WorldWideScience

Sample records for harmonic motion vx2

  1. Assessment of hepatic VX2 tumors of rabbits with second harmonic imaging under high and low acoustic pressures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Hua Du; Wei-Xiao Yang; Xiang Wang; Xiu-Qin Xiong; Yi Zhou; Tao Li

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the possible clinical application value of second harmonic imaging under low acoustic pressure.METHODS: Six New Zealand rabbits, averaging 2.7±0.4kg, were selected and operated upon to construct hepatic VX2 tumor carrier model. Hepatic VX2 tumors were imaged with B mode Ultrasonography (US), and second harmonic imaging (SHI) under high mechanic index (1.6) and low mechanic index (0.1). Echo agent was intravenously injected through ear vein at a dose of 0.01 mL/kg under B mode US and high MI SHI, and 0.05 mL/kg under low MI SHI, and then the venous channel was cleaned with sterilized saline.All the images were recorded by magnetic optics (MO),and they were analyzed further by at least two independent experienced sonographers.RESULTS: Totally 6 hypoechoic and 3 hyperechoic lesions were found in the six carrier rabbits with a mean size about 2.1±0.4 under B mode ultrasound, they were oval or round in shape with a clear outline or a hypoechoic halo at the margin of the lesions. Contrast agent could not change the echogenicity of the lesions under B mode US and SHI under high acoustic pressure. However, it could greatly increase the real time visualization sensitivity of the lesions with SHI under low acoustic pressure.CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that contrast enhanced SHI with low MI and a bubble non-destructive method would be much more helpful than conventional SHI in our future clinical applications.

  2. Vascularity of hepatic VX2 tumors of rabbits: Assessment with conventional power Doppler US and contrast enhanced harmonic power Doppler US

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Hua Du; Wei-Xiao Yang; Xiang Wang; Xiu-Qin Xiong; Yi Zhou; Tao Li

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the characteristics of the vascularity ofhepatic metastasis.METHODS: Six New Zealand rabbits, weighing averagely2.7±0.4 kg, were selected and operated to establish hepaticVX2 tumor carrier model. Hepatic VX2 tumors were thenimaged with conventional B mode US, second harmonicimaging (SHI), color Doppler flow imaging (CDFI), powerDoppler imaging (PDI) and harmonic PDI by a transducerS8 connected to HP-5 500 ultrasound system. A kind of selfmade echo contrast agent was intravenously injected at adose of 0.01 mL/kg through ear vein, and then the venouspassage was cleaned with sterilized saline.RESULTS: Totally, 6 hypoechoic lesions and 3 hyperechoiclesions were found in the six carrier rabbits with a mean sizeabout 2.1±0.4 cm under conventional B mode ultrasound, theywere oval or round in shape with a dear outline or a hypoechoichalo at the margin of the lesions. Contrast agent could notchange the echogenicity of the lesions under conventional Bmode and SHI, however, it could greatly increase the flowsensitivity of the lesions under PDI and harmonic PDI. Nutrientartery of these metastatic lesions might also be well depictedunder contrast enhanced PDI and harmonic PDI.CONCLUSION: Our result suggested that contrast enhancedPDI, especially harmonic PDI, was a promised method inthe detection of vascularity of hepatic tumor nodules.

  3. A Harmonic Motion Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, P.; Krakower, Zeev

    2010-01-01

    We present a unit comprising theory, simulation and experiment for a body oscillating on a vertical spring, in which the simultaneous use of a force probe and an ultrasonic range finder enables one to explore quantitatively and understand many aspects of simple and damped harmonic motions. (Contains 14 figures.)

  4. Localized Harmonic Motion Imaging for Focused Ultrasound Surgery Targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiel, Laura; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2011-01-01

    Recently, an in vivo real-time ultrasound-based monitoring technique that uses localized harmonic motion (LHM) to detect changes in tissues during focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) has been proposed to control the exposure. This technique can potentially be used as well for targeting imaging. In the present study we evaluated the potential of using LHM to detect changes in stiffness and the feasibility of using it for imaging purposes in phantoms and in vivo tumor detection. A single-element FUS transducer (80 mm focal length, 100 mm diameter, 1.485 MHz) was used for inducing a localized harmonic motion and a separate ultrasound diagnostic transducer excited by a pulser/receiver (5 kHz PRF, 5 MHz) was used to track motion. The motion was estimated using cross-correlation techniques on the acquired RF signal. Silicon phantom studies were performed in order to determine the size of inclusion that was possible to detect using this technique. Inclusions were discerned from the surroundings as a reduction on LHM amplitude and it was possible to depict inclusions as small as 4 mm. The amplitude of the induced LHM was always lower at the inclusions as compared with the one obtained at the surroundings. Ten New Zealand rabbits had VX2 tumors implanted on their thighs and LHM was induced and measured at the tumor region. Tumors (as small as 10 mm in length and 4 mm in width) were discerned from the surroundings as a reduction on LHM amplitude. PMID:21683514

  5. Sunspots and Their Simple Harmonic Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, C. I.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an example of a simple harmonic motion, the apparent motion of sunspots due to the Sun's rotation, is described, which can be used to teach this subject to high-school students. Using real images of the Sun, students can calculate the star's rotation period with the simple harmonic motion mathematical expression.

  6. Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Diffusion Weighted MR Imaging for Monitoring the Instantly Therapeutic Efficacy of Radiofrequency Ablation in Rabbit VX2 Tumors without Evident Links between Conventional Perfusion Weighted Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyi Guo

    Full Text Available To investigate the intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion weighted imaging (IVIM-DWI as a potential valuable marker to monitor the therapy responses of VX2 to radiofrequency ablation (RF Ablation.The institutional animal care and use committee approved this study. In 10 VX2 tumor-bearing rabbits, IVIM-DWI examinations were performed with a 3.0T imaging unit by using 16 b values from 0 to 800 sec/mm2. The true diffusion coefficient (D, pseudodiffusion coefficient (D* and perfusion fraction (f of tumors were compared between before and instantly after RF Ablation treatment. The differences of D, D* and f and conventional perfusion parameters (from perfusion CT and dynamic enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, DCE-MRI in the coagulation necrosis area, residual unablated area, untreated area, and normal control had been calculated by compared t-test. The correlation between f or D* with perfusion weighted CT including blood flow, BF (milliliter per 100 mL/min, blood volume, BV (milliliter per 100 mL/min, and capillary permeability-surface area, PMB (as a fraction or from DCE-MRI: transfer constant (Ktrans, extra-vascular extra-cellular volume fraction (Ve and reflux constant (Kep values had been analyzed by region-of-interest (ROI methods to calculate Pearson's correlation coefficients.In the ablated necrosis areas, f and D* significantly decreased and D significantly increased, compared with residual unblazed areas or untreated control groups and normal control groups (P < 0.001. The IVIM-DWI derived f parameters showed significant increases in the residual unablated tumor area. There was no significant correlations between f or D* and conventional perfusion parameters.The IVIM-DW derived f, D and D* parameters have the potential to indicate therapy response immediately after RF Ablation treatment, while no significant correlations with classical tumor perfusion metrics were derived from DCE-MRI and perfusion-CT measurements.

  7. Analysing harmonic motions with an iPhone’s magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Ahmet; Kağan Temiz, Burak

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose an experiment for analysing harmonic motion using an iPhone’s (or iPad’s) magnetometer. This experiment consists of the detection of magnetic field variations obtained from an iPhone’s magnetometer sensor. A graph of harmonic motion is directly displayed on the iPhone’s screen using the Sensor Kinetics application. Data from this application was analysed with Eureqa software to establish the equation of the harmonic motion. Analyses show that the use of an iPhone’s magnetometer to analyse harmonic motion is a practical and effective method for small oscillations and frequencies less than 15-20 Hz.

  8. Analysing Harmonic Motions with an iPhone's Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Ahmet; Temiz, Burak Kagan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an experiment for analysing harmonic motion using an iPhone's (or iPad's) magnetometer. This experiment consists of the detection of magnetic field variations obtained from an iPhone's magnetometer sensor. A graph of harmonic motion is directly displayed on the iPhone's screen using the "Sensor Kinetics"…

  9. Bounded relative motion under zonal harmonics perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baresi, Nicola; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2017-04-01

    The problem of finding natural bounded relative trajectories between the different units of a distributed space system is of great interest to the astrodynamics community. This is because most popular initialization methods still fail to establish long-term bounded relative motion when gravitational perturbations are involved. Recent numerical searches based on dynamical systems theory and ergodic maps have demonstrated that bounded relative trajectories not only exist but may extend up to hundreds of kilometers, i.e., well beyond the reach of currently available techniques. To remedy this, we introduce a novel approach that relies on neither linearized equations nor mean-to-osculating orbit element mappings. The proposed algorithm applies to rotationally symmetric bodies and is based on a numerical method for computing quasi-periodic invariant tori via stroboscopic maps, including extra constraints to fix the average of the nodal period and RAAN drift between two consecutive equatorial plane crossings of the quasi-periodic solutions. In this way, bounded relative trajectories of arbitrary size can be found with great accuracy as long as these are allowed by the natural dynamics and the physical constraints of the system (e.g., the surface of the gravitational attractor). This holds under any number of zonal harmonics perturbations and for arbitrary time intervals as demonstrated by numerical simulations about an Earth-like planet and the highly oblate primary of the binary asteroid (66391) 1999 KW4.

  10. An Arduino Investigation of Simple Harmonic Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeriu, Calin; Edwards, Scott; Esper, Geoffrey

    2014-03-01

    We cannot hope for a new generation of scientists and engineers if we don't let our young students take ownership of their scientific and engineering explorations, if we don't let them enjoy the hands-on cycle of design and production, and if we don't let them implant their creativity into a technologically friendly environment. With this educational philosophy in mind, Massimo Banzi and his team have developed and popularized the open source Arduino microcontroller board. The Arduino board has helped countless people in their science, electronics, robotics, or engineering projects, allowing them to build things that we have not even dreamed of. Physics instructors have also realized the advantages of using Arduino boards for lab experiments. The schools are saving money because the homemade experimental equipment is much cheaper than the commercial alternatives. The students are thankful for an educational experience that is more interesting, more loaded with STEM content, and more fun. As further proof of this new trend in physics education, Vernier5 is now documenting the use of their probes with Arduino boards. This is why we have developed an Arduino-based physics investigation of the simple harmonic motion (SHM) of a mass on a spring. The experimental data are collected with the help of an ultrasonic distance sensor and an Arduino Uno board. The data are then graphed and analyzed using Origin 9. This rich cross-curricular STEM activity integrates electronics, computer programming, physics, and mathematics in a way that is both experimentally exciting and intellectually rewarding.

  11. Building Mathematical Models of Simple Harmonic and Damped Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    By developing a sequence of mathematical models of harmonic motion, shows that mathematical models are not right or wrong, but instead are better or poorer representations of the problem situation. (MKR)

  12. Harmonic functions on Walsh's Brownian motion

    OpenAIRE

    Jehring, Kristin Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation we examine a variation of two- dimensional Brownian motion introduced in 1978 by Walsh. Walsh's Brownian motion can be described as a Brownian motion on the spokes of a (rimless) bicycle wheel. We will construct such a process by randomly assigning an angle to the excursions of a reflecting Brownian motion from 0. With this construction we see that Walsh's Brownian motion in R² behaves like one-dimensional Brownian motion away from the origin, but at the origin behaves di...

  13. Using Tracker to prove the simple harmonic motion equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchin, John

    2016-09-01

    Simple harmonic motion (SHM) is a common topic for many students to study. Using the free, though versatile, motion tracking software; Tracker, we can extend the students experience and show that the general equation for SHM does lead to the correct period of a simple pendulum.

  14. Using "Tracker" to Prove the Simple Harmonic Motion Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchin, John

    2016-01-01

    Simple harmonic motion (SHM) is a common topic for many students to study. Using the free, though versatile, motion tracking software; "Tracker", we can extend the students experience and show that the general equation for SHM does lead to the correct period of a simple pendulum.

  15. The Role of the Harmonic Vector Average in Motion Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan eJohnston

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The local speeds of object contours vary systematically with the cosine of the angle between the normal component of the local velocity and the global object motion direction. An array of Gabor elements whose speed changes with local spatial orientation in accordance with this pattern can appear to move as a single surface. The apparent direction of motion of plaids and Gabor arrays has variously been proposed to result from feature tracking, vector addition and vector averaging in addition to the geometrically correct global velocity as indicated by the intersection of constraints (IOC solution. Here a new combination rule, the harmonic vector average (HVA, is introduced, as well as a new algorithm for computing the IOC solution. The vector sum can be discounted as an integration strategy as it increases with the number of elements. The vector average over local vectors that vary in direction always provides an underestimate of the true global speed. The harmonic vector average however provides the correct global speed and direction for an unbiased sample of local velocities with respect to the global motion direction, as is the case for a simple closed contour. The HVA over biased samples provides an aggregate velocity estimate that can still be combined through an IOC computation to give an accurate estimate of the global velocity, which is not true of the vector average. Psychophysical results for type II Gabor arrays show perceived direction and speed falls close to the intersection of constraints direction for Gabor arrays having a wide range of orientations but the IOC prediction fails as the mean orientation shifts away from the global motion direction and the orientation range narrows. In this case perceived velocity generally defaults to the harmonic vector average.

  16. Electron motion enhanced high harmonic generation in xenon clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Na; Bai, Ya; Peng, Peng; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2016-01-01

    Atomic clusters presents an isolated system that models the bulk materials whose mechanism of HHG remains uncertain, and a promising medium to produce HHG beyond the limited conversion efficiency for gaseous atoms. Here we reveal that the oscillation of collective electron motion within clusters develops after the interaction of intense laser fields, and it significantly enhances the harmonic dipole and increases the quantum phase of the harmonics. Experimentally, the phase matching conditions of HHG from nanometer xenon clusters and atoms are distinguished, which confirms the enhanced internal field that was proposed theoretically a decade ago. The separation of HHG from atoms and clusters allows the determination of the amplitude of the HHG for clusters to be 5 orders higher, corresponding to 4 times higher conversion efficiency for atomic response. The finding provides an insight on the HHG mechanism of bulk materials and a means by which an efficient coherent X-ray source can be developed.

  17. Non-Markovian quantum Brownian motion of a harmonic oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, J.

    1994-02-01

    We apply the density-matrix method to the study of quantum Brownian motion of a harmonic oscillator coupled to a heat bath, a system investigated previously by Caldeira and Leggett using a different method. Unlike the earlier work, in our derivation of the master equation the non-Markovian terms are maintained. Although the same model of interaction is used, discrepancy is found between their results and our equation in the Markovian limit. We also point out that the particular interaction model used by both works cannot lead to the phenomenological generalized Langevin theory of Kubo.

  18. Photodynamic therapy for implanted VX2 tumor in rabbit brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Feng, Hua; Lin, Jiangkai; Zhu, Gang; Chen, Zhi; Li, Cong-yan

    2005-07-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effect and the safety of single photodynamic therapy (PDT) with hematoporphyrin derivative produced in China, 60 New Zealand adult rabbits with VX2 tumor implanted into the brain were divided randomly into non-PDT-group and PDT-group. 36 rabbits of the PDT-group were performed photodynamic therapy. The survival time, neurological deteriorations, intracranial pressure (ICP), histology, pathology, tumor volume and brain water content were measured. Other 12 rabbits were received hematoporphyrin derivative and light irradiation of the normal brain. The ICP, histology, pathology, and brain water content were measured. The result indicated that Simple PDT may elongate the average survival time of the rabbits with VX2 tumors significantly; kill tumor cells; cause transient brain edema and increase ICP, but it is safe to be used in treating brain tumor.

  19. NEWTONIAN EQUATIONS OF MOTION AND HARMONIC CONDITIONS IN THE THEORY OF GRAVITATION,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relation between Newtonian equations of motion and harmonic conditions in Einstein’s theory of gravitation is examined. Assuming that a metric...tensor can be represented in the form of a power series, it is proved that in order to obtain Newtonian equations of motion, it is necessary to use...harmonic coordinate conditions of zero order. It is also proved that in Infeld’s method for deriving Newtonian equations of motion from the equations

  20. Geometric reasoning about damped and forced harmonic motion in the complex plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Hunter G.

    2015-09-01

    Complex-valued functions are commonly used to solve differential equations for one-dimensional motion of a harmonic oscillator with linear damping, a sinusoidal driving force, or both. However, the usual approach treats complex functions as an algebraic shortcut, neglecting geometrical representations of those functions and discarding imaginary parts. This article emphasizes the benefit of using diagrams in the complex plane for such systems, in order to build intuition about harmonic motion and promote spatial reasoning and the use of varied representations. Examples include the analysis of exact time sequences of various kinematic events in damped harmonic motion, sense-making about the phase difference between a driving force and the resulting motion, and understanding the discrepancy between the resonant frequency and the natural undamped frequency for forced, damped harmonic motion. The approach is suitable for supporting instruction in undergraduate upper-division classical mechanics.

  1. Improved Shear Wave Motion Detection Using Pulse-Inversion Harmonic Imaging With a Phased Array Transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengfei Song; Heng Zhao; Urban, Matthew W; Manduca, Armando; Pislaru, Sorin V; Kinnick, Randall R; Pislaru, Cristina; Greenleaf, James F; Shigao Chen

    2013-12-01

    Ultrasound tissue harmonic imaging is widely used to improve ultrasound B-mode imaging quality thanks to its effectiveness in suppressing imaging artifacts associated with ultrasound reverberation, phase aberration, and clutter noise. In ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE), because the shear wave motion signal is extracted from the ultrasound signal, these noise sources can significantly deteriorate the shear wave motion tracking process and consequently result in noisy and biased shear wave motion detection. This situation is exacerbated in in vivo SWE applications such as heart, liver, and kidney. This paper, therefore, investigated the possibility of implementing harmonic imaging, specifically pulse-inversion harmonic imaging, in shear wave tracking, with the hypothesis that harmonic imaging can improve shear wave motion detection based on the same principles that apply to general harmonic B-mode imaging. We first designed an experiment with a gelatin phantom covered by an excised piece of pork belly and show that harmonic imaging can significantly improve shear wave motion detection by producing less underestimated shear wave motion and more consistent shear wave speed measurements than fundamental imaging. Then, a transthoracic heart experiment on a freshly sacrificed pig showed that harmonic imaging could robustly track the shear wave motion and give consistent shear wave speed measurements of the left ventricular myocardium while fundamental imaging could not. Finally, an in vivo transthoracic study of seven healthy volunteers showed that the proposed harmonic imaging tracking sequence could provide consistent estimates of the left ventricular myocardium stiffness in end-diastole with a general success rate of 80% and a success rate of 93.3% when excluding the subject with Body Mass Index higher than 25. These promising results indicate that pulse-inversion harmonic imaging can significantly improve shear wave motion tracking and thus potentially

  2. Supersymmetry and the constants of motion of the two-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres del Castillo, G.F. [Departamento de Fisica Matematica, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 72570 Puebla (Mexico); Tepper G, T. [Escuela de Ciencias, Departamento de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad de Las Americas-Puebla, Santa Catarina Martir, 72820 Cholula, Puebla (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    It is shown that the constants of motion of the two-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator not related to the rotational invariance of the Hamiltonian can be derived using the ideas of supersymmetric quantum mechanics. (Author)

  3. Retrogressive harmonic motion as structural and stylistic characteristic of pop-rock music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Paul S.

    The central issue addressed in this dissertation is that of progressive and retrogressive harmonic motion as it is utilized in the repertoire of pop-rock music. I believe that analysis in these terms may prove to be a valuable tool for the understanding of the structure, style and perception of this music. Throughout my study of this music, various patterns of progressive and retrogressive harmonic motions within a piece reveal a kind of musical character about it, a character on which much of a work's style, organization and extramusical nature often depends. Several influential theorists, especially Jean-Phillipe Rameau, Hugo Riemann, and Arnold Schoenberg, have addressed the issues of functional harmony and the nature of the motion between chords of a tonal harmonic space. After assessing these views, I have found that it is possible to differentiate between two fundamental types of harmonic motions. This difference, one that I believe is instrumental in characterizing pop-rock music, is the basis for the analytical perspective I wish to embrace. After establishing a method of evaluating tonal harmonic root motions in these terms, I wish to examine a corpus of this music in order to discover what a characterization of its harmonic motion may reveal about each piece. Determining this harmonic character may help to establish structural and stylistic traits for that piece, its genre, composer, period, or even its sociological purpose. Conclusions may then be drawn regarding the role these patterns play in defining musical style traits of pop-rock. Partly as a tool for serving the study mentioned above I develop a graphical method of accounting for root motion I name the tonal "Space-Plot"; This apparatus allows the analyst to measure several facets about the harmonic motion of the music, and to see a wide scope of relations in and around a diatonic key.

  4. STUDY EXPERIENCE AND ESTABLISHMENT OF METASTATIC RABBIT MODEL WITH VX-2 CARCINOMA IN LIVER%兔肝VX2移植癌模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈利平; 文天夫

    2011-01-01

    [目的]制作VX-2兔肝移植癌模型.[方法]新西兰白兔10只,采用VX-2瘤株动物自身接种传代.采用瘤组织块包埋法,均接种于肝左叶.[结果]2周后均顺利成瘤,该瘤在肝组织中呈浸润式生长.[结论]成功建立了兔VX-2移植性肝癌模型,为肝癌治疗的基础及临床研究提供了成熟的大型实验动物肝癌模型.%[Objective]To establish a metastatic rabbit VX-2 liver tumor model.[Methods]10 New-Zealand white rabbits were inoculated with VX-2 carcinoma in the left lobe of the liver by implantation.[Results]The tumor was successfully established two weeks later.The tumor grew in the liver tissue and infiltrated into the normal liver tissue.[Conclusion]It is successful to establish a modified metastatic rabbit VX-2 liver carcinma model, and it makes it possible to gain a reliable mature large animal model of tumor for the basic and clinical study of therapy of liver carcinoma.

  5. IN VIVO MONITORING OF FOCUSED ULTRASOUND SURGERY USING LOCAL HARMONIC MOTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiel, Laura; Chopra, Rajiv; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2009-01-01

    The present study established the feasibility of a technique for monitoring FUS lesion formation in vivo using localized harmonic motion (LHM) measurements. Oscillatory motion (frequencies between 50 and 300 Hz) was generated within tissues by induction of a periodic radiation force with a focused ultrasound (FUS) transducer. The harmonic motion was estimated using cross-correlation of RF ultrasonic signals acquired at different instances during the motion by using a confocal diagnostic ultrasound transducer. The technique was evaluated in vivo in rabbit muscle (14 locations) in an MR imager for simultaneous ultrasound harmonic motion tracking and MR thermometry. The measured maximum amplitude of the induced harmonic motion before and after the lesion formation was significantly different for all the tested motion frequencies and decreased between 17 and 81% depending on the frequency and location. During the FUS exposure a drop in the maximum amplitude value was observed and a threshold value could be associated to the formation of a thermal lesion. A series of controlled sonications was performed by stopping the exposure when the threshold value in LHM amplitude was reached and the presence of a thermal lesion was confirmed by MR imaging. LHM measurements were also used to perform a spatial scan of the tissues across the exposure region and the thermal lesions could be detected as a reduction in the maximum motion amplitude value at the sonication region. PMID:18805626

  6. Novel Approach for Solving the Equation of Motion of a Simple Harmonic Oscillator. Classroom Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, N.

    2004-01-01

    An elementary method, based on the use of complex variables, is proposed for solving the equation of motion of a simple harmonic oscillator. The method is first applied to the equation of motion for an undamped oscillator and it is then extended to the more important case of a damped oscillator. It is finally shown that the method can readily be…

  7. An undergraduate study of harmonic and parametric motion of a simple mass-spring system from motion waveforms

    CERN Document Server

    Boscolo, Ilario; Stellato, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The motion of a mass vertically appended to a spring, worldwide used as initiating experiment in a physics undergraduate laboratory, shows generally a complex behaviour owing to the simultaneous action of gravitational, elastic and torsional forces. Moreover, since the friction force, caused by air against the mass movement, has not a simple dependence on the velocity, a further difficulty is added to the study of the motion. The article presents a path to manage the complexity of the experiment maintaining the objective of treating and enlightening the physics of the harmonic motion via the mass-spring experiment. The system is firstly approached as a harmonic oscillator. The notable deviation from that simple dynamics, in particular the parametric oscillation behaviour observed along the lab work, is briefly discussed and modeled at that conjunction. The approach to the parametric behavior is done via the analysis of the motion waveforms.

  8. MR diffusion-weighted imaging of rabbit liver VX-2 tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Hong Yuan; Quan-Liang Shang; Wei-Zhou Hu; Su-Wen Yuan; En-Hua Xiao; Jun Xiang; Ke-Li Tang; Ke Jin; Shi-Jian Yi; Qiang Yin; Rong-Hua Yan; Zhong He

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the implanting method of rabbit liver VX-2 tumor and its MR diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) characteristics.METHODS: Thirty-five New Zealand rabbits were included in the study. VX-2 tumor was implanted subcutaneously in 14 rabbits and intrahepatically in 6 for pre-experiments. VX-2 tumor was implanted intrahepatically in 12 rabbits for experiment and three were used as the control group. DWI, T1- and T2-weighted of MR1 were performed periodically in 15 rabbits for experiment before and after implantation. The distinction of VX-2 tumors on DWI was assessed by their apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. The statistical significance was calculated byanalysis of variance (ANOVA) of the randomized block design using SPSS10.0 software. RESULTS: The successful rate of subcutaneous implantation of VX-2 tumor was 29% (4/14) while that of intrahepatic implantation of it was 33% (2/6) in the preexperiment. The successful rate of intrahepatic implantation of VX-2 tumor in the experiment was 83% (10/12) and 15 tumors grew in 10 successfully implanted rabbits. The DWT signal of VX-2 tumor was high and became lower when the b value increased step by step. The signal of VX-2 tumor on the map of ADC was low. When the b value was 100 or 300 s/mm2, the ADC value of normal group and VX-2 tumor group was respectively 2.57±0.26, 1.73±0.31, 1.87±0.25 and 1.57±0.23 mm2/s. Their distinction was significant (F= 43.26, P<0.01), the tumor ADC value between b values 100 and 300 s/mm2 wassignificant (Tukey HSP, P<0.05) and the ADC value between VX-2 tumor and normal liver was also significant (Tukey HSP, P<0.01). VX-2 tumor developed quickly and metastasized early to all body, especially to the lung, liver, lymph nodes of mediastinum, etc.CONCLUSION: The DWI signal of rabbit VX-2 tumor has its characteristics on MR DWI and DWI plays an important role in diagnosing and discovering VX-2 tumor.

  9. A kinetic model for the internal motions of proteins: diffusion between multiple harmonic wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadei, A; de Groot, B L; Ceruso, M A; Paci, M; Di Nola, A; Berendsen, H J

    1999-05-15

    The dynamics of collective protein motions derived from Molecular Dynamics simulations have been studied for two small model proteins: initiation factor I and the B1 domain of Protein G. First, we compared the structural fluctuations, obtained by local harmonic approximations in different energy minima, with the ones revealed by large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. It was found that a limited set of harmonic wells can be used to approximate the configurational fluctuations of these proteins, although any single harmonic approximation cannot properly describe their dynamics. Subsequently, the kinetics of the main (essential) collective protein motions were characterized. A dual-diffusion behavior was observed in which a fast type of diffusion switches to a much slower type in a typical time of about 1-3 ps. From these results, the large backbone conformational fluctuations of a protein may be considered as "hopping" between multiple harmonic wells on a basically flat free energy surface.

  10. High-order harmonic generation from polyatomic molecules including nuclear motion and a nuclear modes analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Bruun; Abu-Samha, Mahmoud; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2010-01-01

    We present a generic approach for treating the effect of nuclear motion in high-order harmonic generation from polyatomic molecules. Our procedure relies on a separation of nuclear and electron dynamics where we account for the electronic part using the Lewenstein model and nuclear motion enters...... as a nuclear correlation function. We express the nuclear correlation function in terms of Franck-Condon factors, which allows us to decompose nuclear motion into modes and identify the modes that are dominant in the high-order harmonic generation process. We show results for the isotopes CH4 and CD4...... and thereby provide direct theoretical support for a recent experiment [S. Baker et al., Science 312, 424 (2006)] that uses high-order harmonic generation to probe the ultrafast structural nuclear rearrangement of ionized methane....

  11. Numerical investigation of airfoil dynamic stall in simultaneous harmonic oscillatory and translatory motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekaterinaris, J.A.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Rasmussen, F.

    1998-01-01

    Wind turbine blades are subject to complex flow conditions. For operation in yaw and turbulent inflow the blade sections appear to execute a motion more complex than a harmonic blade oscillation which causes dynamic stall. Predictions of dynamic stall caused by simple harmonic oscillation...... are crucial to efforts in understanding and improving wind turbine performance. investigation of dynamic stall development caused by a combined oscillatory and translatory motion contributes to better understand blade loading under complex flow conditions. In this paper, numerical predictions of light...... and deep stall caused by simple oscillatory motion are obtained first. The ability of the numerical solution to predict dynamic stall lends caused by a combined motion is further investigated The numerical solution is obtained with a factorized, upwind-biased numerical scheme. The turbulent flow region...

  12. Physical Pendulum Experiments to Enhance the Understanding of Moments of Inertia and Simple Harmonic Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Tim H.; Brittle, Stuart A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a set of experiments aimed at overcoming some of the difficulties experienced by students learning about the topics of moments of inertia and simple harmonic motion, both of which are often perceived to be complex topics amongst students during their first-year university courses. By combining both subjects in a discussion…

  13. Constants of motion, ladder operators and supersymmetry of the two-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, R.D. [Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Ingenieria y Tecnologias Avanzadas, Mexico DF (Mexico)]. E-mail: mota@gina.esfm.ipn.mx; ravelo@esfm.ipn.mx; Granados, V.D.; Queijeiro, A.; Garcia, J. [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2002-03-29

    For the quantum two-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator we show that the Infeld-Hull radial operators, as well as those of the supersymmetric approach for the radial equation, are contained in the constants of motion of the problem. (author)

  14. Correction of harmonic motion and Kepler orbit based on the minimal momentum uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Won Sang; Hassanabadi, Hassan

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we consider the deformed Heisenberg uncertainty principle with the minimal uncertainty in momentum which is called a minimal momentum uncertainty principle (MMUP). We consider MMUP in D-dimension and its classical analogue. Using these we investigate the MMUP effect for the harmonic motion and Kepler orbit.

  15. Gene expression and MR diffusion-weighted imaging after chemoembolization in rabbit liver VX-2 tumor model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Hong Yuan; En-Hua Xiao; Jian-Bin Liu; Zhong He; Ke Jin; Cong Ma; Jun Xiang; Jian-Hua Xiao; Wei-Jian Chen

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the dynamic characteristics and the correlation between PCNA, Bax, nm23, E-cadherin expression and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)on MR diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) after chemoembolization in rabbit liver VX-2 tumor model. METHODS: Forty New Zealand rabbit liver VX-2 tumor models were included in the study. DWI was carried out periodically after chemoembolization. All VX-2 tumor samples in each group were examined by histopathology and StTept Avidin-Biotin Complex (SABC)immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS" The PCNA expression index in VX-2 tumors was higher than in the normal parenchyma around the tumor (P<0. 001). Nm23, Bax or E-caderin expression index in VX-2 tumors were lower than in the normal parenchyma around the tumor (all P<0. 001). PCNA and nm23 expression in the VX-2 tumor periphery first increased and then decreased (P<0. 001 and P=0. 03, respectively), while the expression of Bax and E-cadherin before and after chemoembolization was insignificant. When b-value was 100 s/mm2, there was a linear correlation between PCNA expression and ADC in the area of VX-2 tumor periphery (P<0. 001), and PCNA expression in VX-2 tumor periphery influenced the ADC. CONCLUSION: The potential of VX-2 tumor infiltrating and metastasizing decreases, while its ability to proliferate increases for a short time after chemoembolization. To some degree, the ADC value indirectly reflects the proliferation of VX-2 tumor cells.

  16. Enhancement of high harmonic generation by confining electron motion in plasmonic nanostrutures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciappina, M F; Aćimović, Srdjan S; Shaaran, T; Biegert, J; Quidant, R; Lewenstein, M

    2012-11-19

    We study high-order harmonic generation (HHG) resulting from the illumination of plasmonic nanostructures with a short laser pulse of long wavelength. We demonstrate that both the confinement of the electron motion and the inhomogeneous character of the laser electric field play an important role in the HHG process and lead to a significant increase of the harmonic cutoff. In particular, in bow-tie nanostructures with small gaps, electron trajectories with large excursion amplitudes experience significant confinement and their contribution is essentially suppressed. In order to understand and characterize this feature, we combine the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) with the electric fields obtained from 3D finite element simulations. We employ time-frequency analysis to extract more detailed information from the TDSE results and classical tools to explain the extended harmonic spectra. The spatial inhomogeneity of the laser electric field modifies substantially the electron trajectories and contributes also to cutoff increase.

  17. Dynamic simulation of viscoelastic soft tissues in harmonic motion imaging application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Baoxiang; Kogit, Megan L; Pelegri, Assimina A

    2008-10-20

    A finite element model was built to simulate the dynamic behavior of soft tissues subjected to sinusoidal excitation during harmonic motion imaging. In this study, soft tissues and tissue-like phantoms were modeled as isotropic, viscoelastic, and nearly incompressible media. A 3D incompressible mixed u-p element of eight nodes, S1P0, was developed to accurately calculate the stiffness matrix for soft tissues. The finite element equations of motion were solved using the Newmark method. The Voigt description for tissue viscosity was applied to estimate the relative viscous coefficient from the phase shift between the response and excitation in a harmonic case. After validating our model via ANSYS simulation and experiments, a MATLAB finite element program was then employed to explore the effect of excitation location, viscosity, and multiple frequencies on the dynamic displacement at the frequency of interest.

  18. Effect of the Four-Step Learning Cycle Model on Students' Understanding of Concepts Related to Simple Harmonic Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, B. C.

    2012-01-01

    The study explored the efficacy of four-step (4-E) learning cycle approach on students understanding of concepts related to Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM). 124 students (63 for experimental group and 61 for control group) participated in the study. The students' views and ideas in simple Harmonic Achievement test were analyzed qualitatively. The…

  19. Modelling of global boundary effects on harmonic motion imaging of soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaodong; Pelegri, Assimina A

    2014-01-01

    Biomechanical imaging techniques have been developed for soft tissue characterisation and detection of breast tumours. Harmonic motion imaging (HMI) uses a focused ultrasound technology to generate a harmonic radiation force in a localised region inside a soft tissue. The resulting dynamic response is used to map the local distribution of the mechanical properties of the tissue. In this study, a finite element (FE) model is developed to investigate the effect of global boundary conditions on the dynamic response of a soft tissue during HMI. The direct-solution steady-state dynamic analysis procedure is used to compute the harmonic displacement amplitude in FE simulations. The model is parameterised in terms of boundary conditions and viscoelastic properties, and the corresponding raster-scan displacement amplitudes are captured to examine its response. The effect of the model's global dimensions on the harmonic response is also investigated. It is observed that the dynamic response of soft tissue with high viscosity is independent of the global boundary conditions for regions remote to the boundary; thus, it can be subjected to local analysis to estimate the underlying mechanical properties. However, the dynamic response is sensitive to global boundary conditions for tissue with low viscosity or regions located near to the boundary.

  20. Effect of nuclear motion on high-order harmonic generation of H$_2^+$ in intense ultrashort laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadi, Hamed; Sabzyan, Hassan; Niknam, Ali Reza; Vafaee, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    High-order harmonic generation is investigated for H$_2^+$ and D$_2^+$ with and without Born-Oppenheimer approximation by numerical solution of full dimensional electronic time-dependent Schr\\"{o}dinger equation under 4-cycle intense laser pulses of 800 nm wavelength and $I$=4, 5, 7, 10 $\\times 10^{14}$ W$/$cm$^2$ intensities. For most harmonic orders, the intensity obtained for D$_2^+$ is higher than that for H$_2^+$, and the yield difference increases as the harmonic order increases. Only at some low harmonic orders, H$_2^+$ generates more intense harmonics compared to D$_2^+$. The results show that nuclear motion, ionization probability and system dimensionality must be simultaneously taken into account to properly explain the isotopic effects on high-order harmonic generation and to justify experimental observations.

  1. Thermochemical ablation therapy of VX2 tumor using a permeable oil-packed liquid alkali metal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyi Guo

    Full Text Available Alkali metal appears to be a promising tool in thermochemical ablation, but, it requires additional data on safety is required. The objective of this study was to explore the effectiveness of permeable oil-packed liquid alkali metal in the thermochemical ablation of tumors.Permeable oil-packed sodium-potassium (NaK was prepared using ultrasonic mixing of different ratios of metal to oil. The thermal effect of the mixture during ablation of muscle tissue ex vivo was evaluated using the Fluke Ti400 Thermal Imager. The thermochemical effect of the NaK-oil mixture on VX2 tumors was evaluated by performing perfusion CT scans both before and after treatment in 10 VX2 rabbit model tumors. VX2 tumors were harvested from two rabbits immediately after treatment to assess their viability using trypan blue and hematoxylin and eosin (H.E. staining.The injection of the NaK-oil mixture resulted in significantly higher heat in the ablation areas. The permeable oil controlled the rate of heat released during the NaK reaction with water in the living tissue. Perfusion computed tomography and its parameter map confirmed that the NaK-oil mixture had curative effects on VX2 tumors. Both trypan blue and H.E. staining showed partial necrosis of the VX2 tumors.The NaK-oil mixture may be used successfully to ablate tumor tissue in vivo. With reference to the controlled thermal and chemical lethal injury to tumors, using a liquid alkali in ablation is potentially an effective and safe method to treat malignant tumors.

  2. Novel fluorescence nanobubbles for contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging in rabbit VX2 hepatocellular carcinoma model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Houqiang; Wang, Wei; He, Xiaoling; Zhou, Qibing; Ding, Mingyue

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) such as SonoVue or Optison have been used widely in clinic for contrast-enhanced vascular imaging. However, microbubbles UCAs display limitations in tumor-targeted imaging due to the large sizes, nanoscaled UCAs has consequently attracted increasing attentions. In this work, we synthesized nanobubbles (NBs) by ultrasonic cavitation method, then a fluorescent marker of Alexa Fluor 680 was conjugated to the shell in order to observe the localization of NBs in tumor tissue. Measurement of fundamental characteristics showed that the NBs had homogeneous distribution of mean diameter of 267.9 +/- 19.2 nm and polydispersity index of 0.410 +/- 0.056. To assess in vivo tumor-selectivity of NBs, we established the rabbits VX2 hepatocellular carcinoma model though surgical implantation method. After the rabbits were intravenous administered of NBs, contrast-enhanced sonograms was observed in the surrounding of VX2 tumor, which showed there are rich capillaries in the tumor periphery. We additionally investigated the toxic of the NBs by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The results indicated that the NBs is a biocompatible non-toxic lipid system. Furthermore, the VX2 tumors and major organs were analyzed using ex vivo fluorescence imaging to confirm the targeted selectivity of NBs, and the results verified that the NBs were capable of targeting VX2 tumor. Confocal laser scanning microscopy examination showed that the NBs can traverse the VX2 tumor capillaries and target to the hepatocellular carcinoma tumor cells. All these results suggested that the newly prepared NBs have a potential application in molecular imaging and tumor-targeting therapy.

  3. Using Simple Harmonic Motion to Follow the Galilean Moons--Testing Kepler's Third Law on a Small System

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, I. G.; Pereira, J. A. M.

    2009-01-01

    The motion of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter is studied in this work. The moons had their positions with respect to the centre of the planet measured during one week of observation by means of telescopic charge coupled device images. It is shown that their movement can be well described as a simple harmonic motion. The revolution period and…

  4. A mechanical model to compute elastic modulus of tissues for harmonic motion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Baoxiang; Pelegri, Assimina A; Maleke, Caroline; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2008-07-19

    Numerous experimental and computational methods have been developed to estimate tissue elasticity. The existing testing techniques are generally classified into in vitro, invasive in vivo and non-invasive in vivo. For each experimental method, a computational scheme is accordingly proposed to calculate mechanical properties of soft biological tissues. Harmonic motion imaging (HMI) is a new technique that performs radio frequency (RF) signal tracking to estimate the localized oscillatory motion resulting from a radiation force produced by focused ultrasound. A mechanical model and computational scheme based on the superposition principle are developed in this paper to estimate the Young's modulus of a tissue mimicking phantom and bovine liver in vitro tissue from the harmonic displacement measured by HMI. The simulation results are verified by two groups of measurement data, and good agreement is shown in each comparison. Furthermore, an inverse function is observed to correlate the elastic modulus of uniform phantoms with amplitude of displacement measured in HMI. The computational scheme is also implemented to estimate 3D elastic modulus of bovine liver in vitro.

  5. Single-element focused ultrasound transducer method for harmonic motion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleke, Caroline; Pernot, Mathieu; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2006-07-01

    The harmonic motion imaging (HMI) technique for simultaneous monitoring and generation of ultrasound therapy using two separate focused ultrasound transducer elements was previously demonstrated. In this study, a new HMI technique is described that images tissue displacement induced by a harmonic radiation force using a single focused-ultrasound element. A wave propagation simulation model first indicated that, unlike in the two-beam configuration, the amplitude-modulated beam produced a stable focal zone for the applied harmonic radiation force. The AM beam thus offered the unique advantage of sustaining the application of the spatially-invariant radiation force. Experiments were performed on gelatin phantoms and ex vivo tissues. The radiation force was generated by a 4.68 MHz focused ultrasound (FUS) transducer using a 50 Hz amplitude-modulated wave. A 7.5 MHz pulse-echo transducer was used to acquire rf echoes during the application of the harmonic radiation force. Consecutive rf echoes were acquired with a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 6.5 kHz and 1D cross-correlation was performed to estimate the resulting axial tissue displacement. The HMI technique was shown capable of estimating stiffness-dependent displacement amplitudes. Finally, taking advantage of the real-time capability of the HMI technique, temperature-dependent measurements enabled monitoring ofHIFU sonication in ex vivo tissues. The new HMI method may thus enable a highly-localized force and stiffness-dependent measurements as well as real-time and low-cost HIFU monitoring.

  6. Reduction of the loads on a cylinder undergoing harmonic in-line motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, Osama A.; Nayfeh, Ali H.

    2009-08-01

    We use the finite-difference computational fluid dynamics method to study in detail the flow field around a circular cylinder in a uniform stream while undergoing in-line harmonic motion. For a given motion amplitude, there exists a critical forcing frequency below which the lift and drag can be period-n, quasiperiodic, or chaotic. Similarly, for a given frequency, there exists a critical amplitude below which the lift and drag can be period-n, quasiperiodic, or chaotic. Above these critical conditions, the lift and drag are synchronous with the forcing. The lift nearly vanishes and the mean drag drops and saturates at a value that is independent of the driving frequency, whereas the oscillatory drag quadratically depends on it. We relate these features to changes in the wake and the surface-pressure distribution. We examine the influence of the Reynolds number on these critical frequency and amplitude. Second- and higher-order spectral analyses show remarkable changes in the linear and quadratic coupling between the lift and drag when synchronization takes place; it destroys the two-to-one coupling between them in the cases of no motion and synchronization due to cross-flow motion.

  7. Metabolomic Analysis of Liver Tissue from the VX2 Rabbit Model of Secondary Liver Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Ibarra, R.; Dazard, J-E.; Y. Sandlers; Rehman, F; Abbas, R.; Kombu, R.; Zhang, G-F; Brunengraber, H; Sanabria, J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The incidence of liver neoplasms is rising in USA. The purpose of this study was to determine metabolic profiles of liver tissue during early cancer development. Methods. We used the rabbit VX2 model of liver tumors (LT) and a control group consisting of sham animals implanted with Gelfoam into their livers (LG). After two weeks from implantation, liver tissue from lobes with and without tumor was obtained from experimental animals (LT+/LT−) as well as liver tissue from controls (LG+...

  8. Impact of microbubble enhanced, pulsed, focused ultrasound on tumor circulation of subcutaneous VX2 cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Peijing; Zhu Mei; Xu Yali; Zhao Yang; Gao Shunji; Liu Zheng; Gao Yun-hua

    2014-01-01

    Background Intravascular microbubble-enhanced acoustic cavitation is capable of disrupting the vascular walls of capillaries and small vessels.This study was designed to investigate the impact of microbubble-enhanced,pulsed and focused ultrasound (MEUS) on the blood perfusion of subcutaneous VX2 tumors in rabbits.Methods Subcutaneous VX2 cancers in twenty New Zealand rabbits were treated by combining high-pressure amplitude,pulsed and focused therapeutic ultrasound (TUS) and intravenous microbubble injections.The TUS transducer was operated with a peak negative pressure of 4.6 MPa and a duty cycle of 0.41%.Controls were subcutaneous VX2 cancers treated with TUS or microbubbles only.Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and intravenous Evans Blue (EB) perfusion were performed to assess the tumor circulation.The tumor microvascular disruption was assessed by histological examination.Results CEUS showed that the tumor circulation almost vanished after MEUS treatment.The average peak grayscale value (GSV) of tumor CEUS dropped significantly from 84.1±22.4 to 15.8±10.8 in the MEUS-treated tumors but no significant GSV changes were found in tumors in the two control groups.The mean tumor EB content of the MEUS-treated tumors was significantly lower than that of the controls.Histological examination found scattered tumor microvascular disruption with intercellular edema after MEUS treatment.Conclusion The tumor circulation of VX2 cancers can be arrested or significantly reduced by MEUS due to microvascular disruption.

  9. Sentinel Node Mapping of VX2 Carcinoma in Rabbit Thigh with CT Lymphography Using Ethiodized Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Jin; Kim, Young Hoon; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Park, Ji Hoon [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hye Seung [Department of Pathology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Seung Chai [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Seung-Moon [Department of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 135-720 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    To assess the feasibility of computed tomography (CT) lymphography using ethiodized oil for sentinel node mapping in experimentally induced VX2 carcinoma in the rabbit thigh. This experiment received approval from the institutional animal use and care administrative advisory committee. Twenty-three rabbits with VX2 carcinoma in the thigh underwent CT before and after (1 hour, 2 hour) peritumoral injection of 2 mL ethiodized oil. After the CT examination, sentinel nodes were identified by peritumoral injection of methylene blue and subsequently removed. The retrieved sentinel and non-sentinel lymph nodes were investigated with radiographic and pathologic examinations. Based on the comparison of CT findings with those of radiographic and pathologic examinations, the diagnostic performance of CT for sentinel node identification was assessed. All 23 rabbits showed 53 ethiodized oil retention nodes on post-injection CT and specimen radiography, and 52 methylene blue-stained nodes at the right femoroiliac area. Of the 52 blue-stained sentinel nodes, 50 nodes demonstrated ethiodized oil retention. Thus, the sentinel node detection rate of CT was 96% (50 of 52). On pathologic examination, 28 sentinel nodes in 17 rabbits (nodes/rabbit, mean ± standard deviation, 1.7 ± 0.6) harbored metastasis. Twenty seven of the 28 metastatic sentinel nodes were found to have ethiodized oil retention. Computed tomography lymphography using ethiodized oil may be feasible for sentinel node mapping in experimentally induced VX2 carcinoma in the rabbit thigh.

  10. Histotripsy and metastasis: Assessment in a renal VX-2 rabbit tumor model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styn, Nicholas R.; Hall, Timothy L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Cain, Charles A.; Roberts, William W.

    2012-10-01

    Histotripsy is a non-invasive, pulsed ultrasound technology where controlled cavitation is used to homogenize targeted tissue. We sought to assess the possibility that histotripsy may increase metastatic spread of tumor by quantifying the number of lung metastasis apparent after histotripsy treatment of aggressive renal VX-2 tumor compared to nontreated controls. VX-2 tumor was implanted in the left kidneys of 28 New Zealand White rabbits. Twenty rabbits were treated with histotripsy (day 13 after implantation) while 8 served as controls. All rabbits underwent left nephrectomy (day 14) and then were euthanized (day 19). This study was powered to detect a doubling in metastatic rate. Homogenized tumor was seen in all treated nephrectomy specimens. Whole-mount, coronal lung sections were viewed to calculate number and density of metastases. Viable tumor was present in all 28 lungs examined. Histology confirmed fractionation of tumor in all treatment rabbits. There was not a statistical difference in total lung metastases (88.7 vs. 72.5; p=0.29) or metastatic density (8.9 vs. 7.0 mets/cm2; p=0.22) between treated and control rabbits. Further investigation is planned to validate these results in the VX-2 model and to assess metastatic rates in less aggressive tumors treated with histotripsy.

  11. Cellular Imaging Using Equivalent Cross-Relaxation Rate Technique in Rabbit VX-2 Tumor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiofuku, Hideyuki; Matsushima, Shigeru; Taguchi, Osamu; Inaba, Yoshitaka; Yamaura, Hidekazu; Sato, Yozo; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Kichikawa, Kimihiko

    2011-01-01

    Equivalent cross-relaxation rate (ECR) imaging (ECRI) is a measurement technique that can be used to quantitatively evaluate changes in structural organization and cellular density by MRI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the ECR value and cellular density in the rabbit VX2 tumor model. Five rabbits implanted with 10 VX2 tumors in the femur muscles were included in this study. We adopted the off-resonance technique with a single saturation transfer pulse frequency of 7 ppm downfield from water resonance. The ECR value was defined as the percentage of signal loss between the unsaturated and saturated images. ECR images were constructed based on the percentage of the ECR value. Pathological specimens were divided into 34 areas and classified into two groups: the viable group and the necrotic group. ECR values were measured and compared between groups. The correlation between the ECR value and cellular density was then determined. The mean ECR value was significantly higher in the viable group than in the necrotic group (61.2% vs. 35.8%). The area under the curve that calculated by receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.991 at 7 ppm. The regression graph showed a linear relationship between the ECR value and cellular density; the correlation coefficient (r) was 0.858. There is a strong association between the ECR value and cellular density in VX2 tumors and so ECRI could be a potentially useful technique for accurately depicting viable and necrotic areas.

  12. Quantum harmonic Brownian motion in a general environment: A modified phase-space approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-06-23

    After extensive investigations over three decades, the linear-coupling model and its equivalents have become the standard microscopic models for quantum harmonic Brownian motion, in which a harmonically bound Brownian particle is coupled to a quantum dissipative heat bath of general type modeled by infinitely many harmonic oscillators. The dynamics of these models have been studied by many authors using the quantum Langevin equation, the path-integral approach, quasi-probability distribution functions (e.g., the Wigner function), etc. However, the quantum Langevin equation is only applicable to some special problems, while other approaches all involve complicated calculations due to the inevitable reduction (i.e., contraction) operation for ignoring/eliminating the degrees of freedom of the heat bath. In this dissertation, the author proposes an improved methodology via a modified phase-space approach which employs the characteristic function (the symplectic Fourier transform of the Wigner function) as the representative of the density operator. This representative is claimed to be the most natural one for performing the reduction, not only because of its simplicity but also because of its manifestation of geometric meaning. Accordingly, it is particularly convenient for studying the time evolution of the Brownian particle with an arbitrary initial state. The power of this characteristic function is illuminated through a detailed study of several physically interesting problems, including the environment-induced damping of quantum interference, the exact quantum Fokker-Planck equations, and the relaxation of non-factorizable initial states. All derivations and calculations axe shown to be much simplified in comparison with other approaches. In addition to dynamical problems, a novel derivation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem which is valid for all quantum linear systems is presented.

  13. Characteristics and pathological mechanism on magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging after chemoembolization in rabbit liver VX-2 tumor model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate dynamic characteristics and pathological mechanism of signal in rabbit VX-2 tumor model on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) after chemoembolization.METHODS: Forty New Zealand rabbits were included in the study and forty-seven rabbit VX-2 tumor models were raised by implanting directly and intrahepatically after abdominal cavity opened. Forty VX-2 tumor models from them were divided into four groups. DWI was performed periodically and respectively for each group after chemoembolization. All VX-2 tumor samples of each group were studied by pathology. The distinction of VX-2tumors on DWI was assessed by their apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. The statistical significance between different time groups, different area groups or different b-value groups was calculated by using SPSS12.0 software.RESULTS: Under b-value of 100 s/mm2, ADC values were lowest at 16 h after chemoembolization in area of VX-2 tumor periphery, central, and normal liver parenchyma around tumor, but turned to increase with further elongation of chemoembolization treatment. The distinction of ADC between different time groups was significant respectively (F = 7.325, P < 0.001; F = 2.496,P < 0.048; F = 6.856, P < 0.001). Cellular edema in the area of VX-2 tumor periphery or normal liver parenchyma around tumor, increased quickly in sixteen h after chemoembolization but, from the 16th h to the 48th h, cellular edema in the area of normal liver parenchyma around tumor decreased gradually and that in the area of VX-2 tumor periphery decreased lightly at, and then increased continually. After chemoembolization, Cellular necrosis in the area of VX-2 tumor periphery was more significantly high than that before chemoembolization. The areas of dead cells in VX-2 tumors manifested low signal and high ADC value, while the areas of viable cells manifested high signal and low ADC value.CONCLUSION: DWI is able to detect and differentiate tumor necrotic areas from viable

  14. Kinodynamic Motion Planning for an X4-Flyer Using a 2-Dimentional Harmonic Potential Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keigo Watanabe

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we present a control method using kinodynamic motion planning based on a harmonic potential field (HPF for an X4-Flyer moving in a 3-dimensional space. In the previous research, it was confirmed that a controller using two HPFs generated on the X-Y and X-Z planes was able to guide the X4-Flyer to the arbitrary target point in a 3-dimensional space. In this paper, the previous method is extended to the case where three HPFs generated on the X-Y, X-Z, and Y-Z planes are used, and it is verified that the X4-Flyer can move efficiently by using the proposed method through some simulations.

  15. Assessment of hepatic VX2 tumors with combined percutaneous transhepatic lymphosonography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cun Liu; Ping Liang; Yang Wang; Pei Zhou; Xin Li; Zhi-Yu Han; Shao-Ping Liu

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of percutaneous transhepatic lymphosonography (PTL) as a novel method for the detection of tumor lymphangiogenesis in hepatic VX2 of rabbits and to evaluate combined PTL and routine contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic imaging for the diagnosis of liver cancer.METHODS: Ten rabbits with VX2 tumor were included in this study.SonoVue (0.1 mL/kg) was injected into each rabbit v/a an ear vein for contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic imaging,and 0.5 mL SonoVue was injected into the normal liver parenchyma near the VX2 tumor for PTL.Images and/or movie clips were stored for further analysis.RESULTS: Ultrasonographic imaging showed VX2 tumors ranging 5-19 mm in the liver of rabbits.The VX2 tumor was hyperechoic and hypoechoic to liver parenchyma at the early and later phase,respectively.The hepatic lymph vessels were visualized immediately after injection of contrast medium and continuously visualized with SonoVue(R) during PTL.The boundaries of VX2 tumors were hyperechoic to liver parenchyma and the tumors.There was a significant difference in the values for the boundaries of VX2 tumors after injection compared with the liver normal parenchyma and the tumor parenchyma during PTL.CONCLUSION: PTL is a novel method for the detection of tumor lymphangiogenesis in hepatic VX2 of rabbits.Combined PTL and contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic imaging can improve the diagnosis of liver cancer.

  16. Tumor characterization and treatment monitoring of postsurgical human breast specimens using harmonic motion imaging (HMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yang; Wang, Shutao; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Taback, Bret; Konofagou, Elisa

    2016-05-09

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a noninvasive technique used in the treatment of early-stage breast cancer and benign tumors. To facilitate its translation to the clinic, there is a need for a simple, cost-effective device that can reliably monitor HIFU treatment. We have developed harmonic motion imaging (HMI), which can be used seamlessly in conjunction with HIFU for tumor ablation monitoring, namely harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU). The overall objective of this study was to develop an all ultrasound-based system for real-time imaging and ablation monitoring in the human breast in vivo. HMI was performed in 36 specimens (19 normal, 15 invasive ductal carcinomas, and 2 fibroadenomas) immediately after surgical removal. The specimens were securely embedded in a tissue-mimicking agar gel matrix and submerged in degassed phosphate-buffered saline to mimic in vivo environment. The HMI setup consisted of a HIFU transducer confocally aligned with an imaging transducer to induce an oscillatory radiation force and estimate the resulting displacement. 3D HMI displacement maps were reconstructed to represent the relative tissue stiffness in 3D. The average peak-to-peak displacement was found to be significantly different (p = 0.003) between normal breast tissue and invasive ductal carcinoma. There were also significant differences before and after HMIFU ablation in both the normal (53.84 % decrease) and invasive ductal carcinoma (44.69 % decrease) specimens. HMI can be used to map and differentiate relative stiffness in postsurgical normal and pathological breast tissues. HMIFU can also successfully monitor thermal ablations in normal and pathological human breast specimens. This HMI technique may lead to a new clinical tool for breast tumor imaging and HIFU treatment monitoring.

  17. Elasticity mapping of murine abdominal organs in vivo using harmonic motion imaging (HMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payen, Thomas; Palermo, Carmine F.; Sastra, Stephen A.; Chen, Hong; Han, Yang; Olive, Kenneth P.; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2016-08-01

    Recently, ultrasonic imaging of soft tissue mechanics has been increasingly studied to image otherwise undetectable pathologies. However, many underlying mechanisms of tissue stiffening remain unknown, requiring small animal studies and adapted elasticity mapping techniques. Harmonic motion imaging (HMI) assesses tissue viscoelasticity by inducing localized oscillation from a periodic acoustic radiation force. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of HMI for in vivo elasticity mapping of abdominal organs in small animals. Pathological cases, i.e. chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, were also studied in vivo to assess the capability of HMI for detection of the change in mechanical properties. A 4.5 MHz focused ultrasound transducer (FUS) generated an amplitude-modulated beam resulting in 50 Hz harmonic tissue oscillations at its focus. Axial tissue displacement was estimated using 1D-cross-correlation of RF signals acquired with a 7.8 MHz diagnostic transducer confocally aligned with the FUS. In vitro results in canine liver and kidney showed the correlation between HMI displacement and Young’s moduli measured by rheometry compression testing. HMI was capable of providing reproducible elasticity maps of the mouse abdominal region in vivo allowing the identification of, from stiffest to softest, the murine kidney, pancreas, liver, and spleen. Finally, pancreata affected by pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer showed HMI displacements 1.7 and 2.2 times lower than in the control case, respectively, indicating higher stiffness. The HMI displacement amplitude was correlated with the extent of fibrosis as well as detecting the very onset of stiffening even before fibrosis could be detected on H&E. This work shows that HMI can produce reliable elasticity maps of mouse abdominal region in vivo, thus providing a potentially critical tool to assess pathologies affecting organ elasticity.

  18. A Novel Minimally Invasive Technique to Create a Rabbit VX2 Lung Tumor Model for Nano-Sized Image Contrast and Interventional Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Anayama; Takahiro Nakajima; Michael Dunne; Jinzi Zheng; Christine Allen; Brandon Driscoll; Douglass Vines; Shaf Keshavjee; David Jaffray; Kazuhiro Yasufuku

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The rabbit VX2 lung cancer model is a large animal model useful for preclinical lung cancer imaging and interventional studies. However, previously reported models had issues in terms of invasiveness of tumor inoculation, control of tumor aggressiveness and incidence of complications. PURPOSE: We aimed to develop a minimally invasive rabbit VX2 lung cancer model suitable for imaging and transbronchial interventional studies. METHODS: New Zealand white rabbits and VX2 tumors were u...

  19. The Characteristics of Vascular Growth in VX2 Tumor Measured by MRI and Micro-CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.-L. Qi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood supply is crucial for rapid growth of a malignant tumor; medical imaging can play an important role in evaluating the vascular characterstics of tumors. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and micro-computed tomography (CT are able to detect tumors and measure blood volumes of microcirculation in tissue. In this study, we used MR imaging and micro-CT to assess the microcirculation in a VX2 tumor model in rabbits. MRI characterization was performed using the intravascular contrast agent Clariscan (NC100150-Injection; micro-CT with Microfil was used to directly depict blood vessels with diameters as low as 17 um in tissue. Relative blood volume fraction (rBVF in the tumor rim and blood vessel density (rBVD over the whole tumor was calculated using the two imaging methods. Our study indicates that rBVF is negatively related to the volume of the tumor measured by ultrasound (R=0.90. rBVF in the tissue of a VX2 tumor measured by MRI in vivo was qualitatively consistent with the rBVD demonstrated by micro-CT in vitro (R=0.97. The good correlation between the two methods indicates that MRI studies are potentially valuable for assessing characteristics or tumor vascularity and for assessing response to therapy noninvasively.

