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Sample records for hash function md-192

  1. Perceptual Audio Hashing Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Anarım

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual hash functions provide a tool for fast and reliable identification of content. We present new audio hash functions based on summarization of the time-frequency spectral characteristics of an audio document. The proposed hash functions are based on the periodicity series of the fundamental frequency and on singular-value description of the cepstral frequencies. They are found, on one hand, to perform very satisfactorily in identification and verification tests, and on the other hand, to be very resilient to a large variety of attacks. Moreover, we address the issue of security of hashes and propose a keying technique, and thereby a key-dependent hash function.

  2. The Grindahl Hash Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Rechberger, Christian; Thomsen, Søren Steffen

    2007-01-01

    to the state. We propose two concrete hash functions, Grindahl-256 and Grindahl-512 with claimed security levels with respect to collision, preimage and second preimage attacks of 2^128 and 2^256, respectively. Both proposals have lower memory requirements than other hash functions at comparable speeds...

  3. The hash function BLAKE

    CERN Document Server

    Aumasson, Jean-Philippe; Phan, Raphael; Henzen, Luca

    2014-01-01

    This is a comprehensive description of the cryptographic hash function BLAKE, one of the five final contenders in the NIST SHA3 competition, and of BLAKE2, an improved version popular among developers. It describes how BLAKE was designed and why BLAKE2 was developed, and it offers guidelines on implementing and using BLAKE, with a focus on software implementation.   In the first two chapters, the authors offer a short introduction to cryptographic hashing, the SHA3 competition, and BLAKE. They review applications of cryptographic hashing, they describe some basic notions such as security de

  4. Cryptographic Hash Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauravaram, Praveen; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2010-01-01

    functions, also called message authentication codes (MACs) serve data integrity and data origin authentication in the secret key setting. The building blocks of hash functions can be designed using block ciphers, modular arithmetic or from scratch. The design principles of the popular Merkle...

  5. Proposals for Iterated Hash Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Thomsen, Søren Steffen

    2008-01-01

    The past few years have seen an increase in the number of attacks on cryptographic hash functions. These include attacks directed at specific hash functions, and generic attacks on the typical method of constructing hash functions. In this paper we discuss possible methods for protecting against...... some generic attacks. We also give a concrete proposal for a new hash function construction, given a secure compression function which, unlike in typical existing constructions, is not required to be resistant to all types of collisions. Finally, we show how members of the SHA-family can be turned...

  6. Proposals for iterated hash functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Thomsen, Søren Steffen

    2006-01-01

    The past few years have seen an increase in the number of attacks on cryptographic hash functions. These include attacks directed at specific hash functions, and generic attacks on the typical method of constructing hash functions. In this paper we discuss possible methods for protecting against...... some generic attacks. We also give a concrete proposal for a new hash function construction, given a secure compression function which, unlike in typical existing constructions, is not required to be resistant to all types of collisions. Finally, we show how members of the SHA-family can be turned...

  7. On hash functions using checksums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauravaram, Praveen; Kelsey, John; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2010-01-01

    We analyse the security of iterated hash functions that compute an input dependent checksum which is processed as part of the hash computation. We show that a large class of such schemes, including those using non-linear or even one-way checksum functions, is not secure against the second preimag...

  8. On hash functions using checksums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauravaram, Praveen; Kelsey, John; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2008-01-01

    We analyse the security of iterated hash functions that compute an input dependent checksum which is processed as part of the hash computation. We show that a large class of such schemes, including those using non-linear or even one-way checksum functions, is not secure against the second preimag...

  9. Spongent: A lightweight hash function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanov, Andrey; Knežević, Miroslav; Leander, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes spongent - a family of lightweight hash functions with hash sizes of 88 (for preimage resistance only), 128, 160, 224, and 256 bits based on a sponge construction instantiated with a present-type permutation, following the hermetic sponge strategy. Its smallest implementations...

  10. DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF HASH FUNCTION FOR GENERATING HASHED MESSAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ghaeedi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is a method of sending confidential information in a way that the existence of the channel in this communication remains secret. A collaborative approach between steganography and digital signature provides a high secure hidden data. Unfortunately, there are wide varieties of attacks that affect the quality of image steganography. Two issues that required to be addressed are large size of the ciphered data in digital signature and high bandwidth. The aim of the research is to propose a new method for producing a dynamic hashed message algorithm in digital signature and then embedded into image for enhancing robustness of image steganography with reduced bandwidth. A digital signature with smaller hash size than other hash algorithms was developed for authentication purposes. A hash function is used in the digital signature generation. The encoder function encoded the hashed message to generate the digital signature and then embedded into an image as a stego-image. In enhancing the robustness of the digital signature, we compressed or encoded it or performed both operations before embedding the data into the image. This encryption algorithm is also computationally efficient whereby for messages with the sizes less than 1600 bytes, the hashed file reduced the original file up to 8.51%.

  11. The Usefulness of Multilevel Hash Tables with Multiple Hash Functions in Large Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. Akinwale

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, attempt is made to select three good hash functions which uniformly distribute hash values that permute their internal states and allow the input bits to generate different output bits. These functions are used in different levels of hash tables that are coded in Java Programming Language and a quite number of data records serve as primary data for testing the performances. The result shows that the two-level hash tables with three different hash functions give a superior performance over one-level hash table with two hash functions or zero-level hash table with one function in term of reducing the conflict keys and quick lookup for a particular element. The result assists to reduce the complexity of join operation in query language from O( n2 to O( 1 by placing larger query result, if any, in multilevel hash tables with multiple hash functions and generate shorter query result.

  12. Cryptanalysis of Tav-128 hash function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Ashish; Sanadhya, Somitra Kumar; Gauravaram, Praveen

    2010-01-01

    Many RFID protocols use cryptographic hash functions for their security. The resource constrained nature of RFID systems forces the use of light weight cryptographic algorithms. Tav-128 is one such 128-bit light weight hash function proposed by Peris-Lopez et al. for a low-cost RFID tag authentic...

  13. Hash function based on chaotic map lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shihong; Hu, Gang

    2007-06-01

    A new hash function system, based on coupled chaotic map dynamics, is suggested. By combining floating point computation of chaos and some simple algebraic operations, the system reaches very high bit confusion and diffusion rates, and this enables the system to have desired statistical properties and strong collision resistance. The chaos-based hash function has its advantages for high security and fast performance, and it serves as one of the most highly competitive candidates for practical applications of hash function for software realization and secure information communications in computer networks.

  14. Cryptanalysis of Tav-128 hash function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Many RFID protocols use cryptographic hash functions for their security. The resource constrained nature of RFID systems forces the use of light weight cryptographic algorithms. Tav-128 is one such 128-bit light weight hash function proposed by Peris-Lopez et al. for a low-cost RFID tag...... authentication protocol. Apart from some statistical tests for randomness by the designers themselves, Tav-128 has not undergone any other thorough security analysis. Based on these tests, the designers claimed that Tav-128 does not posses any trivial weaknesses. In this article, we carry out the first third...... party security analysis of Tav-128 and show that this hash function is neither collision resistant nor second preimage resistant. Firstly, we show a practical collision attack on Tav-128 having a complexity of 237 calls to the compression function and produce message pairs of arbitrary length which...

  15. Incremental cryptography and security of public hash functions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation of incremental algorithms for crytographic functions was initiated. The problem, for collision-free hashing, is to design a scheme for which there exists an efficient “update” algorithm: this algorithm is given the hash function H, the hash h = H(M) of message M and the “replacement request” (j, m), and outputs ...

  16. Parallel keyed hash function construction based on chaotic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Di; Liao Xiaofeng; Deng Shaojiang

    2008-01-01

    Recently, a variety of chaos-based hash functions have been proposed. Nevertheless, none of them works efficiently in parallel computing environment. In this Letter, an algorithm for parallel keyed hash function construction is proposed, whose structure can ensure the uniform sensitivity of hash value to the message. By means of the mechanism of both changeable-parameter and self-synchronization, the keystream establishes a close relation with the algorithm key, the content and the order of each message block. The entire message is modulated into the chaotic iteration orbit, and the coarse-graining trajectory is extracted as the hash value. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation indicate that the proposed algorithm can satisfy the performance requirements of hash function. It is simple, efficient, practicable, and reliable. These properties make it a good choice for hash on parallel computing platform

  17. Chaos-based hash function (CBHF) for cryptographic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Mohamed; Faragallah, Osama S.; Abd El-Latif, Ahmed A.

    2009-01-01

    As the core of cryptography, hash is the basic technique for information security. Many of the hash functions generate the message digest through a randomizing process of the original message. Subsequently, a chaos system also generates a random behavior, but at the same time a chaos system is completely deterministic. In this paper, an algorithm for one-way hash function construction based on chaos theory is introduced. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation indicate that the algorithm can satisfy all performance requirements of hash function in an efficient and flexible manner and secure against birthday attacks or meet-in-the-middle attacks, which is good choice for data integrity or authentication.

  18. Chaos-based hash function (CBHF) for cryptographic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amin, Mohamed [Dept. of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shebin El-Koom 32511 (Egypt)], E-mail: mamin04@yahoo.com; Faragallah, Osama S. [Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering, Faculty of Electronic Engineering, Menoufia University, Menouf 32952 (Egypt)], E-mail: osam_sal@yahoo.com; Abd El-Latif, Ahmed A. [Dept. of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shebin El-Koom 32511 (Egypt)], E-mail: ahmed_rahiem@yahoo.com

    2009-10-30

    As the core of cryptography, hash is the basic technique for information security. Many of the hash functions generate the message digest through a randomizing process of the original message. Subsequently, a chaos system also generates a random behavior, but at the same time a chaos system is completely deterministic. In this paper, an algorithm for one-way hash function construction based on chaos theory is introduced. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation indicate that the algorithm can satisfy all performance requirements of hash function in an efficient and flexible manner and secure against birthday attacks or meet-in-the-middle attacks, which is good choice for data integrity or authentication.

  19. Cryptanalysis of an Iterated Halving-based hash function: CRUSH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagheri, Nasour; Henricksen, Matt; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2009-01-01

    Iterated Halving has been suggested as a replacement to the Merkle–Damgård (MD) construction in 2004 anticipating the attacks on the MDx family of hash functions. The CRUSH hash function provides a specific instantiation of the block cipher for Iterated Halving. The authors identify structural pr...

  20. Gene function prediction based on Gene Ontology Hierarchy Preserving Hashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yingwen; Fu, Guangyuan; Wang, Jun; Guo, Maozu; Yu, Guoxian

    2018-02-23

    Gene Ontology (GO) uses structured vocabularies (or terms) to describe the molecular functions, biological roles, and cellular locations of gene products in a hierarchical ontology. GO annotations associate genes with GO terms and indicate the given gene products carrying out the biological functions described by the relevant terms. However, predicting correct GO annotations for genes from a massive set of GO terms as defined by GO is a difficult challenge. To combat with this challenge, we introduce a Gene Ontology Hierarchy Preserving Hashing (HPHash) based semantic method for gene function prediction. HPHash firstly measures the taxonomic similarity between GO terms. It then uses a hierarchy preserving hashing technique to keep the hierarchical order between GO terms, and to optimize a series of hashing functions to encode massive GO terms via compact binary codes. After that, HPHash utilizes these hashing functions to project the gene-term association matrix into a low-dimensional one and performs semantic similarity based gene function prediction in the low-dimensional space. Experimental results on three model species (Homo sapiens, Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus) for interspecies gene function prediction show that HPHash performs better than other related approaches and it is robust to the number of hash functions. In addition, we also take HPHash as a plugin for BLAST based gene function prediction. From the experimental results, HPHash again significantly improves the prediction performance. The codes of HPHash are available at: http://mlda.swu.edu.cn/codes.php?name=HPHash. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hash function based on piecewise nonlinear chaotic map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhavan, A.; Samsudin, A.; Akhshani, A.

    2009-01-01

    Chaos-based cryptography appeared recently in the early 1990s as an original application of nonlinear dynamics in the chaotic regime. In this paper, an algorithm for one-way hash function construction based on piecewise nonlinear chaotic map with a variant probability parameter is proposed. Also the proposed algorithm is an attempt to present a new chaotic hash function based on multithreaded programming. In this chaotic scheme, the message is connected to the chaotic map using probability parameter and other parameters of chaotic map such as control parameter and initial condition, so that the generated hash value is highly sensitive to the message. Simulation results indicate that the proposed algorithm presented several interesting features, such as high flexibility, good statistical properties, high key sensitivity and message sensitivity. These properties make the scheme a suitable choice for practical applications.

  2. Hash function construction using weighted complex dynamical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yu-Rong; Jiang Guo-Ping

    2013-01-01

    A novel scheme to construct a hash function based on a weighted complex dynamical network (WCDN) generated from an original message is proposed in this paper. First, the original message is divided into blocks. Then, each block is divided into components, and the nodes and weighted edges are well defined from these components and their relations. Namely, the WCDN closely related to the original message is established. Furthermore, the node dynamics of the WCDN are chosen as a chaotic map. After chaotic iterations, quantization and exclusive-or operations, the fixed-length hash value is obtained. This scheme has the property that any tiny change in message can be diffused rapidly through the WCDN, leading to very different hash values. Analysis and simulation show that the scheme possesses good statistical properties, excellent confusion and diffusion, strong collision resistance and high efficiency. (general)

  3. Final report for LDRD Project 93633 : new hash function for data protection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draelos, Timothy John; Dautenhahn, Nathan; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Tolk, Keith Michael; Orman, Hilarie (PurpleStreak, Inc.); Walker, Andrea Mae; Malone, Sean; Lee, Eric; Neumann, William Douglas; Cordwell, William R.; Torgerson, Mark Dolan; Anderson, Eric; Lanzone, Andrew J.; Collins, Michael Joseph; McDonald, Timothy Scott; Caskey, Susan Adele

    2009-03-01

    The security of the widely-used cryptographic hash function SHA1 has been impugned. We have developed two replacement hash functions. The first, SHA1X, is a drop-in replacement for SHA1. The second, SANDstorm, has been submitted as a candidate to the NIST-sponsored SHA3 Hash Function competition.

  4. Practical Attacks on AES-like Cryptographic Hash Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kölbl, Stefan; Rechberger, Christian

    2015-01-01

    to drastically reduce the complexity of attacks to very practical values for reduced-round versions. Furthermore, we describe new and practical attacks on Whirlpool and the recently proposed GOST R hash function with one or more of the following properties: more rounds, less time/memory complexity, and more...

  5. The FPGA realization of the general cellular automata based cryptographic hash functions: Performance and effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Klyucharev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the author considers hardware implementation of the GRACE-H family general cellular automata based cryptographic hash functions. VHDL is used as a language and Altera FPGA as a platform for hardware implementation. Performance and effectiveness of the FPGA implementations of GRACE-H hash functions were compared with Keccak (SHA-3, SHA-256, BLAKE, Groestl, JH, Skein hash functions. According to the performed tests, performance of the hardware implementation of GRACE-H family hash functions significantly (up to 12 times exceeded performance of the hardware implementation of previously known hash functions, and effectiveness of that hardware implementation was also better (up to 4 times.

  6. Remarks on Gödel's Code as a Hash Function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikuš, M.; Savický, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 3 (2010), s. 67-80 ISSN 1210-3195 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1333 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Gödel numbering function * hash function * rational reconstruction * integer relation algorithm Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.sav.sk/journals/uploads/0317151904m-s.pdf

  7. Improving the security of a parallel keyed hash function based on chaotic maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Di, E-mail: xiaodi_cqu@hotmail.co [College of Computer Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Liao Xiaofeng [College of Computer Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Wang Yong [College of Computer Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)] [College of Economy and Management, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China)

    2009-11-23

    In this Letter, we analyze the cause of vulnerability of the original parallel keyed hash function based on chaotic maps in detail, and then propose the corresponding enhancement measures. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation indicate that the modified hash function is more secure than the original one. At the same time, it can keep the parallel merit and satisfy the other performance requirements of hash function.

  8. Improving the security of a parallel keyed hash function based on chaotic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Di; Liao Xiaofeng; Wang Yong

    2009-01-01

    In this Letter, we analyze the cause of vulnerability of the original parallel keyed hash function based on chaotic maps in detail, and then propose the corresponding enhancement measures. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation indicate that the modified hash function is more secure than the original one. At the same time, it can keep the parallel merit and satisfy the other performance requirements of hash function.

  9. Collision analysis of one kind of chaos-based hash function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Di; Peng Wenbing; Liao Xiaofeng; Xiang Tao

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade, various chaos-based hash functions have been proposed. Nevertheless, the corresponding analyses of them lag far behind. In this Letter, we firstly take a chaos-based hash function proposed very recently in Amin, Faragallah and Abd El-Latif (2009) as a sample to analyze its computational collision problem, and then generalize the construction method of one kind of chaos-based hash function and summarize some attentions to avoid the collision problem. It is beneficial to the hash function design based on chaos in the future.

  10. One-way hash function construction based on the spatiotemporal chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yu-Ling; Du Ming-Hui

    2012-01-01

    Based on the spatiotemporal chaotic system, a novel algorithm for constructing a one-way hash function is proposed and analysed. The message is divided into fixed length blocks. Each message block is processed by the hash compression function in parallel. The hash compression is constructed based on the spatiotemporal chaos. In each message block, the ASCII code and its position in the whole message block chain constitute the initial conditions and the key of the hash compression function. The final hash value is generated by further compressing the mixed result of all the hash compression values. Theoretic analyses and numerical simulations show that the proposed algorithm presents high sensitivity to the message and key, good statistical properties, and strong collision resistance. (general)

  11. One-way hash function based on hyper-chaotic cellular neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Qunting; Gao Tiegang

    2008-01-01

    The design of an efficient one-way hash function with good performance is a hot spot in modern cryptography researches. In this paper, a hash function construction method based on cell neural network with hyper-chaos characteristics is proposed. First, the chaos sequence is gotten by iterating cellular neural network with Runge–Kutta algorithm, and then the chaos sequence is iterated with the message. The hash code is obtained through the corresponding transform of the latter chaos sequence. Simulation and analysis demonstrate that the new method has the merit of convenience, high sensitivity to initial values, good hash performance, especially the strong stability. (general)

  12. Cryptanalysis of the 10-Round Hash and Full Compression Function of SHAvite-3-512

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauravaram, Praveen; Leurent, Gaëtan; Mendel, Florian

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze SHAvite-3-512 hash function, as proposed for round 2 of the SHA-3 competition. We present cryptanalytic results on 10 out of 14 rounds of the hash function SHAvite-3-512, and on the full 14 round compression function of SHAvite-3-512. We show a second preimage attack on ...

  13. Cryptanalysis of Lin et al.'s Efficient Block-Cipher-Based Hash Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Bozhong; Gong, Zheng; Chen, Xiaohong; Qiu, Weidong; Zheng, Dong

    2010-01-01

    Hash functions are widely used in authentication. In this paper, the security of Lin et al.'s efficient block-cipher-based hash function is reviewed. By using Joux's multicollisions and Kelsey et al.'s expandable message techniques, we find the scheme is vulnerable to collision, preimage and second

  14. Authentication codes from ε-ASU hash functions with partially secret keys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, S.L.; Tilborg, van H.C.A.; Weng, J.; Chen, Kefei

    2014-01-01

    An authentication code can be constructed with a family of e-Almost strong universal (e-ASU) hash functions, with the index of hash functions as the authentication key. This paper considers the performance of authentication codes from e-ASU, when the authentication key is only partially secret. We

  15. The suffix-free-prefix-free hash function construction and its indifferentiability security analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagheri, Nasour; Gauravaram, Praveen; Knudsen, Lars R.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we observe that in the seminal work on indifferentiability analysis of iterated hash functions by Coron et al. and in subsequent works, the initial value $$(IV)$$ of hash functions is fixed. In addition, these indifferentiability results do not depend on the Merkle–Damgård (MD) str...

  16. A novel method for one-way hash function construction based on spatiotemporal chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Haijun; Wang Yong; Xie Qing; Yang Huaqian

    2009-01-01

    A novel hash algorithm based on a spatiotemporal chaos is proposed. The original message is first padded with zeros if needed. Then it is divided into a number of blocks each contains 32 bytes. In the hashing process, each block is partitioned into eight 32-bit values and input into the spatiotemporal chaotic system. Then, after iterating the system for four times, the next block is processed by the same way. To enhance the confusion and diffusion effect, the cipher block chaining (CBC) mode is adopted in the algorithm. The hash value is obtained from the final state value of the spatiotemporal chaotic system. Theoretic analyses and numerical simulations both show that the proposed hash algorithm possesses good statistical properties, strong collision resistance and high efficiency, as required by practical keyed hash functions.

  17. A novel method for one-way hash function construction based on spatiotemporal chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren Haijun [College of Software Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); State Key Laboratory of Power Transmission Equipment and System Security and New Technology, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)], E-mail: jhren@cqu.edu.cn; Wang Yong; Xie Qing [Key Laboratory of Electronic Commerce and Logistics of Chongqing, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Yang Huaqian [Department of Computer and Modern Education Technology, Chongqing Education of College, Chongqing 400067 (China)

    2009-11-30

    A novel hash algorithm based on a spatiotemporal chaos is proposed. The original message is first padded with zeros if needed. Then it is divided into a number of blocks each contains 32 bytes. In the hashing process, each block is partitioned into eight 32-bit values and input into the spatiotemporal chaotic system. Then, after iterating the system for four times, the next block is processed by the same way. To enhance the confusion and diffusion effect, the cipher block chaining (CBC) mode is adopted in the algorithm. The hash value is obtained from the final state value of the spatiotemporal chaotic system. Theoretic analyses and numerical simulations both show that the proposed hash algorithm possesses good statistical properties, strong collision resistance and high efficiency, as required by practical keyed hash functions.

  18. On Randomizing Hash Functions to Strengthen the Security of Digital Signatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halevi and Krawczyk proposed a message randomization algorithm called RMX as a front-end tool to the hash-then-sign digital signature schemes such as DSS and RSA in order to free their reliance on the collision resistance property of the hash functions. They have shown that to forge a RMX-hash-th...... that use Davies-Meyer schemes and a variant of RMX published by NIST in its Draft Special Publication (SP) 800-106. We discuss some important applications of our attack....

  19. On randomizing hash functions to strengthen the security of digital signatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauravaram, Praveen; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2009-01-01

    Halevi and Krawczyk proposed a message randomization algorithm called RMX as a front-end tool to the hash-then-sign digital signature schemes such as DSS and RSA in order to free their reliance on the collision resistance property of the hash functions. They have shown that to forge a RMX-hash-th...... schemes that use Davies-Meyer schemes and a variant of RMX published by NIST in its Draft Special Publication (SP) 800-106. We discuss some important applications of our attack....

  20. Constructing a one-way hash function based on the unified chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Min; Peng Fei; Chen Guanrong

    2008-01-01

    A new one-way hash function based on the unified chaotic system is constructed. With different values of a key parameter, the unified chaotic system represents different chaotic systems, based on which the one-way hash function algorithm is constructed with three round operations and an initial vector on an input message. In each round operation, the parameters are processed by three different chaotic systems generated from the unified chaotic system. Feed-forwards are used at the end of each round operation and at the end of each element of the message processing. Meanwhile, in each round operation, parameter-exchanging operations are implemented. Then, the hash value of length 160 bits is obtained from the last six parameters. Simulation and analysis both demonstrate that the algorithm has great flexibility, satisfactory hash performance, weak collision property, and high security. (general)

  1. One-way hash function construction based on chaotic map network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Huaqian; Wong, K.-W.; Liao Xiaofeng; Wang Yong; Yang Degang

    2009-01-01

    A novel chaotic hash algorithm based on a network structure formed by 16 chaotic maps is proposed. The original message is first padded with zeros to make the length a multiple of four. Then it is divided into a number of blocks each contains 4 bytes. In the hashing process, the blocks are mixed together by the chaotic map network since the initial value and the control parameter of each tent map are dynamically determined by the output of its neighbors. To enhance the confusion and diffusion effect, the cipher block chaining (CBC) mode is adopted in the algorithm. Theoretic analyses and numerical simulations both show that the proposed hash algorithm possesses good statistical properties, strong collision resistance and high flexibility, as required by practical keyed hash functions.

  2. Cache-Oblivious Hashing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Rasmus; Wei, Zhewei; Yi, Ke

    2014-01-01

    The hash table, especially its external memory version, is one of the most important index structures in large databases. Assuming a truly random hash function, it is known that in a standard external hash table with block size b, searching for a particular key only takes expected average t q =1...

  3. Internal differential collision attacks on the reduced-round Grøstl-0 hash function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ideguchi, Kota; Tischhauser, Elmar Wolfgang; Preneel, Bart

    2014-01-01

    . This results in collision attacks and semi-free-start collision attacks on the Grøstl-0 hash function and compression function with reduced rounds. Specifically, we show collision attacks on the Grøstl-0-256 hash function reduced to 5 and 6 out of 10 rounds with time complexities 248 and 2112 and on the Grøstl......-0-512 hash function reduced to 6 out of 14 rounds with time complexity 2183. Furthermore, we demonstrate semi-free-start collision attacks on the Grøstl-0-256 compression function reduced to 8 rounds and the Grøstl-0-512 compression function reduced to 9 rounds. Finally, we show improved...

  4. One-way Hash function construction based on the chaotic map with changeable-parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Di; Liao Xiaofeng; Deng Shaojiang

    2005-01-01

    An algorithm for one-way Hash function construction based on the chaotic map with changeable-parameter is proposed in this paper. A piecewise linear chaotic map with changeable-parameter P is chosen, and cipher block chaining mode (CBC) is introduced to ensure that the parameter P in each iteration is dynamically decided by the last-time iteration value and the corresponding message bit in different positions. The final Hash value is obtained by means of the linear transform on the iteration sequence. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation indicate that our algorithm can satisfy all the performance requirements of Hash function in an efficient and flexible manner. It is practicable and reliable, with high potential to be adopted for E-commerce

  5. One-way Hash function construction based on the chaotic map with changeable-parameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Di [College of Computer Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China) and College of Mechanical Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)]. E-mail: xiaodi_cqu@hotmail.com; Liao Xiaofeng [College of Computer Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)]. E-mail: xfliao@cqu.edu.cn; Deng Shaojiang [College of Computer Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2005-04-01

    An algorithm for one-way Hash function construction based on the chaotic map with changeable-parameter is proposed in this paper. A piecewise linear chaotic map with changeable-parameter P is chosen, and cipher block chaining mode (CBC) is introduced to ensure that the parameter P in each iteration is dynamically decided by the last-time iteration value and the corresponding message bit in different positions. The final Hash value is obtained by means of the linear transform on the iteration sequence. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation indicate that our algorithm can satisfy all the performance requirements of Hash function in an efficient and flexible manner. It is practicable and reliable, with high potential to be adopted for E-commerce.

  6. Rebound Attacks on the Reduced Grøstl Hash Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendel, Florian; Rechberger, C.; Schlaffer, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Grøstl is one of 14 second round candidates of the NIST SHA-3 competition. Cryptanalytic results on the wide-pipe compression function of Grøstl-256 have already been published. However, little is known about the hash function, arguably a much more interesting cryptanalytic setting. Also, Grøstl...

  7. Construction of secure and fast hash functions using nonbinary error-correcting codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Preneel, Bart

    2002-01-01

    constructions based on block ciphers such as the Data Encryption Standard (DES), where the key size is slightly smaller than the block size; IDEA, where the key size is twice the block size; Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), with a variable key size; and to MD4-like hash functions. Under reasonable...

  8. Security analysis of a one-way hash function based on spatiotemporal chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shi-Hong; Shan Peng-Yang

    2011-01-01

    The collision and statistical properties of a one-way hash function based on spatiotemporal chaos are investigated. Analysis and simulation results indicate that collisions exist in the original algorithm and, therefore, the original algorithm is insecure and vulnerable. An improved algorithm is proposed to avoid the collisions. (general)

  9. Quantum Hash function and its application to privacy amplification in quantum key distribution, pseudo-random number generation and image encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Xu, Peng; Yang, Rui; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min

    2016-01-01

    Quantum information and quantum computation have achieved a huge success during the last years. In this paper, we investigate the capability of quantum Hash function, which can be constructed by subtly modifying quantum walks, a famous quantum computation model. It is found that quantum Hash function can act as a hash function for the privacy amplification process of quantum key distribution systems with higher security. As a byproduct, quantum Hash function can also be used for pseudo-random number generation due to its inherent chaotic dynamics. Further we discuss the application of quantum Hash function to image encryption and propose a novel image encryption algorithm. Numerical simulations and performance comparisons show that quantum Hash function is eligible for privacy amplification in quantum key distribution, pseudo-random number generation and image encryption in terms of various hash tests and randomness tests. It extends the scope of application of quantum computation and quantum information.

  10. Quantum Hash function and its application to privacy amplification in quantum key distribution, pseudo-random number generation and image encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Xu, Peng; Yang, Rui; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min

    2016-01-01

    Quantum information and quantum computation have achieved a huge success during the last years. In this paper, we investigate the capability of quantum Hash function, which can be constructed by subtly modifying quantum walks, a famous quantum computation model. It is found that quantum Hash function can act as a hash function for the privacy amplification process of quantum key distribution systems with higher security. As a byproduct, quantum Hash function can also be used for pseudo-random number generation due to its inherent chaotic dynamics. Further we discuss the application of quantum Hash function to image encryption and propose a novel image encryption algorithm. Numerical simulations and performance comparisons show that quantum Hash function is eligible for privacy amplification in quantum key distribution, pseudo-random number generation and image encryption in terms of various hash tests and randomness tests. It extends the scope of application of quantum computation and quantum information. PMID:26823196

  11. Efficient computation of hashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Raul H C; Franqueira, Virginia N L; Hobson, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    The sequential computation of hashes at the core of many distributed storage systems and found, for example, in grid services can hinder efficiency in service quality and even pose security challenges that can only be addressed by the use of parallel hash tree modes. The main contributions of this paper are, first, the identification of several efficiency and security challenges posed by the use of sequential hash computation based on the Merkle-Damgard engine. In addition, alternatives for the parallel computation of hash trees are discussed, and a prototype for a new parallel implementation of the Keccak function, the SHA-3 winner, is introduced.

  12. Analysis and Implementation of Cryptographic Hash Functions in Programmable Logic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tautvydas Brukštus

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this day’s world, more and more focused on data pro-tection. For data protection using cryptographic science. It is also important for the safe storage of passwords for this uses a cryp-tographic hash function. In this article has been selected the SHA-256 cryptographic hash function to implement and explore, based on fact that it is now a popular and safe. SHA-256 cryp-tographic function did not find any theoretical gaps or conflict situations. Also SHA-256 cryptographic hash function used cryptographic currencies. Currently cryptographic currency is popular and their value is high. For the measurements have been chosen programmable logic integrated circuits as they less effi-ciency then ASIC. We chose Altera Corporation produced prog-rammable logic integrated circuits. Counting speed will be inves-tigated by three programmable logic integrated circuit. We will use programmable logic integrated circuits belong to the same family, but different generations. Each programmable logic integ-rated circuit made using different dimension technology. Choo-sing these programmable logic integrated circuits: EP3C16, EP4CE115 and 5CSEMA5F31. To compare calculations perfor-mances parameters are provided in the tables and graphs. Re-search show the calculation speed and stability of different prog-rammable logic circuits.

  13. Cryptanalysis on a parallel keyed hash function based on chaotic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Wei; Wang Xiaoming; He Dake; Cao Yang

    2009-01-01

    This Letter analyzes the security of a novel parallel keyed hash function based on chaotic maps, proposed by Xiao et al. to improve the efficiency in parallel computing environment. We show how to devise forgery attacks on Xiao's scheme with differential cryptanalysis and give the experiment results of two kinds of forgery attacks firstly. Furthermore, we discuss the problem of weak keys in the scheme and demonstrate how to utilize weak keys to construct collision.

  14. Cryptographic quantum hashing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablayev, F. M.; Vasiliev, A. V.

    2014-02-01

    We present a version of quantum hash functions based on non-binary discrete functions. The proposed quantum procedure is ‘classical-quantum’, that is, it takes a classical bit string as an input and produces a quantum state. The resulting function has the property of a one-way function (pre-image resistance); in addition it has properties analogous to classical cryptographic hash second pre-image resistance and collision resistance. We also show that the proposed function can be naturally used in a quantum digital signature protocol.

  15. Cryptographic quantum hashing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablayev, F M; Vasiliev, A V

    2014-01-01

    We present a version of quantum hash functions based on non-binary discrete functions. The proposed quantum procedure is ‘classical-quantum’, that is, it takes a classical bit string as an input and produces a quantum state. The resulting function has the property of a one-way function (pre-image resistance); in addition it has properties analogous to classical cryptographic hash second pre-image resistance and collision resistance. We also show that the proposed function can be naturally used in a quantum digital signature protocol. (letter)

  16. An Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network Using Double Trapdoor Chameleon Hash Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejeshwari Thakur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN, a type of communication system, is normally deployed into the unattended environment where the intended user can get access to the network. The sensor nodes collect data from this environment. If the data are valuable and confidential, then security measures are needed to protect them from the unauthorized access. This situation requires an access control protocol (ACP in the design of sensor network because of sensor nodes which are vulnerable to various malicious attacks during the authentication and key establishment and the new node addition phase. In this paper, we propose a secured ACP for such WSN. This protocol is based on Elliptic Curve Discrete Log Problem (ECDLP and double trapdoor chameleon hash function which secures the WSN from malicious attacks such as node masquerading attack, replay attack, man-in-the-middle attack, and forgery attacks. Proposed ACP has a special feature known as session key security. Also, the proposed ACP is more efficient as it requires only one modular multiplication during the initialization phase.

  17. A Robust and Effective Smart-Card-Based Remote User Authentication Mechanism Using Hash Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odelu, Vanga; Goswami, Adrijit

    2014-01-01

    In a remote user authentication scheme, a remote server verifies whether a login user is genuine and trustworthy, and also for mutual authentication purpose a login user validates whether the remote server is genuine and trustworthy. Several remote user authentication schemes using the password, the biometrics, and the smart card have been proposed in the literature. However, most schemes proposed in the literature are either computationally expensive or insecure against several known attacks. In this paper, we aim to propose a new robust and effective password-based remote user authentication scheme using smart card. Our scheme is efficient, because our scheme uses only efficient one-way hash function and bitwise XOR operations. Through the rigorous informal and formal security analysis, we show that our scheme is secure against possible known attacks. We perform the simulation for the formal security analysis using the widely accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool to ensure that our scheme is secure against passive and active attacks. Furthermore, our scheme supports efficiently the password change phase always locally without contacting the remote server and correctly. In addition, our scheme performs significantly better than other existing schemes in terms of communication, computational overheads, security, and features provided by our scheme. PMID:24892078

  18. A Robust and Effective Smart-Card-Based Remote User Authentication Mechanism Using Hash Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a remote user authentication scheme, a remote server verifies whether a login user is genuine and trustworthy, and also for mutual authentication purpose a login user validates whether the remote server is genuine and trustworthy. Several remote user authentication schemes using the password, the biometrics, and the smart card have been proposed in the literature. However, most schemes proposed in the literature are either computationally expensive or insecure against several known attacks. In this paper, we aim to propose a new robust and effective password-based remote user authentication scheme using smart card. Our scheme is efficient, because our scheme uses only efficient one-way hash function and bitwise XOR operations. Through the rigorous informal and formal security analysis, we show that our scheme is secure against possible known attacks. We perform the simulation for the formal security analysis using the widely accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation Internet Security Protocols and Applications tool to ensure that our scheme is secure against passive and active attacks. Furthermore, our scheme supports efficiently the password change phase always locally without contacting the remote server and correctly. In addition, our scheme performs significantly better than other existing schemes in terms of communication, computational overheads, security, and features provided by our scheme.

  19. A robust and effective smart-card-based remote user authentication mechanism using hash function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga; Goswami, Adrijit

    2014-01-01

    In a remote user authentication scheme, a remote server verifies whether a login user is genuine and trustworthy, and also for mutual authentication purpose a login user validates whether the remote server is genuine and trustworthy. Several remote user authentication schemes using the password, the biometrics, and the smart card have been proposed in the literature. However, most schemes proposed in the literature are either computationally expensive or insecure against several known attacks. In this paper, we aim to propose a new robust and effective password-based remote user authentication scheme using smart card. Our scheme is efficient, because our scheme uses only efficient one-way hash function and bitwise XOR operations. Through the rigorous informal and formal security analysis, we show that our scheme is secure against possible known attacks. We perform the simulation for the formal security analysis using the widely accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool to ensure that our scheme is secure against passive and active attacks. Furthermore, our scheme supports efficiently the password change phase always locally without contacting the remote server and correctly. In addition, our scheme performs significantly better than other existing schemes in terms of communication, computational overheads, security, and features provided by our scheme.

  20. An enhanced biometric authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems with nonce using chaotic hash function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ashok Kumar; Goswami, Adrijit

    2014-06-01

    Recently, Awasthi and Srivastava proposed a novel biometric remote user authentication scheme for the telecare medicine information system (TMIS) with nonce. Their scheme is very efficient as it is based on efficient chaotic one-way hash function and bitwise XOR operations. In this paper, we first analyze Awasthi-Srivastava's scheme and then show that their scheme has several drawbacks: (1) incorrect password change phase, (2) fails to preserve user anonymity property, (3) fails to establish a secret session key beween a legal user and the server, (4) fails to protect strong replay attack, and (5) lacks rigorous formal security analysis. We then a propose a novel and secure biometric-based remote user authentication scheme in order to withstand the security flaw found in Awasthi-Srivastava's scheme and enhance the features required for an idle user authentication scheme. Through the rigorous informal and formal security analysis, we show that our scheme is secure against possible known attacks. In addition, we simulate our scheme for the formal security verification using the widely-accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool and show that our scheme is secure against passive and active attacks, including the replay and man-in-the-middle attacks. Our scheme is also efficient as compared to Awasthi-Srivastava's scheme.

  1. Refined repetitive sequence searches utilizing a fast hash function and cross species information retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reneker Jeff

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Searching for small tandem/disperse repetitive DNA sequences streamlines many biomedical research processes. For instance, whole genomic array analysis in yeast has revealed 22 PHO-regulated genes. The promoter regions of all but one of them contain at least one of the two core Pho4p binding sites, CACGTG and CACGTT. In humans, microsatellites play a role in a number of rare neurodegenerative diseases such as spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1. SCA1 is a hereditary neurodegenerative disease caused by an expanded CAG repeat in the coding sequence of the gene. In bacterial pathogens, microsatellites are proposed to regulate expression of some virulence factors. For example, bacteria commonly generate intra-strain diversity through phase variation which is strongly associated with virulence determinants. A recent analysis of the complete sequences of the Helicobacter pylori strains 26695 and J99 has identified 46 putative phase-variable genes among the two genomes through their association with homopolymeric tracts and dinucleotide repeats. Life scientists are increasingly interested in studying the function of small sequences of DNA. However, current search algorithms often generate thousands of matches – most of which are irrelevant to the researcher. Results We present our hash function as well as our search algorithm to locate small sequences of DNA within multiple genomes. Our system applies information retrieval algorithms to discover knowledge of cross-species conservation of repeat sequences. We discuss our incorporation of the Gene Ontology (GO database into these algorithms. We conduct an exhaustive time analysis of our system for various repetitive sequence lengths. For instance, a search for eight bases of sequence within 3.224 GBases on 49 different chromosomes takes 1.147 seconds on average. To illustrate the relevance of the search results, we conduct a search with and without added annotation terms for the

  2. Structure Sensitive Hashing With Adaptive Product Quantization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianglong; Du, Bowen; Deng, Cheng; Liu, Ming; Lang, Bo

    2016-10-01

    Hashing has been proved as an attractive solution to approximate nearest neighbor search, owing to its theoretical guarantee and computational efficiency. Though most of prior hashing algorithms can achieve low memory and computation consumption by pursuing compact hash codes, however, they are still far beyond the capability of learning discriminative hash functions from the data with complex inherent structure among them. To address this issue, in this paper, we propose a structure sensitive hashing based on cluster prototypes, which explicitly exploits both global and local structures. An alternating optimization algorithm, respectively, minimizing the quantization loss and spectral embedding loss, is presented to simultaneously discover the cluster prototypes for each hash function, and optimally assign unique binary codes to them satisfying the affinity alignment between them. For hash codes of a desired length, an adaptive bit assignment is further appended to the product quantization of the subspaces, approximating the Hamming distances and meanwhile balancing the variance among hash functions. Experimental results on four large-scale benchmarks CIFAR-10, NUS-WIDE, SIFT1M, and GIST1M demonstrate that our approach significantly outperforms state-of-the-art hashing methods in terms of semantic and metric neighbor search.

  3. Large-Scale Unsupervised Hashing with Shared Structure Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianglong; Mu, Yadong; Zhang, Danchen; Lang, Bo; Li, Xuelong

    2015-09-01

    Hashing methods are effective in generating compact binary signatures for images and videos. This paper addresses an important open issue in the literature, i.e., how to learn compact hash codes by enhancing the complementarity among different hash functions. Most of prior studies solve this problem either by adopting time-consuming sequential learning algorithms or by generating the hash functions which are subject to some deliberately-designed constraints (e.g., enforcing hash functions orthogonal to one another). We analyze the drawbacks of past works and propose a new solution to this problem. Our idea is to decompose the feature space into a subspace shared by all hash functions and its complementary subspace. On one hand, the shared subspace, corresponding to the common structure across different hash functions, conveys most relevant information for the hashing task. Similar to data de-noising, irrelevant information is explicitly suppressed during hash function generation. On the other hand, in case that the complementary subspace also contains useful information for specific hash functions, the final form of our proposed hashing scheme is a compromise between these two kinds of subspaces. To make hash functions not only preserve the local neighborhood structure but also capture the global cluster distribution of the whole data, an objective function incorporating spectral embedding loss, binary quantization loss, and shared subspace contribution is introduced to guide the hash function learning. We propose an efficient alternating optimization method to simultaneously learn both the shared structure and the hash functions. Experimental results on three well-known benchmarks CIFAR-10, NUS-WIDE, and a-TRECVID demonstrate that our approach significantly outperforms state-of-the-art hashing methods.

