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Sample records for harmonic motion vx2

  1. Detection of hepatic VX2 tumors in rabbits: comparison of conventional US and phase- inversion harmonic US during the liver- specific late phase of contrast enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Min; Youk, Ji Hyun; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Young Kon; Kim, Chong Soo; Li, Chun Ai

    2003-01-01

    To compare phase-inversion sonography during the liver-specific phase of contrast enhancement using a microbubble contrast agent with conventional B-mode sonography for the detection of VX2 liver tumors. Twenty-three rabbits, 18 of which had VX2 liver tumor implants, received a bolus injection of 0.6 g of Levovist (200 mg/ml). During the liver-specific phase of this agent, they were evaluated using both conventional sonography and contrast-enhanced phase-inversion harmonic imaging (CEPIHI). Following sacrifice of the animals, pathologic analysis was performed and the reference standard thus obtained. The conspicuity, size and number of the tumors before and after contrast administration, as determined by a sonographer, were compared between the two modes and with the pathologic findings. CE-PIHI demonstrated marked hepatic parenchymal enhancement in all rabbits. For VX2 tumors detected at both conventional US and CE- PIHI, conspicuity was improved by contrast-enhanced PIHI. On examination of gross specimens, 52 VX2 tumors were identified. Conventional US correctly detected 18 of the 52 (34.6%), while PIHI detected 35 (67.3%) (p < 0.05). In particular, conventional US detected only three (8.3%) of the 36 tumors less than 10 mm in diameter, but CE-PIHI detected 19 such tumors (52.8%) (p < 0.05). Compared to conventional sonography, PIHI performed during the liver-specific phase after intravenous injection of Levovist is markedly better at detecting VX2 liver tumors

  2. A Harmonic Motion Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, P.; Krakower, Zeev

    2010-01-01

    We present a unit comprising theory, simulation and experiment for a body oscillating on a vertical spring, in which the simultaneous use of a force probe and an ultrasonic range finder enables one to explore quantitatively and understand many aspects of simple and damped harmonic motions. (Contains 14 figures.)

  3. Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Diffusion Weighted MR Imaging for Monitoring the Instantly Therapeutic Efficacy of Radiofrequency Ablation in Rabbit VX2 Tumors without Evident Links between Conventional Perfusion Weighted Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyi Guo

    Full Text Available To investigate the intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion weighted imaging (IVIM-DWI as a potential valuable marker to monitor the therapy responses of VX2 to radiofrequency ablation (RF Ablation.The institutional animal care and use committee approved this study. In 10 VX2 tumor-bearing rabbits, IVIM-DWI examinations were performed with a 3.0T imaging unit by using 16 b values from 0 to 800 sec/mm2. The true diffusion coefficient (D, pseudodiffusion coefficient (D* and perfusion fraction (f of tumors were compared between before and instantly after RF Ablation treatment. The differences of D, D* and f and conventional perfusion parameters (from perfusion CT and dynamic enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, DCE-MRI in the coagulation necrosis area, residual unablated area, untreated area, and normal control had been calculated by compared t-test. The correlation between f or D* with perfusion weighted CT including blood flow, BF (milliliter per 100 mL/min, blood volume, BV (milliliter per 100 mL/min, and capillary permeability-surface area, PMB (as a fraction or from DCE-MRI: transfer constant (Ktrans, extra-vascular extra-cellular volume fraction (Ve and reflux constant (Kep values had been analyzed by region-of-interest (ROI methods to calculate Pearson's correlation coefficients.In the ablated necrosis areas, f and D* significantly decreased and D significantly increased, compared with residual unblazed areas or untreated control groups and normal control groups (P < 0.001. The IVIM-DWI derived f parameters showed significant increases in the residual unablated tumor area. There was no significant correlations between f or D* and conventional perfusion parameters.The IVIM-DW derived f, D and D* parameters have the potential to indicate therapy response immediately after RF Ablation treatment, while no significant correlations with classical tumor perfusion metrics were derived from DCE-MRI and perfusion-CT measurements.

  4. Investigating student understanding of simple harmonic motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somroob, S.; Wattanakasiwich, P.

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate students’ understanding and develop instructional material on a topic of simple harmonic motion. Participants were 60 students taking a course on vibrations and wave and 46 students taking a course on Physics 2 and 28 students taking a course on Fundamental Physics 2 on the 2nd semester of an academic year 2016. A 16-question conceptual test and tutorial activities had been developed from previous research findings and evaluated by three physics experts in teaching mechanics before using in a real classroom. Data collection included both qualitative and quantitative methods. Item analysis and whole-test analysis were determined from student responses in the conceptual test. As results, most students had misconceptions about restoring force and they had problems connecting mathematical solutions to real motions, especially phase angle. Moreover, they had problems with interpreting mechanical energy from graphs and diagrams of the motion. These results were used to develop effective instructional materials to enhance student abilities in understanding simple harmonic motion in term of multiple representations.

  5. Analysing harmonic motions with an iPhone’s magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Ahmet; Kağan Temiz, Burak

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose an experiment for analysing harmonic motion using an iPhone’s (or iPad’s) magnetometer. This experiment consists of the detection of magnetic field variations obtained from an iPhone’s magnetometer sensor. A graph of harmonic motion is directly displayed on the iPhone’s screen using the Sensor Kinetics application. Data from this application was analysed with Eureqa software to establish the equation of the harmonic motion. Analyses show that the use of an iPhone’s magnetometer to analyse harmonic motion is a practical and effective method for small oscillations and frequencies less than 15-20 Hz.

  6. Analysing Harmonic Motions with an iPhone's Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Ahmet; Temiz, Burak Kagan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an experiment for analysing harmonic motion using an iPhone's (or iPad's) magnetometer. This experiment consists of the detection of magnetic field variations obtained from an iPhone's magnetometer sensor. A graph of harmonic motion is directly displayed on the iPhone's screen using the "Sensor Kinetics"…

  7. An Arduino Investigation of Simple Harmonic Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeriu, Calin; Edwards, Scott; Esper, Geoffrey

    2014-03-01

    We cannot hope for a new generation of scientists and engineers if we don't let our young students take ownership of their scientific and engineering explorations, if we don't let them enjoy the hands-on cycle of design and production, and if we don't let them implant their creativity into a technologically friendly environment. With this educational philosophy in mind, Massimo Banzi and his team have developed and popularized the open source Arduino microcontroller board. The Arduino board has helped countless people in their science, electronics, robotics, or engineering projects, allowing them to build things that we have not even dreamed of. Physics instructors have also realized the advantages of using Arduino boards for lab experiments. The schools are saving money because the homemade experimental equipment is much cheaper than the commercial alternatives. The students are thankful for an educational experience that is more interesting, more loaded with STEM content, and more fun. As further proof of this new trend in physics education, Vernier5 is now documenting the use of their probes with Arduino boards. This is why we have developed an Arduino-based physics investigation of the simple harmonic motion (SHM) of a mass on a spring. The experimental data are collected with the help of an ultrasonic distance sensor and an Arduino Uno board. The data are then graphed and analyzed using Origin 9. This rich cross-curricular STEM activity integrates electronics, computer programming, physics, and mathematics in a way that is both experimentally exciting and intellectually rewarding.

  8. Building Mathematical Models of Simple Harmonic and Damped Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    By developing a sequence of mathematical models of harmonic motion, shows that mathematical models are not right or wrong, but instead are better or poorer representations of the problem situation. (MKR)

  9. Using "Tracker" to Prove the Simple Harmonic Motion Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchin, John

    2016-01-01

    Simple harmonic motion (SHM) is a common topic for many students to study. Using the free, though versatile, motion tracking software; "Tracker", we can extend the students experience and show that the general equation for SHM does lead to the correct period of a simple pendulum.

  10. Investigation of Student Reasoning about Harmonic Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongnopparat, N.; Poonyawatpornkul, J.; Wattanakasiwich, P.

    This study aimed to investigate student reasoning about harmonic oscillations. We conducted a semi-structured interview based on three situations of harmonic motions—(1) a mass attaching to spring and horizontally oscillating without damping, (2) the same situation but vertically oscillating and (3) a mass attaching to spring and oscillating in viscous liquid. Forty-five second-year students taking a vibrations and wave course at Chiang Mai University, Thailand participated in a fifteen-minute interview, which was video-recorded. The videos were transcribed and analyzed by three physics instructors. As results, we found that most students had misconceptions about angular frequency and energy mostly in the second and third situations.

  11. Modified model of VX2 tumor overexpressing vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Florentina; Ghegediban, Saida-Homayra; Bonneau, Michel; Bedouet, Laurent; Namur, Julien; Verret, Valentin; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle; Wassef, Michel; Laurent, Alexandre

    2012-06-01

    To determine whether upregulated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in VX2 cells can increase vessel density (VD) and reduce tumor necrosis. The VX2 cell line was transfected with expression vectors containing cDNA for rabbit VEGF. Stable clones producing rabbit VEGF (VEGF-VX2) were selected. VEGF-VX2 cells (n = 5 rabbits) or nontransfected VX2 cells (controls; n = 5 rabbits) were implanted into leg muscle of 10 rabbits. The animals were sacrificed at day 21. Tumor volume, percentage of necrosis, VD, and VEGF concentration in tumor protein extract were quantified. Overexpression of VEGF by VX2 cells augmented tumor implantation efficiency 100% and favored cyst formation. The tumor volume was significantly larger for VEGF-VX2 transfected tumors versus controls (P = .0143). Overexpression of VEGF in VX2 cells significantly increased the VD of the tumors (P = .0138). The percentage of necrosis was reduced in VEGF-VX2 tumors versus controls (19.5% vs 38.5 %; P = .002). VEGF concentration in VEGF-VX2 tumors was significantly higher than in control tumors (P = .041) and was correlated with tumor volume (ρ = .883, P = .012). The overexpression of VEGF increased tumor growth and vascularization, favored cyst formation, and reduced tumor necrosis. This new phenotype of the VX2 tumor may offer some advantages over classic models of VX2 tumor for evaluating anticancer therapies. Copyright © 2012 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. NOTES ON EXPERIMENTS: Forced harmonic motion of a galvanometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, A. J.

    1984-05-01

    An experiment on forced simple harmonic motion can be carried out using suspended moving coil galvanometer driven by a very low frequency oscillator. This experiment uses a Gambrell galvanometer with a suspended mirror and coil of resistance 20 Ω at a distance of 96 cm from a traditional lamp and scale assembly. The galvanometer is driven by a Philip Harris S-range power signal generator whose output can be tuned over the frequency range from 0.7 Hz to 100 kHz and which is connected in series with a Telequipment D54 oscilloscope on the 50 mV cm-1 range with the input switched to the DC position. This arrangement allows the amplitude and phase of the driving current to be monitored and at the same time the 1 MΩ input resistance of the oscilloscope limits the current through the galvanometer. Variable damping is achieved by changing the resistance R1 of the resistance box in the range 500-10000 Ω. The tapping key serves to damp out galvanometer oscillations when required.

  13. Supersymmetry and the constants of motion of the two-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres del Castillo, G.F.; Tepper G, T.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the constants of motion of the two-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator not related to the rotational invariance of the Hamiltonian can be derived using the ideas of supersymmetric quantum mechanics. (Author)

  14. Localized, Non-Harmonic Active Flap Motions for Low Frequency In-Plane Rotor Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Ben W.; Potsdam, Mark; Kitaplioglu, Cahit; LeMasurier, Philip; Lorber, Peter; Andrews, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    A first-of-its-kind demonstration of the use of localized, non-harmonic active flap motions, for suppressing low frequency, in-plane rotor noise, is reported in this paper. Operational feasibility is verified via testing of the full-scale AATD/Sikorsky/UTRC active flap demonstration rotor in the NFAC's 40- by 80-Foot anechoic wind tunnel. Effectiveness of using localized, non-harmonic active flap motions are compared to conventional four-per-rev harmonic flap motions, and also active flap motions derived from closed-loop acoustics implementations. All three approaches resulted in approximately the same noise reductions over an in-plane three-by-three microphone array installed forward and near in-plane of the rotor in the nearfield. It is also reported that using an active flap in this localized, non-harmonic manner, resulted in no more that 2% rotor performance penalty, but had the tendency to incur higher hub vibration levels.

  15. Retrogressive harmonic motion as structural and stylistic characteristic of pop-rock music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Paul S.

    The central issue addressed in this dissertation is that of progressive and retrogressive harmonic motion as it is utilized in the repertoire of pop-rock music. I believe that analysis in these terms may prove to be a valuable tool for the understanding of the structure, style and perception of this music. Throughout my study of this music, various patterns of progressive and retrogressive harmonic motions within a piece reveal a kind of musical character about it, a character on which much of a work's style, organization and extramusical nature often depends. Several influential theorists, especially Jean-Phillipe Rameau, Hugo Riemann, and Arnold Schoenberg, have addressed the issues of functional harmony and the nature of the motion between chords of a tonal harmonic space. After assessing these views, I have found that it is possible to differentiate between two fundamental types of harmonic motions. This difference, one that I believe is instrumental in characterizing pop-rock music, is the basis for the analytical perspective I wish to embrace. After establishing a method of evaluating tonal harmonic root motions in these terms, I wish to examine a corpus of this music in order to discover what a characterization of its harmonic motion may reveal about each piece. Determining this harmonic character may help to establish structural and stylistic traits for that piece, its genre, composer, period, or even its sociological purpose. Conclusions may then be drawn regarding the role these patterns play in defining musical style traits of pop-rock. Partly as a tool for serving the study mentioned above I develop a graphical method of accounting for root motion I name the tonal "Space-Plot"; This apparatus allows the analyst to measure several facets about the harmonic motion of the music, and to see a wide scope of relations in and around a diatonic key.

  16. MR and pathologic correlation of rabbit VX-2 carconoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, H.S.; Kim, S.M.; Im, J.G.; Kim, C.W.; Han, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper evaluates the reliability of MR imaging in tissue characterization and depiction of tumor boundaries. The authors performed MR-pathologic correlation using parosteally implanted VX-2 carcinoma in 17 rabbit thighs. T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and Gd-DTPA-enhanced T1-weighted axial images were obtained 10-20 days after tumor implantation. After the animals were killed, freezing, sectioning along the MR imaging planes, and histopathologic examination were done. For accurate MR-pathologic correlation, rabbits were fixed on the cardboard plate to minimize position change during the procedures. Tumor boundaries depicted on MR images were larger than those depicted on the specimen. Small tumors were surrounded by capsule-like, hypervascular (mainly lymphatics), loose connective tissue. Loose connective tissue became compact with tumor growth. This connective tissue showed high signal intensity on both T2-weighted and Gd-DTPA-enhanced T1-weighted images. Muscle atrophy with development of lymphatics around the tumor also contributed high signal intensity on MR images. Peritumoral edema and inflammatory reaction were not remarkable. Peritumoral lymphatics, rich connective tissue, and muscle atrophy exaggerated the size of experimentally induced malignant musculoskeletal tumors on MR images

  17. Harmonic pulsed excitation and motion detection of a vibrating reflective target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Matthew W; Greenleaf, James F

    2008-01-01

    Elasticity imaging is an emerging medical imaging modality. Methods involving acoustic radiation force excitation and pulse-echo ultrasound motion detection have been investigated to assess the mechanical response of tissue. In this work new methods for dynamic radiation force excitation and motion detection are presented. The theory and model for harmonic motion detection of a vibrating reflective target are presented. The model incorporates processing of radio frequency data acquired using pulse-echo ultrasound to measure harmonic motion with amplitudes ranging from 100 to 10,000 nm. A numerical study was performed to assess the effects of different parameters on the accuracy and precision of displacement amplitude and phase estimation and showed how estimation errors could be minimized. Harmonic pulsed excitation is introduced as a multifrequency radiation force excitation method that utilizes ultrasound tonebursts repeated at a rate f(r). The radiation force, consisting of frequency components at multiples of f(r), is generated using 3.0 MHz ultrasound, and motion detection is performed simultaneously with 9.0 MHz pulse-echo ultrasound. A parameterized experimental analysis showed that displacement can be measured with small errors for motion with amplitudes as low as 100 nm. The parameterized numerical and experimental analyses provide insight into how to optimize acquisition parameters to minimize measurement errors.

  18. Physical Pendulum Experiments to Enhance the Understanding of Moments of Inertia and Simple Harmonic Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Tim H.; Brittle, Stuart A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a set of experiments aimed at overcoming some of the difficulties experienced by students learning about the topics of moments of inertia and simple harmonic motion, both of which are often perceived to be complex topics amongst students during their first-year university courses. By combining both subjects in a discussion…

  19. The experimental study on liver VX-2 tumor by using MR diffusion-weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Youhong; Xiao Enhua; Jin Ke; Yan Ronghua; He Zhong; Shang Quanliang; Hu Weizhou; Yuan Shiwen; Xiang Jun; Tang Keli; Yi Shijian; Yin Qiang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the imaging characteristics of rabbit's liver VX-2 tumor on MR diffusion-weighted imaging. Methods: Of the 35 New Zealand rabbits, 14 were implanted under the skin while 6 were implanted in liver with VX-2 tumor in preparing experiment, and 12 were implanted in liver and 3 as controls in formal experiment. Before and after the implantation, MR diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), T 1 -weighted and T 2 -weighted images were performed respectively and periodically in 15 tumors including 12 liver tumor implantations in formal experiment. DWI parameters including apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value were acquired and statistically analyzed by SPSS 10.0. Results: (1) The successful rate of implantation was 29% (4/14) under the skin and 33% (2/6) in the liver in preparing experiment. And the successful rate of formal experiment was 83% (10/12). (2) DWI signal of VX-2 tumor was high and the signal became lower and lower with b value increased step by step. The signal of VX-2 tumor on ADC map was low. The ADC value of normal group was (2.57 ± 0.26) mm 2 /s (b=100 s/mm 2 ) and (1.73 ± 0.31) mm 2 /s (b=300 s/mm 2 ), and ADC value of VX-2 tumor group was (1.87 ± 0.25) mm 2 /s (b=100 s/mm 2 ) and (1.57 ± 0.23) mm 2 /s (b=300 s/mm 2 ), respectively.The F value of analysis of variance was 43.26 (P<0.001). The distinction of tumor ADC value in different b values was significant (P<0.05), and the distinction of ADC value between VX-2 tumor and normal liver was also significant (P<0.01). (3) VX-2 tumor developed quickly and metastasized early to all parts of the body, especially to the lung, the liver, the lymph nodes of mediastinum and so on. Conclusion: DWI signal of VX-2 tumor has its characteristic and DWI has important value in reflecting the movement of water molecules, discovering the VX-2 tumor, and tracking its progress. (authors)

  20. Imaging of Rabbit VX-2 Hepatic Cancer by Cold and Thermal Neutron Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Yoshinori; Matsubayashi, Masahito; Takeda, Tohoru; Lwin, Thet Thet; Wu, Jin; Yoneyama, Akio; Matsumura, Akira; Hori, Tomiei; Itai, Yuji

    2003-11-01

    Neutron radiography is based on differences in neutron mass attenuation coefficients among the elements and is a non-destructive imaging method. To investigate biomedical applications of neutron radiography, imaging of rabbit VX-2 liver cancer was performed using thermal and cold neutron radiography with a neutron imaging plate. Hepatic vessels and VX-2 tumor were clearly observed by neutron radiography, especially by cold neutron imaging. The image contrast of this modality was better than that of absorption-contrast X-ray radiography.

  1. Correction of harmonic motion and Kepler orbit based on the minimal momentum uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Won Sang, E-mail: mimip4444@hanmail.net [Department of Physics and Research Institute of Natural Science, College of Natural Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hassanabadi, Hassan, E-mail: h.hasanabadi@shahroodut.ac.ir [Physics Department, Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-18

    In this paper we consider the deformed Heisenberg uncertainty principle with the minimal uncertainty in momentum which is called a minimal momentum uncertainty principle (MMUP). We consider MMUP in D-dimension and its classical analogue. Using these we investigate the MMUP effect for the harmonic motion and Kepler orbit. - Highlights: • We discussed minimal momentum uncertainty relation. • We considered MMUR in D-dimension and used the deformed Poisson bracket to find the classical mechanics based on the MMUR. • Using these we investigate the MMUR effect for the harmonic motion and Kepler orbit. • Especially, we computed the corrected precession angle for each case. • We found that the corrected precession angle is always positive.

  2. Simple Harmonics Motion experiment based on LabVIEW interface for Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong-on, Anusorn; Saphet, Parinya; Thepnurat, Meechai

    2017-09-01

    In this work, we developed an affordable modern innovative physics lab apparatus. The ultrasonic sensor is used to measure the position of a mass attached on a spring as a function of time. The data acquisition system and control device were developed based on LabVIEW interface for Arduino UNO R3. The experiment was designed to explain wave propagation which is modeled by simple harmonic motion. The simple harmonic system (mass and spring) was observed and the motion can be realized using curve fitting to the wave equation in Mathematica. We found that the spring constants provided by Hooke’s law and the wave equation fit are 9.9402 and 9.1706 N/m, respectively.

  3. State operator, constants of the motion, and Wigner functions: The two-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jens Peder; Schleich, W. P.

    2009-01-01

    For a closed quantum system the state operator must be a function of the Hamiltonian. When the state is degenerate, additional constants of the motion enter the play. But although it is the Weyl transform of the state operator, the Wigner function is not necessarily a function of the Weyl...... transforms of the constants of the motion. We derive conditions for which this is actually the case. The Wigner functions of the energy eigenstates of a two-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator serve as an important illustration....

  4. VX2 Carcinoma in rabbit liver: Different radiologic features according to innoculation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Joon Woo; Chung, Jin Wook; Choi, Guk Myeong; Kim, Chong Jai; Kim, Se Hyung; Choi, Joon Il; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Seung Hyup; Park, Jae Hyung

    2000-01-01

    To investigate radiologic features about hepatic VX2 carcinoma induced by two methods, direct intraparenchymal innoculation vs transpotal approach, focus on enhancement pattern and comparison of each imaging modalities and innoculation methods. VX2 carcinomas were induced in 11 rabbit livers by direct inoculation (n=7) or infusion into mesenteric vein (n=4). After two weeks, spiral CT, digital subtraction angiography (DSA), intravenous contrast-enhanced power Doppler sonography, intraarterial CO 2 sonography were done. The enhancement patterns were assessed independently and correlated with histopathologic features. With direct intraprenchymal innoculation, localized hepatic VX2 tumors were developed. Considering all imaging modalities, six of 7 tumors appeared peripheral hypervascularity, one hypovascularity. On pathologic and radiologic correlations, the enhancing portions of 4 tumors corresponded to viable tumor and pseudo-capsule portion, the other enhancing portions of 2 tumors corresponded to sinusoidal vascular spaces. With the transportal approaches, diffuse hepatic tumors were developed. Spiral CT and DSA revealed these tumors as marked peripheral hypervascular tumors with multiple A-P shunts. On pathologic findings, multiple thin walled sinusoidal spaces were seen at periphery of nodule. Spiral CT was superior to the other modalities in evaluation of enhancement characteristics. VX2 carcinomas in rabbit livers showed different radiologic and histopathologic features according to the innoculation methods.

  5. Thermochemical ablation therapy of VX2 tumor using a permeable oil-packed liquid alkali metal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyi Guo

    Full Text Available Alkali metal appears to be a promising tool in thermochemical ablation, but, it requires additional data on safety is required. The objective of this study was to explore the effectiveness of permeable oil-packed liquid alkali metal in the thermochemical ablation of tumors.Permeable oil-packed sodium-potassium (NaK was prepared using ultrasonic mixing of different ratios of metal to oil. The thermal effect of the mixture during ablation of muscle tissue ex vivo was evaluated using the Fluke Ti400 Thermal Imager. The thermochemical effect of the NaK-oil mixture on VX2 tumors was evaluated by performing perfusion CT scans both before and after treatment in 10 VX2 rabbit model tumors. VX2 tumors were harvested from two rabbits immediately after treatment to assess their viability using trypan blue and hematoxylin and eosin (H.E. staining.The injection of the NaK-oil mixture resulted in significantly higher heat in the ablation areas. The permeable oil controlled the rate of heat released during the NaK reaction with water in the living tissue. Perfusion computed tomography and its parameter map confirmed that the NaK-oil mixture had curative effects on VX2 tumors. Both trypan blue and H.E. staining showed partial necrosis of the VX2 tumors.The NaK-oil mixture may be used successfully to ablate tumor tissue in vivo. With reference to the controlled thermal and chemical lethal injury to tumors, using a liquid alkali in ablation is potentially an effective and safe method to treat malignant tumors.

  6. Novel fluorescence nanobubbles for contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging in rabbit VX2 hepatocellular carcinoma model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Houqiang; Wang, Wei; He, Xiaoling; Zhou, Qibing; Ding, Mingyue

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) such as SonoVue or Optison have been used widely in clinic for contrast-enhanced vascular imaging. However, microbubbles UCAs display limitations in tumor-targeted imaging due to the large sizes, nanoscaled UCAs has consequently attracted increasing attentions. In this work, we synthesized nanobubbles (NBs) by ultrasonic cavitation method, then a fluorescent marker of Alexa Fluor 680 was conjugated to the shell in order to observe the localization of NBs in tumor tissue. Measurement of fundamental characteristics showed that the NBs had homogeneous distribution of mean diameter of 267.9 +/- 19.2 nm and polydispersity index of 0.410 +/- 0.056. To assess in vivo tumor-selectivity of NBs, we established the rabbits VX2 hepatocellular carcinoma model though surgical implantation method. After the rabbits were intravenous administered of NBs, contrast-enhanced sonograms was observed in the surrounding of VX2 tumor, which showed there are rich capillaries in the tumor periphery. We additionally investigated the toxic of the NBs by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The results indicated that the NBs is a biocompatible non-toxic lipid system. Furthermore, the VX2 tumors and major organs were analyzed using ex vivo fluorescence imaging to confirm the targeted selectivity of NBs, and the results verified that the NBs were capable of targeting VX2 tumor. Confocal laser scanning microscopy examination showed that the NBs can traverse the VX2 tumor capillaries and target to the hepatocellular carcinoma tumor cells. All these results suggested that the newly prepared NBs have a potential application in molecular imaging and tumor-targeting therapy.

  7. Using Simple Harmonic Motion to Follow the Galilean Moons--Testing Kepler's Third Law on a Small System

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, I. G.; Pereira, J. A. M.

    2009-01-01

    The motion of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter is studied in this work. The moons had their positions with respect to the centre of the planet measured during one week of observation by means of telescopic charge coupled device images. It is shown that their movement can be well described as a simple harmonic motion. The revolution period and…

  8. Multi-story base-isolated buildings under a harmonic ground motion. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Fagung; Ahmadi, G.; Tadjbakhsh, I.G.

    1990-01-01

    The performances of several leading base-isolation devices (Pure-Friction/Sliding-Joint, Rubber Bearing, French System, New Zealand System, and Resilient-Friction) and a newly proposed system (Sliding Resilient-Friction) for a multi-story building subject to a horizontal harmonic ground motion are studied. The governing equations of motion of various systems and the criteria for stick-slip transition are described and a computational algorithm for obtaining their numerical solutions is developed. The responses of the structure with different base-isolation systems under various conditions are analyzed. The peak absolute acceleration, the maximum structural deflection, and the peak base-displacement responses are obtained. The effectiveness of various base isolators are studied and advantages and disadvantages of different systems are discussed. The results show that the base-isolation devices effectively reduce the column stresses and the acceleration transmitted to the superstructure. (orig.)

  9. Experiment of embolizing hepatocarcinoma with heated lipiodol via hepatic artery in VX2 rabbit model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Wei; Wang Zhimin; Zhang Hongxin; Wan Yi

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anti-tumour effect of 60 degree C Lipiodol in the embolization of VX 2 hepatocarcinoma in rabbits. Methods: VX 2 carcinoma cells were surgically implanted into the left liver lobe in 30 male New Zealand white rabbits, which were randomly divided into 3 groups by figure and table method with 10 rabbits in each group. Physiological saline, Lipiodol (37 degree C), and Lipiodol (60 degree C) were injected in each group via hepatic artery and liver cancer was embolized. The volume of tumour and serum level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were observed after one week, and the survival period of VX 2 rabbits was also observed. Results: In the group of Lipiodol (60 degree C), the growth rate of tumour (0.92± 0.21) was significantly lower than that of control group (3.48±) and Lipiodol (37 degree C) groups (1.69±0.26), respectively (F=34.95, P 0.05), but was significantly higher than the control group (68.6±6.6) U/L (t=19.24, P<0.05). Conclusion: Lipiodol (60 degree C) greatly decreases the tumour's growth rate and prolongs the survival period. It is a safe method and has stronger inhibitory effect than other groups. (authors)

  10. The influence of spring length on the physical parameters of simple harmonic motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triana, C A; Fajardo, F

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyse the influence of spring length on the simple harmonic motion of a spring-mass system. In particular, we study the effect of changing the spring length on the elastic constant k, the angular frequency ω and the damping factor γ of the oscillations. To characterize the behaviour of these variables we worked with a series of springs of seven different lengths, in which the elastic constant was found by means of the spring-elongation measurement and ω was obtained from the measurement of the oscillation period T of a suspended mass. The oscillatory movement was recorded using a force sensor and the γ value was determined by the fit of the envelope oscillations. Graphical analysis of the results shows that k, ω and γ decrease when the natural spring length increases. This experiment can be performed with equipment normally found in undergraduate physics laboratories. In addition, through graphical analysis students can deduce some relationships between variables that determine the simple harmonic motion behaviour. (paper)

  11. Autoregressive harmonic analysis of the earth's polar motion using homogeneous international latitude service data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong Chao, B.

    1983-12-01

    The homogeneous set of 80-year-long (1900-1979) International Latitude Service (ILS) polar motion data is analyzed using the autoregressive method (Chao and Gilbert, 1980) which resolves and produces estimates for the complex frequency (or frequency and Q) and complex amplitude (or amplitude and phase) of each harmonic component in the data. Principal conclusion of this analysis are that (1) the ILS data support the multiple-component hypothesis of the Chandler wobble (it is found that the Chandler wobble can be adequately modeled as a linear combination of four (coherent) harmonic components, each of which represents a steady, nearly circular, prograte motion, a behavior that is inconsistent with the hypothesis of a single Chandler period excited in a temporally and/or spatially random fashion). (2) the four-component Chandler wobble model ``explains'' the apparent phase reversal during 1920-1940 and the pre-1950 empirical period-amplitude relation, (3) the annual wobble is shown to be rather stationary over the years both in amplitude and in phase and no evidence is found to support the large variations reported by earlier investigations. (4) the Markowitz wobble is found to support the large variations reported by earlier investigations. (4) the Markowitz wobble is found to be marginally retrograde and appears to have a complicated behavior which cannot be resolved because of the shortness of the data set.

  12. Quantum harmonic Brownian motion in a general environment: A modified phase-space approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, L.

    1993-01-01

    After extensive investigations over three decades, the linear-coupling model and its equivalents have become the standard microscopic models for quantum harmonic Brownian motion, in which a harmonically bound Brownian particle is coupled to a quantum dissipative heat bath of general type modeled by infinitely many harmonic oscillators. The dynamics of these models have been studied by many authors using the quantum Langevin equation, the path-integral approach, quasi-probability distribution functions (e.g., the Wigner function), etc. However, the quantum Langevin equation is only applicable to some special problems, while other approaches all involve complicated calculations due to the inevitable reduction (i.e., contraction) operation for ignoring/eliminating the degrees of freedom of the heat bath. In this dissertation, the author proposes an improved methodology via a modified phase-space approach which employs the characteristic function (the symplectic Fourier transform of the Wigner function) as the representative of the density operator. This representative is claimed to be the most natural one for performing the reduction, not only because of its simplicity but also because of its manifestation of geometric meaning. Accordingly, it is particularly convenient for studying the time evolution of the Brownian particle with an arbitrary initial state. The power of this characteristic function is illuminated through a detailed study of several physically interesting problems, including the environment-induced damping of quantum interference, the exact quantum Fokker-Planck equations, and the relaxation of non-factorizable initial states. All derivations and calculations axe shown to be much simplified in comparison with other approaches. In addition to dynamical problems, a novel derivation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem which is valid for all quantum linear systems is presented

  13. Experimental Investigation of Unsteady Aerodynamic Forces on Airfoil in Harmonic Translatory Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunaa, Mac; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2003-01-01

    The present paper describes the main results from an experimental investigation of the unsteady aerodynamic forces on a NACA 0015 airfoil subject to 1-degree-of-freedom (DOF) harmonic translatory motion. The focus of the experimental investigations was to determine the factors that influence...... maximum lift for both stationary and moving airfoil configurations. The mean as well as the dynamic characteristics of the different stall levels were found to differ from each other. An investigation of the negative aerodynamically damped cases showed that the damping decrease as the reduced frequency...... is decreased. Comparison between the experimental data, 2D Navier-Stokes computations and two commonly used dynamic stall models reveal that all models failed to reproduce the dynamic characteristics of the flow for incidences above maximum lift, however the Navier-Stokes computations generally captured...

  14. Electromagnetic radiation damping of charges in external gravitational fields (weak field, slow motion approximation). [Harmonic coordinates, weak field slow-motion approximation, Green function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolph, E [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Muenchen (F.R. Germany)

    1975-01-01

    As a model for gravitational radiation damping of a planet the electromagnetic radiation damping of an extended charged body moving in an external gravitational field is calculated in harmonic coordinates using a weak field, slowing-motion approximation. Special attention is paid to the case where this gravitational field is a weak Schwarzschild field. Using Green's function methods for this purpose it is shown that in a slow-motion approximation there is a strange connection between the tail part and the sharp part: radiation reaction terms of the tail part can cancel corresponding terms of the sharp part. Due to this cancelling mechanism the lowest order electromagnetic radiation damping force in an external gravitational field in harmonic coordinates remains the flat space Abraham Lorentz force. It is demonstrated in this simplified model that a naive slow-motion approximation may easily lead to divergent higher order terms. It is shown that this difficulty does not arise up to the considered order.

  15. Effects of intra-arterial infusion therapy or systemic chemotherapy with docetaxel for VX2 tumor in rabbit hind limb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Yuanxin; Wu Xiaomei; He Miao; Liu Tao; Deng Duo

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the efficacy and safety of intra-arterial infusion therapy with docetaxel. Methods: Animal model of VX2 tumor in rabbit hind limb was set up. Intra-arterial infusion therapy or systemic chemotherapy with docetaxel was performed. Concentrations of docetaxel in VX2 tumor, wall of stomach, liver, kidney and plasma of rabbits with VX2 tumors in hind limbs were determined. Difference of drug concentrations between intra-arterial infusion therapy and systemic chemotherapy was compared using Student t-test. Results: Concentrations of docetaxel in VX2 tumor and wall of stomach of rabbits with intra-arterial infusion therapy were significantly higher than those with systemic chemotherapy (p<0.05). The drug concentration in VX2 tumor of rabbits with intra-arterial infusion was 14 times higher than that with systemic chemotherapy. Concentration of docetaxel in plasma of rabbits with intra-arterial infusion therapy was not significantly lower than that with systemic chemotherapy (P<0.05). Conclusion: Intra-arterial infusion therapy with docetaxel for tumor is effective. However, there is increased risk of toxicity and the dose should adjusted accordingly. (authors)

  16. MR muscle tractography study on VX2 soft-tissue tumor in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yonggang; Guo Liang; Xie Daohai; Hu Chunhogn; Guo Maofeng; Zhu Wei; Chen Jianhua; Xing Jianming; Wang Renfa

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine if diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and muscle fiber tracts of muscle disease are feasible. Methods: Twenty Newzealand white rabbits were implanted with 0.2 ml VX 2 tumor tissue suspension in the right proximal thighs. MRI and DTI were performed on these rabbits and DTI of muscle fiber tracts in the muscles around the lesions were reconstructed. The fractional anisotropy(FA) and volume ratio anisotropy(VrA) of the tumor and the normal muscle were analyzed. The correlation study between MRI and pathological findings was done. Results: All experimental animal models of rabbit VX 2 soft tissue tumors were successfully established. The difference of FA between the central parenchyma area and the necrosis area, the peripheral area of the tumor, the adjacent and contralateral normal muscle was statistically significant (P 0.05). The difference of FA and VrA between the adjacent and contralateral normal muscle was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The arrangement of normal muscle was regular on DTI of muscle tract. The muscle around the tumor lesions was infiltrated and destructed, which demonstrated irregular and interrupted muscle fiber on muscle tractography. Conclusion: DTI is advantageous to demonstrate the structure of soft tissue tumors and its border, which should be helpful in the structure and function research of muscle, as well as in the diagnosis of muscle diseases. (authors)

  17. Mapping quadrupole collectivity in the Cd isotopes: The breakdown of harmonic vibrational motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, P. E.; Green, K. L.; Bangay, J.; Varela, A. Diaz; Sumithrarachchi, C. S.; Austin, R. A. E.; Ball, G. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D. S.; Bianco, L.; Colosimo, S.; Cross, D. S.; Demand, G. A.; Finlay, P.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hackman, G.; Kulp, W. D.; Leach, K. G.; Morton, A. C.; Orce, J. N.; Pearson, C. J.; Phillips, A. A.; Schumaker, M. A.; Svensson, C. E.; Triambak, S.; Wong, J.; Wood, J. L.; Yates, S. W.

    2011-10-01

    The stable Cd isotopes have long been used as paradigms for spherical vibrational motion. Extensive investigations with in-beam γ spectroscopy have resulted in very-well-established level schemes, including many lifetimes or lifetime limits. A programme has been initiated to complement these studies with very-high-statistics β decay using the 8π spectrometer at the TRIUMF radioactive beam facility. The decays of 112In and 112Ag have been studied with an emphasis on the observation of, or the placement of stringent limits on, low-energy branches between potential multi-phonon levels. A lack of suitable 0+ or 2+ three-phonon candidates has been revealed. Further, the sum of the B(E2) strength from spin 0+ and 2+ states up to 3 MeV in excitation energy to the assigned two-phonon levels falls far short of the harmonic-vibrational expectations. This lack of strength points to the failing of collective models based on vibrational phonon structures.

  18. Development of Gravity Acceleration Measurement Using Simple Harmonic Motion Pendulum Method Based on Digital Technology and Photogate Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulkifli; Afandi, Zurian; Yohandri

    2018-04-01

    Development of gravitation acceleration measurement using simple harmonic motion pendulum method, digital technology and photogate sensor has been done. Digital technology is more practical and optimizes the time of experimentation. The pendulum method is a method of calculating the acceleration of gravity using a solid ball that connected to a rope attached to a stative pole. The pendulum is swung at a small angle resulted a simple harmonic motion. The measurement system consists of a power supply, Photogate sensors, Arduino pro mini and seven segments. The Arduino pro mini receives digital data from the photogate sensor and processes the digital data into the timing data of the pendulum oscillation. The calculation result of the pendulum oscillation time is displayed on seven segments. Based on measured data, the accuracy and precision of the experiment system are 98.76% and 99.81%, respectively. Based on experiment data, the system can be operated in physics experiment especially in determination of the gravity acceleration.

  19. Study of CT-guided iodine-125 implantation in the treatment of rabbit VX2 tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Kewu; Gao Bin; Li Jiajia

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of CT-guided iodine-125 seed( 125 I) implantation to rabbit model VX2 tumor cell apoptosis. Methods: VX2 tumor cells were implanted into muscle of 40 rabbits legs, 3 weeks later, as the diameter of tumor reached 2 cm available for test. Randomly selected the sampling tumor on one leg of rabbit as for the test team and tumor on the contralateral leg as for control team. Under CT guidance, 125 I seeds were implanted into 20 tumor lesions of the test team, and hollow seeds were implanted into 20 tumor lesions of the control team. Instantly, 72 h, 1, 2, 3 w after operation, percutaneous tumor tissue sampling was done 0.5-1.0 cm and 1.0-1.5 cm away from seed implanted site under CT guidance; and apoptosis was investigated by FCM. Results: Instantly, 72 h, 1, 2, 3 w after treatment with iodine-125 ( 125 I) implantation, the tissue sampling away from seed 0.5-1.0 cm showed the apoptosis rates of control team and test team were respectively as follows: (5.43±0.67)% and (5.48±0.66)%, (P>0.05), (5.45±0.58)% and (11.60±0.87)%, (P O.05)of the control team and test team. Conclusions: 125 I seeds implantation can induce tumor cell apoptosis, beginning at 72 h and reached peak at 2 w and kept the high level here afterword. The apoptosis rate descended rapidly along with the increase of distance away from the 125 I seedling. (authors)

  20. LP-THAE induced tumor cell apoptosis of rabbit VX2 liver carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shengli; Quan Yi; Huang Zicheng; Chen Guodong; Zhu Dongliang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To research tumor cell apoptosis induced by Lp-THAE of rabbit VX2 liver implanted tumor. Methods: 27 New Zealand white rabbits implanted with VX2 tumor at left middle lobe of the liver divided into three groups: Group A(n= 9) Lp-THAE: treated through transhepatic artery catheterization; Group B(n=9) THAI and Group C(n=9) as control. The rabbits were executed at second to fifth day after treatment. HE dye microscopy was taken for counting the typical apoptosis cells and calculating apoptosis index (ApI). FITC-AnnexinV/PI assay was used for measuring apoptosis by flow cytometry. Results: The ApI of tumor central area and marginal area were (17.769±2.417)%, (4.129±1.172)%, P<0.01. The percentages of tumor cell apoptosis and tumor cell necrosis were (16.483±1.404)%, (9.478±0.964)%, P<0.01 and (43.559±5.053)%, (33.460±1.840)%, P=0.093. The total percentages of tumor cell apoptosis and necrosis were (60.042±13.979)%, (42.938±8.979)%, P< 0.01, at tumor center and marginal area in THAE group respectively. The ApI, percentages of tumor cell apoptosis and necrosis in THAE group were significantly higher than those of THAI group (P<0.01). The percentages of tumor cell apoptosis at tumor center area in THAE group were significantly higher than those of tumor marginal area(P<0.01). Conclusion: Induced tumor cell apoptosis and necrosis are two mechanisms of action for Lp-THAE treatment of liver carcinoma. (authors)

  1. Jordan-Schwinger map, 3D harmonic oscillator constants of motion, and classical and quantum parameters characterizing electromagnetic wave polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, R D; Xicotencatl, M A; Granados, V D

    2004-01-01

    In this work we introduce a generalization of the Jauch and Rohrlich quantum Stokes operators when the arrival direction from the source is unknown a priori. We define the generalized Stokes operators as the Jordan-Schwinger map of a triplet of harmonic oscillators with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices of the SU(3) symmetry group. We show that the elements of the Jordan-Schwinger map are the constants of motion of the three-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator. Also, we show that the generalized Stokes operators together with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices may be used to expand the polarization matrix. By taking the expectation value of the Stokes operators in a three-mode coherent state of the electromagnetic field, we obtain the corresponding generalized classical Stokes parameters. Finally, by means of the constants of motion of the classical 3D isotropic harmonic oscillator we describe the geometrical properties of the polarization ellipse

  2. Jordan Schwinger map, 3D harmonic oscillator constants of motion, and classical and quantum parameters characterizing electromagnetic wave polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, R. D.; Xicoténcatl, M. A.; Granados, V. D.

    2004-02-01

    In this work we introduce a generalization of the Jauch and Rohrlich quantum Stokes operators when the arrival direction from the source is unknown a priori. We define the generalized Stokes operators as the Jordan-Schwinger map of a triplet of harmonic oscillators with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices of the SU(3) symmetry group. We show that the elements of the Jordan-Schwinger map are the constants of motion of the three-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator. Also, we show that the generalized Stokes operators together with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices may be used to expand the polarization matrix. By taking the expectation value of the Stokes operators in a three-mode coherent state of the electromagnetic field, we obtain the corresponding generalized classical Stokes parameters. Finally, by means of the constants of motion of the classical 3D isotropic harmonic oscillator we describe the geometrical properties of the polarization ellipse.

  3. Jordan-Schwinger map, 3D harmonic oscillator constants of motion, and classical and quantum parameters characterizing electromagnetic wave polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, R D [Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de IngenierIa y TecnologIas Avanzadas, IPN. Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2580, Col. La Laguna Ticoman, 07340 Mexico DF (Mexico); Xicotencatl, M A [Departamento de Matematicas del Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Mexico DF, 07000 (Mexico); Granados, V D [Escuela Superior de FIsica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Ed. 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, 07738 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2004-02-20

    In this work we introduce a generalization of the Jauch and Rohrlich quantum Stokes operators when the arrival direction from the source is unknown a priori. We define the generalized Stokes operators as the Jordan-Schwinger map of a triplet of harmonic oscillators with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices of the SU(3) symmetry group. We show that the elements of the Jordan-Schwinger map are the constants of motion of the three-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator. Also, we show that the generalized Stokes operators together with the Gell-Mann and Ne'eman matrices may be used to expand the polarization matrix. By taking the expectation value of the Stokes operators in a three-mode coherent state of the electromagnetic field, we obtain the corresponding generalized classical Stokes parameters. Finally, by means of the constants of motion of the classical 3D isotropic harmonic oscillator we describe the geometrical properties of the polarization ellipse.

  4. Targeted hyperthermia after selective embolization with ferromagnetic nanoparticles in a VX2 rabbit liver tumor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun HL

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hongliang Sun,1 Linfeng Xu,1 Tianyuan Fan,2 Hongzhi Zhan,3 Xiaodong Wang,3 Yanfei Zhou,2 Ren-jie Yang3 1Department of Interventional Therapy, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, 2Pharmacy School of Beijing University, Beijing, 3Department of Interventional Therapy, Peking University School of Oncology, Beijing Cancer Hospital and Institute, Beijing, People's Republic of China Background: The purpose of this study was to observe the effect and feasibility of hyperthermia and the influence of heat on surrounding organs in a VX2 rabbit liver model exposed to an alternating magnetic field after embolization with ferromagnetic nanoparticles. Methods: Forty rabbits containing implanted hepatic VX2 carcinomas were divided into four groups, each containing ten rabbits. Fourteen days after tumor transplantation, we opened the abdomen to observe the size and shape of the tumor. A transfemoral retrograde approach was then used for hepatic arterial catheterization in groups B, C, and D to perform angiography and embolization. The next day, three rabbits in group B and all rabbits in group D were exposed to an alternating magnetic field, and the temperature was recorded simultaneously in the center of the tumor, at the edge of the tumor, and in the normal liver parenchyma. On day 28, all animals was euthanized to observe changes in the implanted liver tumor and the condition of the abdomen. A pathologic examination was also done. Results: Before surgery, there was no significant difference in tumor volume between the four groups. Three different temperature points (center of the tumor, edge of the tumor, and in the normal liver parenchyma of group B under an alternating magnetic field were 37.2°C ± 1.1°C, 36.8°C ± 1.2°C, and 36.9°C ± 2.1°C, none of which were significantly different from pretreatment values. Three points basal temperature in group D showed no significant difference (F = 1.038, P = 0.413. Seven to 26

  5. Periodic motions and grazing in a harmonically forced, piecewise, linear oscillator with impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Albert C.J.; Chen Lidi

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, an idealized, piecewise linear system is presented to model the vibration of gear transmission systems. Periodic motions in a generalized, piecewise linear oscillator with perfectly plastic impacts are predicted analytically. The analytical predictions of periodic motion are based on the mapping structures, and the generic mappings based on the discontinuous boundaries are developed. This method for the analytical prediction of the periodic motions in non-smooth dynamic systems can give all possible periodic motions based on the adequate mapping structures. The stability and bifurcation conditions for specified periodic motions are obtained. The periodic motions and grazing motion are demonstrated. This model is applicable to prediction of periodic motion in nonlinear dynamics of gear transmission systems

  6. Hepatic VX2 tumor after portal vein occlusion in rabbits: evaluation with DSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Yueyong; Zou Liguang; Dai Shuhua; Zhang Qichuan; Chen Lin; Huang Xiaobing; Huan Guangqiang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the value of DSA for hepatic vascular anatomy, and to evaluate the efficacy of portal vein occlusion in rabbits with hepatic VX2 tumor. Methods: Twenty New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups with 10 in each group, including test group A and positive control group B of ham operation. For the test group A, portal branch ligation (PBL) was performed for the left external branch after 3 weeks of the tumor implantation to the left external lobe. Two weeks later, the DSA of hepatic artery and portal vein were performed in all of the rabbits. Results: The total displaying effectiveness of the branches of hepatic artery by DSA was better than that by vascular perfusion. There was hypovascular blood supply to hepatic artery implantation of the tumor in the test group A, comparing with that of the group B. Conclusion: DSA can clearly display special details of the hepatic vascular anatomy in rabbits, and play an important role in post-procedural evaluation of the portal vein occlusion in rabbits. (authors)

  7. Effects of Arsenic Trioxide on Radiofrequency Ablation of VX2 Liver Tumor: Intraarterial versus Intravenous Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Nak Jong; Yoon, Chang Jin; Kang, Sung Gwon; Chung, Jin Wook; Kim, Hyo Cheol; Park, Jae Hyung

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As 2 O 3 ) can be used as a possible pharmaceutical alternative that augments radiofrequency (RF) ablation by reducing tumor blood flow. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of intraarterial and intravenous administration of As 2 O 3 on RF-induced ablation in an experimentally induced liver tumor. VX2 carcinoma was grown in the livers of 30 rabbits. As 2 O 3 (1 mg/kg) was administered through the hepatic artery (n = 10, group A) or ear vein (n = 10, group B), 30 minutes before RF ablation (125 mA ± 35; 90 ± 5 degrees Celsius). As a control group, 10 rabbits were treated with RF ablation alone (group C). RF was intentionally applied to the peripheral margin of the tumor so that ablation can cover the tumor and adjacent hepatic parenchyma. Ablation areas of the tumor and adjacent parenchymal changes among three groups were compared by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test. The overall ablation areas were 156 ± 28.9 mm 2 (group A), 119 ± 31.7 (group B), and 92 ± 17.4 (group C, p 2 ) than both group B (50 ± 19.4, p = 0.02) and group C (28 ± 2.2, p 2 O 3 . The intraarterial administration of As 2 O 3 seems to be helpful for the selective ablation of the tumor.

  8. Experimental study of chemical embolus therapy combined with radiotherapy for VX2 bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Kazuo; Ishii, Yoshiaki

    2000-01-01

    We conducted an experimental study, using a combination of coarse crystal cisplatin and radiotherapy for bone tumors, to evaluate the possibility of the clinical application of chemical embolus therapy in the field of orthopedic surgery. Experimental femoral bone tumors were produced, in rabbits, using VX2 carcinoma. The rabbits were allocated to five groups: untreated control, embolus, chemical embolus, irradiation alone, and chemical embolus and irradiation combination. These therapies were evaluated comparatively, in terms of local antitumor effects (including body weight, X-ray findings, angiography, and histopathology) and in terms of inhibition of pulmonary metastasis. Local antitumor effects, as evaluated by all parameters, except for body weight, were significantly greater for the chemical and irradiation combination group than for the chemical embolus, irradiation alone, untreated control, and embolus groups. There was no significant difference in the inhibition of pulmonary metastasis among the chemical embolus and irradiation combination, chemical embolus, and irradiation alone groups. These findings demonstrated the synergistic effect of the combination of chemical embolus therapy and radiotherapy. In this study, however, no significant difference was found between the chemical embolus therapy alone and the combination therapy groups in the inhibitory effect on pulmonary tumor metastasis, suggesting the need to conduct combination therapy repeatedly in the clinical setting. (author)

  9. Effect of hyperthermia on blood flow in VX2 tumor transplanted in rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arita, Takeshi

    1994-01-01

    Effect of hyperthermia on blood flow was evaluated using VX 2 rabbit carcinoma in both legs. Microwave energy at 2450 MHz was used to heat tumors for 40 minutes. An outer canula of 18 G Erasta was implanted in the depth of 2 cm in tumor to measure the temperature and to maintain at 43.0degC-44.0degC. The blood flow in tumors was evaluated by color doppler flow imaging and dynamic MRI. Disturbance of blood flow in the depth of surface 0 cm to 2 cm in tumors was showed at 10 minutes starting 43.0degC heating and at almost all sites disappearance of blood flow was showed at 40 minutes using color doppler flow imaging. But the blood flow beyond the depth of 2 cm was not so disturbed at 40 minutes, relatively. After hyperthermia T1WI and T2WI in heated tumor were no difference comparing with those in control tumor, but heated tumor showed no enhancement using dynamic MRI with TURBO-FLASH technique and post-enhanced T1WI. Histologically, there was extensive tumor necrosis and thrombus formation in heated tumor after 3 days and 1 week. Therefore color doppler flow imaging and dynamic MRI were considered to be useful for evaluation of blood flow in tumor after and during hyperthermia. (author)

  10. Intratumoral vascularity of experimentally induced VX2 carcinoma : comparison of power doppler sonography and microangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kil Sun; Won, Hyung Jin; Seo, Joon Beom; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness and limitations of power Doppler sonography in determining the tumor vascularity Power Doppler sonography was performed on VX2 carcinomas present in rabbit thighs, and the findings were compared with those of microangiography in an almost identical plane. Tumor vascularity was qualitatively analysed on the basis of tumor vessel distribution and density, and the presence of thick and thin vesels;for a comparison of tumor vascularity as seen on microangiography, tumor blood flow signals shown by power Doppler sonography were graded 3, 2, 1, 0. For quantitative analysis, a comparison was made of the percentage of tumor area occupied by vessels, as shown in each study. Data analysis utilized the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Spearman correlation test. Mean tumor vascularity scores, as seen on power Doppler sonography and relating to tumor vessel distribution and density, and the presence of thick and thin vessels, were 2.87, 2.73, 2.93 and 2.73, respectively. The means and medians of the percentages of tumor area occupied by vessels were 22.7% and 23.5% and 36.4% and 34.7% on microangiography and power Doppler sonography, respectively. Thus, there was good correlation between these two modes. Power doppler sonography could demonstrate the tumor vascularity on microangiography relatively well but tend to overestimate it

  11. Chaotic motion of a harmonically bound charged particle in a magnetic field, in the presence of a half-plane barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, Bernardus J.; Wiegel, F.W.; Creswick, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    The motion in the plane of an harmonically bound charged particle interacting with a magnetic field and a half-plane barrier along the positive x-axis is studied. The magnetic field is perpendicular to the plane in which the particle moves. This motion is integrable in between collisions of the

  12. Comparing CT perfusion with oxygen partial pressure in a rabbit VX2 soft-tissue tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chang-Jin; Li, Chao; Lv, Hai-Bo; Zhao, Cong; Yu, Jin-Ming; Wang, Guang-Hui; Luo, Yun-Xiu; Li, Yan; Xiao, Mingyong; Yin, Jun; Lang, Jin-Yi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxygen partial pressure of the rabbit model of the VX2 tumor using a 64-slice perfusion CT and to compare the results with that obtained using the oxygen microelectrode method. Perfusion CT was performed for 45 successfully constructed rabbit models of a VX2 brain tumor. The perfusion values of the brain tumor region of interest, the blood volume (BV), the time to peak (TTP) and the peak enhancement intensity (PEI) were measured. The results were compared with the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) of that region of interest obtained using the oxygen microelectrode method. The perfusion values of the brain tumor region of interest in 45 successfully constructed rabbit models of a VX2 brain tumor ranged from 1.3-127.0 (average, 21.1 ± 26.7 ml/min/ml); BV ranged from 1.2-53.5 ml/100g (average, 22.2 ± 13.7 ml/100g); PEI ranged from 8.7-124.6 HU (average, 43.5 ± 28.7 HU); and TTP ranged from 8.2-62.3 s (average, 38.8 ± 14.8 s). The PO2 in the corresponding region ranged from 0.14-47 mmHg (average, 16 ± 14.8 mmHg). The perfusion CT positively correlated with the tumor PO2, which can be used for evaluating the tumor hypoxia in clinical practice.

  13. Brachytherapy Using Elastin-Like Polypeptides with (131)I Inhibit Tumor Growth in Rabbits with VX2 Liver Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinpei; Shen, Yiming; Zhang, Xuqian; Lin, Rui; Jia, Qiang; Chang, Yixiang; Liu, Wenge; Liu, Wentian

    2016-10-01

    Brachytherapy is a targeted type of radiotherapy utilized in the treatment of cancers. Elastin-like polypeptides are a unique class of genetically engineered peptide polymers that have several attractive properties for brachytherapy. To explore the feasibility and application of brachytherapy for VX2 liver tumor using elastin-like polypeptides with (131)I so as to provide reliable experimental evidence for a new promising treatment of liver cancer. Elastin-like polypeptide as carrier was labeled with (131)I using the iodogen method. Ten eligible rabbits with VX2 liver tumor were randomly divided into the treatment group (n = 5) and control group (n = 5). The treatment group received brachytherapy using elastin-like polypeptide with (131)I, and in the control group, elastin-like polypeptide was injected into the VX2 liver tumor as a control. Periodic biochemical and imaging surveillances were required to assess treatment efficacy. The stability of elastin-like polypeptide with (131)I in vitro was maintained at over 96.8 % for 96 h. Biochemistry and imaging indicated brachytherapy using elastin-like polypeptide with (131)I for liver tumor can improve liver function and inhibit tumor growth (P Elastin-like polypeptide can be an ideal carrier of (131)I and have high labeling efficiency, radiochemical purity and stability. Brachytherapy using elastin-like polypeptide with (131)I for liver tumor is a useful therapy that possesses high antitumor efficacy advantages.