  20. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) focal spot localization using harmonic motion imaging (HMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yang; Hou, Gary Yi; Wang, Shutao; Konofagou, Elisa

    2015-08-07

    Several ultrasound-based imaging modalities have been proposed for image guidance and monitoring of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment. However, accurate localization and characterization of the effective region of treatment (focal spot) remain important obstacles in the clinical implementation of HIFU ablation. Harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU) is a HIFU monitoring technique that utilizes radiation-force-induced localized oscillatory displacement. HMIFU has been shown to correctly identify the formation and extent of HIFU thermal ablation lesions. However a significant problem remains in identifying the location of the HIFU focus, which is necessary for treatment planning. In this study, the induced displacement was employed to localize the HIFU focal spot inside the tissue prior to treatment. Feasibility was shown with two separate systems. The 1D HMIFU system consisted of a HIFU transducer emitting an amplitude-modulated HIFU beam for mechanical excitation and a confocal single-element, pulse-echo transducer for simultaneous RF acquisition. The 2D HIFU system consists of a HIFU phased array, and a co-axial imaging phased array for simultaneous imaging. Initial feasibility was first performed on tissue-mimicking gelatin phantoms and the focal zone was defined as the region corresponding to the -3dB full width at half maximum of the HMI displacement. Using the same parameters, in vitro experiments were performed in canine liver specimens to compare the defined focal zone with the lesion. In vitro measurements showed good agreement between the HMI predicted focal zone and the induced HIFU lesion location. HMIFU was experimentally shown to be capable of predicting and tracking the focal region in both phantoms and in vitro tissues. The accuracy of focal spot localization was evaluated by comparing with the lesion location in post-ablative tissues, with a R(2) = 0.821 at p tissue ablation and can be fully integrated into any HMI

  1. High-resolution harmonic motion imaging (HR-HMI) for tissue biomechanical property characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Teng; Qian, Xuejun; Chiu, Chi Tat; Yu, Mingyue; Jung, Hayong; Tung, Yao-Sheng; Shung, K Kirk; Zhou, Qifa

    2015-02-01

    Elastography, capable of mapping the biomechanical properties of biological tissues, serves as a useful technique for clinicians to perform disease diagnosis and determine stages of many diseases. Many acoustic radiation force (ARF) based elastography, including acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging and harmonic motion imaging (HMI), have been developed to remotely assess the elastic properties of tissues. However, due to the lower operating frequencies of these approaches, their spatial resolutions are insufficient for revealing stiffness distribution on small scale applications, such as cancerous tumor margin detection, atherosclerotic plaque composition analysis and ophthalmologic tissue characterization. Though recently developed ARF-based optical coherence elastography (OCE) methods open a new window for the high resolution elastography, shallow imaging depths significantly limit their usefulness in clinics. The aim of this study is to develop a high-resolution HMI method to assess the tissue biomechanical properties with acceptable field of view (FOV) using a 4 MHz ring transducer for efficient excitation and a 40 MHz needle transducer for accurate detection. Under precise alignment of two confocal transducers, the high-resolution HMI system has a lateral resolution of 314 µm and an axial resolution of 
147 µm with an effective FOV of 2 mm in depth. The performance of this high resolution imaging system was validated on the agar-based tissue mimicking phantoms with different stiffness distributions. These data demonstrated the imaging system's improved resolution and sensitivity on differentiating materials with varying stiffness. In addition, ex vivo imaging of a human atherosclerosis coronary artery demonstrated the capability of high resolution HMI in identifying layer-specific structures and characterizing atherosclerotic plaques based on their stiffness differences. All together high resolution HMI appears to be a promising ultrasound

  2. Intrahepatic transneedle inoculation of VX2 particles for obtaining a solitary hepatic tumor in an animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jin Han; Choi, Jong Cheol; Shin, Tae Beom; Park, Byeong Ho [Dong-A University, School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to develop a large animal (rabbit) model which has a proper solitary intrahepatic tumor with lower leakage rates through less traumatic methods. Consequently, we evaluated tumor progression following the intrahepatic inoculation of VX2 cells into New Zealand white rabbits to acquire baseline data on the progression of a VX2 tumor. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits, each weighting 2.5-3 kg, were selected for this study. A 1 mm{sup 3} VX2 tumor fragment was created and then minced to enable the particles to pass through a 21 G needle mounting in a tuberculin syringe with 0.1 ml of normal saline. The minced VX2 tumor particles were injected into the subcapsular parenchyma of the left hepatic lobe. A 21 G needle was used to avoid penetrating large hepatic vessels. In order to prevent hemorrhage or leakage of the VX2 tumor cells through the injection route, a purse-string suture around the puncture site was made using black silk 4-0. The tumor particles were then injected through the center of the suture. While removing the needle, the suture was tightened to prevent hemorrhage or leakage of the VX2 tumor cells through the injection route. Finally, the injection site was covered with a Surgical patch. The inoculated intrahepatic VX2 tumors were then imaged with a 16 channel multidetector CT every week for the duration of the study. The CT images covered from the lung apex to the pelvic floor. Two radiologists evaluated the size, location, and peritoneal seeding of the tumors as well as metastasis of other organs. Three rabbits were sacrificed as random beginning in the second week, and this process continued on a weekly basis for the duration of the study. The CT images and pathologic findings for the sacrificed rabbits were correlated. The inoculated intrahepatic VX2 tumors were not visible in the first week. By the second week 66.7% were visible on CT images and by the third week all tumors were visible. Of the twenty rabbits, three (15

  3. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization of Renal VX-2 Carcinoma: Ethiodol-Ethanol Capillary Embolization Combined with Carboplatin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konya, Andras; Pelt, Carolyn S. Van; Wright, Kenneth C. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Hoston (United States); Choi, Byung Gil [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    We wanted to determine whether transcatheter Ethiodol-based capillary embolization in combination with carboplatin could improve the efficiency of a 1:1 Ethiodol-ethanol mixture (EEM) to ablate kidneys that been inoculated with VX-2 carcinoma. The right kidney in 34 New Zealand white rabbits were inoculated with fresh VX-2 tumor fragments. One week later, the kidneys were subjected to transarterial treatment (4-5 rabbits/group): Saline infusion (Group 1); carboplatin infusion (5 or 10 mg, Groups 2A and 2B); carboplatin- Ethiodol (CE) alone (Group 3) and followed by main renal artery occlusion with ethanol (RAO) (Group 4); carboplatin-EEM (C-EEM) followed by RAO (Group 5); carboplatin infusion followed by EEM plus RAO (Group 6); and EEM followed by RAO (Group 7). The animals were followed for up to 3-weeks. The treated kidneys were evaluated angiographically and macroscopically. The kidneys that showed successful embolization macroscopically were entirely cut into serial sections, and these were examined microscopically. Histologically, the kidneys were evaluated on the basis of the residual tumor found in the serial sections. The results obtained with carboplatin infusion alone (Groups 2A and 2B) and CE without RAO (Group 3) were similar to those of the control animals (Group 1). Kidneys from Groups 4-7 demonstrated macroscopically successful embolization with histologically proven complete renal parenchyma infarction; however, some residual tumor was evident in all but one animal. None of the Ethiodol-based modalities combined with locoregional carboplatin were more efficacious for tumor ablation than EEM alone.

  4. Linear Harmonic Oscillator and Uniform Circular Motion%线性谐振子与匀速圆周运动

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳小萍; 秦鑫

    2012-01-01

      This article discusses the relationship between uniform circular motion and harmonic vibration of particle by classical mechanics method. The expressions of displacement, velocity and acceleration of linear harmonic oscillator are given, and phase differences among the three are explained by causality and Newton’s second law of motion. This article obtains linear harmonic oscillator force constant k = Gm m / r in-3 1 2 gravitational field, and discusses its physical significance, corrects the mistake of energy of harmonic oscillator is invariably positive for a long time. Electric linear harmonic oscillator concept is introduced. Method of discussing electric linear harmonic oscilators of elliptic orbit and valence electron in different orbital are provided. The method of converting linear harmonic oscillator of real space to quantum mechanics is introduced.%  用经典力学的方法讨论了质点匀速圆周运动与谐振动的关系问题,给出了线性谐振子位移、速度、加速度表达式,用因果律和牛顿第二运动定律,说明了三者之间的位相差关系;得到了万有引力场中二质点系统线性谐振子力常量k = Gm m / r 的结果,讨论了其物理意义,纠正了长期以来认为谐振子能量总是-312大于零的错误认识。引入了线性电谐振子概念;给出了讨论椭圆轨道电线性谐振子、不同轨道上价电子线性电谐振子的方法;介绍了实空间电线性谐振子转化为量子力学线性谐振子的方法

  5. Circular orbits and related quasi-harmonic oscillatory motion of charged particles around weakly magnetized rotating black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Tursunov, Arman; Kološ, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We study motion of charged particles in the field of a rotating black hole immersed into an external asymptotically uniform magnetic field, focusing on the epicyclic quasi-circular orbits near the equatorial plane. Separating the circular orbits into four qualitatively different classes according to the sign of the canonical angular momentum of the motion and the orientation of the Lorentz force, we analyse the circular orbits using the so called force formalism. We find the analytical solutions for the radial profiles of velocity, specific angular momentum and specific energy of the circular orbits in dependence on the black hole dimensionless spin and the magnetic field strength. The innermost stable circular orbits are determined for all four classes of the circular orbits. The stable circular orbits with outward oriented Lorentz force can extend to radii lower than the radius of the corresponding photon circular geodesic. We calculate the frequencies of the harmonic oscillatory motion of the charged parti...

  6. Jordan-Schwinger map, 3D harmonic oscillator constants of motion, and classical and quantum parameters characterizing electromagnetic wave polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, R D [Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de IngenierIa y TecnologIas Avanzadas, IPN. Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2580, Col. La Laguna Ticoman, 07340 Mexico DF (Mexico); Xicotencatl, M A [Departamento de Matematicas del Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico DF, 07000 (Mexico); Granados, V D [Escuela Superior de FIsica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Ed. 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, 07738 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2004-02-20

    In this work we introduce a generalization of the Jauch and Rohrlich quantum Stokes operators when the arrival direction from the source is unknown a priori. We define the generalized Stokes operators as the Jordan-Schwinger map of a triplet of harmonic oscillators with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices of the SU(3) symmetry group. We show that the elements of the Jordan-Schwinger map are the constants of motion of the three-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator. Also, we show that the generalized Stokes operators together with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices may be used to expand the polarization matrix. By taking the expectation value of the Stokes operators in a three-mode coherent state of the electromagnetic field, we obtain the corresponding generalized classical Stokes parameters. Finally, by means of the constants of motion of the classical 3D isotropic harmonic oscillator we describe the geometrical properties of the polarization ellipse.

  7. The correlation of contrast-enhanced ultrasound and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis in rabbit VX2 liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Zhiming; Liang, Qianwen; Liang, Changhong; Zhong, Guimian

    2014-12-01

    Our objective is to explore the value of liver cancer contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis in liver cancer and the correlation between these two analysis methods. Rabbit VX2 liver cancer model was established in this study. CEUS was applied. Sono Vue was applied in rabbits by ear vein to dynamically observe and record the blood perfusion and changes in the process of VX2 liver cancer and surrounding tissue. MRI perfusion quantitative analysis was used to analyze the mean enhancement time and change law of maximal slope increasing, which were further compared with the pathological examination results. Quantitative indicators of liver cancer CEUS and MRI perfusion quantitative analysis were compared, and the correlation between them was analyzed by correlation analysis. Rabbit VX2 liver cancer model was successfully established. CEUS showed that time-intensity curve of rabbit VX2 liver cancer showed "fast in, fast out" model while MRI perfusion quantitative analysis showed that quantitative parameter MTE of tumor tissue increased and MSI decreased: the difference was statistically significant (P 0.05). However, the quantitative parameter of them were significantly positively correlated (P liver cancer lesion and surrounding liver parenchyma, and the quantitative parameters of them are correlated. The combined application of both is of importance in early diagnosis of liver cancer.

  8. Enhancing tissue permeability with MRI guided preclinical focused ultrasound system in rabbit muscle: From normal tissue to VX2 tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yao; Xiong, Xiaobing; Pandya, Darpan; Jung, Youngkyoo; Mintz, Akiva; Hayasaka, Satoru; Wadas, Thaddeus J; Li, King C P

    2017-06-28

    High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) is an emerging noninvasive, nonionizing physical energy based modality to ablate solid tumors with high power, or increase local permeability in tissues/tumors in pulsed mode with relatively low power. Compared with traditional ablative HIFU, nondestructive pulsed HIFU (pHIFU) is present in the majority of novel applications recently developed for enhancing the delivery of drugs and genes. Previous studies have demonstrated the capability of pHIFU to change tissue local permeability for enhanced drug delivery in both mouse tumors and mouse muscle. Further study based on bulk tissues in large animals and clinical HIFU system revealed correlation between therapeutic effect and thermal parameters, which was absent in the previous mouse studies. In this study, we further investigated the relation between the therapeutic effect of pHIFU and thermal parameters in bulky normal muscle tissues based on a rabbit model and a preclinical HIFU system. Correlation between therapeutic effect and thermal parameters was confirmed in our study on the same bulk tissues although different HIFU systems were used. Following the study in bulky normal muscle tissues, we further created bulky tumor model with VX2 tumors implanted on both hind limbs of rabbits and investigated the feasibility to enhance tumor permeability in bulky VX2 tumors in a rabbit model using pHIFU technique. A radiolabeled peptidomimetic integrin antagonist, (111)In-DOTA-IA, was used following pHIFU treatment in our study to target VX2 tumor and serve as the radiotracer for follow-up single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanning. The results have shown significantly elevated uptake of (111)In-DOTA-IA in the area of VX2 tumors pretreated by pHIFU compared with the control VX2 tumors not being pretreated by pHIFU, and statistical analysis revealed averaged 34.5% enhancement 24h after systematic delivery of (111)In-DOTA-IA in VX2 tumors pretreated by pHIFU compared

  9. Dielectric spectroscopy of proteins as a quantitative experimental test of computational models of their low-frequency harmonic motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinh, N Q; Allen, S James; Plaxco, Kevin W

    2011-06-15

    Decades of molecular dynamics and normal mode calculations suggest that the largest-scale collective vibrational modes of proteins span the picosecond to nanosecond time scale. Experimental investigation of these harmonic, low-amplitude motions, however, has proven challenging. In response, we have developed a vector network analyzer-based spectrometer that supports the accurate measurement of both the absorbance and refractive index of solvated biomolecules over the corresponding gigahertz to terahertz frequency regime, thus providing experimental information regarding their largest-scale, lowest frequency harmonic motions. We have used this spectrometer to measure the complex dielectric response of lysozyme solutions over the range 65 to 700 GHz and an effective medium model to separate the dielectric response of the solvated protein from that of its buffer. In doing so, we find that each lysozyme is surrounded by a tightly bound layer of 165 ± 15 water molecules that, in terms of their picosecond dynamics, behave as if they are an integral part of the protein. We also find that existing computational descriptions of the protein's dynamics compare poorly with the results of our experiment. Specifically, published normal mode and molecular dynamics simulations do not explain the measured dielectric response unless we introduce a cutoff frequency of 250 GHz below which the density of vibrational modes drops to zero. This cutoff is physically plausible, given the known size of the protein and the known speed of sound in proteins, raising questions as to why it is not apparent in computational models of the protein's motions.

  10. Targeted hyperthermia after selective embolization with ferromagnetic nanoparticles in a VX2 rabbit liver tumor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun HL

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hongliang Sun,1 Linfeng Xu,1 Tianyuan Fan,2 Hongzhi Zhan,3 Xiaodong Wang,3 Yanfei Zhou,2 Ren-jie Yang3 1Department of Interventional Therapy, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, 2Pharmacy School of Beijing University, Beijing, 3Department of Interventional Therapy, Peking University School of Oncology, Beijing Cancer Hospital and Institute, Beijing, People's Republic of China Background: The purpose of this study was to observe the effect and feasibility of hyperthermia and the influence of heat on surrounding organs in a VX2 rabbit liver model exposed to an alternating magnetic field after embolization with ferromagnetic nanoparticles. Methods: Forty rabbits containing implanted hepatic VX2 carcinomas were divided into four groups, each containing ten rabbits. Fourteen days after tumor transplantation, we opened the abdomen to observe the size and shape of the tumor. A transfemoral retrograde approach was then used for hepatic arterial catheterization in groups B, C, and D to perform angiography and embolization. The next day, three rabbits in group B and all rabbits in group D were exposed to an alternating magnetic field, and the temperature was recorded simultaneously in the center of the tumor, at the edge of the tumor, and in the normal liver parenchyma. On day 28, all animals was euthanized to observe changes in the implanted liver tumor and the condition of the abdomen. A pathologic examination was also done. Results: Before surgery, there was no significant difference in tumor volume between the four groups. Three different temperature points (center of the tumor, edge of the tumor, and in the normal liver parenchyma of group B under an alternating magnetic field were 37.2°C ± 1.1°C, 36.8°C ± 1.2°C, and 36.9°C ± 2.1°C, none of which were significantly different from pretreatment values. Three points basal temperature in group D showed no significant difference (F = 1.038, P = 0.413. Seven to 26

  11. Perception of musical tension in short chord sequences: the influence of harmonic function, sensory dissonance, horizontal motion, and musical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigand, E; Parncutt, R; Lerdahl, F

    1996-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of four variables (tonal hierarchies, sensory chordal consonance, horizontal motion, and musical training) on perceived musical tension. Participants were asked to evaluate the tension created by a chord X in sequences of three chords [C major-->X-->C major] in a C major context key. The X chords could be major or minor triads major-minor seventh, or minor seventh chords built on the 12 notes of the chromatic scale. The data were compared with Krumhansl's (1990) harmonic hierarchy and with predictions of Lerdahl's (1988) cognitive theory, Hutchinson and Knopoff's (1978) and Parncutt's (1989) sensory-psychoacoustical theories, and the model of horizontal motion defined in the paper. As a main outcome, it appears that judgments of tension arose from a convergence of several cognitive and psychoacoustics influences, whose relative importance varies, depending on musical training.

  12. Semi-active Control of Shallow Cables with Magnetorheological Dampers under Harmonic Axial Support Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Q.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Qu, W.L.

    2007-01-01

    The paper deals with the control of sub- and superharmonic resonances by means of magnetorheological (MR) dampers of an inclined shallow cable caused by parametric excitation from harmonically varying support points. A mechanical model based on the Dahl hysteretic model is used to describe the dy...

  13. Functional CT imaging of angiogenesis in rabbit VX2 soft-tissue tumour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdie, Thomas G.; Henderson, Elizabeth; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2001-12-01

    Functional parameters such as blood flow (BF), microvessel permeability surface area product (PS), blood volume (BV) and mean transit time (MTT) are physiological markers related to the changes associated with angiogenesis. In the current study we present a functional CT technique for the simultaneous measurement of these four functional parameters and the display of each parameter as a functional image over an entire tissue slice. New Zealand White rabbits with implanted VX2 thigh tumours were scanned using CT with contrast media injection. The ex vivo method of radioactive microspheres was used to evaluate the accuracy of BF measurements with the functional CT technique. There was a significant linear correlation (R = 0.96) between regional CT and microsphere-measured BF values, with a slope not significantly different from unity (0.98 +/- 0.02, P precision of our CT technique was determined by the repeated scanning under steady-state conditions. The precision of CT-measured BF, PS, BV and MTT was 14%, 18%, 20% and 24%, respectively. In conclusion, BF can be measured accurately and BF, PS, BV and MTT reproducibly using our functional CT technique. Functional CT can be readily incorporated into existing imaging protocols to assess tumour angiogenesis.

  14. The Effect of Through-Plane Motion on Left Ventricular Rotation: A Study Using Slice Following Harmonic Phase Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, David; Zhang, Ziheng; Sampath, Smita

    2012-01-01

    Non-invasive quantification of regional left ventricular (LV) rotation may improve understanding of cardiac function. Current methods employed to quantify rotation typically acquire data on a set of prescribed short-axis slices, neglecting effects due to through-plane myocardial motion. We combine principles of slice-following tagged imaging with harmonic phase analysis methods to account for through-plane motion in regional rotation measurements. We compare rotation and torsion measurements obtained using our method to those obtained from imaging datasets acquired without slice-following. Our results in normal volunteers demonstrate differences in the general trends of average and regional rotation-time plots in mid-basal slices, and of the rotation versus circumferential strain loops. We observe substantial errors in measured peak average rotation of the order of 58% for basal slices (due to change in the pattern of the curve), −6.6% for mid-ventricular slices, and −8.5% for apical slices; and an average error in base-to-apex torsion of 19% when through-plane motion is not considered. This study concludes that due to an inherent base-to-apex gradient in rotation that exists in the LV, accounting for through-plane motion is critical to the accuracy of LV rotation quantification. PMID:22700308

  15. Experimental Study of Multi-slice Spiral CT Perfusion Imaging in VX2 Soft-tissue Tumor of Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jingfeng; WANG Renfa; WANG Min; LI Yonggang; YANG Haitao

    2006-01-01

    An experimental animal model of malignant soft-tissue tumor was established to investigate the applied value of multi-slice spiral CT perfusion imaging preliminarily. Ten New Zealand white rabbits which were implanted with VX2 tumor in either proximal thigh were subjected to CT plain scan and perfusion scan two weeks later respectively, then the original perfusion images were transmitted to AW4.0 Workstation. The functional maps and perfusion parameters including blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT) and permeability surface (PS) were computed and analyzed. All the values of BF, BV and PS in VX2 soft-tissue tumors were obviously higher while the MTT-values were lower than those in the normal muscular tissues significantly. It was suggested that multi-slice spiral CT perfusion imaging is an accurate, convenient and relatively safe functional imaging technique, and can give a quantitative assessment to angiogenesis and blood perfusion of soft-tissue tumors.

  16. Bioevaluation study of 32P-CP-PLLA particle brachytherapy in a rabbit VX2 lung tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yu ping; Yang, Min; Pan, Dong hui; Wang, Li zhen; Liu, Lu; Huang, Peilin; Shao, Guoqiang

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapy effects of intratumoral administration of (32)P-CP-PLLA particles in a rabbit VX2 lung tumor model. 16 rabbits with tumors were randomly divided into 4 groups. 4 rabbits served as untreated controls, and others received intratumoral administration of (32)P-CP-PLLA particles with CT guidance. The total radioactivities in treated groups were as follows: a low activity was 93 MBq (n=4) (group 1), a medium activity was 185 MBq (n=4) (group 2) and a high activity was 370 MBq (n=4) (group 3). Brachytherapy treated VX2 tumors underwent (18)F-FDG PET/CT at 0 day, 3 day, 7 day and 14 day postinjection. In control group, (18)F-FDG PET/CT images were acquired at the same time points but without any treatment. Bremsstrahlung SPECT images were performed at 14 days after intratumoral brachytherapy in treated groups. After Bremsstrahlung SPECT and last (18)F-FDG PET/CT imagings, the rabbits were euthanized and the tumors were removed for histological examination. Bremsstrahlung SPECT images study indicated that there was no leakage of (32)P out of the injection site at 14 days after treatment. Compared with the control, the tumor volumes in treated groups significantly decreased, and (32)P-CP-PLLA particle produced a reduction in maximum or mean SUV of VX2 tumor (pCP-PLLA particle localized on the injecting sites. This novel brachytherapy device efficiently suppressed the growth of the VX2 tumors implanted in the rabbit. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 简谐运动膜分离的理论研究%Theoretical Study on Dynamic Filtration with the Membrane in Simple Harmonic Motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周先桃; 陈文梅; 褚良银; 易美桂; 陈明惠

    2004-01-01

    A simple harmonic motion is proposed to make the membrane nove in a simple harmonic way so as to enhance the membrane filtration, and minimize the membrane fouling and concentration polarization. The velocity distribution and pressure distribution are deduced from the Navier-Stokes equation on the basis of a laminar flow when the membrane rotates at the speed of A sin(αt). And then the shear stress, shear force, moment of force on the membrane surface and power consumed by viscous force are calculated. The velocity distribution demonstrates that the phase of membrane velocity does not synchronize with that of shear stress. The simple harmonic motion can result in self-cleaning, optimize energy utilization, provide the velocity field with instability, and make the feed fluid fluctuation. It also results in higher shear stress on the membrane surface than the constant motion when they consume the same quantitative energy.

  18. Establishment of rabbit model with VX2 cell pyriformsinus grafting tumor%兔梨状隐窝VX2瘤模型的建立及解剖与影像学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩秀丽; 陈万军; 王兆鹏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish a rabbit model with pyriformsinus carcinoma (PSC) grown from grafted VX2 tumor cells to serve as an animal research tool system for experimental study of hypolaryngeal carcinoma. Methods Grafting tumor was prepared with VX2 tumour cells among New Zealand rabbits for several generations at first, and then, grafting tumor was taken made into a suspension with the tissue pieces at a size of 1 mm3 or so. (in the cell density about 1~2× 106/ml cells). After that, the tissue suspension was injected into pyriformsinus mucosa of 17 rabbits under direct laryngoscope to grow PSC. Following tumor suspension injected, all these rabbits were given CT scanning regularly to detect the growing status, and tumor tissues were collected to do histological assays to identify if the grafting tumor model of VX2 cells established successfully based on the analysis of tumor growing rate and their behaviour characteristics. Results Two to four weeks late following the tumor tissue suspension injected, Grafting tumors were successfully grown in piriform recess among 16 rabbits, as confirmed by CT images and histological evidences meaning that the model was prepared successfully. The growing rate of grafting tumor was 94.1% (16/17), while 90% of the animals with PSC died in 4 weeks following tumour cells grafting. Conclusions It is suggested that the preparing procedures for PSC model are practicable by using tissue suspension, made from the grafting tumors of VX2 cells prepared among Zealand rabbits at first, injecting into the mucosa of piriform recess of rabbits under direct laryngoscope. This kind of animal model can be utilized in the research field of hypolaryngeal carcinoma.%目的 建立兔梨状隐窝VX2移植瘤模型.方法 先以VX2细胞在新西兰大白兔制备移植瘤并传代,再将兔移植瘤制备组织悬液(组织块约1mm3大小,约含1~2×106/ml个细胞),直达喉镜下接种于17只兔梨状隐窝,然后行影像学观察及瘤

  19. Characteristics of liver on magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted imaging: Dynamic and image pathological investigation in rabbit liver VX-2 tumor model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Hong Yuan; En-Hua Xiao; Jian-Bin Liu; Zhong He; Ke Jin; Cong Ma; Jun Xiang; Jian-Hun Xiao; Wei-Jian Chen

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate dynamical and image pathological characteristics of the liver on magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the rabbit VX-2 tumor model.METHODS: Forty New Zealand rabbits were included in the study and VX-2 tumor piece was implanted intrahepatically. Fifteen animals received two intrahepatic implantations while 25 had one intrahepatical implantation. DWI, T1-and T2-weighted of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were carried out on the 7th and the 14th d after implantation and DWI was conducted, respectively on the 21th d. Ten VX-2 tumor samples were studied pathologically.RESULTS: The rate of lump detected by DWI, T1WI and T2WI was 78.7%,10.7% and 53.5% (χ2= 32.61, P<0.001) on the 7th d after implantation and 95.8%,54.3% and 82.9% (χ2= 21.50, P<0.001) on the 14th d. The signal of most VX-2 tumors on DWI was uniform and it was equal on the map of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). The signal of VX tumors did not decrease on the 7th d after implantation, most of them slowly growing during the week following implantation without significant cell dying within the tumor. VX-2 tumors grew increasingly within 14 d after implantation but the signal of most VX-2 tumors on DWI or on the map of ADC was uniform or uneven and ADC of VX tumors decreased obscurely or slightly because tumor necrosis was still not obvious. On the 21th d after implantation, the signal of most VX-2 tumors on DWI or on the map of ADC was uneven because tumor necrosis was evident and ADC of VX-2 tumor necrotic areas decreased. The areas of viable cells in VX-2 tumors manifested a high signal on DWI and a low signal on the map of ADC. The areas of dead cells or necrosis in VX-2 tumors manifested low signals on DWI and low, equal or high signals on the map of ADC but they manifested high signals on DWI and on the map of ADC at the same time when the areas of necrotic tumor became liquefied or cystic. The border of tumors on DWI appeared gradually distinct and

  20. MR DIFFUSION WEIGHTED IMAGING FOR EVALUATION OF RADIOTHERAPEUTIC EFFECTS ON RABBIT VX2 TUMOR MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo Li; Hua-dan Xue; Xin-hai Wang; Fei Sun; Bo Jiang; Dong Liu; Jing Lei; Zheng-yu Jin

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility of magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) for evaluation of radiotherapeutic effects on rabbit VX2 tumor model.Methods Sixteen New Zealand white rabbits received a subcutaneous implantation of VX2 tumor cdl suspension 0.5 mL (4× 107cells/mL) in their right thighs to set up tumor model. And 2 weeks later they were randomly divided into therapy group (Group T, n = 10) and control group (Group C, n = 6). Group T received radiotherapy at a single dose of 10 Gy. MR imaging (MRI) scan including short TI inversion recovery echo-planar imaging DWI, T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) and T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) sequences were performed 1 day prior to as well as 1 day, 2 days, 3 days and 7 days after radiotherapy. Group C received only MRI scan at the same time points without any treatment. MRI appearance on T2WI, T1WI, and DWI images was compared and tumor volume was calculated. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the tumor were evaluated in all cases. HE staining was used for pathological study.Results Necrosis (n = 8) and hemorrhage (n = 2) were seen gradually on T2WI and T1WI images of Group T after time point of day 2 after irradiation. In Group C, no obvious necrosis was found until day 7. There was no significant difference in tumor volume between the two groups before radiotherapy. After radiotherapy, tumors in Group T showed a gradual growth but not as obvious as Group C. There was a significant difference in tumor volume between the two groups from day 2 on (P < 0.05). ADC value changed dramatically right from the 1st day after radio-therapy in Group T [(0.99 ± 0.15) ×10-3 mm2/s for 1 day before radiotherapy, (1.23 ± 0.08) ×10-3 , (1.45 ± 0.07) ×10-3 , (1.63 ± 0.06) ×10-3 , and (2.02 ± 0.18) ×10-3 mm2/s for day 1, 2, 3, and 7]; and ADC value had no significant changes after radiotherapy in Group C except day 7 [(1.07 ± 0.08) ×10-3 mm2/s for 1 day before radiotherapy, (1.03 ± 0.04) ×10

  1. Arsenic trioxide treatment of rabbit liver VX-2 carcinoma via hepatic arterial cannulationinduced apoptosis and decreased levels of survivin in the tumor tissue

    OpenAIRE

    LI, HONG; Gong, Jian; Jiang, Xuyuan; Shao, Haibo

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate the role of tumor apoptosis-inhibitory protein survivin in arsenic trioxide-induced apoptosis in VX-2 carcinoma in the rabbit liver by means of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization. Methods Sixteen rabbits with 32 implanted hepatic VX-2 tumors were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group received 2 mg of arsenic trioxide and 1 mL of ultra-fluid lipiodol co-injected via hepatic arterial cannulation and the control group received o...

  2. Carbon dioxide reactivity of computed tomography functional parameters in rabbit VX2 soft tissue tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purdie, Thomas G [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Lee, Ting-Yim [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada)

    2003-04-07

    Tumour blood flow is one of the important factors limiting the efficacy of radiation therapy (hypoxic radioresistance), chemotherapy (drug delivery) and thermal therapy (heat dissipation) in treating cancer. The modification of tumour blood flow has been an area of intense investigation. In the current study, the arterial carbon dioxide tension (P{sub a}CO{sub 2}) was changed in order to investigate the tumour vascular response to carbon dioxide. Functional maps of blood flow, blood volume and mean transit time were generated at four P{sub a}CO{sub 2} levels in VX2 tumour in the rabbit thigh and normal soft tissue. The P{sub a}CO{sub 2} levels investigated were normocapnia (P{sub a}CO{sub 2} = 40.9 {+-} 1.2 mmHg), hypocapnia (27.2 {+-} 2.3 and 33.5 {+-} 2.3 mmHg) and hypercapnia (54.9 {+-} 4.4 mmHg). The carbon dioxide reactivity of the global tumour blood flow and mean transit time showed significant differences between normocapnia and the two levels of hypocapnia, but not between normocapnia and hypercapnia. The average fractional change of blood flow from normocapnia for the two levels of hypocapnia was -0.41 {+-} 0.06 and -0.29 {+-} 0.08, respectively (P < 0.05). In the case of mean transit time the fractional change was +0.39 {+-} 0.30 and +0.23 {+-} 0.24, respectively (P < 0.05). The fractional change of blood volume from normocapnia, however, was not significantly different at any capnic level, as was the case with respect to each of the functional parameters in normal tissue. The ability to reduce blood flow and increase mean transit time through hypocapnia has significant implications in thermal therapy, since heat dissipation is a major factor in limiting the effectiveness of treatment.

  3. Quantitative MRI assessment of VX2 tumour oxygenation changes in response to hyperoxia and hypercapnia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Jeff D; Cheng, Hai-Ling Margaret [Research Institute and Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto M5G 1X8 (Canada); Akens, Margarete K, E-mail: Hai-Ling.Cheng@sickkids.ca [Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Sunnybrook Health Science, Toronto M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2011-03-07

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) relaxation times provide indirect estimates of tissue O{sub 2} for monitoring tumour oxygenation. This study provides insight into mechanisms underlying longitudinal (R{sub 1} = 1/T{sub 1}) and transverse effective (R{sub 2}* = 1/T{sub 2}*) relaxation rate changes during inhalation of 100% O{sub 2} and 3%, 6% and 9% CO{sub 2} (balanced O{sub 2}) in a rabbit tumour model. Quantitative R{sub 1}, R{sub 2}*, and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging was performed in six rabbits 12-23 days following implantation of VX2 carcinoma cells in the quadricep muscle. Invasive measurements of tissue partial pressure of O{sub 2} (pO{sub 2}) and perfusion were also performed, which revealed elevated pO{sub 2} levels in all tumour regions for all hyperoxic gases compared to baseline (air) and reduced perfusion for carbogen. During 100% O{sub 2} breathing, an R{sub 1} increase and R{sub 2}* decrease consistent with elevated pO{sub 2} were observed within tumours. DCE-derived blood flow was weakly correlated with R{sub 1} changes from air to 100% O{sub 2}. Further addition of CO{sub 2} (carbogen) did not introduce considerable changes in MR relaxation rates, but a trend towards higher R{sub 1} relative to breathing 100% O{sub 2} was observed, while R{sub 2}* changes were inconsistent. This observation supports the predominance of dissolved O{sub 2} on R{sub 1} sensitivity and demonstrates the value of R{sub 1} over R{sub 2}* for tissue oxygenation measures.

  4. [Asynchronous wall motion in patients with ischemic heart disease assessed by higher-order harmonics of the Fourier series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, S; Tamaki, N; Mukai, T; Yonekura, Y; Torizuka, K; Suzuki, Y; Tamaki, S; Nohara, R; Kambara, H; Kawai, C

    1986-01-01

    To assess regional cardiac function in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD), multigated blood-pool studies using higher-order harmonics of the Fourier series were performed for 14 normal persons and 37 patients with IHD. IHD was further divided into IHD (I) (EF greater than or equal to 50%) and IHD (II) (EF less than 50%). A pixel-by-pixel volume curve was simulated using second order harmonics of the Fourier series to create functional images of the following parameters: time to endosystole (TES), peak ejection rate (PER), time to PER (TPE), peak filling rate (PFR), and time to PFR (TPF). TES (SD), TPE (SD), and TPF (SD) were calculated as the standard deviations of left ventricular (LV) histograms of each phase, representing indexes of asynchronous wall motion. An LV volume curve was simulated using third order harmonics to calculate PFR, PFR/PER, and TPF/TPE, representing indexes of diastolic function. TES (SD) was abnormal in 10 cases (50%), and TPE (SD) was abnormal in seven cases (35%) of IHD (II). On the contrary, TPF (SD) was abnormal in three cases (18%) of IHD (I) and 15 cases (75%) of IHD (II), indicating that diastolic asynchronous indexes are more sensitive than systolic asynchronous indexes in detecting IHD. IHD (I) and IHD (II) showed lower PFR (2.32 +/- 0.55, 1.64 +/- 0.46 EDV/sec) and lower PFR/PER (0.84 +/- 0.15, 0.68 +/- 0.26) than those in normals (3.25 +/- 0.98 EDV/sec, 0.99 +/- 0.19), respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. When Simple Harmonic Motion is not That Simple: Managing Epistemological Complexity by Using Computer-based Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnafes, Orit

    2010-12-01

    Many real-world phenomena, even "simple" physical phenomena such as natural harmonic motion, are complex in the sense that they require coordinating multiple subtle foci of attention to get the required information when experiencing them. Moreover, for students to develop sound understanding of a concept or a phenomenon, they need to learn to get the same type of information across different contexts and situations (diSessa and Sherin 1998; diSessa and Wagner 2005). Rather than simplifying complex situations, or creating a linear instructional sequence in which students move from one context to another, this paper demonstrates the use of computer-based representations to facilitate developing understanding of complex physical phenomena. The data is collected from 8 studies in which pairs of students are engaged in an exploratory activity, trying to understand the dynamic behavior of a simulation and, at the same time, to attribute meaning to it in terms of the physical phenomenon it represents. The analysis focuses on three episodes. The first two episodes demonstrate the epistemological complexity involved in attempting to make sense of natural harmonic oscillation. A third episode demonstrates the process by which students develop understanding in this complex perceptual and conceptual territory, through the mediation (Vygotsky 1978) of computer-based representations designed to facilitate understanding in this topic.

  6. Feedback control of temperature evolution in rabbit kidney in vivo using MRI guided focused ultrasound. Application to renal VX2 carcinoma ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delemazure, A. S.; Salomir, R.; Grenier, N.; Palussière, J.; Deminière, C.; Mougenot, C.; Moonen, C. W.

    2005-03-01

    A significant number of patients with small renal tumours may get benefit from in situ thermo-ablation techniques. Focused ultrasound is a non-invasive approach which offers excellent flexibility. On the other hand, real time MR thermometry is a valuable tool for monitoring and controlling therapy. In this study, coupling of focused ultrasound with PRF-based, respiratory-gated MR thermometry was used to provide temperature feedback control for local hyperthermia in the rabbit kidney. Two heating protocols were initially used in healthy kidneys (medulla and cortex): 1. fixed focal point heating; 2. spiral trajectories of the focal point. Further, five VX2 renal carcinomas were treated with multiple focal point heating in each tumour. Post-treatment MRI follow up and post mortem histology were performed. The shape and size of the lesions (MRI, histology) were compared to the calculated thermal dose map. The standard deviation of the MR thermometry ranged from 0.5°C to 1°C. The temperature controller matched the objective curve with approximately 1°C precision (fixed focal point mode). Several technical and physiological difficulties for spiral heating could not be overcome with the available setup. Thermal ablation with temperature feedback control in healthy and tumour bearing kidney was demonstrated to be feasible and effective, despite specific challenges (deep seated organ, respiratory motion, high blood perfusion).

  7. State operator, constants of the motion, and Wigner functions: The two-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jens Peder; Schleich, W. P.

    2009-01-01

    For a closed quantum system the state operator must be a function of the Hamiltonian. When the state is degenerate, additional constants of the motion enter the play. But although it is the Weyl transform of the state operator, the Wigner function is not necessarily a function of the Weyl...

  8. An Approach to Automatic Motion Synthesis Harmonized with Music for Multiple Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Nakatani, Mie; Nishida, Shogo

    This paper proposed a research approach to automatic choreography synthesis based on SMF(Standard Midi File) for multiple animated figures. Based on the K.Hevner’s theory, 8 types of emotion in each beat can be extracted from music structure elements, such as tempo, key, rythm, melody, harmony, pitch, which can be computed from SMF. The time of one beat is limited to transmit the emotion to human. By the analysis of emotion, a music can be integrated to several time intervals, every which includes several continuous beats. The top value of synthetic emotion vector represents the emotion type of the interval. Based on the experiment result of C.Matsumoto, 14 motion factors can be mapped from the emotion of interval. According to the 14 motion factors, the macro-motions at the terminals of every interval, and the micromotions between every interval can be generated by mapping rules. We made a prototype system and did a subjective evaluation experiment. The result is fairly good at the congruity between generated motions and given emotion music. A successful research to solve these issues should lead to aid the designation of 3DCG animation.

  9. Simulation study of amplitude-modulated (AM) harmonic motion imaging (HMI) for stiffness contrast quantification with experimental validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleke, Caroline; Luo, Jianwen; Gamarnik, Viktor; Lu, Xin L; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study is to show that Harmonic Motion Imaging (HMI) can be used as a reliable tumor-mapping technique based on the tumor's distinct stiffness at the early onset of disease. HMI is a radiation-force-based imaging method that generates a localized vibration deep inside the tissue to estimate the relative tissue stiffness based on the resulting displacement amplitude. In this paper, a finite-element model (FEM) study is presented, followed by an experimental validation in tissue-mimicking polyacrylamide gels and excised human breast tumors ex vivo. This study compares the resulting tissue motion in simulations and experiments at four different gel stiffnesses and three distinct spherical inclusion diameters. The elastic moduli of the gels were separately measured using mechanical testing. Identical transducer parameters were used in both the FEM and experimental studies, i.e., a 4.5-MHz single-element focused ultrasound (FUS) and a 7.5-MHz diagnostic (pulse-echo) transducer. In the simulation, an acoustic pressure field was used as the input stimulus to generate a localized vibration inside the target. Radiofrequency (rf) signals were then simulated using a 2D convolution model. A one-dimensional cross-correlation technique was performed on the simulated and experimental rf signals to estimate the axial displacement resulting from the harmonic radiation force. In order to measure the reliability of the displacement profiles in estimating the tissue stiffness distribution, the contrast-transfer efficiency (CTE) was calculated. For tumor mapping ex vivo, a harmonic radiation force was applied using a 2D raster-scan technique. The 2D HMI images of the breast tumor ex vivo could detect a malignant tumor (20 x 10 mm2) surrounded by glandular and fat tissues. The FEM and experimental results from both gels and breast tumors ex vivo demonstrated that HMI was capable of detecting and mapping the tumor or stiff inclusion with various diameters or

  10. Tumor hepático experimental (VX-2 em coelho: implantação do modelo no Brasil Experimental liver tumor (VX-2 in rabbits: implantation of the model in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Saad Hossne

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos para a investigação de novas modalidades terapêuticas em biologia tumoral, deveriam passar por estudos experimentais prévios. Neste sentido dispõem-se hoje de uma grande variedade de modelos tumorais experimentais; em determinadas investigações faz-se necessária a adequação do modelo tumoral às necessidades biológicas, patológicas e experimentais dos estudos. Desta forma, em nosso serviço, buscávamos um modelo tumoral hepático para estudos experimentais que se adequasse às seguintes características: fácil manipulação, crescimento controlável, evolução e agressividade semelhantes aos seres humanos. Os dados da literatura nos levaram a busca do tumor hepático VX-2, em coelhos. Neste artigo discutimos as vantagens da utilização deste modelo experimental e a sua introdução em nosso país.Studies for investigation of new therapeutic modalities in tumoral biology should be based on previous experimental studies. Then, there are a great variety of tumoral experimental models today. Some investigations have been done necessary an adaptation of the tumoral model to the needing of the studies biological and pathological. So, in our laboratory, we looked for a tumoral hepatic model for experimental studies with the following characteristics: easy manipulation, control of growing, evolution and aggressiveness like to humans. Data of the literature took us the search of the hepatic tumor VX-2, in rabbits. In this article we discussed the advantages of use this experimental model and its introduction in our country. Experimental hepatic tumor (VX-2 in rabbit. Implantation of the model in Brazil.

  11. Irinotecan Loaded in Eluting Beads: Preclinical Assessment in a Rabbit VX2 Liver Tumor Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Pramod P.; Pascale, Florentina [Institute Gustave Roussy, Department of Interventional Radiology (France); Seck, Atman [Institute Gustave Roussy, UPRES EA 3535, Pharmacologie et Nouveaux Traitements du Cancer (France); Auperin, Anne [Institute Gustave Roussy, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology (France); Drouard-Troalen, Laurence [Institute Gustave Roussy, Department of Biology and Pathology (France); Deschamps, Frederic; Teriitheau, Christophe [Institute Gustave Roussy, Department of Interventional Radiology (France); Paci, Angelo [Institute Gustave Roussy, UPRES EA 3535, Pharmacologie et Nouveaux Traitements du Cancer (France); Denys, Alban; Bize, Pierre [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Department of Interventional Radiology (Switzerland); Baere, Thierry de, E-mail: debaere@igr.fr [Institute Gustave Roussy, Department of Interventional Radiology (France)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to study the pharmacokinetics of irinotecan injected intravenously, intra-arterially, or loaded onto a delivery platform. Material and Methods: Fifty-four New Zealand White rabbits with VX2 liver tumor, divided in 3 groups of 17 rabbits, each received irinotecan either by intravenous (IV) route, intra-arterial hepatic (IA) route, or loaded on drug-eluting beads (DEBIRI). Animals were killed at 1, 6, and 24 h. Irinotecan and SN-38 concentrations were measured at different time points in serum, tumor, and normal liver.ResultsTwelve milligrams of irinotecan were injected IV and IA, whereas 6-16.5 mg were injected loaded onto DEBIRI. Normalized serum irinotecan reached a peak of 333 ng/ml (range 198.8-502.5) for IV, 327.1 ng/ml (range 277.1-495.6) for IA, and 189.7 ng/ml (range 111.1-261.9) for DEBIRI (P < 0.001) delivery. The area-under-the-curve value from 10 to 60 min of serum irinotecan concentration was significantly lower for DEBIRI (P = 0.0009). Tumor irinotecan levels for IV, IA, and DEBIRI (in ng/200 mg of tissue followed by ranges in parentheses) were, respectively, 23.6 (0.3-24.9), 36.5 (7.7-1914.1), and 20.2 (2.9-319) at 1 h; 4.2 (1-27.9), 99.3 (46.6-159.5), and 42.1 (11.3-189) at 6 h; and 2.7 (2.5-6.9), 18.3 (1.5-369.1), and 174.4 (3.4-5147.3) at 24 h (P = 0.02). At 24 h, tumor necrosis was 25% (10-30), 60% (40-91.25), and 95% (76.25-95) for IV, IA, and DEBIRI, respectively (P = 0.03). Conclusion: Compared with IV or IA, DEBIRI induces lower early serum levels of irinotecan, a high and prolonged intratumoral level of irinotecan, and a greater rate of tumor necrosis at 24 h. Further evaluation of the clinical benefit of DEBIRI is warranted.

  12. Sampled-data-based consensus and containment control of multiple harmonic oscillators: A motion-planning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongfang; Zhao, Yu; Chen, Guanrong

    2016-11-01

    This paper studies the distributed consensus and containment problems for a group of harmonic oscillators with a directed communication topology. First, for consensus without a leader, a class of distributed consensus protocols is designed by using motion planning and Pontryagin's principle. The proposed protocol only requires relative information measurements at the sampling instants, without requiring information exchange over the sampled interval. By using stability theory and the properties of stochastic matrices, it is proved that the distributed consensus problem can be solved in the motion planning framework. Second, for the case with multiple leaders, a class of distributed containment protocols is developed for followers such that their positions and velocities can ultimately converge to the convex hull formed by those of the leaders. Compared with the existing consensus algorithms, a remarkable advantage of the proposed sampled-data-based protocols is that the sampling periods, communication topologies and control gains are all decoupled and can be separately designed, which relaxes many restrictions in controllers design. Finally, some numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the analytical results.

  13. Sphere-forming-like cells (squamospheres) with cancer stem-like cell traits from VX2 rabbit buccal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuk-Kwan; Huang, Anderson Hsien-Cheng; Lin, Li-Min

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that spheroid type cells grown under suspension culture conditions have cancer stem cell (CSC) traits in a number of cancers, but this phenomenon has not yet been reported in the VX2 rabbit oral cancer model. Hence, this study aimed to study the spheroid cells from VX2 rabbit buccal squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and assess their CSC characteristics. Five adult male New Zealand white outbred rabbits were used to generate VX2 rabbit buccal SCC. Sphere-forming cell culture was performed for the VX2 rabbit buccal SCC specimens. The self-renewal capability; cluster of designation (CD) 44, CD133, acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (Bmi-1), Nestin, octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4) and reduced expression protein-1 (Rex-1) expression with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); chemoresistance to cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil; and in vivo tumorigenicity of spheroid cell transplantation in nude mice were evaluated to determine the CSC characteristics of the resulting spheroid cells. We successfully obtained spheroid cells from the VX2 rabbit OSCC tissues. The spheroid cells exhibited CSC traits, including the expression of CSC and stem cell markers (CD44, Bmi-1, Nestin, Oct4 and Rex-1), capacity to generate new spheroid colonies within 1 week of reseeding from single-dissociated spheroid cells, chemoresistance capacity and generation of tumour xenografts (with histological features resembling those of the original VX2 rabbit buccal SCC) from the transplantation of 10(3) undifferentiated spheroid cells into nude mice. In summary, we demonstrated that spheroid cells with CSC cell traits can be derived from VX2 rabbit buccal SCCs, indicating that this animal cancer model is applicable for studying CSCs in human oral cancers.

  14. Sphere-forming-like cells (squamospheres) with cancer stem-like cell traits from VX2 rabbit buccal squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuk-Kwan Chen; Anderson Hsien-Cheng Huang; Li-Min Lin

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that spheroid type cells grown under suspension culture conditions have cancer stem cell (CSC) traits in a number of cancers, but this phenomenon has not yet been reported in the VX2 rabbit oral cancer model. Hence, this study aimed to study the spheroid cells from VX2 rabbit buccal squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and assess their CSC characteristics. Five adult male New Zealand white outbred rabbits were used to generate VX2 rabbit buccal SCC. Sphere-forming cell culture was performed for the VX2 rabbit buccal SCC specimens. The self-renewal capability;cluster of designation (CD) 44, CD133, acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (Bmi-1), Nestin, octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4) and reduced expression protein-1 (Rex-1) expression with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR);chemoresistance to cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil;and in vivo tumorigenicity of spheroid cell transplantation in nude mice were evaluated to determine the CSC characteristics of the resulting spheroid cells. We successfully obtained spheroid cells from the VX2 rabbit OSCC tissues. The spheroid cells exhibited CSC traits, including the expression of CSC and stem cell markers (CD44, Bmi-1, Nestin, Oct4 and Rex-1), capacity to generate new spheroid colonies within 1 week of reseeding from single-dissociated spheroid cells, chemoresistance capacity and generation of tumour xenografts (with histological features resembling those of the original VX2 rabbit buccal SCC) from the transplantation of 103 undifferentiated spheroid cells into nude mice. In summary, we demonstrated that spheroid cells with CSC cell traits can be derived from VX2 rabbit buccal SCCs, indicating that this animal cancer model is applicable for studying CSCs in human oral cancers.

  15. Quantitative dual energy CT measurements in rabbit VX2 liver tumors: Comparison to perfusion CT measurements and histopathological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Long Jiang, E-mail: kevinzhanglongjiang@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, 305 Zhongshan East Road, Xuanwu District, Nangjing, Jiangsu Province 210002 (China); Wu, Shengyong, E-mail: cjr.wushengyong@vip.163.com [Institute of Tianjin Medical Imaging, Tianjin 300192 (China); Wang, Mei, E-mail: 281406196@qq.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, 305 Zhongshan East Road, Xuanwu District, Nangjing, Jiangsu Province 210002 (China); Lu, Li, E-mail: xuzhoululi@163.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, 305 Zhongshan East Road, Xuanwu District, Nangjing, Jiangsu Province 210002 (China); Chen, Bo, E-mail: chenbo1985@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, 305 Zhongshan East Road, Xuanwu District, Nangjing, Jiangsu Province 210002 (China); Jin, Lixin, E-mail: lixin.jin@siemens.com [Siemens Healthcare, MR Collaboration NE Asia, Shanghai (China); Wang, Jiandong, E-mail: jdwang1216@163.com [Department of Pathology, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, 305 Zhongshan East Road, Xuanwu District, Nangjing, Jiangsu Province 200012 (China); Larson, Andrew C., E-mail: a-larson@northwestern.edu [Department of Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Lu, Guang Ming, E-mail: cjr.luguangming@vip.163.com [Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Clinical School of Medical College, Nanjing University, 305 Zhongshan East Road, Xuanwu District, Nangjing, Jiangsu Province 210002 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between quantitative dual energy CT and perfusion CT measurements in rabbit VX2 liver tumors. Materials and methods: This study was approved by the institutional animal care and use committee at our institution. Nine rabbits with VX2 liver tumors underwent contrast-enhanced dual energy CT and perfusion CT. CT attenuation for the tumors and normal liver parenchyma and tumor-to-liver ratio were obtained at the 140 kVp, 80 kVp, average weighted images and dual energy CT iodine maps. Quantitative parameters for the viable tumor and adjacent liver were measured with perfusion CT. The correlation between the enhancement values of the tumor in iodine maps and perfusion CT parameters of each tumor was analyzed. Radiation dose from dual energy CT and perfusion CT was measured. Results: Enhancement values for the tumor were higher than that for normal liver parenchyma at the hepatic arterial phase (P < 0.05). The highest tumor-to-liver ratio was obtained in hepatic arterial phase iodine map. Hepatic blood flow of the tumor was higher than that for adjacent liver (P < 0.05). Enhancement values of hepatic tumors in the iodine maps positively correlated with permeability of capillary vessel surface (r = 0.913, P < 0.001), hepatic blood flow (r = 0.512, P = 0.010), and hepatic blood volume (r = 0.464, P = 0.022) at the hepatic arterial phases. The effective radiation dose from perfusion CT was higher than that from DECT (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The enhancement values for viable tumor tissues measured in iodine maps were well correlated to perfusion CT measurements in rabbit VX2 liver tumors. Compared with perfusion CT, dual energy CT of the liver required a lower radiation dose.

  16. Harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU): a fully integrated technique for sonication and monitoring of thermal ablation in tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleke, C; Konofagou, E E

    2008-03-21

    FUS (focused ultrasound), or HIFU (high-intensity-focused ultrasound) therapy, a minimally or non-invasive procedure that uses ultrasound to generate thermal necrosis, has been proven successful in several clinical applications. This paper discusses a method for monitoring thermal treatment at different sonication durations (10 s, 20 s and 30 s) using the amplitude-modulated (AM) harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU) technique in bovine liver samples in vitro. The feasibility of HMI for characterizing mechanical tissue properties has previously been demonstrated. Here, a confocal transducer, combining a 4.68 MHz therapy (FUS) and a 7.5 MHz diagnostic (pulse-echo) transducer, was used. The therapy transducer was driven by a low-frequency AM continuous signal at 25 Hz, producing a stable harmonic radiation force oscillating at the modulation frequency. A pulser/receiver was used to drive the pulse-echo transducer at a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 5.4 kHz. Radio-frequency (RF) signals were acquired using a standard pulse-echo technique. The temperature near the ablation region was simultaneously monitored. Both RF signals and temperature measurements were obtained before, during and after sonication. The resulting axial tissue displacement was estimated using one-dimensional cross correlation. When temperature at the focal zone was above 48 degrees C during heating, the coagulation necrosis occurred and tissue damage was irreversible. The HMI displacement profiles in relation to the temperature and sonication durations were analyzed. At the beginning of heating, the temperature at the focus increased sharply, while the tissue stiffness decreased resulting in higher HMI displacements. This was confirmed by an increase of 0.8 microm degrees C(-1)(r=0.93, ptissue became irreversibly stiffer, followed by an associated decrease in the HMI displacement (-0.79 microm degrees C(-1), r=-0.92, ptissues during FUS, HIFU or other thermal therapies.

  17. Vx2肝癌改良模型的建立及其DSA影像分析%Vx2 carcinoma model and its DSA imagining features in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹玮; 王执民; 张洪新; 王义清; 郭卫平; 李文献; 倪代会; 梁志会; 齐连君

    2001-01-01

    AIM To establish suitable metastatic rabbit Vx2 liver tumor model for experimental study, probe into different tumor transplanted methods and analyze the DSA (digital substract angiography) imagining features of the liver tumor. METHODS 60 male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into 3 groups at random, 20 in each group. 5×107 Vx2 carcinoma cells were injected via hepatic artery, pecutaneous into liver by syringe needle in the different 2 groups (control groups); the 3rd group (retrofit group) were transplanted tumor tissue mass (about 106~108 carcinoma cells) into liver. Then we observed: ①the success rate of implanting tumor; ②the volume change of tumor by ultrasonograpy (the growth rate of tumor was calculated); ③the biological features of tumor (histopathology and electronic microscope photographs); ④the DSA imagining features of tumor. RESULTS The success rates of transplanting tumor of 3 groups were 7/20, 10/20, 19/20; the retrofit group was the highest of 3 groups (P<0.05). The tumor grew as exponential curve. Histopathology and electronic microscope photographs indicated that tumor grew in the liver tissue and infiltrated into the normal liver tissue, and that it had the similar biological features of squamous cell carcinoma transplanted in other sites of rabbits. The DSA imagining of tumor indicated that the carcinoma had liberal blood vessels. CONCLUSION A retrofit metastatic rabbit Vx2 liver carcinoma model has successfully been set up, The success rate of the method by which tumor tissue mass transplanted is obviously higher than the other two methods. This makes it possible to gain a reliable mature large tumor animal model for study.%目的 建立可供实验研究的稳定的兔Vx2移植性肝癌模型,探讨不同植瘤方式的成功率,并分析该肿瘤的DSA影像特征. 方法 新西兰白兔60只,随机分3组,每组20只. 将Vx2瘤细胞(5×107个)经肝动脉或经肝包膜分别接种于2组兔的肝

  18. [Effect of lipiodol emulsion and local hyperthermia on hepatic tissue blood flow in rabbits with VX-2 liver tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, K; Tada, I; Okada, K; Kim, Y I; Kobayashi, M

    1988-08-01

    The effect of intra-arterial infusion of lipiodol-emulsion and local hyperthermia on tissue blood flow was examined in experimental hepatic tumor and normal liver of rabbits. VX-2 tumor was implanted in liver of rabbit. The tissue blood flow was estimated by hydrogen gas clearance method when the tumor grew to about 2 cm. Tissue blood flow in tumor (64.5 ml/min/100 g) was significantly less than in normal liver (90.8 ml/min/100 g) (p less than 0.005). The intra-arterial infusion of lipiodol-emulsion did not alter the flow in either tissue. However, the addition of hyperthermia induced a substantial rise of tissue blood flow in normal liver (35% increase, from 93.8 to 127 ml/min/100 g) when compared with in VX-2 tumor (8.9% increase, from 65.1 to 71.8 ml/min/100 g). These were accompanied by a selective heating of liver tumor; the tumor temperature rose to 43 degrees C, although that of normal liver remained at 38 degrees C. Our results suggested that a specific temperature rise of liver tumor after infusion of lipiodol-emulsion and local heating might be related to a different response of microcirculation in tumor and normal liver to the hyperthermia.

  19. Ultrasonograpy of VX-2 Liver Tumor in Rabbit Treated by High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Combined with Microbubble Contrast Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaojuan, Ji; Jinqing, Li; Zhibiao, Wang; Jianzhong, Zou; Wenzhi, Chen; Jin, Bai

    2007-05-01

    Objective: To assess the value of sonographic appearance and to investigate the sonographic character of VX-2 liver tumor in rabbit treated by high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) combined with microbubble contrast agent. Methods: Forty-five rabbits bearing VX-2 tumors were randomly averagely assigned into three groups. In group A irradiation was sustained until the target region became hyperechoic. In group B therapy was stopped as soon as hyperecho occurred, and in group C irradiation time was prolonged to ensure the occurrence of coagulation necrosis. Results: Exposure duration for tumors treated purely with HIFU was the longest, whilst the use of microbubble contrast agent combined with HIFU shortened the exposure duration significantly. The gross examination and ultrasonogram coagulation necrosis area measurements correlated strongly (r=0.986,P<0.05) in the microbubble-enhanced HIFU group. Conclusion: It was feasible to enhance HIFU therapy with microbubble contrast agent. The characteristic change in the ultrasound images made it possible to assess the enhanced HIFU therapeutic efficacy in order to adjust the treatment program.

  20. TU-EF-210-03: Real-Time Ablation Monitoring and Lesion Quantification Using Harmonic Motion Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konofagou, E. [Columbia University (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The use of therapeutic ultrasound to provide targeted therapy is an active research area that has a broad application scope. The invited talks in this session will address currently implemented strategies and protocols for both hyperthermia and ablation applications using therapeutic ultrasound. The role of both ultrasound and MRI in the monitoring and assessment of these therapies will be explored in both pre-clinical and clinical applications. Katherine Ferrara: High Intensity Focused Ultrasound, Drug Delivery, and Immunotherapy Rajiv Chopra: Translating Localized Doxorubicin Delivery to Pediatric Oncology using MRI-guided HIFU Elisa Konofagou: Real-time Ablation Monitoring and Lesion Quantification using Harmonic Motion Imaging Keyvan Farahani: AAPM Task Groups in Interventional Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy Learning Objectives: Understand the role of ultrasound in localized drug delivery and the effects of immunotherapy when used in conjunction with ultrasound therapy. Understand potential targeted drug delivery clinical applications including pediatric oncology. Understand the technical requirements for performing targeted drug delivery. Understand how radiation-force approaches can be used to both monitor and assess high intensity focused ultrasound ablation therapy. Understand the role of AAPM task groups in ultrasound imaging and therapies. Chopra: Funding from Cancer Prevention and Research Initiative of Texas (CPRIT), Award R1308 Evelyn and M.R. Hudson Foundation; Research Support from Research Contract with Philips Healthcare; COI are Co-founder of FUS Instruments Inc Ferrara: Supported by NIH, UCDavis and California (CIRM and BHCE) Farahani: In-kind research support from Philips Healthcare.