  4. Hash3: Proofs, Analysis and Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauravaram, Praveen

    2009-01-01

    This report outlines the talks presented at the winter school on Hash3: Proofs, Analysis, and Implementation, ECRYPT II Event on Hash Functions. In general, speakers may not write everything what they talk on the slides. So, this report also outlines such findings following the understanding of t...

  5. Meet-in-the-Middle Preimage Attacks on Hash Modes of Generalized Feistel and Misty Schemes with SP Round Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Dukjae; Hong, Deukjo; Kwon, Daesung; Hong, Seokhie

    We assume that the domain extender is the Merkle-Damgård (MD) scheme and he message is padded by a ‘1’, and minimum number of ‘0’s, followed by a fixed size length information so that the length of padded message is multiple of block length. Under this assumption, we analyze securities of the hash mode when the compression function follows the Davies-Meyer (DM) scheme and the underlying block cipher is one of the plain Feistel or Misty scheme or the generalized Feistel or Misty schemes with Substitution-Permutation (SP) round function. We do this work based on Meet-in-the-Middle (MitM) preimage attack techniques, and develop several useful initial structures.

  6. Fast and powerful hashing using tabulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    Randomized algorithms are often enjoyed for their simplicity, but the hash functions employed to yield the desired probabilistic guarantees are often too complicated to be practical. Here, we survey recent results on how simple hashing schemes based on tabulation provide unexpectedly strong......, linear probing and Cuckoo hashing. Next, we consider twisted tabulation where one input character is "twisted" in a simple way. The resulting hash function has powerful distributional properties: Chernoffstyle tail bounds and a very small bias for minwise hashing. This is also yields an extremely fast...... pseudorandom number generator that is provably good for many classic randomized algorithms and data-structures. Finally, we consider double tabulation where we compose two simple tabulation functions, applying one to the output of the other, and show that this yields very high independence in the classic...

  7. Side channel analysis of some hash based MACs: A response to SHA-3 requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauravaram, Praveen; Okeya, Katsuyuki

    2008-01-01

    The forthcoming NIST's Advanced Hash Standard (AHS) competition to select SHA-3 hash function requires that each candidate hash function submission must have at least one construction to support FIPS 198 HMAC application. As part of its evaluation, NIST is aiming to select either a candidate hash...

  8. Security Analysis of Randomize-Hash-then-Sign Digital Signatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauravaram, Praveen; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2012-01-01

    At CRYPTO 2006, Halevi and Krawczyk proposed two randomized hash function modes and analyzed the security of digital signature algorithms based on these constructions. They showed that the security of signature schemes based on the two randomized hash function modes relies on properties similar...... functions, such as for the Davies-Meyer construction used in the popular hash functions such as MD5 designed by Rivest and the SHA family of hash functions designed by the National Security Agency (NSA), USA and published by NIST in the Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS). We show an online...... 800-106. We discuss some important applications of our attacks and discuss their applicability on signature schemes based on hash functions with ‘built-in’ randomization. Finally, we compare our attacks on randomize-hash-then-sign schemes with the generic forgery attacks on the standard hash...

  9. 76 FR 11433 - Federal Transition To Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA)-256

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... ADMINISTRATION [FAR-N-2011-01; Docket No. 2011-0083; Sequence 1] Federal Transition To Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA... acquisition community to transition to Secure Hash Algorithm SHA-256. SHA-256 is a cryptographic hash function... persons attending. Please cite ``Federal Transition to Secure Hash Algorithm SHA-256'' in all...

  10. Multiview alignment hashing for efficient image search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Yu, Mengyang; Shao, Ling

    2015-03-01

    Hashing is a popular and efficient method for nearest neighbor search in large-scale data spaces by embedding high-dimensional feature descriptors into a similarity preserving Hamming space with a low dimension. For most hashing methods, the performance of retrieval heavily depends on the choice of the high-dimensional feature descriptor. Furthermore, a single type of feature cannot be descriptive enough for different images when it is used for hashing. Thus, how to combine multiple representations for learning effective hashing functions is an imminent task. In this paper, we present a novel unsupervised multiview alignment hashing approach based on regularized kernel nonnegative matrix factorization, which can find a compact representation uncovering the hidden semantics and simultaneously respecting the joint probability distribution of data. In particular, we aim to seek a matrix factorization to effectively fuse the multiple information sources meanwhile discarding the feature redundancy. Since the raised problem is regarded as nonconvex and discrete, our objective function is then optimized via an alternate way with relaxation and converges to a locally optimal solution. After finding the low-dimensional representation, the hashing functions are finally obtained through multivariable logistic regression. The proposed method is systematically evaluated on three data sets: 1) Caltech-256; 2) CIFAR-10; and 3) CIFAR-20, and the results show that our method significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art multiview hashing techniques.

  11. Authenticated hash tables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triandopoulos, Nikolaos; Papamanthou, Charalampos; Tamassia, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Hash tables are fundamental data structures that optimally answer membership queries. Suppose a client stores n elements in a hash table that is outsourced at a remote server so that the client can save space or achieve load balancing. Authenticating the hash table functionality, i.e., verifying...... to a scheme that achieves different trade-offs---namely, constant update time and O(nε/logκε n) query time for fixed ε > 0 and κ > 0. An experimental evaluation of our solution shows very good scalability....

  12. Online Hashing for Scalable Remote Sensing Image Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, hashing-based large-scale remote sensing (RS image retrieval has attracted much attention. Many new hashing algorithms have been developed and successfully applied to fast RS image retrieval tasks. However, there exists an important problem rarely addressed in the research literature of RS image hashing. The RS images are practically produced in a streaming manner in many real-world applications, which means the data distribution keeps changing over time. Most existing RS image hashing methods are batch-based models whose hash functions are learned once for all and kept fixed all the time. Therefore, the pre-trained hash functions might not fit the ever-growing new RS images. Moreover, the batch-based models have to load all the training images into memory for model learning, which consumes many computing and memory resources. To address the above deficiencies, we propose a new online hashing method, which learns and adapts its hashing functions with respect to the newly incoming RS images in terms of a novel online partial random learning scheme. Our hash model is updated in a sequential mode such that the representative power of the learned binary codes for RS images are improved accordingly. Moreover, benefiting from the online learning strategy, our proposed hashing approach is quite suitable for scalable real-world remote sensing image retrieval. Extensive experiments on two large-scale RS image databases under online setting demonstrated the efficacy and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  13. Architecture-Conscious Hashing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Zukowski (Marcin); S. Héman (Sándor); P.A. Boncz (Peter)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractHashing is one of the fundamental techniques used to implement query processing operators such as grouping, aggregation and join. This paper studies the interaction between modern computer architecture and hash-based query processing techniques. First, we focus on extracting maximum

  14. Efficient hash tables for network applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Thomas; Waldvogel, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Hashing has yet to be widely accepted as a component of hard real-time systems and hardware implementations, due to still existing prejudices concerning the unpredictability of space and time requirements resulting from collisions. While in theory perfect hashing can provide optimal mapping, in practice, finding a perfect hash function is too expensive, especially in the context of high-speed applications. The introduction of hashing with multiple choices, d-left hashing and probabilistic table summaries, has caused a shift towards deterministic DRAM access. However, high amounts of rare and expensive high-speed SRAM need to be traded off for predictability, which is infeasible for many applications. In this paper we show that previous suggestions suffer from the false precondition of full generality. Our approach exploits four individual degrees of freedom available in many practical applications, especially hardware and high-speed lookups. This reduces the requirement of on-chip memory up to an order of magnitude and guarantees constant lookup and update time at the cost of only minute amounts of additional hardware. Our design makes efficient hash table implementations cheaper, more predictable, and more practical.

  15. Practical Pseudo-collisions for Hash Functions ARIRANG-224/384

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Jian; Matusiewicz, Krystian; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the security of the SHA-3 candidate ARIRANG. We show that bitwise complementation of whole registers turns out to be very useful for constructing high-probability differential characteristics in the function. We use this approach to find near-collisions with Hamming weigh...

  16. Linear Subspace Ranking Hashing for Cross-Modal Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Qi, Guo-Jun; Ye, Jun; Hua, Kien A

    2017-09-01

    Hashing has attracted a great deal of research in recent years due to its effectiveness for the retrieval and indexing of large-scale high-dimensional multimedia data. In this paper, we propose a novel ranking-based hashing framework that maps data from different modalities into a common Hamming space where the cross-modal similarity can be measured using Hamming distance. Unlike existing cross-modal hashing algorithms where the learned hash functions are binary space partitioning functions, such as the sign and threshold function, the proposed hashing scheme takes advantage of a new class of hash functions closely related to rank correlation measures which are known to be scale-invariant, numerically stable, and highly nonlinear. Specifically, we jointly learn two groups of linear subspaces, one for each modality, so that features' ranking orders in different linear subspaces maximally preserve the cross-modal similarities. We show that the ranking-based hash function has a natural probabilistic approximation which transforms the original highly discontinuous optimization problem into one that can be efficiently solved using simple gradient descent algorithms. The proposed hashing framework is also flexible in the sense that the optimization procedures are not tied up to any specific form of loss function, which is typical for existing cross-modal hashing methods, but rather we can flexibly accommodate different loss functions with minimal changes to the learning steps. We demonstrate through extensive experiments on four widely-used real-world multimodal datasets that the proposed cross-modal hashing method can achieve competitive performance against several state-of-the-arts with only moderate training and testing time.

  17. Neighborhood Discriminant Hashing for Large-Scale Image Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinhui; Li, Zechao; Wang, Meng; Zhao, Ruizhen

    2015-09-01

    With the proliferation of large-scale community-contributed images, hashing-based approximate nearest neighbor search in huge databases has aroused considerable interest from the fields of computer vision and multimedia in recent years because of its computational and memory efficiency. In this paper, we propose a novel hashing method named neighborhood discriminant hashing (NDH) (for short) to implement approximate similarity search. Different from the previous work, we propose to learn a discriminant hashing function by exploiting local discriminative information, i.e., the labels of a sample can be inherited from the neighbor samples it selects. The hashing function is expected to be orthogonal to avoid redundancy in the learned hashing bits as much as possible, while an information theoretic regularization is jointly exploited using maximum entropy principle. As a consequence, the learned hashing function is compact and nonredundant among bits, while each bit is highly informative. Extensive experiments are carried out on four publicly available data sets and the comparison results demonstrate the outperforming performance of the proposed NDH method over state-of-the-art hashing techniques.

  18. Hashing for Statistics over K-Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Soren; Knudsen, Mathias Baek Tejs; Rotenberg, Eva

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyze a hash function for k-partitioning a set into bins, obtaining strong concentration bounds for standard algorithms combining statistics from each bin. This generic method was originally introduced by Flajolet and Martin [FOCS'83] in order to save a factor Ω(k) of time per...... concentration bounds on the most popular applications of k-partitioning similar to those we would get using a truly random hash function. The analysis is very involved and implies several new results of independent interest for both simple and double tabulation, e.g. A simple and efficient construction...

  19. Cryptanalysis of the LAKE Hash Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biryukov, Alex; Gauravaram, Praveen; Guo, Jian

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the security of the cryptographic hash function LAKE-256 proposed at FSE 2008 by Aumasson, Meier and Phan. By exploiting non-injectivity of some of the building primitives of LAKE, we show three different collision and near-collision attacks on the compression function. The first attac...

  20. Feature hashing for fast image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lingyu; Fu, Jiarun; Zhang, Hongxin; Yuan, Lu; Xu, Hui

    2018-03-01

    Currently, researches on content based image retrieval mainly focus on robust feature extraction. However, due to the exponential growth of online images, it is necessary to consider searching among large scale images, which is very timeconsuming and unscalable. Hence, we need to pay much attention to the efficiency of image retrieval. In this paper, we propose a feature hashing method for image retrieval which not only generates compact fingerprint for image representation, but also prevents huge semantic loss during the process of hashing. To generate the fingerprint, an objective function of semantic loss is constructed and minimized, which combine the influence of both the neighborhood structure of feature data and mapping error. Since the machine learning based hashing effectively preserves neighborhood structure of data, it yields visual words with strong discriminability. Furthermore, the generated binary codes leads image representation building to be of low-complexity, making it efficient and scalable to large scale databases. Experimental results show good performance of our approach.

  1. Quantum hashing is maximally secure against classical leakage

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Cupjin; Shi, Yaoyun

    2017-01-01

    Cryptographic hash functions are fundamental primitives widely used in practice. For such a function $f:\\{0, 1\\}^n\\to\\{0, 1\\}^m$, it is nearly impossible for an adversary to produce the hash $f(x)$ without knowing the secret message $x\\in\\{0, 1\\}^n$. Unfortunately, all hash functions are vulnerable under the side-channel attack, which is a grave concern for information security in practice. This is because typically $m\\ll n$ and an adversary needs only $m$ bits of information to pass the veri...

  2. Hierarchical Recurrent Neural Hashing for Image Retrieval With Hierarchical Convolutional Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Yaxiong; Li, Xuelong

    Hashing has been an important and effective technology in image retrieval due to its computational efficiency and fast search speed. The traditional hashing methods usually learn hash functions to obtain binary codes by exploiting hand-crafted features, which cannot optimally represent the information of the sample. Recently, deep learning methods can achieve better performance, since deep learning architectures can learn more effective image representation features. However, these methods only use semantic features to generate hash codes by shallow projection but ignore texture details. In this paper, we proposed a novel hashing method, namely hierarchical recurrent neural hashing (HRNH), to exploit hierarchical recurrent neural network to generate effective hash codes. There are three contributions of this paper. First, a deep hashing method is proposed to extensively exploit both spatial details and semantic information, in which, we leverage hierarchical convolutional features to construct image pyramid representation. Second, our proposed deep network can exploit directly convolutional feature maps as input to preserve the spatial structure of convolutional feature maps. Finally, we propose a new loss function that considers the quantization error of binarizing the continuous embeddings into the discrete binary codes, and simultaneously maintains the semantic similarity and balanceable property of hash codes. Experimental results on four widely used data sets demonstrate that the proposed HRNH can achieve superior performance over other state-of-the-art hashing methods.Hashing has been an important and effective technology in image retrieval due to its computational efficiency and fast search speed. The traditional hashing methods usually learn hash functions to obtain binary codes by exploiting hand-crafted features, which cannot optimally represent the information of the sample. Recently, deep learning methods can achieve better performance, since deep

  3. FSH: fast spaced seed hashing exploiting adjacent hashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girotto, Samuele; Comin, Matteo; Pizzi, Cinzia

    2018-01-01

    Patterns with wildcards in specified positions, namely spaced seeds , are increasingly used instead of k -mers in many bioinformatics applications that require indexing, querying and rapid similarity search, as they can provide better sensitivity. Many of these applications require to compute the hashing of each position in the input sequences with respect to the given spaced seed, or to multiple spaced seeds. While the hashing of k -mers can be rapidly computed by exploiting the large overlap between consecutive k -mers, spaced seeds hashing is usually computed from scratch for each position in the input sequence, thus resulting in slower processing. The method proposed in this paper, fast spaced-seed hashing (FSH), exploits the similarity of the hash values of spaced seeds computed at adjacent positions in the input sequence. In our experiments we compute the hash for each positions of metagenomics reads from several datasets, with respect to different spaced seeds. We also propose a generalized version of the algorithm for the simultaneous computation of multiple spaced seeds hashing. In the experiments, our algorithm can compute the hashing values of spaced seeds with a speedup, with respect to the traditional approach, between 1.6[Formula: see text] to 5.3[Formula: see text], depending on the structure of the spaced seed. Spaced seed hashing is a routine task for several bioinformatics application. FSH allows to perform this task efficiently and raise the question of whether other hashing can be exploited to further improve the speed up. This has the potential of major impact in the field, making spaced seed applications not only accurate, but also faster and more efficient. The software FSH is freely available for academic use at: https://bitbucket.org/samu661/fsh/overview.

  4. Implementation of 4-way Superscalar Hash MIPS Processor Using FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahib Omran, Safaa; Fouad Jumma, Laith

    2018-05-01

    Due to the quick advancements in the personal communications systems and wireless communications, giving data security has turned into a more essential subject. This security idea turns into a more confounded subject when next-generation system requirements and constant calculation speed are considered in real-time. Hash functions are among the most essential cryptographic primitives and utilized as a part of the many fields of signature authentication and communication integrity. These functions are utilized to acquire a settled size unique fingerprint or hash value of an arbitrary length of message. In this paper, Secure Hash Algorithms (SHA) of types SHA-1, SHA-2 (SHA-224, SHA-256) and SHA-3 (BLAKE) are implemented on Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) in a processor structure. The design is described and implemented using a hardware description language, namely VHSIC “Very High Speed Integrated Circuit” Hardware Description Language (VHDL). Since the logical operation of the hash types of (SHA-1, SHA-224, SHA-256 and SHA-3) are 32-bits, so a Superscalar Hash Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipelines (MIPS) processor are designed with only few instructions that were required in invoking the desired Hash algorithms, when the four types of hash algorithms executed sequentially using the designed processor, the total time required equal to approximately 342 us, with a throughput of 4.8 Mbps while the required to execute the same four hash algorithms using the designed four-way superscalar is reduced to 237 us with improved the throughput to 5.1 Mbps.

  5. Ranking Based Locality Sensitive Hashing Enabled Cancelable Biometrics: Index-of-Max Hashing

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Zhe; Lai, Yen-Lung; Hwang, Jung-Yeon; Kim, Soohyung; Teoh, Andrew Beng Jin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a ranking based locality sensitive hashing inspired two-factor cancelable biometrics, dubbed "Index-of-Max" (IoM) hashing for biometric template protection. With externally generated random parameters, IoM hashing transforms a real-valued biometric feature vector into discrete index (max ranked) hashed code. We demonstrate two realizations from IoM hashing notion, namely Gaussian Random Projection based and Uniformly Random Permutation based hashing schemes. The disc...

  6. Side channel analysis of some hash based MACs:A response to SHA-3 requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The forthcoming NIST's Advanced Hash Standard (AHS) competition to select SHA-3 hash function requires that each candidate hash function submission must have at least one construction to support FIPS 198 HMAC application. As part of its evaluation, NIST is aiming to select either a candidate hash...... function which is more resistant to known side channel attacks (SCA) when plugged into HMAC, or that has an alternative MAC mode which is more resistant to known SCA than the other submitted alternatives. In response to this, we perform differential power analysis (DPA) on the possible smart card...... implementations of some of the recently proposed MAC alternatives to NMAC (a fully analyzed variant of HMAC) and HMAC algorithms and NMAC/HMAC versions of some recently proposed hash and compression function modes. We show that the recently proposed BNMAC and KMDP MAC schemes are even weaker than NMAC...

  7. An Ad Hoc Adaptive Hashing Technique forNon-Uniformly Distributed IP Address Lookup in Computer Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Martinez

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Hashing algorithms long have been widely adopted to design a fast address look-up process which involves a search through a large database to find a record associated with a given key. Hashing algorithms involve transforming a key inside each target data to a hash value hoping that the hashing would render the database a uniform distribution with respect to this new hash value. The close the final distribution is to uniform, the less search time would be required when a query is made. When the database is already key-wise uniformly distributed, any regular hashing algorithm, such as bit-extraction, bit-group XOR, etc., would easily lead to a statistically perfect uniform distribution after the hashing. On the other hand, if records in the database are instead not uniformly distributed as in almost all known practical applications, then even different regular hash functions would lead to very different performance. When the target database has a key with a highly skewed distributed value, performance delivered by regular hashing algorithms usually becomes far from desirable. This paper aims at designing a hashing algorithm to achieve the highest probability in leading to a uniformly distributed hash result from a non-uniformly distributed database. An analytical pre-process on the original database is first performed to extract critical information that would significantly benefit the design of a better hashing algorithm. This process includes sorting on the bits of the key to prioritize the use of them in the XOR hashing sequence, or in simple bit extraction, or even a combination of both. Such an ad hoc hash design is critical to adapting to all real-time situations when there exists a changing (and/or expanding database with an irregular non-uniform distribution. Significant improvement from simulation results is obtained in randomly generated data as well as real data.

  8. Forensic hash for multimedia information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenjun; Varna, Avinash L.; Wu, Min

    2010-01-01

    Digital multimedia such as images and videos are prevalent on today's internet and cause significant social impact, which can be evidenced by the proliferation of social networking sites with user generated contents. Due to the ease of generating and modifying images and videos, it is critical to establish trustworthiness for online multimedia information. In this paper, we propose novel approaches to perform multimedia forensics using compact side information to reconstruct the processing history of a document. We refer to this as FASHION, standing for Forensic hASH for informatION assurance. Based on the Radon transform and scale space theory, the proposed forensic hash is compact and can effectively estimate the parameters of geometric transforms and detect local tampering that an image may have undergone. Forensic hash is designed to answer a broader range of questions regarding the processing history of multimedia data than the simple binary decision from traditional robust image hashing, and also offers more efficient and accurate forensic analysis than multimedia forensic techniques that do not use any side information.

  9. Robust visual hashing via ICA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournel, Thierry; Coltuc, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    Designed to maximize information transmission in the presence of noise, independent component analysis (ICA) could appear in certain circumstances as a statistics-based tool for robust visual hashing. Several ICA-based scenarios can attempt to reach this goal. A first one is here considered.

  10. SPONGENT: The Design Space of Lightweight Cryptographic Hashing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanov, Andrey; Knezevic, Miroslav; Leander, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    construction instantiated with present-type permutations. The resulting family of hash functions is called spongent. We propose 13 spongent variants--or different levels of collision and (second) preimage resistance as well as for various implementation constraints. For each of them, we provide several ASIC...

  11. Locality-sensitive Hashing without False Negatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    We consider a new construction of locality-sensitive hash functions for Hamming space that is covering in the sense that is it guaranteed to produce a collision for every pair of vectors within a given radius r. The construction is efficient in the sense that the expected number of hash collisions......(n)/k, where n is the number of points in the data set and k ∊ N, and differs from it by at most a factor ln(4) in the exponent for general values of cr. As a consequence, LSH-based similarity search in Hamming space can avoid the problem of false negatives at little or no cost in efficiency. Read More: http...... between vectors at distance cr, for a given c > 1, comes close to that of the best possible data independent LSH without the covering guarantee, namely, the seminal LSH construction of Indyk and Motwani (FOCS ′98). The efficiency of the new construction essentially matches their bound if cr = log...

  12. The LabelHash algorithm for substructure matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant Drew H

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing number of proteins with known structure but unknown function. Determining their function would have a significant impact on understanding diseases and designing new therapeutics. However, experimental protein function determination is expensive and very time-consuming. Computational methods can facilitate function determination by identifying proteins that have high structural and chemical similarity. Results We present LabelHash, a novel algorithm for matching substructural motifs to large collections of protein structures. The algorithm consists of two phases. In the first phase the proteins are preprocessed in a fashion that allows for instant lookup of partial matches to any motif. In the second phase, partial matches for a given motif are expanded to complete matches. The general applicability of the algorithm is demonstrated with three different case studies. First, we show that we can accurately identify members of the enolase superfamily with a single motif. Next, we demonstrate how LabelHash can complement SOIPPA, an algorithm for motif identification and pairwise substructure alignment. Finally, a large collection of Catalytic Site Atlas motifs is used to benchmark the performance of the algorithm. LabelHash runs very efficiently in parallel; matching a motif against all proteins in the 95% sequence identity filtered non-redundant Protein Data Bank typically takes no more than a few minutes. The LabelHash algorithm is available through a web server and as a suite of standalone programs at http://labelhash.kavrakilab.org. The output of the LabelHash algorithm can be further analyzed with Chimera through a plugin that we developed for this purpose. Conclusions LabelHash is an efficient, versatile algorithm for large-scale substructure matching. When LabelHash is running in parallel, motifs can typically be matched against the entire PDB on the order of minutes. The algorithm is able to identify

  13. Robust hashing for 3D models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchtold, Waldemar; Schäfer, Marcel; Rettig, Michael; Steinebach, Martin

    2014-02-01

    3D models and applications are of utmost interest in both science and industry. With the increment of their usage, their number and thereby the challenge to correctly identify them increases. Content identification is commonly done by cryptographic hashes. However, they fail as a solution in application scenarios such as computer aided design (CAD), scientific visualization or video games, because even the smallest alteration of the 3D model, e.g. conversion or compression operations, massively changes the cryptographic hash as well. Therefore, this work presents a robust hashing algorithm for 3D mesh data. The algorithm applies several different bit extraction methods. They are built to resist desired alterations of the model as well as malicious attacks intending to prevent correct allocation. The different bit extraction methods are tested against each other and, as far as possible, the hashing algorithm is compared to the state of the art. The parameters tested are robustness, security and runtime performance as well as False Acceptance Rate (FAR) and False Rejection Rate (FRR), also the probability calculation of hash collision is included. The introduced hashing algorithm is kept adaptive e.g. in hash length, to serve as a proper tool for all applications in practice.

  14. Speaker Linking and Applications using Non-Parametric Hashing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-08

    nonparametric estimate of a multivariate density function,” The Annals of Math- ematical Statistics , vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 1049–1051, 1965. [9] E. A. Patrick...Speaker Linking and Applications using Non-Parametric Hashing Methods† Douglas Sturim and William M. Campbell MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, MA...with many approaches [1, 2]. For this paper, we focus on using i-vectors [2], but the methods apply to any embedding. For the task of speaker QBE and

  15. HashDist: Reproducible, Relocatable, Customizable, Cross-Platform Software Stacks for Open Hydrological Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadia, A. J.; Kees, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    Developing scientific software is a continuous balance between not reinventing the wheel and getting fragile codes to interoperate with one another. Binary software distributions such as Anaconda provide a robust starting point for many scientific software packages, but this solution alone is insufficient for many scientific software developers. HashDist provides a critical component of the development workflow, enabling highly customizable, source-driven, and reproducible builds for scientific software stacks, available from both the IPython Notebook and the command line. To address these issues, the Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory at the US Army Engineer Research and Development Center has funded the development of HashDist in collaboration with Simula Research Laboratories and the University of Texas at Austin. HashDist is motivated by a functional approach to package build management, and features intelligent caching of sources and builds, parametrized build specifications, and the ability to interoperate with system compilers and packages. HashDist enables the easy specification of "software stacks", which allow both the novice user to install a default environment and the advanced user to configure every aspect of their build in a modular fashion. As an advanced feature, HashDist builds can be made relocatable, allowing the easy redistribution of binaries on all three major operating systems as well as cloud, and supercomputing platforms. As a final benefit, all HashDist builds are reproducible, with a build hash specifying exactly how each component of the software stack was installed. This talk discusses the role of HashDist in the hydrological sciences, including its use by the Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory in the development and deployment of the Proteus Toolkit as well as the Rapid Operational Access and Maneuver Support project. We demonstrate HashDist in action, and show how it can effectively support development, deployment, teaching, and

  16. Cracking PwdHash: A Bruteforce Attack on Client-side Password Hashing

    OpenAIRE

    Llewellyn-Jones, David; Rymer, Graham Matthew

    2017-01-01

    PwdHash is a widely-used tool for client-side password hashing. Originally released as a browser extension, it replaces the user’s password with a hash that combines both the password and the website’s domain. As a result, while the user only remembers a single secret, the passwords received are all unique for each site. We demonstrate how the hashcat password recovery tool can be extended to allow passwords generated using PwdHash to be identified and recovered, revealing the user’s master p...

  17. Five Performance Enhancements for Hybrid Hash Join

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graefe, Goetz

    1992-01-01

    .... We discuss five performance enhancements for hybrid hash join algorithms, namely data compression, large cluster sizes and multi-level recursion, role reversal of build and probe inputs, histogram...

  18. Compact binary hashing for music retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jin S.

    2014-03-01

    With the huge volume of music clips available for protection, browsing, and indexing, there is an increased attention to retrieve the information contents of the music archives. Music-similarity computation is an essential building block for browsing, retrieval, and indexing of digital music archives. In practice, as the number of songs available for searching and indexing is increased, so the storage cost in retrieval systems is becoming a serious problem. This paper deals with the storage problem by extending the supervector concept with the binary hashing. We utilize the similarity-preserving binary embedding in generating a hash code from the supervector of each music clip. Especially we compare the performance of the various binary hashing methods for music retrieval tasks on the widely-used genre dataset and the in-house singer dataset. Through the evaluation, we find an effective way of generating hash codes for music similarity estimation which improves the retrieval performance.

  19. Efficient tabling of structured data with enhanced hash-consing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Neng-Fa; Have, Christian Theil

    2012-01-01

    techniques, called input sharing and hash code memoization, for reducing the time complexity by avoiding computing hash codes for certain terms. The improved system is able to eliminate the extra linear factor in the old system for processing sequences, thus significantly enhancing the scalability...... uses hash tables, but also systems that use tries such as XSB and YAP. In this paper, we apply hash-consing to tabling structured data in B-Prolog. While hash-consing can reduce the space consumption when sharing is effective, it does not change the time complexity. We enhance hash-consing with two...

  20. Building Modern GPU Brute-Force Collision Resistible Hash Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Nadeinsky

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers methods of fixing storing passwords in hashed form security vulnerability. Suggested hashing algorithm is based on the specifics of architecture of modern graphics processors.

  1. Scalable Packet Classification with Hash Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pi-Chung

    In the last decade, the technique of packet classification has been widely deployed in various network devices, including routers, firewalls and network intrusion detection systems. In this work, we improve the performance of packet classification by using multiple hash tables. The existing hash-based algorithms have superior scalability with respect to the required space; however, their search performance may not be comparable to other algorithms. To improve the search performance, we propose a tuple reordering algorithm to minimize the number of accessed hash tables with the aid of bitmaps. We also use pre-computation to ensure the accuracy of our search procedure. Performance evaluation based on both real and synthetic filter databases shows that our scheme is effective and scalable and the pre-computation cost is moderate.

  2. Quicksort, largest bucket, and min-wise hashing with limited independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mathias Bæk Tejs; Stöckel, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Randomized algorithms and data structures are often analyzed under the assumption of access to a perfect source of randomness. The most fundamental metric used to measure how “random” a hash function or a random number generator is, is its independence: a sequence of random variables is said...... to be k-independent if every variable is uniform and every size k subset is independent. In this paper we consider three classic algorithms under limited independence. Besides the theoretical interest in removing the unrealistic assumption of full independence, the work is motivated by lower independence...... being more practical. We provide new bounds for randomized quicksort, min-wise hashing and largest bucket size under limited independence. Our results can be summarized as follows. Randomized Quicksort. When pivot elements are computed using a 5-independent hash function, Karloff and Raghavan, J.ACM’93...

  3. Discriminative Projection Selection Based Face Image Hashing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabat, Cagatay; Erdogan, Hakan

    Face image hashing is an emerging method used in biometric verification systems. In this paper, we propose a novel face image hashing method based on a new technique called discriminative projection selection. We apply the Fisher criterion for selecting the rows of a random projection matrix in a user-dependent fashion. Moreover, another contribution of this paper is to employ a bimodal Gaussian mixture model at the quantization step. Our simulation results on three different databases demonstrate that the proposed method has superior performance in comparison to previously proposed random projection based methods.

  4. Dakota - hashing from a combination of modular arithmetic and symmetric cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Thomsen, Søren Steffen

    In this paper a cryptographic hash function is proposed, where collision resistance is based upon an assumption that involves squaring modulo an RSA modulus in combination with a one-way function that does not compress its input, and may therefore be constructed from standard techniques and assum...

  5. Dakota – Hashing from a Combination of Modular Arithmetic and Symmetric Cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Thomsen, Søren Steffen

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a cryptographic hash function is proposed, where collision resistance is based upon an assumption that involves squaring modulo an RSA modulus in combination with a one-way function that does not compress its input, and may therefore be constructed from standard techniques and assum...

  6. ANALISA FUNGSI HASH DALAM ENKRIPSI IDEA UNTUK KEAMANAN RECORD INFORMASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramen Antonov Purba

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Issues of security and confidentiality of data is very important to organization or individual. If the data in a network of computers connected with a public network such as the Internet. Of course a very important data is viewed or hijacked by unauthorized persons. Because if this happens we will probably corrupted data can be lost even that will cause huge material losses. This research discusses the security system of sending messages/data using the encryption aims to maintain access of security a message from the people who are not authorized/ eligible. Because of this delivery system is very extensive security with the scope then this section is limited only parsing the IDEA Algorithm with hash functions, which include encryption, decryption. By combining the encryption IDEA methods (International Data Encryption Algorithm to encrypt the contents of the messages/data with the hash function to detect changes the content of messages/data is expected security level to be better. Results from this study a software that can perform encryption and decryption of messages/data, generate the security key based on the message/data is encrypted.

  7. Hashing in computer science fifty years of slicing and dicing

    CERN Document Server

    Konheim, Alan G

    2009-01-01

    Written by one of the developers of the technology, Hashing is both a historical document on the development of hashing and an analysis of the applications of hashing in a society increasingly concerned with security. The material in this book is based on courses taught by the author, and key points are reinforced in sample problems and an accompanying instructor s manual. Graduate students and researchers in mathematics, cryptography, and security will benefit from this overview of hashing and the complicated mathematics that it requires

  8. Hash functions and information theoretic security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagheri, Nasoor; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Naderi, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Information theoretic security is an important security notion in cryptography as it provides a true lower bound for attack complexities. However, in practice attacks often have a higher cost than the information theoretic bound. In this paper we study the relationship between information theoretic...

  9. Local Deep Hashing Matching of Aerial Images Based on Relative Distance and Absolute Distance Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suting Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aerial images have features of high resolution, complex background, and usually require large amounts of calculation, however, most algorithms used in matching of aerial images adopt the shallow hand-crafted features expressed as floating-point descriptors (e.g., SIFT (Scale-invariant Feature Transform, SURF (Speeded Up Robust Features, which may suffer from poor matching speed and are not well represented in the literature. Here, we propose a novel Local Deep Hashing Matching (LDHM method for matching of aerial images with large size and with lower complexity or fast matching speed. The basic idea of the proposed algorithm is to utilize the deep network model in the local area of the aerial images, and study the local features, as well as the hash function of the images. Firstly, according to the course overlap rate of aerial images, the algorithm extracts the local areas for matching to avoid the processing of redundant information. Secondly, a triplet network structure is proposed to mine the deep features of the patches of the local image, and the learned features are imported to the hash layer, thus obtaining the representation of a binary hash code. Thirdly, the constraints of the positive samples to the absolute distance are added on the basis of the triplet loss, a new objective function is constructed to optimize the parameters of the network and enhance the discriminating capabilities of image patch features. Finally, the obtained deep hash code of each image patch is used for the similarity comparison of the image patches in the Hamming space to complete the matching of aerial images. The proposed LDHM algorithm evaluates the UltraCam-D dataset and a set of actual aerial images, simulation result demonstrates that it may significantly outperform the state-of-the-art algorithm in terms of the efficiency and performance.

  10. A Novel Perceptual Hash Algorithm for Multispectral Image Authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaimeng Ding

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The perceptual hash algorithm is a technique to authenticate the integrity of images. While a few scholars have worked on mono-spectral image perceptual hashing, there is limited research on multispectral image perceptual hashing. In this paper, we propose a perceptual hash algorithm for the content authentication of a multispectral remote sensing image based on the synthetic characteristics of each band: firstly, the multispectral remote sensing image is preprocessed with band clustering and grid partition; secondly, the edge feature of the band subsets is extracted by band fusion-based edge feature extraction; thirdly, the perceptual feature of the same region of the band subsets is compressed and normalized to generate the perceptual hash value. The authentication procedure is achieved via the normalized Hamming distance between the perceptual hash value of the recomputed perceptual hash value and the original hash value. The experiments indicated that our proposed algorithm is robust compared to content-preserved operations and it efficiently authenticates the integrity of multispectral remote sensing images.

  11. Distributed hash table theory, platforms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Hao; Xie, Haiyong; Yu, Nenghai

    2013-01-01

    This SpringerBrief summarizes the development of Distributed Hash Table in both academic and industrial fields. It covers the main theory, platforms and applications of this key part in distributed systems and applications, especially in large-scale distributed environments. The authors teach the principles of several popular DHT platforms that can solve practical problems such as load balance, multiple replicas, consistency and latency. They also propose DHT-based applications including multicast, anycast, distributed file systems, search, storage, content delivery network, file sharing and c

  12. Rotation invariant deep binary hashing for fast image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lai; Liu, Jianming; Jiang, Aiwen

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we study how to compactly represent image's characteristics for fast image retrieval. We propose supervised rotation invariant compact discriminative binary descriptors through combining convolutional neural network with hashing. In the proposed network, binary codes are learned by employing a hidden layer for representing latent concepts that dominate on class labels. A loss function is proposed to minimize the difference between binary descriptors that describe reference image and the rotated one. Compared with some other supervised methods, the proposed network doesn't have to require pair-wised inputs for binary code learning. Experimental results show that our method is effective and achieves state-of-the-art results on the CIFAR-10 and MNIST datasets.

  13. Deep Constrained Siamese Hash Coding Network and Load-Balanced Locality-Sensitive Hashing for Near Duplicate Image Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Fan, Yabo; Xing, Junliang; Sun, Liang; Cai, Zhaoquan; Maybank, Stephen

    2018-09-01

    We construct a new efficient near duplicate image detection method using a hierarchical hash code learning neural network and load-balanced locality-sensitive hashing (LSH) indexing. We propose a deep constrained siamese hash coding neural network combined with deep feature learning. Our neural network is able to extract effective features for near duplicate image detection. The extracted features are used to construct a LSH-based index. We propose a load-balanced LSH method to produce load-balanced buckets in the hashing process. The load-balanced LSH significantly reduces the query time. Based on the proposed load-balanced LSH, we design an effective and feasible algorithm for near duplicate image detection. Extensive experiments on three benchmark data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of our deep siamese hash encoding network and load-balanced LSH.

  14. Data Collision Prevention with Overflow Hashing Technique in Closed Hash Searching Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Robbi; Nurjamiyah; Rafika Dewi, Arie

    2017-12-01

    Hash search is a method that can be used for various search processes such as search engines, sorting, machine learning, neural network and so on, in the search process the possibility of collision data can happen and to prevent the occurrence of collision can be done in several ways one of them is to use Overflow technique, the use of this technique perform with varying length of data and this technique can prevent the occurrence of data collisions.

  15. Handwriting: Feature Correlation Analysis for Biometric Hashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielhauer, Claus; Steinmetz, Ralf

    2004-12-01

    In the application domain of electronic commerce, biometric authentication can provide one possible solution for the key management problem. Besides server-based approaches, methods of deriving digital keys directly from biometric measures appear to be advantageous. In this paper, we analyze one of our recently published specific algorithms of this category based on behavioral biometrics of handwriting, the biometric hash. Our interest is to investigate to which degree each of the underlying feature parameters contributes to the overall intrapersonal stability and interpersonal value space. We will briefly discuss related work in feature evaluation and introduce a new methodology based on three components: the intrapersonal scatter (deviation), the interpersonal entropy, and the correlation between both measures. Evaluation of the technique is presented based on two data sets of different size. The method presented will allow determination of effects of parameterization of the biometric system, estimation of value space boundaries, and comparison with other feature selection approaches.

  16. Handwriting: Feature Correlation Analysis for Biometric Hashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Steinmetz

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In the application domain of electronic commerce, biometric authentication can provide one possible solution for the key management problem. Besides server-based approaches, methods of deriving digital keys directly from biometric measures appear to be advantageous. In this paper, we analyze one of our recently published specific algorithms of this category based on behavioral biometrics of handwriting, the biometric hash. Our interest is to investigate to which degree each of the underlying feature parameters contributes to the overall intrapersonal stability and interpersonal value space. We will briefly discuss related work in feature evaluation and introduce a new methodology based on three components: the intrapersonal scatter (deviation, the interpersonal entropy, and the correlation between both measures. Evaluation of the technique is presented based on two data sets of different size. The method presented will allow determination of effects of parameterization of the biometric system, estimation of value space boundaries, and comparison with other feature selection approaches.

  17. FBC: a flat binary code scheme for fast Manhattan hash retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yan; Wu, Fuzhang; Gao, Lifa; Wu, Yanjun

    2018-04-01

    Hash coding is a widely used technique in approximate nearest neighbor (ANN) search, especially in document search and multimedia (such as image and video) retrieval. Based on the difference of distance measurement, hash methods are generally classified into two categories: Hamming hashing and Manhattan hashing. Benefitting from better neighborhood structure preservation, Manhattan hashing methods outperform earlier methods in search effectiveness. However, due to using decimal arithmetic operations instead of bit operations, Manhattan hashing becomes a more time-consuming process, which significantly decreases the whole search efficiency. To solve this problem, we present an intuitive hash scheme which uses Flat Binary Code (FBC) to encode the data points. As a result, the decimal arithmetic used in previous Manhattan hashing can be replaced by more efficient XOR operator. The final experiments show that with a reasonable memory space growth, our FBC speeds up more than 80% averagely without any search accuracy loss when comparing to the state-of-art Manhattan hashing methods.

