustainable land development, promotion of environmental mutations for the regional economy, innovation to face climate and energy challenges, development of renewable energies, anticipation of the adaptation to climate change, and SRCAE follow-up and assessment. Sheets of definitions of objectives are given for each sector. A synthetic version of this study is provided

  7. les importations subventionnees de genisses a haut potentiel laitier

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    français et leur évolution depuis 2003, ont calculé le risque annuel de mortalité des animaux de plus de deux ans ... vendu à des laiteries industrielles et certains investissements à la ferme - aurait pu apporter plus ... laitières (soit 7,8 vaches laitières en moyenne par exploitation en possédant). (MADR, 2006). 2 Ainsi, dans ...

  8. La revendication des hautes terres du Cambodge | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    23 févr. 2011 ... À Ratanakiri, les villageois ont établi le genre de plan dont nous avons besoin, selon la classification des divers types de sol qu'on trouve dans la forêt. » « Nous voulons aider la collectivité à protéger ses ressources naturelles », ajoute-t-il. « Nous avons bien vu que la forêt est son moyen de subsistance.

  9. High temperature microscope (1961); Microscopie a haute temperature (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-06-15

    The purpose of this work is the realization of an apparatus for observation of radioactive metallic samples at high temperature and low pressure. The operating conditions are as follows: to limit oxidation of the metal, pressure of about 10{sup -6} mm of Hg is maintained in the furnace. In case the oxidation of the sample would be too important, on ultra vacuum. device could be used; working temperatures range between room temperature and 1200 deg. C; furnace temperature is regulated; observation is done ever in polarized light or interference contrast; to insure protection of the operator, the apparatus is placed in a glove-box. With that apparatus, we have observed the {alpha}{yields}{beta}, {beta}{yields}{gamma} transformations of uranium. A movie has been done. (author) [French] Le but de ce travail est la realisation d'une appareillage permettant l'observation a chaud et sous vide d'echantillons metalliques radioactifs. Cet appareillage fonctionne dans les conditions suivantes: l'echantillon est chauffe sous une pression de l'ordre de 10{sup -6} mm de mercure afin de limiter l'oxydation du materiau examine. L'utilisation eventuelle d'un groupe de pompage pour ultra vide est prevue; l'echantillon peut etre porte a une temperature comprise entre quelques degres et 1200 deg. C; la temperature du four est regulee; l'observation s'effectue soit en lumiere polarisee soit en contraste interferentiel; l'appareil est dipose dans une boite a gants afin d'assurer la protection de l'operateur contre les poussieres radioactives; Les transformations {alpha}{yields}{beta}, {beta}{yields}{gamma} de l'uranium ont ete observees. Un film a ete realise. (auteur)

  10. Des espoirs à la hauteur de la haute technologie | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    améliorer les diagnostics et les soins au patient. » Compte tenu de son expérience de l'utilisation des .... Taming the wounded lion: Transforming security forces in West Africa. Coups and conflict have been a sad part of life for ...

  11. les importations subventionnees de genisses a haut potentiel laitier

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    RÉSUMÉ. L'Algérie a adopté depuis les années soixante des politiques d'in- citation à l'élevage bovin laitier constitué à partir de génisses pleines importées subissant un droit de douane faible et dont l'achat par les agriculteurs est subventionné. Ce papier montre qu'il y a un écart considérable en 2011 entre le nombre de ...

  12. A challenge in the high mountains; Defi en haute montagne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaramiglia, V.

    2003-07-01

    The mountain hut Topali above St. Niklaus, Switzerland is situated at 2,700 meters above sea-level in the southern Swiss Alps. Metal and wood have been the main construction materials of this energy efficient building comprising 48 beds on a surface of roughly 100 m{sup 2}. The building includes 12 m{sup 2} of photovoltaic panels as a power supply mainly for lighting and telephone. Space heating and cooking are provided by 8 m{sup 3} of fire wood yearly. Cooking is also possible with a gas stove fueled by liquefied gas. A cool room (0 to 5 {sup o}C) replaces the refrigerator. It is kept at this low temperature by means of a 4.5 m{sup 3} store filled with water from the nearby glacier.

  13. Photovaporisation prostatique au laser chez les patients à haut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infection urinaire chez 5 patients (10.6%), une dysurie chez 4 patients et une hémorragie retardée chez 4 autres (8.5%). Un seul de ces patients a nécessité une transfusion sanguine et aucun patient n'a nécessité une réintervention. En 3 mois de suivi un seul patient a nécessité une incision du col vésical pour sclérose du ...

  14. Life Cycle Assessment of different uses of biogas from anaerobic digestion of separately collected biodegradable waste in France. Final report; Analyse du Cycle de Vie des modes de valorisation energetique du biogaz issu de methanisation de la Fraction Fermentescible des Ordures Menageres collectee selectivement en France. Rapport Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    In the first part of the study, Gaz de France (GdF) and the French Environment Energy Management Agency (ADEME) wished to identify the best method to use the biogas from anaerobic digestion of separately collected biodegradable waste (bio-waste). Secondly, GdF and ADEME wished to evaluate the strength and weaknesses of the two main different organic recycling: anaerobic digestion (methanization) and composting. The study is based on the life cycle assessment method. The life cycle assessment used for this study consists in quantifying the environmental impacts of all of the activities which are related to the chosen use method. This methodology involves compiling a detailed account of all substances and energy flows removed or emitted from or into the environment at each stage of the life cycle. These flows are then translated into indicators of potential environment impacts. This methodology is based on the international standards ISO14040 and ISO 14044. The life cycle assessment was performed by RDC Environnement. In this study, two questions were treated: - Which is the best valorisation method for biogas produced from the anaerobic digestion of separately collected biodegradable waste: fuel, heat or electricity? ('Biogas' question); - Which is the best treatment for the separately collected biodegradable waste: anaerobic digestion (methanization) or industrial composting? ('Composting' question). The field of the study includes the arrival of the separately collected biodegradable waste at the anaerobic unit as well as the utilisation of the biogas energy and the agricultural use of the digestate from anaerobic digestion. For each biogas utilisation, the environmental impacts of each life cycle stage were considered as well as the impacts that were avoided due to the substitution of the use of non-renewable energy ('conventional' procedures). The modelling of the direct composting of the biodegradable waste was realised taking into

  15. Contribution to the systemic study of energetic systems including electrochemical devices: Bond Graph formalism applied to modelling fuel cells, lithium-ion batteries and sun-racer; Contribution a l'etude systemique de dispositifs energetiques a composants electrochimiques. Formalisme Bond Graph applique aux piles a combustible, accumulateurs lithium-ion, vehicule solaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saisset, R.

    2004-04-01

    This thesis is a contribution to the study of electric power conversion systems including electrochemical devices. A systemic approach draws advantage of the unified Bond Graph formalism in order to model every component as well as the whole system. A state of the art of electrochemical devices for decentralized electric energy generation and storage put emphasis on common phenomena with the aim of developing 'system oriented' generic models. Solid Oxide and Proton Exchange Fuel Cells (SOFC, PEMFC), as well as Lithium Ion batteries, have been modelled through an efficient work with electrochemistry specialists. These models involve an explicit representation, at a macroscopic level, of conversion and irreversible phenomena linked to the chemical reaction and coupled together both in the hydraulic, chemical, thermodynamic, electric and thermal fields. These models are used to study the modularity of the components, particularly the electric and thermal imbalances in the series and parallel fuel cells associations. The systemic approach is also applied to the study of architectures and energy management of electric power generating units involving PEMFC and battery or super-capacitors storage. Different working conditions for the fuel cells are defined and studied, consisting in either voltage or current or power imposed by means of the storage and static converters environment. Identification of parameters and working tests are performed on specially developed test benches so as to validate theoretical results. At last, the method is applied to study a 'sun-racer', an original complex system with embedded photovoltaic generator, electrochemical storage and brush-less wheel motor, wholly modelled in order to compare various energy management onboard the solar vehicle 'Solelhada'. (author)

  16. Energetic conversion (biogas) of used edible oils by means of co-digestion together with various waste materials from the food industry; Valorisation energetique (biogaz) d'huiles comestibles usagees par codigestion avec differents dechets d'origine agroalimentaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Membrez, Y.; Fruteau de Laclos, H.