  14. Quantitative MRI assessment of VX2 tumour oxygenation changes in response to hyperoxia and hypercapnia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, Jeff D; Cheng, Hai-Ling Margaret [Research Institute and Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto M5G 1X8 (Canada); Akens, Margarete K, E-mail: Hai-Ling.Cheng@sickkids.ca [Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Orthopaedic Biomechanics Laboratory, Sunnybrook Health Science, Toronto M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2011-03-07

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) relaxation times provide indirect estimates of tissue O{sub 2} for monitoring tumour oxygenation. This study provides insight into mechanisms underlying longitudinal (R{sub 1} = 1/T{sub 1}) and transverse effective (R{sub 2}* = 1/T{sub 2}*) relaxation rate changes during inhalation of 100% O{sub 2} and 3%, 6% and 9% CO{sub 2} (balanced O{sub 2}) in a rabbit tumour model. Quantitative R{sub 1}, R{sub 2}*, and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging was performed in six rabbits 12-23 days following implantation of VX2 carcinoma cells in the quadricep muscle. Invasive measurements of tissue partial pressure of O{sub 2} (pO{sub 2}) and perfusion were also performed, which revealed elevated pO{sub 2} levels in all tumour regions for all hyperoxic gases compared to baseline (air) and reduced perfusion for carbogen. During 100% O{sub 2} breathing, an R{sub 1} increase and R{sub 2}* decrease consistent with elevated pO{sub 2} were observed within tumours. DCE-derived blood flow was weakly correlated with R{sub 1} changes from air to 100% O{sub 2}. Further addition of CO{sub 2} (carbogen) did not introduce considerable changes in MR relaxation rates, but a trend towards higher R{sub 1} relative to breathing 100% O{sub 2} was observed, while R{sub 2}* changes were inconsistent. This observation supports the predominance of dissolved O{sub 2} on R{sub 1} sensitivity and demonstrates the value of R{sub 1} over R{sub 2}* for tissue oxygenation measures.

  15. Comparative studies on the effect of radiation-sensitizing agents used in radiating VX2 Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migita, Hidenobu

    1975-01-01

    The effects of 5-Fu and BUdR as radiation-sensitizing agents macroscopically were investigated in 122 VX2 Carcinomas transplanted into the calves of the hind legs of rabbits. Experimental groups and contrast groups are divided into six as follows: A: No treatment, B: 5-Fu infusion, C: BUdR+Antimetabolite infusion, D: Radiation, E: 5-Fu infusion and radiation, and F: BUdR+Antimetabolite infusion and radiation. The amount of agent given to each was 5 mg/kg/day of 5-Fu and 50 mg/kg/day of BUdR, and the amount of radiation was 300 rad/day. 5-Fu was used as the Antimetabolite, and its amount was one-tenth of that in the 5-Fu Infusion Group. The agent and the radiation were given for five days. 1. In the 300 rad/day Group, the radiation was not enough to result in a complete cure. 2. In the two Agent Infusion Group, 5-Fu and BUdR+Antimetabolite proved to be anti-cancer, but neither of them resulted in effective treatment. 3. The 5-Fu Infusion and Radiation Group, showed a strong degenerative change in the tumor cell and a radiosensitive effect from 5-Fu, but the tumor was not lessened. 4. In the BUdR-Antimetabolite Infusion and Radiation Group, the tumor began to reduce on the third day. On the seventh and fourteenth days, necrosis of the greater part of tumor was seen, and the rest of the tumor cells were found to be in degenerative change. On the twenty first day, no live tumor cell was found, only dead remains of tumor cells. The results were confirmed both macroscopically and histopathologically. 5. BUdR can be expected to be effective in clinical application to oral malignant tumors. (Evans, J.)

  16. Bioevaluation study of {sup 32}P-CP-PLLA particle brachytherapy in a rabbit VX2 lung tumor model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yuping [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Ministry of Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine, 20 Qianrong Road, Wuxi 214063 (China); Yang Min, E-mail: ymzfk@yahoo.com.hk [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Ministry of Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine, 20 Qianrong Road, Wuxi 214063 (China); Pan Donghui; Wang Lizhen [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Ministry of Health, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Jiangsu Institute of Nuclear Medicine, 20 Qianrong Road, Wuxi 214063 (China); Liu Lu; Huang Peilin [Nuclear Medicine Institute of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Shao Guoqiang [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nanjing First Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing University, Nanjing 210006 (China)

    2012-04-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapy effects of intratumoral administration of {sup 32}P-CP-PLLA particles in a rabbit VX2 lung tumor model. Methods: 16 rabbits with tumors were randomly divided into 4 groups. 4 rabbits served as untreated controls, and others received intratumoral administration of {sup 32}P-CP-PLLA particles with CT guidance. The total radioactivities in treated groups were as follows: a low activity was 93 MBq (n=4) (group 1), a medium activity was 185 MBq (n=4) (group 2) and a high activity was 370 MBq (n=4) (group 3). Brachytherapy treated VX2 tumors underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT at 0 day, 3 day, 7 day and 14 day postinjection. In control group, {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT images were acquired at the same time points but without any treatment. Bremsstrahlung SPECT images were performed at 14 days after intratumoral brachytherapy in treated groups. After Bremsstrahlung SPECT and last {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imagings, the rabbits were euthanized and the tumors were removed for histological examination. Results: Bremsstrahlung SPECT images study indicated that there was no leakage of {sup 32}P out of the injection site at 14 days after treatment. Compared with the control, the tumor volumes in treated groups significantly decreased, and {sup 32}P-CP-PLLA particle produced a reduction in maximum or mean SUV of VX2 tumor (p<0.05). The percentage changes in maximum and mean SUV gradually decreased in group 1 and group 2 from day 3 to day 14 (p<0.05). A transient increase in {sup 18}F-FDG accumulation at group 3 occurred due to the inflammatory reaction elements. Activity dependence was seen in HE and PCNA staining after 14 days treatment among three treated groups (p<0.05). Conclusions: Our data suggested that {sup 32}P-CP-PLLA particle localized on the injecting sites. This novel brachytherapy device efficiently suppressed the growth of the VX2 tumors implanted in the rabbit. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 32

  17. Tumor hepático experimental (VX-2 em coelho: implantação do modelo no Brasil Experimental liver tumor (VX-2 in rabbits: implantation of the model in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Saad Hossne

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos para a investigação de novas modalidades terapêuticas em biologia tumoral, deveriam passar por estudos experimentais prévios. Neste sentido dispõem-se hoje de uma grande variedade de modelos tumorais experimentais; em determinadas investigações faz-se necessária a adequação do modelo tumoral às necessidades biológicas, patológicas e experimentais dos estudos. Desta forma, em nosso serviço, buscávamos um modelo tumoral hepático para estudos experimentais que se adequasse às seguintes características: fácil manipulação, crescimento controlável, evolução e agressividade semelhantes aos seres humanos. Os dados da literatura nos levaram a busca do tumor hepático VX-2, em coelhos. Neste artigo discutimos as vantagens da utilização deste modelo experimental e a sua introdução em nosso país.Studies for investigation of new therapeutic modalities in tumoral biology should be based on previous experimental studies. Then, there are a great variety of tumoral experimental models today. Some investigations have been done necessary an adaptation of the tumoral model to the needing of the studies biological and pathological. So, in our laboratory, we looked for a tumoral hepatic model for experimental studies with the following characteristics: easy manipulation, control of growing, evolution and aggressiveness like to humans. Data of the literature took us the search of the hepatic tumor VX-2, in rabbits. In this article we discussed the advantages of use this experimental model and its introduction in our country. Experimental hepatic tumor (VX-2 in rabbit. Implantation of the model in Brazil.

  18. Effects of Arsenic Trioxide on Radiofrequency Ablation of VX2 Liver Tumor: Intraarterial versus Intravenous Administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Nak Jong; Yoon, Chang Jin; Kang, Sung Gwon [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Wook; Kim, Hyo Cheol; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Arsenic trioxide (As{sub 2}O{sub 3}) can be used as a possible pharmaceutical alternative that augments radiofrequency (RF) ablation by reducing tumor blood flow. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of intraarterial and intravenous administration of As{sub 2}O{sub 3} on RF-induced ablation in an experimentally induced liver tumor. VX2 carcinoma was grown in the livers of 30 rabbits. As{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1 mg/kg) was administered through the hepatic artery (n = 10, group A) or ear vein (n = 10, group B), 30 minutes before RF ablation (125 mA {+-} 35; 90 {+-} 5 degrees Celsius). As a control group, 10 rabbits were treated with RF ablation alone (group C). RF was intentionally applied to the peripheral margin of the tumor so that ablation can cover the tumor and adjacent hepatic parenchyma. Ablation areas of the tumor and adjacent parenchymal changes among three groups were compared by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test. The overall ablation areas were 156 {+-} 28.9 mm{sup 2} (group A), 119 {+-} 31.7 (group B), and 92 {+-} 17.4 (group C, p < 0.04). The ablation area of the tumor was significantly larger in group A (73 {+-} 19.7 mm{sup 2}) than both group B (50 {+-} 19.4, p = 0.02) and group C (28 {+-} 2.2, p < 0.01). The ratios of the tumoral ablation area to the overall ablation area were larger in group A (47 {+-} 10.5%) than that of the other groups (42 {+-} 7.3% in group B and 32 {+-} 5.6% in group C) (p < 0.03). Radiofrequency-induced ablation area can be increased with intraarterial or intravenous administration of As{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The intraarterial administration of As{sub 2}O{sub 3} seems to be helpful for the selective ablation of the tumor.

  19. Superconducting microwave cavity parametric converter transducer sensitive to 10-19 M harmonic motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reece, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    Toward the development of a transducer suitable for the detection of high frequency gravitational effects, a superconducting microwave coupled-cavity parametric converter transducer has been analyzed, developed and tested. An analysis is presented of the intermodal parametric conversion which is produced by harmonic perturbaton of the length of a 10 GHz TE 011 mode cylindrical resonant cavity. The converter is examined as a transducer of displacement with harmonic frequency near the intermodal difference frequency. Transducer sensitivity dependence upon cavity tunings, couplings, and Q-factors is analyzed and experimentally tested with excellent agreement. The transducer consists of two identical coupled TE 011 niobium cavities with one endwall driven into mechanical oscillation by an externally mounted piezoelectric ceramic. A displacement with effective amplitude (3.7 +/- 1.3) x 10 -19 m and frequency 1.13 MHz has been observed by detecting a 10GHz conversion power of 10 -21 watts. This measurement was obtained with 0.12 mJ stored in a cavity resonance with an unloaded Q-factor of 6.7 x 10 8 at 1.55 0 K. The applications of this device in the detection of high frequency gravitational effects are also discussed. Finally, the prospects for improvement of transducer sensitivity and the ultimate limitations are presented

  20. Effect of interventional treatment with p53 on the invasion and metastasis of VX2 liver tumor in experimental rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Caixia; Feng Yan; Gu Tao; Li Chunmei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of interventional treatment with p53 on the invasion and metastasis of VX2 liver tumor in experimental rabbits. Methods: VX2 carcinoma cells were surgically implanted into the left hepatic lobe in 48 New Zealand white rabbits, and the rabbit hepatic carcinoma models were thus established. The rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups with 12 rabbits in each group. After hepatic arterial catheterization was completed physiological saline (control group), Lipiodol (Group A), Ad-p53 (Group B) and Lipiodol+Ad-p53 (Group C) were respectively infused into the rabbits of four groups via common hepatic artery. One week after the procedure the rabbits were sacrificed and the livers were removed for the determination of matrix metalloprotein-2 (MMP-2), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) of the tumor with immunohistochemistry technique. Results: The tumor growth in study groups (group A, B and C) was markedly suppressed, which was significantly different in comparison with that in control group (P 0.05). The positive rates of MMP-2, PCNA and VEGF in group B and C were significantly lower than those in control group (P < 0.05). The positive rates of MMP-2, PCNA and VEGF of the rabbits with metastasis were markedly higher than those without metastasis(P < 0.05). MMP-2 bore a certain relationship with VEGF and PCNA (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The increase of the positive rates of MMP-2, PCNA and VEGF indicates that the tumor possesses higher possibility for developing metastasis, proliferation and vascular formation. The interventional treatment with Adp53 or Lipiodol+Ad-p53 can inhibit the growth, metastasis and vascular formation of VX2 liver tumor in experimental rabbits. (J Intervent Radiol, 2010, 19 : 800-804) (authors)

  1. Changes in Hepatic Blood Flow During Transcatheter Arterial Infusion with Heated Saline in Hepatic VX2 Tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Wei; Li Jing; Wu Zhiqun; Zhou Changxi; Liu Xi; Wan Yi; Duan Yunyou

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. This study evaluates the influence of transcatheter arterial infusion with heated saline on hepatic arterial and portal venous blood flows to tumor and normal hepatic tissues in a rabbit VX2 tumor model. Methods. All animal experiments were approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. Twenty rabbits with VX2 liver tumors were divided into the following two groups: (a) the treated group (n = 10), which received a 60 mL transarterial injection of 60 °C saline via the hepatic artery; (b) the control group (n = 10), which received a 60 mL injection of 37 °C saline via the hepatic artery. Using ultrasonography, the blood flows in both the portal vein and hepatic artery were measured, and the changes in the hemodynamic indices were recorded before and immediately after the injection. The changes in the tumor and normal liver tissues of the two groups were histopathologically examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining after the injection. Results. After the transcatheter arterial heated infusion, there was a decrease in the hepatic arterial blood flow to the tumor tissue, a significant decrease in the hepatic artery mean velocity (P < 0.05), and a significant increase in the resistance index (P < 0.05). On hematoxylin and eosin staining, there were no obvious signs of tissue destruction in the normal liver tissue or the tumor tissue after heated perfusion, and coagulated blood plasma was observed in the cavities of intratumoral blood vessels in the treated group. Conclusions. The changes in tumor blood flow in the rabbit VX2 tumor model were presumably caused by microthrombi in the tumor vessels, and the portal vein likely mediated the heat loss in normal liver tissue during the transarterial heated infusion.

  2. Comparing CT perfusion with oxygen partial pressure in a rabbit VX2 soft-tissue tumor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Changjin; Li Chao; Lv Haibo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxygen partial pressure of the rabbit model of the VX2 tumor using a 64-slice perfusion CT and to compare the results with that obtained using the oxygen microelectrode method. Perfusion CT was performed for 45 successfully constructed rabbit models of a VX2 brain tumor. The perfusion values of the brain tumor region of interest, the blood volume (BV), the time to peak (TTP) and the peak enhancement intensity (PEI) were measured. The results were compared with the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) of that region of interest obtained using the oxygen microelectrode method. The perfusion values of the brain tumor region of interest in 45 successfully constructed rabbit models of a VX2 brain tumor ranged from 1.3–127.0 (average, 21.1 ± 26.7 ml/min/ml); BV ranged from 1.2–53.5 ml/100g (average, 22.2 ± 13.7 ml/100g); PEI ranged from 8.7–124.6 HU (average, 43.5 ± 28.7 HU); and TTP ranged from 8.2–62.3 s (average, 38.8 ± 14.8 s). The PO2 in the corresponding region ranged from 0.14–47 mmHg (average, 16 ± 14.8 mmHg). The perfusion CT positively correlated with the tumor PO2, which can be used for evaluating the tumor hypoxia in clinical practice. (author)

  3. Detection of hepatic VX2 carcinomas with ferucarbotran-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in rabbits: Comparison of nine pulse sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Hyun; Choi, Dongil; Lim, Hyo K.; Kim, Min Ju; Jang, Kyung Mi; Kim, Seung Hoon; Lee, Won Jae; Lee, Jongmee; Jeon, Yong Hwan; Lim, Jae Hoon

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare the diagnostic performance of a variety of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences, in order to identify the most effective ferucarbotran-enhanced sequence for the detection of multiple small hepatic VX2 carcinomas in rabbits. Methods: Fifteen rabbits with experimentally induced 135 VX2 carcinomas in the liver underwent ferucarbotran-enhanced MRI using the following nine pulse sequences: a fat-suppressed fast spin-echo (FSE) sequence with two echo times (TE) (proton density- and T2-weighted images), four different T2*-weighted fast multiplanar GRASS (gradient-recalled acquisition in the steady state) (FMPGR) with the combination of three TEs (9, 12, 15 ms, respectively) and two flip angles (20 deg., 80 deg., respectively), T2*-weighted fast multiplanar spoiled GRASS (FMPSPGR), T1-weighted FMPSPGR, and dynamic T1-weighted FMPSPGR. All images were reviewed by three radiologists with quantitative and qualitative analysis. Results: Tumor-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio of the proton density-weighted FSE sequence was significantly higher than those of the others (p o ) images were superior to those of the others and for the detection of very small hepatic tumors of less than 5 mm, the sensitivities of these sequences were less than 30%. Conclusion: Ferucarbotran-enhanced T2- and proton density-weighted FSE and T2*-weighed FMPGR (TE/flip angle, 12/20 o ) images were found to be the most effective pulse sequences for the detection of multiple small hepatic VX2 carcinomas but these sequences were limited in the detection of very small hepatic tumors of less than 5 mm in size

  4. Changes in Hepatic Blood Flow During Transcatheter Arterial Infusion with Heated Saline in Hepatic VX2 Tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Wei, E-mail: cawe-001@163.com [Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Interventional Radiology (China); Li Jing, E-mail: lijing02@fmmu.edu.cn [Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery (China); Wu Zhiqun, E-mail: zhiqunwu@fmmu.edu.cn [Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Interventional Radiology (China); Zhou Changxi, E-mail: changxizhou@163.com [Chinese PLA General Hospital, Department of Respiratory Disease (China); Liu Xi, E-mail: xiliu@fmmu.edu.cn [Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Ultrasound Diagnostics (China); Wan Yi, E-mail: yiwan@163.com [The Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Health Statistics, Institute for Health Informatics (China); Duan Yunyou, E-mail: yunyouduan@fmmu.edu.cn [Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Department of Ultrasound Diagnostics (China)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. This study evaluates the influence of transcatheter arterial infusion with heated saline on hepatic arterial and portal venous blood flows to tumor and normal hepatic tissues in a rabbit VX2 tumor model. Methods. All animal experiments were approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. Twenty rabbits with VX2 liver tumors were divided into the following two groups: (a) the treated group (n = 10), which received a 60 mL transarterial injection of 60 Degree-Sign C saline via the hepatic artery; (b) the control group (n = 10), which received a 60 mL injection of 37 Degree-Sign C saline via the hepatic artery. Using ultrasonography, the blood flows in both the portal vein and hepatic artery were measured, and the changes in the hemodynamic indices were recorded before and immediately after the injection. The changes in the tumor and normal liver tissues of the two groups were histopathologically examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining after the injection. Results. After the transcatheter arterial heated infusion, there was a decrease in the hepatic arterial blood flow to the tumor tissue, a significant decrease in the hepatic artery mean velocity (P < 0.05), and a significant increase in the resistance index (P < 0.05). On hematoxylin and eosin staining, there were no obvious signs of tissue destruction in the normal liver tissue or the tumor tissue after heated perfusion, and coagulated blood plasma was observed in the cavities of intratumoral blood vessels in the treated group. Conclusions. The changes in tumor blood flow in the rabbit VX2 tumor model were presumably caused by microthrombi in the tumor vessels, and the portal vein likely mediated the heat loss in normal liver tissue during the transarterial heated infusion.

  5. Quantitative dual energy CT measurements in rabbit VX2 liver tumors: Comparison to perfusion CT measurements and histopathological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Long Jiang; Wu, Shengyong; Wang, Mei; Lu, Li; Chen, Bo; Jin, Lixin; Wang, Jiandong; Larson, Andrew C.; Lu, Guang Ming

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between quantitative dual energy CT and perfusion CT measurements in rabbit VX2 liver tumors. Materials and methods: This study was approved by the institutional animal care and use committee at our institution. Nine rabbits with VX2 liver tumors underwent contrast-enhanced dual energy CT and perfusion CT. CT attenuation for the tumors and normal liver parenchyma and tumor-to-liver ratio were obtained at the 140 kVp, 80 kVp, average weighted images and dual energy CT iodine maps. Quantitative parameters for the viable tumor and adjacent liver were measured with perfusion CT. The correlation between the enhancement values of the tumor in iodine maps and perfusion CT parameters of each tumor was analyzed. Radiation dose from dual energy CT and perfusion CT was measured. Results: Enhancement values for the tumor were higher than that for normal liver parenchyma at the hepatic arterial phase (P < 0.05). The highest tumor-to-liver ratio was obtained in hepatic arterial phase iodine map. Hepatic blood flow of the tumor was higher than that for adjacent liver (P < 0.05). Enhancement values of hepatic tumors in the iodine maps positively correlated with permeability of capillary vessel surface (r = 0.913, P < 0.001), hepatic blood flow (r = 0.512, P = 0.010), and hepatic blood volume (r = 0.464, P = 0.022) at the hepatic arterial phases. The effective radiation dose from perfusion CT was higher than that from DECT (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The enhancement values for viable tumor tissues measured in iodine maps were well correlated to perfusion CT measurements in rabbit VX2 liver tumors. Compared with perfusion CT, dual energy CT of the liver required a lower radiation dose.

  6. Gadolinium-DTPA enhancement of VX-2 carcinoma of the rabbit kidney on Tl weighted magnetic resonance images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yancey, J.M.; Ackerman, N.; Kaude, J.V.; Googe, R.E.; Fitzsimmons, J.R.; Scott, K.N.; Mancuso, A.A.; Hackett, R.L.; Hager, D.A.; Caballero, S.; Florida Univ., Gainesville

    1987-01-01

    Experimental renal carcinoma was induced by percutaneous injection of VX-2 carcinoma cells into the left kidney in New Zealand white rabbits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at 0.15 T before and after intravenous injection of 0.3 mmol gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) per kg body weight. Gd-DTPA enhanced the tumors by increasing the signal intensity on T1 weighted images. The enhancement was evident immediately after Gd-DTPA injection, increasing during the observation time of 30 minutes. Histologically the areas of enhancement corresponded well to the viable tumor tissue. (orig.)

  7. Equations of motion according to the asymptotic post-Newtonian scheme for general relativity in the harmonic gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arminjon, Mayeul

    2005-10-01

    The asymptotic scheme of post-Newtonian approximation defined for general relativity in the harmonic gauge by Futamase & Schutz (1983) is based on a family of initial data for the matter fields of a perfect fluid and for the initial metric, defining a family of weakly self-gravitating systems. We show that Weinberg’s (1972) expansion of the metric and his general expansion of the energy-momentum tensor T, as well as his expanded equations for the gravitational field and his general form of the expanded dynamical equations, apply naturally to this family. Then, following the asymptotic scheme, we derive the explicit form of the expansion of T for a perfect fluid, and the expanded fluid-dynamical equations. (These differ from those written by Weinberg.) By integrating these equations in the domain occupied by a body, we obtain a general form of the translational equations of motion for a 1PN perfect-fluid system in general relativity. To put them into a tractable form, we use an asymptotic framework for the separation parameter η, by defining a family of well-separated 1PN systems. We calculate all terms in the equations of motion up to the order η3 included. To calculate the 1PN correction part, we assume that the Newtonian motion of each body is a rigid one, and that the family is quasispherical, in the sense that in all bodies the inertia tensor comes close to being spherical as η→0. Apart from corrections that cancel for exact spherical symmetry, there is in the final equations of motion one additional term, as compared with the Lorentz-Droste (Einstein-Infeld-Hoffmann) acceleration. This term depends on the spin of the body and on its internal structure.

  8. A quantal transport theory for nuclear collective motion: the merits of a locally harmonic approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, H.

    1997-01-01

    A transport theory is developed for collective motion of systems such as an atomic nucleus, which may be considered as a typical representative of a self-bound micro-system. Albeit for pragmatic reasons, collective variables are introduced as shape parameters, self-consistency with respect to the nucleonic degrees of freedom has been implemented at various important stages. This feature leads to subsidiary conditions which are obeyed locally for both the average motion as well as for the quantized Hamiltonian constructed through a Bohm-Pines procedure. Furthermore, self-consistency governs the definition of the transport coefficients appearing in the equations for collective motion. The latter is associated to the time evolution of the density in collective phase space, for which the concept of the Wigner function is employed. Global motion is described by propagating the system in successive time laps which are macroscopically small, but microscopically large. This enables one to exploit linearization procedures and to take advantage of the benefits of linear response theory. A microscopic damping mechanism is introduced by dressing the energies of the independent particle model by complex self-energies, the parameters of which are determined from optical model considerations. Numerical evaluations of transport coefficients are described and tested for the case of fission in the light of recent experimental findings. The theory allows one to extend both Kramers' picture of this process as well as his equation for the density distribution into the quantum regime. (orig.)

  9. Modeling and visualization of carrier motion in organic films by optical second harmonic generation and Maxwell-displacement current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Manaka, Takaaki; Taguchi, Dai

    2015-09-01

    The probing and modeling of carrier motions in materials as well as in electronic devices is a fundamental research subject in science and electronics. According to the Maxwell electromagnetic field theory, carriers are a source of electric field. Therefore, by probing the dielectric polarization caused by the electric field arising from moving carriers and dipoles, we can find a way to visualize the carrier motions in materials and in devices. The techniques used here are an electrical Maxwell-displacement current (MDC) measurement and a novel optical method based on the electric field induced optical second harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement. The MDC measurement probes changes of induced charge on electrodes, while the EFISHG probes nonlinear polarization induced in organic active layers due to the coupling of electron clouds of molecules and electro-magnetic waves of an incident laser beam in the presence of a DC field caused by electrons and holes. Both measurements allow us to probe dynamical carrier motions in solids through the detection of dielectric polarization phenomena originated from dipolar motions and electron transport. In this topical review, on the basis of Maxwell’s electro-magnetism theory of 1873, which stems from Faraday’s idea, the concept for probing electron and hole transport in solids by using the EFISHG is discussed in comparison with the conventional time of flight (TOF) measurement. We then visualize carrier transit in organic devices, i.e. organic field effect transistors, organic light emitting diodes, organic solar cells, and others. We also show that visualizing an EFISHG microscopic image is a novel way for characterizing anisotropic carrier transport in organic thin films. We also discuss the concept of the detection of rotational dipolar motions in monolayers by means of the MDC measurement, which is capable of probing the change of dielectric spontaneous polarization formed by dipoles in organic monolayers. Finally we

  10. Evaluation for intravenous, arterial and local infusion of a hypoxic cell radiosensitizer RK28 on rabbit VX2 tumor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramitsu, Tatsuya

    1993-01-01

    We evaluated the radiosensitizing effect of intraarterial, intravenous and local infusion of a hypoxic cell radiosensitizer RK28 on rabbit VX2 tumor system. Six rabbits were treated in each infusion group. VX2 tumor was implanted in the left hind leg. Tumor grown up to 3 cm in diameter was treated with 15 Gy of X-ray irradiation just after infusion of radiosensitizer RK28 (80 mg/kg.b.w.). Intratumoral and serum mean concentration of RK28 and its metabolites were measured. Tumor regression curve and survival time were analyzed. The following results were obtained. Mean concentration of RK28 was about 2.5 times greater in local infusion and 1.5 times in intraarterial infusion than in intravenous infusion. Significant regression of tumor was obtained in intraarterial infusion (p<0.01). There was no significant difference in survival time. These data suggest that the usefulness of intraarterial infusion of RK28 for local control using intraoperative radiation therapy and brachytherapy. (author)

  11. Semi-active Control of Shallow Cables with Magnetorheological Dampers under Harmonic Axial Support Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Q.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Qu, W.L.

    2007-01-01

    amplitude is located in a certain range for the case OE2o1/3, the original zero out-of-plane vibration of the cable should be changed to the stable in-plane and out-of-plane coupled oscillation by using the optimal passive viscous damper or the MR damper with the SA-1 rule. It is also observed...... to the first in-plane eigenmode of the cable. The numerical results show that the MR damper with the SA-1 rule and the optimal viscous damper perform similarly to mitigate the vibration of the cable under axial periodic support motion, and, in some cases, the SA-2 rule is more favourable in suppressing...... the cable vibration compared with the SA-1 rule. In the final analysis, both the MR damper and the viscous damper can effectively mitigate the out-of-plane component of the cable, while having little effect on the reduction of the in-plane response in most cases. Furthermore, when the support motion...

  12. Percutaneous radiofrequency thermal ablation of lung VX2 tumors in a rabbit model: evaluation with helical CT findings for the complete and partal ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Gong Yong; Han, Young Min; Lim, Yeong Su; Jang, Kyu Yun; Lee, Sang Yong; Chung, Gyung Ho [School of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-05-01

    To evaluate the radiologic findings for complete and partial ablation after percutaneous CT-guided transthoracic radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of lung VX2 tumor implanted in rabbits. Thirteen rabbits with successfully implanted lung VX2 were used. Three rabbits as controls did not receive RFA while the other ten rabbits underwent RFA; 5 complete and 5 partial. RFA was performed using an internally cooled, 17-gauge electrode (Radionics, Burlington, MA) with a 1-cm active tip under CT guidance. Postprocedural CT was performed within 3 days, and we analyzed the ablated size, enhancement pattern, shape, margin, and complications of the complete and partial ablation groups. Rabbits were sacrificed after postprocedural CT with an overdose of ketamine, and pathologic findings of the ablated groups were compared with those of the control group. The size of the ablated lesions and the enhancement pattern differed between the completely and partially ablated groups on chest CT. The size of the ablated lesions was increased by 47.1% in the completely ablated group and by 2.1% in the partially ablated group. In the completely ablated group, VX2 tumor showed absolutely no enhancement, whereas only ablated pulmonary parenchyma outside VX2 showed mild enhancement on enhanced CT. In the partial ablated group, a part of VX2 became strongly enhanced on enhanced CT. On microscopic examination, the completely ablated group demonstrated that a viable tumor cell was not visible. In the partially ablated group, however, a viable tumor cell within the surrounding fibrous capsule on the peripheral area of the VX2 was observed. The important CT findings for evaluation of complete and partial RFA are the ablated size and enhancement pattern of the ablated lesion.

  13. The establishment of implanted VX2 liver tumor model in rabbits and discussion on superselective left hepatic arterial catheterization with micro-catheter technique via femoral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xiongying; Luo Rongguang; Huang Jinhua; Miao Bijian; Wang Yan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To establish the implanted VX2 liver tumor model in rabbits and to discuss the feasibility and technical features of superselective left hepatic arterial catheterization by using micro-catheter through the femoral artery catheter sheath. Methods: Forty New Zealand white rabbits were inoculated with fragments of VX2 tumor into the medial left lobe of liver by using a 16G lumbar puncture needle through laparotomy route. Two weeks later, all the rabbits were proved to be successfully inoculated with liver neoplasm on CT scanning. Then, the catheter sheath was inserted into one of the femoral arteries, which was followed by celiac artery angiography and left hepatic artery catheterization with a micro-catheter under DSA guidance in order to evaluate the main branches of celiac artery and the imaging manifestations of VX2 liver tumor. After that, some scheduled interventional experiments were carried out. Results: Imaging examination and histopathologic study showed that the successful rate of implanted rabbit VX2 liver tumor was 100% (40/40). And the successful rate of the catheter sheath inserted to femoral artery was 97.5% (39/40). The successful rate of celiac artery, gastro-hepatic artery, common hepatic artery, proper hepatic artery and left hepatic artery catheterizations was 100% (39/39), 100% (39/39), 100% (39/39), 94.9% (37/39) and 71.2% (28/39) respectively. Conclusion: To implant tumor tissue mass through laparotomy is a stable and reliable method to establish rabbit VX2 liver tumor model. The insertion of micro-catheter through rabbit femoral catheter sheath approach is a convenient and simple technique to be carried out for the left hepatic artery catheterization and it can efficiently solve the technical difficulties when performing the interventional treatment of the rabbit VX2 hepatic tumor via left hepatic artery approach. (authors)

  14. Heated lipiodol as an embolization agent for transhepatic arterial embolization in VX2 rabbit liver cancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Wei; Wan Yi; Liang Zhihui; Duan Yunyou; Liu Xi; Wang Zhimin; Liu Yiyong; Zhu Jia; Liu Xiongtao; Zhang Hongxin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of heated (60 deg. C) lipiodol via hepatic artery administration in a rabbit model of VX2 liver cancer. Materials and methods: Thirty male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups with 10 rabbits assigned to each group. VX2 carcinoma cells were surgically implanted into the left hepatic lobe. The tumors were allowed to grow for 2 weeks, and studies were performed until the diameter of the tumors detected by ultrasonograph reached 2-3 cm. Under anesthesia, trans-catheter hepatic arterial embolization was performed and doxorubicin-lipiodol (37 deg. C) (1 mL), lipiodol (60 deg. C) (1 mL) or control (physiological saline (37 deg. C) (1 mL)) solution was injected into the hepatic arteries of animals in the three groups. One week later, the volume of the tumor was measured by ultrasonograph again. The serum of all rabbits was collected before injection and at 4 and 7 days after injection, and the level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was checked. The survival period of the three groups of rabbits after treatment was also recorded. During the last course of their disease, the rabbits were given analgesics to relieve suffering. Results: The tumor growth rate in the lipiodol (60 deg. C) group (0.92 ± 0.21, tumor volume from 1811 ± 435 to 1670 ± 564 mm 3 ) was significantly lower than that in the control group (3.48 ± 1.17, tumor volume from 1808 ± 756 to 5747 ± 1341 mm 3 ) (P 3 ) (P -1 ) and the doxorubicin-lipiodol (37 deg. C) group (139.7 ± 12.3 U L -1 ) (P > 0.05). However, the serum AST level in the lipiodol (60 deg. C) group was significantly higher at 4 days after injection (P -1 ). Conclusions: Treatment with lipiodol (60 deg. C) resulted in an effect on serum AST levels similar to that caused by treatment with doxorubicin-lipiodol (37 deg. C). Thus, lipiodol (60 deg. C) treatment could greatly prolong the survival period of rabbits with VX2 cancer by inhibiting tumor growth.

  15. Development of student performance assessment based on scientific approach for a basic physics practicum in simple harmonic motion materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serevina, V.; Muliyati, D.

    2018-05-01

    This research aims to develop students’ performance assessment instrument based on scientific approach is valid and reliable in assessing the performance of students on basic physics lab of Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM). This study uses the ADDIE consisting of stages: Analyze, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation. The student performance assessment developed can be used to measure students’ skills in observing, asking, conducting experiments, associating and communicate experimental results that are the ‘5M’ stages in a scientific approach. Each grain of assessment in the instrument is validated by the instrument expert and the evaluation with the result of all points of assessment shall be eligible to be used with a 100% eligibility percentage. The instrument is then tested for the quality of construction, material, and language by panel (lecturer) with the result: 85% or very good instrument construction aspect, material aspect 87.5% or very good, and language aspect 83% or very good. For small group trial obtained instrument reliability level of 0.878 or is in the high category, where r-table is 0.707. For large group trial obtained instrument reliability level of 0.889 or is in the high category, where r-table is 0.320. Instruments declared valid and reliable for 5% significance level. Based on the result of this research, it can be concluded that the student performance appraisal instrument based on the developed scientific approach is declared valid and reliable to be used in assessing student skill in SHM experimental activity.

  16. TU-EF-210-03: Real-Time Ablation Monitoring and Lesion Quantification Using Harmonic Motion Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konofagou, E.

    2015-01-01

    The use of therapeutic ultrasound to provide targeted therapy is an active research area that has a broad application scope. The invited talks in this session will address currently implemented strategies and protocols for both hyperthermia and ablation applications using therapeutic ultrasound. The role of both ultrasound and MRI in the monitoring and assessment of these therapies will be explored in both pre-clinical and clinical applications. Katherine Ferrara: High Intensity Focused Ultrasound, Drug Delivery, and Immunotherapy Rajiv Chopra: Translating Localized Doxorubicin Delivery to Pediatric Oncology using MRI-guided HIFU Elisa Konofagou: Real-time Ablation Monitoring and Lesion Quantification using Harmonic Motion Imaging Keyvan Farahani: AAPM Task Groups in Interventional Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy Learning Objectives: Understand the role of ultrasound in localized drug delivery and the effects of immunotherapy when used in conjunction with ultrasound therapy. Understand potential targeted drug delivery clinical applications including pediatric oncology. Understand the technical requirements for performing targeted drug delivery. Understand how radiation-force approaches can be used to both monitor and assess high intensity focused ultrasound ablation therapy. Understand the role of AAPM task groups in ultrasound imaging and therapies. Chopra: Funding from Cancer Prevention and Research Initiative of Texas (CPRIT), Award R1308 Evelyn and M.R. Hudson Foundation; Research Support from Research Contract with Philips Healthcare; COI are Co-founder of FUS Instruments Inc Ferrara: Supported by NIH, UCDavis and California (CIRM and BHCE) Farahani: In-kind research support from Philips Healthcare

  17. TU-EF-210-03: Real-Time Ablation Monitoring and Lesion Quantification Using Harmonic Motion Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konofagou, E. [Columbia University (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The use of therapeutic ultrasound to provide targeted therapy is an active research area that has a broad application scope. The invited talks in this session will address currently implemented strategies and protocols for both hyperthermia and ablation applications using therapeutic ultrasound. The role of both ultrasound and MRI in the monitoring and assessment of these therapies will be explored in both pre-clinical and clinical applications. Katherine Ferrara: High Intensity Focused Ultrasound, Drug Delivery, and Immunotherapy Rajiv Chopra: Translating Localized Doxorubicin Delivery to Pediatric Oncology using MRI-guided HIFU Elisa Konofagou: Real-time Ablation Monitoring and Lesion Quantification using Harmonic Motion Imaging Keyvan Farahani: AAPM Task Groups in Interventional Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy Learning Objectives: Understand the role of ultrasound in localized drug delivery and the effects of immunotherapy when used in conjunction with ultrasound therapy. Understand potential targeted drug delivery clinical applications including pediatric oncology. Understand the technical requirements for performing targeted drug delivery. Understand how radiation-force approaches can be used to both monitor and assess high intensity focused ultrasound ablation therapy. Understand the role of AAPM task groups in ultrasound imaging and therapies. Chopra: Funding from Cancer Prevention and Research Initiative of Texas (CPRIT), Award R1308 Evelyn and M.R. Hudson Foundation; Research Support from Research Contract with Philips Healthcare; COI are Co-founder of FUS Instruments Inc Ferrara: Supported by NIH, UCDavis and California (CIRM and BHCE) Farahani: In-kind research support from Philips Healthcare.

  18. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging of hematogenous metastases of the VX2 tumor to the rabbit eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, J.A.; Girton, M.; Dwyer, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have developed a reproducible model of hematogenous spread of malignancy to the eye of the rabbit. VX2 tumor cells (10/sup 6/ cells) were infused into the internal carotid artery of 15 New Zealand white rabbits weighting 2.5-3.5 kg. Ocular metastases developed in more than 90% of animals within 3-11 days. MR images were obtained 6-12 days after tumor inoculation (Picker, 0.5 T, saddle-shaped surface coil, 15-cm FOV, 5-mm section thickness). Tl-weighted SE550/40 images obtained after administration of Gd-DPTA (0.1) mmol/kg, given intravenously) demonstrated enhancement of aqueous humor due to disruption of the blood-ocular barrier and delineated tumor within the choroid. Metastases were confirmed at autopsy. The findings suggest the potential use of gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging for detecting ocular metastases and monitoring their growth

  19. Comparative study of rabbit VX2 hepatic implantation tumor and normal liver tissue on magnetic resonance perfusion weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Zimei; Wang Xizhen; Wang Bin; Liu Feng; Li Haiqing; Sun Yequan; Dong Peng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) in evaluating the blood perfusion of tumor by analyzing the features and indexes of PWI on rabbit VX2 hepatic implantation tumor and normal liver tissue. Methods: Twenty-four New Zealand White rabbits with VX2 carcinoma were established under direct surgical vision embedding tumor tissue. MR examination was performed at 21 days after the tumor implantation. The signal intensity -time curve of hepatic tumor and normal liver tissue were obtained. Mean time to enhance (MTE), negative enhancement integral (NEI), time to minimum (TM), maximum slope of decrease (MSD) and maximum slope of increase (MSI) were measured. Results: MTE, NEI, TM, MSD, and MSI of the normal liver tissue were 208.341±2.226 ms, 78.334±8.152, 24.059±1.927 ms, 38.221±2.443, and 15.389±2.526, respectively. MTE, NEI, TM, MSD, and MSI of the tumor tissue were 175.437±4.182 ms, 123.203±19.455, 17.061±1.834 ms, 125.740±4.842, and 67.832±2.882, respectively. The MTE and TM of tumor were shorter than those of normal hepatic tissue (P<0.05). NEI, MSD, and MSI of tumor were higher than those of normal hepatic tissue (P<0.05). Conclusion: PWI can distinguish the normal liver tissue from the tumor tissue, which is helpful in evaluating blood perfusion of different hepatic tissues. (authors)

  20. Pure Ethiodized Oil-based Transcatheter Ablative Therapy in Normal Rabbit Kidneys and Kidneys Inoculated with VX-2 Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kónya, András; Stephens, L. Clifton; Wright, Kenneth C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of ablation with selective arterial injection of pure ethiodized oil followed by arterial occlusion with 9:1 ethanol–Ethiodol mixture (EEM) and coil placement in normal rabbit kidneys and kidneys inoculated with VX-2 carcinoma. Materials and Methods: All experiments were conducted with Animal Care and Use Committee approval. In six rabbits (group 1), one kidney was embolized with pure Ethiodol until capillary stasis, followed by injection of 9:1 EEM until arterial stasis and then coil placement into the main renal artery. In 12 other rabbits, one kidney was inoculated with VX-2 tumor. Ethiodol and EEM embolization and coil placement followed 7 days later (group 2, n = 6) or 11–14 days later (group 3, n = 6). Kidneys were evaluated (angiography, computed tomography, macro- and microscopy) 7 days after treatment. Results: Capillary stasis was achieved in groups 1, 2, and 3 with (mean ± standard deviation) 0.47 ± 0.03, 0.53 ± 0.02, and 0.56 ± 0.04 ml of pure Ethiodol, followed by 0.47 ± 0.05, 0.42 ± 0.03, and 0.38 ± 0.04 ml of EEM, respectively, which caused complete arterial occlusion in 17 of 18 kidneys. In group 1, all but one kidney showed at least 95% generalized coagulative necrosis. In group 2, all six kidneys exhibited 100% coagulative necrosis, with no viable tumor present. In group 3, 100% coagulative necrosis was present in all kidneys, with a small viable tumor in one. Conclusion: In the rabbit, selective arterial injection of pure Ethiodol can cause complete renal parenchyma and tumor ablation when it is followed by prompt, contiguous, and permanent occlusion of the arterial compartment.

  1. Hemocoagulase Combined with Microbubble-Enhanced Ultrasound Cavitation for Augmented Ablation of Microvasculature in Rabbit VX2 Liver Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Tang, Peng; He, Guangbin; Ge, Shuping; Liu, Liwen; Zhou, Xiaodong

    2017-08-01

    We investigated a new method for combining microbubble-enhanced ultrasound cavitation (MEUC) with hemocoagulase (HC) atrox. Our goal was to induce embolic effects in the vasculature and combine these with an anti-angiogenic treatment strategy. Fourteen days after being implanted with a single slice of the liver VX2 tumor, rabbits were randomly divided into five groups: (i) a control group injected intra-venously with saline using a micropump; (ii) a group given only an injection of HC; (iii) a group treated only with ultrasound cavitation; (iv) a group treated with MEUC; (v) a group treated with MEUC + HC. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound was performed before treatment and 1 h and 7 d post-treatment to measure tumor size, enhancement and necrosis range. QontraXt software was used to determine the time-intensity curve of tumor blood perfusion and microvascular changes. At 1 h and 7 d after treatment with MEUC + HC, the parameters of the time-intensity curve, which included peak value, regional blood volume, regional blood flow and area under the curve value and which were measured using contrast-enhanced ultrasound, were significantly lower than those of the other treatment groups. The MEUC + HC treatment group exhibited significant growth inhibition relative to the ultrasound cavitation only, HC and MEUC treatment groups. No damage was observed in the surrounding normal tissues. These results support the feasibility of reducing the blood perfusion of rabbit VX2 liver tumors using a new method that combines MEUC and HC. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. All rights reserved.

  2. Grid to Standalone Transition Motion-Sensorless Dual-Inverter Control of PMSG With Asymmetrical Grid Voltage Sags and Harmonics Filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fatu, M.; Blaabjerg, Frede; Boldea, I.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a variable-speed motion-sensorless control system for permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) connected to grid via back-to-back inverters for wind energy generation. The grid-side inverter control system employs proportional-integral (PI) current controllers with cross...... and automatic seamless transfer method from grid connected to stand alone and vice versa. In stand-alone mode, a voltage control scheme with selective harmonic compensation is employed. The PMSG motion-sensorless control system uses an active power controller and a PLL-based observer to estimate the rotor...... and voltage harmonics compensation. While some of the aforementioned issues have been treated rather individually in previous conference publications of the authors, the present paper integrates them into a comprehensive control system of PMSG....

  3. Harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU): a fully integrated technique for sonication and monitoring of thermal ablation in tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maleke, C; Konofagou, E E

    2008-01-01

    FUS (focused ultrasound), or HIFU (high-intensity-focused ultrasound) therapy, a minimally or non-invasive procedure that uses ultrasound to generate thermal necrosis, has been proven successful in several clinical applications. This paper discusses a method for monitoring thermal treatment at different sonication durations (10 s, 20 s and 30 s) using the amplitude-modulated (AM) harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU) technique in bovine liver samples in vitro. The feasibility of HMI for characterizing mechanical tissue properties has previously been demonstrated. Here, a confocal transducer, combining a 4.68 MHz therapy (FUS) and a 7.5 MHz diagnostic (pulse-echo) transducer, was used. The therapy transducer was driven by a low-frequency AM continuous signal at 25 Hz, producing a stable harmonic radiation force oscillating at the modulation frequency. A pulser/receiver was used to drive the pulse-echo transducer at a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 5.4 kHz. Radio-frequency (RF) signals were acquired using a standard pulse-echo technique. The temperature near the ablation region was simultaneously monitored. Both RF signals and temperature measurements were obtained before, during and after sonication. The resulting axial tissue displacement was estimated using one-dimensional cross correlation. When temperature at the focal zone was above 48 deg. C during heating, the coagulation necrosis occurred and tissue damage was irreversible. The HMI displacement profiles in relation to the temperature and sonication durations were analyzed. At the beginning of heating, the temperature at the focus increased sharply, while the tissue stiffness decreased resulting in higher HMI displacements. This was confirmed by an increase of 0.8 μm deg. C -1 (r = 0.93, p -1 , r = -0.92, p -1 , prior to and after lesion formation in seven bovine liver samples, respectively. This technique was thus capable of following the protein-denatured lesion formation based on the

  4. Whole-liver MR perfusion imaging in rabbit liver VX2 tumors: early findings of coagulative necrosis after percutaneous ethanol injection therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wanshi; Wang Dong; Meng Limin; Shi Huiping; Song Yunlong; Wu Bing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of whole-liver MR perfusion imaging (MRPI) for early detection of coagulative necrosis after percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) in rabbit liver VX 2 tumors. Methods: VX 2 tumor cell suspension was inoculated into rabbit liver and liver VX 2 tumors [diameter of (2.6 ± 0.6) cm] were induced in 10 male rabbits. MR T 1 WI and T 2 WI were performed to monitor the development of the liver tumor on the 2 nd and 3 rd week after inoculation. Whole-liver MRPI was performed in the 10 rabbits with liver VX 2 tumors before and 6 days after PEI therapy (1.0 ml ethanol was injected into the most enhanced tumor region under CT guiding). Signal intensity (SI) values of untreated tumor parts and treated areas 6 days after PEI were recorded respectively. The steepest slope (SS) and bolus arrival time (T0) of SI-time curves were measured. The t-Student test was used in statistical analysis of the data. Results: There was significant difference in MRPI data between untreated tumor parts [T0: (16.0 ± 1.2) s and SS: 38.9 ± 2.2] and treated areas [T0: (50.8 ± 5.9) s and SS: 6.0 ± 1.2] 6 days after PEI(t was 15.8 and -39.6 respectively, P 1 WI and T 2 WI could not show any differences between untreated tumor parts and treated areas. Conclusion: Whole-liver MRPI could detect coagulative necrosis of rabbit liver VX 2 tumors after PEI early. Disappearance of early enhancement can be a potential marker for efficacy of PEI. (authors)

  5. Heated lipiodol as an embolization agent for transhepatic arterial embolization in VX2 rabbit liver cancer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Wei [Department of Interventional Radiology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, No.1 Xinshi Road, Shaanxi Province, Xi' an 710038 (China)], E-mail: zjfurong2008@126.com; Wan Yi [Department of Health Statistics, Fourth Military Medical University, No. 17 West Changle Road, Xi' an 710032 (China); Liang Zhihui [Department of Radiology, Bethune International Peace Hospital, Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province 050082 (China); Duan Yunyou; Liu Xi [Department of Ultrasonography, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, No. 1 Xinshi Road, Xi' an 710038 (China); Wang Zhimin; Liu Yiyong; Zhu Jia; Liu Xiongtao [Department of Interventional Radiology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, No.1 Xinshi Road, Shaanxi Province, Xi' an 710038 (China); Zhang Hongxin [Department of Interventional Radiology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, No.1 Xinshi Road, Shaanxi Province, Xi' an 710038 (China)], E-mail: cawe-001@163.com

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of heated (60 deg. C) lipiodol via hepatic artery administration in a rabbit model of VX2 liver cancer. Materials and methods: Thirty male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups with 10 rabbits assigned to each group. VX2 carcinoma cells were surgically implanted into the left hepatic lobe. The tumors were allowed to grow for 2 weeks, and studies were performed until the diameter of the tumors detected by ultrasonograph reached 2-3 cm. Under anesthesia, trans-catheter hepatic arterial embolization was performed and doxorubicin-lipiodol (37 deg. C) (1 mL), lipiodol (60 deg. C) (1 mL) or control (physiological saline (37 deg. C) (1 mL)) solution was injected into the hepatic arteries of animals in the three groups. One week later, the volume of the tumor was measured by ultrasonograph again. The serum of all rabbits was collected before injection and at 4 and 7 days after injection, and the level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was checked. The survival period of the three groups of rabbits after treatment was also recorded. During the last course of their disease, the rabbits were given analgesics to relieve suffering. Results: The tumor growth rate in the lipiodol (60 deg. C) group (0.92 {+-} 0.21, tumor volume from 1811 {+-} 435 to 1670 {+-} 564 mm{sup 3}) was significantly lower than that in the control group (3.48 {+-} 1.17, tumor volume from 1808 {+-} 756 to 5747 {+-} 1341 mm{sup 3}) (P < 0.05) and in the doxorubicin-lipiodol (37 deg. C) group (1.69 {+-} 0.26, tumor volume from 1881 {+-} 641 to 2428 {+-} 752 mm{sup 3}) (P < 0.05). Consequently, the survival period of the animals in the lipiodol (60 deg. C) group (41.0 {+-} 3.0 days) was significantly greater than that in the doxorubicin-lipiodol (37 deg. C) group (38.0 {+-} 2.5 days) (P < 0.05). On the other hand, there was no statistically significant difference in serum AST levels between the lipiodol (60 deg. C) group (148.2 {+-} 11

  6. Targeting of VX2 Rabbit Liver Tumor by Selective Delivery of 3-Bromopyruvate: A Biodistribution and Survival Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vali, Mustafa; Vossen, Josephina A.; Buijs, Manon; Engles, James M.; Liapi, Eleni; Ventura, Veronica Prieto; Khwaja, Afsheen; Acha-Ngwodo, Obele; Shanmugasundaram, Ganapathy; Syed, Labiq; Wahl, Richard L.; Geschwind, Jean-Francois H.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the biodistribution and tumor targeting ability of 14C-labeled 3-bromopyruvate ([14C]3-BrPA) after i.a. and i.v. delivery in the VX2 rabbit model. In addition, we evaluated the effects of [14C]3-BrPA on tumor and healthy tissue glucose metabolism by determining 18F-deoxyglucose (FDG) uptake. Last, we determined the survival benefit of i.a. administered 3-BrPA. In total, 60 rabbits with VX2 liver tumor received either 1.75 mM [14C]3-BrPA i.a., 1.75 mM [14C]3-BrPA i.v., 20 mM [14C]3-BrPA i.v., or 25 ml of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). All rabbits (with the exception of the 20 mM i.v. group) received FDG 1 h before sacrifice. Next, we compared survival of animals treated with i.a. administered 1.75 mM [14C]3-BrPA in 25 ml of PBS (n = 22) with controls (n = 10). After i.a. infusion, tumor uptake of [14C]3-BrPA was 1.8 ± 0.2% percentage of injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g), whereas other tissues showed minimal uptake. After i.v. infusion (1.75 mM), tumor uptake of [14C]3-BrPA was 0.03 ± 0.01% ID/g. After i.a. administration of [14C]3-BrPA, tumor uptake of FDG was 26 times lower than in controls. After i.v. administration of [14C]3-BrPA, there was no significant difference in tumor FDG uptake. Survival analysis showed that rabbits treated with 1.75 mM 3-BrPA survived longer (55 days) than controls (18.6 days). Intra-arterially delivered 3-BrPA has a favorable biodistribution profile, combining a high tumor uptake resulting in blockage of FDG uptake with no effects on healthy tissue. The local control of the liver tumor by 3-BrPA resulted in a significant survival benefit. PMID:18591216

  7. Effect of Angelica Sinensis on liver fibrosis after radiotherapy combined with transarterial chemoembolization for rabbits with VX 2 tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Qingyun; Zhou Yunfeng; Hu Jinxiang; Zhou Jun; Le Tao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of Angelica Sinensis on liver fibrosis after radiotherapy (RT) combined with transarterial chemoembolization(TACE) for rabbits with VX 2 tumor, and the mechanism of anti-hepatic fibrosis. Methods: Fifty New Zealand white rabbits were divided randomly into three groups: Control group (n=10) was given saline 2 ml by gastroduodenal artery, model group (n=10) was given pingyangmycin 1 mg and iodized oil 0.2 ml, and exposed to single fraction of 20 Gy, Angelica group (n=30) undergoing RT combined with TACE was given Angelica Sinensis injection. According to different doses of Angelica Sinensis, Angelica group was divided into low-dose group (4 ml/kg), middle dose group (6 ml/kg) and high-dose group (8 ml/kg), twice per week for 4 weeks. Serum levels of HA, LN, PCIII, CIV and liver specimens were obtained at the end of 6th week after RT combined with TACE. The histological changes were determined by HE, VG staining and TGF-β1 immunohistochemistry staining. Results: Stages of liver fibrosis in the model group were mostly stages II and III, and stages of liver fibrosis in the Angelica group were mostly stages I, there was significant difference between the model group and the Angelica group, and stages of liver fibrosis were associated with Angelica intercention treatment (r=0.7631, P<0.01). Serum HA, LN, PCIII and CIV in the model group were higher than those in the control group(P<0.01), TGF-β1 expression in the Angelica group was significantly reduced compared with the wodel group and different doses of Angelica group showed dose-effect (r=0.4427, P<0.01). Conclusions: Angelica Sinensis injection has inhibitive effect on liver fibrosis after RT combined with TACE for rabbits with VX 2 tumor, the mechanism of anti-hepatic fibrosis might possibly be associated with down-regulating TGF-β1. (authors)

  8. The Dynamics of Glutathione Species and Ophthalmate Concentrations in Plasma from the VX2 Rabbit Model of Secondary Liver Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Abbas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Available tumor markers have low sensitivity/specificity for the diagnosis of liver tumors. The present study was designed to evaluate the oxidoreductive status of the liver as surrogates of tumor subsistence and growth. Methods. Glutathione species (GSH:GSSG, ophthalmate (OA concentrations, and their turnover were measured in plasma of rabbits (n=6 in their healthy state and in the state of tumor growth after implantation of the VX2 carcinoma in their liver. Tumors were allowed to grow for a period of 14 days when rabbits were sacrificed. Livers were removed and cysteine concentration was measured in liver tissue. Results. Tumor growth was found in 100% of the rabbits. Concentration and labeling of GSH/GSSG were similar in experimental animals before and after tumor implantation and to sham animals. In contrast, OA concentration increased significantly in experimental animals after tumor implantation when compared to same animals prior to tumor implantation and to sham animals (P<.05. The concentration of cysteine, a precursor of GSH, was found to be significantly lower in the liver tissue adjacent to the tumor (P<.05. Conclusion. Disturbances in the oxidoreductive state of livers appear to be a surrogate of early tumor growth.