  1. Non-contact, ultrasound-based indentation method for measuring elastic properties of biological tissues using harmonic motion imaging (HMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vappou, Jonathan; Hou, Gary Y; Marquet, Fabrice; Shahmirzadi, Danial; Grondin, Julien; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2015-04-07

    Noninvasive measurement of mechanical properties of biological tissues in vivo could play a significant role in improving the current understanding of tissue biomechanics. In this study, we propose a method for measuring elastic properties non-invasively by using internal indentation as generated by harmonic motion imaging (HMI). In HMI, an oscillating acoustic radiation force is produced by a focused ultrasound transducer at the focal region, and the resulting displacements are estimated by tracking radiofrequency signals acquired by an imaging transducer. In this study, the focal spot region was modeled as a rigid cylindrical piston that exerts an oscillatory, uniform internal force to the underlying tissue. The HMI elastic modulus EHMI was defined as the ratio of the applied force to the axial strain measured by 1D ultrasound imaging. The accuracy and the precision of the EHMI estimate were assessed both numerically and experimentally in polyacrylamide tissue-mimicking phantoms. Initial feasibility of this method in soft tissues was also shown in canine liver specimens in vitro. Very good correlation and agreement was found between the measured Young's modulus and the HMI modulus in the numerical study (r(2) > 0.99, relative error tissues at a submillimeter scale using an internal indentation-like approach. Ongoing studies include in vitro experiments in a larger number of samples and feasibility testing in in vivo models as well as pathological human specimens.

  2. High-intensity focused ultrasound monitoring using harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU) under boiling or slow denaturation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Gary Y; Marquet, Fabrice; Wang, Shutao; Apostolakis, Iason-Zacharias; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2015-07-01

    Harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU) is a recently developed high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment monitoring method that utilizes an amplitude-modulated therapeutic ultrasound beam to induce an oscillatory radiation force at the HIFU focus and estimates the focal tissue displacement to monitor the HIFU thermal treatment. In this study, the performance of HMIFU under acoustic, thermal, and mechanical effects was investigated. The performance of HMIFU was assessed in ex vivo canine liver specimens (n = 13) under slow denaturation or boiling regimes. A passive cavitation detector (PCD) was used to assess the acoustic cavitation activity, and a bare-wire thermocouple was used to monitor the focal temperature change. During lesioning with slow denaturation, high quality displacements (correlation coefficient above 0.97) were observed under minimum cavitation noise, indicating the tissue initial-softening-then- stiffening property change. During HIFU with boiling, HMIFU monitored a consistent change in lesion-to-background displacement contrast (0.46 ± 0.37) despite the presence of strong cavitation noise due to boiling during lesion formation. Therefore, HMIFU effectively monitored softening-then-stiffening during lesioning under slow denaturation, and detected lesioning under boiling with a distinct change in displacement contrast under boiling in the presence of cavitation. In conclusion, HMIFU was shown under both boiling and slow denaturation regimes to be effective in HIFU monitoring and lesioning identification without being significantly affected by cavitation noise.

  3. High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Monitoring using Harmonic Motion Imaging for Focused Ultrasound (HMIFU) under boiling or slow denaturation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Gary Y.; Marquet, Fabrice; Wang, Shutao; Apostolakis, Iason-Zacharias; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2015-01-01

    Harmonic Motion Imaging for Focused Ultrasound (HMIFU) is a recently developed High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) treatment monitoring method that utilizes an amplitude-modulated therapeutic ultrasound beam to induce an oscillatory radiation force at the HIFU focus and estimates the focal tissue displacement to monitor the HIFU thermal treatment. In this study, the performance of HMIFU under acoustic, thermal and mechanical effects were investigated. The performance of HMIFU was assessed in ex vivo canine liver specimens (n=13) under slow denaturation or boiling regimes. Passive Cavitation Detector (PCD) was used to assess the acoustic cavitation activity while a bare-wire thermocouple was used to monitor the focal temperature change. During lesioning with slow denaturation, high quality displacements (correlation coefficient above 0.97) were observed under minimum cavitation noise, indicating tissue the initial-softening-then-stiffening property change. During HIFU with boiling, HMIFU monitored a consistent change in lesion-to-background displacement contrast (0.46±0.37) despite the presence of strong cavitation noise due to boiling during lesion formation. Therefore, HMIFU effectively monitored softening-then-stiffening during lesioning under slow denaturation, and detected lesioning under boiling with a distinct change in displacement contrast under boiling in the presence of cavitation. In conclusion, HMIFU was shown effective in HIFU monitoring and lesioning identification without being significantly affected by cavitation noise. PMID:26168177

  4. Percutaneous radiofrequency thermal ablation of lung VX2 tumors in a rabbit model: evaluation with helical CT findings for the complete and partal ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Gong Yong; Han, Young Min; Lim, Yeong Su; Jang, Kyu Yun; Lee, Sang Yong; Chung, Gyung Ho [School of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-05-01

    To evaluate the radiologic findings for complete and partial ablation after percutaneous CT-guided transthoracic radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of lung VX2 tumor implanted in rabbits. Thirteen rabbits with successfully implanted lung VX2 were used. Three rabbits as controls did not receive RFA while the other ten rabbits underwent RFA; 5 complete and 5 partial. RFA was performed using an internally cooled, 17-gauge electrode (Radionics, Burlington, MA) with a 1-cm active tip under CT guidance. Postprocedural CT was performed within 3 days, and we analyzed the ablated size, enhancement pattern, shape, margin, and complications of the complete and partial ablation groups. Rabbits were sacrificed after postprocedural CT with an overdose of ketamine, and pathologic findings of the ablated groups were compared with those of the control group. The size of the ablated lesions and the enhancement pattern differed between the completely and partially ablated groups on chest CT. The size of the ablated lesions was increased by 47.1% in the completely ablated group and by 2.1% in the partially ablated group. In the completely ablated group, VX2 tumor showed absolutely no enhancement, whereas only ablated pulmonary parenchyma outside VX2 showed mild enhancement on enhanced CT. In the partial ablated group, a part of VX2 became strongly enhanced on enhanced CT. On microscopic examination, the completely ablated group demonstrated that a viable tumor cell was not visible. In the partially ablated group, however, a viable tumor cell within the surrounding fibrous capsule on the peripheral area of the VX2 was observed. The important CT findings for evaluation of complete and partial RFA are the ablated size and enhancement pattern of the ablated lesion.

  5. Evaluation of multi-slice spiral CT perfusion on blood supply of rabbits model bearing VX2 hepatic carcinoma%多排螺旋CT灌注成像对兔VX2肝癌血供的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周悦; 高剑波; 杨学华; 张永高; 岳松伟; 曲艳红

    2011-01-01

    Aim:To assess the diagnostic value of Muhi-slice CT perfusion for blood supply evaluation of the rabbits VX2 hepatic tumors. Methods: VX2 hepatic carcinoma mass were implanted into the left lobe of liver of 30 rabbits via laparotomic route. Multi-slice CT enhancement and perfusion were performed in these rabbits at twenty-one day after implantation. The CT imaging features of the tumors were observed and the perfusion parameters were measured in the rim of the tumor, non-tumorous regions nearby the tumor and the normal liver tissues. Results: Twenty-five (83%) rabbits were sucessfully implanted with the tumor. The tumors which has smooth border were demostrated itself as the round-shaped tumors with hypodensity on plain CT scan,significantly tinge-enhancement on arterial phase, relatively hypodensity on portal phase and no enhanced in the zone of necrosis. Blood flow, blood volume, permeability surface, hepatic arterial fraction, hepatic arterial perfusion increased and mean transit time decreased in the rim of the tumor compared with those of the non-normorous regions nearby the tumor and the normal liver ( P < 0.05). Conclusion: Multi-slice CT perfusion could evaluate the blood supply station of hepatic tumors in vivo by perfusion parameters.%目的:探讨多排螺旋CT灌注成像对兔VX2肝癌血供的评价价值.方法:采用开腹瘤组织块直接包埋法将VX2肝癌移植瘤植入30只新西兰大白兔肝左叶,并于种植后第21天行多排螺旋CT增强及灌注扫描,观察其CT征象,并对比肿瘤边缘区、瘤旁肝组织以及对照肝组织的CT灌注参数(血流量、血容量、平均通过时间、表面通透性、肝动脉分数以及肝动脉灌注量).结果:25只(83%)大白兔种植成功.CT平扫肿瘤为类圆形低密度灶;增强动脉期病灶表现为边缘环状强化;门脉期呈相对低密度,中心见低密度坏死区,与周围组织界限较清.CT灌注成像结果:肿瘤边缘区、瘤旁肝组织及对照肝

  6. Mathematical Development and Computational Analysis of Harmonic Phase-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (HARP-MRI) Based on Bloch Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Diffusion Model for Myocardial Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Michael O; Jayeoba, Babatunde; Awojoyogbe, Bamidele O; Uno, Uno E; Awe, Oluseyi E

    2017-09-13

    Harmonic Phase-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (HARP-MRI) is a tagged image analysis method that can measure myocardial motion and strain in near real-time and is considered a potential candidate to make magnetic resonance tagging clinically viable. However, analytical expressions of radially tagged transverse magnetization in polar coordinates (which is required to appropriately describe the shape of the heart) have not been explored because the physics required to directly connect myocardial deformation of tagged Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) transverse magnetization in polar geometry and the appropriate harmonic phase parameters are not yet available. The analytical solution of Bloch NMR diffusion equation in spherical geometry with appropriate spherical wave tagging function is important for proper analysis and monitoring of heart systolic and diastolic deformation with relevant boundary conditions. In this study, we applied Harmonic Phase MRI method to compute the difference between tagged and untagged NMR transverse magnetization based on the Bloch NMR diffusion equation and obtained radial wave tagging function for analysis of myocardial motion. The analytical solution of the Bloch NMR equations and the computational simulation of myocardial motion as developed in this study are intended to significantly improve healthcare for accurate diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of cardiovascular related deceases at the lowest cost because MRI scan is still one of the most expensive anywhere. The analysis is fundamental and significant because all Magnetic Resonance Imaging techniques are based on the Bloch NMR flow equations.

  7. Radiofrequency ablation of liver VX2 tumor: experimental results with MR diffusion-weighted imaging at 3.0T.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubao Liu

    Full Text Available To evaluate the value of DWI in detecting the lesions of pre- and post-radiofrequency ablation (RFA of the rabbit liver VX2 tumors.Twenty-two New Zealand White rabbits were tested. The protocol was approved by the Committee on the Ethics of Animal Experiments. Twenty separate tumor fragments were implanted into the livers of 20 rabbits, the liver was exposed by performing midline laparotomy. 3.0T MR DWI (b = 0, 200, 400, 600, 800,1000 s/mm2 were performed 14-21 days after tumor implantation (mean, 17 days in the 18 tumor-bearing animals. Then RFA was performed in the 18 tumor-bearing animals and in the two healthy animals. 3.0T MR DWI was performed 7-10 days after RFA (mean, 8 days. Pathology exam was performed immediately after the completion of post- RFA MR imaging. Analyzing the features of MRI and ADC values in the pre- and post- RFA lesions of the VX2 tumors, and histopathologic results were compared with imaging findings.The difference of ADC value between viable tumor and normal liver parenchyma was significant (P<.001. After RFA, when b = 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 s/mm2, the differences of ADC values of viable tumor, granulation tissue, necrosis, normal liver parenchyma were significant (P<.001. At the time the animals were sacrificed after RFA and MR imaging, histopathologic results of local viable tumors were found in 9 (50% of the 18 treated tumors. Macroscopic viable tumors were found at the RFA sites in 3 (17%, all 3 macroscopic viable tumors were visualized at the periphery of the RFA areas.3.0T MR DWI can be used to follow up the progress of the RFA lesion, it is useful in detecting different tissues after RFA, and it is valuable in the further clinical research.

  8. Newtype single-layer magnetic semiconductor in transition-metal dichalcogenides VX2 (X = S, Se and Te)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuh, Huei-Ru; Chang, Ching-Ray; Wang, Yin-Kuo; Evans, Richard F. L.; Chantrell, Roy W.; Jeng, Horng-Tay

    2016-01-01

    We present a newtype 2-dimensional (2D) magnetic semiconductor based on transition-metal dichalcogenides VX2 (X = S, Se and Te) via first-principles calculations. The obtained indirect band gaps of monolayer VS2, VSe2, and VTe2 given from the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) are respectively 0.05, 0.22, and 0.20 eV, all with integer magnetic moments of 1.0 μB. The GGA plus on-site Coulomb interaction U (GGA + U) enhances the exchange splittings and raises the energy gap up to 0.38~0.65 eV. By adopting the GW approximation, we obtain converged G0W0 gaps of 1.3, 1.2, and 0.7 eV for VS2, VSe2, and VTe2 monolayers, respectively. They agree very well with our calculated HSE gaps of 1.1, 1.2, and 0.6 eV, respectively. The gap sizes as well as the metal-insulator transitions are tunable by applying the in-plane strain and/or changing the number of stacking layers. The Monte Carlo simulations illustrate very high Curie-temperatures of 292, 472, and 553 K for VS2, VSe2, and VTe2 monolayers, respectively. They are nearly or well beyond the room temperature. Combining the semiconducting energy gap, the 100% spin polarized valence and conduction bands, the room temperature TC, and the in-plane magnetic anisotropy together in a single layer VX2, this newtype 2D magnetic semiconductor shows great potential in future spintronics. PMID:27601195

  9. Distribution of Iron Oxide Core-Titanium Dioxide Shell Nanoparticles in VX2 Tumor Bearing Rabbits Introduced by Two Different Delivery Modalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Refaat, Tamer; West, Derek; El Achy, Samar; Parimi, Vamsi; May, Jasmine; Xin, Lun; Harris, Kathleen; Liu, William; Wanzer, Michael; Finney, Lydia; Maxey, Evan; Vogt, Stefan; Omary, Reed; Procissi, Daniele; Larson, Andrew; Paunesku, Tatjana; Woloschak, Gayle

    2016-08-03

    This work compares intravenous (IV) versus fluoroscopy-guided transarterial intra-catheter (IC) delivery of iron oxide core-titanium dioxide shell nanoparticles (NPs) in vivo in VX2 model of liver cancer in rabbits. NPs coated with glucose and decorated with a peptide sequence from cortactin were administered to animals with developed VX2 liver cancer. Two hours after NPs delivery tumors, normal liver, kidney, lung and spleen tissues were harvested and used for a series on histological and elemental analysis tests. Quantification of NPs in tissues was done both by bulk inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis and by hard X-ray fluorescence microscopy. Both IV and IC NPs injection are feasible modalities for delivering NPs to VX2 liver tumors with comparable tumor accumulation. It is possible that this is an outcome of the fact that VX2 tumors are highly vascularized and hemorrhagic, and therefore enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) plays the most significant role in accumulation of nanoparticles in tumor tissue. It is, however, interesting to note that IV delivery led to increased sequestration of NPs by spleen and normal liver tissue, while IC delivery lead to more NP positive Kupffer cells. This difference is most likely a direct outcome of blood flow dynamics. Armed with this knowledge about nanoparticle delivery, we plan to test them as radiosensitizers in the future.

  10. Distribution of Iron Oxide Core-Titanium Dioxide Shell Nanoparticles in VX2 Tumor Bearing Rabbits Introduced by Two Different Delivery Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Refaat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This work compares intravenous (IV versus fluoroscopy-guided transarterial intra-catheter (IC delivery of iron oxide core-titanium dioxide shell nanoparticles (NPs in vivo in VX2 model of liver cancer in rabbits. NPs coated with glucose and decorated with a peptide sequence from cortactin were administered to animals with developed VX2 liver cancer. Two hours after NPs delivery tumors, normal liver, kidney, lung and spleen tissues were harvested and used for a series on histological and elemental analysis tests. Quantification of NPs in tissues was done both by bulk inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS analysis and by hard X-ray fluorescence microscopy. Both IV and IC NPs injection are feasible modalities for delivering NPs to VX2 liver tumors with comparable tumor accumulation. It is possible that this is an outcome of the fact that VX2 tumors are highly vascularized and hemorrhagic, and therefore enhanced permeability and retention (EPR plays the most significant role in accumulation of nanoparticles in tumor tissue. It is, however, interesting to note that IV delivery led to increased sequestration of NPs by spleen and normal liver tissue, while IC delivery lead to more NP positive Kupffer cells. This difference is most likely a direct outcome of blood flow dynamics. Armed with this knowledge about nanoparticle delivery, we plan to test them as radiosensitizers in the future.

  11. Percutaneous medical ozone injection for transplanted VX2 tumors: an experimental study in rabbits%经皮注射医用臭氧治疗兔VX2移植瘤的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩世龙; 朱晓黎; 张猛; 郭永团; 徐云华

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察臭氧局部注射治疗实体肿瘤的安全性、对肝肾功能的影响及所致的组织病理学改变.方法 建立兔VX2移植瘤模型24只,分为三组,A、B组均为9只,C组6只(假手术组).向A、B组瘤内分别注入40 μg/ml和70 μg/ml浓度臭氧,并于术前1d、术后1、3d抽静脉血.术后3d处死动物,取病理标本.观察术后动物生命体征、并发症及大体标本的组织学变化.结果 实验动物术后24 h内均出现活动减少、纳差,对刺激反应差,精神萎靡,24 h后恢复正常.A、B组各有1只荷瘤兔于术中或术后1h内死亡.术前1d,术后1、3d各组血清丙氨酸转氨酶、天冬氨酸转氨酶及肌酐比较无明显差异.肉眼及光镜下见A、B组坏死区大体标本无明显差异.C组镜下可见部分肿瘤细胞突破肌层向深处生长,肿瘤细胞排列紊乱,大量癌巢形成,细胞核大深染,核分裂,异性核.结论 VX2肿瘤内注入浓度为40 μg/ml和70μg/ml的医用臭氧安全、有效.%Objective To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of percutaneous medical ozone injection in treating solid transplanted VX2 tumors in rabbits, and to discuss the histopathological changes cause by ozone injection. Methods Transplanted VX2 tumor model was established in 24 rabbits. The rabbits were randomly divided into three groups. Rabbits in group A (n = 9) received medical ozone (40 μg/ ml) injection of the tumor. Rabbits in group B (n = 9) received medical ozone (70 μg/ml) injection of the tumor. Rabbits in group C (n = 6, used as sham group) received no treatment. The serum AIT, AST and Cr levels were determined at one day before and one, three days after the treatment. All the animals were sacrificed at three days after the treatment. The specimens were collected and sent for pathological examination. After the procedure, careful observation of animal's vital signs, complications was executed, and the pathological findings were recorded. Results After the treatment

  12. Quantitative Reproducibility Study of CT Perfusion Parameters in Rabbits with Implanted VX-2 Lung Tumors%兔VX-2肺种植肿瘤CT灌注成像定量检测可重复性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔磊; 龚沈初; 何书; 尹剑兵; 杨巨顺; 杨红

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To prospectively evaluate the reproducibility of CT perfusion parameters in rabbits with implanted VX2 lung tumors. Materials and Methods Perfusion CT was performed twice with 24-hour interval in 10 New Zealand White rabbits with implanted VX2 lung tumors. The volume, maximum diameter, blood volume (B V), Blood flow (BF), Time to peak (TTP), Permeability surface (PS), Patlak BV (PBV), Patlak R square (PatRsq) and Patlak Residual (PatRea) were measured, and reproducibility was evaluated using Bland-Altman statistics. Results CT perfusion parameters showed good agreement between two perfusion examinations. Intragroup correlation coefficients (ICCs) were all more than 0.6, within-subject coefficient of variation (WCV) was from 10.8% to 30.2%. The WCV of PS (10.8%) and PBV (12.3%) showed excellent agreement between studies comparable to the WCV of volume (8.5%) and maximum diameter (10.0%). Conclusion The trial confirms that lung tumor perfusion CT yields a good reproducibility and a range of reference values for CT perfusion parameters.%目的 前瞻性评估兔VX-2肺种植肿瘤CT灌注检查测量参数的可重复性.材料与方法 10只肺种植肿瘤的新西兰大白兔行2次CT灌注检查(间隔24h),分别测量肿瘤体积、最大径、血容量、血流量、达峰时间、表面通透性(PS)、Patlak血容量(PBV)、Patlak R方程(PatRsq)及Patlak残差(PatRes).使用Bland-Altman法分析2组CT测量数据的可重复性.结果 2次CT检查所有的CT灌注参数均显示较好的一致性,组内相关系数(ICC)均>0.6,个体间变异系数(WCV) 10.8%~30.2%.其中,PS和PBV的WCV分别为10.8%和12.3%,与CT形态学指标体积及最大径相仿(8.5%和10.0%).结论 通过动物实验验证了肺种植肿瘤CT灌注的可重复性,初步确定了CT灌注参数变化的参考值范围,为进一步研究提供了实验数据.

  13. VX2脑瘤血管生成的灌注CT研究%Experimental study on angiogenesis in rabbit VX2 brain tumor using perfusion CT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康立清; 张云亭; 孙世梅

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the perfusion CT features of rabbit VX2 brain tumor with correlation to MVD and VEGF, and to validate perfusion CT for reflection of tumor angiogenesis. Methods: Rabbit VX2 brain tumor model was established by injection of 100 μL viable tumor cells (107/mL) through a 2 mm-hole 5 mm to the right of the sagittal suture and 5 mm posterior to the coronal suture bored by dental drill. MRI was performed every 2 days after seven days of implantation to evaluate the growth of the tumor. Twenty New Zealand White rabbits with tumor size over 3 mm in diameter were randomly divided into 2 groups according to the tumor growth time with those less than 3 weeks as group 1 and those more than 3 weeks as group 2, and perfusion CT were performed accordingly. CT measurements of BV, BF and PS from tumor, peritumor and contralateral normal tissue regions were obtained. After that the animals were sacrificed and 2% Evans blue (2 mL/kg) was given intravenously in 16 of these animals 1 h prior to sacrifice to detect breakdown of the blood brain barrier. VEGF and MVD were evaluated in immunohistochemical examination of the specimens. Results: Tumor had significantly higher BV, BF and PS (P=0.000) than peritumor and normal tissue region. Tumor BV, BF and MVD in group 2 were significantly higher than that in group 1 (P<0.01).Significant linear correlation was found between MVD and BV (t=0.915, P=0.000), MVD and BF (r=0.901, P=0.000), and MVD and PS (r=0.459, P=0.042). We also found a rank correlation between PS and blue stain of tumor (rs=0.861, P=0.000). Conclusion: Perfusion CT can distinguish tumor from peritumor and normal tissue clearly, reflect tumor angiogenesis accurately, and provide useful information for the evaluation of brain tumor.

  14. Heated lipiodol as an embolization agent for transhepatic arterial embolization in VX2 rabbit liver cancer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Wei [Department of Interventional Radiology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, No.1 Xinshi Road, Shaanxi Province, Xi' an 710038 (China)], E-mail: zjfurong2008@126.com; Wan Yi [Department of Health Statistics, Fourth Military Medical University, No. 17 West Changle Road, Xi' an 710032 (China); Liang Zhihui [Department of Radiology, Bethune International Peace Hospital, Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province 050082 (China); Duan Yunyou; Liu Xi [Department of Ultrasonography, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, No. 1 Xinshi Road, Xi' an 710038 (China); Wang Zhimin; Liu Yiyong; Zhu Jia; Liu Xiongtao [Department of Interventional Radiology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, No.1 Xinshi Road, Shaanxi Province, Xi' an 710038 (China); Zhang Hongxin [Department of Interventional Radiology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, No.1 Xinshi Road, Shaanxi Province, Xi' an 710038 (China)], E-mail: cawe-001@163.com

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of heated (60 deg. C) lipiodol via hepatic artery administration in a rabbit model of VX2 liver cancer. Materials and methods: Thirty male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups with 10 rabbits assigned to each group. VX2 carcinoma cells were surgically implanted into the left hepatic lobe. The tumors were allowed to grow for 2 weeks, and studies were performed until the diameter of the tumors detected by ultrasonograph reached 2-3 cm. Under anesthesia, trans-catheter hepatic arterial embolization was performed and doxorubicin-lipiodol (37 deg. C) (1 mL), lipiodol (60 deg. C) (1 mL) or control (physiological saline (37 deg. C) (1 mL)) solution was injected into the hepatic arteries of animals in the three groups. One week later, the volume of the tumor was measured by ultrasonograph again. The serum of all rabbits was collected before injection and at 4 and 7 days after injection, and the level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was checked. The survival period of the three groups of rabbits after treatment was also recorded. During the last course of their disease, the rabbits were given analgesics to relieve suffering. Results: The tumor growth rate in the lipiodol (60 deg. C) group (0.92 {+-} 0.21, tumor volume from 1811 {+-} 435 to 1670 {+-} 564 mm{sup 3}) was significantly lower than that in the control group (3.48 {+-} 1.17, tumor volume from 1808 {+-} 756 to 5747 {+-} 1341 mm{sup 3}) (P < 0.05) and in the doxorubicin-lipiodol (37 deg. C) group (1.69 {+-} 0.26, tumor volume from 1881 {+-} 641 to 2428 {+-} 752 mm{sup 3}) (P < 0.05). Consequently, the survival period of the animals in the lipiodol (60 deg. C) group (41.0 {+-} 3.0 days) was significantly greater than that in the doxorubicin-lipiodol (37 deg. C) group (38.0 {+-} 2.5 days) (P < 0.05). On the other hand, there was no statistically significant difference in serum AST levels between the lipiodol (60 deg. C) group (148.2 {+-} 11

  15. Targeting of VX2 rabbit liver tumor by selective delivery of 3-bromopyruvate: a biodistribution and survival study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vali, Mustafa; Vossen, Josephina A; Buijs, Manon; Engles, James M; Liapi, Eleni; Ventura, Veronica Prieto; Khwaja, Afsheen; Acha-Ngwodo, Obele; Ganapathy-Kanniappan, Shanmugasundaram; Shanmugasundaram, Ganapathy; Syed, Labiq; Wahl, Richard L; Geschwind, Jean-Francois H

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the biodistribution and tumor targeting ability of (14)C-labeled 3-bromopyruvate ([(14)C]3-BrPA) after i.a. and i.v. delivery in the VX2 rabbit model. In addition, we evaluated the effects of [(14)C]3-BrPA on tumor and healthy tissue glucose metabolism by determining (18)F-deoxyglucose (FDG) uptake. Last, we determined the survival benefit of i.a. administered 3-BrPA. In total, 60 rabbits with VX2 liver tumor received either 1.75 mM [(14)C]3-BrPA i.a., 1.75 mM [(14)C]3-BrPA i.v., 20 mM [(14)C]3-BrPA i.v., or 25 ml of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). All rabbits (with the exception of the 20 mM i.v. group) received FDG 1 h before sacrifice. Next, we compared survival of animals treated with i.a. administered 1.75 mM [(14)C]3-BrPA in 25 ml of PBS (n = 22) with controls (n = 10). After i.a. infusion, tumor uptake of [(14)C]3-BrPA was 1.8 +/- 0.2% percentage of injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g), whereas other tissues showed minimal uptake. After i.v. infusion (1.75 mM), tumor uptake of [(14)C]3-BrPA was 0.03 +/- 0.01% ID/g. After i.a. administration of [(14)C]3-BrPA, tumor uptake of FDG was 26 times lower than in controls. After i.v. administration of [(14)C]3-BrPA, there was no significant difference in tumor FDG uptake. Survival analysis showed that rabbits treated with 1.75 mM 3-BrPA survived longer (55 days) than controls (18.6 days). Intra-arterially delivered 3-BrPA has a favorable biodistribution profile, combining a high tumor uptake resulting in blockage of FDG uptake with no effects on healthy tissue. The local control of the liver tumor by 3-BrPA resulted in a significant survival benefit.

  16. Effect of hepatic artery embolization on liver hypertrophy response in a rabbit liver VX2 tumor model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krijn P van Lienden; Lisette T Hoekstra; Jessica D van Trigt; Joris J Roelofs

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Portal  vein  embolization  not  only  induces hypertrophy  of  the  non-embolized  liver,  but  also  enhances tumor growth. The latter could be prevented by embolizing the hepatic  arteries  supplying  the  tumor-bearing  liver  segments. This  study  aimed  to  determine  the  effects  of  transcatheter arterial  embolization  (TAE)  on  tumor  volume  and  liver regeneration in a rabbit VX2 tumor model. METHODS: Twenty-three  rabbits  underwent  subcapsular tumor  implantation  with  a  VX2  tumor.  Two  weeks  after implantation,  18  rabbits  were  used  for  TAE  experiments,  5 were for sham controls. Tumor response and liver regeneration response of the  embolized  cranial  and  non-embolized caudal liver lobes were assessed by CT volumetry, liver to body weight index, and the amount of proliferating hepatocytes. RESULTS: All  super-selective  arterial  tumor  embolization procedures were performed successfully. Despite embolization, the  tumor  volume  increased  after  an  initial  steady  state.  The tumor volume after embolization was smaller than that of the sham  group,  but  this  difference  was  not  significant.  Massive necrosis  of  the  tumor,  however,  was  seen  after  embolization, without  damage  of  the  surrounding  liver  parenchyma.  There was a significant atrophy response of the tumor bearing cranial lobe  after  super-selective  arterial  embolization  of  the  tumor with a concomitant hypertrophy response of the non-embolized, caudal  lobe.  This  regeneration  response  was  confirmed histologically by a

  17. Treatment of (131)I-labeled anti-CD147 monoclonal antibody in VX2 carcinoma-induced liver tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Huanzhang; Wang, Ruihua; Cheng, Jingliang; Gao, Shegan; Liu, Baoping

    2013-07-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major health problem worldwide. CD147 has been reported to be overexpressed in HCC and blocking CD147 expression can decrease tumor growth. (131)I is often used in combination with other drugs to treat HCC and yields positive results. In this study, we combined the (131)I and CD147 monoclonal antibody to treat HCC in a rabbit VX2 animal model. In the (131)I-labeled CD147 antibody ((131)I-CD147-Ab) treatment group, the animals lived considerably longer than the animals in the other treatment groups. Metastasis and tumor growth in the (131)I-CD147-Ab treatment group were also inhibited. MMP2 and CD31 expression were significantly lower in the treatment group, whereas Tunel staining was overexpressed. These findings suggest that (131)I-CD147-Ab is a promising drug in the treatment of HCC, by inhibiting metastasis and growth and by decreasing the expression of MMP2 and CD31 or by inducing tumor necrosis. After testing the biochemical parameters, (131)I-CD147-Ab caused fewer side-effects in the animals.

  18. Interferometric phase-contrast X-ray CT imaging of VX2 rabbit cancer at 35keV X-ray energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Tohoru; Wu, Jin; Tsuchiya, Yoshinori; Yoneyama, Akio; Lwin, Thet-Thet; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Itai, Yuji

    2004-05-01

    Imaging of large objects at 17.7-keV low x-ray energy causes huge x-ray exposure to the objects even using interferometric phase-contrast x-ray CT (PCCT). Thus, we tried to obtain PCCT images at high x-ray energy of 35keV and examined the image quality using a formalin-fixed VX2 rabbit cancer specimen with 15-mm in diameter. The PCCT system consisted of an asymmetrically cut silicon (220) crystal, a monolithic x-ray interferometer, a phase-shifter, an object cell and an x-ray CCD camera. The PCCT at 35 keV clearly visualized various inner structures of VX2 rabbit cancer such as necrosis, cancer, the surrounding tumor vessels, and normal liver tissue. Besides, image-contrast was not degraded significantly. These results suggest that the PCCT at 35 KeV is sufficient to clearly depict the histopathological morphology of VX2 rabbit cancer specimen.

  19. Multiparametric Monitoring of Early Response to Antiangiogenic Therapy: A Sequential Perfusion CT and PET/CT Study in a Rabbit VX2 Tumor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Im Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To perform dual analysis of tumor perfusion and glucose metabolism using perfusion CT and FDG-PET/CT for the purpose of monitoring the early response to bevacizumab therapy in rabbit VX2 tumor models and to assess added value of FDG-PET to perfusion CT. Methods. Twenty-four VX2 carcinoma tumors implanted in bilateral back muscles of 12 rabbits were evaluated. Serial concurrent perfusion CT and FDG-PET/CT were performed before and 3, 7, and 14 days after bevacizumab therapy (treatment group or saline infusion (control group. Perfusion CT was analyzed to calculate blood flow (BF, blood volume (BV, and permeability surface area product (PS; FDG-PET was analyzed to calculate SUVmax, SUVmean, total lesion glycolysis (TLG, entropy, and homogeneity. The flow-metabolic ratio (FMR was also calculated and immunohistochemical analysis of microvessel density (MVD was performed. Results. On day 14, BF and BV in the treatment group were significantly lower than in the control group. There were no significant differences in all FDG-PET-derived parameters between both groups. In the treatment group, FMR prominently decreased after therapy and was positively correlated with MVD. Conclusions. In VX2 tumors, FMR could provide further insight into the early antiangiogenic effect reflecting a mismatch in intratumor blood flow and metabolism.

  20. Arsenic trioxide treatment of rabbit liver VX-2 carcinoma via hepatic arterial cannulation-induced apoptosis and decreased levels of survivin in the tumor tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Gong, Jian; Jiang, Xuyuan; Shao, Haibo

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the role of tumor apoptosis-inhibitory protein survivin in arsenic trioxide-induced apoptosis in VX-2 carcinoma in the rabbit liver by means of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization. Sixteen rabbits with 32 implanted hepatic VX-2 tumors were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group received 2 mg of arsenic trioxide and 1 mL of ultra-fluid lipiodol co-injected via hepatic arterial cannulation and the control group received only 1 mL of lipiodol. Animals were sacrificed 3 weeks after trans-catheterial arterial chemoembolization. Tumor tissue and tumor-peripheral tissue were collected for analysis. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end-labeling staining was used to assess tumor cells apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess the presence of survivin protein. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the expression of survivin gene. The number of apoptotic cells significantly increased in the tumor tissue (5.20 ± 0.60%) compared to tumor-peripheral tissue (1.29 ± 0.42%) of the arsenic trioxide-treated group. Survivin expression levels in the tumor tissue were significantly reduced in arsenic trioxide-treated group (7.68 ± 0.65) compared to the control group (35.30 ± 4.63). Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization with arsenic trioxide induced apoptosis of VX-2 carcinoma, in which tumor apoptosis-inhibitory protein survivin may have played a role.

  1. Contrast investigation of multi-slice spiral CT perfusion imaging and pathological findings in VX2 soft-tissue tumor of rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingfeng Zhang; Renfa Wang; Min Wang; Jing Zhang; Jinmei Sang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To perform a contrast investigation of multi-slice spiral CT (MSCT) perfusion imaging and pathological findings in VX2 soft-tissue tumor of rabbits, and discuss the applicative value of multi-slice spiral CT perfusion imaging in soft-tissue tumors. Methods: 8 Newzealand white rabbits were implanted with 0.1 ml VX2 tumor tissue suspension in bilateral proximal thighs. 14 days and 21 days later, CT plain scan and perfusion scan were performed on these rabbits respectively, then the images were transmitted to AW4.0 workstation, the functional maps and perfusion parameters including blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time(MTT) and permeability surface (PS) were computed and analyzed. Subsequently, the rabbits were sacrificed, the tumors of which were taken out for pathological examination. The correlation between MSCT functional parametric images and pathological findings was analyzed.Results: All the values of BF, BV and PS of VX2 soft-tissue tumors were obviously higher while the MTT-values were lower than those of the normal muscular tissues significantly ( P < 0.001). Conclusion: Multi-slice spiral CT perfusion imaging is an accurate, convenient and relatively safe functional imaging technique, which can give a quantitative assessment to blood perfusion and angiogenesis of soft-tissue tumors.

  2. Arterial embolization hyperthermia using As2O3 nanoparticles in VX2 carcinoma-induced liver tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Combination therapy for arterial embolization hyperthermia (AEH with arsenic trioxide (As(2O(3 nanoparticles (ATONs is a novel treatment for solid malignancies. This study was performed to evaluate the feasibility and therapeutic effect of AEH with As(2O(3 nanoparticles in a rabbit liver cancer model. The protocol was approved by our institutional animal use committee. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In total, 60 VX(2 liver-tumor-bearing rabbits were randomly assigned to five groups (n = 12/group and received AEH with ATONs (Group 1, hepatic arterial embolization with ATONs (Group 2, lipiodol (Group 3, or saline (Group 4, on day 14 after tumor implantation. Twelve rabbits that received AEH with ATONs were prepared for temperature measurements, and were defined as Group 5. Computed tomography was used to measure the tumors' longest dimension, and evaluation was performed according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Hepatic toxicity, tumor necrosis rate, vascular endothelial growth factor level, and microvessel density were determined. Survival rates were measured using the Kaplan-Meier method. The therapeutic temperature (42.5°C was obtained in Group 5. Hepatotoxicity reactions occurred but were transient in all groups. Tumor growth was delayed and survival was prolonged in Group 1 (treated with AEH and ATONs. Plasma and tumor vascular endothelial growth factor and microvessel density were significantly inhibited in Group 1, while tumor necrosis rates were markedly enhanced compared with those in the control groups. CONCLUSIONS: ATON-based AEH is a safe and effective treatment that can be targeted at liver tumors using the dual effects of hyperthermia and chemotherapy. This therapy can delay tumor growth and noticeably inhibit tumor angiogenesis.

  3. Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Take the mystery out of motion. Our resource gives you everything you need to teach young scientists about motion. Students will learn about linear, accelerating, rotating and oscillating motion, and how these relate to everyday life - and even the solar system. Measuring and graphing motion is easy, and the concepts of speed, velocity and acceleration are clearly explained. Reading passages, comprehension questions, color mini posters and lots of hands-on activities all help teach and reinforce key concepts. Vocabulary and language are simplified in our resource to make them accessible to str

  4. Non-linear dynamic analysis of a multi-mesh gear train using multi-term harmonic balance method: period-one motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-shyyab, A.; Kahraman, A.

    2005-06-01

    A non-linear time-varying dynamic model of a typical multi-mesh gear train is proposed in this study. The physical system includes three rigid shafts coupled by two gear pairs. The lumped parameter dynamic model includes the gear backlash in the form of clearance-type displacement functions and parametric variation of gear mesh stiffness values dictated by the gear contact ratios. The system is reduced to a two-degree-of-freedom definite model by using the relative gear mesh displacements as the coordinates. Dimensionless equations of motion are solved for the steady-state period-1 response by using a multi-term Harmonic Balance Method (HBM) in conjunction with discrete Fourier Transforms and a Parametric Continuation scheme. The accuracy of the HBM solutions is demonstrated by comparing them to direct numerical integration solutions. Floquet theory is applied to determine the stability of the steady-state harmonic balance solutions. An example gear train is used to investigate the influence of key system parameters including alternating mesh stiffness amplitudes, gear mesh damping, static torque transmitted, and the gear mesh frequency ratio.

  5. Fast lesion mapping during HIFU treatment using harmonic motion imaging guided focused ultrasound (HMIgFUS) in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yang; Wang, Shutao; Payen, Thomas; Konofagou, Elisa

    2017-04-01

    The successful clinical application of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation depends on reliable monitoring of the lesion formation. Harmonic motion imaging guided focused ultrasound (HMIgFUS) is an ultrasound-based elasticity imaging technique, which monitors HIFU ablation based on the stiffness change of the tissue instead of the echo intensity change in conventional B-mode monitoring, rendering it potentially more sensitive to lesion development. Our group has shown that predicting the lesion location based on the radiation force-excited region is feasible during HMIgFUS. In this study, the feasibility of a fast lesion mapping method is explored to directly monitor the lesion map during HIFU. The harmonic motion imaging (HMI) lesion map was generated by subtracting the reference HMI image from the present HMI peak-to-peak displacement map, as streamed on the computer display. The dimensions of the HMIgFUS lesions were compared against gross pathology. Excellent agreement was found between the lesion depth (r 2  =  0.81, slope  =  0.90), width (r 2  =  0.85, slope  =  1.12) and area (r 2  =  0.58, slope  =  0.75). In vivo feasibility was assessed in a mouse with a pancreatic tumor. These findings demonstrate that HMIgFUS can successfully map thermal lesions and monitor lesion development in real time in vitro and in vivo. The HMIgFUS technique may therefore constitute a novel clinical tool for HIFU treatment monitoring.

  6. Discussions on the Conservation of Mechanical Energy of Simple Harmonic Motion%一些简谐振动系统中机械能守恒的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱光来; 许新胜

    2015-01-01

    For some simple harmonic motion systems, it is simpler to solve problems by conservation of mechanical energy than Newton's laws of motion.Based on conservation of mechanical energy, equation of motion and their vibration periods of several special simple harmonic motion systems were discussed.%对于一些作简谐振动的系统,利用机械能守恒定律往往比用牛顿定律解决问题更简捷。本文利用机械能守恒讨论总结了几组典型谐振系统的动力学方程,并给出了相应的周期。

  7. Harmonic measures of the half-plane and balls for the hyperbolic Brownian motion and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck diffusions

    CERN Document Server

    Byczkowski, Tomasz; Graczyk, Piotr; Malecki, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to provide integral representations of the Poisson kernel for a half-space and balls for hyperbolic Brownian motion and for the classical Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. The method of proof is based on Girsanov's theorem and yields more complete results as those based on Feynmann-Kac technique.

  8. The cooperative effect of p53 and Rb in local nanotherapy in a rabbit VX2 model of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Shengli Dong,1 Qibin Tang,2 Miaoyun Long,3 Jian Guan,4 Lu Ye,5 Gaopeng Li6 1Department of General Surgery, The Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, 2Department of Hepatobiliopancreatic Surgery, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 3Department of Thyroid and Vascular Surgery, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 4Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 5Infection Department, Guangzhou No 8 Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 6Department of Ultrasound, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, People's Republic of China Background/aim: A local nanotherapy (LNT combining the therapeutic efficacy of trans-arterial embolization, nanoparticles, and p53 gene therapy has been previously presented. The study presented here aimed to further improve the incomplete tumor eradication and limited survival enhancement and to elucidate the molecular mechanism of the LNT. Methods: In a tumor-targeting manner, recombinant expressing plasmids harboring wild-type p53 and Rb were either co-transferred or transferred separately to rabbit hepatic VX2 tumors in a poly-L-lysine-modified hydroxyapatite nanoparticle nanoplex and Lipiodol® (Guerbet, Villepinte, France emulsion via the hepatic artery. Subsequent co-expression of p53 and Rb proteins within the treated tumors was investigated by Western blotting and in situ analysis by laser-scanning confocal microscopy. The therapeutic effect was evaluated by the tumor growth velocity, apoptosis and necrosis rates, their sensitivity to Adriamycin® (ADM, mitomycin C, and fluorouracil, the microvessel density of tumor tissue, and the survival time of animals. Eventually, real-time polymerase chain reaction and enhanced chemiluminescence Western blotting

  9. Comparison of endoscopic submucosal implantation vs. surgical intramuscular implantation of VX2 fragments for establishing a rabbit esophageal tumor model for mimicking human esophageal squamous carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Huang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to establish a rabbit esophageal tumor model for mimicking human esophageal squamous carcinoma (ESC by endoscopic and surgical implantation of VX2 tumors. METHODS: Fragments of a VX2 tumour were endoscopically implanted in the submucosal layer of the thoracic esophagus of 32 New Zealand white rabbits, while 34 animals received surgical implantation into the muscular layer. Then, the animals were studied endoscopically and pathologically. The safety and efficiency of the two methods and the pathological features of the animal models were analyzed. RESULTS: Both the endoscopic and the surgical method had a relatively high success rate of tumor implantation [93.7% (30/32 vs. 97.1% (33/34] and tumor growth [86.7% (26/30 vs. 81.8% (27/33], and the variation in the results was not statistically significant (P>0.05. Compared with those produced by the surgical method, the models produced by the endoscopic method had a higher rate of severe esophageal stricture [61.5% (16/26 vs. 29.6% (8/27] and of intra-luminal tumor growth [73.1% (19/26 vs. 37.0% (10/27], and had a lower rate of tumor invasion of adjacent organs [53.8% (14/26 vs. 81.5% (22/27]; all of these results were statistically significant (P0.05. CONCLUSION: The endoscopic and surgical methods are both safe and effective for establishment of VX2 tumors in the rabbit esophagus. The models produced by the two methods have different pathologic features mimicking that of human ESC. We recommend the models for studies on surgical procedures and minimally invasive treatments.

  10. Combination of vascular endothelial growth factor antisense oligonucleotide therapy and radiotherapy increases the curative effects against maxillofacial VX2 tumors in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Linfeng, E-mail: zhenglinfeng04@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Medical College, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Hanning Road, 100, 200080 Shanghai (China); Li Yujie, E-mail: yujieli01@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Medical College, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Hanning Road, 100, 200080 Shanghai (China); Wang Han, E-mail: bingowh@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Medical College, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Hanning Road, 100, 200080 Shanghai (China); Zhao Jinglong, E-mail: jinglongz@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Medical College, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Hanning Road, 100, 200080 Shanghai (China); Wang Xifu, E-mail: wangxiechen001@163.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Medical College, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Hanning Road, 100, 200080 Shanghai (China); Hu Yunsheng, E-mail: springmorninghu@163.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Medical College, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Hanning Road, 100, 200080 Shanghai (China); Zhang Guixiang, E-mail: guixiangzhang@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Medical College, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Hanning Road, 100, 200080 Shanghai (China)

    2011-05-15

    Purpose: To study the effects of combination of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antisense oligonucleotide therapy and radiotherapy on maxillofacial VX2 tumors in rabbits. Methods: We used 24 New Zealand white rabbits as a model to induce maxillofacial VX2 tumor. The rabbits were randomly divided into the following 4 groups: radiotherapy group (group A), treated with 16 Gy of radiotherapy; VEGF antisense oligonucleotide treatment group (group B), treated with an injection of 150 {mu}g of VEGF antisense oligonucleotide into the local tumor; VEGF antisense oligonucleotide combined with radiotherapy group (group C), treated with an injection of 150 {mu}g of VEGF antisense oligonucleotide into the local tumor immediately after 16 Gy of radiotherapy; and control group (group D), treated with an injection of 300 {mu}l 5% aqueous glucose solution into the local tumor. On days 3 and 14 after treatment, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) was performed to calculate maximal enhancement ratio (MER), slope of enhancement (SLE), and tumor volume change. Rabbits were killed on day 14 to obtain samples for pathological examination and immunohistochemical staining for VEGF. Results: In group C, tumor volume was significantly reduced on day 14 after treatment, and the difference was statistically different as compared to that before treatment, on day 3 after treatment and other groups (P < 0.01). Values of both MER and SLE after treatment were significantly lower than the values before treatment (P < 0.05). Pathological specimen revealed tumor cell edema, bleeding, necrosis, vascular wall thickening and occlusion, and decreased VEGF expression. The immunohistochemical score (IHS) of group C was significantly different from groups A and D respectively (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Injecting the tumor with VEGF antisense oligonucleotide immediately after radiotherapy can enhance the curative effect on rabbit maxillofacial VX2 tumor, and DCE-MRI can serve

  11. Non-thermal ablation of rabbit liver VX2 tumor by pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound with ultrasound contrast agent: Pathological characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Wen Zhou; Fa-Qi Li; Yan Qin; Chun-Mei Liu; Xiao-Lin Zheng; Zhi-Biao Wang

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the pathological characteristics of non-thermal damage induced by pulsed high intensity focused ultrasound (PHIFU) combined with ultrasound contrast agent (UCA),SonoVue (Bracco SpA,Milan,Italy) in rabbit liver VX2 tumor.METHODS:Liver VX2 tumor models were established in 20 rabbits,which were divided randomly into PHIFU combined with ultrasound contrast agent group (PHIFU + UCA group) and sham group.In the PHIFU + UCA group,0.2 mL of SonoVue was injected intravenously into the tumor,followed by ultrasound exposure of Isp 5900 W/cm2.The rabbits were sacrificed one day after ultrasound exposure.Specimens of the exposed tumor tissues were obtained and observed pathologically under light microscope and transmission electron microscope.The remaining tumor tissues were sent for 2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining.RESULTS:Before TTC staining,tumor tissues in both the sham and the PHIFU + UCA groups resembled gray fish meat.After TTC staining,the tumor tissues were uniformly stained red,with a clear boundary between tumor tissue and normal tissue.Histological examination showed signs of tumor cell injury in PHIFU + UCA group,with cytoplasmic vacuoles of various sizes,chromatin margination and karyopyknosis.Electron microscopic examination revealed tumor cell volume reduction,karyopyknosis,chromatin margination,intercellular space widening,the presence of high electron-density apoptotic bodies and vacuoles in cytoplasm.CONCLUSION:The non-thermal effects of PHIFU combined with UCA can be used to ablate rabbit liver VX2 tumors.

  12. 5-Amino-4-oxopentanoic acid photodynamic diagnosis guided microsurgery and photodynamic therapy on VX2 brain tumour implanted in a rabbit model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Hong; LIAO Qiong; CHENG Ming; LI Fei; XIE Bing; LI Mei; FENG Hua

    2009-01-01

    Background Complete tumour resection is important for improving the prognosis of brain tumour patients. However,extensive resection remains controversial because the tumour margin is difficult to be distinguished from surrounding brain tissue. It has been established that 5-amino-4-oxopentanoic acid (5-aminolevulinic acid, ALA) can be used as a photodynamic diagnostic marker and a photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy in surgical treatment of brain tumours. We investigated the efficacy of ALA photodynamically guided microsurgery and photodynamic therapy on VX2 brain tumour implanted in a rabbit model.Methods Eighty New Zealand rabbits implanted with VX2 brain tumours were randomly assigned to five groups: control, conventional white light microsurgery, a photodynamic therapy group, a photodynamically guided microsurgery group and a group in which guided microsurgery was followed by photodynamic therapy. The VX2 tumour was resected under a surgical microscope. The tumour resection was confirmed with histological analysis. All animals were examined with MRI for presence of any residual tumour tissue. The survival time of each rabbit was recorded.Results All treatment groups showed a significantly extended survival time compared with the control group.Photodynamically guided microsurgery combined with photodynamic therapy significantly prolonged survival time, compared with guided microsurgery alone. MRI and the autopsy results confirmed removal of most of the tumours.Conclusions Our results suggest that photodynamically guided surgery and photodynamic therapy significantly reduce or delay local recurrence, increase the effectiveness of radical resection and prolong the survival time of tumour bearing rabbits, Their combination has the potential to be used as a rapid and highly effective treatment of metastatic brain tumours.

  13. Monitoring of VX2 tumor growth in rabbit liver using T2-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, Jo-Chi; Mac, Ka-Wai; Chang, Chiung-Yun; Wu, Yu-Chiuan; Hsiao, Chia-Chi; Chen, Po-Chou

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the VX2 tumor growth in rabbit liver using T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Five New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits were implanted with VX2 cell suspension in liver. Afterwards, MRI was performed 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after tumor implantation. A 1.5T clinical MRI scanner was used to perform scans. After 3-plane localizer, T1 weighted imaging (T1WI), T2WI, and DCE-MRI using a three-dimensional gradient echo pulse sequence was performed. After 4 pre-contrast images were acquired, each rabbit was injected i.v. with 0.1 mmol/kg Dotarem. The total scan time after Dotarem administration was 30 minutes. All acquired images were analyzed using ImageJ software. Several regions of interest were selected from the rims of tumor, liver, and muscle. The enhancement ratio (ER) was calculated by dividing the MR signal after Dotarem injection to the MR signal before Dotarem injection. The maximum ER (ER_max) value of tumor for each rabbit was observed right after the Dotarem injection. The T2W MR signal intensities (T2W_SI) and the ER_max values obtained 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after tumor implantation were analyzed with a linear regression algorithm. Both T2W_SI and ER_max of tumors increased with time. The changes for T2W_SI and ER_max of tumors between 7 and 28 days after tumor implantation were 32.66% and 18.14%, respectively. T2W_SI is more sensitive than ER_max for monitoring the growth of VX2 tumor in a rabbit liver model.

  14. Comparative Study of Images with Pathology:Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Image(MRI)of Splenic VX2 Tumor in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hong-yan; XU Yi-kai; WU Yuan-kui; LIU Wen-yuan; L(U) Guo-shi; CAO Guo-hong

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To establish a rodent model of VX2 tumor of the spleen,to analyze relationship between the change of the signal intensity on superparamagnetic iron oxide enhanced magnetic resonance image(MRI)and pathologic change to evaluate the ability of superparamagnetic iron oxide enhanced MRI for detection of splenic metastases.Methods:8 rodent models of VX2 tumor of spleen were established successfully.The images were obtained before and after administration of superparamagnetic iron oxide.T1-weighted spin-echo(SE)pulse sequence with a repetition time(TR)of 450 msec,and echo time(TE)of 12 msec(TR/TE=450/12)was used.The imaging parameters Of T2-weighted SE pulse sequence were as follows:TR/TE=4000/128. Results:On plain MR scanning T1-weighted splenic VX2 tumor showed hypointensity or isointensity which approximated to the SI of splenic parenchyma.Therefore all lesions were not displayed clearly.On superparamagnetic iron oxide enhancement T2WI sequence the SI of splenic parenchyma decreased obviously with percentage of signal intensity loss(PSIL)of 55.04%,But the SI of tumor was not evidently changed with PSIL of 0.87%. Nevertheless the SNR of normal splenic parenchyma around the lesions had obvious difference(P<0.001)comparatively.Therefore the contrast between tumor and spleen increased.and tumor displayed more clearly.Moreover the contrast-to-noise(CNR)between VX2 tumor and splenic parenchyma had an evident difference before and after admininstration of superparamagnetic iron oxide(P<0.001).Conclusion:On superparamagnetic iron oxide enhancement T1WI sequence the contrast of tumor-to-spleen is poor.Therefore it is not sensitive to characterize the lesions in spleen.On superparamagnetie iron oxide enhanced T2WI the contrast degree of lesions increases obviously.Consequently, superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhanced T2WI MRI scanning can improve the rate of detection and characterization for lesions of spleen.

  15. FDG-PET for Evaluating the Antitumor Effect of Intraarterial 3-Bromopyruvate Administration in a Rabbit VX2 Liver Tumor Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Sun; Chung, Jin Wook; Jae, Hwan Jun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2007-06-15

    We wanted to investigate the feasibility of using FDG-PET for evaluating the antitumor effect of intraarterial administration of a hexokinase II inhibitor, 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA), in a rabbit VX2 liver tumor model. VX2 carcinoma was grown in the livers of ten rabbits. Two weeks later, liver CT was performed to confirm appropriate tumor growth for the experiment. After tumor volume-matched grouping of the rabbits, transcatheter intraarterial administration of 3-BrPA was performed (1 mM and 5 mM in five animals each, respectively). FDG-PET scan was performed the day before, immediately after and a week after 3-BrPA administration. FDG uptake was semiquantified by measuring the standardized uptake value (SUV). A week after treatment, the experimental animals were sacrificed and the necrosis rates of the tumors were calculated based on the histopathology. The SUV of the VX2 tumors before treatment (3.87{+-}1.51 [mean SD]) was significantly higher than that of nontumorous liver parenchyma (1.72{+-}0.34) (p < 0.0001, Mann-Whitney U test). The SUV was significantly decreased immediately after 3-BrPA administration (2.05{+-}1.21) (p = 0.002, Wilcoxon signed rank test). On the one-week follow up PET scan, the FDG uptake remained significantly lower (SUV 1.41{+-}0.73) than that before treatment (p 0.002), although three out of ten animals showed a slightly increasing tendency for the FDG uptake. The tumor necrosis rate ranged from 50.00% to 99.90% (85.48%{+-}15.87). There was no significant correlation between the SUV or the SUV decrease rate and the tumor necrosis rate in that range. Even though FDG-PET cannot exactly reflect the tumor necrosis rate, FDG-PET is a useful modality for the early assessment of the antitumor effect of intraarterial administration of 3-BrPA in VX2 liver tumor.

  16. Effect of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on the growth and p53/c-Myc protein expression of implanted hepatic VX2 tumor in rabbits by intravenous injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Hu; Zhi-Su Liu; Sheng-Li Tang; Yue-Ming He

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the effect of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (Nano HAP) by intravenous injection on the inhibition of implanted hepatic VX2 tumor growth in rabbits and cell p53/c-Myc protein expression.METHODS: 60 hepatic VX2 tumor-bearing rabbits was randomly divided into five groups. Nano HAP collosol 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, 5-FU solutions 20 mg/mL, mixed liquor of 5-FU solution 20 mg/mL and Nano HAP collosol 20 mg/kg were infused by vein, normal saline conducted as the control. The general state, weight, liver function and gross tumor volume were detected dynamically.The expression of p53 and c-Myc gene protein in tumor tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry methods.RESULTS: The growth of implanted hepatic VX2 tumors was significantly inhibited in all therapy groups, 3 wk after the injection, the tumor control rates in Nano HAP collosol groups were 25.5% and 32.5% respectively,and the gross tumor volumes were obviously less than that of control group. (24.81 ± 5.17 and 22.73 ± 4.23vs 33.32 ± 5.26, P < 0.05). The tumor control rate of 5-FU group was 43.7% (18.74 ± 4.40 vs 33.32 ± 5.26,P < 0.05), but the general state of the animals after injection aggravated; and the adverse reaction in the drug combination group obviously decreased. Due to the effect of Nano HAP, the positive expression of tumor associated the mutated p53 and c-Myc in tumor tissue was decreased obviously compared with the control group.CONCLUSION: Nano HAP has evident inhibitory action on rabbit implanted hepatic VX2 tumor in vivo, which may be the result of decreasing the expression of the mutated p53 and c-myc, and drug combination can obviously decrease the adverse reaction of 5-FU.

  17. Plasma harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Ganeev, Rashid A

    2014-01-01

    Preface; Why plasma harmonics? A very brief introduction Early stage of plasma harmonic studies - hopes and frustrations New developments in plasma harmonics studies: first successes Improvements of plasma harmonics; Theoretical basics of plasma harmonics; Basics of HHG Harmonic generation in fullerenes using few-cycle pulsesVarious approaches for description of observed peculiarities of resonant enhancement of a single harmonic in laser plasmaTwo-colour pump resonance-induced enhancement of odd and even harmonics from a tin plasmaCalculations of single harmonic generation from Mn plasma;Low-o

  18. CT spectral imaging for monitoring the therapeutic efficacy of VEGF receptor kinase inhibitor AG-013736 in rabbit VX2 liver tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Peijie; Liu, Jie; Yan, Xiaopeng; Chai, Yaru; Chen, Yan; Gao, Jianbo; Pan, Yuanwei; Li, Shuai; Guo, Hua; Zhou, Yue [The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, The Department of Radiology, Zhengzhou, Henan Province (China)

    2017-03-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of computed tomography (CT) spectral imaging in assessing the therapeutic efficacy of a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor inhibitor AG-013736 in rabbit VX2 liver tumours. Twenty-three VX2 liver tumour-bearing rabbits were scanned with CT in spectral imaging mode during the arterial phase (AP) and portal phase (PP). The iodine concentrations(ICs)of tumours normalized to aorta (nICs) at different time points (baseline, 2, 4, 7, 10, and 14 days after treatment) were compared within the treated group (n = 17) as well as between the control (n = 6) and treated groups. Correlations between the tumour size, necrotic fraction (NF), microvessel density (MVD), and nICs were analysed. The change of nICs relative to baseline in the treated group was lower compared to the control group. A greater decrease in the nIC of a tumour at 2 days was positively correlated with a smaller increase in tumour size at 14 days (P < 0.05 for both). The tumour nIC values in AP and PP had correlations with MVD (r = 0.71 and 0.52) and NF (r = -0.54 and -0.51) (P < 0.05 for all). CT spectral imaging allows for the evaluation and early prediction of tumour response to AG-013736. (orig.)

