WorldWideScience

Sample records for harmonic grammar networks

  1. Linking speech errors and phonological grammars: Insights from Harmonic Grammar networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrick, Matthew; Daland, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Phonological grammars characterize distinctions between relatively well-formed (unmarked) and relatively ill-formed (marked) phonological structures. We review evidence that markedness influences speech error probabilities. Specifically, although errors result in both unmarked as well as marked structures, there is a markedness asymmetry: errors are more likely to produce unmarked outcomes. We show that stochastic disruption to the computational mechanisms realizing a Harmonic Grammar (HG) can account for the broad empirical patterns of speech errors. We demonstrate that our proposal can account for the general markedness asymmetry. We also develop methods for linking particular HG proposals to speech error distributions, and illustrate these methods using a simple HG and a set of initial consonant errors in English. PMID:20046856

  2. Asymmetric network connectivity using weighted harmonic averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Greg; Mahadevan, L.

    2011-02-01

    We propose a non-metric measure of the "closeness" felt between two nodes in an undirected, weighted graph using a simple weighted harmonic average of connectivity, that is a real-valued Generalized Erdös Number (GEN). While our measure is developed with a collaborative network in mind, the approach can be of use in a variety of artificial and real-world networks. We are able to distinguish between network topologies that standard distance metrics view as identical, and use our measure to study some simple analytically tractable networks. We show how this might be used to look at asymmetry in authorship networks such as those that inspired the integer Erdös numbers in mathematical coauthorships. We also show the utility of our approach to devise a ratings scheme that we apply to the data from the NetFlix prize, and find a significant improvement using our method over a baseline.

  3. The harmonics detection method based on neural network applied ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Consequently, many structures based on artificial neural network (ANN) have been developed in the literature, The most significant ... Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), p-q theory, (SAPF), Harmonics, Total Harmonic Distortion. 1. ..... and pure shunt active fitters, IEEE 38th Conf on Industry Applications, Vol. 2, pp.

  4. Entropic Fluctuations in Thermally Driven Harmonic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakšić, V.; Pillet, C.-A.; Shirikyan, A.

    2017-02-01

    We consider a general network of harmonic oscillators driven out of thermal equilibrium by coupling to several heat reservoirs at different temperatures. The action of the reservoirs is implemented by Langevin forces. Assuming the existence and uniqueness of the steady state of the resulting process, we construct a canonical entropy production functional S^t which satisfies the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem. More precisely, we prove that there exists κ _c>1/2 such that the cumulant generating function of S^t has a large-time limit e(α ) which is finite on a closed interval [1/2-κ _c,1/2+κ _c], infinite on its complement and satisfies the Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry e(1-α )=e(α ) for all α in R. Moreover, we show that e(α ) is essentially smooth, i.e., that e'(α )→ ∓ ∞ as α → 1/2 ∓ κ _c. It follows from the Gärtner-Ellis theorem that S^t satisfies a global large deviation principle with a rate function I( s) obeying the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation relation I(-s)-I(s)=s for all sin R. We also consider perturbations of S^t by quadratic boundary terms and prove that they satisfy extended fluctuation relations, i.e., a global large deviation principle with a rate function that typically differs from I( s) outside a finite interval. This applies to various physically relevant functionals and, in particular, to the heat dissipation rate of the network. Our approach relies on the properties of the maximal solution of a one-parameter family of algebraic matrix Riccati equations. It turns out that the limiting cumulant generating functions of S^t and its perturbations can be computed in terms of spectral data of a Hamiltonian matrix depending on the harmonic potential of the network and the parameters of the Langevin reservoirs. This approach is well adapted to both analytical and numerical investigations.

  5. Human brain networks function in connectome-specific harmonic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasoy, Selen; Donnelly, Isaac; Pearson, Joel

    2016-01-21

    A key characteristic of human brain activity is coherent, spatially distributed oscillations forming behaviour-dependent brain networks. However, a fundamental principle underlying these networks remains unknown. Here we report that functional networks of the human brain are predicted by harmonic patterns, ubiquitous throughout nature, steered by the anatomy of the human cerebral cortex, the human connectome. We introduce a new technique extending the Fourier basis to the human connectome. In this new frequency-specific representation of cortical activity, that we call 'connectome harmonics', oscillatory networks of the human brain at rest match harmonic wave patterns of certain frequencies. We demonstrate a neural mechanism behind the self-organization of connectome harmonics with a continuous neural field model of excitatory-inhibitory interactions on the connectome. Remarkably, the critical relation between the neural field patterns and the delicate excitation-inhibition balance fits the neurophysiological changes observed during the loss and recovery of consciousness.

  6. Validation Techniques of network harmonic models based on switching of a series linear component and measuring resultant harmonic increments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiechowski, Wojciech Tomasz; Lykkegaard, Jan; Bak, Claus Leth

    2007-01-01

    In this paper two methods of validation of transmission network harmonic models are introduced. The methods were developed as a result of the work presented in [1]. The first method allows calculating the transfer harmonic impedance between two nodes of a network. Switching a linear, series network...... are used for calculation of the transfer harmonic impedance between the nodes. The determined transfer harmonic impedance can be used to validate a computer model of the network. The second method is an extension of the fist one. It allows switching a series element that contains a shunt branch...... component that links the nodes causes a variation of the background harmonic voltage distortion at the nodes. Harmonic current in the series element is measured together with the harmonic voltages at both nodes, before and after the switching. Obtained incremental values of harmonic voltages and the current...

  7. The graph theoretical analysis of the SSVEP harmonic response networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yangsong; Guo, Daqing; Cheng, Kaiwen; Yao, Dezhong; Xu, Peng

    2015-06-01

    Steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEP) have been widely used in the neural engineering and cognitive neuroscience researches. Previous studies have indicated that the SSVEP fundamental frequency responses are correlated with the topological properties of the functional networks entrained by the periodic stimuli. Given the different spatial and functional roles of the fundamental frequency and harmonic responses, in this study we further investigated the relation between the harmonic responses and the corresponding functional networks, using the graph theoretical analysis. We found that the second harmonic responses were positively correlated to the mean functional connectivity, clustering coefficient, and global and local efficiencies, while negatively correlated with the characteristic path lengths of the corresponding networks. In addition, similar pattern occurred with the lowest stimulus frequency (6.25 Hz) at the third harmonic responses. These findings demonstrate that more efficient brain networks are related to larger SSVEP responses. Furthermore, we showed that the main connection pattern of the SSVEP harmonic response networks originates from the interactions between the frontal and parietal-occipital regions. Overall, this study may bring new insights into the understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying SSVEP.

  8. Synthesis of Variable Harmonic Impedance in Inverter-Interfaced Distributed Generation Unit for Harmonic Damping Throughout a Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    at the dominant harmonic frequencies. Thus, the harmonic voltage drop on the grid-side inductance and the harmonic resonances throughout a distribution feeder with multiple shunt-connected capacitors can be effectively attenuated. Simulation and laboratory test results validate the performance of the proposed......This paper proposes a harmonic impedance synthesis technique for voltage-controlled distributed generation inverters in order to damp harmonic voltage distortion on a distribution network. The approach employs a multiloop control scheme, where a selective harmonic load current feedforward loop...... based on the bandpass filter is developed, in addition to the inner inductor current and the outer capacitor voltage control loops. Together with the use of multiple resonant integrators in the voltage control loop, the negative harmonic inductances and positive harmonic resistances are synthesized...

  9. Synthesis of variable harmonic impedance in inverter-interfaced distributed generation unit for harmonic damping throughout a distribution network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    harmonic frequencies. Thus, the harmonic voltage drop and harmonic resonances throughout a distribution line with multiple shunt-connected capacitors can be effectively attenuated. Simulation and laboratory test results are shown to verify the performance of the proposed control method.......This paper proposes a harmonic impedance synthesis technique for voltage-controlled distributed generation inverter in order to damp harmonic voltage distortion on a distribution network. The approach employs a multiloop control scheme, where a selective load harmonic current feedforward loop based...... on band-pass filter is developed in addition to the inner inductor current and the outer capacitor voltage control loops. Together with the use of multiple resonant integrators in the voltage control loop, the negative harmonic inductances and positive harmonic resistances are synthesized at dominant...

  10. Composing Music with Grammar Argumented Neural Networks and Note-Level Encoding

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Zheng; Liu, Jiaqi; Zhang, Zewang; Chen, Jingwen; Huo, Zhao; Lee, Ching Hua; Zhang, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Creating aesthetically pleasing pieces of art, including music, has been a long-term goal for artificial intelligence research. Despite recent successes of long-short term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural networks (RNNs) in sequential learning, LSTM neural networks have not, by themselves, been able to generate natural-sounding music conforming to music theory. To transcend this inadequacy, we put forward a novel method for music composition that combines the LSTM with Grammars motivated by mus...

  11. Algorithms for Regular Tree Grammar Network Search and Their Application to Mining Human-viral Infection Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoly, Ilan; Carmel, Amir; Shemer-Avni, Yonat; Yeger-Lotem, Esti; Ziv-Ukelson, Michal

    2016-03-01

    Network querying is a powerful approach to mine molecular interaction networks. Most state-of-the-art network querying tools either confine the search to a prespecified topology in the form of some template subnetwork, or do not specify any topological constraints at all. Another approach is grammar-based queries, which are more flexible and expressive as they allow for expressing the topology of the sought pattern according to some grammar-based logic. Previous grammar-based network querying tools were confined to the identification of paths. In this article, we extend the patterns identified by grammar-based query approaches from paths to trees. For this, we adopt a higher order query descriptor in the form of a regular tree grammar (RTG). We introduce a novel problem and propose an algorithm to search a given graph for the k highest scoring subgraphs matching a tree accepted by an RTG. Our algorithm is based on the combination of dynamic programming with color coding, and includes an extension of previous k-best parsing optimization approaches to avoid isomorphic trees in the output. We implement the new algorithm and exemplify its application to mining viral infection patterns within molecular interaction networks. Our code is available online.

  12. Recommendations to harmonize European early warning dosimetry network systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, H.; Bleher, M.; De Cort, M.; Dabrowski, R.; Neumaier, S.; Stöhlker, U.

    2017-12-01

    After the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986, followed by the Fukushima Nuclear power plant accident 25 years later, it became obvious that real-time information is required to quickly gain radiological information. As a consequence, the European countries established early warning network systems with the aim to provide an immediate warning in case of a major radiological emergency, to supply reliable information on area dose rates, contamination levels, radioactivity concentrations in air and finally to assess public exposure. This is relevant for governmental decisions on intervention measures in an emergency situation. Since different methods are used by national environmental monitoring systems to measure area dose rate values and activity concentrations, there are significant differences in the results provided by different countries. Because European and neighboring countries report area dose rate data to a central data base operated on behalf of the European Commission, the comparability of the data is crucial for its meaningful interpretation, especially in the case of a nuclear accident with transboundary implications. Only by harmonizing measuring methods and data evaluation, is the comparability of the dose rate data ensured. This publication concentrates on technical requirements and methods with the goal to effectively harmonize area dose rate monitoring data provided by automatic early warning network systems. The requirements and procedures laid down in this publication are based on studies within the MetroERM project, taking into account realistic technical approaches and tested procedures.

  13. Whole-brain functional connectivity during acquisition of novel grammar: Distinct functional networks depend on language learning abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepinska, Olga; de Rover, Mischa; Caspers, Johanneke; Schiller, Niels O

    2017-03-01

    In an effort to advance the understanding of brain function and organisation accompanying second language learning, we investigate the neural substrates of novel grammar learning in a group of healthy adults, consisting of participants with high and average language analytical abilities (LAA). By means of an Independent Components Analysis, a data-driven approach to functional connectivity of the brain, the fMRI data collected during a grammar-learning task were decomposed into maps representing separate cognitive processes. These included the default mode, task-positive, working memory, visual, cerebellar and emotional networks. We further tested for differences within the components, representing individual differences between the High and Average LAA learners. We found high analytical abilities to be coupled with stronger contributions to the task-positive network from areas adjacent to bilateral Broca's region, stronger connectivity within the working memory network and within the emotional network. Average LAA participants displayed stronger engagement within the task-positive network from areas adjacent to the right-hemisphere homologue of Broca's region and typical to lower level processing (visual word recognition), and increased connectivity within the default mode network. The significance of each of the identified networks for the grammar learning process is presented next to a discussion on the established markers of inter-individual learners' differences. We conclude that in terms of functional connectivity, the engagement of brain's networks during grammar acquisition is coupled with one's language learning abilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Teachers’ Beliefs versus Learners’ Beliefs in Grammar Teaching: Harmonizing Teaching and Learning for Adult Learners’ Improved Proficiency in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftikhar Ahmad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The study tends to explore the possible reforms to raise the proficiency level of the adult English as Foreign Language (EFL learners. With this end in view, it investigates non-native EFL teachers’ beliefs in relation to adult learners’ beliefs in teaching grammar to university students in the Saudi Arabian EFL context. It finds out the harmony and disharmony between the teachers at the giving end and the taught at the receiving end to create a culture of awareness and to build a better teaching-learning environment. The study tries to fill the existing research gap as no previous research has tried to find out the solution to the problem from this angle. The main data collection tools are two five-point Likert-scale questionnaires, administered to 70 non-native EFL teachers and their 80 adult students. Teachers and learners have been selected based on stratified random sampling. Quantitative data have been analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS. The major findings of the study are that there is discrepancy in the grammar teaching beliefs of the EFL teachers and the taught and there is a communication gap between them which result into low English proficiency level of the EFL adult learners.  Eventually, pedagogical implications of the lack of harmony between the teachers’ teaching creeds and the learners’ learning demands/expectations are provided for effective grammar teaching and better EFL classroom environment. The study recommends a better communicative harmony in both the stakeholders to bring reforms in adult education in EFL context.

  15. Neural networks for harmonic structure in music perception and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, R; Novembre, G; Keller, P E; Kim, Seung-Goo; Scharf, F; Friederici, A D; Villringer, A; Sammler, D

    2016-11-15

    The ability to predict upcoming structured events based on long-term knowledge and contextual priors is a fundamental principle of human cognition. Tonal music triggers predictive processes based on structural properties of harmony, i.e., regularities defining the arrangement of chords into well-formed musical sequences. While the neural architecture of structure-based predictions during music perception is well described, little is known about the neural networks for analogous predictions in musical actions and how they relate to auditory perception. To fill this gap, expert pianists were presented with harmonically congruent or incongruent chord progressions, either as musical actions (photos of a hand playing chords) that they were required to watch and imitate without sound, or in an auditory format that they listened to without playing. By combining task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with functional connectivity at rest, we identified distinct sub-regions in right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) interconnected with parietal and temporal areas for processing action and audio sequences, respectively. We argue that the differential contribution of parietal and temporal areas is tied to motoric and auditory long-term representations of harmonic regularities that dynamically interact with computations in rIFG. Parsing of the structural dependencies in rIFG is co-determined by both stimulus- or task-demands. In line with contemporary models of prefrontal cortex organization and dual stream models of visual-spatial and auditory processing, we show that the processing of musical harmony is a network capacity with dissociated dorsal and ventral motor and auditory circuits, which both provide the infrastructure for predictive mechanisms optimising action and perception performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Applied and computational harmonic analysis on graphs and networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irion, Jeff; Saito, Naoki

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, the advent of new sensor technologies and social network infrastructure has provided huge opportunities and challenges for analyzing data recorded on such networks. In the case of data on regular lattices, computational harmonic analysis tools such as the Fourier and wavelet transforms have well-developed theories and proven track records of success. It is therefore quite important to extend such tools from the classical setting of regular lattices to the more general setting of graphs and networks. In this article, we first review basics of graph Laplacian matrices, whose eigenpairs are often interpreted as the frequencies and the Fourier basis vectors on a given graph. We point out, however, that such an interpretation is misleading unless the underlying graph is either an unweighted path or cycle. We then discuss our recent effort of constructing multiscale basis dictionaries on a graph, including the Hierarchical Graph Laplacian Eigenbasis Dictionary and the Generalized Haar-Walsh Wavelet Packet Dictionary, which are viewed as generalizations of the classical hierarchical block DCTs and the Haar-Walsh wavelet packets, respectively, to the graph setting. Finally, we demonstrate the usefulness of our dictionaries by using them to simultaneously segment and denoise 1-D noisy signals sampled on regular lattices, a problem where classical tools have difficulty.

  17. Harmonic Damping in DG-Penetrated Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jinghang; Savaghebi, Mehdi; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    Grid background harmonics may be amplified, propagate through a long distribution feeder and even lead to power system instability. In this paper, harmonic propagation issue is investigated and mitigation of the harmonics is analyzed by using transmission line theory which has already been applie...

  18. Research on Harmonic Characteristics Influence for Distribution Network with Renewable Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the influence on harmonic characteristics of distribution network with renewable energy, a simplified model of distribution network is established to analyse theory while considering the influence of cable on the system capacitive current. Establishing an actual distribution network model by Digsilent to research the harmonic characteristics impact when photovoltaic power with PV incorporated the distribution network in a variety of different access , while using constant current source model as harmonic source model which often been used in engineering practices. The simulation results show that: optimizing the access location and dispersion of PV can decrease the waveform distortion levels in distribution network and a certain number of high-order harmonic will magnify by a specific grid structure, deteriorating the distribution network power quality.

  19. Harmonics: Generation and Suppression in AC System Networks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of loads such as induction motors, battery chargers, static converters, light fittings, arc furnaces, transformers, cables, transmission lines and so on draw both sinusoidal currents and currents which are multiples of the supply frequency, commonly called harmonics. These harmonics are out of phase with the supply ...

  20. Technical report on prototype intelligent network flow optimization (INFLO) dynamic speed harmonization and queue warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This Technical Report on Prototype Intelligent Network Flow Optimization (INFLO) Dynamic Speed Harmonization and : Queue Warning is the final report for the project. It describes the prototyping, acceptance testing and small-scale : demonstration of ...

  1. Harmonic Mitigation Techniques Applied to Power Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein A. Kazem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of harmonic mitigation techniques are now available including active and passive methods, and the selection of the best-suited technique for a particular case can be a complicated decision-making process. The performance of some of these techniques is largely dependent on system conditions, while others require extensive system analysis to prevent resonance problems and capacitor failure. A classification of the various available harmonic mitigation techniques is presented in this paper aimed at presenting a review of harmonic mitigation methods to researchers, designers, and engineers dealing with power distribution systems.

  2. Practical Solutions for Harmonics Problems Produced in the Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Zobaa

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Harmonic distortion on the power system is a modern concern due to the technological advances in silicon technology as it presents an increased non-linear loading of the power system. The effects of harmonics are well known: customers could experience major production losses due to the loss of supply as an example, on the other hand, harmonic load currents cause the utility to supply a higher real energy input then the actual real power needed to maintain a plant’s production at a certain level. The utility carries the extra transmission losses due to the harmonic currents. Different solutions will be reviewed as concepts for solving certain types of problems related to power quality. Both theoretical and a case study are presented.

  3. Teaching Grammar to Adult English Language Learners: Focus on Form. CAELA Network Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup Rodriguez, Amber

    2009-01-01

    Many adult English language learners place a high value on learning grammar. Perceiving a link between grammatical accuracy and effective communication, they associate excellent grammar with opportunities for employment and promotion, the attainment of educational goals, and social acceptance by native speakers. Reflecting the disagreement that…

  4. Teaching Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Grammar is a component in all language skills: reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Teachers need to know rules of grammar (teacher knowledge) as well as techniques that help students use grammar effectively and effortlessly (teaching knowledge). Using reflective practice to help teachers become comfortable with teaching grammar, this…

  5. Developmental word acquisition and grammar learning by humanoid robots through a self-organizing incremental neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoyuan; Ogura, Tomotaka; Satou, Akihiro; Hasegawa, Osamu

    2007-10-01

    We present a new approach for online incremental word acquisition and grammar learning by humanoid robots. Using no data set provided in advance, the proposed system grounds language in a physical context, as mediated by its perceptual capacities. It is carried out using show-and-tell procedures, interacting with its human partner. Moreover, this procedure is open-ended for new words and multiword utterances. These facilities are supported by a self-organizing incremental neural network, which can execute online unsupervised classification and topology learning. Embodied with a mental imagery, the system also learns by both top-down and bottom-up processes, which are the syntactic structures that are contained in utterances. Thereby, it performs simple grammar learning. Under such a multimodal scheme, the robot is able to describe online a given physical context (both static and dynamic) through natural language expressions. It can also perform actions through verbal interactions with its human partner.

  6. Parsing social network survey data from hidden populations using stochastic context-free grammars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art F Y Poon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human populations are structured by social networks, in which individuals tend to form relationships based on shared attributes. Certain attributes that are ambiguous, stigmatized or illegal can create a OhiddenO population, so-called because its members are difficult to identify. Many hidden populations are also at an elevated risk of exposure to infectious diseases. Consequently, public health agencies are presently adopting modern survey techniques that traverse social networks in hidden populations by soliciting individuals to recruit their peers, e.g., respondent-driven sampling (RDS. The concomitant accumulation of network-based epidemiological data, however, is rapidly outpacing the development of computational methods for analysis. Moreover, current analytical models rely on unrealistic assumptions, e.g., that the traversal of social networks can be modeled by a Markov chain rather than a branching process. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we develop a new methodology based on stochastic context-free grammars (SCFGs, which are well-suited to modeling tree-like structure of the RDS recruitment process. We apply this methodology to an RDS case study of injection drug users (IDUs in Tijuana, México, a hidden population at high risk of blood-borne and sexually-transmitted infections (i.e., HIV, hepatitis C virus, syphilis. Survey data were encoded as text strings that were parsed using our custom implementation of the inside-outside algorithm in a publicly-available software package (HyPhy, which uses either expectation maximization or direct optimization methods and permits constraints on model parameters for hypothesis testing. We identified significant latent variability in the recruitment process that violates assumptions of Markov chain-based methods for RDS analysis: firstly, IDUs tended to emulate the recruitment behavior of their own recruiter; and secondly, the recruitment of like peers (homophily was dependent on

  7. Group Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  8. Global Network : Integration and Harmonization of ICT Policy and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC has invested in the development of three regional networks focused on issues of inclusive information and communication technology (ICT) policy and regulation: Latin America - REDIS/DIRSI (103371), Asia - LIRNEAsia (103017). Africa - LINK Centre (101584). The three regional research networks were built as ...

  9. CHR grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2005-01-01

    A grammar formalism based upon CHR is proposed analogously to the way Definite Clause Grammars are defined and implemented on top of Prolog. These grammars execute as robust bottom-up parsers with an inherent treatment of ambiguity and a high flexibility to model various linguistic phenomena. The...... integrity constraints for language analysis. CHR grammars appear as a powerful tool for specification and implementation of language processors and may be proposed as a new standard for bottom-up grammars in logic programming.......A grammar formalism based upon CHR is proposed analogously to the way Definite Clause Grammars are defined and implemented on top of Prolog. These grammars execute as robust bottom-up parsers with an inherent treatment of ambiguity and a high flexibility to model various linguistic phenomena....... The formalism extends previous logic programming based grammars with a form of context-sensitive rules and the possibility to include extra-grammatical hypotheses in both head and body of grammar rules. Among the applications are straightforward implementations of Assumption Grammars and abduction under...

  10. CHR Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    A grammar formalism based upon CHR is proposed analogously to the way Definite Clause Grammars are defined and implemented on top of Prolog. These grammars execute as robust bottom-up parsers with an inherent treatment of ambiguity and a high flexibility to model various linguistic phenomena. The...... integrity constraints for language analysis. CHR grammars appear as a powerful tool for specification and implementation of language processors and may be proposed as a new standard for bottom-up grammars in logic programming.......A grammar formalism based upon CHR is proposed analogously to the way Definite Clause Grammars are defined and implemented on top of Prolog. These grammars execute as robust bottom-up parsers with an inherent treatment of ambiguity and a high flexibility to model various linguistic phenomena....... The formalism extends previous logic programming based grammars with a form of context-sensitive rules and the possibility to include extra-grammatical hypotheses in both head and body of grammar rules. Among the applications are straightforward implementations of Assumption Grammars and abduction under...

  11. Harmonic Emissions of Three-Phase Diode Rectifiers in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zare, Firuz; Soltani, Hamid; Kumar, Dinesh

    2017-01-01

    Harmonic emissions have been changed in distribution networks, with respect to frequency range and magnitude, due to the penetration of modern power electronics systems. Two new frequency ranges: 2–9 kHz and 9–150 kHz have been identified as new disturbing frequency ranges affecting distribution ...