  18. Probabilistic hypergraph based hash codes for social image search

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi XIE; Hui-min YU; Roland HU

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of the Internet, recent years have seen the explosive growth of social media. This brings great challenges in performing efficient and accurate image retrieval on a large scale. Recent work shows that using hashing methods to embed high-dimensional image features and tag information into Hamming space provides a powerful way to index large collections of social images. By learning hash codes through a spectral graph partitioning algorithm, spectral hashing (SH) has shown promising performance among various hashing approaches. However, it is incomplete to model the relations among images only by pairwise simple graphs which ignore the relationship in a higher order. In this paper, we utilize a probabilistic hypergraph model to learn hash codes for social image retrieval. A probabilistic hypergraph model offers a higher order repre-sentation among social images by connecting more than two images in one hyperedge. Unlike a normal hypergraph model, a probabilistic hypergraph model considers not only the grouping information, but also the similarities between vertices in hy-peredges. Experiments on Flickr image datasets verify the performance of our proposed approach.

  19. Deep Hashing Based Fusing Index Method for Large-Scale Image Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Duan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hashing has been widely deployed to perform the Approximate Nearest Neighbor (ANN search for the large-scale image retrieval to solve the problem of storage and retrieval efficiency. Recently, deep hashing methods have been proposed to perform the simultaneous feature learning and the hash code learning with deep neural networks. Even though deep hashing has shown the better performance than traditional hashing methods with handcrafted features, the learned compact hash code from one deep hashing network may not provide the full representation of an image. In this paper, we propose a novel hashing indexing method, called the Deep Hashing based Fusing Index (DHFI, to generate a more compact hash code which has stronger expression ability and distinction capability. In our method, we train two different architecture’s deep hashing subnetworks and fuse the hash codes generated by the two subnetworks together to unify images. Experiments on two real datasets show that our method can outperform state-of-the-art image retrieval applications.

  20. MiMC: Efficient encryption and cryptographic hashing with minimal multiplicative complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrecht, Martin; Grassi, Lorenzo; Rechberger, Christian

    2016-01-01

    and cryptographic hash functions is to reconsider and simplify the round function of the Knudsen-Nyberg cipher from 1995. The mapping F(x) := x3 is used as the main component there and is also the main component of our family of proposals called “MiMC”. We study various attack vectors for this construction and give...... a new attack vector that outperforms others in relevant settings. Due to its very low number of multiplications, the design lends itself well to a large class of applications, especially when the depth does not matter but the total number of multiplications in the circuit dominates all aspects...

  1. A scalable lock-free hash table with open addressing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Puge; Karlsson, Sven

    2016-01-01

    and concurrent operations without any locks. In this paper, we present a new fully lock-free open addressed hash table with a simpler design than prior published work. We split hash table insertions into two atomic phases: first inserting a value ignoring other concurrent operations, then in the second phase......Concurrent data structures synchronized with locks do not scale well with the number of threads. As more scalable alternatives, concurrent data structures and algorithms based on widely available, however advanced, atomic operations have been proposed. These data structures allow for correct...

  2. Visual hashing of digital video : applications and techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostveen, J.; Kalker, A.A.C.M.; Haitsma, J.A.; Tescher, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    his paper present the concept of robust video hashing as a tool for video identification. We present considerations and a technique for (i) extracting essential perceptual features from a moving image sequences and (ii) for identifying any sufficiently long unknown video segment by efficiently

  3. Toward Optimal Manifold Hashing via Discrete Locally Linear Embedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongrong Ji; Hong Liu; Liujuan Cao; Di Liu; Yongjian Wu; Feiyue Huang

    2017-11-01

    Binary code learning, also known as hashing, has received increasing attention in large-scale visual search. By transforming high-dimensional features to binary codes, the original Euclidean distance is approximated via Hamming distance. More recently, it is advocated that it is the manifold distance, rather than the Euclidean distance, that should be preserved in the Hamming space. However, it retains as an open problem to directly preserve the manifold structure by hashing. In particular, it first needs to build the local linear embedding in the original feature space, and then quantize such embedding to binary codes. Such a two-step coding is problematic and less optimized. Besides, the off-line learning is extremely time and memory consuming, which needs to calculate the similarity matrix of the original data. In this paper, we propose a novel hashing algorithm, termed discrete locality linear embedding hashing (DLLH), which well addresses the above challenges. The DLLH directly reconstructs the manifold structure in the Hamming space, which learns optimal hash codes to maintain the local linear relationship of data points. To learn discrete locally linear embeddingcodes, we further propose a discrete optimization algorithm with an iterative parameters updating scheme. Moreover, an anchor-based acceleration scheme, termed Anchor-DLLH, is further introduced, which approximates the large similarity matrix by the product of two low-rank matrices. Experimental results on three widely used benchmark data sets, i.e., CIFAR10, NUS-WIDE, and YouTube Face, have shown superior performance of the proposed DLLH over the state-of-the-art approaches.

  4. A Hash Based Remote User Authentication and Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme for the Integrated EPR Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Ta; Weng, Chi-Yao; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Wang, Chun-Cheng

    2015-11-01

    To protect patient privacy and ensure authorized access to remote medical services, many remote user authentication schemes for the integrated electronic patient record (EPR) information system have been proposed in the literature. In a recent paper, Das proposed a hash based remote user authentication scheme using passwords and smart cards for the integrated EPR information system, and claimed that the proposed scheme could resist various passive and active attacks. However, in this paper, we found that Das's authentication scheme is still vulnerable to modification and user duplication attacks. Thereafter we propose a secure and efficient authentication scheme for the integrated EPR information system based on lightweight hash function and bitwise exclusive-or (XOR) operations. The security proof and performance analysis show our new scheme is well-suited to adoption in remote medical healthcare services.

  5. Robust Image Hashing Using Radon Transform and Invariant Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.L. Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A robust image hashing method based on radon transform and invariant features is proposed for image authentication, image retrieval, and image detection. Specifically, an input image is firstly converted into a counterpart with a normalized size. Then the invariant centroid algorithm is applied to obtain the invariant feature point and the surrounding circular area, and the radon transform is employed to acquire the mapping coefficient matrix of the area. Finally, the hashing sequence is generated by combining the feature vectors and the invariant moments calculated from the coefficient matrix. Experimental results show that this method not only can resist against the normal image processing operations, but also some geometric distortions. Comparisons of receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve indicate that the proposed method outperforms some existing methods in classification between perceptual robustness and discrimination.

  6. Simultenious binary hash and features learning for image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantc, V. A.; Makov, S. V.; Voronin, V. V.; Marchuk, V. I.; Semenishchev, E. A.; Egiazarian, K. O.; Agaian, S.

    2016-05-01

    Content-based image retrieval systems have plenty of applications in modern world. The most important one is the image search by query image or by semantic description. Approaches to this problem are employed in personal photo-collection management systems, web-scale image search engines, medical systems, etc. Automatic analysis of large unlabeled image datasets is virtually impossible without satisfactory image-retrieval technique. It's the main reason why this kind of automatic image processing has attracted so much attention during recent years. Despite rather huge progress in the field, semantically meaningful image retrieval still remains a challenging task. The main issue here is the demand to provide reliable results in short amount of time. This paper addresses the problem by novel technique for simultaneous learning of global image features and binary hash codes. Our approach provide mapping of pixel-based image representation to hash-value space simultaneously trying to save as much of semantic image content as possible. We use deep learning methodology to generate image description with properties of similarity preservation and statistical independence. The main advantage of our approach in contrast to existing is ability to fine-tune retrieval procedure for very specific application which allow us to provide better results in comparison to general techniques. Presented in the paper framework for data- dependent image hashing is based on use two different kinds of neural networks: convolutional neural networks for image description and autoencoder for feature to hash space mapping. Experimental results confirmed that our approach has shown promising results in compare to other state-of-the-art methods.

  7. The legal response to illegal "hash clubs" in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, V.; Moesby-Johansen, C.

    2004-01-01

    Fra midten af 1990'erne er der skudt en række hashklubber op i Danmark. Overordnet er der to slags klubber: salgssteder og væresteder. De første klubber er udelukkende organiseret om salget af hash, mens de andre er klubber, hvor man både kan købe hashen og opholde sig på stedet for at deltage i ...

  8. Range-efficient consistent sampling and locality-sensitive hashing for polygons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Joachim; Pagh, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Locality-sensitive hashing (LSH) is a fundamental technique for similarity search and similarity estimation in high-dimensional spaces. The basic idea is that similar objects should produce hash collisions with probability significantly larger than objects with low similarity. We consider LSH for...... or union of a set of preprocessed polygons. Curiously, our consistent sampling method uses transformation to a geometric problem....

  9. Linear-XOR and Additive Checksums Don't Protect Damgard-Merkle Hashes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauravaram, Praveen; Kelsey, John

    2008-01-01

    We consider the security of Damg\\aa{}rd-Merkle variants which compute linear-XOR or additive checksums over message blocks, intermediate hash values, or both, and process these checksums in computing the final hash value. We show that these Damg\\aa{}rd-Merkle variants gain almost no security...

  10. HashLearn Now: Mobile Tutoring in India

    OpenAIRE

    Arun Kumar Agariya; Binay Krishna Shivam; Shashank Murali; Jyoti Tikoria

    2016-01-01

    Looking at today’s competitive exams scenario, a single mark may lead to a differentiation of rank in multiples of hundreds or even thousands. Looking at this problem from student’s perspective this article discusses the role of anywhere, anytime help for the students in getting answers for their problems on a real-time basis from the application known as HashLearn Now. The smart phones usage by students clearly signifies the importance of this application for getting their queries answered b...

  11. A model of quantum communication device for quantum hashing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliev, A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we consider a model of quantum communications between classical computers aided with quantum processors, connected by a classical and a quantum channel. This type of communications implying both classical and quantum messages with moderate use of quantum processing is implicitly used in many quantum protocols, such as quantum key distribution or quantum digital signature. We show that using the model of a quantum processor on multiatomic ensembles in the common QED cavity we can speed up quantum hashing, which can be the basis of quantum digital signature and other communication protocols. (paper)

  12. System using data compression and hashing adapted for use for multimedia encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffland, Douglas R [Livermore, CA

    2011-07-12

    A system and method is disclosed for multimedia encryption. Within the system of the present invention, a data compression module receives and compresses a media signal into a compressed data stream. A data acquisition module receives and selects a set of data from the compressed data stream. And, a hashing module receives and hashes the set of data into a keyword. The method of the present invention includes the steps of compressing a media signal into a compressed data stream; selecting a set of data from the compressed data stream; and hashing the set of data into a keyword.

  13. Accelerating SPARQL queries by exploiting hash-based locality and adaptive partitioning

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Harbi, Razen; Abdelaziz, Ibrahim; Kalnis, Panos; Mamoulis, Nikos; Ebrahim, Yasser; Sahli, Majed

    2016-01-01

    State-of-the-art distributed RDF systems partition data across multiple computer nodes (workers). Some systems perform cheap hash partitioning, which may result in expensive query evaluation. Others try to minimize inter-node communication, which

  14. Object-Location-Aware Hashing for Multi-Label Image Retrieval via Automatic Mask Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chang-Qin; Yang, Shang-Ming; Pan, Yan; Lai, Han-Jiang

    2018-09-01

    Learning-based hashing is a leading approach of approximate nearest neighbor search for large-scale image retrieval. In this paper, we develop a deep supervised hashing method for multi-label image retrieval, in which we propose to learn a binary "mask" map that can identify the approximate locations of objects in an image, so that we use this binary "mask" map to obtain length-limited hash codes which mainly focus on an image's objects but ignore the background. The proposed deep architecture consists of four parts: 1) a convolutional sub-network to generate effective image features; 2) a binary "mask" sub-network to identify image objects' approximate locations; 3) a weighted average pooling operation based on the binary "mask" to obtain feature representations and hash codes that pay most attention to foreground objects but ignore the background; and 4) the combination of a triplet ranking loss designed to preserve relative similarities among images and a cross entropy loss defined on image labels. We conduct comprehensive evaluations on four multi-label image data sets. The results indicate that the proposed hashing method achieves superior performance gains over the state-of-the-art supervised or unsupervised hashing baselines.

  15. Practical security and privacy attacks against biometric hashing using sparse recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topcu, Berkay; Karabat, Cagatay; Azadmanesh, Matin; Erdogan, Hakan

    2016-12-01

    Biometric hashing is a cancelable biometric verification method that has received research interest recently. This method can be considered as a two-factor authentication method which combines a personal password (or secret key) with a biometric to obtain a secure binary template which is used for authentication. We present novel practical security and privacy attacks against biometric hashing when the attacker is assumed to know the user's password in order to quantify the additional protection due to biometrics when the password is compromised. We present four methods that can reconstruct a biometric feature and/or the image from a hash and one method which can find the closest biometric data (i.e., face image) from a database. Two of the reconstruction methods are based on 1-bit compressed sensing signal reconstruction for which the data acquisition scenario is very similar to biometric hashing. Previous literature introduced simple attack methods, but we show that we can achieve higher level of security threats using compressed sensing recovery techniques. In addition, we present privacy attacks which reconstruct a biometric image which resembles the original image. We quantify the performance of the attacks using detection error tradeoff curves and equal error rates under advanced attack scenarios. We show that conventional biometric hashing methods suffer from high security and privacy leaks under practical attacks, and we believe more advanced hash generation methods are necessary to avoid these attacks.

  16. SEMANTIC SEGMENTATION OF BUILDING ELEMENTS USING POINT CLOUD HASHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chizhova

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available For the interpretation of point clouds, the semantic definition of extracted segments from point clouds or images is a common problem. Usually, the semantic of geometrical pre-segmented point cloud elements are determined using probabilistic networks and scene databases. The proposed semantic segmentation method is based on the psychological human interpretation of geometric objects, especially on fundamental rules of primary comprehension. Starting from these rules the buildings could be quite well and simply classified by a human operator (e.g. architect into different building types and structural elements (dome, nave, transept etc., including particular building parts which are visually detected. The key part of the procedure is a novel method based on hashing where point cloud projections are transformed into binary pixel representations. A segmentation approach released on the example of classical Orthodox churches is suitable for other buildings and objects characterized through a particular typology in its construction (e.g. industrial objects in standardized enviroments with strict component design allowing clear semantic modelling.

  17. Hash-chain-based authentication for IoT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio PINTO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of everyday interconnected devices continues to increase and constitute the Internet of Things (IoT. Things are small computers equipped with sensors and wireless communications capabilities that are driven by energy constraints, since they use batteries and may be required to operate over long periods of time. The majority of these devices perform data collection. The collected data is stored on-line using web-services that, sometimes, operate without any special considerations regarding security and privacy. The current work proposes a modified hash-chain authentication mechanism that, with the help of a smartphone, can authenticate each interaction of the devices with a REST web-service using One Time Passwords (OTP while using open wireless networks. Moreover, the proposed authentication mechanism adheres to the stateless, HTTP-like behavior expected of REST web-services, even allowing the caching of server authentication replies within a predefined time window. No other known web-service authentication mechanism operates in such manner.

  18. Parameter-free Locality Sensitive Hashing for Spherical Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahle, Thomas Dybdahl; Pagh, Rasmus; Aumüller, Martin

    2017-01-01

    We present a data structure for *spherical range reporting* on a point set S, i.e., reporting all points in S that lie within radius r of a given query point q. Our solution builds upon the Locality-Sensitive Hashing (LSH) framework of Indyk and Motwani, which represents the asymptotically best...... solutions to near neighbor problems in high dimensions. While traditional LSH data structures have several parameters whose optimal values depend on the distance distribution from q to the points of S, our data structure is parameter-free, except for the space usage, which is configurable by the user...... query time bounded by O(t(n/t)ρ), where t is the number of points to report and ρ∈(0,1) depends on the data distribution and the strength of the LSH family used. We further present a parameter-free way of using multi-probing, for LSH families that support it, and show that for many such families...

  19. Adoption of the Hash algorithm in a conceptual model for the civil registry of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toapanta, Moisés; Mafla, Enrique; Orizaga, Antonio

    2018-04-01

    The Hash security algorithm was analyzed in order to mitigate information security in a distributed architecture. The objective of this research is to develop a prototype for the Adoption of the algorithm Hash in a conceptual model for the Civil Registry of Ecuador. The deductive method was used in order to analyze the published articles that have a direct relation with the research project "Algorithms and Security Protocols for the Civil Registry of Ecuador" and articles related to the Hash security algorithm. It resulted from this research: That the SHA-1 security algorithm is appropriate for use in Ecuador's civil registry; we adopted the SHA-1 algorithm used in the flowchart technique and finally we obtained the adoption of the hash algorithm in a conceptual model. It is concluded that from the comparison of the DM5 and SHA-1 algorithm, it is suggested that in the case of an implementation, the SHA-1 algorithm is taken due to the amount of information and data available from the Civil Registry of Ecuador; It is determined that the SHA-1 algorithm that was defined using the flowchart technique can be modified according to the requirements of each institution; the model for adopting the hash algorithm in a conceptual model is a prototype that can be modified according to all the actors that make up each organization.

  20. Parallel Algorithm of Geometrical Hashing Based on NumPy Package and Processes Pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klyachin Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of multi-dimensional geometric hashing. The paper describes a mathematical model of geometric hashing and considers an example of its use in localization problems for the point. A method of constructing the corresponding hash matrix by parallel algorithm is considered. In this paper an algorithm of parallel geometric hashing using a development pattern «pool processes» is proposed. The implementation of the algorithm is executed using the Python programming language and NumPy package for manipulating multidimensional data. To implement the process pool it is proposed to use a class Process Pool Executor imported from module concurrent.futures, which is included in the distribution of the interpreter Python since version 3.2. All the solutions are presented in the paper by corresponding UML class diagrams. Designed GeomNash package includes classes Data, Result, GeomHash, Job. The results of the developed program presents the corresponding graphs. Also, the article presents the theoretical justification for the application process pool for the implementation of parallel algorithms. It is obtained condition t2 > (p/(p-1*t1 of the appropriateness of process pool. Here t1 - the time of transmission unit of data between processes, and t2 - the time of processing unit data by one processor.

  1. An algorithm for the detection of move repetition without the use of hash-keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučković Vladan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the theoretical and practical aspects of an important problem in computer chess programming - the problem of draw detection in cases of position repetition. The standard approach used in the majority of computer chess programs is hash-oriented. This method is sufficient in most cases, as the Zobrist keys are already present due to the systemic positional hashing, so that they need not be computed anew for the purpose of draw detection. The new type of the algorithm that we have developed solves the problem of draw detection in cases when Zobrist keys are not used in the program, i.e. in cases when the memory is not hashed.

  2. SECOM: A novel hash seed and community detection based-approach for genome-scale protein domain identification

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Ming

    2012-06-28

    With rapid advances in the development of DNA sequencing technologies, a plethora of high-throughput genome and proteome data from a diverse spectrum of organisms have been generated. The functional annotation and evolutionary history of proteins are usually inferred from domains predicted from the genome sequences. Traditional database-based domain prediction methods cannot identify novel domains, however, and alignment-based methods, which look for recurring segments in the proteome, are computationally demanding. Here, we propose a novel genome-wide domain prediction method, SECOM. Instead of conducting all-against-all sequence alignment, SECOM first indexes all the proteins in the genome by using a hash seed function. Local similarity can thus be detected and encoded into a graph structure, in which each node represents a protein sequence and each edge weight represents the shared hash seeds between the two nodes. SECOM then formulates the domain prediction problem as an overlapping community-finding problem in this graph. A backward graph percolation algorithm that efficiently identifies the domains is proposed. We tested SECOM on five recently sequenced genomes of aquatic animals. Our tests demonstrated that SECOM was able to identify most of the known domains identified by InterProScan. When compared with the alignment-based method, SECOM showed higher sensitivity in detecting putative novel domains, while it was also three orders of magnitude faster. For example, SECOM was able to predict a novel sponge-specific domain in nucleoside-triphosphatase (NTPases). Furthermore, SECOM discovered two novel domains, likely of bacterial origin, that are taxonomically restricted to sea anemone and hydra. SECOM is an open-source program and available at http://sfb.kaust.edu.sa/Pages/Software.aspx. © 2012 Fan et al.

  3. SECOM: A novel hash seed and community detection based-approach for genome-scale protein domain identification

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Ming; Wong, Ka-Chun; Ryu, Tae Woo; Ravasi, Timothy; Gao, Xin

    2012-01-01

    With rapid advances in the development of DNA sequencing technologies, a plethora of high-throughput genome and proteome data from a diverse spectrum of organisms have been generated. The functional annotation and evolutionary history of proteins are usually inferred from domains predicted from the genome sequences. Traditional database-based domain prediction methods cannot identify novel domains, however, and alignment-based methods, which look for recurring segments in the proteome, are computationally demanding. Here, we propose a novel genome-wide domain prediction method, SECOM. Instead of conducting all-against-all sequence alignment, SECOM first indexes all the proteins in the genome by using a hash seed function. Local similarity can thus be detected and encoded into a graph structure, in which each node represents a protein sequence and each edge weight represents the shared hash seeds between the two nodes. SECOM then formulates the domain prediction problem as an overlapping community-finding problem in this graph. A backward graph percolation algorithm that efficiently identifies the domains is proposed. We tested SECOM on five recently sequenced genomes of aquatic animals. Our tests demonstrated that SECOM was able to identify most of the known domains identified by InterProScan. When compared with the alignment-based method, SECOM showed higher sensitivity in detecting putative novel domains, while it was also three orders of magnitude faster. For example, SECOM was able to predict a novel sponge-specific domain in nucleoside-triphosphatase (NTPases). Furthermore, SECOM discovered two novel domains, likely of bacterial origin, that are taxonomically restricted to sea anemone and hydra. SECOM is an open-source program and available at http://sfb.kaust.edu.sa/Pages/Software.aspx. © 2012 Fan et al.

  4. NHash: Randomized N-Gram Hashing for Distributed Generation of Validatable Unique Study Identifiers in Multicenter Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Tao, Shiqiang; Xing, Guangming; Mozes, Jeno; Zonjy, Bilal; Lhatoo, Samden D; Cui, Licong

    2015-11-10

    A unique study identifier serves as a key for linking research data about a study subject without revealing protected health information in the identifier. While sufficient for single-site and limited-scale studies, the use of common unique study identifiers has several drawbacks for large multicenter studies, where thousands of research participants may be recruited from multiple sites. An important property of study identifiers is error tolerance (or validatable), in that inadvertent editing mistakes during their transmission and use will most likely result in invalid study identifiers. This paper introduces a novel method called "Randomized N-gram Hashing (NHash)," for generating unique study identifiers in a distributed and validatable fashion, in multicenter research. NHash has a unique set of properties: (1) it is a pseudonym serving the purpose of linking research data about a study participant for research purposes; (2) it can be generated automatically in a completely distributed fashion with virtually no risk for identifier collision; (3) it incorporates a set of cryptographic hash functions based on N-grams, with a combination of additional encryption techniques such as a shift cipher; (d) it is validatable (error tolerant) in the sense that inadvertent edit errors will mostly result in invalid identifiers. NHash consists of 2 phases. First, an intermediate string using randomized N-gram hashing is generated. This string consists of a collection of N-gram hashes f1, f2, ..., fk. The input for each function fi has 3 components: a random number r, an integer n, and input data m. The result, fi(r, n, m), is an n-gram of m with a starting position s, which is computed as (r mod |m|), where |m| represents the length of m. The output for Step 1 is the concatenation of the sequence f1(r1, n1, m1), f2(r2, n2, m2), ..., fk(rk, nk, mk). In the second phase, the intermediate string generated in Phase 1 is encrypted using techniques such as shift cipher. The result

  5. Random multispace quantization as an analytic mechanism for BioHashing of biometric and random identity inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Andrew B J; Goh, Alwyn; Ngo, David C L

    2006-12-01

    Biometric analysis for identity verification is becoming a widespread reality. Such implementations necessitate large-scale capture and storage of biometric data, which raises serious issues in terms of data privacy and (if such data is compromised) identity theft. These problems stem from the essential permanence of biometric data, which (unlike secret passwords or physical tokens) cannot be refreshed or reissued if compromised. Our previously presented biometric-hash framework prescribes the integration of external (password or token-derived) randomness with user-specific biometrics, resulting in bitstring outputs with security characteristics (i.e., noninvertibility) comparable to cryptographic ciphers or hashes. The resultant BioHashes are hence cancellable, i.e., straightforwardly revoked and reissued (via refreshed password or reissued token) if compromised. BioHashing furthermore enhances recognition effectiveness, which is explained in this paper as arising from the Random Multispace Quantization (RMQ) of biometric and external random inputs.

  6. HASH: the Hong Kong/AAO/Strasbourg Hα planetary nebula database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, Quentin A; Bojičić, Ivan S; Frew, David J

    2016-01-01

    By incorporating our major recent discoveries with re-measured and verified contents of existing catalogues we provide, for the first time, an accessible, reliable, on-line SQL database for essential, up-to date information for all known Galactic planetary nebulae (PNe). We have attempted to: i) reliably remove PN mimics/false ID's that have biased previous studies and ii) provide accurate positions, sizes, morphologies, multi-wavelength imagery and spectroscopy. We also provide a link to CDS/Vizier for the archival history of each object and other valuable links to external data. With the HASH interface, users can sift, select, browse, collate, investigate, download and visualise the entire currently known Galactic PNe diversity. HASH provides the community with the most complete and reliable data with which to undertake new science. (paper)

  7. EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS OF HASHING METHODS FOR FILE SYSTEMS IN USER MODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Y. Ivanov

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with characteristics and performance of interaction protocols between virtual file system and file system, their influence on processing power of microkernel operating systems. User mode implementation of ext2 file system for MINIX 3 OS is used to show that in microkernel operating systems file object identification time might increase up to 26 times in comparison with monolithic systems. Therefore, we present efficiency analysis of various hashing methods for file systems, running in user mode. Studies have shown that using hashing methods recommended in this paper it is possible to achieve competitive performance of the considered component of I/O stacks in microkernel and monolithic operating systems.

  8. MULTIMEDIA DATA TRANSMISSION THROUGH TCP/IP USING HASH BASED FEC WITH AUTO-XOR SCHEME

    OpenAIRE

    R. Shalin; D. Kesavaraja

    2012-01-01

    The most preferred mode for communication of multimedia data is through the TCP/IP protocol. But on the other hand the TCP/IP protocol produces huge packet loss unavoidable due to network traffic and congestion. In order to provide a efficient communication it is necessary to recover the loss of packets. The proposed scheme implements Hash based FEC with auto XOR scheme for this purpose. The scheme is implemented through Forward error correction, MD5 and XOR for providing efficient transmissi...

  9. Simulation-Based Performance Evaluation of Predictive-Hashing Based Multicast Authentication Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonho Choi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A predictive-hashing based Denial-of-Service (DoS resistant multicast authentication protocol was proposed based upon predictive-hashing, one-way key chain, erasure codes, and distillation codes techniques [4, 5]. It was claimed that this new scheme should be more resistant to various types of DoS attacks, and its worst-case resource requirements were derived in terms of coarse-level system parameters including CPU times for signature verification and erasure/distillation decoding operations, attack levels, etc. To show the effectiveness of our approach and to analyze exact resource requirements in various attack scenarios with different parameter settings, we designed and implemented an attack simulator which is platformindependent. Various attack scenarios may be created with different attack types and parameters against a receiver equipped with the predictive-hashing based protocol. The design of the simulator is explained, and the simulation results are presented with detailed resource usage statistics. In addition, resistance level to various types of DoS attacks is formulated with a newly defined resistance metric. By comparing these results to those from another approach, PRABS [8], we show that the resistance level of our protocol is greatly enhanced even in the presence of many attack streams.

  10. A multi-pattern hash-binary hybrid algorithm for URL matching in the HTTP protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zeng

    Full Text Available In this paper, based on our previous multi-pattern uniform resource locator (URL binary-matching algorithm called HEM, we propose an improved multi-pattern matching algorithm called MH that is based on hash tables and binary tables. The MH algorithm can be applied to the fields of network security, data analysis, load balancing, cloud robotic communications, and so on-all of which require string matching from a fixed starting position. Our approach effectively solves the performance problems of the classical multi-pattern matching algorithms. This paper explores ways to improve string matching performance under the HTTP protocol by using a hash method combined with a binary method that transforms the symbol-space matching problem into a digital-space numerical-size comparison and hashing problem. The MH approach has a fast matching speed, requires little memory, performs better than both the classical algorithms and HEM for matching fields in an HTTP stream, and it has great promise for use in real-world applications.

  11. The Speech multi features fusion perceptual hash algorithm based on tensor decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y. B.; Fan, M. H.; Zhang, Q. Y.

    2018-03-01

    With constant progress in modern speech communication technologies, the speech data is prone to be attacked by the noise or maliciously tampered. In order to make the speech perception hash algorithm has strong robustness and high efficiency, this paper put forward a speech perception hash algorithm based on the tensor decomposition and multi features is proposed. This algorithm analyses the speech perception feature acquires each speech component wavelet packet decomposition. LPCC, LSP and ISP feature of each speech component are extracted to constitute the speech feature tensor. Speech authentication is done by generating the hash values through feature matrix quantification which use mid-value. Experimental results showing that the proposed algorithm is robust for content to maintain operations compared with similar algorithms. It is able to resist the attack of the common background noise. Also, the algorithm is highly efficiency in terms of arithmetic, and is able to meet the real-time requirements of speech communication and complete the speech authentication quickly.

  12. Accelerating SPARQL queries by exploiting hash-based locality and adaptive partitioning

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Harbi, Razen

    2016-02-08

    State-of-the-art distributed RDF systems partition data across multiple computer nodes (workers). Some systems perform cheap hash partitioning, which may result in expensive query evaluation. Others try to minimize inter-node communication, which requires an expensive data preprocessing phase, leading to a high startup cost. Apriori knowledge of the query workload has also been used to create partitions, which, however, are static and do not adapt to workload changes. In this paper, we propose AdPart, a distributed RDF system, which addresses the shortcomings of previous work. First, AdPart applies lightweight partitioning on the initial data, which distributes triples by hashing on their subjects; this renders its startup overhead low. At the same time, the locality-aware query optimizer of AdPart takes full advantage of the partitioning to (1) support the fully parallel processing of join patterns on subjects and (2) minimize data communication for general queries by applying hash distribution of intermediate results instead of broadcasting, wherever possible. Second, AdPart monitors the data access patterns and dynamically redistributes and replicates the instances of the most frequent ones among workers. As a result, the communication cost for future queries is drastically reduced or even eliminated. To control replication, AdPart implements an eviction policy for the redistributed patterns. Our experiments with synthetic and real data verify that AdPart: (1) starts faster than all existing systems; (2) processes thousands of queries before other systems become online; and (3) gracefully adapts to the query load, being able to evaluate queries on billion-scale RDF data in subseconds.

  13. UnoHop: Efficient Distributed Hash Table with O(1 Lookup Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Sitepu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Distributed Hash Tables (DHTs with O(1 lookup performance strive to minimize the maintenance traffic which required for propagating membership changes information (events. These events distribution allows each node in the peer-to-peer network maintains accurate routing tables with complete membership information. We present UnoHop, a novel DHT protocol with O(1 lookup performance. The protocol uses an efficient mechanism to distribute events through a dissemination tree that constructed dynamically rooted at the node that detect the events. Our protocol produces symmetric bandwidth usage at all nodes while decreasing the events propagation delay.

  14. MULTIMEDIA DATA TRANSMISSION THROUGH TCP/IP USING HASH BASED FEC WITH AUTO-XOR SCHEME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Shalin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The most preferred mode for communication of multimedia data is through the TCP/IP protocol. But on the other hand the TCP/IP protocol produces huge packet loss unavoidable due to network traffic and congestion. In order to provide a efficient communication it is necessary to recover the loss of packets. The proposed scheme implements Hash based FEC with auto XOR scheme for this purpose. The scheme is implemented through Forward error correction, MD5 and XOR for providing efficient transmission of multimedia data. The proposed scheme provides transmission high accuracy, throughput and low latency and loss.

  15. A hash based mutual RFID tag authentication protocol in telecare medicine information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Keerti; Awasthi, Amit K; Kaul, Sonam D; Mittal, R C

    2015-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology which has multidimensional applications to reduce the complexity of today life. Everywhere, like access control, transportation, real-time inventory, asset management and automated payment systems etc., RFID has its enormous use. Recently, this technology is opening its wings in healthcare environments, where potential applications include patient monitoring, object traceability and drug administration systems etc. In this paper, we propose a secure RFID-based protocol for the medical sector. This protocol is based on hash operation with synchronized secret. The protocol is safe against active and passive attacks such as forgery, traceability, replay and de-synchronization attack.

  16. Model-based recognition of 3-D objects by geometric hashing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severcan, M.; Uzunalioglu, H.

    1992-09-01

    A model-based object recognition system is developed for recognition of polyhedral objects. The system consists of feature extraction, modelling and matching stages. Linear features are used for object descriptions. Lines are obtained from edges using rotation transform. For modelling and recognition process, geometric hashing method is utilized. Each object is modelled using 2-D views taken from the viewpoints on the viewing sphere. A hidden line elimination algorithm is used to find these views from the wire frame model of the objects. The recognition experiments yielded satisfactory results. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs

  17. Comparison of Various Similarity Measures for Average Image Hash in Mobile Phone Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farisa Chaerul Haviana, Sam; Taufik, Muhammad

    2017-04-01

    One of the main issue in Content Based Image Retrieval (CIBR) is similarity measures for resulting image hashes. The main key challenge is to find the most benefits distance or similarity measures for calculating the similarity in term of speed and computing costs, specially under limited computing capabilities device like mobile phone. This study we utilize twelve most common and popular distance or similarity measures technique implemented in mobile phone application, to be compared and studied. The results show that all similarity measures implemented in this study was perform equally under mobile phone application. This gives more possibilities for method combinations to be implemented for image retrieval.

  18. On-line Ciphers and the Hash-CBC Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellare, M.; Boldyreva, A.; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2012-01-01

    We initiate a study of on-line ciphers. These are ciphers that can take input plaintexts of large and varying lengths and will output the i th block of the ciphertext after having processed only the first i blocks of the plaintext. Such ciphers permit length-preserving encryption of a data stream...... with only a single pass through the data. We provide security definitions for this primitive and study its basic properties. We then provide attacks on some possible candidates, including CBC with fixed IV. We then provide two constructions, HCBC1 and HCBC2, based on a given block cipher E and a family...... of computationally AXU functions. HCBC1 is proven secure against chosen-plaintext attacks assuming that E is a PRP secure against chosen-plaintext attacks, while HCBC2 is proven secure against chosen-ciphertext attacks assuming that E is a PRP secure against chosen-ciphertext attacks....

  19. MinHash-Based Fuzzy Keyword Search of Encrypted Data across Multiple Cloud Servers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingsha He

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the efficiency of data searching, most data owners store their data files in different cloud servers in the form of cipher-text. Thus, efficient search using fuzzy keywords becomes a critical issue in such a cloud computing environment. This paper proposes a method that aims at improving the efficiency of cipher-text retrieval and lowering storage overhead for fuzzy keyword search. In contrast to traditional approaches, the proposed method can reduce the complexity of Min-Hash-based fuzzy keyword search by using Min-Hash fingerprints to avoid the need to construct the fuzzy keyword set. The method will utilize Jaccard similarity to rank the results of retrieval, thus reducing the amount of calculation for similarity and saving a lot of time and space overhead. The method will also take consideration of multiple user queries through re-encryption technology and update user permissions dynamically. Security analysis demonstrates that the method can provide better privacy preservation and experimental results show that efficiency of cipher-text using the proposed method can improve the retrieval time and lower storage overhead as well.

  20. MATCHING AERIAL IMAGES TO 3D BUILDING MODELS BASED ON CONTEXT-BASED GEOMETRIC HASHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jung

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new model-to-image framework to automatically align a single airborne image with existing 3D building models using geometric hashing is proposed. As a prerequisite process for various applications such as data fusion, object tracking, change detection and texture mapping, the proposed registration method is used for determining accurate exterior orientation parameters (EOPs of a single image. This model-to-image matching process consists of three steps: 1 feature extraction, 2 similarity measure and matching, and 3 adjustment of EOPs of a single image. For feature extraction, we proposed two types of matching cues, edged corner points representing the saliency of building corner points with associated edges and contextual relations among the edged corner points within an individual roof. These matching features are extracted from both 3D building and a single airborne image. A set of matched corners are found with given proximity measure through geometric hashing and optimal matches are then finally determined by maximizing the matching cost encoding contextual similarity between matching candidates. Final matched corners are used for adjusting EOPs of the single airborne image by the least square method based on co-linearity equations. The result shows that acceptable accuracy of single image's EOP can be achievable by the proposed registration approach as an alternative to labour-intensive manual registration process.

  1. Fast Structural Alignment of Biomolecules Using a Hash Table, N-Grams and String Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Preissner

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a generalized approach for the fast structural alignment of thousands of macromolecular structures. The method uses string representations of a macromolecular structure and a hash table that stores n-grams of a certain size for searching. To this end, macromolecular structure-to-string translators were implemented for protein and RNA structures. A query against the index is performed in two hierarchical steps to unite speed and precision. In the first step the query structure is translated into n-grams, and all target structures containing these n-grams are retrieved from the hash table. In the second step all corresponding n-grams of the query and each target structure are subsequently aligned, and after each alignment a score is calculated based on the matching n-grams of query and target. The extendable framework enables the user to query and structurally align thousands of protein and RNA structures on a commodity machine and is available as open source from http://lajolla.sf.net.

  2. 76 FR 7817 - Announcing Draft Federal Information Processing Standard 180-4, Secure Hash Standard, and Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ...-02] Announcing Draft Federal Information Processing Standard 180-4, Secure Hash Standard, and Request... and request for comments. SUMMARY: This notice announces the Draft Federal Information Processing..., Information Technology Laboratory, Attention: Comments on Draft FIPS 180-4, 100 Bureau Drive--Stop 8930...

  3. A Dynamic Linear Hashing Method for Redundancy Management in Train Ethernet Consist Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Nie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive transportation systems like trains are considered critical systems because they use the communication network to control essential subsystems on board. Critical system requires zero recovery time when a failure occurs in a communication network. The newly published IEC62439-3 defines the high-availability seamless redundancy protocol, which fulfills this requirement and ensures no frame loss in the presence of an error. This paper adopts these for train Ethernet consist network. The challenge is management of the circulating frames, capable of dealing with real-time processing requirements, fast switching times, high throughout, and deterministic behavior. The main contribution of this paper is the in-depth analysis it makes of network parameters imposed by the application of the protocols to train control and monitoring system (TCMS and the redundant circulating frames discarding method based on a dynamic linear hashing, using the fastest method in order to resolve all the issues that are dealt with.

  4. Paradeisos: A perfect hashing algorithm for many-body eigenvalue problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, C. J.; Wang, Y.; Mendl, C. B.; Moritz, B.; Devereaux, T. P.

    2018-03-01

    We describe an essentially perfect hashing algorithm for calculating the position of an element in an ordered list, appropriate for the construction and manipulation of many-body Hamiltonian, sparse matrices. Each element of the list corresponds to an integer value whose binary representation reflects the occupation of single-particle basis states for each element in the many-body Hilbert space. The algorithm replaces conventional methods, such as binary search, for locating the elements of the ordered list, eliminating the need to store the integer representation for each element, without increasing the computational complexity. Combined with the "checkerboard" decomposition of the Hamiltonian matrix for distribution over parallel computing environments, this leads to a substantial savings in aggregate memory. While the algorithm can be applied broadly to many-body, correlated problems, we demonstrate its utility in reducing total memory consumption for a series of fermionic single-band Hubbard model calculations on small clusters with progressively larger Hilbert space dimension.

  5. A Reusable Software Copy Protection Using Hash Result and Asymetrical Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aswin Wibisurya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Desktop application is one of the most popular types of application being used in computer due to the one time install simplicity and the quick accessibility from the moment the computer being turned on. Limitation of the copy and usage of desktop applications has long been an important issue to application providers. For security concerns, software copy protection is usually integrated with the application. However, developers seek to reuse the copy protection component of the software. This paper proposes an approach of reusable software copy protection which consists of a certificate validator on the client computer and a certificate generator on the server. The certificate validator integrity is protected using hashing result while all communications are encrypted using asymmetrical encryption to ensure the security of this approach.

  6. A hybrid cloud read aligner based on MinHash and kmer voting that preserves privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popic, Victoria; Batzoglou, Serafim

    2017-05-01

    Low-cost clouds can alleviate the compute and storage burden of the genome sequencing data explosion. However, moving personal genome data analysis to the cloud can raise serious privacy concerns. Here, we devise a method named Balaur, a privacy preserving read mapper for hybrid clouds based on locality sensitive hashing and kmer voting. Balaur can securely outsource a substantial fraction of the computation to the public cloud, while being highly competitive in accuracy and speed with non-private state-of-the-art read aligners on short read data. We also show that the method is significantly faster than the state of the art in long read mapping. Therefore, Balaur can enable institutions handling massive genomic data sets to shift part of their analysis to the cloud without sacrificing accuracy or exposing sensitive information to an untrusted third party.