  19. Multi-parametric monitoring and assessment of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) boiling by harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU): an ex vivo feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Gary Y; Marquet, Fabrice; Wang, Shutao; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2014-03-07

    Harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU) is a recently developed high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment monitoring method with feasibilities demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. Here, a multi-parametric study is performed to investigate both elastic and acoustics-independent viscoelastic tissue changes using the Harmonic Motion Imaging (HMI) displacement, axial compressive strain and change in relative phase shift during high energy HIFU treatment with tissue boiling. Forty three (n = 43) thermal lesions were formed in ex vivo canine liver specimens (n = 28). Two-dimensional (2D) transverse HMI displacement maps were also obtained before and after lesion formation. The same method was repeated in 10 s, 20 s and 30 s HIFU durations at three different acoustic powers of 8, 10, and 11 W, which were selected and verified as treatment parameters capable of inducing boiling using both thermocouple and passive cavitation detection (PCD) measurements. Although a steady decrease in the displacement, compressive strain, and relative change in the focal phase shift (Δϕ) were obtained in numerous cases, indicating an overall increase in relative stiffness, the study outcomes also showed that during boiling, a reverse lesion-to-background displacement contrast was detected, indicating potential change in tissue absorption, geometrical change and/or, mechanical gelatification or pulverization. Following treatment, corresponding 2D HMI displacement images of the thermal lesions also mapped consistent discrepancy in the lesion-to-background displacement contrast. Despite the expectedly chaotic changes in acoustic properties with boiling, the relative change in phase shift showed a consistent decrease, indicating its robustness to monitor biomechanical properties independent of the acoustic property changes throughout the HIFU treatment. In addition, the 2D HMI displacement images confirmed and indicated the increase in the thermal lesion size with

  20. Multi-parametric monitoring and assessment of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) boiling by Harmonic Motion Imaging for Focused Ultrasound (HMIFU): An ex vivo feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Gary Y.; Marquet, Fabrice; Wang, Shutao; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2014-01-01

    Harmonic Motion Imaging for Focused Ultrasound (HMIFU) is a recently developed high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment monitoring method with feasibilities demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. Here, a multi-parametric study is performed to investigate both elastic and acoustics-independent viscoelastic tissue changes using the Harmonic Motion Imaging (HMI) displacement, axial compressive strain and change in relative phase-shift during high energy HIFU treatment with tissue boiling. Forty three (n=43) thermal lesions were formed in ex vivo canine liver specimens (n=28). Two dimensional (2D) transverse HMI displacement maps were also obtained before and after lesion formation. The same method was repeated in 10-s, 20-s and 30-s HIFU durations at three different acoustic powers of 8, 10, and 11W, which were selected and verified as treatment parameters capable of inducing boiling using both thermocouple and Passive Cavitation Detection (PCD) measurements. Although a steady decrease in the displacement, compressive strain, and relative change in the focal phase shift (Δφ) were obtained in numerous cases, indicating an overall increase in relative stiffness, the study outcomes also showed that during boiling, a reverse lesion-to-background displacement contrast was detected, indicating potential change in tissue absorption, geometrical change and/or, mechanical gelatification or pulverization. Following treatment, corresponding 2D HMI displacement images of the thermal lesions also mapped consistent discrepancy in the lesion-to-background displacement contrast. Despite unpredictable changes in acoustic properties with boiling, the relative change in phase shift showed a consistent decrease, indicating its robustness to monitor biomechanical properties independent of the acoustic property change throughout the HIFU treatment. In addition, the 2D HMI displacement images confirmed and indicated the increase in the thermal lesion size with treatment duration

  1. VX2恶性骨肿瘤骨髓内浸润范围MRI 与病理对照研究%Intraosseous extent in rabbit VX2 malignant bone neoplasm:comparison of MRI and pathology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓莉; 董诚; 李玉军; 陈海松; 吴增杰; 庞婧; 贾梦; 徐文坚

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨 MRI 常用序列在判断恶性骨肿瘤骨髓内浸润范围及显示病变阳性率方面的应用价值。方法2010年6月—2012年3月选取兔龄8周、体质量2.0~3.0 kg 的雄性新西兰大白兔26只,1只制备荷瘤兔,25只接种 VX2肉瘤肿瘤组织块于兔右侧胫骨平台下2 cm 处的骨髓腔内,制备成恶性骨肿瘤模型兔。模型兔制备成功后,在全身麻醉状态下行 MRI 检查。选取肿瘤纵径最大层面,观察并测量 MR 自旋回波(SE) T1 WI、脂肪抑制 FSE T2 WI、短时间反转恢复序列(STIR)、脂肪抑制 SE T1 WI 增强序列图像中的髓内肿瘤浸润纵径。 MRI 检查完成后,处死模型兔,切取兔右下肢标本,用硬组织切片系统自 MR 扫描起始点间隔4 mm 连续切割,选取与 MRI 中骨髓内肿瘤纵径最大层面相对应的标本切片进行肿瘤髓内浸润纵径的测量和病理学观察。采用单因素方差分析和配对 t 检验,比较 MR 不同序列之间及 MR 不同序列和病理切片检查之间肿瘤髓内浸润纵径测量值的差异;并对 MR 不同序列间显示肿瘤髓内浸润的阳性率{[真阳性/(真阳性+假阳性)]×100%}进行χ2检验。结果成功制备21只模型兔。 MRI 中 SE T1 WI、脂肪抑制 FSE T2 WI、STIR、脂肪抑制 SE T1 WI 增强序列间肿瘤髓内浸润纵径的测量值分别为(44.5±10.8)mm、(41.0 ± 9.7) mm、(40.7 ± 9.4)mm、(40.3±9.5)mm,4种序列之间的差异无统计学意义(F =0.802,P >0.05)。 4种序列图像的肿瘤髓内浸润纵径测量值均大于病理标本测量值(39.3±9.3)mm,配对 t 检验分析差异均有统计学意义(t =7.053、6.334、6.445、8.150,P 值均 0. 05). The average value of group SE T1 WI, Fat-Sat FSE T2 WI, STIR and Fat-Sat SE T1 WI with contrast were (44. 5 ± 10. 8) mm, (41. 0 ± 9. 7) mm, (40. 7 ± 9. 4) mm and (40. 3 ± 9. 5) mm, respectively. The value of measuring tumor intraosseous extent in group SE T1 WI, Fat-Sat FSE T2 WI, STIR and group Fat

  2. Harmonic motion imaging for abdominal tumor detection and high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation monitoring: an in vivo feasibility study in a transgenic mouse model of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Hou, Gary Y; Han, Yang; Payen, Thomas; Palermo, Carmine F; Olive, Kenneth P; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2015-09-01

    Harmonic motion imaging (HMI) is a radiationforce- based elasticity imaging technique that tracks oscillatory tissue displacements induced by sinusoidal ultrasonic radiation force to assess the resulting oscillatory displacement denoting the underlying tissue stiffness. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of HMI in pancreatic tumor detection and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment monitoring. The HMI system consisted of a focused ultrasound transducer, which generated sinusoidal radiation force to induce oscillatory tissue motion at 50 Hz, and a diagnostic ultrasound transducer, which detected the axial tissue displacements based on acquired radio-frequency signals using a 1-D cross-correlation algorithm. For pancreatic tumor detection, HMI images were generated for pancreatic tumors in transgenic mice and normal pancreases in wild-type mice. The obtained HMI images showed a high contrast between normal and malignant pancreases with an average peak-to-peak HMI displacement ratio of 3.2. Histological analysis showed that no tissue damage was associated with HMI when it was used for the sole purpose of elasticity imaging. For pancreatic tumor ablation monitoring, the focused ultrasound transducer was operated at a higher acoustic power and longer pulse length than that used in tumor detection to simultaneously induce HIFU thermal ablation and oscillatory tissue displacements, allowing HMI monitoring without interrupting tumor ablation. HMI monitoring of HIFU ablation found significant decreases in the peak-to-peak HMI displacements before and after HIFU ablation with a reduction rate ranging from 15.8% to 57.0%. The formation of thermal lesions after HIFU exposure was confirmed by histological analysis. This study demonstrated the feasibility of HMI in abdominal tumor detection and HIFU ablation monitoring.

  3. Two-dimensional multi-frequency imaging of a tumor inclusion in a homogeneous breast phantom using the harmonic motion Doppler imaging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali Tafreshi, Azadeh; Barış Top, Can; Güneri Gençer, Nevzat

    2017-06-01

    Harmonic motion microwave Doppler imaging (HMMDI) is a novel imaging modality for imaging the coupled electrical and mechanical properties of body tissues. In this paper, we used two experimental systems with different receiver configurations to obtain HMMDI images from tissue-mimicking phantoms at multiple vibration frequencies between 15 Hz and 35 Hz. In the first system, we used a spectrum analyzer to obtain the Doppler data in the frequency domain, while in the second one, we used a homodyne receiver that was designed to acquire time-domain data. The developed phantoms mimicked the elastic and dielectric properties of breast fat tissue, and included a 14~\\text{mm}× 9 mm cylindrical inclusion representing the tumor. A focused ultrasound probe was mechanically scanned in two lateral dimensions to obtain two-dimensional HMMDI images of the phantoms. The inclusions were resolved inside the fat phantom using both experimental setups. The image resolution increased with increasing vibration frequency. The designed receiver showed higher sensitivity than the spectrum analyzer measurements. The results also showed that time-domain data acquisition should be used to fully exploit the potential of the HMMDI method.

  4. Therapeutic efifcacy and bone marrow protection of the mdr1 gene and over-dose chemotherapy with doxorubicin for rabbits with VX2 hepatocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Wang; Xian-Qing Jin; Shan Wang; Qiao Wang; Qing Luo; Xiao-Ji Luo

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malignant tumors are common diseases threatening to the health and life of human being. Clinically, the multidrug resistance of tumor cells and bone marrow depression caused by chemotherapeutic agents are the main obstacles to the treatment of tumors, and both are related to the mdr1 gene. The over expression of the mdr1 gene in tumor cells contributes to the multidrug resistance of malignant tumor cells. With little expression of the mdr1 gene, bone marrow cells particularly susceptible to multidrug resistance-sensitive agents, which cause serious toxicity in bone marrow. This study was undertaken to assess therapeutic efifcacy of transplantation of bone marrow mononuclear cells transferred with the mdr1 gene and over-dose chemotherapy with doxorubicin for VX2 hepatocarcinoma of rabbits. METHODS: The mdr1 gene was transferred into the bone marrow mononuclear cells of rabbits, which was co-cultured with retroviral vector-containing supernatant, and the cells were autotransplanted into a rabbit model with VX2 hepatocarcinoma. After chemotherapy with doxorubicin, the protective effects of the mdr1 gene and therapeutic efifcacy of over-dose chemotherapy were observed. RESULTS:The mdr1 gene was transferred successfully into the bone marrow mononuclear cells, with a transduction efifciency of 35%. After autotransplantation, the mdr1 gene was expressed functionally in bone marrow with a positive rate of 8%, indicating that the gene played an important role in bone marrow protection. The rabbits with VX2 hepatocarcinoma, which had received the mdr1 gene-transduced cells, survived after chemotherapy with a 3-fold dose of adriamycin, and their white blood cell counts were (4.26±1.03)×104/L. Since hepatocarcinoma cells were eradicated, the survival time (97.00±46.75 d) of the rabbits was extended (P CONCLUSIONS:The transferring of the mdr1 gene into bone marrow mononuclear cells could confer chemoprotection to bone marrow, and over-dose chemotherapy could be

  5. Evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of sequential therapy involving percutaneous microwave ablation in combination with 131I-hypericin using the VX2 rabbit breast solid tumor model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Zhu

    Full Text Available Combination of percutaneous microwave ablation (PMWA and intravenous injection of 131I-hypericin(IIIH may bear potential as a mini-invasive treatment for tumor. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of PMWA and IIIH in breast tumor growth.Ten New Zealand White rabbits bearing VX2 breast carcinomas were randomly divided into two groups (each 5 examples and processed using PMWA followed by IIIH and IIIH alone. The IIIH activity was evaluated using planar scintigraphy, autoradiography and biodistribution analysis. The maximum effective safe dose of IIIH was found through 48 rabbits with VX2 breast tumor, which were randomized into six groups (n=8 per group. Subsequently, a further 75 rabbits bearing VX2 breast solid tumors were randomly divided into five groups (each 15 examples and treated as follows: A, no treatment group; B, PMWA alone; C, IIIH alone; D, PMWA+IIIH×1 (at 8 h post-PMWA; and E, PMWA+IIIH×2 (at 8 h and at 8 days post-PMWA. The therapeutic effect was assessed by measurement of tumor size and performation of positron emission tomography/computed tomograph (PET/CT scans, liver and renal function tests and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis.The planar scintigraphy findings suggested a significant uptake of 131I in necrotic tumor tissue. The autoradiography gray scales indicated higher selective uptake of IIIH by necrotic tissue, with significant differences between the groups with and those without necrotic tumor tissue (P<0.05. The maximum effective safe dose of IIIH was 1 mCi/kg. The PET/CT scans and tumor size measurement suggested improvements in treatment groups at all time points (P<0.01. Significant differences were detected among Groups A, B, D and E (P<0.05. Lower levels of lung metastasis were detected in Groups D and E (P<0.05. There were no abnormalities in liver and renal functions tests or other reported side effects.IIIH exhibited selective uptake by necrotic tumor tissue. Sequential therapy involving PMWA

  6. Transcatheter arterial embolization combined with radiofrequency ablation activates CD8+ T-cell infiltration surrounding residual tumors in the rabbit VX2 liver tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan XH

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Xu-Hua Duan,1,2 Teng-Fei Li,2 Guo-Feng Zhou,1,* Xin-Wei Han,2,* Chuan-Sheng Zheng,1 Peng-fei Chen,2 Gan-Sheng Feng11Department of Interventional Radiology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 2Department of Interventional Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Henan Province, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: To evaluate the effect of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE combined with radiofrequency ablation (RFA treatment (TAE + RFA on the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 in residual tumors and explore the relationship between the HSP70 and CD8+ T-cell infiltrate surrounding residual tumors in the rabbit VX2 liver tumor model.Materials and methods: Animals with VX2 liver tumors were randomized into four groups (control, TAE, RFA, and TAE + RFA with 15 rabbits in each group. Five rabbits in each group were sacrificed on days 1, 3, and 7 after treatment. HSP70 expression and infiltration of CD8+ T-cells in the liver and residual tumors surrounding the necrosis zone were detected by immunohistochemistry staining. The maximal diameters of tumor necrosis, numbers of metastases, and tumor growth rate were compared on day 7 after treatment.Results: TAE + RFA achieved larger maximal diameter of tumor necrosis, lower tumor growth rate, and fewer metastatic lesions, compared with other treatments on day 7. The number of CD8+ T-cells in the TAE + RFA group was significantly higher than in other groups on days 1, 3, and 7. There was a positive correlation between HSP70 expression level and infiltration of CD8+ T-cells surrounding the residual tumor on day 1 (r=0.9782, P=0.012, day 3 (r=0.93, P=0.021, and day 7 (r=0.8934, P=0.034.Conclusion: In the rabbit VX2 liver tumor model, TAE + RFA activated the highest number of CD8+ T-cells surrounding residual tumors. TAE + RFA appears to be a beneficial

  7. Experimental Study of CT Guided 32P-CP-PLLA Microparticle Implantation in the Treatment of Rabbit VX2 Lung Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghui PAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective 32P-chromic phosphate-poly (L-lactic acid (32P-CP-PLLA microparticle is a novel potent brachytherapy implant, which has good biocompatibility and biodegradability. The aim of this study is to investigate the changes of pathology and PET/CT images in VX2 rabbit tumor after treatment with intratumorol administration of 32P-CP-PLLA microparticles, and to explore the effects and influence of tumor growth and apoptosis related proteins in VX2 lung tumor treatment with 32P-CP-PLLA microparticles. Methods Twenty-four tumor bearing rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups (6 in each group. Group 1, 2 and 3 were treated groups; group 4 was the control. Under CT guidance, 32P-CPPLLA microparticles were implanted into tumors. Low, medium and high treatment doses were 93 MBq (group 1, 185 MBq (group 2 and 370 MBq (group 3, respectively. 18F-FDG PET/CT was performed at d0, d3, d7 and d14 after intratumoral administration. In the control group, 18F-FDG PET/CT images were acquired at the same time points but without treatment. The standardized uptake value (SUV of tumor regions were calculated. After last PET/CT imaging, the rabbits were euthanized and the tumors were removed for histological and immunohistochemical examination. The pathology and the expression of apoptosis related proteins (bcl-2, bax were compared. Results No significant difference of SUVmax was observed between the treatment groups and the control group at d0. At d14, the SUVmax values for group 1, 2 and 3 were 0.80±0.10, 1.1±0.19 and 2.85±0.15, respectively, and were significantly lower than that of the control group (5.61±0.50(P < 0.05. Significant dose-response relationship was observed in SUVmax between group 1 and group 2, and the SUV values gradually decreased from d7 to d14 after treatment. In group 3, SUVmax gradually increased and reached a peak at d7 then significantly decreased. The SUVmax values of group 3 were significantly lower than those of

  8. Autoradiographic and histopathological studies of boric acid-mediated BNCT in hepatic VX2 tumor-bearing rabbits: Specific boron retention and damage in tumor and tumor vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C H; Lin, Y T; Hung, Y H; Liao, J W; Peir, J J; Liu, H M; Lin, Y L; Liu, Y M; Chen, Y W; Chuang, K S; Chou, F I

    2015-12-01

    Hepatoma is a malignant tumor that responds poorly to conventional therapies. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) may provide a better way for hepatoma therapy. In this research, (10)B-enriched boric acid (BA, 99% (10)B) was used as the boron drug. A multifocal hepatic VX2 tumor-bearing rabbit model was used to study the mechanisms of BA-mediated BNCT. Autoradiography demonstrated that BA was selectively targeted to tumors and tumor vessels. Histopathological examination revealed the radiation damage to tumor-bearing liver was concentrated in the tumor regions during BNCT treatment. The selective killing of tumor cells and the destruction of the blood vessels in tumor masses may be responsible for the success of BA-mediated BNCT for liver tumors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Antitumor Effect and Hepatotoxicity of a Hexokinase II Inhibitor 3-Bromopyruvate: In Vivo Investigation of Intraarterial Administration in a Rabbit VX2 Hepatoma Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jae, Hwan Jun; Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Hee Sun; Lee, Min Jong; Lee, Ki Chang; Kim, Hyo Cheol; Yoon, Jung Hwan; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, He Son [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the antitumor effect and hepatotoxicity of an intraarterial delivery of low-dose and high-dose 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) and those of a conventional Lipiodol-doxorubicin emulsion in a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model. This experiment was approved by the animal care committee at our institution. VX2 carcinoma was implanted in the livers of 36 rabbits. Transcatheter intraarterial administration was performed using low dose 3- BrPA (25 mL in a 1 mM concentration, n = 10), high dose 3-BrPA (25 mL in a 5 mM concentration, n = 10) and Lipiodol-doxorubicin emulsion (1.6 mg doxorubicin/ 0.4 mL Lipiodol, n = 10), and six rabbits were treated with normal saline alone as a control group. One week later, the proportion of tumor necrosis was calculated based on histopathologic examination. The hepatotoxicity was evaluated by biochemical analysis. The differences between these groups were statistically assessed with using Mann-Whitney U tests and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The tumor necrosis rate was significantly higher in the high dose group (93% +- 7.6 [mean +- SD]) than that in the control group (48% +- 21.7) (p = 0.0002), but the tumor necrosis rate was not significantly higher in the low dose group (62% +- 20.0) (p = 0.2780). However, the tumor necrosis rate of the high dose group was significantly lower than that of the Lipiodol-doxorubicin treatment group (99% +- 2.7) (p = 0.0015). The hepatotoxicity observed in the 3-BrPA groups was comparable to that of the Lipiodol-doxorubicin group. Even though intraarterial delivery of 3-BrPA shows a dose-related antitumor effect, single session treatment seems to have limited efficacy when compared with the conventional method

  10. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI using a macromolecular MR contrast agent (P792): Evaluation of antivascular drug effect in a rabbit VX2 liver tumor model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Sun [Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Joon Koo; Lee, Jeong Min; Woo, Sung Min; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Il [Dept. of Radiology, Sheikh Khalifa Specialty Hospital, Ras Al Khaimah (United Arab Emirates); Choi, Jin Young [Dept. of Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To evaluate the utility of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) using macromolecular contrast agent (P792) for assessment of vascular disrupting drug effect in rabbit VX2 liver tumor models. This study was approved by our Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. DCE-MRI was performed with 3-T scanner in 13 VX2 liver tumor-bearing rabbits, before, 4 hours after, and 24 hours after administration of vascular disrupting agent (VDA), using gadomelitol (P792, n = 7) or low molecular weight contrast agent (gadoterate meglumine [Gd-DOTA], n = 6). P792 was injected at a of dose 0.05 mmol/kg, while that of Gd-DOTA was 0.2 mmol/kg. DCE-MRI parameters including volume transfer coefficient (Ktrans) and initial area under the gadolinium concentration-time curve until 60 seconds (iAUC) of tumors were compared between the 2 groups at each time point. DCE-MRI parameters were correlated with tumor histopathology. Reproducibility in measurement of DCE-MRI parameters and image quality of source MR were compared between groups. P792 group showed a more prominent decrease in Ktrans and iAUC at 4 hours and 24 hours, as compared to the Gd-DOTA group. Changes in DCE-MRI parameters showed a weak correlation with histologic parameters (necrotic fraction and microvessel density) in both groups. Reproducibility of DCE-MRI parameters and overall image quality was not significantly better in the P792 group, as compared to the Gd-DOTA group. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging using a macromolecular contrast agent shows changes of hepatic perfusion more clearly after administration of the VDA. Gadolinium was required at smaller doses than a low molecular contrast agent.

  11. The evaluation of anti-angiogenic treatment effects for implanted rabbit VX2 breast tumors using functional multi-slice spiral computed tomography (f-MSCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei Zhen, E-mail: leizhen2004@163.com [Department of Anatomy, Chinese Medical University, No. 92, Beiermalu Road, Heping District, Shenyang, 110001 (China) and Department of Radiology, The First Hospital of Liaoning Medical College, No. 2, Wuduan, Renmin Street, Jinzhou, 121001 (China); Ma Heji, E-mail: maheji9831@sina.com [Department of Radiology, The First Hospital of Liaoning Medical College, No. 2, Wuduan, Renmin Street, Jinzhou, 121001 (China); Xu Na, E-mail: xuna821230@sohu.com [Department of Radiology, The First Hospital of Liaoning Medical College, No. 2, Wuduan, Renmin Street, Jinzhou, 121001 (China); Xi Huanjiu, E-mail: xihuanjiu2004@yahoo.cn [Anthropology Institute, Liaoning Medical College, No. 40, Sanduan, Songpo Rd, Jinzhou, 121001 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Objective: Investigate the benefit of functional multi-slice spiral computed tomography (f-MSCT) perfusion imaging in the non-invasive assessment of targeted anti-angiogenesis therapy on an implanted rabbit VX2 breast tumor model. Method: 69 female pure New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned to one of the 4 groups and received treatment accordingly: control (saline), Endostar, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (Cyclophosphamide, Epirubicin and 5-Fluorouracil, CEF), combination therapy (Endostar and CEF). After 2 weeks of treatment, f-MSCT perfusion scannings were performed for all rabbits and information about blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT) and surface permeability (SP) was collected. After perfusion imaging, tumor tissues were sampled for immunohistochemistry and the Western blot test of VEGF protein expression. Results: (1) The VEGF expression level, measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, decreased by treatment group (control > Endostar > CEF > combination therapy). The same was true for the mean BF, BV, MTT and PS, which decreased from the control group to the combination therapy group gradually. The mean MTT level increased in reverse order from the control to the combination therapy group. The difference between any 2 groups on these measures was statistically significant (P < 0.05). (2) There was moderate positive correlation between VEGF expression and BE, BV, or PS level (P < 0.05) and a negative correlation between VEGF expression and MTT level for all 4 groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Therefore, f-MSCT can be used as a non-invasive approach to evaluate the effect of anti-angiogenic therapy for implanted rabbit VX2 breast tumors.

  12. Effects of acetylsalicylic acid and acetic acid solutions in VX2 carcinoma cells: In vitro analysis Efeito da solução de ácido acetilsalicílico e de ácido acético sobre o carcinoma vx-2: Análise in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Saad-Hossne

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze, in vitro, the effects of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin and acetic acid solutions on VX2 carcinoma cells in suspension and to examine the correlation between these effects and neoplastic cell death. METHODS: The VX2 tumor cells (10(7 cells/ml were incubated in solutions containing differing concentrations (2.5% and 5% of either acetylsalicylic acid or acetic acid, or in saline solution (controls. Every five minutes, cell viability was tested (using the trypan blue test and analyzed under light microscopy. RESULTS: Tumor cell viability (in % decreased progressively and, by 30 minutes, neoplastic cell death had occurred in all solutions. CONCLUSION: Based on this experimental model and the methodology employed, we conclude that these solutions cause neoplastic cell death in vitro.OBJETIVO: Analisar os efeitos das soluções de ácido acetil salicílico (aspirina e de ácido acético, in vitro, sobre células em suspensão do carcinoma VX-2, verificando-se as mesmas causam a morte das células neoplásicas. MÉTODOS: Procedeu-se a incubação das células tumorais VX-2 (10(7 células/ml com diferentes concentrações do ácido acetil salicílico (2,5% e 5% e de ácido acético (2,5% e 5%, sendo estudada a viabilidade celular pelo teste do azul tripian a cada 5 minutos; procedeu-se à análise à microscopia ótica. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que o percentual de viabilidade das células tumorais foi progressivamente diminuindo, sendo que ao final de 30 minutos todas as células neoplásicas estavam inviáveis em todas as soluções e concentrações utilizadas. CONCLUSÃO: Com base neste modelo experimental e com a metodologia empregada, concluiu-se que in vitro, estas soluções causam a morte (inviabilidade das células neoplásicas.

  13. Radiation-force-based estimation of acoustic attenuation using harmonic motion imaging (HMI) in phantoms and in vitro livers before and after HIFU ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiangang; Hou, Gary Y; Marquet, Fabrice; Han, Yang; Camarena, Francisco; Konofagou, Elisa

    2015-10-07

    Acoustic attenuation represents the energy loss of the propagating wave through biological tissues and plays a significant role in both therapeutic and diagnostic ultrasound applications. Estimation of acoustic attenuation remains challenging but critical for tissue characterization. In this study, an attenuation estimation approach was developed using the radiation-force-based method of harmonic motion imaging (HMI). 2D tissue displacement maps were acquired by moving the transducer in a raster-scan format. A linear regression model was applied on the logarithm of the HMI displacements at different depths in order to estimate the acoustic attenuation. Commercially available phantoms with known attenuations (n = 5) and in vitro canine livers (n = 3) were tested, as well as HIFU lesions in in vitro canine livers (n = 5). Results demonstrated that attenuations obtained from the phantoms showed a good correlation (R² = 0.976) with the independently obtained values reported by the manufacturer with an estimation error (compared to the values independently measured) varying within the range of 15-35%. The estimated attenuation in the in vitro canine livers was equal to 0.32   ±   0.03 dB cm(-1) MHz(-1), which is in good agreement with the existing literature. The attenuation in HIFU lesions was found to be higher (0.58   ±   0.06 dB cm(-1) MHz(-1)) than that in normal tissues, also in agreement with the results from previous publications. Future potential applications of the proposed method include estimation of attenuation in pathological tissues before and after thermal ablation.

  14. Feasibility of Quantitative Parameter Measurements at Reduced X-ray Dose CT Perfusion in Rabbits with Implanted VX2 Lung Tumours%兔VX2肺肿瘤低剂量CT灌注成像的可行性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔磊; 龚沈初; 何书; 尹剑兵; 杨巨顺; 杨红

    2011-01-01

    Objective To prospectively assess the reproducibility of CT perfusion parameters acquired with normal dose and low dose in rabbits with implanted VX2 lung tumours. Methods Two times of perfusion CT were performed with 24-hour interval in 10 New Zealand white rabbits with implanted VX2 lung tumours by means of using routine (120 kV, 100 mAs) and low (120 kV, 50 mAs) dose. The volume, maximum diameter, blood volume(BV) , blood flow(BF) , time to peak(TTP) , permeability surface (PS), patlak BV(PBV), Patlak R square (PatRsq) and Patlak residual ( PatRVX2 lungtumours.%目的 前瞻性评估兔VX2肺种植肿瘤低剂量和常规剂量CT灌注检查测量参数的可重复性.方法 10只肺种植肿瘤新西兰大白兔间隔24h行两次CT灌注检查(常规剂量120 kV,100 mAs;低剂量120 kV,50 mAs),分别测量肿瘤体积、最大径、血容量(BV)、血流量(BF)、达峰时间(TTP)、表面通透性(PS)、Patlak血容量(PBV)、Patlak R方程(PatRsq)及Patlak残差(PatRes).使用配对t检验和Bland-Altman法分析2组CT测量数据的一致性和可重复性.结果 两次CT检查所有的CT灌注参数均显示较好的一致性.配对t检验

  15. Using the 64-slice Perfusion CT to Evaluate the Oxygen Tension(pO2) in the Rabbit VX2 Tumor Model: An Experimental Study%64层灌注CT评价兔VX2体部肿瘤模型氧分压的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙昌进; 肖明勇; 阴俊; 于金明; 郞锦义; 王光辉; 李超; 李涛; 罗云秀; 吕海波; 张德康; 李彦; 黄建鸣

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of the 64-slice perfusion CT in the evaluation of the oxygen tension ( pO2 ) in the rabbit VX2 tumor model. Methods: Forty-five rabbit VX2 brain tumor model established successfully were examined with 64-detector row CT. Tumor specimens were assessed for the oxygen tension ( pO2 ) , perfusion, blood volume ( BV) , peak enhancement intensity ( PEI) and time to peak (TTP) , and Pearson correlation coefficients were conducted to represent the relationships between the perfusion parameters and pO2 of the tumor. pO2was measured by oxygen-sensitive electrodes guided by perfusion CT images. Results: Mean values for perfusion,BV,PEI, TTP and pO2 of the 45 tumors were 27. 102 ± 26. 723ml/min, 22. 1 96 ± 13. 680ml/100g,43. 456 ±28.73 HU, 38.823 ±14.759 sec,and 15.981 ± 14.815mmHg, respectively. BV,PEI, TTP were not significant correlated with pO2 (r =0.271, 0. 253 、- 0. 18 , P > 0. 05 ) , whereas positively correlation was found between perfusion with pO2 ( r = 0. 673, P = 0. 00 ). Conclusion: The perfusion value from 64-slice spiral CT perfusion imaging might to have ability to evaluate the tumor pO2%目的:利用64层灌注CT评价兔VX2肿瘤模型氧分压并与氧微电极法对照.方法:对45只成功建模兔VX2脑瘤模型行灌注CT检查.测量脑瘤兴趣区灌注值(perfusion)、血容量(blood volume,BV)、达峰时间(time to peak TTP)、最大峰值(peak enhancement intensity,PEI).结果与该兴趣区氧微电极法测得氧分压(PO2)对照.结果:45例成功建模兔VX2脑瘤兴趣区灌注值范围为1.3 ml/min~127.0 ml/min,平均为27.102 ml/min±26.723 ml/min;BV为1.2 ml/100g~53.1ml/100g,平均为22.196 ml/100g±13.680ml/100g,PEI为8.7 HU~124.6HU,平均为43.456 HU±28.73 HU; TTP为8.2 sec~62.5 sec,平均为38.823 sec±14.759 sec;对应区域PO2为0.14 mmHg~46.70mmHg,平均为15.981 mmHg±14.815mmHg.灌注值与对应区域PO2相关系数为0.673,有统计学意义(P=0.00).BV

  16. An experiment study on the inhibition of rabbit VX2 soft-tissue tumor by low frequency ultrasound radiation and microbubbles%低频超声辐照联合微泡抑制兔VX2肿瘤生长的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇; 申锷; 胡兵

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To explore a noinvasive therapy of tumor by cavitation effect induced by microbuhbles mediated low frequency ultrasound radiation. Methods : VX2 tumor was implanted into the unilateral proximal thigh of 24 Newzealand white rabbits successfully. These rabbits were randomly divided into four groups, control group, simplicity microbubble group, simplicity ultrasound group, and ultrasound and microbubble group , when the tumors approached about 1. 0 centimeter in size, with 6 rabbits in each group. After treatment correspondently, measured the volume of gross tumor and observed the blood flow infusion by sonography for 2 weeks. Then, drew a growth curve and calculated the ratio of tumor growth,collected the tumor samples and histopathology damages were observed. Results: After treatment for two weeks , tumor volume and tumor growth ratio of ultrasound and microbubble group were significantly smaller than the other groups ( P < 0. 01 ) , the blood flow reduction was observed by contrast enhanced ultrasonography. Necrosis was observed by histopathology. No statistical difference among control group, simplicity microbubble group and simplicity ultrasound group. Conclusion: Low frequency ultrasound radiation of 20kHz with microbubble sonoVue in vascular can inhibit the growth of VX2 soft - tissue tumors in rabbits. It might be the mechanism of the VX2 tumor microcirculation being selectively destroyed by microbubbles mediated ultrasound cavitation.%目的:探索低频超声辐照联合静脉注射微泡抑制肿瘤生长的非创伤性治疗肿瘤的新方法.方法:24只新西兰大白兔后腿肌肉内接种VX2肿瘤,瘤体长至1cm左右随机分为对照组、单纯微泡组、单纯超声组和超声微泡组.各组经相应处理后,超声检测肿瘤大小、观察瘤体内血流灌注情况,绘制肿瘤生长曲线,计算肿瘤增长百分率.病理学观察治疗后各组瘤体组织的病理学损伤.结果:治疗后2周结果显示超声微泡组

  17. Feasibility of DCE-MRI for evaluation of anti-angiogenesis effect of Endostar in the model of rabbit VX2 bone tumor%DCE-MRI评价Endostar对兔VX2骨肿瘤模型抗血管生成的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚威; 查云飞; 闫力永; 邢栋; 王克军; 胡磊; 王娇; 刘昌盛

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the feasibility of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI)based on the Reference-Region model for evaluating anti-tumor angiogenesis effect of endostar in rabbit VX2 bone tumor.Methods:20 rabbits with VX2 bone tumor (tumor size in soft tissue>1cm)were randomly divided into the control group (n= 10)and the experimental group (n= 10),and were accepted DCE-MRI examination before and 14 days after treatment (using saline in control group;using endostar with concentration of 1.5mg/8mL in experimental group).DCE-MRI parameters including microvascular permeability transfer constant (Ktrans )and microvascular permeability reflux con-stant (Kep )were acquired based on the Reference-Region model.All the rabbits were sacrificed after DCE-MRI scanning at the 14th day.MVD and VEGF expression were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining.Correlation analysis was per-formed between DCE-MRI parameters and immunohistochemistry results.Results:In the experimental group,the Ktrans , MVD and VEGF expression had statistical difference (P0.05)between the two regions.Before treatment,the Ktrans value of pe-ripheral region and central region of rabbit VX2 bone tumors in the control group were (32.58±3.10)and (28.5± 3.54)min-1 respectively;and were (27.7±4.75)and (23.9±4.40)min-1 in the experimental group;after treatment,they were (37.66±2.78)and (34.2±3.39)min-1 in control group,and were (22.2±4.29)and (18.3±4.23)min-1 in the ex-perimental group,respectively.In the experimental group,the Ktrans values of the peripheral region and central region of rab-bit VX2 bone tumors were correlated with the MVD and VEGF expression (r= 0.924,0.945,0.848 and 0.909,respective-ly;P0.01).Conclusion:The spatial distribution of blood perfusion in rabbit VX2 bone tumors has hetero-geneity.The Ktrans value in DCE-MRI based on the Reference-Region model can be applied to estimate the anti-tumor angio-genesis effect of endostar.%目的:

  18. Harmonic oscillator: an analysis via Fourier series

    CERN Document Server

    de Castro, A S

    2013-01-01

    The Fourier series method is used to solve the homogeneous equation governing the motion of the harmonic oscillator. It is shown that the general solution to the problem can be found in a surprisingly simple way for the case of the simple harmonic oscillator. It is also shown that the damped harmonic oscillator is susceptible to the analysis.

  19. Establishing models of portal vein occlusion and evaluating value of multi-slice CT in hepatic VX2 tumor in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-Yong Qi; Li-Guang Zou; Ping Liang; Dong Zhang

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To establish models of portal vein occlusion of hepatic VX2 tumor in rabbits and to evaluate the value of multi-slice CT.METHODS: Forty New Zealand rabbits were divided into 4 groups according to digital table: Immediate group (group A; transplantation of tumor immediately after the portal vein occlusion), 3-wk group (group B;transplantation of tumor at 3 wk after the portal vein occlusion), negative control group (group C) and positive control group (group D), 10 rabbits in each group.Hepatic VX2 tumor was transplanted with abdominal-embedding innoculation immediately after the portal vein occlusion and at 3 wk after the portal vein occlusion.Meanwhile, they were divided into negative control group (Left external branch of portal vein was occluded by sham-operation, and left exite was embedded and inoculated pseudoly) and positive control group (Transplanted tumor did not suffer from the portal vein occlusion). All rabbits were scanned with multi-slice CT.RESULTS: All 40 animals were employed in the final analysis without death. Tumor did not grow in both immediate group and 3-wk group. In 3-wk group, left endite was atrophied and growth of tumor was inhibited.The maximal diameter of tumor was significantly smaller than that in positive control group (2.55 ± 0.46 vs3.59 ± 0.37 cm, t = 5.57, P < 0.001). Incidences of metastasis in the liver and lung were lower in 3-wk group than those in positive control group (10% vs 40%, and 90% vs 100%, respectively). The expression intensities of the vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) in groups A, B, C and D were 0.10 ± 0.06, 0.66 ± 0.21, 0.28± 0.09 and 1.48 ± 0.32, respectively. VEGF expression level in the test group A was significantly lower than that in the negative control group C (t = 5.07; P < 0.001).In addition, VEGF expression in the test group B was significantly lower than that in the positive control group D (t = 6.38; P < 0.001). Scanning with multi-slice CT showed that displaying rate of

  20. 超顺磁性氧化铁粒子增强磁共振成像在大鼠脾脏荷VX2肿瘤模型的应用%Superparamagnetic iron oxide: Enhanced detection of splenic VX2 tumor with magnetic resonance imaging in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳红艳; 许乙凯; 吴元魁; 刘文源; 吕国士

    2007-01-01

    背景:CT和MRI对小于1 cm脾转移瘤结节的诊断的敏感度均不高,超顺磁性氧化铁粒子增强MR图像能否提高诊断敏感度有待研究.目的:建立大鼠脾脏转移瘤模型,结合特异的网状内皮系统对比剂超顺磁性氧化铁粒子行MRI扫描,探讨超顺磁性氧化铁粒子增强MR图像对脾转移瘤的诊断价值.设计:重复测量动物实验.单位:南方医科大学南方医院全军医学影像中心实验室.材料:实验于2005-05/2006-03在南方医科大学南方医院全军医学影像中心实验室完成,选用25只成年SD大鼠,雌雄不拘,体质量200~300 g,实验过程中动物的处置符合动物伦理学标准.摸球法将大鼠分为肿瘤组(n=20)及空白对照组(n=5).方法:制作脾脏荷VX2肿瘤模型鼠,注射超顺磁性氧化铁粒子后行MRI扫描,扫描序列采用T1加权成像(450/12 ms)和T2加权成像(4 000/128 ms).分析超顺磁性氧化铁粒子增强扫描前后MRI图像上不同组织的信号特点.空白对照组不制备模型,扫描序列与实验组相同.主要观察指标:超顺磁性氧化铁粒子增强扫描前后MRI图像上不同组织的信号特点.结果:纳入大鼠20只,肿瘤组8只死亡,其余12只与对照组5只均进入结果分析.肿瘤组行MR扫描发现有8只脾脏VX2肿瘤形成.①平扫SET1加权成像图像上正常脾实质相对于周围的肌肉及肝实质呈等信号,脾脏VX2肿瘤组织与周围的正常脾实质的信号强度对比较差,肿瘤-脾脏的对比噪声比极差,所有病灶均不能很好显示.②超顺磁性氧化铁粒子增强T2加权成像MR图像上正常脾实质信号强度与平扫时相比信号强度下降百分比为56.11%;脾脏VX2肿瘤信号强度与增强前比较无明显下降,信号强度下降百分比为1.90%,与正常脾实质的信号强度下降程度差异有显著性意义(P<0.01).超顺磁性氧化铁粒子增强T2加权成像MR图像上脾VX2肿瘤信号强度无明显变化,而其周围正

  1. Effects of intra-arterial infusion of 3-bromopyruvate on metastases and survival benefit of hepatic VX2 tumor in rabbits%3-溴丙酮酸对兔VX2肝肿瘤转移及兔生存时间的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江雄鹰; 张小萍; 黄金华; 罗荣光; 苗碧建; 王琰

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨3-溴丙酮酸(3-BrPA)经肝动脉灌注对兔VX2肝肿瘤转移及荷瘤兔生存时间的影响.方法 18只新西兰大白兔肝左叶种植VX2肿瘤,随机分成3组,每组6只.PBS灌注组:在肿瘤种植14 d后行肝动脉PBS溶液灌注.3-BrPA 7和14 d灌注组:在肿瘤种植7/14 d后行肝动脉3-BrPA溶液灌注.在肿瘤种植28 d后每组处死3只兔,解剖探查有无肝内转移、肾转移、肺转移及腹腔转移.每组剩余的3只兔观察其生存时间并进行比较.结果 肿瘤种植28 d后,PBS灌注组均发现肝内及腹腔转移(3/3),肾转移2只(2/3),肺转移2只(2/3).3-BrPA 7 d灌注组实验兔肝内和肺转移各有1只(1/3),未发现有腹腔和肾转移(0/3).3-BrPA14 d灌注组实验兔有2只发现肝内转移(2/3),肺和腹腔转移各有1只(1/3),未发现肾转移(0/3).生存时间比较显示3-BrPA 14 d灌注组实验兔生存时间[(27±5)d]显著长于PBS溶液灌注组[(17±3)d](P=0.041).而3-BrPA 7 d灌注组实验兔生存时间[(42±6)d]显著长于3-BrPA 14 d灌注组实验兔[(27±5)d](P=0.007).结论 经肝动脉灌3-BrPA能够有效减少兔VX2肝肿瘤的转移,并可延长移植VX2肝肿瘤兔的生存时间,且灌注时间越早,治疗效果越好.%Objective To evaluate the metastasis and survival of an intra-arterial infusion of 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) on hepatic VX2 tumor in rabbits.Methods VX2 tumor was implanted in left lateral lobe of liver of 18 white New Zealand rabbits.The animals were randomized into 3 groups (n =6 each) and underwent an intra-arterial infusion of phosphate-buffered saline or 3-BrPA via hepatic artery at 14 days post-implantation.At 28 days post-implantation,3 rabbits in each group were sacrificed.The abdomen of these rabbits was opened and inspected for metastases.Then the survival of the remaining rabbits was observed.Results At 28 days post-implantation,in PBS group,there were intrahepatic metastasis and abdominal cavity dissemination (n =3),renal metastases (n =2

  2. Harmonic statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-05-01

    The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their 'public relations' for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford's law, and 1/f noise.

  3. Structural and magnetic properties in the quantum S=1/2 dimer systems Ba3(Cr1-xVx)2O8 with site disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tao [ORNL; Zhu, L. Y. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Ke, X. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Garlea, Vasile O [ORNL; Qiu, Y. [National Institute of Standards and Technol/University of Maryland, College Park; Nambu, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan; Yoshizawa, H. [University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; Zhu, M. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Granroth, Garrett E [ORNL; Savici, Andrei T [ORNL; Gai, Zheng [ORNL; Zhou, H. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee

    2013-01-01

    We report a comprehensive study of the DC susceptibility, specific heat, neutron diffraction, and inelastic neutron scattering measurements on the polycrystalline Ba3(Cr1-xVx)2O8 samples, where x=0, 0.06, 0.15, and 0.53. A Jahn-Teller structure transition occurs for x=0, 0.06, and 0.15 samples and the transition temperature is reduced upon vanadium substitution from 70(2) K at x=0 to 60(2) K at x=0.06 and 0.15. The structure becomes less distorted as x increases and such transition disappears at x=0.53. The observed magnetic excitation spectrum indicates that the singlet ground state remains unaltered and spin gap energy =1.3(1) meV is identical within the instrument resolution for all x. In addition, the dispersion bandwidth W decreases with increase of x. At x=0.53, W is reduced to 1.4(1) meV from 2.0(1) meV at x=0.

  4. Thermo-sensitive composite hydrogels based on poloxamer 407 and alginate and their therapeutic effect in embolization in rabbit VX2 liver tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lili; Shen, Ming; Li, Rongxin; Zhang, Xiangyu; Sun, Ying; Gao, Pei; Fu, Hao; Liu, Hongqiang; He, Yang; Du, Yuqing; Cao, Jun; Duan, Yourong

    2016-11-08

    Interventional embolization therapy is an effective, most widely used method for inoperable liver tumors. Blood-vessel-embolic agents were essential in transarterial embolization (TAE). In this work, thermo-sensitive composite hydrogels based on poloxamer 407, sodium alginate, hydroxymethyl cellulose and iodixanol (PSHI), together with Ca2+ (PSHI-Ca2+) were prepared as liquid embolic agents for TAE therapy to liver cancer. With increasing temperature, PSHI exhibited two phase states: a flowing sol and a shrunken gel. Rheology tests showed good fluidity and excellent viscoelastic behavior with a gelation temperature (GT) of 26.5°C. The studies of erosion indicated that PSHI had calcium ion-related erosion characteristics and showed a slow erosion rate in an aqueous environment. When incubated with L929 cells, the thermo-sensitive composite hydrogels had low cytotoxicity in vitro. The results of analyzing the digital subtraction angiography and computed tomography images obtained from in vitro and in vivo assays indicated a good embolic effect in the renal arteries of normal rabbits. Angiography and histological studies on VX2 tumor-bearing rabbits indicated that PSHI-Ca2+ successfully occluded the tumors, including the peripheral vessels. In conclusion, PSHI-Ca2+ was a promising embolic agent for transarterial embolization therapy.

  5. Thermo-sensitive composite hydrogels based on poloxamer 407 and alginate and their therapeutic effect in embolization in rabbit VX2 liver tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lili; Shen, Ming; Li, Rongxin; Zhang, Xiangyu; Sun, Ying; Gao, Pei; Fu, Hao; Liu, Hongqiang; He, Yang; Du, Yuqing; Cao, Jun; Duan, Yourong

    2016-01-01

    Interventional embolization therapy is an effective, most widely used method for inoperable liver tumors. Blood-vessel-embolic agents were essential in transarterial embolization (TAE). In this work, thermo-sensitive composite hydrogels based on poloxamer 407, sodium alginate, hydroxymethyl cellulose and iodixanol (PSHI), together with Ca2+ (PSHI-Ca2+) were prepared as liquid embolic agents for TAE therapy to liver cancer. With increasing temperature, PSHI exhibited two phase states: a flowing sol and a shrunken gel. Rheology tests showed good fluidity and excellent viscoelastic behavior with a gelation temperature (GT) of 26.5°C. The studies of erosion indicated that PSHI had calcium ion-related erosion characteristics and showed a slow erosion rate in an aqueous environment. When incubated with L929 cells, the thermo-sensitive composite hydrogels had low cytotoxicity in vitro. The results of analyzing the digital subtraction angiography and computed tomography images obtained from in vitro and in vivo assays indicated a good embolic effect in the renal arteries of normal rabbits. Angiography and histological studies on VX2 tumor-bearing rabbits indicated that PSHI-Ca2+ successfully occluded the tumors, including the peripheral vessels. In conclusion, PSHI-Ca2+ was a promising embolic agent for transarterial embolization therapy. PMID:27602579

  6. Blocking effect on microcirculation of rabbits VX2 tumors by low-intensity pulsed therapeutic ultrasound combined with microbubbles%低能量脉冲式超声联合微泡对兔VX2肿瘤微循环的阻断作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱梅; 李佩倞; 钟渝; 梁红敏; 何利平; 刘政

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the blocking effect on microcirculation of rabbits VX2 tumors by low-intensity pulsed ultrasound combined with intravenous microbubble injection. Methods Thirty-six rabbits bearing subcutaneous VX2 tumors were randomly divided into 3 groups. For ultrasound combined with microbubbles group, pulsed ultrasound was delivered to the tumor surface for 10 min following intravenous infusion with microbubbles as ultrasound and microbubbles. For microbubbles group, only microbubbles were injected, while for ultrasound group, only exposure under pulsed ultrasound was performed. The tumor perfusion areas in CEUS were measured at 0, 30 min, 60 min. After treatment, 6 rabbits in each group were taken randomly to sacrifice for pathological observation. Results The contrast perfusion of tumors immediately vanished after treatment in ultrasound combined with microbubbles group, then recovered gradually at 30 min and 60 min. Pathological examination showed significant swell and hemorrhage, damages in the endothelia, abundance intercellular fluid, and in situ thrombosis in ultrasound combined with microbubbles group. There was no obvious change in CEUS and pathology in microbubbles group, nor in ultrasound group. Conclusion The tumor microcirculation can be blocked by microbubble associated with low energy ultrasound. The mechanism may be related to vessel wall injury caused by ultrasound cavitation, and tissue edema increases the resistance to the blood circulation of tumor areas.%目的 探讨低能量脉冲式超声联合微泡对兔VX2肿瘤微循环的阻断作用及其病理机制.方法 将36只皮下VX2荷瘤兔随机平均分成3组:超声微泡组注入0.2 ml/kg体质量微泡5ml,并辅以超声辐照10 min;单纯超声组注入生理盐水5 ml,辐照10 min;单纯微泡组仅注入0.2 ml/kg体质量微泡5 ml,不进行超声辐照.CEUS观察各组治疗前、治疗后0.30 min、60 min时血流灌注情况,比较各时间点的灌注面积.治

  7. The Value of Diagnosing Rabbit VX2 Peritoneal Implantation Metastasis Tumor by 256 Line CT JOG-H Perfusion Scan%256排CT JOG-H模式灌注扫描诊断兔VX2腹膜腔移植瘤的诊断价值评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟元涛

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of diagnosing rabbit VX2 peritoneal implantation metastasis tumor by 256 line CT JOG-H perfusion scan. Method The rabbits were induced into tumor models by injecting suspended particle, then CT perfusion scan were used to scan the abdomen of rabbit model. Pathological result was taken as gold standard to evaluate CT perfusion scan.Results CT perfusion scan was superior than CT enhanced scan in detecting the metastatic tumor less than 10mm,10-20 mm by CT enhanced scan.Conclusion CT perfusion scan was superior than CT enhanced scan in detecting the metastatic tumor less than 20 mm. In the focus greater than 20 mm, CT perfusion scan was equal to CT enhanced scan .%目的:评估CT灌注对腹腔内移植瘤的诊断价值。方法制作兔VX2腹膜腔移植瘤模型,对瘤兔腹部进行CT灌注扫描获得影像学结果,以病理结果为金标准评价CT增强加CT灌注的诊断价值。结果在对<10 mm及对10~20 mm的腹腔种植瘤进行扫描对于病灶检出能力CT增强加CT灌注扫描要优于单纯CT增强扫描。结论对于20 mm以下的病灶CT增强加CT灌注扫描检出能力在敏感度、特异度、准确度方面优于单纯CT增强,而对于>20 mm的病灶CT增强与CT增强加CT灌注检出结果相同均与病理结果一致。

  8. ~(18)F-FDG PET/CT for the evaluation of pathological changes of the VX2 rabbit tumors after treatment of Ar-He knife%兔VX2移植瘤氩氦刀治疗前后~(18)F-FDGPET/CT显像及病理学变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易峰涛; 张永学; 王慧; 宋华志

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the correlation of ~(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT with pathological changes of the VX2 rabbit tumors after treatment of Ar-He knife,and to explore the evolution of the Ar-He knife curative effect for VX2 rabbit tumors.Methods Thirty-six Japanese white rabbits had successfully been implanted with VX2 tumors in thighs.Four weeks later,the rabbits with VX2 tumors were imaged with FDG PET/CT before they were treated with Ar-He cryoablation.The rabbits were evenly and randomly divided into 6 groups (6 rabbits in each group) and imaged with FDG PET/CT respectively on the first day,third day,seventh day,fourteenth day,thirtieth day and sixtieth day after cryoablation.The rabbits in each group were sacriftced after post-treatment FDG PET/CT imaging for pathology and immunohistochemistry studies.The standardized uptake value (SUV) of tumor regions were calculated and compared with pathology and immunohistochemistry findings in the cryoablative area in each group.Paired-samples t-test and bivariate correlation analysis were evaluated by statistical software SPSS 16.0.Results After ArHe cryoablation,pathological changes of "necrosis-inflammatory response→organization" were found.On CT imaging,the tumors enlarged during 3-14 d after treatment and then shrank gradually.On FDG PET imaging,the maximum SUV (SUV_(max)) dropped dramatically on the first day after the operation(from 2.54±1.12 to 0.67±0.12),and increased slightly on the third day (1.71±0.82),and then continually dropped to 0.51±0.32 (60 d afterthe operation).The differences of SUV_(max) between pre-and after cryoablationin each stage were significant,respectively (t=5.471,8.716,11.388,5.713,7.144 and 7.213,all P<0.05).The size and SUV_(max) of the targeting area did not correlate with each other(r=0.259,P=0.675).The change of the MVD closely correlated with SUV_(max)(r=0.865,P=0.032).Conclusion FDG PET/CT can reveal the pathological change of tumor tissue after Ar-He cryoablation

  9. A Look at Damped Harmonic Oscillators through the Phase Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshbod, Yousef; Latulippe, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Damped harmonic oscillations appear naturally in many applications involving mechanical and electrical systems as well as in biological systems. Most students are introduced to harmonic motion in an elementary ordinary differential equation (ODE) course. Solutions to ODEs that describe simple harmonic motion are usually found by investigating the…

  10. 利用LED灯演示简谐振动的合成和光的5种偏振态%Using LED to demonstrate composition of simple harmonic motions and five polarization states of light

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董永奇; 阮海军; 蔡天芳; 彭继迎; 王伟; 王飞

    2013-01-01

    Instruments such as oscillograph could show the results of the composition of simple harmonic motions ,but their displays of graphics are unstable .To overcome the shortcomings of pre-vious equipments ,the author suggested an improved way to demonstrate the composition of simple harmonic motions and five polarization states of light using LED and designed an improved demonstra-tion instrument .T he instrument could show coutinuously and dynamically the process of composition as well as display the graphics of the results .%示波器等仪器虽能直观地显示简谐振动的合成结果,但其显示的图形不太稳定且无法演示合成过程。针对以往演示仪器的不足,利用L ED灯模拟了示波器来实现简谐振动的合成和光的5种偏振态,具有连续动态的图形显示。该演示仪不但能显示合成图形,还可实现动态地演示合成的过程。

  11. Harmonic statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliazar, Iddo, E-mail: eliazar@post.tau.ac.il

    2017-05-15

    The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their ‘public relations’ for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford’s law, and 1/f noise. - Highlights: • Harmonic statistics are described and reviewed in detail. • Connections to various statistical laws are established. • Connections to perturbation, renormalization and dynamics are established.

  12. Therapeutic efficacy of novel microwave-sensitized mPEG-PLGA@ZrO2@(DOX + ILS) drug-loaded microspheres in rabbit VX2 liver tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jingsong; Tang, Shunsong; Hong, Duo; Zhao, Fan; Niu, Meng; Han, Xiangjun; Qi, Ji; Bao, Han; Jiang, Yutian; Fu, Changhui; Long, Dan; Meng, Xianwei; Su, Hongying

    2017-03-09

    The use of nanomaterials as drug delivery systems shows good effects in treating tumors. However, the effective dose of drugs targeted to tumor tissues is very low because of the effect of the reticuloendothelial system (RES) in removing such foreign substances. In order to eliminate the RES effect, we developed mPEG-PLGA@ZrO2@(DOX + ILS) (mPEG-PLGA@ZrO2@[DOX + ILS]) drug-loaded microspheres. These microwave (MW)-sensitized microspheres directly embolized the blood-supply vessels of tumors to induce tumor ischemia and hypoxia, as well as to aggregate drugs within tumor tissues in a long-lasting manner. Additionally, combination with MW ablation can triple the effects for the inhibition of tumor growth. The MW sensitive ionic liquid (ILS) in microspheres can rapidly produce a high temperature in a MW field on the basis of MW sensitization, thus accelerating the degradation of microspheres to release DOX-loaded ZrO2 into the lesions to kill tumors. Microspheres can also prolong the pharmacological time and effect of drugs through the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect of nanocarriers, as well as the sustained release of nanomaterials. Studies performed in vivo revealed that mPEG-PLGA@ZrO2@(DOX + ILS) showed good biosafety. We undertook sensitized microsphere embolism therapy using novel mPEG-PLGA@ZrO2@(DOX + ILS) microspheres in a rabbit VX2 liver tumor model. Three, 6 and 9 d after treatment, computed tomography indicated no significant change in tumor size, and diffusion weighted imaging showed a marked decrease of residual tumor tissues. With the multiple functions of inducing embolisms, sensitization, and the sustained release of chemotherapeutics, novel mPEG-PLGA@ZrO2@(DOX + ILS) microspheres can achieve good therapeutic efficacy, in combination with MW ablation and chemotherapy, while embolizing the blood vessels of arterial tumors.

  13. Evaluation of 70-150-μm doxorubicin-eluting beads for transcatheter arterial chemoembolization in the rabbit liver VX2 tumour model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamrezanezhad, Ali; Mirpour, Sahar; Geschwind, Jean-Francois H; Rao, Pramod; Loffroy, Romaric; Pellerin, Olivier; Liapi, Eleni A

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the pharmacokinetic profile (PK) and embolization effect of 70-150-μm doxorubicin eluting beads (DEBs) following intra-arterial injection (i.a.) in the rabbit liver VX2 tumour model. In this ACUC-approved study, 25 white New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned into a small DEB group (SDB, n = 7, 70-150-μm DEBs), large DEB group (LDB, n = 7, 100-300-μm DEBs), untreated controls (n = 7), and doxorubicin controls (n = 4, without tumour, received i.a. 12.5 mg doxorubicin). Plasma PK was assessed up to 180 min post-injection. Drug tissue and liver enzyme levels, radiologic tumor response and histopathologic tumour necrosis were assessed at 7 days. Mean tumour doxorubicin concentrations were 922.83 nM (SD = 722.05) and 361.48 nM (SD = 473.23) for the SDB and LDB, respectively (p = 0.005). There was no statistically significant difference in tumour doxorubicinol, plasma doxorubicin and doxorubicinol PK values. More beads were observed in the SDB tumours (p = 0.01). Liver enzymes increased and gradually declined over the observation period, with significantly higher values in the SDB. In this preclinical study, plasma PK of i.a.-injected 70-150-μm DEBs was not different than that of 100-300-μm DEBs. More beads and higher tissue doxorubicin levels were observed in the SDB tumours. • Small and large doxorubicin-eluting beads show similar plasma pharmacokinetic profiles. • Higher tissue doxorubicin levels were observed in the small bead group. • Liver enzymes were overall significantly higher in the small bead group.

  14. Assessment of tumor angiogenesis: dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI with paramagnetic nanoparticles compared with Gd-DTPA in a rabbit Vx-2 tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassner, Andrea; Thornhill, Rebecca E; Liu, Fang; Winter, Patrick M; Caruthers, Shelton D; Wickline, Samuel A; Lanza, Gregory M

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the suitability of a macromolecular MRI contrast agent (paramagnetic nanoparticles, PNs) for the characterization of tumor angiogenesis. Our aim was to estimate the permeability of PNs in developing tumor vasculature and compare it with that of a low molecular weight contrast agent (Gd-DTPA) using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE). Male New Zealand white rabbits (n = 5) underwent DCE MRI 12-14 days after Vx-2 tumor fragments were implanted into the left hind limb. Each contrast agent (PNs followed by Gd-DTPA) was evaluated using a DCE protocol and transendothelial transfer coefficient (K(i)) maps were calculated using a two-compartment model. Two regions of interest (ROIs) were located within the tumor core and hindlimb muscle and five ROIs were placed within the tumor rim. Comparisons were performed using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). The K(i) values estimated using PNs were significantly lower than those obtained for Gd-DTPA (p = 0.018). When PNs and Gd-DTPA data were analyzed separately, significant differences were identified among tumor rim ROIs for PNs (p < 0.0001), but not for Gd-DTPA data (p = 0.34). The mean K(i) for the tumor rim was significantly greater than that of either the core or the hindlimb muscle for both contrast agents (p < 0.05 for each comparison). In summary, the extravasation of Gd-DTPA was far greater than that of PNs, suggesting that PNs can reveal regional differences in tumor vascular permeability that are not otherwise apparent with clinical contrast agents such as Gd-DTPA. These results suggest that PNs show potential for the noninvasive delineation of tumor angiogenesis.

  15. Foliated stochastic calculus: Harmonic measures

    CERN Document Server

    Catuogno, Pedro J; Ruffino, Paulo R

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present an intrinsec construction of foliated Brownian motion via stochastic calculus adapted to foliation. The stochastic approach together with a proposed foliated vector calculus provide a natural method to work on harmonic measures. Other results include a decomposition of the Laplacian in terms of the foliated and basic Laplacians, a characterization of totally invariant measures and a differential equation for the density of harmonic measures.