  12. Probabilistic Harmonic Calculation in Distribution Networks with Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxue Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrating EV charging station into power grid will bring impacts on power system, among which the most significant one is the harmonic pollution on distribution networks. Due to the uncertainty of the EV charging process, the harmonic currents brought by EV charging stations have a random nature. This paper proposed a mathematical simulation method for studying the working status of charging stations, which considers influencing factors including random leaving factor, electricity price, and waiting time. Based on the proposed simulation method, the probability distribution of the harmonic currents of EV charging stations is obtained and used in the calculation of the probability harmonic power flow. Then the impacts of EVs and EV charging stations on distribution networks can be analyzed. In the case study, the proposed simulation and analysis method is implemented on the IEEE-34 distribution network. The influences of EV arrival rates, the penetration rate, and the accessing location of EV charging station are also investigated. Results show that this research has good potential in guiding the planning and construction of charging station.

  13. Harmonic Functions and Potentials on Finite or Infinite Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Anandam, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Random walks, Markov chains and electrical networks serve as an introduction to the study of real-valued functions on finite or infinite graphs, with appropriate interpretations using probability theory and current-voltage laws. The relation between this type of function theory and the (Newton) potential theory on the Euclidean spaces is well-established. The latter theory has been variously generalized, one example being the axiomatic potential theory on locally compact spaces developed by Brelot, with later ramifications from Bauer, Constantinescu and Cornea. A network is a graph with edge-w

  14. Scalable Harmonization of Complex Networks With Local Adaptive Controllers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kárný, Miroslav; Herzallah, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 3 (2017), s. 394-404 ISSN 2168-2216 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13502S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Adaptive control * Adaptive estimation * Bayes methods * Complex networks * Decentralized control * Feedback * Feedforward systems * Recursive estimation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.350, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/AS/karny-0457337.pdf

  15. Neural networks for harmonic structure in music perception and action

    OpenAIRE

    Bianco, R.; Novembre, G.; Keller, P. E.; Kim, S G; Scharf, F.; Friederici, A. D.; Villringer, A; Sammler, D.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to predict upcoming structured events based on long-term knowledge and contextual priors is a fundamental principle of human cognition. Tonal music triggers predictive processes based on structural properties of harmony, i.e., regularities defining the arrangement of chords into well-formed musical sequences. While the neural architecture of structure-based predictions during music perception is well described, little is known about the neural networks for analogous predictions in...

  16. Analysis of harmonics in the power supply networks of electric welding equipment of alternating voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Василь Ількович Гудим

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Electric arc welding is widely used in construction and engineering for rigid connections of metal elements. Substantial nonlinearity of dynamic voltage-current characteristics of electric arcs in such equipment is a source of distortion in current and voltage sinusoids at the points of other electric receivers parallel joints. The voltage fluctuations from the nominal value result in changing luminous flux of bulbs, while current higher harmonics result in additional losses in electric motors. However, the problem of electric welding equipment influence on power lines wasn’t paid proper attention to. Therefore, this work is to research electric arc equipment influence on power lines in order to find out the values and the spectrum of higher harmonics, and the prevailing amplitudes dynamics of change. In this paper the results of experimental researches of harmonics spectrum in electrical circuits of electric arc welding machine of alternating voltage that it generates during the technological process and the main energy parameters, that influence negatively on the power supply networks of 0,4/0,23 kV. Analyzing the results of the measurements we come to the conclusion that if the load factor is about 35% the power coefficient of the welding machine is 0,46, that is rather low. Such a result is economically disadvantageous since high reactive power results in a significant increase of active power losses in the elements of power supply. That’s why reactive power compensation as well as higher harmonics filtration are necessitated

  17. Multiple random walks on complex networks: A harmonic law predicts search time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Tongfeng; Zhang, Jie; Small, Michael; Hui, Pan

    2017-05-01

    We investigate multiple random walks traversing independently and concurrently on complex networks and introduce the concept of mean first parallel passage time (MFPPT) to quantify their search efficiency. The mean first parallel passage time represents the expected time required to find a given target by one or some of the multiple walkers. We develop a general theory that allows us to calculate the MFPPT analytically. Interestingly, we find that the global MFPPT follows a harmonic law with respect to the global mean first passage times of the associated walkers. Remarkably, when the properties of multiple walkers are identical, the global MFPPT decays in a power law manner with an exponent of unity, irrespective of network structure. These findings are confirmed by numerical and theoretical results on various synthetic and real networks. The harmonic law reveals a universal principle governing multiple random walks on networks that uncovers the contribution and role of the combined walkers in a target search. Our paradigm is also applicable to a broad range of random search processes.

  18. Data compression in wireless sensors network using MDCT and embedded harmonic coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsalaet, Jaafar K; Ali, Abduladhem A

    2015-05-01

    One of the major applications of wireless sensors networks (WSNs) is vibration measurement for the purpose of structural health monitoring and machinery fault diagnosis. WSNs have many advantages over the wired networks such as low cost and reduced setup time. However, the useful bandwidth is limited, as compared to wired networks, resulting in relatively low sampling. One solution to this problem is data compression which, in addition to enhancing sampling rate, saves valuable power of the wireless nodes. In this work, a data compression scheme, based on Modified Discrete Cosine Transform (MDCT) followed by Embedded Harmonic Components Coding (EHCC) is proposed to compress vibration signals. The EHCC is applied to exploit harmonic redundancy present is most vibration signals resulting in improved compression ratio. This scheme is made suitable for the tiny hardware of wireless nodes and it is proved to be fast and effective. The efficiency of the proposed scheme is investigated by conducting several experimental tests. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Temperature effects on a network of dissipative quantum harmonic oscillators: collective damping and dispersion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ponte, M. A.; Mizrahi, S. S.; Moussa, M. H. Y.

    2009-09-01

    In this paper we extend the results presented in (de Ponte, Mizrahi and Moussa 2007 Phys. Rev. A 76 032101) to treat quantitatively the effects of reservoirs at finite temperature in a bosonic dissipative network: a chain of coupled harmonic oscillators whatever its topology, i.e., whichever the way the oscillators are coupled together, the strength of their couplings and their natural frequencies. Starting with the case where distinct reservoirs are considered, each one coupled to a corresponding oscillator, we also analyze the case where a common reservoir is assigned to the whole network. Master equations are derived for both situations and both regimes of weak and strong coupling strengths between the network oscillators. Solutions of these master equations are presented through the normal ordered characteristic function. These solutions are shown to be significantly involved when temperature effects are considered, making difficult the analysis of collective decoherence and dispersion in dissipative bosonic networks. To circumvent these difficulties, we turn to the Wigner distribution function which enables us to present a technique to estimate the decoherence time of network states. Our technique proceeds by computing separately the effects of dispersion and the attenuation of the interference terms of the Wigner function. A detailed analysis of the dispersion mechanism is also presented through the evolution of the Wigner function. The interesting collective dispersion effects are discussed and applied to the analysis of decoherence of a class of network states. Finally, the entropy and the entanglement of a pure bipartite system are discussed.

  20. Temperature effects on a network of dissipative quantum harmonic oscillators: collective damping and dispersion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Ponte, M A; Mizrahi, S S [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Caixa Postal 676, Sao Carlos, 13565-905, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Moussa, M H Y [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 369, 13560-590 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2009-09-11

    In this paper we extend the results presented in (de Ponte, Mizrahi and Moussa 2007 Phys. Rev. A 76 032101) to treat quantitatively the effects of reservoirs at finite temperature in a bosonic dissipative network: a chain of coupled harmonic oscillators whatever its topology, i.e., whichever the way the oscillators are coupled together, the strength of their couplings and their natural frequencies. Starting with the case where distinct reservoirs are considered, each one coupled to a corresponding oscillator, we also analyze the case where a common reservoir is assigned to the whole network. Master equations are derived for both situations and both regimes of weak and strong coupling strengths between the network oscillators. Solutions of these master equations are presented through the normal ordered characteristic function. These solutions are shown to be significantly involved when temperature effects are considered, making difficult the analysis of collective decoherence and dispersion in dissipative bosonic networks. To circumvent these difficulties, we turn to the Wigner distribution function which enables us to present a technique to estimate the decoherence time of network states. Our technique proceeds by computing separately the effects of dispersion and the attenuation of the interference terms of the Wigner function. A detailed analysis of the dispersion mechanism is also presented through the evolution of the Wigner function. The interesting collective dispersion effects are discussed and applied to the analysis of decoherence of a class of network states. Finally, the entropy and the entanglement of a pure bipartite system are discussed.

  1. Association analyses of the MAS-QTL data set using grammar, principal components and Bayesian network methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karacaören Burak

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown that if genetic relationships among individuals are not taken into account for genome wide association studies, this may lead to false positives. To address this problem, we used Genome-wide Rapid Association using Mixed Model and Regression and principal component stratification analyses. To account for linkage disequilibrium among the significant markers, principal components loadings obtained from top markers can be included as covariates. Estimation of Bayesian networks may also be useful to investigate linkage disequilibrium among SNPs and their relation with environmental variables. For the quantitative trait we first estimated residuals while taking polygenic effects into account. We then used a single SNP approach to detect the most significant SNPs based on the residuals and applied principal component regression to take linkage disequilibrium among these SNPs into account. For the categorical trait we used principal component stratification methodology to account for background effects. For correction of linkage disequilibrium we used principal component logit regression. Bayesian networks were estimated to investigate relationship among SNPs. Results Using the Genome-wide Rapid Association using Mixed Model and Regression and principal component stratification approach we detected around 100 significant SNPs for the quantitative trait (p Conclusions GRAMMAR could efficiently incorporate the information regarding random genetic effects. Principal component stratification should be cautiously used with stringent multiple hypothesis testing correction to correct for ancestral stratification and association analyses for binary traits when there are systematic genetic effects such as half sib family structures. Bayesian networks are useful to investigate relationships among SNPs and environmental variables.

  2. Improving Stability and Convergence for Adaptive Radial Basis Function Neural Networks Algorithm. (On-Line Harmonics Estimation Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyad K Almaita

    2017-03-01

    Keywords: Energy efficiency, Power quality, Radial basis function, neural networks, adaptive, harmonic. Article History: Received Dec 15, 2016; Received in revised form Feb 2nd 2017; Accepted 13rd 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Almaita, E.K and Shawawreh J.Al (2017 Improving Stability and Convergence for Adaptive Radial Basis Function Neural Networks Algorithm (On-Line Harmonics Estimation Application.  International Journal of Renewable Energy Develeopment, 6(1, 9-17. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.1.9-17

  3. Grammar Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Roger

    2015-01-01

    This paper looks at the continued survival of "myths" about English grammar, for example, the statement that in negative and interrogative sentences "any" should be used instead of "some". It is based on a survey of 195 Hong Kong students majoring in English, in five different cohorts, which found that such myths are…

  4. A current controller of grid-connected converter for harmonic damping in a distribution network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    Harmonic resonance caused by the increased use of shunt-connected capacitors in LCL-filters and power factor correction devices may become a serious power quality challenge in electric distribution systems. A voltage-detection method based on current control is developed to damp harmonic resonances....... However, it is susceptible to the mismatch between harmonic conductance and characteristic impedance of distribution feeder. This paper proposes a current controller which allows discrete adjustment of harmonic conductance for both the characteristic harmonic and the non-characteristic harmonic voltages...

  5. The Caribbean animal health network: new tools for harmonization and reinforcement of animal disease surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongora, Victor; Trotman, Mark; Thomas, Reginald; Max, Millien; Zamora, Pastor Alfonso; Lepoureau, Maria Teresa Frias; Phanord, Siméon; Quirico, Jocelyn; Douglas, Kirk; Pegram, Rupert; Martinez, Dominique; Petitclerc, Martial; Chouin, Emilie; Marchal, Céline; Chavernac, David; Doyen, David; Vachiéry, Nathalie; Molia, Sophie; Hendrikx, Pascal; Lefrançois, Thierry

    2008-12-01

    The Caribbean Animal Health Network (CaribVET) is a collaboration of veterinary services, diagnostic laboratories, research institutes, universities, and regional/international organizations to improve animal health in the Caribbean. New tools were used by the network to develop regional animal health activities: (1) A steering committee, a coordination unit, and working groups on specific diseases or activities were established. The working group on avian influenza used a collaborative Web site to develop a regionally harmonized avian influenza surveillance protocol and performance indicators. (2) A specific network was implemented on West Nile virus (WNV) to describe the WNV status of the Caribbean countries, to perform a technology transfer of WNV diagnostics, and to establish a surveillance system. (3) The CaribVET Web site (http://www.caribvet.net) encompasses information on surveillance systems, diagnostic laboratories, conferences, bibliography, and diseases of major concern in the region. It is a participatory Web site allowing registered users to add or edit information, pages, or data. An online notification system of sanitary information was set up for Guadeloupe to improve knowledge on animal diseases and facilitate early alert.

  6. Power Transformer Differential Protection Based on Neural Network Principal Component Analysis, Harmonic Restraint and Park's Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Tripathy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new approach for power transformer differential protection which is based on the wave-shape recognition technique. An algorithm based on neural network principal component analysis (NNPCA with back-propagation learning is proposed for digital differential protection of power transformer. The principal component analysis is used to preprocess the data from power system in order to eliminate redundant information and enhance hidden pattern of differential current to discriminate between internal faults from inrush and overexcitation conditions. This algorithm has been developed by considering optimal number of neurons in hidden layer and optimal number of neurons at output layer. The proposed algorithm makes use of ratio of voltage to frequency and amplitude of differential current for transformer operating condition detection. This paper presents a comparative study of power transformer differential protection algorithms based on harmonic restraint method, NNPCA, feed forward back propagation neural network (FFBPNN, space vector analysis of the differential signal, and their time characteristic shapes in Park’s plane. The algorithms are compared as to their speed of response, computational burden, and the capability to distinguish between a magnetizing inrush and power transformer internal fault. The mathematical basis for each algorithm is briefly described. All the algorithms are evaluated using simulation performed with PSCAD/EMTDC and MATLAB.

  7. Grammar and Context in Functional Discourse Grammar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, K.; Mackenzie, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a proposal for the organization of the Contextual Component in Functional Discourse Grammar. A guiding principle in this proposal is that, given the fact that Functional Discourse Grammar is a theory of grammar, the Contextual Component should provide the information that is

  8. Constraining Multiple Grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopp, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue. Multiple Grammars advances the claim that optionality is a constitutive characteristic of any one grammar, with interlanguage grammars being perhaps the clearest examples of a…

  9. Spherical harmonics based descriptor for neural network potentials: Structure and dynamics of Au147 nanocluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Shweta; Chiriki, Siva; Bulusu, Satya S.

    2017-05-01

    We propose a highly efficient method for fitting the potential energy surface of a nanocluster using a spherical harmonics based descriptor integrated with an artificial neural network. Our method achieves the accuracy of quantum mechanics and speed of empirical potentials. For large sized gold clusters (Au147), the computational time for accurate calculation of energy and forces is about 1.7 s, which is faster by several orders of magnitude compared to density functional theory (DFT). This method is used to perform the global minimum optimizations and molecular dynamics simulations for Au147, and it is found that its global minimum is not an icosahedron. The isomer that can be regarded as the global minimum is found to be 4 eV lower in energy than the icosahedron and is confirmed from DFT. The geometry of the obtained global minimum contains 105 atoms on the surface and 42 atoms in the core. A brief study on the fluxionality in Au147 is performed, and it is concluded that Au147 has a dynamic surface, thus opening a new window for studying its reaction dynamics.

  10. Application of higher harmonics in protection against single-phase earth faults in resonant grounded cable networks of medium voltage

    OpenAIRE

    Vinokurova, T. Yu.; Dobryagina, O. A.; Shagurina, E. S.; Shuin, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Protections based by higher harmonics absolute measurements the zero sequence currents of the protected object connections against single-phase earth faults in resonant grounded cable networks of medium voltage industrial and urban energy supply systems have been widely applied in Russia since the late 60s of the 20th century. However, some operational problems connected with sufficient selectivity and sensitivity of these protection devices appeared with time. Sensitivity and selectivity of ...

  11. Assessment of foetal exposure to the homogeneous magnetic field harmonic spectrum generated by electricity transmission and distribution networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocchi, Serena; Liorni, Ilaria; Parazzini, Marta; Ravazzani, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    During the last decades studies addressing the effects of exposure to Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields (ELF-EMF) have pointed out a possible link between those fields emitted by power lines and childhood leukaemia. They have also stressed the importance of also including in the assessment the contribution of frequency components, namely harmonics, other than the fundamental one. Based on the spectrum of supply voltage networks allowed by the European standard for electricity quality assessment, in this study the exposure of high-resolution three-dimensional models of foetuses to the whole harmonic content of a uniform magnetic field with a fundamental frequency of 50 Hz, was assessed. The results show that the main contribution in terms of induced electric fields to the foetal exposure is given by the fundamental frequency component. The harmonic components add some contributions to the overall level of electric fields, however, due to the extremely low permitted amplitude of the harmonic components with respect to the fundamental, their amplitudes are low. The level of the induced electric field is also much lower than the limits suggested by the guidelines for general public exposure, when the amplitude of the incident magnetic field is set at the maximum permitted level.

  12. Assessment of Foetal Exposure to the Homogeneous Magnetic Field Harmonic Spectrum Generated by Electricity Transmission and Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Fiocchi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades studies addressing the effects of exposure to Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields (ELF-EMF have pointed out a possible link between those fields emitted by power lines and childhood leukaemia. They have also stressed the importance of also including in the assessment the contribution of frequency components, namely harmonics, other than the fundamental one. Based on the spectrum of supply voltage networks allowed by the European standard for electricity quality assessment, in this study the exposure of high-resolution three-dimensional models of foetuses to the whole harmonic content of a uniform magnetic field with a fundamental frequency of 50 Hz, was assessed. The results show that the main contribution in terms of induced electric fields to the foetal exposure is given by the fundamental frequency component. The harmonic components add some contributions to the overall level of electric fields, however, due to the extremely low permitted amplitude of the harmonic components with respect to the fundamental, their amplitudes are low. The level of the induced electric field is also much lower than the limits suggested by the guidelines for general public exposure, when the amplitude of the incident magnetic field is set at the maximum permitted level.

  13. Digital telecommunications are a key development factor: Integration of satellite into overall telecommunication networks as a way to harmonize social and economic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracciolo, Raffaele

    Viewgraphs and discussions on digital telecommunications - a key development factor: integration of satellite into overall telecommunication networks as a way to harmonize social and economic implications are presented. Topics covered include: analysis of correlation between gross national product (GNP) and telephone density; analysis of potential lines increases vs. GNP; SESNET; corporate networks; and an integrated network concept.

  14. ANALYSIS OF THE HARMONIC LOSSES WITH ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS IN UNBALANCED SYSTEM LOSSES USING BALANCED ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEM DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslan İNAN

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The losses in the power systems should be low as possible as. Saving energy instead of loses (kWh in power utilities can supply much more energy to the consumers. The lower losses the more energy is saved and thus the power system becomes more economical. In recent years, the increasing number of applications and power ratings of the devices which have nonlinear voltage-current characteristics cause voltage waveform distortion and additional losses. While evaluating losses considering harmonics will provide more contribution to obtain more accurate results. In this study, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN method has been presented to predict the harmonic losses in unbalanced power systems by using the data from balanced power system with nonlinear loads.

  15. Real time selective harmonic minimization for multilevel inverters using genetic algorithm and artifical neural network angle generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, Faete J [ORNL; Tolbert, Leon M [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The work developed here proposes a methodology for calculating switching angles for varying DC sources in a multilevel cascaded H-bridges converter. In this approach the required fundamental is achieved, the lower harmonics are minimized, and the system can be implemented in real time with low memory requirements. Genetic algorithm (GA) is the stochastic search method to find the solution for the set of equations where the input voltages are the known variables and the switching angles are the unknown variables. With the dataset generated by GA, an artificial neural network (ANN) is trained to store the solutions without excessive memory storage requirements. This trained ANN then senses the voltage of each cell and produces the switching angles in order to regulate the fundamental at 120 V and eliminate or minimize the low order harmonics while operating in real time.

  16. Nonterminal Separating Macro Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogendorp, Jan Anne

    1987-01-01

    We extend the concept of nonterminal separating (or NTS) context-free grammar to nonterminal separating $m$-macro grammar where the mode of derivation $m$ is equal to "unrestricted". "outside-in' or "inside-out". Then we show some (partial) characterization results for these NTS $m$-macro grammars.

  17. SYNCHRONIZATION IN NETWORKS OF COUPLED HARMONIC OSCILLATORS WITH STOCHASTIC PERTURBATION AND TIME DELAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilun Shang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the leader-follower synchronization ofcoupled second-order linear harmonic oscillators with the presence ofrandom noises and time delays. The interaction topology is modeledby a weighted directed graph and the weights are perturbed by whitenoise. On the basis of stability theory of stochastic differential delayequations, algebraic graph theory and matrix theory, we show that thecoupled harmonic oscillators can be synchronized almost surely withrandom perturbation and time delays. Numerical examples are presentedto illustrate our theoretical results.

  18. Restraint Method of Voltage Total Harmonic Distortion in Distribution Network by Power Conditioner Systems using Measured Data from IT Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Shoji; Shimoda, Kazuki; Tanaka, Motohiro; Taoka, Hisao; Matsuki, Junya; Hayashi, Yasuhiro

    Recently, the amount of distributed generation (DG) such as photovoltaic system and wind power generator system installed in a distribution system has been increasing because of reduction of the effects on the environment. However, the harmonic troubles in the distribution system are apprehended in the background of the increase of connection of DGs through the inverters and the spread of power electronics equipment. In this paper, the authors propose a restraint method of voltage total harmonic distortion (THD) in a whole distribution network by active filter (AF) operation of plural power conditioner systems (PCS). Moreover, the authors propose a determination method of the optimal gain of AF operation so as to minimize the maximum value of voltage THD in the distribution network by the real-time feedback control with measured data from the information technology (IT) switches. In order to verify the validity of the proposed method, the numerical calculations are carried out by using an analytical model of distribution network interconnected DGs with PCS.

  19. Analysis of the reactive power consumption and the harmonics in the network by the non-linear electrical loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogo, Joao Roberto [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    The non linear electrical loads can give rise to a number of disturbances in electrical power networks. Among them, the high consumption of relative power is to be noted and so is the several harmonic components which may be injected in the industry system and very often in the utility system. So, by using appropriate technical considerations, as well as measurements in typical special electrical loads, such negative effects are analyzed and ways of minimizing them are suggested. (author) 3 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Understanding the Models of Grammar

    OpenAIRE

    Mahaputri, Ratna Andhika

    2013-01-01

    This article provides comprehensive explanation about several models of grammar. The first model of grammar which is explained is considered from the functional grammar and associated with the American linguist Noam Chomsky that is Transformational Grammar. This model of grammar is consisted of three components they are phrase structure rule, the lexicon, and transformation. The second model of grammar which is explained in this article is Minimalist Grammar. This article also compares her...

  1. Analysis and Damping of Harmonic Propagation in DG-Penetrated Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jinghang; Savaghebi, Mehdi; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing penetration of nonlinear loads into distribution system, stable operation of power distribution system suffers challenge by harmonic voltage propagation and resonance amplification which is also known as whack-a-mole phenomenon. However, until now this phenomenon has not been...

  2. Experimental determination of harmonic conditions amplification in a distribution network by capacitor bank switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baloi, Alexandru; Kocewiak, Lukasz Hubert; Bak, Claus Leth

    2012-01-01

    harmonic distortion (THD) of the capacitor current computed using the amplification factor, are originally presented. Nonlinear loads as six pulse rectifier and National Instruments measurement sensors together with LabView software were used on the laboratory set-up. The main instrument of the method...

  3. Plasma harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Ganeev, Rashid A

    2014-01-01

    Preface; Why plasma harmonics? A very brief introduction Early stage of plasma harmonic studies - hopes and frustrations New developments in plasma harmonics studies: first successes Improvements of plasma harmonics; Theoretical basics of plasma harmonics; Basics of HHG Harmonic generation in fullerenes using few-cycle pulsesVarious approaches for description of observed peculiarities of resonant enhancement of a single harmonic in laser plasmaTwo-colour pump resonance-induced enhancement of odd and even harmonics from a tin plasmaCalculations of single harmonic generation from Mn plasma;Low-o

  4. Harmonics in transmission power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiechowski, Wojciech Tomasz

    Some time ago, Energinet.dk, the Transmission System Operator of the 150 kV and 400 kV transmission network in Denmark, had experienced operational malfunctions of some of the measuring and protection equipment. Also an overloading of a harmonic filter has been reported, and therefore, a need...... to perform more detailed harmonic studies emerged. Since the transmission network has a complex structure and its impedance varies with frequency in a nonlinear fashion, such harmonic study would require a detailed computer model of the network. Consequently, a PhD project proposal titled "Harmonics......, provided that background harmonic distortion, and the network configuration, are not changing during the measurement. It is shown that switching of a shunt linear power system component can result in variation of the harmonic levels that can be measured and used to verify the harmonic model of the network...