  7. Matching Aerial Images to 3D Building Models Using Context-Based Geometric Hashing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewook Jung

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A city is a dynamic entity, which environment is continuously changing over time. Accordingly, its virtual city models also need to be regularly updated to support accurate model-based decisions for various applications, including urban planning, emergency response and autonomous navigation. A concept of continuous city modeling is to progressively reconstruct city models by accommodating their changes recognized in spatio-temporal domain, while preserving unchanged structures. A first critical step for continuous city modeling is to coherently register remotely sensed data taken at different epochs with existing building models. This paper presents a new model-to-image registration method using a context-based geometric hashing (CGH method to align a single image with existing 3D building models. This model-to-image registration process consists of three steps: (1 feature extraction; (2 similarity measure; and matching, and (3 estimating exterior orientation parameters (EOPs of a single image. For feature extraction, we propose two types of matching cues: edged corner features representing the saliency of building corner points with associated edges, and contextual relations among the edged corner features within an individual roof. A set of matched corners are found with given proximity measure through geometric hashing, and optimal matches are then finally determined by maximizing the matching cost encoding contextual similarity between matching candidates. Final matched corners are used for adjusting EOPs of the single airborne image by the least square method based on collinearity equations. The result shows that acceptable accuracy of EOPs of a single image can be achievable using the proposed registration approach as an alternative to a labor-intensive manual registration process.

  8. Security enhanced multi-factor biometric authentication scheme using bio-hash function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younsung Choi

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of personal information and wireless communication technology, user authentication schemes have been crucial to ensure that wireless communications are secure. As such, various authentication schemes with multi-factor authentication have been proposed to improve the security of electronic communications. Multi-factor authentication involves the use of passwords, smart cards, and various biometrics to provide users with the utmost privacy and data protection. Cao and Ge analyzed various authentication schemes and found that Younghwa An's scheme was susceptible to a replay attack where an adversary masquerades as a legal server and a user masquerading attack where user anonymity is not provided, allowing an adversary to execute a password change process by intercepting the user's ID during login. Cao and Ge improved upon Younghwa An's scheme, but various security problems remained. This study demonstrates that Cao and Ge's scheme is susceptible to a biometric recognition error, slow wrong password detection, off-line password attack, user impersonation attack, ID guessing attack, a DoS attack, and that their scheme cannot provide session key agreement. Then, to address all weaknesses identified in Cao and Ge's scheme, this study proposes a security enhanced multi-factor biometric authentication scheme and provides a security analysis and formal analysis using Burrows-Abadi-Needham logic. Finally, the efficiency analysis reveals that the proposed scheme can protect against several possible types of attacks with only a slightly high computational cost.

  9. Security enhanced multi-factor biometric authentication scheme using bio-hash function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youngsook; Moon, Jongho

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of personal information and wireless communication technology, user authentication schemes have been crucial to ensure that wireless communications are secure. As such, various authentication schemes with multi-factor authentication have been proposed to improve the security of electronic communications. Multi-factor authentication involves the use of passwords, smart cards, and various biometrics to provide users with the utmost privacy and data protection. Cao and Ge analyzed various authentication schemes and found that Younghwa An’s scheme was susceptible to a replay attack where an adversary masquerades as a legal server and a user masquerading attack where user anonymity is not provided, allowing an adversary to execute a password change process by intercepting the user’s ID during login. Cao and Ge improved upon Younghwa An’s scheme, but various security problems remained. This study demonstrates that Cao and Ge’s scheme is susceptible to a biometric recognition error, slow wrong password detection, off-line password attack, user impersonation attack, ID guessing attack, a DoS attack, and that their scheme cannot provide session key agreement. Then, to address all weaknesses identified in Cao and Ge’s scheme, this study proposes a security enhanced multi-factor biometric authentication scheme and provides a security analysis and formal analysis using Burrows-Abadi-Needham logic. Finally, the efficiency analysis reveals that the proposed scheme can protect against several possible types of attacks with only a slightly high computational cost. PMID:28459867

  10. Security enhanced multi-factor biometric authentication scheme using bio-hash function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Younsung; Lee, Youngsook; Moon, Jongho; Won, Dongho

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of personal information and wireless communication technology, user authentication schemes have been crucial to ensure that wireless communications are secure. As such, various authentication schemes with multi-factor authentication have been proposed to improve the security of electronic communications. Multi-factor authentication involves the use of passwords, smart cards, and various biometrics to provide users with the utmost privacy and data protection. Cao and Ge analyzed various authentication schemes and found that Younghwa An's scheme was susceptible to a replay attack where an adversary masquerades as a legal server and a user masquerading attack where user anonymity is not provided, allowing an adversary to execute a password change process by intercepting the user's ID during login. Cao and Ge improved upon Younghwa An's scheme, but various security problems remained. This study demonstrates that Cao and Ge's scheme is susceptible to a biometric recognition error, slow wrong password detection, off-line password attack, user impersonation attack, ID guessing attack, a DoS attack, and that their scheme cannot provide session key agreement. Then, to address all weaknesses identified in Cao and Ge's scheme, this study proposes a security enhanced multi-factor biometric authentication scheme and provides a security analysis and formal analysis using Burrows-Abadi-Needham logic. Finally, the efficiency analysis reveals that the proposed scheme can protect against several possible types of attacks with only a slightly high computational cost.

  11. An update on the side channel cryptanalysis of MACs based on cryptographic hash functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauravaram, Praveen; Okeya, Katsuyuki

    2007-01-01

    Okeya has established that HMAC/NMAC implementations based on only Matyas-Meyer-Oseas (MMO) PGV scheme and his two refined PGV schemes are secure against side channel DPA attacks when the block cipher in these constructions is secure against these attacks. The significant result of Okeya's analys...

  12. EPC: A Provably Secure Permutation Based Compression Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagheri, Nasour; Gauravaram, Praveen; Naderi, Majid

    2010-01-01

    The security of permutation-based hash functions in the ideal permutation model has been studied when the input-length of compression function is larger than the input-length of the permutation function. In this paper, we consider permutation based compression functions that have input lengths sh...

  13. User characteristics and effect profile of Butane Hash Oil: An extremely high-potency cannabis concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Gary C K; Hall, Wayne; Freeman, Tom P; Ferris, Jason; Kelly, Adrian B; Winstock, Adam

    2017-09-01

    Recent reports suggest an increase in use of extremely potent cannabis concentrates such as Butane Hash Oil (BHO) in some developed countries. The aims of this study were to examine the characteristics of BHO users and the effect profiles of BHO. Anonymous online survey in over 20 countries in 2014 and 2015. Participants aged 18 years or older were recruited through onward promotion and online social networks. The overall sample size was 181,870. In this sample, 46% (N=83,867) reported using some form of cannabis in the past year, and 3% reported BHO use (n=5922). Participants reported their use of 7 types of cannabis in the past 12 months, the source of their cannabis, reasons for use, use of other illegal substances, and lifetime diagnosis for depression, anxiety and psychosis. Participants were asked to rate subjective effects of BHO and high potency herbal cannabis. Participants who reported a lifetime diagnosis of depression (OR=1.15, p=0.003), anxiety (OR=1.72, pcannabis. BHO users also reported stronger negative effects and less positive effects when using BHO than high potency herbal cannabis (pcannabis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Data Recovery of Distributed Hash Table with Distributed-to-Distributed Data Copy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Yusuke; Wakayama, Shirou; Ozaki, Satoshi

    To realize huge-scale information services, many Distributed Hash Table (DHT) based systems have been proposed. For example, there are some proposals to manage item-level product traceability information with DHTs. In such an application, each entry of a huge number of item-level IDs need to be available on a DHT. To ensure data availability, the soft-state approach has been employed in previous works. However, this does not scale well against the number of entries on a DHT. As we expect 1010 products in the traceability case, the soft-state approach is unacceptable. In this paper, we propose Distributed-to-Distributed Data Copy (D3C). With D3C, users can reconstruct the data as they detect data loss, or even migrate to another DHT system. We show why it scales well against the number of entries on a DHT. We have confirmed our approach with a prototype. Evaluation shows our approach fits well on a DHT with a low rate of failure and a huge number of data entries.

  15. Matching Real and Synthetic Panoramic Images Using a Variant of Geometric Hashing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Chee-Ming, J.; Armenakis, C.

    2017-05-01

    This work demonstrates an approach to automatically initialize a visual model-based tracker, and recover from lost tracking, without prior camera pose information. These approaches are commonly referred to as tracking-by-detection. Previous tracking-by-detection techniques used either fiducials (i.e. landmarks or markers) or the object's texture. The main contribution of this work is the development of a tracking-by-detection algorithm that is based solely on natural geometric features. A variant of geometric hashing, a model-to-image registration algorithm, is proposed that searches for a matching panoramic image from a database of synthetic panoramic images captured in a 3D virtual environment. The approach identifies corresponding features between the matched panoramic images. The corresponding features are to be used in a photogrammetric space resection to estimate the camera pose. The experiments apply this algorithm to initialize a model-based tracker in an indoor environment using the 3D CAD model of the building.

  16. LSHSIM: A Locality Sensitive Hashing based method for multiple-point geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Pedro; Laber, Eduardo; Lopes, Hélio; Mesejo, Daniel; Pavanelli, Lucas; Jardim, João; Thiesen, Francisco; Pujol, Gabriel

    2017-10-01

    Reservoir modeling is a very important task that permits the representation of a geological region of interest, so as to generate a considerable number of possible scenarios. Since its inception, many methodologies have been proposed and, in the last two decades, multiple-point geostatistics (MPS) has been the dominant one. This methodology is strongly based on the concept of training image (TI) and the use of its characteristics, which are called patterns. In this paper, we propose a new MPS method that combines the application of a technique called Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH), which permits to accelerate the search for patterns similar to a target one, with a Run-Length Encoding (RLE) compression technique that speeds up the calculation of the Hamming similarity. Experiments with both categorical and continuous images show that LSHSIM is computationally efficient and produce good quality realizations. In particular, for categorical data, the results suggest that LSHSIM is faster than MS-CCSIM, one of the state-of-the-art methods.

  17. Associations between butane hash oil use and cannabis-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Madeline H

    2017-10-01

    High-potency cannabis concentrates are increasingly popular in the United States, and there is concern that use of high-potency cannabis might increase risk for cannabis-related problems. However, little is known about the potential negative consequences of concentrate use. This study reports on associations between past-year use of a high-potency cannabis concentrate, known as butane hash oil (BHO), and cannabis-related problems. A sample of 821 college students were recruited to complete a survey about their health and behavior. Participants who had used cannabis in the past year (33%, n=273) completed questions about their cannabis use, including their use of BHO and cannabis-related problems in eight domains: physical dependence, impaired control, academic-occupational problems, social-interpersonal problems, self-care problems, self-perception, risk behavior, and blackouts. Approximately 44% (n=121) of past-year cannabis users had used BHO in the past year. More frequent BHO use was associated with higher levels of physical dependence (RR=1.8, pcannabis-related academic/occupational problems (RR=1.5, p=0.004), poor self-care (RR=1.3, p=0.002), and cannabis-related risk behavior (RR=1.2, p=0.001). After accounting for sociodemographic factors, age of onset of cannabis use, sensation seeking, overall frequency of cannabis use, and frequency of other substance use, BHO use was still associated with higher levels of physical dependence (RR=1.2, p=0.014). BHO use is associated with greater physiological dependence on cannabis, even after accounting for potential confounders. Longitudinal research is needed to determine if cannabis users with higher levels of physiological dependence seek out BHO and/or if BHO use increases risk for physiological dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Privacy-Preserving and Scalable Service Recommendation Based on SimHash in a Distributed Cloud Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing volume of web services in the cloud environment, Collaborative Filtering- (CF- based service recommendation has become one of the most effective techniques to alleviate the heavy burden on the service selection decisions of a target user. However, the service recommendation bases, that is, historical service usage data, are often distributed in different cloud platforms. Two challenges are present in such a cross-cloud service recommendation scenario. First, a cloud platform is often not willing to share its data to other cloud platforms due to privacy concerns, which decreases the feasibility of cross-cloud service recommendation severely. Second, the historical service usage data recorded in each cloud platform may update over time, which reduces the recommendation scalability significantly. In view of these two challenges, a novel privacy-preserving and scalable service recommendation approach based on SimHash, named SerRecSimHash, is proposed in this paper. Finally, through a set of experiments deployed on a real distributed service quality dataset WS-DREAM, we validate the feasibility of our proposal in terms of recommendation accuracy and efficiency while guaranteeing privacy-preservation.

  19. Secure Hashing of Dynamic Hand Signatures Using Wavelet-Fourier Compression with BioPhasor Mixing and Discretization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Kuan Yip

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a novel method for secure computation of biometric hash on dynamic hand signatures using BioPhasor mixing and discretization. The use of BioPhasor as the mixing process provides a one-way transformation that precludes exact recovery of the biometric vector from compromised hashes and stolen tokens. In addition, our user-specific discretization acts both as an error correction step as well as a real-to-binary space converter. We also propose a new method of extracting compressed representation of dynamic hand signatures using discrete wavelet transform (DWT and discrete fourier transform (DFT. Without the conventional use of dynamic time warping, the proposed method avoids storage of user's hand signature template. This is an important consideration for protecting the privacy of the biometric owner. Our results show that the proposed method could produce stable and distinguishable bit strings with equal error rates (EERs of and for random and skilled forgeries for stolen token (worst case scenario, and for both forgeries in the genuine token (optimal scenario.

  20. Scalable Content Authentication in H.264/SVC Videos Using Perceptual Hashing based on Dempster-Shafer theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Dengpan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The content authenticity of the multimedia delivery is important issue with rapid development and widely used of multimedia technology. Till now many authentication solutions had been proposed, such as cryptology and watermarking based methods. However, in latest heterogeneous network the video stream transmission has been coded in scalable way such as H.264/SVC, there is still no good authentication solution. In this paper, we firstly summarized related works and proposed a scalable content authentication scheme using a ratio of different energy (RDE based perceptual hashing in Q/S dimension, which is used Dempster-Shafer theory and combined with the latest scalable video coding (H.264/SVC construction. The idea of aldquo;sign once and verify in scalable wayardquo; can be realized. Comparing with previous methods, the proposed scheme based on perceptual hashing outperforms previous works in uncertainty (robustness and efficiencies in the H.264/SVC video streams. At last, the experiment results verified the performance of our scheme.

  1. An evaluation of multi-probe locality sensitive hashing for computing similarities over web-scale query logs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Cormode

    Full Text Available Many modern applications of AI such as web search, mobile browsing, image processing, and natural language processing rely on finding similar items from a large database of complex objects. Due to the very large scale of data involved (e.g., users' queries from commercial search engines, computing such near or nearest neighbors is a non-trivial task, as the computational cost grows significantly with the number of items. To address this challenge, we adopt Locality Sensitive Hashing (a.k.a, LSH methods and evaluate four variants in a distributed computing environment (specifically, Hadoop. We identify several optimizations which improve performance, suitable for deployment in very large scale settings. The experimental results demonstrate our variants of LSH achieve the robust performance with better recall compared with "vanilla" LSH, even when using the same amount of space.

  2. RANCANG BANGUN APLIKASI ANTIVIRUS KOMPUTER DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN METODE SECURE HASH ALGORITHM 1 (SHA1 DAN HEURISTIC STRING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Made Panji Indrawinatha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Virus komputer merupakan perangkat lunak berbahaya yang dapat merusak data dan menggandakan diri pada sistem komputer. Untuk mendeteksi dan membersihkan virus dari sistem komputer, maka dibuatlah aplikasi antivirus. Dalam mendeteksi berbagai jenis virus sebuah aplikasi antivirus biasanya menggunakan beberapa metode. Pada penelitian ini akan membahas perancangan sebuah aplikasi antivirus menggunakan metode Secure Hash Algorithm 1 (SHA1 dan heuristic string sebagai metode pendeteksian virus. Dari pengujian yang dilakukan diperoleh hasil dimana saat tidak menggunakan heuristic, antivirus hanya mendeteksi 12 file dari 34 file sample virus atau memiliki tingkat akurasi pendeteksian sebesar 35%. sedangkan saat menggunakan heuristic, antivirus berhasil mendeteksi 31 file dari 34 file sample virus atau memiliki tingkat akurasi pendeteksian sebesar 91%.

  3. UQlust: combining profile hashing with linear-time ranking for efficient clustering and analysis of big macromolecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczak, Rafal; Meller, Jarek

    2016-12-28

    Advances in computing have enabled current protein and RNA structure prediction and molecular simulation methods to dramatically increase their sampling of conformational spaces. The quickly growing number of experimentally resolved structures, and databases such as the Protein Data Bank, also implies large scale structural similarity analyses to retrieve and classify macromolecular data. Consequently, the computational cost of structure comparison and clustering for large sets of macromolecular structures has become a bottleneck that necessitates further algorithmic improvements and development of efficient software solutions. uQlust is a versatile and easy-to-use tool for ultrafast ranking and clustering of macromolecular structures. uQlust makes use of structural profiles of proteins and nucleic acids, while combining a linear-time algorithm for implicit comparison of all pairs of models with profile hashing to enable efficient clustering of large data sets with a low memory footprint. In addition to ranking and clustering of large sets of models of the same protein or RNA molecule, uQlust can also be used in conjunction with fragment-based profiles in order to cluster structures of arbitrary length. For example, hierarchical clustering of the entire PDB using profile hashing can be performed on a typical laptop, thus opening an avenue for structural explorations previously limited to dedicated resources. The uQlust package is freely available under the GNU General Public License at https://github.com/uQlust . uQlust represents a drastic reduction in the computational complexity and memory requirements with respect to existing clustering and model quality assessment methods for macromolecular structure analysis, while yielding results on par with traditional approaches for both proteins and RNAs.

  4. GATHERING TECHNOLOGY BASED ON REGEX WEB PAGE DENOISING HASH ALIGNMENTS WEB CRAWLER WITHOUT LANDING THE MICRO - BLOG ABUNDANT%基于 Regex 网页去噪 Hash 比对的网络爬虫无登陆微博采集技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宇; 孟凡龙; 刘培玉; 朱振方

    2015-01-01

    针对当前微博采集无精确去噪方法和微博无法无登陆采集现象,笔者提出了基于 Regex 网页去噪 Hash 对比的网络爬虫采集方案并利用插件采集实现了无登陆采集。该方法通过 Regex 构建 DFA 和 NFA 模型来去除网页噪声,通过 Hash 对比对确定采集页面,并通过插件权限提升实现无登陆技术。有效的避免了 Hash 值的变化与网页内容变化产生偏离的现象,解决了网络爬虫虚拟登录时多次对 URL 采集造成的身份认证问题。实验表明,该方法可以实时快速的获取微博信息,为舆情数据分析提供批量精准的数据。%In view of the current micro - blog acquisition without accurate denoising method and unable abundantly the non - debarkation gathering phenomenon,we present a web crawler acquisition scheme of Regex Webpage denoising Hash based on comparison and realize no landing collection by using plug - in acquisition. The method of Regex to construct DFA and NFA model to remove Webpage noise,comparing the Hash to determine the collection page,and the plug - in privilege without landing techniques are presented. Experiments show that,this method quickly gets micro - blog information in real time,and provides,accurate data for the mass public opinion data analysis.

  5. Development of a cellulose-based insulating composite material for green buildings: Case of treated organic waste (paper, cardboard, hash)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouargui, Ahmed; Belouaggadia, Naoual; Elbouari, Abdeslam; Ezzine, Mohammed

    2018-05-01

    Buildings are responsible for 36% of the final energy consumption in Morocco [1-2], and a reduction of this energy consumption of buildings is a priority for the kingdom in order to reach its energy saving goals. One of the most effective actions to reduce energy consumption is the selection and development of innovative and efficient building materials [3]. In this work, we present an experimental study of the effect of adding treated organic waste (paper, cardboard, hash) on mechanical and thermal properties of cement and clay bricks. Thermal conductivity, specific heat and mechanical resistance were investigated in terms of content and size additives. Soaking time and drying temperature were also taken into account. The results reveal that thermal conductivity decreases as well in the case of the paper-cement mixture as that of the paper-clay and seems to stabilize around 40%. In the case of the composite paper-cement, it is found that, for an additives quantity exceeding 15%, the compressive strength exceeds the standard for the hollow non-load bearing masonry. However, the case of paper-clay mixture seems to give more interesting results, related to the compressive strength, for a mass composition of 15% in paper. Given the positive results achieved, it seems possible to use these composites for the construction of walls, ceilings and roofs of housing while minimizing the energy consumption of the building.

  6. GSHR-Tree: a spatial index tree based on dynamic spatial slot and hash table in grid environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhanlong; Wu, Xin-cai; Wu, Liang

    2008-12-01

    Computation Grids enable the coordinated sharing of large-scale distributed heterogeneous computing resources that can be used to solve computationally intensive problems in science, engineering, and commerce. Grid spatial applications are made possible by high-speed networks and a new generation of Grid middleware that resides between networks and traditional GIS applications. The integration of the multi-sources and heterogeneous spatial information and the management of the distributed spatial resources and the sharing and cooperative of the spatial data and Grid services are the key problems to resolve in the development of the Grid GIS. The performance of the spatial index mechanism is the key technology of the Grid GIS and spatial database affects the holistic performance of the GIS in Grid Environments. In order to improve the efficiency of parallel processing of a spatial mass data under the distributed parallel computing grid environment, this paper presents a new grid slot hash parallel spatial index GSHR-Tree structure established in the parallel spatial indexing mechanism. Based on the hash table and dynamic spatial slot, this paper has improved the structure of the classical parallel R tree index. The GSHR-Tree index makes full use of the good qualities of R-Tree and hash data structure. This paper has constructed a new parallel spatial index that can meet the needs of parallel grid computing about the magnanimous spatial data in the distributed network. This arithmetic splits space in to multi-slots by multiplying and reverting and maps these slots to sites in distributed and parallel system. Each sites constructs the spatial objects in its spatial slot into an R tree. On the basis of this tree structure, the index data was distributed among multiple nodes in the grid networks by using large node R-tree method. The unbalance during process can be quickly adjusted by means of a dynamical adjusting algorithm. This tree structure has considered the

  7. Fast Implementation of Two Hash Algorithms on nVidia CUDA GPU

    OpenAIRE

    Lerchundi Osa, Gorka

    2009-01-01

    Projecte fet en col.laboració amb Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Department of Telematics User needs increases as time passes. We started with computers like the size of a room where the perforated plaques did the same function as the current machine code object does and at present we are at a point where the number of processors within our graphic device unit it’s not enough for our requirements. A change in the evolution of computing is looming. We are in a t...

  8. A case of butane hash oil (marijuana wax)-induced psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Corey J; Chen, Evan C; Brodsky, Kimberly; Yoon, Jong H

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is one of the most widely used controlled substances in the United States. Despite extensive research on smoked marijuana, little is known regarding the potential psychotropic effects of marijuana "wax," a high-potency form of marijuana that is gaining in popularity. The authors present a case of "Mr. B," a 34-year-old veteran who presented with profound psychosis in the setting of recent initiation of heavy, daily marijuana wax use. He exhibited incoherent speech and odd behaviors and appeared to be in a dream-like state with perseverating thoughts about his combat experience. His condition persisted despite treatment with risperidone 4 mg twice a day (BID), but improved dramatically on day 8 of hospitalization with the return of baseline mental function. Following discharge, Mr. B discontinued all marijuana use and did not exhibit the return of any psychotic symptoms. This study highlights the need for future research regarding the potential medical and psychiatric effects of new, high-potency forms of marijuana. Could cannabis have a dose-dependent impact on psychosis? What other potential psychiatric effects could emerge heretofore unseen in lower potency formulations? Given the recent legalization of marijuana, these questions merit timely exploration.

  9. A chimeric fusion of the hASH1 and EZH2 promoters mediates high and specific reporter and suicide gene expression and cytotoxicity in small cell lung cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, T.T.; Pedersen, N.; Juel, H.

    2008-01-01

    Transcriptionally targeted gene therapy is a promising experimental modality for treatment of systemic malignancies such as small cell lung cancer (SCLC). We have identified the human achaete-scute homolog 1 (hASH1) and enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) genes as highly upregulated in SCLC compar...

  10. Hashing, Randomness and Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Rasmus

    to the similarity to a bookshelf dictionary, which contains a set of words and has an explanation associated with each word. In the static version of the problem the set is fixed, whereas in the dynamic version, insertions and deletions of elements are possible. The approach taken is that of the theoretical...

  11. Derandomization, Hashing and Expanders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzic, Milan

    . The central question in this area of computational complexity is \\P=BPP?". Instead of derandomizing whole complexity classes, one may work on derandomizing concrete problems. This approach trades generality for possibility of having much better performance bounds. There are a few common techniques...

  12. Efficient Server-Aided Secure Two-Party Function Evaluation with Applications to Genomic Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-14

    sense that they can be used to securely evaluate arbitrary functions and offer attrac- tive performance compared to the state of the art . We apply the...seconds. The performance favor- ably compares to the state of the art (as detailed in section 7), in some cases achieving orders of magnitude...148 Table 1. Complexity of constructions in prior and our work. Party Communication Sym. key/hash op . Public key operations Security model [38], A O

  13. Rebound Attack on the Full LANE Compression Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matusiewicz, Krystian; Naya-Plasencia, Maria; Nikolic, Ivica

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we apply the rebound attack to the AES based SHA-3 candidate Lane. The hash function Lane uses a permutation based compression function, consisting of a linear message expansion and 6 parallel lanes. In the rebound attack on Lane, we apply several new techniques to construct...... a collision for the full compression function of Lane-256 and Lane-512. Using a relatively sparse truncated differential path, we are able to solve for a valid message expansion and colliding lanes independently. Additionally, we are able to apply the inbound phase more than once by exploiting the degrees...

  14. Optimization of incremental structure from motion combining a random k-d forest and pHash for unordered images in a complex scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Zongqian; Wang, Chendong; Wang, Xin; Liu, Yi

    2018-01-01

    On the basis of today's popular virtual reality and scientific visualization, three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction is widely used in disaster relief, virtual shopping, reconstruction of cultural relics, etc. In the traditional incremental structure from motion (incremental SFM) method, the time cost of the matching is one of the main factors restricting the popularization of this method. To make the whole matching process more efficient, we propose a preprocessing method before the matching process: (1) we first construct a random k-d forest with the large-scale scale-invariant feature transform features in the images and combine this with the pHash method to obtain a value of relatedness, (2) we then construct a connected weighted graph based on the relatedness value, and (3) we finally obtain a planned sequence of adding images according to the principle of the minimum spanning tree. On this basis, we attempt to thin the minimum spanning tree to reduce the number of matchings and ensure that the images are well distributed. The experimental results show a great reduction in the number of matchings with enough object points, with only a small influence on the inner stability, which proves that this method can quickly and reliably improve the efficiency of the SFM method with unordered multiview images in complex scenes.

  15. Recognition of functional sites in protein structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman-Peleg, Alexandra; Nussinov, Ruth; Wolfson, Haim J

    2004-06-04

    Recognition of regions on the surface of one protein, that are similar to a binding site of another is crucial for the prediction of molecular interactions and for functional classifications. We first describe a novel method, SiteEngine, that assumes no sequence or fold similarities and is able to recognize proteins that have similar binding sites and may perform similar functions. We achieve high efficiency and speed by introducing a low-resolution surface representation via chemically important surface points, by hashing triangles of physico-chemical properties and by application of hierarchical scoring schemes for a thorough exploration of global and local similarities. We proceed to rigorously apply this method to functional site recognition in three possible ways: first, we search a given functional site on a large set of complete protein structures. Second, a potential functional site on a protein of interest is compared with known binding sites, to recognize similar features. Third, a complete protein structure is searched for the presence of an a priori unknown functional site, similar to known sites. Our method is robust and efficient enough to allow computationally demanding applications such as the first and the third. From the biological standpoint, the first application may identify secondary binding sites of drugs that may lead to side-effects. The third application finds new potential sites on the protein that may provide targets for drug design. Each of the three applications may aid in assigning a function and in classification of binding patterns. We highlight the advantages and disadvantages of each type of search, provide examples of large-scale searches of the entire Protein Data Base and make functional predictions.

  16. The Rebound Attack and Subspace Distinguishers: Application to Whirlpool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamberger, Mario; Mendel, Florian; Schläffer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the rebound attack as a variant of differential cryptanalysis on hash functions and apply it to the hash function Whirlpool, standardized by ISO/IEC. We give attacks on reduced variants of the 10-round Whirlpool hash function and compression function. Our results are collisions for 5...

  17. A hash-based image encryption algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheddad, Abbas; Condell, Joan; Curran, Kevin; McKevitt, Paul

    2010-03-01

    There exist several algorithms that deal with text encryption. However, there has been little research carried out to date on encrypting digital images or video files. This paper describes a novel way of encrypting digital images with password protection using 1D SHA-2 algorithm coupled with a compound forward transform. A spatial mask is generated from the frequency domain by taking advantage of the conjugate symmetry of the complex imagery part of the Fourier Transform. This mask is then XORed with the bit stream of the original image. Exclusive OR (XOR), a logical symmetric operation, that yields 0 if both binary pixels are zeros or if both are ones and 1 otherwise. This can be verified simply by modulus (pixel1, pixel2, 2). Finally, confusion is applied based on the displacement of the cipher's pixels in accordance with a reference mask. Both security and performance aspects of the proposed method are analyzed, which prove that the method is efficient and secure from a cryptographic point of view. One of the merits of such an algorithm is to force a continuous tone payload, a steganographic term, to map onto a balanced bits distribution sequence. This bit balance is needed in certain applications, such as steganography and watermarking, since it is likely to have a balanced perceptibility effect on the cover image when embedding.

  18. Porovnání současných a nových hašovacích funkcí

    OpenAIRE

    Suchan, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study is to present comparison of today's most widely used cryptographic hash functions and compare them with drafts of new hash functions, which are being currently developed for Advanced Hash Standard competition. This study also includes implementation of all described functions in programming language C#.

  19. Improved security analysis of Fugue-256

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauravaram, Praveen; Bagheri, Nasour; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2011-01-01

    Fugue is a cryptographic hash function designed by Halevi, Hall and Jutla and was one of the fourteen hash algorithms of the second round of NIST’s SHA3 hash competition. We consider Fugue-256, the 256-bit instance of Fugue. Fugue-256 updates a state of 960 bits with a round transformation R para...

  20. Maximize Minimum Utility Function of Fractional Cloud Computing System Based on Search Algorithm Utilizing the Mittag-Leffler Sum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabha W. Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The maximum min utility function (MMUF problem is an important representative of a large class of cloud computing systems (CCS. Having numerous applications in practice, especially in economy and industry. This paper introduces an effective solution-based search (SBS algorithm for solving the problem MMUF. First, we suggest a new formula of the utility function in term of the capacity of the cloud. We formulate the capacity in CCS, by using a fractional diffeo-integral equation. This equation usually describes the flow of CCS. The new formula of the utility function is modified recent active utility functions. The suggested technique first creates a high-quality initial solution by eliminating the less promising components, and then develops the quality of the achieved solution by the summation search solution (SSS. This method is considered by the Mittag-Leffler sum as hash functions to determine the position of the agent. Experimental results commonly utilized in the literature demonstrate that the proposed algorithm competes approvingly with the state-of-the-art algorithms both in terms of solution quality and computational efficiency.

  1. A machine-checked proof of correctness of Pastry

    OpenAIRE

    Azmy, Noran

    2016-01-01

    A distributed hash table (DHT) is a peer-to-peer network that offers the function of a classic hash table, but where different key-value pairs are stored at different nodes on the network. Like a classic hash table, the main function provided by a DHT is key lookup, which retrieves the value stored at a given key. Examples of DHT protocols include Chord, Pastry, Kademlia and Tapestry. Such DHT protocols certain correctness and performance guarantees, but formal verification typically ...

  2. E Learner Face Identification with Local Sensitive Hashing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... network transmission capacity to send the feature over the network, and to be able to index ... rate of diffusion and energy expertise, provide an innovative methodology for wireless multimedia communications that joins digital ...

  3. Efficient Constructions for One-way Hash Chains

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hu, Yih-Chun; Jakobsson, Markus; Perrig, Adrian

    2003-01-01

    .... Our first construction, the Sandwich-chain, provides a smaller bandwidth overhead for one-way chain values, and enables efficient verification of one-way chain values if the trusted one-way chain value is far away...

  4. A Tree Locality-Sensitive Hash for Secure Software Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-14

    state because it provides an interface to useful program information such as symbols information, system calls, memory allocations, and data flow . To...execution states together, this was augmented with TLSH, and a command-line option exposed to select whether to use TLSH. When merging two states , flow ...a topolo- gical search of the control- flow graph (CFG), attempting to merge states at control flow join points. Whether two states are merged or not

  5. BSSF: a fingerprint based ultrafast binding site similarity search and function analysis server

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Hualiang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome sequencing and post-genomics projects such as structural genomics are extending the frontier of the study of sequence-structure-function relationship of genes and their products. Although many sequence/structure-based methods have been devised with the aim of deciphering this delicate relationship, there still remain large gaps in this fundamental problem, which continuously drives researchers to develop novel methods to extract relevant information from sequences and structures and to infer the functions of newly identified genes by genomics technology. Results Here we present an ultrafast method, named BSSF(Binding Site Similarity & Function, which enables researchers to conduct similarity searches in a comprehensive three-dimensional binding site database extracted from PDB structures. This method utilizes a fingerprint representation of the binding site and a validated statistical Z-score function scheme to judge the similarity between the query and database items, even if their similarities are only constrained in a sub-pocket. This fingerprint based similarity measurement was also validated on a known binding site dataset by comparing with geometric hashing, which is a standard 3D similarity method. The comparison clearly demonstrated the utility of this ultrafast method. After conducting the database searching, the hit list is further analyzed to provide basic statistical information about the occurrences of Gene Ontology terms and Enzyme Commission numbers, which may benefit researchers by helping them to design further experiments to study the query proteins. Conclusions This ultrafast web-based system will not only help researchers interested in drug design and structural genomics to identify similar binding sites, but also assist them by providing further analysis of hit list from database searching.

  6. Generalized functions

    CERN Document Server

    Gelfand, I M; Graev, M I; Vilenkin, N Y; Pyatetskii-Shapiro, I I

    Volume 1 is devoted to basics of the theory of generalized functions. The first chapter contains main definitions and most important properties of generalized functions as functional on the space of smooth functions with compact support. The second chapter talks about the Fourier transform of generalized functions. In Chapter 3, definitions and properties of some important classes of generalized functions are discussed; in particular, generalized functions supported on submanifolds of lower dimension, generalized functions associated with quadratic forms, and homogeneous generalized functions are studied in detail. Many simple basic examples make this book an excellent place for a novice to get acquainted with the theory of generalized functions. A long appendix presents basics of generalized functions of complex variables.

  7. Post-quantum security of the sponge construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, J.; Groot Bruinderink, L.; Hülsing, A.T.; Schaffner, C.; Unruh, D.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the post-quantum security of hash functions based on the sponge construction. A crucial property for hash functions in the post-quantum setting is the collapsing property (a strengthening of collision-resistance). We show that the sponge construction is collapsing (and in consequence

  8. Post-quantum security of the sponge construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czajkowski, Jan; Groot Bruinderink, Leon; Hülsing, Andreas; Schaffner, Christian; Unruh, Dominique

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the post-quantum security of hash functions based on the sponge construction. A crucial property for hash functions in the post-quantum setting is the collapsing property (a strengthening of collision-resistance). We show that the sponge construction is collapsing (and in consequence

  9. D.SYM.4 SHA-3 Design and Cryptanalysis Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauravaram, Praveen; Thomsen, Søren Steffen

    2011-01-01

    The competition to select a new secure hash function standard SHA-3 was initiated in response to surprising progress in the cryptanalysis of existing hash function constructions that started in 2004. In this report we survey design and cryptanalytic results of those 14 candidates that remain in t...

  10. Functional Boxplots

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes an informative exploratory tool, the functional boxplot, for visualizing functional data, as well as its generalization, the enhanced functional boxplot. Based on the center outward ordering induced by band depth for functional data, the descriptive statistics of a functional boxplot are: the envelope of the 50% central region, the median curve, and the maximum non-outlying envelope. In addition, outliers can be detected in a functional boxplot by the 1.5 times the 50% central region empirical rule, analogous to the rule for classical boxplots. The construction of a functional boxplot is illustrated on a series of sea surface temperatures related to the El Niño phenomenon and its outlier detection performance is explored by simulations. As applications, the functional boxplot and enhanced functional boxplot are demonstrated on children growth data and spatio-temporal U.S. precipitation data for nine climatic regions, respectively. This article has supplementary material online. © 2011 American Statistical Association.

  11. Biometric authentication of users through iris by using key binding and similarity preserving hash functions = Autenticación biométrica de usuarios a través del iris mediante la ocultación de claves y funciones resumen que preservan la similitud

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Álvarez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    El extraordinario auge de las nuevas tecnologías de la información, el desarrollo de la Internet de las Cosas, el comercio electrónico, las redes sociales, la telefonía móvil y la computación y almacenamiento en la nube, han proporcionado grandes beneficios en todos los ámbitos de la sociedad. Junto a éstos, se presentan nuevos retos para la protección y privacidad de la información y su contenido, como la suplantación de personalidad y la pérdida de la confidencialidad e integridad de los do...

  12. Orbit Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Klimyk

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, properties of orbit functions are reviewed and further developed. Orbit functions on the Euclidean space E_n are symmetrized exponential functions. The symmetrization is fulfilled by a Weyl group corresponding to a Coxeter-Dynkin diagram. Properties of such functions will be described. An orbit function is the contribution to an irreducible character of a compact semisimple Lie group G of rank n from one of its Weyl group orbits. It is shown that values of orbit functions are repeated on copies of the fundamental domain F of the affine Weyl group (determined by the initial Weyl group in the entire Euclidean space E_n. Orbit functions are solutions of the corresponding Laplace equation in E_n, satisfying the Neumann condition on the boundary of F. Orbit functions determine a symmetrized Fourier transform and a transform on a finite set of points.

  13. Functional displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelis De, F.; Haentjens, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Functional Displays are directly derived from the Man-Machine Design key document: Function-Based Task Analysis. The presentation defines and describes the goals-means structure of the plant function along with applicable control volumes and parameters of interest. The purpose of the subject is to show, through an example of a preliminary design, what the main parts of a function are. (3 figs.)

  14. Functional Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Chitil, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Functional programming is a programming paradigm like object-oriented programming and logic programming. Functional programming comprises both a specific programming style and a class of programming languages that encourage and support this programming style. Functional programming enables the programmer to describe an algorithm on a high-level, in terms of the problem domain, without having to deal with machine-related details. A program is constructed from functions that only map inputs to ...

  15. Functionalized amphipols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Pia, Eduardo Antonio; Hansen, Randi Westh; Zoonens, Manuela

    2014-01-01

    Amphipols are amphipathic polymers that stabilize membrane proteins isolated from their native membrane. They have been functionalized with various chemical groups in the past years for protein labeling and protein immobilization. This large toolbox of functionalized amphipols combined with their...... surfaces for various applications in synthetic biology. This review summarizes the properties of functionalized amphipols suitable for synthetic biology approaches....

  16. Lightness functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campi, Stefano; Gardner, Richard; Gronchi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Variants of the brightness function of a convex body K in n-dimensional Euclidean are investigated. The Lambertian lightness function L(K; v , w ) gives the total reflected light resulting from illumination by a light source at infinity in the direction w that is visible when looking...... in the direction v . The partial brightness function R( K ; v , w ) gives the area of the projection orthogonal to v of the portion of the surface of K that is both illuminated by a light source from the direction w and visible when looking in the direction v . A class of functions called lightness functions...... is introduced that includes L(K;.) and R(K;.) as special cases. Much of the theory of the brightness function like uniqueness, stability, and the existence and properties of convex bodies of maximal and minimal volume with finitely many function values equal to those of a given convex body, is extended...

  17. Functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kantorovich, L V

    1982-01-01

    Functional Analysis examines trends in functional analysis as a mathematical discipline and the ever-increasing role played by its techniques in applications. The theory of topological vector spaces is emphasized, along with the applications of functional analysis to applied analysis. Some topics of functional analysis connected with applications to mathematical economics and control theory are also discussed. Comprised of 18 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to the elements of the theory of topological spaces, the theory of metric spaces, and the theory of abstract measure space

  18. Cryptanalysis of MD2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Mathiassen, John Erik; Muller, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the hash function MD2 which was developed by Ron Rivest in 1989. Despite its age, MD2 has withstood cryptanalytic attacks until recently. This paper contains the state-of-the-art cryptanalytic results on MD2, in particular collision and preimage attacks on the full hash...

  19. Putting Wings on SPHINCS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kölbl, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    SPHINCS is a recently proposed stateless hash-based signature scheme and promising candidate for a post-quantum secure digital signature scheme. In this work we provide a comparison of the performance when instantiating SPHINCS with different cryptographic hash functions on both recent Intel...

  20. XMSS : a practical forward secure signature scheme based on minimal security assumptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchmann, Johannes; Dahmen, Erik; Hülsing, Andreas; Yang, B.-Y.

    2011-01-01

    We present the hash-based signature scheme XMSS. It is the first provably (forward) secure and practical signature scheme with minimal security requirements: a pseudorandom and a second preimage resistant (hash) function family. Its signature size is reduced to less than 25% compared to the best

  1. Functional Boxplots

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying; Genton, Marc G.