  16. Interventional targeting administration of Ad-p53 combined with ultrasound irradiation in rabbit models of hepatic VX2 tumors%介入导入Ad-p53基因联合超声辐照治疗兔VX2肝癌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐劲松; 杨瑞民; 赵鹏; 张铭秋; 崔红凯

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of interventional targeting administration of Ad-p53 combined with ultrasound irradiation in rabbit models of hepatic VX2 tumors, as well as its impact on VEGF and MMP2. Methods Forty-two Chinchilla rabbits were collected and VX2 cancer cells were injected into the left lobe of liver on the observation in rabbits. The growth of cancer was monitored by ultrasound. Thirty rabbit models were successfully made and divided into 3 groups (each n=10) randomly. Fourteen days after transplantation of cancer cells, Ad-p53 was administrated through hepatic artery (in Ad-p53 group) or combined with ultrasound wave irradiation (in Ad-p53 + US group), while the same amount of saline was given for rabbits in control group. Three days later, the tumor size was observed with ultrasound, and then all rabbits were sacrificed, the serum VEGF level was measured by ELISA, the hepatic tissue expression of p53, MMP2 and VEGF were detected respectively by immunohistochemistry, and expression level of wild type p53 was measured using Western blot. Results No difference of tumor size was found between 3 groups before therapy. All tumor sizes increased, but the tumors in Ad-p53 + US group were relatively smaller. The efficiency of Ad-p53 transfection was improved in Ad-p53 group compared with control group, which was the highest in Ad-p53 + US group. Furthermore, the serum VEGF level decreased in Ad-p53 + US group, so did the expression of MMP2 and VEGF in Ad-p53 group and Ad-p53 + US group, more obviously in Ad-p53 + US group. Conclusion Ad-p53 can suppress the growth of hepatic VX2 tumors in rabbit models. The therapeutic efficacy of Ad-p53 can be improved by interventional targeting administration combining with ultrasound irradiation.%目的 探讨介入导向下联合超声辐照对兔VX2肝癌模型Ad-p53转染效率及该基因对VEGF、MMP2的影响.方法 青紫蓝兔42只,直视下手术,将VX2肿瘤细胞种植于肝左叶,以超声检测

  17. Study on MRI DWIBS in the evaluation of effectivenesse of magnetic labeled dendritic cell vaccine in treatment of rabbit liver VX2 tumor%DWIBS评价SPIO标记树突状细胞治疗兔VX2肝癌的疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹新山; 姜兴岳; 毛锡金; 王静; 秦东京

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨磁共振背景信号抑制弥散加权成像( MR DWIBS)在评价磁标记负载肝癌抗原的树突状细胞疫苗活体内移植后对原发性肝癌的治疗作用.方法 用粒/巨细胞集落刺激因子(GM-CSF)和白细胞介素4(IL-4)诱导分化DC获得DC疫苗.并且用超顺磁性氧化铁标记.建立兔VX2肝癌模型,皮下注射磁标记的DC疫苗,观察DC疫苗的体内分布.运用DWIBS不同时间点活体检测肿瘤的大小、形态.结果 ①DC疫苗的体内分布.滏射树突状细胞疫苗后,兔肝细胞内可见较多蓝染铁颗粒沉着,而仅有少数Kupffer细胞内可见蓝染铁颗粒沉着;②肿瘤的DWIBS影像上,肝实质信号减低最显著,肿瘤边界清楚;③同时间点治疗组与对照组的凋亡指数(AI)情况:治疗后1周、2周治疗组分别与相应对照组凋亡指数差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);④不同时间点治疗组及对照组的ADC比值情况:治疗后1周、2周治疗组分别与相应对照组ADC比值差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 磁标记负载肝癌抗原的Dc疫苗体内能诱导产生明显的抑瘤作用.而用DWIBS成像技术则为原发性肝癌的免疫基因治疗提供了重要的形态学信息.%Objective To investigate the MRI DWIBS imaging in the evaluation of effectivenesse of magnetic labeled dendritic cell vaccine in treatment of rabbit liver VX2 tumor. Methods In this work, GM-CSF and IL-4 were employed to induce the differentiation of dendritic cell (DC) to gain DV vaccine, which was further labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxides. The rabbit VX2 liver cancer model was then established and the magnetic labeled DC vaccine was injected into this model. The electrical microscopy was used to prove DC vaccine distribution in vivo. The changes in tumor volume and shape were observed by MRI DWIBS at different time points. Results ①Distribution of DC vaccine in vivo: after the administration of DC vaccine, many blue iron deposits were seen in

  18. Effects of acetylsalicylic acid and acetic acid solutions on VX2 liver carcinoma in rabbits: in vivo analysis Efeitos das soluções de aspirina e de ácido acético em fígado de coelhos portadores de tumor hepático VX2: análise in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Saad-Hossne

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze, in vitro, the effects of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin and acetic acid solutions on VX2 carcinoma cells in the liver of rabbits with VX2 hepatic tumors; to determine the histolytic and anatomopathological characteristics of the solutions; and to evaluate the eventual biochemical and hepatic changes. METHODS: A total of 48 rabbits were evaluated. The animals were randomized into two groups, protocol 3 (study group and protocol 4 (controls, and each group was then subdivided into 3 subgroups. Four days after implantation of the tumor in the liver, median laparotomy was performed with a 0.4-ml injection of a solution of either aspirin (5.0%, acetic acid (5.0% or saline. The animals were sacrificed after 24 hours (protocol 3 or after 11 days (protocol 4. Body weight, clinical evolution and biochemical levels, as well as the abdominal and thoracic cavities, were evaluated, and liver microscopy was performed. RESULTS: No changes in clinical evolution, body weight or biochemical levels were reported. However, an increase in alkaline phosphatase was observed in protocol 4 (controls. The tumor was eliminated in both protocols. CONCLUSION: Acetylsalicylic acid and acetic acid solutions cause the destruction of experimental hepatic tumors.OBJETIVO: Analisar os efeitos das soluções de aspirina e de ácido acético, in vivo, em fígado de coelhos portadores de tumor hepático VX2, verificando o efeito histolítico e anatomo-patológico das soluções e eventuais alterações bioquímicas hepáticas. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se 48 coelhos, divididos em 2 protocolos experimentais(3 e 4, subdivididos em 3 grupos cada. Após 4 dias da implantação do tumor no fígado, procedeu-se a laparotomia mediana, com injeção de 0,4 ml da solução de aspirina (5,0%, de ácido acético (5,0% e solução salina; o sacrifício ocorreu apos 24 horas (protocolo 3 e 11 dias (protocolo 4; avaliou-se o peso, evolução clinica, dosagens bioquímicas, cavidade

  19. CT导引下32P-磷酸铬-聚-L-乳酸粒子植入治疗兔VX2肺肿瘤的实验研究%Experimental Study of CT Guided32P-CP-PLLA Microparticle Implantation in the Treatment of Rabbit VX2 Lung Tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘栋辉; 杨敏; 徐宇平; 王立振; 刘璐; 黄培林

    2011-01-01

    背景与目的 新型放射性植入剂32P-磷酸铬-聚-L-乳酸(32p-CP-PLLA)粒子具有良好的生物相容性和降解性,适用于实体肿瘤的近距离放射治疗.本研究旨在探讨兔VX2肺肿瘤经32P-CP-PLLA粒子瘤体间植入近距离治疗前后PET/CT显像及病理学的变化,分析32P-CP-PLLA粒子植入对荷VX2肺癌兔肿瘤生长及凋亡相关蛋白的影响.方法 24只荷瘤兔随机分成4组.每组6只.1组-3组为治疗组;4组为对照组.在CT导引下经皮穿刺将总放射性活度为93 MBq、185 MBq和370 MBq的32P-CP-PLLA粒子分别植入1组、2组和3组肿瘤组织内.对照组不做任何干预.分别在治疗后第0天、第3天、第7天和第14天进行18F-FDG PET/CT显像,观察标准摄取值(standardized uptake value,SUV)的变化.最后1次PET/CT显像后处死荷瘤兔,取出肿瘤组织,进行病理学检查和免疫组织化学分析,比较肿瘤细胞形态和凋亡基因(bd-2,bax)表达的变化.结果 第0天时,治疗组和对照组之间SUVmax无明显差异.治疗后第14天,1组、2组和3组SUVmax值分别为1.1±0.19、0.80±0.10和2.85±0.15,均较对照组(5.61±0.50)明显下降.第7天-第14天时,1组和2组SUVmax较第3天呈现持续下降趋势,且呈剂量效应关系(P<0.05).治疗后第3天-第14天,3组SUVmax较第0天显著上升,并在第7天达到峰值,后明显下降.同期3组SUVmax明显低于对照组SUVmax.HE染色显示近粒子处的肿瘤细胞变性坏死,坏死程度随剂量的增加而严重.3组可见坏死组织周围有大量炎性细胞浸润,而1组-2组炎性细胞浸润不明显.免疫组化显示治疗组bcl-2表达强度低于对照组,bax表达强度高于对照组(P<0.05).治疗组bd-2/bax比值明显下调(P<0.05).凋亡基因的表达呈剂量效应关系.结论 32P-CP-PLLA粒子持续照射可直接杀伤VX2肿瘤细胞从而抑制其葡萄糖代谢功能.远离粒子处虽可见存活肿瘤细胞,但凋亡基因表达明显异于对照组.32P-CP-PLLA

  20. 平阳霉素混合碘油经动脉化疗栓塞抑制兔VX2肝癌生长的实验研究%Effects of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization with pingyangmycin-lipiodol emulsion on VX2 liver tumors in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘曦; 罗小平; 曹闻挺; 邓昊

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价平阳霉素混合碘油经肿瘤滋养动脉化疗栓塞对兔VX2肝癌的肿瘤组织、滋养血管及血管新生的影响.方法 将28只新西兰大白兔采用移植法建立兔VX2肝癌模型,并随机均分为单纯碘油组(A组)、平阳霉素组(B组)、平阳霉素加碘油组(C组)和等渗盐水对照组(D组).模型均于建模后第14天行CT检查并计算肿瘤体积V1,然后对各组模型作相应处理:A组经肿瘤滋养动脉注入超液态碘油,B组经肿瘤滋养动脉注入平阳霉素,C组经肿瘤滋养动脉注入平阳霉素加超液态碘油,D组经肿瘤滋养动脉注入等渗盐水.7d后再行CT检查,计算肿瘤体积V2及肿瘤的生长率.处死实验兔进行病理学检查,计算血管内皮生长因子(VEGF)阳性表达率及微血管密度(MVD).组间数据的比较用单因素方差分析,多组的两两间比较用LSD法,两组间比较用成组t检验,对方差不齐者用秩和检验;VEGF表达与MVD值比较用双变量相关分析;阳性表达率的比较用精确概率法.结果 A、B、C、D组介入治疗前的肿瘤体积分别为(389.8±167.3) mm3、(404.1±184.9) mm3、(355.1±158.3) mm3和(378.1±189.0) mm3,差异无统计学意义(F=0.257,P>0.05);术后肿瘤体积分别为(922.6±32.9) mm3、(665.9±99.9) mm3、(349.5±177.8) mm3和(1403.5±411.2) mm3,差异有统计学意义(F=26.23,P<0.05),且B组和C组明显小于A组和D组;VEGF阳性表达率分别为57.1%、42.9%、28.6%和100%,差异有统计学意义(F=8.407,P<0.05).D组残余肿瘤区MVD显著升高(36.4±3.7),与A组(22.4±3.9)、B组(18.7±2.6)和C组(14.1±2.3)比较,差异有统计学意义(t值分别为6.89、10.34和13.49,P值均<0.05),且C组明显低于其他各组(t值分别为4.89、3.53和13.49,P值均<0.05).VEGF阳性表达率与MVD存在正相关关系(r=0.743,P< 0.01).结论 平阳霉素对兔VX2肝癌有较好的治疗效果,联合超液态碘油经肝动脉化

  1. Effects of the Silibinin-loaded Temperature Sensitive Liposome-microbubble Complex on the Rabbit Liver VX2 Tumor in the Sub-hyperthermia Field%亚高温场中载水飞蓟宾热敏脂质体——微泡复合体对兔肝VX2肿瘤的作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩璐; 罗文; 郭凯; 李轲; 刘海静; 慕喜喜; 周晓东

    2015-01-01

    目的 观察在亚高温场中载水飞蓟宾热敏脂质体——微泡复合体(STLMC)对兔肝VX2肿瘤的作用.方法 将40只VX2荷瘤兔的40个肝转移瘤随机分为4组,每组10只动物:微波亚高温辐照组(SHM)、水飞蓟宾载药微泡组(STLMC)、微波亚高温辐照联合水飞蓟宾载药微泡治疗组(SHM+STLMC)、空白对照组(BL).分别给予不同干预:微波热辐照、STLMC注射、微波热辐照联合STLMC注射、无辐照无注射.治疗后7d及21 d,采用二维灰阶超声、超声造影成像分别评价术后各组肿瘤体积和最大径的变化.透射电镜观察各组干预区超微结构变化.结果 SHM+STLMC组术后7d及21d肿瘤体积及最大径均明显小于同期其余各组(P<0.05);电镜下各组均出现染色质异常、细胞器受损的巨噬细胞,SHM+STLMC组受损巨噬细胞数目较其余各组明显增多(P<0.05).结论 在亚高温场中STLMC可造成肿瘤微环境中巨噬细胞形态破坏,抑制肿瘤生长.

  2. Tumor Uptake of Hollow Gold Nanospheres after Intravenous and Intra-arterial Injection: PET/CT Study in a Rabbit VX2 Liver Cancer Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mei; Lu, Wei; Zhang, Rui; Xiong, Chiyi; Ensor, Joe; Nazario, Javier; Jackson, James; Shaw, Colette; Dixon, Katherine A.; Miller, Jennifer; Wright, Kenneth; Li, Chun; Gupta, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to investigate the intratumoral uptake of hollow gold nanospheres (HAuNS) after hepatic intra-arterial (IA) and intravenous (IV) injection in a liver tumor model. Materials and Methods Fifteen VX2 tumor-bearing rabbits were randomized into five groups (N=3 in each group) that received either IV 64Cu-labeled PEG-HAuNS (IV-PEG-HAuNS), IA 64Cu-labeled PEG-HAuNS (IA-PEG-HAuNS), IV cyclic peptide (RGD)-conjugated 64Cu-labeled PEG-HAuNS (IV-RGD-PEG-HAuNS), IA RGD-conjugated 64Cu-labeled PEG-HAuNS (IA-RGD-PEG-HAuNS), or IA 64Cu-labeled PEG-HAuNS with lipiodol (IA-PEG-HAuNS-lipiodol). The animals underwent PET/CT 1 hour after injection, and uptake expressed as percentage of injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g) was measured in tumor and major organs. The animals were euthanized 24 hours after injection, and tissues were evaluated for radioactivity. Results At 1 hour after injection, animals in the IA-PEG-HAuNS-lipiodol group showed significantly higher tumor uptake (P < 0.001) and higher ratios of tumor-to-normal liver uptake (P < 0.001) than those in all other groups. The biodistribution of radioactivity 24 hours after injection showed that IA delivery of PEG-HAuNS with lipiodol resulted in the highest tumor uptake (0.33 %ID/g; P < 0.001) and tumor-to-normal liver ratio (P < 0.001) among all delivery methods. At 24 hours, the IA-RGD-PEG-HAuNS group showed higher tumor uptake than the IA-PEG-HAuNS group (0.20 %ID/g vs. 0.099 %ID/g; P < 0.001). Conclusion Adding iodized oil to IA-PEG-HAuNS maximizes nanoparticle delivery to hepatic tumors and therefore may be useful in targeted chemotherapy and photoablative therapy. PET/CT can be used to noninvasively monitor the biodistribution of radiolabeled HAuNS after IV or IA injection. PMID:23608932

  3. Experimental studies of rAd-p53 injection by interventional approach for the treatment of rabbit VX2 liver cancer%重组人p53腺病毒基因经介入途径治疗兔VX2肝癌的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗仕华; 郑传胜; 冯敢生; 孙细梅; 周国锋; 梁惠民; 夏向文; 方建林

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of recombinant human adenovirus p53 gene therapy (rAd-p53) in the rabbit VX2 liver cancer model using different interventional therapy approach. Methods Thirty New Zealand rabbits implanted with VX2 tumor in the liver were randomized into five groups with six of each. The tumor volumes (V1) were measured by MRI and CT scan 11 days after tumors implanted. The interventional therapy scheme performed as below: intraarterial 0.9% saline solution perfusion in group A, transcatheter arterial embolization with 0.5ml ultrafluid lipoidol in group B, intraarterial rAd-p53 gene perfusion in group C (1×106/VP); intraarterial rAd-p53 gene perfusion (1×107VP) in combination with transcatherter arterial etnbolization (ultrofluid lipiodol, 0.5 ml) in group D and intratumoral rAd-p53 gene (1 ×10/VP) injection in group E. The tumor volumes (V2) were measured by MRI and CT scan, and the tumor growth ratios were calculated 14 days after interventional procedures. Then all animals were sacrificed.The tumor tissues were explanted for irnrnunohistochemistry to observe the expressions of vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) and factor VIH. Microvessel density (MVD) of the tumor tissues was assessed by factor Ⅷ immunohistochemical analysis. In addition, apoptotic index was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Results The tumor volumes before therapy were (79.4 ±8.2), (75.3±7.8), (74.6±6.6), (78.7± 9.1), (75.8±8.4) mm3 respectively, without differences found among them (F = 12.248, P = 0.0636). But the tumor volumes after therapy were (564.7 ±96.7), (176.5 ±83.2), (239.6 ± 42.8), (159.8 ± 58.6), (334.7 ± 32.6) mm3 respectively (F= 24.537, P = 0.0218). The tumor growth ratios were 6.9, 2.6, 3.1,1.6 and 4.1 respectively. The mean apoptosis index were 12.0% ± 1.1%, 14.5%± 2.1%, 17.6% ± 2.3%, 18.6% ± 2.3% and 19.6% ± 2.5% respectively, with significant differences in group E in

  4. Gal-BSA-SPIO制备及兔VX2肝癌模型与人肝脏ASG受体的MRI研究%Synthesis of Gal-BSA-SPIO and magnetic resonance imaging of ASG receptors in rabbits bearing liver VX2 tumor and human liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾飞鸽; 张晓东; 许乙凯; 孟卓

    2009-01-01

    目的 尝试合成肝脏靶向对比剂乳糖基白蛋白超顺磁氧化铁(Gal-BSA-SPIO),探讨Gal-BSA-SPIO对肝癌的检出及其诊断价值.材料和方法采用还原胺法合成Gal-BSA.Gal-BSA与SPIO混合后超声振荡.建立20只兔的、VX2肝癌模型,随机分为SPIO组和Gal-BSA-SPIO组,行MR平扫及增强.测定肝脏及肿瘤的T2值.对13例人肝脏标本(肝癌6例、肝硬化4例、正常肝组织3例)Gal-BSA-SPIO孵育后,Perl's染色,观察去唾液酸糖蛋白(ASG)受体分布.统计学方法:对增强前后各组的T2值进行t检验.结果 Gal-BSA-SPIO平均粒径34.4 nm.20只兔VX2肿瘤直径3~12 nm,T1WI肝实质呈中等信号,肿瘤呈低信号,T2WI肝实质低信号,病灶为略高信号;GRE T2*WI肝实质中等信号,肿瘤略高信号.增强扫描,SPIO组T2WI肝实质信号轻中度下降,与肿瘤对比提高;Gal-BSA-SPIO组T2WI肝实质信号显著下降,肿瘤呈明亮的"灯泡征".正常肝脏的SPIO组和Gal-BSA-SPIO组增强后T2值明显下降,与增强前有显著性差异.肿瘤的SPIO组和Gal-BSA-SPIO组增强后T2值无明显下降,与增强前无显著性差异.组织学检查SPIO组,Kupffer细胞内见蓝染的铁颗粒;Gal-BSA-SPIO组.肝细胞内见较多的蓝染的铁颗粒,两组的肿瘤内未见蓝染的铁颗粒.Gal-BSA-SPIO孵育后,正常肝组织可见大量蓝染色,肝硬化及癌旁肝硬化组织均可见蓝染色;肝细胞癌罕见蓝染色.结论 Gal-BSA-SPIO可以与肝细胞膜的ASG受体可特异性结合,通过受体介导的特异性对肝脏产生负向增强作用,明显提高肿瘤对比噪声比.

  5. Harmonic engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2009-10-20

    A high efficiency harmonic engine based on a resonantly reciprocating piston expander that extracts work from heat and pressurizes working fluid in a reciprocating piston compressor. The engine preferably includes harmonic oscillator valves capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into and out of the expander, and also preferably includes a shunt line connecting an expansion chamber of the expander to a buffer chamber of the expander for minimizing pressure variations in the fluidic circuit of the engine. The engine is especially designed to operate with very high temperature input to the expander and very low temperature input to the compressor, to produce very high thermal conversion efficiency.

  6. Grid to Standalone Transition Motion-Sensorless Dual-Inverter Control of PMSG With Asymmetrical Grid Voltage Sags and Harmonics Filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fatu, M.; Blaabjerg, Frede; Boldea, I.

    2014-01-01

    -coupling decoupling and line-voltage feedforward disturbance compensation. Also, a D-module filter is used to robustly extract the line voltage positive sequence followed by a phase-locked-loop (PLL) based observer to estimate the positive-sequence angle for control, including the case of asymmetric voltages......This paper describes a variable-speed motion-sensorless control system for permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) connected to grid via back-to-back inverters for wind energy generation. The grid-side inverter control system employs proportional-integral (PI) current controllers with cross...

  7. 经皮超声造影检测兔 VX2乳腺癌前哨淋巴结的实验研究%Experimental study of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography for sentinel lymph node detection in rabbit with VX2 breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳; 尹立雪; 李文华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) for the detection of sentinel lymph node (SLN) in breast cancer.Methods Eighteen VX2 breast cancer lymph node metastasis models in rabbit were established .Experimental methods:(1)Conventional two-dimensional, color and energy Doppler images and Doppler velocity tracings of axillary lymph nodes were obtained after injection of tumor cell suspension for 4 to 5 weeks;(2)After injected subcutaneously with SonoVue around the tumor,nodes perfusion images were collected;(3) Methylene blue tracer was subcutaneously injected around the tumor;(4)Axillary lymph nodes resected for pathological examination .Results Fifteen VX2 breast cancer lymph node metastasis models in rabbit were successfully established .A total of 39 lymph nodes were resected for pathologic examination and 30 were metastasis.(1)A total of 35 lymph nodes were detected by gray-scale ultrasound,of which,23 metastasized and 12 non-metastasized.The results showed that metastatic lymph nodes were mostly with rounded shape ( aspect ratio 0.05].The detection accuracy,sensitivity,specificity rate of metastatic lymph node by CEUS was higher than that by gray-scale ultrasound,but there was no statistically significant differences (χ2 =0.36,P>0.05;Fisher′s exact test,P=0.05).The detection accuracy rate of metastatic lymph node by CEUS was lower than that by gray-scale ultrasound,and there was no statistically significant differences too (Fisher′s exact test,P=0.08).Conclusions CEUS can be used for real-time observing both lymphatic perfusion and lymph node metastasis,and for non-invasive localization of SLN.It has the potential ability to determine lymph node metastases.CEUS has similar detection rate ,accuracy and sensitivity to blue dye test .It is suggested that the CEUS-guided method using SonoVue may be a novel useful method for SLN identification .%  目的探讨经皮超声造影在实验兔VX2乳腺癌前哨淋巴结

  8. Radiofrequency Ablation of Liver Tumors in Combination with Local OK-432 Injection Prolongs Survival and Suppresses Distant Tumor Growth in the Rabbit Model with Intra- and Extrahepatic VX2 Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kageyama, Ken, E-mail: kageyamaken0112@gmail.com; Yamamoto, Akira, E-mail: loveakirayamamoto@gmail.com; Okuma, Tomohisa, E-mail: o-kuma@msic.med.osaka-cu.ac.jp; Hamamoto, Shinichi, E-mail: hamashin_tigers1975@yahoo.co.jp; Takeshita, Toru, E-mail: takeshita3595@view.ocn.ne.jp; Sakai, Yukimasa, E-mail: sakaiy@trust.ocn.ne.jp; Nishida, Norifumi, E-mail: norifumin@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki, E-mail: tmatsuoka@msic.med.osaka-cu.ac.jp; Miki, Yukio, E-mail: yukio.miki@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Osaka City University, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate survival and distant tumor growth after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and local OK-432 injection at a single tumor site in a rabbit model with intra- and extrahepatic VX2 tumors and to examine the effect of this combination therapy, which we termed immuno-radiofrequency ablation (immunoRFA), on systemic antitumor immunity in a rechallenge test. Methods: Our institutional animal care committee approved all experiments. VX2 tumors were implanted to three sites: two in the liver and one in the left ear. Rabbits were randomized into four groups of seven to receive control, RFA alone, OK-432 alone, and immunoRFA treatments at a single liver tumor at 1 week after implantation. Untreated liver and ear tumor volumes were measured after the treatment. As the rechallenge test, tumors were reimplanted into the right ear of rabbits, which survived the 35 weeks and were followed up without additional treatment. Statistical significance was examined by log-rank test for survival and Student's t test for tumor volume. Results: Survival was significantly prolonged in the immunoRFA group compared to the other three groups (P < 0.05). Untreated liver and ear tumor sizes became significantly smaller after immunoRFA compared to controls (P < 0.05). In the rechallenge test, the reimplanted tumors regressed without further therapy compared to the ear tumors of the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: ImmunoRFA led to improved survival and suppression of distant untreated tumor growth. Decreases in size of the distant untreated tumors and reimplanted tumors suggested that systemic antitumor immunity was enhanced by immunoRFA.

  9. 双源双能量CT评价兔VX2移植瘤介入术疗效的实验研究%The laboratory research of dual-source and dual-energy CT in evaluating the effect of rabbit VX2 tumor interventional therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁克信; 劳群; 贾玉柱

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the diagnostic value of the dual-energy technique with dual-source in the evaluation of therapeutic effect of interventional therapy for hepatocarcinoma.Methods 8 rabbits with tumor growing well were treated with intervention operation,paralleled with double energy CT scan and focal area image,CT and color order change were measured by dual energy liver OVERLAY workstation.Meanwhile,The necrosis and survival of tumor were evaluated by dual energy CT after hepatocarcinoma intervention therapy.Results Taking pathologic diagnosis as gold standard,compared with imaging and pathological results in the order of black,red,orange and red,accuracies were 87.2%,72.3%,71.5% and 83.6% respectively.Sensitivities were 95.1%,37.4%,54.7% and 63.8% respectively.Specificities were 85.4%,86.3%,81.5% and 85.8% respectively.Positive predictives value were 61.4%,54.2%,62.4% and 55.6% respectively.Negative predictive values were 96.3%,76.2%,79.7% and 91.3 % respectively.According to the Spearman relevance analysis,there was strong positive correlation between survival of tumor cells and image color scale (r =12.35,P < 0.05).Conclusion The necrosis and survival of tumor cells in rabbit VX2 liver tumor model can be preliminarily reflected by dual source CT dual energy enhancement scanning.The results provide good reference to the application of dual-source and dual-energy in clinical diagnosis and treatment.%目的 探讨双源双能量CT评价肝癌介入治疗疗效的价值.方法 8只生长良好的荷瘤兔,行介入手术,并进行双源双能量CT扫描,利用双源工作站OVERLAY信息图像,测量病灶区CT值,并记录其色阶变化,探讨双能量CT在肝癌介入治疗后肿瘤存活与坏死情况.结果 以全部的病理诊断为金标准,经过病理和影像对照分析,按黑色、暗红色、红色、橘红色顺序,色阶准确度分别为87.2%、72.3%、71.5%、83.6%,敏感度分别为95.1

  10. Phononic High Harmonic Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Ganesan, Adarsh; Seshia, Ashwin A

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the first experimental evidence for phononic low-order to high-order harmonic conversion leading to high harmonic generation. Similar to parametric resonance, phononic high harmonic generation is also mediated by a threshold dependent instability of a driven phonon mode. Once the threshold for instability is met, a cascade of harmonic generation processes is triggered. Firstly, the up-conversion of first harmonic phonons into second harmonic phonons is established. Subsequently, the down-conversion of second harmonic phonons into first harmonic phonons and conversion of first and second harmonic phonons into third harmonic phonons occur. On the similar lines, an eventual conversion of third harmonic phonons to high orders is also observed to commence. This surprising physical pathway for phononic low-order to high-order harmonic conversion may find general relevance to other physical systems.

  11. HARMONIC DRIVE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr FOLĘGA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The variety of types and sizes currently in production harmonic drive is a problem in their rational choice. Properly selected harmonic drive must meet certain requirements during operation, and achieve the anticipated service life. The paper discusses the problems associated with the selection of the harmonic drive. It also presents the algorithm correct choice of harmonic drive. The main objective of this study was to develop a computer program that allows the correct choice of harmonic drive by developed algorithm.

  12. An Arduino Investigation of Simple Harmonic Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeriu, Calin; Edwards, Scott; Esper, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    We cannot hope for a new generation of scientists and engineers if we don't let our young students take ownership of their scientific and engineering explorations, if we don't let them enjoy the hands-on cycle of design and production, and if we don't let them implant their creativity into a technologically friendly environment.…

  13. An Arduino Investigation of Simple Harmonic Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeriu, Calin; Edwards, Scott; Esper, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    We cannot hope for a new generation of scientists and engineers if we don't let our young students take ownership of their scientific and engineering explorations, if we don't let them enjoy the hands-on cycle of design and production, and if we don't let them implant their creativity into a technologically friendly environment.…

  14. Crossover from antiferro-to-ferromagnetism on substitution of Co by V in RE(Co1-xVx)2Si2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.35)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Rajeswari Roy; Dhara, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Bilwadal

    2015-06-01

    In PrCo2Si2 and NdCo2Si2, Co has been partially substituted by V. Vanadium having a larger atomic radius than cobalt, the substitution results in a negative pressure affecting the magnetic properties of the compound. The samples RE(Co1-xVx)2Si2 (RE = Pr, Nd; x = 0, 0.20, 0.35) were prepared by melting the corresponding elements in arc furnace and characterized using x-ray diffraction. Magnetometric measurements show that the parent compounds PrCo2Si2 and NdCo2Si2 are antiferromagnetic, as reported. With doping, ferrimagnetic behaviour is observed from temperature dependence of inverse susceptibility at about 50 K. At lower than 30 K, the magnetizations tend to saturate at high fields. From the field dependence of magnetization, the hysteresis loops and also coercive fields as observed, the samples exhibit ferromagnetism below ˜ 30 K. Exchange bias effect is also observed in the high V containing sample. The specific heat studies of the samples show transitions consistent with the magnetization data. Pr(Co0.65V0.35)2Si2 and Nd(Co0.65V0.35)2Si2 show magnetoresistance (MR) of ˜ 25% and 15%, respectively, at 4 K and 9 tesla.

  15. High order harmonic generation in rare gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budil, Kimberly Susan [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The process of high order harmonic generation in atomic gases has shown great promise as a method of generating extremely short wavelength radiation, extending far into the extreme ultraviolet (XUV). The process is conceptually simple. A very intense laser pulse (I ~1013-1014 W/cm2) is focused into a dense (~1017 particles/cm3) atomic medium, causing the atoms to become polarized. These atomic dipoles are then coherently driven by the laser field and begin to radiate at odd harmonics of the laser field. This dissertation is a study of both the physical mechanism of harmonic generation as well as its development as a source of coherent XUV radiation. Recently, a semiclassical theory has been proposed which provides a simple, intuitive description of harmonic generation. In this picture the process is treated in two steps. The atom ionizes via tunneling after which its classical motion in the laser field is studied. Electron trajectories which return to the vicinity of the nucleus may recombine and emit a harmonic photon, while those which do not return will ionize. An experiment was performed to test the validity of this model wherein the trajectory of the electron as it orbits the nucleus or ion core is perturbed by driving the process with elliptically, rather than linearly, polarized laser radiation. The semiclassical theory predicts a rapid turn-off of harmonic production as the ellipticity of the driving field is increased. This decrease in harmonic production is observed experimentally and a simple quantum mechanical theory is used to model the data. The second major focus of this work was on development of the harmonic "source". A series of experiments were performed examining the spatial profiles of the harmonics. The quality of the spatial profile is crucial if the harmonics are to be used as the source for experiments, particularly if they must be refocused.

  16. SEVENTH HARMONIC 20 GHz CO-GENERATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshfield, Jay L

    2014-04-08

    To satisfy the need for multi-MW rf sources in frequency ranges where commercial sources do not exist, a study was undertaken on a class of devices based on gyro-harmonic frequency multiplication. This mechanism relies upon adding energy in gyrating motion to a linear electron beam that traverses a rotating-mode TE111-mode drive cavity in a dc magnetic field. The beam then drifts along the magnetic field into a second cavity, operating in the TEn11-mode tuned to the nth harmonic of the drive cavity. Studies of this configuration have been carried out for 2 < n < 7. Results are given for multi-MW, efficient operation of a 7th harmonic device operating at 20 GHz, and a 2nd harmonic device operating at 22.4 GHz.

  17. Second Harmonic Generation in Scanning Probe Microscopy for Edge Localization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Xiao-Gen; LI Yu-He; LIN Hao-Shan; WANG Dong-Sheng; QI Xin

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach of second harmonic generation for edge localization of nano-scale defects measurement,based on the impact of the oscillating tip on the sample that induces higher harmonics of the excitation frequency.The harmonic signals of tip motion are measured by the heterodyne interferornetry. The edge amplitude ratio for the edge characterization can be calculated by a mechanics model and the threshold of edge localization is experimentally determined by second harmonic profiles. This approach has been successfully utilized to measure the pitch of a standard sample. The results show that the second harmonic is sensitive to locating the edge of nano-scale defects with high accuracy.%@@ We present an approach of second harmonic generation for edge localization of nano-scale defects measurement,based on the impact of the oscillating tip on the sample that induces higher harmonics of the excitation frequency.The harmonic signals of tip motion are measured by the heterodyne interferometry.The edge amplitude ratio for the edge characterization can be calculated by a mechanics model and the threshold of edge localization is experimentally determined by second harmonic profiles.This approach has been successfully utilized to measure the pitch of a standard sample.The results show that the second harmonic is sensitive to locating the edge of nano-scale defects with high accuracy.

  18. General -Harmonic Blaschke Bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yibin Feng; Weidong Wang

    2014-02-01

    Lutwak introduced the harmonic Blaschke combination and the harmonic Blaschke body of a star body. Further, Feng and Wang introduced the concept of the -harmonic Blaschke body of a star body. In this paper, we define the notion of general -harmonic Blaschke bodies and establish some of its properties. In particular, we obtain the extreme values concerning the volume and the -dual geominimal surface area of this new notion.

  19. Making space for harmonic oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelotti, Leo; /Fermilab

    2004-11-01

    If we restrict the number of harmonic oscillator energy eigenstates to some finite value, N, then the discrete spectrum of the corresponding position operator comprise the roots of the Hermite polynomial H{sub N+1}. Its range is just large enough to accommodate classical motion at high energy. A negative energy term must be added to the Hamiltonian which affects only the last eigenstate, |N>, suggesting it is concentrated at the extrema of this finite ''space''. Calculations support a conjecture that, in the limit of large N, the global distribution of points approaches the differential form for classical action.

  20. Harmonic function theory

    CERN Document Server

    Axler, Sheldon; Ramey, Wade

    2013-01-01

    This is a book about harmonic functions in Euclidean space. Readers with a background in real and complex analysis at the beginning graduate level will feel comfortable with the material presented here. The authors have taken unusual care to motivate concepts and simplify proofs. Topics include: basic properties of harmonic functions, Poisson integrals, the Kelvin transform, spherical harmonics, harmonic Hardy spaces, harmonic Bergman spaces, the decomposition theorem, Laurent expansions, isolated singularities, and the Dirichlet problem. The new edition contains a completely rewritten chapter on spherical harmonics, a new section on extensions of Bocher's Theorem, new exercises and proofs, as well as revisions throughout to improve the text. A unique software package-designed by the authors and available by e-mail - supplements the text for readers who wish to explore harmonic function theory on a computer.

  1. Optimized plasma high harmonics generation from ultra-intense laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Suo; Keitel, Christoph H

    2016-01-01

    Plasma high harmonics generation from extremely intense short-pulse laser is explored by including the effects of ion motion and radiation reaction force in the plasma dynamics. The laser radiation pressure induces plasma ion motion through the hole-boring effect resulting into the frequency shifting and widening of the harmonic spectra thereby constraining the coherence properties of the harmonics. Radiation reaction force slightly mitigates the effects caused by the ion motion. Based on the analytical estimates and particle-in-cell simulation results, an optimum parameter regime of plasma high-harmonics is presented.

  2. High Harmonic Radiation Generation and Attosecond pulse generation from Intense Laser-Solid Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Alexander Roy [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Krushelnick, Karl [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-09-08

    We have studied ion motion effects in high harmonic generation, including shifts to the harmonics which result in degradation of the attosecond pulse train, and how to mitigate them. We have examined the scaling with intensity of harmonic emission. We have also switched the geometry of the interaction to measure, for the first time, harmonics from a normal incidence interaction. This was performed by using a special parabolic reflector with an on axis hole and is to allow measurements of the attosecond pulses using standard techniques. Here is a summary of the findings: First high harmonic generation in laser-solid interactions at 1021 Wcm-2, demonstration of harmonic focusing, study of ion motion effects in high harmonic generation in laser-solid interactions, and demonstration of harmonic amplification.

  3. Music of the heavens Kepler's harmonic astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Stephenson, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Valued today for its development of the third law of planetary motion, Harmonice mundi (1619) was intended by Kepler to expand on ancient efforts to discern a Creator's plan for the planetary system--an arrangement thought to be based on harmonic relationships. Challenging critics who characterize Kepler's theories of harmonic astronomy as ""mystical,"" Bruce Stephenson offers the first thorough technical analysis of the music the astronomer thought the heavens made, and the logic that led him to find musical patterns in his data. In so doing, Stephenson illuminates crucial aspects of Kepler'

  4. Free Fall and Harmonic Oscillations: Analyzing Trampoline Jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie; Eager, David

    2015-01-01

    Trampolines can be found in many gardens and also in some playgrounds. They offer an easily accessible vertical motion that includes free fall. In this work, the motion on a trampoline is modelled by assuming a linear relation between force and deflection, giving harmonic oscillations for small amplitudes. An expression for the cycle-time is…

  5. Covariant harmonic oscillators and coupled harmonic oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Daesoo; Kim, Young S.; Noz, Marilyn E.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown that the system of two coupled harmonic oscillators shares the basic symmetry properties with the covariant harmonic oscillator formalism which provides a concise description of the basic features of relativistic hadronic features observed in high-energy laboratories. It is shown also that the coupled oscillator system has the SL(4,r) symmetry in classical mechanics, while the present formulation of quantum mechanics can accommodate only the Sp(4,r) portion of the SL(4,r) symmetry. The possible role of the SL(4,r) symmetry in quantum mechanics is discussed.

  6. The harmonic oscillator and nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    The three-dimensional harmonic oscillator plays a central role in nuclear physics. It provides the underlying structure of the independent-particle shell model and gives rise to the dynamical group structures on which models of nuclear collective motion are based. It is shown that the three-dimensional harmonic oscillator features a rich variety of coherent states, including vibrations of the monopole, dipole, and quadrupole types, and rotations of the rigid flow, vortex flow, and irrotational flow types. Nuclear collective states exhibit all of these flows. It is also shown that the coherent state representations, which have their origins in applications to the dynamical groups of the simple harmonic oscillator, can be extended to vector coherent state representations with a much wider range of applicability. As a result, coherent state theory and vector coherent state theory become powerful tools in the application of algebraic methods in physics.

  7. Theory of harmonic dissipation in disordered solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damart, T.; Tanguy, A.; Rodney, D.

    2017-02-01

    Mechanical spectroscopy, i.e., cyclic deformations at varying frequencies, is used theoretically and numerically to compute dissipation in model glasses. From a normal mode analysis, we show that in the high-frequency terahertz regime where dissipation is harmonic, the quality factor (or loss angle) can be expressed analytically. This expression is validated through nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations applied to a model of amorphous silica (SiO2). Dissipation is shown to arise from nonaffine relaxations triggered by the applied strain through the excitation of vibrational eigenmodes that act as damped harmonic oscillators. We discuss an asymmetry vector field, which encodes the information about the structural origin of dissipation computed by mechanical spectroscopy. In the particular case of silica, we find that the motion of oxygen atoms, which induce a deformation of the Si-O-Si bonds, is the main contributor to harmonic energy dissipation.

  8. DFIG Harmonic Current Controlling with the Grid Low Harmonic Voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a vector control strategy based on stator harmonic current closed-loop, it adds individually the control loop about of each stator harmonic current to restrain the stator harmonic current, in order to meet the THD criteria. The control strategy of restraining the harmonic current presents the design of the stator harmonic current restrains the current controller. It influences the rotor voltage of the stator harmonic current restraining strategies.

  9. Deformed quantum harmonic oscillator with diffusion and dissipation

    CERN Document Server

    Isar, A

    2002-01-01

    A master equation for the deformed quantum harmonic oscillator interacting with a dissipative environment, in particular with a thermal bath, is derived in the microscopic model by using perturbation theory. The coefficients of the master equation and of equations of motion for observables depend on the deformation function. The steady state solution of the equation for the density matrix in the number representation is obtained and the equilibrium energy of the deformed harmonic oscillator is calculated in the approximation of small deformation.

  10. Deformed quantum harmonic oscillator with diffusion and dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isar, A.; Scheid, W.

    2002-07-01

    A master equation for the deformed quantum harmonic oscillator interacting with a dissipative environment, in particular with a thermal bath, is derived in the microscopic model by using perturbation theory. The coefficients of the master equation and of equations of motion for observables depend on the deformation function. The steady-state solution of the equation for the density matrix in the number representation is obtained and the equilibrium energy of the deformed harmonic oscillator is calculated in the approximation of small deformation.

  11. Harmonic d-tensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohmann, Manuel [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Tartu (Estonia)

    2016-07-01

    Tensor harmonics are a useful mathematical tool for finding solutions to differential equations which transform under a particular representation of the rotation group SO(3). In order to make use of this tool also in the setting of Finsler geometry, where the objects of relevance are d-tensors instead of tensors, we construct a set of d-tensor harmonics for both SO(3) and SO(4) symmetries and show how these can be used for calculations in Finsler geometry and gravity.

  12. Motion segmentation method for hybrid characteristic on human motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Newman; Wong, Ben; Chow, Daniel

    2009-03-11

    Motion segmentation and analysis are used to improve the process of classification of motion and information gathered on repetitive or periodic characteristic. The classification result is useful for ergonomic and postural safety analysis, since repetitive motion is known to be related to certain musculoskeletal disorders. Past studies mainly focused on motion segmentation on particular motion characteristic with certain prior knowledge on static or periodic property of motion, which narrowed method's applicability. This paper attempts to introduce a method to tackle human joint motion without having prior knowledge. The motion is segmented by a two-pass algorithm. Recursive least square (RLS) is firstly used to estimate possible segments on the input human-motion set. Further, period identification and extra segmentation process are applied to produce meaningful segments. Each of the result segments is modeled by a damped harmonic model, with frequency, amplitude and duration produced as parameters for ergonomic evaluation and other human factor studies such as task safety evaluation and sport analysis. Experiments show that the method can handle periodic, random and mixed characteristics on human motion, which can also be extended to the usage in repetitive motion in workflow and irregular periodic motion like sport movement.

  13. Second harmonic generation imaging

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy has shown great promise for imaging live cells and tissues, with applications in basic science, medical research, and tissue engineering. Second Harmonic Generation Imaging offers a complete guide to this optical modality, from basic principles, instrumentation, methods, and image analysis to biomedical applications. The book features contributions by experts in second-harmonic imaging, including many pioneering researchers in the field. Written for researchers at all levels, it takes an in-depth look at the current state of the art and possibilities of SHG microscopy. Organized into three sections, the book: Provides an introduction to the physics of the process, step-by-step instructions on how to build an SHG microscope, and comparisons with related imaging techniques Gives an overview of the capabilities of SHG microscopy for imaging tissues and cells—including cell membranes, muscle, collagen in tissues, and microtubules in live cells—by summarizing experi...

  14. Harmonic uniflow engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2016-03-22

    A reciprocating-piston uniflow engine includes a harmonic oscillator inlet valve capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into the engine. In particular, the inlet valve includes an inlet valve head and a spring arranged together as a harmonic oscillator so that the inlet valve head is moveable from an unbiased equilibrium position to a biased closed position occluding an inlet. When released, the inlet valve head undergoes a single oscillation past the equilibrium position to a maximum open position and returns to a biased return position close to the closed position to choke the flow and produce a pressure drop across the inlet valve causing the inlet valve to close. In other embodiments, the harmonic oscillator arrangement of the inlet valve enables the uniflow engine to be reversibly operated as a uniflow compressor.

  15. Booster Double Harmonic Setup Notes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, C. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2015-02-17

    The motivation behind implementing a booster double harmonic include the reduced transverse space charge force from a reduced peak beam current and reduced momentum spread of the beam, both of which can be achieved from flattening the RF bucket. RF capture and acceleration of polarized protons (PP) is first set up in the single harmonic mode with RF harmonic h=1. Once capture and acceleration have been set up in the single harmonic mode, the second harmonic system is brought on and programmed to operate in concert with the single harmonic system.

  16. Classifying Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duzen, Carl; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents a series of activities that utilizes a leveling device to classify constant and accelerated motion. Applies this classification system to uniform circular motion and motion produced by gravitational force. (MDH)

  17. Exact solution of a quantum forced time-dependent harmonic oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Kyu Hwang; George, Thomas F.; Um, Chung IN

    1992-01-01

    The Schrodinger equation is used to exactly evaluate the propagator, wave function, energy expectation values, uncertainty values, and coherent state for a harmonic oscillator with a time dependent frequency and an external driving time dependent force. These quantities represent the solution of the classical equation of motion for the time dependent harmonic oscillator.

  18. View Invariant Gesture Recognition using 3D Motion Primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Michael Boelstoft; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a method for automatic recognition of human gestures. The method works with 3D image data from a range camera to achieve invariance to viewpoint. The recognition is based solely on motion from characteristic instances of the gestures. These instances are denoted 3D motion...... primitives. The method extracts 3D motion from range images and represent the motion from each input frame in a view invariant manner using harmonic shape context. The harmonic shape context is classified as a 3D motion primitive. A sequence of input frames results in a set of primitives that are classified...

  19. Harmonic Intravascular Ultrasound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Frijlink (Martijn)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractMedical ultrasound is a popular imaging modality in cardiology. Harmonic Imaging is a technique that has been shown to increase the image quality of diagnostic ultrasound at frequencies below 10 MHz. However, Intravascular Ultrasound, which is a technique to acoustically investigate arte

  20. Harmonic Intravascular Ultrasound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Frijlink (Martijn)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractMedical ultrasound is a popular imaging modality in cardiology. Harmonic Imaging is a technique that has been shown to increase the image quality of diagnostic ultrasound at frequencies below 10 MHz. However, Intravascular Ultrasound, which is a technique to acoustically investigate arte

  1. Harmonization versus Mutual Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp

    with the opportunity to start export sales. In contrast, harmonization, in particular the prospect that one’s own national (but not the foreign) standard becomes the only globally accepted standard, opens the foreign market without balancing entry at home. We study these scenarios in a reduced form lobby game with two...

  2. Harmonic Bergman Metric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAOZhen-gang

    2005-01-01

    We have constructed the positive definite metric matrixes for the bounded domains of Rn and proved an inequality which is about the Jacobi matrix of a harmonic mapping on a bounded domain of Rn and the metric matrix of the same bounded domain.

  3. Harmonics in transmission power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiechowski, Wojciech Tomasz

    to perform more detailed harmonic studies emerged. Since the transmission network has a complex structure and its impedance varies with frequency in a nonlinear fashion, such harmonic study would require a detailed computer model of the network. Consequently, a PhD project proposal titled "Harmonics....... It is concluded that since some background harmonic distortion is practically always present in the network, a method based on variation of harmonic values must be used. The incremental values of harmonic distortion will allow to verify the harmonic model, despite the existence of background harmonic distortion...... GPS-synchronized OMICRON CMC256 units. Two such units are installed at 400 kV substations at both ends of the disconnected line and a third unit is located at a substation in a distance of 80 km. Time domain "snap-shot" measurements of three-phase voltages and currents are synchronously taken for some...

  4. A Global Correction to PPMXL Proper Motions

    CERN Document Server

    Vickers, John J; Grebel, Eva K

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we notice that extragalactic sources seem to have non-zero proper motions in the PPMXL proper motion catalog. We collect a large, all-sky sample of extragalactic objects and fit their reported PPMXL proper motions to an ensemble of spherical harmonics in magnitude shells. A magnitude dependent proper motion correction is thus constructed. This correction is applied to a set of fundamental radio sources, quasars, and is compared to similar corrections to assess its utility. We publish, along with this paper, code which may be used to correct proper motions in the PPMXL catalog over the full sky which have 2 Micron All Sky Survey photometry.

  5. Soliton ratchetlike dynamics by ac forces with harmonic mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salerno, Mario; Zolotaryuk, Yaroslav

    2002-01-01

    The possibility of unidirectional motion of a kink (topological soliton) of a dissipative sine-Gordon equation in the presence of ac forces with harmonic mixing (at least biharmonic) and of zero mean, is presented. The dependence of the kink mean velocity on system parameters is investigated...

  6. Young children's harmonic perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2003-11-01

    Harmony and tonality are two of the most difficult elements for young children to perceive and manipulate and are seldom taught in the schools until the end of early childhood. Children's gradual harmonic and tonal development has been attributed to their cumulative exposure to Western tonal music and their increasing experiential knowledge of its rules and principles. Two questions that are relevant to this problem are: (1) Can focused and systematic teaching accelerate the learning of the harmonic/tonal principles that seem to occur in an implicit way throughout childhood? (2) Are there cognitive constraints that make it difficult for young children to perceive and/or manipulate certain harmonic and tonal principles? A series of studies specifically addressed the first question and suggested some possible answers to the second one. Results showed that harmonic instruction has limited effects on children's perception of harmony and indicated that the drastic improvement in the perception of implied harmony noted approximately at age 9 is due to development rather than instruction. I propose that young children's difficulty in perceiving implied harmony stems from their attention behaviors. Older children have less memory constraints and more strategies to direct their attention to the relevant cues of the stimulus. Younger children focus their attention on the melody, if present in the stimulus, and specifically on its concrete elements such as rhythm, pitch, and contour rather than its abstract elements such as harmony and key. The inference of the abstract harmonic organization of a melody required in the perception of implied harmony is thus an elusive task for the young child.

  7. Second harmonic optical coherence tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang,Yi; Tomov, Ivan; Wang, Yimin; Chen, Zhongping

    2004-01-01

    Second harmonic optical coherence tomography, which uses coherence gating of second-order nonlinear optical response of biological tissues for imaging, is described and demonstrated. Femtosecond laser pulses were used to excite second harmonic waves from collagen harvested from rat tail tendon and a reference nonlinear crystal. Second harmonic interference fringe signals were detected and used for image construction. Because of the strong dependence of second harmonic generation on molecular ...

  8. Principles of harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Deitmar, Anton

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a complete and streamlined treatment of the central principles of abelian harmonic analysis: Pontryagin duality, the Plancherel theorem and the Poisson summation formula, as well as their respective generalizations to non-abelian groups, including the Selberg trace formula. The principles are then applied to spectral analysis of Heisenberg manifolds and Riemann surfaces. This new edition contains a new chapter on p-adic and adelic groups, as well as a complementary section on direct and projective limits. Many of the supporting proofs have been revised and refined. The book is an excellent resource for graduate students who wish to learn and understand harmonic analysis and for researchers seeking to apply it.

  9. Harmonization versus Mutual Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp

    The present paper examines trade liberalization driven by the coordination of product standards. For oligopolistic firms situated in separate markets that are initially sheltered by national standards, mutual recognition of standards implies entry and reduced profits at home paired......, harmonized standards may fail to harvest the full pro-competitive effects from trade liberalization compared to mutual recognition; moreover, the issue is most pronounced in markets featuring price competition....

  10. Harmonic and geometric analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Citti, Giovanna; Pérez, Carlos; Sarti, Alessandro; Zhong, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an expanded version of four series of lectures delivered by the authors at the CRM. Harmonic analysis, understood in a broad sense, has a very wide interplay with partial differential equations and in particular with the theory of quasiconformal mappings and its applications. Some areas in which real analysis has been extremely influential are PDE's and geometric analysis. Their foundations and subsequent developments made extensive use of the Calderón–Zygmund theory, especially the Lp inequalities for Calderón–Zygmund operators (Beurling transform and Riesz transform, among others) and the theory of Muckenhoupt weights.  The first chapter is an application of harmonic analysis and the Heisenberg group to understanding human vision, while the second and third chapters cover some of the main topics on linear and multilinear harmonic analysis. The last serves as a comprehensive introduction to a deep result from De Giorgi, Moser and Nash on the regularity of elliptic partial differen...

  11. Towards automated biomedical ontology harmonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Gustavo A; Lopez, Diego M; Blobel, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    The use of biomedical ontologies is increasing, especially in the context of health systems interoperability. Ontologies are key pieces to understand the semantics of information exchanged. However, given the diversity of biomedical ontologies, it is essential to develop tools that support harmonization processes amongst them. Several algorithms and tools are proposed by computer scientist for partially supporting ontology harmonization. However, these tools face several problems, especially in the biomedical domain where ontologies are large and complex. In the harmonization process, matching is a basic task. This paper explains the different ontology harmonization processes, analyzes existing matching tools, and proposes a prototype of an ontology harmonization service. The results demonstrate that there are many open issues in the field of biomedical ontology harmonization, such as: overcoming structural discrepancies between ontologies; the lack of semantic algorithms to automate the process; the low matching efficiency of existing algorithms; and the use of domain and top level ontologies in the matching process.

  12. Harmonic space and quaternionic manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Galperin, A; Ogievetsky, O V

    1994-01-01

    We find a principle of harmonic analyticity underlying the quaternionic (quaternion-K\\"ahler) geometry and solve the differential constraints which define this geometry. To this end the original $4n$-dimensional quaternionic manifold is extended to a bi-harmonic space. The latter includes additional harmonic coordinates associated with both the tangent local $Sp(1)$ group and an extra rigid $SU(2)$ group rotating the complex structures. Then the constraints can be rewritten as integrability conditions for the existence of an analytic subspace in the bi-harmonic space and solved in terms of two unconstrained potentials on the analytic subspace. Geometrically, the potentials have the meaning of vielbeins associated with the harmonic coordinates. We also establish a one-to-one correspondence between the quaternionic spaces and off-shell $N=2$ supersymmetric sigma-models coupled to $N=2$ supergravity. The general $N=2$ sigma-model Lagrangian when written in the harmonic superspace is composed of the quaternionic ...

  13. Next generation data harmonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Chandler; Brown, Ryan M.; Chaves, Jillian; Czerniejewski, Adam; Del Vecchio, Justin; Perkins, Timothy K.; Rudnicki, Ron; Tauer, Greg

    2015-05-01

    Analysts are presented with a never ending stream of data sources. Often, subsets of data sources to solve problems are easily identified but the process to align data sets is time consuming. However, many semantic technologies do allow for fast harmonization of data to overcome these problems. These include ontologies that serve as alignment targets, visual tools and natural language processing that generate semantic graphs in terms of the ontologies, and analytics that leverage these graphs. This research reviews a developed prototype that employs all these approaches to perform analysis across disparate data sources documenting violent, extremist events.

  14. Second harmonic generation microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Risbo, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Myofibers and collagen show non-linear optical properties enabling imaging using second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. The technique is evaluated for use as a tool for real-time studies of thermally induced changes in thin samples of unfixed and unstained pork. The forward and the backward......-temperature endotherm peak observable in the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms. DSC analysis of epimysium, the connective tissue layer that enfold skeletal muscles, produces one large endotherm starting at 57 °C and peaking at 59.5 °C. SHG microscopy of collagen fibers reveals a variability of thermal...

  15. Computing with Harmonic Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Axler, Sheldon

    2015-01-01

    This document is the manual for a free Mathematica package for computing with harmonic functions. This package allows the user to make calculations that would take a prohibitive amount of time if done without a computer. For example, the Poisson integral of any polynomial can be computed exactly. This software can find exact solutions to Dirichlet, Neumann, and biDirichlet problems in R^n with polynomial data on balls, ellipsoids, and annular regions. It can also find bases for spaces of sphe...

  16. Fractal Spherical Harmonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Navascués

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tackles the construction of fractal maps on the unit sphere. The functions defined are a generalization of the classical spherical harmonics. The methodology used involves an iterated function system and a linear and bounded operator of functions on the sphere. For a suitable choice of the coefficients of the system, one obtains classical maps on the sphere. The different values of the system parameters provide Bessel sequences, frames, and Riesz fractal bases for the Lebesgue space of the square integrable functions on the sphere. The Laplace series expansion is generalized to a sum in terms of the new fractal mappings.

  17. Harmonic and subharmonic acoustic wave generation in finite structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alippi, A; Bettucci, A; Germano, M; Passeri, D

    2006-12-22

    The generation of harmonic and subharmonic vibrations is considered in a finite monodimensional structure, as it is produced by the nonlinear acoustic characteristics of the medium. The equation of motion is considered, where a general function of the displacement and its derivatives acts as the forcing term for (sub)harmonic generation and a series of 'selection rules' is found, depending on the sample constrains. The localization of the nonlinear term is also considered that mimics the presence of defects or cracks in the structure, together with the spatial distribution of subharmonic modes. Experimental evidence is given relative to the power law dependence of the harmonic modes vs. the fundamental mode displacement amplitude, and subharmonic mode distribution with hysteretic effects is also reported in a cylindrical sample of piezoelectric material.

  18. Fractional motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliazar, Iddo I., E-mail: eliazar@post.tau.ac.il [Holon Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 305, Holon 58102 (Israel); Shlesinger, Michael F., E-mail: mike.shlesinger@navy.mil [Office of Naval Research, Code 30, 875 N. Randolph St., Arlington, VA 22203 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    Brownian motion is the archetypal model for random transport processes in science and engineering. Brownian motion displays neither wild fluctuations (the “Noah effect”), nor long-range correlations (the “Joseph effect”). The quintessential model for processes displaying the Noah effect is Lévy motion, the quintessential model for processes displaying the Joseph effect is fractional Brownian motion, and the prototypical model for processes displaying both the Noah and Joseph effects is fractional Lévy motion. In this paper we review these four random-motion models–henceforth termed “fractional motions” –via a unified physical setting that is based on Langevin’s equation, the Einstein–Smoluchowski paradigm, and stochastic scaling limits. The unified setting explains the universal macroscopic emergence of fractional motions, and predicts–according to microscopic-level details–which of the four fractional motions will emerge on the macroscopic level. The statistical properties of fractional motions are classified and parametrized by two exponents—a “Noah exponent” governing their fluctuations, and a “Joseph exponent” governing their dispersions and correlations. This self-contained review provides a concise and cohesive introduction to fractional motions.

  19. Effects of high volume hemofiltration on HMGB1,TNF-a,IL-6 in serum and live,lung, kidney tissues of sepsis dog model with acute renal failure%DMSA-Fe3O4纳米磁流体介导热疗对兔VX2肿瘤的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧汉杰; 冯耀良; 余超; 祖庆泉; 马明; 顾宁

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of high volume hemofiltration(HVHF) on high mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 ( HMGB1), TNF-a, IL-6 in serum and live, lung, kidney tissues of sepsis dog model with acute kidney failure. Methods The bilateral ureters of twelve male Beagle dogs were ligated and lipopolysaccharide( LPS) 1.0 mg/kg was injected to establish the sepstic dog models with acute kidney failure. The dogs were equally randomized to model group and HVHF group( treated with HVHF for 24 h after injection of LPS immediately). Venous blood was collected to check blood routine, liver and kidney functions and electrolytes before and at 2,4,8,16,24 h after injection of LPS. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed before and at 24 h after injection of LPS. EILSA was used to determine the concentrations of HMGB1, TNF-a, IL-6 in serum at different time points above and in supernatant of liver, lung and kidney tissues at 24 h after injection of LPS. Results Compared with model group, the levels of HMGB1, TNF-o, IL-6 in serum and liver, lung, kidney tissues were decreased, peak time of HMGB1 level in serum was delayed, liver, lung and kidney functions were improved in HVHF group (P<0. 05). Conclusion HVHF therapy can decrease the concentrations of HMGB1,TNF-a and IL-6 in serum and liver,lung and kidney tissues and protect the liver, lung and kidney functions of septic dog with acute kidney failure.%目的 探讨交变磁场介导的二巯基丁二酸(DMSA)-Fe3O4纳米磁流体热疗治疗兔VX2肿瘤的疗效.方法 建立20只兔后肢VX2软组织肿瘤模型,随机分为4组:A组(对照组)、B组(磁流体局部注射组十热疗)、C组(磁流体动脉灌注组十热疗)、D组(磁流体静脉注射组十热疗),每组5只.成瘤2周后CT测量肿瘤大小.结果 B组和C组的肿瘤中心区[(46.01±1.97)℃和(40.38±1.50)℃]和肿瘤边缘区[(40.35±1.36)℃和(42.57±1.80)℃]的温度显著高于正常肌肉组织[(35.73±1.32)℃和(35.37±1.55)

  20. 超声激励荧光微泡对兔乳腺癌转移淋巴结的释放作用%Sonorelease of DiO-microspheres to the lymph nodes metastasis of rabbits VX2 breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔璐; 朱梅; 高文宏; 张莉; 李露; 刘政

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the sonorelease of fluresence ricrobubbles to the lymph nodes metastasis of rabbits VX2 breast cancer by ultrasound excitation.Methods DiO-labeled microbubbles were prepared with lipid microbubbles and mixed Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) dissolved DiO.The fluorescence microbubbles were made by high speed mechanical agitation.Rabbits models of VX2 breast carcinoma were established by means of injection of tissue mass suspension and were divided into fluorescent microbubbles combined ultrasonic cavitation group and fluorescence of microbubbles group (each n=8).In fluorescent microbubbles combined ultrasonic cavitation group,the fluorescent microbubbles (total 1 ml) were injected subcutaneously around tumor and massaged to drainage of lymph nodes The lymph nodes were exposured to pulse ultrasound intermittent treatment for 5 times,total 30 min.In fluorescence of microbubbles group,the same injection without ultrasound irradiation was performed.Laser confocal microscope was used to observe the deposition of green fluorescein in a small portion of frozen section lymph node tissues and to analyze the fluorescence of the area integrated optical density (IOD) and average optical density (AOD).Results Compared with fluorescence of microbubbles group,the fluorescence area,IOD and AOD of lymph node were higher in fluorescent microbubbles combined ultrasonic cavitation group (all P<0.05).Condusion Flurescence microbubbles can not only enter lymph vessel to make lymph node development,but also deliver a high concentration of fluorescence microbubbles in the regional lymph node by lowpressure ultrasound in rabbit models.%目的 观察超声激励荧光微泡空化对兔乳腺癌转移淋巴结的荧光释放作用.方法 使用二甲基亚砜(DMSO)溶解绿色细胞膜荧光分子探针(DiO),抽取少量溶解液与脂质微泡混和,通过高速机械振荡制成荧光微泡.选取16只荷VX2乳腺癌的新西兰大白兔随机分成荧光微

  1. A Back-to-Front Derivation: The Equal Spacing of Quantum Levels Is a Proof of Simple Harmonic Oscillator Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, David L.; Romero, Luciana C. Davila

    2009-01-01

    The dynamical behaviour of simple harmonic motion can be found in numerous natural phenomena. Within the quantum realm of atomic, molecular and optical systems, two main features are associated with harmonic oscillations: a finite ground-state energy and equally spaced quantum energy levels. Here it is shown that there is in fact a one-to-one…

  2. On The Harmonic Oscillator Group

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Raquel M; Vega-Guzman, Jose M

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the maximum kinematical invariance group of the quantum harmonic oscillator from a view point of the Ermakov-type system. The invariance group of generalized driven harmonic oscillator is shown to be isomorphic to the corresponding Schroedinger group of the free particle.