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this project was the valorisation of used edible oils by co-digestion together with agricultural or food waste, without any risk for human and animal health. It included the technical economical aspects. In the bibliographic part a state-of-the-art on fat digestion in Switzerland and Europe was done. The possible co-substrates were examined, under a biological aspect as well as economical and strategic aspects. Food waste from restaurants and canteens, that are used up to now for pig feeding, were retained. The co-digestion gives a new perspective for the valorisation of this kind of waste, whose traditional way of valorisation is compromised by the new EU directives. The experimental part aimed to define the possibilities and limits for the co-digestion of used edible oil with food waste as co-substrate. The study was done in a 690 litres bio-reactor. The results showed that co-digestion of edible oil with food waste is feasible with interesting performances, if oil doesn't account for more than 15% of the mixture (on dry matter). Biogas production amounted to 400-450 litres per kg input COD (chemical oxygen demand), with 60-65% CH{sub 4}. Based on the observed results a tender document was done, in order to consult manufacturers of co-digestion plants. An economical simulation was realised on the basis of the most complete offer. This simulation revealed that a benefit of CHF 3500 per year can be obtained for a plant processing 200 t/y edible oil and 9000 t/y food waste. Co-digestion allows for valorisation of edible oil, together with a co-substrate whose traditional utilisation will not be possible in the future. It leads to the production of renewable energy, with a positive economical balance. (author)

  17. Performance Management or Performance Based Management?

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina PROTOPOPESCU

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present some considerations about performance and performance management. Starting with the challenge of defining the performance concept, we intend to establish if „performance management” can be a new management system or it is just a sophisticated term for a HR strategy in order to improve the performance of teams and individuals. We also try to discuss the conection between performance management and management by objectives. Whether or not it is exageratted to talk about...

  18. Understanding protocol performance: impact of test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    This is the second of two articles that examine the factors that determine protocol performance. The objective of these articles is to provide a general understanding of protocol performance that can be used to estimate performance, establish limits on performance, decide if a protocol is justified, and ultimately select a protocol. The first article was concerned with protocol criterion and test correlation. It demonstrated the advantages and disadvantages of different criterion when all tests had the same performance. It also examined the impact of increasing test correlation on protocol performance and the characteristics of the different criteria. To examine the impact on protocol performance when individual tests in a protocol have different performance. This is evaluated for different criteria and test correlations. The results of the two articles are combined and summarized. A mathematical model is used to calculate protocol performance for different protocol criteria and test correlations when there are small to large variations in the performance of individual tests in the protocol. The performance of the individual tests that make up a protocol has a significant impact on the performance of the protocol. As expected, the better the performance of the individual tests, the better the performance of the protocol. Many of the characteristics of the different criteria are relatively independent of the variation in the performance of the individual tests. However, increasing test variation degrades some criteria advantages and causes a new disadvantage to appear. This negative impact increases as test variation increases and as more tests are added to the protocol. Best protocol performance is obtained when individual tests are uncorrelated and have the same performance. In general, the greater the variation in the performance of tests in the protocol, the more detrimental this variation is to protocol performance. Since this negative impact is increased as

  19. Textiles Performance Testing Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Textiles Performance Testing Facilities has the capabilities to perform all physical wet and dry performance testing, and visual and instrumental color analysis...

  20. Cogeneration. Energy efficiency - Micro-cogeneration; La Cogeneration. Efficacite Energetique - Micro-cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudellal, M.

    2010-07-01

    Depletion of natural resources and of non-renewable energy sources, pollution, greenhouse effect, increasing energy needs: energy efficiency is a major topic implying a better use of the available primary energies. In front of these challenges, cogeneration - i.e. the joint production of electricity and heat, and, at a local or individual scale, micro-cogeneration - can appear as interesting alternatives. This book presents in a detailed manner: the present day and future energy stakes; the different types of micro-cogeneration units (internal combustion engines, Stirling engine, fuel cell..), and the available models or the models at the design stage; the different usable fuels (natural gas, wood, biogas..); the optimization rules of a facility; the costs and amortizations; and some examples of facilities. (J.S.)

  1. Law project relative to the energy markets; Projet de loi relatif aux marches energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-09-25

    This document presents the law project relative to the energy markets. It aims to open the french gas market to the competition and defines the gas utilities obligations. The first part presents the main topics of the law: the natural gas distribution access, the natural gas sector regulation, the gas utilities, the natural gas transport and distribution, the underground storage, the control and penalties. The second part details the commission works concerning this law project. (A.L.B.)

  2. Energies and raw materials. The energy situation; Energies et matieres premieres. Conjoncture energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    Statistics are given on the energy and raw materials (coal, oil, etc.) production and consumption levels in France in October 1997: primary energy total consumption has increased (mobile year) of 0.8%, at the same rate since 3 years. Interior demand has varied depending on the energy: strong decrease for coal (- 8.1%), slight increase for petroleum products (+ 1.3%), slowing down increase for gas (+ 2.1%) and moderate increase for electricity (+ 1.4%). An increase in the dollar exchange rate and a high level of oil and gas imports have induced a high energy cost level with + 22% on one year, reaching 87.8 billions Francs, to be compared to 72.0 in October 1996

  3. Energies and raw materials. The energy situation; Energies et matieres premieres. Conjoncture energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    Statistics are given on the energy and raw materials (coal, oil, etc.) production and consumption levels in France in November 1997: primary energy total consumption has increased (mobile year) of 0.6%, at a slightly inferior rate than the rate since 3 years. Interior demand has varied depending on the energy: strong decrease for coal (- 9.3%), slight increase for petroleum products (+ 1.2%), markedly slowing down increase for gas (+ 1.4%) and moderate increase for electricity (+ 1.3%). An increase in the dollar exchange rate and a high level of oil and gas imports have induced a maintained high energy cost level with + 14% on one year, reaching 86.8 billions Francs, to be compared to 76.1 in November 1996

  4. Energies and raw materials. The energy situation; Energies et matieres premieres. Conjoncture energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Statistics are given on the energy and raw materials (coal, oil, etc.) production and consumption levels in France in September 1997: primary energy total consumption has increased (mobile year) of 1.1%, at the same rate since 3 years. Interior demand has varied depending on the energy: strong decrease for coal (- 5.9%), slight increase for petroleum products (+ 0.8%), strong increase for gas (+ 3.2%) and moderate increase for electricity (+ 1.7%). An increase in the dollar exchange rate and a high level of oil and gas imports have induced a record energy cost level with + 30% on one year, reaching 89.2 billions Francs, to be compared to 68.5 in September 1996

  5. US oil policy and energy security; Politique petroliere americaine et securite energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P

    2002-05-15

    Although the energy dependence reached its historical maximum and will continue to increase for the next 20 years, the USA keep their oil policy. For the economist this policy is reasonable because of the poor room for the US imports reduction costs. To explain these conclusions the author discusses on the following topics: the links between the oil dependence and the energy security, the oil policy after Reagan, the oil policy evolution - or no evolution - facing the increasing dependency and the Cheney report. (A.L.B.)

  6. The regional control of the canadian energy production; Le contraste provincial de la production energetique canadienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petitlaurent, S.; Sarrazin, J

    2004-12-01

    This document provides information and presents data on the energy situation in many regions of Canada. The first part deals with the petroleum and the bitumen shales of Alberta (reserves, exploitation and production, environmental impacts), the second part discusses with the hydroelectricity choice of Quebec and the 2004 crisis. The nuclear situation of Ontario is presented in the third part (nuclear park, programs, uranium reserves, research and development on Candu reactors), while the fourth part deals with the renewable energies (wind power and biomass). The canadian situation facing the Kyoto protocol is discussed in the last part. (A.L.B.)

  7. Energy research 2002 - Overview; Energie-Forschung 2002 / Recherche energetique 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents an overview of advances made in energy research in Switzerland in 2002. In the report, the heads of various programmes present projects and summarise the results of research in four main areas: Efficient use of energy, renewable energy sources, nuclear energy and energy policy fundamentals. Energy-efficiency is illustrated by examples from the areas of building, traffic, electricity, ambient heat and combined heat and power, fuel cells and combustion. In the renewable energy area, projects concerning energy storage, photovoltaics, solar chemistry and hydrogen, biomass, geothermal energy, wind energy and small-scale hydro are presented. Nuclear safety and controlled thermonuclear fusion are discussed.

  8. Provisional energy balance of France for 2002; Bilan energetique provisoire de la France pour 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    A provisional energy accounting in France for 2002 is presented. Statistical data and diagrams are provided to detail and discuss the economical and energy context, the primary energy consumption, the national production and the energy dependence, the primary energy consumption for each energy source, the sectorial analysis of the energy consumption and the carbon dioxide emissions. (A.L.B.)

  9. Provisional energy situation for the year 2001; Bilan energetique provisoire de l'annee 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This provisory energy balance, published by the Direction of the Energy and the raw materials, presents the primary energy consumption and production for each energy sources and the carbon dioxide emissions, for the year 2001. The corrected primary energy consumption remains constant as the real primary energy consumption increases of 1,3 %. The evaluation provides also a sectoral analysis of the energy consumption illustrated by data tables. (A.L.B.)

  10. The energy turn of the year 2000; Le tournant energetique de l'an 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The new laws on the energies market are going to change the commercial sector of the electric power market in France. The colloquium in two parts ( the 25 and 26 january 2000), constitutes a reflection on the future of this new market. The first part provides papers on examples of european market in Great Britain, Germany and Scandinavia and presents the strategies of marketers. The energy buyers of tomorrow will have to take appropriate risks to keep their competitiveness. The second part provides papers on the place of the cogeneration in this new market. The positive example of the United States and the negative example of the Germany are analyzed. giving answers to economic, legal, financial and technical problems. (A.L.B.)