    2011-01-01

    data, the descriptive statistics of a functional boxplot are: the envelope of the 50% central region, the median curve, and the maximum non-outlying envelope. In addition, outliers can be detected in a functional boxplot by the 1.5 times the 50% central

  2. Functional coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L; McWhirter, L; Williams, S; Derry, C; Stone, J

    2016-01-01

    Functional coma - here defined as a prolonged motionless dissociative attack with absent or reduced response to external stimuli - is a relatively rare presentation. In this chapter we examine a wide range of terms used to describe states of unresponsiveness in which psychologic factors are relevant to etiology, such as depressive stupor, catatonia, nonepileptic "pseudostatus," and factitious disorders, and discuss the place of functional or psychogenic coma among these. Historically, diagnosis of functional coma has sometimes been reached after prolonged investigation and exclusion of other diagnoses. However, as is the case with other functional disorders, diagnosis should preferably be made on the basis of positive findings that provide evidence of inconsistency between an apparent comatose state and normal waking nervous system functioning. In our review of physical signs, we find some evidence for the presence of firm resistance to eye opening as reasonably sensitive and specific for functional coma, as well as the eye gaze sign, in which patients tend to look to the ground when turned on to one side. Noxious stimuli such as Harvey's sign (application of high-frequency vibrating tuning fork to the nasal mucosa) can also be helpful, although patients with this disorder are often remarkably unresponsive to usually painful stimuli, particularly as more commonly applied using sternal or nail bed pressure. The use of repeated painful stimuli is therefore not recommended. We also discuss the role of general anesthesia and other physiologic triggers to functional coma. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Rhinoplasty (Functional)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RESOURCES Medical Societies Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > TREATMENTS > Rhinoplasty (Functional) Nasal/Sinus Irrigation ... performed to restore breathing, it typically necessitates some type of change to the appearance of the nose. ...

  4. Functional tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwingenschuh, P; Deuschl, G

    2016-01-01

    Functional tremor is the commonest reported functional movement disorder. A confident clinical diagnosis of functional tremor is often possible based on the following "positive" criteria: a sudden tremor onset, unusual disease course, often with fluctuations or remissions, distractibility of the tremor if attention is removed from the affected body part, tremor entrainment, tremor variability, and a coactivation sign. Many patients show excessive exhaustion during examination. Other somatizations may be revealed in the medical history and patients may show additional functional neurologic symptoms and signs. In cases where the clinical diagnosis remains challenging, providing a "laboratory-supported" level of certainty aids an early positive diagnosis. In rare cases, in which the distinction from Parkinson's disease is difficult, dopamine transporter single-photon emission computed tomography (DAT-SPECT) can be indicated. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cognitive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because chemicals can adversely affect cognitive function in humans, considerable effort has been made to characterize their effects using animal models. Information from such models will be necessary to: evaluate whether chemicals identified as potentially neurotoxic by screenin...

  6. Functional unparsing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2000-01-01

    A string-formatting function such as printf in C seemingly requires dependent types, because its control string determines the rest of its arguments. Examples: formula here We show how changing the representation of the control string makes it possible to program printf in ML (which does not allow...... dependent types). The result is well typed and perceptibly more efficient than the corresponding library functions in Standard ML of New Jersey and in Caml....

  7. Functional Unparsing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    1998-01-01

    A string-formatting function such as printf in C seemingly requires dependent types, because its control string determines the rest of its arguments. We show how changing the representation of the control string makes it possible to program printf in ML (which does not allow dependent types......). The result is well typed and perceptibly more efficient than the corresponding library functions in Standard ML of New Jersey and in Caml....

  8. Overlap functions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bustince, H.; Fernández, J.; Mesiar, Radko; Montero, J.; Orduna, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 72, 3-4 (2010), s. 1488-1499 ISSN 0362-546X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/08/0618 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : t-norm * Migrative property * Homogeneity property * Overlap function Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.279, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/E/mesiar-overlap functions.pdf

  9. Bessel functions

    CERN Document Server

    Nambudiripad, K B M

    2014-01-01

    After presenting the theory in engineers' language without the unfriendly abstraction of pure mathematics, several illustrative examples are discussed in great detail to see how the various functions of the Bessel family enter into the solution of technically important problems. Axisymmetric vibrations of a circular membrane, oscillations of a uniform chain, heat transfer in circular fins, buckling of columns of varying cross-section, vibrations of a circular plate and current density in a conductor of circular cross-section are considered. The problems are formulated purely from physical considerations (using, for example, Newton's law of motion, Fourier's law of heat conduction electromagnetic field equations, etc.) Infinite series expansions, recurrence relations, manipulation of expressions involving Bessel functions, orthogonality and expansion in Fourier-Bessel series are also covered in some detail. Some important topics such as asymptotic expansions, generating function and Sturm-Lioville theory are r...

  10. Functional inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Ghoussoub, Nassif

    2013-01-01

    The book describes how functional inequalities are often manifestations of natural mathematical structures and physical phenomena, and how a few general principles validate large classes of analytic/geometric inequalities, old and new. This point of view leads to "systematic" approaches for proving the most basic inequalities, but also for improving them, and for devising new ones--sometimes at will and often on demand. These general principles also offer novel ways for estimating best constants and for deciding whether these are attained in appropriate function spaces. As such, improvements of Hardy and Hardy-Rellich type inequalities involving radially symmetric weights are variational manifestations of Sturm's theory on the oscillatory behavior of certain ordinary differential equations. On the other hand, most geometric inequalities, including those of Sobolev and Log-Sobolev type, are simply expressions of the convexity of certain free energy functionals along the geodesics on the Wasserstein manifold of...

  11. Algebraic functions

    CERN Document Server

    Bliss, Gilbert Ames

    1933-01-01

    This book, immediately striking for its conciseness, is one of the most remarkable works ever produced on the subject of algebraic functions and their integrals. The distinguishing feature of the book is its third chapter, on rational functions, which gives an extremely brief and clear account of the theory of divisors.... A very readable account is given of the topology of Riemann surfaces and of the general properties of abelian integrals. Abel's theorem is presented, with some simple applications. The inversion problem is studied for the cases of genus zero and genus unity. The chapter on t

  12. Functional dyspepsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleibeuker, JH; Thijs, JC

    2004-01-01

    Purpose of review Functional dyspepsia is a common disorder, most of the time of unknown etiology and with variable pathophysiology. Therapy has been and still is largely empirical. Data from recent studies provide new clues for targeted therapy based on knowledge of etiology and pathophysiologic

  13. Functional Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fani Nolimal

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The author first defines literacy as the ability of co-operation in all fields of life and points at the features of illiterate or semi-literate individuals. The main stress is laid upon the assessment of literacy and illiteracy. In her opinion the main weak­ ness of this kind of evaluation are its vague psycho-metric characteristics, which leads to results valid in a single geographical or cultural environment only. She also determines the factors causing illiteracy, and she states that the level of functional literacy is more and more becoming a national indicator of successfulness.

  14. On the k-independence required by linear probing and minwise independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pǎtraşcu, Mihai; Thorup, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    We show that linear probing requires 5-independent hash functions for expected constant-time performance, matching an upper bound of Pagh et al. [2009]. More precisely, we construct a random 4-independent hash function yielding expected logarithmic search time for certain keys. For (1 + ε......)-approximate minwise independence, we show that Ω(lg1 ε)-independent hash functions are required, matching an upper bound of Indyk [2001]. We also show that the very fast 2-independent multiply-shift scheme of Dietzfelbinger [1996] fails badly in both applications....

  15. Lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorichter, S.

    2009-01-01

    The term lung function is often restricted to the assessment of volume time curves measured at the mouth. Spirometry includes the assessment of lung volumes which can be mobilised with the corresponding flow-volume curves. In addition, lung volumes that can not be mobilised, such as the residual volume, or only partially as FRC and TLC can be measured by body plethysmography combined with the determination of the airway resistance. Body plethysmography allows the correct positioning of forced breathing manoeuvres on the volume-axis, e.g. before and after pharmacotherapy. Adding the CO single breath transfer factor (T LCO ), which includes the measurement of the ventilated lung volume using He, enables a clear diagnosis of different obstructive, restrictive or mixed ventilatory defects with and without trapped air. Tests of reversibility and provocation, as well as the assessment of inspiratory mouth pressures (PI max , P 0.1 ) help to classify the underlying disorder and to clarify treatment strategies. For further information and to complete the diagnostic of disturbances of the ventilation, diffusion and/or perfusion (capillar-)arterial bloodgases at rest and under physical strain sometimes amended by ergospirometry are recommended. Ideally, lung function measurements are amended by radiological and nuclear medicine techniques. (orig.) [de

  16. Functional phlebology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.; May, R.; Biland, L.; Endert, G.; Gottlob, R.; Justich, E.; Luebcke, P.; Mignon, G.; Moltz, L.; Partsch, H.; Petter, A.; Ritter, H.; Soerensen, R.; Widmer, L.K.; Widmer, M.T.; Zemp, E.

    1990-01-01

    The book presents a complete survey of the problems occurring in the venous system of the legs, pelvis, and abdomen. The material is arranged in the following main chapters: (1) Introduction to the phlebology of the low-pressure system in the lower part of the body; (2) Phlebographic methods; (3) Instrumented function studies and methods; (4) Pathologic findings; (5) Diagnostic methods and vein therapy; (6) Interventional radiology; (7) Expert opinions on venous lesions including insurance aspects. The first chapter encompasses a section briefly discussing the available instrumented diagnostic imaging methods. In view of the novel imaging methods, namely digital subtraction phlebology, sonography, CT and MRI, the classical phlebography remains the gold standard, so to speak: all currently available phlebographic methods for imaging the venes in the legs, pelvis and abdomen are explained and comparatively evaluated. Instrumented function tests such as Doppler effect ultrasound testing, plethysmography, peripheral and central phlebodynamometry (venous pressure measurement) are analysed for their diagnostic value and as alternative or supplementing techniques in comparison to phlebology. (orig./MG) With 843 figs., 101 tabs [de

  17. Functional Credentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deuber Dominic

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A functional credential allows a user to anonymously prove possession of a set of attributes that fulfills a certain policy. The policies are arbitrary polynomially computable predicates that are evaluated over arbitrary attributes. The key feature of this primitive is the delegation of verification to third parties, called designated verifiers. The delegation protects the privacy of the policy: A designated verifier can verify that a user satisfies a certain policy without learning anything about the policy itself. We illustrate the usefulness of this property in different applications, including outsourced databases with access control. We present a new framework to construct functional credentials that does not require (non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs. This is important in settings where the statements are complex and thus the resulting zero-knowledge proofs are not efficient. Our construction is based on any predicate encryption scheme and the security relies on standard assumptions. A complexity analysis and an experimental evaluation confirm the practicality of our approach.

  18. Functional Angioplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Tewari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coronary angiography underestimates or overestimates lesion severity, but still remains the cornerstone in the decision making for revascularization for an overwhelming majority of interventional cardiologists. Guidelines recommend and endorse non invasive functional evaluation ought to precede revascularization. In real world practice, this is adopted in less than 50% of patients who go on to have some form of revascularization. Fractional flow reserve (FFR is the ratio of maximal blood flow in a stenotic coronary relative to maximal flow in the same vessel, were it normal. Being independent of changes in heart rate, BP or prior infarction; and take into account the contribution of collateral blood flow. It is a majorly specific index with a reasonably high sensitivity (88%, specificity (100%, positive predictive value (100%, and overall accuracy (93%. Whilst FFR provides objective determination of ischemia and helps select appropriate candidates for revascularization (for both CABG and PCI in to cath lab itself before intervention, whereas intravascular ultrasound/optical coherence tomography guidance in PCI can secure the procedure by optimizing stent expansion. Functional angioplasty simply is incorporating both intravascular ultrasound and FFR into our daily Intervention practices.

  19. Thyroid Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Thyroid Function Tests Leer en Español Thyroid Function Tests FUNCTION HOW DOES THE THYROID GLAND FUNCTION? ... Cancer Thyroid Nodules in Children and Adolescents Thyroid Function Tests Resources Thyroid Function Tests Brochure PDF En ...

  20. Functional materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. Y.; Hong, G. W.; Lee, H. J.

    2002-05-01

    Development of fabrication process of functional ceramic materials, evaluation of characteristics and experiments for understanding of irradiation behavior of ceramics were carried out for application of ceramics to the nuclear industry. The developed processes were the SiC surface coating technology with large area for improvement of wear resistance and corrosion resistance, the fabrication technology of SiC composites for excellent irradiation resistance, performance improvement technology of SiC fiber and nano-sized powder processing by combustion ignition and spray. Typical results were CVD SiC coating with diameter of 25cm and thickness of 100μm, highly dense SiC composite by F-CVI, heat-treating technology of SiC fiber using B4C power, and nano-sized powders of ODS-Cu, Li-based breeding materials, Ni-based metal powders with primary particle diameter of 20∼50nm. Furthermore, test equipment, data productions and damage evaluations were performed to understand corrosion resistance and wear resistance of alumina, silicon carbide and silicon nitride under PWR or PHWR operation conditions. Experimental procedures and basic technologies for evaluation of irradiation behavior were also established. Additionally, highly reactive precursor powders were developed by various technologies and the powders were applied to the fabrication of 100 m long Ag/Bi-2223 multi-filamentary wires. High Tc magnets and fly wheel for energy storage were developed, as well

  1. Special functions & their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, N N

    1972-01-01

    Famous Russian work discusses the application of cylinder functions and spherical harmonics; gamma function; probability integral and related functions; Airy functions; hyper-geometric functions; more. Translated by Richard Silverman.

  2. Functional Programming in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, Thomas

    Master functions and discover how to write functional programs in R. In this book, you'll make your functions pure by avoiding side-effects; you’ll write functions that manipulate other functions, and you’ll construct complex functions using simpler functions as building blocks. In Functional...... Programming in R, you’ll see how we can replace loops, which can have side-effects, with recursive functions that can more easily avoid them. In addition, the book covers why you shouldn't use recursion when loops are more efficient and how you can get the best of both worlds. Functional programming...... functions by combining simpler functions. You will: Write functions in R including infix operators and replacement functions Create higher order functions Pass functions to other functions and start using functions as data you can manipulate Use Filer, Map and Reduce functions to express the intent behind...

  3. Secure Oblivious Hiding, Authentication, Tamper Proofing, and Verification Techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fridrich, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    In this report, we describe an algorithm for robust visual hash functions with applications to digital image watermarking for authentication and integrity verification of video data and still images...

  4. A parallel reconfigurable platform for efficient sequence alignment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-08-13

    Aug 13, 2014 ... efficient probabilistic data structure that is used to test whether an element ... of given string with the help of hash functions; 4) ... It speeds up the data searching .... International Journal of Automation and Computing, Springer.

  5. Resummed coefficient function for the shape function

    OpenAIRE

    Aglietti, U.

    2001-01-01

    We present a leading evaluation of the resummed coefficient function for the shape function. It is also shown that the coefficient function is short-distance-dominated. Our results allow relating the shape function computed on the lattice to the physical QCD distributions.

  6. All in a day's work: Password cracking for the rest of us

    OpenAIRE

    Blakstad, Jørgen Wahl; Nergård, Rune; Jaatun, Martin Gilje; Gligoroski, Danilo

    2009-01-01

    The majority of computer systems are still protected primarily with a user name and password, and many users employ the same password on multiple systems. Additionally, some of the most popular operating systems such as Windows XP, Windows Vista and the upcoming Windows 7, still use ad-hoc constructed hash functions such as LM, while many Linux variants use the broken hash function MD5. This paper describes an experiment where we have tested the strengthof a selection of passwords when conver...

  7. An Optimal Non-Interactive Message Authentication Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Pasini, Sylvain; Vaudenay, Serge

    2006-01-01

    Vaudenay recently proposed a message authentication protocol which is interactive and based on short authenticated strings (SAS). We study here SAS-based non-interactive message authentication protocols (NIMAP). We start by the analysis of two popular non-interactive message authentication protocols. The first one is based on a collision-resistant hash function and was presented by Balfanz et al. The second protocol is based on a universal hash function family and was proposed by Gehrmann, Mi...

  8. Time functions function best as functions of multiple times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desain, P.; Honing, H.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents an elegant way of representing control functions at an abstractlevel. It introduces time functions that have multiple times as arguments. In this waythe generalized concept of a time function can support absolute and relative kinds of time behavior. Furthermore the

  9. Wave-function functionals for the density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slamet, Marlina; Pan Xiaoyin; Sahni, Viraht

    2011-01-01

    We extend the idea of the constrained-search variational method for the construction of wave-function functionals ψ[χ] of functions χ. The search is constrained to those functions χ such that ψ[χ] reproduces the density ρ(r) while simultaneously leading to an upper bound to the energy. The functionals are thereby normalized and automatically satisfy the electron-nucleus coalescence condition. The functionals ψ[χ] are also constructed to satisfy the electron-electron coalescence condition. The method is applied to the ground state of the helium atom to construct functionals ψ[χ] that reproduce the density as given by the Kinoshita correlated wave function. The expectation of single-particle operators W=Σ i r i n , n=-2,-1,1,2, W=Σ i δ(r i ) are exact, as must be the case. The expectations of the kinetic energy operator W=-(1/2)Σ i ∇ i 2 , the two-particle operators W=Σ n u n , n=-2,-1,1,2, where u=|r i -r j |, and the energy are accurate. We note that the construction of such functionals ψ[χ] is an application of the Levy-Lieb constrained-search definition of density functional theory. It is thereby possible to rigorously determine which functional ψ[χ] is closer to the true wave function.

  10. Nonlocal kinetic energy functionals by functional integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Wenhui; Genova, Alessandro; Pavanello, Michele

    2018-05-01

    Since the seminal studies of Thomas and Fermi, researchers in the Density-Functional Theory (DFT) community are searching for accurate electron density functionals. Arguably, the toughest functional to approximate is the noninteracting kinetic energy, Ts[ρ], the subject of this work. The typical paradigm is to first approximate the energy functional and then take its functional derivative, δ/Ts[ρ ] δ ρ (r ) , yielding a potential that can be used in orbital-free DFT or subsystem DFT simulations. Here, this paradigm is challenged by constructing the potential from the second-functional derivative via functional integration. A new nonlocal functional for Ts[ρ] is prescribed [which we dub Mi-Genova-Pavanello (MGP)] having a density independent kernel. MGP is constructed to satisfy three exact conditions: (1) a nonzero "Kinetic electron" arising from a nonzero exchange hole; (2) the second functional derivative must reduce to the inverse Lindhard function in the limit of homogenous densities; (3) the potential is derived from functional integration of the second functional derivative. Pilot calculations show that MGP is capable of reproducing accurate equilibrium volumes, bulk moduli, total energy, and electron densities for metallic (body-centered cubic, face-centered cubic) and semiconducting (crystal diamond) phases of silicon as well as of III-V semiconductors. The MGP functional is found to be numerically stable typically reaching self-consistency within 12 iterations of a truncated Newton minimization algorithm. MGP's computational cost and memory requirements are low and comparable to the Wang-Teter nonlocal functional or any generalized gradient approximation functional.

  11. Generalized Probability Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Souto Martinez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available From the integration of nonsymmetrical hyperboles, a one-parameter generalization of the logarithmic function is obtained. Inverting this function, one obtains the generalized exponential function. Motivated by the mathematical curiosity, we show that these generalized functions are suitable to generalize some probability density functions (pdfs. A very reliable rank distribution can be conveniently described by the generalized exponential function. Finally, we turn the attention to the generalization of one- and two-tail stretched exponential functions. We obtain, as particular cases, the generalized error function, the Zipf-Mandelbrot pdf, the generalized Gaussian and Laplace pdf. Their cumulative functions and moments were also obtained analytically.

  12. Functionality and homogeneity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    Functionality and homogeneity are two of the five Sustainable Safety principles. The functionality principle aims for roads to have but one exclusive function and distinguishes between traffic function (flow) and access function (residence). The homogeneity principle aims at differences in mass,

  13. Best-First Heuristic Search for Multicore Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Otto, 1998) to implement an asynchronous version of PRA* that they call Hash Distributed A* ( HDA *). HDA * distributes nodes using a hash function in...nodes which are being communicated between peers are in transit. In contact with the authors of HDA *, we have created an implementation of HDA * for...Also, our implementation of HDA * allows us to make a fair comparison between algorithms by sharing common data structures such as priority queues and

  14. Extraocular muscle function testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003397.htm Extraocular muscle function testing To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Extraocular muscle function testing examines the function of the eye muscles. ...

  15. Congenital platelet function defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pool disorder; Glanzmann's thrombasthenia; Bernard-Soulier syndrome; Platelet function defects - congenital ... Congenital platelet function defects are bleeding disorders that cause reduced platelet function. Most of the time, people with these disorders have ...

  16. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) ... kidneys ) is working. What Is a Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel? A liver function panel is a blood ...

  17. Platelet Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Platelet Function Tests Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Also Known As Platelet Aggregation Studies PFT Platelet Function Assay PFA Formal Name Platelet Function Tests This ...

  18. On Poisson functions

    OpenAIRE

    Terashima, Yuji

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, defining Poisson functions on super manifolds, we show that the graphs of Poisson functions are Dirac structures, and find Poisson functions which include as special cases both quasi-Poisson structures and twisted Poisson structures.

  19. Investigating body function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monks, R.; Riley, A.L.M.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to the investigation of body function, especially small bowel function but also liver function, using bile acids and bile salts or their metabolic precursors labelled with radio isotopes and selenium or tellurium. (author)

  20. Functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, W; Longstreth, G; Drossman, D; Heaton, K; Irvine, E; Muller-Lissner, S

    1999-01-01

    The Rome diagnostic criteria for the functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain are used widely in research and practice. A committee consensus approach, including criticism from multinational expert reviewers, was used to revise the diagnostic criteria and update diagnosis and treatment recommendations, based on research results. The terminology was clarified and the diagnostic criteria and management recommendations were revised. A functional bowel disorder (FBD) is diagnosed ...

  1. Functional microorganisms for functional food quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbetti, M; Cagno, R Di; De Angelis, M

    2010-09-01

    Functional microorganisms and health benefits represent a binomial with great potential for fermented functional foods. The health benefits of fermented functional foods are expressed either directly through the interactions of ingested live microorganisms with the host (probiotic effect) or indirectly as the result of the ingestion of microbial metabolites synthesized during fermentation (biogenic effect). Since the importance of high viability for probiotic effect, two major options are currently pursued for improving it--to enhance bacterial stress response and to use alternative products for incorporating probiotics (e.g., ice cream, cheeses, cereals, fruit juices, vegetables, and soy beans). Further, it seems that quorum sensing signal molecules released by probiotics may interact with human epithelial cells from intestine thus modulating several physiological functions. Under optimal processing conditions, functional microorganisms contribute to food functionality through their enzyme portfolio and the release of metabolites. Overproduction of free amino acids and vitamins are two classical examples. Besides, bioactive compounds (e.g., peptides, γ-amino butyric acid, and conjugated linoleic acid) may be released during food processing above the physiological threshold and they may exert various in vivo health benefits. Functional microorganisms are even more used in novel strategies for decreasing phenomenon of food intolerance (e.g., gluten intolerance) and allergy. By a critical approach, this review will aim at showing the potential of functional microorganisms for the quality of functional foods.

  2. The Interpretive Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    Approximately a decade ago, it was suggested that a new function should be added to the lexicographical function theory: the interpretive function(1). However, hardly any research has been conducted into this function, and though it was only suggested that this new function was relevant...... to incorporate into lexicographical theory, some scholars have since then assumed that this function exists(2), including the author of this contribution. In Agerbo (2016), I present arguments supporting the incorporation of the interpretive function into the function theory and suggest how non-linguistic signs...... can be treated in specific dictionary articles. However, in the current article, due to the results of recent research, I argue that the interpretive function should not be considered an individual main function. The interpretive function, contrary to some of its definitions, is not connected...

  3. Every storage function is a state function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trentelman, H.L.; Willems, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that for linear dynamical systems with quadratic supply rates, a storage function can always be written as a quadratic function of the state of an associated linear dynamical system. This dynamical system is obtained by combining the dynamics of the original system with the dynamics of

  4. Persistent Functional Languages: Toward Functional Relational Databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, L.

    2014-01-01

    Functional languages provide new approaches to concurrency control, based on techniques such as lazy evaluation and memoization. We have designed and implemented a persistent functional language based on these ideas, which we plan to use for the implementation of a relational database system. With

  5. Museums and Their Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Harold

    1985-01-01

    Historical background concerning the nature and function of museums is provided, and the aesthetic functions of museums are discussed. The first major aesthetic function of museums is to preserve the artistic heritage of mankind and to make it widely available. The second major function is patronage. (RM)

  6. Hierarchical wave functions revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dingping.

    1997-11-01

    We study the hierarchical wave functions on a sphere and on a torus. We simplify some wave functions on a sphere or a torus using the analytic properties of wave functions. The open question, the construction of the wave function for quasi electron excitation on a torus, is also solved in this paper. (author)

  7. Functional Programming in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, Thomas

    Master functions and discover how to write functional programs in R. In this book, you'll make your functions pure by avoiding side-effects; you’ll write functions that manipulate other functions, and you’ll construct complex functions using simpler functions as building blocks. In Functional...... Programming in R, you’ll see how we can replace loops, which can have side-effects, with recursive functions that can more easily avoid them. In addition, the book covers why you shouldn't use recursion when loops are more efficient and how you can get the best of both worlds. Functional programming...... is a style of programming, like object-oriented programming, but one that focuses on data transformations and calculations rather than objects and state. Where in object-oriented programming you model your programs by describing which states an object can be in and how methods will reveal or modify...

  8. Functional Programming in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mailund, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Master functions and discover how to write functional programs in R. In this book, you'll make your functions pure by avoiding side-effects; you’ll write functions that manipulate other functions, and you’ll construct complex functions using simpler functions as building blocks. In Functional...... Programming in R, you’ll see how we can replace loops, which can have side-effects, with recursive functions that can more easily avoid them. In addition, the book covers why you shouldn't use recursion when loops are more efficient and how you can get the best of both worlds. Functional programming...... is a style of programming, like object-oriented programming, but one that focuses on data transformations and calculations rather than objects and state. Where in object-oriented programming you model your programs by describing which states an object can be in and how methods will reveal or modify...

  9. Teager Correlation Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Tommy Kristensen; Hamila, R.; Gabbouj, M.

    1998-01-01

    A new correlation function called the Teager correlation function is introduced in this paper. The connection between this function, the Teager energy operator and the conventional correlation function is established. Two applications are presented. The first is the minimization of the Teager error...... norm and the second one is the use of the instantaneous Teager correlation function for simultaneous estimation of TDOA and FDOA (Time and Frequency Difference of Arrivals)....

  10. Properties of Ambiguity Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Mulcahy-Stanislawczyk, John

    2014-01-01

    The use of ambiguity functions in radar signal design and analysis is very common. Understanding the various properties and meanings of ambiguity functions allow a signal designer to understand the time delay and doppler shift properties of a given signal. Through the years, several different versions of the ambiguity function have been used. Each of these functions essentially have the same physical meaning; however, the use of different functions makes it difficult to be sure that certai...

  11. Ergotic / epistemic / semiotic functions

    OpenAIRE

    Luciani , Annie

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Claude Cadoz has introduced a typology of human-environment relation, identifying three functions. This typology allows characterizing univocally, i.e. in a non-redundant manner, the computer devices and interfaces that allow human to interact with environment through and by computers. These three functions are: the epistemic function, the semiotic function, the ergotic function. Conversely to the terms epistemic and semiotic that are usual, the term ergotic has been s...

  12. Optimization of de novo transcriptome assembly from high-throughput short read sequencing data improves functional annotation for non-model organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haznedaroglu Berat Z

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The k-mer hash length is a key factor affecting the output of de novo transcriptome assembly packages using de Bruijn graph algorithms. Assemblies constructed with varying single k-mer choices might result in the loss of unique contiguous sequences (contigs and relevant biological information. A common solution to this problem is the clustering of single k-mer assemblies. Even though annotation is one of the primary goals of a transcriptome assembly, the success of assembly strategies does not consider the impact of k-mer selection on the annotation output. This study provides an in-depth k-mer selection analysis that is focused on the degree of functional annotation achieved for a non-model organism where no reference genome information is available. Individual k-mers and clustered assemblies (CA were considered using three representative software packages. Pair-wise comparison analyses (between individual k-mers and CAs were produced to reveal missing Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG ortholog identifiers (KOIs, and to determine a strategy that maximizes the recovery of biological information in a de novo transcriptome assembly. Results Analyses of single k-mer assemblies resulted in the generation of various quantities of contigs and functional annotations within the selection window of k-mers (k-19 to k-63. For each k-mer in this window, generated assemblies contained certain unique contigs and KOIs that were not present in the other k-mer assemblies. Producing a non-redundant CA of k-mers 19 to 63 resulted in a more complete functional annotation than any single k-mer assembly. However, a fraction of unique annotations remained (~0.19 to 0.27% of total KOIs in the assemblies of individual k-mers (k-19 to k-63 that were not present in the non-redundant CA. A workflow to recover these unique annotations is presented. Conclusions This study demonstrated that different k-mer choices result in various quantities

  13. Variational functionals which admit discontinuous trial functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    It is argued that variational synthesis with discontinuous trial functions requires variational principles applicable to equations involving operators acting between distinct Hilbert spaces. A description is given of a Roussopoulos-type variational principle generalized to cover this situation. This principle is suggested as the basis for a unified approach to the derivation of variational functionals. In addition to esthetics, this approach has the advantage that the mathematical details increase the understanding of the derived functional, particularly the sense in which a synthesized solution should be regarded as an approximation to the true solution. By way of illustration, the generalized Roussopoulos principle is applied to derive a class of first-order diffusion functionals which admit trial functions containing approximations at an interface. These ''asymptotic'' interface quantities are independent of the limiting approximations from either side and permit use of different trial spectra at and on either side of an interface. The class of functionals derived contains as special cases both the Lagrange multiplier method of Buslik and two functionals of Lambropoulos and Luco. Some numerical results for a simple two-group model confirm that the ''multipliers'' can closely approximate the appropriate quantity in the region near an interface. (U.S.)

  14. A Blue Lagoon Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2007-01-01

    We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$.......We consider a specific function of two variables whose graph surface resembles a blue lagoon. The function has a saddle point $p$, but when the function is restricted to any given straight line through $p$ it has a {\\em{strict local minimum}} along that line at $p$....

  15. Quality function deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    This book indicates quality function deployment with quality and deployment of quality function, process and prospect of quality function deployment and development, product process and conception of quality table, deployment of quality demand, design of quality table and application of concurrent multi design, progress design and quality development, main safe part and management of important function part, quality development and deployment of method of construction, quality deployment and economics, total system of quality function deployment and task of quality function deployment in the present and future.

  16. Functional Object Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raket, Lars Lau

    We propose a direction it the field of statistics which we will call functional object analysis. This subfields considers the analysis of functional objects defined on continuous domains. In this setting we will focus on model-based statistics, with a particularly emphasis on mixed......-effect formulations, where the observed functional signal is assumed to consist of both fixed and random functional effects. This thesis takes the initial steps toward the development of likelihood-based methodology for functional objects. We first consider analysis of functional data defined on high...

  17. High spin structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis explores deep inelastic scattering of a lepton beam from a polarized nuclear target with spin J=1. After reviewing the formation for spin-1/2, the structure functions for a spin-1 target are defined in terms of the helicity amplitudes for forward compton scattering. A version of the convolution model, which incorporates relativistic and binding energy corrections is used to calculate the structure functions of a neutron target. A simple parameterization of these structure functions is given in terms of a few neutron wave function parameters and the free nucleon structure functions. This allows for an easy comparison of structure functions calculated using different neutron models. (author)

  18. Churn-Resilient Replication Strategy for Peer-to-Peer Distributed Hash-Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legtchenko, Sergey; Monnet, Sébastien; Sens, Pierre; Muller, Gilles

    DHT-based P2P systems provide a fault-tolerant and scalable mean to store data blocks in a fully distributed way. Unfortunately, recent studies have shown that if connection/disconnection frequency is too high, data blocks may be lost. This is true for most current DHT-based system's implementations. To avoid this problem, it is necessary to build really efficient replication and maintenance mechanisms. In this paper, we study the effect of churn on an existing DHT-based P2P system such as DHash or PAST. We then propose solutions to enhance churn tolerance and evaluate them through discrete event simulations.

  19. Optimizing Hash-Array Mapped Tries for Fast and Lean Immutable JVM Collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Steindorfer (Michael); J.J. Vinju (Jurgen)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe data structures under-pinning collection API (e.g. lists, sets, maps) in the standard libraries of programming languages are used intensively in many applications. The standard libraries of recent Java Virtual Machine languages, such as Clojure or Scala, contain scalable and

  20. Using pseudo-random number generator for making iterative algorithms of hashing data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, M.A.; Vasil'ev, N.P.; Kozyrskij, B.L.

    2014-01-01

    The method of stochastic data transformation made for usage in cryptographic methods of information protection has been analyzed. The authors prove the usage of cryptographically strong pseudo-random number generators as a basis for Sponge construction. This means that the analysis of the quality of the known methods and tools for assessing the statistical security of pseudo-random number generators can be used effectively [ru

  1. A Novel Secure Image Hashing Based on Reversible Watermarking for Forensic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Doyoddorj, Munkhbaatar; Rhee, Kyung-Hyune

    2011-01-01

    Part 2: Workshop; International audience; Nowadays, digital images and videos have become increasingly popular over the Internet and bring great social impact to a wide audience. In the meanwhile, technology advancement allows people to easily alter the content of digital multimedia and brings serious concern on the trustworthiness of online multimedia information. In this paper, we propose a new framework for multimedia forensics by using compact side information based on reversible watermar...

  2. Secured Hash Based Burst Header Authentication Design for Optical Burst Switched Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, A. M.; Sivasubramanian, A.; Parvathavarthini, B.

    2017-12-01

    The optical burst switching (OBS) is a promising technology that could meet the fast growing network demand. They are featured with the ability to meet the bandwidth requirement of applications that demand intensive bandwidth. OBS proves to be a satisfactory technology to tackle the huge bandwidth constraints, but suffers from security vulnerabilities. The objective of this proposed work is to design a faster and efficient burst header authentication algorithm for core nodes. There are two important key features in this work, viz., header encryption and authentication. Since the burst header is an important in optical burst switched network, it has to be encrypted; otherwise it is be prone to attack. The proposed MD5&RC4-4S based burst header authentication algorithm runs 20.75 ns faster than the conventional algorithms. The modification suggested in the proposed RC4-4S algorithm gives a better security and solves the correlation problems between the publicly known outputs during key generation phase. The modified MD5 recommended in this work provides 7.81 % better avalanche effect than the conventional algorithm. The device utilization result also shows the suitability of the proposed algorithm for header authentication in real time applications.

  3. A novel hash based least significant bit (2-3-3) image steganography in spatial domain

    OpenAIRE

    Manjula, G. R.; Danti, Ajit

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel 2-3-3 LSB insertion method. The image steganography takes the advantage of human eye limitation. It uses color image as cover media for embedding secret message.The important quality of a steganographic system is to be less distortive while increasing the size of the secret message. In this paper a method is proposed to embed a color secret image into a color cover image. A 2-3-3 LSB insertion method has been used for image steganography. Experimental results show ...

  4. Key rate of quantum key distribution with hashed two-way classical communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shun; Matsumoto, Ryutaroh; Uyematsu, Tomohiko; Kawano, Yasuhito

    2007-01-01

    We propose an information reconciliation protocol that uses two-way classical communication. The key rates of quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols that use our protocol are higher than those using previously known protocols for a wide range of error rates for the Bennett-Brassard 1984 and six-state protocols. We also clarify the relation between the proposed and known QKD protocols, and the relation between the proposed protocol and entanglement distillation protocols

  5. A STUDY ON MULTIFACTOR AUTHENTICATION MODEL USING FINGERPRINT HASH CODE, PASSWORD AND OTP

    OpenAIRE

    K. Krishna Prasad; P. S. Aithal

    2018-01-01

    By definition, Authentication is using one or multiple mechanisms to show that you are who you claim to be. As soon as the identity of the human or machine is demonstrated, then human or machine is authorized to grant some services. The modern research study reveals that fingerprint is not so secured like secured a password which consists of alphanumeric characters, number and special characters. Fingerprints are left at crime places, on materials or at the door which is usually class of late...

  6. Distributed Kernelized Locality-Sensitive Hashing for Faster Image Based Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    using MapReduce was described by Moise et al. in their paper, “Indexing and searching 100 million images with map-reduce” [9]. They modified the...D. Moise , D. Shestakov, G. Gudmundsson, and L. Amsaleg, “Indexing and Searching 100M Images with Map-Reduce,” in Proceedings of the 3rd ACM con

  7. Effects of whey and molasses as silage additives on potato hash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    20 mg copper; 20 mg iodine; 189 g calcium; 50 g phosphorus; 6000 000 I.U. ..... of corn silage by pineapple by-products on ruminal degradability in beef cattle. .... between the herbage and the course of fermentation in ensiling green fodder.

  8. Cost analysis of hash collisions : will quantum computers make SHARCS obsolete?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernstein, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    Current proposals for special-purpose factorization hardware will become obsolete if large quantum computers are built: the number-field sieve scales much more poorly than Shor's quantum algorithm for factorization. Will all special-purpose cryptanalytic hardware become obsolete in a post-quantum

  9. Commentary: The Hash House Harriers and the winding path to materials discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canfield, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Materials science research can be both very demanding and extremely rewarding. In this Commentary, in my own research of new electronic and magnetic materials, I give numerous exemplars of the path followed to materials discovery. I also highlight the parallels between my research experiences with the pastime of running. I hope that my thoughts will help guide junior researchers along the often tortuous and exciting path to new materials and that I can teach them to be open minded and persistent about following new lines of discovery. “No-pain, no-gain” applies to many things in life, running and scientific research being just two examples, but I hope in the case of scientific research that I can convince you the gain normally outweighs the pain

  10. An Analysis of the Applicability of Federal Law Regarding Hash-Based Searches of Digital Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    similarity matching, Fourth Amend- ment, federal law, search and seizure, warrant search, consent search, border search. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 107 16. PRICE ...containing a white powdery substance labeled flour [53]. 3.3.17 United States v Heckenkamp 482 F.3d 1142 (9th Circuit 2007) People have a reasonable

  11. Effects of a bacterial inoculant on potato hash silage quality, growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nkosi

    South African Journal of Animal Science 2010, 40 (Issue 5, Supplement 1) ... Growth performance of feedlot weaners cattle fed diet containing different levels of cold press .... iodine 0.025 g, cobalt 0.25 g; magnesium 150 g and selenium 0.3 g.

  12. From functional architecture to functional connectomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, R Clay

    2012-07-26

    "Receptive Fields, Binocular Interaction and Functional Architecture in the Cat's Visual Cortex" by Hubel and Wiesel (1962) reported several important discoveries: orientation columns, the distinct structures of simple and complex receptive fields, and binocular integration. But perhaps the paper's greatest influence came from the concept of functional architecture (the complex relationship between in vivo physiology and the spatial arrangement of neurons) and several models of functionally specific connectivity. They thus identified two distinct concepts, topographic specificity and functional specificity, which together with cell-type specificity constitute the major determinants of nonrandom cortical connectivity. Orientation columns are iconic examples of topographic specificity, whereby axons within a column connect with cells of a single orientation preference. Hubel and Wiesel also saw the need for functional specificity at a finer scale in their model of thalamic inputs to simple cells, verified in the 1990s. The difficult but potentially more important question of functional specificity between cortical neurons is only now becoming tractable with new experimental techniques. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional Median Polish

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2012-08-03

    This article proposes functional median polish, an extension of univariate median polish, for one-way and two-way functional analysis of variance (ANOVA). The functional median polish estimates the functional grand effect and functional main factor effects based on functional medians in an additive functional ANOVA model assuming no interaction among factors. A functional rank test is used to assess whether the functional main factor effects are significant. The robustness of the functional median polish is demonstrated by comparing its performance with the traditional functional ANOVA fitted by means under different outlier models in simulation studies. The functional median polish is illustrated on various applications in climate science, including one-way and two-way ANOVA when functional data are either curves or images. Specifically, Canadian temperature data, U. S. precipitation observations and outputs of global and regional climate models are considered, which can facilitate the research on the close link between local climate and the occurrence or severity of some diseases and other threats to human health. © 2012 International Biometric Society.

  14. Operations Between Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, Richard J.; Kiderlen, Markus

    A structural theory of operations between real-valued (or extended-real-valued) functions on a nonempty subset A of Rn is initiated. It is shown, for example, that any operation ∗ on a cone of functions containing the constant functions, which is pointwise, positively homogeneous, monotonic......, and associative, must be one of 40 explicitly given types. In particular, this is the case for operations between pairs of arbitrary, or continuous, or differentiable functions. The term pointwise means that (f ∗g)(x) = F(f(x), g(x)), for all x ∈ A and some function F of two variables. Several results in the same...... spirit are obtained for operations between convex functions or between support functions. For example, it is shown that ordinary addition is the unique pointwise operation between convex functions satisfying the identity property, i.e., f ∗ 0 = 0 ∗ f = f, for all convex f, while other results classify Lp...

  15. Kidney function tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney function tests are common lab tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working. Such tests include: ... Oh MS, Briefel G. Evaluation of renal function, water, electrolytes ... and Management by Laboratory Methods . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, ...

  16. Liver Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. Liver function tests are blood tests that check to see ... as hepatitis and cirrhosis. You may have liver function tests as part of a regular checkup. Or ...

  17. Functionalized diamond nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Beaujuge, Pierre M.; El Tall, Omar; Raja, Inam U.

    2014-01-01

    A diamond nanoparticle can be functionalized with a substituted dienophile under ambient conditions, and in the absence of catalysts or additional reagents. The functionalization is thought to proceed through an addition reaction.

  18. Smart hydrogel functional materials

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Liang-Yin; Ju, Xiao-Jie

    2014-01-01

    This book systematically introduces smart hydrogel functional materials with the configurations ranging from hydrogels to microgels. It serves as an excellent reference for designing and fabricating artificial smart hydrogel functional materials.