  3. EXTENSIONS OF EULER HARMONIC SUMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djurdje Cvijović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Three new closed-form summation formulae involving harmonic numbers are established using simple arguments and they are very general extensions of Euler’s famous harmonic sum identity. Some illustrative special cases as well as immediate consequences of the main results are also considered.

  4. Harmonic Series Meets Fibonacci Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongwei; Kennedy, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The terms of a conditionally convergent series may be rearranged to converge to any prescribed real value. What if the harmonic series is grouped into Fibonacci length blocks? Or the harmonic series is arranged in alternating Fibonacci length blocks? Or rearranged and alternated into separate blocks of even and odd terms of Fibonacci length?

  5. Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for tissue harmonic synthetic aperture imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of synthetic aperture imaging in ultrasound, which has shown great potentials in the clinic. Suggestions for synthetic aperture tissue...... system complexity compared to conventional synthetic aperture techniques. In this project, SASB is sought combined with a pulse inversion technique for 2nd harmonic tissue harmonic imaging. The advantages in tissue harmonic imaging (THI) are expected to further improve the image quality of SASB...... harmonic techniques have been made, but none of these methods have so far been applicable for in-vivo imaging. The basis of this project is a synthetic aperture technique known as synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB). The technique utilizes a two step beamforming approach to drastically reduce...

  6. Studies of surface diffusion by second harmonic fluctuation spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xiaolin; Goh, M.C.; Subrahmanyan, S.; Eisenthal, K.B. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA))

    1990-05-03

    The authors have shown how the fluctuations in the signal from surface second harmonic generation can be utilized for the study of a heterogeneous surface such as palmitic acid (C{sub 15}H{sub 31}COOH) spread on the air/water interface, under conditions of gas-liquid coexistence. The authors report observations of time-correlated fluctuations in the SH signal, with decay constant of approximately 6 s. This is attributed to motions of the liquidlike clusters of palmitic acid. If the motion is diffusive, a diffusion constant of about 10{sup {minus}8} cm{sup 2}/s is estimated for these clusters.

  7. Convolution operators defined by singular measures on the motion group

    CERN Document Server

    Brandolini, Luca; Thangavelu, Sundaram; Travaglini, Giancarlo

    2010-01-01

    This paper contains an $L^{p}$ improving result for convolution operators defined by singular measures associated to hypersurfaces on the motion group. This needs only mild geometric properties of the surfaces, and it extends earlier results on Radon type transforms on $\\mathbb{R}^{n}$. The proof relies on the harmonic analysis on the motion group.

  8. Nuclear signature effect on spatial distribution of molecular harmonic in the presence of spatial inhomogeneous field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Liqiang; Li, Wenliang

    2017-01-01

    Spatial distribution of the molecular harmonic spectra from \\text{H}\\text{2}+ in the presence of inhomogeneous field has been theoretically investigated. It shows that (i) the harmonic intensities from the negative-H nucleus play the dominating role in harmonic emission spectra. (ii) Through the investigations of the nuclear signature effect on the spatial distribution of the molecular harmonic spectra, the differences of the harmonic intensities between the negative-H nucleus and the positive-H nucleus can be enhanced and reduced with the introduction of the higher vibrational state and the heavy nucleus (i.e. \\text{D}2+ ), respectively. The time-frequency analyses of the harmonic spectra, the time-dependent wave function and the electron localization have been shown to explain the harmonic spatial distribution and the electron motion. (iii) Due to the plasmon-resonance-enhancement near the metallic nanostructure, the harmonic cutoff can be remarkably enhanced as the spatial position of the inhomogeneous field moving away from the gap center. The ionization probabilities have been shown to explain the harmonic cutoff extension.

  9. Observation of redshifting and harmonic radiation in inverse Compton scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Y.; Pogorelsky, I.; Williams, O.; O'Shea, F.; Barber, S.; Gadjev, I.; Duris, J.; Musumeci, P.; Fedurin, M.; Korostyshevsky, A.; Malone, B.; Swinson, C.; Stenby, G.; Kusche, K.; Babzien, M.; Montemagno, M.; Jacob, P.; Zhong, Z.; Polyanskiy, M.; Yakimenko, V.; Rosenzweig, J.

    2015-06-01

    Inverse Compton scattering of laser photons by ultrarelativistic electron beam provides polarized x- to γ -ray pulses due to the Doppler blueshifting. Nonlinear electrodynamics in the relativistically intense linearly polarized laser field changes the radiation kinetics established during the Compton interaction. These are due to the induced figure-8 motion, which introduces an overall redshift in the radiation spectrum, with the concomitant emission of higher order harmonics. To experimentally analyze the strong field physics associated with the nonlinear electron-laser interaction, clear modifications to the angular and wavelength distributions of x rays are observed. The relativistic photon wave field is provided by the ps CO2 laser of peak normalized vector potential of 0.5 laser [M. Babzien et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 054802 (2006)]. The angular spectral characteristics are revealed using K -, L -edge, and high energy attenuation filters. The observation indicates existence of the electrons' longitudinal motion through frequency redshifting understood as the mass shift effect. Thus, the 3rd harmonic radiation has been observed containing on-axis x-ray component that is directly associated with the induced figure-8 motion. These are further supported by an initial evidence of off-axis 2nd harmonic radiation produced in a circularly polarized laser wave field. Total x-ray photon number per pulse, scattered by 65 MeV electron beam of 0.3 nC, at the interaction point is measured to be approximately 109 .

  10. Optimal Selective Harmonic Control for Power Harmonics Mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Keliang; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    the cost, the complexity and the performance: high accuracy, fast transient response, easy-implementation, cost-effective, and also easy-to-design. The analysis and synthesis of the optimal SHC system are addressed. The proposed SHC offers power convert-ers a tailor-made optimal control solution......This paper proposes an Internal Model Principle (IMP) based optimal Selective Harmonic Controller (SHC) for power converters to mitigate power harmonics. According to the harmonics distribution caused by power converters, a universal recursive SHC module is developed to deal with a featured group...... of power harmonics. The proposed optimal SHC is of hybrid structure: all recursive SHC modules with weighted gains are connected in parallel. It bridges the real “nk+-m order RC” and the complex “parallel structure RC”. Compared to other IMP based control solutions, it offers an optimal trade-off among...

  11. FROM THE HARMONIZATION NEED TO THE SPONTANEOUS ACCOUNTING HARMONIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The issue of international accounting harmonization has achieved, mainly within the last decade, a significant dimension in the field of international accounting research. The main determinant factor for this state of the art is the process aiming at redu

  12. Power quality issues current harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Mikkili, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Power Quality Issues: Current Harmonics provides solutions for the mitigation of power quality problems related to harmonics. Focusing on active power filters (APFs) due to their excellent harmonic and reactive power compensation in two-wire (single phase), three-wire (three-phase without neutral), and four-wire (three-phase with neutral) AC power networks with nonlinear loads, the text:Introduces the APF technology, describing various APF configurations and offering guidelines for the selection of APFs for specific application considerationsCompares shunt active filter (SHAF) control strategi

  13. Quantum control of harmonic oscillator networks

    CERN Document Server

    Genoni, Marco G; Kim, M S; Burgarth, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Controllability -- the possibility of performing any target dynamics by applying a set of available operations -- is a fundamental requirement for the practical use of any physical system. For finite-dimensional systems, as for instance spin systems, precise criterions to establish controllability, such as the so called rank criterion, are well known. However most physical systems require a description in terms of an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space whose controllability properties are poorly understood. Here, we investigate infinite-dimensional bosonic quantum systems -- encompassing quantum light, ensembles of bosonic atoms, motional degrees of freedom of ions, and nano-mechanical oscillators -- governed by quadratic Hamiltonians (such that their evolution is analogous to coupled harmonic oscillators). After having highlighted the intimate connection between controllability and recurrence in the Hilbert space, we prove that, for coupled oscillators, a simple extra condition has to be fulfilled to extend t...

  14. Dark-Matter Harmonics Beyond Annual Modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Samuel K; Safdi, Benjamin R

    2013-01-01

    The count rate at dark-matter direct-detection experiments should modulate annually due to the motion of the Earth around the Sun. We show that higher-frequency modulations, including daily modulation, are also present and in some cases are nearly as strong as the annual modulation. These higher-order modes are particularly relevant if (i) the dark matter is light, O(10) GeV, (ii) the scattering is inelastic, or (iii) velocity substructure is present; for these cases, the higher-frequency modes are potentially observable at current and ton-scale detectors. We derive simple expressions for the harmonic modes as functions of the astrophysical and geophysical parameters describing the Earth's orbit, using an updated expression for the Earth's velocity that corrects a common error in the literature. For an isotropic halo velocity distribution, certain ratios of the modes are approximately constant as a function of nuclear recoil energy. Anisotropic distributions can also leave observable features in the harmonic ...

  15. Theory of nonlinear harmonic generation in free-electron lasers with helical wigglers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, G.; Saldin, E.; Schneidmiller, E.; Yurkov, M.

    2007-05-15

    CoherentHarmonicGeneration (CHG), and in particularNonlinearHarmonicGeneration (NHG), is of importance for both short wavelength Free-Electron Lasers (FELs), in relation with the achievement of shorter wavelengths with a fixed electron-beam energy, and high-average power FEL resonators, in relation with destructive effects of higher harmonics radiation on mirrors. In this paper we present a treatment of NHG from helical wigglers with particular emphasis on the second harmonic. Our study is based on an exact analytical solution of Maxwell's equations, derived with the help of a Green's function method. In particular, we demonstrate that nonlinear harmonic generation (NHG) fromhelicalwigglers vanishes on axis. Our conclusion is in open contrast with results in literature, that include a kinematical mistake in the description of the electron motion. (orig.)

  16. Lattice harmonics expansion revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontrym-Sznajd, G.; Holas, A.

    2017-04-01

    The main subject of the work is to provide the most effective way of determining the expansion of some quantities into orthogonal polynomials, when these quantities are known only along some limited number of sampling directions. By comparing the commonly used Houston method with the method based on the orthogonality relation, some relationships, which define the applicability and correctness of these methods, are demonstrated. They are verified for various sets of sampling directions applicable for expanding quantities having the full symmetry of the Brillouin zone of cubic and non-cubic lattices. All results clearly show that the Houston method is always better than the orthogonality-relation one. For the cubic symmetry we present a few sets of special directions (SDs) showing how their construction and, next, a proper application depend on the choice of various sets of lattice harmonics. SDs are important mainly for experimentalists who want to reconstruct anisotropic quantities from their measurements, performed at a limited number of sampling directions.

  17. The simple harmonic urn

    CERN Document Server

    Crane, Edward; Volkov, Stanislav; Wade, Andrew; Waters, Robert

    2009-01-01

    We study a generalized Polya urn model with two types of ball. If the drawn ball is red it is replaced together with a black ball, but if the drawn ball is black it is replaced and a red ball is thrown out of the urn. When only black balls remain, the roles of the colours are swapped and the process restarts. We prove that the resulting Markov chain is transient but that if we throw out a ball every time the colours swap, the process is positive-recurrent. We show that the embedded process obtained by observing the number of balls in the urn at the swapping times has a scaling limit that is essentially the square of a Bessel diffusion. We consider an oriented percolation model naturally associated with the urn process, and obtain detailed information about its structure, showing that the open subgraph is an infinite tree with a single end. We also study a natural continuous-time embedding of the urn process that demonstrates the relation to the simple harmonic oscillator; in this setting our transience result...

  18. Nonlinear harmonic oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calogero, F [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' (Italy); Inozemtsev, V I [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2002-12-06

    The existence is noted of assemblies of an arbitrary number of complex oscillators, or equivalently, of an arbitrary even number of real oscillators, characterized by Newtonian equations of motion ('acceleration equal force') with one-body velocity-dependent linear forces and many-body velocity-independent cubic forces, all the nonsingular solutions of which are isochronous (completely periodic with the same period). As for the singular solutions, as usual they emerge, in the context of the initial-value problem, from a closed domain in phase space having lower dimensionality.

  19. Isotope effects in the harmonic response from hydrogenlike muonic atoms in strong laser fields

    CERN Document Server

    Shahbaz, Atif; Müller, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    High-harmonic generation from hydrogenlike muonic atoms exposed to ultraintense high-frequency laser fields is calculated. Systems of low nuclear charge number Z are considered where a nonrelativistic description applies. By comparing the radiative response for different isotopes we demonstrate characteristic signatures of the finite nuclear mass and size in the harmonic spectra. In particular, for Z>1, an effective muon charge appears in the Schr\\"odinger equation for the relative particle motion, which influences the position of the harmonic cutoff. Cutoff energies in the MeV domain can be achieved, offering prospects for the generation of ultrashort coherent gamma-ray pulses.

  20. Explaining the harmonic sequence paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ulrich; Zimper, Alexander

    2012-05-01

    According to the harmonic sequence paradox, an expected utility decision maker's willingness to pay for a gamble whose expected payoffs evolve according to the harmonic series is finite if and only if his marginal utility of additional income becomes zero for rather low payoff levels. Since the assumption of zero marginal utility is implausible for finite payoff levels, expected utility theory - as well as its standard generalizations such as cumulative prospect theory - are apparently unable to explain a finite willingness to pay. This paper presents first an experimental study of the harmonic sequence paradox. Additionally, it demonstrates that the theoretical argument of the harmonic sequence paradox only applies to time-patient decision makers, whereas the paradox is easily avoided if time-impatience is introduced.

  1. Introduction to abstract harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Loomis, Lynn H

    2011-01-01

    Written by a prominent figure in the field of harmonic analysis, this classic monograph is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students and focuses on methods related to Gelfand's theory of Banach algebra. 1953 edition.

  2. Pythagorean Triples from Harmonic Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDomenico, Angelo S.; Tanner, Randy J.

    2001-01-01

    Shows how all primitive Pythagorean triples can be generated from harmonic sequences. Use inductive and deductive reasoning to explore how Pythagorean triples are connected with another area of mathematics. (KHR)

  3. Morrey spaces in harmonic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    David R. Adams; Xiao, Jie

    2012-01-01

    Through a geometric capacitary analysis based on space dualities, this paper addresses several fundamental aspects of functional analysis and potential theory for the Morrey spaces in harmonic analysis over the Euclidean spaces.

  4. Morrey spaces in harmonic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, David R.; Xiao, Jie

    2012-10-01

    Through a geometric capacitary analysis based on space dualities, this paper addresses several fundamental aspects of functional analysis and potential theory for the Morrey spaces in harmonic analysis over the Euclidean spaces.

  5. Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stupakov, Gennady; /SLAC

    2012-06-28

    A recently proposed concept of the Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG) FEL uses two laser modulators in combination with two dispersion sections to generate a high-harmonic density modulation in a relativistic beam. This seeding technique holds promise of a one-stage soft x-ray FEL that radiates not only transversely but also longitudinally coherent pulses. Currently, an experimental verification of the concept is being conducted at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory aimed at the demonstration of the EEHG.

  6. Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stupakov, Gennady; /SLAC

    2012-06-28

    A recently proposed concept of the Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG) FEL uses two laser modulators in combination with two dispersion sections to generate a high-harmonic density modulation in a relativistic beam. This seeding technique holds promise of a one-stage soft x-ray FEL that radiates not only transversely but also longitudinally coherent pulses. Currently, an experimental verification of the concept is being conducted at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory aimed at the demonstration of the EEHG.

  7. Harmonic structures and intrinsic torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Diego; Madsen, Thomas Bruun

    We discuss the construction of 8-manifolds with harmonic Sp(2)Sp(1)-structures. In particular, we find 10 new examples of nilmanifolds that admit a closed 4-form Omega whose stabiliser is Sp(2)Sp(1). Our constructions entail the notion of SO(4)-structures on 7-manifolds. We present a thorough inv...... investigation of the intrinsic torsion of such structures; in addition to the construction of harmonic structures, this analysis leads to explicit Lie group examples with invariant intrinsic torsion....

  8. Harmonic Current Predictors for Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-Yu Chan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The harmonic impact caused by wind turbines should be carefully investigated before wind turbines are interconnected. However, the harmonic currents of wind turbines are not easily predicted due to the variations of wind speed. If the harmonic current outputs can be predicted accurately, the harmonic impact of wind turbines and wind farms for power grids can be analyzed efficiently. Therefore, this paper analyzes the harmonic current characteristics of wind turbines and investigates the feasibility of developing harmonic current predictors. Field measurement, data sorting, and analysis are conducted for wind turbines. Two harmonic current predictors are proposed based on the measured harmonic data. One is the Auto-Regressive and Moving Average (ARMA-based harmonic current predictor, which can be used for real-time prediction. The other is the stochastic harmonic current predictor considering the probability density distributions of harmonic currents. It uses the measured harmonic data to establish the probability density distributions of harmonic currents at different wind speeds, and then uses them to implement a long-term harmonic current prediction. Test results use the measured data to validate the forecast ability of these two harmonic current predictors. The ARMA-based predictor obtains poor performance on some harmonic orders due to the stochastic characteristics of harmonic current caused by the variations of wind speed. Relatively, the prediction results of stochastic harmonic current predictor show that the harmonic currents of a wind turbine in long-term operation can be effectively analyzed by the established probability density distributions. Therefore, the proposed stochastic harmonic current predictor is helpful in predicting and analyzing the possible harmonic problems during the operation of wind turbines and wind farms.

  9. Spherical harmonics in texture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeben, Helmut; van den Boogaart, K. Gerald

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this contribution is to emphasize the fundamental role of spherical harmonics in constructive approximation on the sphere in general and in texture analysis in particular. The specific purpose is to present some methods of texture analysis and pole-to-orientation probability density inversion in a unifying approach, i.e. to show that the classic harmonic method, the pole density component fit method initially introduced as a distinct alternative, and the spherical wavelet method for high-resolution texture analysis share a common mathematical basis provided by spherical harmonics. Since pole probability density functions and orientation probability density functions are probability density functions defined on the sphere Ω3⊂ R3 or hypersphere Ω4⊂ R4, respectively, they belong at least to the space of measurable and integrable functions L1( Ωd), d=3, 4, respectively. Therefore, first a basic and simplified method to derive real symmetrized spherical harmonics with the mathematical property of providing a representation of rotations or orientations, respectively, is presented. Then, standard orientation or pole probability density functions, respectively, are introduced by summation processes of harmonic series expansions of L1( Ωd) functions, thus avoiding resorting to intuition and heuristics. Eventually, it is shown how a rearrangement of the harmonics leads quite canonically to spherical wavelets, which provide a method for high-resolution texture analysis. This unified point of view clarifies how these methods, e.g. standard functions, apply to texture analysis of EBSD orientation measurements.

  10. Prony Analysis for Power System Transient Harmonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Li

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Proliferation of nonlinear loads in power systems has increased harmonic pollution and deteriorated power quality. Not required to have prior knowledge of existing harmonics, Prony analysis detects frequencies, magnitudes, phases, and especially damping factors of exponential decaying or growing transient harmonics. In this paper, Prony analysis is implemented to supervise power system transient harmonics, or time-varying harmonics. Further, to improve power quality when transient harmonics appear, the dominant harmonics identified from Prony analysis are used as the harmonic reference for harmonic selective active filters. Simulation results of two test systems during transformer energizing and induction motor starting confirm the effectiveness of the Prony analysis in supervising and canceling power system transient harmonics.

  11. Validation of phantom-based harmonization for patient harmonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panetta, Joseph V; Daube-Witherspoon, Margaret E; Karp, Joel S

    2017-07-01

    To improve the precision of multicenter clinical trials, several efforts are underway to determine scanner-specific parameters for harmonization using standardized phantom measurements. The goal of this study was to test the correspondence between quantification in phantom and patient images and validate the use of phantoms for harmonization of patient images. The National Electrical Manufacturers' Association image quality phantom with hot spheres was scanned on two time-of-flight PET scanners. Whole-body [(18) F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET scans were acquired of subjects on the same systems. List-mode events from spheres (diam.: 10-28 mm) measured in air on each scanner were embedded into the phantom and subject list-mode data from each scanner to create lesions with known uptake with respect to the local background in the phantom and each subject's liver and lung regions, as a proxy to characterize true lesion quantification. Images were analyzed using the contrast recovery coefficient (CRC) typically used in phantom studies and serving as a surrogate for the standardized uptake value used clinically. Postreconstruction filtering (resolution recovery and Gaussian smoothing) was applied to determine if the effect on the phantom images translates equivalently to subject images. Three postfiltering strategies were selected to harmonize the CRCmean or CRCmax values between the two scanners based on the phantom measurements and then applied to the subject images. Both the average CRCmean and CRCmax values for lesions embedded in the lung and liver in four subjects (BMI range 25-38) agreed to within 5% with the CRC values for lesions embedded in the phantom for all lesion sizes. In addition, the relative changes in CRCmean and CRCmax resulting from the application of the postfilters on the subject and phantom images were consistent within measurement uncertainty. Further, the root mean squared percent difference (RMSpd ) between CRC values on the two scanners

  12. Harmonic morphisms and subharmonic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabjin Yun

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Let M be a complete Riemannian manifold and N a complete noncompact Riemannian manifold. Let ϕ:M→N be a surjective harmonic morphism. We prove that if N admits a subharmonic function with finite Dirichlet integral which is not harmonic, and ϕ has finite energy, then ϕ is a constant map. Similarly, if f is a subharmonic function on N which is not harmonic and such that |df| is bounded, and if ∫M|dϕ|<∞, then ϕ is a constant map. We also show that if Nm(m≥3 has at least two ends of infinite volume satisfying the Sobolev inequality or positivity of the first eigenvalue of the Laplacian, then there are no nonconstant surjective harmonic morphisms with finite energy. For p-harmonic morphisms, similar results hold.

  13. TAX HARMONIZATION VERSUS FISCAL COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Alexandru MACSIM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have brought into discussion once again subjects like tax harmonization and fiscal competition. Every time the European Union tends to take a step forward critics enter the scene and give contrary arguments to European integration. Through this article we have offered our readers a compelling view over the “battle” between tax harmonization and fiscal competition. While tax harmonization has key advantages as less costs regarding public revenues, leads to higher degree of integration and allows the usage of fiscal transfers between regions, fiscal competition is no less and presents key advantages as high reductions in tax rates and opens a large path for new investments, especially FDI. Choosing tax harmonization or fiscal competition depends on a multitude of variables, of circumstances, the decision of choosing one path or the other being ultimately influenced by the view of central and local authorities. Our analysis indicates that if we refer to a group of countries that are a part of a monetary union or that form a federation, tax harmonization seems to be the best path to choose. Moving the analysis to a group of regions that aren’t taking any kind of correlated actions or that have not signed any major treaties regarding monetary or fiscal policies, the optimal solution is fiscal competition.

  14. Vibrational motion in a symmetric, double minimum potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Molecular vibrational motion in a symmetric, double minimum potential is treated by means of a quartic model potential, by reference to the tables published by Jaan Laane and the results of harmonic analyses for the stationary points. The inversion vibration of ammonia is treated in detail. - Not...... on the harmonic approximation for polyatomic molecules are appended. - Presented at a NORFA Workshop in Hirtshals, Denmark, August 1997....

  15. Harmonic structures and intrinsic torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Diego; Madsen, Thomas Bruun

    We discuss the construction of 8-manifolds with harmonic Sp(2)Sp(1)-structures. In particular, we find 10 new examples of nilmanifolds that admit a closed 4-form Omega whose stabiliser is Sp(2)Sp(1). Our constructions entail the notion of SO(4)-structures on 7-manifolds. We present a thorough inv...... investigation of the intrinsic torsion of such structures; in addition to the construction of harmonic structures, this analysis leads to explicit Lie group examples with invariant intrinsic torsion.......We discuss the construction of 8-manifolds with harmonic Sp(2)Sp(1)-structures. In particular, we find 10 new examples of nilmanifolds that admit a closed 4-form Omega whose stabiliser is Sp(2)Sp(1). Our constructions entail the notion of SO(4)-structures on 7-manifolds. We present a thorough...

  16. Elements of abstract harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bachman, George

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Abstract Harmonic Analysis provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts and basic theorems of abstract harmonic analysis. In order to give a reasonably complete and self-contained introduction to the subject, most of the proofs have been presented in great detail thereby making the development understandable to a very wide audience. Exercises have been supplied at the end of each chapter. Some of these are meant to extend the theory slightly while others should serve to test the reader's understanding of the material presented. The first chapter and part of the second give

  17. Harmonic functions with varying coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dziok

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complex-valued harmonic functions that are univalent and sense preserving in the open unit disk can be written in the form f = h + g ‾ $f=h+\\overline{g}$ , where h and g are analytic. In this paper we investigate some classes of univalent harmonic functions with varying coefficients related to Janowski functions. By using the extreme points theory we obtain necessary and sufficient convolution conditions, coefficients estimates, distortion theorems, and integral mean inequalities for these classes of functions. The radii of starlikeness and convexity for these classes are also determined.

  18. Harmonic morphisms and bicomplex numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Baird, Paul

    2009-01-01

    We use functions of a bicomplex variable to unify the existing constructions of harmonic morphisms from a 3-dimensional Euclidean or pseudo-Euclidean space to a Riemannian or Lorentzian surface. This is done by using the notion of complex-harmonic morphism between complex Riemannian manifolds and showing how these are given by bicomplex-holomorphic functions when the codomain is one-bicomplex dimensional. Interesting compactifications involving bicomplex manifolds are given. By taking real slices, we recover well-known compactifications for the three possible real cases.

  19. The Obstacle Problem for the -Harmonic Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Gejun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, we define an order for differential forms. Secondly, we also define the supersolution and subsolution of the -harmonic equation and the obstacle problems for differential forms which satisfy the -harmonic equation, and we obtain the relations between the solutions to -harmonic equation and the solution to the obstacle problem of the -harmonic equation. Finally, as an application of the obstacle problem, we prove the existence and uniqueness of the solution to the -harmonic equation on a bounded domain with a smooth boundary , where the -harmonic equation satisfies where is any given differential form which belongs to .

  20. Third Harmonic Imaging using a Pulse Inversion

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Joachim; Du, Yigang; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2011-01-01

    The pulse inversion (PI) technique can be utilized to separate and enhance harmonic components of a waveform for tissue harmonic imaging. While most ultrasound systems can perform pulse inversion, only few image the 3rd harmonic component. PI pulse subtraction can isolate and enhance the 3rd harmonic component for imaging on any ultrasound system capable of PI. PI was used to perform 3rd harmonic Bmode scans of a water-filled wire phantom on an experimental ultrasound system. The 3rd harmonic...

  1. FROM THE HARMONIZATION NEED TO THE SPONTANEOUS ACCOUNTING HARMONIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matis Dumitru

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue of international accounting harmonization has achieved, mainly within the last decade, a significant dimension in the field of international accounting research. The main determinant factor for this state of the art is the process aiming at redu

  2. Plasmon-assisted high-harmonic generation in graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Joel D; de Abajo, F Javier García

    2016-01-01

    High-harmonic generation (HHG) in condensed-matter systems is both a source of fundamental insight into quantum electron motion and a promising candidate to realize compact ultraviolet and ultrafast light sources. Here we argue that the large light intensity required for this phenomenon to occur can be reached by exploiting localized plasmons in conducting nanostructures. In particular, we demonstrate that doped graphene nanostructures combine a strong plasmonic near-field enhancement and a pronounced intrinsic nonlinearity that result in efficient broadband HHG within a single material platform. We extract this conclusion from time-domain simulations using two complementary nonperturbative approaches based on atomistic one-electron density-matrix and massless Dirac-fermion Bloch-equation pictures. High harmonics are predicted to be emitted with unprecedentedly large intensity by tuning the incident light to the localized plasmons of ribbons and finite islands. In contrast to atomic systems, we observe no cut...

  3. Frequency shift in high order harmonic generation from isotopic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    He, Lixin; Zhai, Chunyang; Wang, Feng; Shi, Wenjing; Zhang, Qingbin; Zhu, Xiaosong; Lu, Peixiang

    2016-01-01

    We report the first experimental observation of frequency shift in high order harmonic generation (HHG) from isotopic molecules H2 and D2 . It is found that harmonics generated from the isotopic molecules exhibit obvious spectral red shift with respect to those from Ar atom. The red shift is further demonstrated to arise from the laser-driven nuclear motion in isotopic molecules. By utilizing the red shift observed in experiment, we successfully retrieve the nuclear vibrations in H2 and D2, which agree well with the theoretical calculations from the time-dependent Schrodinger equation (TDSE) with Non-Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Moreover, we demonstrate that the frequency shift can be manipulated by changing the laser chirp.

  4. Analytical representations of the spread harmonic measure density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.

    2015-05-01

    We study the spread harmonic measure that characterizes the spatial distribution of reaction events on a partially reactive surface. For Euclidean domains in which Brownian motion can be split into independent lateral and transverse displacements, we derive analytical formulas for the spread harmonic measure density and analyze its asymptotic behavior. This analysis is applicable to slab domains, general cylindrical domains, and a half-space. We investigate the spreading effect due to multiple reflections on the surface, and the underlying role of finite reactivity. We discuss further extensions and applications of analytical results to describe Laplacian transfer phenomena such as permeation through semipermeable membranes, secondary current distribution on partially blocking electrodes, and surface relaxation in nuclear magnetic resonance.

  5. Solvable Quantum Macroscopic Motions and Decoherence Mechanisms in Quantum Mechanics on Nonstandard Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tsunehiro

    1996-01-01

    Quantum macroscopic motions are investigated in the scheme consisting of N-number of harmonic oscillators in terms of ultra-power representations of nonstandard analysis. Decoherence is derived from the large internal degrees of freedom of macroscopic matters.

  6. Image composition with color harmonization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Congde Wang; Rong Zhang; Fan Deng

    2009-01-01

    Image matting and color transfer are combined to achieve image composition.Firstly,digital matting is used to pull out the region of interest.Secondly,taking color harmonization into account,color transfer techniques are introduced in pasting the region onto the target image.Experimental results show that the proposed approach generates visually plea.sing composite images.

  7. Collective effects for long bunches in dual harmonic RF systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Shi-Zhong; Klaus Bongardt; Rudolf Maier; TANG Jing-Yu; ZHANG Tian-Jue

    2008-01-01

    The storage of long bunches for large time intervals needs flattened stationary buckets with a large bucket height.Collective effects from the space charge and resistive impedance are studied by looking at the incoherent particle motion for the matched and mismatched bunches.Increasing the RF amplitude with particle number provides r.m.s wise matching for modest intensities.The incoherent motion of large amplitude particles depends on the details of the RF system.The resulting debunching process is a combination of the too small full RF acceptance together with the mismatch,enhanced by the collective effects.Irregular single particle motion is not associated with the coherent dipole instability.For the stationary phase space distribution of the Hofmann-Pedersen approach and for the dual harmonic RF system,stability limits are presented,which are too low if using realistic input distributions.For single and dual harmonic RF system with d=0.31,the tracking results are shown for intensities,by a factor of 3 above the threshold values.Small resistive impedances lead to coherent oscillations around the equilibrium phase value,as energy loss by resistive impedance is compensated by the energy gain of the RF system.

  8. Stability Analysis of an Inverted Pendulum Subjected to Combined High Frequency Harmonics and Stochastic Excitations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zhi-Long; JIN Xiao-Ling; ZHU Zi-Qi

    2008-01-01

    Stability of vertical upright position of an inverted pendulum with its suspension point subjected to high frequency harmonics and stochastic excitations is investigated. Two classes of excitations, i.e., combined high frequency harmonic excitation and Gaussian white noise excitation, and high frequency bounded noise excitation, respectively,are considered. Firstly, the terms of high frequency harmonic excitations in the equation of motion of the system can be set equivalent to nonlinear stiffness terms by using the method of direct separation of motions. Then the stochastic averaging method of energy envelope is used to derive the averaged It(o) stochastic differential equation for system energy. Finally, the stability with probability 1 of the system is studied by using the largest Lyapunov exponent obtained from the averaged It(o) stochastic differential equation. The effects of system parameters on the stability of the system are discussed, and some examples are given to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed procedure.

  9. Tides and tidal harmonics at Umbharat, Gujarat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A.; Swamy, G.N.

    A part of the data on tides recorded at Machiwada near Umbharat, Gulf of Cambay during April 1978 was subjected to harmonic analysis following the Admiralty procedure. The general tidal characteristics and the value of four major harmonic...

  10. Role of fluctuations in the quantal description of damped motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, E.S.

    1980-01-01

    The construction of a frictional time-dependent Schroedinger equation is reviewed for harmonic motion in a restricted framework, i.e., demanding the conservation of the Gaussian shape of wave packets. The evolution of the quanta fluctuations is discussed in a time-independent model, and it is shown that such a situation does not correspond to damped harmonic oscillations. The role of fluctuations in providing dissipative behavior is discussed and the time evolution of arbitrary wave functions subject to damped motion as described by Schroedinger-Kostin equation is analyzed in detail.

  11. High harmonic generation in underdense plasmas by intense laser pulses with orbital angular momentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonça, J. T., E-mail: josetitomend@gmail.com [IPFN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal and Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-090 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Vieira, J., E-mail: jorge.vieira@ist.utl.pt [GoLP, IPFN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-12-15

    We study high harmonic generation produced by twisted laser pulses, with orbital angular momentum in the relativistic regime, for pulse propagation in underdense plasma. We consider fast time scale processes associated with an ultra-short pulse, where the ion motion can be neglected. We use both analytical models and numerical simulations using a relativistic particle-in-cell code. The present description is valid for relativistic laser intensities, when the normalized field amplitude is much larger than one, a ≫ 1. We also discuss two distinct processes associated with linear and circular polarization. Using both analytical solutions and particle-in-cell simulations, we are able to show that, for laser pulses in a well defined Laguerre-Gauss mode, angular momentum conservation is observed during the process of harmonic generation. Intensity modulation of the harmonic spectrum is also verified, as imposed by the nonlinear time-scale for energy transfer between different harmonics.

  12. Super and Combinatorial Harmonic Response of Flexible Elastic Cables with Small Sag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2002-01-01

    The paper deals with the analysis of cables in stayed bridges and TV-towers, where the excitation is caused by harmonically varying in-plane motions of the upper support point with the amplitude ;. Such cables are characterized by a sag-to-chord-length ratio below 0·02, which means that the lowes...

  13. Third harmonic measurement in printed electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Samano, A; Xu, Y.; Harrison, D.; Hunt, C; Wickham, M; Thomas, O.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research paper is to investigate the defects detecting technique in printed electronics by the third harmonic measurements. Various types of defects were introduced on the samples and the third harmonic signal was measured using a component linearity tester (Radiometer CLT1). The relationship between the defects in the printed samples and the third harmonic signal and the third harmonic ratio was identified.

  14. Passive wide spectrum harmonic filter for adjustable speed drives in oil and gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Jaafari, Khaled Ali

    Non-linear loads such as variable speed drives constitute the bulky load of oil and gas industry power systems. They are widely used in driving induction and permanent magnet motors for variable speed applications. That is because variable speed drives provide high static and dynamic performance. Moreover, they are known of their high energy efficiency and high motion quality, and high starting torque. However, these non-linear loads are main sources of current and voltage harmonics and lower the quality of electric power system. In fact, it is the six-pulse and twelve-pulse diode and thyristor rectifiers that spoil the AC power line with the dominant harmonics (5th, 7th, 11th). They provide DC voltage to the inverter of the variable speed drives. Typical problems that arise from these harmonics are Harmonic resonances', harmonic losses, interference with electronic equipment, and line voltage distortion at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC). Thus, it is necessary to find efficient, reliable, and economical harmonic filters. The passive filters have definite advantage over active filters in terms of components count, cost and reliability. Reliability and maintenance is a serious issue in drilling rigs which are located in offshore and onshore with extreme operating conditions. Passive filters are tuned to eliminate a certain frequency and therefore there is a need to equip the system with more than one passive filter to eliminate all unwanted frequencies. An alternative solution is Wide Spectrum Harmonic passive filter. The wide spectrum harmonic filters are becoming increasingly popular in these applications and found to overcome some of the limitations of conventional tuned passive filter. The most important feature of wide spectrum harmonic passive filters is that only one capacitor is required to filter a wide range of harmonics. Wide spectrum filter is essentially a low-pass filter for the harmonic at fundamental frequency. It can also be considered as a

  15. Harmonized Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment in Europe: Earthquake Geology Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woessner, J.; Danciu, L.; Giardini, D.; Share Consortium

    2012-04-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) aims to characterize the best available knowledge on seismic hazard of a study area, ideally taking into account all sources of uncertainty. Results from PSHAs form the baseline for informed decision-making and provide essential input to each risk assessment application. SHARE is an EC-FP7 funded project to create a testable time-independent community-based hazard model for the Euro-Mediterranean region. SHARE scientists are creating a model framework and infrastructure for a harmonized PSHA. The results will serve as reference for the Eurocode 8 application and are envisioned to provide homogeneous input for state-of-the art seismic safety assessment for critical industry. Harmonizing hazard is pursued on the input data level and the model building procedure across borders and tectonic features of the European-Mediterranean region. An updated earthquake catalog, a harmonized database of seismogenic sources together with adjusted ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) form the bases for a borderless assessment. We require transparent and reproducible strategies to estimate parameter values and their uncertainties within the source model assessment and the contributions of the GMPEs. The SHARE model accounts for uncertainties via a logic tree. Epistemic uncertainties within the seismic source-model are represented by four source model options including area sources, fault sources and kernel-smoothing approaches, aleatory uncertainties for activity rates and maximum magnitudes. Epistemic uncertainties for predicted ground motions are considered by multiple GMPEs as a function of tectonic settings and treated as being correlated. For practical implementation, epistemic uncertainties in the source model (i.e. dip and strike angles) are treated as aleatory, and a mean seismicity model is considered. The final results contain the full distribution of ground motion variability. This contribution will feature preliminary

  16. Third Harmonic Imaging using a Pulse Inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim; Du, Yigang; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2011-01-01

    The pulse inversion (PI) technique can be utilized to separate and enhance harmonic components of a waveform for tissue harmonic imaging. While most ultrasound systems can perform pulse inversion, only few image the 3rd harmonic component. PI pulse subtraction can isolate and enhance the 3rd...

  17. Harmonic functions of superprocesses and conditioned superprocesses’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵学雷

    1996-01-01

    The harmonic functions for superprocesses are defined by applying the martingale property. Under a general condition, a classification theorem of harmonic functions for homogeneous superprocesses is obtained in terms of the solutions to a measure functional equation. The conditioned superdiffusions in a regular domain by Doob’s harmonic transform are defined and investigated.

  18. Nonlinear motion compensation using cubature Kalman filter for in vivo fluorescence microendoscopy in peripheral lung cancer intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tiancheng; Xue, Zhong; Alvarado, Miguel Valdivia y.; Wong, Kelvin K.; Xie, Weixin; Wong, Stephen T. C.

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence microendoscopy can potentially be a powerful modality in minimally invasive percutaneous intervention for cancer diagnosis because it has an exceptional ability to provide micron-scale resolution images in tissues inaccessible to traditional microscopy. After targeting the tumor with guidance by macroscopic images such as computed tomorgraphy or magnetic resonance imaging, fluorescence microendoscopy can help select the biopsy spots or perform an on-site molecular imaging diagnosis. However, one challenge of this technique for percutaneous lung intervention is that the respiratory and hemokinesis motion often renders instability of the sequential image visualization and results in inaccurate quantitative measurement. Motion correction on such serial microscopy image sequences is, therefore, an important post-processing step. We propose a nonlinear motion compensation algorithm using a cubature Kalman filter (NMC-CKF) to correct these periodic spatial and intensity changes, and validate the algorithm using preclinical imaging experiments. The algorithm integrates a longitudinal nonlinear system model using the CKF in the serial image registration algorithm for robust estimation of the longitudinal movements. Experiments were carried out using simulated and real microendoscopy videos captured from the CellVizio 660 system in rabbit VX2 cancer intervention. The results show that the NMC-CKF algorithm yields more robust and accurate alignment results.

  19. Input Harmonic Analysis on the Slim DC-Link Drive Using Harmonic State Space Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Feng; Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei

    2017-01-01

    the shortcomings of the present harmonic analysis methods, such as the time-domain simulation, or the Fourier analysis, this paper proposes a Harmonic State Space model to study the harmonics performance for this type of drive. In this study, this model is utilized to describe the behavior of the harmonic...... variation according to the switching instant, the harmonics at the steady-state condition, as well as the coupling between the multiple harmonic impedances. By using this model, the impaction on the harmonics performance by the film capacitor and the grid inductance is derived. Simulation and experimental...

  20. Second-Harmonic and Third-Harmonic Generations in the Thue-Morse Dielectric Superlattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡祥宝

    2002-01-01

    Theoretical work on the optical properties of the one-dimensional dielectric superlattice is extended. 3Byv means of a transfer matrix method, the second-harmonic and third-harmonic generations in a one-dimensional tinite Thue Morse dielectric superlattice are analysed. The electric field amplitude variables of the second-harmonic and third-harmonic can be expressed by the formula of matrices. Taking advantage of numerical procedure, we discuss the dependence of the second-harmonic and third-harmonic on the fundamental wavelength and the field amplitude variables of the fundamental wave. High conversion efficiency of the third-harmonic can be obtained at some special fundamental wavelength.

  1. Lorentz Harmonics, Squeeze Harmonics and Their Physical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn E. Noz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the symmetries in physics, the rotation symmetry is most familiar to us. It is known that the spherical harmonics serve useful purposes when the world is rotated. Squeeze transformations are also becoming more prominent in physics, particularly in optical sciences and in high-energy physics. As can be seen from Dirac’s light-cone coordinate system, Lorentz boosts are squeeze transformations. Thus the squeeze transformation is one of the fundamental transformations in Einstein’s Lorentz-covariant world. It is possible to define a complete set of orthonormal functions defined for one Lorentz frame. It is shown that the same set can be used for other Lorentz frames. Transformation properties are discussed. Physical applications are discussed in both optics and high-energy physics. It is shown that the Lorentz harmonics provide the mathematical basis for squeezed states of light. It is shown also that the same set of harmonics can be used for understanding Lorentz-boosted hadrons in high-energy physics. It is thus possible to transmit physics from one branch of physics to the other branch using the mathematical basis common to them.

  2. Harmonic Detection at Initialization With Kalman Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Imran, Raja Muhammad; Shoro, Ghulam Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    the affect of harmonics on the supply. For the detection of these harmonics various techniques are available and one of that technique is the Kalman filter. In this paper we investigate that what are the consequences when harmonic detection system based on Kalman Filtering is initialized......Most power electronic equipment these days generate harmonic disturbances, these devices hold nonlinear voltage/current characteristic. The harmonics generated can potentially be harmful to the consumer supply. Typically, filters are integrated at the power source or utility location to filter out...

  3. High-order harmonics generated from single and multiple molecular orbits in mid-infrared laser fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Jingtao

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available High-order harmonics generated from aligned molecules are studied by a nonperturbative QED theory and the effect of the multiple molecular orbits is included.The harmonic spectra generated from single molecular orbit exhibit an interference minimum which is induced by the molecular structure.The location of the spectral minimum shifts with the laser intensity in long laser pulses,but is fixed in ultrashort laser pulses.This difference is owed to the quiver motion of the electron in the laser pulses.The maximal shift of the spectral minimum equals to the increment of the ponderomotive energy and depends linearly on the laser intensity.The interference between the harmonics generated from multiple molecular orbits has two principal effects:one is obscuring the deep minima in the overall harmonic spectrum,the other is manifesting the phase jump in the harmonics generated from single molecular orbit.

  4. Exact propagators in harmonic superspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzenko, Sergei M.

    2004-10-01

    Within the background field formulation in harmonic superspace for quantum N = 2 super-Yang-Mills theories, the propagators of the matter, gauge and ghost superfields possess a complicated dependence on the SU(2) harmonic variables via the background vector multiplet. This dependence is shown to simplify drastically in the case of an on-shell vector multiplet. For a covariantly constant background vector multiplet, we exactly compute all the propagators. In conjunction with the covariant multi-loop scheme developed in arxiv:hep-th/0302205, these results provide an efficient (manifestly N = 2 supersymmetric) technical setup for computing multi-loop quantum corrections to effective actions in N = 2 supersymmetric gauge theories, including the N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory.

  5. Exact propagators in harmonic superspace

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzenko, S M

    2004-01-01

    Within the background field formulation in harmonic superspace for quantum N = 2 super Yang-Mills theories, the propagators of the matter, gauge and ghost superfields possess a complicated dependence on the SU(2) harmonic variables via the background vector multiplet. This dependence is shown to simplify drastically in the case of an on-shell vector multiplet. For a covariantly constant background vector multiplet, we exactly compute all the propagators. In conjunction with the covariant multi-loop scheme developed in hep-th/0302205, these results provide an efficient (manifestly N = 2 supersymmetric) technical setup for computing multi-loop quantum corrections to effective actions in N = 2 supersymmetric gauge theories, including the N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory.

  6. The Hierarchy of Fast Motions in Protein Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Mazur, A K

    1998-01-01

    For many biological applications of molecular dynamics (MD) the importance of good sampling in conformational space makes it necessary to eliminate the fastest motions from the system in order to increase the time step. An accurate knowledge of these motions is a necessary prerequisite for such efforts. It is known that harmonic vibrations of bond lengths and bond angles produce the highest frequencies in proteins. There are also fast anharmonic motions, such as inter-atomic collisions, which are probably most important when bond lengths and bond angles are fixed. However, the specific time scales corresponding to all these limitations are not known precisely. In order to clarify the above issue this paper analyses time step limiting factors in a series of numerical tests by using an internal coordinate molecular dynamics approach, which allows chosen internal coordinates to be frozen. It is found that, in proteins, there is a rather complicated hierarchy of fast motions, with both harmonic and anharmonic eff...

  7. Harmonic gauge perturbations of the Schwarzschild metric

    CERN Document Server

    Berndtson, Mark V

    1996-01-01

    The satellite observatory LISA will be capable of detecting gravitational waves from extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs), such as a small black hole orbiting a supermassive black hole. The gravitational effects of the much smaller mass can be treated as the perturbation of a known background metric, here the Schwarzschild metric. The perturbed Einstein field equations form a system of ten coupled partial differential equations. We solve the equations in the harmonic gauge, also called the Lorentz gauge or Lorenz gauge. Using separation of variables and Fourier transforms, we write the frequency domain solutions in terms of six radial functions which satisfy decoupled ordinary differential equations. The six functions are the Zerilli and five generalized Regge-Wheeler functions of spin 2,1,0. We use the solutions to calculate the gravitational self-force for circular orbits. The self-force gives the first order perturbative corrections to the equations of motion. Section 1.2 of the thesis has a more detailed ...

  8. Detection of Harmonic Occurring using Kalman Filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Shoro, Ghulam Mustafa; Imran, Raja Muhammed

    2014-01-01

    As long as the load to a power system is linear which has been the case before 80's, typically no harmonics are produced. However, the modern power electronic equipment for controlled power consumption produces harmonic disturbances, these devices/equipment possess nonlinear voltage/current chara...... using Kalman filter. This may be very useful for example to quickly switching on certain filters based on the harmonic present. We are using a unique technique to detect the occurrence of harmonics......./current characteristic. These harmonics are not to be allowed to grow beyond a certain limit to avoid any grave consequence to the customer’s main supply. Filters can be implemented at the power source or utility location to eliminate these harmonics. In this paper we detect the instance at which these harmonics occur...

  9. Harmonic vibrations of multispan beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes

    1996-01-01

    Free and forced harmonic vibrations of multispan beams are determined by a method which implies 1 equation regardless of the configuration. The necessary formulas are given in the paper. For beams with simple supports and the same length of all (n) spans, there is a rather big difference between...... the n´th and the (n+1)´th eigenfrequency. The reason for this phenomenon is explained.Keywords: Vibrations, Eigenfrequencies, Beams....

  10. Harmonic ratcheting for fast acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, N.; Brennan, J. M.; Peggs, S.

    2014-04-01

    A major challenge in the design of rf cavities for the acceleration of medium-energy charged ions is the need to rapidly sweep the radio frequency over a large range. From low-power medical synchrotrons to high-power accelerator driven subcritical reactor systems, and from fixed focus alternating gradient accelerators to rapid cycling synchrotrons, there is a strong need for more efficient, and faster, acceleration of protons and light ions in the semirelativistic range of hundreds of MeV/u. A conventional way to achieve a large, rapid frequency sweep (perhaps over a range of a factor of 6) is to use custom-designed ferrite-loaded cavities. Ferrite rings enable the precise tuning of the resonant frequency of a cavity, through the control of the incremental permeability that is possible by introducing a pseudoconstant azimuthal magnetic field. However, rapid changes over large permeability ranges incur anomalous behavior such as the "Q-loss" and "f-dot" loss phenomena that limit performance while requiring high bias currents. Notwithstanding the incomplete understanding of these phenomena, they can be ameliorated by introducing a "harmonic ratcheting" acceleration scheme in which two or more rf cavities take turns accelerating the beam—one turns on when the other turns off, at different harmonics—so that the radio frequency can be constrained to remain in a smaller range. Harmonic ratcheting also has straightforward performance advantages, depending on the particular parameter set at hand. In some typical cases it is possible to halve the length of the cavities, or to double the effective gap voltage, or to double the repetition rate. This paper discusses and quantifies the advantages of harmonic ratcheting in general. Simulation results for the particular case of a rapid cycling medical synchrotron ratcheting from harmonic number 9 to 2 show that stability and performance criteria are met even when realistic engineering details are taken into consideration.

  11. Representation Discovery using Harmonic Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mahadevan, Sridhar

    2008-01-01

    Representations are at the heart of artificial intelligence (AI). This book is devoted to the problem of representation discovery: how can an intelligent system construct representations from its experience? Representation discovery re-parameterizes the state space - prior to the application of information retrieval, machine learning, or optimization techniques - facilitating later inference processes by constructing new task-specific bases adapted to the state space geometry. This book presents a general approach to representation discovery using the framework of harmonic analysis, in particu

  12. Harmonic Lattice Dynamics of Germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelin, G.

    1974-07-01

    The phonon dispersion relations of the DELTA-, LAMBDA-, and SIGMA-directions of germanium at 80 K are analysed in terms of current harmonic lattice dynamical models. On the basis of this experience, a new model is proposed which gives a unified account of the strong points of the previous models. The principal elements of the presented theory are quasiparticle bond charges combined with a valence force field.

  13. Properties of Fermion Spherical Harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, G; Hunter, Geoffrey; Emami-Razavi, Mohsen

    2005-01-01

    The Fermion Spherical harmonics [$Y_\\ell^{m}(\\theta,\\phi)$ for half-odd-integer $\\ell$ and $m$ - presented in a previous paper] are shown to have the same eigenfunction properties as the well-known Boson Spherical Harmonics [$Y_\\ell^{m}(\\theta,\\phi)$ for integer $\\ell$ and $m$]. The Fermion functions are shown to differ from the Boson functions in so far as the ladder operators $M_+$ ($M_-$) that ascend (descend) the sequence of harmonics over the values of $m$ for a given value of $\\ell$, do not produce the expected result {\\em in just one case}: when the value of $m$ changes from $\\pm{1/2}$ to $\\mp{1/2}$; i.e. when $m$ changes sign; in all other cases the ladder operators produce the usually expected result including anihilation when a ladder operator attempts to take $m$ outside the range: $-\\ell\\le m\\le +\\ell$. The unexpected result in the one case does not invalidate this scalar coordinate representation of spin angular momentum, because the eigenfunction property is essential for a valid quantum mechani...

  14. Molecular Simulations using Spherical Harmonics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI, Wen-Sheng; XU, Jia-Wei; SHAO, Xue-Guang; MAIGRET, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    Computer-aided drug design is to develop a chemical that binds to a target macromolecule known to play a key role in a disease state. In recognition of ligands by their protein receptors,molecular surfaces are often used because they represent the interacting part of molecules and they should reflex the complementarity between ligand and receptor. However, assessing the surface complementarity by searching all relative position of two surfaces is often computationally expensive. The complementarity of lobe-hole is very important in protein-ligand interactions. Spherical harmonic models based on expansions of spherical harmonic functions were used as a fingerprint to approximate the binding cavity and the ligand, respectively. This defines a new way to identify the complementarity between lobes and holes. The advantage of this method is that two spherical harmonic surfaces to be compared can be defined separately. This method can be used as a filter to eliminate candidates among a large number of conformations, and it will speed up the docking procedure. Therefore, it is possible to select complementary ligands or complementary conformations of a ligand and the macromoleeules, by comparing their fingerprints previously stored in a database.

  15. The Quantum Arnold Transformation for the damped harmonic oscillator: from the Caldirola-Kanai model toward the Bateman model

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ruiz, F. F.; Guerrero, J.; Aldaya, V.; Cossío, F.

    2012-08-01

    Using a quantum version of the Arnold transformation of classical mechanics, all quantum dynamical systems whose classical equations of motion are non-homogeneous linear second-order ordinary differential equations (LSODE), including systems with friction linear in velocity such as the damped harmonic oscillator, can be related to the quantum free-particle dynamical system. This implies that symmetries and simple computations in the free particle can be exported to the LSODE-system. The quantum Arnold transformation is given explicitly for the damped harmonic oscillator, and an algebraic connection between the Caldirola-Kanai model for the damped harmonic oscillator and the Bateman system will be sketched out.

  16. Respiratory motion correction of liver contrast-enhanced ultrasound sequences by selecting reference image automatically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji; Zhang, Yan-Rong; Chen, Juan; Chen, Xiao-Hui; Zhong, Xiao-Li

    2017-03-01

    Objective: Respiratory motion correction is necessary to quantitative analysis of liver contrast-enhance ultrasound (CEUS) image sequences. However, traditionally manual selecting reference image would affect the accuracy of the respiratory motion correction. Methods First, the original high-dimensional ultrasound gray-level image data was mapped into a two-dimensional space by using Laplacian Eigenmaps (LE). Then, the cluster analysis was adopted using K-means, and the optimal ultrasound reference image could be gotten for respiratory motion correction. Finally, this proposed method was validated on 18 CEUS cases of VX2 tumor in rabbit liver, and the effectiveness of this method was demonstrated. Results After correction, the time-intensity curves extracted from the region of interest of CEUS image sequences became smoother. Before correction, the average of total mean structural similarity (TMSSIM) and the average of mean correlation coefficient (MCC) from image sequences were 0.45+/-0.11 and 0.67+/-0.16, respectively. After correction, the two parameters were increased obviously P<0.001), and were 0.59+/-0.11 and 0.81+/-0.11, respectively. The average of deviation valve (DV) from image sequences before correction was 92.16+/-18.12. After correction, the average was reduced to one-third of the original value. Conclusions: The proposed respiratory motion method could improve the accuracy of the quantitative analysis of CEUS by using the reference image based on the traditionally manual selection. This method is operated simply and has a potential in clinical application.

  17. Emittance-dominated long bunches in dual harmonic RF system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Shi-Zhong; Klaus Bongardt; Rudolf Maier; TANG Jing-Yu; ZHANG Tian-Jue

    2008-01-01

    The storage of long bunches for long time intervals needs flattened stationary buckets with a large bucket height. The longitudinal motion of the initially mismatched beam has been studied for both the single and dual harmonic RF systems. The RF amplitude is determined to be r.m.s wise matched. The bucket height of the single harmonic system is too small even for shorter bunch with only 20% increased energy spread. The Halo formation and even debunching can be seen after a few synchrotron periods for single particles with large amplitude. In the case of small energy spread for a cooled beam, Coulomb interaction cannot be ignored. The external voltage has to be increased to keep the r.m.s bunch length unchanged. The new voltage ratio R(N) simplifies physics for the emittance-dominated bunches with modest particle number N. For the single harmonic system, substantial amount of debunching occurs without increasing the external voltage, but very little if the RF amplitude is doubled. Results from the ORBIT tracking code are presented for the 1 GeV bunch in the HESR synchrotron, part of the GSI FAIR project.

  18. Vacuum high-harmonic generation and electromagnetic shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhl, P.; King, B.; Ruhl, H.

    2016-04-01

    > When one takes into account the presence of virtual charged states in the quantum vacuum, a nonlinear self-interaction can arise in the propagation of electromagnetic fields. This self-interaction is often referred to as `real photon-photon scattering'. When the centre-of-mass energy of colliding photons is much lower than the rest energy of an electron-positron pair, this quantum effect can be included in the classical field equations of motion as a vacuum current and charge density using the Heisenberg-Euler Lagrangian. Using analytical and numerical methods for subcritical fields, the intrinsic solution to Maxwell's equations has been found for counterpropagating probe and pump plane waves in the presence of vacuum four- and six-wave mixing. In the corresponding all-order solution for the scattered probe, a route to vacuum high-harmonic generation is identified in which a long phase length can compensate for the weakness of interacting fields. The resulting shocks in the probe carrier wave and envelope are studied for different parameter regimes and polarisation set-ups. In this special issue, we study two additional set-ups: that of a slowly varying single-cycle background to highlight the effect of an oscillating background on the probe harmonic spectrum, and that of a few-cycle probe to highlight the smoothing of the harmonic peaks produced by a wider spectrum of probe photons. We also correct sign errors in an earlier publication.

  19. Motion Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    MOOG, Inc. supplies hydraulic actuators for the Space Shuttle. When MOOG learned NASA was interested in electric actuators for possible future use, the company designed them with assistance from Marshall Space Flight Center. They also decided to pursue the system's commercial potential. This led to partnership with InterActive Simulation, Inc. for production of cabin flight simulators for museums, expositions, etc. The resulting products, the Magic Motion Simulator 30 Series, are the first electric powered simulators. Movements are computer-guided, including free fall to heighten the sense of moving through space. A projection system provides visual effects, and the 11 speakers of a digital laser based sound system add to the realism. The electric actuators are easier to install, have lower operating costs, noise, heat and staff requirements. The U.S. Space & Rocket Center and several other organizations have purchased the simulators.

  20. Experimental and numerical investigation of parametric resonance of flexible hose conveying non-harmonic fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczko, Jan; Czerwiński, Andrzej

    2016-07-01

    The article presents an analysis of a model describing transverse vibrations of an elastic hose induced by non-harmonic fluid flow pulsation. The equation of motion is given as a nonlinear partial differential equation with periodically variable coefficients. The Galerkin method is employed, utilising orthogonal polynomials as shape functions. The effect of selected parameters on increased vibration intensity range and the character and form of vibrations is investigated. It is demonstrated that sub-harmonic and quasi-periodic vibrations can be induced in the simple and combination parametric resonance range. The occurrence of the parametric resonance phenomenon is evidenced by experimental data.

  1. Stabilization of vortices in the wake of a circular cylinder using harmonic forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamoun, George Chaouki; Schilder, Frank; Brøns, Morten

    2011-01-01

    We explore whether vortex flows in the wake of a fixed circular cylinder can be stabilized using harmonic forcing. We use Fo¨ppl's point vortex model augmented with a harmonic point source-sink mechanism which preserves conservation of mass and leaves the system Hamiltonian. We discover a region...... of Lyapunov-stable vortex motion for an appropriate selection of parameters. We identify four unique parameters that affect the stability of the vortices: the uniform flow velocity, vortex equilibrium positions, forcing amplitude, and forcing frequency. We assess the robustness of the controller using...

  2. The performance characteristics of an irreversible quantum Otto harmonic refrigeration cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE JiZhou; HE Xian; TANG Wei

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,an irreversible quantum Otto refrigeration cycle working with harmonic systems is estab-lished.Base on Heisenberg quantum master equation,the equations of motion for the set of harmonic systems thermodynamic observables are derived.The simulated diagrams of the quantum Otto refrig-eration cycle are plotted.The relationship between average power of friction,cooling rate,power input,and the time of adiabatic process is analyzed by using numerical calculation.Moreover,the influence of the heat conductance and the time of iso-frequency process on the performance of the cycle is dis-cussed.

  3. The performance characteristics of an irreversible quantum Otto harmonic refrigeration cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, an irreversible quantum Otto refrigeration cycle working with harmonic systems is established. Base on Heisenberg quantum master equation, the equations of motion for the set of harmonic systems thermodynamic observables are derived. The simulated diagrams of the quantum Otto refrigeration cycle are plotted. The relationship between average power of friction, cooling rate, power input, and the time of adiabatic process is analyzed by using numerical calculation. Moreover, the influence of the heat conductance and the time of iso-frequency process on the performance of the cycle is discussed.