  5. Simple chain grammars and languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    1979-01-01

    A subclass of the LR(0)-grammars, the class of simple chain grammars is introduced. Although there exist simple chain grammars which are not LL(k) for any k>0, this new class of grammars is very closely related to the LL(1) and simple LL(1) grammars. In fact it can be shown that every simple chain

  6. Grammar in Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Ondroušková, Světlana

    2008-01-01

    The diploma thesis entitled Grammar in Writing focuses on the methods used in teaching grammar in writing, its application in practice and the consequent evaluation based on the progress of students. The theoretical part tries to explain the notion of writing as a skill, the methodology of teaching writing skills and grammar. It also introduces the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages - it explains the key competences for writing and the criteria for achieving particular level...

  7. French grammar in context

    CERN Document Server

    Jubb, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Instructors' edition without answer keysDiscount of 20% offered when 10 ebooks are sold- e.g. they will be sold for 263.60/ £151.90 instead of 329.50/£189.90French Grammar in Context presents a unique and exciting approach to learning grammar. Authentic texts from a rich variety of sources, literary and journalistic, are used as the starting point for the illustration and explanation of key areas of French grammar. Each point is consolidated with a wide range of written and spoken exercises. Grammar is presented not as an end in itself, but as a

  8. Grammar Instruction and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacina, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Much of the research literature from the past 25 years has supported the importance of teaching grammar in the context of writing instruction (Calkins, 1980; DiStefano & Killion, 1984; Weaver, 1996,1998). Unlike other content areas, practice does not make perfect when learning grammar. While isolated drill and practice of grammatical concepts may…

  9. Gramatica generadora (Generative Grammar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruset, Jose

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the difficulty of describing the linguistic approach to the study of language to a non-linguist. Points out certain differences between traditional grammar, structural analysis and contemporary language analysis and gives a short description of the notion of generative grammar. (Text is in Spanish.) (TL)

  10. Necessity of Grammar Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianyun

    2009-01-01

    Grammar is often misunderstood in the language teaching field. The misconception lies in the view that grammar is a collection of arbitrary rules about static structures in the language. Further questionable claims are that the structures do not have to be thought, learners will acquire them on their own, or if the structures are taught, the…

  11. Grammar in a Nutshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Diana

    1996-01-01

    Describes "Grammar in a Nutshell"--a visual-auditory-kinesthetic approach to traditional textbook grammar, usage, and mechanics concepts. Notes that the idea behind Nutshell is that as the students slowly mature in other writing skills they can also grow in their understanding of how to use, how to handle their language, not only correctly but…

  12. A Papago Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, Ofelia

    A Papago grammar, intented to help Papago and other junior high, high school and college students learn and appreciate the language and give linguists an overview of the language, contains background information on the language and the book, two grammar units, a unit of five conversations in Papago, and a section of supplementary material. Text…

  13. Grammar and Teaching ESL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Glenda; Young, Barbara N.

    2005-01-01

    The variety of theories relating to teaching ESL learners leads to contradictory ideas about teaching a second language. This paper focuses on the continuing importance of grammar in teaching and the current resurgence in interest in returning to grammar as an important component in the classroom.

  14. Grammar Writing for a Grammar-reading Audience

    OpenAIRE

    Noonan, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This paper will be concerned primarily with the problem of establishment of higher standards for grammar writing. The text includes a list of 28 points for grammar writers suggested by the Michael Noonan. About another issue, the evaluation of grammar writing within the profession and the professional support provided to grammar writers, the author makes some few comments at the end of this essay.

  15. Harmonic components of demand and its effects over the electric power distribution networks; Los componentes armonicos de la demanda e sus efectos sobre las redes de distribucion electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugnoni, Mario [Buenos Aires Univ. (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria. Grupo Energia y Ambiente

    1997-12-31

    The steady increase in harmonic pollution creates new problems in electricity distribution networks. In this area, power factor correction and the neutral conductor deserve attention. In this paper we present an approach to dealing with this problems. (author) 14 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.; e-mail: gea at aleph.fi.uba.ar

  16. Phonology without universal grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archangeli, Diana; Pulleyblank, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The question of identifying the properties of language that are specific human linguistic abilities, i.e., Universal Grammar, lies at the center of linguistic research. This paper argues for a largely Emergent Grammar in phonology, taking as the starting point that memory, categorization, attention to frequency, and the creation of symbolic systems are all nonlinguistic characteristics of the human mind. The articulation patterns of American English rhotics illustrate categorization and systems; the distribution of vowels in Bantu vowel harmony uses frequencies of particular sequences to argue against Universal Grammar and in favor of Emergent Grammar; prefix allomorphy in Esimbi illustrates the Emergent symbolic system integrating phonological and morphological generalizations. The Esimbi case has been treated as an example of phonological opacity in a Universal Grammar account; the Emergent analysis resolves the pattern without opacity concerns.

  17. Subverting the grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Amaral da Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available From the notion of parody, credibility and legitimacy, coming mainly from studies in discourse analysis, and ideas from the sociolinguistic we intend to develop a brief comparison between the Expositive Grammar – Advanced Course (46st ed.:1926 of Eduardo Carlos Pereira, who initially presents itself as a merely descriptive grammar, and the Portuguese Grammar by the Confused Method, written by Mendes Fradique (4st ed.: 1985. We observed that the first one claims to be “expositive” when it is cle­arly prescriptive. The work of Mendes Fradique uses humor and irony to parody pres­criptive grammars, criticizing the “good use”. In order to prove the above statement, we selected some of the concepts presented by those works, checking the position taken by each one. Among them is the very concept of grammar, language etc.

  18. Phonology without Universal Grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana eArchangeli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The question of identifying the properties of language that are specific human linguistic abilities, i.e. Universal Grammar, lies at the center of linguistic research. This paper argues for a largely Emergent Grammar in phonology, taking as the starting point that memory, categorization, attention to frequency, and the creation of symbolic systems are all nonlinguistic characteristics of the human mind. The articulation patterns of American English rhotics illustrate categorization and systems; the distribution of vowels in Bantu vowel harmony uses frequencies of particular sequences to argue against Universal Grammar and in favor of Emergent Grammar; prefix allomorphy in Esimbi illustrates the Emergent symbolic system integrating phonological and morphological generalizations. The Esimbi case has been treated as an example of phonological opacity in a Universal Grammar account; the Emergent analysis resolves the pattern without opacity concerns.

  19. Compiler generation based on grammar inheritance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aksit, Mehmet; Mostert, Rene; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of grammar inheritance is introduced. Grammar inheritance is a structural organization of grammar rules by which a grammar inherits rules from ancestor grammars or may have its own rules inherited by descendant grammars. Grammar inheritance supports reusability and extensibility of

  20. French grammar for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Mazet, Veronique

    2013-01-01

    The easy way to master French grammar French Grammar For Dummies is a logical extension and complement to the successful language learning book, French For Dummies. In plain English, it teaches you the grammatical rules of the French language, including parts of speech, sentence construction, pronouns, adjectives, punctuation, stress and verb tenses, and moods. Throughout the book, you get plenty of practice opportunities to help you on your goal of mastering basic French grammar and usage. Grasp the grammatical rules of French including parts of speech, sentenc

  1. Feasibility of using existing open access networks to support the harmonization of open access

    OpenAIRE

    Linde, Peter; Wessels, Bridgette; Smallwood, Rod; Price, Lada; Noorman, Merel; Wyatt, Sally; Sondervan, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    In this report we identify and assess different options for bringing together and mobilizing relevant stakeholders in the open access arena. This builds on previous work done in the RECODE project about the open access stakeholder ecosystem, the barriers and the enablers for open access to research data as well as on the RECODE overarching policy recommendations set out in the RECODE work package 5. We have identified a sample of existing networks and organizations to determine whether they a...

  2. k-visit attribute grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Hanne; Skyum, Sven

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that any well-defined attribute grammar isk-visit for somek. Furthermore it is shown that given a well-defined grammarG and an integerk, it is decidable whetherG isk-visit. Finally we show that thek-visit grammars specify a proper hierarchy with respect to translations.......It is shown that any well-defined attribute grammar isk-visit for somek. Furthermore it is shown that given a well-defined grammarG and an integerk, it is decidable whetherG isk-visit. Finally we show that thek-visit grammars specify a proper hierarchy with respect to translations....

  3. Technical Note: Harmonized retrieval of column-integrated atmospheric water vapor from the FTIR network - First examples for long-term records and station trends

    OpenAIRE

    Sussmann, R.; T. Borsdorff; M. Rettinger; Camy-Peyret, C.; Demoulin, P.; Duchatelet, P.; Mahieu, E.; Servais, C.

    2009-01-01

    We present a method for harmonized retrieval of integrated water vapor (IWV) from existing, long-term, measurement records at the ground-based mid-infrared solar FTIR spectrometry stations of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). Correlation of IWV from FTIR with radiosondes shows an ideal slope of 1.00(3). This optimum matching is achieved via tuning one FTIR retrieval parameter, i.e., the strength of a Tikhonov regularization constraining...

  4. Effective Grammar Teaching: Lessons from Confident Grammar Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraki, Eleni; Hill, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Learning the grammar of a language is an integral part of learning a second or foreign language. Studies on teacher beliefs, teacher language awareness (TLA) and grammar teaching have reported that the majority of English language teachers recognise the importance of teaching grammar (Borg, 2001; Borg & Burns, 2008). At the same time, many…

  5. La gramatica comunicativa (Communicative Grammar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierer, Ernesto

    This paper explains the main concepts of communicative grammar and provides a detailed view of how communicative grammar analyses language at various levels. Language is discussed in terms of communication; the central elements in the analysis are those that carry information. Communicative grammar seeks to describe the process of the linguistic…

  6. Space-restricted attribute grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    1980-01-01

    Restricting the size of attribute values, relative to the length of the string under consideration, leads to a model of attribute grammars in which grammars with both inherited and synthesized attributes can be significantly more economical than grammars with synthesized attributes only....

  7. k-visit Attribute Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Skyum, S.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that any well-defined attribute grammar is k-visit for some k. Furthermore, it is shown that given a well-defined grammar G and an integer k, it is decidable whether G is k-visit. Finally it is shown that the k-visit grammars specify a proper hierarchy with respect to translations...

  8. Teaching Grammar: What Really Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Amy; Berger, Joan

    2010-01-01

    In this book, the authors share procedures for teaching grammar effectively and dynamically, in ways that appeal to students and teachers alike. Ideal for teachers just beginning their work in grammar instruction, this book includes day-by-day units and reproducibles to help them embed grammar lessons into writing instruction. Using visuals,…

  9. The Necessity of Grammar Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengjuan

    2010-01-01

    Mastering grammar is the foundation in the proficiency of a language. Grammar teaching is also an essential part of language teaching. However, with the communicative approach was introduced into China, many foreign language teachers gradually make little of grammar teaching. In terms of the theory of linguistics, this paper specifically explores…

  10. Closure properties of Watson-Crick grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkufli, Nurul Liyana binti Mohamad; Turaev, Sherzod; Tamrin, Mohd Izzuddin Mohd; Azeddine, Messikh

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we define Watson-Crick context-free grammars, as an extension of Watson-Crick regular grammars and Watson-Crick linear grammars with context-free grammar rules. We show the relation of Watson-Crick (regular and linear) grammars to the sticker systems, and study some of the important closure properties of the Watson-Crick grammars. We establish that the Watson-Crick regular grammars are closed under almost all of the main closure operations, while the differences between other Watson-Crick grammars with their corresponding Chomsky grammars depend on the computational power of the Watson-Crick grammars which still need to be studied.

  11. Spatial grammar implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKay, Alison; Chase, Scott Curland; Shea, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    fluid, demands conceptual design tools that support designers’ ways of thinking and working, and enhance creativity, for example, by offering design alternatives, difficult or not, possible without the use of such tools. The potential of spatial grammars as a technology to support such design tools has...... been demonstrated through experimental research prototypes since the 1970s. In this paper, we provide a review of recent spatial grammar implementations, which were presented in the Design Computing and Cognition 2010 workshop on which this paper is based, in the light of requirements for conceptual...

  12. English Grammar For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Ward, Lesley J

    2009-01-01

    If you're confused by commas, perplexed by pronouns, and plain terrified by tenses, English Grammar For Dummies will put your fears to rest. Packed with expert guidance, it covers everything from sentence basics to rules even your English teacher didn't know - if you want to brush up on your grammar, this is the only guide you'll ever need. Discover how to: avoid common grammatical errors; get to grips with apostrophes; structure sentences correctly; use verbs and find the right tense; and decide when to use slang or formal English.  

  13. A comprehensive French grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Price, Glanville

    2013-01-01

    Characterized by clear and accessible explanations, numerous examples and sample sentences, a new section on register and tone, and useful appendices covering topics including age and time, A Comprehensive French Grammar, Sixth Edition is an indispensable tool for advanced students of French language and literature.A revised edition of this established, bestselling French grammarIncludes a new section on register and medium and offers expanded treatment of French punctuationFeatures numerous examples and sample sentences, and useful appendices covering topics including age, time, and dimension

  14. French grammar and usage

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkins, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Long trusted as the most comprehensive, up-to-date and user-friendly grammar available, French Grammar and Usage is a complete guide to French as it is written and spoken today. It includes clear descriptions of all the main grammatical phenomena of French, and their use, illustrated by numerous examples taken from contemporary French, and distinguishes the most common forms of usage, both formal and informal.Key features include:Comprehensive content, covering all the major structures of contemporary French User-friendly organisation offering easy-to-find sections with cross-referencing and i

  15. Grammar and Grammaring: Toward Modes for English Grammar Teaching in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Chengyu

    2015-01-01

    The value of grammar instruction in foreign language learning and teaching has been a focus of debate for quite some time, which has resulted in different views on grammar and grammar teaching as well as different teaching approaches based on different perspectives or in different language learning contexts. To explore some modes for grammar…

  16. Style representation in design grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Sumbul; Chase, Scott Curland

    2012-01-01

    to be transformed according to changing design style needs. Issues of formalizing stylistic change necessitate a lucid and formal definition of style in the design language generated by a grammar. Furthermore, a significant aspect of the definition of style is the representation of aesthetic qualities attributed...... to the style. We focus on grammars for representing and generating styles of design and review the use of grammar transformations for modelling changes in style and design language. We identify a gap in knowledge in the representation of style in grammars and in driving strategic style change using grammar...

  17. TEACHING GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT: WHY AND HOW?

    OpenAIRE

    Noor Maulidiyah

    2017-01-01

    Grammar is an important component of English. Without grammar, it is not possible to communicate meaning successfully. Therefore, teachers and educators have to pay close attention to teaching grammar effectively. Based on the writer‘s experience in teaching grammar using the traditional way, many students still had difficulty in acquiring the grammar points. The grammar meetings were not effective, and the students did not thoroughly understand the grammar exercises. The students seemed bore...

  18. Network Analysis with Stochastic Grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    Language Processing ( NLP ) domain SCFG...sentence into starting symbol. Figure 2 is an NLP part-of- speech example modified from [38] of an SCFG production rule set that reads a limited set of...English sentences for the purpose of determining grammatical validity and meaning through part-of-speech assignment. In the NLP domain, each word is in

  19. Harmonic statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliazar, Iddo, E-mail: eliazar@post.tau.ac.il

    2017-05-15

    The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their ‘public relations’ for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford’s law, and 1/f noise. - Highlights: • Harmonic statistics are described and reviewed in detail. • Connections to various statistical laws are established. • Connections to perturbation, renormalization and dynamics are established.

  20. Functional Discourse Grammar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, K.; Mackenzie, J.L.; Heine, B.; Narrog, H.

    2010-01-01

    Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG) is a typologically based structural-functional theory of language. It has a top-down organization to achieve psychological adequacy, and takes the Discourse Act as its basic unit of analysis to achieve pragmatic adequacy. Although itself strictly a model of

  1. Knowing Chinese character grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, James

    2016-02-01

    Chinese character structure has often been described as representing a kind of grammar, but the notion of character grammar has hardly been explored. Patterns in character element reduplication are particularly grammar-like, displaying discrete combinatoriality, binarity, phonology-like final prominence, and potentially the need for symbolic rules (X→XX). To test knowledge of these patterns, Chinese readers were asked to judge the acceptability of fake characters varying both in grammaticality (obeying or violating reduplication constraints) and in lexicality (of the reduplicative configurations). While lexical knowledge was important (lexicality improved acceptability and grammatical configurations were accepted more quickly when also lexical), grammatical knowledge was important as well, with grammaticality improving acceptability equally for lexical and nonlexical configurations. Acceptability was also higher for more frequent reduplicative elements, suggesting that the reduplicative configurations were decomposed. Chinese characters present an as-yet untapped resource for exploring fundamental questions about the nature of the human capacity for grammar. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Grammar and discourse prominence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Marie Herget; Kristensen, Line Burholt; Boye, Kasper

    in Danish, the lexicon-grammar contrast is a more important cue to discourse prominence (foreground vs. background status) than focalization (by means of focus particles). BOYE, K. & HARDER, P. 2012. A usage-based theory of grammatical status and grammaticalization. Language, 88, 1-44. RENSINK, R. A., O...

  3. Teaching Grammar in Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, David

    1998-01-01

    Argues for an alternative to the conventional linear model of language acquisition in the learning of second-language grammar, proposing a more organic approach. The two approaches are contrasted, drawing on research in second-language learning and discourse analysis that supports the organic view. Some pedagogical implications of this approach…

  4. Teaching Grammar and Reading

    OpenAIRE

    高棹, 聰子

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore what effectiveness of teaching grammar would be expected in reading, analyzing the statistical data. The data show the lack of the students' motivation and their reluctance about reading the whole passage. In conclusion, we should think out the problems caused by methodology as well as course design.

  5. Spontaneous Grammar Explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjoo, Hong Sing; Lewis, Marilyn

    1998-01-01

    Describes one New Zealand university language teacher's reflection on her own grammar explanations to university-level students of Bahasa Indonesian. Examines form-focused instruction through the teacher's spontaneous answers to students' questions about the form of the language they are studying. The teacher's experiences show that it takes time…

  6. Multiple Grammars and MOGUL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, John

    2014-01-01

    Optionality is a central phenomenon in second language acquisition (SLA), for which any adequate theory must account. Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) offer an appealing approach to it, using Roeper's Multiple Grammars Theory, which was created with first language in mind but which extends very naturally to SLA. They include…

  7. A GUJARATI REFERENCE GRAMMAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CARDONA, GEORGE

    THIS REFERENCE GRAMMAR WAS WRITTEN TO FILL THE NEED FOR AN UP-TO-DATE ANALYSIS OF THE MODERN LANGUAGE SUITABLE FOR LANGUAGE LEARNERS AS WELL AS LINGUISTS. THE AUTHOR LISTS IN THE INTRODUCTION THOSE STUDIES PREVIOUS TO THIS ONE WHICH MAY BE OF INTEREST TO THE READER. INCLUDED IN HIS ANALYSIS OF THE LANGUAGE ARE MAJOR CHAPTERS ON--(1) PHONOLOGY, (2)…

  8. Robots who read grammars

    OpenAIRE

    Macklin-Cordes, Jayden L.; Blackbourne, Nathaniel L.; Bott, Thomas J.; Cook, Jacqueline; Mark Ellison, T.; Hollis, Jordan; Kirlew, Edith E.; Richards, Genevieve C.; Zhao, Sanle; Round, Erich

    2017-01-01

    Robots who read grammarsJayden L. Macklin-Cordes, Nathaniel L. Blackbourne, Thomas J. Bott, Jacqueline Cook, T. Mark Ellison, Jordan Hollis, Edith E. Kirlew, Genevieve C. Richards, Sanle Zhao, Erich R. RoundPoster presented at CoEDL Fest 2017, Alexandra Park Conference Centre, Alexandra Headlands, QLD, Australia. Hosted by the University of Queensland. 6 February 2017.AbstractLinguistic typology has yet to undergo a computational revolution like that seen in other scientific endeavours. Never...

  9. Abductive Logic Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Dahl, Veronica

    2009-01-01

    By extending logic grammars with constraint logic, we give them the ability to create knowledge bases that represent the meaning of an input string. Semantic information is thus defined through extra-grammatical means, and a sentence's meaning logically follows as a by-product of string rewriting...... the norm -- arbitrary (i.e., order-independent) derivations. We show that rich and accurate knowledge extraction from text can be achieved through the use of this new formalism......By extending logic grammars with constraint logic, we give them the ability to create knowledge bases that represent the meaning of an input string. Semantic information is thus defined through extra-grammatical means, and a sentence's meaning logically follows as a by-product of string rewriting....... We formalize these ideas, and exemplify them both within and outside first-order logic, and for both fixed and dynamic knowledge bases. Within the latter variety, we consider the usual left-to-right derivations that are traditional in logic grammars, but also -- in a significant departure from...

  10. A communicative grammar of English

    CERN Document Server

    Leech, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    A Communicative Grammar of English has long been established as a grammar innovative in approach, reliable in coverage, and clear in its explanations. This fully revised and redesigned third edition provides up-to-date and accessible help to teachers, advanced learners and undergraduate students of English. Part One looks at the way English grammar varies in different types of English, such as 'formal' and 'informal', 'spoken' and 'written'; Part Two focuses on the uses of grammar rather than on grammatical structure and Part Three provides a handy alphabetically arranged guide to

  11. Deriving tolerant grammars from a base-line grammar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Klusener (Steven); R. Lämmel (Ralf)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractA grammar-based approach to tool development in re- and reverse engineering promises precise structure awareness, but it is problematic in two respects. Firstly, it is a considerable up-front investment to obtain a grammar for a relevant language or cocktail of languages. Existing work

  12. Grammar Dilemma: Teaching Grammar as a Resource for Making Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liamkina, Olga; Ryshina-Pankova, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    Adopting a functional perspective that views grammar as a rich resource for making contextualized meanings in a culture- and language-specific way, the article reconsiders the role of explicit grammar instruction in developing communicative abilities of second language learners. It draws on two distinct but complementary research frameworks,…

  13. Harmonic Analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Harish-Chandra, Gelfand and several other mathematicians and physicists, group-theoretic harmonic analysis is a flourishing industry today paving the way to new developments in the con- text of noncompact Lie groups as well as quantum groups. Since B(n, z) = zn the expansion (3) suggests a link between Fourier series.

  14. Harmonic Analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 10. Harmonic Analysis Fourier Series and Beyond. K R Parthasarathy. Book Review Volume 1 Issue 10 October 1996 pp 87-91. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/10/0087-0091 ...

  15. Formal Methods for Information Protection Technology. Task 1: Formal Grammar-Based Approach and Tool for Simulation Attacks against Computer Network. Part 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karsayev, O

    2004-01-01

    .... Integrity, confidentiality and availability of the network resources must be assured. To detect and suppress different types of computer unauthorized intrusions, modern network security systems (NSS...

  16. A Pedagogical Grammar of Tboli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Vivian M.

    1992-01-01

    Tboli is a language spoken by people living in southwestern Mindanao, Philippines, in the province of South Cotabato. The pedagogical grammar of Tboli has been written to help non-Tboli interested in learning to speak Tboli. A discussion of spelling and pronunciation includes the alphabet and spelling rules. Other forms of grammar described are…

  17. Teachers' Perceptions about Grammar Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu, Tran Hoang

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates English as a second language (ESL) teachers' beliefs in grammar teaching. A 32-item questionnaire was administered to 11 ESL teachers in a language school in California. The results show that the participants generally believe that the formal study of grammar is essential to the eventual mastery of a foreign or second…

  18. determination of determination of total harmonic distortion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Harmonic Distortion (THD) of the Distribution lines in the 33kV distri. Harmonic Distortion (THD) of the Distribution lines in the 33kV distribution network of Island Business District, bution network of Island Business District,. Eko Electricity Distribution Plc, taken. Eko Electricity Distribution Plc, taken as a case study using a set ...

  19. Modern French Grammar Workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    An innovative new workbook of exercises and language tasks for intermediate and advanced learners of French. This Workbook can be used independently or alongside Modern French Grammar.This Workbook provides exercises in:* Essential grammatical structures* Everyday functions such as agreeing and disagreeing* Role-plays set in a wide range of different contextsIt is suitable for group or pair work and for private study.A comprehensive answer key at the back of the Workbook enables you to check on your progress.This Workbook is ideal for all learners who have a basic knowledge of French, includin

  20. Power quality issues current harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Mikkili, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Power Quality Issues: Current Harmonics provides solutions for the mitigation of power quality problems related to harmonics. Focusing on active power filters (APFs) due to their excellent harmonic and reactive power compensation in two-wire (single phase), three-wire (three-phase without neutral), and four-wire (three-phase with neutral) AC power networks with nonlinear loads, the text:Introduces the APF technology, describing various APF configurations and offering guidelines for the selection of APFs for specific application considerationsCompares shunt active filter (SHAF) control strategi

  1. Harmonic engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA

    2009-10-20

    A high efficiency harmonic engine based on a resonantly reciprocating piston expander that extracts work from heat and pressurizes working fluid in a reciprocating piston compressor. The engine preferably includes harmonic oscillator valves capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into and out of the expander, and also preferably includes a shunt line connecting an expansion chamber of the expander to a buffer chamber of the expander for minimizing pressure variations in the fluidic circuit of the engine. The engine is especially designed to operate with very high temperature input to the expander and very low temperature input to the compressor, to produce very high thermal conversion efficiency.