  9. MR staging of malignant musculoskeletal tumors: An experimental study on MR and pathologic correlation of rabbit VX-2 carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Heung Sik; Chung, Sung Hoon; KIm, Cheol Woo; Kim, Seong Moon; Im, Jung Gi; Han, Man Chung

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the reliability of MR imaging in tissue characterization and depiction of tumor boundaries, we performed MR pathologic correlation using parosteally implanted VX-2 carcinoma in 17 rabbit thighs. T1-weighted, T2-weighted and Gd-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted axial images were obtained 10-30 days after tumor implantation. After the animals were killed, frozen and sectioned along the MR imaging planes, and histopathologic examination were done. For accurate MR pathologic correlation, rabbit were fixed on the cardboard plate to minimize position change during the procedure. Tumor boundaries depicted on MR images were larger than those depicted on the specimen. Small tumors were surrounded by capsule-like loose connective tissue. Loose connective tissue became compact with tumor growth. This connective tissue showed high signal intensity on both T2-weighted and Gd-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted images. Muscle atrophy with fatty tissue accumulation around the tumor also contributed to the high signal intensity on MR images. Peritumoral edema and inflammatory reaction were not remarkable. Six of 8 cases with bone marrow fibrosis were detected on MR images. We concluded that peritumoral loose connective tissue and muscle atrophy exaggerated the size of experimentally induced malignant musculoskeletal tumors on MR images

  10. The Implementation of Problem-Solving Based Laboratory Activities to Teach the Concept of Simple Harmonic Motion in Senior High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iradat, R. D.; Alatas, F.

    2017-09-01

    Simple harmonic motion is considered as a relatively complex concept to be understood by students. This study attempts to implement laboratory activities that focus on solving contextual problems related to the concept. A group of senior high school students participated in this pre-experimental method from a group’s pretest-posttest research design. Laboratory activities have had a positive impact on improving students’ scientific skills, such as, formulating goals, conducting experiments, applying laboratory tools, and collecting data. Therefore this study has added to the theoretical and practical knowledge that needs to be considered to teach better complicated concepts in physics learning.

  11. Interferometric phase-contrast X-ray CT imaging of VX2 rabbit cancer at 35keV X-ray energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Tohoru; Wu, Jin; Tsuchiya, Yoshinori; Yoneyama, Akio; Lwin, Thet-Thet; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Itai, Yuji

    2004-05-01

    Imaging of large objects at 17.7-keV low x-ray energy causes huge x-ray exposure to the objects even using interferometric phase-contrast x-ray CT (PCCT). Thus, we tried to obtain PCCT images at high x-ray energy of 35keV and examined the image quality using a formalin-fixed VX2 rabbit cancer specimen with 15-mm in diameter. The PCCT system consisted of an asymmetrically cut silicon (220) crystal, a monolithic x-ray interferometer, a phase-shifter, an object cell and an x-ray CCD camera. The PCCT at 35 keV clearly visualized various inner structures of VX2 rabbit cancer such as necrosis, cancer, the surrounding tumor vessels, and normal liver tissue. Besides, image-contrast was not degraded significantly. These results suggest that the PCCT at 35 KeV is sufficient to clearly depict the histopathological morphology of VX2 rabbit cancer specimen.

  12. Changes of serum IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ levels after treatment with 131I-17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin in VX2 rabbit models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Wen; Liu Lu; Zhou Yun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of 131 I-17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin( 131 I-17-AAG) therapy on immune function in VX2 rabbit models with transplanted liver cancer. Methods: Serum IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ levels were measured with RIA in 8 VX2 rabbit models with transplanted liver cancer 1-2 weeks after 10mCi 131 I-17-AAG treatment as well as in 8 controls rabbits (models with tumor but without treatment). Results: 1 week after 10mCi 131 I treatment, the serum IL - 2 and IFN-γ levels were significantly lower in the treated rabbits than those in controls (P 0.05). Serum IL-4 and IL-10 levels in the treated rabbits (both at 1 and 2 week) were not significantly different from those in controls (P>0.05). Conclusion: 131 I-17-AAG treatment had transient effects on cellular immunity with no influence on humoral immunity. As a whole, it is a safe to treat VX2 rabbit models with this preparation. (authors)

  13. Efficacy and safety of 32P-nanocolloid for treatment of distant lymph node metastasis in VX2 tumor-bearing rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Shengxiang; Huang Gang; Liu Penan; Ma Yubo; Yan Weili; Wan Liangrong; Zhu Changqing

    2008-01-01

    Eradication of micrometastases present in lymph nodes of cancer patients improves their prognosis significantly. Radionuclide therapy possesses the potential to eliminate such metastases. This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 32 P-nanocolloid therapy in the treatment of distant carcinoma cell metastases in lymph nodes of VX2 tumor-bearing rabbits. The Method of this study was to obtain VX2 tumor micrometastases in right armpit lymph nodes of 12 male New Zealand white rabbits, VX2 tumors were implanted by hypodermal inoculation into the right anterior limb. Animals were randomly divided into therapy (n=6) and control (n=6) groups. 32 P-nanocolloid (0.5 mCi), 95% of which was >50 nm in diameter, was administered to the therapy group, and saline was administered to the control group. Injections were given once weekly for 4 weeks. 2-Deoxy-2[ 18 F]-fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography revealed that the number of involved lymph nodes and the maximum standardized uptake value decreased in the 32 P-nanocolloid therapy group as compared with the baseline or saline control group (P 32 P-nanocolloid. These findings support treatment with 32 P-nanocolloid as a safe and effective approach for eradication of lymph node micrometastases. (author)

  14. The analysis and compensation of errors of precise simple harmonic motion control under high speed and large load conditions based on servo electric cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chen-xi; Ding, Guo-qing

    2017-10-01

    Simple harmonic waves and synthesized simple harmonic waves are widely used in the test of instruments. However, because of the errors caused by clearance of gear and time-delay error of FPGA, it is difficult to control servo electric cylinder in precise simple harmonic motion under high speed, high frequency and large load conditions. To solve the problem, a method of error compensation is proposed in this paper. In the method, a displacement sensor is fitted on the piston rod of the electric cylinder. By using the displacement sensor, the real-time displacement of the piston rod is obtained and fed back to the input of servo motor, then a closed loop control is realized. There is compensation of pulses in the next period of the synthetic waves. This paper uses FPGA as the processing core. The software mainly comprises a waveform generator, an Ethernet module, a memory module, a pulse generator, a pulse selector, a protection module, an error compensation module. A durability of shock absorbers is used as the testing platform. The durability mainly comprises a single electric cylinder, a servo motor for driving the electric cylinder, and the servo motor driver.

  15. Anti-tumoral effect of recombinant vaccinia virus through US guided injection in a rabbit model of hepatic VX2 carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jong Young; Park, Byeong Ho; Kang, Myong Jin; Cho, Jin Han; Choi, Jong Cheol; Choi, Sun Seob; Nam, Kyung Jin; Hwang, Tae Ho; Jeong, Jin Sook [College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-tumoral effect of recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV) (Thymidine kinase (-)/GM-CSF (+)) that was administered as a US guided intratumoral injection in a rabbit model of hepatic VX2 carcinoma. VX2 carcinoma was implanted in the livers of 12 rabbits. US was performed at every week interval to detect hepatic mass after the implantation of VX2 carcinoma. The accurate tumor size and volume was evaluated with CT when the tumor was detected on US. US guided injection of rVV (10{sup 9} pfu/ml) was preformed in three rabbits, intravenous injection of the same dose of rVV was done in two rabbits and another seven rabbits that were without any treatment were selected as a control group. We evaluated the change of the hepatic tumor size and extrahepatic metastasis on serial CT. Tumor specimens were harvested from rabbits that were killed at 8 weeks after VX2 implantation. These tissues were histoimmuopathologically compared to each other (the virus injection group and the control group). The differences between these groups were statistically assessed with student t-tests. Tumor growth was significantly suppressed in the US guided injection group compared with the intravenous injection group or the control group ({rho} < 0.01). The intravenous injection group showed statistically significant tumor suppression compared to the control group ({rho} < 0.01) until 2 weeks after virus injection. Quantification of the pulmonary metastatic nodules was performed in view of both the number and volume. The average number or volume of the pulmonary metastatic nodules in the US injection group was much smaller than these in the control group. Histopathologically, the tumors of the US guided injection group showed less extensive necrosis than those of the control group. Immunohistochemically, the tumor of the US guided injection group showed more prominent infiltration of CD4 (+) and CD8 (+) lymphocytes than did the tumors of the other group

  16. The cooperative effect of p53 and Rb in local nanotherapy in a rabbit VX2 model of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Shengli Dong,1 Qibin Tang,2 Miaoyun Long,3 Jian Guan,4 Lu Ye,5 Gaopeng Li6 1Department of General Surgery, The Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, 2Department of Hepatobiliopancreatic Surgery, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 3Department of Thyroid and Vascular Surgery, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 4Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 5Infection Department, Guangzhou No 8 Hospital, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 6Department of Ultrasound, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, People's Republic of China Background/aim: A local nanotherapy (LNT combining the therapeutic efficacy of trans-arterial embolization, nanoparticles, and p53 gene therapy has been previously presented. The study presented here aimed to further improve the incomplete tumor eradication and limited survival enhancement and to elucidate the molecular mechanism of the LNT. Methods: In a tumor-targeting manner, recombinant expressing plasmids harboring wild-type p53 and Rb were either co-transferred or transferred separately to rabbit hepatic VX2 tumors in a poly-L-lysine-modified hydroxyapatite nanoparticle nanoplex and Lipiodol® (Guerbet, Villepinte, France emulsion via the hepatic artery. Subsequent co-expression of p53 and Rb proteins within the treated tumors was investigated by Western blotting and in situ analysis by laser-scanning confocal microscopy. The therapeutic effect was evaluated by the tumor growth velocity, apoptosis and necrosis rates, their sensitivity to Adriamycin® (ADM, mitomycin C, and fluorouracil, the microvessel density of tumor tissue, and the survival time of animals. Eventually, real-time polymerase chain reaction and enhanced chemiluminescence Western blotting

  17. 3.0 T MR diffusion weighted imaging in the evaluation of radio-frequency ablation of the liver VX2 tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yubao; Liang Changhong; Wang Qiushi; Xie Shufei; Yu Yuanxin; Liu Zaiyi; Zhang Zhonglin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate 3.0 T MR DWI techniques in detecting the lesions of pre and post-radiofrequency ablation of the rabbit liver VX2 tumors. Methods: Twenty two New Zealand white rabbits were used in this experiment. Twenty tumor fragments were implanted into the livers of 20 rabbits respectively. Two normal rabbits were used as controls for radiofrequency ablation of the normal liver. 3. 0 T MR DWI was performed 14 to 21 days after tumor implantation (mean, 17 days) in the tumor-bearing animals. Radiofrequency ablation was performed in the 18 tumor-bearing animals and in the two healthy animals. 3.0 T MRI and DWI were performed 7 to 10 days after radiofrequency ablation (mean, 8 days). Pathology was obtained immediately after the completion of post radiofrequency ablation MR imaging. The MRI features and ADC values of pre- and post -radiofrequency ablation lesions in the livers with VX2 tumors and normal rabbits were analyzed and correlation was made with histopathologic findings. Analysis of variance repeated measures were performed in analyzing the differences among the ADC values of different tissues with the same b value. Results: All 20 rabbit liver models of VX2 tumors were constructed successfully. One rabbit died of anesthetic overdose, another one showed necrosis within the implanted tumor. All 18 untreated VX2 tumors had predominantly low or iso-signal intensity on T 1 WI and high signal intensity on T 2 WI. All 18 VX2 tumors and 2 normal rabbits were treated by radiofrequency ablation successfully. Lesions treated by Radiofrequency ablation displayed low signal intensity on T 1 WI, and high signal intensity on T 2 WI. Seven to 10 days after radiofrequency ablation, lesions varied from having low signal intensity to slightly increased signal intensity on T 1 WI, with areas of mixed (high, intermediate, and low) signal intensity. A peripheral rim of high signal intensity with varying thickness on T 2 WI correlated with granulation tissue, which

  18. [Effects of intra-arterial infusion of 3-bromopyruvate on metastases and survival benefit of hepatic VX2 tumor in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiong-ying; Zhang, Xiao-ping; Huang, Jin-hua; Luo, Rong-guang; Miao, Bi-jian; Wang, Yan

    2013-10-22

    To evaluate the metastasis and survival of an intra-arterial infusion of 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) on hepatic VX2 tumor in rabbits. VX2 tumor was implanted in left lateral lobe of liver of 18 white New Zealand rabbits. The animals were randomized into 3 groups (n = 6 each) and underwent an intra-arterial infusion of phosphate-buffered saline or 3-BrPA via hepatic artery at 14 days post-implantation. At 28 days post-implantation, 3 rabbits in each group were sacrificed. The abdomen of these rabbits was opened and inspected for metastases. Then the survival of the remaining rabbits was observed. At 28 days post-implantation, in PBS group, there were intrahepatic metastasis and abdominal cavity dissemination (n = 3), renal metastases (n = 2) and lung metastases (n = 2); in early 3-BrPA infusion group, intrahepatic metastasis (n = 2), abdominal cavity dissemination (n = 1) and lung metastases (n = 1); in late 3-BrPA infusion group, intrahepatic metastasis (n = 1) and lung metastases (n = 1). The survival of the remaining animals was observed. Rabbits in early 3-BrPA infusion group survived significantly longer than those in PBS group [(27 ± 5) vs (17 ± 3) days, P = 0.041]; rabbits in late 3-BrPA infusion group [(42 ± 6) days] survived significantly longer than those in early 3-BrPA infusion group (P = 0.007). An intra-arterial infusion of 3-BrPA could reduce metastasis and prolong survival in rabbits with hepatic VX2 tumor. The earlier the infusion, the better the outcome.

  19. Tumor vascularity of experimentally induced VX2 carcinoma in the rabbit thigh: evaluation with enhanced power doppler sonography and DSA correlated with histopathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Hoon; Han, Joon Koo; Chung, Jin Wook; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Se Hyung; Kim, Seog Joon; Choi, Byung Ihn; Chang, Kee Hyun [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    To describe findings of enhanced power Doppler sonography and DSA in experimentally induced VX2 carcinomas in rabbit thigh and to correlate the imaging findings with the histopathologic features. A total of 30 VX2 carcinomas were implanted in rabbit thigh, and after conventional and enhanced power Doppler sonography and DSA, histopathologic examination was performed. Enhanced power Doppler sonography and DSA, were used to determine the distribution pattern of tumor vascularity; to assess its grade and the percentage of a tumor area occupied by vessels, conventional and enhanced power Doppler sonography, as well as DSA, were used. The grade of necrosis and the development of fibrovascular stroma and capsule were histopathologically determined. The findings of power Doppler sonography were compared with those of DSA and the imaging features were correlated with the histopathologic features. At enhanced power Doppler sonography, the signal was either avascular (n=9), peripheral (n=15) or diffuse (n=6), while at DSA, the corresponding totals were eight, fourteen and eight. There was statistically significant corelation between enhanced power Doppler sonogrpahy and DSA, both in their depiction of the distribution of patterns of tumor vascularity and as regards their findings of grade and percentage of vascular area. As determined by both conventional and enhanced power Doppler sonogrpahy, and by DSA, grade of necrosis and the development of fibrovascular stroma and a capsule correlated with grade and the percentage of vascular area. Experimentally induced VX2 carcinomas in rabbit thigh demonstrated various patterns of tumor vascularity, and the findings of enhanced power Doppler sonography correlated with those of DSA. Tumor vascularity, as demonstrated by two imaging modalities, correlated closely with grade of necrosis and the development of fibrovascular stroma and a capsule, as revealed by histopathologic examination.

  20. Tumor vascularity of experimentally induced VX2 carcinoma in the rabbit thigh: evaluation with enhanced power doppler sonography and DSA correlated with histopathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Hoon; Han, Joon Koo; Chung, Jin Wook; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Se Hyung; Kim, Seog Joon; Choi, Byung Ihn; Chang, Kee Hyun

    2002-01-01

    To describe findings of enhanced power Doppler sonography and DSA in experimentally induced VX2 carcinomas in rabbit thigh and to correlate the imaging findings with the histopathologic features. A total of 30 VX2 carcinomas were implanted in rabbit thigh, and after conventional and enhanced power Doppler sonography and DSA, histopathologic examination was performed. Enhanced power Doppler sonography and DSA, were used to determine the distribution pattern of tumor vascularity; to assess its grade and the percentage of a tumor area occupied by vessels, conventional and enhanced power Doppler sonography, as well as DSA, were used. The grade of necrosis and the development of fibrovascular stroma and capsule were histopathologically determined. The findings of power Doppler sonography were compared with those of DSA and the imaging features were correlated with the histopathologic features. At enhanced power Doppler sonography, the signal was either avascular (n=9), peripheral (n=15) or diffuse (n=6), while at DSA, the corresponding totals were eight, fourteen and eight. There was statistically significant corelation between enhanced power Doppler sonogrpahy and DSA, both in their depiction of the distribution of patterns of tumor vascularity and as regards their findings of grade and percentage of vascular area. As determined by both conventional and enhanced power Doppler sonogrpahy, and by DSA, grade of necrosis and the development of fibrovascular stroma and a capsule correlated with grade and the percentage of vascular area. Experimentally induced VX2 carcinomas in rabbit thigh demonstrated various patterns of tumor vascularity, and the findings of enhanced power Doppler sonography correlated with those of DSA. Tumor vascularity, as demonstrated by two imaging modalities, correlated closely with grade of necrosis and the development of fibrovascular stroma and a capsule, as revealed by histopathologic examination

  1. Combination of vascular endothelial growth factor antisense oligonucleotide therapy and radiotherapy increases the curative effects against maxillofacial VX2 tumors in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng Linfeng, E-mail: zhenglinfeng04@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Medical College, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Hanning Road, 100, 200080 Shanghai (China); Li Yujie, E-mail: yujieli01@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Medical College, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Hanning Road, 100, 200080 Shanghai (China); Wang Han, E-mail: bingowh@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Medical College, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Hanning Road, 100, 200080 Shanghai (China); Zhao Jinglong, E-mail: jinglongz@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Medical College, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Hanning Road, 100, 200080 Shanghai (China); Wang Xifu, E-mail: wangxiechen001@163.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Medical College, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Hanning Road, 100, 200080 Shanghai (China); Hu Yunsheng, E-mail: springmorninghu@163.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Medical College, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Hanning Road, 100, 200080 Shanghai (China); Zhang Guixiang, E-mail: guixiangzhang@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, Medical College, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Hanning Road, 100, 200080 Shanghai (China)

    2011-05-15

    Purpose: To study the effects of combination of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antisense oligonucleotide therapy and radiotherapy on maxillofacial VX2 tumors in rabbits. Methods: We used 24 New Zealand white rabbits as a model to induce maxillofacial VX2 tumor. The rabbits were randomly divided into the following 4 groups: radiotherapy group (group A), treated with 16 Gy of radiotherapy; VEGF antisense oligonucleotide treatment group (group B), treated with an injection of 150 {mu}g of VEGF antisense oligonucleotide into the local tumor; VEGF antisense oligonucleotide combined with radiotherapy group (group C), treated with an injection of 150 {mu}g of VEGF antisense oligonucleotide into the local tumor immediately after 16 Gy of radiotherapy; and control group (group D), treated with an injection of 300 {mu}l 5% aqueous glucose solution into the local tumor. On days 3 and 14 after treatment, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) was performed to calculate maximal enhancement ratio (MER), slope of enhancement (SLE), and tumor volume change. Rabbits were killed on day 14 to obtain samples for pathological examination and immunohistochemical staining for VEGF. Results: In group C, tumor volume was significantly reduced on day 14 after treatment, and the difference was statistically different as compared to that before treatment, on day 3 after treatment and other groups (P < 0.01). Values of both MER and SLE after treatment were significantly lower than the values before treatment (P < 0.05). Pathological specimen revealed tumor cell edema, bleeding, necrosis, vascular wall thickening and occlusion, and decreased VEGF expression. The immunohistochemical score (IHS) of group C was significantly different from groups A and D respectively (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Injecting the tumor with VEGF antisense oligonucleotide immediately after radiotherapy can enhance the curative effect on rabbit maxillofacial VX2 tumor, and DCE-MRI can serve

  2. FDG-PET for Evaluating the Antitumor Effect of Intraarterial 3-Bromopyruvate Administration in a Rabbit VX2 Liver Tumor Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Sun; Chung, Jin Wook; Jae, Hwan Jun

    2007-01-01

    We wanted to investigate the feasibility of using FDG-PET for evaluating the antitumor effect of intraarterial administration of a hexokinase II inhibitor, 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA), in a rabbit VX2 liver tumor model. VX2 carcinoma was grown in the livers of ten rabbits. Two weeks later, liver CT was performed to confirm appropriate tumor growth for the experiment. After tumor volume-matched grouping of the rabbits, transcatheter intraarterial administration of 3-BrPA was performed (1 mM and 5 mM in five animals each, respectively). FDG-PET scan was performed the day before, immediately after and a week after 3-BrPA administration. FDG uptake was semiquantified by measuring the standardized uptake value (SUV). A week after treatment, the experimental animals were sacrificed and the necrosis rates of the tumors were calculated based on the histopathology. The SUV of the VX2 tumors before treatment (3.87±1.51 [mean SD]) was significantly higher than that of nontumorous liver parenchyma (1.72±0.34) (p < 0.0001, Mann-Whitney U test). The SUV was significantly decreased immediately after 3-BrPA administration (2.05±1.21) (p = 0.002, Wilcoxon signed rank test). On the one-week follow up PET scan, the FDG uptake remained significantly lower (SUV 1.41±0.73) than that before treatment (p 0.002), although three out of ten animals showed a slightly increasing tendency for the FDG uptake. The tumor necrosis rate ranged from 50.00% to 99.90% (85.48%±15.87). There was no significant correlation between the SUV or the SUV decrease rate and the tumor necrosis rate in that range. Even though FDG-PET cannot exactly reflect the tumor necrosis rate, FDG-PET is a useful modality for the early assessment of the antitumor effect of intraarterial administration of 3-BrPA in VX2 liver tumor

  3. FDG-PET for Evaluating the Antitumor Effect of Intraarterial 3-Bromopyruvate Administration in a Rabbit VX2 Liver Tumor Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Sun; Chung, Jin Wook; Jae, Hwan Jun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2007-06-15

    We wanted to investigate the feasibility of using FDG-PET for evaluating the antitumor effect of intraarterial administration of a hexokinase II inhibitor, 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA), in a rabbit VX2 liver tumor model. VX2 carcinoma was grown in the livers of ten rabbits. Two weeks later, liver CT was performed to confirm appropriate tumor growth for the experiment. After tumor volume-matched grouping of the rabbits, transcatheter intraarterial administration of 3-BrPA was performed (1 mM and 5 mM in five animals each, respectively). FDG-PET scan was performed the day before, immediately after and a week after 3-BrPA administration. FDG uptake was semiquantified by measuring the standardized uptake value (SUV). A week after treatment, the experimental animals were sacrificed and the necrosis rates of the tumors were calculated based on the histopathology. The SUV of the VX2 tumors before treatment (3.87{+-}1.51 [mean SD]) was significantly higher than that of nontumorous liver parenchyma (1.72{+-}0.34) (p < 0.0001, Mann-Whitney U test). The SUV was significantly decreased immediately after 3-BrPA administration (2.05{+-}1.21) (p = 0.002, Wilcoxon signed rank test). On the one-week follow up PET scan, the FDG uptake remained significantly lower (SUV 1.41{+-}0.73) than that before treatment (p 0.002), although three out of ten animals showed a slightly increasing tendency for the FDG uptake. The tumor necrosis rate ranged from 50.00% to 99.90% (85.48%{+-}15.87). There was no significant correlation between the SUV or the SUV decrease rate and the tumor necrosis rate in that range. Even though FDG-PET cannot exactly reflect the tumor necrosis rate, FDG-PET is a useful modality for the early assessment of the antitumor effect of intraarterial administration of 3-BrPA in VX2 liver tumor.

  4. FDG-PET for Evaluating the Antitumor Effect of Intraarterial 3-Bromopyruvate Administration in a Rabbit VX2 Liver Tumor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee Sun; Jae, Hwan Jun; Kim, Young Il; Son, Kyu Ri; Lee, Min Jong; Park, Jae Hyung; Kang, Won Jun; Yoon, Jung Hwan; Chung, Hesson; Lee, Kichang

    2007-01-01

    Objective We wanted to investigate the feasibility of using FDG-PET for evaluating the antitumor effect of intraarterial administration of a hexokinase II inhibitor, 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA), in a rabbit VX2 liver tumor model. Materials and Methods VX2 carcinoma was grown in the livers of ten rabbits. Two weeks later, liver CT was performed to confirm appropriate tumor growth for the experiment. After tumor volume-matched grouping of the rabbits, transcatheter intraarterial administration of 3-BrPA was performed (1 mM and 5 mM in five animals each, respectively). FDG-PET scan was performed the day before, immediately after and a week after 3-BrPA administration. FDG uptake was semiquantified by measuring the standardized uptake value (SUV). A week after treatment, the experimental animals were sacrificed and the necrosis rates of the tumors were calculated based on the histopathology. Results The SUV of the VX2 tumors before treatment (3.87 ±1.51 [mean ±SD]) was significantly higher than that of nontumorous liver parenchyma (1.72 ±0.34) (p < 0.0001, Mann-Whitney U test). The SUV was significantly decreased immediately after 3-BrPA administration (2.05 ±1.21) (p = 0.002, Wilcoxon signed rank test). On the one-week follow up PET scan, the FDG uptake remained significantly lower (SUV 1.41 ±0.73) than that before treatment (p = 0.002), although three out of ten animals showed a slightly increasing tendency for the FDG uptake. The tumor necrosis rate ranged from 50.00% to 99.90% (85.48% ±15.87). There was no significant correlation between the SUV or the SUV decrease rate and the tumor necrosis rate in that range. Conclusion Even though FDG-PET cannot exactly reflect the tumor necrosis rate, FDG-PET is a useful modality for the early assessment of the antitumor effect of intraarterial administration of 3-BrPA in VX2 liver tumor. PMID:17554189

  5. Fast lesion mapping during HIFU treatment using harmonic motion imaging guided focused ultrasound (HMIgFUS) in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yang; Wang, Shutao; Payen, Thomas; Konofagou, Elisa

    2017-04-01

    The successful clinical application of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation depends on reliable monitoring of the lesion formation. Harmonic motion imaging guided focused ultrasound (HMIgFUS) is an ultrasound-based elasticity imaging technique, which monitors HIFU ablation based on the stiffness change of the tissue instead of the echo intensity change in conventional B-mode monitoring, rendering it potentially more sensitive to lesion development. Our group has shown that predicting the lesion location based on the radiation force-excited region is feasible during HMIgFUS. In this study, the feasibility of a fast lesion mapping method is explored to directly monitor the lesion map during HIFU. The harmonic motion imaging (HMI) lesion map was generated by subtracting the reference HMI image from the present HMI peak-to-peak displacement map, as streamed on the computer display. The dimensions of the HMIgFUS lesions were compared against gross pathology. Excellent agreement was found between the lesion depth (r 2  =  0.81, slope  =  0.90), width (r 2  =  0.85, slope  =  1.12) and area (r 2  =  0.58, slope  =  0.75). In vivo feasibility was assessed in a mouse with a pancreatic tumor. These findings demonstrate that HMIgFUS can successfully map thermal lesions and monitor lesion development in real time in vitro and in vivo. The HMIgFUS technique may therefore constitute a novel clinical tool for HIFU treatment monitoring.

  6. CT spectral imaging for monitoring the therapeutic efficacy of VEGF receptor kinase inhibitor AG-013736 in rabbit VX2 liver tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Peijie; Liu, Jie; Yan, Xiaopeng; Chai, Yaru; Chen, Yan; Gao, Jianbo; Pan, Yuanwei; Li, Shuai; Guo, Hua; Zhou, Yue [The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, The Department of Radiology, Zhengzhou, Henan Province (China)

    2017-03-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of computed tomography (CT) spectral imaging in assessing the therapeutic efficacy of a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor inhibitor AG-013736 in rabbit VX2 liver tumours. Twenty-three VX2 liver tumour-bearing rabbits were scanned with CT in spectral imaging mode during the arterial phase (AP) and portal phase (PP). The iodine concentrations(ICs)of tumours normalized to aorta (nICs) at different time points (baseline, 2, 4, 7, 10, and 14 days after treatment) were compared within the treated group (n = 17) as well as between the control (n = 6) and treated groups. Correlations between the tumour size, necrotic fraction (NF), microvessel density (MVD), and nICs were analysed. The change of nICs relative to baseline in the treated group was lower compared to the control group. A greater decrease in the nIC of a tumour at 2 days was positively correlated with a smaller increase in tumour size at 14 days (P < 0.05 for both). The tumour nIC values in AP and PP had correlations with MVD (r = 0.71 and 0.52) and NF (r = -0.54 and -0.51) (P < 0.05 for all). CT spectral imaging allows for the evaluation and early prediction of tumour response to AG-013736. (orig.)

  7. Selective enhancement of boron accumulation with boron-entrapped water-in-oil-water emulsion in VX-2 rabbit hepatic cancer model for BNCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagie, Hironobu; Higashi, Shushi; Ikushima, Ichiro

    2006-01-01

    Tumor cell destruction in boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) is due to the nuclear reaction between 10 B and thermal neutrons. It is necessary for effective BNCT therapy to accumulate 10 B atoms in the tumor cells without affecting adjacent healthy cells. Water-in-oil-water (WOW) emulsion was used as the carrier of anti-cancer agents on arterial injections in clinical cancer treatment. In this study, we prepared 10 BSH entrapped WOW emulsion for selective arterial infusion for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. WOW emulsion was administrated by arterial injections via proper hepatic artery. The anti-tumor activity of the emulsion was compared with 10 BSH-Lipiodol mix emulsion or 10 BSH solutions on VX-2 rabbit hepatic tumor models. The 10 B concentrations in VX-2 tumor on delivery with WOW emulsion was superior to those by conventional lipiodol mix emulsion. Electro-microscopic figures of WOW emulsion delineated the accumulation of fat droplets of WOW emulsion in the tumor site, but there was no accumulation of fat droplets in lipiodol emulsion. These results indicate that 10 B entrapped WOW emulsion is most useful carrier for arterial delivery of boron agents on BNCT to cancer. (author)

  8. Necrosis targeted radiotherapy with iodine-131-labeled hypericin to improve anticancer efficacy of vascular disrupting treatment in rabbit VX2 tumor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Haibo; Zhang, Jian; Sun, Ziping; Chen, Feng; Dai, Xu; Li, Yaming; Ni, Yicheng; Xu, Ke

    2015-06-10

    A viable rim of tumor cells surrounding central necrosis always exists and leads to tumor recurrence after vascular disrupting treatment (VDT). A novel necrosis targeted radiotherapy (NTRT) using iodine-131-labeled hypericin (131I-Hyp) was specifically designed to treat viable tumor rim and improve tumor control after VDT in rabbit models of multifocal VX2 tumors. NTRT was administered 24 hours after VDT. Tumor growth was significantly slowed down by NTRT with a smaller tumor volume and a prolonged tumor doubling time (14.4 vs. 5.7 days), as followed by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging over 12 days. The viable tumor rims were well inhibited in NTRT group compared with single VDT control group, as showed on tumor cross sections at day 12 (1 vs. 3.7 in area). High targetability of 131I-Hyp to tumor necrosis was demonstrated by in vivo SPECT as high uptake in tumor regions lasting over 9 days with 4.26 to 98 times higher radioactivity for necrosis versus the viable tumor and other organs by gamma counting, and with ratios of 7.7-11.7 and 10.5-13.7 for necrosis over peri-tumor tissue by autoradiography and fluorescence microscopy, respectively. In conclusion, NTRT improved the anticancer efficacy of VDT in rabbits with VX2 tumors.

  9. Harmonic analysis and global solvability of a differential operator invariant on motion groups and semi-simple Lie groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hussein, K.

    1991-08-01

    Let V be a real finite dimensional vector space and let K be a connected compact Lie group, which acts on V by means of a continuous linear representation ρ. Let G=V x p K be the motion group which is the semi-direct product of V by K and let P be an invariant differential operator on G. In this paper we give a necessary and sufficient condition for the global solvability of P on G. Now let G be a connected semi-simple Lie group with finite centre and let P be an invariant differential operator on G. We give also a necessary and sufficient condition for the global solvability of P on G. (author). 8 refs

  10. Gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MR of VX2 carcinoma in rabbit liver: usefulness of the delayed phase imaging and optimal pulse sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seung Il; Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Young Kon; Kim, Chong Soo

    2002-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of delayed imaging using gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance) and to determine the optimal pulse sequence for the detection of VX2 carcinoma lesions in the rabbit. Twelve VX2 carcinomas implanted in the livers of eleven New Zealand rabbits were studied. All patients underwent an MR protocal consisting of precontrast T2-and T1-weighted sequences, followed by repetition of the T1-weighted sequence at 0 to 30 (arterial phase). 31-60 (portal phase), and 40 minutes (delayed phase) after the intravenous administration of 0.1 mmol/kg of gadobenate dimeglumine. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the liver and VX2 tumor, and the lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of precontrast and postcontrast MR images were quantitatively analyzed, and two experienced radiologists evaluated image quality in terms of lesion conspicuity, artifact, mass delineation, and vascular anatomy. Liver SNR was significantly higher at delayed imaging than at precontrast, arterial, and portal imaging (p<0.05), while lesion SNR was significantly higher at delayed imaging than at precontrast imaging (p<0.05). Lesion CNR was higher at delayed imaging than at precontrast and portal phase imaging (p<0.05), but there was no difference between arterial and delayed imaging. The latter provided better mass delineation than precontrast, arterial and portal phase imaging (p<0.05). While in terms of lesion conspicuity and vascular anatomy, the delayed phase was better than the arterial phase (p<0.05) but similar to the precontrast and portal phase. During the delayed phase, the gradient-echo sequence showed better results than the spin-echo in terms of liver SNR, and lesion SNR and CNR (p<0.05). Because it provides better lesion conspicuity and mass delineation by improving liver SNR and lesion-to-liver CNR, the addition of the delayed phase to a dynamic MRI sequence after gadobenate dimeglumine adminstration facilitates lesion detection. For delayed-phase imaging, the

  11. Hepatic Intra-arterial Delivery of a "Trojan-horses" Gene Therapy: A Pilot Study on Rabbit VX2 Hepatic Tumor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, Olivier; Amara, Ikram; Sapoval, Marc; Méachi, Tchao; Déan, Carole; Beaune, Philippe; de Waziers, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    Gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) is a "Trojan-horses" suicide gene therapy that consists of tumor-targeted gene delivery (vectorized by mesenchymal stem cells MSCs) encoding an enzyme that converts a harmless prodrug into cytotoxic metabolites in situ. Then, cytotoxic metabolites passively diffuse in the neighboring tumor cells and kill them (bystander effect). The goal of our study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of intra-arterial administration of MSCs transduced with an optimized gene (MSC-CYP2B6TM-RED) followed by intravenous administration of cyclophosphamide (CPA) into the VX2 rabbit liver tumor. Nine rabbits with a VX2 liver tumor were randomly assigned into three groups: Control group A (one rabbit) free of any treatment; Control group B (two rabbits) receiving intravenous injection of cyclophosphamide at day 3 and CPA at day 14; and Group C (six rabbits) receiving the GDEPT treatment, consisting of successive intra-arterial injection of transduced-MSCs at days 0 (n = 6) and 11 (n = 3), followed by injection of CPA at days 3 (n = 6) and 14 (n = 3). The tumor response was assessed by ultrasound scan every 7 days and histopathological analysis at sacrifice (D25). There was a significant difference in the tumor volume between control groups (A + B) and group C at D7: 38/19 cm 3 (p = 0.024); D11: 51/20 cm 3 (p = 0.024), and D25: 121/37 cm 3 (p = 0.048). Tumor necrosis was significantly greater and metastatic spread was lower for rabbits who received GDEPT (78% of total tumor surface) than for control animals (A + B) (22% of total tumor surface (p = 0.006). Intra-arterial delivery of transduced-MSCs is feasible and, after CPA injection, resulted in 78% tumor necrosis (p = 0.006) and less metastasis in a VX2 liver tumor model.

  12. Gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MR of VX2 carcinoma in rabbit liver: usefulness of the delayed phase imaging and optimal pulse sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seung Il; Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Young Kon; Kim, Chong Soo [College of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of delayed imaging using gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance) and to determine the optimal pulse sequence for the detection of VX2 carcinoma lesions in the rabbit. Twelve VX2 carcinomas implanted in the livers of eleven New Zealand rabbits were studied. All patients underwent an MR protocal consisting of precontrast T2-and T1-weighted sequences, followed by repetition of the T1-weighted sequence at 0 to 30 (arterial phase). 31-60 (portal phase), and 40 minutes (delayed phase) after the intravenous administration of 0.1 mmol/kg of gadobenate dimeglumine. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the liver and VX2 tumor, and the lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of precontrast and postcontrast MR images were quantitatively analyzed, and two experienced radiologists evaluated image quality in terms of lesion conspicuity, artifact, mass delineation, and vascular anatomy. Liver SNR was significantly higher at delayed imaging than at precontrast, arterial, and portal imaging (p<0.05), while lesion SNR was significantly higher at delayed imaging than at precontrast imaging (p<0.05). Lesion CNR was higher at delayed imaging than at precontrast and portal phase imaging (p<0.05), but there was no difference between arterial and delayed imaging. The latter provided better mass delineation than precontrast, arterial and portal phase imaging (p<0.05). While in terms of lesion conspicuity and vascular anatomy, the delayed phase was better than the arterial phase (p<0.05) but similar to the precontrast and portal phase. During the delayed phase, the gradient-echo sequence showed better results than the spin-echo in terms of liver SNR, and lesion SNR and CNR (p<0.05). Because it provides better lesion conspicuity and mass delineation by improving liver SNR and lesion-to-liver CNR, the addition of the delayed phase to a dynamic MRI sequence after gadobenate dimeglumine adminstration facilitates lesion detection. For delayed-phase imaging, the

  13. Effect of hepatic blood flow alteration on the therapeutic effect of cryoablation in VX2 hepatic tumor rabbit: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhi; Ni Hong; Li Baoguo; Hu Yonghua; Xing Wenge; Liu Fang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of alteration of blood flow in the hepatic artery on the therapeutic effect of cryoablation in VX2 hepatic tumor rabbit model. Methods: Thirty rabbits with VX2 hepatic tumor were divided into three groups according to hepatic artery blood flow: complete occlusion of the hepatic artery(group A), partial occlusion of the hepatic artery (group B), and no occlusion of the hepatic artery (group C). With conventional CT scan and perfusion scan, the values of blood flow (BF) and blood volume(BV) of VX 2 tumor were computed and the differences among the three groups were analyzed. After cryoablation, the animals were euthanized and the livers were removed. The hepatic tissue from the cryoablation area and surrounding area underwent both methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTY) diaphorase staining and triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. The gross pathology and histopathological changes were observed. Results: (1)The BF and BV in the three groups were: (7.23 + 2. 15 ) ml·100 g -1 ·min -1 and (1.63±0.52) ml/100 g in group A; (32.65±6.12) ml·100 g -1 ·min -1 and (9.32±2.63) ml/100 g in group B; (61.34±12.15) ml·100 g -1 ·min -1 and (17.51± 3.14) ml/100 g in group C, respectively. There were significant differences among the three groups in the BF and BV (F value was 452.16 and 421.33 in the BF and BV, respectively, P <0.01); (2) The maximum diameter of cryoablation-induced necrosis was (2.3±0.3)cm in group A, (1.5±0.2) cm in group B, and (0.8±0.1) cm in group C, respectively. The difference was significant among the groups (F value was 315.32,P <0.01). (3) There were well-defined frozen areas, bordering areas and normal surrounding areas in MTT staining. In group C, positive staining around some blood vessels could be seen. Conclusion: Alteration of the blood flow in the hepatic artery can affect the cryoablation efficacy. With the decrease of hepatic artery blood flow, the efficacy of cryoablation on liver tumor

  14. Multi-parametric monitoring and assessment of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) boiling by harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU): an ex vivo feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Gary Y; Marquet, Fabrice; Wang, Shutao; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2014-01-01

    Harmonic motion imaging for focused ultrasound (HMIFU) is a recently developed high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment monitoring method with feasibilities demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. Here, a multi-parametric study is performed to investigate both elastic and acoustics-independent viscoelastic tissue changes using the Harmonic Motion Imaging (HMI) displacement, axial compressive strain and change in relative phase shift during high energy HIFU treatment with tissue boiling. Forty three (n = 43) thermal lesions were formed in ex vivo canine liver specimens (n = 28). Two-dimensional (2D) transverse HMI displacement maps were also obtained before and after lesion formation. The same method was repeated in 10 s, 20 s and 30 s HIFU durations at three different acoustic powers of 8, 10, and 11 W, which were selected and verified as treatment parameters capable of inducing boiling using both thermocouple and passive cavitation detection (PCD) measurements. Although a steady decrease in the displacement, compressive strain, and relative change in the focal phase shift (Δϕ) were obtained in numerous cases, indicating an overall increase in relative stiffness, the study outcomes also showed that during boiling, a reverse lesion-to-background displacement contrast was detected, indicating potential change in tissue absorption, geometrical change and/or, mechanical gelatification or pulverization. Following treatment, corresponding 2D HMI displacement images of the thermal lesions also mapped consistent discrepancy in the lesion-to-background displacement contrast. Despite the expectedly chaotic changes in acoustic properties with boiling, the relative change in phase shift showed a consistent decrease, indicating its robustness to monitor biomechanical properties independent of the acoustic property changes throughout the HIFU treatment. In addition, the 2D HMI displacement images confirmed and indicated the increase in the thermal lesion size with

  15. Real-time Monitoring of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) Ablation of In Vitro Canine Livers Using Harmonic Motion Imaging for Focused Ultrasound (HMIFU).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondin, Julien; Payen, Thomas; Wang, Shutao; Konofagou, Elisa E

    2015-11-03

    Harmonic Motion Imaging for Focused Ultrasound (HMIFU) is a technique that can perform and monitor high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation. An oscillatory motion is generated at the focus of a 93-element and 4.5 MHz center frequency HIFU transducer by applying a 25 Hz amplitude-modulated signal using a function generator. A 64-element and 2.5 MHz imaging transducer with 68kPa peak pressure is confocally placed at the center of the HIFU transducer to acquire the radio-frequency (RF) channel data. In this protocol, real-time monitoring of thermal ablation using HIFU with an acoustic power of 7 W on canine livers in vitro is described. HIFU treatment is applied on the tissue during 2 min and the ablated region is imaged in real-time using diverging or plane wave imaging up to 1,000 frames/second. The matrix of RF channel data is multiplied by a sparse matrix for image reconstruction. The reconstructed field of view is of 90° for diverging wave and 20 mm for plane wave imaging and the data are sampled at 80 MHz. The reconstruction is performed on a Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) in order to image in real-time at a 4.5 display frame rate. 1-D normalized cross-correlation of the reconstructed RF data is used to estimate axial displacements in the focal region. The magnitude of the peak-to-peak displacement at the focal depth decreases during the thermal ablation which denotes stiffening of the tissue due to the formation of a lesion. The displacement signal-to-noise ratio (SNRd) at the focal area for plane wave was 1.4 times higher than for diverging wave showing that plane wave imaging appears to produce better displacement maps quality for HMIFU than diverging wave imaging.

  16. Intratumoral distribution of {sup 64}Cu-ATSM and {sup 18}F-FDG in VX2 tumor bearing rabbit model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Ran Ji; Lee, Yong Jin; Lee, Won Ho; Kim, Kyeong Min; Park, Ji Ae; Lee, Kyo Chul; Chung, Wee Sup; Kang, Joo Hyun; Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Imaging acquisition and analysis of hypoxic region within solid tumor is essential for understanding the microenvironment of tumor, and is also important for the establishment of proper therapeutic strategy and evaluation for radiation therapy (1-5). {sup 64}Cu-labeled diacetyl-bis (N{sub 4}-methylthiosemicarbazone) ({sup 64}Cu-ATSM) is a promising agent for imaging of hypoxic tissues and internal radiation therapy for tumor. In this study, we obtained PET/CT images of tumor using {sup 64}Cu-ATSM and {sup 18}F-FDG, and then evaluated the distribution of hypoxic region after comparing with oxygen partial pressure in VX2 tumor bearing rabbit model. MR images are also obtained for precise anatomical information

  17. Early quantification of the therapeutic efficacy of the vascular disrupting agent, CKD-516, using dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in rabbit VX2 liver tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Ijin; Kim, Jung Hoon; Lee, Jeong Min; Choi, Jin Woo; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (DCE-US) in the early quantification of hemodynamic change following administration of the vascular disrupting agent (VDA) CKD-516 using a rabbit VX2 liver tumor model. This study was approved by our institutional animal care and use committee. Eight VX2 liver-tumor-bearing rabbits were treated with intravenous CKD-516, and all underwent DCE-US using SonoVue before and again 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours following their treatment. The tumor perfusion parameters were obtained from the time-intensity curve of the DCE-US data. Repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to assess any significant change in tumor perfusion over time. Relative changes in the DCE-US parameters between the baseline and follow-up assessments were correlated with the relative changes in tumor size over the course of seven days using Pearson correlation. CKD-516 treatment resulted in significant changes in the DCE-US parameters, including the peak intensity, total area under the time-intensity curve (AUCtotal), and AUC during wash-out (AUCout) over time (P<0.05). Pairwise comparison tests revealed that the AUCtotal and AUC during wash-in (AUCin) seen on the two-hour follow-up were significantly lower than the baseline values (P<0.05). However, none of early changes in the DCE-US parameters until 24-hour follow-up showed a significant correlation with the relative changes in tumor size during seven days after CKD-516 treatment. Our results suggest that a novel VDA (CKD-516) can cause disruption of tumor perfusion as early as two hours after treatment and that the therapeutic effect of CKD-516 treatment can be effectively quantified using DCE-US.

  18. The evaluation of anti-angiogenic treatment effects for implanted rabbit VX2 breast tumors using functional multi-slice spiral computed tomography (f-MSCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei Zhen, E-mail: leizhen2004@163.com [Department of Anatomy, Chinese Medical University, No. 92, Beiermalu Road, Heping District, Shenyang, 110001 (China) and Department of Radiology, The First Hospital of Liaoning Medical College, No. 2, Wuduan, Renmin Street, Jinzhou, 121001 (China); Ma Heji, E-mail: maheji9831@sina.com [Department of Radiology, The First Hospital of Liaoning Medical College, No. 2, Wuduan, Renmin Street, Jinzhou, 121001 (China); Xu Na, E-mail: xuna821230@sohu.com [Department of Radiology, The First Hospital of Liaoning Medical College, No. 2, Wuduan, Renmin Street, Jinzhou, 121001 (China); Xi Huanjiu, E-mail: xihuanjiu2004@yahoo.cn [Anthropology Institute, Liaoning Medical College, No. 40, Sanduan, Songpo Rd, Jinzhou, 121001 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Objective: Investigate the benefit of functional multi-slice spiral computed tomography (f-MSCT) perfusion imaging in the non-invasive assessment of targeted anti-angiogenesis therapy on an implanted rabbit VX2 breast tumor model. Method: 69 female pure New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned to one of the 4 groups and received treatment accordingly: control (saline), Endostar, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (Cyclophosphamide, Epirubicin and 5-Fluorouracil, CEF), combination therapy (Endostar and CEF). After 2 weeks of treatment, f-MSCT perfusion scannings were performed for all rabbits and information about blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT) and surface permeability (SP) was collected. After perfusion imaging, tumor tissues were sampled for immunohistochemistry and the Western blot test of VEGF protein expression. Results: (1) The VEGF expression level, measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, decreased by treatment group (control > Endostar > CEF > combination therapy). The same was true for the mean BF, BV, MTT and PS, which decreased from the control group to the combination therapy group gradually. The mean MTT level increased in reverse order from the control to the combination therapy group. The difference between any 2 groups on these measures was statistically significant (P < 0.05). (2) There was moderate positive correlation between VEGF expression and BE, BV, or PS level (P < 0.05) and a negative correlation between VEGF expression and MTT level for all 4 groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Therefore, f-MSCT can be used as a non-invasive approach to evaluate the effect of anti-angiogenic therapy for implanted rabbit VX2 breast tumors.

  19. The Antitumor Effect and Hepatotoxicity of a Hexokinase II Inhibitor 3-Bromopyruvate: In Vivo Investigation of Intraarterial Administration in a Rabbit VX2 Hepatoma Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jae, Hwan Jun; Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Hee Sun; Lee, Min Jong; Lee, Ki Chang; Kim, Hyo Cheol; Yoon, Jung Hwan; Park, Jae Hyung; Chung, He Son

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the antitumor effect and hepatotoxicity of an intraarterial delivery of low-dose and high-dose 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) and those of a conventional Lipiodol-doxorubicin emulsion in a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model. This experiment was approved by the animal care committee at our institution. VX2 carcinoma was implanted in the livers of 36 rabbits. Transcatheter intraarterial administration was performed using low dose 3- BrPA (25 mL in a 1 mM concentration, n = 10), high dose 3-BrPA (25 mL in a 5 mM concentration, n = 10) and Lipiodol-doxorubicin emulsion (1.6 mg doxorubicin/ 0.4 mL Lipiodol, n = 10), and six rabbits were treated with normal saline alone as a control group. One week later, the proportion of tumor necrosis was calculated based on histopathologic examination. The hepatotoxicity was evaluated by biochemical analysis. The differences between these groups were statistically assessed with using Mann-Whitney U tests and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The tumor necrosis rate was significantly higher in the high dose group (93% ± 7.6 [mean ± SD]) than that in the control group (48% ± 21.7) (p = 0.0002), but the tumor necrosis rate was not significantly higher in the low dose group (62% ± 20.0) (p = 0.2780). However, the tumor necrosis rate of the high dose group was significantly lower than that of the Lipiodol-doxorubicin treatment group (99% ± 2.7) (p = 0.0015). The hepatotoxicity observed in the 3-BrPA groups was comparable to that of the Lipiodol-doxorubicin group. Even though intraarterial delivery of 3-BrPA shows a dose-related antitumor effect, single session treatment seems to have limited efficacy when compared with the conventional method

  20. The antitumor effect and hepatotoxicity of a hexokinase II inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate: in vivo investigation of intraarterial administration in a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jae, Hwan Jun; Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Hee Sun; Lee, Min Jong; Lee, Ki Chang; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Yoon, Jung Hwan; Chung, Hesson; Park, Jae Hyung

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the antitumor effect and hepatotoxicity of an intraarterial delivery of low-dose and high-dose 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) and those of a conventional Lipiodol-doxorubicin emulsion in a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model. This experiment was approved by the animal care committee at our institution. VX2 carcinoma was implanted in the livers of 36 rabbits. Transcatheter intraarterial administration was performed using low dose 3-BrPA (25 mL in a 1 mM concentration, n = 10), high dose 3-BrPA (25 mL in a 5 mM concentration, n = 10) and Lipiodol-doxorubicin emulsion (1.6 mg doxorubicin/ 0.4 mL Lipiodol, n = 10), and six rabbits were treated with normal saline alone as a control group. One week later, the proportion of tumor necrosis was calculated based on histopathologic examination. The hepatotoxicity was evaluated by biochemical analysis. The differences between these groups were statistically assessed with using Mann-Whitney U tests and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The tumor necrosis rate was significantly higher in the high dose group (93% +/- 7.6 [mean +/- SD]) than that in the control group (48% +/- 21.7) (p = 0.0002), but the tumor necrosis rate was not significantly higher in the low dose group (62% +/- 20.0) (p = 0.2780). However, the tumor necrosis rate of the high dose group was significantly lower than that of the Lipiodol-doxorubicin treatment group (99% +/- 2.7) (p = 0.0015). The hepatotoxicity observed in the 3-BrPA groups was comparable to that of the Lipiodol-doxorubicin group. Even though intraarterial delivery of 3-BrPA shows a dose-related antitumor effect, single session treatment seems to have limited efficacy when compared with the conventional method.

  1. The Antitumor Effect and Hepatotoxicity of a Hexokinase II Inhibitor 3-Bromopyruvate: In Vivo Investigation of Intraarterial Administration in a Rabbit VX2 Hepatoma Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jae, Hwan Jun; Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Hee Sun; Lee, Min Jong; Lee, Ki Chang; Kim, Hyo Cheol; Yoon, Jung Hwan; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, He Son [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the antitumor effect and hepatotoxicity of an intraarterial delivery of low-dose and high-dose 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) and those of a conventional Lipiodol-doxorubicin emulsion in a rabbit VX2 hepatoma model. This experiment was approved by the animal care committee at our institution. VX2 carcinoma was implanted in the livers of 36 rabbits. Transcatheter intraarterial administration was performed using low dose 3- BrPA (25 mL in a 1 mM concentration, n = 10), high dose 3-BrPA (25 mL in a 5 mM concentration, n = 10) and Lipiodol-doxorubicin emulsion (1.6 mg doxorubicin/ 0.4 mL Lipiodol, n = 10), and six rabbits were treated with normal saline alone as a control group. One week later, the proportion of tumor necrosis was calculated based on histopathologic examination. The hepatotoxicity was evaluated by biochemical analysis. The differences between these groups were statistically assessed with using Mann-Whitney U tests and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The tumor necrosis rate was significantly higher in the high dose group (93% +- 7.6 [mean +- SD]) than that in the control group (48% +- 21.7) (p = 0.0002), but the tumor necrosis rate was not significantly higher in the low dose group (62% +- 20.0) (p = 0.2780). However, the tumor necrosis rate of the high dose group was significantly lower than that of the Lipiodol-doxorubicin treatment group (99% +- 2.7) (p = 0.0015). The hepatotoxicity observed in the 3-BrPA groups was comparable to that of the Lipiodol-doxorubicin group. Even though intraarterial delivery of 3-BrPA shows a dose-related antitumor effect, single session treatment seems to have limited efficacy when compared with the conventional method

  2. Empirical study of 99Tcm-HYNIC-A(D) A(D) APRPG in rabbit model of inflammation and VX2 tumor xenografted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ciyi; Song Shaoli; Xie Wenhui; Cai Xiaojia; Zhang Lihua; Huang Gang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the uptake of 99 Tc m -hydrazinonicotinamide-D-alanine- D-alanine-alanine-proline-arginine-proline-glycine (HYNIC-A(D) A(D) APRPG) in rabbit models of inflammation and VX2 tumor xenografted, so as to evaluate its use as a new tracer for tumor angiogenesis. Methods: Ten rabbit models of xenoplanted VX2 tumor and inflammation were randomly divided into two groups which were injected with different injected tracers, 99 Tc m -HYNIC-A(D) A (D)APRPG 99 Tc m -RGD, followed by serial Gamma images at various time points. The first group underwent 18 F-FDG PET ahead of 99 Tc m -HYNICA(D)A (D) APRPG SPECT. Analysis of variance and t-test were performed with SPSS 10.0. Results: 99 Tc m -HYNIC-A(D) A (D)APRPG scan showed negative uptake at inflammation focus but positive uptake at tumor. Pathological examination confirmed high 99 Tc m -HYNIC-A(D)A(D) APRPG accumulation in tumor cells, with the highest tumor/inflammation ratio (3.25±0.171) at 2 h post-injection, which was significantly higher than that of 99 Tc m -RGD (2.37±0.076) (F = 15.63, P 99 Tc m -HYNIC-A(D)A(D)APRPG, 99 Tc m -RGD, 18 F-FDG were significantly different at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 6 h (F=13.83∼26.41; t =23.84, 12.75; all P 99 Tc m -HYNIC-A (D) A (D)APRPG can be used as a potential tracer for tumor angiogenesis. (authors)

  3. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI using a macromolecular MR contrast agent (P792): Evaluation of antivascular drug effect in a rabbit VX2 liver tumor model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Sun [Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Joon Koo; Lee, Jeong Min; Woo, Sung Min; Choi, Byung Ihn [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Il [Dept. of Radiology, Sheikh Khalifa Specialty Hospital, Ras Al Khaimah (United Arab Emirates); Choi, Jin Young [Dept. of Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To evaluate the utility of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) using macromolecular contrast agent (P792) for assessment of vascular disrupting drug effect in rabbit VX2 liver tumor models. This study was approved by our Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. DCE-MRI was performed with 3-T scanner in 13 VX2 liver tumor-bearing rabbits, before, 4 hours after, and 24 hours after administration of vascular disrupting agent (VDA), using gadomelitol (P792, n = 7) or low molecular weight contrast agent (gadoterate meglumine [Gd-DOTA], n = 6). P792 was injected at a of dose 0.05 mmol/kg, while that of Gd-DOTA was 0.2 mmol/kg. DCE-MRI parameters including volume transfer coefficient (Ktrans) and initial area under the gadolinium concentration-time curve until 60 seconds (iAUC) of tumors were compared between the 2 groups at each time point. DCE-MRI parameters were correlated with tumor histopathology. Reproducibility in measurement of DCE-MRI parameters and image quality of source MR were compared between groups. P792 group showed a more prominent decrease in Ktrans and iAUC at 4 hours and 24 hours, as compared to the Gd-DOTA group. Changes in DCE-MRI parameters showed a weak correlation with histologic parameters (necrotic fraction and microvessel density) in both groups. Reproducibility of DCE-MRI parameters and overall image quality was not significantly better in the P792 group, as compared to the Gd-DOTA group. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging using a macromolecular contrast agent shows changes of hepatic perfusion more clearly after administration of the VDA. Gadolinium was required at smaller doses than a low molecular contrast agent.