  19. Integrals of Bessel functions

    OpenAIRE

    Babusci, D.; Dattoli, G.; Germano, B.; Martinelli, M. R.; Ricci, P. E.

    2011-01-01

    We use the operator method to evaluate a class of integrals involving Bessel or Bessel-type functions. The technique we propose is based on the formal reduction of these family of functions to Gaussians.

  20. Functional Python programming

    CERN Document Server

    Lott, Steven

    2015-01-01

    This book is for developers who want to use Python to write programs that lean heavily on functional programming design patterns. You should be comfortable with Python programming, but no knowledge of functional programming paradigms is needed.

  1. Functionalized diamond nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Beaujuge, Pierre M.

    2014-10-21

    A diamond nanoparticle can be functionalized with a substituted dienophile under ambient conditions, and in the absence of catalysts or additional reagents. The functionalization is thought to proceed through an addition reaction.

  2. Ecological Functions of Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryushin, V. I.

    2018-01-01

    Ecological functions of landscapes are considered a system of processes ensuring the development, preservation, and evolution of ecosystems and the biosphere as a whole. The concept of biogeocenosis can be considered a model that integrates biotic and environmental functions. The most general biogeocenotic functions specify the biodiversity, biotic links, self-organization, and evolution of ecosystems. Close interaction between biocenosis and the biotope (ecotope) is ensured by the continuous exchange of matter, energy, and information. Ecotope determines the biocenosis. The group of ecotopic functions includes atmospheric (gas exchange, heat exchange, hydroatmospheric, climate-forming), lithospheric (geodynamic, geophysical, and geochemical), hydrologic and hydrogeologic functions of landscape and ecotopic functions of soils. Bioecological functions emerge as a result of the biotope and ecotope interaction; these are the bioproductive, destructive, organoaccumulative, biochemical (gas, concentration, redox, biochemical, biopedological), pedogenetic, and energy functions

  3. Functional Median Polish

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying; Genton, Marc G.

    2012-01-01

    polish is demonstrated by comparing its performance with the traditional functional ANOVA fitted by means under different outlier models in simulation studies. The functional median polish is illustrated on various applications in climate science

  4. Hybrid functional pseudopotentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Tan, Liang Z.; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2018-02-01

    The consistency between the exchange-correlation functional used in pseudopotential construction and in the actual density functional theory calculation is essential for the accurate prediction of fundamental properties of materials. However, routine hybrid density functional calculations at present still rely on generalized gradient approximation pseudopotentials due to the lack of hybrid functional pseudopotentials. Here, we present a scheme for generating hybrid functional pseudopotentials, and we analyze the importance of pseudopotential density functional consistency for hybrid functionals. For the PBE0 hybrid functional, we benchmark our pseudopotentials for structural parameters and fundamental electronic gaps of the Gaussian-2 (G2) molecular dataset and some simple solids. Our results show that using our PBE0 pseudopotentials in PBE0 calculations improves agreement with respect to all-electron calculations.

  5. Photon structure function - theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, W.A.

    1984-12-01

    The theoretical status of the photon structure function is reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the hadronic mixing problem and the ability of perturbative QCD to make definitive predictions for the photon structure function. 11 references

  6. Monotone Boolean functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korshunov, A D

    2003-01-01

    Monotone Boolean functions are an important object in discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics. Topics related to these functions have been actively studied for several decades. Many results have been obtained, and many papers published. However, until now there has been no sufficiently complete monograph or survey of results of investigations concerning monotone Boolean functions. The object of this survey is to present the main results on monotone Boolean functions obtained during the last 50 years

  7. and chebyshev functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Razzaghi

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A direct method for finding the solution of variational problems using a hybrid function is discussed. The hybrid functions which consist of block-pulse functions plus Chebyshev polynomials are introduced. An operational matrix of integration and the integration of the cross product of two hybrid function vectors are presented and are utilized to reduce a variational problem to the solution of an algebraic equation. Illustrative examples are included to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the technique.

  8. Functional Task Test (FTT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Peters, Brian T.; Rescheke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott; Lawrence, Emily; Koffman, Igor; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Spiering, Barry A.; Feeback, Daniel L.; hide

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Functional Task Test (FTT), an interdisciplinary testing regimen that has been developed to evaluate astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The objectives of the project are: (1) to develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for the Constellation Program, (2) determine the ability to perform these tasks after space flight, (3) Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements and (4) Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures.

  9. Pseudolinear functions and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, Shashi Kant

    2015-01-01

    Pseudolinear Functions and Optimization is the first book to focus exclusively on pseudolinear functions, a class of generalized convex functions. It discusses the properties, characterizations, and applications of pseudolinear functions in nonlinear optimization problems.The book describes the characterizations of solution sets of various optimization problems. It examines multiobjective pseudolinear, multiobjective fractional pseudolinear, static minmax pseudolinear, and static minmax fractional pseudolinear optimization problems and their results. The authors extend these results to locally

  10. Photon wave function

    OpenAIRE

    Bialynicki-Birula, Iwo

    2005-01-01

    Photon wave function is a controversial concept. Controversies stem from the fact that photon wave functions can not have all the properties of the Schroedinger wave functions of nonrelativistic wave mechanics. Insistence on those properties that, owing to peculiarities of photon dynamics, cannot be rendered, led some physicists to the extreme opinion that the photon wave function does not exist. I reject such a fundamentalist point of view in favor of a more pragmatic approach. In my view, t...

  11. On Functional Calculus Estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwenninger, F.L.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents various results within the field of operator theory that are formulated in estimates for functional calculi. Functional calculus is the general concept of defining operators of the form $f(A)$, where f is a function and $A$ is an operator, typically on a Banach space. Norm

  12. Phylogenetic molecular function annotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, Barbara E; Jordan, Michael I; Repo, Susanna T; Brenner, Steven E

    2009-01-01

    It is now easier to discover thousands of protein sequences in a new microbial genome than it is to biochemically characterize the specific activity of a single protein of unknown function. The molecular functions of protein sequences have typically been predicted using homology-based computational methods, which rely on the principle that homologous proteins share a similar function. However, some protein families include groups of proteins with different molecular functions. A phylogenetic approach for predicting molecular function (sometimes called 'phylogenomics') is an effective means to predict protein molecular function. These methods incorporate functional evidence from all members of a family that have functional characterizations using the evolutionary history of the protein family to make robust predictions for the uncharacterized proteins. However, they are often difficult to apply on a genome-wide scale because of the time-consuming step of reconstructing the phylogenies of each protein to be annotated. Our automated approach for function annotation using phylogeny, the SIFTER (Statistical Inference of Function Through Evolutionary Relationships) methodology, uses a statistical graphical model to compute the probabilities of molecular functions for unannotated proteins. Our benchmark tests showed that SIFTER provides accurate functional predictions on various protein families, outperforming other available methods.

  13. New Similarity Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdani, Hossein; Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel; Kwasnicka, Halina

    2016-01-01

    spaces, in addition to their similarity in the vector space. Prioritized Weighted Feature Distance (PWFD) works similarly as WFD, but provides the ability to give priorities to desirable features. The accuracy of the proposed functions are compared with other similarity functions on several data sets....... Our results show that the proposed functions work better than other methods proposed in the literature....

  14. Two Functions of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Carol Fleisher

    1977-01-01

    Author advocates the view that meaning is necessarily dependent upon the communicative function of language and examines the objections, particularly those of Noam Chomsky, to this view. Argues that while Chomsky disagrees with the idea that communication is the essential function of language, he implicitly agrees that it has a function.…

  15. Automatic differentiation of functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, S.R.

    1990-06-01

    Automatic differentiation is a method of computing derivatives of functions to any order in any number of variables. The functions must be expressible as combinations of elementary functions. When evaluated at specific numerical points, the derivatives have no truncation error and are automatically found. The method is illustrated by simple examples. Source code in FORTRAN is provided

  16. Nonparametric Transfer Function Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun M.; Chen, Rong; Yao, Qiwei

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a class of nonparametric transfer function models is proposed to model nonlinear relationships between ‘input’ and ‘output’ time series. The transfer function is smooth with unknown functional forms, and the noise is assumed to be a stationary autoregressive-moving average (ARMA) process. The nonparametric transfer function is estimated jointly with the ARMA parameters. By modeling the correlation in the noise, the transfer function can be estimated more efficiently. The parsimonious ARMA structure improves the estimation efficiency in finite samples. The asymptotic properties of the estimators are investigated. The finite-sample properties are illustrated through simulations and one empirical example. PMID:20628584

  17. Weakly clopen functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Mi Jung; Park, Jin Han; Lim, Ki Moon

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a new class of functions called weakly clopen function which includes the class of almost clopen functions due to Ekici [Ekici E. Generalization of perfectly continuous, regular set-connected and clopen functions. Acta Math Hungar 2005;107:193-206] and is included in the class of weakly continuous functions due to Levine [Levine N. A decomposition of continuity in topological spaces. Am Math Mon 1961;68:44-6]. Some characterizations and several properties concerning weakly clopenness are obtained. Furthermore, relationships among weak clopenness, almost clopenness, clopenness and weak continuity are investigated

  18. Implementing function spreadsheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sestoft, Peter

    2008-01-01

    : that of turning an expression into a named function. Hence they proposed a way to define a function in terms of a worksheet with designated input and output cells; we shall call it a function sheet. The goal of our work is to develop implementations of function sheets and study their application to realistic...... examples. Therefore, we are also developing a simple yet comprehensive spreadsheet core implementation for experimentation with this technology. Here we report briefly on our experiments with function sheets as well as other uses of our spreadsheet core implementation....

  19. Transfer function combinations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Liang; Schott, Mathias; Hansen, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Direct volume rendering has been an active area of research for over two decades. Transfer function design remains a difficult task since current methods, such as traditional 1D and 2D transfer functions, are not always effective for all data sets. Various 1D or 2D transfer function spaces have been proposed to improve classification exploiting different aspects, such as using the gradient magnitude for boundary location and statistical, occlusion, or size metrics. In this paper, we present a novel transfer function method which can provide more specificity for data classification by combining different transfer function spaces. In this work, a 2D transfer function can be combined with 1D transfer functions which improve the classification. Specifically, we use the traditional 2D scalar/gradient magnitude, 2D statistical, and 2D occlusion spectrum transfer functions and combine these with occlusion and/or size-based transfer functions to provide better specificity. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new method by comparing to the following previous techniques: 2D gradient magnitude, 2D occlusion spectrum, 2D statistical transfer functions and 2D size based transfer functions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Transfer function combinations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Liang

    2012-10-01

    Direct volume rendering has been an active area of research for over two decades. Transfer function design remains a difficult task since current methods, such as traditional 1D and 2D transfer functions, are not always effective for all data sets. Various 1D or 2D transfer function spaces have been proposed to improve classification exploiting different aspects, such as using the gradient magnitude for boundary location and statistical, occlusion, or size metrics. In this paper, we present a novel transfer function method which can provide more specificity for data classification by combining different transfer function spaces. In this work, a 2D transfer function can be combined with 1D transfer functions which improve the classification. Specifically, we use the traditional 2D scalar/gradient magnitude, 2D statistical, and 2D occlusion spectrum transfer functions and combine these with occlusion and/or size-based transfer functions to provide better specificity. We demonstrate the usefulness of the new method by comparing to the following previous techniques: 2D gradient magnitude, 2D occlusion spectrum, 2D statistical transfer functions and 2D size based transfer functions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Functional Maximum Autocorrelation Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2005-01-01

    MAF outperforms the functional PCA in concentrating the interesting' spectra/shape variation in one end of the eigenvalue spectrum and allows for easier interpretation of effects. Conclusions. Functional MAF analysis is a useful methods for extracting low dimensional models of temporally or spatially......Purpose. We aim at data where samples of an underlying function are observed in a spatial or temporal layout. Examples of underlying functions are reflectance spectra and biological shapes. We apply functional models based on smoothing splines and generalize the functional PCA in......\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{ramsay97} to functional maximum autocorrelation factors (MAF)\\verb+~+\\$\\backslash\\$cite{switzer85,larsen2001d}. We apply the method to biological shapes as well as reflectance spectra. {\\$\\backslash\\$bf Methods}. MAF seeks linear combination of the original variables that maximize autocorrelation between...

  2. E-Orbit Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Patera

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We review and further develop the theory of $E$-orbit functions. They are functions on the Euclidean space $E_n$ obtained from the multivariate exponential function by symmetrization by means of an even part $W_{e}$ of a Weyl group $W$, corresponding to a Coxeter-Dynkin diagram. Properties of such functions are described. They are closely related to symmetric and antisymmetric orbit functions which are received from exponential functions by symmetrization and antisymmetrization procedure by means of a Weyl group $W$. The $E$-orbit functions, determined by integral parameters, are invariant withrespect to even part $W^{aff}_{e}$ of the affine Weyl group corresponding to $W$. The $E$-orbit functions determine a symmetrized Fourier transform, where these functions serve as a kernel of the transform. They also determine a transform on a finite set of points of the fundamental domain $F^{e}$ of the group $W^{aff}_{e}$ (the discrete $E$-orbit function transform.

  3. Antisymmetric Orbit Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Klimyk

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, properties of antisymmetric orbit functions are reviewed and further developed. Antisymmetric orbit functions on the Euclidean space $E_n$ are antisymmetrized exponential functions. Antisymmetrization is fulfilled by a Weyl group, corresponding to a Coxeter-Dynkin diagram. Properties of such functions are described. These functions are closely related to irreducible characters of a compact semisimple Lie group $G$ of rank $n$. Up to a sign, values of antisymmetric orbit functions are repeated on copies of the fundamental domain $F$ of the affine Weyl group (determined by the initial Weyl group in the entire Euclidean space $E_n$. Antisymmetric orbit functions are solutions of the corresponding Laplace equation in $E_n$, vanishing on the boundary of the fundamental domain $F$. Antisymmetric orbit functions determine a so-called antisymmetrized Fourier transform which is closely related to expansions of central functions in characters of irreducible representations of the group $G$. They also determine a transform on a finite set of points of $F$ (the discrete antisymmetric orbit function transform. Symmetric and antisymmetric multivariate exponential, sine and cosine discrete transforms are given.

  4. B Plant function analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-09-01

    The document contains the functions, function definitions, function interfaces, function interface definitions, Input Computer Automated Manufacturing Definition (IDEFO) diagrams, and a function hierarchy chart that describe what needs to be performed to deactivate B Plant

  5. Rδ-Supercontinuous Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohli J. K.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A new class of functions called ‘Rδ-supercontinuous functions’ is introduced. Their basic properties are studied and their place in the hierarchy of strong variants of continuity which already exist in the literature is elaborated. The class of Rδ-supercontinuous functions (Math. Bohem., to appear properly contains the class of Rz-supercontinuous functions which in its turn properly contains the class of Rcl- supercontinuous functions (Demonstratio Math. 46(1 (2013, 229-244 and so includes all Rcl-supercontinuous (≡clopen continuous functions (Applied Gen. Topol. 8(2 (2007, 293-300; Indian J. Pure Appl. Math. 14(6 (1983, 767-772 and is properly contained in the class of R-supercontinuous functions (Demonstratio Math. 43(3 (2010, 703-723.

  6. Intrinsic-density functionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, J.

    2007-01-01

    The Hohenberg-Kohn theorem and Kohn-Sham procedure are extended to functionals of the localized intrinsic density of a self-bound system such as a nucleus. After defining the intrinsic-density functional, we modify the usual Kohn-Sham procedure slightly to evaluate the mean-field approximation to the functional, and carefully describe the construction of the leading corrections for a system of fermions in one dimension with a spin-degeneracy equal to the number of particles N. Despite the fact that the corrections are complicated and nonlocal, we are able to construct a local Skyrme-like intrinsic-density functional that, while different from the exact functional, shares with it a minimum value equal to the exact ground-state energy at the exact ground-state intrinsic density, to next-to-leading order in 1/N. We briefly discuss implications for real Skyrme functionals

  7. Functional analysis and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Siddiqi, Abul Hasan

    2018-01-01

    This self-contained textbook discusses all major topics in functional analysis. Combining classical materials with new methods, it supplies numerous relevant solved examples and problems and discusses the applications of functional analysis in diverse fields. The book is unique in its scope, and a variety of applications of functional analysis and operator-theoretic methods are devoted to each area of application. Each chapter includes a set of problems, some of which are routine and elementary, and some of which are more advanced. The book is primarily intended as a textbook for graduate and advanced undergraduate students in applied mathematics and engineering. It offers several attractive features making it ideally suited for courses on functional analysis intended to provide a basic introduction to the subject and the impact of functional analysis on applied and computational mathematics, nonlinear functional analysis and optimization. It introduces emerging topics like wavelets, Gabor system, inverse pro...

  8. Counting with symmetric functions

    CERN Document Server

    Mendes, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    This monograph provides a self-contained introduction to symmetric functions and their use in enumerative combinatorics.  It is the first book to explore many of the methods and results that the authors present. Numerous exercises are included throughout, along with full solutions, to illustrate concepts and also highlight many interesting mathematical ideas. The text begins by introducing fundamental combinatorial objects such as permutations and integer partitions, as well as generating functions.  Symmetric functions are considered in the next chapter, with a unique emphasis on the combinatorics of the transition matrices between bases of symmetric functions.  Chapter 3 uses this introductory material to describe how to find an assortment of generating functions for permutation statistics, and then these techniques are extended to find generating functions for a variety of objects in Chapter 4.  The next two chapters present the Robinson-Schensted-Knuth algorithm and a method for proving Pólya’s enu...

  9. Relativistic plasma dispersion functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The known properties of plasma dispersion functions (PDF's) for waves in weakly relativistic, magnetized, thermal plasmas are reviewed and a large number of new results are presented. The PDF's required for the description of waves with small wave number perpendicular to the magnetic field (Dnestrovskii and Shkarofsky functions) are considered in detail; these functions also arise in certain quantum electrodynamical calculations involving strongly magnetized plasmas. Series, asymptotic series, recursion relations, integral forms, derivatives, differential equations, and approximations for these functions are discussed as are their analytic properties and connections with standard transcendental functions. In addition a more general class of PDF's relevant to waves of arbitrary perpendicular wave number is introduced and a range of properties of these functions are derived

  10. dftools: Distribution function fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obreschkow, Danail

    2018-05-01

    dftools, written in R, finds the most likely P parameters of a D-dimensional distribution function (DF) generating N objects, where each object is specified by D observables with measurement uncertainties. For instance, if the objects are galaxies, it can fit a mass function (D=1), a mass-size distribution (D=2) or the mass-spin-morphology distribution (D=3). Unlike most common fitting approaches, this method accurately accounts for measurement in uncertainties and complex selection functions.

  11. Entropy and wigner functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi; Feix

    2000-10-01

    The properties of an alternative definition of quantum entropy, based on Wigner functions, are discussed. Such a definition emerges naturally from the Wigner representation of quantum mechanics, and can easily quantify the amount of entanglement of a quantum state. It is shown that smoothing of the Wigner function induces an increase in entropy. This fact is used to derive some simple rules to construct positive-definite probability distributions which are also admissible Wigner functions.

  12. Entropy and Wigner Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Manfredi, G.; Feix, M. R.

    2002-01-01

    The properties of an alternative definition of quantum entropy, based on Wigner functions, are discussed. Such definition emerges naturally from the Wigner representation of quantum mechanics, and can easily quantify the amount of entanglement of a quantum state. It is shown that smoothing of the Wigner function induces an increase in entropy. This fact is used to derive some simple rules to construct positive definite probability distributions which are also admissible Wigner functions

  13. Time functions revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Albert

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we revisit our joint work with Antonio Siconolfi on time functions. We will give a brief introduction to the subject. We will then show how to construct a Lipschitz time function in a simplified setting. We will end with a new result showing that the Aubry set is not an artifact of our proof of existence of time functions for stably causal manifolds.

  14. SPLINE, Spline Interpolation Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allouard, Y.

    1977-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: The problem is to obtain an interpolated function, as smooth as possible, that passes through given points. The derivatives of these functions are continuous up to the (2Q-1) order. The program consists of the following two subprograms: ASPLERQ. Transport of relations method for the spline functions of interpolation. SPLQ. Spline interpolation. 2 - Method of solution: The methods are described in the reference under item 10

  15. Hadron structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, F.

    1981-03-01

    The x dependence of hadron structure functions is investigated. If quarks can exist in very low mass states (10 MeV for d and u quarks) the pion structure function is predicted to behave like (1-x) and not (1-x) 2 in a x-region around 1. Relativistic and non-relativistic quark bound state pictures of hadrons are considered together with their relation with the Q 2 evolution of structure functions. Good agreement with data is in general obtained

  16. Calculus of bivariant function

    OpenAIRE

    PTÁČNÍK, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with the introduction of function of two variables and differential calculus of this function. This work should serve as a textbook for students of elementary school's teacher. Each chapter contains a summary of basic concepts and explanations of relationships, then solved model exercises of the topic and finally the exercises, which should solve the student himself. Thesis have transmit to students basic knowledges of differential calculus of functions of two variables, inc...

  17. Functional esophageal disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Clouse, R; Richter, J; Heading, R; Janssens, J; Wilson, J

    1999-01-01

    The functional esophageal disorders include globus, rumination syndrome, and symptoms that typify esophageal diseases (chest pain, heartburn, and dysphagia). Factors responsible for symptom production are poorly understood. The criteria for diagnosis rest not only on compatible symptoms but also on exclusion of structural and metabolic disorders that might mimic the functional disorders. Additionally, a functional diagnosis is precluded by the presence of a pathology-based motor disorder or p...

  18. Functional Programming With Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Hutton, Graham

    1991-01-01

    While programming in a relational framework has much to offer over the functional style in terms of expressiveness, computing with relations is less efficient, and more semantically troublesome. In this paper we propose a novel blend of the functional and relational styles. We identify a class of "causal relations", which inherit some of the bi-directionality properties of relations, but retain the efficiency and semantic foundations of the functional style.

  19. Photon structure function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, W.A.

    1980-11-01

    Theoretical understanding of the photon structure function is reviewed. As an illustration of the pointlike component, the parton model is briefly discussed. However, the systematic study of the photon structure function is presented through the framework of the operator product expansion. Perturbative QCD is used as the theoretical basis for the calculation of leading contributions to the operator product expansion. The influence of higher order QCD effects on these results is discussed. Recent results for the polarized structure functions are discussed

  20. Nonrespiratory lung function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isawa, Toyoharu

    1994-01-01

    The function of the lungs is primarily the function as a gas exchanger: the venous blood returning to the lungs is arterialized with oxygen in the lungs and the arterialized blood is sent back again to the peripheral tissues of the whole body to be utilized for metabolic oxygenation. Besides the gas exchanging function which we call ''respiratory lung function'' the lungs have functions that have little to do with gas exchange itself. We categorically call the latter function of the lungs as ''nonrespiratory lung function''. The lungs consist of the conductive airways, the gas exchanging units like the alveoli, and the interstitial space that surrounds the former two compartments. The interstitial space contains the blood and lymphatic capillaries, collagen and elastic fibers and cement substances. The conductive airways and the gas exchanging units are directly exposed to the atmosphere that contains various toxic and nontoxic gases, fume and biological or nonbiological particles. Because the conductive airways are equipped with defense mechanisms like mucociliary clearance or coughs to get rid of these toxic gases, particles or locally produced biological debris, we are usually free from being succumbed to ill effects of inhaled materials. By use of nuclear medicine techniques, we can now evaluate mucociliary clearance function, and other nonrespiratory lung functions as well in vivo

  1. Subordination by convex functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosihan M. Ali

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available For a fixed analytic function g(z=z+∑n=2∞gnzn defined on the open unit disk and γ<1, let Tg(γ denote the class of all analytic functions f(z=z+∑n=2∞anzn satisfying ∑n=2∞|angn|≤1−γ. For functions in Tg(γ, a subordination result is derived involving the convolution with a normalized convex function. Our result includes as special cases several earlier works.

  2. Renormalization Group Functional Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Curtright, Thomas L

    2011-01-01

    Functional conjugation methods are used to analyze the global structure of various renormalization group trajectories. With minimal assumptions, the methods produce continuous flows from step-scaling {\\sigma} functions, and lead to exact functional relations for the local flow {\\beta} functions, whose solutions may have novel, exotic features, including multiple branches. As a result, fixed points of {\\sigma} are sometimes not true fixed points under continuous changes in scale, and zeroes of {\\beta} do not necessarily signal fixed points of the flow, but instead may only indicate turning points of the trajectories.

  3. Nonrespiratory lung function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isawa, Toyoharu [Tohoku University Research Institute for Chest Disease and Cancer, Sendai (Japan)

    1994-07-01

    The function of the lungs is primarily the function as a gas exchanger: the venous blood returning to the lungs is arterialized with oxygen in the lungs and the arterialized blood is sent back again to the peripheral tissues of the whole body to be utilized for metabolic oxygenation. Besides the gas exchanging function which we call ''respiratory lung function'' the lungs have functions that have little to do with gas exchange itself. We categorically call the latter function of the lungs as ''nonrespiratory lung function''. The lungs consist of the conductive airways, the gas exchanging units like the alveoli, and the interstitial space that surrounds the former two compartments. The interstitial space contains the blood and lymphatic capillaries, collagen and elastic fibers and cement substances. The conductive airways and the gas exchanging units are directly exposed to the atmosphere that contains various toxic and nontoxic gases, fume and biological or nonbiological particles. Because the conductive airways are equipped with defense mechanisms like mucociliary clearance or coughs to get rid of these toxic gases, particles or locally produced biological debris, we are usually free from being succumbed to ill effects of inhaled materials. By use of nuclear medicine techniques, we can now evaluate mucociliary clearance function, and other nonrespiratory lung functions as well in vivo.

  4. Control functions in MFM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Multilevel Flow Modeling (MFM) has been proposed as a tool for representing goals and functions of complex industrial plants and suggested as a basis for reasoning about control situations. Lind presents an introduction to MFM but do not describe how control functions are used in the modeling....... The purpose of the present paper is to serve as a companion paper to this introduction by explaining the basic principles used in MFM for representation of control functions. A theoretical foundation for modeling control functions is presented and modeling examples are given for illustration....

  5. Regulated functions and integrability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Gunčaga

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Properties of functions defined on a bounded closed interval, weaker than continuity, have been considered by many mathematicians. Functions having both sides limits at each point are called regulated and were considered by J. Dieudonné [2], D. Fraňková [3] and others (see for example S. Banach [1], S. Saks [8]. The main class of functions we deal with consists of piece-wise constant ones. These functions play a fundamental role in the integration theory which had been developed by Igor Kluvanek (see Š. Tkacik [9]. We present an outline of this theory.

  6. Introduction to functional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faddeev, L.D.

    1976-01-01

    The functional integral is considered in relation to Feynman diagrams and phase space. The holomorphic form of the functional integral is then discussed. The main problem of the lectures, viz. the construction of the S-matrix by means of the functional integral, is considered. The functional methods described explicitly take into account the Bose statistics of the fields involved. The different procedure used to treat fermions is discussed. An introduction to the problem of quantization of gauge fields is given. (B.R.H.)

  7. The gamma function

    CERN Document Server

    Artin, Emil

    2015-01-01

    This brief monograph on the gamma function was designed by the author to fill what he perceived as a gap in the literature of mathematics, which often treated the gamma function in a manner he described as both sketchy and overly complicated. Author Emil Artin, one of the twentieth century's leading mathematicians, wrote in his Preface to this book, ""I feel that this monograph will help to show that the gamma function can be thought of as one of the elementary functions, and that all of its basic properties can be established using elementary methods of the calculus."" Generations of teachers

  8. Normal Functions As A New Way Of Defining Computable Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Dubiel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Report sets new method of defining computable functions. This is formalization of traditional function descriptions, so it allows to define functions in very intuitive way. Discovery of Ackermann function proved that not all functions that can be easily computed can be so easily described with Hilbert’s system of recursive functions. Normal functions lack this disadvantage.

  9. Normal Functions as a New Way of Defining Computable Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Dubiel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Report sets new method of defining computable functions. This is formalization of traditional function descriptions, so it allows to define functions in very intuitive way. Discovery of Ackermann function proved that not all functions that can be easily computed can be so easily described with Hilbert's system of recursive functions. Normal functions lack this disadvantage.

  10. Function spaces, 1

    CERN Document Server

    Pick, Luboš; John, Oldrich; Fucík, Svatopluk

    2012-01-01

    This is the first part of the second revised and extended edition of a well established monograph. It is an introduction to function spaces defined in terms of differentiability and integrability classes. It provides a catalogue of various spaces and benefits as a handbook for those who use function spaces to study other topics such as partial differential equations. Volum

  11. F-supercontinuous functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Kohli

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A strong variant of continuity called ‘F-supercontinuity’ is introduced. The class of F-supercontinuous functions strictly contains the class of z-supercontinuous functions (Indian J. Pure Appl. Math. 33 (7 (2002, 1097–1108 which in turn properly contains the class of cl-supercontinuous functions ( clopen maps (Appl. Gen. Topology 8 (2 (2007, 293–300; Indian J. Pure Appl. Math. 14 (6 (1983, 762–772. Further, the class of F-supercontinuous functions is properly contained in the class of R-supercontinuous functions which in turn is strictly contained in the class of continuous functions. Basic properties of F-supercontinuous functions are studied and their place in the hierarchy of strong variants of continuity, which already exist in the mathematical literature, is elaborated. If either domain or range is a functionally regular space (Indagationes Math. 15 (1951, 359–368; 38 (1976, 281–288, then the notions of continuity, F-supercontinuity and R-supercontinuity coincide.

  12. Photon strength functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergqvist, I.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for extracting photon strength functions are briefly discussed. We follow the Brink-Axel approach to relate the strength functions to the giant resonances observed in photonuclear work and summarize the available data on the E1, E2 and M1 resonances. Some experimental and theoretical problems are outlined. (author)

  13. A Functional HAZOP Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liin, Netta; Lind, Morten; Jensen, Niels

    2010-01-01

    A HAZOP methodology is presented where a functional plant model assists in a goal oriented decomposition of the plant purpose into the means of achieving the purpose. This approach leads to nodes with simple functions from which the selection of process and deviation variables follow directly...

  14. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voos, Avery; Pelphrey, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with its excellent spatial resolution and ability to visualize networks of neuroanatomical structures involved in complex information processing, has become the dominant technique for the study of brain function and its development. The accessibility of in-vivo pediatric brain-imaging techniques…

  15. Functional Assessment Inventory Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewe, Nancy M.; Athelstan, Gary T.

    This manual, which provides extensive new instructions for administering the Functional Assessment Inventory (FAI), is intended to enable counselors to begin using the inventory without undergoing any special training. The first two sections deal with the need for functional assessment and issues in the development and use of the inventory. The…

  16. Functional and cognitive grammars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anna Siewierska

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive review of the functional approach and cognitive approach to the nature of language and its relation to other aspects of human cognition. The paper starts with a brief discussion of the origins and the core tenets of the two approaches in Section 1. Section 2 discusses the similarities and differences between the three full-fledged structural functional grammars subsumed in the functional approach: Halliday's Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG), Dik's Functional Grammar (FG), and Van Valin's Role and Reference Grammar (RRG). Section 3 deals with the major features of the three cognitive frameworks: Langacker's Cognitive Grammar (CG), Goldberg's Cognitive Construction Grammar (CCG), and Croft's Radical Construction Grammar (RCG). Section 4 compares the two approaches and attempts to provide a unified functional-cognitive grammar. In the last section, the author concludes the paper with remarks on the unidirectional shift from functional grammar to cognitive grammar that may indicate a reinterpretation of the traditional relationship between functional and cognitive models of grammar.

  17. Heterogeneity in kinesin function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reddy, Babu J N; Tripathy, Suvranta; Vershinin, Michael; Tanenbaum, Marvin E; Xu, Jing; Mattson-Hoss, Michelle; Arabi, Karim; Chapman, Dail; Doolin, Tory; Hyeon, Changbong; Gross, Steven P

    2017-01-01

    The kinesin family proteins are often studied as prototypical molecular motors; a deeper understanding of them can illuminate regulation of intracellular transport. It is typically assumed that they function identically. Here we find that this assumption of homogeneous function appears incorrect:

  18. Thermal dielectric function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moneta, M.

    1999-01-01

    Thermal dielectric functions ε(k,ω) for homogeneous electron gas were determined and discussed. The ground state of the gas is described by the Fermi-Dirac momentum distribution. The low and high temperature limits of ε(k,ω) were related to the Lindhard dielectric function and to ε(k, omega) derived for Boltzmann and for classical momentum distributions, respectively. (author)

  19. Monadic Functional Reactive Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van der Ploeg (Atze); C Shan

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractFunctional Reactive Programming (FRP) is a way to program reactive systems in functional style, eliminating many of the problems that arise from imperative techniques. In this paper, we present an alternative FRP formulation that is based on the notion of a reactive computation: a

  20. Neurophysiology of functional imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijsden, Pieter; Hyder, Fahmeed; Rothman, Douglas L.; Shulman, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    The successes of PET and fMRI in non-invasively localizing sensory functions had encouraged efforts to transform the subjective concepts of cognitive psychology into objective physical measures. The assumption was that mental functions could be decomposed into non-overlapping, context-independent

  1. properties and luminosity functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hektor Monteiro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present an investigation of a sample of 1072 stars extracted from the Villanova Catalog of Spectroscopically Identified White Dwarfs (2005 on-line version, studying their distribution in the Galaxy, their physical properties and their luminosity functions. The distances and physical properties of the white dwarfs are determined through interpolation of their (B-V or (b-y colors in model grids. The solar position relative to the Galactic plane, luminosity function, as well as separate functions for each white dwarf spectral type are derived and discussed. We show that the binary fraction does not vary significantly as a function of distance from the Galactic disk out to 100 pc. We propose that the formation rates of DA and non-DAs have changed over time and/or that DAs evolve into non-DA types. The luminosity functions for DAs and DBs have peaks possibly related to a star burst event.

  2. The triad value function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Mette

    2016-01-01

    the triad value function. Next, the applicability and validity of the concept is examined in a case study of four closed vertical supply chain triads. Findings - The case study demonstrates that the triad value function facilitates the analysis and understanding of an apparent paradox; that distributors...... are not dis-intermediated in spite of their limited contribution to activities in the triads. The results indicate practical adequacy of the triad value function. Research limitations/implications - The triad value function is difficult to apply in the study of expanded networks as the number of connections...... expands exponentially with the number of ties in the network. Moreover, it must be applied in the study of service triads and open vertical supply chain triads to further verify the practical adequacy of the concept. Practical implications - The triad value function cannot be used normatively...

  3. Pair Correlation Function Integrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wedberg, Nils Hejle Rasmus Ingemar; O'Connell, John P.; Peters, Günther H.J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a method for extending radial distribution functions obtained from molecular simulations of pure and mixed molecular fluids to arbitrary distances. The method allows total correlation function integrals to be reliably calculated from simulations of relatively small systems. The long......-distance behavior of radial distribution functions is determined by requiring that the corresponding direct correlation functions follow certain approximations at long distances. We have briefly described the method and tested its performance in previous communications [R. Wedberg, J. P. O’Connell, G. H. Peters......, and J. Abildskov, Mol. Simul. 36, 1243 (2010); Fluid Phase Equilib. 302, 32 (2011)], but describe here its theoretical basis more thoroughly and derive long-distance approximations for the direct correlation functions. We describe the numerical implementation of the method in detail, and report...

  4. Managing Functional Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss; Laursen, Per Kyed

    2013-01-01

    How does one manage functional power relations between leading functions in vision driven digital media creation, and this from idea to master during the creation cycle? Functional power is informal, and it is understood as roles, e.g. project manager, that provide opportunities to contribute...... to the product quality. The area of interest is the vision driven digital media industry in general; however, the point of departure is the game industry due to its aesthetic complexity. The article's contribution to the area is a power graph, which shows the functional power of the leading functions according...... to a general digital media creation cycle. This is used to point out potential power conflicts and their consequences. It is concluded that there is normally more conflict potential in vision driven digital media creation than in digital media creation in general or in software development. The method...

  5. Functional data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ramsay, J O

    1997-01-01

    Scientists today collect samples of curves and other functional observations. This monograph presents many ideas and techniques for such data. Included are expressions in the functional domain of such classics as linear regression, principal components analysis, linear modelling, and canonical correlation analysis, as well as specifically functional techniques such as curve registration and principal differential analysis. Data arising in real applications are used throughout for both motivation and illustration, showing how functional approaches allow us to see new things, especially by exploiting the smoothness of the processes generating the data. The data sets exemplify the wide scope of functional data analysis; they are drwan from growth analysis, meterology, biomechanics, equine science, economics, and medicine. The book presents novel statistical technology while keeping the mathematical level widely accessible. It is designed to appeal to students, to applied data analysts, and to experienced researc...

  6. The function of introns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liran eCarmel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The intron-exon architecture of many eukaryotic genes raises the intriguing question of whether this unique organization serves any function, or is it simply a result of the spread of functionless introns in eukaryotic genomes. In this review, we show that introns in contemporary species fulfill a broad spectrum of functions, and are involved in virtually every step of mRNA processing. We propose that this great diversity of intronic functions supports the notion that introns were indeed selfish elements in early eukaryotes, but then independently gained numerous functions in different eukaryotic lineages. We suggest a novel criterion of evolutionary conservation, dubbed intron positional conservation, which can identify functional introns.

  7. A phased translation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, R.J.; Schierbeek, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    A phased translation function, which takes advantage of prior phase information to determine the position of an oriented mulecular replacement model, is examined. The function is the coefficient of correlation between the electron density computed with the prior phases and the electron density of the translated model, evaluated in reciprocal space as a Fourier transform. The correlation coefficient used in this work is closely related to an overlap function devised by Colman, Fehlhammer and Bartels. Tests with two protein structures, one of which was solved with the help of the phased translation function, show that little phase information is required to resolve the translation problem, and that the function is relatively insensitive to misorientation of the model. (orig.)

  8. Submodular functions and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Fujishige, Satoru

    2005-01-01

    It has widely been recognized that submodular functions play essential roles in efficiently solvable combinatorial optimization problems. Since the publication of the 1st edition of this book fifteen years ago, submodular functions have been showing further increasing importance in optimization, combinatorics, discrete mathematics, algorithmic computer science, and algorithmic economics, and there have been made remarkable developments of theory and algorithms in submodular functions. The 2nd edition of the book supplements the 1st edition with a lot of remarks and with new two chapters: "Submodular Function Minimization" and "Discrete Convex Analysis." The present 2nd edition is still a unique book on submodular functions, which is essential to students and researchers interested in combinatorial optimization, discrete mathematics, and discrete algorithms in the fields of mathematics, operations research, computer science, and economics. Key features: - Self-contained exposition of the theory of submodular ...

  9. Time Functions as Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguzzi, E.

    2010-09-01

    Every time function on spacetime gives a (continuous) total preordering of the spacetime events which respects the notion of causal precedence. The problem of the existence of a (semi-)time function on spacetime and the problem of recovering the causal structure starting from the set of time functions are studied. It is pointed out that these problems have an analog in the field of microeconomics known as utility theory. In a chronological spacetime the semi-time functions correspond to the utilities for the chronological relation, while in a K-causal (stably causal) spacetime the time functions correspond to the utilities for the K + relation (Seifert’s relation). By exploiting this analogy, we are able to import some mathematical results, most notably Peleg’s and Levin’s theorems, to the spacetime framework. As a consequence, we prove that a K-causal (i.e. stably causal) spacetime admits a time function and that the time or temporal functions can be used to recover the K + (or Seifert) relation which indeed turns out to be the intersection of the time or temporal orderings. This result tells us in which circumstances it is possible to recover the chronological or causal relation starting from the set of time or temporal functions allowed by the spacetime. Moreover, it is proved that a chronological spacetime in which the closure of the causal relation is transitive (for instance a reflective spacetime) admits a semi-time function. Along the way a new proof avoiding smoothing techniques is given that the existence of a time function implies stable causality, and a new short proof of the equivalence between K-causality and stable causality is given which takes advantage of Levin’s theorem and smoothing techniques.

  10. Multidisciplinary team functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovitz, K E; Dougan, P; Riese, R; Brummitt, J R

    1984-01-01

    This paper advocates the need to move beyond interdisciplinary team composition as a minimum criterion for multidisciplinary functioning in child abuse treatment. Recent developments within the field reflect the practice of shared professional responsibility for detection, case management and treatment. Adherence to this particular model for intervention requires cooperative service planning and implementation as task related functions. Implicitly, this model also carries the potential to incorporate the supportive functioning essential to effective group process. However, explicit attention to the dynamics and process of small groups has been neglected in prescriptive accounts of multidisciplinary child abuse team organization. The present paper therefore focuses upon the maintenance and enhancement aspects of multidisciplinary group functioning. First, the development and philosophy of service for the Alberta Children's Hospital Child Abuse Program are reviewed. Second, composition of the team, it's mandate for service, and the population it serves are briefly described. Third, the conceptual framework within which the program functions is outlined. Strategies for effective group functioning are presented and the difficulties encountered with this model are highlighted. Finally, recommendations are offered for planning and implementing a multidisciplinary child abuse team and for maintaining its effective group functioning.