  11. US oil dependency and energy security; Dependance petroliere et securite energetique americaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P [Institut francais des Relations Internationals, 75 - Paris (France); [Universite Pierre Mendes-France-IEPE-CNRS, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2002-07-01

    The three papers of this document were written in the framework of a seminar organized the 30 may 2002 by the IFRI in the framework of its program Energy and Climatic Change. The first presentation deals with the american oil policy since 1980 (relation between the oil dependence and the energy security, the Reagan oil policy, the new oil policy facing the increase of the dependence). The second one deals with the US energy security (oil security, domestic energy security, policy implications). The last presentation is devoted to the US oil dependence in a global context and the problems and policies of international energy security. (A.L.B.)

  12. Energy Research in Switzerland in 2001; Energieforschung 2001. Ueberblicksberichte/Recherche energetique 2001. Rapports de synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-15

    This comprehensive annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) contains the overview-reports that were made by the heads of the following Swiss energy research programmes for the year 2000: Efficient use of energy in buildings, traffic, vehicles and accumulators, electricity, ambient heat and combined heat and power generation, fuel cells, combustion technologies, solar heat and storage, photovoltaics, solar chemistry and hydrogen, biomass, geothermal energy, wind energy, small hydropower, nuclear safety and nuclear waste disposal, regulatory nuclear safety research, nuclear fusion and energy economy basics. In the following, just a selection of the large number of topics covered are mentioned. Under the topic of efficient energy use in buildings, an emphasis was placed on highly efficient insulation systems, so-called passive dwellings, environmental issues, the use of solar energy, insulation using grass and hemp fibre as well as a market analysis for the IEA sustainable housing project. In the solar area, experience gained with solar buildings, air-collectors and the optimisation of solar energy and daylight use are noted. In the building technologies area, highly glazed buildings were also looked at, as were airing and ventilation topics. Various instruments in the building technical services area are noted. A number of pilot and demonstration projects are listed. Traffic topics reported on include a review of statistics on mobility, lightweight body technologies, drive systems and on-board electrification, fuel cell drive technologies, supercaps and accumulators, as well as various pilot and demonstration projects. Electrical topics include distribution and tariffs, high-temperature superconductors, energy efficiency in computer applications, drives, electrical machines and a heat-pump based tumbler. In the ambient heat and heat-pump area, projects concerning refurbishment, two-stage systems, small ammonia heat-pumps, carbon dioxide refrigerants and system optimisation are reported on as are combined heat and power units. Batch processes are discussed. Various pilot and demonstration projects are reported on, as is work done in the fuel-cell area. As far as combustion technology is concerned, work done is noted, including turbulent combustion, low-temperature, high-pressure combustion, optical measurement methods and numerical simulation of combustion processes. Pilot and demonstration projects are noted. In the solar energy area, the accreditation of testing facilities and the ageing of collectors are discussed as are urban installations and solar kits. Also, work done on high-temperature solar energy, its storage and electricity production are noted. In the photovoltaics section, the wide range of Swiss work in this area is noted. Work done on roll-to-roll PV technology, compound and dye-based cells is reported on as is work done in the areas of building integration and electrical system technology. Various studies and projects are noted. Work done in co-operation with the IEA and the IEC is noted. In the solar chemistry area, work done on magnetrons, low and medium temperature process heat, high-temperature production of chemical energy carriers, solar fuels and photo-chemical processes are reported on, as well as the production, storage and use of hydrogen. The report on the biomass program takes a look at wood pellet production, system optimisation and particle emissions, the digestion of biogenic wastes and bio fuels. Some of the work listed in the geothermal area includes the heat potential of the drainage water from the new St.-Gothard and Loetschberg railway tunnels, long-term behaviour of geothermal probes and surface-near and deep geothermal power. Results obtained in various projects are discussed. Wind topics reported on include planning aids, location assessment and a wind data bank for Switzerland. Small hydropower issues reported on include support for preliminary studies and environmental certification. A few pilot and demonstration projects are noted. Nuclear energy topics include the STARS accident scenario project, human reliability, light-water reactors as well as research on serious accidents, waste disposal and future reactor concepts. A further report deals with regulatory safety research in the nuclear area and man-machine interaction as well as further safety matters. Nuclear fusion is reviewed at an international level and work done in Switzerland is reviewed. Finally, the report on the fundamentals of Swiss energy economics reports on Swiss cantonal energy-related measures and energy perspectives as well as perspectives for hydropower and electricity and gas import.

  13. How can we ensure the energy transition? Comment assurer la transition energetique?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojey, Alexandre

    2007-07-01

    With a continuously growing energy demand, the present energy model is clearly unsustainable due to the decline of fossil fuel resources and the risks of climate change A transition towards a sustainable model is therefore needed. However, there are no immediate alternatives leading to a sharp reduction in the use of fossil fuels, which are expected to maintain a major role for many years. The energy transition will therefore require a long time period The risks of climate change will require urgent measures and the 'carbon transition' has to be achieved more rapidly than the energy transition itself. A whole set of solutions will be needed in the technical but also economic and regulatory areas, for achieving a successful transition: energy conservation, diversification of energy . sources, reduction of the carbon content of the energy mix, CO{sub 2}, capture and storage. Hybrid options will be favoured. The paper describes the main features of the upcoming transition and the actions which are required. (auth)

  14. Which sustainable energy policy in France?; Quelle politique energetique durable en France?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Concurrently to the National Debate on the energies, a real debate has been proposed by seven associations of the environment protection and improvement. This debate, international, wonders on the energy choices in France. Presentations of the interveners and working documents are provided on the following topics: energy choices for the economic development, renewable energies, the possibilities and the development of the solar energy in France, the economic interest of the cogeneration, quick overview of the wind energy in France, energy production data, the transport and the greenhouse effect, the sustainable development and the energy policy and the local governments. (A.L.B.)

  15. Energy efficiency : an economic stimulator; Efficacite energetique : un moteur economique vert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contant, A.

    2009-04-01

    In an effort to meet Quebec's energy requirements projected for 2015, Hydro-Quebec along with its partners and clients will invest $3 billion in energy efficiency. Quebec's Energy Efficiency Agency, Canada's Office of Energy Efficiency and the Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM) green municipal fund have all contributed to energy efficiency projects to stimulate the economy. These measures are expected to create nearly 4000 jobs in Quebec for electricians, heating contractors, plumbers and building professionals. This investment will also benefit the suppliers and distributors of electrical materials as well as the forestry industry, cement manufacturers, and specialized engineers. Since the benefits of energy efficiency upgrades are already well established, projects can get underway without further studies. The proposed energy efficiency projects can be applied anywhere in the province of Quebec and are not intended for any specific region. To name a few, the projects have included energy upgrades in an arena in Riviere du Loup, the Montreal Health Institute's head office building, and traffic light upgrades in Levis, Quebec. The article noted that energy efficiency upgrades made in the office buildings of Alcan, IBM, Molson and Bombardier have all resulted in at least a 5 per cent reduction in electricity use. All these changes have been good for the environment, even though Quebec's electricity is generated almost entirely from renewable energy sources. 6 figs.

  16. An energy strategy for France; Une strategie energetique pour la France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaine, N.

    2003-10-01

    The present report endeavors tpo make a synthesis of the debate about energy to deduce numerous measures devoted to define the French energy strategy for the short, middle and long term. Two parts are studied in this report. In the first one, the landscape of energy is set, the market is tackled, the energy supply and demand are object of controversy. In the second part, the objective for an energy policy are summarized, elements for the control of energy demand are studied, the energy supply is equally tackled. (N.C.)

  17. Global energy outlooks. State of the art; Perspectives energetiques globales. Etat des lieux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobin, J.L.; Nifenecker, H.; Stephan, C

    1999-07-01

    Since two year, the SFP (French Society of Physics) began a debate on the Energy of the 21 century, by the way of regional conferences. This debate allowed the publication of synthesis documents about elements discussed during these conference. This document presents the foreseeable evolution of the energy demand, taking into account the reserves; the selected production forms consequences in terms of nuisances; the part of the nuclear energy and the renewable energies. The costs are also discussed and many statistical data are provided. (A.L.B.)

  18. 2004 energy accounting in France; Bilan energetique de la France en 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This economic analysis presents the energy accounting of the France in 2004 which shows a little renewal of the consumption and a better energy efficiency. It provides data on the energy consumption and production for the different energy types and for the different activity sectors, to illustrate the analysis. (A.L.B.)

  19. The energy turn of the year 2000; Le tournant energetique de l'an 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The new laws on the energies market are going to change the commercial sector of the electric power market in France. The colloquium in two parts ( the 25 and 26 january 2000), constitutes a reflection on the future of this new market. The first part provides papers on examples of european market in Great Britain, Germany and Scandinavia and presents the strategies of marketers. The energy buyers of tomorrow will have to take appropriate risks to keep their competitiveness. The second part provides papers on the place of the cogeneration in this new market. The positive example of the United States and the negative example of the Germany are analyzed. giving answers to economic, legal, financial and technical problems. (A.L.B.)