  4. The evaluation of anti-angiogenic treatment effects for implanted rabbit VX2 breast tumors using functional multi-slice spiral computed tomography (f-MSCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Zhen; Ma Heji; Xu Na; Xi Huanjiu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Investigate the benefit of functional multi-slice spiral computed tomography (f-MSCT) perfusion imaging in the non-invasive assessment of targeted anti-angiogenesis therapy on an implanted rabbit VX2 breast tumor model. Method: 69 female pure New Zealand white rabbits were randomly assigned to one of the 4 groups and received treatment accordingly: control (saline), Endostar, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (Cyclophosphamide, Epirubicin and 5-Fluorouracil, CEF), combination therapy (Endostar and CEF). After 2 weeks of treatment, f-MSCT perfusion scannings were performed for all rabbits and information about blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT) and surface permeability (SP) was collected. After perfusion imaging, tumor tissues were sampled for immunohistochemistry and the Western blot test of VEGF protein expression. Results: (1) The VEGF expression level, measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, decreased by treatment group (control > Endostar > CEF > combination therapy). The same was true for the mean BF, BV, MTT and PS, which decreased from the control group to the combination therapy group gradually. The mean MTT level increased in reverse order from the control to the combination therapy group. The difference between any 2 groups on these measures was statistically significant (P < 0.05). (2) There was moderate positive correlation between VEGF expression and BE, BV, or PS level (P < 0.05) and a negative correlation between VEGF expression and MTT level for all 4 groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Therefore, f-MSCT can be used as a non-invasive approach to evaluate the effect of anti-angiogenic therapy for implanted rabbit VX2 breast tumors.

  5. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI using a macromolecular MR contrast agent (P792): Evaluation of antivascular drug effect in a rabbit VX2 liver tumor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Sun; Han, Joon Koo; Lee, Jeong Min; Woo, Sung Min; Choi, Byung Ihn; Kim, Young Il; Choi, Jin Young

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the utility of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) using macromolecular contrast agent (P792) for assessment of vascular disrupting drug effect in rabbit VX2 liver tumor models. This study was approved by our Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. DCE-MRI was performed with 3-T scanner in 13 VX2 liver tumor-bearing rabbits, before, 4 hours after, and 24 hours after administration of vascular disrupting agent (VDA), using gadomelitol (P792, n = 7) or low molecular weight contrast agent (gadoterate meglumine [Gd-DOTA], n = 6). P792 was injected at a of dose 0.05 mmol/kg, while that of Gd-DOTA was 0.2 mmol/kg. DCE-MRI parameters including volume transfer coefficient (Ktrans) and initial area under the gadolinium concentration-time curve until 60 seconds (iAUC) of tumors were compared between the 2 groups at each time point. DCE-MRI parameters were correlated with tumor histopathology. Reproducibility in measurement of DCE-MRI parameters and image quality of source MR were compared between groups. P792 group showed a more prominent decrease in Ktrans and iAUC at 4 hours and 24 hours, as compared to the Gd-DOTA group. Changes in DCE-MRI parameters showed a weak correlation with histologic parameters (necrotic fraction and microvessel density) in both groups. Reproducibility of DCE-MRI parameters and overall image quality was not significantly better in the P792 group, as compared to the Gd-DOTA group. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging using a macromolecular contrast agent shows changes of hepatic perfusion more clearly after administration of the VDA. Gadolinium was required at smaller doses than a low molecular contrast agent

  6. Effects of acetylsalicylic acid and acetic acid solutions in VX2 carcinoma cells: In vitro analysis Efeito da solução de ácido acetilsalicílico e de ácido acético sobre o carcinoma vx-2: Análise in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Saad-Hossne

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze, in vitro, the effects of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin and acetic acid solutions on VX2 carcinoma cells in suspension and to examine the correlation between these effects and neoplastic cell death. METHODS: The VX2 tumor cells (10(7 cells/ml were incubated in solutions containing differing concentrations (2.5% and 5% of either acetylsalicylic acid or acetic acid, or in saline solution (controls. Every five minutes, cell viability was tested (using the trypan blue test and analyzed under light microscopy. RESULTS: Tumor cell viability (in % decreased progressively and, by 30 minutes, neoplastic cell death had occurred in all solutions. CONCLUSION: Based on this experimental model and the methodology employed, we conclude that these solutions cause neoplastic cell death in vitro.OBJETIVO: Analisar os efeitos das soluções de ácido acetil salicílico (aspirina e de ácido acético, in vitro, sobre células em suspensão do carcinoma VX-2, verificando-se as mesmas causam a morte das células neoplásicas. MÉTODOS: Procedeu-se a incubação das células tumorais VX-2 (10(7 células/ml com diferentes concentrações do ácido acetil salicílico (2,5% e 5% e de ácido acético (2,5% e 5%, sendo estudada a viabilidade celular pelo teste do azul tripian a cada 5 minutos; procedeu-se à análise à microscopia ótica. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que o percentual de viabilidade das células tumorais foi progressivamente diminuindo, sendo que ao final de 30 minutos todas as células neoplásicas estavam inviáveis em todas as soluções e concentrações utilizadas. CONCLUSÃO: Com base neste modelo experimental e com a metodologia empregada, concluiu-se que in vitro, estas soluções causam a morte (inviabilidade das células neoplásicas.

  7. PET/CT及DWI-MRI早期评估兔VX2肉瘤射频消融效果%FDG-PET/CT and diffusion-weighted MRI evaluation of the early therapeutic effect of radiofrequency ablation for VX2 sarcomas in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石华铮; 刘士远; 朱海云; 杨春山; 高欣; 平照福; 寿毅; 华威; 吴翔

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨弥散加权(DWI)-MRI和18F-FDG-PET/CT评估兔VX2肉瘤射频消融(RFA)治疗早期效果的价值。方法14只新西兰白兔双侧后肢接种VX2肉瘤建模,一侧后肢VX2肉瘤接受超声引导下RFA治疗(RFA组),对侧后肢不进行射频治疗(对照组)。 RFA治疗后2 d行DWI-MRI检查,治疗后3 d行PET/CT检查。分别计算肿瘤病灶和消融灶表观弥散系数(ADC)值和标准摄取值(SUV)值。根据外科切除病灶组织病理学检查结果金标准,分别对DWI-MRI、PET/CT及两者联合等3种方法评估RFA瘤灶行临床诊断一致性Kappa检验。结果 VX2肉瘤RFA前,DWI-MRI显示T1低信号,T2高信号,T1加权像环状强化,PET/CT显示18F-FDG呈结节状或环状聚集;消融后DWI-MRI显示T1高信号, T2轻度高密度,T1加权像轻度强化,PET/CT显示18F-FDG浓聚程度减低。消融瘤灶ADC值为(1.52±0.24)×10-3 mm2/s,明显高于未消融瘤灶(1.09±0.12)×10-3 mm2/s(P0.05),DWI-MRI联合PET/CT评估结果与组织病理学诊断结果的一致性Kappa值为0.786,与前两者均有显著性差别(P0.05). The Kappa value of the consistency between combination of DWI-MRI with PET/CT and pathology was 0.786, which was significantly different from the result by simple DWI-MRI or simple PET/CT evaluation (P< 0.05). Conclusion Both ADC value of DWI-MRI and SUV value of PET/CT are useful indexes for evaluating the early therapeutic effect of RFA. Both DWI-MRI and PET/CT have their respective advantages, nevertheless, combination use of both can effectively improve the evaluation of curative effect for VX2 tumor after RFA in experimental rabbits.

  8. A dynamic study of correlation between the MR diffusion weighted imaging findings and the expression of proliferation-related and metastasis-related genes in rabbit models of liver VX2 tumor before and after chemoembolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Youhong; Liu Jianbin; Xiao Enhua; He Zhong; Ma Cong; Xiang Jun; Jin Ke; Chen Wenjian; Xiao Jiehua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Bax, non-metastasis 23(nm23) and E-cadherin (E-cad) genes in rabbit models of liver VX 2 tumor before and after chemoembolization. Methods: Forty rabbit models of liver VX 2 tumor were divided into four groups with 10 rabbits in each group. The first group was the control group which didn't undergo chemoembolization. The second, third and fourth groups underwent chemoembolization, and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) was performed at 16 h, 32 h and 48 h after chemoembolization respectively. The pathological and immunohistological examinations were carried out right after DWI. The sampling areas included the normal liver parenchyma around the tumor, the outer- layer area, the peripheral area, and the central area. The expression indices of PCNA, Bax, nm23, E-cad in all the samples were recorded and their correlation with corresponding ADC value were analyzed. Results: (1) PCNA expression indices in the outer layer area, the peripheral area and central area of VX 2 tumors(65.1%, 74.7%, and 59.0% respectively) were higher than that in the area of normal parenchyma around tumor (8.3%) (X 2 =19.08, P 2 tumors (nm 23: 1.7%, 0.4% , and 6.2% respectively; Bax: 2. 0%, 1.2% , and 2. 2% respectively; E-cad:6.2%, 2.0%, and 1.6% respectively) were lower than that in the area of normal parenchyma around tumor (nm23 16.5%; Bax 40.0%; E-cad 78.0%. χ 2 =12.86, 20.17, and 22.20 respectively; P 2 tumor periphery were 83.0%, 92.6% and 85.7% in 16 h group, 32 h group and 48 h group respectively after chemoembolization and those of nm23 expression indices were 2.3%, 7.4%, 4.2% and those of Bax expression index were 0.8%, 0.5%, 0.9% and those of E-cad expression indices were 2.8%, 1.0%, 1.1%. The PCNA and nm23 expression in the area of VX 2 tumor periphery increased at the beginning and then decreased (χ 2 =14.37, 8.94; P 2

  9. Monochromatic Spectral Computed Tomography with Low Iodine Concentration Contrast Medium in a Rabbit VX2 Liver Model:: Investigation of Image Quality and Detection Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Xu, Han; Hou, Ping; Dong, Jun Q; Wang, Ming Y; Gao, Jian B

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to validate the feasibility of using virtual monochromatic spectral computed tomography (CT) with isotonic low iodine concentration contrast medium for VX2 hepatic tumors. Sixty New Zealand white rabbits with implanted VX2 hepatic tumors underwent two-phase contrast-enhanced spectral CT imaging on the 14th day after tumor implantation. They were randomly divided into groups A, B, and C, with 20 rabbits each (group A: 270 mg I/mL, monochromatic spectral images; group B: 370 mg I/mL, conventional 120 kVp images, 100% filtered back projection [FBP]; group C: 270 mg I/mL, conventional 120 kVp images, 100% FBP). Group A was further divided into two subgroups (subgroup A1: 100% FBP; subgroup A2: 50% FBP + 50% adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction). Objective evaluation (signal-to-noise ratio [SNR], contrast-to-noise ratio [CNR], and image noise), subjective rating score (image noise score, anatomical details score, overall image quality score, and lesion conspicuity score), CT dose index volume, and dose length product were compared between groups during two-phase contrast enhancement. The detection rates of the four groups were calculated as percentages. Image noise (SNR and CNR) among the four groups was statistically significant (P noise in group A2 was lower than in group A1, but higher than that in groups B and C (P noise score of group A2 was higher than that of the other three groups. In terms of the anatomic details score, the overall image quality score, and the lesion conspicuity score, the images of group A2 were superior to that of groups A1 and C. For hepatic tumor diameters more than or equal to 1.0 cm and less than 3.0 cm, group A achieved a higher detection rate than groups B and C. The CT dose index volume, dose length product, and effective dose in group A were significantly lower than that in groups B and C (P noise, increase detection rate for small tumors, and decrease radiation dose and iodine load in

  10. A comparison of perfusion computed tomography and contrast enhanced computed tomography on radiation target volume delineation using rabbit VX2 brain tumor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Changjin; Luo Yunxiu; Yu Jinming; Lu Haibo; Li Chao; Zhang Dekang; Huang Jianming; Wang Jie; Lang Jinyi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the accuracy of blood volume perfusion imaging (perfusion CT)with contrast enhanced 64-slice spiral computed tomography (CECT) in the evaluation of gross tumor volume (GTV) and clinical target volume (CTV) using rabbits with VX2 brain tumor. Methods: Perfusion CT and CECT were performed in 20 rabbits with VX2 brain tumor. The GTV and CTV calculated with the maximal and minimal diameter of each tumor in the blood volume (BV) maps and CECT were measured and compared to those in pathological specimens. Results: The mean value of the maximal and minimal diameter of GTV was (8.19 ± 2.29) mm and (4.83 ± 1.31) mm in pathological specimens, (11.98 ±3.29) mm and (7.03±1.82) mm in BV maps, while (6.36±3.85) mm and (3.17±1.93) mm in CECT images, which were significantly different (pathological specimen vs. BV map, t = 7.17, P =0.000;pathological specimen vs. CECT, t = 8.37, P = 0.000, respectively). The mean value of the maximal and minimal diameter of CTV in pathologic specimens was (12.87 ± 3.74) mm and (7.71 ± 2.15) mm, which was significantly different from that of GTV and CTV in CECT (t = - 3. 18, P = 0. 005 and t = - 4.24, P =0.000; t= -11.59,P=0.000 and t= -9.39, P=0.000), while similar with that of GTV in BV maps (t = - 1.95,P = 0. 067; t = - 2. 06, P = 0. 054). For CECT, the margin from GTV to CTV was 81.83% ±40.33% for the maximal diameter and 276.73% ± 131.46% for the minimal. While for BV maps, the margin was 7.93% ± 17. 84% and 12.52% ± 27. 83%, which was significant different from that for CECT images (t=7.36, P=0. 000 and t= -8.78, P=0.000). Conclusions: Compared with CECT, the BV map from 64-slice spiral CT perfusion imaging might have higher accuracy in target volume delineation for brain tumor. (authors)

  11. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging allows monitoring the effect of combretastatin A4 phosphate on rabbit implanted VX2 tumor model: 12-Day dynamic results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Haibo; Ni Yicheng; Dai Xu; Zhang Jian; Chen Feng; Fan, Guoguang; Sun Ziping; Li Yaming; Zhou Hongxu; Xu Ke

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the 12-day dynamic characteristics of tumor response to intravenous administration of CA4P in rabbit VX2 tumor models. Methods: Study protocol was approved by local ethical committee for animal care and use. Sixteen rabbits with 32 tumors on bilateral legs were randomly divided into treated and control groups. Conventional and DWI images were acquired before and 24 h, 4 days, 8 days and 12 days after treatment. The dynamic changes of tumor on images were correlated with histological results. ADCs were compared among and between groups at different time points. Results: The tumors in treated group grew slower than those in control group. In treaded group, the mean ADC decreased slightly at 24 h point due to cell edema caused by ischemia. Then, it increased significantly at 4 days and 8 days because of progressive central necrosis. Finally, peripheral tumor proliferation caused a second decrease of ADC at 12 days. The significant difference of ΔADC% between the two groups at 24 h, 4 days and 8 days indicated that the change of ADC in treated group was really caused by CA4P. Conclusion: The dynamic histological changes of tumor caused by CA4P as reflected exactly by diffusion-weighted MR imaging indicate a noninvasive measure for monitoring tumor vascular targeting treatment.

  12. Pulse sequence optimization for superparamagnetic iron oxide-enhaced MR imaging in the detection of hepatic VX2 tumors in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Hyun Jung; Han, Joon Koo; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Se Hyung; Choi, Byung Ihn; Kim, Tae Kyoung

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to determine the optimal pulse sequences for SPIO-enhanced MR imaging in the evaluation of multiple hepatic tumors. Twelve rabbits with multiple VX2 liver tumors underwent SPOI-enhanced MRI using the following nine pulse sequences: TSE T2-weighted imaging (T2W1), TSE proton density-weighted imaging(PDWI), and GRE T2*-weighted imaging (T2*W1) with seven different echo times (TE). Liver-lesion contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) were calculated, and images were also assessed qualitatively by two radiologists, who reached a consensus as to lesion conspicuity and imaging artifacts using a four-level scale. By means of pathologic correlation, the sensitivity and positive predictive value of each sequence was calculated. TSE T2W1 and long-TE (35 msec) FLASH T2*W1 showed the highest liver-lesion CNR. The best lesion conspicuity was seen at TSE T2W1 and medium-TE (12 msec) GRE T2*W1. Short TE GRE T2*W1 showed the least imaging artifacts. The four sequences which demonstrated the best sensitivity were medium-TE (12 msec), GRE T2*W1 (FLASH, 84%; FISP, 82%), TSE W2T1 (79%), and TSE PDWI (76%). All nine sequences showed overall high positive predictive value (86-97%), with no statistically significant difference (p>0.05). In terms of image quality and the detection of sensitivity, TSE T2W1 and medium TE (12 msec) GRE T2*W1 were the top two pulse sequences among the various sequences used for no SPIO-enhanced MRI. They are thus considered to be optimal sequences for evaluating multiple malignant hepatic tumors

  13. Comparative studies on the effect of radiation-sensitizing agents used in radiating VX2 Carcinoma. With reference to 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migita, H [Kyushu Dental Coll., Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan)

    1975-11-01

    The effects of 5-Fu and BUdR as radiation-sensitizing agents macroscopically were investigated in 122 VX2 Carcinomas transplanted into the calves of the hind legs of rabbits. Experimental groups and contrast groups are divided into six as follows: A: No treatment, B: 5-Fu infusion, C: BUdR+Antimetabolite infusion, D: Radiation, E: 5-Fu infusion and radiation, and F: BUdR+Antimetabolite infusion and radiation. The amount of agent given to each was 5 mg/kg/day of 5-Fu and 50 mg/kg/day of BUdR, and the amount of radiation was 300 rad/day. 5-Fu was used as the Antimetabolite, and its amount was one-tenth of that in the 5-Fu Infusion Group. The agent and the radiation were given for five days. 1. In the 300 rad/day Group, the radiation was not enough to result in a complete cure. 2. In the two Agent Infusion Group, 5-Fu and BUdR+Antimetabolite proved to be anti-cancer, but neither of them resulted in effective treatment. 3. The 5-Fu Infusion and Radiation Group, showed a strong degenerative change in the tumor cell and a radiosensitive effect from 5-Fu, but the tumor was not lessened. 4. In the BUdR-Antimetabolite Infusion and Radiation Group, the tumor began to reduce on the third day. On the seventh and fourteenth days, necrosis of the greater part of tumor was seen, and the rest of the tumor cells were found to be in degenerative change. On the twenty first day, no live tumor cell was found, only dead remains of tumor cells. The results were confirmed both macroscopically and histopathologically. 5. BUdR can be expected to be effective in clinical application to oral malignant tumors.

  14. A Look at Damped Harmonic Oscillators through the Phase Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshbod, Yousef; Latulippe, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Damped harmonic oscillations appear naturally in many applications involving mechanical and electrical systems as well as in biological systems. Most students are introduced to harmonic motion in an elementary ordinary differential equation (ODE) course. Solutions to ODEs that describe simple harmonic motion are usually found by investigating the…

  15. Harmonically excited orbital variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, T.

    1985-01-01

    Rephrasing the equations of motion for orbital maneuvers in terms of Lagrangian generalized coordinates instead of Newtonian rectangular cartesian coordinates can make certain harmonic terms in the orbital angular momentum vector more readily apparent. In this formulation the equations of motion adopt the form of a damped harmonic oscillator when torques are applied to the orbit in a variationally prescribed manner. The frequencies of the oscillator equation are in some ways unexpected but can nonetheless be exploited through resonant forcing functions to achieve large secular variations in the orbital elements. Two cases are discussed using a circular orbit as the control case: (1) large changes in orbital inclination achieved by harmonic excitation rather than one impulsive velocity change, and (2) periodic and secular changes to the longitude of the ascending node using both stable and unstable excitation strategies. The implications of these equations are also discussed for both artificial satellites and natural satellites. For the former, two utilitarian orbits are suggested, each exploiting a form of harmonic excitation. 5 refs

  16. Harmonic statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliazar, Iddo, E-mail: eliazar@post.tau.ac.il

    2017-05-15

    The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their ‘public relations’ for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford’s law, and 1/f noise. - Highlights: • Harmonic statistics are described and reviewed in detail. • Connections to various statistical laws are established. • Connections to perturbation, renormalization and dynamics are established.

  17. Harmonic statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-01-01

    The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their ‘public relations’ for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford’s law, and 1/f noise. - Highlights: • Harmonic statistics are described and reviewed in detail. • Connections to various statistical laws are established. • Connections to perturbation, renormalization and dynamics are established.

  18. Stabilization Improves Theranostic Properties of Lipiodol{sup ®}-Based Emulsion During Liver Trans-arterial Chemo-embolization in a VX2 Rabbit Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deschamps, F., E-mail: frederic.deschamps@gustaveroussy.fr; Farouil, G. [Université Paris-Saclay, Département de radiologie Interventionnelle, Gustave Roussy (France); Gonzalez, W.; Robic, C. [Guerbet France, Guerbet (France); Paci, A.; Mir, L. M. [Université Paris-Saclay, UMR 8203 (France); Tselikas, L.; Baère, T. de [Université Paris-Saclay, Département de radiologie Interventionnelle, Gustave Roussy (France)

    2017-06-15

    PurposeTo demonstrate that stability is a crucial parameter for theranostic properties of Lipiodol{sup ®}-based emulsions during liver trans-arterial chemo-embolization.Materials and MethodsWe compared the theranostic properties of two emulsions made of Lipiodol{sup ®} and doxorubicin in two successive animal experiments (One VX2 tumour implanted in the left liver lobe of 30 rabbits). Emulsion-1 reproduced one of the most common way of preparation (ratio of oil/water: 1/1), and emulsion-2 was designed to obtain a water-in-oil emulsion with enhanced stability (ratio of oil/water: 3/1, plus an emulsifier). The first animal experiment compared the tumour selectivity of the two emulsions: seven rabbits received left hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) of emulsion-1 and eight received HAI of emulsion-2. 3D-CBCT acquisitions were acquired after HAI of every 0.1 mL to measure the densities’ ratios between the tumours and the left liver lobes. The second animal experiment compared the plasmatic and tumour doxorubicin concentrations after HAI of 1.5 mg of doxorubicin administered either alone (n = 3) or in emulsion-1 (n = 6) or in emulsion-2 (n = 6).ResultsEmulsion-2 resulted in densities’ ratios between the tumours and the left liver lobes that were significantly higher compared to emulsion-1 (up to 0.4 mL infused). Plasmatic doxorubicin concentrations (at 5 min) were significantly lower after HAI of emulsion-2 (19.0 μg/L) than emulsion-1 (275.3 μg/L, p < 0.01) and doxorubicin alone (412.0 μg/L, p < 0.001), and tumour doxorubicin concentration (day-1) was significantly higher after HAI of emulsion-2 (20,957 ng/g) than in emulsion-1 (8093 ng/g, p < 0.05) and doxorubicin alone (2221 ng/g, p < 0.01).ConclusionStabilization of doxorubicin in a water-in-oil Lipiodol{sup ®}-based emulsion results in better theranostic properties.

  19. Harmonic supergraphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galperin, A.; Ivanov, E.; Ogievetsky, V.; Sokatchev, E.

    1985-01-01

    This paper completes a descrption of the quantization procedure in the harmonic superspace approach. The Feynman rules for N=2 matter and Yang-Mills theories are derived and the various examples of harmonic supergraph calculations are given. Calculations appear to be not more difficult than those in the N=1 case. The integration over harmonic variables does not lead to any troubles, a non-locality in these disappears on-shell. The important property is that the quantum corrections are always writen as integrals over the full harmonic superspace even though the initial action is an integral over the analytic subspace. As a by-product our results imply a very simple proof of finiteness of a wide class of the N=4, d=2 non-linear Σ-models. The most general self-couplings of hypermultiplets including those with broken SU(2) are considered.The duality relations among the N=2 linear multiplet and both kinds of hypermultiplet are established

  20. Harmonic engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA

    2009-10-20

    A high efficiency harmonic engine based on a resonantly reciprocating piston expander that extracts work from heat and pressurizes working fluid in a reciprocating piston compressor. The engine preferably includes harmonic oscillator valves capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into and out of the expander, and also preferably includes a shunt line connecting an expansion chamber of the expander to a buffer chamber of the expander for minimizing pressure variations in the fluidic circuit of the engine. The engine is especially designed to operate with very high temperature input to the expander and very low temperature input to the compressor, to produce very high thermal conversion efficiency.

  1. One dimension harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude; Diu, Bernard; Laloe, Franck.

    1977-01-01

    The importance of harmonic oscillator in classical and quantum physics, eigenvalues and eigenstates of hamiltonian operator are discussed. In complement are presented: study of some physical examples of harmonic oscillators; study of stationnary states in the /x> representation; Hermite polynomials; resolution of eigenvalue equation of harmonic oscillator by polynomial method; isotope harmonic oscillator with three dimensions; charged harmonic oscillator in uniform electric field; quasi classical coherent states of harmonic oscillator; eigenmodes of vibration of two coupled harmonic oscillators; vibration modus of a continuous physical system (application to radiation: photons); vibration modus of indefinite linear chain of coupled harmonic oscillators (phonons); one-dimensional harmonic oscillator in thermodynamic equilibrium at temperature T [fr

  2. Harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Helson, Henry

    2010-01-01

    This second edition has been enlarged and considerably rewritten. Among the new topics are infinite product spaces with applications to probability, disintegration of measures on product spaces, positive definite functions on the line, and additional information about Weyl's theorems on equidistribution. Topics that have continued from the first edition include Minkowski's theorem, measures with bounded powers, idempotent measures, spectral sets of bounded functions and a theorem of Szego, and the Wiener Tauberian theorem. Readers of the book should have studied the Lebesgue integral, the elementary theory of analytic and harmonic functions, and the basic theory of Banach spaces. The treatment is classical and as simple as possible. This is an instructional book, not a treatise. Mathematics students interested in analysis will find here what they need to know about Fourier analysis. Physicists and others can use the book as a reference for more advanced topics.

  3. Assessment of tumoricidal efficacy and response to treatment with 18F-FDG PET/CT after intraarterial infusion with the antiglycolytic agent 3-bromopyruvate in the VX2 model of liver tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapi, Eleni; Geschwind, Jean-Francois H; Vali, Mustafa; Khwaja, Afsheen A; Prieto-Ventura, Veronica; Buijs, Manon; Vossen, Josephina A; Ganapathy-Kanniappan, Shanmugasudaram; Ganapathy, Shanmugasudaram; Wahl, Richard L

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) on tumor glucose metabolism as imaged with (18)F-FDG PET/CT at multiple time points after treatment and compare them with those after intraarterial control injections of saline. Twenty-three New Zealand White rabbits implanted intrahepatically with VX2 tumors were assigned to 1 of 2 groups: 14 rabbits were assigned to the treatment group (TG) and 9 to the saline control group (SG). All animals were infused with 25 mL of either 1.75 mM 3-BrPA or saline over 1 h via a 2-French catheter, which was secured in the hepatic artery. For PET/CT, the animals were injected with 37 MBq of (18)F-FDG at 1 d before treatment and 2 h, 24 h, and 1 wk after treatment. Tumor size, tumor and liver maximal standardized uptake value (SUV(max)), and tumor-to-background ratios were calculated for all studies. Seven TG and 5 SG animals were sacrificed at 1 wk after treatment for histopathologic analysis. Intense (18)F-FDG uptake was seen in untreated tumors. A significant reduction in tumor SUV(max) was noted in TG animals, when compared with SG animals, at 1 wk after treatment (P = 0.006). The tumor-to-liver background ratio in the TG animals, compared with the SG animals, was significantly reduced as early as 24 h after treatment (P = 0.01) and remained reduced at 1 wk (P = 0.003). Tumor SUV(max) increased from the baseline levels at 7 d in controls (P = 0.05). The histopathologic analysis of explanted livers revealed increased tumor necrosis in all TG samples. There was a significant inverse correlation (r(2) = 0.538, P = 0.005) between the percentage of tumor necrosis on histopathology and tumor SUV(max) on (18)F-FDG PET at 7 d after treatment with 3-BrPA. Intraarterial injection of 3-BrPA resulted in markedly decreased (18)F-FDG uptake as imaged by PET/CT and increased tumor necrosis on histopathology at 1 wk after treatment in the VX2 rabbit liver tumor. PET/CT appears to be a useful means to follow

  4. HARMONIC DRIVE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr FOLĘGA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The variety of types and sizes currently in production harmonic drive is a problem in their rational choice. Properly selected harmonic drive must meet certain requirements during operation, and achieve the anticipated service life. The paper discusses the problems associated with the selection of the harmonic drive. It also presents the algorithm correct choice of harmonic drive. The main objective of this study was to develop a computer program that allows the correct choice of harmonic drive by developed algorithm.

  5. Canonical harmonic tracking of charged particles in circular accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvardakov, V.; Levichev, E.

    2006-01-01

    Harmonic tracking is a method used to study non-linear particle dynamics in a circular accelerator. The tracking algorithm is based on numerical solution of the Hamilton equations of motion. An essential feature of the method is the approximation of Hamiltonian perturbation terms by a finite number of azimuthal harmonics, which provides an effective tool for optimization of non-linear particle motion. The equations of motion are solved canonically, with the first-order prediction made using the explicit Lie transformation. The major features of harmonic tracking are presented and examples of its application are discussed

  6. Canonical harmonic tracking of charged particles in circular accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvardakov, V.; Levichev, E.

    2006-03-01

    Harmonic tracking is a method used to study non-linear particle dynamics in a circular accelerator. The tracking algorithm is based on numerical solution of the Hamilton equations of motion. An essential feature of the method is the approximation of Hamiltonian perturbation terms by a finite number of azimuthal harmonics, which provides an effective tool for optimization of non-linear particle motion. The equations of motion are solved canonically, with the first-order prediction made using the explicit Lie transformation. The major features of harmonic tracking are presented and examples of its application are discussed.

  7. An Arduino Investigation of Simple Harmonic Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeriu, Calin; Edwards, Scott; Esper, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    We cannot hope for a new generation of scientists and engineers if we don't let our young students take ownership of their scientific and engineering explorations, if we don't let them enjoy the hands-on cycle of design and production, and if we don't let them implant their creativity into a technologically friendly environment.…

  8. High order harmonic generation in rare gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budil, Kimberly Susan [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The process of high order harmonic generation in atomic gases has shown great promise as a method of generating extremely short wavelength radiation, extending far into the extreme ultraviolet (XUV). The process is conceptually simple. A very intense laser pulse (I ~1013-1014 W/cm2) is focused into a dense (~1017 particles/cm3) atomic medium, causing the atoms to become polarized. These atomic dipoles are then coherently driven by the laser field and begin to radiate at odd harmonics of the laser field. This dissertation is a study of both the physical mechanism of harmonic generation as well as its development as a source of coherent XUV radiation. Recently, a semiclassical theory has been proposed which provides a simple, intuitive description of harmonic generation. In this picture the process is treated in two steps. The atom ionizes via tunneling after which its classical motion in the laser field is studied. Electron trajectories which return to the vicinity of the nucleus may recombine and emit a harmonic photon, while those which do not return will ionize. An experiment was performed to test the validity of this model wherein the trajectory of the electron as it orbits the nucleus or ion core is perturbed by driving the process with elliptically, rather than linearly, polarized laser radiation. The semiclassical theory predicts a rapid turn-off of harmonic production as the ellipticity of the driving field is increased. This decrease in harmonic production is observed experimentally and a simple quantum mechanical theory is used to model the data. The second major focus of this work was on development of the harmonic "source". A series of experiments were performed examining the spatial profiles of the harmonics. The quality of the spatial profile is crucial if the harmonics are to be used as the source for experiments, particularly if they must be refocused.

  9. Unlocking higher harmonics in atomic force microscopy with gentle interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sergio; Barcons, Victor; Font, Josep; Verdaguer, Albert

    2014-01-01

    In dynamic atomic force microscopy, nanoscale properties are encoded in the higher harmonics. Nevertheless, when gentle interactions and minimal invasiveness are required, these harmonics are typically undetectable. Here, we propose to externally drive an arbitrary number of exact higher harmonics above the noise level. In this way, multiple contrast channels that are sensitive to compositional variations are made accessible. Numerical integration of the equation of motion shows that the external introduction of exact harmonic frequencies does not compromise the fundamental frequency. Thermal fluctuations are also considered within the detection bandwidth of interest and discussed in terms of higher-harmonic phase contrast in the presence and absence of an external excitation of higher harmonics. Higher harmonic phase shifts further provide the means to directly decouple the true topography from that induced by compositional heterogeneity.

  10. Harmonics and energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, M.

    1993-01-01

    To summarize what this paper has presented: Voltage and current non-sinusoidal wave shapes exist in our power system. These harmonics result from the prolific use of non-linear loads. The use of these types of loads is increasing dramatically, partly due to the push to implement energy management techniques involving harmonic generating equipment. Harmonic analysis can identify specific harmonics, their frequency, magnitude, and phase shift referenced to the fundamental. Harmonic distortion forces the use of true RMS multimeters for measurement accuracy. High levels of neutral current and N-G voltages are now possible. Transformers may overheat and fail even though they are below rated capacity. Low power factors due to harmonics cannot be corrected by the installation of capacitors, and knowledge of the fundamental VARs or the displacement power factor is needed to use capacitors alone for power factor correction. The harmonic related problems presented are by no means an exhaustive list. Many other concerns arise when harmonics are involved in the power system. The critical issue behind these problems is that many of the devices being recommended from an energy management point of view are contributing to the harmonic levels, and thus to the potential for harmonic problems. We can no longer live in the sinusoidal mentality if we are to be effective in saving energy and reducing costs

  11. High Harmonic Radiation Generation and Attosecond pulse generation from Intense Laser-Solid Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Alexander Roy [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Krushelnick, Karl [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-09-08

    We have studied ion motion effects in high harmonic generation, including shifts to the harmonics which result in degradation of the attosecond pulse train, and how to mitigate them. We have examined the scaling with intensity of harmonic emission. We have also switched the geometry of the interaction to measure, for the first time, harmonics from a normal incidence interaction. This was performed by using a special parabolic reflector with an on axis hole and is to allow measurements of the attosecond pulses using standard techniques. Here is a summary of the findings: First high harmonic generation in laser-solid interactions at 1021 Wcm-2, demonstration of harmonic focusing, study of ion motion effects in high harmonic generation in laser-solid interactions, and demonstration of harmonic amplification.

  12. Music of the heavens Kepler's harmonic astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Stephenson, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Valued today for its development of the third law of planetary motion, Harmonice mundi (1619) was intended by Kepler to expand on ancient efforts to discern a Creator's plan for the planetary system--an arrangement thought to be based on harmonic relationships. Challenging critics who characterize Kepler's theories of harmonic astronomy as ""mystical,"" Bruce Stephenson offers the first thorough technical analysis of the music the astronomer thought the heavens made, and the logic that led him to find musical patterns in his data. In so doing, Stephenson illuminates crucial aspects of Kepler'

  13. Free Fall and Harmonic Oscillations: Analyzing Trampoline Jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie; Eager, David

    2015-01-01

    Trampolines can be found in many gardens and also in some playgrounds. They offer an easily accessible vertical motion that includes free fall. In this work, the motion on a trampoline is modelled by assuming a linear relation between force and deflection, giving harmonic oscillations for small amplitudes. An expression for the cycle-time is…

  14. Electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, T.; Watanabe, T.; Hamamatsu, K.

    1981-09-01

    Electromagnetic electron cyclotron harmonic waves just below the electron cyclotron harmonics are investigated numerically and experimentally. Backward waves which are observed to propagate nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field just below the electron cyclotron frequency in a high density magnetoplasma are confirmed to be in accord with the theoretical electromagnetic cyclotron waves. (author)

  15. A pretandem harmonic buncher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Qui-xun; Van Wechel, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    A single gap harmonic buncher has been constructed as a pretandem buncher. Over 85% of a proton dc beam has been bunched into pulses. The width (fwhm) of the pulses is 0.7 ns. The buncher is based on that built at Argonne. Changes were made to the buncher's configuration so that the buncher could be tuned to the desired four harmonic frequencies. A method of calibrating and setting the relative phases and amplitudes of the four harmonic frequencies has been used to obtain an optimum sawtooth-like bunching waveform

  16. Harmonic supergraphs. Green functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galperin, A.; Ivanov, E.; Gievetsky, V.; Sokatchev, E.

    1985-01-01

    The quantization procedure in the harmonic superspace approach is worked out. Harmonic distributions are introduced and are used to construct the analytic superspace delta-functions and the Green functions for the hypermultiplet and the N=2 Yang-Mills superfields. The gauge fixing is described and the relevant Faddeev-Popov ghosts are defined. The corresponding BRST transformations are found. The harmonic superspace quantization of the N=2 gauge theory turns out to be rather simple and has many parallels with that for the standard (N=0) Yang-Mills theory. In particular, no ghosts-forghosts are needed

  17. Superstrings and harmonic superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallosh, R.E.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst.)

    1987-01-01

    The paper on superstrings and harmonic superspace is a contribution to the book dedicated to E.S. Fradkin on his sixtieth birthday. The purpose of the paper is to propose a description of N = 2,3 superspace which could be used for the investigation of the effective d = 10 harmonic superspace corresponding to the heterotic superstring. A description is given of the structure of semi-simple Lie algebras in the Cartan-Weyl basis, as well as the general properties of the even, compact part of harmonic superspace. The main properties of the four-dimensional N = 2 SYM theory are discussed, along with the N = 3, d = 4 super Yang-Mills theory. Finally the relation between the harmonic superspace and the heterotic E 8 x E 8 superstring is examined. (U.K.)

  18. Harmonic excitations in quasicrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luck, J.M.

    1986-03-01

    The harmonic excitations (phonons) of quasicrystals are studied in a simple one-dimensional model. The spectrum is a Cantor set, which exhibits selfsimilarity properties. The eigenstates are generically ''critical'', i.e. neither extended nor localized

  19. Multidimensional high harmonic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruner, Barry D; Soifer, Hadas; Shafir, Dror; Dudovich, Nirit; Serbinenko, Valeria; Smirnova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    High harmonic generation (HHG) has opened up a new frontier in ultrafast science where attosecond time resolution and Angstrom spatial resolution are accessible in a single measurement. However, reconstructing the dynamics under study is limited by the multiple degrees of freedom involved in strong field interactions. In this paper we describe a new class of measurement schemes for resolving attosecond dynamics, integrating perturbative nonlinear optics with strong-field physics. These approaches serve as a basis for multidimensional high harmonic spectroscopy. Specifically, we show that multidimensional high harmonic spectroscopy can measure tunnel ionization dynamics with high precision, and resolves the interference between multiple ionization channels. In addition, we show how multidimensional HHG can function as a type of lock-in amplifier measurement. Similar to multi-dimensional approaches in nonlinear optical spectroscopy that have resolved correlated femtosecond dynamics, multi-dimensional high harmonic spectroscopy reveals the underlying complex dynamics behind attosecond scale phenomena. (paper)

  20. Harmonic d-tensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohmann, Manuel [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Tartu (Estonia)

    2016-07-01

    Tensor harmonics are a useful mathematical tool for finding solutions to differential equations which transform under a particular representation of the rotation group SO(3). In order to make use of this tool also in the setting of Finsler geometry, where the objects of relevance are d-tensors instead of tensors, we construct a set of d-tensor harmonics for both SO(3) and SO(4) symmetries and show how these can be used for calculations in Finsler geometry and gravity.

  1. Coherent bremsstrahlung generation of harmonics in a laser-produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silin, Viktor P

    1999-01-01

    Foundations of a theory of generation of the harmonics of a laser pump in a fully ionised plasma are proposed. This theory makes it possible to describe the relationships governing harmonic generation in an analytical form. For an elliptically polarised pump field with a low degree of circular polarisation A, the range of plasma parameters is established in which the number of harmonics is found to be of the order of A -1 . Anomalous polarisation properties of the harmonics are predicted. In this case, their polarisation is seen to be nearly perpendicular to the pump polarisation and the degree of circular polarisation increases with the harmonic order number. The harmonic-order-dependent intensity of the pump field which results in circular polarisation of a harmonic is determined making allowance for thermal plasma motion. The conditions under which increasing the low degree of circular pump polarisation increases the efficiency of harmonic generation are established. The nonlinear dependence of the pump polarisation on its intensity under the conditions of collisional absorption in a plasma are identified and an instability of the circular polarisation is revealed. For a plane-polarised pump, it is shown how the maximum power of a harmonic and the pump power corresponding to this maximum scale up with the harmonic order number. The conditions under which the number of harmonics generated is limited owing to the relativistic nature of electron motion in the pump field are established. This effect appears for an unexpectedly weak relativity. (invited paper)

  2. Harmonization versus Mutual Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp

    The present paper examines trade liberalization driven by the coordination of product standards. For oligopolistic firms situated in separate markets that are initially sheltered by national standards, mutual recognition of standards implies entry and reduced profits at home paired with the oppor......The present paper examines trade liberalization driven by the coordination of product standards. For oligopolistic firms situated in separate markets that are initially sheltered by national standards, mutual recognition of standards implies entry and reduced profits at home paired...... countries and three firms, where firms first lobby for the policy coordination regime (harmonization versus mutual recognition), and subsequently, in case of harmonization, the global standard is auctioned among the firms. We discuss welfare effects and conclude with policy implications. In particular......, harmonized standards may fail to harvest the full pro-competitive effects from trade liberalization compared to mutual recognition; moreover, the issue is most pronounced in markets featuring price competition....

  3. Second harmonic generation imaging

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy has shown great promise for imaging live cells and tissues, with applications in basic science, medical research, and tissue engineering. Second Harmonic Generation Imaging offers a complete guide to this optical modality, from basic principles, instrumentation, methods, and image analysis to biomedical applications. The book features contributions by experts in second-harmonic imaging, including many pioneering researchers in the field. Written for researchers at all levels, it takes an in-depth look at the current state of the art and possibilities of SHG microscopy. Organized into three sections, the book: Provides an introduction to the physics of the process, step-by-step instructions on how to build an SHG microscope, and comparisons with related imaging techniques Gives an overview of the capabilities of SHG microscopy for imaging tissues and cells—including cell membranes, muscle, collagen in tissues, and microtubules in live cells—by summarizing experi...

  4. Harmonic uniflow engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2016-03-22

    A reciprocating-piston uniflow engine includes a harmonic oscillator inlet valve capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into the engine. In particular, the inlet valve includes an inlet valve head and a spring arranged together as a harmonic oscillator so that the inlet valve head is moveable from an unbiased equilibrium position to a biased closed position occluding an inlet. When released, the inlet valve head undergoes a single oscillation past the equilibrium position to a maximum open position and returns to a biased return position close to the closed position to choke the flow and produce a pressure drop across the inlet valve causing the inlet valve to close. In other embodiments, the harmonic oscillator arrangement of the inlet valve enables the uniflow engine to be reversibly operated as a uniflow compressor.

  5. Fast harmonic field mapper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au, R.; Fowler, M.; Hanawa, H.; Riedel, J.; Qua, Z.G.

    1984-01-01

    In early 1983 it was decided to mount coils on arms separated by 120 degrees and buck them out so that the third harmonic dphi/dt component would be cancelled and thus the first and second field harmonics could be very accurately measured. The original intention was to do as others had done, namely, use fast ADC's to read the voltages, and computer process the result to get the Fourier components. However, because of the 100 to 1 dynamic range of the fast ADC's and the likelihood that noise would be a problem, the authors decided to do things differently. Using a fast Fourier transform analyzer was considered, but this instrument is very expensive, so they decided to use a completely electronic analog approach: The authors decided to use active bandpass filters to render the harmonic components

  6. Harmonic arbitrary waveform generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brock Franklin

    2017-11-28

    High frequency arbitrary waveforms have applications in radar, communications, medical imaging, therapy, electronic warfare, and charged particle acceleration and control. State of the art arbitrary waveform generators are limited in the frequency they can operate by the speed of the Digital to Analog converters that directly create their arbitrary waveforms. The architecture of the Harmonic Arbitrary Waveform Generator allows the phase and amplitude of the high frequency content of waveforms to be controlled without taxing the Digital to Analog converters that control them. The Harmonic Arbitrary Waveform Generator converts a high frequency input, into a precision, adjustable, high frequency arbitrary waveform.

  7. General Criterion for Harmonicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proesmans, Karel; Vandebroek, Hans; Van den Broeck, Christian

    2017-10-01

    Inspired by Kubo-Anderson Markov processes, we introduce a new class of transfer matrices whose largest eigenvalue is determined by a simple explicit algebraic equation. Applications include the free energy calculation for various equilibrium systems and a general criterion for perfect harmonicity, i.e., a free energy that is exactly quadratic in the external field. As an illustration, we construct a "perfect spring," namely, a polymer with non-Gaussian, exponentially distributed subunits which, nevertheless, remains harmonic until it is fully stretched. This surprising discovery is confirmed by Monte Carlo and Langevin simulations.

  8. Freely floating structures trapping time-harmonic water waves (revisited)

    OpenAIRE

    Kuznetsov, Nikolay; Motygin, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    We study the coupled small-amplitude motion of the mechanical system consisting of infinitely deep water and a structure immersed in it. The former is bounded above by a free surface, whereas the latter is formed by an arbitrary finite number of surface-piercing bodies floating freely. The mathematical model of time-harmonic motion is a spectral problem in which the frequency of oscillations serves as the spectral parameter. It is proved that there exist axisymmetric structures consisting of ...

  9. Advanced Gouy phase high harmonics interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustary, M. H.; Laban, D. E.; Wood, J. B. O.; Palmer, A. J.; Holdsworth, J.; Litvinyuk, I. V.; Sang, R. T.

    2018-05-01

    We describe an extreme ultraviolet (XUV) interferometric technique that can resolve ∼100 zeptoseconds (10‑21 s) delay between high harmonic emissions from two successive sources separated spatially along the laser propagation in a single Gaussian beam focus. Several improvements on our earlier work have been implemented in the advanced interferometer. In this paper, we report on the design, characterization and optimization of the advanced Gouy phase interferometer. Temporal coherence for both atomic argon and molecular hydrogen gases has been observed for several harmonic orders. It has been shown that phase shift of XUV pulses mainly originates from the emission time delay due to the Gouy phase in the laser focus and the observed interference is independent of the generating medium. This interferometer can be a useful tool for measuring the relative phase shift between any two gas species and for studying ultrafast dynamics of their electronic and nuclear motion.

  10. Comparing Harmonic Similarity Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, W.B.; Robine, M.; Hanna, P.; Veltkamp, R.C.; Wiering, F.

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of the most recent developments in polyphonic music retrieval and an experiment in which we compare two harmonic similarity measures. In contrast to earlier work, in this paper we specifically focus on the symbolic chord description as the primary musical representation and

  11. Fast Harmonic Chirp Summation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    2017-01-01

    -robust to noise, or very computationally inten- sive. In this paper, we propose a fast algorithm for the harmonic chirp summation method which has been demonstrated in the liter- ature to be accurate and robust to noise. The proposed algorithm is orders of magnitudes faster than previous algorithms which is also...

  12. Stress in Harmonic Serialism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Kathryn Ringler

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a model of word stress in a derivational version of Optimality Theory (OT) called Harmonic Serialism (HS; Prince and Smolensky 1993/2004, McCarthy 2000, 2006, 2010a). In this model, the metrical structure of a word is derived through a series of optimizations in which the "best" metrical foot is chosen…

  13. Exact solution of a quantum forced time-dependent harmonic oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Kyu Hwang; George, Thomas F.; Um, Chung IN

    1992-01-01

    The Schrodinger equation is used to exactly evaluate the propagator, wave function, energy expectation values, uncertainty values, and coherent state for a harmonic oscillator with a time dependent frequency and an external driving time dependent force. These quantities represent the solution of the classical equation of motion for the time dependent harmonic oscillator.

  14. Young children's harmonic perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2003-11-01

    Harmony and tonality are two of the most difficult elements for young children to perceive and manipulate and are seldom taught in the schools until the end of early childhood. Children's gradual harmonic and tonal development has been attributed to their cumulative exposure to Western tonal music and their increasing experiential knowledge of its rules and principles. Two questions that are relevant to this problem are: (1) Can focused and systematic teaching accelerate the learning of the harmonic/tonal principles that seem to occur in an implicit way throughout childhood? (2) Are there cognitive constraints that make it difficult for young children to perceive and/or manipulate certain harmonic and tonal principles? A series of studies specifically addressed the first question and suggested some possible answers to the second one. Results showed that harmonic instruction has limited effects on children's perception of harmony and indicated that the drastic improvement in the perception of implied harmony noted approximately at age 9 is due to development rather than instruction. I propose that young children's difficulty in perceiving implied harmony stems from their attention behaviors. Older children have less memory constraints and more strategies to direct their attention to the relevant cues of the stimulus. Younger children focus their attention on the melody, if present in the stimulus, and specifically on its concrete elements such as rhythm, pitch, and contour rather than its abstract elements such as harmony and key. The inference of the abstract harmonic organization of a melody required in the perception of implied harmony is thus an elusive task for the young child.

  15. Symmetries in physics and harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolk, D.

    2006-01-01

    In this book the symmetries of elementary particles are described in relation to the rules of harmonics in music. The selection rules are described in connections with harmonic intervals. Also symmetry breaking is considered in this framework. (HSI)

  16. Harmonic Patterns in Forex Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Nemček, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    This diploma thesis is committed to examination of validity of Harmonic Patterns in Forex trading. Scott Carney described existing and introduced new Harmonic Patterns in 1999 in his book Harmonic Trader. These patterns use the Fibonacci principle to analyze price action and to provide both bullish and bearish trading signals. The goal of this thesis is to find out whether harmonic trading strategy on selected pairs is profitable in FX market, which patterns are the most profitable and what i...

  17. Atto second high harmonic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Chang Hee

    2008-01-01

    High harmonic generation is a powerful method to produce attosecond pulses. The high harmonics, emitted from atoms driven by intense femtosecond laser pulses, can from an attosecond pulse train with equally spaced harmonic spectrum or an isolated single attosecond pulse with broad continuum spectrum. Using high power femtosecond laser technology developed at CXRC, we have investigated the spectral and temporal characteristics of high harmonics obtained from gaseous atoms. The spectral structure of harmonics could be manipulated by controlling laser chirp, and continuous tuning of harmonic wavelengths was achieved. For rigorous temporal characterization of attosecond harmonic pulses a cross correlation technique was applied to the photoionization process by harmonic and IR femtosecond pulses and achieved the complete temporal reconstruction of attosecond pulse trains, revealing the detailed temporal structure of the attosecond chirp by material dispersion. The duration of attosecond high harmonic pulses is usually much longer than that of transform limited pulses due to the inherent chirp originating from the harmonic generation process. The attosecond chirp compensation in the harmonic generation medium itself was demonstrated, thereby realizing the generation of near transform limited attosecond pulses. The interference of attosecond electron wave packets, generated from an atom by attosecond harmonic pulses, will be also presented

  18. Second harmonic inversion for ultrasound contrast harmonic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasovic, Mirza; Danilouchkine, Mike; Faez, Telli; Van Neer, Paul L M J; Van der Steen, Antonius F W; De Jong, Nico [THORAXCENTER, Department of Biomedical Engineering Ee2302, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Cachard, Christian; Basset, Olivier, E-mail: mirza.pasovic@creatis.insa-lyon.fr [CREATIS-LRMN, Universite de Lyon, INSA-Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Inserm U630, CNRS UMR 5220 (France)

    2011-06-07

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are small micro-bubbles that behave nonlinearly when exposed to an ultrasound wave. This nonlinear behavior can be observed through the generated higher harmonics in a back-scattered echo. In past years several techniques have been proposed to detect or image harmonics produced by UCAs. In these proposed works, the harmonics generated in the medium during the propagation of the ultrasound wave played an important role, since these harmonics compete with the harmonics generated by the micro-bubbles. We present a method for the reduction of the second harmonic generated during nonlinear-propagation-dubbed second harmonic inversion (SHI). A general expression for the suppression signals is also derived. The SHI technique uses two pulses, p' and p'', of the same frequency f{sub 0} and the same amplitude P{sub 0} to cancel out the second harmonic generated by nonlinearities of the medium. Simulations show that the second harmonic is reduced by 40 dB on a large axial range. Experimental SHI B-mode images, from a tissue-mimicking phantom and UCAs, show an improvement in the agent-to-tissue ratio (ATR) of 20 dB compared to standard second harmonic imaging and 13 dB of improvement in harmonic power Doppler.

  19. Second harmonic inversion for ultrasound contrast harmonic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasovic, Mirza; Danilouchkine, Mike; Faez, Telli; Van Neer, Paul L M J; Van der Steen, Antonius F W; De Jong, Nico; Cachard, Christian; Basset, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are small micro-bubbles that behave nonlinearly when exposed to an ultrasound wave. This nonlinear behavior can be observed through the generated higher harmonics in a back-scattered echo. In past years several techniques have been proposed to detect or image harmonics produced by UCAs. In these proposed works, the harmonics generated in the medium during the propagation of the ultrasound wave played an important role, since these harmonics compete with the harmonics generated by the micro-bubbles. We present a method for the reduction of the second harmonic generated during nonlinear-propagation-dubbed second harmonic inversion (SHI). A general expression for the suppression signals is also derived. The SHI technique uses two pulses, p' and p'', of the same frequency f 0 and the same amplitude P 0 to cancel out the second harmonic generated by nonlinearities of the medium. Simulations show that the second harmonic is reduced by 40 dB on a large axial range. Experimental SHI B-mode images, from a tissue-mimicking phantom and UCAs, show an improvement in the agent-to-tissue ratio (ATR) of 20 dB compared to standard second harmonic imaging and 13 dB of improvement in harmonic power Doppler.

  20. Lectures on harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wolff, Thomas H; Shubin, Carol

    2003-01-01

    This book demonstrates how harmonic analysis can provide penetrating insights into deep aspects of modern analysis. It is both an introduction to the subject as a whole and an overview of those branches of harmonic analysis that are relevant to the Kakeya conjecture. The usual background material is covered in the first few chapters: the Fourier transform, convolution, the inversion theorem, the uncertainty principle and the method of stationary phase. However, the choice of topics is highly selective, with emphasis on those frequently used in research inspired by the problems discussed in the later chapters. These include questions related to the restriction conjecture and the Kakeya conjecture, distance sets, and Fourier transforms of singular measures. These problems are diverse, but often interconnected; they all combine sophisticated Fourier analysis with intriguing links to other areas of mathematics and they continue to stimulate first-rate work. The book focuses on laying out a solid foundation for fu...