  11. The Enzyme Function Initiative†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlt, John A.; Allen, Karen N.; Almo, Steven C.; Armstrong, Richard N.; Babbitt, Patricia C.; Cronan, John E.; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Imker, Heidi J.; Jacobson, Matthew P.; Minor, Wladek; Poulter, C. Dale; Raushel, Frank M.; Sali, Andrej; Shoichet, Brian K.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2011-01-01

    The Enzyme Function Initiative (EFI) was recently established to address the challenge of assigning reliable functions to enzymes discovered in bacterial genome projects; in this Current Topic we review the structure and operations of the EFI. The EFI includes the Superfamily/Genome, Protein, Structure, Computation, and Data/Dissemination Cores that provide the infrastructure for reliably predicting the in vitro functions of unknown enzymes. The initial targets for functional assignment are selected from five functionally diverse superfamilies (amidohydrolase, enolase, glutathione transferase, haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase, and isoprenoid synthase), with five superfamily-specific Bridging Projects experimentally testing the predicted in vitro enzymatic activities. The EFI also includes the Microbiology Core that evaluates the in vivo context of in vitro enzymatic functions and confirms the functional predictions of the EFI. The deliverables of the EFI to the scientific community include: 1) development of a large-scale, multidisciplinary sequence/structure-based strategy for functional assignment of unknown enzymes discovered in genome projects (target selection, protein production, structure determination, computation, experimental enzymology, microbiology, and structure-based annotation); 2) dissemination of the strategy to the community via publications, collaborations, workshops, and symposia; 3) computational and bioinformatic tools for using the strategy; 4) provision of experimental protocols and/or reagents for enzyme production and characterization; and 5) dissemination of data via the EFI’s website, enzymefunction.org. The realization of multidisciplinary strategies for functional assignment will begin to define the full metabolic diversity that exists in nature and will impact basic biochemical and evolutionary understanding, as well as a wide range of applications of central importance to industrial, medicinal and pharmaceutical efforts. PMID

  12. The Enzyme Function Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlt, John A; Allen, Karen N; Almo, Steven C; Armstrong, Richard N; Babbitt, Patricia C; Cronan, John E; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Imker, Heidi J; Jacobson, Matthew P; Minor, Wladek; Poulter, C Dale; Raushel, Frank M; Sali, Andrej; Shoichet, Brian K; Sweedler, Jonathan V

    2011-11-22

    The Enzyme Function Initiative (EFI) was recently established to address the challenge of assigning reliable functions to enzymes discovered in bacterial genome projects; in this Current Topic, we review the structure and operations of the EFI. The EFI includes the Superfamily/Genome, Protein, Structure, Computation, and Data/Dissemination Cores that provide the infrastructure for reliably predicting the in vitro functions of unknown enzymes. The initial targets for functional assignment are selected from five functionally diverse superfamilies (amidohydrolase, enolase, glutathione transferase, haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase, and isoprenoid synthase), with five superfamily specific Bridging Projects experimentally testing the predicted in vitro enzymatic activities. The EFI also includes the Microbiology Core that evaluates the in vivo context of in vitro enzymatic functions and confirms the functional predictions of the EFI. The deliverables of the EFI to the scientific community include (1) development of a large-scale, multidisciplinary sequence/structure-based strategy for functional assignment of unknown enzymes discovered in genome projects (target selection, protein production, structure determination, computation, experimental enzymology, microbiology, and structure-based annotation), (2) dissemination of the strategy to the community via publications, collaborations, workshops, and symposia, (3) computational and bioinformatic tools for using the strategy, (4) provision of experimental protocols and/or reagents for enzyme production and characterization, and (5) dissemination of data via the EFI's Website, http://enzymefunction.org. The realization of multidisciplinary strategies for functional assignment will begin to define the full metabolic diversity that exists in nature and will impact basic biochemical and evolutionary understanding, as well as a wide range of applications of central importance to industrial, medicinal, and pharmaceutical efforts.

  13. Polysheroidal periodic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truskova, N.F.

    1985-01-01

    Separation of variables in the Helmholtz N-dimensional (N≥4) equation in polyspheroidal coordinate systems leads to the necessity of solving equations going over into equations for polyspheroidal periodic functions used for solving the two-centre problem in quantum mechanics, the three-body problem with Coulomb interaction, etc. For these functions the expansions are derived in terms of the Jacobi polynomials and Bessel functions. Their basic properties, asymptotics are considered. The algorithm of their computer calculations is developed. The results of numerical calculations are given

  14. cl-Supercontinuous Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Singh

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Basic properties of cl-supercontinuity, a strong variant of continuity, due to Reilly and Vamanamurthy [Indian J. Pure Appl. Math., 14 (1983, 767–772], who call such maps clopen continuous, are studied. Sufficient conditions on domain or range for a continuous function to be cl-supercontinuous are observed. Direct and inverse transfer of certain topological properties under cl-supercontinuous functions are studied and existence or nonexistence of certain cl-supercontinuous function with specified domain or range is outlined.

  15. Mean-periodic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Berenstein

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that any mean-periodic function f can be represented in terms of exponential-polynomial solutions of the same convolution equation f satisfies, i.e., u∗f=0(μ∈E′(ℝn. This extends to n-variables the work of L. Schwartz on mean-periodicity and also extends L. Ehrenpreis' work on partial differential equations with constant coefficients to arbitrary convolutors. We also answer a number of open questions about mean-periodic functions of one variable. The basic ingredient is our work on interpolation by entire functions in one and several complex variables.

  16. Functional Amyloids in Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewetson, Aveline; Do, Hoa Quynh; Myers, Caitlyn; Muthusubramanian, Archana; Sutton, Roger Bryan; Wylie, Benjamin J; Cornwall, Gail A

    2017-06-29

    Amyloids are traditionally considered pathological protein aggregates that play causative roles in neurodegenerative disease, diabetes and prionopathies. However, increasing evidence indicates that in many biological systems nonpathological amyloids are formed for functional purposes. In this review, we will specifically describe amyloids that carry out biological roles in sexual reproduction including the processes of gametogenesis, germline specification, sperm maturation and fertilization. Several of these functional amyloids are evolutionarily conserved across several taxa, including human, emphasizing the critical role amyloids perform in reproduction. Evidence will also be presented suggesting that, if altered, some functional amyloids may become pathological.

  17. Effects of Bright Light Therapy on Sleep, Cognition, Brain Function, and Neurochemistry in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    rush”, nitrous oxide ("laughing gas"), amyl or butyl nitrate ("poppers").      Cannabis :  marijuana, hashish ("hash"), THC, "pot", "grass", "weed...products today? If so, how much? ___________ On average, how many cups of caffeinated coffee do you drink per day? ___________ On average, how...products today? If so, how much? ___________ On average, how many cups of caffeinated coffee do you drink per day? ___________ On average, how

  18. Effects of Bright Light Therapy on Sleep, Cognition, Brain Function, and Neurochemistry in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-30

    session (p=.075, 1-tailed). Inspection of average ranks and relative effects (i.e., the typical ranks across the combinations of groups and combined ...34poppers").      Cannabis :  marijuana, hashish ("hash"),  THC , "pot", "grass", "weed", "reefer".        Tranquilizers:  Quaalude, Seconal ("reds"), Valium...Performance and alertness effects of caffeine , dextroamphetamine, and modafinil during sleep deprivation. J Sleep Res. 14(3):255-66, 2005. 29. Killgore

  19. THE PSEUDO-SMARANDACHE FUNCTION

    OpenAIRE

    David Gorski

    2007-01-01

    The Pseudo-Smarandache Function is part of number theory. The function comes from the Smarandache Function. The Pseudo-Smarandache Function is represented by Z(n) where n represents any natural number.

  20. Coded Network Function Virtualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Shuwaili, A.; Simone, O.; Kliewer, J.

    2016-01-01

    Network function virtualization (NFV) prescribes the instantiation of network functions on general-purpose network devices, such as servers and switches. While yielding a more flexible and cost-effective network architecture, NFV is potentially limited by the fact that commercial off......-the-shelf hardware is less reliable than the dedicated network elements used in conventional cellular deployments. The typical solution for this problem is to duplicate network functions across geographically distributed hardware in order to ensure diversity. In contrast, this letter proposes to leverage channel...... coding in order to enhance the robustness on NFV to hardware failure. The proposed approach targets the network function of uplink channel decoding, and builds on the algebraic structure of the encoded data frames in order to perform in-network coding on the signals to be processed at different servers...

  1. Functional Use Database (FUse)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are five different files for this dataset: 1. A dataset listing the reported functional uses of chemicals (FUse) 2. All 729 ToxPrint descriptors obtained from...

  2. Contributing to Functionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törpel, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is the design of computer supported joint action spaces. It is argued against a view of functionality as residing in computer applications. In such a view the creation of functionality is equivalent to the creation of computer applications. Functionality, in the view...... advocated in this paper, emerges in the specific dynamic interplay of actors, objectives, structures, practices and means. In this view, functionality is the result of creating, harnessing and inhabiting computer supported joint action spaces. The successful creation and further development of a computer...... supported joint action space comprises a whole range of appropriate design contributions. The approach is illustrated by the example of the creation of the computer supported joint action space "exchange network of voluntary union educators". As part of the effort a group of participants created...

  3. Liver Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  4. Introduction to structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiecinski, J.

    1996-07-01

    The theory of deep inelastic scattering structure functions is reviewed with an emphasis put on the QCD expectations of their behaviour in the region of small values of Bjorken parameter x. (author). 56 refs

  5. Bioprinting: Functional droplet networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmus, Naside Gozde; Tasoglu, Savas; Demirci, Utkan

    2013-06-01

    Tissue-mimicking printed networks of droplets separated by lipid bilayers that can be functionalized with membrane proteins are able to spontaneously fold and transmit electrical currents along predefined paths.

  6. Center for Functional Nanomaterials

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) explores the unique properties of materials and processes at the nanoscale. The CFN is a user-oriented research center...

  7. density functional theory approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    YOGESH ERANDE

    2017-07-27

    Jul 27, 2017 ... a key role in all optical switching devices, since their optical properties can be .... optimized in the gas phase using Density Functional Theory. (DFT).39 The ...... The Mediation of Electrostatic Effects by Sol- vents J. Am. Chem.

  8. Reasoning about Function Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordio, Martin; Calcagno, Cristiano; Meyer, Bertrand; Müller, Peter; Tschannen, Julian

    Modern object-oriented languages support higher-order implementations through function objects such as delegates in C#, agents in Eiffel, or closures in Scala. Function objects bring a new level of abstraction to the object-oriented programming model, and require a comparable extension to specification and verification techniques. We introduce a verification methodology that extends function objects with auxiliary side-effect free (pure) methods to model logical artifacts: preconditions, postconditions and modifies clauses. These pure methods can be used to specify client code abstractly, that is, independently from specific instantiations of the function objects. To demonstrate the feasibility of our approach, we have implemented an automatic prover, which verifies several non-trivial examples.

  9. Normal Functioning Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  10. Fundamentals of functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Farenick, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a unique path for graduate or advanced undergraduate students to begin studying the rich subject of functional analysis with fewer prerequisites than is normally required. The text begins with a self-contained and highly efficient introduction to topology and measure theory, which focuses on the essential notions required for the study of functional analysis, and which are often buried within full-length overviews of the subjects. This is particularly useful for those in applied mathematics, engineering, or physics who need to have a firm grasp of functional analysis, but not necessarily some of the more abstruse aspects of topology and measure theory normally encountered. The reader is assumed to only have knowledge of basic real analysis, complex analysis, and algebra. The latter part of the text provides an outstanding treatment of Banach space theory and operator theory, covering topics not usually found together in other books on functional analysis. Written in a clear, concise manner,...

  11. Smooth functions statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, V.I.

    2006-03-01

    To describe the topological structure of a real smooth function one associates to it the graph, formed by the topological variety, whose points are the connected components of the level hypersurface of the function. For a Morse function, such a graph is a tree. Generically, it has T triple vertices, T + 2 endpoints, 2T + 2 vertices and 2T + 1 arrows. The main goal of the present paper is to study the statistics of the graphs, corresponding to T triple points: what is the growth rate of the number φ(T) of different graphs? Which part of these graphs is representable by the polynomial functions of corresponding degree? A generic polynomial of degree n has at most (n - 1) 2 critical points on R 2 , corresponding to 2T + 2 = (n - 1) 2 + 1, that is to T = 2k(k - 1) saddle-points for degree n = 2k

  12. Structure function monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, John T [Placitas, NM; Zimmer, Peter C [Albuquerque, NM; Ackermann, Mark R [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-01-24

    Methods and apparatus for a structure function monitor provide for generation of parameters characterizing a refractive medium. In an embodiment, a structure function monitor acquires images of a pupil plane and an image plane and, from these images, retrieves the phase over an aperture, unwraps the retrieved phase, and analyzes the unwrapped retrieved phase. In an embodiment, analysis yields atmospheric parameters measured at spatial scales from zero to the diameter of a telescope used to collect light from a source.

  13. Sexual Function Across Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Anita H; Harsh, Veronica

    2016-03-01

    Women experience multiple changes in social and reproductive statuses across the life span which can affect sexual functioning. Various phases of the sexual response cycle may be impacted and can lead to sexual dysfunction. Screening for sexual problems and consideration of contributing factors such as neurobiology, reproductive life events, medical problems, medication use, and depression can help guide appropriate treatment and thereby improve the sexual functioning and quality of life of affected women. Treatment options include psychotropic medications, hormone therapy, and psychotherapy.

  14. Inequalities for Humbert functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Shehata

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is motivated by an open problem of Luke’s theorem. We consider the problem of developing a unified point of view on the theory of inequalities of Humbert functions and of their general ratios are obtained. Some particular cases and refinements are given. Finally, we obtain some important results involving inequalities of Bessel and Whittaker’s functions as applications.

  15. Functionally graded materials

    CERN Document Server

    Mahamood, Rasheedat Modupe

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the concept of functionally graded materials as well as their use and different fabrication processes. The authors describe the use of additive manufacturing technology for the production of very complex parts directly from the three dimension computer aided design of the part by adding material layer after layer. A case study is also presented in the book on the experimental analysis of functionally graded material using laser metal deposition process.

  16. [Functional (psychogenic) vertigo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diukova, G M; Zamergrad, M V; Golubev, V L; Adilova, S M; Makarov, S A

    Psychogenic (functional) vertigo is in second place by frequency after benign positional paroxysmal vertigo. It is often difficult to make the diagnosis, diagnostic program is expensive and traditional treatment often is not effective. This literature review covers current concepts on the terminology, clinical signs, pathogenesis and treatment approaches with regard to functional vertigo. Special attention is given to cerebral mechanisms of the pathogenesis including cognitive aspects.

  17. NEUROFEEDBACK USING FUNCTIONAL SPECTROSCOPY

    OpenAIRE

    Hinds, Oliver; Wighton, Paul; Tisdall, M. Dylan; Hess, Aaron; Breiter, Hans; van der Kouwe, André

    2014-01-01

    Neurofeedback based on real-time measurement of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal has potential for treatment of neurological disorders and behavioral enhancement. Commonly employed methods are based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sequences that sacrifice speed and accuracy for whole-brain coverage, which is unnecessary in most applications. We present multi-voxel functional spectroscopy (MVFS): a system for computing the BOLD signal from multiple volumes of...

  18. Applied functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Griffel, DH

    2002-01-01

    A stimulating introductory text, this volume examines many important applications of functional analysis to mechanics, fluid mechanics, diffusive growth, and approximation. Detailed enough to impart a thorough understanding, the text is also sufficiently straightforward for those unfamiliar with abstract analysis. Its four-part treatment begins with distribution theory and discussions of Green's functions. Essentially independent of the preceding material, the second and third parts deal with Banach spaces, Hilbert space, spectral theory, and variational techniques. The final part outlines the

  19. Pancreatic Exocrine Function Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Berk, J. Edward

    1982-01-01

    It is important to understand which pancreatic function tests are available and how to interpret them when evaluating patients with malabsorption. Available direct tests are the secretin stimulation test, the Lundh test meal, and measurement of serum or fecal enzymes. Indirect tests assess pancreatic exocrine function by measuring the effect of pancreatic secretion on various nutrients. These include triglycerides labeled with carbon 14, cobalamin labeled with cobalt 57 and cobalt 58, and par...

  20. Purely Functional Structured Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Obua, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The idea of functional programming has played a big role in shaping today's landscape of mainstream programming languages. Another concept that dominates the current programming style is Dijkstra's structured programming. Both concepts have been successfully married, for example in the programming language Scala. This paper proposes how the same can be achieved for structured programming and PURELY functional programming via the notion of LINEAR SCOPE. One advantage of this proposal is that m...

  1. Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Todorova, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    Exponential functions find applications in economics in relation to growth and economic dynamics. In these fields, quite often the choice variable is time and economists are trying to determine the best timing for certain economic activities to take place. An exponential function is one in which the independent variable appears in the exponent. Very often that exponent is time. In highly mathematical courses, it is a truism that students learn by doing, not by reading. Tamara Todorova’s Pr...

  2. Handbook of functional equations functional inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    As Richard Bellman has so elegantly stated at the Second International Conference on General Inequalities (Oberwolfach, 1978), “There are three reasons for the study of inequalities: practical, theoretical, and aesthetic.” On the aesthetic aspects, he said, “As has been pointed out, beauty is in the eye of the beholder. However, it is generally agreed that certain pieces of music, art, or mathematics are beautiful. There is an elegance to inequalities that makes them very attractive.” The content of the Handbook focuses mainly on both old and recent developments on approximate homomorphisms, on a relation between the Hardy–Hilbert and the Gabriel inequality, generalized Hardy–Hilbert type inequalities on multiple weighted Orlicz spaces, half-discrete Hilbert-type inequalities, on affine mappings, on contractive operators, on multiplicative Ostrowski and trapezoid inequalities, Ostrowski type inequalities for the  Riemann–Stieltjes integral, means and related functional inequalities, Weighted G...

  3. Functional Neuroimaging in Psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Casale, Antonio; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Rapinesi, Chiara; Di Pietro, Simone; Alessi, Maria Chiara; Di Cesare, Gianluigi; Criscuolo, Silvia; De Rossi, Pietro; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo; Ferracuti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Psychopathy is associated with cognitive and affective deficits causing disruptive, harmful and selfish behaviour. These have considerable societal costs due to recurrent crime and property damage. A better understanding of the neurobiological bases of psychopathy could improve therapeutic interventions, reducing the related social costs. To analyse the major functional neural correlates of psychopathy, we reviewed functional neuroimaging studies conducted on persons with this condition. We searched the PubMed database for papers dealing with functional neuroimaging and psychopathy, with a specific focus on how neural functional changes may correlate with task performances and human behaviour. Psychopathy-related behavioural disorders consistently correlated with dysfunctions in brain areas of the orbitofrontal-limbic (emotional processing and somatic reaction to emotions; behavioural planning and responsibility taking), anterior cingulate-orbitofrontal (correct assignment of emotional valence to social stimuli; violent/aggressive behaviour and challenging attitude) and prefrontal-temporal-limbic (emotional stimuli processing/response) networks. Dysfunctional areas more consistently included the inferior frontal, orbitofrontal, dorsolateral prefrontal, ventromedial prefrontal, temporal (mainly the superior temporal sulcus) and cingulated cortices, the insula, amygdala, ventral striatum and other basal ganglia. Emotional processing and learning, and several social and affective decision-making functions are impaired in psychopathy, which correlates with specific changes in neural functions. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Functional integration over geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottola, E.

    1995-01-01

    The geometric construction of the functional integral over coset spaces M/G is reviewed. The inner product on the cotangent space of infinitesimal deformations of M defines an invariant distance and volume form, or functional integration measure on the full configuration space. Then, by a simple change of coordinates parameterizing the gauge fiber G, the functional measure on the coset space M/G is deduced. This change of integration variables leads to a Jacobian which is entirely equivalent to the Faddeev--Popov determinant of the more traditional gauge fixed approach in non-abelian gauge theory. If the general construction is applied to the case where G is the group of coordinate reparameterizations of spacetime, the continuum functional integral over geometries, i.e. metrics modulo coordinate reparameterizations may be defined. The invariant functional integration measure is used to derive the trace anomaly and effective action for the conformal part of the metric in two and four dimensional spacetime. In two dimensions this approach generates the Polyakov--Liouville action of closed bosonic non-critical string theory. In four dimensions the corresponding effective action leads to novel conclusions on the importance of quantum effects in gravity in the far infrared, and in particular, a dramatic modification of the classical Einstein theory at cosmological distance scales, signaled first by the quantum instability of classical de Sitter spacetime. Finite volume scaling relations for the functional integral of quantum gravity in two and four dimensions are derived, and comparison with the discretized dynamical triangulation approach to the integration over geometries are discussed. Outstanding unsolved problems in both the continuum definition and the simplicial approach to the functional integral over geometries are highlighted

  5. Renal Function in Hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, S.; Khalid, M; Elfaki, M.; Hassan, N.; Suliman, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background Hypothyroidism induces significant changes in the function of organ systems such as the heart, muscles and brain. Renal function is also influenced by thyroid status. Physiological effects include changes in water and electrolyte metabolism, notably hyponatremia, and reliable alterations of renal hemodynamics, including decrements in renal blood flow, renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Objective Renal function is profoundly influenced by thyroid status; the purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between renal function and thyroid status of patients with hypothyroidism. Design and Patients In 5 patients with primary hypothyroidism and control group renal functions are measured by serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using modified in diet renal disease (MDRD) formula. Result In hypothyroidism, mean serum creatinine increased and mean estimated GFR decreased, compared to the control group mean serum creatinine decreased and mean estimated GFR Increased. The hypothyroid patients showed elevated serum creatinine levels (> 1.1mg/dl) compared to control group (p value .000). In patients mean estimated GFR decreased, compared to mean estimated GFR increased in the control group (p value= .002).

  6. The Functions of Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Z Assefa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is a ubiquitous component of animal life including birds and mammals. The exact function of sleep has been one of the mysteries of biology. A considerable number of theories have been put forward to explain the reason(s for the necessity of sleep. To date, while a great deal is known about what happens when animals sleep, there is no definitive comprehensive explanation as to the reason that sleep is an inevitable part of animal functioning. It is well known that sleep is a homeostatically regulated body process, and that prolonged sleep deprivation is fatal in animals. In this paper, we present some of the theories as to the functions of sleep and provide a review of some hypotheses as to the overall physiologic function of sleep. To better understand the purpose for sleeping, we review the effects of sleep deprivation on physical, neurocognitive and psychic function. A better understanding of the purpose for sleeping will be a great advance in our understanding of the nature of the animal kingdom, including our own.

  7. Renal Function in Hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, A. S; Ahmed, M.I; Elfaki, H.M; Hassan, N.; Suliman, S. M.

    2006-12-01

    Background hypothyroidism induces significant changes in the function of organ systems such as the heart, muscles and brain. Renal function is also influenced by thyroid status. Physiological effects include changes in water and electrolyte metabolism, notably hyponatraemia, and reliable alterations of renal hemodynamics, including decrements in renal blood flow, renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Objective renal function is profoundly influenced by thyroid status, the purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between renal function and thyroid status of patients with hypothyroidism. Design and patients in 5 patients with primary hypothyroidism and control group renal functions are measured by serum creatinine and glomerular filtration rate(GFR) using modified in diet renal disease (MDRD) formula. Result in hypothyroidism, mean serum creatinine increased and mean estimated GFR decreased, compared to the control group mean serum creatinine decreased and mean estimated GFR increased. The hypothyroid patients showed elevated serum creatinine levels(>1.1 mg/d1) compared to control group (p value= 000). In patients mean estimated GFR increased in the control group (p value=.002).Conclusion thus the kidney, in addition to the brain, heart and muscle, is an important target of the action of thyroid hormones.(Author)

  8. The tensor distribution function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, A D; Zhu, S; Zhan, L; McMahon, K; de Zubicaray, G I; Meredith, M; Wright, M J; Toga, A W; Thompson, P M

    2009-01-01

    Diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging is a powerful tool that can be employed to study white matter microstructure by examining the 3D displacement profile of water molecules in brain tissue. By applying diffusion-sensitized gradients along a minimum of six directions, second-order tensors (represented by three-by-three positive definite matrices) can be computed to model dominant diffusion processes. However, conventional DTI is not sufficient to resolve more complicated white matter configurations, e.g., crossing fiber tracts. Recently, a number of high-angular resolution schemes with more than six gradient directions have been employed to address this issue. In this article, we introduce the tensor distribution function (TDF), a probability function defined on the space of symmetric positive definite matrices. Using the calculus of variations, we solve the TDF that optimally describes the observed data. Here, fiber crossing is modeled as an ensemble of Gaussian diffusion processes with weights specified by the TDF. Once this optimal TDF is determined, the orientation distribution function (ODF) can easily be computed by analytic integration of the resulting displacement probability function. Moreover, a tensor orientation distribution function (TOD) may also be derived from the TDF, allowing for the estimation of principal fiber directions and their corresponding eigenvalues.

  9. Lunar neutron source function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornblum, J.J.

    1974-01-01

    The search for a quantitative neutron source function for the lunar surface region is justified because it contributes to our understanding of the history of the lunar surface and of nuclear process occurring on the moon since its formation. A knowledge of the neutron source function and neutron flux distribution is important for the interpretation of many experimental measurements. This dissertation uses the available pertinent experimental measurements together with theoretical calculations to obtain an estimate of the lunar neutron source function below 15 MeV. Based upon reasonable assumptions a lunar neutron source function having adjustable parameters is assumed for neutrons below 15 MeV. The lunar neutron source function is composed of several components resulting from the action of cosmic rays with lunar material. A comparison with previous neutron calculations is made and significant differences are discussed. Application of the results to the problem of lunar soil histories is examined using the statistical model for soil development proposed by Fireman. The conclusion is drawn that the moon is losing mass

  10. Functional (psychogenic) stereotypies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baizabal-Carvallo, José Fidel; Jankovic, Joseph

    2017-07-01

    Functional (psychogenic) movement disorders (FMDs) may present with a broad spectrum of phenomenology including stereotypic movements. We aimed to characterize the phenomenology of functional stereotypies and compare these features with those observed in 65 patients with tardive dyskinesia (TD). From a cohort of 184 patients with FMDs, we identified 19 (10.3%) with functional stereotypies (FS). There were 15 women and 4 men, with a mean age at onset of 38.6 ± 17.4 years. Among the patients with FS, there were 9 (47%) with orolingual dyskinesia/stereotypy, 9 (47%) with limb stereotypies, 6 (32%) with trunk stereotypies, and 2 (11%) with respiratory dyskinesia as part of orofacial-laryngeal-trunk stereotypy. These patients showed signs commonly seen in FMDs such as sudden onset (84%), prominent distractibility (58%), and periods of unexplained improvement (84%) that were not reported in patients with TD. Besides a much lower frequency of exposure to potential offending drugs, patients with FS differed from those with classic TD by a younger age at onset, lack of self-biting, uncommon chewing movements, more frequent lingual movements without mouth dyskinesia, and associated functional tremor and abnormal speech. Lack of self-biting showed the highest sensitivity (1.0) and abnormal speech showed the highest specificity (0.9) for the diagnosis of functional orolingual dyskinesia. FS represent part of the clinical spectrum of FMDs. Clinical and demographic features are helpful in distinguishing patients with FS from those with TD.

  11. Functional Anorectal Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Satish Sc; Bharucha, Adil E; Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Felt-Bersma, Richelle; Knowles, Charles; Malcolm, Allison; Wald, Arnold

    2016-03-25

    This report defines criteria and reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of common anorectal disorders: fecal incontinence (FI), functional anorectal pain and functional defecation disorders. FI is defined as the recurrent uncontrolled passage of fecal material for at least 3 months. The clinical features of FI are useful for guiding diagnostic testing and therapy. Anorectal manometry and imaging are useful for evaluating anal and pelvic floor structure and function. Education, antidiarrheals and biofeedback therapy are the mainstay of management; surgery may be useful in refractory cases. Functional anorectal pain syndromes are defined by clinical features and categorized into three subtypes. In proctalgia fugax, the pain is typically fleeting and lasts for seconds to minutes. In levator ani syndrome (LAS) and unspecified anorectal pain the pain lasts more than 30 minutes, but in LAS there is puborectalis tenderness. Functional defecation disorders are defined by >2 symptoms of chronic constipation or irritable bowel syndrome with constipation, and with >2 features of impaired evacuation i.e., abnormal evacuation pattern on manometry, abnormal balloon expulsion test or impaired rectal evacuation by imaging. It includes two subtypes; dyssynergic defecation and inadequate defecatory propulsion. Pelvic floor biofeedback therapy is effective for treating LAS and defecatory disorders. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Educating Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy

    2016-01-01

    Executive functions are thinking skills that assist with reasoning, planning, problem solving, and managing one’s life. The brain areas that underlie these skills are interconnected with and influenced by activity in many different brain areas, some of which are associated with emotion and stress. One consequence of the stress-specific connections is that executive functions, which help us to organize our thinking, tend to be disrupted when stimulation is too high and we are stressed out, or too low when we are bored and lethargic. Given their central role in reasoning and also in managing stress and emotion, scientists have conducted studies, primarily with adults, to determine whether executive functions can be improved by training. By and large, results have shown that they can be, in part through computer-based videogame-like activities. Evidence of wider, more general benefits from such computer-based training, however, is mixed. Accordingly, scientists have reasoned that training will have wider benefits if it is implemented early, with very young children as the neural circuitry of executive functions is developing, and that it will be most effective if embedded in children’s everyday activities. Evidence produced by this research, however, is also mixed. In sum, much remains to be learned about executive function training. Without question, however, continued research on this important topic will yield valuable information about cognitive development. PMID:27906522

  13. The function of dreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, H

    2001-01-01

    Theories on the function of REM sleep and dreaming, with which it has a contingent relationship, remain diverse. They include facilitation of memory storage, reverse learning, anatomical and functional brain maturation, catecholamine restoration, psychoanalytical (wish fulfilment or otherwise). It is possible that one function is grafted onto another as the personality develops. Given a close relationship between REM sleep and dreaming, and given that the neonate spends 18 hours asleep per day, of which 12 hours are spent in REM sleep, it is logical to look in the neonate for a primary function of dreaming. The two constants in the dreaming process are: 1) the dreamer is always present as first person observer; 2) there is always a topographical setting. Based on the foregoing, it is proposed that a major function of REM sleep is the development and maintenance of a sense of personal identity, through creating a 'being there' environment at regular intervals during prolonged periods of absence from a waking state in topographical surrounds. The infant cannot forget who he/she is. Thus, he/she develops a clear sense of his/her own identity, or the 'I'ness of me', and a sense of his/her separateness from the topographical world. At the same time, by largely forgetting the dreams, he/she is not burdened by the need for an elaborate method of storage of the vicarious and bizarre experiences.

  14. Effect of functional overreaching on executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, O; Renaud, M; Bherer, L; Bosquet, L

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether cognitive performance was a valid marker of overreaching. 10 well-trained male endurance athletes increased their training load by 100% for 2 weeks. They performed a maximal graded test, a constant speed test, a reaction time task and a computerized version of the Stroop color word-test before and after this overload period. Regarding performance results, five participants were considered as overreached and the five remaining were considered as well-trained. We found no significant differences between groups in performing the Stroop test. Noteworthy, we found a small increase in response time in the more complex condition in overreached athletes (1 188+/-261 to 1 297+/-231 ms, effect size=0.44), while it decreased moderately in the well-trained athletes (1 066+/-175 to 963+/-171 ms, effect size=-0.59). Furthermore, we found an interaction between time and group on initiation time of the reaction time task, since it increased in overreached athletes after the overload period (246+/-24 to 264+/-26 ms, p<0.05), while it remained unchanged in well-trained participants. Participants made very few anticipation errors, whatever the group or the period (error rate <2%).We concluded that an unaccustomed increase in training volume which is accompanied by a decrement in physical performance induces a deterioration of some executive functions. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  15. Functional illiteracy in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Možina

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The author draws attention to the fact that, in determining functional illiteracy, there remain many terminological disagreements and diverse opinions regarding illiteracy. Furthermore, there are also different methods for measuring writing abilities, thus leading to disparate results. The introductory section presents the dilemmas relating to the term of functional illiteracy, while the second part is concerned with the various methods for measuring literacy. Thus, the author also critically assesses the research studies aimed at evaluating the scope of literacy amongst adults in Slovenia during the past decade. ln this paper, she has adopted a methodology which would not determine what is functional and what is not in our society, in order to avoid limiting the richness of individual writing praxis.

  16. Functional studies using NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCready, V.R.; Leach, M.O.; Sutton; Ell, P.

    1986-01-01

    The object of this book is to discuss and evaluate an area of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance which to date has been less emphasized than it might be, namely the use of NMR for functional studies. The book commences with a discussion of the areas in which the NMR techniques might be needed due to deficiencies in other techniques. The physics of NMR especially relating to functional measurement are then explained. Technical factors in producing functional images are discussed and the use of paramagnetic substances for carrying out flow studies are detailed. Particular attention is paid to specific studies in the various organs. The book ends with a survey of imaging in each organ and the relation of NMR images to other techniques such as ultrasound, nuclear medicine and X-rays

  17. Quantal density functional theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sahni, Viraht

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with quantal density functional theory (QDFT) which is a time-dependent local effective potential theory of the electronic structure of matter. The treated time-independent QDFT constitutes a special case. In the 2nd edition, the theory is extended to include the presence of external magnetostatic fields. The theory is a description of matter based on the ‘quantal Newtonian’ first and second laws which is in terms of “classical” fields that pervade all space, and their quantal sources. The fields, which are explicitly defined, are separately representative of electron correlations due to the Pauli exclusion principle, Coulomb repulsion, correlation-kinetic, correlation-current-density, and correlation-magnetic effects. The book further describes Schrödinger theory from the new physical perspective of fields and quantal sources. It also describes traditional Hohenberg-Kohn-Sham DFT, and explains via QDFT the physics underlying the various energy functionals and functional derivatives o...

  18. Protein Functionalized Nanodiamond Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu YL

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Various nanoscale elements are currently being explored for bio-applications, such as in bio-images, bio-detection, and bio-sensors. Among them, nanodiamonds possess remarkable features such as low bio-cytotoxicity, good optical property in fluorescent and Raman spectra, and good photostability for bio-applications. In this work, we devise techniques to position functionalized nanodiamonds on self-assembled monolayer (SAMs arrays adsorbed on silicon and ITO substrates surface using electron beam lithography techniques. The nanodiamond arrays were functionalized with lysozyme to target a certain biomolecule or protein specifically. The optical properties of the nanodiamond-protein complex arrays were characterized by a high throughput confocal microscope. The synthesized nanodiamond-lysozyme complex arrays were found to still retain their functionality in interacting with E. coli.

  19. Choice probability generating functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel; Bierlaire, Michel

    2010-01-01

    This paper establishes that every random utility discrete choice model (RUM) has a representation that can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) with specific properties, and that every function with these specific properties is consistent with a RUM. The choice...... probabilities from the RUM are obtained from the gradient of the CPGF. Mixtures of RUM are characterized by logarithmic mixtures of their associated CPGF. The paper relates CPGF to multivariate extreme value distributions, and reviews and extends methods for constructing generating functions for applications....... The choice probabilities of any ARUM may be approximated by a cross-nested logit model. The results for ARUM are extended to competing risk survival models....

  20. Functional Programming Using F#

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Rischel, Hans

    This comprehensive introduction to the principles of functional programming using F# shows how to apply basic theoretical concepts to produce succinct and elegant programs. It demonstrates the role of functional programming in a wide spectrum of applications including databases and systems....... Coverage also includes advanced features in the .NET library, the imperative features of F# and topics such as text processing, sequences, computation expressions and asynchronous computation. With a broad spectrum of examples and exercises, the book is perfect for courses in functional programming...... and for self-study. Enhancing its use as a text is an accompanying website with downloadable programs, lecture slides, a mini-projects and links to further F# sources....

  1. Spaces of continuous functions

    CERN Document Server

    Groenewegen, G L M

    2016-01-01

    The space C(X) of all continuous functions on a compact space X carries the structure of a normed vector space, an algebra and a lattice. On the one hand we study the relations between these structures and the topology of X, on the other hand we discuss a number of classical results according to which an algebra or a vector lattice can be represented as a C(X). Various applications of these theorems are given. Some attention is devoted to related theorems, e.g. the Stone Theorem for Boolean algebras and the Riesz Representation Theorem. The book is functional analytic in character. It does not presuppose much knowledge of functional analysis; it contains introductions into subjects such as the weak topology, vector lattices and (some) integration theory.

  2. Expanding Pseudorandom Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2002-01-01

    Given any weak pseudorandom function, we present a general and efficient technique transforming such a function to a new weak pseudorandom function with an arbitrary length output. This implies, among other things, an encryption mode for block ciphers. The mode is as efficient as known (and widely...... used) encryption modes as CBC mode and counter (CTR) mode, but is provably secure against chosen-plaintext attack (CPA) already if the underlying symmetric cipher is secure against known-plaintext attack (KPA). We prove that CBC, CTR and Jutla’s integrity aware modes do not have this property....... In particular, we prove that when using a KPA secure block cipher, then: CBC mode is KPA secure, but need not be CPA secure, Jutla’s modes need not be CPA secure, and CTR mode need not be even KPA secure. The analysis is done in a concrete security framework....

  3. Statistical wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    Statistical considerations are applied to quantum mechanical amplitudes. The physical motivation is the progress in the spectroscopy of highly excited states. The corresponding wave functions are strongly mixed. In terms of a basis set of eigenfunctions of a zeroth-order Hamiltonian with good quantum numbers, such wave functions have contributions from many basis states. The vector x is considered whose components are the expansion coefficients in that basis. Any amplitude can be written as a dagger x x. It is argued that the components of x and hence other amplitudes can be regarded as random variables. The maximum entropy formalism is applied to determine the corresponding distribution function. Two amplitudes a dagger x x and b dagger x x are independently distributed if b dagger x a = 0. It is suggested that the theory of quantal measurements implies that, in general, one can one determine the distribution of amplitudes and not the amplitudes themselves

  4. Platelet function in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line A.; Zois, Nora Elisabeth; Pedersen, Henrik D.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Clinical studies investigating platelet function in dogs have had conflicting results that may be caused by normal physiologic variation in platelet response to agonists. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate platelet function in clinically healthy dogs of 4...... different breeds by whole-blood aggregometry and with a point-of-care platelet function analyzer (PFA-100), and to evaluate the effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) administration on the results from both methods. Methods: Forty-five clinically healthy dogs (12 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels [CKCS], 12...... applied. However, the importance of these breed differences remains to be investigated. The PFA-100 method with Col + Epi as agonists, and ADP-induced platelet aggregation appear to be sensitive to ASA in dogs....

  5. Path-dependent functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrapko, R.I.

    1985-01-01

    A uniform description of various path-dependent functions is presented with the help of expansion of the type of the Taylor series. So called ''path-integrals'' and ''path-tensor'' are introduced which are systems of many-component quantities whose values are defined for arbitrary paths in coordinated region of space in such a way that they contain a complete information on the path. These constructions are considered as elementary path-dependent functions and are used instead of power monomials in the usual Taylor series. Coefficients of such an expansion are interpreted as partial derivatives dependent on the order of the differentiations or else as nonstandard cavariant derivatives called two-point derivatives. Some examples of pathdependent functions are presented.Space curvature tensor is considered whose geometrica properties are determined by the (non-transitive) translator of parallel transport of a general type. Covariant operation leading to the ''extension'' of tensor fiels is pointed out

  6. Functional bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with functional bowel disease were given fructose, sorbitol, fructose-sorbitol mixtures, and sucrose. The occurrence of malabsorption was evaluated by means of hydrogen breath tests and the gastrointestinal symptoms, if any, were recorded. One patient could not be evaluated...... because of lack of H2 production. Based on a cut-off level of 10 ppm rise of H2 concentration, malabsorption was apparent in 13 patients, in 7 of which the calculated absorption capacities were below 15 g. In contrast, in patients given 50 g of sucrose, malabsorption could not be detected. Ingestion...... with functional bowel disease. The findings may have direct influence on the dietary guidance given to a major group of patients with functional bowel disease and may make it possible to define separate entities in this disease complex....

  7. Functional digital substraction sialography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudin, L.; Saidkarimova, I.

    1994-01-01

    The proposed method of functional digital substraction sialography makes possible to reduce the amount of contrast substance used, by comparison to conventional sialography. The processing of the obtained image during different phases of the contrast visualisation of the gland allows for detecting and recording eventual functional disorders. A more clear-cut visualization of subtracted contrast images against the background of the eliminated bone structures is attained. A total of 37 patients presenting various diseases of salivary glands are covered in this study. The procedure applied contributes greatly to improving the quality of diagnosing information afforded by the counter-stained image of salivary glands at reduced radiation exposure and shorter time of examination. An essential advantage is the possibility provided to disclose functional and morphological changes, especially in the early phases of the disease. 11 refs. (orig.)

  8. The function of ornaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    of their manifold functions that integrates aesthetic and utilitarian, individual and social roles. Ornaments help us to identify and locate, tell or communicate, remind and organise our action, they guide our attention, express and individualise, can generate an experience, beautify as well as re......-present. These functions are illustrated with examples from a study of Easter egg decoration practices in northern Romania. In the end, the ‘meta-function’ of emergence is discussed and consideration is given to the spatial and temporal contexts of ornaments. Future opportunities for theorising ornamentation...