  20. Energy Research in Switzerland in 2009; Energieforschung 2009. Ueberblicksberichte/Recherche energetique 2009. Rapports de synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-06-15

    This very comprehensive annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) contains the overview-reports for the year 2009 that were made by the heads of the following program-groups covered by Swiss energy research: Efficient energy use, renewable energy, nuclear energy and the energy-economy-society area. Under the comprehensive topic of efficient energy use, building concepts compatible with the '2000-Watt Society', Minergie-P 'passive' housing, calculation and dynamic simulation tools, sustainable building projects and developments in the building insulation area are mentioned along with refurbishment topics, the use of solar-thermal energy and electrical efficiency. In the traffic area, lightweight vehicles, drive systems - including hybrid systems - are reported on, as are electric scooters, vehicle-to-grid power storage and inter-modal transport systems. In the accumulators area, various new systems are looked at. With respect to electrical technology, work on electricity storage, conversion and high-temperature superconductors are reported on. Alternative power generation and storage systems are reviewed. Developments in the information and communications area are noted. 'Smart metering', standby losses and lift drives are reported on, as are household appliances and lighting systems. In the electricity area, the interaction of electricity grid and communication systems as well as future energy networks are reported on. In the heat pump and combined heat and power generation area, improving thermodynamic processes, integral system optimisation and high-efficiency systems as well as environment-friendly refrigerants and magnetic heat-pumps are discussed. Combustion topics reviewed include how research basics can be improved, numerical simulation methods, large diesel engines, catalytic reactions, the use of biogenic fuels and exhaust gas treatment. The 'Power Station 2020' and carbon capture and storage program reports on combined heat and power stations and efficient gas turbines. Increasing efficiency and the use of CO{sub 2}-neutral fuels are discussed, as is CO{sub 2} sequestration. Hydrogen production and storage and associated safety aspects are looked at, as are developments in the fuel cell and the industrial processes areas. Renewable energy topics noted include solar collectors and the storage of solar heat, building integration, thin-film photovoltaics, dye-based and organic solar cells and electrical system technology. High-temperature industrial applications are noted. Biomass and wood-fuel topics are covered, including particle emissions, eco-balances and the anaerobic digestion of biomass. In the hydropower area, pump-storage schemes and the classification of streams and rivers are dealt with, as is the development of a diagonal-turbine. The uses of shallow geothermal energy and deep-heat mining are reported on, as is three-dimensional modelling. Research and component development in the wind-energy area and the social acceptance and modelling of such installations are presented. In the nuclear energy area, work done at various laboratories and human factors in safety issues are covered, as are waste disposal and future reactor concepts. A new 'hot-laboratory' is introduced and nuclear fusion research work is noted. Within the framework of the 'Energy-Economy-Society' programme, building renovation, traffic and mobility topics, energy efficiency and rebound-effects, energy politics, technology transfer and innovation, decentralised power production and the risks of nuclear energy are dealt with.

  1. The globalization of energy activities: what are the issues?; La mondialisation des activites energetiques: quels enjeux?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percebois, J. [Montpellier I Univ., (France)

    2001-03-01

    Globalization in many sectors such as information, research and development, finance, technology, etc. led to the implementation of transnational networks to facilitate decision-making. The result is that governments are left to regulation functions. This globalization also led to a larger gap between North and South. Developing countries represent 80 per cent of world population, yet only produce less than 33 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP). In the energy sector, developing countries have limited access to energy and use it less efficiently, since they do not master the latest technologies. States must retain their power to regulate this sector to ensure competition takes place in a fair environment within specified guidelines. Licenses must be issued through bidding or auctioned off, but in every case the State must ensure that commitments are met. It must also ensure that pricing is fair. Access for third parties to the power distribution system must be adequate, especially when the company operates in a monopoly environment. The State ends up managing a new category of risks (called major risks) that the private sector is not willing to consider, for example global warming or the management of nuclear waste. Confidence in market mechanisms is limited. Energy exchanges and others represent an economic growth factor and a potential guarantee for world peace. Who is responsible for the social costs associated with economic growth, and what are the solutions? A major issue left to decision-makers is the sharing of wealth within humankind and nations, and the State has a vital role to play. 5 refs., 5 tabs.

  2. Supplying safety and energy independence; Securite d'approvisionnement et independance energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maillard, D. [Ministere de l' Economie, des Finances et de l' Industrie, 75 - Paris (France). Direction Generale de L' Energie et des Matieres Premieres

    2001-03-01

    The french Observatory of the Energy wonders about the energy independence notion. Many risks are possible: physical, economical, geo-political, social and ecological risks. Because those risks are numerous, the answers for a supplying safety are also numerous. In this context the energy policy is a difficult art which the public opinion needs to be more and more aware. (A.L.B.)

  3. Energy Research in Switzerland in 1999; Energieforschung 1999. Ueberblicksberichte/Recherche energetique 1999. Rapports de synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-15

    This comprehensive annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) contains the overview-reports that were made by the heads of the following Swiss energy research programmes for the year 1999: Efficient use of energy in buildings and hot-water systems, solar architecture, electricity, ambient heat and heat-pumps, solar energy, photovoltaics, biomass, geothermal energy, small hydropower, wind energy, solar chemistry and hydrogen, combustion technologies, heat storage, nuclear energy and nuclear safety, nuclear fusion, fuel cells, accumulators and traffic. In the following, just a selection of the large number of topics covered are mentioned. Under the topic of efficient energy use in buildings, an environmental optimisation tool and an eco-inventory are mentioned and work done on the use of grass-fibres for insulation is noted along with new developments in highly efficient insulation systems, refurbishment of windows, thermo-active building components, as well as ventilation and heating systems. The efficient use of energy in hot-water preparation is discussed in a further report. In the solar architecture area, the validation of simulation programs and the trial of refurbishment concepts making indirect use of solar energy for heating, lighting and power generation are covered. Electrical topics include distribution and islanding, flywheel energy storage, high-temperature superconductors, power consumption of personal computers and household electronics, drives and compressors as well as saving energy in railway coaches. In the ambient heat and heat-pump area, projects on the modelling of heat probes are noted, as are those concerning intermediate injection, small ammonia heat-pumps, optimisation of combined heat and power plants, low-temperature heating, commercial cooling and disposal of used refrigerants. In the solar energy area, further work on software aids for the calculation of solar gain and developments in coatings for solar collectors are commented on. Experience gained with various test installations is also noted. The photovoltaics section reports on work done on micro-morph and flexible solar cells, system technology and building integration and inverters as well as on various studies and projects. Work done in co-operation with the IEA and the IEC is noted. The biomass section reports on the dimensioning of wood-fired systems, particle filtering, gasification systems, burning of chicken droppings, tar, co-digesters and biofuels. Some of the projects listed in the geothermal area include Swiss geothermal statistics, geological aspects, combined use of hot spa waters and also deep heat mining. Small hydropower issues reported on include a public survey on small hydro, revitalisation projects and work done at the MhyLab facility on small turbines. Wind topics reported on include a potential study, information and training as well as the planning of wind park projects using various tools. In the solar chemistry area, work concerning process heat, chemical energy storage, small ammonia-heat-pumps, solar ovens and receivers, photo-chemical processes as well as the storage and transport of hydrogen are reported on. As far as combustion technology is concerned, work done at various Swiss institutions is noted, including low-temperature, high-pressure combustion, optical measurement methods and numerical simulation of combustion processes. In the energy storage area, long-term and short-term underground heat-storage systems and their modelling are discussed, as is heat storage in aquifers. Nuclear energy topics include the STARS accident scenario project, human reliability, light-water reactor contamination as well as component safety, accident management, waste disposal and future reactor concepts. A further report deals with regulatory safety research in the nuclear area, contamination control, meteorological factors as well as man-machine interaction and cellular radio-sensitivity. Nuclear fusion is reviewed at an international level and work done in Switzerland is looked at. The fuel cells and accumulators report takes a look at current work on natural gas and hydrogen-powered fuel cells with polymer and ceramic electrolytes. Work done on various types of accumulators and super-condensers is mentioned. Traffic topics reported on include lightweight body technologies, efficient drive systems, mobility behaviour, hybrid drive technologies, electric vehicle pricing and various pilot and demonstration projects.