  1. The Harmonization of Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajnal Noémi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The development and configuration of the regulatory framework of the accounting systems in Romania and Hungary took place in different ways. Among the reasons for the diversities in these countries’ accounting systems, the following can be certainly mentioned: different purposes of taxation, legal structure, the accountancy’s connection with the corporate law and family law, diversification on corporate financing policy, and cultural heterogeneity. Both countries quickly caught up with the international accounting harmonization standards. The adaptation of the international accounting standards has many advantages and disadvantages; these have been discussed in several previous researches. This paper aims at comparing the Romanian and Hungarian states’ accounting regulations from the early 1990s, which were implemented in order to harmonize the states’ accountancy regulations with the international standards, and their impact on the economy, based on secondary analysis.

  2. Harmonic and geometric analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Citti, Giovanna; Pérez, Carlos; Sarti, Alessandro; Zhong, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an expanded version of four series of lectures delivered by the authors at the CRM. Harmonic analysis, understood in a broad sense, has a very wide interplay with partial differential equations and in particular with the theory of quasiconformal mappings and its applications. Some areas in which real analysis has been extremely influential are PDE's and geometric analysis. Their foundations and subsequent developments made extensive use of the Calderón–Zygmund theory, especially the Lp inequalities for Calderón–Zygmund operators (Beurling transform and Riesz transform, among others) and the theory of Muckenhoupt weights.  The first chapter is an application of harmonic analysis and the Heisenberg group to understanding human vision, while the second and third chapters cover some of the main topics on linear and multilinear harmonic analysis. The last serves as a comprehensive introduction to a deep result from De Giorgi, Moser and Nash on the regularity of elliptic partial differen...

  3. [Harmonization of TSH Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeoka, Keiko; Hidaka, Yoh; Hishinuma, Akira; Ikeda, Katsuyoshi; Okubo, Shigeo; Tsuchiya, Tatsuyuki; Hashiguchi, Teruto; Furuta, Koh; Hotta, Taeko; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Masami; Maekawa, Masato

    2016-05-01

    The measured concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) differs depending on the reagents used. Harmonization of TSH is crucial because the decision limits are described in current clinical practice guide- lines as absolute values, e.g. 2.5 mIU/L in early pregnancy. In this study, we tried to harmonize the report- ed concentrations of TSH using the all-procedure trimmed mean. TSH was measured in 146 serum samples, with values ranging from 0.01 to 18.8 mIU/L, using 4 immunoassays. The concentration of TSH was highest with E test TOSOH and lowest with LUMIPULSE. The concentrations with each reagent were recalculated with the following formulas: E test TOSOH 0.855x-0.014; ECLusys 0.993x+0.079; ARCHITECT 1.041x- 0.010; and LUMIPULSE 1.096x-0.015. Recalculation eliminated the between-assay discrepancy. These formulas may be used until harmonization of TSH is achieved by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC).

  4. Ferromagnetic rollers in a harmonic confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Snezhko, Alexey; Aranson, Igor S.

    We present the emergence of flocking and global rotation in a system of rolling ferromagnetic microparticles energized by a vertical alternating magnetic field confined in a harmonic potential. By combing experiments and discrete particle simulations, we have identified primary physical mechanisms leading to the emergence of large-scale collective motion: spontaneous symmetry breaking of the clock / counterclockwise particle rotation, collisional alignment of particle velocities, and random particle re-orientations due to shape imperfections. We also emphasize a subtle role of rotational noise: While the low-frequency flocking appears to be noise-insensitive, the reentrant flocking happens to be noise-activated. Moreover, we uncover a new relation between collective motion and synchronisation.

  5. Next generation data harmonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Chandler; Brown, Ryan M.; Chaves, Jillian; Czerniejewski, Adam; Del Vecchio, Justin; Perkins, Timothy K.; Rudnicki, Ron; Tauer, Greg

    2015-05-01

    Analysts are presented with a never ending stream of data sources. Often, subsets of data sources to solve problems are easily identified but the process to align data sets is time consuming. However, many semantic technologies do allow for fast harmonization of data to overcome these problems. These include ontologies that serve as alignment targets, visual tools and natural language processing that generate semantic graphs in terms of the ontologies, and analytics that leverage these graphs. This research reviews a developed prototype that employs all these approaches to perform analysis across disparate data sources documenting violent, extremist events.

  6. Can even-order laser harmonics exhibited by Bohmian trajectories in symmetric potentials be observed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peatross, J; Johansen, J

    2014-01-13

    Strong-field laser-atom interactions provide extreme conditions that may be useful for investigating the de Broglie-Bohm quantum interpretation. Bohmian trajectories representing bound electrons in individual atoms exhibit both even and odd harmonic motion when subjected to a strong external laser field. The phases of the even harmonics depend on the random initial positions of the trajectories within the wave function, making the even harmonics incoherent. In contrast, the phases of odd harmonics remain for the most part coherent regardless of initial position. Under the conjecture that a Bohmian point particle plays the role of emitter, this suggests an experiment to determine whether both even and odd harmonics are produced at the atomic level. Estimates suggest that incoherent emission of even harmonics may be detectable out the side of an intense laser focus interacting with a large number of atoms.

  7. Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for tissue harmonic synthetic aperture imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of synthetic aperture imaging in ultrasound, which has shown great potentials in the clinic. Suggestions for synthetic aperture tissue...... system complexity compared to conventional synthetic aperture techniques. In this project, SASB is sought combined with a pulse inversion technique for 2nd harmonic tissue harmonic imaging. The advantages in tissue harmonic imaging (THI) are expected to further improve the image quality of SASB...

  8. Nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation from nuclei in the Brownian motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razdan, Ashok

    2003-01-01

    The time evolution of the coherent forward scattering of the synchrotron radiation for resonant nuclei in Brownian motion is studied. Apart from target thickness, the appearance of the dynamical beats also depends on 'α' which is the ratio of the harmonic force constant to the damping force constant of harmonic oscillator undergoing Brownian motion

  9. Second harmonic generation microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Brewer, Jonathan R.; Risbo, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Myofibers and collagen show non-linear optical properties enabling imaging using second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. The technique is evaluated for use as a tool for real-time studies of thermally induced changes in thin samples of unfixed and unstained pork. The forward and the backward...... scattered SHG light reveal complementary features of the structures of myofibers and collagen fibers. Upon heating the myofibers show no structural changes before reaching a temperature of 53 °C. At this temperature the SHG signal becomes extinct. The extinction of the SHG at 53 °C coincides with a low......-temperature endotherm peak observable in the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) thermograms. DSC analysis of epimysium, the connective tissue layer that enfold skeletal muscles, produces one large endotherm starting at 57 °C and peaking at 59.5 °C. SHG microscopy of collagen fibers reveals a variability of thermal...

  10. Azimuthal anisotropy: The higher harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poskanzer, Arthur M.; STAR Collaboration

    2004-01-01

    We report the first observations of the fourth harmonic (v 4 ) in the azimuthal distribution of particles at RHIC. The measurement was done taking advantage of the large elliptic flow generated at RHIC. The integrated v 4 is about a factor of 10 smaller than v 2 . For the sixth (v 6 ) and eighth (v 8 ) harmonics upper limits on the magnitudes are reported

  11. Harmonic Series Meets Fibonacci Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongwei; Kennedy, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The terms of a conditionally convergent series may be rearranged to converge to any prescribed real value. What if the harmonic series is grouped into Fibonacci length blocks? Or the harmonic series is arranged in alternating Fibonacci length blocks? Or rearranged and alternated into separate blocks of even and odd terms of Fibonacci length?

  12. Tuvan Throat Singing and Harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Wilken, David

    2018-01-01

    Tuvan throat singing, also called overtone singing, provides for an exotic demonstration of the physics of harmonics as well as introducing an Asian musical aesthetic. A low fundamental is sung and the singer skillfully alters the resonances of the vocal system to enhance an overtone (harmonic above the fundamental). The result is that the…

  13. Harmonics in transmission power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiechowski, Wojciech Tomasz

    . The comparison shows that results obtained used both types of the cores are the same, so it is concluded that both cores can be used for harmonic measurements. Low-inductance resistors are introduced in the secondary circuits, in series with the metering and protective relaying. On those resistors, the harmonic......Some time ago, Energinet.dk, the Transmission System Operator of the 150 kV and 400 kV transmission network in Denmark, had experienced operational malfunctions of some of the measuring and protection equipment. Also an overloading of a harmonic filter has been reported, and therefore, a need...... end only so the ground is not used as a return path. A way to reduce the capacitive coupling is to provide shielding. Harmonic currents are measured using the conventional inductive voltage transformers. Both protective and metering cores were compared if they could be used for harmonic measurements...

  14. Tuvan throat singing and harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Wilken, David

    2018-05-01

    Tuvan throat singing, also called overtone singing, provides for an exotic demonstration of the physics of harmonics as well as introducing an Asian musical aesthetic. A low fundamental is sung and the singer skillfully alters the resonances of the vocal system to enhance an overtone (harmonic above the fundamental). The result is that the listener hears two pitches simultaneously. Harmonics such as H8, H9, H10, and H12 form part of a pentatonic scale and are commonly selected for melody tones by Tuvan singers. A real-time spectrogram is provided in a video (Ruiz M J 2018 Video: Tuvan Throat Singing and Harmonics http://mjtruiz.com/ped/tuva/) so that Tuvan harmonics can be visualized as they are heard.

  15. The Local Stellar Velocity Field via Vector Spherical Harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markarov, V. V.; Murphy, D. W.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the local field of stellar tangential velocities for a sample of 42,339 nonbinary Hipparcos stars with accurate parallaxes, using a vector spherical harmonic formalism. We derive simple relations between the parameters of the classical linear model (Ogorodnikov-Milne) of the local systemic field and low-degree terms of the general vector harmonic decomposition. Taking advantage of these relationships, we determine the solar velocity with respect to the local stars of (V(sub X), V(sub Y), V(sub Z)) (10.5, 18.5, 7.3) +/- 0.1 km s(exp -1) not corrected for the asymmetric drift with respect to the local standard of rest. If only stars more distant than 100 pc are considered, the peculiar solar motion is (V(sub X), V(sub Y), V(sub Z)) (9.9, 15.6, 6.9) +/- 0.2 km s(exp -1). The adverse effects of harmonic leakage, which occurs between the reflex solar motion represented by the three electric vector harmonics in the velocity space and higher degree harmonics in the proper-motion space, are eliminated in our analysis by direct subtraction of the reflex solar velocity in its tangential components for each star. The Oort parameters determined by a straightforward least-squares adjustment in vector spherical harmonics are A=14.0 +/- 1.4, B=13.1 +/- 1.2, K=1.1 +/- 1.8, and C=2.9 +/- 1.4 km s(exp -1) kpc(exp -1). The physical meaning and the implications of these parameters are discussed in the framework of a general linear model of the velocity field. We find a few statistically significant higher degree harmonic terms that do not correspond to any parameters in the classical linear model. One of them, a third-degree electric harmonic, is tentatively explained as the response to a negative linear gradient of rotation velocity with distance from the Galactic plane, which we estimate at approximately -20 km s(exp -1) kpc(exp -1). A similar vertical gradient of rotation velocity has been detected for more distant stars representing the thick disk (z greater than 1 kpc

  16. Dynamics of harmonically-confined systems: Some rigorous results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhigang, E-mail: zwu@physics.queensu.ca; Zaremba, Eugene, E-mail: zaremba@sparky.phy.queensu.ca

    2014-03-15

    In this paper we consider the dynamics of harmonically-confined atomic gases. We present various general results which are independent of particle statistics, interatomic interactions and dimensionality. Of particular interest is the response of the system to external perturbations which can be either static or dynamic in nature. We prove an extended Harmonic Potential Theorem which is useful in determining the damping of the centre of mass motion when the system is prepared initially in a highly nonequilibrium state. We also study the response of the gas to a dynamic external potential whose position is made to oscillate sinusoidally in a given direction. We show in this case that either the energy absorption rate or the centre of mass dynamics can serve as a probe of the optical conductivity of the system. -- Highlights: •We derive various rigorous results on the dynamics of harmonically-confined atomic gases. •We derive an extension of the Harmonic Potential Theorem. •We demonstrate the link between the energy absorption rate in a harmonically-confined system and the optical conductivity.

  17. Harmonic operation of high gain harmonic generation free electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Haixiao; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Dai Zhimin

    2008-01-01

    In high gain harmonic generation (HGHG) free electron laser (FEL), with the right choice of parameters of the modulator undulator, the dispersive section and the seed laser, one may make the spatial bunching of the electron beam density distribution correspond to one of the harmonic frequencies of the radiator radiation, instead of the fundamental frequency of the radiator radiation in conventional HGHG, thus the radiator undulator is in harmonic operation (HO) mode. In this paper, we investigate HO of HGHG FEL. Theoretical analyses with universal method are derived and numerical simulations in ultraviolet and deep ultraviolet spectral regions are given. It shows that the power of the 3rd harmonic radiation in the HO of HGHG may be as high as 18.5% of the fundamental power level. Thus HO of HGHG FEL may obtain short wavelength by using lower beam energy. (authors)

  18. Power quality issues current harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Mikkili, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Power Quality Issues: Current Harmonics provides solutions for the mitigation of power quality problems related to harmonics. Focusing on active power filters (APFs) due to their excellent harmonic and reactive power compensation in two-wire (single phase), three-wire (three-phase without neutral), and four-wire (three-phase with neutral) AC power networks with nonlinear loads, the text:Introduces the APF technology, describing various APF configurations and offering guidelines for the selection of APFs for specific application considerationsCompares shunt active filter (SHAF) control strategi

  19. Classical and multilinear harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Muscalu, Camil

    2013-01-01

    This two-volume text in harmonic analysis introduces a wealth of analytical results and techniques. It is largely self-contained and useful to graduates and researchers in pure and applied analysis. Numerous exercises and problems make the text suitable for self-study and the classroom alike. The first volume starts with classical one-dimensional topics: Fourier series; harmonic functions; Hilbert transform. Then the higher-dimensional Calderón-Zygmund and Littlewood-Paley theories are developed. Probabilistic methods and their applications are discussed, as are applications of harmonic analysis to partial differential equations. The volume concludes with an introduction to the Weyl calculus. The second volume goes beyond the classical to the highly contemporary and focuses on multilinear aspects of harmonic analysis: the bilinear Hilbert transform; Coifman-Meyer theory; Carleson's resolution of the Lusin conjecture; Calderón's commutators and the Cauchy integral on Lipschitz curves. The material in this vo...

  20. Explaining the harmonic sequence paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ulrich; Zimper, Alexander

    2012-05-01

    According to the harmonic sequence paradox, an expected utility decision maker's willingness to pay for a gamble whose expected payoffs evolve according to the harmonic series is finite if and only if his marginal utility of additional income becomes zero for rather low payoff levels. Since the assumption of zero marginal utility is implausible for finite payoff levels, expected utility theory - as well as its standard generalizations such as cumulative prospect theory - are apparently unable to explain a finite willingness to pay. This paper presents first an experimental study of the harmonic sequence paradox. Additionally, it demonstrates that the theoretical argument of the harmonic sequence paradox only applies to time-patient decision makers, whereas the paradox is easily avoided if time-impatience is introduced. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Introduction to abstract harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Loomis, Lynn H

    2011-01-01

    Written by a prominent figure in the field of harmonic analysis, this classic monograph is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students and focuses on methods related to Gelfand's theory of Banach algebra. 1953 edition.

  2. Theory of nonlinear harmonic generation in free-electron lasers with helical wigglers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, G.; Saldin, E.; Schneidmiller, E.; Yurkov, M.

    2007-05-01

    CoherentHarmonicGeneration (CHG), and in particularNonlinearHarmonicGeneration (NHG), is of importance for both short wavelength Free-Electron Lasers (FELs), in relation with the achievement of shorter wavelengths with a fixed electron-beam energy, and high-average power FEL resonators, in relation with destructive effects of higher harmonics radiation on mirrors. In this paper we present a treatment of NHG from helical wigglers with particular emphasis on the second harmonic. Our study is based on an exact analytical solution of Maxwell's equations, derived with the help of a Green's function method. In particular, we demonstrate that nonlinear harmonic generation (NHG) fromhelicalwigglers vanishes on axis. Our conclusion is in open contrast with results in literature, that include a kinematical mistake in the description of the electron motion. (orig.)

  3. Cohabiting with the harmonic pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia C, Antonio A

    1999-01-01

    The Norm IEEE 519 tries of the permissible limits of harmonic distortion in the point of common joining between the energy supplier company and the industry. However fulfilling these limits of distortion doesn't guarantee that the problem for the company has finished, on the contrary will have to counteract the effects created by the harmonic distortion toward the interior of its electric system and to cohabit with this distortion

  4. Two- and three-cluster decays of light nuclei within a hyperspherical harmonics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilevsky, V. S.; Lashko, Yu. A.; Filippov, G. F.

    2018-06-01

    We consider a set of three-cluster systems (4He, 7Li, 7Be, 8Be, 10Be) within a microscopic model which involves hyperspherical harmonics to represent intercluster motion. We selected three-cluster systems which have at least one binary channel. Our aim is to study whether hyperspherical harmonics are able, and under what conditions, to describe two-body channel(s) (nondemocratic motion) or if they are suitable for describing the three-cluster continuum only (democratic motion). It is demonstrated that a rather restricted number of hyperspherical harmonics allows us to describe bound states and scattering states in the two-body continuum for a three-cluster system.

  5. Wave function for time-dependent harmonically confined electrons in a time-dependent electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Qi; Pan, Xiao-Yin; Sahni, Viraht

    2013-09-21

    The many-body wave function of a system of interacting particles confined by a time-dependent harmonic potential and perturbed by a time-dependent spatially homogeneous electric field is derived via the Feynman path-integral method. The wave function is comprised of a phase factor times the solution to the unperturbed time-dependent Schrödinger equation with the latter being translated by a time-dependent value that satisfies the classical driven equation of motion. The wave function reduces to that of the Harmonic Potential Theorem wave function for the case of the time-independent harmonic confining potential.

  6. Coherent harmonics generated by a super-short electron pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Wu

    1996-01-01

    A novel mechanism generating superradiance harmonics is found. In this superradiance harmonics, the temporal width of harmonics is extremely short, the ratio of high harmonic fundamental wave is much higher than the known superradiance harmonics

  7. General Lp-harmonic Blaschke bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Lutwak introduced the harmonic Blaschke combination and the harmonic. Blaschke body of a star body. Further, Feng and Wang introduced the concept of the L p- harmonic Blaschke body of a star body. In this paper, we define the notion of general. L p-harmonic Blaschke bodies and establish some of its ...

  8. General Lp-harmonic Blaschke bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lutwak introduced the harmonic Blaschke combination and the harmonic Blaschke body of a star body. Further, Feng and Wang introduced the concept of the -harmonic Blaschke body of a star body. In this paper, we define the notion of general -harmonic Blaschke bodies and establish some of its properties.

  9. Audibility of harmonics in 'periodic white noise'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duifhuis, H.; Tomesen, H.H.

    1970-01-01

    In a previous article (Duifhuis, 1970) results' concerning the audibility of harmonics in a periodic pulse have been presented. Each of the lower harmonics could be perceived separately, whereas the high harmonics were heard together as one complex signal. High harmonics, however, appeared to be

  10. Generation of even harmonics in a relativistic laser plasma of atomic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krainov, V.P.; Rastunkov, V.S.

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that the irradiation of atomic clusters by a superintense femtosecond laser pulse gives rise to various harmonics of the laser field. They arise as a result of elastic collisions of free electrons with atomic ions inside the clusters in the presence of the laser filed. The yield of even harmonics whose electromagnetic field is transverse is attributed to the relativism of the motion of electrons and the consideration of their drift velocity associated with the internal ionization of atoms and atomic ions of a cluster. These harmonics are emitted in the same direction as odd harmonics. The conductivities and electromagnetic fields of the harmonics are calculated. The generation efficiency of the harmonics slowly decreases as the harmonic number increases. The generation of even harmonics ceases when the drift velocity of electrons becomes equal to zero and only the oscillation velocity of electrons is nonzero. The results can also be applied to the irradiation of solid-state targets inside a skin layer

  11. HARMONIZED EUROPE OR EUROPEAN HARMONY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Marinescu

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent evolutions in Europe raise questions on the viability of the present economic and social model that defines the European construction project. In this paper, the author will try to explain the viability of institutional European model that sticks between free market mechanisms and protectionism. The main challenge for the EU is about the possibility to bring together the institutional convergence and the welfare for all Europeans. This is the result of the view, still dominant, of European politics elite, according to which institutional harmonization is the solution of a more dynamic and prosper Europe. But, economic realities convince us that, more and more, a harmonized, standardized Europe is not necessarily identical with a Europe of harmony and social cooperation. If „development through integration” seems to be harmonization through „institutional transplant”, how could then be the European model one sufficiently wide open to market, which creates the prosperity so long waited for by new member countries?

  12. Harmonic superspaces of extended supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.; Kalitzin, S.; Nguyen Ai Viet; Ogievetsky, V.

    1984-01-01

    The main technical apparatus of the harmonic superspace approach to extended SUSY, the calculus of harmonic variables on homogeneous spaces of the SUSY automorphism groups, is presented in detail for N=2, 3, 4. The basic harmonics for the coset manifolds G/H with G=SU(2), H=U(1); G=SU(3), H=SU(2)xU(1) and H=U(1)xU(1); G=SU(4), H=SU(3)xU(1), H=SU(2)xSU(2)xU(1), H=SU(2)xU(1)xU(1) and H=U(1)xU(1)xU(1); G=USp(2), H=SU(2)xSU(2), H=SU(2)xU(1) and H=U(1)xU(1) are tabulated a number of useful relations among them

  13. Conformal invariance in harmonic superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galperin, A.; Ivanov, E.; Ogievetsky, V.; Sokatchev, E.

    1987-01-01

    In the present paper we show how the N = 2 superconformal group is realised in harmonic superspace and examine conformal invariance of N = 2 off-shell theories. We believe that the example of N = O self-dual Yang-Mills equations can serve as an instructive introduction to the subject of harmonic superspace and this is examined. The rigid N = 2 conformal supersymmetry and its local version, i.e. N = 2 conformal supergravity is also discussed. The paper is a contribution to the book commemorating the sixtieth birthday of E.S. Fradkin. (author)

  14. Elements of abstract harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bachman, George

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Abstract Harmonic Analysis provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts and basic theorems of abstract harmonic analysis. In order to give a reasonably complete and self-contained introduction to the subject, most of the proofs have been presented in great detail thereby making the development understandable to a very wide audience. Exercises have been supplied at the end of each chapter. Some of these are meant to extend the theory slightly while others should serve to test the reader's understanding of the material presented. The first chapter and part of the second give

  15. Harmonic modeling of induction motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedra, J.; Sainz, L.; Corcoles, F. [Department of Electrical Engineering, ETSEIB-UPC, Av. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-07-15

    The paper proposes an induction motor model for the study of harmonic load flow in balanced and unbalanced conditions. The parameters of this model are obtained from motor manufacturer data and the positive- and negative-sequence equivalent circuits of the single- and double-cage models. An approximate harmonic model based on motor manufacturer data only is also proposed. In addition, the paper includes manufacturer data and the calculated parameters of 36 induction motors of different rated powers. This database is used to analyze the proposed models. (author)

  16. Optimal Selective Harmonic Control for Power Harmonics Mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Keliang; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    of power harmonics. The proposed optimal SHC is of hybrid structure: all recursive SHC modules with weighted gains are connected in parallel. It bridges the real “nk+-m order RC” and the complex “parallel structure RC”. Compared to other IMP based control solutions, it offers an optimal trade-off among...

  17. Probabilistic Harmonic Modeling of Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guest, Emerson; Jensen, Kim H.; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    2017-01-01

    A probabilistic sequence domain (SD) harmonic model of a grid-connected voltage-source converter is used to estimate harmonic emissions in a wind power plant (WPP) comprised of Type-IV wind turbines. The SD representation naturally partitioned converter generated voltage harmonics into those...... with deterministic phase and those with probabilistic phase. A case study performed on a string of ten 3MW, Type-IV wind turbines implemented in PSCAD was used to verify the probabilistic SD harmonic model. The probabilistic SD harmonic model can be employed in the planning phase of WPP projects to assess harmonic...

  18. Soliton ratchetlike dynamics by ac forces with harmonic mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salerno, Mario; Zolotaryuk, Yaroslav

    2002-01-01

    The possibility of unidirectional motion of a kink (topological soliton) of a dissipative sine-Gordon equation in the presence of ac forces with harmonic mixing (at least biharmonic) and of zero mean, is presented. The dependence of the kink mean velocity on system parameters is investigated...... numerically and the results are compared with a perturbation analysis based on a point-particle representation of the soliton. We find that first order perturbative calculations lead to incomplete descriptions, due to the important role played by the soliton-phonon interaction in establishing the phenomenon...... in the system. Effective soliton transport is achieved when the internal mode and the external force get phase locked. We find that for kinks driven by biharmonic drivers consisting of the superposition of a fundamental driver with its first odd harmonic, the transport arises only due to this internal mode...

  19. Detection of cyclic-fold bifurcation in electrostatic MEMS transducers by motion-induced current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangtak; Khater, Mahmoud; Effa, David; Abdel-Rahman, Eihab; Yavuz, Mustafa

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a new detection method of cyclic-fold bifurcations in electrostatic MEMS transducers based on a variant of the harmonic detection of resonance method. The electrostatic transducer is driven by an unbiased harmonic signal at half its natural frequency, ω a   =  1/2 ω o . The response of the transducer consists of static displacement and a series of harmonics at 2 ω a , 4 ω a , and so on. Its motion-induced current is shifted by the excitation frequency, ω a , to appear at 3 ω a , 5 ω a , and higher odd harmonics, providing higher sensitivity to the measurement of harmonic motions. With this method, we successfully detected the variation in the location of the cyclic-fold bifurcation of an encapsulated electrostatic MEMS transducer. We also detected a regime of tapping mode motions subsequent to the bifurcation.

  20. Detection of cyclic-fold bifurcation in electrostatic MEMS transducers by motion-induced current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sangtak; Abdel-Rahman, Eihab; Khater, Mahmoud; Effa, David; Yavuz, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new detection method of cyclic-fold bifurcations in electrostatic MEMS transducers based on a variant of the harmonic detection of resonance method. The electrostatic transducer is driven by an unbiased harmonic signal at half its natural frequency, ω a   =  1/2  ω o . The response of the transducer consists of static displacement and a series of harmonics at 2  ω a , 4  ω a , and so on. Its motion-induced current is shifted by the excitation frequency, ω a , to appear at 3  ω a , 5  ω a , and higher odd harmonics, providing higher sensitivity to the measurement of harmonic motions. With this method, we successfully detected the variation in the location of the cyclic-fold bifurcation of an encapsulated electrostatic MEMS transducer. We also detected a regime of tapping mode motions subsequent to the bifurcation. (paper)

  1. Harmonic structures and intrinsic torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Diego; Madsen, Thomas Bruun

    We discuss the construction of 8-manifolds with harmonic Sp(2)Sp(1)-structures. In particular, we find 10 new examples of nilmanifolds that admit a closed 4-form Omega whose stabiliser is Sp(2)Sp(1). Our constructions entail the notion of SO(4)-structures on 7-manifolds. We present a thorough...

  2. Harmonic oscillator in Snyder space

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The harmonic oscillator in Snyder space is investigated in its classical and quantum versions. The classical trajectory is obtained and the semiclassical quantization from the phase space trajectories is discussed. An effective cut-off to high frequencies is found. The quantum version is developed and an equivalent usual ...

  3. The relativistic harmonic oscillator reconsidered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofsaess, T.

    1978-01-01

    The bound states of scalar quarks interacting through a scalar harmonic oscillator are investigated. In the presence of this interaction the dressed quark propagator differs substantially from the free one. This leads to a Bethe Salpeter equation which does not allow for any stable bound states of positive mass. (orig.) [de

  4. Conformal invariance in harmonic superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galperin, A.; Ivanov, E.; Ogievetsky, V.; Sokatchev, E.

    1985-01-01

    N=2 conformal supersymmetry is realized in harmonic superspace, its peculiarities are analyzed. The coordinate group and analytical prepotentials for N=2 conformal supergravity are found. A new version of the N=2 Einstein supergravity with infinite number of auxiliary fields is suggested. A hypermultiplet without central charges and constraints is used as a compensator

  5. Sums of Generalized Harmonic Series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 9. Sums of Generalized Harmonic Series: For Kids from Five to Fifteen. Zurab Silagadze. General Article Volume 20 Issue 9 September 2015 pp 822-843. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  6. Comment on 'Conservative discretizations of the Kepler motion'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieslinski, Jan L

    2010-01-01

    We show that the exact integrator for the classical Kepler motion, recently found by Kozlov (2007 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 40 4529-39), can be derived in a simple natural way, using a well-known exact discretization of the harmonic oscillator. We also draw attention to important earlier references, where the exact discretization of the four-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator has been applied to the perturbed Kepler problem. (comments and replies)

  7. Vibrational motion in a symmetric, double minimum potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanget-Larsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Molecular vibrational motion in a symmetric, double minimum potential is treated by means of a quartic model potential, by reference to the tables published by Jaan Laane and the results of harmonic analyses for the stationary points. The inversion vibration of ammonia is treated in detail. - Not...... on the harmonic approximation for polyatomic molecules are appended. - Presented at a NORFA Workshop in Hirtshals, Denmark, August 1997....

  8. Lenore White Harmon: One Woman's Career Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Nadya A.

    1997-01-01

    Presents biographical information on Lenore White Harmon, noted professor, counselor, and researcher. In a question-and-answer section, Harmon describes her early career decisions, work history, research efforts, professional contributions, important influences and reflections on her career development. (KW)

  9. Tides and tidal harmonics at Umbharat, Gujarat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A.; Swamy, G.N.

    A part of the data on tides recorded at Machiwada near Umbharat, Gulf of Cambay during April 1978 was subjected to harmonic analysis following the Admiralty procedure. The general tidal characteristics and the value of four major harmonic...

  10. Two-dimensional analysis of motion artifacts, including flow effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litt, A.M.; Brody, A.S.; Spangler, R.A.; Scott, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of motion on magnetic resonance images have been theoretically analyzed for the case of a point-like object in simple harmonic motion and for other one-dimensional trajectories. The authors of this paper extend this analysis to a generalized two-dimensional magnetization with an arbitrary motion trajectory. The authors provide specific solutions for the clinically relevant cases of the cross-sections of cylindrical objects in the body, such as the aorta, which has a roughly one-dimensional, simple harmonic motion during respiration. By extending the solution to include inhomogeneous magnetizations, the authors present a model which allows the effects of motion artifacts and flow artifacts to be analyzed simultaneously

  11. Unusual motions of a vibrating string

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Roger J.

    2003-10-01

    The actual motions of a sinusoidally driven vibrating string can be very complex due to nonlinear effects resulting from varying tension and longitudinal motion not included in simple linear theory. Commonly observed effects are: generation of motion perpendicular to the driving force, sudden jumps in amplitude, hysteresis, and generation of higher harmonics. In addition, these effects are profoundly influenced by wire asymmetries which in a brass harpsichord wire can cause a small splitting of each natural frequency of free vibration into two closely spaced frequencies (relative separation ~0.2% to 2%), each associated with transverse motion along two orthogonal characteristic wire axes. Some unusual resulting patterns of complex motions of a point on the wire are exhibited on videotape. Examples include: sudden changes of harmonic content, generation of subharmonics, and motion which appears nearly chaotic but which has a pattern period of over 10 s. Another unusual phenomenon due to entirely different causes can occur when a violin string is bowed with a higher than normal force resulting in sounds ranging from about a musical third to a twelfth lower than the sound produced when the string is plucked.

  12. Higher order harmonics of reactor neutron equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fu; Hu Yongming; Luo Zhengpei

    1996-01-01

    The flux mapping method using the higher order harmonics of the neutron equation is proposed. Based on the bi-orthogonality of the higher order harmonics, the process and formulas for higher order harmonics calculation are derived via the source iteration method with source correction. For the first time, not only any order harmonics for up-to-3-dimensional geometry are achieved, but also the preliminary verification to the capability for flux mapping have been carried out

  13. Microwave second-harmonic response of ceramic MgB2 samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agliolo Gallitto, A.; Bonsignore, G.; Li Vigni, M.

    2005-01-01

    Nonlinear microwave response of different ceramic MgB 2 samples has been investigated by the technique of second-harmonic emission. The second-harmonic signal has been investigated as a function of temperature, DC magnetic field and input microwave power. The attention has mainly been devoted to the response at low magnetic fields, where nonlinear processes arising from motion of Abrikosov fluxons are ineffective. The results show that different mechanisms are responsible for the nonlinear response in the different ranges of temperature. At low temperatures, the nonlinear response is due to processes involving weak links. At temperatures close to T c , a further contribution to the harmonic emission is present; it can be ascribed to modulation of the order parameter by the microwave field and gives rise to a peak in the temperature dependence of the harmonic signal

  14. Covariant quantization of the d=4 Brink-Schwarz superparticle using Lorentz harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zima, V.G.; Fedoryuk, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Covariant first and second quantizations of the free d=4 massless superparticle are implemented with the introduction of purely gauge auxiliary spinor Lorentz harmonics. It is shown that the general solution of the condition of masslessness is a sum of two independent chiral superfields with each of them corresponding to finite superspin. A translationally covariant, in general bijective correspondence between harmonic and massless superfields is constructed. By calculation of the commutation function it is shown that in the considered approach only harmonic fields with the correct connection between spin and statistics and with integer negative homogeneity index satisfy the microcausality condition. It is emphasized that the harmonic fields that arise are reducible at integer points. The index spinor technique is used to describe infinite-component fields of finite spin; the equations of motion of such fields are obtained, and for them Weinberg's theorem on the connection between massless helicity particles and the type of nongauge field that describes them is generalized

  15. Mapping Electrostatic Forces Using Higher Harmonics Tapping Mode Atomic Force Microscopy in Liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, S.J.T.; Willemsen, O.H.; van der Werf, Kees; de Grooth, B.G.; Greve, Jan

    1999-01-01

    A simple model of a damped, harmonic oscillator is used to describe the motion of an atomic force microscope cantilever tapping in fluid. By use of experimentally obtained parameters, excellent agreement is found between theory and experimental results. From the model we estimate that the force

  16. Harmonic disturbance location by applying Bayesian inference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, G.; Xiang, Y.; Cuk, V.; Cobben, J.F.G.

    2016-01-01

    Harmonic pollution is one of the most important power quality issues in electric power systems. Correct location of the main harmonic disturbance source is a key step to solve the problem. This paper presents a method to detect the location of harmonic disturbance source in low voltage network

  17. Detection of Harmonic Occurring using Kalman Filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Shoro, Ghulam Mustafa; Imran, Raja Muhammed

    2014-01-01

    /current characteristic. These harmonics are not to be allowed to grow beyond a certain limit to avoid any grave consequence to the customer’s main supply. Filters can be implemented at the power source or utility location to eliminate these harmonics. In this paper we detect the instance at which these harmonics occur...

  18. Third Harmonic Imaging using a Pulse Inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim; Du, Yigang; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2011-01-01

    The pulse inversion (PI) technique can be utilized to separate and enhance harmonic components of a waveform for tissue harmonic imaging. While most ultrasound systems can perform pulse inversion, only few image the 3rd harmonic component. PI pulse subtraction can isolate and enhance the 3rd...

  19. Dissipation and nuclear collective motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Helmut; Jensen, A.S.; Ngo, Christian; Siemens, P.J.; California Univ., Berkeley

    1979-01-01

    This contribution is intended to give a brief summary of a forthcoming paper which shall review extensively the linear response theory for dissipation and statistical fluctuations as well as its application to heavy-ion collisions. It shall contain new results on the following subjects: numerical computations of response functions and transport coefficients; dissipation in a self-consistent treatment of harmonic vibrations; introduction of collective variables within a quantum theory. The method used consists of an extended version of the Bohm and Pines treatment of the electron gas. It allows to deduce a quantum Hamiltonian for the collective and intrinsic motion including coupling terms; discussion and solution of a quantal Master equation for non-linear collective motion. Additionally, a somewhat elaborate discussion of the problems of irreversibility is given, especially in connection to a treatment within the moving basis

  20. Solvable Quantum Macroscopic Motions and Decoherence Mechanisms in Quantum Mechanics on Nonstandard Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tsunehiro

    1996-01-01

    Quantum macroscopic motions are investigated in the scheme consisting of N-number of harmonic oscillators in terms of ultra-power representations of nonstandard analysis. Decoherence is derived from the large internal degrees of freedom of macroscopic matters.

  1. Passive wide spectrum harmonic filter for adjustable speed drives in oil and gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Jaafari, Khaled Ali

    Non-linear loads such as variable speed drives constitute the bulky load of oil and gas industry power systems. They are widely used in driving induction and permanent magnet motors for variable speed applications. That is because variable speed drives provide high static and dynamic performance. Moreover, they are known of their high energy efficiency and high motion quality, and high starting torque. However, these non-linear loads are main sources of current and voltage harmonics and lower the quality of electric power system. In fact, it is the six-pulse and twelve-pulse diode and thyristor rectifiers that spoil the AC power line with the dominant harmonics (5th, 7th, 11th). They provide DC voltage to the inverter of the variable speed drives. Typical problems that arise from these harmonics are Harmonic resonances', harmonic losses, interference with electronic equipment, and line voltage distortion at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC). Thus, it is necessary to find efficient, reliable, and economical harmonic filters. The passive filters have definite advantage over active filters in terms of components count, cost and reliability. Reliability and maintenance is a serious issue in drilling rigs which are located in offshore and onshore with extreme operating conditions. Passive filters are tuned to eliminate a certain frequency and therefore there is a need to equip the system with more than one passive filter to eliminate all unwanted frequencies. An alternative solution is Wide Spectrum Harmonic passive filter. The wide spectrum harmonic filters are becoming increasingly popular in these applications and found to overcome some of the limitations of conventional tuned passive filter. The most important feature of wide spectrum harmonic passive filters is that only one capacitor is required to filter a wide range of harmonics. Wide spectrum filter is essentially a low-pass filter for the harmonic at fundamental frequency. It can also be considered as a

  2. A Method for Harmonic Sources Detection based on Harmonic Distortion Power Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ruixing; Xu, Lin; Zheng, Xian

    2018-03-01

    Harmonic sources detection at the point of common coupling is an essential step for harmonic contribution determination and harmonic mitigation. The harmonic distortion power rate index is proposed for harmonic source location based on IEEE Std 1459-2010 in the paper. The method only based on harmonic distortion power is not suitable when the background harmonic is large. To solve this problem, a threshold is determined by the prior information, when the harmonic distortion power is larger than the threshold, the customer side is considered as the main harmonic source, otherwise, the utility side is. A simple model of public power system was built in MATLAB/Simulink and field test results of typical harmonic loads verified the effectiveness of proposed method.

  3. Classical dynamics of triatomic system: energized harmonic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, C.A.; Kuppermann, A.; Porter, R.N.

    1976-01-01

    The dynamical assumptions underlying the Slater and RRK classical-mechanical theories of unimolecular reaction rates are investigated. The predictions of these theories for several nonlinear, triatomic, harmonically-bonded molecular models are compared with the results obtained from the integration of the classical equations of motion. The accuracy of the small-vibration and weak-coupling assumptions are found to break down at energies above about one quarter of a bond dissociation energy. Nonetheless, the small-vibration approximation predicts reaction frequencies in good agreement with the exact results for the models. The effects of rotation on intramolecular energy exchange are examined and found to be significant

  4. Static harmonization of dynamically harmonized Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanova, Ekaterina; Kostyukevich, Yury; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2017-08-01

    Static harmonization in the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance cell improves the resolving power of the cell and prevents dephasing of the ion cloud in the case of any trajectory of the charged particle, not necessarily axisymmetric cyclotron (as opposed to dynamic harmonization). We reveal that the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance cell with dynamic harmonization (paracell) is proved to be statically harmonized. The volume of the statically harmonized potential distribution increases with an increase in the number of trap segments.

  5. Harmonic Detection at Initialization With Kalman Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Imran, Raja Muhammad; Shoro, Ghulam Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Most power electronic equipment these days generate harmonic disturbances, these devices hold nonlinear voltage/current characteristic. The harmonics generated can potentially be harmful to the consumer supply. Typically, filters are integrated at the power source or utility location to filter out...... the affect of harmonics on the supply. For the detection of these harmonics various techniques are available and one of that technique is the Kalman filter. In this paper we investigate that what are the consequences when harmonic detection system based on Kalman Filtering is initialized...

  6. Waveguide harmonic damper for klystron amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Y.

    1998-01-01

    A waveguide harmonic damper was designed for removing the harmonic frequency power from the klystron amplifiers of the APS linac. Straight coaxial probe antennas are used in a rectangular waveguide to form a damper. A linear array of the probe antennas is used on a narrow wall of the rectangular waveguide for damping klystron harmonics while decoupling the fundamental frequency in dominent TE 01 mode. The klystron harmonics can exist in the waveguide as waveguide higher-order modes above cutoff. Computer simulations are made to investigate the waveguide harmonic damping characteristics of the damper

  7. Harmonic space and quaternionic manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galperin, A.; Ogievetsky, O.; Ivanov, E.

    1992-10-01

    A principle of harmonic analyticity underlying the quaternionic (quaternion-Kaehler) geometry is found, and the differential constraints which define this geometry are solved. To this end the original 4n-dimensional quaternionic manifold is extended to a biharmonic space. The latter includes additional harmonic coordinates associated with both the tangent local Sp(1) group and an extra rigid SU(2) group rotating the complex structures. An one-to-one correspondence is established between the quaternionic spaces and off-shell N=2 supersymmetric sigma-models coupled to N=2 supergravity. Coordinates of the analytic subspace are identified with superfields describing N=2 matter hypermultiplets and a compensating hypermultiplet of N=2 supergravity. As an illustration the potentials for the symmetric quaternionic spaces are presented. (K.A.) 22 refs

  8. Data harmonization and model performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Joint Committee on Urban Storm Drainage of the International Association for Hydraulic Research (IAHR) and International Association on Water Pollution Research and Control (IAWPRC) was formed in 1982. The current committee members are (no more than two from a country): B. C. Yen, Chairman (USA); P. Harremoes, Vice Chairman (Denmark); R. K. Price, Secretary (UK); P. J. Colyer (UK), M. Desbordes (France), W. C. Huber (USA), K. Krauth (FRG), A. Sjoberg (Sweden), and T. Sueishi (Japan).The IAHR/IAWPRC Joint Committee is forming a Task Group on Data Harmonization and Model Performance. One objective is to promote international urban drainage data harmonization for easy data and information exchange. Another objective is to publicize available models and data internationally. Comments and suggestions concerning the formation and charge of the Task Group are welcome and should be sent to: B. C. Yen, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Univ. of Illinois, 208 N. Romine St., Urbana, IL 61801.

  9. Harmonic oscillator on a lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ader, J.P.; Bonnier, B.; Hontebeyrie, M.; Meyers, C.

    1983-01-01

    The continuum limit of the ground state energy for the harmonic oscillator with discrete time is derived for all possible choices of the lattice derivative. The occurrence of unphysical values is shown to arise whenever the lattice laplacian is not strictly positive on its Brillouin zone. These undesirable limits can either be finite and arbitrary (multiple spectrum) or infinite (overlapping sublattices with multiple spectrum). (orig.)

  10. Harmonic ratcheting for fast acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, N.; Brennan, J. M.; Peggs, S.

    2014-04-01

    A major challenge in the design of rf cavities for the acceleration of medium-energy charged ions is the need to rapidly sweep the radio frequency over a large range. From low-power medical synchrotrons to high-power accelerator driven subcritical reactor systems, and from fixed focus alternating gradient accelerators to rapid cycling synchrotrons, there is a strong need for more efficient, and faster, acceleration of protons and light ions in the semirelativistic range of hundreds of MeV/u. A conventional way to achieve a large, rapid frequency sweep (perhaps over a range of a factor of 6) is to use custom-designed ferrite-loaded cavities. Ferrite rings enable the precise tuning of the resonant frequency of a cavity, through the control of the incremental permeability that is possible by introducing a pseudoconstant azimuthal magnetic field. However, rapid changes over large permeability ranges incur anomalous behavior such as the "Q-loss" and "f-dot" loss phenomena that limit performance while requiring high bias currents. Notwithstanding the incomplete understanding of these phenomena, they can be ameliorated by introducing a "harmonic ratcheting" acceleration scheme in which two or more rf cavities take turns accelerating the beam—one turns on when the other turns off, at different harmonics—so that the radio frequency can be constrained to remain in a smaller range. Harmonic ratcheting also has straightforward performance advantages, depending on the particular parameter set at hand. In some typical cases it is possible to halve the length of the cavities, or to double the effective gap voltage, or to double the repetition rate. This paper discusses and quantifies the advantages of harmonic ratcheting in general. Simulation results for the particular case of a rapid cycling medical synchrotron ratcheting from harmonic number 9 to 2 show that stability and performance criteria are met even when realistic engineering details are taken into consideration.

  11. Harmonic Lattice Dynamics of Germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelin, G

    1974-07-01

    The phonon dispersion relations of the DELTA-, LAMBDA-, and SIGMA-directions of germanium at 80 K are analysed in terms of current harmonic lattice dynamical models. On the basis of this experience, a new model is proposed which gives a unified account of the strong points of the previous models. The principal elements of the presented theory are quasiparticle bond charges combined with a valence force field.

  12. Harmonic Lattice Dynamics of Germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelin, G.

    1974-01-01

    The phonon dispersion relations of the Δ-, Λ-, and Σ-directions of germanium at 80 K are analysed in terms of current harmonic lattice dynamical models. On the basis of this experience, a new model is proposed which gives a unified account of the strong points of the previous models. The principal elements of the presented theory are quasiparticle bond charges combined with a valence force field

  13. Representation Discovery using Harmonic Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mahadevan, Sridhar

    2008-01-01

    Representations are at the heart of artificial intelligence (AI). This book is devoted to the problem of representation discovery: how can an intelligent system construct representations from its experience? Representation discovery re-parameterizes the state space - prior to the application of information retrieval, machine learning, or optimization techniques - facilitating later inference processes by constructing new task-specific bases adapted to the state space geometry. This book presents a general approach to representation discovery using the framework of harmonic analysis, in particu

  14. Symmetries of the quantum damped harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, J; López-Ruiz, F F; Aldaya, V; Cossío, F

    2012-01-01

    For the non-conservative Caldirola–Kanai system, describing a quantum damped harmonic oscillator, a couple of constant-of-motion operators generating the Heisenberg–Weyl algebra can be found. The inclusion of the standard time evolution generator (which is not a symmetry) as a symmetry in this algebra, in a unitary manner, requires a non-trivial extension of this basic algebra and hence of the physical system itself. Surprisingly, this extension leads directly to the so-called Bateman dual system, which now includes a new particle acting as an energy reservoir. In addition, the Caldirola–Kanai dissipative system can be retrieved by imposing constraints. The algebra of symmetries of the dual system is presented, as well as a quantization that implies, in particular, a first-order Schrödinger equation. As opposed to other approaches, where it is claimed that the spectrum of the Bateman Hamiltonian is complex and discrete, we obtain that it is real and continuous, with infinite degeneracy in all regimes. (paper)

  15. Expansion into lattice harmonics in cubic symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontrym-Sznajd, G.

    2018-05-01

    On the example of a few sets of sampling directions in the Brillouin zone, this work shows how important the choice of the cubic harmonics is on the quality of approximation of some quantities by a series of such harmonics. These studies led to the following questions: (1) In the case that for a given l there are several independent harmonics, can one use in the expansion only one harmonic with a given l?; (2) How should harmonics be ordered: according to l or, after writing them in terms of (x4 + y4 + z4)n (x2y2z2)m, according to their degree q = n + m? To enable practical applications of such harmonics, they are constructed in terms of the associated Legendre polynomials up to l = 26. It is shown that electron momentum densities, reconstructed from experimental data for ErGa3 and InGa3, are described much better by harmonics ordered with q.

  16. Complex harmonic modal analysis of rotor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Dong Ju

    2015-01-01

    Complex harmonic analysis for rotor systems has been proposed from the strict complex modal analysis based upon Floquet theory. In this process the harmonic balance method is adopted, effectively associated with conventional eigenvalue analysis. Also, the harmonic coefficients equivalent to dFRFs in harmonic mode has been derived in practice. The modes are classified from identifying the modal characteristics, and the adaptation of harmonic balance method has been proven by comparing the results of the stability analyses from Floque theory and the eigen analysis. The modal features of each critical speed are depicted in quantitatively and qualitatively by showing that the strengths of each component of the harmonic coefficients are estimated from the order of magnitude analysis according to their harmonic patterns. This effectiveness has been verified by comparing with the numerical solutions

  17. Anomalous phase behavior and apparent anharmonicity of the pump-probe signal in a two-dimensional harmonic potential system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taneichi, T.; Kobayashi, T.

    2007-01-01

    Discussion on wavelength dependent 'anharmonic' effects in a pump-probe signal for a system of wavepacket on one- and two-dimensional harmonic potentials was given. The Fourier power spectrum of the signal, calculated for a model composed of a three-state electronic system coupled to a set of displaced harmonic oscillators, depends on the pulse duration. Condition under which the wavepacket motion in the harmonic potential substantially deviates from that of the classical point mass is derived. The Fourier power spectrum has enhanced components with frequencies of harmonics even in a system composed of ideally harmonic potentials. Utility of the Fourier analysis of the spectrum for clarification of the squeezed molecular vibrational state is discussed. Calculated oscillatory behavior in phase of a pump-probe signal, as a function of probe frequency, was discussed in terms of a two-dimensional effect on a pump-probe signal

  18. Time-averaged MSD of Brownian motion

    OpenAIRE

    Andreanov, Alexei; Grebenkov, Denis

    2012-01-01

    We study the statistical properties of the time-averaged mean-square displacements (TAMSD). This is a standard non-local quadratic functional for inferring the diffusion coefficient from an individual random trajectory of a diffusing tracer in single-particle tracking experiments. For Brownian motion, we derive an exact formula for the Laplace transform of the probability density of the TAMSD by mapping the original problem onto chains of coupled harmonic oscillators. From this formula, we de...

  19. The Quantum Arnold Transformation for the damped harmonic oscillator: from the Caldirola-Kanai model toward the Bateman model

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ruiz, F. F.; Guerrero, J.; Aldaya, V.; Cossío, F.

    2012-08-01

    Using a quantum version of the Arnold transformation of classical mechanics, all quantum dynamical systems whose classical equations of motion are non-homogeneous linear second-order ordinary differential equations (LSODE), including systems with friction linear in velocity such as the damped harmonic oscillator, can be related to the quantum free-particle dynamical system. This implies that symmetries and simple computations in the free particle can be exported to the LSODE-system. The quantum Arnold transformation is given explicitly for the damped harmonic oscillator, and an algebraic connection between the Caldirola-Kanai model for the damped harmonic oscillator and the Bateman system will be sketched out.

  20. The Quantum Arnold Transformation for the damped harmonic oscillator: from the Caldirola-Kanai model toward the Bateman model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Ruiz, F F; Guerrero, J; Aldaya, V; Cossío, F

    2012-01-01

    Using a quantum version of the Arnold transformation of classical mechanics, all quantum dynamical systems whose classical equations of motion are non-homogeneous linear second-order ordinary differential equations (LSODE), including systems with friction linear in velocity such as the damped harmonic oscillator, can be related to the quantum free-particle dynamical system. This implies that symmetries and simple computations in the free particle can be exported to the LSODE-system. The quantum Arnold transformation is given explicitly for the damped harmonic oscillator, and an algebraic connection between the Caldirola-Kanai model for the damped harmonic oscillator and the Bateman system will be sketched out.

  1. Accurate calculation of high harmonics generated by relativistic Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, Alexandru

    2008-01-01

    The recent emergence of the field of ultraintense laser pulses, corresponding to beam intensities higher than 10 18 W cm -2 , brings about the problem of the high harmonic generation (HHG) by the relativistic Thomson scattering of the electromagnetic radiation by free electrons. Starting from the equations of the relativistic motion of the electron in the electromagnetic field, we give an exact solution of this problem. Taking into account the Lienard-Wiechert equations, we obtain a periodic scattered electromagnetic field. Without loss of generality, the solution is strongly simplified by observing that the electromagnetic field is always normal to the direction electron-detector. The Fourier series expansion of this field leads to accurate expressions of the high harmonics generated by the Thomson scattering. Our calculations lead to a discrete HHG spectrum, whose shape and angular distribution are in agreement with the experimental data from the literature. Since no approximations were made, our approach is also valid in the ultrarelativistic regime, corresponding to intensities higher than 10 23 W cm -2 , where it predicts a strong increase of the HHG intensities and of the order of harmonics. In this domain, the nonlinear Thomson scattering could be an efficient source of hard x-rays

  2. Second harmonic generation in a bounded magnetoplasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental study of second harmonic generation in a magnetized plasma contained in a cylindrical cavity resonator shows how the harmonic power varies with fundamental power, background gas pressure, and magnetization. Two cavities were designed. For each the TM010 resonance was in the S-band and the TM011 resonance in the C-band. Both frequencies were harmonically related when the d.c. discharge sustaining the plasma was adjusted to give plasma frequencies of approximately 0.7 GHz and 1.53 GHz. The experimental results show the harmonic power approximately proportional to the square of the fundamental power from 5 to 100 mw, and a decreasing function of pressure from 10 to 150 millitorr. Experiments at constant plasma frequency and varying magnetic field from 0 to 3000 Gauss show a sharp drop in harmonic power to undetectable levels when the electron cyclotron frequency approximates either the fundamental or second harmonic frequencies. These effects are attributed, respectively, to the coupling of fundamental power to other modes and to cavity detuning away from the harmonic. With the plasma frequency adjusted to maintain simultaneous resonance of fundamental and harmonic, a harmonic signal maximum occurred when the upper hybrid frequency approximated the harmonic frequency. Several anomalies, apparently related to the magnetization, background gas, and electron density distribution were observed. Otherwise, the results are qualitatively consistent with the first order theory for a cold, collisional plasma

  3. Nuclear pharmacy education: international harmonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, S.M.; Cox, P.H.

    1998-01-01

    Education of nuclear pharmacists exists in many countries around the world. The approach and level of education varies between countries depending upon the expectations of the nuclear pharmacist, the work site and the economic environment. In Australia, training is provided through distance learning. In Europe and Canada, nuclear pharmacists and radiochemists receive postgraduate education in order to engage in the small-scale preparation and quality control of radiopharmaceuticals as well as research and development. In the U.S.A., nuclear pharmacy practitioners obtain basic knowledge primarily through undergraduate programs taken when pursuit the first professional degree in pharmacy. Licensed practitioners in pharmacy enter the practice of nuclear pharmacy through distance learning programs or short courses. While different approaches to education exist, there is a basic core of knowledge and a level of competence required of all nuclear pharmacists and radiochemists providing radiopharmaceutical products and services. It was with this realization that efforts were initiated to develop harmonization concepts and documents pertaining to education in nuclear pharmacy. The benefits of international harmonization in nuclear pharmacy education are numerous. Assurance of the availability of quality professionals to provide optimal products and care to the patient is a principle benefit. Spanning national barriers through the demonstration of self governance and unification in education will enhance the goal of increased freedom of employment between countries. Harmonization endeavors will improve existing education programs through sharing of innovative concepts and knowledge between educators. Documents generated will benefit new educational programs especially in developing nations. A committee on harmonization in nuclear pharmacy education was formed consisting of educators and practitioners from the international community. A working document on education was

  4. The Harmonics of Kansei Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Jianning; Restrepo-Giraldo, John Dairo

    2008-01-01

    sensibility it elicits on a person (kansei), is a key factor in the design of tools to support designers in delivering the right product’s appearance. This paper presents an approach to mathematically represent a product’s kansei based on the frequency signature (harmonics) of a shape. This mathematical...... representation should allow the automatic indexing and retrieval of images from a repository of design precedents. This is done through a series of experiments aiming at determining the relation between images, kansei words and the frequency signatures of those images. Tests suggest the method is promising...... and can be used for indexing images in Content Based Image Retrieval Systems....

  5. SOLUTION OF HARMONIC OSCILLATOR OF NONLINEAR MASTER SCHRÖDINGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T B Prayitno

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We have computed the solution of a nonrelativistic particle motion in a harmonic oscillator potential of the nonlinear master Schrödinger equation. The equation itself is based on two classical conservation laws, the Hamilton-Jacobi and the continuity equations. Those two equations give each contribution for the definition of quantum particle. We also prove that the solution can’t be normalized.   Keywords : harmonic oscillator, nonlinear Schrödinger.