  2. Structural priming, action planning, and grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Maryellen C; Weiss, Daniel J

    2017-01-01

    Structural priming is poorly understood and cannot inform accounts of grammar for two reasons. First, those who view performance as grammar + processing will always be able to attribute psycholinguistic data to processing rather than grammar. Second, structural priming may be simply an example of hysteresis effects in general action planning. If so, then priming offers no special insight into grammar.

  3. Development of an English Grammar Checker: A Progress Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Hsien-Chin

    1991-01-01

    A computer grammar checker is described that evolved from a sample of errors and resulting in a taxonomy of 14 main and 93 subtypes. Using a 1,402-word stem electronic dictionary, an augmented transition network parser, and a set of disambiguating rules, the checker provides feedback for 7 types of errors. (12 references) (Author/LB)

  4. English grammar a university course

    CERN Document Server

    Downing, Angela

    2014-01-01

    This best-selling comprehensive descriptive grammar forms a complete course, ideal for all students studying English Language ,whether on a course or for self-study. Broadly based on Hallidayan systemic-functional grammar but also drawing on cognitive linguistics and discourse analysis, English Grammar is accessible, avoiding overly theoretical or technical explanations.Divided into 12 self-contained chapters based around language functions, each chapter is divided into units of class-length material. Key features include:Numerous authentic texts from a wide range of sources, both spoken and w

  5. The Grammar of Linguistic Semiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durst-Andersen, Per

    2009-01-01

    interpretations and therefore capable of referring to anything within its own limits. Exactly because of the arbitrariness and the omnipotence of the repertoire of nominal lexemes language must have a grammar that can give a semiotic direction to the otherwise completely static sign (in Peircean terms: impotent......) 'it cannot by itself refer, but must have a vehicle, a grammar. There is an obligatory choice between three types of grammar corresponding to the three ways in which a state of affairs exists in a communication situation: (1) the situation as such in a real or in an imagined world being common...

  6. English Grammar Workbook For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    O'Sullivan, Nuala

    2010-01-01

    English Grammar Workbook For Dummies, UK Edition is grammar First Aid for anyone wanting to perfect their English and develop the practical skills needed to write and speak correctly. Each chapter focuses on key grammatical principles, with easy-to-follow theory and examples as well as practice questions and explanations. From verbs, prepositions and tenses, to style, expressions and tricky word traps, this hands-on workbook is essential for both beginners looking to learn and practise the basics of English grammar, and those who want to brush up skills they already have - quickly, easily, and

  7. Practising French grammar a workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Dr Roger Hawkins; Towell, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This new edition of Practising French Grammar offers a set of varied and accessible exercises for developing a practical awareness of French as it is spoken and written today. The lively examples and authentic texts and cartoons have been updated to reflect current usage. A new companion website provides a wealth of additional interactive exercises to help consolidate challenging grammar points. Practising French Grammar provides concise summaries of key grammatical points at the beginning of each exercise, as well as model answers to the exercises and translations of difficult words, making i

  8. Generic Graph Grammar: A Simple Grammar for Generic Procedural Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2012-01-01

    of greater complexity. Consequently, there is a need for a simple, general method which is capable of generating both types of objects. Generic Graph Grammar has been developed to address this need. The production rules consist of a small set of basic productions which are applied directly onto primitives...... in a directed cyclic graph. Furthermore, the basic productions are chosen such that Generic Graph Grammar seamlessly combines the capabilities of L-systems to imitate biological growth (to model trees, animals, etc.) and those of split grammars to design structured objects (chairs, houses, etc.). This results...... in a highly expressive grammar capable of generating a wide range of types of models. Models which consist of skeletal structures or surfaces or any combination of these. Besides generic modelling capabilities, the focus has also been on usability, especially userfriendliness and efficiency. Therefore several...

  9. Teaching Grammar Using Pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Uswatun Hasanah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Teaching is a process of communication. It has to be created through the way ofteaching and exchanging the message or information by every teacher and student. The message can be knowledge, skills, ideas, experiences, and manyothers. Through the process of communication, the people can receive the message or information. To avoid misunderstanding in the process ofcommunication, media are needed in the process of teaching. Using pictures can make exercises and activities more interesting and more interactive. We canconstantly improve our activities by looking at what went well and what fell flat. These 5 unique ways to practice grammar using pictures are a jumping offpoint, and can be expanded in lots of interesting ways. 

  10. Mathematical grammar of biology

    CERN Document Server

    Yamagishi, Michel Eduardo Beleza

    2017-01-01

    This seminal, multidisciplinary book shows how mathematics can be used to study the first principles of DNA. Most importantly, it enriches the so-called “Chargaff’s grammar of biology” by providing the conceptual theoretical framework necessary to generalize Chargaff’s rules. Starting with a simple example of DNA mathematical modeling where human nucleotide frequencies are associated to the Fibonacci sequence and the Golden Ratio through an optimization problem, its breakthrough is showing that the reverse, complement and reverse-complement operators defined over oligonucleotides induce a natural set partition of DNA words of fixed-size. These equivalence classes, when organized into a matrix form, reveal hidden patterns within the DNA sequence of every living organism. Intended for undergraduate and graduate students both in mathematics and in life sciences, it is also a valuable resource for researchers interested in studying invariant genomic properties.

  11. Harmonic engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.; Sewall, Noel; Boroa, Carl

    2014-08-19

    An engine based on a reciprocating piston engine that extracts work from pressurized working fluid. The engine includes a harmonic oscillator inlet valve capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into of the engine. In particular, the inlet valve includes an inlet valve head and a spring arranged together as a harmonic oscillator so that the inlet valve head is moveable from an unbiased equilibrium position to a biased closed position occluding an inlet. Upon releasing the inlet valve the inlet valve head undergoes a single oscillation past the equilibrium positio to a maximum open position and returns to a biased return position close to the closed position to choke the flow and produce a pressure drop across the inlet valve causing the inlet valve to close. Protrusions carried either by the inlet valve head or piston head are used to bump open the inlet valve from the closed position and initiate the single oscillation of the inlet valve head, and protrusions carried either by the outlet valve head or piston head are used to close the outlet valve ahead of the bump opening of the inlet valve.

  12. Abstract Interpretation Using Attribute Grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with the correctness proofs of attribute grammars using methods from abstract interpretation. The technique will be described by defining a live-variable analysis for a small flow-chart language and proving it correct with respect to a continuation style semantics. The proof...... technique is based on fixpoint induction and introduces an extended class of attribute grammars as to express a standard semantics....

  13. Constraint-Based Categorial Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Bouma, G; Bouma, Gosse; Noord, Gertjan van

    1994-01-01

    We propose a generalization of Categorial Grammar in which lexical categories are defined by means of recursive constraints. In particular, the introduction of relational constraints allows one to capture the effects of (recursive) lexical rules in a computationally attractive manner. We illustrate the linguistic merits of the new approach by showing how it accounts for the syntax of Dutch cross-serial dependencies and the position and scope of adjuncts in such constructions. Delayed evaluation is used to process grammars containing recursive constraints.

  14. LexGram - a practical categorial grammar formalism -

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, Esther

    1995-01-01

    We present the LexGram system, an amalgam of (Lambek) categorial grammar and Head Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG), and show that the grammar formalism it implements is a well-structured and useful tool for actual grammar development.

  15. Harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Helson, Henry

    2010-01-01

    This second edition has been enlarged and considerably rewritten. Among the new topics are infinite product spaces with applications to probability, disintegration of measures on product spaces, positive definite functions on the line, and additional information about Weyl's theorems on equidistribution. Topics that have continued from the first edition include Minkowski's theorem, measures with bounded powers, idempotent measures, spectral sets of bounded functions and a theorem of Szego, and the Wiener Tauberian theorem. Readers of the book should have studied the Lebesgue integral, the elementary theory of analytic and harmonic functions, and the basic theory of Banach spaces. The treatment is classical and as simple as possible. This is an instructional book, not a treatise. Mathematics students interested in analysis will find here what they need to know about Fourier analysis. Physicists and others can use the book as a reference for more advanced topics.

  16. Basic Gene Grammars and DNA-ChartParser for language processing of Escherichia coli promoter DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, S; Mellish, C; Robertson, D

    2001-03-01

    The field of 'DNA linguistics' has emerged from pioneering work in computational linguistics and molecular biology. Most formal grammars in this field are expressed using Definite Clause Grammars but these have computational limitations which must be overcome. The present study provides a new DNA parsing system, comprising a logic grammar formalism called Basic Gene Grammars and a bidirectional chart parser DNA-ChartParser. The use of Basic Gene Grammars is demonstrated in representing many formulations of the knowledge of Escherichia coli promoters, including knowledge acquired from human experts, consensus sequences, statistics (weight matrices), symbolic learning, and neural network learning. The DNA-ChartParser provides bidirectional parsing facilities for BGGs in handling overlapping categories, gap categories, approximate pattern matching, and constraints. Basic Gene Grammars and the DNA-ChartParser allowed different sources of knowledge for recognizing E.coli promoters to be combined to achieve better accuracy as assessed by parsing these DNA sequences in real-world data sets.

  17. Harmonic Training and the formation of pitch representation in a neural network model of the auditory brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir eAhmad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Attempting to explain the perceptual qualities of pitch has proven to be, and remains, a difficult problem. The wide range of sounds which illicit pitch and a lack of agreement across neurophysiological studies on how pitch is encoded by the brain have made this attempt more difficult. In describing the potential neural mechanisms by which pitch may be processed, a number of neural networks have been proposed and implemented. However, no unsupervised neural networks with biologically accurate cochlear inputs have yet been demonstrated. This paper proposes a simplified system in which pitch representing neurons are easily produced under a highly biological setting. Purely unsupervised regimes of neural network learning are implemented and these prove to be sufficient in identifying the pitch of sounds with a variety of spectral profiles, including missing fundamental sounds.

  18. Phononic High Harmonic Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesan, Adarsh; Do, Cuong; Seshia, Ashwin A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the first experimental evidence for phononic low-order to high-order harmonic conversion leading to high harmonic generation. Similar to parametric resonance, phononic high harmonic generation is also mediated by a threshold dependent instability of a driven phonon mode. Once the threshold for instability is met, a cascade of harmonic generation processes is triggered. Firstly, the up-conversion of first harmonic phonons into second harmonic phonons is established. Subseque...

  19. A Learning Algorithm for Multimodal Grammar Inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ulizia, A; Ferri, F; Grifoni, P

    2011-12-01

    The high costs of development and maintenance of multimodal grammars in integrating and understanding input in multimodal interfaces lead to the investigation of novel algorithmic solutions in automating grammar generation and in updating processes. Many algorithms for context-free grammar inference have been developed in the natural language processing literature. An extension of these algorithms toward the inference of multimodal grammars is necessary for multimodal input processing. In this paper, we propose a novel grammar inference mechanism that allows us to learn a multimodal grammar from its positive samples of multimodal sentences. The algorithm first generates the multimodal grammar that is able to parse the positive samples of sentences and, afterward, makes use of two learning operators and the minimum description length metrics in improving the grammar description and in avoiding the over-generalization problem. The experimental results highlight the acceptable performances of the algorithm proposed in this paper since it has a very high probability of parsing valid sentences.

  20. A Task-driven Grammar Refactoring Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Halupka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents our proposal and the implementation of an algorithm for automated refactoring of context-free grammars. Rather than operating under some domain-specific task, in our approach refactoring is perfomed on the basis of a refactoring task defined by its user. The algorithm and the corresponding refactoring system are called mARTINICA. mARTINICA is able to refactor grammars of arbitrary size and structural complexity. However, the computation time needed to perform a refactoring task with the desired outcome is highly dependent on the size of the grammar. Until now, we have successfully performed refactoring tasks on small and medium-size grammars of Pascal-like languages and parts of the Algol-60 programming language grammar. This paper also briefly introduces the reader to processes occurring in grammar refactoring, a method for describing desired properties that a refactored grammar should fulfill, and there is a discussion of the overall significance of grammar refactoring.

  1. Procedure Of Teaching Grammar Using Memory Enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Herri Susanto

    2011-01-01

    Teaching grammar has been regarded as a process of understanding from the context. Itmeans a teacher teaches the pupils contextually more than just the rules. However, I have my ownexperience that teaching grammar methods must depend on the purposes of learning grammar. Somepeople learn grammar as a means to fulfill the syllabus needs for schools but other people learngrammar for special purposes out of school syllabus, such as for entrance test. For these reasons, themethods of teaching gram...

  2. The design and implementation of Object Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van der Storm (Tijs); W.R. Cook; A. Loh

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractAn Object Grammar is a variation on traditional BNF grammars, where the notation is extended to support declarative bidirectional mappings between text and object graphs. The two directions for interpreting Object Grammars are parsing and formatting. Parsing transforms text into an

  3. Analyzing Ambiguity of Context-Free Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Giegerich, Robert; Møller, Anders

    2010-01-01

    It has been known since 1962 that the ambiguity problem for context-free grammars is undecidable. Ambiguity in context-free grammars is a recurring problem in language design and parser generation, as well as in applications where grammars are used as models of real-world physical structures. We ...

  4. Written Language Performance Following Embedded Grammar Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Gingere; Norris, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This study explored whether presenting grammar instruction within the context of reading and writing would improve writing skills. The participating schools were using a traditional grammar instruction in which grammar lessons were predominately taught using worksheets and were presented separately from other reading and writing activities. This…

  5. Reframing the English Grammar Schools Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Rebecca; Perry, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In October 2015 the Department for Education (DfE) permitted a grammar school in Tonbridge, Kent, to open up an annexe in Sevenoaks, 10 miles away. Amidst claims that the annexe was essentially a new grammar school, the decision reignited an old debate about the value of academically-selective "grammar" schools in England. The intensity…

  6. Analyzing Ambiguity of Context-Free Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Giegerich, Robert; Møller, Anders

    2007-01-01

    It has been known since 1962 that the ambiguity problem for context-free grammars is undecidable. Ambiguity in context-free grammars is a recurring problem in language design and parser generation, as well as in applications where grammars are used as models of real-world physical structures. We...

  7. Analyzing Ambiguity of Context-Free Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Giegerich, Robert; Møller, Anders

    2010-01-01

    It has been known since 1962 that the ambiguity problem for context-free grammars is undecidable. Ambiguity in context-free grammars is a recurring problem in language design and parser generation, as well as in applications where grammars are used as models of real-world physical structures. We...

  8. The Grammars of English and Curriculum Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Joe Darwin

    This study summarizes the kinds of English grammar currently taught in American secondary schools and describes the effects of curriculum proposals by scholars upon the teaching of language and composition. A survey of grammar from classical Greek and Roman times to the present precedes a description of specific types of grammar (e.g.,…

  9. On the covering of left recursive grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Aho, A.V.

    In this paper we show that some prevailing ideas on the elimination of left recursion in a context-free grammar are not valid. An algorithm and a proof are given to show that every proper context-free grammar is covered by a non-left-recursive grammar.

  10. Teaching Grammar as a Liberating Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The idea of grammar as a "liberating force" comes from a paper by Henry Widdowson (1990) in which grammar is depicted as a resource which liberates the language user from an over-dependency on lexis and context for the expression of meaning. In this paper, I consider the implications for second language teaching of the notion of grammar as a…

  11. Drama Grammar: Towards a Performative Postmethod Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the original concept of drama grammar, the synthesis of grammar instruction and drama pedagogy, which integrates both structural and communicative paradigms through a dialectic combination of acting and linguistic analysis. Based on the principles of drama pedagogy, drama grammar makes use of techniques from the performing…

  12. French grammar you really need to know

    CERN Document Server

    Adamson, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive and clear explanations of key grammar patterns and structures are reinforced and contextualized through authentic materials. You will not only learn how to construct grammar correctly, but when and where to use it so you sound natural and appropriate. French Grammar You Really Need to Know will help you gain the intuition you need to become a confident communicator in your new language.

  13. HARMONIC DRIVE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr FOLĘGA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The variety of types and sizes currently in production harmonic drive is a problem in their rational choice. Properly selected harmonic drive must meet certain requirements during operation, and achieve the anticipated service life. The paper discusses the problems associated with the selection of the harmonic drive. It also presents the algorithm correct choice of harmonic drive. The main objective of this study was to develop a computer program that allows the correct choice of harmonic drive by developed algorithm.

  14. Procedure Of Teaching Grammar Using Memory Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herri Susanto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Teaching grammar has been regarded as a process of understanding from the context. It means a teacher teaches the pupils contextually more than just the rules. However, I have my own experience that teaching grammar methods must depend on the purposes of learning grammar. Some people learn grammar as a means to fulfill the syllabus needs for schools but other people learn grammar for special purposes out of school syllabus, such as for entrance test. For these reasons, the methods of teaching grammar should be different. The students who learn grammar based on the school syllabus probably needs longer procedure of learning that usually uses contextual teaching through listening, speaking, writing, and reading. Nevertheless, students who learn grammar for test need shorter procedure of learning such as memorizing. Therefore, I propose giving a workshop of teaching grammar using memory enhancement as another alternative teaching grammar method. This workshop would show the class that grammar can be learnt through memory enhancement process, i.e.; mind map, music, memory technique and drill to boost up students understanding for test preparation.

  15. Harmonic polynomials, hyperspherical harmonics, and atomic spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, John Scales

    2010-01-01

    The properties of monomials, homogeneous polynomials and harmonic polynomials in d-dimensional spaces are discussed. The properties are shown to lead to formulas for the canonical decomposition of homogeneous polynomials and formulas for harmonic projection. Many important properties of spherical harmonics, Gegenbauer polynomials and hyperspherical harmonics follow from these formulas. Harmonic projection also provides alternative ways of treating angular momentum and generalised angular momentum. Several powerful theorems for angular integration and hyperangular integration can be derived in this way. These purely mathematical considerations have important physical applications because hyperspherical harmonics are related to Coulomb Sturmians through the Fock projection, and because both Sturmians and generalised Sturmians have shown themselves to be extremely useful in the quantum theory of atoms and molecules.

  16. Notation-Parametric Grammar Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Zaytsev (Vadim); A.M. Sloane; S. Andova

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractAutomation of grammar recovery is an important research area that received attention over the last decade and a half. Given the abundance of available documentation for software languages that is only going to keep increasing in the future, there is need for reliable extraction

  17. Teachers' Theories in Grammar Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Simon

    1999-01-01

    Considers how research into researchers' theories in English language teaching (ELT) can enhance our understanding of instruction and provide the basis of effective teacher-development work. The nature of teachers' theories is illustrated with examples from classroom research on grammar teaching. Discusses a study conducted with five…

  18. GRAMMAR CONSTRUCTION OR PIECEMEAL LEARNING?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    language learning quite often falls far short of complete mastery and is typically non-uniform across learners. The failure of second language learners to achieve ..... At school she received explicit grammar instruction, the emphasis was on vocabulary, reading and writing, and English was frequently used in the classroom.

  19. A Carib grammar and dictionary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Courtz, Hendrik

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation contains a new detailed description of Carib grammar and the most extensive inventory of Carib lexemes and affixes so far. It is based on the work of previous researchers and a decade of field work carried out by the author, mainly in Galibi, a Carib village in eastern

  20. REFERENCE GRAMMAR OF LITERARY DHIMOTIKI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HOUSEHOLDER, FRED W.; AND OTHERS

    BASED ON A TRADITIONAL APPROACH, THIS REFERENCE GRAMMAR OF LITERARY DHIMOTIKI IS DESIGNED TO BE MOST USEFUL TO ADVANCED UNDERGRADUATES OR BEGINNING GRADUATE STUDENTS OF GREEK. (DHIMOTIKI, OR DEMOTIC, IS THE POPULAR FORM OF MODERN GREEK.) IN PART I THERE IS AN EXTENSIVE DESCRIPTION OF THE PHONOLOGICAL SYSTEM FOLLOWED BY A DISCUSSION OF THE WRITING…

  1. Strictness Analysis for Attribute Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1992-01-01

    Attribute grammars may be seen as a (rather specialised) lazy or demand-driven programming language. The ``programs'' in this language take text or parse trees as input and return values of the synthesised attributes to the root as output. From this observation we establish a framework for abstract...

  2. Learnable Classes of Categorial Grammars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Makoto

    Learnability theory is an attempt to illuminate the concept of learnability using a mathematical model of learning. Two models of learning of categorial grammars are examined here: the standard model, in which sentences presented to the learner are flat strings of words, and one in which sentences are presented in the form of functor-argument…

  3. Kent Sakoda Discusses Pidgin Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakoda, Kent; Tamura, Eileen H.

    2008-01-01

    For a number of years, Kent Sakoda has been teaching at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa in the Department of Second Language Studies. His course, "Pidgin and Creole English in Hawai'i," is popular among students on campus. He has also taught at Hawai'i Pacific University. Because of his expertise on the grammar of Pidgin (Hawai'i…

  4. Reduction of Harmonics by 18-Pulse Rectifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Kocman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Operation of such electrical devices as data processing and electronics devices, adjustable speed drives or uninterruptible power supply can cause problems by generating harmonic currents into the network, from which they are supplied. Effects of these harmonic currents are various, they can get worse the quality of supply voltage in the network or to have negative influences on devices connected to this network. There are various technical solutions for reduction of harmonics. One of them is using of multi-pulse rectifiers, whereas the 18-pulse rectifier in the structure of adjustable speed drive is briefly presented in this paper including some results of its behaviour. The examined experimental measurements confirmed its very good efficiency in the harmonic mitigation.

  5. Network global navigation satellite system survey to harmonize water-surface elevation data for the Rainy River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegeweid, Jeffrey R.; Silliker, R. Jason; Densmore, Brenda K.; Krahulik, Justin

    2016-08-15

    Continuously recording water-level streamgages in Rainy Lake and Namakan Reservoir are used to regulate water levels according to rule curves established in 2000 by the International Joint Commission; however, water levels at streamgages were referenced to a variety of vertical datums, confounding efforts to model the flow of water through the system, regulate water levels during periods of high inflow, and evaluate the effectiveness of the rule curves. In October 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey, Natural Resources Canada, International Joint Commission, and National Park Service began a joint field study with the goal of obtaining precise elevations referenced to a uniform vertical datum for all reference marks used to set water levels at streamgages throughout Rainy Lake and Namakan Reservoir. This report was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Natural Resources Canada, International Joint Commission, and National Park Service.Three field crews deployed Global Navigation Satellite System receivers statically over 16 reference marks colocated with active and discontinued water-level streamgages throughout Rainy River, Rainy Lake, Namakan Reservoir, and select tributaries of Rainy Lake and Namakan Reservoir. A Global Navigation Satellite System receiver also was deployed statically over a National Geodetic Survey cooperative base network control station for use as a quality-control reference mark. Satellite data were collected simultaneously during a 5-day period and processed independently by the U.S. Geological Survey and Natural Resources Canada to obtain accurate positioning and elevations for the 17 surveyed reference marks. Processed satellite data were used to convert published water levels to elevations above sea level referenced to the Canadian Geodetic Vertical Datum of 2013 in order to compare water-surface elevations referenced to a uniform vertical datum throughout the study area. In this report, an “offset” refers to the

  6. Grammar Teaching Revisited: EFL Teachers between Grammar Abstinence and Formal Grammar Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Ahmad; Allahyar, Negah

    2012-01-01

    The study of English language teachers' cognitions and its relationship to teachers' classroom practices have recently been the focus of language teaching and teacher education (Borg, 2006 & 2010). However, rarely have the studies delved into teachers' knowledge about grammar (reviewed by Borg, 2001) or investigated the relationships between…

  7. Harmonic Morphisms Projecting Harmonic Functions to Harmonic Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    For Riemannian manifolds $M$ and $N$ , admitting a submersion $\\varphi $ with compact fibres, we introduce the projection of a function via its decomposition intohorizontal and vertical components. By comparing the Laplacians on $M$ and $N$ , we determine conditions under which a harmonic function on $U={\\varphi }^{-1}(V)\\subset M$ projects down, via its horizontal component, to a harmonic function on $V\\subset N$ .

  8. Adaptive harmonic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemink, Arnold; de Jong, B.; Prins, Harrie

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new approach to the harmonic analysis of the tide. For a number of reasons the harmonic constants are not really constant but vary slowly in time. Therefore, we introduce a narrow-band noise process to model the time-varying behaviour of these harmonic parameters.