  4. Energy Research in Switzerland in 1997; Energieforschung 1997. Ueberblicksberichte/Recherche energetique 1997. Rapports de synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-15

    This comprehensive annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) contains the overview-reports for the year 1997 that were made by the heads of the following Swiss energy research programmes: Research co-ordination, efficient use of energy in buildings, solar architecture, electricity, ambient heat and heat-pumps, solar energy, photovoltaics, biomass, geothermal energy, small hydropower, wind energy, solar chemistry and hydrogen, combustion technologies, heat storage, nuclear energy and nuclear safety, nuclear fusion, fuel cells and accumulators, traffic and the fundamentals of energy economics. In the following, just a few of the large number of topics covered are mentioned. Under the topic of efficient energy use in buildings, a new optimisation tool and a work done on highly-insulated walls are mentioned along with new developments in building technology and simulation. In the solar architecture area, both the direct and indirect use of solar energy for heating and lighting are covered. Electrical topics include efficient electricity use, drives, high-temperature superconductors, transport, energy management, power-electronics, EDP projects and saving energy in trains. In the ambient heat and heat-pump area, projects on the modelling and the regeneration of heat probes are noted, as are projects concerning refrigerants, combined heat and power technologies and Stirling engines. Work done in co-operation with the IEA Heat Pump Program is noted. In the solar energy area, software aids for the calculation of solar gain and the testing of solar collectors are commented on and experience gained with various installations is noted. The photovoltaics section reports on work done on solar cells, building integration and systems technology as well as various studies and projects. The report on the biomass program reports on pollution aspects of firing, project aids, small ready-to-use biogas installations, and motor fuels from biomass. Among the projects listed in the geothermal area, increasing the economic efficiency of drilling, life-expectancy of heat probes, use of aquifers, geological aspects and deep heat mining are noted. Small hydropower issues reported on include direct and indirect support for projects, public relations and the Internet. Wind topics reported on include measurement and documentation, information centres and various wind park projects. In the solar chemistry area work concerning process heat, chemical energy storage, photo-electric processes as well as the storage and transport of hydrogen are reported on. As far as combustion technology is concerned, work done at various Swiss institutions is noted, including optical measurement methods and numerical simulation. Also, pollutant reduction is commented on. In the energy storage area, long-term and short-term underground heat-storage systems and their modelling are discussed. Nuclear energy topics include probabilistic safety analysis, human reliability, stress-corrosion cracking and other corrosion effects as well as accident management, waste disposal and future reactor concepts. A further report deals with regulatory safety research in the nuclear area. Nuclear fusion is reviewed at an international level and work done in Switzerland is reviewed. The fuel cells and accumulators report takes a look at current work on natural gas and hydrogen-powered fuel cells with polymer and ceramic electrolytes and work done on various types of accumulators and super-condensers is mentioned. Traffic topics reported on include modular body technologies, drive systems, hybrid drive technologies, safety aspects and eco-balances. Experience gained in fleet trials is reviewed. Finally, the report on the fundamentals of Swiss energy economics reports on perspectives for energy consumption, cantonal energy policies, cost and economic viability of energy systems, solar energy and steering taxes and the opening of energy markets.

  5. The new challenges of the energy policy; Quels nouveaux defis pour la politique energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    Political uncertainties, reserves depletion, increase of the energy consumption and environmental impact are many reasons to wonder on our the future choices in matter of energy (consumption habits, energy conservation). In this context the meeting, which took place at Paris the 18 march 2003, aims to wonder on the increasing energy demand, the evolution of the consumption and production habits and the decision making. The full text of the presentations and allocution are provided. (A.L.B.)

  6. Energetic approach for ductile tearing; Approche energetique de la dechirure ductile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marie, St

    1999-07-01

    This study focuses on ductile crack initiation and propagation. It aims to propose an approach for the engineer allowing the prediction of the evolution of cracks in large scale components, from parameters determined on laboratory specimens. A crack initiation criterion, defining a J{sub i} tenacity related to crack tip blunting proposed in the literature is validated in the study. This criterion is shown to be transferable from laboratory specimens to structures. The literature review shows that an approach based on the dissipated energy in the fracture process during propagation offers an economical and simple solution to simulate large crack growth. A numerical method is proposed to estimate this fracture energy. The existence of an energy parameter G{sub fr} is shown, by simulating the propagation by the simultaneous release of several elements and by the use of the Rice integral with an original integration path. This parameter represents the needed energy for a unit crack extension and appears to be intrinsic to the material. A global energy statement allows to relate this parameter to a variation of the plastic part of J integral. It offers a second numerical method to simulate the propagation just from stationary numerical calculations, as well as the elaboration of a simplified method. This approach, using two parameters J{sub i} and G{sub fr}, intrinsic to the material and experimentally measurable on specimens, is validated on many tests such as crack pipes subjected to four points bending and cracked rings in compression. For example, this approach allows to model up to 90 mm ductile tearing in a pipe with a circumferential through-wall crack in ferritic steel, or to anticipate the evolution of a semi-elliptical crack in an aged austenitic ferritic steel plate subjected to bending. (author)

  7. Negawatt manifesto - Making energy transition a success; Manifeste Negawatt - Reussir la transition energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomon, Thierry; Jedliczka, Marc; Marignac, Yves; Hessel, Stephane; Lovins, Amory

    2012-01-19

    For ten years, the Negawatt association has taken a fresh look at our ways of consuming and producing energy. After the realisation of its 2011 scenario, the association has wished to complete this work with a reflexion full of ideas and operational measures and addressed to all citizens and to decision-makers. This manifesto describes with pedagogy and lucidity a possible and desirable path to get out of our energy and climate crises. Contents: 1 - Energy in crisis; 2 - Energy in its all forms; 3 - From the approach to the scenario: preparing the energy transition; 4 - Buildings and energy transition; 5 - Key-sectors of the transition: transports, industry and agriculture; 6 - Advent of renewable energies; 7 - From the nuclear twilight to the renewable dawn; 8 - Costs and benefits of the energy transition; 9 - The 'true value' of energy; 10 - From the status time to the action one. A series of 26 graphs summarizes the Negawatt approach. (J.S.)

  8. Municipalities and opening up of energy markets; Les municipalites et l'ouverture des marches energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The opening of energy markets in Europe is modifying deeply the general framework of economic activity, modes of organisation and ways of thinking. The energy future in Europe is being determined under the influence of Community directives relating to electricity and to gas. It is also being moulded by national legislation, which is being progressively put into place in different countries of the European Union and in other European countries such as those of central Europe. These will affect the conditions under which policies for energy efficiency, for the development of renewable energy and for combating climate change are to be implemented. The liberalization of energy markets is a new and highly significant element in the European energy scene and municipalities are making a constructive contribution to this process. About 160 representatives of municipalities from 19 different European countries met at the Energie-Cites Seminar in Barcelona in order to become better informed, to exchange opinions and to debate the consequences at their level of the opening of energy markets. As a consequence they have asked themselves questions and exchanged ideas in relation with their respective situations regarding energy planning, production, distribution, and the role of population motivative. The seminar is organized around one round table about the threats and the opportunities of the opening up of energy markets, and three sessions about: what is going to change for the municipality as energy consumer, what is going to change for the municipality as energy producer, distributor and regulator-developer, and what is going to change for the municipality as motivative. (J.S.)

  9. The city and the energy security; La ville et la securite energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roques, F.; Volkov, E.; Gantes, P.; Peek, P.; Vallar, Ch.; Telegina, E.; Fache, D.; Dreiski, P.; Pouffary, St.; Plate, N.; Kopsov, A.Y.; Benque, J.P.; Allegre, M.; Gsell, K.; Sanchez, M.; Hadhri, M.; Rouyer, J.L.; Rogeaux, B.; Clauwaert, A.; Garin, P.; Mernier, A.; Ruban, L.; Alario, E.; Allegre, M.; Asiani, F.; Banon, G.; Barelli, P.; Benque, J.P.; Bertoglio, S.; Blot, Y.; Bogolyubov, S.; Bonnaure, A.; Cabana, Y.; Casanova, L.; Chegodaev, A.; Cisse, S.; Clauwaert, A.; Colombier, A.M.; Collard, P.; Coma, O.; Combe, M.; Corbiere-Medecin, A.; Courdy, J.C.; Coursimault, E.; D' Addio, J.C.; Dastarac, H.; Daugreilh, J.P.; Surville, H. de; Doz, M.; Dreiski, P.; Efimouchkine, S.; Fache, D.; Ferrari, B.; Forkasiewicz, J.; Gantes, P.; Garin, P.; Gouirand, P.; Gsell, K.; Guibbolini, P.; Guillot, V.; Hadhri, M.; Ionescu, S.; Kostyuk, V.; Lecach, J.; Lorieux, L.; Luca, L.; Mangeard, Ph.; Matchabelli, V.; Mernier, A.; Murgeanu, R.; Nastase, A.; Nigoul, C.; D' Oleon, M.; Ollivier, J.; Oulianovsky, Y.; Pages, D.; Pataki, Z.; Peek, P.; Perdigon, M.F.; Piacenza, M.; Plate, N.; Poirier, J.; Pouffary, St.; Prez, Ch.; Prufer, Y.; Rogeaux, B.; Roques, F.; Rouyer, J.L.; Ruban, L.; Sanchez, M.; Sayamov, Y.; Semenescu, O.; Skorov, G.; Telegina, E.; Theiler, Ch.; Thomas, D.; Valais, M.; Vallar, Ch.; Volkov, E.; Von Scholz, H.; Waechter, M.; Zaboussov, V.; Zakharova, N.; Zoubkov, Y

    2006-07-01

    The answers to the world energy crisis should not be limited to the management of geopolitical factors (Iran, Nigeria, Venezuela etc.) and to the control of the offer (inciting OPEC countries to optimize their production). They involve also a change of the demand and of the consumers' behaviour. The comments caused by the recent rise of oil prices have shown that this idea, considered as marginal by policy-makers, has started to make its way. The analyses limited to macro-economical units (states, international organization), always forget that cities are the main places of energy consumption. Recent events, like the repetitive saturation of power grids at the origin of spectacular blackouts (Moscow, California, Switzerland, Italy), have led the local authorities to take into consideration part of the problem. They effectively have at their disposition some important leviers which allow them to act both on the offer and on the behaviours. It is evident that in domains like transports, urban renovation or waste treatment, the local authorities have to play a significant role by implementing policies that maximize the energy efficiency and minimize the costs at the same time. The debates which took place during this forum were based on the experiences and realizations presented by experts of several big cities, in particular of Moscow, Madrid and Nuremberg. Some remarkable examples were presented, in particular in the domain of energy auditing, mastery of energy consumptions and production of alternative resources. The usual topics were also approached: energy overview, main trends of the present day energy policy of Russia, new opportunities of new technologies, geo-energy evolutions, Russia-European Union dialogue. (J.S.)