  6. Time-dependent Hartree approximation and time-dependent harmonic oscillator model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaizot, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    We present an analytically soluble model for studying nuclear collective motion within the framework of the time-dependent Hartree (TDH) approximation. The model reduces the TDH equations to the Schroedinger equation of a time-dependent harmonic oscillator. Using canonical transformations and coherent states we derive a few properties of the time-dependent harmonic oscillator which are relevant for applications. We analyse the role of the normal modes in the time evolution of a system governed by TDH equations. We show how these modes couple together due to the anharmonic terms generated by the non-linearity of the theory. (orig.)

  7. Hermitian harmonic maps into convex balls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhenyang; Xi Zhang

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, we consider Hermitian harmonic maps from Hermitian manifolds into convex balls. We prove that there exist no non-trivial Hermitian harmonic maps from closed Hermitian manifolds into convex balls, and we use the heat flow method to solve the Dirichlet problem for Hermitian harmonic maps when the domain is compact Hermitian manifold with non-empty boundary. The case where the domain manifold is complete(noncompact) is also studied. (author)

  8. Harmonic mappings into manifolds with boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yunmei; Musina, R.

    1989-08-01

    In this paper we deal with harmonic maps from a compact Riemannian manifold into a manifold with boundary. In this case, a weak harmonic map is by definition a solution to a differential inclusion. In the first part of the paper we investigate the general properties of weak harmonic maps, which can be seen as solutions to a system of elliptic differential equations. In the second part we concentrate our attention on the heat flow method for harmonic maps. The result we achieve in this context extends a result by Chen and Struwe. (author). 21 refs

  9. Introduction to classical and quantum harmonic oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Sylvan C

    2013-01-01

    From conch shells to lasers . harmonic oscillators, the timeless scientific phenomenon As intriguing to Galileo as they are to scientists today, harmonic oscillators have provided a simple and compelling paradigm for understanding the complexities that underlie some of nature's and mankind's most fascinating creations. From early string and wind instruments fashioned from bows and seashells to the intense precision of lasers, harmonic oscillators have existed in various forms, as objects of beauty and scientific use. And harmonic oscillation has endured as one of science's most fascinating con

  10. Design and Evaluation of Accelerometer based Motional Feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Henrik; Pranjic, Emilio; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2015-01-01

    and enable radical design changes in the loudspeaker which can lead to efficiency improvements. In combination this has motivated a revisit of the accelerometer based motional feedback technique. Experimental results on a 8 inch subwoofer show that the total harmonic distortion can be significantly reduced...

  11. Electron cyclotron harmonic wave acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimabadi, H.; Menyuk, C. R.; Sprangle, P.; Vlahos, L.

    1987-01-01

    A nonlinear analysis of particle acceleration in a finite bandwidth, obliquely propagating electromagnetic cyclotron wave is presented. It has been suggested by Sprangle and Vlahos in 1983 that the narrow bandwidth cyclotron radiation emitted by the unstable electron distribution inside a flaring solar loop can accelerate electrons outside the loop by the interaction of a monochromatic wave propagating along the ambient magnetic field with the ambient electrons. It is shown here that electrons gyrating and streaming along a uniform, static magnetic field can be accelerated by interacting with the fundamental or second harmonic of a monochromatic, obliquely propagating cyclotron wave. It is also shown that the acceleration is virtually unchanged when a wave with finite bandwidth is considered. This acceleration mechanism can explain the observed high-energy electrons in type III bursts.

  12. Electron cyclotron harmonic wave acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimabadi, H.; Menyuk, C.R.; Sprangle, P.; Vlahos, L.; Salonika Univ., Greece)

    1987-01-01

    A nonlinear analysis of particle acceleration in a finite bandwidth, obliquely propagating electromagnetic cyclotron wave is presented. It has been suggested by Sprangle and Vlahos in 1983 that the narrow bandwidth cyclotron radiation emitted by the unstable electron distribution inside a flaring solar loop can accelerate electrons outside the loop by the interaction of a monochromatic wave propagating along the ambient magnetic field with the ambient electrons. It is shown here that electrons gyrating and streaming along a uniform, static magnetic field can be accelerated by interacting with the fundamental or second harmonic of a monochromatic, obliquely propagating cyclotron wave. It is also shown that the acceleration is virtually unchanged when a wave with finite bandwidth is considered. This acceleration mechanism can explain the observed high-energy electrons in type III bursts. 31 references

  13. Pairwise harmonics for shape analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Youyi

    2013-07-01

    This paper introduces a simple yet effective shape analysis mechanism for geometry processing. Unlike traditional shape analysis techniques which compute descriptors per surface point up to certain neighborhoods, we introduce a shape analysis framework in which the descriptors are based on pairs of surface points. Such a pairwise analysis approach leads to a new class of shape descriptors that are more global, discriminative, and can effectively capture the variations in the underlying geometry. Specifically, we introduce new shape descriptors based on the isocurves of harmonic functions whose global maximum and minimum occur at the point pair. We show that these shape descriptors can infer shape structures and consistently lead to simpler and more efficient algorithms than the state-of-the-art methods for three applications: intrinsic reflectional symmetry axis computation, matching shape extremities, and simultaneous surface segmentation and skeletonization. © 2012 IEEE.

  14. Hyperspherical Harmonics and Their Physical Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, James Emil; Avery, John Scales

    Hyperspherical harmonics are extremely useful in nuclear physics and reactive scattering theory. However, their use has been confined to specialists with very strong backgrounds in mathematics. This book aims to change the theory of hyperspherical harmonics from an esoteric field, mastered....... The book is accompanied by programs and exercises designed for teaching and practical use....

  15. determination of determination of total harmonic distortion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    from previous studies on power flow and harmonic analyses of each time of the 33kV feeder restoration. .... (magnitude and phase) are usually compared with standards ... In USA, IEEE applies whereas in Europe, a different .... The source data were obtained from the real life ... tables 1 to 4 are extracted from the harmonic.

  16. Harmonic maps of the bounded symmetric domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin, Y.L.

    1994-06-01

    A shrinking property of harmonic maps into R IV (2) is proved which is used to classify complete spacelike surfaces of the parallel mean curvature in R 4 2 with a reasonable condition on the Gauss image. Liouville-type theorems of harmonic maps from the higher dimensional bounded symmetric domains are also established. (author). 25 refs

  17. The harmonized INFOGEST in vitro digestion method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egger, Lotti; Ménard, Olivia; Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Alvito, Paula; Assunção, Ricardo; Balance, Simon; Barberá, Reyes; Brodkorb, Andre; Cattenoz, Thomas; Clemente, Alfonso; Comi, Irene; Dupont, Didier; Garcia-Llatas, Guadalupe; Lagarda, María Jesús; Feunteun, Le Steven; Janssen Duijghuijsen, Lonneke; Karakaya, Sibel; Lesmes, Uri; Mackie, Alan R.; Martins, Carla; Meynier, Anne; Miralles, Beatriz; Murray, B.S.; Pihlanto, Anne; Picariello, Gianluca; Santos, C.N.; Simsek, Sebnem; Recio, Isidra; Rigby, Neil; Rioux, Laurie Eve; Stoffers, Helena; Tavares, Ana; Tavares, Lucelia; Turgeon, Sylvie; Ulleberg, E.K.; Vegarud, G.E.; Vergères, Guy; Portmann, Reto

    2016-01-01

    Within the active field of in vitro digestion in food research, the COST Action INFOGEST aimed to harmonize in vitro protocols simulating human digestion on the basis of physiologically inferred conditions. A harmonized static in vitro digestion (IVD) method was recently published as a primary

  18. The Harmonic Series Diverges Again and Again

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kifowit, Steven J.; Stamps, Terra A.

    2006-01-01

    The harmonic series is one of the most celebrated infinite series of mathematics. A quick glance at a variety of modern calculus textbooks reveals that there are two very popular proofs of the divergence of the harmonic series. In this article, the authors survey these popular proofs along with many other proofs that are equally simple and…

  19. Harmonic manifolds with minimal horospheres are flat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this note we reprove the known theorem: Harmonic manifolds with minimal horospheres are flat. It turns out that our proof is simpler and more direct than the original one. We also reprove the theorem: Ricci flat harmonic manifolds are flat, which is generally affirmed by appealing to Cheeger–Gromov splitting ...

  20. Harmonic Manifolds with Minimal Horospheres are Flat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this note we reprove the known theorem: Harmonic manifolds with minimal horospheres are flat. It turns out that our proof is simpler and more direct than the original one. We also reprove the theorem: Ricci flat harmonic manifolds are flat, which is generally affirmed by appealing to Cheeger–Gromov splitting theorem.

  1. Variational problems with obstacles and harmonic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musina, R.

    1990-08-01

    Our first purpose is to find a generalization of the usual definition of a harmonic map between two Riemannian manifolds in order to consider less regular target spaces. Our second aim was to extend a result by Chen and Struwe about the heat flow of harmonic mappings into manifolds with boundary. 19 refs

  2. Wave fronts of electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, T.; Watanabe, T.

    1982-01-01

    In an inhomogeneous high-density magnetized plasma, the spatial properties of the wave fronts and ray trajectories of electromagnetic ordinary and extraordinary cyclotron harmonic waves are investigated. Those waves which are radiated from a local source are found to have wave fronts which are almost parallel to the magnetic field. Also, the reflective properties of the electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic waves are confirmed

  3. Two examples of escaping harmonic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira do Valle, A.; Verjovsky, A.

    1988-12-01

    This paper is part of a study on the existence of special harmonic maps on complete non-compact Riemannian manifolds. We generalize the notion of escaping geodesic and prove some results on the existence of escaping harmonic maps. 11 refs, 6 figs

  4. Auditory Motion Elicits a Visual Motion Aftereffect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Berger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The visual motion aftereffect is a visual illusion in which exposure to continuous motion in one direction leads to a subsequent illusion of visual motion in the opposite direction. Previous findings have been mixed with regard to whether this visual illusion can be induced cross-modally by auditory stimuli. Based on research on multisensory perception demonstrating the profound influence auditory perception can have on the interpretation and perceived motion of visual stimuli, we hypothesized that exposure to auditory stimuli with strong directional motion cues should induce a visual motion aftereffect. Here, we demonstrate that horizontally moving auditory stimuli induced a significant visual motion aftereffect—an effect that was driven primarily by a change in visual motion perception following exposure to leftward moving auditory stimuli. This finding is consistent with the notion that visual and auditory motion perception rely on at least partially overlapping neural substrates.

  5. Auditory Motion Elicits a Visual Motion Aftereffect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Christopher C; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The visual motion aftereffect is a visual illusion in which exposure to continuous motion in one direction leads to a subsequent illusion of visual motion in the opposite direction. Previous findings have been mixed with regard to whether this visual illusion can be induced cross-modally by auditory stimuli. Based on research on multisensory perception demonstrating the profound influence auditory perception can have on the interpretation and perceived motion of visual stimuli, we hypothesized that exposure to auditory stimuli with strong directional motion cues should induce a visual motion aftereffect. Here, we demonstrate that horizontally moving auditory stimuli induced a significant visual motion aftereffect-an effect that was driven primarily by a change in visual motion perception following exposure to leftward moving auditory stimuli. This finding is consistent with the notion that visual and auditory motion perception rely on at least partially overlapping neural substrates.

  6. Auditory motion capturing ambiguous visual motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen eAlink

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is demonstrated that moving sounds have an effect on the direction in which one sees visual stimuli move. During the main experiment sounds were presented consecutively at four speaker locations inducing left- or rightwards auditory apparent motion. On the path of auditory apparent motion, visual apparent motion stimuli were presented with a high degree of directional ambiguity. The main outcome of this experiment is that our participants perceived visual apparent motion stimuli that were ambiguous (equally likely to be perceived as moving left- or rightwards more often as moving in the same direction than in the opposite direction of auditory apparent motion. During the control experiment we replicated this finding and found no effect of sound motion direction on eye movements. This indicates that auditory motion can capture our visual motion percept when visual motion direction is insufficiently determinate without affecting eye movements.

  7. Understanding fifth-harmonic generation in CLBO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patankar, S.; Yang, S. T.; Moody, J. D.; Bayramian, A. J.; Swadling, G. F.; Barker, D.; Datte, P.; Mennerat, G.; Norton, M.; Carr, C. W.; Begishev, I. A.; Bromage, J.; Ross, J. S.

    2018-02-01

    We report on results of fifth harmonic generation in Cesium Lithium Borate (CLBO) using a three-crystal cascaded frequency conversion scheme designed to study the energy balance of the final sum frequency generation stage. The experimental setup independently combines the first and fourth harmonic of a Nd:Glass laser in a 5mm thick CLBO crystal. Energy balance between the incoming and output energy is close to unity when the CLBO is out of phase matching and approximately 80% when the crystal is in phase matching. A detailed analysis of the residual fundamental and fourth harmonic energy indicates 5th harmonic light is being generated but only 26% is unaccounted for. We attribute the missing light to linear transmission loss in the CLBO oven. The ratio of the output to input energy is unity when the missing 5th harmonic is incorporated into the calculations. Two-dimensional plane wave mixing simulations show agreement with the results at lower intensities.

  8. Harmonics Monitoring Survey on LED Lamps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahman Ahmed Akila

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Light Emitting Diode (LED lamps are being increasingly used in many applications. These LED lamps operate using a driver, which is a switching device. Hence, LED lamps will be a source of harmonics in the power system. These harmonics if not well treated, may cause severe performance and operational problems. In this paper, harmonics (amplitude and phase angles generated by both LED lamps and conventional fluorescent lamps will be studied practically. Then they will be analyzed and evaluated. Compared to each other harmonics generated by both LED and conventional florescent lamps, self mitigation may occur based on the phase angle of these harmonics. All data will be measured using power analyzer and will be done on a sample of actual lamps.

  9. Intense harmonic generation from various ablation media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, T.; Elouga, L.; Suzuki, M.; Kuroda, H.; Ganeev, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. High-order harmonic generation (HHG) is a unique source of coherent extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation, which can produce soft x-rays within the spectral 'water-window' (between 2.3 and 4.4 nm), and ultimately short pulses with attosecond duration. However, the intensity of present-day harmonics is still low, and serious applications will need an increase of the conversion efficiency. Instead of using gas media, one can also use ablation material, produced on solid targets using a low-intensity prepulse, as the nonlinear medium to generate high-order harmonics. Recently, we have successfully demonstrated the generation of up to the 63 rd harmonic (λ = 12.6 nm) of a Ti:sapphire laser radiation using boron ablation, and a strong enhancement in the intensity of the 13 th harmonic from indium ablation. These harmonics were generated with a modest laser (10 mJ, 150 fs) and with the pre-pulse to main pulse energy ratio constant. In this paper, we perform systematic investigations of ablation harmonics, using the 200 mJ, 30 fs Ti:sapphire beam line of the Canadian Advanced Laser Light Source (ALLS) facility. ALLS allows studying ablation harmonics over wider experimental parameters, and with independent control over the pre-pulse and main pulse energies. The 10 Hz, 200 mJ Ti:sapphire beam line of ALLS is divided into two beams. Each beam has its own energy control system, which allows independent control over the energy of each beam. One of the beams is used as a pre-pulse for creating ablation, which is focused onto the solid target without pulse compression, with pulse duration of 200 ps. The second beam is used as the main pulse for harmonic generation. The main pulse is delayed in time relative to the pre-pulse by propagating through an optical delay line, and then sent through a pulse compressor. The compressed pulse duration have typical pulse duration of 30 fs FWHM, which is then focused onto the ablation medium using MgF 2

  10. Computer model for harmonic ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Zagzebski, J A

    2000-01-01

    Harmonic ultrasound imaging has received great attention from ultrasound scanner manufacturers and researchers. In this paper, we present a computer model that can generate realistic harmonic images. In this model, the incident ultrasound is modeled after the "KZK" equation, and the echo signal is modeled using linear propagation theory because the echo signal is much weaker than the incident pulse. Both time domain and frequency domain numerical solutions to the "KZK" equation were studied. Realistic harmonic images of spherical lesion phantoms were generated for scans by a circular transducer. This model can be a very useful tool for studying the harmonic buildup and dissipation processes in a nonlinear medium, and it can be used to investigate a wide variety of topics related to B-mode harmonic imaging.

  11. Harmonic generation with a dual frequency pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keravnou, Christina P; Averkiou, Michalakis A

    2014-05-01

    Nonlinear imaging was implemented in commercial ultrasound systems over the last 15 years offering major advantages in many clinical applications. In this work, pulsing schemes coupled with a dual frequency pulse are presented. The pulsing schemes considered were pulse inversion, power modulation, and power modulated pulse inversion. The pulse contains a fundamental frequency f and a specified amount of its second harmonic 2f. The advantages and limitations of this method were evaluated with both acoustic measurements of harmonic generation and theoretical simulations based on the KZK equation. The use of two frequencies in a pulse results in the generation of the sum and difference frequency components in addition to the other harmonic components. While with single frequency pulses, only power modulation and power modulated pulse inversion contained odd harmonic components, with the dual frequency pulse, pulse inversion now also contains odd harmonic components.

  12. Motion control report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a short discount publication. In today's manufacturing environment, Motion Control plays a major role in virtually every project.The Motion Control Report provides a comprehensive overview of the technology of Motion Control:* Design Considerations* Technologies* Methods to Control Motion* Examples of Motion Control in Systems* A Detailed Vendors List

  13. Production of High Harmonic X-Ray Radiation from Non-linear Thomson at LLNL PLEIADES

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Jae; Betts, Shawn; Crane, John; Doyuran, Adnan; Frigola, Pedro; Gibson, David J; Hartemann, Fred V; Rosenzweig, James E; Travish, Gil; Tremaine, Aaron M

    2005-01-01

    We describe an experiment for production of high harmonic x-ray radiation from Thomson backscattering of an ultra-short high power density laser by a relativistic electron beam at the PLEIADES facility at LLNL. In this scenario, electrons execute a “figure-8” motion under the influence of the high-intensity laser field, where the constant characterizing the field strength is expected to exceed unity: $aL=e*EL/m*c*ωL ≥ 1$. With large $aL$ this motion produces high harmonic x-ray radiation and significant broadening of the spectral peaks. This paper is intended to give a layout of the PLEIADES experiment, along with progress towards experimental goals.

  14. The Influence of Second Harmonic Phase and Amplitude Variation in Cyclically Pitching Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culler, Ethan; Farnsworth, John

    2017-11-01

    From wind tunnel testing of a cyber-physical wing model, it has been found that the pitch trajectory for stall flutter is described by an array of higher harmonic frequencies with decaying energy content. These frequencies distort the stall flutter motion from that of a pure sinusoidal oscillation in pitch and can have a significant effect on the resulting force production. In order to understand how these higher harmonic frequencies contribute to the overall pitching moment characteristics of a wing in stall flutter, a rigid finite span wing model, with aspect ratio four, was pitched in the wind tunnel. The prescribed motion of the pitch cycle was varied by changing the amplitude ratio and phase of the second harmonic of the oscillation frequency. The second harmonic represents the second highest energy mode in the pitching cycle spectra. Pitching moment and planar particle image velocimetry data was collected. From these pitching trajectories, a significant dependence of pitching moment on both the phase and amplitude of the prescribed waveforms was found. Specifically, for the same amplitude ratio, variations in the phase produced changes of approximately 30 percent in the phase averaged pitching moment.

  15. Human motion retrieval from hand-drawn sketch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-Hung; Assa, Jackie; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2012-05-01

    The rapid growth of motion capture data increases the importance of motion retrieval. The majority of the existing motion retrieval approaches are based on a labor-intensive step in which the user browses and selects a desired query motion clip from the large motion clip database. In this work, a novel sketching interface for defining the query is presented. This simple approach allows users to define the required motion by sketching several motion strokes over a drawn character, which requires less effort and extends the users’ expressiveness. To support the real-time interface, a specialized encoding of the motions and the hand-drawn query is required. Here, we introduce a novel hierarchical encoding scheme based on a set of orthonormal spherical harmonic (SH) basis functions, which provides a compact representation, and avoids the CPU/processing intensive stage of temporal alignment used by previous solutions. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can well retrieve the motions, and is capable of retrieve logically and numerically similar motions, which is superior to previous approaches. The user study shows that the proposed system can be a useful tool to input motion query if the users are familiar with it. Finally, an application of generating a 3D animation from a hand-drawn comics strip is demonstrated.

  16. Atomic systems with one and two active electrons in electromagnetic fields: Ionization and high harmonics generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, I A; Kheifets, A S

    2010-01-01

    We describe a theoretical procedure for solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) for atomic systems with one or two valence electrons. Motion of the valence electrons is described by means of the Hartree-Fock potential including the exchange interaction. We apply the procedure to various physical phenomena occurring in atoms exposed to strong electromagnetic fields. As an illustration, we consider below the processes of high harmonics generation and attosecond pulses production.

  17. A note about Norbert Wiener and his contribution to Harmonic Analysis and Tauberian Theorems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almira, J. M.; Romero, A. E.

    2009-05-01

    In this note we explain the main motivations Norbert Wiener had for the creation of his Generalized Harmonic Analysis [13] and his Tauberian Theorems [14]. Although these papers belong to the most pure mathematical tradition, they were deeply based on some Engineering and Physics Problems and Wiener was able to use them for such diverse areas as Optics, Brownian motion, Filter Theory, Prediction Theory and Cybernetics.

  18. Observation of Motion of Bowed Strings and Resonant Strings in Violin Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsutani, Akihiro

    2013-10-01

    The motion of a bowed string and a resonant string of a violin were simultaneously observed for the first time. The results of the direct observation of string motion in double stops and harmonics are also presented. The importance of the resonance was experimentally demonstrated from these observations. It is suggested that players should take account of the resonance and ideal Helmholtz motion in violin performances.

  19. Yukawa Potential, Panharmonic Measure and Brownian Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Rasila

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper continues our earlier investigation, where a walk-on-spheres (WOS algorithm for Monte Carlo simulation of the solutions of the Yukawa and the Helmholtz partial differential equations (PDEs was developed by using the Duffin correspondence. In this paper, we investigate the foundations behind the algorithm for the case of the Yukawa PDE. We study the panharmonic measure, which is a generalization of the harmonic measure for the Yukawa PDE. We show that there are natural stochastic definitions for the panharmonic measure in terms of the Brownian motion and that the harmonic and the panharmonic measures are all mutually equivalent. Furthermore, we calculate their Radon–Nikodym derivatives explicitly for some balls, which is a key result behind the WOS algorithm.

  20. Bifurcation of Safe Basins and Chaos in Nonlinear Vibroimpact Oscillator under Harmonic and Bounded Noise Excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Haiwu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The erosion of the safe basins and chaotic motions of a nonlinear vibroimpact oscillator under both harmonic and bounded random noise is studied. Using the Melnikov method, the system’s Melnikov integral is computed and the parametric threshold for chaotic motions is obtained. Using the Monte-Carlo and Runge-Kutta methods, the erosion of the safe basins is also discussed. The sudden change in the character of the stochastic safe basins when the bifurcation parameter of the system passes through a critical value may be defined as an alternative stochastic bifurcation. It is founded that random noise may destroy the integrity of the safe basins, bring forward the occurrence of the stochastic bifurcation, and make the parametric threshold for motions vary in a larger region, hence making the system become more unsafely and chaotic motions may occur more easily.

  1. Evaluation of Harmonics Impact on Digital Relays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinan Wannous

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concept of the impact of harmonic distortion on a digital protection relay. The aim is to verify and determine the reasons of a mal-trip or failure to trip the protection relays; the suggested solution of the harmonic distortion is explained by a mathematical model in the Matlab Simulink programming environment. The digital relays have been tested under harmonic distortions in order to verify the function of the relays algorithm under abnormal conditions. The comparison between the protection relay algorithm under abnormal conditions and a mathematical model in the Matlab Simulink programming environment based on injected harmonics of high values is provided. The test is separated into different levels; the first level is based on the harmonic effect of an individual harmonic and mixed harmonics. The test includes the effect of the harmonics in the location of the fault point into distance protection zones. This paper is a new proposal in the signal processing of power quality disturbances using Matlab Simulink and the power quality impact on the measurements of the power system quantities; the test simulates the function of protection in power systems in terms of calculating the current and voltage values of short circuits and their faults. The paper includes several tests: frequency variations and decomposition of voltage waveforms with Fourier transforms (model and commercial relay, the effect of the power factor on the location of fault points, the relation between the tripping time and the total harmonic distortion (THD levels in a commercial relay, and a comparison of the THD capture between the commercial relay and the model.

  2. Chaotic and steady state behaviour of a nonlinear controlled gyro subjected to harmonic disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Polo, Manuel F.; Perez Molina, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Chaotic and steady state motions of a nonlinear controlled gimbals suspension gyro used to stabilize an external body are studied in this paper. The equations of the gyro without nonlinear control are deduced from the Euler-Lagrange equations by using the nutation theory. The equations of the system show that a cyclic variable appears. Its elimination allows us to find an auxiliary nonlinear system from which it is possible to deduce a nonlinear control law in order to obtain a desired equilibrium point. From the analysis of the nonlinear control law it is possible to show that due to both harmonic disturbances in the platform of the gyro and in the body to stabilize, regular and chaotic motions can appear. The chaotic motion is researched by means of chaos maps, bifurcation diagrams, sensitivity to initial conditions, Lyapunov exponents and Fourier spectrum density. The transition from chaotic to steady state motion by eliminating the harmonic disturbances from the modification of the initial nonlinear control law is also researched. Next, the paper shows how to use the chaotic motion in order to obtain small input signals so that the desired equilibrium state of the gyro can be reached. The developed methodology and its compared performance are evaluated through analytical methods and numerical simulations

  3. Chaotic and steady state behaviour of a nonlinear controlled gyro subjected to harmonic disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Polo, Manuel F. [Department of Fisica, Ingenieria de Sistemas y Teoria de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Campus de San Vicente, 03071 Alicante (Spain)]. E-mail: manolo@dfists.ua.es; Perez Molina, Manuel [Facultad de Ciencias Matematicas, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, UNED, C/Boyero 12-1A, Alicante 03007 (Spain)]. E-mail: ma_perez_m@hotmail.com

    2007-07-15

    Chaotic and steady state motions of a nonlinear controlled gimbals suspension gyro used to stabilize an external body are studied in this paper. The equations of the gyro without nonlinear control are deduced from the Euler-Lagrange equations by using the nutation theory. The equations of the system show that a cyclic variable appears. Its elimination allows us to find an auxiliary nonlinear system from which it is possible to deduce a nonlinear control law in order to obtain a desired equilibrium point. From the analysis of the nonlinear control law it is possible to show that due to both harmonic disturbances in the platform of the gyro and in the body to stabilize, regular and chaotic motions can appear. The chaotic motion is researched by means of chaos maps, bifurcation diagrams, sensitivity to initial conditions, Lyapunov exponents and Fourier spectrum density. The transition from chaotic to steady state motion by eliminating the harmonic disturbances from the modification of the initial nonlinear control law is also researched. Next, the paper shows how to use the chaotic motion in order to obtain small input signals so that the desired equilibrium state of the gyro can be reached. The developed methodology and its compared performance are evaluated through analytical methods and numerical simulations.

  4. Double Harmonic Transmission (D.H.T.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Ianici

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the construction and functioning of a new type of harmonic drive named double harmonic transmission (D.H.T.. In the second part of this paper is presented the dynamic analysis of the double harmonic transmission, which is based on the results of the experimental researches on the D.H.T. This study of the stress status and the forces distribution is necessary for to determine the durability on the portant elements of the D.H.T.

  5. The Virasoro algebra from harmonic superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidi, E.H.; Zakkari, M.

    1990-08-01

    Using harmonic superspace techniques, we construct a new field realization of the Virasoro algebra. The main conformal objects are U(1) Cartan tensors instead of the U(1) Lorentz ones. The new conformal model, which admits moreover a d=2 (4,0) global supersymmetry is constructed out of the infinitely relaxed HST and FS hypermultiplets. The conformal current T 4+ together with the harmonic superspace OPE rules are given. The Virasoro algebra and the harmonic superspace Schwarzian derivative S 4+ are also derived. (author). 14 refs

  6. Pseudo harmonic morphisms on Riemannian polyhedra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aprodu, M.A.; Bouziane, T.

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to extend the notion of pseudo harmonic morphism (introduced by Loubeau) to the case when the source manifold is an admissible Riemannian polyhedron. We define these maps to be harmonic in the sense of Eells-Fuglede and pseudo-horizontally weakly conformal in our sense. We characterize them by means of germs of harmonic functions on the source polyhedron, in the sense of Korevaar-Schoen, and germs of holomorphic functions on the Kaehler target manifold. (author)

  7. High spin rotations of nuclei with the harmonic oscillator potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerkaski, M.; Szymanski, Z.

    1978-01-01

    Calculations of the nuclear properties at high angular momentum have been performed recently. They are based on the liquid drop model of a nucleus and/or on the assumption of the single particle shell structure of the nucleonic motion. The calculations are usually complicated and involve long computer codes. In this article we shall discuss general trends in fast rotating nuclei in the approximation of the harmonic oscillator potential. We shall see that using the Bohr Mottelson simplified version of the rigorous solution of Valatin one can perform a rather simple analysis of the rotational bands, structure of the yrast line, moments of inertia etc. in the rotating nucleus. While the precision fit to experimental data in actual nuclei is not the purpose of this paper, one can still hope to reach some general understanding within the model of the simple relations resulting in nuclei at high spin. (author)

  8. On N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills in harmonic superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, E.; Bedding, S.; Card, C.T.; Dumbrell, M.; Nouri-Moghadam, M.; Taylor, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory is presented using a construction involving additional bosonic variables in the coset space SU(4)/H. No choice of H can be shown to lead to an analytic formulation of the theory. by introducing an analysis on dual planes the theory is reduced (including the reality constraint) to one involving N=2 symmetry. This approach has to be extended to include truly harmonic derivatives. For the typical case of SU(4)/SU(2)xU(1) prepotentials are introduced which solve the constraints. It has not been possible, however, to construct an action which leads to the equation of motion for the original N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory (at the linearised level). (author)

  9. Modeling stock return distributions with a quantum harmonic oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, K.; Choi, M. Y.; Dai, B.; Sohn, S.; Yang, B.

    2017-11-01

    We propose a quantum harmonic oscillator as a model for the market force which draws a stock return from short-run fluctuations to the long-run equilibrium. The stochastic equation governing our model is transformed into a Schrödinger equation, the solution of which features “quantized” eigenfunctions. Consequently, stock returns follow a mixed χ distribution, which describes Gaussian and non-Gaussian features. Analyzing the Financial Times Stock Exchange (FTSE) All Share Index, we demonstrate that our model outperforms traditional stochastic process models, e.g., the geometric Brownian motion and the Heston model, with smaller fitting errors and better goodness-of-fit statistics. In addition, making use of analogy, we provide an economic rationale of the physics concepts such as the eigenstate, eigenenergy, and angular frequency, which sheds light on the relationship between finance and econophysics literature.

  10. Dissipative quantum trajectories in complex space: Damped harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Chia-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Dissipative quantum trajectories in complex space are investigated in the framework of the logarithmic nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The logarithmic nonlinear Schrödinger equation provides a phenomenological description for dissipative quantum systems. Substituting the wave function expressed in terms of the complex action into the complex-extended logarithmic nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we derive the complex quantum Hamilton–Jacobi equation including the dissipative potential. It is shown that dissipative quantum trajectories satisfy a quantum Newtonian equation of motion in complex space with a friction force. Exact dissipative complex quantum trajectories are analyzed for the wave and solitonlike solutions to the logarithmic nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the damped harmonic oscillator. These trajectories converge to the equilibrium position as time evolves. It is indicated that dissipative complex quantum trajectories for the wave and solitonlike solutions are identical to dissipative complex classical trajectories for the damped harmonic oscillator. This study develops a theoretical framework for dissipative quantum trajectories in complex space.

  11. Dissipative quantum trajectories in complex space: Damped harmonic oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Chia-Chun, E-mail: ccchou@mx.nthu.edu.tw

    2016-10-15

    Dissipative quantum trajectories in complex space are investigated in the framework of the logarithmic nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The logarithmic nonlinear Schrödinger equation provides a phenomenological description for dissipative quantum systems. Substituting the wave function expressed in terms of the complex action into the complex-extended logarithmic nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we derive the complex quantum Hamilton–Jacobi equation including the dissipative potential. It is shown that dissipative quantum trajectories satisfy a quantum Newtonian equation of motion in complex space with a friction force. Exact dissipative complex quantum trajectories are analyzed for the wave and solitonlike solutions to the logarithmic nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the damped harmonic oscillator. These trajectories converge to the equilibrium position as time evolves. It is indicated that dissipative complex quantum trajectories for the wave and solitonlike solutions are identical to dissipative complex classical trajectories for the damped harmonic oscillator. This study develops a theoretical framework for dissipative quantum trajectories in complex space.

  12. Non-unique monopole oscillations of harmonically confined Yukawa systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducatman, Samuel; Henning, Christian; Kaehlert, Hanno; Bonitz, Michael

    2008-11-01

    Recently it was shown that the Breathing Mode (BM), the mode of uniform radial expansion and contraction, which is well known from harmonically confined Coulomb systems [1], does not exist in general for other systems [2]. As a consequence the monopole oscillation (MO), the radial collective excitation, is not unique, but there are several MO with different frequencies. Within this work we show simulation results of those monopole oscillations of 2-dimensional harmonically confined Yukawa systems, which are known from, e.g., dusty plasma crystals [3,4]. We present the corresponding spectrum of the particle motion, including analysis of the frequencies found, and compare with theoretical investigations.[1] D.H.E. Dubin and J.P. Schiffer, Phys. Rev. E 53, 5249 (1996)[2] C. Henning at al., accepted for publication in Phys. Rev. Lett. (2008)[3] A. Melzer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 115002 (2001)[4] M. Bonitz et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075001 (2006)

  13. High-harmonic spectroscopy of oriented OCS molecules: emission of even and odd harmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, P M; Rupenyan, A; Wörner, H J

    2012-12-07

    We study the emission of even and odd high-harmonic orders from oriented OCS molecules. We use an intense, nonresonant femtosecond laser pulse superimposed with its phase-controlled second harmonic field to impulsively align and orient a dense sample of molecules from which we subsequently generate high-order harmonics. The even harmonics appear around the full revivals of the rotational dynamics. We demonstrate perfect coherent control over their intensity through the subcycle delay of the two-color fields. The odd harmonics are insensitive to the degree of orientation, but modulate with the degree of axis alignment, in agreement with calculated photorecombination dipole moments. We further compare the shape of the even and odd harmonic spectra with our calculations and determine the degree of orientation.

  14. Challenges and Opportunities for Harmonizing Research Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hees, V. T.; Thaler-Kall, K.; Wolf, K. H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Raw accelerometry is increasingly being used in physical activity research, but diversity in sensor design, attachment and signal processing challenges the comparability of research results. Therefore, efforts are needed to harmonize the methodology. In this article we reflect on how...... increased methodological harmonization may be achieved. Methods: The authors of this work convened for a two-day workshop (March 2014) themed on methodological harmonization of raw accelerometry. The discussions at the workshop were used as a basis for this review. Results: Key stakeholders were identified...... as manufacturers, method developers, method users (application), publishers, and funders. To facilitate methodological harmonization in raw accelerometry the following action points were proposed: i) Manufacturers are encouraged to provide a detailed specification of their sensors, ii) Each fundamental step...

  15. Effects of harmonic roving on pitch discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; de Kérangal, Mathilde le Gal; Joshi, Suyash Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Performance in pitch discrimination tasks is limited by variability intrinsic to listeners which may arise from peripheral auditory coding limitations or more central noise sources. The present study aimed at quantifying such “internal noise” by estimating the amount of harmonic roving required...... to impair pitch discrimination performance. Fundamental-frequency difference limens (F0DLs) were obtained in normal-hearing listeners with and without musical training for complex tones filtered between 1.5 and 3.5 kHz with F0s of 300 Hz (resolved harmonics) and 75 Hz (unresolved harmonics). The harmonicity...... that could be used to quantify the internal noise and provide strong constraints for physiologically inspired models of pitch perception....

  16. Chemical Applications of Second Harmonic Rayleigh Scattering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chemical Applications of Second Harmonic Rayleigh Scattering Puspendu Kumar Das Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560012, India pkdas@ipc.iisc.ernet.in.

  17. Harmonic Content of the BESSY FEL Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Meseck, Atoosa

    2005-01-01

    BESSY proposes a linac-based cascaded High-Gain Harmonic-Generation (HGHG) free electron laser (FEL) multi-user facility. The BESSY soft X-ray FEL will consist of three undulator lines. The associated tunable lasers will cover the spectral range of 230nm to 460nm. Two to four HGHG stages reduce the seed wavelength to the desired radiation range of 1.24nm < λ < 51nm. The harmonic content of the high-intensity radiator output can be used to reduce the number of necessary HGHG stages. Moreover the higher harmonic content of the final output extends the offered spectral range and thus is of high interest for the user community. In this paper, the higher harmonic content of the final output as well as of the output of several radiators are investigated. The main parameters such as output power, pulse duration and bandwidth as well as their suitability for seeding are discussed.

  18. Reduction of Harmonics by 18-Pulse Rectifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kocman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Operation of such electrical devices as data processing and electronics devices, adjustable speed drives or uninterruptible power supply can cause problems by generating harmonic currents into the network, from which they are supplied. Effects of these harmonic currents are various, they can get worse the quality of supply voltage in the network or to have negative influences on devices connected to this network. There are various technical solutions for reduction of harmonics. One of them is using of multi-pulse rectifiers, whereas the 18-pulse rectifier in the structure of adjustable speed drive is briefly presented in this paper including some results of its behaviour. The examined experimental measurements confirmed its very good efficiency in the harmonic mitigation.

  19. Transformation of Real Spherical Harmonics under Rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowski, Z.; Krukowski, St.; Jalbout, A. F.

    2008-08-01

    The algorithm rotating the real spherical harmonics is presented. The convenient and ready to use formulae for l = 0, 1, 2, 3 are listed. The rotation in R3 space is determined by the rotation axis and the rotation angle; the Euler angles are not used. The proposed algorithm consists of three steps. (i) Express the real spherical harmonics as the linear combination of canonical polynomials. (ii) Rotate the canonical polynomials. (iii) Express the rotated canonical polynomials as the linear combination of real spherical harmonics. Since the three step procedure can be treated as a superposition of rotations, the searched rotation matrix for real spherical harmonics is a product of three matrices. The explicit formulae of matrix elements are given for l = 0, 1, 2, 3, what corresponds to s, p, d, f atomic orbitals.

  20. Harmonic dynamical behaviour of thallous halides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The next is the deformation dipole model (DDM) of Karo and Hardy. [19] and rigid shell ... that the most realistic model for complete harmonic dynamical behaviour of the ..... metals, Ph.D. Thesis (Banaras Hindu University, 1971) Unpublished.

  1. Multisite EPR oximetry from multiple quadrature harmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, R; Som, S; Johnson, D H; Zweier, J L; Kuppusamy, P; Potter, L C

    2012-01-01

    Multisite continuous wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry using multiple quadrature field modulation harmonics is presented. First, a recently developed digital receiver is used to extract multiple harmonics of field modulated projection data. Second, a forward model is presented that relates the projection data to unknown parameters, including linewidth at each site. Third, a maximum likelihood estimator of unknown parameters is reported using an iterative algorithm capable of jointly processing multiple quadrature harmonics. The data modeling and processing are applicable for parametric lineshapes under nonsaturating conditions. Joint processing of multiple harmonics leads to 2-3-fold acceleration of EPR data acquisition. For demonstration in two spatial dimensions, both simulations and phantom studies on an L-band system are reported. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Stable harmonic maps from complete manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin, Y.L.

    1986-01-01

    By choosing distinguished cross-sections in the second variational formula for harmonic maps from manifolds with not too fast volume growth into certain submanifolds in the Euclidean space some Liouville type theorems have been proved in this article. (author)

  3. Harmonic lasing in X-ray FELs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2012-05-15

    Harmonic lasing in a free electron laser with a planar undulator (under the condition that the fundamental frequency is suppressed) might be a cheap and efficient way of extension of wavelength ranges of existing and planned X-ray FEL facilities. Contrary to nonlinear harmonic generation, harmonic lasing can provide much more intense, stable, and narrow-band FEL beam which is easier to handle due to the suppressed fundamental frequency. In this paper we perform a parametrization of the solution of the eigenvalue equation for lasing at odd harmonics, and present an explicit expression for FEL gain length, taking into account all essential effects. We propose and discuss methods for suppression of the fundamental harmonic. We also suggest a combined use of harmonic lasing and lasing at the retuned fundamental wavelength in order to reduce bandwidth and to increase brilliance of X-ray beam at saturation. Considering 3rd harmonic lasing as a practical example, we come to the conclusion that it is much more robust than usually thought, and can be widely used in the existing or planned X-ray FEL facilities. In particular, LCLS after a minor modification can lase to saturation at the 3rd harmonic up to the photon energy of 25-30 keV providing multi-gigawatt power level and narrow bandwidth. As for the European XFEL, harmonic lasing would allow to extend operating range (ultimately up to 100 keV), to reduce FEL bandwidth and to increase brilliance, to enable two-color operation for pump-probe experiments, and to provide more flexible operation at different electron energies. Similar improvements can be realized in other X-ray FEL facilities with gap-tunable undulators like FLASH II, SACLA, LCLS II, etc. Harmonic lasing can be an attractive option for compact X-ray FELs (driven by electron beams with a relatively low energy), allowing the use of the standard undulator technology instead of small-gap in-vacuum devices. Finally, in this paper we discover that in a part of the

  4. Equations of motion in phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broucke, R.

    1979-01-01

    The article gives a general review of methods of constructing equations of motion of a classical dynamical system. The emphasis is however on the linear Lagrangian in phase space and the corresponding form of Pfaff's equations of motion. A detailed examination of the problem of changes of variables in phase space is first given. It is shown that the Linear Lagrangian theory falls very naturally out of the classical quadratic Lagrangian theory; we do this with the use of the well-known Lagrange multiplier method. Another important result is obtained very naturally as a by-product of this analysis. If the most general set of 2n variables (coordinates in phase space) is used, the coefficients of the equations of motion are the Poisson Brackets of these variables. This is therefore the natural way of introducing not only Poisson Brackets in Dynamics formulations but also the associated Lie Algebras and their important properties and consequences. We give then several examples to illustrate the first-order equations of motion and their simplicity in relation to general changes of variables. The first few examples are elementary (the harmonic Oscillator) while the last one concerns the motion of a rigid body about a fixed point. In the next three sections we treat the first-order equations of motion as derived from a Linear differential form, sometimes called Birkhoff's equations. We insist on the generality of the equations and especially on the unity of the space-time concept: the time t and the coordinates are here completely identical variables, without any privilege to t. We give a brief review of Cartan's 2-form and the corresponding equations of motion. As an illustration the standard equations of aircraft flight in a vertical plane are derived from Cartan's exterior differential 2-form. Finally we mention in the last section the differential forms that were proposed by Gallissot for the derivation of equations of motion

  5. International Harmonization of Reactor Licensing Regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhnt, Dietmar.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of a harmonization policy for reactor licensing regulations on the basis of already considerable experience is to attain greater rationalisation in this field, in the interest of economic policy and healthy competition, and most important, radiation protection and safety of installations. This paper considers the legal instruments for such harmonization and the conditions for their implementation, in particular within the Communities framework. (NEA) [fr

  6. Structural relations between nested harmonic sums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemlein, J.

    2008-07-01

    We describe the structural relations between nested harmonic sums emerging in the description of physical single scale quantities up to the 3-loop level in renormalizable gauge field theories. These are weight w=6 harmonic sums. We identify universal basic functions which allow to describe a large class of physical quantities and derive their complex analysis. For the 3-loop QCD Wilson coefficients 35 basic functions are required, whereas a subset of 15 describes the 3-loop anomalous dimensions. (orig.)

  7. Structural relations between nested harmonic sums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, J.

    2008-07-15

    We describe the structural relations between nested harmonic sums emerging in the description of physical single scale quantities up to the 3-loop level in renormalizable gauge field theories. These are weight w=6 harmonic sums. We identify universal basic functions which allow to describe a large class of physical quantities and derive their complex analysis. For the 3-loop QCD Wilson coefficients 35 basic functions are required, whereas a subset of 15 describes the 3-loop anomalous dimensions. (orig.)

  8. Harmonic distortion in microwave photonic filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Manuel; Mora, José; Bolea, Mario; Capmany, José

    2012-04-09

    We present a theoretical and experimental analysis of nonlinear microwave photonic filters. Far from the conventional condition of low modulation index commonly used to neglect high-order terms, we have analyzed the harmonic distortion involved in microwave photonic structures with periodic and non-periodic frequency responses. We show that it is possible to design microwave photonic filters with reduced harmonic distortion and high linearity even under large signal operation.

  9. Linking high harmonics from gases and solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vampa, G; Hammond, T J; Thiré, N; Schmidt, B E; Légaré, F; McDonald, C R; Brabec, T; Corkum, P B

    2015-06-25

    When intense light interacts with an atomic gas, recollision between an ionizing electron and its parent ion creates high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser frequency. This sub-cycle effect generates coherent soft X-rays and attosecond pulses, and provides a means to image molecular orbitals. Recently, high harmonics have been generated from bulk crystals, but what mechanism dominates the emission remains uncertain. To resolve this issue, we adapt measurement methods from gas-phase research to solid zinc oxide driven by mid-infrared laser fields of 0.25 volts per ångström. We find that when we alter the generation process with a second-harmonic beam, the modified harmonic spectrum bears the signature of a generalized recollision between an electron and its associated hole. In addition, we find that solid-state high harmonics are perturbed by fields so weak that they are present in conventional electronic circuits, thus opening a route to integrate electronics with attosecond and high-harmonic technology. Future experiments will permit the band structure of a solid to be tomographically reconstructed.

  10. Time-averaged MSD of Brownian motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreanov, Alexei; Grebenkov, Denis S

    2012-01-01

    We study the statistical properties of the time-averaged mean-square displacements (TAMSD). This is a standard non-local quadratic functional for inferring the diffusion coefficient from an individual random trajectory of a diffusing tracer in single-particle tracking experiments. For Brownian motion, we derive an exact formula for the Laplace transform of the probability density of the TAMSD by mapping the original problem onto chains of coupled harmonic oscillators. From this formula, we deduce the first four cumulant moments of the TAMSD, the asymptotic behavior of the probability density and its accurate approximation by a generalized Gamma distribution

  11. Time-averaged MSD of Brownian motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreanov, Alexei; Grebenkov, Denis S.

    2012-07-01

    We study the statistical properties of the time-averaged mean-square displacements (TAMSD). This is a standard non-local quadratic functional for inferring the diffusion coefficient from an individual random trajectory of a diffusing tracer in single-particle tracking experiments. For Brownian motion, we derive an exact formula for the Laplace transform of the probability density of the TAMSD by mapping the original problem onto chains of coupled harmonic oscillators. From this formula, we deduce the first four cumulant moments of the TAMSD, the asymptotic behavior of the probability density and its accurate approximation by a generalized Gamma distribution.

  12. Motion in radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine Sofia

    2012-01-01

    This review considers the management of motion in photon radiation therapy. An overview is given of magnitudes and variability of motion of various structures and organs, and how the motion affects images by producing artifacts and blurring. Imaging of motion is described, including 4DCT and 4DPE...

  13. Dual aperture dipole magnet with second harmonic component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praeg, Walter F.

    1985-01-01

    An improved dual aperture dipole electromagnet includes a second-harmonic frequency magnetic guide field winding which surrounds first harmonic frequency magnetic guide field windings associated with each aperture. The second harmonic winding and the first harmonic windings cooperate to produce resultant magnetic waveforms in the apertures which have extended acceleration and shortened reset portions of electromagnet operation.

  14. Harmonic response of coupled and uncoupled granular YBCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torralba, Maria Veronica S; Sarmago, Roland V

    2004-01-01

    The harmonic responses of granular YBCO were obtained via mutual inductance measurements. Two samples, one with and another without intergranular coupling, were investigated in terms of the harmonic components of magnetization at various field amplitudes and frequencies. By comparing the behaviour of the features in the harmonics to that of the peaks in the fundamental response, we explicitly identified which features in the harmonics originate from intragranular harmonic generation and which arise due to a contribution of intergranular coupling. Harmonic responses were obtained despite the absence of vortices and even harmonics were detected in a purely AC magnetic field

  15. Nonlinear Ion Harmonics in the Paul Trap with Added Octopole Field: Theoretical Characterization and New Insight into Nonlinear Resonance Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Caiqiao; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Ning; Zhan, Lingpeng; Chen, Yongtai; Nie, Zongxiu

    2016-02-01

    The nonlinear harmonics within the ion motion are the fingerprint of the nonlinear fields. They are exclusively introduced by these nonlinear fields and are responsible to some specific nonlinear effects such as nonlinear resonance effect. In this article, the ion motion in the quadrupole field with a weak superimposed octopole component, described by the nonlinear Mathieu equation (NME), was studied by using the analytical harmonic balance (HB) method. Good accuracy of the HB method, which was comparable with that of the numerical fourth-order Runge-Kutta (4th RK), was achieved in the entire first stability region, except for the points at the stability boundary (i.e., β = 1) and at the nonlinear resonance condition (i.e., β = 0.5). Using the HB method, the nonlinear 3β harmonic series introduced by the octopole component and the resultant nonlinear resonance effect were characterized. At nonlinear resonance, obvious resonant peaks were observed in the nonlinear 3β series of ion motion, but were not found in the natural harmonics. In addition, both resonant excitation and absorption peaks could be observed, simultaneously. These are two unique features of the nonlinear resonance, distinguishing it from the normal resonance. Finally, an approximation equation was given to describe the corresponding working parameter, q nr , at nonlinear resonance. This equation can help avoid the sensitivity degradation due to the operation of ion traps at the nonlinear resonance condition.

  16. Motion Transplantation Techniques: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Basten, Ben; Egges, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, researchers have developed several techniques for transplanting motions. These techniques transplant a partial auxiliary motion, possibly defined for a small set of degrees of freedom, on a base motion. Motion transplantation improves motion databases' expressiveness and

  17. First exit times of harmonically trapped particles: a didactic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebenkov, Denis S

    2015-01-01

    We revise the classical problem of characterizing first exit times of a harmonically trapped particle whose motion is described by a one- or multidimensional Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process. We start by recalling the main derivation steps of a propagator using Langevin and Fokker–Planck equations. The mean exit time, the moment-generating function and the survival probability are then expressed through confluent hypergeometric functions and thoroughly analyzed. We also present a rapidly converging series representation of confluent hypergeometric functions that is particularly well suited for numerical computation of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the governing Fokker–Planck operator. We discuss several applications of first exit times, such as the detection of time intervals during which motor proteins exert a constant force onto a tracer in optical tweezers single-particle tracking experiments; adhesion bond dissociation under mechanical stress; characterization of active periods of trend-following and mean-reverting strategies in algorithmic trading on stock markets; relation to the distribution of first crossing times of a moving boundary by Brownian motion. Some extensions are described, including diffusion under quadratic double-well potential and anomalous diffusion. (topical review)

  18. On the conformal equivalence of harmonic maps and exponentially harmonic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong Minchun.

    1991-06-01

    Suppose that (M,g) and (N,h) are compact smooth Riemannian manifolds without boundaries. For m = dim M ≥3, and Φ: (M,g) → (N,h) is exponentially harmonic, there exists a smooth metric g-tilde conformally equivalent to g such that Φ: (M,g-tilde) → (N,h) is harmonic. (author). 7 refs

  19. Input Harmonic Analysis on the Slim DC-Link Drive Using Harmonic State Space Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Feng; Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei

    2017-01-01

    The harmonic performance of the slim dc-link adjustable speed drives has shown good performance in some studies but poor in some others. The contradiction indicates that a feasible theoretical analysis is still lacking to characterize the harmonic distortion for the slim dc-link drive. Considerin...... results of the slim dc-link drive, loaded up to 2.0 kW, are presented to validate the theoretical analysis....... variation according to the switching instant, the harmonics at the steady-state condition, as well as the coupling between the multiple harmonic impedances. By using this model, the impaction on the harmonics performance by the film capacitor and the grid inductance is derived. Simulation and experimental...

  20. Harmonic Interaction Analysis in Grid Connected Converter using Harmonic State Space (HSS) Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei; Bak, Claus Leth

    2015-01-01

    -model, are introduced to analyze these problems. However, it is found that Linear Time Invariant (LTI) base model analysis makes it difficult to analyze these phenomenon because of time varying system operation trajectories, varying output impedance seen by grid connected systems and neglected switching component......An increasing number of power electronics based Distributed Generation (DG) systems and loads generate coupled harmonic as well as non-characteristic harmonic with each other. Several methods like impedance based analysis, which is derived from conventional small signal- and average...... during the modeling process. This paper investigates grid connected converter by means of Harmonic State Space (HSS) small signal model, which is modeled from Linear Time varying Periodically (LTP) system. Further, a grid connected converter harmonic matrix is investigated to analyze the harmonic...

  1. Regulatory harmonization of the Saskatchewan uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, R.; Moulding, T.; Alderman, G.

    2006-01-01

    The uranium mining industry in Saskatchewan produces approximately 30% of the world's production of uranium. The industry is regulated by federal and provincial regulators. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission is the principal federal regulator. The principal Saskatchewan provincial regulators are Saskatchewan Environment for provincial environmental regulations and Saskatchewan Labour for occupational health and safety regulations. In the past, mine and mill operators have requested harmonization in areas such as inspections and reporting requirements from the regulators. On February 14, 2003, Saskatchewan Environment, Saskatchewan Labour and the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission signed a historical agreement for federal/provincial co-operation called the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission - Saskatchewan Administrative Agreement for the Regulation of Health, Safety and the Environment at Saskatchewan Uranium Mines and Mills. This initiative responds to a recommendation made by the Joint Federal-Provincial Panel on Uranium Mining Developments in Northern Saskatchewan in 1997 and lays the groundwork to co-ordinate and harmonize their respective regulatory regimes. The implementation of the Agreement has been very successful. This paper will address the content of the Agreement including the commitments, the deliverables and the expectations for a harmonized compliance program, harmonized reporting, and the review of harmonized assessment and licensing processes as well as possible referencing of Saskatchewan Environment and Saskatchewan Labour regulations in the Nuclear Safety and Control Act. The management and implementation process will also be discussed including the schedule, stakeholder communication, the results to date and the lessons learned. (author)

  2. Harmonic and complex analysis in several variables

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, Steven G

    2017-01-01

    Authored by a ranking authority in harmonic analysis of several complex variables, this book embodies a state-of-the-art entrée at the intersection of two important fields of research: complex analysis and harmonic analysis. Written with the graduate student in mind, it is assumed that the reader has familiarity with the basics of complex analysis of one and several complex variables as well as with real and functional analysis. The monograph is largely self-contained and develops the harmonic analysis of several complex variables from the first principles. The text includes copious examples, explanations, an exhaustive bibliography for further reading, and figures that illustrate the geometric nature of the subject. Each chapter ends with an exercise set. Additionally, each chapter begins with a prologue, introducing the reader to the subject matter that follows; capsules presented in each section give perspective and a spirited launch to the segment; preludes help put ideas into context. Mathematicians and...

  3. Harmonic analysis from Fourier to wavelets

    CERN Document Server

    Pereyra, Maria Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In the last 200 years, harmonic analysis has been one of the most influential bodies of mathematical ideas, having been exceptionally significant both in its theoretical implications and in its enormous range of applicability throughout mathematics, science, and engineering. In this book, the authors convey the remarkable beauty and applicability of the ideas that have grown from Fourier theory. They present for an advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate student audience the basics of harmonic analysis, from Fourier's study of the heat equation, and the decomposition of functions into sums of cosines and sines (frequency analysis), to dyadic harmonic analysis, and the decomposition of functions into a Haar basis (time localization). While concentrating on the Fourier and Haar cases, the book touches on aspects of the world that lies between these two different ways of decomposing functions: time-frequency analysis (wavelets). Both finite and continuous perspectives are presented, allowing for the introd...

  4. RESEARCH ON THE INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING HARMONIZATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Danescu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, the need of harmonization of the financial reporting frameworks has become more acute, mostly because the capital markets are not restricted anymore by country borders and capital movement has outlined the phenomenon of globalization and internationalism. A significant step in harmonizing the financial reporting was done in the process of normalization through different sets of rules and principles, recognized and applied in many states are the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS. The process of international recognition of these standards continues along with conceptual development which is based on epistemological research on specific markets, industries, economies open to international capital flows. In this context it becomes of interest to identify and understand generally accepted and applied accounting elements which carry forward the accounting harmonization process along with factors and circumstances that create diversity in nationally applied financial reporting frameworks.