  9. Multiword Constructions in the Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culicover, Peter W; Jackendoff, Ray; Audring, Jenny

    2017-07-01

    There is ample evidence that speakers' linguistic knowledge extends well beyond what can be described in terms of rules of compositional interpretation stated over combinations of single words. We explore a range of multiword constructions (MWCs) to get a handle both on the extent of the phenomenon and on the grammatical constraints that may govern it. We consider idioms of various sorts, collocations, compounds, light verbs, syntactic nuts, and assorted other constructions, as well as morphology. Our conclusion is that MWCs highlight the central role that grammar plays in licensing MWCs in the lexicon and the creation of novel MWCs, and they help to clarify how the lexicon articulates with the rest of the grammar. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. Technical Note: Harmonized retrieval of column-integrated atmospheric water vapor from the FTIR network - first examples for long-term records and station trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussmann, R.; Borsdorff, T.; Rettinger, M.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Demoulin, P.; Duchatelet, P.; Mahieu, E.; Servais, C.

    2009-11-01

    We present a method for harmonized retrieval of integrated water vapor (IWV) from existing, long-term, measurement records at the ground-based mid-infrared solar FTIR spectrometry stations of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). Correlation of IWV from FTIR with radiosondes shows an ideal slope of 1.00(3). This optimum matching is achieved via tuning one FTIR retrieval parameter, i.e., the strength of a Tikhonov regularization constraining the derivative (with respect to height) of retrieved water profiles given in per cent difference relative to an a priori profile. All other FTIR-sonde correlation parameters (intercept=0.02(12) mm, bias=0.02(5) mm, standard deviation of coincident IWV differences (stdv)=0.27 mm, R=0.99) are comparable to or better than results for all other ground-based IWV sounding techniques given in the literature. An FTIR-FTIR side-by-side intercomparison reveals a strong exponential increase in stdv as a function of increasing temporal mismatch starting at Δt≍1 min. This is due to atmospheric water vapor variability. Based on this result we derive an upper limit for the precision of the FTIR IWV retrieval for the smallest Δt(=3.75 min) still giving a statistically sufficient sample (32 coincidences), i.e., precision(IWVFTIR)bias of the IWV retrievals from the two different FTIR instruments is nearly negligible (0.02(1) mm). The optimized FTIR IWV retrieval is set up in the standard NDACC algorithm SFIT 2 without changes to the code. A concept for harmonized transfer of the retrieval between different stations deals with all relevant control parameters; it includes correction for differing spectral point spacings (via regularization strength), and final quality selection of the retrievals (excluding the highest residuals (measurement minus model), 5% of the total). As first application examples long-term IWV data sets are retrieved from the FTIR records of the Zugspitze (47.4° N, 11.0° E, 2964 m a

  11. Verbal prefixation, construction grammar, and semantic compatibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewandowski, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    ’s Construction Grammar and Langacker’s Cognitive Grammar approach and show that resultative prefixes are not abstract syntactic features, but rather that each prefixed change-of-state construction is based on a specific configuration between the locatum and the location. I demonstrate that the interaction...... between resultative prefixes, alternating verbs, and the more abstract change-of-state variant is driven by semantic coherence. Keywords: resultative prefixes, construction grammar, semantic coherence, locative alternation, Polish...

  12. Grammar Games: A Case for Instructionist Game Models to Enhance Grammar Awareness and Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Brian; Santos, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Based on our own experiences teaching grammar in developmental writing classes and classes not dedicated to writing instruction, along with a history of scholarship that indicates a need for grammar pedagogies (e.g., Dougherty, 2012), instructor-designed grammar games can likely help facilitate learning about these mechanics of writing while…

  13. The minimalist grammar of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastra, Katerina; Aloimonos, Yiannis

    2012-01-12

    Language and action have been found to share a common neural basis and in particular a common 'syntax', an analogous hierarchical and compositional organization. While language structure analysis has led to the formulation of different grammatical formalisms and associated discriminative or generative computational models, the structure of action is still elusive and so are the related computational models. However, structuring action has important implications on action learning and generalization, in both human cognition research and computation. In this study, we present a biologically inspired generative grammar of action, which employs the structure-building operations and principles of Chomsky's Minimalist Programme as a reference model. In this grammar, action terminals combine hierarchically into temporal sequences of actions of increasing complexity; the actions are bound with the involved tools and affected objects and are governed by certain goals. We show, how the tool role and the affected-object role of an entity within an action drives the derivation of the action syntax in this grammar and controls recursion, merge and move, the latter being mechanisms that manifest themselves not only in human language, but in human action too.

  14. The minimalist grammar of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastra, Katerina; Aloimonos, Yiannis

    2012-01-01

    Language and action have been found to share a common neural basis and in particular a common ‘syntax’, an analogous hierarchical and compositional organization. While language structure analysis has led to the formulation of different grammatical formalisms and associated discriminative or generative computational models, the structure of action is still elusive and so are the related computational models. However, structuring action has important implications on action learning and generalization, in both human cognition research and computation. In this study, we present a biologically inspired generative grammar of action, which employs the structure-building operations and principles of Chomsky's Minimalist Programme as a reference model. In this grammar, action terminals combine hierarchically into temporal sequences of actions of increasing complexity; the actions are bound with the involved tools and affected objects and are governed by certain goals. We show, how the tool role and the affected-object role of an entity within an action drives the derivation of the action syntax in this grammar and controls recursion, merge and move, the latter being mechanisms that manifest themselves not only in human language, but in human action too. PMID:22106430

  15. INCORPORATING GRAMMAR INTO TRANSLATION CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurendi Wiwoho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the teaching of translation. It is important to lay a strong foundation in translating for the second year students of English Department. The main goal of this study is to identify and improve students‘ grammar awareness and their grammatical adjustment ability especially in translating Indonesian sentences and short paragraphs into English. The data used in this study were students‘ translation assignments in Translation I course at the English Department of the Favulty of Languages and Culture, University of 17 Agustus 1945 Semarang, academic year 2015-2016. The findings of the research showed that the second year students still made a lot of grammatical mistakes especially in translating Indonesian sentences and short paragraphs into English. The greatest problem faced by the students was related with the use of verbs and tenses, followed by other problems related with the use of parts of speech and function words. This implies that incorporating grammar in teaching translation is important, in which students‘ awareness and knowledge of grammar should be taken with care. Therefore, in addition to these findings, a general model of grammatical instruction in translation teaching was presented to be useful for translation teachers.

  16. A Concise Contrastive Grammar of English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjulmand, Lise-Lotte

    Like the first edition, this second revised edition of the workbook is intended to be used together with A Concise Contrastive Grammar of English for Danish Students, which is a systematic and pedagogical introduction to English grammar for Danish students of English at bachelor level. The purpose...... of the workbook is to supply students and teachers with material which can be used in connection with the study of grammar. The workbook is organised so that each chapter in the grammar book matches a chapter in the workbook. There are exercises of many different kinds in the workbook. Some aim at explanation...

  17. Flexible processing and the design of grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sag, Ivan A; Wasow, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    We explore the consequences of letting the incremental and integrative nature of language processing inform the design of competence grammar. What emerges is a view of grammar as a system of local monotonic constraints that provide a direct characterization of the signs (the form-meaning correspondences) of a given language. This "sign-based" conception of grammar has provided precise solutions to the key problems long thought to motivate movement-based analyses, has supported three decades of computational research developing large-scale grammar implementations, and is now beginning to play a role in computational psycholinguistics research that explores the use of underspecification in the incremental computation of partial meanings.

  18. Product Grammars for Alignment and Folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höner Zu Siederdissen, Christian; Hofacker, Ivo L; Stadler, Peter F

    2015-01-01

    We develop a theory of algebraic operations over linear and context-free grammars that makes it possible to combine simple "atomic" grammars operating on single sequences into complex, multi-dimensional grammars. We demonstrate the utility of this framework by constructing the search spaces of complex alignment problems on multiple input sequences explicitly as algebraic expressions of very simple one-dimensional grammars. In particular, we provide a fully worked frameshift-aware, semiglobal DNA-protein alignment algorithm whose grammar is composed of products of small, atomic grammars. The compiler accompanying our theory makes it easy to experiment with the combination of multiple grammars and different operations. Composite grammars can be written out in L(A)T(E)X for documentation and as a guide to implementation of dynamic programming algorithms. An embedding in Haskell as a domain-specific language makes the theory directly accessible to writing and using grammar products without the detour of an external compiler. Software and supplemental files available here: http://www.bioinf. uni-leipzig.de/Software/gramprod/.

  19. Harmonic function theory

    CERN Document Server

    Axler, Sheldon; Ramey, Wade

    2013-01-01

    This is a book about harmonic functions in Euclidean space. Readers with a background in real and complex analysis at the beginning graduate level will feel comfortable with the material presented here. The authors have taken unusual care to motivate concepts and simplify proofs. Topics include: basic properties of harmonic functions, Poisson integrals, the Kelvin transform, spherical harmonics, harmonic Hardy spaces, harmonic Bergman spaces, the decomposition theorem, Laurent expansions, isolated singularities, and the Dirichlet problem. The new edition contains a completely rewritten chapter on spherical harmonics, a new section on extensions of Bocher's Theorem, new exercises and proofs, as well as revisions throughout to improve the text. A unique software package-designed by the authors and available by e-mail - supplements the text for readers who wish to explore harmonic function theory on a computer.

  20. Technical Note: Harmonized retrieval of column-integrated atmospheric water vapor from the FTIR network – first examples for long-term records and station trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Servais

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a method for harmonized retrieval of integrated water vapor (IWV from existing, long-term, measurement records at the ground-based mid-infrared solar FTIR spectrometry stations of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC. Correlation of IWV from FTIR with radiosondes shows an ideal slope of 1.00(3. This optimum matching is achieved via tuning one FTIR retrieval parameter, i.e., the strength of a Tikhonov regularization constraining the derivative (with respect to height of retrieved water profiles given in per cent difference relative to an a priori profile. All other FTIR-sonde correlation parameters (intercept=0.02(12 mm, bias=0.02(5 mm, standard deviation of coincident IWV differences (stdv=0.27 mm, R=0.99 are comparable to or better than results for all other ground-based IWV sounding techniques given in the literature. An FTIR-FTIR side-by-side intercomparison reveals a strong exponential increase in stdv as a function of increasing temporal mismatch starting at Δt≈1 min. This is due to atmospheric water vapor variability. Based on this result we derive an upper limit for the precision of the FTIR IWV retrieval for the smallest Δt(=3.75 min still giving a statistically sufficient sample (32 coincidences, i.e., precision(IWVFTIR As first application examples long-term IWV data sets are retrieved from the FTIR records of the Zugspitze (47.4° N, 11.0° E, 2964 m a.s.l. and Jungfraujoch (46.5° N, 8.0° E, 3580 m a.s.l. NDACC sites. Station-trend analysis comprises a linear fit after subtracting an intra-annual model (3 Fourier components and constructing an uncertainty interval [95% confidence] via bootstrap resampling. For the Zugspitze a significant trend of 0.79 [0.65, 0.92] mm/decade is found for the time interval [1996–2008], whereas for the Jungfraujoch no significant trend is found. This confirms recent findings that strong variations of IWV trends do occur above land on the local to

  1. Missed periods and other grammar scares how to avoid unplanned and unwanted grammar errors

    CERN Document Server

    Baranick, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    Grammar has finally let its hair down! Unlike uptight grammar books that overwhelm us with every single grammar rule, Missed Periods and Other Grammar Scares is like a bikini: it's fun, flirty, and covers only the most important bits. Its lessons, which are 100 percent free of complicated grammar jargon, have been carefully selected to include today's most common, noticeable errors-the ones that confuse our readers or make them wonder if we are, in fact, smarter than a fifth grader. What is the proper use of an apostrophe? When should an ellipsis be used instead of an em dash? Why do we capita

  2. Constructing functional programs for grammar analysis problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, J.T.; Swierstra, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the derivation of functional programs for grammar analysis problems, such as the Empty problem and the Reachable problem. Grammar analysis problems can be divided into two classes: top-down problems such as Follow and Reachable, which are described in terms of the contexts of

  3. Studying Grammar in the Technological Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    2012-01-01

    When being a student in grade school as well as in high school (1934-1946), grammar was heavily emphasized in English/language arts classes, particularly in grades four through the senior year in high school. Evidently, teachers and school administrators then saw a theoretical way to assist pupils in writing achievement. Grammar and writing were…

  4. Towards a Pedagogy of Grammar Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jack C.; Reppen, Randi

    2014-01-01

    Grammar can be viewed both as knowledge and as ability. When viewed as knowledge, the focus is on rules for sentence formation. When viewed as ability, the focus is on how grammar is used as a resource in the creation of spoken and written texts. Twelve principles are proposed as the basis for a pedagogy that focusses on acquiring learning to use…

  5. Flexible Processing and the Design of Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sag, Ivan A.; Wasow, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We explore the consequences of letting the incremental and integrative nature of language processing inform the design of competence grammar. What emerges is a view of grammar as a system of local monotonic constraints that provide a direct characterization of the signs (the form-meaning correspondences) of a given language. This…

  6. in the grammar of student writing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Natal, Durban. Explicit teaching of grammar and improvement in the grammar of student writing. ABSTRACT. This article focuses on the question of whether formal teaching of grammatical constructions results in a change in ESL students' written use of these constructions.

  7. Parsing with Structure-Preserving Categorial Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelletti, M.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a study of the logical and computational properties of structure-preserving categorial grammars. The first part of the book presents chart-parsers for non-associative categorial grammars in the style of Ajdukiewicz and Bar-Hillel. These are proposed in Chapter 3 as deductive parsers,

  8. Reading and Grammar Learning through Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shudong; Smith, Simon

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing language-learning project, three years into its development. We examine both the feasibility and the limitations of developing English reading and grammar skills through the interface of mobile phones. Throughout the project, reading and grammar materials were regularly sent to students' mobile phones. Students read…

  9. Grammar-Guided Writing for AAC Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunnicutt, Sheri; Magnuson, Tina

    2007-01-01

    A method of grammar-guided writing has been devised to guide graphic sign users through the construction of text messages for use in e-mail and other applications with a remote receiver. The purpose is to promote morphologically and syntactically correct sentences. The available grammatical structures in grammar-guided writing are the highest…

  10. Chamorro Reference Grammar. Pali Language Texts: Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Donald M.; Dungca, Bernadita C.

    This detailed reference grammar of Chamorro, the native Malayo-Polynesian language spoken in Guam and the other Mariana Islands (Saipan, Rota, Tinian), differs from earlier grammars of the language in that: (1) it includes new data; (2) it offers a different interpretation of some of the data based on more recent linguistic concepts; and (3) it is…

  11. Teaching english grammar through interactive methods

    OpenAIRE

    Aminova N.

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted for the effective ways of teaching grammar. Actuality of the theme is justified as it sets conditions for revealing high progress in teaching a foreign language and for developing effective methods which can be helpful for foreign language teachers. Different progressive methods of teaching English grammar are given in this paper as well.

  12. From Attribute Grammars to Constraint Handling Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano Mena, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/41124115X; Hage, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/229637221

    2016-01-01

    Attribute grammars provide a framework to de ne compu- tations over trees, by decorating those trees with attributes. Attribute grammars have been successfully applied in many areas, including compiler construction and natural language processing. In this paper we present a translation of attribute

  13. Grammar and Usage: History and Myth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Ken

    2010-01-01

    The paper first traces the history of thinking about language from the Greek writers of the fifth century BC to the development of the first Greek grammar in about 100 BC. Since the glories of Ancient Greek literature predate the development of grammar, there is every reason to doubt the received wisdom that one must have an explicit knowledge of…

  14. Controlled Iteration Grammars and Hyper-AFL's

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.

    1975-01-01

    We study $K$-iteration grammars equiped with a control on the application sequence of the substitutions, called $(\\Gamma,K)$-iteration grammars. In fact, the control is a language over the indices of the substitutions, prescribing the specific order in which one has to apply the different

  15. A Prototype Grammar Kit in Prolog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Kenneth M.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a prototype of a computerized grammar kit written in PROLOG and designed for children interested in exploring language. PROLOG's advantages for building parsers, generators, translators, and question-answering systems are discussed, and a scenario of a child working on a grammar project using the kit and implementation issues are…

  16. Generalized Categorial Grammar for Unbounded Dependencies Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Luan Viet

    2014-01-01

    Accurate recovery of predicate-argument dependencies is vital for interpretation tasks like information extraction and question answering, and unbounded dependencies may account for a significant portion of the dependencies in any given text. This thesis describes a Generalized Categorial Grammar (GCG) which, like other categorial grammars,…

  17. Shape Grammars for Innovative Hybrid Typological Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-kazzaz, Dhuha; Bridges, Alan; Chase, Scott Curland

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a new methodology of deriving innovative hybrid designs using shape grammars of heterogeneous designs. The method is detailed within three phases of shape grammars: analysis, synthesis and evaluation. In the analysis phase, the research suggests that original rules of each de...

  18. HIGHER ORDER THINKING IN TEACHING GRAMMAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Citra Dewi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper discussed about how to enhance students’ higher order thinking that should be done by teacher in teaching grammar. Usually teaching grammar was boring and has the same way to learn like change the pattern of sentence into positive, negative and introgative while the students’ need more various way to develop their thinking. The outcome of students’ competence in grammar sometimes not sufficient enough when the students’ occured some test international standart like Test of English Foreign Language, International English Language Testing. Whereas in TOEFL test it needed higher order thinking answer, so teacher should develop students’ higher order thingking in daily teaching grammar in order to make the students’ enhance their thinking are higher. The method was used in this paper by using field study based on the experience of teaching grammar. It can be shown by students’ toefl score was less in stucture and written expression. The result of this paper was after teacher gave some treatments to enhance students’ higher order thinking in teaching grammar, the students’ toefl scores are sufficient enough as a part of stucture and written expression. It can concluded that it needed some strategies to enhancce students higher order thinking by teaching grammar it can make students’ higher toefl score. Teachers should be creative and inovative to teach the students’ started from giving the students’ question or test in teaching grammar.

  19. Student Teacher Beliefs on Grammar Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graus, Johan; Coppen, Peter-Arno

    2016-01-01

    The role of grammar teaching in foreign language education is a controversial one both in second language acquisition (SLA) research and language pedagogy and, as a result, a potential source of confusion to student teachers. The objective of this study was to gain insight into the beliefs on grammar teaching of student teachers of English as a…

  20. Research into Practice: Grammar Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This selective review of the second language acquisition and applied linguistics research literature on grammar learning and teaching falls into three categories: where research has had little impact (the non-interface position), modest impact (form-focused instruction), and where it potentially can have a large impact (reconceiving grammar).…

  1. Video Game Based Learning in English Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singaravelu, G.

    2008-01-01

    The study enlightens the effectiveness of Video Game Based Learning in English Grammar at standard VI. A Video Game package was prepared and it consisted of self-learning activities in play way manner which attracted the minds of the young learners. Chief objective: Find out the effectiveness of Video-Game based learning in English grammar.…

  2. Process Grammar The Basis of Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Leyton, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Leyton's Process Grammar has been applied by scientists and engineers in many disciplines including medical diagnosis, geology, computer-aided design, meteorology, biological anatomy, neuroscience, chemical engineering, etc.  This book demonstrates the following: The Process Grammar invents several entirely new concepts in biological morphology and manufacturing design, and shows that these concepts are fundamentally important. The Process Grammar has process-inference rules that give, to morphological transitions, powerful new causal explanations.  Remarkably, the book gives a profound unification of biological morphology and vehicle design. The book invents over 30 new CAD operations that realize fundamentally important functions of a product. A crucial fact is that the Process Grammar is an example of the laws in Leyton's Generative Theory of Shape which give the ability to recover the design intents for which the shape features of a CAD model were created. The book demonstrates that the Process Grammar ...

  3. Modality effects in implicit Artificial Grammar Learning: an EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Susana; Folia, Vasiliki; Inácio, Filomena; Castro, São Luís; Petersson, Karl Magnus

    2018-02-21

    Recently, it has been proposed that sequence learning engages a combination of modality-specific operating networks and modality-independent computational principles. In the present study, we compared the behavioural and EEG outcomes of implicit artificial grammar learning in the visual vs. auditory modality. We controlled for the influence of surface characteristics of sequences (Associative Chunk Strength), thus focusing on the strictly structural aspects of sequence learning, and we adapted the paradigms to compensate for known frailties of the visual modality compared to audition (temporal presentation, fast presentation rate). The behavioural outcomes were similar across modalities. Favouring the idea of modality-specificity, ERPs in response to grammar violations differed in topography and latency (earlier and more anterior component in the visual modality), and ERPs in response to surface features emerged only in the auditory modality. In favour of modality-independence, we observed three common functional properties in the late ERPs of the two grammars: both were free of interactions between structural and surface influences, both were more extended in a grammaticality classification test than in a preference classification test, and both correlated positively and strongly with theta event-related-synchronization during baseline testing. Our findings support the idea of modality-specificity combined with modality-independence, and suggest that memory for visual vs. auditory sequences may largely contribute to cross-modal differences. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Harmonic Analysis and Active Filtering in Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay Kumar; Freijedo Fernandez, Francisco Daniel; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    at the point of common coupling (PCC). The resonance conditions should be avoided in all cases. This paper describes the harmonic analysis techniques applied on an OWPP network model. A method is proposed to estimate the harmonic current compensation from a shunt-connected active power filter to mitigate......Due to presence of long high voltage cable networks, and power transformers for the grid connection, the offshore wind power plants (OWPPs) are susceptible to harmonic distortion and resonances. The grid connection of OWPP should not cause the harmonic distortion beyond the permissible limits...... the harmonic voltage distortion at the PCC. Finally the harmonic distortions in the compensated and the uncompensated systems are compared to demonstrate the efficacy of the compensation....

  5. An Analysis of Spoken Grammar: The Case for Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Corpus-based grammars, notably "Cambridge Grammar of English," give explicit information on the forms and use of native-speaker grammar, including spoken grammar. Native-speaker norms as a necessary goal in language teaching are contested by supporters of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF); however, this article argues for the inclusion of selected…

  6. Pourquoi les exercices de grammaire? (Why Grammar Exercises?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastuji, Jacqueline

    1977-01-01

    Recent theories and experiementation running the gamut from the absolute necessity of grammar to its uselessness in teaching a language form the basis of this article. Topics covered are: a typology of the grammar exercise; explicit grammar and linguistic competence; grammar exercises responding to real needs. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  7. Explicit and Implicit Grammar Instructions in Higher Learning Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Ayuni Madarina Abdul; Rashid, Radzuwan Ab

    2017-01-01

    Two universally accepted approaches to grammar instruction are explicit and implicit teaching of the grammar. Both approaches have their own strengths and limitations. Educators may face a dilemma whether to teach grammar explicitly or implicitly. This paper aims to provide insights into the educators' beliefs towards grammar teaching in Malaysian…

  8. A Survey of Grammar Instruction from Scholastic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yanghua

    2017-01-01

    The study of grammar has been paid much attention and the grammar instruction becomes an emphasis and key problem in English language teaching and learning. How to instruct students grammar appropriately becomes controversial for some English teachers increasingly. Some linguistics, theorists and teachers hold that the grammar instruction should…

  9. English Grammar and Thai University Students: An Insurmountable Linguistic Battle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengboon, Saksit

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating English grammar knowledge of a group of Thai university students. The three main research questions revolved around their knowledge of English grammar, the kinds of difficulties they had encountered in using the grammar as well as their perceptions of the roles of grammar in using English. The participants were…

  10. Using a Linguistic Theory of Humour in Teaching English Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulmajeed, Rufaidah Kamal; Hameed, Sarab Khalil

    2017-01-01

    Teachers who teach a new language grammar do not usually have the time and the proper situation to introduce humour when starting a new topic in grammar. There are many different opinions about teaching grammar. Many teachers seem to believe in the importance of grammar lessons devoted to a study of language rules and practical exercises. Other…

  11. Ambiguity Detection Methods for Context-Free Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.S. Basten (Bas)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe Meta-Environment enables the creation of grammars using the SDF formalism. From these grammars an SGLR parser can be generated. One of the advantages of these parsers is that they can handle the entire class of context-free grammars (CFGs). The grammar developer does not have to

  12. LED lamp modelling for harmonic studies in distribution systems

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Julio; Mesas García, Juan José; Mesbahi, Nadhir; Sainz Sapera, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Energy saving policies have boosted the use of light emitting diode (LED) lamps in distribution networks. These lamps are non-linear loads which inject harmonic currents into the distribution system, which has led to a decrease in the system power quality. Study of the modelling of these lamps would allow the prediction of harmonic emissions into distribution systems. This study presents a frequency-domain LED lamp model for harmonic emission calculation, together with a simple estimation pro...