  4. High-harmonic generation from plasma mirrors at kilohertz repetition rate

    OpenAIRE

    Quéré, Fabien

    2011-01-01

    International audience; We report the first demonstration of high-harmonic generation from plasma mirrors at a 1 kHz repetition rate. Harmonics up to nineteenth order are generated at peak intensities close to 1018 W=cm2 by focusing 1 mJ, 25 fs laser pulses down to 1:7 μm FWHM spot size without any prior wavefront correction onto a moving target. We minimize target surface motion with respect to the laser focus using online interferometry to ensure reproducible interaction conditions for ever...

  5. Pilot-wave dynamics in a harmonic potential: Quantization and stability of circular orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labousse, M.; Oza, A. U.; Perrard, S.; Bush, J. W. M.

    2016-03-01

    We present the results of a theoretical investigation of the dynamics of a droplet walking on a vibrating fluid bath under the influence of a harmonic potential. The walking droplet's horizontal motion is described by an integro-differential trajectory equation, which is found to admit steady orbital solutions. Predictions for the dependence of the orbital radius and frequency on the strength of the radial harmonic force field agree favorably with experimental data. The orbital quantization is rationalized through an analysis of the orbital solutions. The predicted dependence of the orbital stability on system parameters is compared with experimental data and the limitations of the model are discussed.

  6. Pilot-wave dynamics in a harmonic potential: Quantization and stability of circular orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Labousse, Matthieu; Perrard, Stéhane; Bush, John W M

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a theoretical investigation of the dynamics of a droplet walking on a vibrating fluid bath under the influence of a harmonic potential. The walking droplet's horizontal motion is described by an integro-differential trajectory equation, which is found to admit steady orbital solutions. Predictions for the dependence of the orbital radius and frequency on the strength of the radial harmonic force field agree favorably with experimental data. The orbital quantization is rationalized through an analysis of the orbital solutions. The predicted dependence of the orbital stability on system parameters is compared with experimental data and the limitations of the model are discussed.

  7. Models of soft rotators and the theory of a harmonic rotator

    CERN Document Server

    Zakir, Zahid

    2012-01-01

    The states of a planar oscillator are separated to a vibrational mode, containing a zero-point energy, and a rotational mode without the zero-point energy, but having a conserved angular momentum. On the basis of the analysis of properties of models of rigid and semirigid rotators, the theory of soft rotators is formulated where the harmonic attractive force is balanced only by the centrifugal force. As examples a Coulomb rotator (the Bohr model) and a magneto-harmonic rotator (the Fock-Landau levels) are considered. Disappearance of the radial speed in the model of a magneto-harmonic rotator is taken as a defining property of a pure rotational motion in the harmonic potential. After the exception of energies of the magnetic and spin decompositions, specific to magnetic fields, one turns to a simple and general model of a planar harmonic rotator (circular oscillator without radial speed) where kinetic energy is reduced to the purely rotational energy. Energy levels of the harmonic rotator have the same freque...

  8. Dynamics and ergodicity of the infinite harmonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hemmen, J. L.

    1980-10-01

    This is a comprehensive, relatively formal study of the a priori infinite harmonic crystal. A phase space is introduced and the equations of motion of a harmonic crystal, which need not be a primitive one, are explicitly solved by several methods. The crystal is taken infinite right at the beginni ng. Exploiting the fact that the dynamics is known we derive the thermal equilibrium state of the infinite system. In so doing we use the classical Kubo-Martin-Schwinger (KMS) condition. The thermal equilibrium state is a, so-called, gaussian measure on the phase space. The traditional procedure of the thermodynamic limit is considered as well. In both cases we exploit the advantages of the technique of Fourier transforms of measures. This technique is elucidated in a separate section, where the many connections with Euclidean quantum field theory are also indicated. Finally we settle the problem of the existence of a crystalline state in its appropriate setting: the infinite system. The system is a “crystal” only if it is three-dimensional. The three essential ingredients of the ergodic analysis are a phase space, a dynamics, and an invariant state, here the thermal equilibrium state. A system is ergodic when the time average of any observable equals its phase average. There are, however, stronger notions of ergodicity which are classified in an “ergodic hierarchy”. When a system is Bernoulli it is at the top of this hierarchy. A finite harmonic system is never ergodic. Here it is shown that, generally speaking, a perfect, infinite harmonic crystal in thermal equilibrium has to be Bernoulli. A detailed discussion of the physical relevance of this result has been included.

  9. Measurement and Analysis Harmonics Using DSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Ik; Yoo, Jae Geun; Jeon, Jonog Chay [Korea Electrical Safety Corporation (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    Limitation countermeasure on harmonics occurred by power conversion installation. motor speed control equipment, and so on of power system is very important problem, and first of all, accuracy harmonics analysis in system is required for appropriate limitation counterplan. Analysis and judgement on power system harmonic by measurement are needed because analysis by mathematical model generally used for these harmonic analysis, if nonlinear ingredient is included in system, is not relatively correct. So, in this paper, system to measure and analyze harmonic by installing it in a power system, using DSP(Digital Signal Processor), is designed and developed, Also, it's performance is verified by installing it in the system that harmonics occurred. (author). 5 refs., 10 figs.

  10. High-harmonic spectroscopy of aligned molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hyeok; Yun, Sang Jae; Lee, Gae Hwang; Nam, Chang Hee

    2017-01-01

    High harmonics emitted from aligned molecules driven by intense femtosecond laser pulses provide the opportunity to explore the structural information of molecules. The field-free molecular alignment technique is an expedient tool for investigating the structural characteristics of linear molecules. The underlying physics of field-free alignment, showing the characteristic revival structure specific to molecular species, is clearly explained from the quantum-phase analysis of molecular rotational states. The anisotropic nature of molecules is shown from the harmonic polarization measurement performed with spatial interferometry. The multi-orbital characteristics of molecules are investigated using high-harmonic spectroscopy, applied to molecules of N2 and CO2. In the latter case the two-dimensional high-harmonic spectroscopy, implemented using a two-color laser field, is applied to distinguish harmonics from different orbitals. Molecular high-harmonic spectroscopy will open a new route to investigate ultrafast dynamics of molecules.

  11. Anomalous Dissipative Quantum Harmonic Oscillator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dian-Yong; BAI Zhan-Wu; DONG Yu-Bing

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the low-temperature statistical properties of a harmonic oscillator coupled to a heat bath, where the low-frequency spectrum vanishes. We obtain the exact result of the zero point energy. Due to the low frequency shortage of environmental oscillators' spectral density, the coordinate and momentum correlation functions decay as r-4and r-6 respectively at zero temperature, where T is the correlation time. The low-temperature behavior of the mean energy does not violate the third law of thermodynamics, but differs largely from the Ohmic spectrum case.

  12. Excited Sessile Drops Perform Harmonically

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Chun-Ti; Steen, Paul H

    2013-01-01

    In our fluid dynamics video, we demonstrate our method of visualizing and identifying various mode shapes of mechanically oscillated sessile drops. By placing metal mesh under an oscillating drop and projecting light from below, the drop's shape is visualized by the visually deformed mesh pattern seen in the top view. The observed modes are subsequently identified by their number of layers and sectors. An alternative identification associates them with spherical harmonics, as demonstrated in the tutorial. Clips of various observed modes are presented, followed by a 10-second quiz of mode identification.

  13. Quantizing the damped harmonic oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latimer, D C [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)

    2005-03-04

    We consider the Fermi quantization of the classical damped harmonic oscillator (dho). In past work on the subject, authors double the phase space of the dho in order to close the system at each moment in time. For an infinite-dimensional phase space, this method requires one to construct a representation of the CAR algebra for each time. We show that the unitary dilation of the contraction semigroup governing the dynamics of the system is a logical extension of the doubling procedure, and it allows one to avoid the mathematical difficulties encountered with the previous method.

  14. Auditory Motion Elicits a Visual Motion Aftereffect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Berger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The visual motion aftereffect is a visual illusion in which exposure to continuous motion in one direction leads to a subsequent illusion of visual motion in the opposite direction. Previous findings have been mixed with regard to whether this visual illusion can be induced cross-modally by auditory stimuli. Based on research on multisensory perception demonstrating the profound influence auditory perception can have on the interpretation and perceived motion of visual stimuli, we hypothesized that exposure to auditory stimuli with strong directional motion cues should induce a visual motion aftereffect. Here, we demonstrate that horizontally moving auditory stimuli induced a significant visual motion aftereffect—an effect that was driven primarily by a change in visual motion perception following exposure to leftward moving auditory stimuli. This finding is consistent with the notion that visual and auditory motion perception rely on at least partially overlapping neural substrates.

  15. Killing vector fields and harmonic superfield theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groeger, Josua, E-mail: groegerj@mathematik.hu-berlin.de [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Mathematik, Rudower Chaussee 25, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    The harmonic action functional allows a natural generalisation to semi-Riemannian supergeometry, also referred to as harmonic, which resembles the supersymmetric sigma models studied in high energy physics. We show that Killing vector fields are infinitesimal supersymmetries of this harmonic action and prove three different Noether theorems in this context. En passant, we provide a homogeneous treatment of five characterisations of Killing vector fields on semi-Riemannian supermanifolds, thus filling a gap in the literature.

  16. Polarization-fan high-order harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Avner; Bordo, Eliyahu; Kfir, Ofer; Sidorenko, Pavel; Cohen, Oren

    2017-02-01

    We predict high-order harmonics in which the polarization within the spectral bandwidth of each harmonic varies with frequency continuously and significantly. For example, the interaction of counter-rotating circularly-polarized bichromatic drivers having close central frequencies with isotropic gas leads to the emission of polarization-fan harmonics where each harmonic in the spectrum has the following property: it is nearly circularly-polarized in one tail of the harmonic peak, linear in the center of the peak and nearly circular with the opposite helicity in the opposite tail. Also, we show that polarization-fan high harmonics with modulated ellipticity are obtained when elliptical drivers are used. Polarization-fan harmonics are obtained as a result of multiple (at least two) head-on recollisions of electrons with their parent ions occurring from different angles in a two-dimensional plane. The use of bichromatic drivers with close central frequencies largely preserves the single-cycle, single-atom and macroscopic physics of ‘ordinary’ high harmonic generation, where both the driver and high harmonics are linearly polarized. Thus, it should offer several attracting features, including (i) a direct route for extending the maximal photon energy of observed helical high harmonics to keV by using bichromatic drivers only in the mid-IR region and (ii) utilizing phase matching methods that were developed for ‘ordinary’ high harmonic generation driven by quasi-monochromatic pulses (e.g. pressure tuning phase matching). These polarization-fan harmonics may be utilized for exploring non-repetitive ultrafast chiral phenomena, e.g. dynamics of magnetic domains, in a single shot.

  17. Time dependent Doppler shifts in high-order harmonic generation in intense laser interactions with solid density plasma and frequency chirped pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, E. C.; Zhang, P.; He, Z.-H. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2104 (United States); Dollar, F. [JILA, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Krushelnick, K.; Thomas, A. G. R., E-mail: agrt@umich.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2104 (United States); Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2104 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    High order harmonic generation from solid targets is a compelling route to generating intense attosecond or even zeptosecond pulses. However, the effects of ion motion on the generation of harmonics have only recently started to be considered. Here, we study the effects of ion motion in harmonics production at ultrahigh laser intensities interacting with solid density plasma. Using particle-in-cell simulations, we find that there is an optimum density for harmonic production that depends on laser intensity, which scales linearly with a{sub 0} with no ion motion but with a reduced scaling if ion motion is included. We derive a scaling for this optimum density with ion motion and also find that the background ion motion induces Doppler red-shifts in the harmonic structures of the reflected pulse. The temporal structure of the Doppler shifts is correlated to the envelope of the incident laser pulse. We demonstrate that by introducing a frequency chirp in the incident pulse we are able to eliminate these Doppler shifts almost completely.

  18. Introduction to classical and quantum harmonic oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Sylvan C

    2013-01-01

    From conch shells to lasers . harmonic oscillators, the timeless scientific phenomenon As intriguing to Galileo as they are to scientists today, harmonic oscillators have provided a simple and compelling paradigm for understanding the complexities that underlie some of nature's and mankind's most fascinating creations. From early string and wind instruments fashioned from bows and seashells to the intense precision of lasers, harmonic oscillators have existed in various forms, as objects of beauty and scientific use. And harmonic oscillation has endured as one of science's most fascinating con

  19. Harmonic functions on groups and Fourier algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Cho-Ho

    2002-01-01

    This research monograph introduces some new aspects to the theory of harmonic functions and related topics. The authors study the analytic algebraic structures of the space of bounded harmonic functions on locally compact groups and its non-commutative analogue, the space of harmonic functionals on Fourier algebras. Both spaces are shown to be the range of a contractive projection on a von Neumann algebra and therefore admit Jordan algebraic structures. This provides a natural setting to apply recent results from non-associative analysis, semigroups and Fourier algebras. Topics discussed include Poisson representations, Poisson spaces, quotients of Fourier algebras and the Murray-von Neumann classification of harmonic functionals.

  20. Second-harmonic optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi; Tomov, Ivan; Wang, Yimin; Chen, Zhongping

    2004-05-01

    Second-harmonic optical coherence tomography, which uses coherence gating of second-order nonlinear optical responses of biological tissues for imaging, is described and demonstrated. Femtosecond laser pulses were used to excite second-harmonic waves from collagen harvested from rat tail tendon and a reference nonlinear crystal. Second-harmonic interference fringe signals were detected and used for image construction. Because of the strong dependence of second-harmonic generation on molecular and tissue structures, this technique imparts contrast and resolution enhancement to conventional optical coherence tomography.

  1. Harmonic Retrieval in Colored ARMA Noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    We propose a new approach to harmonic retrieval in colored ARMA noise. A suitable filter is first used to remove all the sharp power spectrum peaks of the noisy observed process, then some kinds of cross correlation is employed to identify the noise characteristics. After filtering the noisy observed process with the identified noise characteristics again, SVD-TLS method can be applied to retrieve the harmonics. The proposed approach can be used to retrieve real-valued harmonic signals in colored ARMA noise with no restrictions on the phase coupling of harmonics and the distribution of the noise. Simulation examples show its effectiveness.

  2. Effects of harmonic roving on pitch discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; de Kérangal, Mathilde le Gal; Joshi, Suyash Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Performance in pitch discrimination tasks is limited by variability intrinsic to listeners which may arise from peripheral auditory coding limitations or more central noise sources. The present study aimed at quantifying such “internal noise” by estimating the amount of harmonic roving required...... to impair pitch discrimination performance. Fundamental-frequency difference limens (F0DLs) were obtained in normal-hearing listeners with and without musical training for complex tones filtered between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz with F0s of 300 Hz (resolved harmonics) and 75 Hz (unresolved harmonics). The harmonicity...

  3. Collective motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicsek, Tamás; Zafeiris, Anna

    2012-08-01

    We review the observations and the basic laws describing the essential aspects of collective motion - being one of the most common and spectacular manifestation of coordinated behavior. Our aim is to provide a balanced discussion of the various facets of this highly multidisciplinary field, including experiments, mathematical methods and models for simulations, so that readers with a variety of background could get both the basics and a broader, more detailed picture of the field. The observations we report on include systems consisting of units ranging from macromolecules through metallic rods and robots to groups of animals and people. Some emphasis is put on models that are simple and realistic enough to reproduce the numerous related observations and are useful for developing concepts for a better understanding of the complexity of systems consisting of many simultaneously moving entities. As such, these models allow the establishing of a few fundamental principles of flocking. In particular, it is demonstrated, that in spite of considerable differences, a number of deep analogies exist between equilibrium statistical physics systems and those made of self-propelled (in most cases living) units. In both cases only a few well defined macroscopic/collective states occur and the transitions between these states follow a similar scenario, involving discontinuity and algebraic divergences.

  4. Harmonization of European track quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with characterisation of track geometry, track measuring and recording system, as well as geometric quality levels. The legal framework and state of the art in the field of harmonization of track geometry technical regulation in the Republic of Serbia were presented. In particular, the paper discusses the European standard EN 13848 Series (Parts 1-6. Principal track geometric parameters were analyzed according to EN 13848-1. Track geometric quality levels were examined according to EN 13848-5. The evaluation of track geometry quality according to prEN 13848-6 was analyzed as well. The objective of creation of the European standard EN 13848 Series (Parts 1-6 was defining a unique approach for the evaluation of track geometry quality of various European railway infrastructures. The Institute for Standardization of Serbia has adopted and published five of six parts of this standard. This paper is a part of an effort to harmonize the Serbian railway technical regulations with those of the European Union. .

  5. Motion control report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a short discount publication. In today's manufacturing environment, Motion Control plays a major role in virtually every project.The Motion Control Report provides a comprehensive overview of the technology of Motion Control:* Design Considerations* Technologies* Methods to Control Motion* Examples of Motion Control in Systems* A Detailed Vendors List

  6. Reduction of multiple harmonic sums and harmonic polylogarithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, J. [DESY, Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron, DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15735 Zeuthen (Germany)]. E-mail: johannes.blumlein@desy.de

    2004-11-21

    The alternating and non-alternating harmonic sums and other algebraic objects of the same equivalence class are connected by algebraic relations which are induced by the product of these quantities and which depend on their index class rather than on their value. We show how to find a basis of the associated algebra. The length of the basis l is found to be =<1/d, where d is the depth of the sums considered and is given by the 2nd Witt formula. It can be also determined by counting the Lyndon words of the respective index set. The relations derived can be used to simplify results of higher-order calculations in QED and QCD.

  7. Reduction of multiple harmonic sums and harmonic polylogarithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blümlein, J.

    2004-11-01

    The alternating and non-alternating harmonic sums and other algebraic objects of the same equivalence class are connected by algebraic relations which are induced by the product of these quantities and which depend on their index class rather than on their value. We show how to find a basis of the associated algebra. The length of the basis l is found to be ⩽1/d, where d is the depth of the sums considered and is given by the 2nd Witt formula. It can be also determined by counting the Lyndon words of the respective index set. The relations derived can be used to simplify results of higher-order calculations in QED and QCD.

  8. Tailoring high-order harmonic generation with nonhomogeneous fields and electron confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Ciappina, M F; Shaaran, T; Biegert, J; Quidant, R; Lewenstein, M

    2012-01-01

    We study high-order harmonic generation (HHG) resulting from the illumination of plasmonic nanostructures with a short laser pulse. We show that both the inhomogeneities of the local electric field and the confinement of the electron motion play an important role in the HHG process and lead to a significant increase of the harmonic cutoff. In order to understand and characterize this feature, we combine the numerical solution of the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) with the electric fields obtained from 3D finite element simulations. We employ time-frequency analysis to extract more detailed information from the TDSE results and to explain the extended harmonic spectra. Our findings have the potential to boost up the utilization of HHG as coherent extreme ultraviolet (XUV) sources.

  9. Coupled rotor-flexible fuselage vibration reduction using open loop higher harmonic control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavassiliou, I.; Friedmann, P. P.; Venkatesan, C.

    1991-01-01

    A fundamental study of vibration prediction and vibration reduction in helicopters using active controls was performed. The nonlinear equations of motion for a coupled rotor/flexible fuselage system have been derived using computer algebra on a special purpose symbolic computer facility. The trim state and vibratory response of the helicopter are obtained in a single pass by applying the harmonic balance technique and simultaneously satisfying the trim and the vibratory response of the helicopter for all rotor and fuselage degrees of freedom. The influence of the fuselage flexibility on the vibratory response is studied. It is shown that the conventional single frequency higher harmonic control is capable of reducing either the hub loads or only the fuselage vibrations but not both simultaneously. It is demonstrated that for simultaneous reduction of hub shears and fuselae vibrations a new scheme called multiple higher harmonic control is required.

  10. The harmonized INFOGEST in vitro digestion method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egger, Lotti; Ménard, Olivia; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Alvito, Paula; Assunção, Ricardo; Balance, Simon; Barberá, Reyes; Brodkorb, Andre; Cattenoz, Thomas; Clemente, Alfonso; Comi, Irene; Dupont, Didier; Garcia-Llatas, Guadalupe; Lagarda, María Jesús; Feunteun, Le Steven; Janssen Duijghuijsen, Lonneke; Karakaya, Sibel; Lesmes, Uri; Mackie, Alan R.; Martins, Carla; Meynier, Anne; Miralles, Beatriz; Murray, B.S.; Pihlanto, Anne; Picariello, Gianluca; Santos, C.N.; Simsek, Sebnem; Recio, Isidra; Rigby, Neil; Rioux, Laurie Eve; Stoffers, Helena; Tavares, Ana; Tavares, Lucelia; Turgeon, Sylvie; Ulleberg, E.K.; Vegarud, G.E.; Vergères, Guy; Portmann, Reto

    2016-01-01

    Within the active field of in vitro digestion in food research, the COST Action INFOGEST aimed to harmonize in vitro protocols simulating human digestion on the basis of physiologically inferred conditions. A harmonized static in vitro digestion (IVD) method was recently published as a primary

  11. The Harmonic Organization of Auditory Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin eWang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental structure of sounds encountered in the natural environment is the harmonicity. Harmonicity is an essential component of music found in all cultures. It is also a unique feature of vocal communication sounds such as human speech and animal vocalizations. Harmonics in sounds are produced by a variety of acoustic generators and reflectors in the natural environment, including vocal apparatuses of humans and animal species as well as music instruments of many types. We live in an acoustic world full of harmonicity. Given the widespread existence of the harmonicity in many aspects of the hearing environment, it is natural to expect that it be reflected in the evolution and development of the auditory systems of both humans and animals, in particular the auditory cortex. Recent neuroimaging and neurophysiology experiments have identified regions of non-primary auditory cortex in humans and non-human primates that have selective responses to harmonic pitches. Accumulating evidence has also shown that neurons in many regions of the auditory cortex exhibit characteristic responses to harmonically related frequencies beyond the range of pitch. Together, these findings suggest that a fundamental organizational principle of auditory cortex is based on the harmonicity. Such an organization likely plays an important role in music processing by the brain. It may also form the basis of the preference for particular classes of music and voice sounds.

  12. Pairwise harmonics for shape analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Youyi

    2013-07-01

    This paper introduces a simple yet effective shape analysis mechanism for geometry processing. Unlike traditional shape analysis techniques which compute descriptors per surface point up to certain neighborhoods, we introduce a shape analysis framework in which the descriptors are based on pairs of surface points. Such a pairwise analysis approach leads to a new class of shape descriptors that are more global, discriminative, and can effectively capture the variations in the underlying geometry. Specifically, we introduce new shape descriptors based on the isocurves of harmonic functions whose global maximum and minimum occur at the point pair. We show that these shape descriptors can infer shape structures and consistently lead to simpler and more efficient algorithms than the state-of-the-art methods for three applications: intrinsic reflectional symmetry axis computation, matching shape extremities, and simultaneous surface segmentation and skeletonization. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. Libsharp - spherical harmonic transforms revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Reinecke, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We present libsharp, a code library for spherical harmonic transforms (SHTs), which evolved from the libpsht library, addressing several of its shortcomings, such as adding MPI support for distributed memory systems and SHTs of fields with arbitrary spin, but also supporting new developments in CPU instruction sets like the Advanced Vector Extensions (AVX) or fused multiply-accumulate (FMA) instructions. The library is implemented in portable C99 and provides an interface that can be easily accessed from other programming languages such as C++, Fortran, Python etc. Generally, libsharp's performance is at least on par with that of its predecessor; however, significant improvements were made to the algorithms for scalar SHTs, which are roughly twice as fast when using the same CPU capabilities. The library is available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/libsharp/ under the terms of the GNU General Public License.

  14. High Orbital Angular Momentum Harmonic Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, J.; Trines, R. M. G. M.; Alves, E. P.; Fonseca, R. A.; Mendonça, J. T.; Bingham, R.; Norreys, P.; Silva, L. O.

    2016-12-01

    We identify and explore a high orbital angular momentum (OAM) harmonics generation and amplification mechanism that manipulates the OAM independently of any other laser property, by preserving the initial laser wavelength, through stimulated Raman backscattering in a plasma. The high OAM harmonics spectra can extend at least up to the limiting value imposed by the paraxial approximation. We show with theory and particle-in-cell simulations that the orders of the OAM harmonics can be tuned according to a selection rule that depends on the initial OAM of the interacting waves. We illustrate the high OAM harmonics generation in a plasma using several examples including the generation of prime OAM harmonics. The process can also be realized in any nonlinear optical Kerr media supporting three-wave interactions.

  15. High orbital angular momentum harmonic generation

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira, J; Alves, E P; Fonseca, R A; Mendonça, J T; Bingham, R; Norreys, P; Silva, L O

    2016-01-01

    We identify and explore a high orbital angular momentum (OAM) harmonics generation and amplification mechanism that manipulates the OAM independently of any other laser property, by preserving the initial laser wavelength, through stimulated Raman backscattering in a plasma. The high OAM harmonics spectra can extend at least up to the limiting value imposed by the paraxial approximation. We show with theory and particle-in-cell simulations that the orders of the OAM harmonics can be tuned according to a selection rule that depends on the initial OAM of the interacting waves. We illustrate the high OAM harmonics generation in a plasma using several examples including the generation of prime OAM harmonics. The process can also be realised in any nonlinear optical Kerr media supporting three-wave interactions.

  16. Harmonics Monitoring Survey on LED Lamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahman Ahmed Akila

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Light Emitting Diode (LED lamps are being increasingly used in many applications. These LED lamps operate using a driver, which is a switching device. Hence, LED lamps will be a source of harmonics in the power system. These harmonics if not well treated, may cause severe performance and operational problems. In this paper, harmonics (amplitude and phase angles generated by both LED lamps and conventional fluorescent lamps will be studied practically. Then they will be analyzed and evaluated. Compared to each other harmonics generated by both LED and conventional florescent lamps, self mitigation may occur based on the phase angle of these harmonics. All data will be measured using power analyzer and will be done on a sample of actual lamps.

  17. Power Factor Correction to Mitigate Harmonic Distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetkov, Gary

    Many direct current (DC) devices must receive their power from the alternating current (AC) grid. Rectifiers use diodes to create DC for these devices. Due to diodes' non-linear nature however, harmonics are created and these travel back into the grid. A significant presence of harmonics causes component heating and possible malfunction. A harmonic mitigation procedure is needed. With the correct usage of transistors, the current drawn by a rectifier can be manipulated to remove almost all harmonics. This process is called power factor correction (PFC), and formally acts to reduce the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the current. To investigate this, a three phase active rectifier was computer simulated and a controller was designed to provide switching signals for the transistors. Finally, the device was constructed in the laboratory to drive a DC motor, verifying its operating principle outside of the idealities of simulation.

  18. Harmonics mitigation on industrial loads using series and parallel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work compared the use of series and parallel resonant harmonic filters in suppressing harmonics using Simulink ... From the analysis, series resonant filter mitigated the total harmonic distortion from 30.080% to 3.460%. ... Article Metrics.

  19. Anharmonic propagation of two-dimensional beams carrying orbital angular momentum in a harmonic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqi; Liu, Xing; Belić, Milivoj R; Zhong, Weiping; Wen, Feng; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2015-08-15

    We analytically and numerically investigate an anharmonic propagation of two-dimensional beams in a harmonic potential. We pick noncentrosymmetric beams of common interest that carry orbital angular momentum. The examples studied include superposed Bessel-Gauss (BG), Laguerre-Gauss (LG), and circular Airy (CA) beams. For the BG beams, periodic inversion, phase transition, and rotation with periodic angular velocity are demonstrated during propagation. For the LG and CA beams, periodic inversion and variable rotation are still there but not the phase transition. On the whole, the "center of mass" and the orbital angular momentum of a beam exhibit harmonic motion, but the motion of the beam intensity distribution in detail is subject to external and internal torques and forces, causing it to be anharmonic. Our results are applicable to other superpositions of finite circularly asymmetric beams.

  20. Dissipated work in driven harmonic diffusive systems: General solution and application to stretching Rouse polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, T.; Seifert, U.

    2005-02-01

    We study n-dimensional diffusive motion in an externally driven harmonic potential. For these systems the probability distribution of the applied work is a Gaussian. We give explicit expressions for its mean and variance, which are determined by a non-local integral kernel relating the time-derivatives of the applied forces. As illustrations, we specialize our results to dragging a colloidal particle through a viscous fluid and to stretching a Rouse polymer with different protocols.

  1. Bifurcation of Safe Basins and Chaos in Nonlinear Vibroimpact Oscillator under Harmonic and Bounded Noise Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Haiwu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The erosion of the safe basins and chaotic motions of a nonlinear vibroimpact oscillator under both harmonic and bounded random noise is studied. Using the Melnikov method, the system’s Melnikov integral is computed and the parametric threshold for chaotic motions is obtained. Using the Monte-Carlo and Runge-Kutta methods, the erosion of the safe basins is also discussed. The sudden change in the character of the stochastic safe basins when the bifurcation parameter of the system passes through a critical value may be defined as an alternative stochastic bifurcation. It is founded that random noise may destroy the integrity of the safe basins, bring forward the occurrence of the stochastic bifurcation, and make the parametric threshold for motions vary in a larger region, hence making the system become more unsafely and chaotic motions may occur more easily.

  2. Chaotic and steady state behaviour of a nonlinear controlled gyro subjected to harmonic disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Polo, Manuel F. [Department of Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Campus de San Vicente, 03071 Alicante (Spain)]. E-mail: manolo@dfists.ua.es; Perez Molina, Manuel [Facultad de Ciencias Matematicas, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, UNED, C/Boyero 12-1A, Alicante 03007 (Spain)]. E-mail: ma_perez_m@hotmail.com

    2007-07-15

    Chaotic and steady state motions of a nonlinear controlled gimbals suspension gyro used to stabilize an external body are studied in this paper. The equations of the gyro without nonlinear control are deduced from the Euler-Lagrange equations by using the nutation theory. The equations of the system show that a cyclic variable appears. Its elimination allows us to find an auxiliary nonlinear system from which it is possible to deduce a nonlinear control law in order to obtain a desired equilibrium point. From the analysis of the nonlinear control law it is possible to show that due to both harmonic disturbances in the platform of the gyro and in the body to stabilize, regular and chaotic motions can appear. The chaotic motion is researched by means of chaos maps, bifurcation diagrams, sensitivity to initial conditions, Lyapunov exponents and Fourier spectrum density. The transition from chaotic to steady state motion by eliminating the harmonic disturbances from the modification of the initial nonlinear control law is also researched. Next, the paper shows how to use the chaotic motion in order to obtain small input signals so that the desired equilibrium state of the gyro can be reached. The developed methodology and its compared performance are evaluated through analytical methods and numerical simulations.

  3. Field measurement and analysis of harmonic levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karunakara, K.; Muthu Kumar, E.; Rajesh Kumar, O.; Nambudiri, P.V.V.; Srinivasan, K.N. [Central Power Research Institute, Bangalore (India)

    1999-07-01

    The level of harmonics on the transmission and distribution network is rising over the years, due to the rapid development and usage of electronic and semiconductor devices in the industries, as these devices produce harmonic currents. As the harmonic currents produced by these devices are unproductive and affect the ideal sinusoidal waveshapes, these have to be limited to a tolerable limit at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC). Before setting a tolerable limit on harmonics it is necessary to know the level of harmonics already present in the system, so that the limits suggested are comprehensive and practicable. To have a fair idea about the current and voltage harmonics on the Indian system, Central Power Research Institute (CPRI) has carried out a lot of measurements both on the distribution network and transmission network over the past 13 years. This paper discusses the harmonic measurements carried out by CPRI on different loads and voltage levels on the Indian network. The methodology adopted for measurement and results are also discussed in this paper. (author)

  4. Intravascular ultrasound tissue harmonic imaging in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frijlink, Martijn E; Goertz, David E; van Damme, Luc C A; Krams, Rob; van der Steen, Antonius F W

    2006-10-01

    Tissue harmonic imaging (THI) has been shown to increase image quality of medical ultrasound in the frequency range from 2 to 10 MHz and might, therefore, also be used to improve image quality in intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). In this study we constructed a prototype IVUS system that could operate in both fundamental frequency and second harmonic imaging modes. This system uses a conventional, continuously rotating, single-element IVUS catheter and was operated in fundamental 20 MHz, fundamental 40 MHz, and harmonic 40 MHz modes (transmit 20 MHz, receive 40 MHz). Hydrophone beam characterization measurements demonstrated the build-up of a second harmonic signal as a function of increasing pressure. Imaging experiments were conducted in both a tissue-mimicking phantom and in an atherosclerotic animal model in vivo. Acquisitions of fundamental 20 and 40 MHz and second harmonic acquisitions resulted in cross sections of the phantom and a rabbit aorta. The harmonic results of the imaging experiments showed the feasibility of intravascular THI with a conventional IVUS catheter both in a phantom and in vivo. The harmonic acquisitions also showed the potential of THI to reduce image artifacts compared to fundamental imaging.

  5. Harmonic lasing in X-ray FELs

    CERN Document Server

    Schneidmiller, E A

    2012-01-01

    Harmonic lasing in a free electron laser with a planar undulator (under the condition that the fundamental frequency is suppressed) might be a cheap and efficient way of extension of wavelength ranges of existing and planned X-ray FEL facilities. Contrary to nonlinear harmonic generation, harmonic lasing can provide much more intense, stable, and narrow-band FEL beam which is easier to handle due to the suppressed fundamental frequency. In this paper we perform a parametrization of the solution of the eigenvalue equation for lasing at odd harmonics, and present an explicit expression for FEL gain length, taking into account all essential effects. We propose and discuss methods for suppression of the fundamental harmonic. We also suggest a combined use of harmonic lasing and lasing at the retuned fundamental wavelength in order to reduce bandwidth and to increase brilliance of X-ray beam at saturation. Considering 3rd harmonic lasing as a practical example, we come to the conclusion that it is much more robust...

  6. Variational approach to anharmonic collective motion

    CERN Document Server

    Bertsch, George F

    1996-01-01

    We derive large-amplitude collective equations of motion from the variational principle for the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. These equations reduce to the well-known diabatic formulas for vibrational frequencies in the small amplitude limit. The finite amplitude expression allows departures from harmonic behavior of giant resonances to be simply estimated. The relative shift of the second phonon falls with nuclear mass A as A^(-4/3) in the three modes we consider: monopole, dipole, and quadrupole. Numerically the effect is very small in heavy nuclei, as was found with other approaches.

  7. Motion in radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine Sofia

    2012-01-01

    This review considers the management of motion in photon radiation therapy. An overview is given of magnitudes and variability of motion of various structures and organs, and how the motion affects images by producing artifacts and blurring. Imaging of motion is described, including 4DCT and 4DPET...

  8. Harmonic Aspects of Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Bak, Claus Leth; Hjerrild, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the aim, the work and the findings of a PhD project entitled "Harmonics in Large Offshore Wind Farms". It focuses on the importance of harmonic analysis in order to obtain a better performance of future wind farms. The topic is investigated by the PhD project at Aalborg...... of offshore wind farm (OWF) systems....... University (AAU) and DONG Energy. The objective of the project is to improve and understand the nature of harmonic emission and propagation in wind farms (WFs), based on available information, measurement data and simulation tools. The aim of the project is to obtain validated models and analysis methods...

  9. Double Harmonic Transmission (D.H.T.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Ianici

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the construction and functioning of a new type of harmonic drive named double harmonic transmission (D.H.T.. In the second part of this paper is presented the dynamic analysis of the double harmonic transmission, which is based on the results of the experimental researches on the D.H.T. This study of the stress status and the forces distribution is necessary for to determine the durability on the portant elements of the D.H.T.

  10. Selective harmonic control for power converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Keliang; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an Internal Model Principle (IMP) based Selective Harmonic Controller (SHC) for power converters. The proposed SHC offers an optimal control solution for power converters to mitigate power harmonics. It makes a good trade-off among cost, complexity and performance. It has high...... accuracy and fast transient response, and it is cost-effective, easy for real-time implementation, and compatible for design rules-of-thumb. An application on a three-phase PWM converter has confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme in terms of harmonic mitigation....

  11. Harmonic Distortion in CMOS Current Mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik

    1998-01-01

    One of the origins of harmonic distortion in CMOS current mirrors is the inevitable mismatch between the MOS transistors involved. In this paper we examine both single current mirrors and complementary class AB current mirrors and develop an analytical model for the mismatch induced harmonic...... distortion. This analytical model is verified through simulations and is used for a discussion of the impact of mismatch on harmonic distortion properties of CMOS current mirrors. It is found that distortion levels somewhat below 1% can be attained by carefully matching the mirror transistors but ultra low...... distortion is not achievable with CMOS current mirrors...

  12. Asymptotic porosity of planar harmonic measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Jacek; Świaţek, Grzegorz

    2013-04-01

    We study the distribution of harmonic measure on connected Julia sets of unicritical polynomials. Harmonic measure on a full compact set in ℂ is always concentrated on a set which is porous for a positive density of scales. We prove that there is a topologically generic set {A} in the boundary of the Mandelbrot set such that for every cin {A}, β>0, and λ∈(0,1), the corresponding Julia set is a full compact set with harmonic measure concentrated on a set which is not β-porous in scale λ n for n from a set with positive density amongst natural numbers.

  13. Harmonic analysis of a cruise ship network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, P.; Miegeville, L. [GE44, France (France); Sahnouni, K. [Chantiers de l' Atlantique (France)

    2000-07-01

    The number and the power rating of equipment using power electronics have been increasing on board of the ships for many years. At present, the harmonic disturbance must be taken into account from the design stage in order to ensure the smooth running of the installation. This paper presents a harmonic analysis of the electrical distribution system of a cruise ship. The comparison between the evaluated and the real harmonic levels allows us to discuss about the interest and the limits of the estimates. (authors)

  14. A two phase harmonic model for left ventricular function

    CERN Document Server

    Dubi, S; Dubi, Y

    2006-01-01

    A minimal model for mechanical motion of the left ventricle is proposed. The model assumes the left ventricle to be a harmonic oscillator with two distinct phases, simulating the systolic and diastolic phases, at which both the amplitude and the elastic constant of the oscillator are different. Taking into account the pressure within the left ventricle, the model shows qualitative agreement with functional parameters of the left ventricle. The model allows for a natural explanation of heart failure with preserved systolic left ventricular function, also termed diastolic heart failure. Specifically, the rise in left ventricular filling pressures following increased left-ventricular wall stiffness is attributed to a mechanism aimed at preserving heart rate and cardiac output.

  15. Stability of gyro with harmonic nonlinearity in spinning vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. N.

    1983-03-01

    The stability analysis of a rate gyro mounted in a vehicle which is spinning with uncertain angular velocity about the spin axis of the gyro is presented. The complete nonlinear equation of the motion of the gimbal is considered, retaining the fundamental and second harmonic nonlinear terms which are functions of the angular velocity of the vehicle about the spin axis of the gyro. Using the circle criterion for the case of time-varying angular momentum and the Lyapunov approach for the case of uncertain constant angular velocity, conditions for asymptotic stability and global asymptotic stability are obtained. Stable regions in parameter space of the gyro and state space are obtained, and analytical relations for the selection of gyro parameters are derived.

  16. Stochastic thermodynamics of a tagged particle within a harmonic chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacoste, David; Lomholt, Michael A

    2015-02-01

    We study the stochastic thermodynamics of an overdamped harmonic chain, which can be viewed equivalently as a one-dimensional Rouse chain or as an approximate model of single file diffusion. We discuss mainly two levels of description of this system: the Markovian level for which the trajectories of all the particles of the chain are known and the non-Markovian level in which only the motion of a tagged particle is available. For each case, we analyze the energy dissipation and its dependence on initial conditions. Surprisingly, we find that the average coarse-grained entropy production rate can become transiently negative when an oscillating force is applied to the tagged particle. This occurs due to memory effects as shown in a framework based on path integrals or on a generalized Langevin equation.

  17. Dissipative quantum trajectories in complex space: Damped harmonic oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chia-Chun

    2016-10-01

    Dissipative quantum trajectories in complex space are investigated in the framework of the logarithmic nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The logarithmic nonlinear Schrödinger equation provides a phenomenological description for dissipative quantum systems. Substituting the wave function expressed in terms of the complex action into the complex-extended logarithmic nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we derive the complex quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation including the dissipative potential. It is shown that dissipative quantum trajectories satisfy a quantum Newtonian equation of motion in complex space with a friction force. Exact dissipative complex quantum trajectories are analyzed for the wave and solitonlike solutions to the logarithmic nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the damped harmonic oscillator. These trajectories converge to the equilibrium position as time evolves. It is indicated that dissipative complex quantum trajectories for the wave and solitonlike solutions are identical to dissipative complex classical trajectories for the damped harmonic oscillator. This study develops a theoretical framework for dissipative quantum trajectories in complex space.

  18. Array-induced collective transport in the Brownian motion of coupled nonlinear oscillator systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Zhigang; Hu, Bambi; Hu, Gang

    1998-01-01

    Brownian motion of an array of harmonically coupled particles subject to a periodic substrate potential and driven by an external bias is investigated. In the linear response limit (small bias), the coupling between particles may enhance the diffusion process, depending on the competition between the harmonic chain and the substrate potential. An analytical formula of the diffusion rate for the single-particle case is also obtained. In the nonlinear response regime, the moving kink may become...

  19. Electron beam stability and beam peak to peak motion data for NSLS X-Ray storage ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, O.

    1993-07-01

    In the past two years, a significant reduction in electron beam motion has been achieved at the NSLS X-Ray storage ring. The implementation of global analog orbit feedbacks, based on a harmonics correction scheme, has reduced the beam motion globally. Implementation of six local analog feedback systems has reduced the beam motion even further at the corresponding beam line straight sections. This paper presents beam motion measurements, showing the improvement due to the feedback systems. Beam motion is measured using a spectrum analyzer and data is presented at various frequencies, where peaks were observed. Finally, some of the beam motion sources are discussed.

  20. Harmonic Oscillators and Elementary Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Sobouti, Y

    2016-01-01

    Two dynamical systems with same symmetry should have features in common, and as far as their shared symmetry is concerned, one may represent the other. The three light quark constituents of the hadrons, a) have an approximate flavor SU(3) symmetry, b) have an exact color SU(3) symmetry, and c) as spin 1/2 particles, have a Lorentz SO(3,1) symmetry. So does a 3D harmonic oscillator. a) Its Hamiltonian has the SU(3) symmetry, breakable if the 3 fundamental modes of oscillation are not identical. b) The 3 directions of oscillation have the permutation symmetry. This enables one to create three copies of unbreakable SU(3) symmetry for each mode of the oscillation, and mimic the color of the elementary particles. And c) The Lagrangian of the 3D oscillator has the SO(3,1) symmetry. This can be employed to accommodate the spin of the particles. In this paper we draw up a one-to-one correspondence between the eigen modes of the Poisson bracket operator of the 3D oscillator and the flavor multiplets of the particles, ...

  1. Harmonization of immunotoxicology study guidelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NakaK

    2002-01-01

    Guidance for immunotoxicology studies has been intensively discussed.The European Medicnes Evaluation Agency published the draft guidance on immunotoxicity on December 16,1999 and finalized it on July 27,2000.In the meantime,the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published the draft guidance on May 11,2001.The Japanese Ministry of Health,Labor and Welfare and the Japan Pharmaceutical Manufactures Association submitted their interim draft guidance to the International Conference of Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use(ICH) for discussion of Decemeber 20,2001.The approaches are taken in these(draft) guidance documents.A major difference among the guidance of the three regions is that only the EU guidance requires some immune function tests for all new medicinal products.The informal expert working proup meeting held in the ICH on February 7,2002 resched the conchusion that the guidelines should be eventually hamonized after collecting more data.A scientific session on immunotoxicity testing will be included in the ICH6,Osake,November 2003.

  2. High-order harmonics with frequency-varying polarization within each harmonic

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischer, Avner; Sidorenko, Pavel; Cohen, Oren

    2014-01-01

    We predict high-order harmonics in which the polarization within the spectral bandwidth of each harmonic varies continuously and significantly. For example, the interaction of counter-rotating circularly-polarized bichromatic drivers having close central frequencies with isotropic gas leads to the emission of polarization-fan harmonics which are nearly circularly-polarized in one tail of the harmonic peak, linear in the center of the peak and nearly circular with the opposite helicity in the opposite tail. Polarization fan harmonics are obtained as a result of multiple (at least two) head-on recollisions of electrons with their parent ions occurring from different angles. The process can be phase-matched using standard methods (e.g. pressure tuning phase matching) and maintains the single-atom polarization property through propagation. These polarization-fan harmonics may be used for exploring non-repetitive ultrafast chiral phenomena, e.g. dynamics of magnetic domains, in a single shot

  3. Development of signal analysis method for the motional Stark effect diagnostic on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jia; Lyu, Bo; Liu, Haiqing; Li, Yingying; Liu, Dongmei; Wei, Yongqing; Fan, Chao; Shi, Yuejiang; Wu, Zhenwei; Wan, Baonian

    2017-10-01

    A pilot single-channel Motional Stark Effect (MSE) diagnostic has been developed on EAST since 2015. The dual photo-elastic modulators (PEM) were employed to encode the polarization angle into a time-varying signal. The pitch angle was related to the ratio of modulation amplitude at the second harmonic frequency. A digital harmonic analyzer (DHA) technique was developed for extracting the second harmonic amplitude. The results were validated with a hardware phase lock-in amplifier, and is also consistent with the software dual phase-locking algorithm.

  4. Cavity-Enhanced Third Harmonic Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-Xue; WU Ying

    2005-01-01

    We derive the analytical expression of microcavity-enhanced factor for third harmonic generation in terms of detunings, linewidths, and the Purcell factors of the relevant microcavity modes. It is suitable for microcavities with any dimensions and arbitrary geometric shapes.

  5. On conformal supergravity and harmonic superspace

    CERN Document Server

    Butter, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a fully covariant approach to harmonic superspace. It is based on the conformal superspace description of conformal supergravity and involves extending the supermanifold M^{4|8} by the tangent bundle of CP^1. The resulting superspace M^{4|8} x TCP^1 can be identified in a certain gauge with the conventional harmonic superspace M^{4|8} x S^2. This approach not only makes the connection to projective superspace transparent, but simplifies calculations in harmonic superspace significantly by eliminating the need to deal directly with supergravity prepotentials. As an application of the covariant approach, we derive from harmonic superspace the full component action for the sigma model of a hyperkahler cone coupled to conformal supergravity. Further applications are also sketched.

  6. Developing Castable Metal Harmonic Drives Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort utilizes the high elastic strain limit and net-shaped processing of metallic glasses to fabricate low-cost harmonic drives that outperform steel. ...

  7. Reduction of Harmonics by 18-Pulse Rectifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kocman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Operation of such electrical devices as data processing and electronics devices, adjustable speed drives or uninterruptible power supply can cause problems by generating harmonic currents into the network, from which they are supplied. Effects of these harmonic currents are various, they can get worse the quality of supply voltage in the network or to have negative influences on devices connected to this network. There are various technical solutions for reduction of harmonics. One of them is using of multi-pulse rectifiers, whereas the 18-pulse rectifier in the structure of adjustable speed drive is briefly presented in this paper including some results of its behaviour. The examined experimental measurements confirmed its very good efficiency in the harmonic mitigation.

  8. Terahertz optics: Terahertz-driven harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. Y.; You, Y. S.

    2014-02-01

    Researchers have demonstrated high-harmonic generation using strong terahertz pulses in a bulk solid without damaging it. The mechanism underpinning such an extreme nonlinearity also generates coherent electromagnetic radiation covering the terahertz, infrared and optical regions.

  9. Multiculturalism, Europhilia and harmonization: harmony or disharmony?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Sefton-Green

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the difficulties of reconciling the values promoted by multiculturalism with the objectives of harmonization. In the event of conflict, examples from English and French law show that harmonization of private law rules does not always achieve its aim of approximating national laws but, on the contrary, often backfires. The question of whether and why these divergences produce Europhile or Eurosceptic positions amongst Member States is addressed. It appears that when maximum harmonisation clashes with multiculturalism this can lead to legal nationalism, whereas minimum harmonization has less negative effects and can stimulate legal experimentation. It is suggested that harmonization requires a mutual listening and learning process in order to accommodate the multiculturalism of Member States and enable Europhilia to flourish in the European Union.

  10. Stable Stationary Harmonic Maps to Spheres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Hua LIN; Chang You WANG

    2006-01-01

    For k ≥ 3, we establish new estimate on Hausdorff dimensions of the singular set of stable-stationary harmonic maps to the sphere Sk. We show that the singular set of stable-stationary harmonic maps from B5 to S3 is the union of finitely many isolated singular points and finitely many Holder continuous curves. We also discuss the minimization problem among continuous maps from Bn to S2.

  11. Harmonic distortion in microwave photonic filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Manuel; Mora, José; Bolea, Mario; Capmany, José

    2012-04-09

    We present a theoretical and experimental analysis of nonlinear microwave photonic filters. Far from the conventional condition of low modulation index commonly used to neglect high-order terms, we have analyzed the harmonic distortion involved in microwave photonic structures with periodic and non-periodic frequency responses. We show that it is possible to design microwave photonic filters with reduced harmonic distortion and high linearity even under large signal operation.

  12. Structural relations between nested harmonic sums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, J.

    2008-07-15

    We describe the structural relations between nested harmonic sums emerging in the description of physical single scale quantities up to the 3-loop level in renormalizable gauge field theories. These are weight w=6 harmonic sums. We identify universal basic functions which allow to describe a large class of physical quantities and derive their complex analysis. For the 3-loop QCD Wilson coefficients 35 basic functions are required, whereas a subset of 15 describes the 3-loop anomalous dimensions. (orig.)

  13. Index calculation by means of harmonic expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Imamura, Yosuke

    2015-01-01

    We review derivation of superconformal indices by means of supersymmetric localization and spherical harmonic expansion for 3d N=2, 4d N=1, and 6d N=(1,0) supersymmetric gauge theories. We demonstrate calculation of indices for vector multiplets in each dimensions by analysing energy eigenmodes in S^pxR. For the 6d index we consider the perturbative contribution only. We put focus on technical details of harmonic expansion rather than physical applications.

  14. Fractal harmonic law and waterproof/dustproof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Hai-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fractal harmonic law admits that the friction between the pure water and the moving surface is the minimum when fractal dimensions of water in Angstrom scale are equal to fractal dimensions of the moving surface in micro scale. In the paper, the fractal harmonic law is applied to demonstrate the mechanism of waterproof/ dustproof. The waterproof phenomenon of goose feathers and lotus leaves is illustrated to verify our results and experimental results agree well with our theoretical analysis.

  15. Harmonic moment dynamics in Laplacian growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshchiner, Alexander; Thrasher, Matthew; Mineev-Weinstein, Mark B; Swinney, Harry L

    2010-01-01

    Harmonic moments are integrals of integer powers of z=x+iy over a domain. Here, the domain is an exterior of a bubble of air growing in an oil layer between two horizontal closely spaced plates. Harmonic moments are a natural basis for such Laplacian growth phenomena because, unlike other representations, these moments linearize the zero surface tension problem [S. Richardson, J. Fluid Mech. 56, 609 (1972)], so that all moments except the lowest one (the area of the bubble) are conserved in time. In our experiments, we directly determine the harmonic moments and show that for nonzero surface tension, all moments (except the lowest one) decay in time rather than exhibiting the divergences of other representations. Further, we derive an expression that relates the derivative of the k(th) harmonic moment M(k) to measurable quantities (surface tension, viscosity, the distance between the plates, and a line integral over the contour encompassing the growing bubble). The laboratory observations are in good accord with the expression we derive for dM(k)/dt , which is proportional to the surface tension; thus in the zero surface tension limit, the moments (above k=0) are all conserved, in accord with Richardson's theory. In addition, from the measurements of the time evolution of the harmonic moments we obtain a value for the surface tension that is within 20% of the accepted value. In conclusion, our analysis and laboratory observations demonstrate that an interface dynamics description in terms of harmonic moments is physically realizable and robust.

  16. Third harmonic transmit phasing for SNR improvement in tissue harmonic imaging with Golay-encoded excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Che-Chou; Shi, Tai-Yu

    2011-07-01

    Ultrasound tissue harmonic signal generally provides superior image quality as compared to the linear signal. However, since the generation of the tissue harmonic signal is based on finite amplitude distortion of the propagating waveform, the penetration and the sensitivity in tissue harmonic imaging are markedly limited because of the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The method of third harmonic (3f(0)) transmit phasing can improve the tissue harmonic SNR by transmitting at both the fundamental (2.25MHz) and the 3f(0) (6.75MHz) frequencies to achieve mutual enhancement between the frequency-sum and the frequency-difference components of the second harmonic signal. To further increase the SNR without excessive transmit pressure, coded excitation can be incorporated in 3f(0) transmit phasing to boost the tissue harmonic generation. Our analyses indicate that the phase-encoded Golay excitation is suitable in 3f(0) transmit phasing due to its superior transmit bandwidth efficiency. The resultant frequency-sum and frequency-difference components of tissue harmonic signal can be simultaneously Golay-encoded for SNR improvement. The increase of the main-lobe signal with the Golay excitation in 3f(0) transmit phasing are consistent between the tissue harmonic measurements and the simulations. B-mode images of the speckle generating phantom also demonstrate the increases of tissue harmonic SNR for about 11dB without noticeable compression artifacts. For tissue harmonic imaging in combination with the 3f(0) transmit phasing method, the Golay excitation can provide further SNR improvement. Meanwhile, the axial resolution can be effectively restored by pulse compression while the lateral resolution remains unchanged. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Simulations of magnetic nanoparticle Brownian motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Daniel B; Weaver, John B

    2012-12-15

    Magnetic nanoparticles are useful in many medical applications because they interact with biology on a cellular level thus allowing microenvironmental investigation. An enhanced understanding of the dynamics of magnetic particles may lead to advances in imaging directly in magnetic particle imaging or through enhanced MRI contrast and is essential for nanoparticle sensing as in magnetic spectroscopy of Brownian motion. Moreover, therapeutic techniques like hyperthermia require information about particle dynamics for effective, safe, and reliable use in the clinic. To that end, we have developed and validated a stochastic dynamical model of rotating Brownian nanoparticles from a Langevin equation approach. With no field, the relaxation time toward equilibrium matches Einstein's model of Brownian motion. In a static field, the equilibrium magnetization agrees with the Langevin function. For high frequency or low amplitude driving fields, behavior characteristic of the linearized Debye approximation is reproduced. In a higher field regime where magnetic saturation occurs, the magnetization and its harmonics compare well with the effective field model. On another level, the model has been benchmarked against experimental results, successfully demonstrating that harmonics of the magnetization carry enough information to infer environmental parameters like viscosity and temperature.

  18. Dizziness and Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Dizziness and Motion Sickness Dizziness and Motion Sickness Patient ... vision or speech, or hearing loss. What is dizziness? Dizziness can be described in many ways, such ...

  19. Harmonic analysis utilizing a Phonodeik and an Henrici analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickinger, William J.; Hanson, Roger J.; Hoekje, Peter L.

    2004-05-01

    Dayton C. Miller of the Case School of Applied Science assembled a series of instruments for accurate analysis of sound [D. C. Miller, J. Franklin Inst. 182, 285-322 (1916)]. He created the Phonodeik to display and record sound waveforms of musical instruments, voices, fog horns, and so on. Waveforms were analyzed with the Henrici harmonic analyzer, built in Switzerland by G. Coradi. In this device, the motion of a stylus along the curve to be analyzed causes a series of spheres to rotate; two moveable rollers in contact with the nth sphere record the contributions of the sine(nx) and cosine(nx) components of the wave. Corrections for the measured spectra are calculated from analysis of the response of the Phonodeik. Finally, the original waveform could be reconstructed from the corrected spectral amplitudes and phases by a waveform synthesizer, also built at Case. Videos will be presented that show the motion of the gears, spheres, and dials of a working Henrici analyzer, housed at the Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology at the University of Iowa. Operation of the Henrici analyzer and the waveform synthesizer will be explained.

  20. First exit times of harmonically trapped particles: a didactic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.

    2015-01-01

    We revise the classical problem of characterizing first exit times of a harmonically trapped particle whose motion is described by a one- or multidimensional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. We start by recalling the main derivation steps of a propagator using Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations. The mean exit time, the moment-generating function and the survival probability are then expressed through confluent hypergeometric functions and thoroughly analyzed. We also present a rapidly converging series representation of confluent hypergeometric functions that is particularly well suited for numerical computation of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the governing Fokker-Planck operator. We discuss several applications of first exit times, such as the detection of time intervals during which motor proteins exert a constant force onto a tracer in optical tweezers single-particle tracking experiments; adhesion bond dissociation under mechanical stress; characterization of active periods of trend-following and mean-reverting strategies in algorithmic trading on stock markets; relation to the distribution of first crossing times of a moving boundary by Brownian motion. Some extensions are described, including diffusion under quadratic double-well potential and anomalous diffusion.

  1. Modified ADALINE algorithm for harmonic estimation and selective harmonic elimination in inverters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasumathi, B.; Moorthi, S.

    2011-11-01

    In digital signal processing, algorithms are very well developed for the estimation of harmonic components. In power electronic applications, an objective like fast response of a system is of primary importance. An effective method for the estimation of instantaneous harmonic components, along with conventional harmonic elimination technique, is presented in this article. The primary function is to eliminate undesirable higher harmonic components from the selected signal (current or voltage) and it requires only the knowledge of the frequency of the component to be eliminated. A signal processing technique using modified ADALINE algorithm has been proposed for harmonic estimation. The proposed method stays effective as it converges to a minimum error and brings out a finer estimation. A conventional control based on pulse width modulation for selective harmonic elimination is used to eliminate harmonic components after its estimation. This method can be applied to a wide range of equipment. The validity of the proposed method to estimate and eliminate voltage harmonics is proved with a dc/ac inverter as a simulation example. Then, the results are compared with existing ADALINE algorithm for illustrating its effectiveness.

  2. Wrapping Brownian motion and heat kernels I: compact Lie groups

    CERN Document Server

    Maher, David G

    2010-01-01

    An important object of study in harmonic analysis is the heat equation. On a Euclidean space, the fundamental solution of the associated semigroup is known as the heat kernel, which is also the law of Brownian motion. Similar statements also hold in the case of a Lie group. By using the wrapping map of Dooley and Wildberger, we show how to wrap a Brownian motion to a compact Lie group from its Lie algebra (viewed as a Euclidean space) and find the heat kernel. This is achieved by considering It\\^o type stochastic differential equations and applying the Feynman-Ka\\v{c} theorem.

  3. Electromagnetic radiation of charged particles in stochastic motion

    CERN Document Server

    Harko, Tiberiu

    2016-01-01

    The study of the Brownian motion of a charged particle in electric and magnetic fields fields has many important applications in plasma and heavy ions physics, as well as in astrophysics. In the present paper we consider the electromagnetic radiation properties of a charged non-relativistic particle in the presence of electric and magnetic fields, of an exterior non-electromagnetic potential, and of a friction and stochastic force, respectively. We describe the motion of the charged particle by a Langevin and generalized Langevin type stochastic differential equation. We investigate in detail the cases of the Brownian motion with or without memory in a constant electric field, in the presence of an external harmonic potential, and of a constant magnetic field. In all cases the corresponding Langevin equations are solved numerically, and a full description of the spectrum of the emitted radiation and of the physical properties of the motion is obtained. The Power Spectral Density (PSD) of the emitted power is ...

  4. Objects in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  5. Possible role of cochlear nonlinearity in the detection of mistuning of a harmonic component in a harmonic complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoelinga, Christophe; Heo, Inseok; Long, Glenis; Lee, Jungmee; Lutfi, Robert; Chang, An-Chieh

    2015-12-01

    The human auditory system has a remarkable ability to "hear out" a wanted sound (target) in the background of unwanted sounds. One important property of sound which helps us hear-out the target is inharmonicity. When a single harmonic component of a harmonic complex is slightly mistuned, that component is heard to separate from the rest. At high harmonic numbers, where components are unresolved, the harmonic segregation effect is thought to result from detection of modulation of the time envelope (roughness cue) resulting from the mistuning. Neurophysiological research provides evidence that such envelope modulations are represented early in the auditory system, at the level of the auditory nerve. When the mistuned harmonic is a low harmonic, where components are resolved, the harmonic segregation is attributed to more centrally-located auditory processes, leading harmonic components to form a perceptual group heard separately from the mistuned component. Here we consider an alternative explanation that attributes the harmonic segregation to detection of modulation when both high and low harmonic numbers are mistuned. Specifically, we evaluate the possibility that distortion products in the cochlea generated by the mistuned component introduce detectable beating patterns for both high and low harmonic numbers. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were measured using 3, 7, or 12-tone harmonic complexes with a fundamental frequency (F0) of 200 or 400 Hz. One of two harmonic components was mistuned at each F0: one when harmonics are expected to be resulted and the other from unresolved harmonics. Many non-harmonic DPOAEs are present whenever a harmonic component is mistuned. These non-harmonic DPOAEs are often separated by the amount of the mistuning (ΔF). This small frequency difference will generate a slow beating pattern at ΔF, because this beating is only present when a harmonic component is mistuned, it could provide a cue for behavioral detection

  6. Nonlinear harmonics in the high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG) experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Biedron, S G; Milton, S V; Yu, L H; Wang, X J

    2001-01-01

    We have previously performed rigorous analyses of the nonlinear harmonics in self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron lasers (FELs) using a 3D simulation code. To date, we have presented only preliminary results of these higher harmonics resulting in the high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG) process. A single-pass, high-gain FEL experiment based on the HGHG theory is underway at the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in collaboration with the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Using the above experiment's design parameters, the specific case of the harmonic output from the HGHG experiment will be examined using a 3D simulation code. The sensitivity of nonlinear harmonic output for this HGHG experiment as functions of emittance, energy spread, and peak current in both cases, and for the dispersive section strength and input seed power in the HGHG case, will be presented.