  5. Harmonic Maass forms and mock modular forms

    CERN Document Server

    Bringmann, Kathrin; Ono, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Modular forms and Jacobi forms play a central role in many areas of mathematics. Over the last 10-15 years, this theory has been extended to certain non-holomorphic functions, the so-called "harmonic Maass forms". The first glimpses of this theory appeared in Ramanujan's enigmatic last letter to G. H. Hardy written from his deathbed. Ramanujan discovered functions he called "mock theta functions" which over eighty years later were recognized as pieces of harmonic Maass forms. This book contains the essential features of the theory of harmonic Maass forms and mock modular forms, together with a wide variety of applications to algebraic number theory, combinatorics, elliptic curves, mathematical physics, quantum modular forms, and representation theory.

  6. Faddeev wave function decomposition using bipolar harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.; Tomusiak, E.L.; Gibson, B.F.; Payne, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    The standard partial wave (channel) representation for the Faddeev solution to the Schroedinger equation for the ground state of 3 nucleons is written in terms of functions which couple the interacting pair and spectator angular momenta to give S, P, and D waves. For each such coupling there are three terms, one for each of the three cyclic permutations of the nucleon coordinates. A series of spherical harmonic identities is developed which allows writing the Faddeev solution in terms of a basis set of 5 bipolar harmonics: 1 for S waves; 1 for P waves; and 3 for D waves. The choice of a D-wave basis is largely arbitrary, and specific choices correspond to the decomposition schemes of Derrick and Blatt, Sachs, Gibson and Schiff, and Bolsterli and Jezak. The bipolar harmonic form greatly simplifies applications which utilize the wave function, and we specifically discuss the isoscalar charge (or mass) density and the 3 He Coulomb energy

  7. Optical Third-Harmonic Generation in Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Young Hong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We report strong third-harmonic generation in monolayer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition and transferred to an amorphous silica (glass substrate; the photon energy is in three-photon resonance with the exciton-shifted van Hove singularity at the M point of graphene. The polarization selection rules are derived and experimentally verified. In addition, our polarization- and azimuthal-rotation-dependent third-harmonic-generation measurements reveal in-plane isotropy as well as anisotropy between the in-plane and out-of-plane nonlinear optical responses of graphene. Since the third-harmonic signal exceeds that from bulk glass by more than 2 orders of magnitude, the signal contrast permits background-free scanning of graphene and provides insight into the structural properties of graphene.

  8. Laparoscopic nephrectomy using the harmonic scalpel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, M; Albertini, J; Lockhart, J; Albrink, M

    1997-08-01

    Laparoscopic nephrectomy is gaining popularity. Improved instrumentation is making surgery easier with fewer complications. Our first three laparoscopic nephrectomies using the Harmonic Scalpel were performed on two women and one man. The surgical indications were nonfunctioning kidneys (two left, one right) with hypertension in one patient and stone disease in two. The three patients had a mean age of 46.3 years. The average hospital stay was 4 days, the average operative time 3.7 hours, and the average blood loss 160 mL. No complications occurred. Patients resumed oral intake within 8 hours postoperatively. We found the Harmonic Scalpel easy and safe to use. It saved time, was cost effective, and was capable of easily controlling small-vessel bleeding. In conclusion, the Harmonic Scalpel could be used effectively for both dissection and bleeding control without suction or other instrumentation.

  9. Optical High Harmonic Generation in C60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoping

    2005-03-01

    C60 et al. Physical Review Letters Physical Review B High harmonic generation (HHG) requires a strong laser field, but in a relatively weak laser field is sufficient. Numerical results presented here show while its low order harmonics result from the laser field, its high order ones are mainly from the multiple excitations. Since high order harmonics directly correlate electronic transitions, the HHG spectrum accurately measures transition energies. Therefore, is not only a promising material for HHG, but may also present an opportunity to develop HHG into an electronic structure probing tool. References: G. P. Zhang, 91, 176801 (2003); G. P. Zhang and T. F. George, 68, 165410 (2003); P. B. Corkum, 71, 1994 (1993); G. P. Zhang and Thomas F. George, 93, 147401 (2004); H. Niikura ,ature 417, 917 (2002); ibid. 421, 826 (2003); Y. Mairesse ,cience 302, 1540 (2003); A. Baltuska ,ature 421, 611 (2003).

  10. Harmonics in large offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert

    and nature of various harmonic components. A comprehensive comparison of harmonic voltages and currents based on probability distribution estimation and appropriate statistics calculation (mean, variance, probability density function, etc.) is applied. Such approach gives a better overview and comparison...... and analysis, and ϐinally ending up on modelling and models application. Different aspects of validation in time domain, frequency domain, and by application of statistical methods are mentioned in relation to respective problems. Measurements constitute a core part in industry-oriented research. Due...... that it is of great importance to know the nature of generated harmonics in large offshore wind farms in order to apply the most suitable data processing technique. Time-frequency analysis based on multiresolution wavelet transform is used in order to perform time-frequency domain analysis helpful to distinguish...

  11. Three-Phase Harmonic Analysis Method for Unbalanced Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Hao Teng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the unbalanced features of distribution systems, a three-phase harmonic analysis method is essential to accurately analyze the harmonic impact on distribution systems. Moreover, harmonic analysis is the basic tool for harmonic filter design and harmonic resonance mitigation; therefore, the computational performance should also be efficient. An accurate and efficient three-phase harmonic analysis method for unbalanced distribution systems is proposed in this paper. The variations of bus voltages, bus current injections and branch currents affected by harmonic current injections can be analyzed by two relationship matrices developed from the topological characteristics of distribution systems. Some useful formulas are then derived to solve the three-phase harmonic propagation problem. After the harmonic propagation for each harmonic order is calculated, the total harmonic distortion (THD for bus voltages can be calculated accordingly. The proposed method has better computational performance, since the time-consuming full admittance matrix inverse employed by the commonly-used harmonic analysis methods is not necessary in the solution procedure. In addition, the proposed method can provide novel viewpoints in calculating the branch currents and bus voltages under harmonic pollution which are vital for harmonic filter design. Test results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  12. The harmonic oscillator and the position dependent mass Schroedinger equation: isospectral partners and factorization operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, J.; Ovando, G.; Pena, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important scientific contributions of Professor Marcos Moshinsky has been his study on the harmonic oscillator in quantum theory vis a vis the standard Schroedinger equation with constant mass [1]. However, a simple description of the motion of a particle interacting with an external environment such as happen in compositionally graded alloys consist of replacing the mass by the so-called effective mass that is in general variable and dependent on position. Therefore, honoring in memoriam Marcos Moshinsky, in this work we consider the position-dependent mass Schrodinger equations (PDMSE) for the harmonic oscillator potential model as former potential as well as with equi-spaced spectrum solutions, i.e. harmonic oscillator isospectral partners. To that purpose, the point canonical transformation method to convert a general second order differential equation (DE), of Sturm-Liouville type, into a Schroedinger-like standard equation is applied to the PDMSE. In that case, the former potential associated to the PDMSE and the potential involved in the Schroedinger-like standard equation are related through a Riccati-type relationship that includes the equivalent of the Witten superpotential to determine the exactly solvable positions-dependent mass distribution (PDMD)m(x). Even though the proposed approach is exemplified with the harmonic oscillator potential, the procedure is general and can be straightforwardly applied to other DEs.

  13. High-order harmonics from bow wave caustics driven by a high-intensity laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirozhkov, A.S.; Kando, M.; Esirkepov, T.Zh.

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new mechanism of high-order harmonic generation during an interaction of a high-intensity laser pulse with underdense plasma. A tightly focused laser pulse creates a cavity in plasma pushing electrons aside and exciting the wake wave and the bow wave. At the joint of the cavity wall and the bow wave boundary, an annular spike of electron density is formed. This spike surrounds the cavity and moves together with the laser pulse. Collective motion of electrons in the spike driven by the laser field generates high-order harmonics. A strong localization of the electron spike, its robustness to oscillations imposed by the laser field and, consequently, its ability to produce high-order harmonics is explained by catastrophe theory. The proposed mechanism explains the experimental observations of high-order harmonics with the 9 TW J-KAREN laser (JAEA, Japan) and the 120 TW Astra Gemini laser (CLF RAL, UK) [A. S. Pirozhkov, et al., arXiv:1004.4514 (2010); A. S. Pirozhkov et al, AIP Proceedings, this volume]. The theory is corroborated by high-resolution two-and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations.

  14. Higher-order harmonics coupling in different free-electron laser codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannessi, L.; Freund, H. P.; Musumeci, P.; Reiche, S.

    2008-08-01

    The capability for simulation of the dynamics of a free-electron laser including the higher-order harmonics in linear undulators exists in several existing codes as MEDUSA [H.P. Freund, S.G. Biedron, and S.V. Milton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27 (2000) 243; H.P. Freund, Phys. Rev. ST-AB 8 (2005) 110701] and PERSEO [L. Giannessi, Overview of Perseo, a system for simulating FEL dynamics in Mathcad, , in: Proceedings of FEL 2006 Conference, BESSY, Berlin, Germany, 2006, p. 91], and has been recently implemented in GENESIS 1.3 [See ]. MEDUSA and GENESIS also include the dynamics of even harmonics induced by the coupling through the betatron motion. In addition MEDUSA, which is based on a non-wiggler averaged model, is capable of simulating the generation of even harmonics in the transversally cold beam regime, i.e. when the even harmonic coupling arises from non-linear effects associated with longitudinal particle dynamics and not to a finite beam emittance. In this paper a comparison between the predictions of the codes in different conditions is given.

  15. Harmonic Inverse FEL Interaction at 800nm

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, C M S; Siemann, R; Spencer, J E

    2005-01-01

    The inverse Free Electron Laser (IFEL) interaction has recently been proposed and demonstrated as a premodulator for High Gain Harmonic Generation (HGHG) experiments. These experiments utilized the fundamental of the interaction between the laser field and electron bunch. In the current experiment, we explore the higher order resonances of the IFEL interaction from a 3 period, 1.8 centimeter wavelength undulator with a picosecond, 0.25 mJ/pulse laser at 800nm. The resonances are observed by adjusting the gap of the undulator while keeping the beam energy constant. The harmonic IFEL can add flexibility to HGHG FEL design.

  16. Interbasis expansions for isotropic harmonic oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Shi-Hai, E-mail: dongsh2@yahoo.com [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Edificio 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico)

    2012-03-12

    The exact solutions of the isotropic harmonic oscillator are reviewed in Cartesian, cylindrical polar and spherical coordinates. The problem of interbasis expansions of the eigenfunctions is solved completely. The explicit expansion coefficients of the basis for given coordinates in terms of other two coordinates are presented for lower excited states. Such a property is occurred only for those degenerated states for given principal quantum number n. -- Highlights: ► Exact solutions of harmonic oscillator are reviewed in three coordinates. ► Interbasis expansions of the eigenfunctions is solved completely. ► This is occurred only for those degenerated states for given quantum number n.

  17. Harmonic Cavity Performance for NSLS-II

    CERN Document Server

    Blednykh, Alexei; Podobedov, Boris; Rose, James; Towne, Nathan A; Wang, Jiunn-Ming

    2005-01-01

    NSLS-II is a 3 GeV ultra-high brightness storage ring that is planned to succeed the present NSLS rings at Brookhaven. Ultra-low emittance bunch combined with a short bunch length results in the Touschek lifetime of only a few hours, which strongly advocates including harmonic RF in the baseline design of NSLS-II. This paper describes the required harmonic RF parameters, trade-offs between the possible choices and the expected system performance, including the implications on lifetime and instabilities.

  18. Quantization of the damped harmonic oscillator revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldiotti, M.C., E-mail: baldiott@fma.if.usp.b [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318-CEP, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil); Fresneda, R., E-mail: fresneda@gmail.co [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318-CEP, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil); Gitman, D.M., E-mail: gitman@dfn.if.usp.b [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318-CEP, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil)

    2011-04-11

    We return to the description of the damped harmonic oscillator with an assessment of previous works, in particular the Bateman-Caldirola-Kanai model and a new model proposed by one of the authors. We argue the latter has better high energy behavior and is connected to existing open-systems approaches. - Highlights: We prove the local equivalence of two damped harmonic oscillator models. We find different high energy behaviors between the two models. Based on the local equivalence, we make a simple construction of the coherent states.

  19. Quantization of the damped harmonic oscillator revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldiotti, M.C.; Fresneda, R.; Gitman, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    We return to the description of the damped harmonic oscillator with an assessment of previous works, in particular the Bateman-Caldirola-Kanai model and a new model proposed by one of the authors. We argue the latter has better high energy behavior and is connected to existing open-systems approaches. - Highlights: → We prove the local equivalence of two damped harmonic oscillator models. → We find different high energy behaviors between the two models. → Based on the local equivalence, we make a simple construction of the coherent states.

  20. Frequency chirp of harmonic and attosecond pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varju, K.; Johansson, P; L'Huillier, A.L.; Mairesse, Y.; Salieres, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We have explored in detail the first- and second-order variations of the atomic phase as a function of the laser intensity and harmonic order. This unravels the similitudes and differences existing between the chirp of individual harmonic pulses and the chirp of the attosecond pulses. We show that the two techniques XFROG and RABITT used to characterize the two chirps (respectively) converge to give the same information, namely the values of the mixed partial derivatives of the atomic phase. This underlines the common physical origin of all these phenomena and provides a unified frame for their description and understanding. Ref. 1 (author)

  1. Hyperspherical Harmonics and Their Physical Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, James Emil; Avery, John Scales

    Hyperspherical harmonics are extremely useful in nuclear physics and reactive scattering theory. However, their use has been confined to specialists with very strong backgrounds in mathematics. This book aims to change the theory of hyperspherical harmonics from an esoteric field, mastered...... by specialists, into an easily-used tool with a place in the working kit of all theoretical physicists, theoretical chemists and mathematicians. The theory presented here is accessible without the knowledge of Lie-groups and representation theory, and can be understood with an ordinary knowledge of calculus...

  2. Harmonic synchronization in resistively coupled Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, J.A.; Gronbech-Jensen, N.; Smith, H.J.T.

    1994-01-01

    The oscillations of two resistively coupled Josephson junctions biased only by a single dc current source are shown to lock harmonically in a 1:2 mode over a significant range of bias current, even when the junctions are identical. The dependence of this locking on both junction and coupling parameters is examined, and it is found that, for this particular two-junction configuration, 1:1 locking can never occur, and also that a minimum coupling coefficient is needed to support harmonic locking. Some issues related to subharmonic locking are also discussed

  3. Attention and apparent motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, T; Treisman, A

    1994-01-01

    Two dissociations between short- and long-range motion in visual search are reported. Previous research has shown parallel processing for short-range motion and apparently serial processing for long-range motion. This finding has been replicated and it has also been found that search for short-range targets can be impaired both by using bicontrast stimuli, and by prior adaptation to the target direction of motion. Neither factor impaired search in long-range motion displays. Adaptation actually facilitated search with long-range displays, which is attributed to response-level effects. A feature-integration account of apparent motion is proposed. In this theory, short-range motion depends on specialized motion feature detectors operating in parallel across the display, but subject to selective adaptation, whereas attention is needed to link successive elements when they appear at greater separations, or across opposite contrasts.

  4. The enhanced nodal equilibrium ocean tide and polar motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, B. V.

    1979-01-01

    The tidal response of the ocean to long period forcing functions was investigated. The results indicate the possibility of excitation of a wobble component with the amplitude and frequency indicated by the data. An enhancement function for the equilibrium tide was postulated in the form of an expansion in zonal harmonics and the coefficients of such an expansion were estimated so as to obtain polar motion components of the required magnitude.

  5. Zero-point field in a circular-motion frame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.K.; Soh, K.S.; Yee, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    The energy spectrum of zero-point fields of a massless scalar field observed by a detector in circular motion is studied by analyzing the Wightman function. It is shown to be quite different from the Planck spectrum which would have been expected from the result of a uniformly accelerated detector. In a nonrelativistic limit zero-point fields with frequencies only up to the first harmonics of the circular-motion frequency contribute dominantly. In an extremely relativistic case the energy spectrum is dominated by a particular pole in the complex proper-time plane

  6. Theoretical description of high-order harmonic generation in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemper, A F; Moritz, B; Devereaux, T P; Freericks, J K

    2013-01-01

    We consider several aspects of high-order harmonic generation in solids: the effects of elastic and inelastic scattering, varying pulse characteristics and inclusion of material-specific parameters through a realistic band structure. We reproduce many observed characteristics of high harmonic generation experiments in solids including the formation of only odd harmonics in inversion-symmetric materials, and the nonlinear formation of high harmonics with increasing field. We find that the harmonic spectra are fairly robust against elastic and inelastic scattering. Furthermore, we find that the pulse characteristics can play an important role in determining the harmonic spectra. (paper)

  7. Objects in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  8. Motion compensated digital tomosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Reijden, Anneke; van Herk, Marcel; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) is a limited angle image reconstruction method for cone beam projections that offers patient surveillance capabilities during VMAT based SBRT delivery. Motion compensation (MC) has the potential to mitigate motion artifacts caused by respiratory motion, such as blur. The

  9. Langevin theory of anomalous Brownian motion made simple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tothova, Jana; Vasziova, Gabriela; Lisy, VladimIr; Glod, Lukas

    2011-01-01

    During the century from the publication of the work by Einstein (1905 Ann. Phys. 17 549) Brownian motion has become an important paradigm in many fields of modern science. An essential impulse for the development of Brownian motion theory was given by the work of Langevin (1908 C. R. Acad. Sci., Paris 146 530), in which he proposed an 'infinitely more simple' description of Brownian motion than that by Einstein. The original Langevin approach has however strong limitations, which were rigorously stated after the creation of the hydrodynamic theory of Brownian motion (1945). Hydrodynamic Brownian motion is a special case of 'anomalous Brownian motion', now intensively studied both theoretically and in experiments. We show how some general properties of anomalous Brownian motion can be easily derived using an effective method that allows one to convert the stochastic generalized Langevin equation into a deterministic Volterra-type integro-differential equation for the mean square displacement of the particle. Within the Gibbs statistics, the method is applicable to linear equations of motion with any kind of memory during the evolution of the system. We apply it to memoryless Brownian motion in a harmonic potential well and to Brownian motion in fluids, taking into account the effects of hydrodynamic memory. Exploring the mathematical analogy between Brownian motion and electric circuits, which are at nanoscales also described by the generalized Langevin equation, we calculate the fluctuations of charge and current in RLC circuits that are in contact with the thermal bath. Due to the simplicity of our approach it could be incorporated into graduate courses of statistical physics. Once the method is established, it allows bringing to the attention of students and effectively solving a number of attractive problems related to Brownian motion.

  10. Harmonic Interaction Analysis in Grid-connected Converter using Harmonic State Space (HSS) Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    research about the harmonic interaction. However, it is found that the Linear Time Invariant (LTI) based model analysis makes it difficult to analyze these phenomena because of the time-varying properties of the power electronic based systems. This paper investigates grid-connected converter by using......An increasing number of power electronic based Distributed Generation (DG) systems and loads generate not only characteristic harmonics but also unexpected harmonics. Several methods like impedance based analysis, which are derived from the conventional average model, are introduced to perform...

  11. The Harmonic Potential Theorem for a Quantum System with Time-Dependent Effective Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Meng-Yun; Xiao Duan-Liang; Pan Xiao-Yin

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the many-body wave function of a quantum system with time-dependent effective mass, confined by a harmonic potential with time-dependent frequency, and perturbed by a time-dependent spatially homogeneous electric field. It is found that the wave function is comprised of a phase factor times the solution to the unperturbed time-dependent Schrödinger equation with the latter being translated by a time-dependent value that satisfies the classical driven equation of motion. The wave function reduces to that of the harmonic potential theorem wave function when both the effective mass and frequency are static. An example of application is also given. (paper)

  12. Parametric oscillators from factorizations employing a constant-shifted Riccati solution of the classical harmonic oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosu, H.C., E-mail: hcr@ipicyt.edu.mx [IPICyT, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Apdo Postal 3-74 Tangamanga, 78231 San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico); Khmelnytskaya, K.V. [Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro, Centro Universitario, Cerro de las Campanas s/n, C.P. 76010 Santiago de Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico)

    2011-09-19

    We determine the kind of parametric oscillators that are generated in the usual factorization procedure of second-order linear differential equations when one introduces a constant shift of the Riccati solution of the classical harmonic oscillator. The mathematical results show that some of these oscillators could be of physical nature. We give the solutions of the obtained second-order differential equations and the values of the shift parameter providing strictly periodic and antiperiodic solutions. We also notice that this simple problem presents parity-time (PT) symmetry. Possible applications are mentioned. -- Highlights: → A particular Riccati solution of the classical harmonic oscillator is shifted by a constant. → Such a solution is used in the factorization brackets to get different equations of motion. → The properties of the parametric oscillators obtained in this way are examined.

  13. Synthesis of Variable Harmonic Impedance in Inverter-Interfaced Distributed Generation Unit for Harmonic Damping Throughout a Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a harmonic impedance synthesis technique for voltage-controlled distributed generation inverters in order to damp harmonic voltage distortion on a distribution network. The approach employs a multiloop control scheme, where a selective harmonic load current feedforward loop...... at the dominant harmonic frequencies. Thus, the harmonic voltage drop on the grid-side inductance and the harmonic resonances throughout a distribution feeder with multiple shunt-connected capacitors can be effectively attenuated. Simulation and laboratory test results validate the performance of the proposed...

  14. Modelling the harmonized tertiary Institutions Salary Structure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper analyses the Harmonized Tertiary Institution Salary Structure (HATISS IV) used in Nigeria. The irregularities in the structure are highlighted. A model that assumes a polynomial trend for the zero step salary, and exponential trend for the incremental rates, is suggested for the regularization of the structure.

  15. Harmonic pulse testing for well performance monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokker, Peter A.; Salina Borello, Eloisa; Verga, Francesca; Viberti, Dario

    2018-01-01

    Harmonic testing was developed as a form of well testing that can be applied during ongoing production or injection operations, as a pulsed signal is superimposed on the background pressure trend. Thus no interruption of well and reservoir production is needed before and during the test. If the

  16. Harmonic-hopping in Wallacea's bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Tigga; Rossiter, Stephen J

    2004-06-10

    Evolutionary divergence between species is facilitated by ecological shifts, and divergence is particularly rapid when such shifts also promote assortative mating. Horseshoe bats are a diverse Old World family (Rhinolophidae) that have undergone a rapid radiation in the past 5 million years. These insectivorous bats use a predominantly pure-tone echolocation call matched to an auditory fovea (an over-representation of the pure-tone frequency in the cochlea and inferior colliculus) to detect the minute changes in echo amplitude and frequency generated when an insect flutters its wings. The emitted signal is the accentuated second harmonic of a series in which the fundamental and remaining harmonics are filtered out. Here we show that three distinct, sympatric size morphs of the large-eared horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus philippinensis) echolocate at different harmonics of the same fundamental frequency. These morphs have undergone recent genetic divergence, and this process has occurred in parallel more than once. We suggest that switching harmonics creates a discontinuity in the bats' perception of available prey that can initiate disruptive selection. Moreover, because call frequency in horseshoe bats has a dual function in resource acquisition and communication, ecological selection on frequency might lead to assortative mating and ultimately reproductive isolation and speciation, regardless of external barriers to gene flow.

  17. Spatial mode discrimination using second harmonic generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delaubert, Vincent; Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Pulford, David

    2007-01-01

    Second harmonic generation can be used as a technique for controlling the spatial mode structure of optical beams. We demonstrate experimentally the generation of higher order spatial modes, and that it is possible to use nonlinear phase matching as a predictable and robust technique for the conv...

  18. 'quantumness' measures in the decohering harmonic oscillator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We studied the behaviour under decoherence of four different measures of the distance between quantum states and classical states for the harmonic oscillator coupled to a linear Markovian bath. Three of these are relative measures, using different definitions of the distance between the given quantum states and the set of ...

  19. Sobolev Spaces Associated to the Harmonic Oscillator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We define the Hermite-Sobolev spaces naturally associated to the harmonic oscillator H = − + | x | 2 . Structural properties, relations with the classical Sobolev spaces, boundedness of operators and almost everywhere convergence of solutions of the Schrödinger equation are also considered.

  20. Information cloning of harmonic oscillator coherent states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We show that in the case of unknown harmonic oscillator coherent statesit is possible to achieve what we call perfect information cloning. By this we mean that it is still possible to make arbitrary number of copies of a state which has exactly the same information content as the original unknown coherent state. By making use ...

  1. Finite mode analysis through harmonic waveguides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alieva, T.; Wolf, K.B.

    2000-01-01

    The mode analysis of signals in a multimodal shallow harmonic waveguide whose eigenfrequencies are equally spaced and finite can be performed by an optoelectronic device, of which the optical part uses the guide to sample the wave field at a number of sensors along its axis and the electronic part

  2. Resonant second harmonic generation in potassium vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.; Mullin, C.S.; Shen, Y.R.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1995-06-01

    Picosecond pulses are used to study resonant second harmonic generation in potassium vapor. Although the process is both microscopically and macroscopically forbidden, it can readily be observed. The results can be quantitatively understood by a multiphoton-ionization-initiated, dc-field-induced, coherent transient model

  3. The Harmonic Oscillator–A Simplified Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Ganesan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the early problems in quantum chemistry, the one dimensional harmonic oscillator problem is an important one, providing a valuable exercise in the study of quantum mechanical methods. There are several approaches to this problem, the time honoured infinite series method, the ladder operator method etc. A method which is much shorter, mathematically simpler is presented here.

  4. Laguerre polynomials by a harmonic oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykal, Melek; Baykal, Ahmet

    2014-09-01

    The study of an isotropic harmonic oscillator, using the factorization method given in Ohanian's textbook on quantum mechanics, is refined and some collateral extensions of the method related to the ladder operators and the associated Laguerre polynomials are presented. In particular, some analytical properties of the associated Laguerre polynomials are derived using the ladder operators.

  5. Laguerre polynomials by a harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baykal, Melek; Baykal, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    The study of an isotropic harmonic oscillator, using the factorization method given in Ohanian's textbook on quantum mechanics, is refined and some collateral extensions of the method related to the ladder operators and the associated Laguerre polynomials are presented. In particular, some analytical properties of the associated Laguerre polynomials are derived using the ladder operators. (paper)

  6. achieving sustainable development through tax harmonization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    policies is a great challenge for governments; tax harmonization can be adopted for ... and the development trajectory of taxing state in diverse ways. For ... revenue is lost development opportunity.3 The existence of high corporate tax rate in a .... 26 This is levied pursuant to the Tertiary Education Trust Fund Tax Act 2011.

  7. Harmonicity in supermanifolds and sigma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Masque, Jaime; Vallejo, Jose A.

    2009-01-01

    We show that given an odd metric G on a supermanifold (M, A) and its associated Laplacian Δ, it is possible to interpret harmonic superfunctions (i.e., those f is an element of A such that Δf = 0) as solutions to a variational problem describing a supersymmetric sigma model.

  8. General Lp-harmonic Blaschke bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 124; Issue 1. General -Harmonic Blaschke Bodies. Yibin Feng Weidong Wang. Volume 124 Issue 1 February 2014 pp ... Author Affiliations. Yibin Feng1 Weidong Wang1. Department of Mathematics, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002, China ...

  9. Collective excitations of harmonically trapped ideal gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Schaeybroeck, B.; Lazarides, A.

    2009-01-01

    We theoretically study the collective excitations of an ideal gas confined in an isotropic harmonic trap. We give an exact solution to the Boltzmann-Vlasov equation; as expected for a single-component system, the associated mode frequencies are integer multiples of the trapping frequency. We show

  10. Rotation harmonics for a numerical diatomic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobeissi, H.; Korek, M.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of the determination of the rotation harmonics phi 1 , phi 2 , ... for the case of a numerical diatomic potential is considered. These harmonics defined in a recent work by psisub(vJ) = psisub(vO) + lambda 2 phi 2 + ... (where psisub(vJ) is the wave function of the vibration level v and the rotation level J, and lambda = J(J+1)) are studied for the case of the Dunham potential and for a numerical potential defined by the coordinates of its turning points with polynomial interpolations and extrapolations. It is proved that the analytical expressions of the harmonics phi 1 , phi 2 , ... reduce to polynomials where the coefficients are simply related to those of the potential in the case of the Dunham potential, and to the coordinates of the turning points in the case of the numerical potential. The numerical application is simple. The examples presented show that the vibration-rotation wave function psisub(vJ) calculated by using two harmonics only is ''exact'' up to eight significant figures

  11. Mapping from rectangular to harmonic representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, W.; Bateman, G.

    1986-08-01

    An algorithm is developed to determine the Fourier harmonics representing the level contours of a scalar function given on a rectangular grid. This method is applied to the problem of computing the flux coordinates and flux surface average needed for 1-1/2-D transport codes and MHD stability codes from an equilibrium flux function given on a rectangular grid

  12. ACCOUNTING HARMONIZATION AND HISTORICAL COST ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Gabriel CRISTEA

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a huge interest in accounting harmonization and historical costs accounting, in what they offer us. In this article, different valuation models are discussed. Although one notices the movement from historical cost accounting to fair value accounting, each one has its advantages.

  13. High order harmonic generation from plasma mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaury, C.

    2008-09-01

    When an intense laser beam is focused on a solid target, its surface is rapidly ionized and forms a dense plasma that reflects the incident field. For laser intensities above few 10 15 W/cm 2 , high order harmonics of the laser frequency, associated in the time domain to a train of atto-second pulses (1 as = 10 18 s), can be generated upon this reflection. Because such a plasma mirror can be used with arbitrarily high laser intensities, this process should eventually lead to the production of very intense pulses in the X-ray domain. In this thesis, we demonstrate that for laser intensities about 10 19 W/cm 2 , two mechanisms can contribute to the generation of high order harmonics: the coherent wake emission and the relativistic emission. These two mechanisms are studied both theoretically and experimentally. In particular, we show that, thanks to very different properties, the harmonics generated by these two processes can be unambiguously distinguished experimentally. We then investigate the phase properties of the harmonic, in the spectral and in the spatial domain. Finally, we illustrate how to exploit the coherence of the generation mechanisms to get information on the dynamics of the plasma electrons. (author)

  14. Harmonic generation with multiple wiggler schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonifacio, R.; De Salvo, L.; Pierini, P. [Universita degli Studi, Milano (Italy)

    1995-02-01

    In this paper the authors give a simple theoretical description of the basic physics of the single pass high gain free electron laser (FEL), describing in some detail the FEL bunching properties and the harmonic generation technique with a multiple-wiggler scheme or a high gain optical klystron configuration.

  15. Audibility of harmonics in periodic "white noise"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duifhuis, H.

    1973-01-01

    The finding that spectrally suppressed high harmonics (n>16) in a periodic pulse are perceptible has been related [H. Duifhuis, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 48, 888–893 (1970); 49, 1155–1163 (1971)] to the ear's limited resolving power in peripheral frequency analysis. The limited frequency resolution

  16. On computing ellipsoidal harmonics using Jekeli's renormalization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sebera, Josef; Bouman, J.; Bosch, W.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 9 (2012), s. 713-726 ISSN 0949-7714 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Earth's gravitational field * spherical and ellipsoidal harmonics * hypergeometric function Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.808, year: 2012

  17. Power Divider for Waveforms Rich in Harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, William Herbert, III

    2005-01-01

    A method for dividing the power of an electronic signal rich in harmonics involves the use of an improved divider topology. A divider designed with this topology could be used, for example, to propagate a square-wave signal in an amplifier designed with a push-pull configuration to enable the generation of more power than could be generated in another configuration.

  18. Shedding new light on Gaussian harmonic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teuwen, J.J.B.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation consists out of two rather disjoint parts. One part concerns some results on Gaussian harmonic analysis and the other on an optimization problem in optics. In the first part we study the Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process with respect to the Gaussian measure. We focus on two areas. One is

  19. Rolling Shutter Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Shuochen

    2015-06-07

    Although motion blur and rolling shutter deformations are closely coupled artifacts in images taken with CMOS image sensors, the two phenomena have so far mostly been treated separately, with deblurring algorithms being unable to handle rolling shutter wobble, and rolling shutter algorithms being incapable of dealing with motion blur. We propose an approach that delivers sharp and undis torted output given a single rolling shutter motion blurred image. The key to achieving this is a global modeling of the camera motion trajectory, which enables each scanline of the image to be deblurred with the corresponding motion segment. We show the results of the proposed framework through experiments on synthetic and real data.

  20. Smoothing Motion Estimates for Radar Motion Compensation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Simple motion models for complex motion environments are often not adequate for keeping radar data coherent. Eve n perfect motion samples appli ed to imperfect models may lead to interim calculations e xhibiting errors that lead to degraded processing results. Herein we discuss a specific i ssue involving calculating motion for groups of pulses, with measurements only available at pulse-group boundaries. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report was funded by General A tomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI) Mission Systems under Cooperative Re search and Development Agre ement (CRADA) SC08/01749 between Sandia National Laboratories and GA-ASI. General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI), an affilia te of privately-held General Atomics, is a leading manufacturer of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) systems, radars, and electro-optic and rel ated mission systems, includin g the Predator(r)/Gray Eagle(r)-series and Lynx(r) Multi-mode Radar.

  1. Curves from Motion, Motion from Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    De linearum curvarum cum lineis rectis comparatione dissertatio geometrica - an appendix to a treatise by de Lalouv~re (this was the only publication... correct solution to the problem of motion in the gravity of a permeable rotating Earth, considered by Torricelli (see §3). If the Earth is a homogeneous...in 1686, which contains the correct solution as part of a remarkably comprehensive theory of orbital motions under centripetal forces. It is a

  2. Structural motion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    This innovative volume provides a systematic treatment of the basic concepts and computational procedures for structural motion design and engineering for civil installations. The authors illustrate the application of motion control to a wide spectrum of buildings through many examples. Topics covered include optimal stiffness distributions for building-type structures, the role of damping in controlling motion, tuned mass dampers, base isolation systems, linear control, and nonlinear control. The book's primary objective is the satisfaction of motion-related design requirements, such as restrictions on displacement and acceleration. The book is ideal for practicing engineers and graduate students. This book also: ·         Broadens practitioners' understanding of structural motion control, the enabling technology for motion-based design ·         Provides readers the tools to satisfy requirements of modern, ultra-high strength materials that lack corresponding stiffness, where the motion re...

  3. Symmetries in physics and harmonics; Symmetrien in Physik und Harmonik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolk, D.

    2006-07-01

    In this book the symmetries of elementary particles are described in relation to the rules of harmonics in music. The selection rules are described in connections with harmonic intervals. Also symmetry breaking is considered in this framework. (HSI)

  4. Voltage harmonic elimination with RLC based interface smoothing filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekaran, K; Ramachandaramurthy, V K

    2015-01-01

    A method is proposed for designing a Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) with RLC interface smoothing filter. The RLC filter connected between the IGBT based Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) is attempted to eliminate voltage harmonics in the busbar voltage and switching harmonics from VSI by producing a PWM controlled harmonic voltage. In this method, the DVR or series active filter produces PWM voltage that cancels the existing harmonic voltage due to any harmonic voltage source. The proposed method is valid for any distorted busbar voltage. The operating VSI handles no active power but only harmonic power. The DVR is able to suppress the lower order switching harmonics generated by the IGBT based VSI. Good dynamic and transient results obtained. The Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) is minimized to zero at the sensitive load end. Digital simulations are carried out using PSCAD/EMTDC to validate the performance of RLC filter. Simulated results are presented. (paper)

  5. Probabilistic Aspects of Harmonic Emission of Large Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Flytkjær; Bak, Claus Leth; Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert

    2011-01-01

    In this article, a new probabilistic method of as-sessment of harmonic emission of large offshore wind farms is presented. Based on measurements from the British wind farm Burbo Banks, probability density functions are estimated for the dominating low order harmonic currents injected by a single...... turbine. The degree and type of dependence between the harmonic emission and the operating point of a single turbine is established. A model of Burbo Banks, suitable for harmonic load flow studies, is created in DIgSILENT Power Factory along with a DPL-script that deals with the probabilistic issues...... of the harmonic emission. The simulated harmonic distortion at the PCC is compared to measurement. This reveals some diffi-culties regarding harmonic load flow studies. The harmonic background distortion in the grid to where the wind farm is connected must be included in the study. Furthermore, a very detailed...

  6. Hail, Procrustes! Harmonized accounting standards as a Procrustean bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stecher, J.; Suijs, J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    This article finds that the use of a harmonized accounting standard, such as the International Financial Reporting Standards, increases the information available to markets only if institutional differences across countries using the harmonized standard are insignificant. In all other cases,

  7. Harmonic Damping in DG-Penetrated Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jinghang; Savaghebi, Mehdi; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    Grid background harmonics may be amplified, propagate through a long distribution feeder and even lead to power system instability. In this paper, harmonic propagation issue is investigated and mitigation of the harmonics is analyzed by using transmission line theory which has already been applied...... in power systems. It is demonstrated that a specific harmonic will not be amplified if the feeder’s length is less than one quarter of the harmonic wavelength meanwhile the terminal impedance is less than characteristic impedance. Besides, three scenarios will be considered in accordance...... with the relationship between the feeder’s length and harmonic wavelength. Harmonic suppression control strategies will be respectively designed considering 5th and 7th harmonics coexisting in the distribution line. Finally, a simulation study has been performed to verify the theoretical analysis and demonstrate...

  8. RHIC susceptibility to variations in systematic magnetic harmonic errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell, G.F.; Peggs, S.; Pilat, F.; Satogata, T.; Tepikian, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Wei, J.

    1994-01-01

    Results of a study to determine the sensitivity of tune to uncertainties of the systematic magnetic harmonic errors in the 8 cm dipoles of RHIC are reported. Tolerances specified to the manufacturer for tooling and fabrication can result in systematic harmonics different from the expected values. Limits on the range of systematic harmonics have been established from magnet calculations, and the impact on tune from such harmonics has been established

  9. Three-dimensional harmonic control of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potapenko, P.T.

    1989-01-01

    Algorithms for neutron flux control based on harmonic three-dimensional core are considered. The essence of the considered approach includes determination of harmonics amplitudes by signals self-powered detectors placed in reactor channels and reconstruction of neutron field distribution over the reactor core volume using the data obtained. Neutron field harmonic control is shown to be reduced to independent measurement and calculation of height harmonics in channels using techniques developed for channel power control

  10. Production of High Harmonic X-ray Radiation from Non-linear Thomson Scattering at LLNL PLEIADES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, J; Doyuran, A; Frigola, P; Travish, G; Rosenzweig, J; Anderson, S; Betts, S; Crane, J; Gibson, D; Hartemann, F; Tremaine, A

    2005-01-01

    We describe an experiment for production of high harmonic x-ray radiation from Thomson backscattering of an ultra-short high power density laser by a relativistic electron beam at the PLEIADES facility at LLNL. In this scenario, electrons execute a ''figure-8'' motion under the influence of the high-intensity laser field, where the constant characterizing the field strength is expected to exceed unity: a L = eE L /m e cw L (ge) 1. With large a L this motion produces high harmonic x-ray radiation and significant broadening of the spectral peaks. This paper is intended to give a layout of the PLEIADES experiment, along with progress towards experimental goals

  11. QUANTUM NATURE OF CYCLOTRON HARMONICS IN THERMAL SPECTRA OF NEUTRON STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleimanov, V. F.; Werner, K.; Pavlov, G. G.

    2010-01-01

    Some isolated neutron stars (NSs) show harmonically spaced absorption features in their thermal soft X-ray spectra. The interpretation of the features as a cyclotron line and its harmonics has been suggested, but the usual explanation of the harmonics as caused by relativistic effects fails because the relativistic corrections are extremely small in this case. We suggest that the features, known as quantum oscillations, correspond to the peaks in the energy dependence of the free-free opacity in a quantizing magnetic field. The peaks arise when the transitions to new Landau levels become allowed with increasing the photon energy; they are strongly enhanced by the square-root singularities in the phase-space density of quantum states in the case when the free (non-quantized) motion is effectively one dimensional. To explore observable properties of these quantum oscillations, we calculate models of hydrogen NS atmospheres with B ∼ 10 10 -10 11 G (i.e., electron cyclotron energy E c,e ∼ 0.1-1 keV) and T eff = 1-3 MK. Such conditions are thought to be typical for the so-called central compact objects in supernova remnants, such as 1E 1207.4-5209 in PKS 1209-51/52. We show that observable features at the electron cyclotron harmonics form at moderately large values of the quantization parameter, b eff ≡ E c,e /kT eff ≅ 0.5-20. The equivalent widths of the features can reach ∼100-200 eV; they grow with increasing b eff and are lower for higher harmonics.

  12. Second-harmonic generation in shear wave beams with different polarizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, Kyle S.; Ilinskii, Yurii A.; Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A.; Hamilton, Mark F.

    2015-10-01

    A coupled pair of nonlinear parabolic equations was derived by Zabolotskaya [1] that model the transverse components of the particle motion in a collimated shear wave beam propagating in an isotropic elastic solid. Like the KZK equation, the parabolic equation for shear wave beams accounts consistently for the leading order effects of diffraction, viscosity and nonlinearity. The nonlinearity includes a cubic nonlinear term that is equivalent to that present in plane shear waves, as well as a quadratic nonlinear term that is unique to diffracting beams. The work by Wochner et al. [2] considered shear wave beams with translational polarizations (linear, circular and elliptical), wherein second-order nonlinear effects vanish and the leading order nonlinear effect is third-harmonic generation by the cubic nonlinearity. The purpose of the current work is to investigate the quadratic nonlinear term present in the parabolic equation for shear wave beams by considering second-harmonic generation in Gaussian beams as a second-order nonlinear effect using standard perturbation theory. In order for second-order nonlinear effects to be present, a broader class of source polarizations must be considered that includes not only the familiar translational polarizations, but also polarizations accounting for stretching, shearing and rotation of the source plane. It is found that the polarization of the second harmonic generated by the quadratic nonlinearity is not necessarily the same as the polarization of the source-frequency beam, and we are able to derive a general analytic solution for second-harmonic generation from a Gaussian source condition that gives explicitly the relationship between the polarization of the source-frequency beam and the polarization of the second harmonic.

  13. Second-harmonic generation in shear wave beams with different polarizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spratt, Kyle S., E-mail: sprattkyle@gmail.com; Ilinskii, Yurii A.; Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A.; Hamilton, Mark F. [Applied Research Laboratories, The University of Texas at Austin, P. O. Box 8029, Austin, Texas 78713–8029, US (United States)

    2015-10-28

    A coupled pair of nonlinear parabolic equations was derived by Zabolotskaya [1] that model the transverse components of the particle motion in a collimated shear wave beam propagating in an isotropic elastic solid. Like the KZK equation, the parabolic equation for shear wave beams accounts consistently for the leading order effects of diffraction, viscosity and nonlinearity. The nonlinearity includes a cubic nonlinear term that is equivalent to that present in plane shear waves, as well as a quadratic nonlinear term that is unique to diffracting beams. The work by Wochner et al. [2] considered shear wave beams with translational polarizations (linear, circular and elliptical), wherein second-order nonlinear effects vanish and the leading order nonlinear effect is third-harmonic generation by the cubic nonlinearity. The purpose of the current work is to investigate the quadratic nonlinear term present in the parabolic equation for shear wave beams by considering second-harmonic generation in Gaussian beams as a second-order nonlinear effect using standard perturbation theory. In order for second-order nonlinear effects to be present, a broader class of source polarizations must be considered that includes not only the familiar translational polarizations, but also polarizations accounting for stretching, shearing and rotation of the source plane. It is found that the polarization of the second harmonic generated by the quadratic nonlinearity is not necessarily the same as the polarization of the source-frequency beam, and we are able to derive a general analytic solution for second-harmonic generation from a Gaussian source condition that gives explicitly the relationship between the polarization of the source-frequency beam and the polarization of the second harmonic.

  14. Second-harmonic generation in shear wave beams with different polarizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spratt, Kyle S.; Ilinskii, Yurii A.; Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A.; Hamilton, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    A coupled pair of nonlinear parabolic equations was derived by Zabolotskaya [1] that model the transverse components of the particle motion in a collimated shear wave beam propagating in an isotropic elastic solid. Like the KZK equation, the parabolic equation for shear wave beams accounts consistently for the leading order effects of diffraction, viscosity and nonlinearity. The nonlinearity includes a cubic nonlinear term that is equivalent to that present in plane shear waves, as well as a quadratic nonlinear term that is unique to diffracting beams. The work by Wochner et al. [2] considered shear wave beams with translational polarizations (linear, circular and elliptical), wherein second-order nonlinear effects vanish and the leading order nonlinear effect is third-harmonic generation by the cubic nonlinearity. The purpose of the current work is to investigate the quadratic nonlinear term present in the parabolic equation for shear wave beams by considering second-harmonic generation in Gaussian beams as a second-order nonlinear effect using standard perturbation theory. In order for second-order nonlinear effects to be present, a broader class of source polarizations must be considered that includes not only the familiar translational polarizations, but also polarizations accounting for stretching, shearing and rotation of the source plane. It is found that the polarization of the second harmonic generated by the quadratic nonlinearity is not necessarily the same as the polarization of the source-frequency beam, and we are able to derive a general analytic solution for second-harmonic generation from a Gaussian source condition that gives explicitly the relationship between the polarization of the source-frequency beam and the polarization of the second harmonic

  15. Harmonic Calculation Software for Industrial Applications with Adjustable Speed Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asiminoaei, Lucian; Hansen, S.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of a new harmonic software. By using a combination of a pre-stored database and new interpolation techniques the software can very fast provide the harmonic data on real applications. The harmonic results obtained with this software have acceptable precision even...

  16. Harmonic calculation software for industrial applications with ASDs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Asiminoaei, Lucian; Hansen, Steffan

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the evaluation of new harmonic calculation software. By using a combination of a prestored database and new interpolation techniques the software can provide the harmonic data on real applications of a very fast speed. The harmonic results obtained with this software have a...

  17. On the harmonic starlike functions with respect to symmetric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present paper, we introduce the notions of functions harmonic starlike with respect to symmetric, conjugate and symmetric conjugate points. Such results as coefficient inequalities and structural formulae for these function classes are proved. Keywords: Harmonic functions, harmonic starlike functions, symmetric points, ...

  18. Harmonic Function of Poincare Cone Condition In Solving Dirichlet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Harmonic Function of Poincare Cone Condition In Solving Dirichlet Problem. ... Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics ... theorem, the dirichlet problem and maximum principle where we conclude that the application of sums , differences and scalar multiples of harmonic functions are again harmonic.

  19. HARMONICS SURFACES OF GRAPHIC TYPE IN R3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Carrión Riveros

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research we study harmonic surfaces immersed in R3. We dened Harmonic surfaces of graphic type and showed that a harmonious surface graphic type is minimal if and only if it is part of a plane or a helix. Also, we give a characterization of harmonic surfaces graphic type parameterized by asymptotic lines and some examples.

  20. Pitch identification and discrimination for complex tones with many harmonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtsma, A.J.M.; Smurzyński, J.

    1990-01-01

    Four experiments are reported that deal with pitch perception of harmonic complex tones containing up to 11 successive harmonics. In particular, the question is raised whether the pitch percept of the missing fundamental is mediated only by low-order resolvable harmonics, or whether it can also be

  1. Twenty-Four Tuba Harmonics Using a Single Pipe Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bud; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Harmonics arise naturally from the resonances in strings and pipes. A video demonstration (Ruiz 2016 "YouTube: Tuba Harmonics" (https://youtu.be/souhEzOP9c4)) is provided where a tubist (coauthor Holmes) produces a phenomenal 24 harmonics using a single tuba pipe length by controlling the buzz of his lips. The frequencies of the…

  2. Audibility of high harmonics in a periodic pulse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duifhuis, H.

    1970-01-01

    A periodic pulse consisting of sufficiently narrow pulses has a frequency spectrum which contains all harmonics with equal amplitude. Owing to the limited resolving power of the hearing organ, only the low harmonics can be perceived separately. The high harmonics are heard together as one complex

  3. Mechanism of equivalent electric dipole oscillation for high-order harmonic generation from grating-structured solid-surface by femtosecond laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yang; Song, Hai-Ying; Liu, H.Y.; Liu, Shi-Bing, E-mail: sbliu@bjut.edu.cn

    2017-07-12

    Highlights: • Proposed a valid mechanism of high harmonic generation by laser grating target interaction: oscillation of equivalent electric dipole (OEED). • Found that there also exist harmonic emission at large emission angle but not just near-surface direction as the former researches had pointed out. • Show the process of the formation and motion of electron bunches at the grating-target surface irradiating with femtosecond laser pulse. - Abstract: We theoretically study high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from relativistically driven overdense plasma targets with rectangularly grating-structured surfaces by femtosecond laser pulses. Our particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations show that, under the conditions of low laser intensity and plasma density, the harmonics emit principally along small angles deviating from the target surface. Further investigation of the surface electron dynamics reveals that the electron bunches are formed by the interaction between the laser field and the target surface, giving rise to the oscillation of equivalent electric-dipole (OEED), which enhances specific harmonic orders. Our work helps understand the mechanism of harmonic emissions from grating targets and the distinction from the planar harmonic scheme.

  4. Experimental investigation of the generation of harmonic photons from the interaction of free electrons with intense laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englert, T.J.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the generation of second harmonic photons through the interaction of free electrons with an intense laser beam has been performed. Second harmonic photons with a wavelength of 530nm generated from the interaction of free electrons with 1060nm photons from a neodymium-glass laser are implied by observing Doppler shifted photons with wavelengths of 490nm and 507nm. The observed photon wavelengths results from a Doppler shift of the laser photon wavelengths as viewed in the rest frame of the electrons combined with a Doppler shift of the second harmonic photons emitted from 1600eV and 500eV electrons. Comparison of experimental results with those predicted by cross sections, derived using classical and quantum electrodynamics, shows reasonable agreement with both theories. Although second harmonic photons are created, the dynamics of second harmonic photon generation (accelerated electron motion due to the electromagnetic field or actual two-photon interaction with the electron) cannot be resolved without further experiment

  5. Physics of tissue harmonic imaging by ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yuan

    Tissue Harmonic Imaging (THI) is an imaging modality that is currently deployed on diagnostic ultrasound scanners. In THI the amplitude of the ultrasonic pulse that is used to probe the tissue is large enough that the pulse undergoes nonlinear distortion as it propagates into the tissue. One result of the distortion is that as the pulse propagates energy is shifted from the fundamental frequency of the source pulse into its higher harmonics. These harmonics will scatter off objects in the tissue and images formed from the scattered higher harmonics are considered to have superior quality to the images formed from the fundamental frequency. Processes that have been suggested as possibly responsible for the improved imaging in THI include: (1) reduced sensitivity to reverberation, (2) reduced sensitivity to aberration, and (3) reduction in side lobes. By using a combination of controlled experiments and numerical simulations, these three reasons have been investigated. A single element transducer and a clinical ultrasound scanner with a phased array transducer were used to image a commercial tissue-mimicking phantom with calibrated targets. The higher image quality achieved with THI was quantified in terms of spatial resolution and "clutter" signals. A three-dimensional model of the forward propagation of nonlinear sound beams in media with arbitrary spatial properties (a generalized KZK equation) was developed. A time-domain code for solving the KZK equation was validated with measurements of the acoustic field generated by the single element transducer and the phased array transducer. The code was used to investigate the impact of aberration using tissue-like media with three-dimensional variations in all acoustic properties. The three-dimensional maps of tissue properties were derived from the datasets available through the Visible Female project. The experiments and simulations demonstrated that second harmonic imaging (1) suffers less clutter associated with

  6. Creation and annihilation operators, symmetry and supersymmetry of the 3D isotropic harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, R D; Granados, V D; Queijeiro, A; Garcia, J; Guzman, L

    2003-01-01

    We show that the supersymmetric radial ladder operators of the three-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator are contained in the spherical components of the creation and annihilation operators of the system. Also, we show that the constants of motion of the problem, written in terms of these spherical components, lead us to second-order radial operators. Further, we show that these operators change the orbital angular momentum quantum number by two units and are equal to those obtained by the Infeld-Hull factorization method

  7. Studying the Relative Positions of the Teeth of Conjugated Wheels in the Double Harmonic Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draghiţa Ianici

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a detailed study of the gearing processes in the two stages of the double harmonic transmission. To highlight the graphics of the relative motion of the conjugates teeth it was developed an original calculation program, written in Visual Basic. By running the calculation program, the relative successive positions of the conjugate teeth were viewed and the basic parameters of the gearing were established: the angle profile (α, the tooth height (h and the size of the deformation of the flexible toothed wheel (w0.

  8. Exact solution of the time-dependent harmonic plus an inverse harmonic potential with a time-dependent electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuece, Cem

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of the charged harmonic plus an inverse harmonic oscillator with time-dependent mass and frequency in a time-dependent electromagnetic field is investigated. It is reduced to the problem of the inverse harmonic oscillator with time-independent parameters and the exact wave function is obtained

  9. Synthesis of variable harmonic impedance in inverter-interfaced distributed generation unit for harmonic damping throughout a distribution network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a harmonic impedance synthesis technique for voltage-controlled distributed generation inverter in order to damp harmonic voltage distortion on a distribution network. The approach employs a multiloop control scheme, where a selective load harmonic current feedforward loop bas...

  10. Dissipative motion perturbation theory and exact solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodder, J.J.

    1976-06-01

    Dissipative motion of classical and quantum systems is described. In particular, attention is paid to systems coupled to the radiation field. A dissipative equation of motion for a particle in an arbitrary potential coupled to the radiation field is derived by means of perturbation theory. The usual divrgencies associated with the radiation field are eliminated by the application of a theory of generalized functions. This theory is developed as a subject in its own right and is presented independently. The introduction of classical zero-point energy makes the classical equa tion of motion for the phase density formally the same as its quantum counterpart. In particular, it is shown that the classical zero-point energy prevents the collapse of a classical H-atom and gives rise to a classical ground state. For systems with a quadratic Hamiltoian, the equation of motion can be solved exactly, even in the continuum limit for the radiation field, by means of the new generalized functions. Classically, the Fokker-Planck equation is found without any approximations, and quantum mechanically, the only approximation is the neglect of the change in the ground state caused by the interaction. The derivation is valid even for strong damping and arbitrarily short times. There is no transient time. For harmonic oscillators complete equivalence is shown to exist between quantum mechanics and classical mechanics with zero-point energy. A discussion of the derivation of the Pauli equation is given and perturbation theory is compared with the exact derivation. The exactly solvable models are used to calculate the Langevin force of the radiation field. The result is that the classical Langevin force is exactly delta-correlated, while the quantum Langevin force is not delta-correlated at all. The fluctuation-dissipation theorem is shown to be an exact consequence of the solution to the equations of motion

  11. Sequence Domain Harmonic Modeling of Type-IV Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guest, Emerson; Jensen, Kim Høj; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    2017-01-01

    -sampled pulsewidth modulation and an analysis of converter generated voltage harmonics due to compensated dead-time. The decoupling capabilities of the proposed the SD harmonic model are verified through a power quality (PQ) assessment of a 3MW Type-IV wind turbine. The assessment shows that the magnitude and phase...... of low-order odd converter generated voltage harmonics are dependent on the converter operating point and the phase of the fundamental component of converter current respectively. The SD harmonic model can be used to make PQ assessments of Type-IV wind turbines or incorporated into harmonic load flows...... for computation of PQ in wind power plants....

  12. Harmonic Resonances in Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Francisco Daniel Freijedo; Chaudhary, Sanjay; Teodorescu, Remus

    2015-01-01

    This work reviews the state-of-the-art in the field of harmonic resonance problems in Wind Power Plants (WPPs). Firstly, a generic WPP is modeled according to the equivalent circuits of its passive and active components. Main focus is put on modeling active components, i.e. the ones based on power...... converters. Subsequently, pros and cons of frequency and time domain analysis methods are outlined. The next sections are devoted to mitigation methods implemented in the power electronics converters. From the wind turbine perspective, different techniques to enhance the robustness of the controller...... are analyzed. Subsequently, the suitability for active damping of harmonics using STATCOM devices is assessed, with focus both on control techniques and power converter technologies....