  13. Unsupervised grammar induction of clinical report sublanguage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kate, Rohit J

    2012-10-05

    Clinical reports are written using a subset of natural language while employing many domain-specific terms; such a language is also known as a sublanguage for a scientific or a technical domain. Different genres of clinical reports use different sublaguages, and in addition, different medical facilities use different medical language conventions. This makes supervised training of a parser for clinical sentences very difficult as it would require expensive annotation effort to adapt to every type of clinical text. In this paper, we present an unsupervised method which automatically induces a grammar and a parser for the sublanguage of a given genre of clinical reports from a corpus with no annotations. In order to capture sentence structures specific to clinical domains, the grammar is induced in terms of semantic classes of clinical terms in addition to part-of-speech tags. Our method induces grammar by minimizing the combined encoding cost of the grammar and the corresponding sentence derivations. The probabilities for the productions of the induced grammar are then learned from the unannotated corpus using an instance of the expectation-maximization algorithm. Our experiments show that the induced grammar is able to parse novel sentences. Using a dataset of discharge summary sentences with no annotations, our method obtains 60.5% F-measure for parse-bracketing on sentences of maximum length 10. By varying a parameter, the method can induce a range of grammars, from very specific to very general, and obtains the best performance in between the two extremes.

  14. Modelling dynamics with context-free grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Huerta, Juan-M.; Jiménez-Hernández, Hugo; Herrera-Navarro, Ana-M.; Hernández-Díaz, Teresa; Terol-Villalobos, Ivan

    2014-03-01

    This article presents a strategy to model the dynamics performed by vehicles in a freeway. The proposal consists on encode the movement as a set of finite states. A watershed-based segmentation is used to localize regions with high-probability of motion. Each state represents a proportion of a camera projection in a two-dimensional space, where each state is associated to a symbol, such that any combination of symbols is expressed as a language. Starting from a sequence of symbols through a linear algorithm a free-context grammar is inferred. This grammar represents a hierarchical view of common sequences observed into the scene. Most probable grammar rules express common rules associated to normal movement behavior. Less probable rules express themselves a way to quantify non-common behaviors and they might need more attention. Finally, all sequences of symbols that does not match with the grammar rules, may express itself uncommon behaviors (abnormal). The grammar inference is built with several sequences of images taken from a freeway. Testing process uses the sequence of symbols emitted by the scenario, matching the grammar rules with common freeway behaviors. The process of detect abnormal/normal behaviors is managed as the task of verify if any word generated by the scenario is recognized by the grammar.

  15. ANTLR Tree Grammar Generator and Extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craymer, Loring

    2005-01-01

    A computer program implements two extensions of ANTLR (Another Tool for Language Recognition), which is a set of software tools for translating source codes between different computing languages. ANTLR supports predicated- LL(k) lexer and parser grammars, a notation for annotating parser grammars to direct tree construction, and predicated tree grammars. [ LL(k) signifies left-right, leftmost derivation with k tokens of look-ahead, referring to certain characteristics of a grammar.] One of the extensions is a syntax for tree transformations. The other extension is the generation of tree grammars from annotated parser or input tree grammars. These extensions can simplify the process of generating source-to-source language translators and they make possible an approach, called "polyphase parsing," to translation between computing languages. The typical approach to translator development is to identify high-level semantic constructs such as "expressions," "declarations," and "definitions" as fundamental building blocks in the grammar specification used for language recognition. The polyphase approach is to lump ambiguous syntactic constructs during parsing and then disambiguate the alternatives in subsequent tree transformation passes. Polyphase parsing is believed to be useful for generating efficient recognizers for C++ and other languages that, like C++, have significant ambiguities.

  16. Associative Cognitive CREED for Successful Grammar Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrias Tri Susanto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research article reports a qualitative study which was conducted to investigate ways successful EFL learners learned English grammar. The subjects of this research were eight successful EFL learners from six different countries in Asia: China, Indonesia, Japan, South Korea, Thailand, and Vietnam. The data was collected by interviewing each subject in person individually at an agreed time and place. The result showed that all the grammar learning processes described by the subjects were closely linked to the framework of Associative Cognitive CREED. There were also some contributing factors that could be integrally combined salient to the overall grammar learning process. However, interestingly, each subject emphasized different aspects of learning.

  17. Formal models of grammar: The Minimalist Program and constraint-based grammars – HPSG and LFG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica dos S. Rodrigues

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at briefly presenting the main tendencies associated with the most productive formal models of grammar currently under scrutiny: the Minimalist Program, a recent version of generative linguistics; Lexical Functional Grammar; and Head- Driven Phrase Structure Grammar. A basic picture of the main concerns of these formal models of language emerges from the comparison and contrast between their main objectives, the formal mechanisms they adopt and the kind of research tendency each model represents.

  18. TEACHING GRAMMAR IN WRITING CLASSES IN ORDER TO CREATE A MEANINGFUL GRAMMAR TEACHING AND LEARNING

    OpenAIRE

    Diyantari Diyantari

    2017-01-01

    Learning grammar is often a problem for many students as they often think it is difficult and boring. Learning how to write is also difficult and very challenging. We can combine these two to make grammar learning less boring and more meaningful. When it is learned in a meaningful context, grammar will also be meaningful and will not be considered as boring and complicated sets of rules only. Students will know that by learning grammar they can enhance their writing skills. Vice versa, in the...

  19. Determination of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) on a 33kv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the estimation of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) of the Distribution lines in the 33kV distribution network of Island Business District, Eko Electricity Distribution Plc, taken as a case study using a set of busbar voltage results, obtained from previous studies on power flow and harmonic analyses of each ...

  20. Harmonics and voltage stability analysis in power systems including ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    steady-state voltage stability analysis. 4. Harmonic power flow algorithm. Network voltages and currents can be expressed by Fourier series for the harmonic power flow analysis, which was developed by Xia & Heydt (1982). Voltages and nonlinear element parameters form the bus variable vector ( ), given in. [X] = [. [ ˙V (1). ] ...

  1. Analysis and control of harmonic distortions on electrical distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... peak factor and harmonic distortions of the alternating or sinusoidal wave forms. The consequences of harmonic distortions of transmitted electrical energy might be damage of con-densers, untimely release of circuit breakers, resonance in the networks, warming of transformers and over heat-ing of electrical appliances.

  2. Cognitive grammar and aphasic discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Molly; Franklin, Sue

    2016-01-01

    In cognitive grammar (CG), there is no clear division between language and other cognitive processes; all linguistic form is conceptually meaningful. In this pilot study, a CG approach was applied to investigate whether people with aphasia (PWA) have cognitive linguistic difficulty not predicted from traditional, componential models of aphasia. Narrative samples from 22 PWA (6 fluent, 16 non-fluent) were compared with samples from 10 participants without aphasia. Between-group differences were tested statistically. PWA had significant difficulty with temporal sequencing, suggesting problems that are not uniquely linguistic. For some, these problems were doubly dissociated with naming, used as a general measure of severity, which indicates that cognitive linguistic difficulties are not linked with more widespread brain damage. Further investigation may lead to a richer account of aphasia in line with contemporary linguistics and cognitive science approaches.

  3. The Compactness of Construction Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Zadrozny, W

    1995-01-01

    We present an argument for {\\em construction grammars} based on the minimum description length (MDL) principle (a formal version of the Ockham Razor). The argument consists in using linguistic and computational evidence in setting up a formal model, and then applying the MDL principle to prove its superiority with respect to alternative models. We show that construction-based representations are at least an order of magnitude more compact that the corresponding lexicalized representations of the same linguistic data. The result is significant for our understanding of the relationship between syntax and semantics, and consequently for choosing NLP architectures. For instance, whether the processing should proceed in a pipeline from syntax to semantics to pragmatics, and whether all linguistic information should be combined in a set of constraints. From a broader perspective, this paper does not only argue for a certain model of processing, but also provides a methodology for determining advantages of different...

  4. Vocatives and discourse markers in textualinteractive grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Penhavel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the class of Vocatives and the class of Discourse Markers as proposed within Textualinteractive Grammar, and we try to demonstrate that Vocatives can work as Discourse Markers.

  5. On the Phenomenological Approach to Grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Shyrokov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On the Phenomenological Approach to Grammar Phenomenological foundations for grammar description of the natural language are under considerations. The picture of language world based on the factorization of communication and cognitivity is proposed. The problem of observability-unobservability in linguistics is discussed. The concept of the states of language units is formulated both with its interpretation in the formal definition of the noun's case. System analysis of the complexity in cognitive processes is considered.

  6. On the Phenomenological Approach to Grammar

    OpenAIRE

    Volodymyr Shyrokov; Igor Shevchenko

    2015-01-01

    On the Phenomenological Approach to Grammar Phenomenological foundations for grammar description of the natural language are under considerations. The picture of language world based on the factorization of communication and cognitivity is proposed. The problem of observability-unobservability in linguistics is discussed. The concept of the states of language units is formulated both with its interpretation in the formal definition of the noun's case. System analysis of the complexity in ...

  7. Encoding Frequency Information in Lexicalized Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, J; Carroll, John; Weir, David

    1997-01-01

    We address the issue of how to associate frequency information with lexicalized grammar formalisms, using Lexicalized Tree Adjoining Grammar as a representative framework. We consider systematically a number of alternative probabilistic frameworks, evaluating their adequacy from both a theoretical and empirical perspective using data from existing large treebanks. We also propose three orthogonal approaches for backing off probability estimates to cope with the large number of parameters involved.

  8. The elements of grammar in 90 minutes

    CERN Document Server

    Hollander, Robert

    2011-01-01

    An eminent scholar explains the essentials of English grammar to those who never studied the basics as well as those who need a refresher course. Inspired by Strunk & White's classic The Elements of Style, this user-friendly guide focuses exclusively on grammar, explaining the individual parts of speech and their proper arrangement in sentence form. A modest investment of 90 minutes can provide readers of all ages with simple but important tools that will improve their communication skills. Dover (2011) original publication.

  9. Continuation Passing Combinators for Parsing Precedence Grammars

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Steve

    1994-01-01

    We describe a scheme for constructing parsers for precedence grammars based on the combinators described by Hutton. The new combinators provide a robust method for building parsers and help avoid the possibility of a non-terminating parser. Efficiency is improved via an optimisation to the grammar. A number of approaches to the problem are described - the most elegant and efficient method is based on continuation passing. A parser for the expression part of the C programming language is prese...

  10. Incremental Parser Generation for Tree Adjoining Grammars

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Anoop

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the incremental generation of parse tables for the LR-type parsing of Tree Adjoining Languages (TALs). The algorithm presented handles modifications to the input grammar by updating the parser generated so far. In this paper, a lazy generation of LR-type parsers for TALs is defined in which parse tables are created by need while parsing. We then describe an incremental parser generator for TALs which responds to modification of the input grammar by updating parse tables b...

  11. Implementing a Description Grammar Interpreter : A Notation for Descriptions and Description Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouffs, R.M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Description grammars represent a formalism for generating verbal descriptions of designs, used in conjunction with shape grammars. A description grammar constitutes a set of description rules that define a language of descriptions. A description grammar interpreter implements the mechanisms to

  12. Report on dynamic speed harmonization and queue warning algorithm design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report provides a detailed description of the algorithms that will be used to generate harmonized recommended speeds : and queue warning information in the proposed Intelligent Network Flow Optimization (INFLO) prototype. This document : describ...

  13. Harmonizing Tort Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. van Boom (Willem)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents a review of the literature on comparative tort law and economics. It pays special attention to the economics arguments against and in favour of harmonization of tort law in Europe.

  14. Harmonic vibro-acoustography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shigao; Kinnick, Randall R; Greenleaf, James F; Fatemi, Mostafa

    2007-07-01

    Vibro-acoustography is an imaging method that uses the radiation force of two interfering ultrasound beams of slightly different frequency to probe an object. An image is made using the acoustic emission resulted from the object vibration at the difference frequency. In this paper, the feasibility of imaging objects at twice the difference frequency (harmonic acoustic emission) is studied. Several possible origins of harmonic acoustic emission are explored. As an example, it is shown that microbubbles close to resonance can produce significant harmonic acoustic emission due to its high nonlinearity. Experiments demonstrate that, compared to the fundamental acoustic emission, harmonic acoustic emission greatly improves the contrast between microbubbles and other objects in vibro-acoustography (an improvement of 17-23 dB in these experiments). Applications of this technique include imaging the nonlinearity of the object and selective detection of microbubbles for perfusion imaging. The impact of microbubble destruction during the imaging process also is discussed.

  15. Problem-Based Learning to Improve Students’ Grammar Competence

    OpenAIRE

    Mukminatus Zuhriyah

    2017-01-01

    Grammar becomes one of the subjects studied in all Indonesian English Department. It is because grammar has the important role in all English skills. Grammar makes those four English skills meaningful. Somebody can be said as a master of English when he or she also masters grammar. Unfortunately, learning grammar is not as easy as what we think. It needs the effective method that can make the learners motivated and active in learning as well as in applying the grammar in the real life. Proble...

  16. Syntactic Functions in Functional Discourse Grammar and Role and Reference Grammar: An Evaluative Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the treatment of syntactic functions, and more particularly those traditionally labelled as Subject and Object, in Functional Discourse Grammar and Role and Reference Grammar. Relevant aspects of the overall structure of the two theories are briefly described. The concept of alignment between levels of the…

  17. Missionary Pragmalinguistics: Father Diego Luis de Sanvitores’ grammar within the tradition of Philippine grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler, A.P.

    2016-01-01

    The grammar written in Latin, in 1668, by the Jesuit missionary Father Diego Luis de Sanvitores (1627-1672) is the oldest description we have of Chamorro, a language spoken on the Mariana islands. The grammar received a number of bad reviews and as a consequence has become neglected and almost

  18. Conceptualisations of "Grammar Teaching": L1 English Teachers' Beliefs about Teaching Grammar for Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Annabel Mary

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of L1 English teachers' conceptual and evaluative beliefs about teaching grammar, one strand of a larger Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC)-funded investigation into the impact of contextualised grammar teaching [RES-062-23-0775]. Thirty-one teachers in English secondary schools were interviewed…

  19. Pronominal expression rule ordering in Danish and the question of a discourse grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lisbeth Falster

    2005-01-01

    Dansk, funktionel grammatik, discourse grammar, personlige pronominer, modtageorientering, referens......Dansk, funktionel grammatik, discourse grammar, personlige pronominer, modtageorientering, referens...

  20. harmonic load modeling: a case study of 33 kv abuja steel mill feeder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    An in-depth study of the harmonic orders inherent in a power system network is required before mitigation techniques are adopted. This paper studied the harmonic orders of the 33 kV Abuja Steel Feeder modeled as a harmonic source using measured data. Readings of kW, kVar, kV and Hz were obtained using power ...

  1. The Tower of Babel and the Teaching of Grammar: Writing Instruction for a New Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, Amy

    2000-01-01

    Considers the teaching of grammar and its importance in the writing classroom. Examines what grammar is; why writing instruction has moved away from grammar; differing opinions regarding grammar and writing instruction; and grammar's place in the writing classroom of the new century. Argues that grammar must be applied to students' own writing.…

  2. Unsupervised grammar induction of clinical report sublanguage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Rohit J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical reports are written using a subset of natural language while employing many domain-specific terms; such a language is also known as a sublanguage for a scientific or a technical domain. Different genres of clinical reports use different sublaguages, and in addition, different medical facilities use different medical language conventions. This makes supervised training of a parser for clinical sentences very difficult as it would require expensive annotation effort to adapt to every type of clinical text. Methods In this paper, we present an unsupervised method which automatically induces a grammar and a parser for the sublanguage of a given genre of clinical reports from a corpus with no annotations. In order to capture sentence structures specific to clinical domains, the grammar is induced in terms of semantic classes of clinical terms in addition to part-of-speech tags. Our method induces grammar by minimizing the combined encoding cost of the grammar and the corresponding sentence derivations. The probabilities for the productions of the induced grammar are then learned from the unannotated corpus using an instance of the expectation-maximization algorithm. Results Our experiments show that the induced grammar is able to parse novel sentences. Using a dataset of discharge summary sentences with no annotations, our method obtains 60.5% F-measure for parse-bracketing on sentences of maximum length 10. By varying a parameter, the method can induce a range of grammars, from very specific to very general, and obtains the best performance in between the two extremes.

  3. A new variant of Petri net controlled grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Nurhidaya Mohamad; Turaev, Sherzod; Fong, Wan Heng; Sarmin, Nor Haniza

    2015-10-01

    A Petri net controlled grammar is a Petri net with respect to a context-free grammar where the successful derivations of the grammar can be simulated using the occurrence sequences of the net. In this paper, we introduce a new variant of Petri net controlled grammars, called a place-labeled Petri net controlled grammar, which is a context-free grammar equipped with a Petri net and a function which maps places of the net to productions of the grammar. The language consists of all terminal strings that can be obtained by parallelly applying multisets of the rules which are the images of the sets of the input places of transitions in a successful occurrence sequence of the Petri net. We study the effect of the different labeling strategies to the computational power and establish lower and upper bounds for the generative capacity of place-labeled Petri net controlled grammars.

  4. Bottom-up grammar analysis : a functional formulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, J.T.; Swierstra, D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses bottom-up grammar analysis problems such as te EMPTY problem and the FIRST problem. It defines a general class of bottom-up grammar analysis problems, and from this definition it derives a functional program for performing bottom-up grammar analysis. The derivation is purely

  5. Spoken Grammar and Its Role in the English Language Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses key issues and considerations for teachers wanting to incorporate spoken grammar activities into their own teaching and also focuses on six common features of spoken grammar, with practical activities and suggestions for teaching them in the language classroom. The hope is that this discussion of spoken grammar and its place…

  6. Indirect Positive Evidence in the Acquisition of a Subset Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Misha; Goad, Heather

    2017-01-01

    This article proposes that second language learners can use indirect positive evidence (IPE) to acquire a phonological grammar that is a subset of their L1 grammar. IPE is evidence from errors in the learner's L1 made by native speakers of the learner's L2. It has been assumed that subset grammars may be acquired using direct or indirect negative…

  7. The structure of modern standard French a student grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Maj-Britt Mosegaard

    2016-01-01

    This book is an advanced student's grammar of French that integrates traditional grammar with knowledge and insights from modern linguistics. It assumes some prior knowledge of French grammar but is designed to be accessible to those with no background in linguistics.

  8. LR-parsing of Extended Context-free Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Kristensen, Bent Bruun

    1976-01-01

    To improve the readability of a grammar it is common to use extended context free grammars (ECFGs) which are context free grammars (CFGs) extended with the repetition operator (*), the alternation operator (¦) and parentheses to express the right hand sides of the productions. The topic treated h...

  9. Pupils' Word Choices and the Teaching of Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyse, Dominic

    2006-01-01

    The idea that formal grammar teaching leads to improvements in school pupils' writing has been a popular one. However, the robust and extensive evidence base shows that this is not the case. Despite this, policy initiatives have continued to suggest that grammar teaching does improve pupils' writing: the "Grammar for Writing" resource is…

  10. Structure preserving transformations on non-left-recursive grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurer, H.A.; Nijholt, Antinus

    We will be concerned with grammar covers, The first part of this paper presents a general framework for covers. The second part introduces a transformation from nonleft-recursive grammars to grammars in Greibach normal form. An investigation of the structure preserving properties of this

  11. When Is a Verb? Using Functional Grammar to Teach Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearn, Leif; Farnan, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    While evidence shows that grammar study focused on identification, description, and definition (IDD) fails to enhance writing performance, the grammar most students study remains focused on the IDD tradition. We taught a functional grammar that featured what words do in sentences, rather than what words are called and how they are defined, to two…

  12. Ways of Knowing: Writing with Grammar in Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhill, Debra

    2005-01-01

    In the international context of concerns about standards in writing, this article addresses the role of grammar in the teaching of writing. It considers both current and historical perspectives on the teaching of grammar and offers a critique of research which attempts to determine the impact of grammar teaching on writing, but which does not…

  13. Linearly Ordered Attribute Grammar Scheduling Using SAT-Solving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bransen, Jeroen; van Binsbergen, L.Thomas; Claessen, Koen; Dijkstra, Atze

    2015-01-01

    Many computations over trees can be specified using attribute grammars. Compilers for attribute grammars need to find an evaluation order (or schedule) in order to generate efficient code. For the class of linearly ordered attribute grammars such a schedule can be found statically, but this problem

  14. Adaptable Grammars for Non-Context-Free Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2009-01-01

    We consider, as an alternative to traditional approaches for describing non-context-free languages, the use of grammars in which application of grammar rules themselves control the creation or modification of grammar rules. This principle is shown to capture, in a concise way, standard example la...

  15. On the Generating Power of Regularly Controlled Bidirectional Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.; Hogendorp, J.A.; Hogendorp, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    RCB-grammars or regularly controlled bidirectional grammars are context-free grammars of which the rules can be used in a productive and in a reductive fashion. In addition, the application of these rules is controlled by a regular language. Several modes of derivation can be distinguished for this

  16. On the Generating Power of Regularly Controlled Bidirectional Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asveld, P.R.J.; Hogendorp, Jan Anne

    1989-01-01

    RCB-grammars or regularly controlled bidirectional grammars are context-free grammars of which the rules can be used in a productive and in a reductive fashion. In addition, the application of these rules is controlled by a regular language. Several modes of derivation can be distinguished for this

  17. Vocabulary and Grammar: Critical Content for Critical Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael Clay

    2002-01-01

    This article argues that direct instruction of grammar and vocabulary must be restored to their necessary place in language arts programs for gifted children, who need educated vocabularies and grammar competence of exceptional quality. It discusses strategies for instructing vocabulary and the benefits of learning grammar. (Contains references.)…

  18. Difficulties in Teaching and Learning Grammar in an EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mekhlafi, Abdu Mohammed; Nagaratnam, Ramani Perur

    2011-01-01

    The role of grammar instruction in an ESL/EFL context has been for decades a major issue for students and teachers alike. Researchers have debated whether grammar should be taught in the classroom and students, for their part, have generally looked upon grammar instruction as a necessary evil at best, and an avoidable burden at worst. The paper…

  19. Playful Explicitness with Grammar: A Pedagogy for Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhill, Debra; Jones, Susan; Watson, Annabel; Lines, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The place of grammar within the teaching of writing has long been contested and successive research studies have indicated no correlation between grammar teaching and writing attainment. However, a recent study has shown a significant positive impact on writing outcomes when the grammar input is intrinsically linked to the demands of the writing…

  20. Teaching Grammar and Testing Grammar in the English Primary School: The Impact on Teachers and Their Teaching of the Grammar Element of the Statutory Test in Spelling, Punctuation and Grammar (SPaG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safford, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    The research examined the impact on teachers of the grammar element of a new statutory test in Spelling, Punctuation and Grammar (SPaG) in primary schools in England. The research aimed to evaluate the nature and the extent of changes to the teaching of grammar and to wider literacy teaching since the introduction of the test in 2013. The research…

  1. Web Exclusive--The Case for Not Teaching Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwagerman, Sean

    2012-01-01

    The value of grammar instruction in improving students' writing has been debated for at least 150 years, and is showing no signs of tiring. But would teaching grammar actually improve writing? In fact, study after study has shown that the study of grammar does not translate to improved student writing. Indeed, the basic skills of writing are not…

  2. Fast Harmonic Chirp Summation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    2017-01-01

    The harmonic chirp signal model has only very recently been in- troduced for modelling approximately periodic signals with a time- varying fundamental frequency. A number of estimators for the pa- rameters of this model have already been proposed, but they are ei- ther inaccurate, non-robust to n......The harmonic chirp signal model has only very recently been in- troduced for modelling approximately periodic signals with a time- varying fundamental frequency. A number of estimators for the pa- rameters of this model have already been proposed, but they are ei- ther inaccurate, non......-robust to noise, or very computationally inten- sive. In this paper, we propose a fast algorithm for the harmonic chirp summation method which has been demonstrated in the liter- ature to be accurate and robust to noise. The proposed algorithm is orders of magnitudes faster than previous algorithms which is also...

  3. Harmonic uniflow engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2016-03-22

    A reciprocating-piston uniflow engine includes a harmonic oscillator inlet valve capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into the engine. In particular, the inlet valve includes an inlet valve head and a spring arranged together as a harmonic oscillator so that the inlet valve head is moveable from an unbiased equilibrium position to a biased closed position occluding an inlet. When released, the inlet valve head undergoes a single oscillation past the equilibrium position to a maximum open position and returns to a biased return position close to the closed position to choke the flow and produce a pressure drop across the inlet valve causing the inlet valve to close. In other embodiments, the harmonic oscillator arrangement of the inlet valve enables the uniflow engine to be reversibly operated as a uniflow compressor.