  7. Harmonic Interaction Analysis in Grid Connected Converter using Harmonic State Space (HSS) Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei; Bak, Claus Leth

    2015-01-01

    An increasing number of power electronics based Distributed Generation (DG) systems and loads generate coupled harmonic as well as non-characteristic harmonic with each other. Several methods like impedance based analysis, which is derived from conventional small signal- and average-model, are in...... behavior interaction and dynamic transfer procedure. Frequency domain as well as time domain simulation results are represented by means of HSS modeling to verify the theoretical analysis. Experimental results are also included to validate the method....... during the modeling process. This paper investigates grid connected converter by means of Harmonic State Space (HSS) small signal model, which is modeled from Linear Time varying Periodically (LTP) system. Further, a grid connected converter harmonic matrix is investigated to analyze the harmonic...

  8. The Harmonic Oscillator in the Classical Limit of a Minimal-Length Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintela, T. S.; Fabris, J. C.; Nogueira, J. A.

    2016-09-01

    In this work, we explicitly solve the problem of the harmonic oscillator in the classical limit of a minimal-length scenario. We show that (i) the motion equation of the oscillator is not linear anymore because the presence of a minimal length introduces an anarmonic term and (ii) its motion is described by a Jacobi sine elliptic function. Therefore, the motion is periodic with the same amplitude and with the new period depending on the minimal length. This result (the change in the period of oscillation) is very important since it enables us to find in a quite simple way the most relevant effect of the presence of a minimal length and consequently traces of the Planck-scale physics. We show applications of our results in spectroscopy and gravity.

  9. High-harmonic spectroscopy of molecular isomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, M. C. H.; Brichta, J.-P.; Bhardwaj, V. R. [Department of Physics, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis-Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Spanner, M.; Patchkovskii, S. [National Research Council of Canada, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    We demonstrate that high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) spectroscopy can be used to probe stereoisomers of randomly oriented 1,2-dichloroethylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) and 2-butene (C{sub 4}H{sub 8}). The high-harmonic spectra of these isomers are distinguishable over a range of laser intensities and wavelengths. Time-dependent numerical calculations of angle-dependent ionization yields for 1,2-dichloroethylene suggest that the harmonic spectra of molecular isomers reflect differences in their strong-field ionization. The subcycle ionization yields for the cis isomer are an order of magnitude higher than those for the trans isomer. The sensitivity in discrimination of the harmonic spectra of cis- and trans- isomers is greater than 8 and 5 for 1,2-dichloroethylene and 2-butene, respectively. We show that HHG spectroscopy cannot differentiate the harmonic spectra of the two enantiomers of the chiral molecule propylene oxide (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}O).

  10. Smoothing Motion Estimates for Radar Motion Compensation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Simple motion models for complex motion environments are often not adequate for keeping radar data coherent. Eve n perfect motion samples appli ed to imperfect models may lead to interim calculations e xhibiting errors that lead to degraded processing results. Herein we discuss a specific i ssue involving calculating motion for groups of pulses, with measurements only available at pulse-group boundaries. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report was funded by General A tomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI) Mission Systems under Cooperative Re search and Development Agre ement (CRADA) SC08/01749 between Sandia National Laboratories and GA-ASI. General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI), an affilia te of privately-held General Atomics, is a leading manufacturer of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) systems, radars, and electro-optic and rel ated mission systems, includin g the Predator(r)/Gray Eagle(r)-series and Lynx(r) Multi-mode Radar.

  11. Rolling Shutter Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Shuochen

    2015-06-07

    Although motion blur and rolling shutter deformations are closely coupled artifacts in images taken with CMOS image sensors, the two phenomena have so far mostly been treated separately, with deblurring algorithms being unable to handle rolling shutter wobble, and rolling shutter algorithms being incapable of dealing with motion blur. We propose an approach that delivers sharp and undis torted output given a single rolling shutter motion blurred image. The key to achieving this is a global modeling of the camera motion trajectory, which enables each scanline of the image to be deblurred with the corresponding motion segment. We show the results of the proposed framework through experiments on synthetic and real data.

  12. The generalized harmonic potential theorem in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Meng-Yun; Pan, Xiao-Yin

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the evolution of the many-body wave function of a quantum system with time-varying effective mass, confined by a harmonic potential with time-varying frequency in the presence of a uniform time-varying magnetic field, and perturbed by a time-dependent uniform electric field. It is found that the wave function is comprised of a phase factor times the solution to the unperturbed time-dependent Schrödinger equation with the latter being translated by a time-dependent value that satisfies the classical driven equation of motion. In other words, we generalize the harmonic potential theorem to the case when the effective mass, harmonic potential, and the external uniform magnetic field with arbitrary orientation are all time-varying. The results reduce to various special cases obtained in the literature, particulary to that of the harmonic potential theorem wave function when the effective mass and frequency are both static and the external magnetic field is absent.

  13. Real-time observation of interfering crystal electrons in high-harmonic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenleutner, M; Langer, F; Schubert, O; Knorr, M; Huttner, U; Koch, S W; Kira, M; Huber, R

    2015-07-30

    Acceleration and collision of particles has been a key strategy for exploring the texture of matter. Strong light waves can control and recollide electronic wavepackets, generating high-harmonic radiation that encodes the structure and dynamics of atoms and molecules and lays the foundations of attosecond science. The recent discovery of high-harmonic generation in bulk solids combines the idea of ultrafast acceleration with complex condensed matter systems, and provides hope for compact solid-state attosecond sources and electronics at optical frequencies. Yet the underlying quantum motion has not so far been observable in real time. Here we study high-harmonic generation in a bulk solid directly in the time domain, and reveal a new kind of strong-field excitation in the crystal. Unlike established atomic sources, our solid emits high-harmonic radiation as a sequence of subcycle bursts that coincide temporally with the field crests of one polarity of the driving terahertz waveform. We show that these features are characteristic of a non-perturbative quantum interference process that involves electrons from multiple valence bands. These results identify key mechanisms for future solid-state attosecond sources and next-generation light-wave electronics. The new quantum interference process justifies the hope for all-optical band-structure reconstruction and lays the foundation for possible quantum logic operations at optical clock rates.

  14. The generalized harmonic potential theorem in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Meng-Yun; Pan, Xiao-Yin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of the many-body wave function of a quantum system with time-varying effective mass, confined by a harmonic potential with time-varying frequency in the presence of a uniform time-varying magnetic field, and perturbed by a time-dependent uniform electric field. It is found that the wave function is comprised of a phase factor times the solution to the unperturbed time-dependent Schrödinger equation with the latter being translated by a time-dependent value that satisfies the classical driven equation of motion. In other words, we generalize the harmonic potential theorem to the case when the effective mass, harmonic potential, and the external uniform magnetic field with arbitrary orientation are all time-varying. The results reduce to various special cases obtained in the literature, particulary to that of the harmonic potential theorem wave function when the effective mass and frequency are both static and the external magnetic field is absent. PMID:27748461

  15. Structural motion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    This innovative volume provides a systematic treatment of the basic concepts and computational procedures for structural motion design and engineering for civil installations. The authors illustrate the application of motion control to a wide spectrum of buildings through many examples. Topics covered include optimal stiffness distributions for building-type structures, the role of damping in controlling motion, tuned mass dampers, base isolation systems, linear control, and nonlinear control. The book's primary objective is the satisfaction of motion-related design requirements, such as restrictions on displacement and acceleration. The book is ideal for practicing engineers and graduate students. This book also: ·         Broadens practitioners' understanding of structural motion control, the enabling technology for motion-based design ·         Provides readers the tools to satisfy requirements of modern, ultra-high strength materials that lack corresponding stiffness, where the motion re...

  16. Generation of high harmonics from silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Vampa, Giulio; Thiré, Nicolas; Schmidt, Bruno E; Légaré, Francois; Klug, Dennis D; Corkum, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    We generate high-order harmonics of a mid-infrared laser from a silicon single crystal and find their origin in the recollision of coherently accelerated electrons with their holes, analogously to the atomic and molecular case, and to ZnO [Vampa et al., Nature 522, 462-464 (2015)], a direct bandgap material. Therefore indirect bandgap materials are shown to sustain the recollision process as well as direct bandgap materials. Furthermore, we find that the generation is perturbed with electric fields as low as 30 V/$\\mu$m, equal to the DC damage threshold. Our results extend high-harmonic spectroscopy to the most technologically relevant material, and open the possibility to integrate high harmonics with conventional electronics.

  17. Coded excitation for ultrasound tissue harmonic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jaehee; Kim, Sangwon; Sohn, Hak-Yeol; Song, Tai-Kyong; Yoo, Yang Mo

    2010-05-01

    Coded excitation can improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in ultrasound tissue harmonic imaging (THI). However, it could suffer from the increased sidelobe artifact caused by incomplete pulse compression due to the spectral overlap between the fundamental and harmonic components of ultrasound signal after nonlinear propagation in tissues. In this paper, three coded tissue harmonic imaging (CTHI) techniques based on bandpass filtering, power modulation and pulse inversion (i.e., CTHI-BF, CTHI-PM, and CTHI-PI) were evaluated by measuring the peak range sidelobe level (PRSL) with varying frequency bandwidths. From simulation and in vitro studies, the CTHI-PI outperforms the CTHI-BF and CTHI-PM methods in terms of the PRSL, e.g., -43.5dB vs. -24.8dB and -23.0dB, respectively. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Harmonic and complex analysis in several variables

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, Steven G

    2017-01-01

    Authored by a ranking authority in harmonic analysis of several complex variables, this book embodies a state-of-the-art entrée at the intersection of two important fields of research: complex analysis and harmonic analysis. Written with the graduate student in mind, it is assumed that the reader has familiarity with the basics of complex analysis of one and several complex variables as well as with real and functional analysis. The monograph is largely self-contained and develops the harmonic analysis of several complex variables from the first principles. The text includes copious examples, explanations, an exhaustive bibliography for further reading, and figures that illustrate the geometric nature of the subject. Each chapter ends with an exercise set. Additionally, each chapter begins with a prologue, introducing the reader to the subject matter that follows; capsules presented in each section give perspective and a spirited launch to the segment; preludes help put ideas into context. Mathematicians and...

  19. High harmonic phase in molecular nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarland, Brian K.

    2009-10-17

    Electronic structure in atoms and molecules modulates the amplitude and phase of high harmonic generation (HHG). We report measurements of the high harmonic spectral amplitude and phase in N{sub 2}. The phase is measured interferometrically by beating the N{sub 2} harmonics with those of an Ar reference oscillator in a gas mixture. A rapid phase shift of 0.2{pi} is observed in the vicinity of the HHG spectral minimum, where a shift of {pi} had been presumed [J. Itatani et al., Nature 432, 867 (2004)]. We compare the phase measurements to a simulation of the HHG recombination step in N{sub 2} that is based on a simple interference model. The results of the simulation suggest that modifications beyond the simple interference model are needed to explain HHG spectra in molecules.

  20. Microscopic optical buffering in a harmonic potential

    CERN Document Server

    Sumetsky, M

    2015-01-01

    In the early days of quantum mechanics, Schr\\"odinger noticed that oscillations of a wave packet in a one-dimensional harmonic potential well are periodic and, in contrast to those in anharmonic potential wells, do not experience distortion over time. This original idea did not find applications up to now since an exact one-dimensional harmonic resonator does not exist in nature and has not been created artificially. However, an optical pulse propagating in a bottle microresonator (a dielectric cylinder with a nanoscale-high bump of the effective radius) can exactly imitate a quantum wave packet in the harmonic potential. Here, we propose a tuneable microresonator that can trap an optical pulse completely, hold it as long as the material losses permit, and release it without distortion. This result suggests the solution of the long standing problem of creating a microscopic optical buffer, the key element of the future optical signal processing devices.

  1. Robust Speech Recognition Using a Harmonic Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许超; 曹志刚

    2004-01-01

    Automatic speech recognition under conditions of a noisy environment remains a challenging problem. Traditionally, methods focused on noise structure, such as spectral subtraction, have been employed to address this problem, and thus the performance of such methods depends on the accuracy in noise estimation. In this paper, an alternative method, using a harmonic-based spectral reconstruction algorithm, is proposed for the enhancement of robust automatic speech recognition. Neither noise estimation nor noise-model training are required in the proposed approach. A spectral subtraction integrated autocorrelation function is proposed to determine the pitch for the harmonic model. Recognition results show that the harmonic-based spectral reconstruction approach outperforms spectral subtraction in the middle- and low-signal noise ratio (SNR) ranges. The advantage of the proposed method is more manifest for non-stationary noise, as the algorithm does not require an assumption of stationary noise.

  2. Spherical harmonics, invariant theory and Maxwell's poles

    CERN Document Server

    Dowker, J S

    2008-01-01

    I discuss the relation between harmonic polynomials and invariant theory and show that homogeneous, harmonic polynomials correspond to ternary forms that are apolar to a base conic (the absolute). The calculation of Schlesinger that replaces such a form by a polarised binary form is reviewed. It is suggested that Sylvester's theorem on the uniqueness of Maxwell's pole expression for harmonics is renamed the Clebsch-Sylvester theorem. The relation between certain constructs in invariant theory and angular momentum theory is enlarged upon and I resurrect the Joos--Weinberg matrices. Hilbert's projection operators are considered and their generalisations by Story and Elliott are related to similar, more recent constructions in group theory and quantum mechanics, the ternary case being equivalent to SU(3).

  3. Quantum dynamics of the damped harmonic oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Philbin, T G

    2012-01-01

    The quantum theory of the damped harmonic oscillator has been a subject of continual investigation since the 1930s. The obstacle to quantization created by the dissipation of energy is usually dealt with by including a discrete set of additional harmonic oscillators as a reservoir. But a discrete reservoir cannot directly yield dynamics such as Ohmic damping (proportional to velocity) of the oscillator of interest. By using a continuum of oscillators as a reservoir, we canonically quantize the harmonic oscillator with Ohmic damping and also with general damping behaviour. The dynamics of a damped oscillator is determined by an arbitrary effective susceptibility that obeys Kramers-Kronig relations. This approach offers an alternative description of nano-mechanical oscillators and opto-mechanical systems.

  4. Does high harmonic generation conserve angular momentum?

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischer, Avner; Diskin, Tzvi; Sidorenko, Pavel; Cohen, Oren

    2013-01-01

    High harmonic generation (HHG) is a unique and useful process in which infrared or visible radiation is frequency up converted into the extreme ultraviolet and x ray spectral regions. As a parametric process, high harmonic generation should conserve the radiation energy, momentum and angular momentum. Indeed, conservation of energy and momentum have been demonstrated. Angular momentum of optical beams can be divided into two components: orbital and spin (polarization). Orbital angular momentum is assumed to be conserved and recently observed deviations were attributed to propagation effects. On the other hand, conservation of spin angular momentum has thus far never been studied, neither experimentally nor theoretically. Here, we present the first study on the role of spin angular momentum in extreme nonlinear optics by experimentally generating high harmonics of bi chromatic elliptically polarized pump beams that interact with isotropic media. While observing that the selection rules qualitatively correspond...

  5. RESEARCH ON THE INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING HARMONIZATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Danescu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, the need of harmonization of the financial reporting frameworks has become more acute, mostly because the capital markets are not restricted anymore by country borders and capital movement has outlined the phenomenon of globalization and internationalism. A significant step in harmonizing the financial reporting was done in the process of normalization through different sets of rules and principles, recognized and applied in many states are the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS. The process of international recognition of these standards continues along with conceptual development which is based on epistemological research on specific markets, industries, economies open to international capital flows. In this context it becomes of interest to identify and understand generally accepted and applied accounting elements which carry forward the accounting harmonization process along with factors and circumstances that create diversity in nationally applied financial reporting frameworks.

  6. Simulation of Second Harmonic Ultrasound Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yigang; Jensen, Henrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2010-01-01

    A non-linear ultrasound imaging simulation software should be capable of simulating the non-linear fields for any kind of transducer, focusing, apodization, and attenuation. At present, a major issue is the overlong simulation time of the non-linear software. An Angular Spectrum Approach (ASA......) using a quasi-linear approximation for solving the Westervelt equation can simulate the second harmonic pressure at any distance. Therefore, it shortens the execution time compared with the operator splitting method. The purpose of this paper is to implement the monochromatic solution for the second......, and the fundamental pressure is calculated by Field II. The second harmonic pressure in k-space along the propagating direction is calculated as an auto-convolution of the fundamental pressure multiplied by an exponential propagating coefficient. In this case, the second harmonic pressure can be calculated using ASA...

  7. Harmonic analysis and the theory of probability

    CERN Document Server

    Bochner, Salomon

    2005-01-01

    Nineteenth-century studies of harmonic analysis were closely linked with the work of Joseph Fourier on the theory of heat and with that of P. S. Laplace on probability. During the 1920s, the Fourier transform developed into one of the most effective tools of modern probabilistic research; conversely, the demands of the probability theory stimulated further research into harmonic analysis.Mathematician Salomon Bochner wrote a pair of landmark books on the subject in the 1930s and 40s. In this volume, originally published in 1955, he adopts a more probabilistic view and emphasizes stochastic pro

  8. Harmonic Cavity Performance for NSLS-II

    CERN Document Server

    Blednykh, Alexei; Podobedov, Boris; Rose, James; Towne, Nathan A; Wang, Jiunn-Ming

    2005-01-01

    NSLS-II is a 3 GeV ultra-high brightness storage ring that is planned to succeed the present NSLS rings at Brookhaven. Ultra-low emittance bunch combined with a short bunch length results in the Touschek lifetime of only a few hours, which strongly advocates including harmonic RF in the baseline design of NSLS-II. This paper describes the required harmonic RF parameters, trade-offs between the possible choices and the expected system performance, including the implications on lifetime and instabilities.

  9. Perturbative Semiclassical Trace Formulae for Harmonic Oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Andersen, Jakob; Ögren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    In this article we extend previous semiclassical studies by including more general perturbative potentials of the harmonic oscillator in arbitrary spatial dimensions. Our starting point is a radial harmonic potential with an arbitrary even monomial perturbation, which we use to study the resulting...... U(D) to O(D) symmetry breaking. We derive the gross structure of the semiclassical spectrum from periodic orbit theory, in the form of a perturbative (ħ → 0) trace formula. We then show how to apply the results to even-order polynomial potentials, possibly including mean-field terms. We have drawn...

  10. Geometric Models of the Relativistic Harmonic Oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Cotaescu, I I

    1997-01-01

    A family of relativistic geometric models is defined as a generalization of the actual anti-de Sitter (1+1) model of the relativistic harmonic oscillator. It is shown that all these models lead to the usual harmonic oscillator in the non-relativistic limit, even though their relativistic behavior is quite different. Among quantum models we find a set of models with countable energy spectra, and another one having only a finite number of energy levels and in addition a continuous spectrum.

  11. Harmonic Inverse FEL Interaction at 800nm

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, C M S; Siemann, R; Spencer, J E

    2005-01-01

    The inverse Free Electron Laser (IFEL) interaction has recently been proposed and demonstrated as a premodulator for High Gain Harmonic Generation (HGHG) experiments. These experiments utilized the fundamental of the interaction between the laser field and electron bunch. In the current experiment, we explore the higher order resonances of the IFEL interaction from a 3 period, 1.8 centimeter wavelength undulator with a picosecond, 0.25 mJ/pulse laser at 800nm. The resonances are observed by adjusting the gap of the undulator while keeping the beam energy constant. The harmonic IFEL can add flexibility to HGHG FEL design.

  12. Reconstruction of harmonic signals based on bispectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Yangyu; SUN Jincai; LI Pingan; XU Jiadong; SHANG Jiuhao

    2000-01-01

    A method for accurate reconstruction of the harmonic signals from bispectrum is presented. Based on the analysis of the measured harmonic signal, a sinusoid signal with 0phase, 1-amplitude and half of the fundamental frequency combines with the measured signal to form a combined signal, and then the bispectrum analysis is carried out to reconstruct the phase and the amplitude of the measured signal accurately. Without the zero-phase assumption of the fundamental component, using the new method eliminates the phase shifting between the calculated Fourier phase and the true Fourier phase in the existing signal retrieval methods based on bispectrum. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the new method.

  13. Fast algorithms for spherical harmonic expansions, III

    CERN Document Server

    Tygert, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We accelerate the computation of spherical harmonic transforms, using what is known as the butterfly scheme. This provides a convenient alternative to the approach taken in the second paper from this series on "Fast algorithms for spherical harmonic expansions." The requisite precomputations become manageable when organized as a "depth-first traversal" of the program's control-flow graph, rather than as the perhaps more natural "breadth-first traversal" that processes one-by-one each level of the multilevel procedure. We illustrate the results via several numerical examples.

  14. Artificial Neural Network in Harmonic Reduction of STATCOM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hongmei; Li Zhenran; Zheng Peiying

    2005-01-01

    To eliminate harmonic pollution incurred from the static synchronous compensator(STATCOM), a method of applying artificial neural network is presented. When PWM wave is formed based on the harmonic suppression theory, a concave is set on certain angle of the square wave to suppress unnecessary harmonics, by timely and on-line determining the chopping angle corresponding to respective harmonics through artificial neural network, i.e. by setting the position of concave to eliminate corresponding harmonics, the harmonic component on output voltage of the inverter can be improved. To conclude through computer simulation test, the perfect control effect has been proved.

  15. Cascaded third harmonic generation in hybrid graphene-semiconductor waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnova, Daria A

    2015-01-01

    We study cascaded harmonic generation of hybrid surface plasmons in integrated planar waveguides composed of a graphene layer and a doped-semiconductor slab. We derive a comprehensive model of cascaded third harmonic generation through phase-matched nonlinear interaction of fundamental, second harmonic and third harmonic plasmonic modes supported by the structure. We show that hybrid graphene-semiconductor waveguides can simultaneously phase-match these three interacting harmonics, increasing the total third-harmonic output by a factor of 5 compared to the non-cascaded regime.

  16. Non-relativistic particle higher-order harmonic radiation based short-wavelength laser and the operation stability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Xiao-hua; WU Mu-ying; HE Wei; SHAO Ming-zhu; LUO Shi-yu

    2011-01-01

    Under classical mechanics, the general equation of particle motion in the periodic field is derived. In the dampless case, the existence possibility of the higher-order harmonic radiation is explored by using Bessel function expansion of a generalized trigonometrical function and the multi-scale method. In the damping case, the critical properties and a chaotic behavior are discussed by the Melnikov method. The results show that the use of a higher-order harmonic radiation of non-relativistic particles as a short-wavelength laser source is perfectly possible, and the system's critical condition is related to its parameters. Only by adjusting parameters suitablely, the stable higher-order harmonic radiation with bigger intensity can be obtained.

  17. Chirp control of multi-photon resonance ionization and charge-resonance enhanced ionization on molecular harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hang; Li, Wenliang; Feng, Liqiang

    2017-05-01

    The effects of the multi-photon resonance ionization (MPRI) and the charge-resonance enhanced ionization (CREI) on the molecular high-order harmonic generation (MHHG) from H2+ have been investigated by using the chirped pulses. It is found that the MHHG only comes from the MPRI in the shorter pulse duration. As the pulse duration increases, both the MPRI and the CREI contribute to the MHHG. But the MPRI plays the main role in the generations of the above-threshold harmonics and the CREI mainly contributes to the below-threshold harmonics. With the introductions of the up-chirped and the down-chirped pulses, the contributions of the MHHG from the CREI and the MPRI can be enhanced, respectively. Finally, the isotopic investigation (e.g. T2+) shows that due to the slower nuclear motion of the heavy nuclei, the contributions of MHHG from the CERI can be suppressed in the heavy nuclei.

  18. Parametric oscillators from factorizations employing a constant-shifted Riccati solution of the classical harmonic oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosu, H.C., E-mail: hcr@ipicyt.edu.mx [IPICyT, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Apdo Postal 3-74 Tangamanga, 78231 San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico); Khmelnytskaya, K.V. [Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, Centro Universitario, Cerro de las Campanas s/n, C.P. 76010 Santiago de Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico)

    2011-09-19

    We determine the kind of parametric oscillators that are generated in the usual factorization procedure of second-order linear differential equations when one introduces a constant shift of the Riccati solution of the classical harmonic oscillator. The mathematical results show that some of these oscillators could be of physical nature. We give the solutions of the obtained second-order differential equations and the values of the shift parameter providing strictly periodic and antiperiodic solutions. We also notice that this simple problem presents parity-time (PT) symmetry. Possible applications are mentioned. -- Highlights: → A particular Riccati solution of the classical harmonic oscillator is shifted by a constant. → Such a solution is used in the factorization brackets to get different equations of motion. → The properties of the parametric oscillators obtained in this way are examined.

  19. The classical harmonic chain: solution via Laplace transforms and continued fractions

    CERN Document Server

    Kwidzinski, Nick

    2016-01-01

    The harmonic chain is a classical many-particle system which can be solved exactly for arbitrary number of particles (at least in simple cases, such as equal masses and spring constants). A nice feature of the harmonic chain is that the final result for the displacements of the individual particles can be easily understood -- therefore, this example fits well into a course of classical mechanics for undergraduates. Here we show how to calculate the displacements by solving equations of motion for the Laplace transforms $\\mathcal{L}\\left\\{q_n\\right\\}(s)$ of the displacements $q_n(t)$. This leads to a continued fraction representation of the Laplace transforms which can be evaluated analytically. The inverse Laplace transform of $\\mathcal{L}\\left\\{q_n\\right\\}(s)$ finally gives the displacements which generically have the form of Bessel functions. We also comment on the similarities between this approach and the Green function method for quantum many-particle systems.

  20. Nonclassical phase-space trajectories for the damped harmonic quantum oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachon, L.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota D.C. (Colombia); Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, Universitaetsstrasse 1, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany); CeiBA - Complejidad, Bogota D.C. (Colombia); Ingold, G.-L., E-mail: gert.ingold@physik.uni-augsburg.de [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, Universitaetsstrasse 1, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany); Dittrich, T. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota D.C. (Colombia); CeiBA - Complejidad, Bogota D.C. (Colombia)

    2010-10-05

    Graphical abstract: The phase-space path-integral approach to the damped harmonic oscillator is analyzed beyond the Markovian approximation and the appearance of nonclassical trajectories is discussed. - Abstract: The phase-space path-integral approach to the damped harmonic oscillator is analyzed beyond the Markovian approximation. It is found that pairs of nonclassical trajectories contribute to the path-integral representation of the Wigner propagating function. Due to the linearity of the problem, the sum coordinate of a pair still satisfies the classical equation of motion. Furthermore, it is shown that the broadening of the Wigner propagating function of the damped oscillator arises due to the time-nonlocal interaction mediated by the heat bath.

  1. Minimum in the high-order harmonic generation spectrum from molecules: role of excited states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Yong-Chang; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2010-01-01

    that the coherent laser coupling induced between the 2Σ+g(1sσg) ground state and the first excited 2Σ+u(2pσu) state leads to two dominating amplitudes for the high-order harmonic generation that may interfere: amplitudes describing recombination back into the σg and σu states, respectively. These two amplitudes may......We model the process of high-order harmonic generation by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for H+2 in the fixed nuclei approximation including full 3D electron motion for nonvanishing angles between the nuclear axis and the linear polarization of the driving pulse. We show...

  2. Performance of a quantum heat engine cycle working with harmonic oscillator systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A cycle model of an irreversible heat engine working with harmonic systems is established in this paper. Based on the equation of motion of an operator in the Heisenberg picture and semi-group approach, the first law of thermodynamics for a harmonic system and the time evolution of the system are obtained. The general expressions for several important parameters, such as the work, efficiency, power output, and rate of entropy production are derived. By means of numerical analysis, the optimally operating regions and the optimal values of performance parameters of the cycle are determined under the condition of maximum power output. At last, some special cases, such as high temperature limit and frictionless case, are dis-cussed in brief.

  3. Performance of a quantum heat engine cycle working with harmonic oscillator systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG JianHui; HE JiZhou; MAO ZhiYuan

    2007-01-01

    A cycle model of an irreversible heat engine working with harmonic systems is established in this paper. Based on the equation of motion of an operator in the Heisenberg picture and semi-group approach, the first law of thermodynamics for a harmonic system and the time evolution of the system are obtained. The general expressions for several important parameters, such as the work, efficiency, power output, and rate of entropy production are derived. By means of numerical analysis, the optimally operating regions and the optimal values of performance parameters of the cycle are determined under the condition of maximum power output. At last, some special cases, such as high temperature limit and frictionless case, are discussed in brief.

  4. Dynamics Underlying the Gaussian Distribution of the Classical Harmonic Oscillator in Zero-Point Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Cheng-Wei Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stochastic electrodynamics (SED predicts a Gaussian probability distribution for a classical harmonic oscillator in the vacuum field. This probability distribution is identical to that of the ground state quantum harmonic oscillator. Thus, the Heisenberg minimum uncertainty relation is recovered in SED. To understand the dynamics that give rise to the uncertainty relation and the Gaussian probability distribution, we perform a numerical simulation and follow the motion of the oscillator. The dynamical information obtained through the simulation provides insight to the connection between the classic double-peak probability distribution and the Gaussian probability distribution. A main objective for SED research is to establish to what extent the results of quantum mechanics can be obtained. The present simulation method can be applied to other physical systems, and it may assist in evaluating the validity range of SED.

  5. High-harmonic probing of electronic coherence in dynamically aligned molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, P M; Gijsbertsen, A; Lucchese, R R; Rohringer, N; Wörner, H J

    2013-01-01

    We introduce and demonstrate a new approach to measuring coherent electron wave packets using high-harmonic spectroscopy. By preparing a molecule in a coherent superposition of electronic states, we show that electronic coherence opens previously unobserved high-harmonic-generation channels that connect distinct but coherently related electronic states. Performing the measurements in dynamically aligned nitric oxide (NO) molecules we observe the complex temporal evolution of the electronic coherence under coupling to nuclear motion. Choosing a weakly allowed transition to prepare the wave packet, we demonstrate an unprecedented sensitivity that arises from optical interference between coherent and incoherent pathways. This mechanism converts a 0.1 $%$ excitation fraction into a $\\sim$20 $%$ signal modulation.

  6. A closed-form solution to a viscoelastically supported Timoshenko beam under harmonic line load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, W. L.; Xia, Y.; Zhou, X. Q.

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to formulate a closed-form solution to a viscoelastically supported Timoshenko beam under a harmonic line load. The differential governing equations of motion are converted into algebraic equations by assuming the deflection and rotation of the beam in harmonic forms with respect to time and space. The characteristic equation is biquadratic and thus contains 14 explicit roots. These roots are then substituted into Cauchy's residue theorem; consequently, five forms of the closed-form solution are generated. The present solution is consistent with that of an Euler-Bernoulli beam on a Winkler foundation, which is a special case of the present problem. The current solution is also verified through numerical examples.

  7. Source Processes Revealed at Two Guatemalan Volcanoes: Insights from Multidisciplinary Observations of Harmonic Tremor and Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, K. A.; Waite, G. P.

    2012-12-01

    Tremor signals at volcanoes are typically attributed to fluid movement within the system. Characteristics of harmonic tremor (i.e. duration, frequency content, polarization) can convey detailed information about source processes from which they emanate, but decoding these signals poses great challenges due to the complexity of volcanic environments. We recorded instances of harmonic tremor at both Santiaguito and Fuego volcanoes Guatemala, Central America. The instances of harmonic tremor occur both independent from and contemporaneous with explosions, and last anywhere from 30 seconds to tens of minutes. The signals have fundamental frequencies between 0.3 and 2.5 Hz, with as many as 20 overtones, and exhibit spectral gliding of up to 0.75 Hz over the course of an event, changing as quickly as 0.1 Hz/second. Field observations; video recordings; and time-lapse, ultraviolet, and thermal imagery; collected simultaneously with acoustic and seismic recordings allow us to constrain source locations and processes beyond what would otherwise be possible just acoustic and seismic recordings. We propose that the harmonic tremor signals are generated by nonlinear excitation of fracture walls as gas vents out of the systems. Additionally, we investigate the complex wavefield generated by harmonic tremor and the heterogeneous volcanic media. Particle motions at both volcanoes are typically elliptical, but vary dramatically over time as the fundamental frequency glides up and down (see figure). In addition, the particle motions of harmonics often have different polarities from each other and the fundamental frequency. Through finite difference modeling, we isolate the effects of near-field terms, topography, and source mechanism to explore each of these factors' contribution to the unexpected behavior.

  8. A model-based time-reversal of left ventricular motion improves cardiac motion analysis using tagged MRI data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook Larry T

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myocardial motion is an important observable for the assessment of heart condition. Accurate estimates of ventricular (LV wall motion are required for quantifying myocardial deformation and assessing local tissue function and viability. Harmonic Phase (HARP analysis was developed for measuring regional LV motion using tagged magnetic resonance imaging (tMRI data. With current computer-aided postprocessing tools including HARP analysis, large motions experienced by myocardial tissue are, however, often intractable to measure. This paper addresses this issue and provides a solution to make such measurements possible. Methods To improve the estimation performance of large cardiac motions while analyzing tMRI data sets, we propose a two-step solution. The first step involves constructing a model to describe average systolic motion of the LV wall within a subject group. The second step involves time-reversal of the model applied as a spatial coordinate transformation to digitally relax the contracted LV wall in the experimental data of a single subject to the beginning of systole. Cardiac tMRI scans were performed on four healthy rats and used for developing the forward LV model. Algorithms were implemented for preprocessing the tMRI data, optimizing the model parameters and performing the HARP analysis. Slices from the midventricular level were then analyzed for all systolic phases. Results The time-reversal operation derived from the LV model accounted for the bulk portion of the myocardial motion, which was the average motion experienced within the overall subject population. In analyzing the individual tMRI data sets, removing this average with the time-reversal operation left small magnitude residual motion unique to the case. This remaining residual portion of the motion was estimated robustly using the HARP analysis. Conclusion Utilizing a combination of the forward LV model and its time reversal improves the performance of

  9. Perfusion harmonic imaging of the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Volker H.; Seidel, Guenter; Wiesmann, Martin; Meyer, Karsten; Aach, Til

    2003-05-01

    The fast visualisation of cerebral microcirculation supports diagnosis of acute cerebrovascular diseases. However, the commonly used CT/MRI-based methods are time consuming and, moreover, costly. Therefore we propose an alternative approach to brain perfusion imaging by means of ultrasonography. In spite of the low signal/noise-ratio of transcranial ultrasound and the high impedance of the skull, flow images of cerebral blood flow can be derived by capturing the kinetics of appropriate contrast agents by harmonic ultrasound image sequences. In this paper we propose three different methods for human brain perfusion imaging, each of which yielding flow images indicating the status of the patient's cerebral microcirculation by visualising local flow parameters. Bolus harmonic imaging (BHI) displays the flow kinetics of bolus injections, while replenishment (RHI) and diminution harmonic imaging (DHI) compute flow characteristics from contrast agent continuous infusions. RHI measures the contrast agents kinetics in the influx phase and DHI displays the diminution kinetics of the contrast agent acquired from the decay phase. In clinical studies, BHI- and RHI-parameter images were found to represent comprehensive and reproducible distributions of physiological cerebral blood flow. For DHI it is shown, that bubble destruction and hence perfusion phenomena principally can be displayed. Generally, perfusion harmonic imaging enables reliable and fast bedside imaging of human brain perfusion. Due to its cost efficiency it complements cerebrovascular diagnostics by established CT/MRI-based methods.

  10. Challenges and Opportunities for Harmonizing Research Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hees, V. T.; Thaler-Kall, K.; Wolf, K. H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Raw accelerometry is increasingly being used in physical activity research, but diversity in sensor design, attachment and signal processing challenges the comparability of research results. Therefore, efforts are needed to harmonize the methodology. In this article we reflect on how ...

  11. determination of determination of total harmonic distortion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Harmonic Distortion (THD) of the Distribution lines in the 33kV distri .... guidelines based on industrial distribution system design. IEEE 519-1992 defines ..... studies and also reviewed issues related to the concept. The results of power flow and ...

  12. Sobolev Spaces Associated to the Harmonic Oscillator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Bongioanni; J L Torrea

    2006-08-01

    We define the Hermite-Sobolev spaces naturally associated to the harmonic oscillator $H= - + |x|^2$. Structural properties, relations with the classical Sobolev spaces, boundedness of operators and almost everywhere convergence of solutions of the Schrödinger equation are also considered.

  13. Spatial mode discrimination using second harmonic generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delaubert, Vincent; Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Pulford, David

    2007-01-01

    Second harmonic generation can be used as a technique for controlling the spatial mode structure of optical beams. We demonstrate experimentally the generation of higher order spatial modes, and that it is possible to use nonlinear phase matching as a predictable and robust technique for the conv...

  14. The Berry Phase for Simple Harmonic Oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Suslov, Sergei K

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the Berry phase for a "missing" family of the square integrable wavefunctions for the linear harmonic oscillator, which cannot be derived by the separation of variables. It is obtained by the action of the maximal kinematical invariance group on the standard solutions. An explicit simple formula for the phase is found by integration with the help of a computer algebra system.

  15. Collective excitations of harmonically trapped ideal gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Schaeybroeck, B.; Lazarides, A.

    2009-01-01

    We theoretically study the collective excitations of an ideal gas confined in an isotropic harmonic trap. We give an exact solution to the Boltzmann-Vlasov equation; as expected for a single-component system, the associated mode frequencies are integer multiples of the trapping frequency. We show

  16. Harmonic generation with multiple wiggler schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonifacio, R.; De Salvo, L.; Pierini, P. [Universita degli Studi, Milano (Italy)

    1995-02-01

    In this paper the authors give a simple theoretical description of the basic physics of the single pass high gain free electron laser (FEL), describing in some detail the FEL bunching properties and the harmonic generation technique with a multiple-wiggler scheme or a high gain optical klystron configuration.

  17. Regularity of harmonic maps with the potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU; Yuming

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work is to prove the partial regularity of the harmonic maps with potential. The main difficulty caused by the potential is how to find the equation satisfied by the scaling function. Under the assumption on the potential we can obtain the equation, however, for a general potential, even if it is smooth, the partial regularity is still open.

  18. Parameter estimation of harmonic polluting industrial loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maza-Ortega, J.M.; Gomez-Exposito, A.; Trigo-Garcia, J.L.; Burgos-Payan, M. [University of Sevilla, Sevilla (Spain). Department of Electrical Engineering

    2005-12-01

    This paper develops a methodology for the estimation of relevant parameters characterizing harmonic polluting industrial loads through a set of measurements acquired at the point of common coupling. The proposed method is capable of obtaining an accurate load model in absence of detailed information about its internal structure and composition. (author)

  19. Transducer for harmonic intravascular ultrasound imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Hendrik J.; Frijlink, Martijn E.; Droog, E.J.; Goertz, David E.; Blacquiere, Gerrit; Gisolf, Anton; de Jong, N.; van der Steen, Antonius F.W.

    2005-01-01

    A recent study has shown the feasibility of tissue harmonic imaging (THI) using an intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) transducer. This correspondence describes the design, fabrication, and characterization of a THI-optimized piezoelectric transducer with oval aperture of 0.75 mm by 1 mm. The transducer

  20. Feasibility of 3D harmonic contrast imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voormolen, M.M.; Bouakaz, A.; Krenning, B.J.; Lancée, C.; ten Cate, F.; de Jong, N.

    2004-01-01

    Improved endocardial border delineation with the application of contrast agents should allow for less complex and faster tracing algorithms for left ventricular volume analysis. We developed a fast rotating phased array transducer for 3D imaging of the heart with harmonic capabilities making it

  1. Toeplitz operators on harmonic Bergman spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Boo Rim; Lee, Young Joo; Na, Kyunguk

    2004-01-01

    We study Toeplitz operators on the harmonic Bergman spaces on bounded smooth domains. Two classes of symbols are considered; one is the class of positive symbols and the other is the class of uniformly continuous symbols. For positive symbols, boundedness, compactness, and membership in the Schatten classes are characterized. For uniformly continuous symbols, the essential spectra are described.

  2. Local Dynamics in an Infinite Harmonic Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Howard Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available By the method of recurrence relations, the time evolution in a local variable in a harmonic chain is obtained. In particular, the autocorrelation function is obtained analytically. Using this result, a number of important dynamical quantities are obtained, including the memory function of the generalized Langevin equation. Also studied are the ergodicity and chaos in a local dynamical variable.

  3. The Harmonic Oscillator–A Simplified Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Ganesan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the early problems in quantum chemistry, the one dimensional harmonic oscillator problem is an important one, providing a valuable exercise in the study of quantum mechanical methods. There are several approaches to this problem, the time honoured infinite series method, the ladder operator method etc. A method which is much shorter, mathematically simpler is presented here.

  4. Coherent control of High-harmonic generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barreaux, J.L.P.

    2012-01-01

    High-harmonic generation (HHG) is a non-linear optical process that can convert laser light with standard wavelengths, such as infrared light, into coherent radiation at much shorter wavelengths in the XUV (extreme ultraviolet) or soft X-ray regime. As opposed to low-order nonlinear frequency

  5. ACCOUNTING HARMONIZATION AND HISTORICAL COST ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Gabriel CRISTEA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a huge interest in accounting harmonization and historical costs accounting, in what they offer us. In this article, different valuation models are discussed. Although one notices the movement from historical cost accounting to fair value accounting, each one has its advantages.

  6. Psychoacoustic Approaches for Harmonic Music Mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman B. Gebhardt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The practice of harmonic mixing is a technique used by DJs for the beat-synchronous and harmonic alignment of two or more pieces of music. In this paper, we present a new harmonic mixing method based on psychoacoustic principles. Unlike existing commercial DJ-mixing software, which determines compatible matches between songs via key estimation and harmonic relationships in the circle of fifths, our approach is built around the measurement of musical consonance. Given two tracks, we first extract a set of partials using a sinusoidal model and average this information over sixteenth note temporal frames. By scaling the partials of one track over ±6 semitones (in 1/8th semitone steps, we determine the pitch-shift that maximizes the consonance of the resulting mix. For this, we measure the consonance between all combinations of dyads within each frame according to psychoacoustic models of roughness and pitch commonality. To evaluate our method, we conducted a listening test where short musical excerpts were mixed together under different pitch shifts and rated according to consonance and pleasantness. Results demonstrate that sensory roughness computed from a small number of partials in each of the musical audio signals constitutes a reliable indicator to yield maximum perceptual consonance and pleasantness ratings by musically-trained listeners.

  7. Large- quantum chromodynamics and harmonic sums

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Eduardo De Rafael

    2012-06-01

    In the large- limit of QCD, two-point functions of local operators become harmonic sums. I review some properties which follow from this fact and which are relevant for phenomenological applications. This has led us to consider a class of analytic number theory functions as toy models of large- QCD which also is discussed.

  8. Harmonic cascade FEL designs for LUX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penn, G.; Reinsch, M.; Wurtele, J.; Corlett, J.N.; Fawley, W.M.; Zholents, A.; Wan, W.

    2004-07-16

    LUX is a design concept for an ultrafast X-ray science facility, based on an electron beam accelerated to GeV energies in are circulating linac. Included in the design are short duration (200 fs or shorter FWHM) light sources using multiple stages of higher harmonic generation, seeded by a 200-250 nm laser of similar duration. This laser modulates the energy of a group of electrons within the electron bunch; this section of the electron bunch then produces radiation at a higher harmonic after entering a second, differently tuned undulator. Repeated stages in a cascade yield increasing photon energies up to 1 keV. Most of the undulators in the cascade operate in the low-gain FEL regime. Harmonic cascades have been designed for each pass of the recirculating linac up to a final electron beam energy of 3.1 GeV. For a given cascade, the photon energy can be selected over a wide range by varying the seed laser frequency and the field strength in the undulators. We present simulation results using the codes GENESIS and GINGER, as well as the results of analytical models which predict FEL performance. We discuss lattice considerations pertinent for harmonic cascade FELs, as well as sensitivity studies and requirements on the electron beam.

  9. Spatial mode discrimination using second harmonic generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delaubert, Vincent; Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Pulford, David

    2007-01-01

    Second harmonic generation can be used as a technique for controlling the spatial mode structure of optical beams. We demonstrate experimentally the generation of higher order spatial modes, and that it is possible to use nonlinear phase matching as a predictable and robust technique for the conv...

  10. Virial expansion coefficients in the harmonic approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    R. Armstrong, J.; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas; V. Fedorov, D.

    2012-01-01

    The virial expansion method is applied within a harmonic approximation to an interacting N-body system of identical fermions. We compute the canonical partition functions for two and three particles to get the two lowest orders in the expansion. The energy spectrum is carefully interpolated...

  11. The harmonics detection method based on neural network applied ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), p-q theory, (SAPF), Harmonics, Total Harmonic Distortion. 1. ... Recently, some methods based on artificial intelligence have been applied In order to improve ..... The effect is the reduction of.

  12. Probabilistic Aspects of Harmonic Emission of Large Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Flytkjær; Bak, Claus Leth; Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert

    2011-01-01

    In this article, a new probabilistic method of as-sessment of harmonic emission of large offshore wind farms is presented. Based on measurements from the British wind farm Burbo Banks, probability density functions are estimated for the dominating low order harmonic currents injected by a single...... turbine. The degree and type of dependence between the harmonic emission and the operating point of a single turbine is established. A model of Burbo Banks, suitable for harmonic load flow studies, is created in DIgSILENT Power Factory along with a DPL-script that deals with the probabilistic issues...... of the harmonic emission. The simulated harmonic distortion at the PCC is compared to measurement. This reveals some diffi-culties regarding harmonic load flow studies. The harmonic background distortion in the grid to where the wind farm is connected must be included in the study. Furthermore, a very detailed...

  13. Estimates on Bloch constants for planar harmonic mappings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Bloch constants for quasiregular harmonic mappings and open planar harmonic mappings are considered. Better estimates are obtained. The results, presented in this paper, improve the one made by Chen et al. and Grigoryan.

  14. Harmonic Damping in DG-Penetrated Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jinghang; Savaghebi, Mehdi; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    Grid background harmonics may be amplified, propagate through a long distribution feeder and even lead to power system instability. In this paper, harmonic propagation issue is investigated and mitigation of the harmonics is analyzed by using transmission line theory which has already been applied...... in power systems. It is demonstrated that a specific harmonic will not be amplified if the feeder’s length is less than one quarter of the harmonic wavelength meanwhile the terminal impedance is less than characteristic impedance. Besides, three scenarios will be considered in accordance...... with the relationship between the feeder’s length and harmonic wavelength. Harmonic suppression control strategies will be respectively designed considering 5th and 7th harmonics coexisting in the distribution line. Finally, a simulation study has been performed to verify the theoretical analysis and demonstrate...

  15. harmonics mitigation on industrial loads using series and parallel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    This work compared the use of series and parallel resonant harmonic filters in suppressing harmonics ... industrial applications high technology devices related to communication .... magnification is large because of high circuit Q-factor or.

  16. Product of Toeplitz Operators on the Harmonic Dirichlet Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian Kuo ZHAO

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we study Toeplitz operators with harmonic symbols on the harmonic Dirichlet space,and show that the product of two Toeplitz operators is another Toeplitz operator only if one factor is constant.

  17. Strongly Dispersive Transient Bragg Grating for High Harmonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrell, J.; Spector, L.S.; /SLAC, PULSE /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.; Gaarde, M.B.; /SLAC, PULSE /Louisiana State U.; McFarland, B.K.; Bucksbaum, P.H.; Guhr, Markus; /SLAC, PULSE /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2010-06-04

    We create a transient Bragg grating in a high harmonic generation medium using two counterpropagating pulses. The Bragg grating disperses the harmonics in angle and can diffract a large bandwidth with temporal resolution limited only by the source size.

  18. Measurement of visual motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildreth, E.C.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines the measurement of visual motion and the use of relative movement to locate the boundaries of physical objects in the environment. It investigates the nature of the computations that are necessary to perform this analysis by any vision system, biological or artificial. Contents: Introduction. Background. Computation of the Velocity Field. An Algorithm to Compute the Velocity Field. The Computation of Motion Discontinuities. Perceptual Studies of Motion Measurement. The Psychophysics of Discontinuity Detection. Neurophysiological Studies of Motion. Summary and Conclusions. References. Author and Subject Indexes.

  19. Brain Image Motion Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Benjaminsen, Claus; Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The application of motion tracking is wide, including: industrial production lines, motion interaction in gaming, computer-aided surgery and motion correction in medical brain imaging. Several devices for motion tracking exist using a variety of different methodologies. In order to use such devices...... offset and tracking noise in medical brain imaging. The data are generated from a phantom mounted on a rotary stage and have been collected using a Siemens High Resolution Research Tomograph for positron emission tomography. During acquisition the phantom was tracked with our latest tracking prototype...

  20. An exactly solvable model for Brownian motion : I. Derivation of the Langevin equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ullersma, P.

    1966-01-01

    The motion of an elastically bound particle, linearly coupled with a bath of N harmonic oscillators is calculated exactly. The interaction is assumed to be rather weak and to vary slowly as function of the frequencies of the oscillators. The bath is chosen at the initial time in thermal equilibrium.

  1. Extracting harmonic signal from a chaotic background with local linear model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenlong; Su, Liyun

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the problems of blind detection and estimation of harmonic signal in strong chaotic background are analyzed, and new methods by using local linear (LL) model are put forward. The LL model has been exhaustively researched and successfully applied for fitting and forecasting chaotic signal in many chaotic fields. We enlarge the modeling capacity substantially. Firstly, we can predict the short-term chaotic signal and obtain the fitting error based on the LL model. Then we detect the frequencies from the fitting error by periodogram, a property on the fitting error is proposed which has not been addressed before, and this property ensures that the detected frequencies are similar to that of harmonic signal. Secondly, we establish a two-layer LL model to estimate the determinate harmonic signal in strong chaotic background. To estimate this simply and effectively, we develop an efficient backfitting algorithm to select and optimize the parameters that are hard to be exhaustively searched for. In the method, based on sensitivity to initial value of chaos motion, the minimum fitting error criterion is used as the objective function to get the estimation of the parameters of the two-layer LL model. Simulation shows that the two-layer LL model and its estimation technique have appreciable flexibility to model the determinate harmonic signal in different chaotic backgrounds (Lorenz, Henon and Mackey-Glass (M-G) equations). Specifically, the harmonic signal can be extracted well with low SNR and the developed background algorithm satisfies the condition of convergence in repeated 3-5 times.

  2. A Coning Theory of Bullet Motions

    CERN Document Server

    Boatright, James A

    2012-01-01

    Each observable ballistic phenomenon of a spin-stabilized rifle bullet can be explained in terms of the acceleration of gravity and the total aerodynamic force acting on that bullet. In addition to the coning motion itself, Coning Theory explains the spinning bullet's aerodynamic jump and its steadily increasing yaw of repose together with its resulting spin-drift. The total aerodynamic force on the bullet comprises its drag and lift rectangular components and produces an associated overturning moment acting upon the rigid bullet. The coning motion of the bullet includes two distinct but synchronized aspects: 1) the well-known gyroscopic precession of the spin-axis of the bullet, and 2) the previously little-known orbiting of the center of gravity of the bullet around its mean trajectory with the nose of the bullet angled inward toward that trajectory. New equations are developed governing the orbital motion of the CG as a circular, isotropic harmonic oscillation driven by the lift and drag forces as they rev...

  3. Theory of the Motion of Ball Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Peter

    2008-04-01

    The Maser-Soliton Theory of BL predicts the dynamics of each of the harmonic waves in the wave packet that feeds and in fact defines the Langmuir plasma soliton that is observed as BL. The frequencies in the wave packet are in a narrow window f that corresponds in the case of open air BL to the diameter of the area in which the damage caused by the final explosion of the BL is observed. This is usually of the order of δx=30 m roughly, in rms. The corresponding wave vector interval is δk=(1/2)(1/30m)=0.017/m in rms. At the same time, k is of the order of 6/m, yielding k/δk=360. This pronounced line-narrowing is obtained due to the large gain of the atmospheric maser when it generates the Kapitsa standing wave. Phase differences between the waves that make up the electromagnetic field that couples with the electrostatic field of the soliton are determined by the frequency dependence of gain and dissipation. They are influenced less by the motion of the air, than by the maser dynamics and by the boundary conditions shaping the electromagnetic field, i.e. the individual photonic wave-packet. The paper presents the equations that determine the phase dynamics and therefore also the observed motion of BL. A similar phase dynamics is expected to be applicable to the special case of UFO motions.

  4. Deterministic and Stochastic Study of Wind Farm Harmonic Currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sainz, Luis; Mesas, Juan Jose; Teodorescu, Remus;

    2010-01-01

    Wind farm harmonic emissions are a well-known power quality problem, but little data based on actual wind farm measurements are available in literature. In this paper, harmonic emissions of an 18 MW wind farm are investigated using extensive measurements, and the deterministic and stochastic...... characterization of wind farm harmonic currents is analyzed. Specific issues addressed in the paper include the harmonic variation with the wind farm operating point and the random characteristics of their magnitude and phase angle....

  5. RHIC susceptibility to variations in systematic magnetic harmonic errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dell, G.F.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Satogata, T.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Wei, J.

    1994-08-01

    Results of a study to determine the sensitivity of tune to uncertainties of the systematic magnetic harmonic errors in the 8 cm dipoles of RHIC are reported. Tolerances specified to the manufacturer for tooling and fabrication can result in systematic harmonics different from the expected values. Limits on the range of systematic harmonics have been established from magnet calculations, and the impact on tune from such harmonics has been established.

  6. The current issues of internal control and internal audit harmonization

    OpenAIRE

    Синюгіна, Наталія Вікторівна

    2013-01-01

    The relevance of topics related to a harmonization of internal control and internal audit system of internal financial control is being proved. It is high lightened the essence of harmonization period by reviewing existing thoughts on this object, a concept of 'harmonization of internal control and internal audit", and provided reasonably practical recommendations to ensure such harmonization in the modern world. The scientific impact of this research is to clarify the concept of "harmonizati...

  7. Lipschitz spaces and bounded mean oscillation of harmonic mappings

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Sh; Vuorinen, M; Wang, X

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we first study the bounded mean oscillation of planar harmonic mappings, then a relationship between Lipschitz-type spaces and equivalent modulus of real harmonic mappings is established. At last, we obtain sharp estimates on Lipschitz number of planar harmonic mappings in terms of bounded mean oscillation norm, which shows that the harmonic Bloch space is isomorphic to $BMO_{2}$ as a Banach space.

  8. Second-Harmonic Generation of Bessel Beams in Lossy Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁德胜; 许坚毅; 王耀俊

    2002-01-01

    We present a further analysis for the second-harmonic generation of Bessel beams in lossy media. The emphasis is put on the effect of absorption to the radial pattern of the second-harmonic beam. It is shown that within the absorption length of the second harmonic, the Bessel second-harmonic beam approaches limited diffraction in the radial direction and behaves as in the case of lossless media.

  9. A Designated Harmonic Suppression Technology for Sampled SPWM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ping

    2005-01-01

    Sampled SPWM is an excellent VVVF method of motor speed control, meanwhile the harmonic components of the output wave impairs its applications in practice. A designated harmonic suppression technology is presented for sampled SPWM, which is an improved algorithm for the harmonic suppression in high voltage and high frequency spectrum. As the technology is applied in whole speed adjusting range, the voltage can be conveniently controlled and high frequency harmonic of SP WM is also improved.

  10. Mechanism of equivalent electric dipole oscillation for high-order harmonic generation from grating-structured solid-surface by femtosecond laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yang; Song, Hai-Ying; Liu, H.Y.; Liu, Shi-Bing, E-mail: sbliu@bjut.edu.cn

    2017-07-12

    Highlights: • Proposed a valid mechanism of high harmonic generation by laser grating target interaction: oscillation of equivalent electric dipole (OEED). • Found that there also exist harmonic emission at large emission angle but not just near-surface direction as the former researches had pointed out. • Show the process of the formation and motion of electron bunches at the grating-target surface irradiating with femtosecond laser pulse. - Abstract: We theoretically study high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from relativistically driven overdense plasma targets with rectangularly grating-structured surfaces by femtosecond laser pulses. Our particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations show that, under the conditions of low laser intensity and plasma density, the harmonics emit principally along small angles deviating from the target surface. Further investigation of the surface electron dynamics reveals that the electron bunches are formed by the interaction between the laser field and the target surface, giving rise to the oscillation of equivalent electric-dipole (OEED), which enhances specific harmonic orders. Our work helps understand the mechanism of harmonic emissions from grating targets and the distinction from the planar harmonic scheme.

  11. Harmonic Mitigation Methods in Large Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Łukasz Hubert; Chaudhary, Sanjay; Hesselbæk, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Various sources of harmonic problems in large wind power plants (WPPs) and optimized harmonic mitigation methods are presented in this paper. The harmonic problems such as sources of harmonic emission and amplification as well as harmonic stability are identified. Also modern preventive and remed......Various sources of harmonic problems in large wind power plants (WPPs) and optimized harmonic mitigation methods are presented in this paper. The harmonic problems such as sources of harmonic emission and amplification as well as harmonic stability are identified. Also modern preventive...... and remedial harmonic mitigation methods in terms of passive and active filtering are described. It is shown that WPP components such as long HVAC cables and park transformers can introduce significant low-frequency resonances which can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall WPP stability...... as well as amplification of harmonic distortion. It is underlined that there is a potential in terms of active filtering in modern grid-side converters in e.g. wind turbines, STATCOMs or HVDC stations utilized in modern large WPPs. It is also emphasized that the grid-side converter controller should...

  12. Harmonic calculation software for industrial applications with ASDs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Asiminoaei, Lucian; Hansen, Steffan

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the evaluation of new harmonic calculation software. By using a combination of a prestored database and new interpolation techniques the software can provide the harmonic data on real applications of a very fast speed. The harmonic results obtained with this software have a...

  13. The harmonic force field and absolute infrared intensities of diacetylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koops, Th.; Visser, T.; Smit, W.M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The frequencies, harmonic force field and absolute IR intensities for C4H2 and C4D2 are reported. The experimental harmonized frequencies obey the Teller—Redlich product rule very well. An approximate harmonic force field was obtained from a refinement procedure in which the starting values are adj

  14. Twenty-Four Tuba Harmonics Using a Single Pipe Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bud; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Harmonics arise naturally from the resonances in strings and pipes. A video demonstration (Ruiz 2016 "YouTube: Tuba Harmonics" (https://youtu.be/souhEzOP9c4)) is provided where a tubist (coauthor Holmes) produces a phenomenal 24 harmonics using a single tuba pipe length by controlling the buzz of his lips. The frequencies of the…

  15. Harmonic Calculation Software for Industrial Applications with Adjustable Speed Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asiminoaei, Lucian; Hansen, S.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of a new harmonic software. By using a combination of a pre-stored database and new interpolation techniques the software can very fast provide the harmonic data on real applications. The harmonic results obtained with this software have acceptable precision even...

  16. Double-Undulator Fel for Governing by the Harmonics Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulupov, A. V.

    1993-01-01

    Generation of harmonics in the double-undulator FEL based on the additional cyclotron resonance is considered. It is shown that efficient control of harmonics generation is feasible. Only one selected harmonic is generated while the others are suppressed. This effect takes place under a small value

  17. Encke's special perturbation technique associated with the KS regularized variables. I - Satellite motions in the earth's gravitational field with axial symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Mervat El-Sayed

    1988-10-01

    A special perturbation technique of Encke type associated with the Kustaanheimo-Stiefel (KS) regularized variables is developed for satellite motions in the earth's gravitational field with axial symmetry. Its computational algorithm is of recursive nature and could be applied to any perturbed conic motion, whatever the number of the zonal harmonic coefficients may be. Applications of the algorithm are also included.

  18. Motion compensator for holographic motion picture camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    When reference beam strikes target it undergoes Doppler shift dependent upon target velocity. To compensate, object beam is first reflected from rotating cylinder that revolves in direction opposite to target but at same speed. When beam strikes target it is returned to original frequency and is in phase with reference beam. Alternatively this motion compensator may act on reference beam.

  19. Unperturbed Chandler Motion and Perturbation Theory of the Rotation Motion of Deformable Celestial Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkin, Yu. V.

    the perturbing function in these variables we use the Hamiltonian expression in Andoyer variables of Getino Ferrandiz paper (1991), in which the theory of the Earth's rotation was developed. In that paper we obtained the full trigonometric development of the second harmonic of the force function of the Earth-Moon system (and also for Earth-Sun system) in angle-action variables. The analytical formulae for perturbations of the first order in the Earth's rotation on the basis of these equations and developments were obtained. Secular perturbations in the Earth's rotation due to second harmonics of the force function were studied (the definition of the constant of precession; constant additives to the angular velocities of the Chandler and axial motions of the Earth). All the results of this paper are presented in analytical form and are applicable for studies of the perturbed rotational motions of other celestial bodies (Venus, asteroids, satellites etc.).

  20. Body Motion and Graphing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemirovsky, Ricardo; Tierney, Cornelia; Wright, Tracy

    1998-01-01

    Analyzed two children's use of a computer-based motion detector to make sense of symbolic expressions (Cartesian graphs). Found three themes: (1) tool perspectives, efforts to understand graphical responses to body motion; (2) fusion, emergent ways of talking and behaving that merge symbols and referents; and (3) graphical spaces, when changing…