  9. Complex function theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sarason, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Complex Function Theory is a concise and rigorous introduction to the theory of functions of a complex variable. Written in a classical style, it is in the spirit of the books by Ahlfors and by Saks and Zygmund. Being designed for a one-semester course, it is much shorter than many of the standard texts. Sarason covers the basic material through Cauchy's theorem and applications, plus the Riemann mapping theorem. It is suitable for either an introductory graduate course or an undergraduate course for students with adequate preparation. The first edition was published with the title Notes on Co

  10. Nucleon structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virchaux, M.

    1992-11-01

    The present status of experimental measurements of the nucleon structure functions is reviewed. The results from nearly all deep inelastic experiments are in good mutual agreement. Principles of the analysis of these structure function data in the framework of QCD are described. The specific features of the perturbative QCD predictions are observed in the data. This provides quantitative tests of the validity of QCD as well as determinations of the various parton distributions in the nucleon and some of the most precise measurements of the strong coupling constant αs. The future of this field of experimental physics is sketched

  11. Harmonic supergraphs. Green functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galperin, A.; Ivanov, E.; Gievetsky, V.; Sokatchev, E.

    1985-01-01

    The quantization procedure in the harmonic superspace approach is worked out. Harmonic distributions are introduced and are used to construct the analytic superspace delta-functions and the Green functions for the hypermultiplet and the N=2 Yang-Mills superfields. The gauge fixing is described and the relevant Faddeev-Popov ghosts are defined. The corresponding BRST transformations are found. The harmonic superspace quantization of the N=2 gauge theory turns out to be rather simple and has many parallels with that for the standard (N=0) Yang-Mills theory. In particular, no ghosts-forghosts are needed

  12. Chromatin Structure and Function

    CERN Document Server

    Wolffe, Alan P

    1999-01-01

    The Third Edition of Chromatin: Structure and Function brings the reader up-to-date with the remarkable progress in chromatin research over the past three years. It has been extensively rewritten to cover new material on chromatin remodeling, histone modification, nuclear compartmentalization, DNA methylation, and transcriptional co-activators and co-repressors. The book is written in a clear and concise fashion, with 60 new illustrations. Chromatin: Structure and Function provides the reader with a concise and coherent account of the nature, structure, and assembly of chromatin and its active

  13. Unpolarized Structure Functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christy, M.E.; Melnitchouk, W.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade measurements of unpolarized structure functions with unprecedented precision have significantly advanced our knowledge of nucleon structure. These have for the first time allowed quantitative tests of the phenomenon of quark-hadron duality, and provided a deeper understanding of the transition from hadron to quark degrees of freedom in inclusive scattering. Dedicated Rosenbluth-separation experiments have yielded high-precision transverse and longitudinal structure functions in regions previously unexplored, and new techniques have enabled the first glimpses of the structure of the free neutron, without contamination from nuclear effects.

  14. Quantum functional oracles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jinsoo; Lee, Soojoon; Chi, Dong Pyo

    2002-01-01

    The limitation on the size of quantum computers makes it important to reuse qubits for auxiliary registers even though they are entangled with others and are occupied by other computational processes. We construct a quantum algorithm that performs the functional phase rotation, which is the generalized form of the conventional conditional phase transforms, using the functional evaluation oracle. The constructed algorithm works without any a priori knowledge of the state of an auxiliary register at the beginning and it recovers the initial state of an auxiliary register at the end. This provides ample scope to choose qubits for auxiliary registers at will. (author)

  15. Privacy amplification for quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yodai

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines classical privacy amplification using a universal family of hash functions. In quantum key distribution, the adversary's measurement can wait until the choice of hash functions is announced, and so the adversary's information may depend on the choice. Therefore the existing result on classical privacy amplification, which assumes the independence of the choice from the other random variables, is not applicable to this case. This paper provides a security proof of privacy amplification which is valid even when the adversary's information may depend on the choice of hash functions. The compression rate of the proposed privacy amplification can be taken to be the same as that of the existing one with an exponentially small loss in secrecy of a final key. (fast track communication)

  16. Early Functional Abilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jakob; Poulsen, Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    Early Functional Abilities (EFA), - en skala til evaluering af behandlingsforløb af svært hjerneskadede patienter i forbindelse med tidlig rehabilitering. Formål At monitorere og dokumentere rehabiliteringsforløbet for svært hjerneskadede patienter, hvor funktionsniveauet endnu ikke kan registreres...

  17. Wine and endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimi, G; Carollo, C; Lo Presti, R

    2003-01-01

    In recent years many studies have focused on the well-known relationship between wine consumption and cardiovascular risk. Wine exerts its protective effects through various changes in lipoprotein profile, coagulation and fibrinolytic cascades, platelet aggregation, oxidative mechanisms and endothelial function. The last has earned more attention for its implications in atherogenesis. Endothelium regulates vascular tone by a delicate balancing among vasorelaxing (nitric oxide [NO]) and vasoconstrincting (endothelins) factors produced by endothelium in response to various stimuli. In rat models, wine and other grape derivatives exerted an endothelium-dependent vasorelaxing capacity especially associated with the NO-stimulating activity of their polyphenol components. In experimental conditions, reservatrol (a stilbene polyphenol) protected hearts and kidneys from ischemia-reperfusion injury through antioxidant activity and upregulation of NO production. Wine polyphenols are also able to induce the expression of genes involved in the NO pathway within the arterial wall. The effects of wine on endothelial function in humans are not yet clearly understood. A favorable action of red wine or dealcoholized wine extract or purple grape juice on endothelial function has been observed by several authors, but discrimination between ethanol and polyphenol effects is controversial. It is, however likely that regular and prolonged moderate wine drinking positively affects endothelial function. The beneficial effects of wine on cardiovascular health are greater if wine is associated with a healthy diet. The most recent nutritional and epidemiologic studies show that the ideal diet closely resembles the Mediterranean diet.

  18. Fabrics in Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Anne Louise

    2007-01-01

    sensing of fabrics in function. It is proposed that tactile and visual sensing of fabrics is a way to investigate and express emotional utility values. The further purpose is to use experiments with repertory grid models as part of the mapping of the entire research project and also as a basis...

  19. DNA: Structure and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinden, Richard R.; E. Pearson, Christopher; N. Potaman, Vladimir

    1998-01-01

    This chapter discusses the structure and function of DNA. DNA occupies a critical role in cells, because it is the source of all intrinsic genetic information. Chemically, DNA is a very stable molecule, a characteristic important for a macromolecule that may have to persist in an intact form...

  20. Brown adipocyte function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Sally

    . The first part of this thesis explores this by identifying and investigating two novel kinase regulators of brown adipocyte function. Study 1 demonstrates that spleen tyrosine kinase is a hitherto undescribed regulator of brown adipocyte differentiation and activation. Study 2 identifies glycogen synthase...

  1. Nonlinear functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Deimling, Klaus

    1985-01-01

    topics. However, only a modest preliminary knowledge is needed. In the first chapter, where we introduce an important topological concept, the so-called topological degree for continuous maps from subsets ofRn into Rn, you need not know anything about functional analysis. Starting with Chapter 2, where infinite dimensions first appear, one should be familiar with the essential step of consider­ ing a sequence or a function of some sort as a point in the corresponding vector space of all such sequences or functions, whenever this abstraction is worthwhile. One should also work out the things which are proved in § 7 and accept certain basic principles of linear functional analysis quoted there for easier references, until they are applied in later chapters. In other words, even the 'completely linear' sections which we have included for your convenience serve only as a vehicle for progress in nonlinearity. Another point that makes the text introductory is the use of an essentially uniform mathematical languag...

  2. Functional Group Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Walter T., Jr.; Patterson, John M.

    1984-01-01

    Literature on analytical methods related to the functional groups of 17 chemical compounds is reviewed. These compounds include acids, acid azides, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, amino acids, aromatic hydrocarbons, carbodiimides, carbohydrates, ethers, nitro compounds, nitrosamines, organometallic compounds, peroxides, phenols, silicon compounds,…

  3. Empirical microeconomics action functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Du, Xin; Tanputraman, Winson

    2015-06-01

    A statistical generalization of microeconomics has been made in Baaquie (2013), where the market price of every traded commodity, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable. The dynamics of commodity market prices is modeled by an action functional-and the focus of this paper is to empirically determine the action functionals for different commodities. The correlation functions of the model are defined using a Feynman path integral. The model is calibrated using the unequal time correlation of the market commodity prices as well as their cubic and quartic moments using a perturbation expansion. The consistency of the perturbation expansion is verified by a numerical evaluation of the path integral. Nine commodities drawn from the energy, metal and grain sectors are studied and their market behavior is described by the model to an accuracy of over 90% using only six parameters. The paper empirically establishes the existence of the action functional for commodity prices that was postulated to exist in Baaquie (2013).

  4. Functional System Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, N.E.

    2007-01-01

    Functional system dynamics is the analysis, modelling, and simulation of continuous systems usually described by partial differential equations. From the infinite degrees of freedom of such systems only a finite number of relevant variables have to be chosen for a practical model description. The

  5. Objectification and Semiotic Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, George

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to study students' difficulties when they have to ascribe the same meaning to different representations of the same mathematical object. We address two theoretical tools that are at the core of Radford's cultural semiotic and Godino's onto-semiotic approaches: objectification and the semiotic function. The analysis…

  6. Cobham recursive set functions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beckmann, A.; Buss, S.; Friedman, S.-D.; Müller, M.; Thapen, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 167, č. 3 (2016), s. 335-369 ISSN 0168-0072 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : set function * polynomial time * Cobham recursion Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.647, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168007215001293

  7. Relativistic Wigner functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bialynicki-Birula Iwo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Original definition of the Wigner function can be extended in a natural manner to relativistic domain in the framework of quantum field theory. Three such generalizations are described. They cover the cases of the Dirac particles, the photon, and the full electromagnetic field.

  8. Production Functions Behaving Badly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredholm, Thomas

    This paper reconsiders Anwar Shaikh's critique of the neoclassical theory of growth and distribution based on its use of aggregate production functions. This is done by reconstructing and extending Franklin M. Fisher's 1971 computer simulations, which Shaikh used to support his critique. Together...

  9. Modifiable Combining Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Paul; Shafer, Glenn; Shenoy, Prakash P.

    2013-01-01

    Modifiable combining functions are a synthesis of two common approaches to combining evidence. They offer many of the advantages of these approaches and avoid some disadvantages. Because they facilitate the acquisition, representation, explanation, and modification of knowledge about combinations of evidence, they are proposed as a tool for knowledge engineers who build systems that reason under uncertainty, not as a normative theory of evidence.

  10. Functional abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Madhusudan; Drossman, Douglas A

    2010-10-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is a relatively less common functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder defined by the presence of constant or frequently recurring abdominal pain that is not associated with eating, change in bowel habits, or menstrual periods (Drossman Gastroenterology 130:1377-1390, 2006), which points to a more centrally targeted (spinal and supraspinal) basis for the symptoms. However, FAPS is frequently confused with irritable bowel syndrome and other functional GI disorders in which abdominal pain is associated with eating and bowel movements. FAPS also differs from chronic abdominal pain associated with entities such as chronic pancreatitis or chronic inflammatory bowel disease, in which the pain is associated with peripherally acting factors (eg, gut inflammation or injury). Given the central contribution to the pain experience, concomitant psychosocial disturbances are common and strongly influence the clinical expression of FAPS, which also by definition is associated with loss of daily functioning. These factors make it critical to use a biopsychosocial construct to understand and manage FAPS, because gut-directed treatments are usually not successful in managing this condition.

  11. Micrononcasual Euclidean wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enatsu, H.; Takenaka, A.; Okazaki, M.

    1978-01-01

    A theory which describes the internal attributes of hadrons in terms of space-time wave functions is presented. In order to develop the theory on the basis of a rather realistic model, covariant wave equations are first derived for the deuteron, in which the co-ordinates of the centre of mass of two nucleons can be defined unambiguously. Then the micro-noncasual behaviour of virtual mesons mediating between the two nucleons is expressed by means of wave functions depending only on the relative Euclidean co-ordinates with respect to the centre of mass of the two nucleons; the wave functions are assumed to obey the 0 4 and SU 2 x SU 2 groups. The properties of the wave functions under space inversion, time reversal and particle-antiparticle conjugation are investigated. It is found that the internal attributes of the mesons, such as spin, isospin, strangeness, intrinsic parity, charge parity and G-parity are explained consistently. The theory is applicable also to the case of baryons

  12. Functional ingredients from microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buono, S.; Langellotti, A.L.; Martello, A.; Rinna, F.; Fogliano, V.

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of natural sources are under investigation to evaluate their possible use for new functional ingredient formulation. Some records attested the traditional and ancient use of wild harvested microalgae as human food but their cultivation for different purposes started about 40 years

  13. Update on Functional Heartburn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Takahisa; O’Neil, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    The definition of functional heartburn has been refined over the years. It is currently described, based upon Rome IV criteria, as typical heartburn symptoms in the presence of normal upper endoscopy findings (including normal biopsies), normal esophageal pH testing, and a negative association between symptoms and reflux events. Functional heartburn is very common, affecting women more than men, and with reflux hypersensitivity makes up the majority of heartburn patients who fail twice-daily proton pump inhibitor therapy. These disorders overlap with other functional gastrointestinal disorders and are often accompanied by psychological comorbidities. Diagnosis is made by using endoscopy with esophageal biopsies, wireless pH capsule, pH-impedance monitoring, and high-resolution esophageal manometry. Additional diagnostic tools that may be of value include magnification endoscopy, chromoendoscopy, narrow-band imaging, autofluorescence imaging, mucosal impedance, impedance baseline values, and histopathology scores. Functional heartburn is primarily treated with neuromodulators. Psychological intervention and complementary and alternative medicine may also play important roles in the treatment of these patients. PMID:29339948

  14. Efficient Generic Functional Programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alimarine, A.; Smetsers, J.E.W.

    2005-01-01

    Generic functions are defined by induction on the structural representation of types. As a consequence, by defining just a single generic operation, one acquires this operation over any particular data type. An instance on a specific type is generated by interpretation of the type's structure. A

  15. Optimizing Generic Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alimarine, A.; Smetsers, J.E.W.

    2004-01-01

    Generic functions are defined by induction on the structural representation of types. As a consequence, by defining just a single generic operation, one acquires this operation over any particular type. An instance on a specific type is generated by interpretation of the type's structure. A direct

  16. Logarithmic-function generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, P. R.

    1975-01-01

    Solid-state logarithmic-function generator is compact and provides improved accuracy. Generator includes a stable multivibrator feeding into RC circuit. Resulting exponentially decaying voltage is compared with input signal. Generator output is proportional to time required for exponential voltage to decay from preset reference level to level of input signal.

  17. Functional Communication Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, V. Mark; Moskowitz, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Thirty years ago, the first experimental demonstration was published showing that educators could improve significant challenging behavior in children with disabilities by replacing these behaviors with forms of communication that served the same purpose, a procedure called functional communication training (FCT). Since the publication of that…

  18. Generalized elementary functions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Monteiro, Giselle Antunes; Slavík, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 411, č. 2 (2014), s. 838-852 ISSN 0022-247X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : elementary functions * Kurzweil-Stieltjes integral * generalized linear ordinary differential equations * time scale calculus Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.120, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022247X13009141

  19. Executive functions in synesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouw, Romke; van Driel, Joram; Knip, Koen; Richard Ridderinkhof, K.

    2013-01-01

    In grapheme-color synesthesia, a number or letter can evoke two different and possibly conflicting (real and synesthetic) color sensations at the same time. In this study, we investigate the relationship between synesthesia and executive control functions. First, no general skill differences were

  20. Mars Sample Handling Functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M. A.; Mattingly, R. L.

    2018-04-01

    The final leg of a Mars Sample Return campaign would be an entity that we have referred to as Mars Returned Sample Handling (MRSH.) This talk will address our current view of the functional requirements on MRSH, focused on the Sample Receiving Facility (SRF).

  1. Laboratory Density Functionals

    OpenAIRE

    Giraud, B. G.

    2007-01-01

    We compare several definitions of the density of a self-bound system, such as a nucleus, in relation with its center-of-mass zero-point motion. A trivial deconvolution relates the internal density to the density defined in the laboratory frame. This result is useful for the practical definition of density functionals.

  2. Automate functional testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kalindri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, software engineers are increasingly turning to the option of automating functional tests, but not always have successful in this endeavor. Reasons range from low planning until over cost in the process. Some principles that can guide teams in automating these tests are described in this article.

  3. The functionality of creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sligte, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is about the functionality of creativity. Why do people invest time and effort in being creative? Being creative is inherently risky, as you need to come up with something new that departs from what is already known, and there is a risk of ridicule, being singled out, or simply

  4. Automatic Functional Harmonic Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, W.B.; Magalhães, J.P.; Wiering, F.; Veltkamp, R.C.

    2013-01-01

    Music scholars have been studying tonal harmony intensively for centuries, yielding numerous theories and models. Unfortunately, a large number of these theories are formulated in a rather informal fashion and lack mathematical precision. In this article we present HarmTrace, a functional model of

  5. Functional System Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Ligterink, N.E.

    2007-01-01

    Functional system dynamics is the analysis, modelling, and simulation of continuous systems usually described by partial differential equations. From the infinite degrees of freedom of such systems only a finite number of relevant variables have to be chosen for a practical model description. The proper input and output of the system are an important part of the relevant variables.

  6. Functions of public relations

    OpenAIRE

    Baranov G. V.

    2016-01-01

    the article reveals the importance of communication with the public in the implementation of human rights and the ideals of mankind; characterized by the specificity of public relations in the information culture of belief; PR functions are explained on the criterion of optimization of activity of social interactions on the basis of cultural ideals.

  7. Semiclassical multicomponent wave function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostovoy, M.V.

    A consistent method for obtaining the semiclassical multicomponent wave function for any value of adiabatic parameter is discussed and illustrated by examining the motion of a neutral particle in a nonuniform magnetic field. The method generalizes the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule to

  8. Mapping functional connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Vogt; Joseph R. Ferrari; Todd R. Lookingbill; Robert H. Gardner; Kurt H. Riitters; Katarzyna Ostapowicz

    2009-01-01

    An objective and reliable assessment of wildlife movement is important in theoretical and applied ecology. The identification and mapping of landscape elements that may enhance functional connectivity is usually a subjective process based on visual interpretations of species movement patterns. New methods based on mathematical morphology provide a generic, flexible,...

  9. Comparisons of power transfer functions and flow transfer functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1987-01-01

    Transfer functions may be used to calculate component feedbacks or temperature increments by convolution of the transfer function with the appropriate fractional change in system-quantity. Power-change transfer functions have been reported. The corresponding flow transfer functions for this case, and comparison with the power transfer functions, are reported here. Results of feedback simulation of ramped flow transients using flow transfer functions are also described

  10. Completely monotonic functions related to logarithmic derivatives of entire functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Laurberg

    2011-01-01

    The logarithmic derivative l(x) of an entire function of genus p and having only non-positive zeros is represented in terms of a Stieltjes function. As a consequence, (-1)p(xml(x))(m+p) is a completely monotonic function for all m ≥ 0. This generalizes earlier results on complete monotonicity...... of functions related to Euler's psi-function. Applications to Barnes' multiple gamma functions are given....

  11. EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONING IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gricel eOrellana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The executive function (EF is a set of abilities, which allows us to invoke voluntary control of our behavioral responses. These functions enable human beings to develop and carry out plans, make up analogies, obey social rules, solve problems, adapt to unexpected circumstances, do many tasks simultaneously and locate episodes in time and place. EF includes divided attention and sustained attention, working memory, set-shifting, flexibility, planning and the regulation of goal directed behavior and can be defined as a brain function underlying the human faculty to act or think not only in reaction to external events but also in relation with internal goals and states. EF is mostly associated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC. Besides EF, PFC is involved in self-regulation of behavior, i.e. the ability to regulate behavior according to internal goals and constraints, particularly in less structured situations. Self-regulation of behavior is subtended by ventral medial /orbital PFC. Impairment of EF is one of the most commonly observed deficits in schizophrenia through the various disease stages. Impairment in tasks measuring conceptualization, planning, cognitive flexibility, verbal fluency, ability to solve complex problems and working memory occur in schizophrenia. Disorders detected by executive tests are consistent with evidence from functional neuroimaging, which have shown PFC dysfunction in patients while performing these kinds of tasks. Schizophrenics also exhibit deficit in odor identifying, decision-making and self-regulation of behavior suggesting dysfunction of the orbital PFC. However, impairment in executive tests is explained by dysfunction of prefronto-striato-thalamic, prefronto-parietal and prefronto-temporal neural networks mainly. Disorders in executive functions may be considered central facts with respect to schizophrenia and it has been suggested that negative symptoms may be explained by that executive dysfunction.

  12. Pulmonary function in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J. B.; Elliott, A. R.; Guy, H. J.; Prisk, G. K.

    1997-01-01

    The lung is exquisitely sensitive to gravity, and so it is of interest to know how its function is altered in the weightlessness of space. Studies on National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Spacelabs during the last 4 years have provided the first comprehensive data on the extensive changes in pulmonary function that occur in sustained microgravity. Measurements of pulmonary function were made on astronauts during space shuttle flights lasting 9 and 14 days and were compared with extensive ground-based measurements before and after the flights. Compared with preflight measurements, cardiac output increased by 18% during space flight, and stroke volume increased by 46%. Paradoxically, the increase in stroke volume occurred in the face of reductions in central venous pressure and circulating blood volume. Diffusing capacity increased by 28%, and the increase in the diffusing capacity of the alveolar membrane was unexpectedly large based on findings in normal gravity. The change in the alveolar membrane may reflect the effects of uniform filling of the pulmonary capillary bed. Distributions of blood flow and ventilation throughout the lung were more uniform in space, but some unevenness remained, indicating the importance of nongravitational factors. A surprising finding was that airway closing volume was approximately the same in microgravity and in normal gravity, emphasizing the importance of mechanical properties of the airways in determining whether they close. Residual volume was unexpectedly reduced by 18% in microgravity, possibly because of uniform alveolar expansion. The findings indicate that pulmonary function is greatly altered in microgravity, but none of the changes observed so far will apparently limit long-term space flight. In addition, the data help to clarify how gravity affects pulmonary function in the normal gravity environment on Earth.

  13. Educating executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy

    2017-01-01

    Executive functions are thinking skills that assist with reasoning, planning, problem solving, and managing one's life. The brain areas that underlie these skills are interconnected with and influenced by activity in many different brain areas, some of which are associated with emotion and stress. One consequence of the stress-specific connections is that executive functions, which help us to organize our thinking, tend to be disrupted when stimulation is too high and we are stressed out, or too low when we are bored and lethargic. Given their central role in reasoning and also in managing stress and emotion, scientists have conducted studies, primarily with adults, to determine whether executive functions can be improved by training. By and large, results have shown that they can be, in part through computer-based videogame-like activities. Evidence of wider, more general benefits from such computer-based training, however, is mixed. Accordingly, scientists have reasoned that training will have wider benefits if it is implemented early, with very young children as the neural circuitry of executive functions is developing, and that it will be most effective if embedded in children's everyday activities. Evidence produced by this research, however, is also mixed. In sum, much remains to be learned about executive function training. Without question, however, continued research on this important topic will yield valuable information about cognitive development. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1403. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1403 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Learning binary code via PCA of angle projection for image retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fumeng; Ye, Zhiqiang; Wei, Xueqi; Wu, Congzhong

    2018-01-01

    With benefits of low storage costs and high query speeds, binary code representation methods are widely researched for efficiently retrieving large-scale data. In image hashing method, learning hashing function to embed highdimensions feature to Hamming space is a key step for accuracy retrieval. Principal component analysis (PCA) technical is widely used in compact hashing methods, and most these hashing methods adopt PCA projection functions to project the original data into several dimensions of real values, and then each of these projected dimensions is quantized into one bit by thresholding. The variances of different projected dimensions are different, and with real-valued projection produced more quantization error. To avoid the real-valued projection with large quantization error, in this paper we proposed to use Cosine similarity projection for each dimensions, the angle projection can keep the original structure and more compact with the Cosine-valued. We used our method combined the ITQ hashing algorithm, and the extensive experiments on the public CIFAR-10 and Caltech-256 datasets validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Quasi-extended asymptotic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, T.D.

    1979-01-01

    The class F of ''quasi-extended asymptotic functions'' is introduced. It contains all extended asymptotic functions as well as some new asymptotic functions very similar to the Schwartz distributions. On the other hand, every two quasiextended asymptotic functions can be multiplied as opposed to the Schwartz distributions; in particular, the square delta 2 of an asymptotic function delta similar to Dirac's delta-function, is constructed as an example

  16. The Relationships between Weight Functions, Geometric Functions,and Compliance Functions in Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Rong [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Linear elastic fracture mechanics is widely used in industry because it established simple and explicit relationships between the permissible loading conditions and the critical crack size that is allowed in a structure. Stress intensity factors are the above-mentioned functional expressions that relate load with crack size through geometric functions or weight functions. Compliance functions are to determine the crack/flaw size in a structure when optical inspection is inconvenient. As a result, geometric functions, weight functions and compliance functions have been intensively studied to determine the stress intensity factor expressions for different geometries. However, the relations between these functions have received less attention. This work is therefore to investigate the intrinsic relationships between these functions. Theoretical derivation was carried out and the results were verified on single-edge cracked plate under tension and bending. It is found out that the geometric function is essentially the non-dimensional weight function at the loading point. The compliance function is composed of two parts: a varying part due to crack extension and a constant part from the intact structure if no crack exists. The derivative of the compliance function at any location is the product of the geometric function and the weight function at the evaluation point. Inversely, the compliance function can be acquired by the integration of the product of the geometric function and the weight function with respect to the crack size. The integral constant is just the unchanging compliance from the intact structure. Consequently, a special application of the relations is to obtain the compliance functions along a crack once the geometric function and weight functions are known. Any of the three special functions can be derived once the other two functions are known. These relations may greatly simplify the numerical process in obtaining either geometric functions, weight

  17. Skin barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Renowned experts present the latest knowledge Although a very fragile structure, the skin barrier is probably one of the most important organs of the body. Inward/out it is responsible for body integrity and outward/in for keeping microbes, chemicals, and allergens from penetrating the skin. Since...... the role of barrier integrity in atopic dermatitis and the relationship to filaggrin mutations was discovered a decade ago, research focus has been on the skin barrier, and numerous new publications have become available. This book is an interdisciplinary update offering a wide range of information...... on the subject. It covers new basic research on skin markers, including results on filaggrin and on methods for the assessment of the barrier function. Biological variation and aspects of skin barrier function restoration are discussed as well. Further sections are dedicated to clinical implications of skin...

  18. Ramanujan's theta functions

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Shaun

    2017-01-01

    Theta functions were studied extensively by Ramanujan. This book provides a systematic development of Ramanujan’s results and extends them to a general theory. The author’s treatment of the subject is comprehensive, providing a detailed study of theta functions and modular forms for levels up to 12. Aimed at advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and researchers, the organization, user-friendly presentation, and rich source of examples, lends this book to serve as a useful reference, a pedagogical tool, and a stimulus for further research. Topics, especially those discussed in the second half of the book, have been the subject of much recent research; many of which are appearing in book form for the first time. Further results are summarized in the numerous exercises at the end of each chapter.

  19. Functional Esophageal Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Qasim; Fass, Ronnie; Gyawali, C Prakash; Miwa, Hiroto; Pandolfino, John E; Zerbib, Frank

    2016-02-15

    Functional esophageal disorders consist of a disease category that present with esophageal symptoms (heartburn, chest pain, dysphagia, globus) not explained by mechanical obstruction (stricture, tumor, eosinophilic esophagitis), major motor disorders (achalasia, EGJ outflow obstruction, absent contractility, distal esophageal spasm, jackhammer esophagus), or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). While mechanisms responsible are unclear, it is theorized that visceral hypersensitivity and hypervigilance play an important role in symptom generation, in the context of normal or borderline function. Treatments directed at improving borderline motor dysfunction or reducing reflux burden to sub-normal levels have limited success in symptom improvement. In contrast, strategies focused on modulating peripheral triggering and central perception are mechanistically viable and clinically meaningful. However, outcome data from these treatment options are limited. Future research needs to focus on understanding mechanisms underlying visceral hypersensitivity and hypervigilance so that appropriate targets and therapies can be developed. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, M.P.

    1984-07-01

    The state of the art of the density functional formalism (DFT) is reviewed. The theory is quantum statistical in nature; its simplest version is the well-known Thomas-Fermi theory. The DFT is a powerful formalism in which one can treat the effect of interactions in inhomogeneous systems. After some introductory material, the DFT is outlined from the two basic theorems, and various generalizations of the theorems appropriate to several physical situations are pointed out. Next, various approximations to the density functionals are presented and some practical schemes, discussed; the approximations include an electron gas of almost constant density and an electron gas of slowly varying density. Then applications of DFT in various diverse areas of physics (atomic systems, plasmas, liquids, nuclear matter) are mentioned, and its strengths and weaknesses are pointed out. In conclusion, more recent developments of DFT are indicated

  1. Differentiation of real functions

    CERN Document Server

    Bruckner, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    Topics related to the differentiation of real functions have received considerable attention during the last few decades. This book provides an efficient account of the present state of the subject. Bruckner addresses in detail the problems that arise when dealing with the class \\Delta ' of derivatives, a class that is difficult to handle for a number of reasons. Several generalized forms of differentiation have assumed importance in the solution of various problems. Some generalized derivatives are excellent substitutes for the ordinary derivative when the latter is not known to exist; others are not. Bruckner studies generalized derivatives and indicates "geometric" conditions that determine whether or not a generalized derivative will be a good substitute for the ordinary derivative. There are a number of classes of functions closely linked to differentiation theory, and these are examined in some detail. The book unifies many important results from the literature as well as some results not previously pub...

  2. Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Bishun N. (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for functionalizing a collection of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A selected precursor gas (e.g., H2 or F2 or CnHm) is irradiated to provide a cold plasma of selected target species particles, such as atomic H or F, in a first chamber. The target species particles are d irected toward an array of CNTs located in a second chamber while suppressing transport of ultraviolet radiation to the second chamber. A CNT array is functionalized with the target species particles, at or below room temperature, to a point of saturation, in an exposure time interval no longer than about 30 sec. *Discrimination against non-target species is provided by (i) use of a target species having a lifetime that is much greater than a lifetime of a non-target species and/or (2) use of an applied magnetic field to discriminate between charged particle trajectories for target species and for non-target species.

  3. Functional abdominal pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouse, Ray E; Mayer, Emeran A; Aziz, Qasim; Drossman, Douglas A; Dumitrascu, Dan L; Mönnikes, Hubert; Naliboff, Bruce D

    2006-04-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) differs from the other functional bowel disorders; it is less common, symptoms largely are unrelated to food intake and defecation, and it has higher comorbidity with psychiatric disorders. The etiology and pathophysiology are incompletely understood. Because FAPS likely represents a heterogeneous group of disorders, peripheral neuropathic pain mechanisms, alterations in endogenous pain modulation systems, or both may be involved in any one patient. The diagnosis of FAPS is made on the basis of positive symptom criteria and a longstanding history of symptoms; in the absence of alarm symptoms, an extensive diagnostic evaluation is not required. Management is based on a therapeutic physician-patient relationship and empirical treatment algorithms using various classes of centrally acting drugs, including antidepressants and anticonvulsants. The choice, dose, and combination of drugs are influenced by psychiatric comorbidities. Psychological treatment options include psychotherapy, relaxation techniques, and hypnosis. Refractory FAPS patients may benefit from a multidisciplinary pain clinic approach.

  4. Ego functions in epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A S; Hansen, H; Høgenhaven, H

    1988-01-01

    Two groups of epilepsy patients (28 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and 15 patients with primary generalized epilepsy) entered a study of personality traits related to epilepsy, based on a modification of Bellak's semistructured interview for assessment of ego strength. Two groups of subjects...... than 15 years when the disease began. The number of anticonvulsants administered did not influence the results. No difference on adaptive level of ego functioning was found between the group with primary generalized epilepsy and the group with temporal lobe epilepsy. Similarly, the temporal lobe...... served as controls: 15 patients with a non-neurological but relapsing disorder, psoriasis, and 15 healthy volunteers. Compared with the group of healthy volunteers, a decreased adaptive level of ego functioning was found in the epilepsy groups, regardless of seizure types and EEG findings, and...

  5. Functional foods in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Scholderer, Joachim

    2007-01-01

    reading of the main principles of the harmonized regulation COM/2003/0424, this situation is about to change. This article reviews the regulatory aspects, the results of consumer research and the marketing strategies regarding the use of health claims for functional foods in Europe, and it comments......The fact that the European markets for functional foods generally are less developed, compared to the US and the Japanese markets, has often been attributed to a restrictive and inconsistent health claim legislation in and between the European countries. With the European Parliament's second...... on the lack of correspondence between the new regulation and the marketing experiences and research as regard consumer reactions to health claims....

  6. Density-Functional formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szasz, L.; Berrios-Pagan, I.; McGinn, G.

    1975-01-01

    A new Density-Functional formula is constructed for atoms. The kinetic energy of the electron is divided into two parts: the kinetic self-energy and the orthogonalization energy. Calculations were made for the total energies of neutral atoms, positive ions and for the He isoelectronic series. For neutral atoms the results match the Hartree-Fock energies within 1% for atoms with N 36 the results generally match the HF energies within 0.1%. For positive ions the results are fair; for the molecular applications a simplified model is developed in which the kinetic energy consists of the Weizsaecker term plus the Fermi energy reduced by a continuous function. (orig.) [de

  7. Pancreatic exocrine function testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    It is important to understand which pancreatic function tests are available and how to interpret them when evaluating patients with malabsorption. Available direct tests are the secretin stimulation test, the Lundh test meal, and measurement of serum or fecal enzymes. Indirect tests assess pancreatic exocrine function by measuring the effect of pancreatic secretion on various nutrients. These include triglycerides labeled with carbon 14, cobalamin labeled with cobalt 57 and cobalt 58, and para-aminobenzoic acid bound to a dipeptide. Of all these tests the secretin stimulation test is the most accurate and reliable if done by experienced personnel. However, the indirect tests are simpler to do and appear to be comparable to the secretin test at detecting pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. These indirect tests are becoming clinically available and clinicians should familiarize themselves with the strengths and weaknesses of each

  8. Functional studies using NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCready, V.R.; Leach, M.; Ell, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    This volume is based on a series of lectures delivered at a one-day teaching symposium on functional and metabolic aspects of NMR measurements held at the Middlesex Hospital Medical School on 1st September 1985 as a part of the European Nuclear Medicine Society Congress. Currently the major emphasis in medical NMR in vivo is on its potential to image and display abnormalities in conventional radiological images, providing increased contrast between normal and abnormal tissue, improved definition of vasculature, and possibly an increased potential for differential diagnosis. Although these areas are undeniably of major importance, it is probable that NMR will continue to complement conventional measurement methods. The major potential benefits to be derived from in vivo NMR measurements are likely to arise from its use as an instrument for functional and metabolic studies in both clinical research and in the everyday management of patients. It is to this area that this volume is directed

  9. Towards the Innovation Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Antônio Zawislak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the main elements that influence innovation and the relationships among them. It is pointed out that innovation results from an entrepreneurial action inside an established institutional context, sustained by resources, abilities and competences and with the support of the necessary financial capital. Therefore, it is proposed that innovation is a function (just as the microeconomic production function composed of entrepreneurship, institutions, capabilities and capital. Each one of these elements is explored individually, so that later the relationships among them can be analyzed. It is still suggested that the size of the firm is a moderator in the relationship between these elements and innovation. The study’s contribution it is the development of a conceptual model.

  10. The Function of Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Barone

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of sleep can be ascertained by noting the effects of its loss, which tends to be chronic and partial, on cognition, mood, alertness, and overall health. Many theories have been put forth to explain the function of sleep in humans, including proposals based on energy conservation, ecological adaptations, neurocognitive function, neural plasticity, nervous system and physical health, and performance. Most account for only a portion of sleep behavior and few are based on strong experimental support. In this review, we present theories proposing why sleep is necessary and supporting data demonstrating the effects of inadequate sleep, with the intention of gleaning further information as to its necessity, which remains one of the most perplexing mysteries in biology.

  11. Auroal electron distribution function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, R.L.; Dusenbery, P.B.; Thomas, B.J.; Arnoldy, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    The electron velocity distribution function is presented in the energy range 25 eV 8 cm/s (E=300 eV) are nearly isotropic in pitch angle throughout the flight. Upgoing electrons show almost no pitch angle dependence beyond 120 0 , and their fluxes decline smoothly as energy increases, with little or no evidence of a plateau. Preliminary results of numerical integrations, to study bulk properties and stability of the plasma are presented

  12. Vestibular function testing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lang, E E

    2010-06-01

    Vestibular symptoms of vertigo, dizziness and dysequilibrium are common complaints which can be disabling both physically and psychologically. Routine examination of the ear nose and throat and neurological system are often normal in these patients. An accurate history and thorough clinical examination can provide a diagnosis in the majority of patients. However, in a subgroup of patients, vestibular function testing may be invaluable in arriving at a correct diagnosis and ultimately in the optimal treatment of these patients.

  13. Analyzing Pseudophosphatase Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Shantá D

    2016-01-01

    Pseudophosphatases regulate signal transduction cascades, but their mechanisms of action remain enigmatic. Reflecting this mystery, the prototypical pseudophosphatase STYX (phospho-serine-threonine/tyrosine-binding protein) was named with allusion to the river of the dead in Greek mythology to emphasize that these molecules are "dead" phosphatases. Although proteins with STYX domains do not catalyze dephosphorylation, this in no way precludes their having other functions as integral elements of signaling networks. Thus, understanding their roles in signaling pathways may mark them as potential novel drug targets. This chapter outlines common strategies used to characterize the functions of pseudophosphatases, using as an example MK-STYX [mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phospho-serine-threonine/tyrosine binding], which has been linked to tumorigenesis, apoptosis, and neuronal differentiation. We start with the importance of "restoring" (when possible) phosphatase activity in a pseudophosphatase so that the active mutant may be used as a comparison control throughout immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analyses. To this end, we provide protocols for site-directed mutagenesis, mammalian cell transfection, co-immunoprecipitation, phosphatase activity assays, and immunoblotting that we have used to investigate MK-STYX and the active mutant MK-STYXactive. We also highlight the importance of utilizing RNA interference (RNAi) "knockdown" technology to determine a cellular phenotype in various cell lines. Therefore, we outline our protocols for introducing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression plasmids into mammalians cells and quantifying knockdown of gene expression with real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). A combination of cellular, molecular, biochemical, and proteomic techniques has served as powerful tools in identifying novel functions of the pseudophosphatase MK-STYX. Likewise, the information provided here should be a helpful guide to elucidating the

  14. Cybernetic functioning in stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Zsilavecz

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate different kinds of masking noise and DAF, in order to identify the condition which would elicit the highest incidence of fluency in a group of stutterers. The study demonstrates that masking noise and DAF can be effectively applied as an aid in a therapy programme, viz. noise can effectively be put to use so as to encourage and reinforce somesthesia. Stuttering is viewed as defective functioning in the cybernetic system.

  15. Function integrated track system

    OpenAIRE

    Hohnecker, Eberhard

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses a function integrated track system that focuses on the reduction of acoustic emissions from railway lines. It is shown that the combination of an embedded rail system (ERS), a sound absorbing track surface, and an integrated mini sound barrier has significant acoustic advantages compared to a standard ballast superstructure. The acoustic advantages of an embedded rail system are particularly pronounced in the case of railway bridges. Finally, it is shown that a...

  16. On hereditarily rational functions

    OpenAIRE

    Nowak, Krzysztof Jan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short proof of a theorem by Koll\\'{a}r on hereditarily rational functions. This is an answer to his appeal to find an elementary proof which does not rely so much on resolution of singularities. Our approach does not make use of desingularization techniques. Instead, we apply a stronger version of the \\L{}ojasiewicz inequality. Moreover, this allows us to sharpen Koll\\'{a}r's theorem.

  17. Generalised twisted partition functions

    CERN Document Server

    Petkova, V B

    2001-01-01

    We consider the set of partition functions that result from the insertion of twist operators compatible with conformal invariance in a given 2D Conformal Field Theory (CFT). A consistency equation, which gives a classification of twists, is written and solved in particular cases. This generalises old results on twisted torus boundary conditions, gives a physical interpretation of Ocneanu's algebraic construction, and might offer a new route to the study of properties of CFT.

  18. Network Function Virtualisation

    OpenAIRE

    Aakarshan Singh; Kamal Grover; Palak Bansal; Taranveer Singh Seekhon

    2017-01-01

    This paper is written to give basic knowledge of Network function virtualisation in network system. In this paper the work on NFV done till now has been collaborated. It describes how the challenges faced by industry lead to NFV and what is meaning of NFV and NFV architecture model. It also explains NFV Infrastructure is managed and the forwarding path on which packets traverse in NFV. A relationship of NFV with SDN and current research ongoing on NFV policies is discussed.

  19. Dynamics of cholinergic function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanin, I.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics; cholinergic pathways - anatomy of the central nervous system; aging, DSAT and other clinical conditions; cholinergic pre- and post-synaptic receptors; acetylcholine release; cholinesterases, anticholinesterases and reactivators; acetylcholine synthesis, metabolism and precursors; second messenger messenger mechanisms; interaction of acetylcholine with other neurotransmitter systems; cholinergic mechanisms in physiological function, including cardiovascular events; and neurotoxic agents and false transmitters

  20. Applied functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Oden, J Tinsley

    2010-01-01

    The textbook is designed to drive a crash course for beginning graduate students majoring in something besides mathematics, introducing mathematical foundations that lead to classical results in functional analysis. More specifically, Oden and Demkowicz want to prepare students to learn the variational theory of partial differential equations, distributions, and Sobolev spaces and numerical analysis with an emphasis on finite element methods. The 1996 first edition has been used in a rather intensive two-semester course. -Book News, June 2010