  10. Speaker's presentations. Energy supply security; Recueil des interventions. Securite d'approvisionnement energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierret, Ch

    2000-07-01

    This document is a collection of most of the papers used by the speakers of the European Seminar on Energy Supply Security organised in Paris (at the French Ministry of Economy, Finance and Industry) on 24 November 2000 by the General Direction of Energy and Raw Materials, in co-operation with the European Commission and the French Planning Office. About 250 attendees were present, including a lot of high level Civil Servants from the 15 European State members, and their questions have allowed to create a rich debate. It took place five days before the publication, on 29 November 2000, by the European Commission, of the Green Paper 'Towards a European Strategy for the Security of Energy Supply'. This French initiative, which took place within the framework of the European Presidency of the European Union, during the second half-year 2000. will bring a first impetus to the brainstorming launched by the Commission. (author)

  11. Energy Research in Switzerland in 2009; Energieforschung 2009. Ueberblicksberichte/Recherche energetique 2009. Rapports de synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-06-15

    This very comprehensive annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) contains the overview-reports for the year 2009 that were made by the heads of the following program-groups covered by Swiss energy research: Efficient energy use, renewable energy, nuclear energy and the energy-economy-society area. Under the comprehensive topic of efficient energy use, building concepts compatible with the '2000-Watt Society', Minergie-P 'passive' housing, calculation and dynamic simulation tools, sustainable building projects and developments in the building insulation area are mentioned along with refurbishment topics, the use of solar-thermal energy and electrical efficiency. In the traffic area, lightweight vehicles, drive systems - including hybrid systems - are reported on, as are electric scooters, vehicle-to-grid power storage and inter-modal transport systems. In the accumulators area, various new systems are looked at. With respect to electrical technology, work on electricity storage, conversion and high-temperature superconductors are reported on. Alternative power generation and storage systems are reviewed. Developments in the information and communications area are noted. 'Smart metering', standby losses and lift drives are reported on, as are household appliances and lighting systems. In the electricity area, the interaction of electricity grid and communication systems as well as future energy networks are reported on. In the heat pump and combined heat and power generation area, improving thermodynamic processes, integral system optimisation and high-efficiency systems as well as environment-friendly refrigerants and magnetic heat-pumps are discussed. Combustion topics reviewed include how research basics can be improved, numerical simulation methods, large diesel engines, catalytic reactions, the use of biogenic fuels and exhaust gas treatment. The 'Power Station 2020' and carbon capture and storage program reports on combined heat and power stations and efficient gas turbines. Increasing efficiency and the use of CO{sub 2}-neutral fuels are discussed, as is CO{sub 2} sequestration. Hydrogen production and storage and associated safety aspects are looked at, as are developments in the fuel cell and the industrial processes areas. Renewable energy topics noted include solar collectors and the storage of solar heat, building integration, thin-film photovoltaics, dye-based and organic solar cells and electrical system technology. High-temperature industrial applications are noted. Biomass and wood-fuel topics are covered, including particle emissions, eco-balances and the anaerobic digestion of biomass. In the hydropower area, pump-storage schemes and the classification of streams and rivers are dealt with, as is the development of a diagonal-turbine. The uses of shallow geothermal energy and deep-heat mining are reported on, as is three-dimensional modelling. Research and component development in the wind-energy area and the social acceptance and modelling of such installations are presented. In the nuclear energy area, work done at various laboratories and human factors in safety issues are covered, as are waste disposal and future reactor concepts. A new 'hot-laboratory' is introduced and nuclear fusion research work is noted. Within the framework of the 'Energy-Economy-Society' programme, building renovation, traffic and mobility topics, energy efficiency and rebound-effects, energy politics, technology transfer and innovation, decentralised power production and the risks of nuclear energy are dealt with.

  12. Technical papers 1: regional energy accounting; Cahiers techniques 1: bilan energetique regional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The regional energy accounting is an appropriate tool to the elaboration energy conservation programs. It allows to identify the regional stakes and understand the impacts of the energy policies. In this accounting the consumptions are presented by energy products (petroleum products, mineral solid fuels, renewable energies, electric power, natural gas) and by consumption sectors (steel metallurgy, accommodation, ternary industry, agricultural, transport). (A.L.B.)

  13. Elements of reflection for an energy policy; Elements de reflexion pour une politique energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2005-07-01

    Any energy policy must be considered at three different levels: world, European and national. It must make a distinction between the objectives to reach, the technical means to be implemented and it must define the most suitable economical methods. This document makes such an analysis: the energy scenarios at the world level (different energy needs, energy intensities and CO{sub 2} productions), the share of nuclear energy (new reactor types), of hydrogen and of renewable energy sources; the energy policy at the European scale (different possible roles for the European Union: general guidelines, or decisional liability); the choices that France should make: development of renewable energy sources, of hydrogen and of mass transportation systems. (J.S.)

  14. The 2005 energy situation in France; Bilan energetique de l'annee 2005 en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-15

    After a year 2004 of economic revival, 2005 shows a crisis of the energy prices and a slow economic activity. The year is characterized by again a petroleum consumption decrease, a poor hydro electric power which generates an increase of the fossil fuels consumption and finally a little increase of the primary energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. It provides more details on the economic and energy context, on the energy consumption and production and on the carbon dioxide emissions from the energy. (A.L.B.)

  15. France's energy bill in 2008; La facture energetique de la France en 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-06-15

    This article comments the important increase of France's energy bill in relationship with oil prices and dollar value fluctuations during 2008. It discusses the explosion in oil prices before the financial crisis and their subsequent evolution, and the evolutions of other energies' prices (natural gas, coal, electricity). Tables and graphs are given on various indicators: average monthly oil price expressed in euros and in dollars, gas spot price, annual average quotations for different crude oil prices, annual average imported oil price, and annual average imported and exported energy prices. It comments the global decrease of energy imports, their evolutions since 2006 with respect to the supplying country. It analyses the energy bill's evolution for oil and gas, discusses its importance with respect to France's GDP, and assesses it in terms of worked days for each inhabitant. Tables contain data indicating, for 2007 and 2008, the levels of imports, exports, and of the resulting bill for the different products (mineral fuels, crude oil, refined oil products, gas), and also give a comparison between the energy bill and other economic aggregates.

  16. 2004 energy bill of the France; Facture energetique de la France en 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document analyzes the energy bill in France (28,35 milliards of euros), which increased of 24,1 % in 2004. This increase is due to the net imports and especially the fossil fuels. Statistical data and the presentation of Patrick Devedjian, delegated ministry for the Industry, illustrate this economic analysis. (A.L.B.)

  17. The Augmented Performer and the Performative Augmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallionpaa, Maria; Gasselseder, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Composers, performers, and listeners usually regard musical compositions as unchangeable entities, which limits the composition techniques and decreases the originality of performers ́ interpretations, thus leading to a stagnation of classical music culture. The significance and possibilities of ...

  18. High performance work practices, innovation and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Newton, Cameron; Johnston, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Research spanning nearly 20 years has provided considerable empirical evidence for relationships between High Performance Work Practices (HPWPs) and various measures of performance including increased productivity, improved customer service, and reduced turnover. What stands out from......, and Africa to examine these various questions relating to the HPWP-innovation-performance relationship. Each paper discusses a practice that has been identified in HPWP literature and potential variables that can facilitate or hinder the effects of these practices of innovation- and performance...