  4. Second harmonic generation imaging

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy has shown great promise for imaging live cells and tissues, with applications in basic science, medical research, and tissue engineering. Second Harmonic Generation Imaging offers a complete guide to this optical modality, from basic principles, instrumentation, methods, and image analysis to biomedical applications. The book features contributions by experts in second-harmonic imaging, including many pioneering researchers in the field. Written for researchers at all levels, it takes an in-depth look at the current state of the art and possibilities of SHG microscopy. Organized into three sections, the book: Provides an introduction to the physics of the process, step-by-step instructions on how to build an SHG microscope, and comparisons with related imaging techniques Gives an overview of the capabilities of SHG microscopy for imaging tissues and cells—including cell membranes, muscle, collagen in tissues, and microtubules in live cells—by summarizing experi...

  5. Grammars with two-sided contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Barash

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In a recent paper (M. Barash, A. Okhotin, "Defining contexts in context-free grammars", LATA 2012, the authors introduced an extension of the context-free grammars equipped with an operator for referring to the left context of the substring being defined. This paper proposes a more general model, in which context specifications may be two-sided, that is, both the left and the right contexts can be specified by the corresponding operators. The paper gives the definitions and establishes the basic theory of such grammars, leading to a normal form and a parsing algorithm working in time O(n^4, where n is the length of the input string.

  6. Modularity and derivation in Functional Discourse Grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel GARCÍA VELASCO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG is a typologically-based theory of language structure which is organized in levels, layers and components. In this paper, I will claim that FDG is modular in Sadock’s sense, as it presents four independent levels of representation with their own linguistic primitives each. For modular grammars, the relation between the different levels (more technically, the nature of the interfaces is a central issue. It will be shown that FDG is a top-down grammar which follows two basic principles in its dynamic implementation: Depth-first and Maximal depth. Together with external constraints, these principles conspire to create linguistic representations which are psychologically adequate and which allow levels to be circumvented if necessary, thus simplifying representations and creating mismatches among them.

  7. The autonomy of grammar and semantic internalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobler Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In his post-Tractatus work on natural language use, Wittgenstein defended the notion of what he dubbed the autonomy of grammar. According to this thought, grammar - or semantics, in a more recent idiom - is essentially autonomous from metaphysical considerations, and is not answerable to the nature of things. The argument has several related incarnations in Wittgenstein’s post-Tractatus writings, and has given rise to a number of important insights, both critical and constructive. In this paper I will argue for a potential connection between Wittgenstein’s autonomy argument and some more recent internalist arguments for the autonomy of semantics. My main motivation for establishing this connection comes from the fact that the later Wittgenstein’s comments on grammar and meaning stand in opposition to some of the core assumptions of semantic externalism.

  8. Reading and grammar learning through mobile phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shudong Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an ongoing language-learning project, three years into its development. We examine both the feasibility and the limitations of developing English reading and grammar skills through the interface of mobile phones. Throughout the project, reading and grammar materials were regularly sent to students’ mobile phones. Students read or took part in any aspect of the materials that appealed to them. Information gathered from participants and server logs indicate that reading and learning grammar using mobile devices is regarded as a positive language experience. However, the data also indicate that the success of any mobile learning project could be limited unless certain criteria are applied. This includes (a providing engaging learning materials that are neither too long nor overly-demanding; (b a proper degree of teacher monitoring; (c student involvement; (d the need for incentives; (e a respect for privacy; and (f a safe and secure mobile-learning technical environment.

  9. General Criterion for Harmonicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proesmans, Karel; Vandebroek, Hans; Van den Broeck, Christian

    2017-10-01

    Inspired by Kubo-Anderson Markov processes, we introduce a new class of transfer matrices whose largest eigenvalue is determined by a simple explicit algebraic equation. Applications include the free energy calculation for various equilibrium systems and a general criterion for perfect harmonicity, i.e., a free energy that is exactly quadratic in the external field. As an illustration, we construct a "perfect spring," namely, a polymer with non-Gaussian, exponentially distributed subunits which, nevertheless, remains harmonic until it is fully stretched. This surprising discovery is confirmed by Monte Carlo and Langevin simulations.

  10. Harmonic arbitrary waveform generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Brock Franklin

    2017-11-28

    High frequency arbitrary waveforms have applications in radar, communications, medical imaging, therapy, electronic warfare, and charged particle acceleration and control. State of the art arbitrary waveform generators are limited in the frequency they can operate by the speed of the Digital to Analog converters that directly create their arbitrary waveforms. The architecture of the Harmonic Arbitrary Waveform Generator allows the phase and amplitude of the high frequency content of waveforms to be controlled without taxing the Digital to Analog converters that control them. The Harmonic Arbitrary Waveform Generator converts a high frequency input, into a precision, adjustable, high frequency arbitrary waveform.

  11. Quantum harmonically kicked environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custódio, M. S.; Strunz, W. T.; Beims, M. W.

    2017-11-01

    In this work we derive a generalized map which describes the time evolution of a quantum system coupled to a quantum environment composed by a finite number of free particles kicked harmonically at periodic times. Dissipation is introduced via the interaction between system and environment, which is switched on and off simultaneously at regular time intervals. The dynamics of the environmental particles occurs along rotated ellipsis in phase space and can be described by unrotated harmonic oscillators with a new frequency which depends on the kicking time. With the definition of a thermal bath we show that our quantum kicked environment induces an unusual fluctuation-dissipation relation.

  12. Booster Double Harmonic Setup Notes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, C. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2015-02-17

    The motivation behind implementing a booster double harmonic include the reduced transverse space charge force from a reduced peak beam current and reduced momentum spread of the beam, both of which can be achieved from flattening the RF bucket. RF capture and acceleration of polarized protons (PP) is first set up in the single harmonic mode with RF harmonic h=1. Once capture and acceleration have been set up in the single harmonic mode, the second harmonic system is brought on and programmed to operate in concert with the single harmonic system.

  13. Harmonization of European Laboratory Response networks by implementing CWA 15793: Use of a gap analysis and an "insider" exercise as tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundqvist, B.; Allard Bengtsson, U.; Wisselink, H.J.; Peeters, B.P.H.; Rotterdam, van B.; Kampert, E.; Bereczky, S.; Olsson, N.G.J.; Szekely Björndal, A.; Zini, S.; Allix, S.; Knutsson, R.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory response networks (LRNs) have been established for security reasons in several countries including the Netherlands, France, and Sweden. LRNs function in these countries as a preparedness measure for a coordinated diagnostic response capability in case of a bioterrorism incident or other

  14. Teaching Children Foreign-Language Grammar: Are Authentic Materials Appropriate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Malova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses authentic materials as a resource for teaching grammar to young learners. Difficulties in foreign-language grammar learning for Russian pupils are presented, and typical challenges are described. The paper provides a pre-/post-intervention study of the development of children’s grammar skills. The research question is, “How does one use authentic materials for teaching grammar in an English as a foreign language (EFL classroom?” A qualitative method is used to assess the learning outcomes of using authentic materials in teaching grammar to eight–nine-year-old pupils (the second year of studying English.

  15. Harmonic Intravascular Ultrasound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Frijlink (Martijn)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractMedical ultrasound is a popular imaging modality in cardiology. Harmonic Imaging is a technique that has been shown to increase the image quality of diagnostic ultrasound at frequencies below 10 MHz. However, Intravascular Ultrasound, which is a technique to acoustically investigate

  16. Transition-based combinatory categorial grammar parsing for English and Hindi

    OpenAIRE

    Ambati, Bharat Ram

    2016-01-01

    Given a natural language sentence, parsing is the task of assigning it a grammatical structure, according to the rules within a particular grammar formalism. Different grammar formalisms like Dependency Grammar, Phrase Structure Grammar, Combinatory Categorial Grammar, Tree Adjoining Grammar are explored in the literature for parsing. For example, given a sentence like “John ate an apple”, parsers based on the widely used dependency grammars find grammatical relations, such as ...

  17. A Unified Framework to Compute over Tree Synchronized Grammars and Primal Grammars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Saubion

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Tree languages are powerful tools for the representation and schematization of infinite sets of terms for various purposes (unification theory, verification and specification .... In order to extend the regular tree language framework, more complex formalisms have been developed. In this paper, we focus on Tree Synchronized Grammars and Primal Grammars which introduce specific control structures to represent non regular sets of terms. We propose a common unified framework in order to achieve the membership test for these particular languages. Thanks to a proof system, we provide a full operational framework, that allows us to transform tree grammars into Prolog programs (as it already exists for word grammars with DCG whose goal is to recognize terms of the corresponding language.

  18. Young children's harmonic perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2003-11-01

    Harmony and tonality are two of the most difficult elements for young children to perceive and manipulate and are seldom taught in the schools until the end of early childhood. Children's gradual harmonic and tonal development has been attributed to their cumulative exposure to Western tonal music and their increasing experiential knowledge of its rules and principles. Two questions that are relevant to this problem are: (1) Can focused and systematic teaching accelerate the learning of the harmonic/tonal principles that seem to occur in an implicit way throughout childhood? (2) Are there cognitive constraints that make it difficult for young children to perceive and/or manipulate certain harmonic and tonal principles? A series of studies specifically addressed the first question and suggested some possible answers to the second one. Results showed that harmonic instruction has limited effects on children's perception of harmony and indicated that the drastic improvement in the perception of implied harmony noted approximately at age 9 is due to development rather than instruction. I propose that young children's difficulty in perceiving implied harmony stems from their attention behaviors. Older children have less memory constraints and more strategies to direct their attention to the relevant cues of the stimulus. Younger children focus their attention on the melody, if present in the stimulus, and specifically on its concrete elements such as rhythm, pitch, and contour rather than its abstract elements such as harmony and key. The inference of the abstract harmonic organization of a melody required in the perception of implied harmony is thus an elusive task for the young child.

  19. A Grammar Correction Algorithm – Deep Parsing and Minimal Corrections for a Grammar Checker

    OpenAIRE

    Clément, Lionel; Gerdes, Kim; Marlet, Renaud

    2009-01-01

    International audience; This article presents the central algorithm of an open system for grammar checking, based on deep parsing. The grammatical specification is a context-free grammar with flat feature structures. After a shared-forest analysis where feature agreement constraints are relaxed, error detection globally minimizes the number of corrections and alternative correct sentences are automatically proposed in an order of plausibility reflecting the number of changes made to the origi...

  20. Harmonic Patterns in Forex Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Nemček, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    This diploma thesis is committed to examination of validity of Harmonic Patterns in Forex trading. Scott Carney described existing and introduced new Harmonic Patterns in 1999 in his book Harmonic Trader. These patterns use the Fibonacci principle to analyze price action and to provide both bullish and bearish trading signals. The goal of this thesis is to find out whether harmonic trading strategy on selected pairs is profitable in FX market, which patterns are the most profitable and what i...

  1. Grammar and Syntax: The Student's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavra, Ed

    1987-01-01

    Argues that problems in teaching grammar stem from failure to help students develop, as opposed to memorize, grammatical concepts. Recommends discussion of style and vocabulary, student stylistic analysis of their own writing, and deciphering syntactic use, not just definition, of parts of speech. Suggests that such training should begin in…

  2. A Glossary of Grammar and Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeish, Andrew

    A guide to linguistic analysis and to the three co-existing grammars--conventional, structural, and transformational--this glossary, which is directed to the beginning student, provides descriptions of terms and topics as they are used in their most frequent and familiar senses. Encyclopedic descriptions and information about the referent are…

  3. Ambiguity Detection for Programming Language Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.S. Basten (Bas)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractContext-free grammars are the most suitable and most widely used method for describing the syntax of programming languages. They can be used to generate parsers, which transform a piece of source code into a tree-shaped representation of the code's syntactic structure. These parse

  4. Assessing Primary Literacy through Grammar Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, John

    2017-01-01

    Originally an editorial for "English in Education," this short article summarises key issues in the imposition of a separate test for grammar, punctuation and spelling. It illustrates the poor foundations, lack of clarity and distortion of curriculum which invalidate the test.

  5. Workspace theorems for regular-controlled grammars

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meduna, Alexander; Zemek, Petr

    2011-01-01

    ... grammar H , there is a positive integer k such that H generates every sentence y ∈ L(H) by a derivation in which every sentential form x contains atmost (k−1)|x|/k occurrences of nontermina...

  6. Ontological semantics in modified categorial grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczak, Bartlomiej Antoni

    2009-01-01

    Categorial Grammar is a well established tool for describing natural language semantics. In the current paper we discuss some of its drawbacks and how it could be extended to overcome them. We use the extended version for deriving ontological semantics from text. A proof-of-concept implementation...

  7. Grammar Schools: Brief Flowering of Social Mobility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Grammar schools are increasingly remembered, especially by right-wing ideologues, as the agents of a "brief flowering" of post-war social mobility. This article presents statistical, documentary and interview evidence of secondary education in the eleven plus era, and finds nothing to justify the claim that selective schools produced a general…

  8. A Grammar of Spoken Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Earl W.

    This is a first-year text of Portuguese grammar based on the Portuguese of moderately educated Brazilians from the area around Rio de Janeiro. Spoken idiomatic usage is emphasized. An important innovation is found in the presentation of verb tenses; they are presented in the order in which the native speaker learns them. The text is intended to…

  9. A Basic Reference Grammar of Slovene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbyshire, William W.

    This reference grammar is intended for adult speakers of English who are at the elementary through the intermediate levels of acquisition of the Slovene language. It begins with a brief description of the Slovene language, its major dialects and its place among the Slavic languages. Information on the alphabet, pronunciation, and spelling rules…

  10. A DESCRIPTIVE INDONESIAN GRAMMAR--PRELIMINARY EDITION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DYEN, ISIDORE

    THIS PRELIMINARY EDITION COMPRISES A DESCRIPTIVE GRAMMAR OF INDONESIAN (BAHASA INDONESIA), THE OFFICIAL LANGUAGE OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA. THE THREE SECTIONS--PHONOLOGY, SYNTAX, AND MORPHOLOGY--PRESENT A COMPREHENSIVE LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF INDONESIAN, WITH OCCASIONAL CONTRASTIVE REFERENCE TO MALAY, JAVANESE, SUNDANESE, AND SUMATRAN. THIS…

  11. On defining semantics of extended attribute grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1980-01-01

    Knuth has introduced attribute grammars (AGs) as a tool to define the semanitcs of context-free languages. The use of AGs in connection with programming language definitions has mostly been to define the context-sensitive syntax of the language and to define a translation in code for a hypothetic...

  12. What Is a Rule of Grammar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardiere, Donna

    2014-01-01

    This article offers commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in this issue. It argues that more precise definitions are needed for the terms "rule," "simple," and "productive." Topics discussed include Amaral and Roeper's verb second (V2) rule,…

  13. A Grammar Library for Information Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sanghoun

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation makes substantial contributions to both the theoretical and computational treatment of information structure, with an eye toward creating natural language processing applications such as multilingual machine translation systems. The aim of the present dissertation is to create a grammar library of information structure for the…

  14. Interpretation and reduction of attribute grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filè, Gilberto

    1983-01-01

    An attribute grammar (AG) is in reduced form if in all its derivation trees every attribute contributes to the translation. We prove that, eventhough AG are generally not in reduced form, they can be reduced, i.e., put into reduced form, without modifying their translations. This is shown first for

  15. Grammar success in 20 minutes a day

    CERN Document Server

    Express, Learning

    2013-01-01

    Thorough and concise, Grammar Success in 20 Minutes a Day, covers all the essentials, including common and proper nouns; personal, reflexive, and demonstrative pronouns; regular and irregular verbs; adjectives, adverbs, misplaced modifiers, prepositions, subordinate and insubordinate clauses; coordinating and correlating conjunctions; compound sentences; and punctuation.

  16. Commentary: Revealing the workings of universal grammar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 28; Issue 5. Commentary: Revealing the workings of universal grammar. Mohinish Shukla. Volume 28 Issue 5 September 2003 pp 535-537. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/028/05/0535-0537. Author Affiliations.

  17. What Research Tells Us about Teaching Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael W.; Wilhelm, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The authors offer research studies and other documented evidence that teaching grammar without a meaningful context does not improve student writing, largely because that approach does not address the root causes of errors. Several resources that support this position and offer more productive strategies are summarized, including the authors'…

  18. Eye Movements in Implicit Artificial Grammar Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Susana; Inácio, Filomena; Folia, Vasiliki; Petersson, Karl Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Artificial grammar learning (AGL) has been probed with forced-choice behavioral tests (active tests). Recent attempts to probe the outcomes of learning (implicitly acquired knowledge) with eye-movement responses (passive tests) have shown null results. However, these latter studies have not tested for sensitivity effects, for example, increased…

  19. Enriching a Descriptive Grammar with Treebank Queries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, G.; van Koppen, J.M.; Landsbergen, Frank; Odijk, J.E.J.M.; van der Wouden, Ton; van de Camp, Matje

    2015-01-01

    The Syntax of Dutch (SoD) is a descriptive and detailed grammar of Dutch, that provides data for many issues raised in linguistic theory. We present the results of a pilot project that investigated the possibility of enriching the online version of the text with links to queries that provide

  20. Two Discourse Generators. A Grammar and a Lexicon for a Text-Production System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    polysemy . 4. LOOKING FOR THE SOLUTIONS 4.1. THE GRAININAR Choice Experts and their Domains Control of the grammar resides in the network of systems. Choice...Strategy for accounting for synonymy and polysemy can be mentioned. The way to capture synonymy is to allow a concept to be the semantic subentry for two...distinct orthographic entries. If the items are syntactically identical as well, they will also share a syntactic subentry. Polysemy works the other way

  1. Recursive Harmonic Numbers and Binomial Coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    Maw, Aung Phone; Kyaw, Aung

    2017-01-01

    We define recursive harmonic numbers as a generalization of harmonic numbers. The table of recursive harmonic numbers, which is like Pascal's triangle, is constructed. A formula for recursive harmonic numbers containing binomial coefficients is also presented.

  2. Modeling promoter grammars with evolving hidden Markov models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Won, Kyoung-Jae; Sandelin, Albin; Marstrand, Troels Torben

    2008-01-01

    factors are involved in the regulation of a set of co-regulated genes. If so, promoters can be modeled with connected regulatory features, where the network of connections is characteristic for a particular mode of regulation. RESULTS: With the goal of automatically deciphering such regulatory structures......MOTIVATION: Describing and modeling biological features of eukaryotic promoters remains an important and challenging problem within computational biology. The promoters of higher eukaryotes in particular display a wide variation in regulatory features, which are difficult to model. Often several......, we present a method that iteratively evolves an ensemble of regulatory grammars using a hidden Markov Model (HMM) architecture composed of interconnected blocks representing transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) and background regions of promoter sequences. The ensemble approach reduces the risk...

  3. Interactive Russian Grammar: The Case System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimma Gam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available My paper addresses a problem many of us in North American college language programs confront regularly, the solution to which regularly and frustratingly remains just out of our reach. I refer to the teaching of the most basic and most crucial element of Russian grammar, namely, its case system, and teaching it to our students whose native language, English, does not have such a system. As I teach the Russian cases, I see vividly the disconnect between grammar presented for students (simplified, episodic, based on the "pick it up along the way" principle and the learned papers on Russian grammar by linguists, which are barely comprehensible to a non-linguist. Materials in the middle are lacking-materials to help a literature professor acting as a "de facto" language instructor understand and address the needs of students as they learn this crucial segment of basic Russian grammar. This core element of Russian grammar is presented to students in the first year of college language study, is revisited in the second year, and very often by the third year students either manage to completely block it out from their memory (as if it were some traumatic experience that happened "a long time ago"-that is, before .summer break-but most importantly due to the lack of practice or demonstrate a partial or even complete lack of understanding or misunderstanding of this system forcing us to deal with it again in the third year. Not only is it frustrating for both the students and the language instructor; but from the point of view of their overall proficiency, the lack of control of the case system holds our students back. There can be no talk of advanced language proficiency without a complete and automatic mastery of this basic system. Unfortunately, regardless of the specific textbooks used, the students very often manage not to have a general idea and mastery of this system even by the third year of study.

  4. Analysis of Harmonic Coupling and Stability in Back-to-Back Converter Systems for Wind Turbines using Harmonic State Space (HSS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei; Bak, Claus Leth

    2015-01-01

    points and harmonic coupling analysis. Hence, it is critically needed to develop the advanced converter model, which can include almost all the possibilities. This paper develops the advanced Back to Back (BtB) converter model for wind farm application by means of Harmonic State Space (HSS) modeling...... method. The modeling and analysis results are remarkable that this model can include non-linear component and also show different operating points and harmonic coupling point, where this means each wind power converter can show the different impedance characteristics. The developed model can easily......Understanding about harmonic propagation in wind turbine converter is fundamental to research the influence of these on a large network harmonic distortion. Therefore, the analysis of wind turbine converter harmonic spectrum as well as the influence of converter operating point into the network...

  5. Principles of harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Deitmar, Anton

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a complete and streamlined treatment of the central principles of abelian harmonic analysis: Pontryagin duality, the Plancherel theorem and the Poisson summation formula, as well as their respective generalizations to non-abelian groups, including the Selberg trace formula. The principles are then applied to spectral analysis of Heisenberg manifolds and Riemann surfaces. This new edition contains a new chapter on p-adic and adelic groups, as well as a complementary section on direct and projective limits. Many of the supporting proofs have been revised and refined. The book is an excellent resource for graduate students who wish to learn and understand harmonic analysis and for researchers seeking to apply it.

  6. Ch(k) grammars: A characterization of LL(k) languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becvar, J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Soisalon-Soininen, E.

    In this paper we introduce the class of so called Ch(k) grammars [pronounced "chain k grammars"]. This class of grammars is properly contained in the class of LR(k) grammars and it properly contains the LL(k) grammars. However, the family of Ch[k) languages coincides with the family of LL(k)

  7. Harmonic and geometric analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Citti, Giovanna; Pérez, Carlos; Sarti, Alessandro; Zhong, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an expanded version of four series of lectures delivered by the authors at the CRM. Harmonic analysis, understood in a broad sense, has a very wide interplay with partial differential equations and in particular with the theory of quasiconformal mappings and its applications. Some areas in which real analysis has been extremely influential are PDE's and geometric analysis. Their foundations and subsequent developments made extensive use of the Calderón–Zygmund theory, especially the Lp inequalities for Calderón–Zygmund operators (Beurling transform and Riesz transform, among others) and the theory of Muckenhoupt weights.  The first chapter is an application of harmonic analysis and the Heisenberg group to understanding human vision, while the second and third chapters cover some of the main topics on linear and multilinear harmonic analysis. The last serves as a comprehensive introduction to a deep result from De Giorgi, Moser and Nash on the regularity of elliptic partial differen...

  8. Combined Grammar for the Modeling of Building Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, S.; Peter, M.; Fritsch, D.; Philipp, D.; Baier, P.; Dibak, C.

    2013-11-01

    As spatial grammars have proven successful and efficient to deliver LOD3 models, the next challenge is their extension to indoor applications, leading to LOD4 models. Therefore, a combined indoor grammar for the automatic generation of indoor models from erroneous and incomplete observation data is presented. In building interiors where inaccurate observation data is available, the grammar can be used to make the reconstruction process robust, and verify the reconstructed geometries. In unobserved building interiors, the grammar can generate hypotheses about possible indoor geometries matching the style of the rest of the building. The grammar combines concepts from L-systems and split grammars. It is designed in such way that it can be derived from observation data fully automatically. Thus, manual predefinitions of the grammar rules usually required to tune the grammar to a specific building style, become obsolete. The potential benefit of using our grammar as support for indoor modeling is evaluated based on an example where the grammar has been applied to automatically generate an indoor model from erroneous and incomplete traces gathered by foot-mounted MEMS/IMU positioning systems.

  9. Three-dimensional simulations of harmonic radiation and harmonic lasing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, M.J.; McVey, B.D.

    1990-01-01

    Characteristics of the harmonic emission from free-electron lasers (FELs) are examined in the spontaneous, coherent-spontaneous and stimulated emission regimes. The radiation at both odd and even harmonic frequencies is treated for electron beams with finite emittance and energy spread. In the spontaneous emission regime, the transverse radiation patterns including the transverse frequency dependences, are given. How this expression is modified to include energy spread and emittance is described. In the coherent-spontaneous emission and stimulated emission regimes, the interaction of the radiation fields with the electrons must be treated self-consistently. Here, a single-frequency distributed transverse source function for each electron is used in the harmonic version of the 3-D code FELEX to model the harmonic radiation. The code has recently been modified to simultaneously model the fundamental and harmonic interactions for multiple-pass oscillator simulations. These modifications facilitate the examination of FELs under various operating conditions. When the FEL is lasing at the fundamental, the evolution of the harmonic fields can be examined. This evolution is unique in the sense that the electron beam radiates at the harmonic frequencies in the presence of the harmonic radiation circulating in the cavity. As a result, enhancements of the harmonic emission can be observed. Finally, harmonic lasing can occur in cases where there is sufficient gain to overcome cavity losses and lasing at the fundamental can be suppressed. The characteristics and efficiency of these interactions are explored. 11 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Voltage Feedback based Harmonic Compensation for an Offshore Wind Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay K.; Lascu, Cristian; Teodorescu, Remus

    2016-01-01

    the harmonic distortion at the point of common coupling within the planning level limits using harmonic compensation, which is usually done by passive filters. In this paper a novel active harmonic compensation technique using voltage feedback from a non-local bus has been proposed and analyzed. Its......When an offshore wind power plant is connected to the grid, there is a risk of amplification of certain harmonics and appearance resonances at the point of connection due to the interaction between the grid network and the wind power plant network. Hence, the plant developer is obliged to maintain...