  13. Background harmonic superfields in N=2 supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zupnik, B.M.

    1998-01-01

    A modification of the harmonic superfield formalism in D=4, N=2 supergravity using a subsidiary condition of covariance under the background supersymmetry with a central charge (B-covariance) is considered. Conservation of analyticity together with the B-covariance leads to the appearance of linear gravitational superfields. Analytic prepotentials arise in a decomposition of the background linear superfields in terms of spinor coordinates and transform in a nonstandard way under the background supersymmetry. The linear gravitational superfields can be written via spinor derivatives of nonanalytic spinor prepotentials. The perturbative expansion of supergravity action in terms of the B-covariant superfields and the corresponding version of the differential-geometric formalism are considered. We discuss the dual harmonic representation of the linearized extended supergravity, which corresponds to the dynamical condition of Grassmann analyticity

  14. Harmonization game. [Need for management to resolve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, I

    1977-01-01

    The problem is to try to harmonize socio-economic and environmental goals by redefining patterns of resource use and the uses of growth. The author uses examples mainly of developing countries, with the exception of the time uses, but the same framework can be applied to industrial countries faced by a development crisis of their own. The interrrelations that exist between demand, supply, and the environment are summarized. The development goal consists of a mix of goods and service which reflects the working time of the population as well as of different models of use of available non-working time. It is concluded that for industrialized and developing countries the harmonization game cannot happen instantly. Some measures require only imagination while others require retooling of the economy with low-waste technology or the promotion of solar house heating requiring time and investment. (MCW)

  15. Simulation of Second Harmonic Ultrasound Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yigang; Jensen, Henrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2010-01-01

    A non-linear ultrasound imaging simulation software should be capable of simulating the non-linear fields for any kind of transducer, focusing, apodization, and attenuation. At present, a major issue is the overlong simulation time of the non-linear software. An Angular Spectrum Approach (ASA......) using a quasi-linear approximation for solving the Westervelt equation can simulate the second harmonic pressure at any distance. Therefore, it shortens the execution time compared with the operator splitting method. The purpose of this paper is to implement the monochromatic solution for the second...... harmonic component based on ASA and Field II, and to compare with results from the simulation program Abersim. A linear array transducer with a center frequency of 4 MHz and 64 active elements is used as the transmitting source. The initial plane is 5 mm away from the transducer surface...

  16. Overhead distribution line models for harmonics studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, M.; Xu, W.; Dommel, H.W.

    1994-01-01

    Carson's formulae and Maxwell's potential coefficients are used for calculating the per unit length series impedances and shunt capacitances of the overhead lines. The per unit length values are then used for building the models, nominal pi-circuit, and equivalent pi-circuit at the harmonic frequencies. This paper studies the accuracy of these models for presenting the overhead distribution lines in steady-state harmonic solutions at frequencies up to 5 kHz. The models are verified with a field test on a 25 kV distribution line and the sensitivity of the models to ground resistivity, skin effect, and multiple grounding is reported.

  17. Generating transverse response explicitly from harmonic oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Tang, Ying; Ao, Ping

    2017-10-01

    We obtain stochastic dynamics from a system-plus-bath mechanism as an extension of the Caldeira-Leggett (CL) model in the classical regime. An effective magnetic field and response functions with both longitudinal and transverse parts are exactly generated from the bath of harmonic oscillators. The effective magnetic field and transverse response are antisymmetric matrices: the former is explicitly time-independent corresponding to the geometric magnetism, while the latter can have memory. The present model can be reduced to previous representative examples of stochastic dynamics describing nonequilibrium processes. Our results demonstrate that a system coupled with a bath of harmonic oscillators is a general approach to studying stochastic dynamics, and provides a method to experimentally implement an effective magnetic field from coupling to the environment.

  18. MMS Observations of Harmonic Electromagnetic Cyclotron Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usanova, M.; Ahmadi, N.; Ergun, R.; Trattner, K. J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Torbert, R. B.; Mauk, B.; Le Contel, O.; Giles, B. L.; Russell, C. T.; Burch, J.; Strangeway, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Harmonically related electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves with the fundamental frequency near the O+ cyclotron frequency were observed by the four MMS spacecraft on May 20, 2016. The wave activity was detected by the spacecraft on their inbound passage through the Earth's morning magnetosphere during generally quiet geomagnetic conditions but enhanced solar wind dynamic pressure. It was also associated with an enhancement of energetic H+ and O+ ions. The waves are seen in both magnetic and electric fields, formed by over ten higher order harmonics, most pronounced in the electric field. The wave activity lasted for about an hour with some wave packets giving rise to short-lived structures extending from Hz to kHz range. These observations are particularly interesting since they suggest cross-frequency coupling between the lower and higher frequency modes. Further work will focus on examining the nature and role of these waves in the energetic particle dynamics from a theoretical perspective.

  19. Contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Săftoiu, A; Dietrich, C F; Vilmann, P

    2012-01-01

    Second-generation intravenous blood-pool ultrasound contrast agents are increasingly used in endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for characterization of microvascularization, differential diagnosis of benign and malignant focal lesions, and improving staging and guidance of therapeutic procedures. Although...... initially used as Doppler signal enhancers, second-generation microbubble contrast agents are now used with specific contrast harmonic imaging techniques, which benefit from the highly nonlinear behavior of the microbubbles. Contrast-specific modes based on multi-pulse technology are used to perform...... contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS based on a very low mechanical index (0.08 - 0.12). Quantification techniques based on dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound have been recommended for perfusion imaging and monitoring of anti-angiogenic treatment, mainly based on time-intensity curve analysis. Most...

  20. Spherical harmonics and integration in superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bie, H de; Sommen, F

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the classical theory of spherical harmonics in R m is extended to superspace using techniques from Clifford analysis. After defining a super-Laplace operator and studying some basic properties of polynomial null-solutions of this operator, a new type of integration over the supersphere is introduced by exploiting the formal equivalence with an old result of Pizzetti. This integral is then used to prove orthogonality of spherical harmonics of different degree, Green-like theorems and also an extension of the important Funk-Hecke theorem to superspace. Finally, this integration over the supersphere is used to define an integral over the whole superspace, and it is proven that this is equivalent with the Berezin integral, thus providing a more sound definition of the Berezin integral

  1. Harmonic surface wave propagation in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivarova, A.; Stoychev, T.

    1980-01-01

    Second order harmonic surface waves generated by one fundamental high-frequency surface wave are investigated experimentally in gas discharge plasma. Two types of harmonic waves of equal frequency, associated with the linear dispersion relation and the synchronism conditions relatively propagate. The experimental conditions and the different space damping rates of the waves ensure the existence of different spatial regions (consecutively arranged along the plasma column) of a dominant propagation of each one of these two waves. Experimental data are obtained both for the wavenumbers and the space damping rates by relatively precise methods for wave investigations such as the methods of time-space diagrams and of phase shift measurements. The results are explained by the theoretical model for nonlinear mixing of dispersive waves. (author)

  2. Second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellin, M.J.; Biwer, B.M.; Schauer, M.W.; Frye, J.M.; Gruen, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Second harmonic generation and sum frequency generation are increasingly being used as in situ surface probes. These techniques are coherent and inherently surface sensitive by the nature of the mediums response to intense laser light. Here we will review these two techniques using aqueous corrosion as an example problem. Aqueous corrosion of technologically important materials such as Fe, Ni and Cr proceeds from a reduced metal surface with layer by layer growth of oxide films mitigated by compositional changes in the chemical makeup of the growing film. Passivation of the metal surface is achieved after growth of only a few tens of atomic layers of metal oxide. Surface Second Harmonic Generation and a related nonlinear laser technique, Sum Frequency Generation have demonstrated an ability to probe the surface composition of growing films even in the presence of aqueous solutions. 96 refs., 4 figs

  3. Harmonics in a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preciado, V.; Madrigal, M.; Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.

    2015-04-02

    Wind power generation has been growing at a very fast pace for the past decade, and its influence and impact on the electric power grid is significant. As in a conventional power plant, a wind power plant (WPP) must ensure that the quality of the power being delivered to the grid is excellent. At the same time, the wind turbine should be able to operate immune to small disturbances coming from the grid. Harmonics are one of the more common power quality issues presented by large WPPs because of the high switching frequency of the power converters and the possible nonlinear behavior from electric machines (generator, transformer, reactors) within a power plant. This paper presents a summary of the most important issues related to harmonics in WPPs and discusses practical experiences with actual Type 1 and Type 3 wind turbines in two WPPs.

  4. Harmonic curvatures and generalized helices in En

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camci, Cetin; Ilarslan, Kazim; Kula, Levent; Hacisalihoglu, H. Hilmi

    2009-01-01

    In n-dimensional Euclidean space E n , harmonic curvatures of a non-degenerate curve defined by Ozdamar and Hacisalihoglu [Ozdamar E, Hacisalihoglu HH. A characterization of Inclined curves in Euclidean n-space. Comm Fac Sci Univ Ankara, Ser A1 1975;24:15-23]. In this paper, we give some characterizations for a non-degenerate curve α to be a generalized helix by using its harmonic curvatures. Also we define the generalized Darboux vector D of a non-degenerate curve α in n-dimensional Euclidean space E n and we show that the generalized Darboux vector D lies in the kernel of Frenet matrix M(s) if and only if the curve α is a generalized helix in the sense of Hayden.

  5. Motion and relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Infeld, Leopold

    1960-01-01

    Motion and Relativity focuses on the methodologies, solutions, and approaches involved in the study of motion and relativity, including the general relativity theory, gravitation, and approximation.The publication first offers information on notation and gravitational interaction and the general theory of motion. Discussions focus on the notation of the general relativity theory, field values on the world-lines, general statement of the physical problem, Newton's theory of gravitation, and forms for the equation of motion of the second kind. The text then takes a look at the approximation meth

  6. Brain Image Motion Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Benjaminsen, Claus; Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The application of motion tracking is wide, including: industrial production lines, motion interaction in gaming, computer-aided surgery and motion correction in medical brain imaging. Several devices for motion tracking exist using a variety of different methodologies. In order to use such devices...... offset and tracking noise in medical brain imaging. The data are generated from a phantom mounted on a rotary stage and have been collected using a Siemens High Resolution Research Tomograph for positron emission tomography. During acquisition the phantom was tracked with our latest tracking prototype...

  7. Dirac monopole without strings: monopole harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.T.; Yang, C.N.

    1983-01-01

    Using the ideas developed in a previous paper which are borrowed from the mathematics of fiber bundles, it is shown that the wave function psi of a particle of charge Ze around a Dirac monopole of strength g should be regarded as a section. The section is without discontinuities. Thus the monopole does not possess strings of singularities in the field around it. The eigensections of the angular momentum operators are monopole harmonics which are explicitly exhibited. 7 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  8. Harmonic polylogarithms for massive Bhabha scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czakon, M.; Riemann, T.

    2005-08-01

    One- and two-dimensional harmonic polylogarithms, HPLs and GPLs, appear in calculations of multi-loop integrals. We discuss them in the context of analytical solutions for two-loop master integrals in the case of massive Bhabha scattering in QED. For the GPLs we discuss analytical representations, conformal transformations, and also their transformations corresponding to relations between master integrals in the s- and t-channel. (orig.)

  9. Chemical Applications of Second Harmonic Rayleigh Scattering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chemical Applications of Second Harmonic Rayleigh Scattering Puspendu Kumar Das Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560012, India pkdas@ipc.iisc.ernet.in · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13.

  10. Excises Harmonization Stage Within the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Drăcea, Raluca; Buziernescu, Radu

    2007-01-01

    Tax policy in the European Union consists of two components: direct taxation, which remains the sole responsibility of Member States, and indirect taxation, which affects free movement of goods and the freedom to provide services. The most important efforts for the tax harmonization were made in the domain of the indirect taxation, the consumption taxes influence the price supported by the final consumer and prevent the fiscal neutrality necessary for a fair competition on the ...

  11. Non-singular spiked harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera-Navarro, V.C.; Guardiola, R.

    1990-01-01

    A perturbative study of a class of non-singular spiked harmonic oscillators defined by the hamiltonian H = d sup(2)/dr sup(2) + r sup(2) + λ/r sup(α) in the domain [0,∞] is carried out, in the two extremes of a weak coupling and a strong coupling regimes. A path has been found to connect both expansions for α near 2. (author)

  12. Prediction of Metastasis Using Second Harmonic Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    small but statistically significant difference in average F/B of treated US patients versus untreated Dutch patients. Fig. 1. Display of all...predictive ability of models incorporating F/B using a multivariate linear model, but this time applying the analysis to the entire ER+ and ER- cohort. As...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0040 TITLE: Prediction of Metastasis Using Second Harmonic Generation PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Edward Brown

  13. The International Politics of IFRS Harmonization

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanna, Karthik

    2013-01-01

    The globalization of accounting standards as seen through the proliferation of IFRS worldwide is one of the most important developments in corporate governance over the last decade. I offer an analysis of some international political dynamics of countries' IFRS harmonization decisions. The analysis is based on field studies in three jurisdictions: Canada, China, and India. Across these jurisdictions, I first describe unique elements of domestic political economies that are shaping IFRS polici...

  14. Estimating network effect in geocenter motion: Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannat, Umma Jamila; Tregoning, Paul

    2017-10-01

    Geophysical models and their interpretations of several processes of interest, such as sea level rise, postseismic relaxation, and glacial isostatic adjustment, are intertwined with the need to realize the International Terrestrial Reference Frame. However, this realization needs to take into account the geocenter motion, that is, the motion of the center of figure of the Earth surface, due to, for example, deformation of the surface by earthquakes or hydrological loading effects. Usually, there is also a discrepancy, known as the network effect, between the theoretically convenient center of figure and the physically accessible center of network frames, because of unavoidable factors such as uneven station distribution, lack of stations in the oceans, disparity in the coverage between the two hemispheres, and the existence of tectonically deforming zones. Here we develop a method to estimate the magnitude of the network effect, that is, the error introduced by the incomplete sampling of the Earth surface, in measuring the geocenter motion, for a network of space geodetic stations of a fixed size N. For this purpose, we use, as our proposed estimate, the standard deviations of the changes in Helmert parameters measured by a random network of the same size N. We show that our estimate scales as 1/√N and give an explicit formula for it in terms of the vector spherical harmonics expansion of the displacement field. In a complementary paper we apply this formalism to coseismic displacements and elastic deformations due to surface water movements.

  15. A position-dependent mass harmonic oscillator and deformed space

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Bruno G.; Borges, Ernesto P.

    2018-04-01

    We consider canonically conjugated generalized space and linear momentum operators x^ q and p^ q in quantum mechanics, associated with a generalized translation operator which produces infinitesimal deformed displacements controlled by a deformation parameter q. A canonical transformation (x ^ ,p ^ ) →(x^ q,p^ q ) leads the Hamiltonian of a position-dependent mass particle in usual space to another Hamiltonian of a particle with constant mass in a conservative force field of the deformed space. The equation of motion for the classical phase space (x, p) may be expressed in terms of the deformed (dual) q-derivative. We revisit the problem of a q-deformed oscillator in both classical and quantum formalisms. Particularly, this canonical transformation leads a particle with position-dependent mass in a harmonic potential to a particle with constant mass in a Morse potential. The trajectories in phase spaces (x, p) and (xq, pq) are analyzed for different values of the deformation parameter. Finally, we compare the results of the problem in classical and quantum formalisms through the principle of correspondence and the WKB approximation.

  16. Irreversible performance of a quantum harmonic heat engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezek, Yair; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2006-05-01

    The unavoidable irreversible loss of power in a heat engine is found to be of quantum origin. Following thermodynamic tradition, a model quantum heat engine operating in an Otto cycle is analysed, where the working medium is composed of an ensemble of harmonic oscillators and changes in volume correspond to changes in the curvature of the potential well. Equations of motion for quantum observables are derived for the complete cycle of operation. These observables are sufficient to determine the state of the system and with it all thermodynamical variables. Once the external controls are set, the engine settles to a limit cycle. Conditions for optimal work, power and entropy production are derived. At high temperatures and quasistatic operating conditions, the efficiency at maximum power coincides with the endoreversible result \\eta_q=1-\\sqrt{{T_c}/{T_h}} . The optimal compression ratio varies from {\\cal C} =\\sqrt{T_h/T_c} in the quasistatic limit where the irreversibility is dominated by heat conductance to {\\cal C} =(T_h/T_c)^{1/4} in the sudden limit when the irreversibility is dominated by friction. When the engine deviates from adiabatic conditions, the performance is subject to friction. The origin of this friction can be traced to the noncommutability of the kinetic and potential energy of the working medium.

  17. Stability and nonlinear dynamics of gyrotrons at cyclotron harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraph, G.P.; Nusinovich, G.S.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Levush, B.

    1992-01-01

    Gyrotrons operating at higher harmonics of the cyclotron frequency can overcome the frequency limitations caused by achievable strength of the magnetic field. However, the excitation of modes at the fundamental frequency exhibit a major problem for stable operation of harmonic gyrotron at high power with high efficiency. Therefore the issues of stability of gyrotron operation at the cyclotron harmonics and nonlinear dynamics of mode interaction are of great importance. The results of the authors stability analysis and multimode simulation are presented here. A detailed nonlinear theory of steady state single mode operation at cyclotron harmonics has been presented previously, taking into account beam-wave coupling and nonlinear gain function at cyclotron harmonics. A set of equations describing low gain regime interaction of modes resonant at different cyclotron harmonics was studied before. The multifrequency time-dependent nonlinear analysis presented here is based on previous gyrotron studies and beam-wave interaction at cyclotron harmonics. The authors have determined the parameter space for stable single mode operation at the second harmonic. The nonlinear dynamics of mode evolution and mode interaction for a harmonic gyrotron is presented. A new nonlinear effect in which the parasite at the fundamental harmonic helps excite the operating mode at the second harmonic has been demonstrated

  18. Harmonic currents circulation in electrical networks simulation and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Em-Mamlouk, W.M. [MEP, Cairo (Egypt); El-Sharkawy, M.A. [Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Electrical Power and Machines; Mostafa, H.E. [Jazan Univ., Jazan (Saudi Arabia). Electrical Dept.

    2009-07-01

    A detailed harmonic flow analysis for a 13-bus balanced industrial distribution system was presented. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of harmonic sources in various branches of the system on voltage and current waveforms before disruptions to the utility supply system occurred. The current harmonic contents of an adjustable speed drive (ASD) were studied under various loading conditions. The test system was simulated using a standard study test system. Harmonic effects from multiple sources were investigated, and voltage distortion on the different buses was monitored. The study demonstrated that while the harmonic loads circulated harmonic currents in all system branches, no harmonic source was directly connected to the system buses. Many of the investigated cases exceeded allowable voltage total harmonic distortion and or current total harmonic distortion standards set by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). It was concluded that active harmonic filters should be used to prevent the effects of harmonic current circulation at different buses on neighbouring loads within a system. 8 refs., 11 tabs., 15 figs.

  19. Plasma wave and second harmonic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodha, M.S.; Sharma, J.K.; Tewari, D.P.; Sharma, R.P.; Kaushik, S.C.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation is made of a plasma wave at pump wave frequency and second harmonic generation caused by a self induced transverse inhomogeneity introduced by a Gaussian electromagnetic beam in a hot collisionless plasma. In the presence of a Gaussian beam the carriers get redistributed from the high field region to the low field region by ponderomative force and a transverse density gradient is established in the plasma. When the electric vector of the main beam is parallel to this density gradient, a plasma wave at the pump wave frequency is generated. In addition to this the transverse intensity gradient of the electromagnetic wave also contributes significantly to the plasma wave generation. The power of the plasma wave exhibits a maximum and minimum with the power of the pump wave (at z = 0). The generated plasma wave interacts with the electromagnetic wave and leads to the generation of a second harmonic. Furthermore, if the initial power of the pump wave is more than the critical power for self-focusing, the beam gets self-focused and hence the generated plasma wave and second harmonic which depend upon the background electron concentration and power of the main beam also get accordingly modified. (author)

  20. Means of Harmonization in Religious Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ščukina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Means of harmonization of religious discourse are considered by studying communicational behaviour (verbal and nonverbal between the religion institution and believers. The following factors defining specificity of realization of harmonization in Orthodox and other religious texts are taken into account: the communication channel between the author and the reader, a defining speech genre, the command of language (communication code, and extra-linguistic factors. It is shown that sharing the general social, historical and national experience, as well as a lexical overlapping of actors on both sides of the communication channel are the deciding elements of the harmonization process. The analysis also shows that usage of rational argumentation is more likely to lead to harmonisation in comparison to other rhetoric tools (i. e. affective ones or story-telling. Rational and unemotional sermonic discourse is perceived as a sign of respect (namely, for the listener's intelligence. Another successful and much-applied way seems to be evoking a feeling of equality, unity and/or identity between clerics and their flocks.

  1. High order harmonic generation from plasma mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, H.

    2010-01-01

    When an intense laser beam is focused on a solid target, the target's surface is rapidly ionized and forms dense plasma that reflects the incident field. For laser intensities above few 10 to the power of 15 Wcm -2 , high order harmonics of the laser frequency, associated in the time domain to a train of atto-second pulses (1 as 10 -18 s), can be generated upon this reflection. In this thesis, we developed numerical tools to reveal original aspects of harmonic generation mechanisms in three different interaction regime: the coherent wake emission, the relativistic emission and the resonant absorption. In particular, we established the role of these mechanisms when the target is a very thin foil (thickness of the order of 100 nm). Then we study experimentally the spectral, spatial and coherence properties of the emitted light. We illustrate how to exploit these measurements to get information on the plasma mirror dynamics on the femtosecond and atto-second time scales. Last, we propose a technique for the single-shot complete characterization of the temporal structure of the harmonic light emission from the laser-plasma mirror interaction. (author)

  2. Potential harmonic expansion for atomic wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabre de la Ripelle, M.; Larsen, S.Y.

    1991-01-01

    One way to reduce the large degeneracy of the Hyperspherical Harmonic basis for solving few- and many-body bound state problems is to introduce an optimal basis truncation called the Potential Harmonic (PH) basis. Various PH truncation schemes are introduced, and their accuracies are evaluated in predicting the energies of the Helium and H - ground states , and the excited 2 1 S level of the Helium atom. It was found that the part of the PH basis that accounts for one-body correlations gives a better ground state energy for He than the Hartree-Fock approximation. When an orthogonal complement is introduced to the basis to account for e-e correlations, the error in the binding energy is found to be .00025 au and .00015 au for ground and excited helium, resp., and .00035 au for H - . Furthermore, the PH truncation is about 99.9% accurate in accounting for contributions coming from large values of the global angular momentum. This PH scheme is also much more accurate than previous versions based on the Faddeev equations. The present results indicate that the PH truncation can render the Hyperspherical Harmonic method useful for systems with N>3. (R.P.) 14 refs., 4 tabs

  3. Food legislation and its harmonization in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamtsyan, Mark

    2014-08-01

    Bringing Russian legislation into compliance with international norms and standards is necessary after its accession to the World Trade Organization. Harmonization of food legislation and of sanitary and phytosanitary measures are among the problems that had to be solved first. Many Russian food and trade regulations had been changed or are still in the process of being reformed, largely owing to a policy of integration pursued by the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. However, as a member of the Eurasian Economic Community, Russia is also engaged not only in harmonization throughout the Customs Union but also Kirgizstan and Tajikistan, and Armenia, Moldova and Ukraine as observer countries. Russia also continues to coordinate policy reforms closely with the European Union, its primary trade partner, ultimately bringing Russian food and sanitary norms closer to international standards (e.g. Codex). Today, all participants in the Russian food production chain, processing and sale of foods have to deal with growing numbers of security standards. Many organizations are certified under several schemes, which leads to unnecessary costs. Harmonization of standards has helped promote solutions in the domestic market as well as import-export of foods and raw materials for production. Priorities have included food safety for human health, consumer protection, removal of hazardous and/or adulterated products and increased competition within the domestic food market as well as mutual recognition of certification in bilateral and multilateral (inter)national agreements. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. EUROPEAN HARMONIZATION OF CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS REGULATIONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cirstea Andreea

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the degree of formal accounting harmonization within the European Union with respect to the EC Regulation No. 1606/2002 adopted by the European Parliament and European Council on the 19th of July 2002, which regulates the application of IAS/IFRS regarding the financial reporting of listed European companies. The conclusions of the paper were drawn after the completion of a thorough analysis performed by using correlation and/ or association coefficients, namely: the Jaccard’s Correlation Coefficients, Rogers and Tanimoto Coefficient, Lance and Williams Coefficient and Binary Euclidian Distance Coefficient. The results lead us to conclude that although our first hypothesis is verified, the degree of harmonization between the accounting systems of EU Member States could be truly quantified only through an analysis of the material accounting harmonization, more precisely by analyzing the way the companies put into practice the requirements imposed through the EC Regulation No. 1606/2002.

  5. Harmonic Mitigation Methods in Large Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kocewiak, Łukasz Hubert; Chaudhary, Sanjay; Hesselbæk, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Various sources of harmonic problems in large wind power plants (WPPs) and optimized harmonic mitigation methods are presented in this paper. The harmonic problems such as sources of harmonic emission and amplification as well as harmonic stability are identified. Also modern preventive...... and remedial harmonic mitigation methods in terms of passive and active filtering are described. It is shown that WPP components such as long HVAC cables and park transformers can introduce significant low-frequency resonances which can affect wind turbine control system operation and overall WPP stability...... as well as amplification of harmonic distortion. It is underlined that there is a potential in terms of active filtering in modern grid-side converters in e.g. wind turbines, STATCOMs or HVDC stations utilized in modern large WPPs. It is also emphasized that the grid-side converter controller should...

  6. Analyzing correlation functions with tesseral and Cartesian spherical harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielewicz, Pawel; Pratt, Scott

    2007-01-01

    The dependence of interparticle correlations on the orientation of particle relative momentum can yield unique information on the space-time features of emission in reactions with multiparticle final states. In the present paper, the benefits of a representation and analysis of the three-dimensional correlation information in terms of surface spherical harmonics is presented. The harmonics include the standard complex tesseral harmonics and the real Cartesian harmonics. Mathematical properties of the lesser known Cartesian harmonics are illuminated. The physical content of different angular harmonic components in a correlation is described. The resolving power of different final-state effects with regard to determining angular features of emission regions is investigated. The considered final-state effects include identity interference, strong interactions, and Coulomb interactions. The correlation analysis in terms of spherical harmonics is illustrated with the cases of Gaussian and blast-wave sources for proton-charged meson and baryon-baryon pairs

  7. Harmonic balance approach to the periodic solutions of the (an)harmonic relativistic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belendez, Augusto; Pascual, Carolina

    2007-01-01

    The first-order harmonic balance method via the first Fourier coefficient is used to construct two approximate frequency-amplitude relations for the relativistic oscillator for which the nonlinearity (anharmonicity) is a relativistic effect due to the time line dilation along the world line. Making a change of variable, a new nonlinear differential equation is obtained and two procedures are used to approximately solve this differential equation. In the first the differential equation is rewritten in a form that does not contain a square-root expression, while in the second the differential equation is solved directly. The approximate frequency obtained using the second procedure is more accurate than the frequency obtained with the first due to the fact that, in the second procedure, application of the harmonic balance method produces an infinite set of harmonics, while in the first procedure only two harmonics are produced. Both approximate frequencies are valid for the complete range of oscillation amplitudes, and excellent agreement of the approximate frequencies with the exact one are demonstrated and discussed. The discrepancy between the first-order approximate frequency obtained by means of the second procedure and the exact frequency never exceeds 1.6%. We also obtained the approximate frequency by applying the second-order harmonic balance method and in this case the relative error is as low 0.31% for all the range of values of amplitude of oscillation A

  8. Projectile Motion Hoop Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Connor; Dunn, Amy; Armstrong, Zachary; Adams, Wendy K.

    2018-01-01

    Projectile motion is a common phenomenon that is used in introductory physics courses to help students understand motion in two dimensions. Authors have shared a range of ideas for teaching this concept and the associated kinematics in "The Physics Teacher" ("TPT"); however, the "Hoop Challenge" is a new setup not…

  9. Temporal logic motion planning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seotsanyana, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a critical review on temporal logic motion planning is presented. The review paper aims to address the following problems: (a) In a realistic situation, the motion planning problem is carried out in real-time, in a dynamic, uncertain...

  10. Aristotle, Motion, and Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Jane

    Aristotle rejects a world vision of changing reality as neither useful nor beneficial to human life, and instead he reaffirms both change and eternal reality, fuses motion and rest, and ends up with "well-behaved" changes. This concept of motion is foundational to his world view, and from it emerges his theory of knowledge, philosophy of…

  11. Stochastic ground motion simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  12. Second-harmonic generation in second-harmonic fiber Bragg gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, M J; de Sterke, C M

    1996-06-20

    We consider the production of second-harmonic light in gratings resonant with the generated field, through a Green's function approach. We recover some standard results and obtain new limits for the uniform grating case. With the extension to nonuniform gratings, we find the Green's function for the second harmonic in a grating with an arbitrary phase shift at some point. We then obtain closed form approximate expressions for the generated light for phase shifts close to π/2 and at the center of the grating. Finally, comparing the uniform and phase-shifted gratings with homogeneous materials, we discuss the enhancement in generated light and the bandwidth over which it occurs, and the consequences for second-harmonic generation in optical fiber Bragg gratings.

  13. Application of Vector Spherical Harmonics and Kernel Regression to the Computations of OMM Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, F. J.; Martínez, M. J.; López, J. A.

    2015-04-01

    The high quality of Hipparcos data in position, proper motion, and parallax has allowed for studies about stellar kinematics with the aim of achieving a better physical understanding of our galaxy, based on accurate calculus of the Ogorodnikov-Milne model (OMM) parameters. The use of discrete least squares is the most common adjustment method, but it may lead to errors mainly because of the inhomogeneous spatial distribution of the data. We present an example of the instability of this method using the case of a function given by a linear combination of Legendre polynomials. These polynomials are basic in the use of vector spherical harmonics, which have been used to compute the OMM parameters by several authors, such as Makarov & Murphy, Mignard & Klioner, and Vityazev & Tsvetkov. To overcome the former problem, we propose the use of a mixed method (see Marco et al.) that includes the extension of the functions of residuals to any point on the celestial sphere. The goal is to be able to work with continuous variables in the calculation of the coefficients of the vector spherical harmonic developments with stability and efficiency. We apply this mixed procedure to the study of the kinematics of the stars in our Galaxy, employing the Hipparcos velocity field data to obtain the OMM parameters. Previously, we tested the method by perturbing the Vectorial Spherical Harmonics model as well as the velocity vector field.

  14. HARMONIZATION OF TAX POLICIES: REVIEWING MACEDONIA AND CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasho Kozuharov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The tax harmonization is a complex issue in the process of European integration. The tax harmonization is a process of convergence of the tax system based on mutual set of rules and, in general, it means existence of identical or similar tax rates for the tax payers in European Union, i.e. Euro zone. In case there are identical tax rates, then we are talking about a, so called, total explicit tax harmonization, whereas, if there are similar tax rates, we are talking about partial explicit tax harmonization, which refers to determination of the highest and the lowest tax rates. Thus, countries can determine the tax rates of certain taxes. The total harmonization, besides tax rates harmonization, means structural harmonization or harmonization of the tax structure. The harmonization of direct taxes mainly relies on the following main objectives: avoiding tax evasion and elimination of double taxation. The harmonization of regulations and directives in the field of indirect taxes is necessary in terms of establishing a single market, or removal of barriers to the free movement of goods, people, services and capital.

  15. Seeding High Gain Harmonic Generation with Laser Harmonics produced in Gases

    CERN Document Server

    Lambert, Guillaume; Couprie, Marie Emmanuelle; Garzella, David; Doria, Andrea; Giannessi, Luca; Hara, Toru; Kitamura, Hideo; Shintake, Tsumoru

    2004-01-01

    Free electron Lasers employing High Gain Harmonic generation (HGHG) schemes are very promising coherent ligth sources for the soft X-ray regime. They offer both transverse and longitudinal coherence, while Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission schemes have a longitudinal coherence limited. We propose here to seed HGHG with high harmonics produced by a Ti:Sa femtosecond laser focused on a gas jet, tuneable in the 100-10 nm spectral region. Specifities concerning the implementation of this particular laser source as a seed for HGHG are investigated. Semi analytical , numerical 1D and 3D calculations are given, for the cases of the SCSS, SPARC and ARC-EN-CIEL projects.

  16. Coherent harmonic production using a two-section undulator FEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaroszynski, D.A. [Commissariat a l`Energie, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Prazeres, R.; Glotin, F. [Centre Universitaire Paris-Sud (France)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    We present measurements and a theoretical analysis of a new method of generating harmonic radiation in a free-electron laser oscillator with a two section undulator in a single optical cavity. To produce coherent harmonic radiation the undulator is arranged so that the downstream undulator section resonance frequency matches a harmonic of the upstream undulator. Both the fundamental and the harmonic optical fields evolve in the same optical cavity and are coupled out with different extraction fractions using a hole in one of the cavity mirrors. We present measurements that show that the optical power at the second and third harmonic can be enhanced by more than an order of magnitude in this fundamental/harmonic configuration. We compare the production of harmonic radiation of a two sectioned fundamental/harmonic undulator with that produced from a FEL operating at its highest efficiency with a step-tapered undulator, where the bunching at the end of the first section is very large. We examine, the dependence of the harmonic power on the intracavity power by adjusting the optical cavity desynchronism, {delta}L. We also examine the evolution of the fundamental and harmonic powers as a function of cavity roundtrip number to evaluate the importance of the small signal gain at the harmonic. We compare our measurements with predictions of a multi-electron numerical model that follows the evolution of fundamental and harmonic power to saturation. This fundamental/harmonic mode, of operation of the FEL may have useful applications in the production of coherent X-ray and VUV radiation, a spectral range where high reflectivity optical cavity mirrors are difficult or impossible to manufacture.

  17. Molecular frame photoemission by a comb of elliptical high-order harmonics: a sensitive probe of both photodynamics and harmonic complete polarization state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyrinas, K; Gruson, V; Weber, S J; Barreau, L; Ruchon, T; Hergott, J-F; Houver, J-C; Lucchese, R R; Salières, P; Dowek, D

    2016-12-16

    Due to the intimate anisotropic interaction between an XUV light field and a molecule resulting in photoionization (PI), molecular frame photoelectron angular distributions (MFPADs) are most sensitive probes of both electronic/nuclear dynamics and the polarization state of the ionizing light field. Consequently, they encode the complex dipole matrix elements describing the dynamics of the PI transition, as well as the three normalized Stokes parameters s 1 , s 2 , s 3 characterizing the complete polarization state of the light, operating as molecular polarimetry. The remarkable development of advanced light sources delivering attosecond XUV pulses opens the perspective to visualize the primary steps of photochemical dynamics in time-resolved studies, at the natural attosecond to few femtosecond time-scales of electron dynamics and fast nuclear motion. It is thus timely to investigate the feasibility of measurement of MFPADs when PI is induced e.g., by an attosecond pulse train (APT) corresponding to a comb of discrete high-order harmonics. In the work presented here, we report MFPAD studies based on coincident electron-ion 3D momentum imaging in the context of ultrafast molecular dynamics investigated at the PLFA facility (CEA-SLIC), with two perspectives: (i) using APTs generated in atoms/molecules as a source for MFPAD-resolved PI studies, and (ii) taking advantage of molecular polarimetry to perform a complete polarization analysis of the harmonic emission of molecules, a major challenge of high harmonic spectroscopy. Recent results illustrating both aspects are reported for APTs generated in unaligned SF 6 molecules by an elliptically polarized infrared driving field. The observed fingerprints of the elliptically polarized harmonics include the first direct determination of the complete s 1 , s 2 , s 3 Stokes vector, equivalent to (ψ, ε, P), the orientation and the signed ellipticity of the polarization ellipse, and the degree of polarization P. They are

  18. Children's Brain Responses to Optic Flow Vary by Pattern Type and Motion Speed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick O Gilmore

    Full Text Available Structured patterns of global visual motion called optic flow provide crucial information about an observer's speed and direction of self-motion and about the geometry of the environment. Brain and behavioral responses to optic flow undergo considerable postnatal maturation, but relatively little brain imaging evidence describes the time course of development in motion processing systems in early to middle childhood, a time when psychophysical data suggest that there are changes in sensitivity. To fill this gap, electroencephalographic (EEG responses were recorded in 4- to 8-year-old children who viewed three time-varying optic flow patterns (translation, rotation, and radial expansion/contraction at three different speeds (2, 4, and 8 deg/s. Modulations of global motion coherence evoked coherent EEG responses at the first harmonic that differed by flow pattern and responses at the third harmonic and dot update rate that varied by speed. Pattern-related responses clustered over right lateral channels while speed-related responses clustered over midline channels. Both children and adults show widespread responses to modulations of motion coherence at the second harmonic that are not selective for pattern or speed. The results suggest that the developing brain segregates the processing of optic flow pattern from speed and that an adult-like pattern of neural responses to optic flow has begun to emerge by early to middle childhood.

  19. The acoustic Doppler effect applied to the study of linear motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez-Tejedor, José A; Castro-Palacio, Juan C; Monsoriu, Juan A

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the change of frequency of a sound wave due to the Doppler effect has been measured using a smartphone. For this purpose, a speaker at rest and a smartphone placed on a cart on an air track were used. The change in frequency was measured by using an application for Android™, ‘Frequency Analyzer’, which was developed by us specifically for this work. This made it possible to analyze four types of mechanical motions: uniform linear motion, uniform accelerated linear motion, harmonic oscillations and damped harmonic oscillations. These experiments are suitable for undergraduate students. The main novelty of this work was the possibility of measuring the instantaneous frequency as a function of time with high precision. The results were compared with alternative measurements yielding good agreement. (paper)

  20. The anisosphere as a new tool for interpreting Foucault pendulum experiments. Part I: harmonic oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verreault, René

    2017-08-01

    In an attempt to explain the tendency of Foucault pendula to develop elliptical orbits, Kamerlingh Onnes derived equations of motion that suggest the use of great circles on a spherical surface as a graphical illustration for an anisotropic bi-dimensional harmonic oscillator, although he did not himself exploit the idea any further. The concept of anisosphere is introduced in this work as a new means of interpreting pendulum motion. It can be generalized to the case of any two-dimensional (2-D) oscillating system, linear or nonlinear, including the case where coupling between the 2 degrees of freedom is present. Earlier pendulum experiments in the literature are revisited and reanalyzed as a test for the anisosphere approach. While that graphical method can be applied to strongly nonlinear cases with great simplicity, this part I is illustrated through a revisit of Kamerlingh Onnes' dissertation, where a high performance pendulum skillfully emulates a 2-D harmonic oscillator. Anisotropy due to damping is also described. A novel experiment strategy based on the anisosphere approach is proposed. Finally, recent original results with a long pendulum using an electronic recording alidade are presented. A gain in precision over traditional methods by 2-3 orders of magnitude is achieved.

  1. Algal Supply System Design - Harmonized Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jared Abodeely; Daniel Stevens; Allison Ray; Debor

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this design report is to provide an assessment of current technologies used for production, dewatering, and converting microalgae cultivated in open-pond systems to biofuel. The original draft design was created in 2011 and has subsequently been brought into agreement with the DOE harmonized model. The design report extends beyond this harmonized model to discuss some of the challenges with assessing algal production systems, including the ability to (1) quickly assess alternative algal production system designs, (2) assess spatial and temporal variability, and (3) perform large-scale assessments considering multiple scenarios for thousands of potential sites. The Algae Logistics Model (ALM) was developed to address each of these limitations of current modeling efforts to enable assessment of the economic feasibility of algal production systems across the United States. The (ALM) enables (1) dynamic assessments using spatiotemporal conditions, (2) exploration of algal production system design configurations, (3) investigation of algal production system operating assumptions, and (4) trade-off assessments with technology decisions and operating assumptions. The report discusses results from the ALM, which is used to assess the baseline design determined by harmonization efforts between U.S. DOE national laboratories. Productivity and resource assessment data is provided by coupling the ALM with the Biomass Assessment Tool developed at PNNL. This high-fidelity data is dynamically passed to the ALM and used to help better understand the impacts of spatial and temporal constraints on algal production systems by providing a cost for producing extracted algal lipids annually for each potential site.

  2. Harmonic analysis of the precipitation in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastos, P. T.; Zerefos, C. S.

    2009-04-01

    Greece is a country with a big variety of climates due to its geographical position, to the many mountain ranges and also to the multifarious and long coastline. The mountainous volumes are of such orientation that influences the distribution of the precipitation, having as a result, Western Greece to present great differentiations from Central and Eastern Greece. The application of harmonic analysis to the annual variability of precipitation is the goal of this study, so that the components, which compose the annual variability, be elicited. For this purpose, the mean monthly precipitation data from 30 meteorological stations of National Meteorological Service were used for the time period 1950-2000. The initial target is to reduce the number of variables and to detect structure in the relationships between variables. The most commonly used technique for this purpose is the application of Factor Analysis to a table having as columns the meteorological stations-variables and rows the monthly mean precipitation, so that 2 main factors were calculated, which explain the 98% of total variability of precipitation in Greece. Factor 1, representing the so-called uniform field and interpreting the most of the total variance, refers in fact to the Mediterranean depressions, affecting mainly the West of Greece and also the East Aegean and the Asia Minor coasts. In the process, the Fourier Analysis was applied to the factor scores extracted from the Factor Analysis, so that 2 harmonic components are resulted, which explain above the 98% of the total variability of each main factor, and are due to different synoptic and thermodynamic processes associated with Greece's precipitation construction. Finally, the calculation of the time of occurrence of the maximum precipitation, for each harmonic component of each one of the two main factors, gives the spatial distribution of appearance of the maximum precipitation in the Hellenic region.

  3. Harmonization of radiobiological assays: why and how?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasanna, Pataje G.

    2014-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency has made available a technical manual for cytogenetic biodosimetry assays (dicentric chromosome aberration (DCA) and cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assays) used for radiation dose assessment in radiation accidents. The International Standardization Organization, which develops standards and guidelines, also provides an avenue for laboratory accreditation, has developed guidelines and recommendations for performing cytogenetic biodosimetry assays. Harmonization of DCA and CBMN assays, has improved their accuracy. Double-blinded inter-laboratory comparison studies involving several networks have further validated DCA and CBMN assays and improved the confidence in their potential use for radiation dose assessment in mass casualties. This kind of international harmonization is lacking for pre-clinical radiobiology assays. The widely used pre-clinical assays that are relatively important to set stage for clinical trials include clonogenic assays, flow-cytometry assays, apoptotic assays, and tumor regression and growth delay assays. However, significant inter-laboratory variations occur with respect to data among laboratories. This raises concerns on the reliability and reproducibility of preclinical data that drives further development and translation. Lack of reproducibility may stem from a variety of factors such as poor scientist training, less than optimal experimental design, inadequate description of methodology, and impulse to publish only the positive data etc. Availability of technical manuals, standard operating procedures, accreditation avenues for laboratories performing such assays, inter-laboratory comparisons, and use of standardized protocols are necessary to enhance reliability and reproducibility. Thus, it is important that radiobiological assays are harmonized for laboratory protocols to ensure successful translation of pre-clinical research on radiation effect modulators to help design clinic trials with

  4. Promoting Spontaneous Second Harmonic Generation through Organogelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, A Belén; Aparicio, Fátima; Faour, Lara; Iliopoulos, Konstantinos; Morille, Yohann; Allain, Magali; Franco, Santiago; Andreu, Raquel; Sahraoui, Bouchta; Gindre, Denis; Canevet, David; Sallé, Marc

    2016-07-27

    An organogelator based on the Disperse Red nonlinear optical chromophore was synthesized according to a simple and efficient three-step procedure. The supramolecular gel organization leads to xerogels which display a spontaneous second harmonic generation (SHG) response without any need for preprocessing, and this SHG activity appears to be stable over several months. These findings, based on an intrinsic structural approach, are supported by favorable intermolecular supramolecular interactions, which promote a locally non-centrosymmetric NLO-active organization. This is in sharp contrast with most materials designed for SHG purposes, which generally require the use of expensive or heavy-to-handle external techniques for managing the dipoles' alignment.

  5. The macroscopic harmonic oscillator and quantum measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    A quantum mechanical description of a one-dimensional macroscopic harmonic oscillator interacting with its environment is given. Quasi-coherent states are introduced to serve as convenient basis states for application of a density matrix formalism to characterize the system. Attention is given to the pertinent quantum limits to the precision of measurement of physical observables that may provide some information on the nature of a weak classical force interacting with the oscillator. A number of ''quantum nondemolition'' schemes proposed by various authors are discussed. (Auth.)

  6. Second harmonic generation in resonant optical structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenfield, Matt; Moore, Jeremy; Friedmann, Thomas A.; Olsson, Roy H.; Wiwi, Michael; Padilla, Camille; Douglas, James Kenneth; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel

    2018-01-09

    An optical second-harmonic generator (or spontaneous parametric down-converter) includes a microresonator formed of a nonlinear optical medium. The microresonator supports at least two modes that can be phase matched at different frequencies so that light can be converted between them: A first resonant mode having substantially radial polarization and a second resonant mode having substantially vertical polarization. The first and second modes have the same radial order. The thickness of the nonlinear medium is less than one-half the pump wavelength within the medium.

  7. Second harmonics HOE recording in Bayfol HX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Friedrich-Karl; Fäcke, Thomas; Hagen, Rainer; Hönel, Dennis; Orselli, Enrico; Rewitz, Christian; Rölle, Thomas; Walze, Günther; Wewer, Brita

    2015-05-01

    Volume Holographic Optical Elements (vHOEs) provide superior optical properties over DOEs (surface gratings) due to high diffraction efficiencies in the -1st order and their excellent Bragg selectivity. Bayer MaterialScience is offering a variety of customized instant-developing photopolymer films to meet requirements for a specific optics design of a phase hologram. For instance, the photopolymer film thickness is an ideal means to adjust the angular and the spectral selectivity while the index modulation can be adopted with the film thickness to achieve a specific required dynamic range. This is especially helpful for transmission type holograms and in multiplex recordings. The selection of different substrates is helpful to achieve the overall optical properties for a targeted application that we support in B2B-focused developments. To provide further guidance on how to record volume holograms in Bayfol HX, we describe in this paper a new route towards the recording of substrate guided vHOEs by using optimized photopolymer films. Furthermore, we discuss special writing conditions that are suitable to create higher 2nd harmonic intensities and their useful applications. Due to total internal reflection (TIR) at the photopolymer-air interface in substrate guided vHOEs, hologram recording with those large diffraction angles cannot usually be done with two free-space beams. Edge-lit recording setups are used to circumvent this limitation. However, such setups require bulky recording blocks or liquid bathes and are complex and hard to align. A different approach that we present in this paper is to exploit 2nd harmonic grating generation in a freespace recording scheme. Those 2nd harmonic components allow the replay of diffraction angles that are normally only accessible with edge-lit writing configurations. Therefore, this approach significantly simplifies master recordings for vHOEs with edge-lit functionalities, which later can be used in contact copy schemes for

  8. Hyperchaotic circuit with damped harmonic oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik; Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.

    2001-01-01

    A simple fourth-order hyperchaotic circuit with damped harmonic oscillators is described. ANP3 and PSpice simulations including an eigenvalue study of the linearized Jacobian are presented together with a hardware implementation. The circuit contains two inductors with series resistance, two ideal...... capacitors and one nonlinear active conductor. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm the hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations of the circuit. The nonlinear conductor is realized with a diode. A negative impedance converter and a linear resistor. The performance of the circuit is investigated...... by means of numerical integration of the appropriate differential equations....

  9. A quantum harmonic oscillator and strong chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oprocha, Piotr

    2006-01-01

    It is known that many physical systems which do not exhibit deterministic chaos when treated classically may exhibit such behaviour if treated from the quantum mechanics point of view. In this paper, we will show that an annihilation operator of the unforced quantum harmonic oscillator exhibits distributional chaos as introduced in B Schweizer and J SmItal (1994 Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 344 737-54). Our approach strengthens previous results on chaos in this model and provides a very powerful tool to measure chaos in other (quantum or classical) models

  10. Comparison study among conventional, tissue harmonic and pulse inversion harmonic images to evaluate pleural effusion and ascites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hwan Hoon; Kim, Yun Hwan; Kang, Chang Ho; Park, Bum Jin; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Won Hyuck

    2000-01-01

    To determine the most useful sonographic technique to evaluate pleural effusion and ascites by comparing conventional, tissue harmonic and pulse inversion harmonic images. 12 patients having pleural effusion and 14 patients having ascites were included in this study. 18 patients were male and 8 patients were female. Average age was 54.8 yrs (25-77). We compared images which had been taken at the same section with 3 above mentioned sonographic techniques. Evaluation was done by 3 radiologists in consensus and grades were given to 3 techniques from 1 to 3. Evaluating points were 1) normal structures that border the fluid such as liver, peritoneal lining, pleura, 2) septation in fluid, 3) debris floating in fluid, and 4) artifacts. Pulse inversion harmonic image was the best in image quality for normal structures, followed by tissue harmonic and conventional image (p<0.05). Pulse inversion harmonic image was better than conventional image to evaluate septation in fluid (p<0.05), but there were no statistically significant difference between pulse inversion and tissue harmonic images, and tissue harmonic and conventional images. Tissue harmonic image was better than pulse inversion harmonic and conventional images to evaluate debris floating in fluid (p<0.05) but there was no statistically significant difference between these two latter techniques. Artifacts were most prominent on conventional image followed by tissue harmonic and pulse inversion harmonic image (p<0.05). Pulse inversion harmonic image was the best sonographic technique to evaluate pleural effusion or ascites, However, Tissue harmonic image was the best for evaluation of debris.

  11. Comparison study among conventional, tissue harmonic and pulse inversion harmonic images to evaluate pleural effusion and ascites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hwan Hoon; Kim, Yun Hwan; Kang, Chang Ho; Park, Bum Jin; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-15

    To determine the most useful sonographic technique to evaluate pleural effusion and ascites by comparing conventional, tissue harmonic and pulse inversion harmonic images. 12 patients having pleural effusion and 14 patients having ascites were included in this study. 18 patients were male and 8 patients were female. Average age was 54.8 yrs (25-77). We compared images which had been taken at the same section with 3 above mentioned sonographic techniques. Evaluation was done by 3 radiologists in consensus and grades were given to 3 techniques from 1 to 3. Evaluating points were 1) normal structures that border the fluid such as liver, peritoneal lining, pleura, 2) septation in fluid, 3) debris floating in fluid, and 4) artifacts. Pulse inversion harmonic image was the best in image quality for normal structures, followed by tissue harmonic and conventional image (p<0.05). Pulse inversion harmonic image was better than conventional image to evaluate septation in fluid (p<0.05), but there were no statistically significant difference between pulse inversion and tissue harmonic images, and tissue harmonic and conventional images. Tissue harmonic image was better than pulse inversion harmonic and conventional images to evaluate debris floating in fluid (p<0.05) but there was no statistically significant difference between these two latter techniques. Artifacts were most prominent on conventional image followed by tissue harmonic and pulse inversion harmonic image (p<0.05). Pulse inversion harmonic image was the best sonographic technique to evaluate pleural effusion or ascites, However, Tissue harmonic image was the best for evaluation of debris.

  12. Second-harmonic generation of Lamb modes in a solid layer supported by a semi-infinite substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Mingxi

    2004-01-01

    Using a second-order perturbation approximation and a modal expansion analysis approach, this study develops an effective technique for studying the generation of second harmonics of Lamb modes propagating in the composite structure consisting of a solid layer supported by a semi-infinite substrate. The nonlinearity in the elastic wave motion process can result in the generation of second harmonics of primary Lamb mode propagation in the composite structure, and this nonlinearity may be treated as a second-order perturbation of the elastic response of the primary waves. There are second-order bulk and surface/interface driving sources in the composite structure wherever the primary Lamb modes propagate. These driving sources can be thought of as the forcing functions of a finite series of double-frequency Lamb modes (DFLMs) in terms of the approach of modal expansion analysis for waveguide excitation. The fields of the second harmonics of the primary Lamb modes can be regarded as superpositions of the fields of a finite series of DFLMs. Although Lamb modes are dispersive, the field of one DFLM component can have a cumulative growth effect when its phase velocity exactly or approximately equals that of a primary Lamb mode. The formal solutions for the second harmonics of Lamb modes have been obtained. The numerical simulations clearly show the physical process of the generation of second harmonics of Lamb modes in the composite structure. The complicated problems of second-harmonic generation of Lamb modes have been exactly determined within the second-order perturbation approximation

  13. Estimation and reduction of harmonic currents from power converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asiminoaei, Lucian

    -based method depends very much on the amount and accuracy of collected data in the development stage. The outcome of this investigation is a Harmonic Calculation Software compiled into a Graphical User Interface PC-software application, which can be applied for fast estimations of the harmonic currents...... control of the proposed topologies are given together with laboratory tests. One harmonic current mitigation solution found is to connect (two) smaller power APF's in parallel, sharing the same ac- and dc-bus. It is proven that parallel APF's may have lower passive components although other issues arises......, like circulation currents, which is removed here by common mode coils. Another harmonic solution is to use cascade connection of (two) independent APF's that cooperatively share the task of the harmonic mitigation. Two cooperative control methods are proposed called load-sharing and harmonic-sharing...

  14. Harmonic Distortion of Rectifier Topologies for Adjustable Speed Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffan

    This thesis deals with the harmonic distortion of the diode rectifier and a number of alternative rectifier topologies for adjustable speed drives. The main intention of this thesis is to provide models and tools that allow easy prediction of the harmonic distortion of ASD’s in a given system...... rectifier are presented. The first level is an ideal model where the diode rectifier basically is treated as an independent (harmonic) current source. The second level is an empirical model, where simulated (or measured) values of the harmonic currents of the diode rectifier for different parameters......-angle of the individual harmonic currents of different diode rectifier types is analyzed. Four selected rectifier topologies with a high input power factor are presented. It is shown that using ac- or dc-coils is a very simple and efficient method to reduce the harmonic currents compared to the basic diode rectifier...

  15. Tunneling ionization and harmonic generation in two-color fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Sagisaka, A.; Nabekawa, Y.; Watanabe, S.

    1996-01-01

    Tunneling ionization and harmonic generation in two-color fields were studied with a fundamental beam (ω) and its harmonics (2ω,3ω), which were generated by a 100-fs Ti:sapphire laser. Ion yields of atoms and molecules were successfully controlled by means of a change in the relative phase between ω and 3ω pulses. Two-color interference was clearly observed in photoelectron spectra and harmonic spectra. In the ω endash 2ω field even-order harmonics were observed in which the intensity was almost equal to that of the odd harmonics because of an asymmetric optical field. These results were compared with the quasi-static model for ionization and with the quantum theory for harmonic generation. copyright 1996 Optical Society of America

  16. On the planar and whirling motion of a stretched string due to a parametric harmonic excitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Burgh, A.H.P.; Van Horssen, W.T.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a model of the dynamics of a stretched string is derived. The sag of the string due to gravity is neglected. The string is suspended between a fixed support and a vibrating support. Due to the vibrating support the oscillation of the string in vertical direction is influenced by a

  17. A Harmonic Impedance Measurement System for Reduction of Harmonics in the Electricity Grid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heskes, P.J.M.; Myrzik, J.M.A.; Kling, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Complex Harmonic Impedance Measurement system, called the CHIME-system. This system performs on-line impedance measurements in the electricity grid and will be designed for implementation in Digital Signal Processor (DSP) control systems of grid-connected

  18. A harmonic impedance measurement system for reduction of harmonics in the electricity grid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heskes, P.J.M.; Myrzik, J.M.A.; Kling, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Complex Harmonic Impedance Measurement system, called the CHIME-system. This system performs on-line impedance measurements in the electricity grid and will be designed for implementation in Digital Signal Processor (DSP) control systems of grid-connected

  19. Large aperture harmonic conversion experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, G.J.; Johnson, B.C.; Hildum, J.S.; G. J. Linford is now with Max-Planck-Institut fur Quantenoptik, D-8046 Garching, Federal Republic of Germany)

    1982-01-01

    Large aperture harmonic conversion experiments to 2ω (532 nm), 3ω (355 nm), and 4ω (266 nm) on the Argus laser at the Livermore National Laboratory are described. Harmonically converted energies of up to 346 J have been generated at external conversion efficiencies of 83%. A discussion of the harmonic conversion experiments and a brief summary of enhanced 2ω and 3ω inertial confinement fusion target performances are provided

  20. Large aperture harmonic conversion experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, G.J.; Johnson, B.C.; Hildum, J.S.; Martin, W.E.; Snyder, K.; Boyd, R.D.; Smith, W.L.; Vercimak, C.L.; Eimerle, D.; Hunt, J.T.

    1982-10-15

    Large aperture harmonic conversion experiments to 2..omega.. (532 nm), 3..omega.. (355 nm), and 4..omega.. (266 nm) on the Argus laser at the Livermore National Laboratory are described. Harmonically converted energies of up to 346 J have been generated at external conversion efficiencies of 83%. A discussion of the harmonic conversion experiments and a brief summary of enhanced 2..omega.. and 3..omega.. inertial confinement fusion target performances are provided.