  19. Use of radioisotopes in the systematic analysis of impurities in metals of very high purity; Application des radioisotopes a l'analyse systematique des impuretes dans les metaux de tres haute purete; Primenenie radioizotopov v sistematicheskom analize primesej v vysokochistykh metallakh; Aplicacion de los radioelementos al analisis sistematico de las impurezas en los metales muy puros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, Philippe; Gaittet, Jean [Centre d' Etudes de Chimie Metallurgique (C.N.R.S.), Vitry (France)

    1962-01-15

    Using the ''zone melting'' method, very-high-purity metals with impurity concentrations of the order of 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -8} can be obtained. These metals are prepared in small quantities only and it must be possible to determine with great sensitivity the content of a very large number of elements from a single sample. The authors have been able by systematic analysis of aluminium and iron after neutron irradiation to determine 45 elements from a single sample of the order of 1 g. This analysis of a large number of impurities was made possible only by the cascade separation of radioisotopes created during irradiation in more than 40 analytical fractions. Most of the radioisotopes are then isolated radiochemically pure and are simultaneously identified by study of their radioactive decay period and {gamma}-ray spectrum. By supplementing this systematic analysis with determination of certain elements from separate samples, it may be foreseen that the activation method will enable about 60 elements to be determined, either by neutron irradiation (in the case of sulphur, phosphorous, chlorine, barium, etc), or by recourse to the reactions produced by deuterons (in that of carbon and boron). The authors lay special emphasis on the results and implications of their analyses. (author) [French] La methode de la permet d'obtenir des metaux de tres haute purete ou les concentrations en impuretes sont de l'ordre de 10{sup -6} a 10{sup -8}. Ces metaux sont prepares en petites quantites et il est tres important de pouvoir doser avec grande sensibilite un tres grand nombre d'elements sur une seule prise d'essai. Pour cela, l'analyse systematique de l'aluminium et du fer par irradiation neutronique nous a permis de doser quarante-cinq elements sur une prise d'essai de l'ordre du gramme. Cette analyse d'un grand nombre d'impuretes n'a ete rendue possible que par la separation en cascade des radioisotopes crees pendant l'irradiation en plus de quarante fractions

  20. Seminar on the news energy utilization in rural area of April 3 to March 24 , 1980 in Reo, Upper Volta[Energie renouvelable ; Zone rurale ; Gaz biologique ; Energie solaire ; Sechoir solaire]; Seminaire sur l'utilisation des energies nouvelles en zone rurale du 24 mars au3 avril 1980 a Reo, Haute Volta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-04-15

    volume of transport much more reduced. Mastering these new technologies will help fight efficiently against desertification, and fruits and vegetables rotting. [French] L'acces a l'energie par toutes les populations reste une des preoccupations du Gouvernement de Haute Volta (Burkina Faso). C'est ainsi que sous l'egide de la Communaute Economique de l Afrique de l'Ouest (CEAO), de l'Agence Canadienne de Developpement International et du Mouvement Scout, un seminaire sur l'utilisation des energies renouvelables en zone rurale y a ete organise. Il s'agit pour les participants venus de plusieurs pays, d'apprendre a mettre en pratique, l'utilisation des energies nouvelles telles la cuisiniere a feu ferme, le gaz biologique, le chauffe- eau solaire et le sechoir solaire. L'adoption de ces nouvelles sources d'energie par les populations permettrait de pallier les problemes de desertification lies au deboisement intensif dans le pays. Tous les participants a cette rencontre sont donc sensibilises pour qu'ils apportent leur contribution et celle des populations de leurs terroirs respectifs pour une meilleure conservation des ressources naturelles disponibles. Cela passe aussi par la construction de cuisinieres a feu ferme qui permettent d'avoir deux sources d'energie. Ce type de foyer est d'une construction facile et utilisable seulement trois jours apres. Il permet d'eviter la perte d'energie qui caracterisait le foyer traditionnel (pres de 95% de perte d'energie) ; ce qui revient a consommer moins de bois tout en assurant un rendement de l'ordre de 60 a 70%. Il s'est agi pour les participants aux travaux de s'initier a l'installation de gaz suivant des modeles chinois et indien . Ils ont donc ete inities a la realisation des technologies de production de gaz biologique a travers la maitrise du schema de principe du procede de fermentation discontinue. De meme, ils ont acquis le savoir- faire sur les techniques de mise en place du chauffe- eau solaire par insolateur et du

  1. Performing surgery: commonalities with performers outside medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Lister Kneebone

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues for the inclusion of surgery within the canon of performance science. The world of medicine presents rich, complex but relatively under-researched sites of performance. Performative aspects of clinical practice are overshadowed by a focus on the processes and outcomes of medical care, such as diagnostic accuracy and the results of treatment. The primacy of this ‘clinical’ viewpoint - framed by clinical professionals as the application of medical knowledge - hides resonances with performance in other domains. Yet the language of performance is embedded in the culture of surgery - surgeons ‘perform’ operations, work in an operating ‘theatre’ and use ‘instruments’. This paper asks what might come into view if we take this performative language at face value and interrogate surgery from the perspective of performance science. It addresses the following questions: 1.To what extent and in what ways can surgical practice (both consultation and operation be considered as performance?2.How does comparison with two domains domains of non-surgical performance (close-up magic and puppetry illuminate understanding of surgical practice as performance?3.In what ways might including surgery within the canon of performance studies enrich the field of performance science?Two detailed case studies over 5 years with magicians (71.5 hours contact time and puppeteers (50.5 hours contact time identified performative aspects of surgical practice from the perspectives of professionals (as individuals or in groups and audiences. Physical simulation provided a means for non-clinicians to access and experience elements of the surgical world, acting as a prompt for discussion. Thematic analysis was used to establish themes and sub-themes.Key themes were: 1 clinical consultation can be viewed as ‘close-up live performance with a very small audience’ and 2 operative surgery can be viewed as ‘reading bodies within a dextrous team

  2. Java Performance Mysteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maldikar Pranita

    2016-01-01

    The contributions of this paper are (1 Observing Java performance mysteries in the cloud, (2 Identifying the sources of performance mysteries, and (3 Obtaining optimal and reproducible performance data.

  3. LTBP bridge performance primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    "The performance of bridges is critical to the overall performance of the highway transportation system in the United States. However, many critical aspects of bridge performance are not well understood. The reasons for this include the extreme diver...

  4. Distributed performance counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kristan D; Evans, Kahn C; Gara, Alan; Satterfield, David L

    2013-11-26

    A plurality of first performance counter modules is coupled to a plurality of processing cores. The plurality of first performance counter modules is operable to collect performance data associated with the plurality of processing cores respectively. A plurality of second performance counter modules are coupled to a plurality of L2 cache units, and the plurality of second performance counter modules are operable to collect performance data associated with the plurality of L2 cache units respectively. A central performance counter module may be operable to coordinate counter data from the plurality of first performance counter modules and the plurality of second performance modules, the a central performance counter module, the plurality of first performance counter modules, and the plurality of second performance counter modules connected by a daisy chain connection.

  5. Communication through Performance: Hausa Performance Art ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The human voice is a natural instrument with a natural capability. Thus, speech with the aid of performance and music has been combined since earliest times to communicate valuable insights into human nature and universal themes of life. Such themes include life, death, good and evil. This paper examined performance ...

  6. Prognostic Performance Metrics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This chapter presents several performance metrics for offline evaluation of prognostics algorithms. A brief overview of different methods employed for performance...

  7. Dispersions of Oxides in Oxide Matrices as High-Temperature Reactor Fuels; Dispersions d'oxyde dans des matrices d'oxyde, utilisees comme combustibles dans des reacteurs a haute temperature; Dispersiya okisej v okislovykh matritsakh v kachestve topliva dlya vysokotemperaturnogo reaktora; Empleo de dispersiones de oxidos en matrices de oxidos, como combustibles para reactores de elevada temperatura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J. [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    1963-11-15

    The potential usefulness of dispersions of PuO{sub 2}, UO{sub 2} and ThO{sub 2} in matrices of BeO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO and SiO{sub 2} is reviewed in terms of fuel integrity and fabrication. Dimensional stability and fission-product retentivity are the two features most important to fuel integrity. Compatibility of the constituents of the fuels with one another and with the coolant will influence dimensional stability, but oxide fuels are well favoured in these respects. Dimensional changes under irradiation will contain contributions from neutron and fission fragment damage to the matrix, from radiation damage to the fissile-fertile phase and from agglomerated fission-product gases. Thermal stresses are also capable of effecting changes in shape. However, information on mechanisms for stress relaxation is too limited to enable any reasonable theoretical assessment of behaviour to be made. Both light irradiation and high burn-up studies of fission-product release from the fissile-fertile oxides have concerned themselves mainly with the gaseous products, chiefly xenon. Data on the release of other fission products is very limited as is also information on the movement of fission products in general through the potential matrix materials. Studies of the permeability of sintered pure oxides indicate that densities of at least 95% theoretical density (maybe even 98%) will be needed to eliminate open porosity in such matrices. A variety of techniques are available for the preparation of fissile-fertile particles, for their coating and for their incorporation into high-density matrices. Work on laboratory-scale fabrication processes is well advanced. (author) [French] L'auteur examine la possibilite d'utiliser des combustibles disperses - PuO{sub 2}, UO{sub 2} et ThO{sub 2} et matrices de BeO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO et SiO{sub 2} - dans des reacteurs a haute temperature, au point de vue de l'integrite du combustible et de sa transformation. La stabilite dimensionnelle

  8. Performance na contemporaneidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiftah Peled

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisam-se aqui projetos de arte contemporânea, identificando estratégias de incorporação, deslocamento e participação do público que remetem a uma ampliação da arte da performance. O estudo propõe termos para definir tais estratégias como: performance animada, ready-made performático, performance do agente ficcional, dinâmicas e trocas entre estados de performance, performance íntima e performance interna.

  9. Human Computer Music Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    2012-01-01

    Human Computer Music Performance (HCMP) is the study of music performance by live human performers and real-time computer-based performers. One goal of HCMP is to create a highly autonomous artificial performer that can fill the role of a human, especially in a popular music setting. This will require advances in automated music listening and understanding, new representations for music, techniques for music synchronization, real-time human-computer communication, music generation, sound synt...

  10. Norhla: Restoring the glory of khullu wool for social development and environmental protection in the High Tibetan Plateau Norhla : la laine de yak (khullu comme vecteur de développement social et de protection environnementale sur le haut plateau du Tibet Norlha, o cómo recuperar la gloria de la lana de Kullu para fomentar el desarrollo social y la protección medioambiental del altiplano tibetano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Marc Guesné

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, the local communities of yaks’ transhumant cattle farmers of the Tibetan High plateau have lived on their yak breeding activity, providing them with all they need: milk, a source of butter and cheese, and hair, which they weave into the heavy black tents that characterize the nomadic population. In the last decade, however, changes occurred that have destabilized this activity. The changes are three-fold: (1 increasing economic difficulty to live from this activity (Melvyn et al., 1990, and its two corollaries: (2 rural desertification (Yang, 1992 and (3 increasing herds’ sizes, threatening the environment (Wu, 1999. Norlha, meaning “wealth of the Gods”, proposes an alternative to remedy these problems. By improving the value added cattle that farmers derive from the yaks, Norlha’s social business model suggests that selling extremely high range products to luxury houses can be a way out of poverty and rural desertification for these communities.Pendant des siècles, les communautés locales d’éleveurs transhumants de yaks du haut plateau du Tibet ont vécu de leurs élevages qui leur fournissaient tout ce dont ils avaient besoin pour vivre : du lait, pour faire du beurre et du fromage, et de la laine, qu'ils tissaient pour fabriquer les épaisses tentes noires utilisées par les populations nomades. Toutefois, au cours des dix dernières années, l’élevage de yaks a été déstabilisé par certains  changements : (1 la difficulté de plus en plus grande à vivre de l’élevage (Melvyn et al., 1990, et ses deux corollaires, (2 la désertification rurale (Yang, 1992 et (3 des troupeaux de plus en plus importants qui menacent l’environnement (Wu, 1999. Norlha, qui signifie “richesses des Dieux”, propose une alternative à ces problèmes. En améliorant la valeur ajoutée que les éleveurs dégagent des yaks, le modèle d’entreprise social de Norlha montre que la vente de produits très haut de gamme à des

  11. Development of Non-Metallic Fuel Elements for a High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor; Mise au point d'elements combustibles non metalliques pour un reacteur a haute temperature, refroidi par un gaz; Razrabotka nemetallicheskikh teplovydelyashchikh ehlementov dlya vysokotemperaturnogo reaktora s gazovym okhlazhdeniem; Elementos combustibles no metalicos para un reactor de temperatura elevada refrigerado por gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebmann, B.; Schafer, L.; Spener, G. [NUKEM, Nuklear-Chemie und -Metallurgie G.m.b.H., Wolfgang bei Hanau, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1963-11-15

    In connection with fuel element development work for the high-temperature gas-coolcd reactor of the Brown-Boveri/Krupp Reaktorbau G.m.b.H., two different fuel element concepts were considered and developed. In both cases the fuel element consists of a graphite ball of 6 cm in diam. which contains the fuel insert, a cylindrical pellet of about 20 mm in diam. and 16 mm in height. The two concepts differ in the type of the.fuel insert as well as in the preparation of the graphite ball. In the first concept the fuel insert consists of a mixture of UC{sub 2} and graphite which is prepared by blending U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and graphite, pressing them into pellets and reacting the two components in a vacuum furnace at 1800{sup o}C. The atomic ratio of U : C is 1:45. Since this type of fuel pellet does not retain the fission products completely the surrounding graphite sphere had to be made impervious to fission products by impregnation in order to obtain a fission-product retaining element. Permeabilities of the order of 10{sup -6}cm{sup 2}/s could be achieved. In the second concept the fuel insert consists of a solid solution of UC in ZrC and is coated with a layer of ZrC. The molar ratio of UC to ZrC is 1 : 20. The fuel pellet preparation was accomplished by the following procedure: UO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, and graphite were mixed and pressed into pellets. The pellets were reacted to the carbides. Ball milling of the carbides was followed by hot pressing at temperatures o f 2000{sup o}C. Densities of more than 95% of the theoretical density could be achieved. A full description of the preparation and of some physical properties of the fuel pellets is given in the paper. A sufficient fission gas retention behaviour of this type of fuel insert which allows it to be put into unimpregnated graphite balls is expected. Other advantages of this kind of fuel are discussed. (author) [French] Dans le cadre des etudes de combustibles destines au reacteur a haute temperature, refroidi par

  12. The luminescent chamber and its use in high-energy physics experiments; La chambre a luminescence: son emploi dans les experiences de physique des hautes energies; Lyuminestsentnaya kamera i ee ispol'zovanie v ehksperimentakh, provodimykh v fizike vysokikh ehnergij; La camara luminiscente y su empleo en experimentos de fisica de elevada energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, L W; Perl, M L [Randall Laboratory of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1962-04-15

    experiments is analysed in relation to the spark chamber and other detectors. (author) [French] Pour la premiere fois, une chambre a luminescence a ete utilisee dans des experiences sur la physique des particules de haute energie. Au bevatron du Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, des trajectoires de particules dans des cristaux d'iodure de sodium active ont ete photographiees a l'aide d'un systeme compose de trois tubes renforcateurs d'image disposes en cascade. Au cours d'une premiere experience, les auteurs ont etudie la diffusion elastique pion-proton au moyen de deux dispositifs de 20 cm de long vus chacun par un scintillateur et servant a observer l'un le pion diffuse, l'autre, le proton de recul d'une cible d'hydrogene liquide. Les compteurs a scintillations ne selectionnaient, aux fins d'enregistrement, que les evenements quasi coplanaires; cependant, les criteres de diffusion elastique etaient les donnees cinematiques des trajectoires enregistrees. Pres de 1000 evenements elastiques ont ete photographies pour chacune des trois valeurs de la quantite de mouvement des mesons incidents, jusqu'a 2,5 MeV/c. Au cours d'une seconde experience, on n'a utilise qu'un seul dispositif de 10 x 10 x 20 cm vu par un scintillateur, pour observer les protons de recul qui s'arretent lors de la diffusion inelastique des pions (production d'un pion unique) pour trois quantites de mouvements differents du pion incident. On a, ici encore, enregistre plusieurs milliers d'evenements. Le parcours et l'angle du proton de recul ont permis de determiner le transfert de la quantite de mouvement et l'energie dans le centre de masse du systeme pion-pion, qui constituaient dans ce cas les deux parametres cinematiques determinants. Dans ces experiences, on a pu realiser le declenchement conditionne par la production de l'evenement et obtenir un temps de resolution de 5 microsecondes, en faisant en sorte que le second tube a rayons cathodiques se declenche lorsqu'un signal est donne par la partie

  13. Pavement Subgrade Performance Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wei; Ullidtz, Per; Macdonald, Robin

    1998-01-01

    The report describes the second test in the Danish Road Testing Machine (RTM) under the International Pavement Subgrade Performance Study. Pavement response was measured in different layers, and compared to different theroretical values. Performance in terms of plastic strains, rutting...

  14. Developing Effective Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-14

    University When Performance Measurement Goes Bad Laziness Vanity Narcissism Too Many Pettiness Inanity 52 Developing Effective...Kasunic, October 14, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Narcissism Measuring performance from the organization’s point of view, rather than from

  15. Performance SNAPSHOT Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The HOME Program Performance SNAPSHOTs are quarterly cumulative performance reports, which can be useful in tracking the HOME program progress of participating...

  16. Winter maintenance performance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Winter Performance Index is a method of quantifying winter storm events and the DOTs response to them. : It is a valuable tool for evaluating the States maintenance practices, performing post-storm analysis, training : maintenance personnel...

  17. Tracker Performance Metric

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olson, Teresa; Lee, Harry; Sanders, Johnnie

    2002-01-01

    .... We have developed the Tracker Performance Metric (TPM) specifically for this purpose. It was designed to measure the output performance, on a frame-by-frame basis, using its output position and quality...

  18. HOPWA Performance Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HOPWA Performance Profiles are generated quarterly for all agencies receiving HOPWA formula or competitive grants. Performance Profiles are available at the national...

  19. R high performance programming

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Aloysius

    2015-01-01

    This book is for programmers and developers who want to improve the performance of their R programs by making them run faster with large data sets or who are trying to solve a pesky performance problem.

  20. Mapping Intermediality in Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    Mapping Intermediality in Performance benadert het vraagstuk van intermedialiteit met betrekking tot performance (vooral theater) vanuit vijf verschillende invalshoeken: performativiteit en lichaam; tijd en ruimte; digitale cultuur en posthumanisme; netwerken; pedagogiek en praxis. In deze boeiende