  11. Lineage grammars: describing, simulating and analyzing population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, Adam; Cardelli, Luca; Shapiro, Ehud

    2014-07-21

    Precise description of the dynamics of biological processes would enable the mathematical analysis and computational simulation of complex biological phenomena. Languages such as Chemical Reaction Networks and Process Algebras cater for the detailed description of interactions among individuals and for the simulation and analysis of ensuing behaviors of populations. However, often knowledge of such interactions is lacking or not available. Yet complete oblivion to the environment would make the description of any biological process vacuous. Here we present a language for describing population dynamics that abstracts away detailed interaction among individuals, yet captures in broad terms the effect of the changing environment, based on environment-dependent Stochastic Tree Grammars (eSTG). It is comprised of a set of stochastic tree grammar transition rules, which are context-free and as such abstract away specific interactions among individuals. Transition rule probabilities and rates, however, can depend on global parameters such as population size, generation count, and elapsed time. We show that eSTGs conveniently describe population dynamics at multiple levels including cellular dynamics, tissue development and niches of organisms. Notably, we show the utilization of eSTG for cases in which the dynamics is regulated by environmental factors, which affect the fate and rate of decisions of the different species. eSTGs are lineage grammars, in the sense that execution of an eSTG program generates the corresponding lineage trees, which can be used to analyze the evolutionary and developmental history of the biological system under investigation. These lineage trees contain a representation of the entire events history of the system, including the dynamics that led to the existing as well as to the extinct individuals. We conclude that our suggested formalism can be used to easily specify, simulate and analyze complex biological systems, and supports modular

  12. Financial Literacy of Pupils at Grammar School

    OpenAIRE

    Nováková, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    The diploma thesis "Financial literacy of pupils at grammar school" deals with the attitudes of students to the issue of financial literacy and the level of their knowledge. It focuses on individual components of financial literacy and key factors which influence and shape the students' knowledge and attitudes. Comparing available literature sources the definition of financial literacy is discussed in the theoretical part. The theoretical part also includes the way financial education is regu...

  13. Nigel: A Systemic Grammar for Text Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    in the logical component). Henrici [ Henrici 811 observes that "linear recursion is rather more troublesome" than recursion through embedding (which...notation defined by Henrici [ Henrici 81]. However, we have neither exhausted the grammar nor reached the lexicon. This section will present how the...Halliday, M. A. K., Language as Social Semiotic, University Park Press, Baltimore, 1978 [ Henrici 81] Henrici , A., "Some notes on the systemic generation of

  14. Astronomy at Torquay Boys' Grammar School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, David; Lintott, Chris

    1996-10-01

    TBGS Observatory is owned and run by Torquay Boys' Grammar School in South Devon. The school itself encompasses a wide curriculum from sports to academic studies, ranging from the arts to humanities and science. Due to a high interest from pupils and staff the school has a special focus upon Astronomy. Resulting from this TBGS owns one of the largest, best equipped school observatories in the UK. It is now a minor centre for research and studies at GCSE and higher levels.

  15. Experimental functional realization of attribute grammar system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Attali

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an experimental functional realization of attribute grammar(AG system for personal computers. For AG system functioning only Turbo Prolog compiler is required. The system functioning is based on a specially elaborated metalanguage for AG description, universal syntactic and semantic constructors. The AG system provides automatic generation of target compiler (syntax--oriented software using Turbo Prolog as object language.

  16. Handbook of graph grammars and computing by graph transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Engels, G; Kreowski, H J; Rozenberg, G

    1999-01-01

    Graph grammars originated in the late 60s, motivated by considerations about pattern recognition and compiler construction. Since then, the list of areas which have interacted with the development of graph grammars has grown quite impressively. Besides the aforementioned areas, it includes software specification and development, VLSI layout schemes, database design, modeling of concurrent systems, massively parallel computer architectures, logic programming, computer animation, developmental biology, music composition, visual languages, and many others.The area of graph grammars and graph tran

  17. Bottom-up grammar analysis : a functional formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Jeuring, J.T.; Swierstra, D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses bottom-up grammar analysis problems such as te EMPTY problem and the FIRST problem. It defines a general class of bottom-up grammar analysis problems, and from this definition it derives a functional program for performing bottom-up grammar analysis. The derivation is purely calculational, using theorems from lattice therory, the Bird-Meertens calculus, and laws for list-comprehensions. Sufficient conditions guaranteeing the existence of a solution emerge as a byproduct o...

  18. GramCheck: A Grammar and Style Checker

    OpenAIRE

    Bustamante, Flora Ramírez; León, Fernando Sánchez

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a grammar and style checker demonstrator for Spanish and Greek native writers developed within the project GramCheck. Besides a brief grammar error typology for Spanish, a linguistically motivated approach to detection and diagnosis is presented, based on the generalized use of PROLOG extensions to highly typed unification-based grammars. The demonstrator, currently including full coverage for agreement errors and certain head-argument relation issues, also provides correc...

  19. Problem-Based Learning to Improve Students’ Grammar Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukminatus Zuhriyah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Grammar becomes one of the subjects studied in all Indonesian English Department. It is because grammar has the important role in all English skills. Grammar makes those four English skills meaningful. Somebody can be said as a master of English when he or she also masters grammar. Unfortunately, learning grammar is not as easy as what we think. It needs the effective method that can make the learners motivated and active in learning as well as in applying the grammar in the real life. Problem-based learning applied in this research is one of the alternatives that can help the learners learn grammar easily. This research was a collaborative action research whose general purpose to know whether or not Problem-based learning could improve the students’ grammar competence. Meanwhile, the specific purposes were to know the lecturer’s activities, the students’ activities, and the students’ responses when problem-based learning was implemented in grammar class. Nine students of the fifth semester of English department of education faculty of Hasyim Asy’ari University (UNHASY Tebuireng Jombang in the academic year of 2016/2017 became the subjects of this research. The data got was from the observation notes and the grammar test. There was an improvement on students’ grammar competence from cycle one to cycle two. It was proven by their mean score from 66.7 in cycle one to 72.8 in cycle two. Meanwhile, the percentage of students passing the minimum mastery criteria was from 44.4 in cycle one and 88.9 in cycle two. So that it can be concluded that problem-based learning could improve students’ grammar competence.

  20. Completeness of Compositional Translation for Context-Free Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Huijsen, W O

    1996-01-01

    A machine translation system is said to be *complete* if all expressions that are correct according to the source-language grammar can be translated into the target language. This paper addresses the completeness issue for compositional machine translation in general, and for compositional machine translation of context-free grammars in particular. Conditions that guarantee translation completeness of context-free grammars are presented.

  1. Why plasma harmonics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganeev, R A [Ophthalmology and Advanced Laser Medical Center, Saitama Medical University, Saitama 350-0495 (Japan)

    2015-09-30

    We discuss the emergence of interest in the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) of ultrashort pulses propagated through laser-produced plasmas. It is shown that, during the last few years, substantial amendments of plasma HHG allowed in some cases the characteristics of gas HHG to be surpassed. The attractiveness of a new approach in coherent extreme ultraviolet radiation generation is demonstrated, which can also be used as a tool for laser-ablation-induced HHG spectroscopy of a giant class of solids. We present general ideas and prospects for this relatively new field of nonlinear optics. (review)

  2. Harmonic analysis and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Heil, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    This self-contained volume in honor of John J. Benedetto covers a wide range of topics in harmonic analysis and related areas. These include weighted-norm inequalities, frame theory, wavelet theory, time-frequency analysis, and sampling theory. The chapters are clustered by topic to provide authoritative expositions that will be of lasting interest. The original papers collected are written by prominent researchers and professionals in the field. The book pays tribute to John J. Benedetto's achievements and expresses an appreciation for the mathematical and personal inspiration he has given to

  3. Human kinship, from conceptual structure to grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Doug

    2010-10-01

    Research in anthropology has shown that kin terminologies have a complex combinatorial structure and vary systematically across cultures. This article argues that universals and variation in kin terminology result from the interaction of (1) an innate conceptual structure of kinship, homologous with conceptual structure in other domains, and (2) principles of optimal, "grammatical" communication active in language in general. Kin terms from two languages, English and Seneca, show how terminologies that look very different on the surface may result from variation in the rankings of a universal set of constraints. Constraints on kin terms form a system: some are concerned with absolute features of kin (sex), others with the position (distance and direction) of kin in "kinship space", others with groups and group boundaries (matrilines, patrilines, generations, etc.). Also, kin terms sometimes extend indefinitely via recursion, and recursion in kin terminology has parallels with recursion in other areas of language. Thus the study of kinship sheds light on two areas of cognition, and their phylogeny. The conceptual structure of kinship seems to borrow its organization from the conceptual structure of space, while being specialized for representing genealogy. And the grammar of kinship looks like the product of an evolved grammar faculty, opportunistically active across traditional domains of semantics, syntax, and phonology. Grammar is best understood as an offshoot of a uniquely human capacity for playing coordination games.

  4. Kiss my asterisk a feisty guide to punctuation and grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Baranick, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Grammar has finally let its hair down! Unlike uptight grammar books that overwhelm us with every single grammar rule, Kiss My Asterisk is like a bikini: it's fun, flirty, and covers only the most important bits. Its lessons, which are 100 percent free of complicated grammar jargon, have been carefully selected to include today's most common, noticeable errors—the ones that confuse our readers or make them wonder if we are, in fact, smarter than a fifth grader. What is the proper use of an apostrophe? When should an ellipsis be used instead of an em dash? Why do we capitalize President Obama bu

  5. A Grammar Inference Approach for Predicting Kinase Specific Phosphorylation Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sutapa; Mukhopadhyay, Subhasis

    2015-01-01

    Kinase mediated phosphorylation site detection is the key mechanism of post translational mechanism that plays an important role in regulating various cellular processes and phenotypes. Many diseases, like cancer are related with the signaling defects which are associated with protein phosphorylation. Characterizing the protein kinases and their substrates enhances our ability to understand the mechanism of protein phosphorylation and extends our knowledge of signaling network; thereby helping us to treat such diseases. Experimental methods for predicting phosphorylation sites are labour intensive and expensive. Also, manifold increase of protein sequences in the databanks over the years necessitates the improvement of high speed and accurate computational methods for predicting phosphorylation sites in protein sequences. Till date, a number of computational methods have been proposed by various researchers in predicting phosphorylation sites, but there remains much scope of improvement. In this communication, we present a simple and novel method based on Grammatical Inference (GI) approach to automate the prediction of kinase specific phosphorylation sites. In this regard, we have used a popular GI algorithm Alergia to infer Deterministic Stochastic Finite State Automata (DSFA) which equally represents the regular grammar corresponding to the phosphorylation sites. Extensive experiments on several datasets generated by us reveal that, our inferred grammar successfully predicts phosphorylation sites in a kinase specific manner. It performs significantly better when compared with the other existing phosphorylation site prediction methods. We have also compared our inferred DSFA with two other GI inference algorithms. The DSFA generated by our method performs superior which indicates that our method is robust and has a potential for predicting the phosphorylation sites in a kinase specific manner. PMID:25886273

  6. Voltage Harmonics Mitigation through Hybrid Active Power Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwer Ali Sahito

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast dynamic response, high efficiency, low cost and small size of power electronic converters have exponentially increased their use in modern power system which resulted in harmonically distorted voltage and currents. Voltage harmonics mainly caused by current harmonics are more dangerous as performance and expected operating life of other power system equipment are affected by harmonically distorted supply voltage. Electronic filter circuits are used to improve system power quality by mitigating adverse effects of harmonics. Hybrid filters having advantages of both passive and active filters are preferred to resolve the problem of harmonics efficiently and avoiding any chance of resonance. In this paper, a three phase three wire network is considered to supply an adjustable speed drive represented by a resistive load connected across a three phase bridge rectifier. Simulation of the considered system shows THD (Total Harmonic Distortion of 18.91 and 7.61% in supply current and voltage respectively. A HAPF (Hybrid Active Power Filter is proposed to reduce these THD values below 5% as recommended by IEEE Standard-519. P-Q theorem is used to calculate required parameters for proposed filter, which is implemented through hysteresis control. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the designed filter as THD for both current and voltage have reduced below allowable limit of 5%.

  7. An Attempt to Employ Diagrammatic Illustrations in Teaching English Grammar: Pictorial English Grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Takahashi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order for intermediate students poor at English grammar to enjoy learning it, a unique methodology has been improved in the classroom. In this article illustrated vehicles relevant to the five basic sentence patterns are presented in order to show how helpful this method is to understand English grammar. Also, more enhanced areas of this theory are discussed, which clarifies the feasibility of this methodology. The items to be introduced in my method are gerund, the passive voice, the relative pronoun and so on.

  8. ULTRA: Universal Grammar as a Universal Parser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, David P

    2018-01-01

    A central concern of generative grammar is the relationship between hierarchy and word order, traditionally understood as two dimensions of a single syntactic representation. A related concern is directionality in the grammar. Traditional approaches posit process-neutral grammars, embodying knowledge of language, put to use with infinite facility both for production and comprehension. This has crystallized in the view of Merge as the central property of syntax, perhaps its only novel feature. A growing number of approaches explore grammars with different directionalities, often with more direct connections to performance mechanisms. This paper describes a novel model of universal grammar as a one-directional, universal parser. Mismatch between word order and interpretation order is pervasive in comprehension; in the present model, word order is language-particular and interpretation order (i.e., hierarchy) is universal. These orders are not two dimensions of a unified abstract object (e.g., precedence and dominance in a single tree); rather, both are temporal sequences, and UG is an invariant real-time procedure (based on Knuth's stack-sorting algorithm) transforming word order into hierarchical order. This shift in perspective has several desirable consequences. It collapses linearization, displacement, and composition into a single performance process. The architecture provides a novel source of brackets (labeled unambiguously and without search), which are understood not as part-whole constituency relations, but as storage and retrieval routines in parsing. It also explains why neutral word order within single syntactic cycles avoids 213-like permutations. The model identifies cycles as extended projections of lexical heads, grounding the notion of phase. This is achieved with a universal processor, dispensing with parameters. The empirical focus is word order in noun phrases. This domain provides some of the clearest evidence for 213-avoidance as a cross

  9. Visual artificial grammar learning by rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): exploring the role of grammar complexity and sequence length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbauer, Lisa A; Conway, Christopher M; Christiansen, Morten H; Beran, Michael J; Owren, Michael J

    2018-03-01

    Humans and nonhuman primates can learn about the organization of stimuli in the environment using implicit sequential pattern learning capabilities. However, most previous artificial grammar learning studies with nonhuman primates have involved relatively simple grammars and short input sequences. The goal in the current experiments was to assess the learning capabilities of monkeys on an artificial grammar-learning task that was more complex than most others previously used with nonhumans. Three experiments were conducted using a joystick-based, symmetrical-response serial reaction time task in which two monkeys were exposed to grammar-generated sequences at sequence lengths of four in Experiment 1, six in Experiment 2, and eight in Experiment 3. Over time, the monkeys came to respond faster to the sequences generated from the artificial grammar compared to random versions. In a subsequent generalization phase, subjects generalized their knowledge to novel sequences, responding significantly faster to novel instances of sequences produced using the familiar grammar compared to those constructed using an unfamiliar grammar. These results reveal that rhesus monkeys can learn and generalize the statistical structure inherent in an artificial grammar that is as complex as some used with humans, for sequences up to eight items long. These findings are discussed in relation to whether or not rhesus macaques and other primate species possess implicit sequence learning abilities that are similar to those that humans draw upon to learn natural language grammar.

  10. Grammars Preceding the 16th-Century Bohorič Grammar in Some European Countries Relevant to Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozma Ahačič

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the grammars of European vernacular languages as possible indirect and (partly direct sources for the first grammar of the Slovene language, Arcticae Horulae Succisivae de Latinocarniolana Literatura [Free Winter Hours on Latin-Carniolian Grammar], written in 1584 by Adam Bohorič. Within this framework, the situation in the field of grammar writing is outlined for Germany (Ickelsamer, Albertus, Ölinger, Clajus, France (de Bovelles, Dubois, Drosée, Meigret, R. Estienne, de la Ramée , Pillot, Garnier, Cauchie, Italy (Alberti, Fortunio, Bembo, Corso, Dolce, Castelvetro, Ruscelli, Salviati, Giambullari, Trissino, Bohemia (Optát, Gzel, Philomates, Blahoslav, and Poland (Statorius. The grammar works of the individual authors are described in detail, put into the context of European production, and commented on from the viewpoint of their possible influence on the Bohorič grammar. Particular emphasis is placed on the German grammar by Johannes Clajus (1578, which may have served as its direct source, and on the Polish grammar by Statorius (1568, which shows similarities to the Bohorič grammar in both development and sources.

  11. Harmonic Instability Analysis of a Single-Phase Grid-Connected Converter Using a Harmonic State-Space Modeling Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of renewable energy sources in the distribution grid is becoming a major issue for utility companies since grid-connected converters are operating at different operating points due to the probabilistic characteristics of the renewable energy. Usually, the harmonics and imped...... the harmonic coupling characteristic as well as different dynamic characteristics. The theoretical modeling and analysis are verified by simulations as well as experimental results.......The increasing number of renewable energy sources in the distribution grid is becoming a major issue for utility companies since grid-connected converters are operating at different operating points due to the probabilistic characteristics of the renewable energy. Usually, the harmonics...... and impedance from other renewable energy sources are not taken carefully into account in the installation and design of the systems. It can bring an unknown harmonic instability into a multiple power sourced system and makes the analysis difficult due to the complexity of the grid network. This paper proposes...

  12. Harmonic Series Meets Fibonacci Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongwei; Kennedy, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The terms of a conditionally convergent series may be rearranged to converge to any prescribed real value. What if the harmonic series is grouped into Fibonacci length blocks? Or the harmonic series is arranged in alternating Fibonacci length blocks? Or rearranged and alternated into separate blocks of even and odd terms of Fibonacci length?

  13. The Multiple Grammars Theory and the Nature of L2 Grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liceras, Juana M.

    2014-01-01

    This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammar (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue and touches on other second language acquisition research. Topics discussed include the concept of second language (L2) optionality, a hypothesis regarding the acquisition of the…

  14. ncRNA consensus secondary structure derivation using grammar strings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achawanantakun, Rujira; Sun, Yanni; Takyar, Seyedeh Shohreh

    2011-04-01

    Many noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) function through both their sequences and secondary structures. Thus, secondary structure derivation is an important issue in today's RNA research. The state-of-the-art structure annotation tools are based on comparative analysis, which derives consensus structure of homologous ncRNAs. Despite promising results from existing ncRNA aligning and consensus structure derivation tools, there is a need for more efficient and accurate ncRNA secondary structure modeling and alignment methods. In this work, we introduce a consensus structure derivation approach based on grammar string, a novel ncRNA secondary structure representation that encodes an ncRNA's sequence and secondary structure in the parameter space of a context-free grammar (CFG) and a full RNA grammar including pseudoknots. Being a string defined on a special alphabet constructed from a grammar, grammar string converts ncRNA alignment into sequence alignment. We derive consensus secondary structures from hundreds of ncRNA families from BraliBase 2.1 and 25 families containing pseudoknots using grammar string alignment. Our experiments have shown that grammar string-based structure derivation competes favorably in consensus structure quality with Murlet and RNASampler. Source code and experimental data are available at http://www.cse.msu.edu/~yannisun/grammar-string.

  15. Developments in generative grammar and their applications to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to highlight how developments in generative grammar have been applied to the study of Nigerian languages. Serious attempts to incorporate developments in generative grammar in the analysis of Nigerian languages started in the 1970s. The trend has been progressive. Indeed, very recent ...

  16. Spoken Grammar: An Urgent Necessity in the EFL Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-wossabi, Sami A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in corpus linguistics have revealed apparent inconsistencies between the prescriptive grammar presented in EFL textbooks and the type of grammar used in the speech of native speakers. Such variations and learning gaps deprive EFL learners of the actual use of English and delay their oral/aural developmental processes. The focus of…

  17. Construction Morphology and the Parallel Architecture of Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booij, Geert; Audring, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a systematic exposition of how the basic ideas of Construction Grammar (CxG) (Goldberg, 2006) and the Parallel Architecture (PA) of grammar (Jackendoff, 2002]) provide the framework for a proper account of morphological phenomena, in particular word formation. This framework is referred to as Construction Morphology (CxM). As…

  18. Effect of Direct Grammar Instruction on Student Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lisa; Feng, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Grammar Instruction has an important role to play in helping students to speak and write more effectively. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of direct grammar instruction on the quality of student's writing skills. The participants in this study included 18 fifth grade students and two fifth grade teachers. Based on the results…

  19. Triumph through Texting: Restoring Learners' Interest in Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedjazi Moghari, Mona; Marandi, S. Susan

    2017-01-01

    It is usually the case that learners of English as a foreign language (EFL) are exposed to language materials in class only, and of course in such a short space of time, they do not always find enough chance to practice English grammar features and become aware of their grammar mistakes. As a potential solution to this problem, the current study…

  20. Sensing the Sentence: An Embodied Simulation Approach to Rhetorical Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Hannah J.

    2017-01-01

    This article applies the neuroscientific concept of embodied simulation--the process of understanding language through visual, motor, and spatial modalities of the body--to rhetorical grammar and sentence-style pedagogies. Embodied simulation invigorates rhetorical grammar instruction by attuning writers to the felt effects of written language,…

  1. Systemic Approach in Teaching Grammar to Adult Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskhi, Anna

    This article addresses difficulty in English-as-a-Second-Language grammar instruction, offering the systemic approach as an alternative method of teaching grammar. Observation of the process of learning various grammatical rules reveals a tendency to make two types of errors (formational and functional). Analysis of grammatical errors made by…

  2. The Effect of Grammar Teaching on Writing Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Richard; Torgerson, Carole; Beverton, Sue; Freeman, Allison; Locke, Terry; Low, Graham; Robinson, Alison; Zhu, Die

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on the results of two international systematic research reviews which focus on different aspects of teaching grammar to improve the quality and accuracy of 5-16-year-olds' writing in English. The results show that there is little evidence to indicate that the teaching of formal grammar is effective; and that teaching…

  3. Second Language Learners' Beliefs about Grammar Instruction and Error Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, Shawn; Li, Shaofeng; Fei, Fei; Thompson, Amy; Nakatsukasa, Kimi; Ahn, Seongmee; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2009-01-01

    Learner beliefs are an important individual difference in second language (L2) learning. Furthermore, an ongoing debate surrounds the role of grammar instruction and error correction in the L2 classroom. Therefore, this study investigated the beliefs of L2 learners regarding the controversial role of grammar instruction and error correction. A…

  4. GRAMMAR--THE PROTEUS OF THE ENGLISH CURRICULUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASTON, KATHARINE O.

    THE ENGLISH CURRICULUM CAN BE MADE MORE EFFECTIVE BY CONSIDERING THE SIGNIFICANT PART PLAYED BY THE COMPONENT OF GRAMMAR. THE NATIVE SPEAKER OF ENGLISH POSSESSES AN INTUITIVE KNOWLEDGE OF THE RULES OF GRAMMAR AND YET CANNOT EXPLAIN WHAT HIS INTUITION KNOWS. THEREFORE, A PRECISE, ECONOMICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE LANGUAGE MECHANISM AND HOW IT FUNCTIONS…

  5. Grammar for College Writing: A Sentence-Composing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgallon, Don; Killgallon, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Across America, in thousands of classrooms, from elementary school to high school, the time-tested sentence-composing approach has given students tools to become better writers. Now the authors present a much anticipated sentence-composing grammar worktext for college writing. This book presents a new and easier way to understand grammar: (1) Noun…

  6. John Ash and the Rise of the Children's Grammar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navest, Karlijn Marianne

    2011-01-01

    From the second half of the eighteenth century onwards a knowledge of grammar served as an important marker of class in England. In order to enable their children to rise in society, middle-class parents expected their sons and daughters to learn English grammar. Since England did not have an

  7. Pair Counting to Improve Grammar and Spoken Fluency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    English language learners are often more grammatically accurate in writing than in speaking. As students focus on meaning while speaking, their spoken fluency comes at a cost: their grammatical accuracy decreases. The author wanted to find a way to help her students improve their oral grammar; that is, she wanted them to focus on grammar while…

  8. Constraints and Logic Programming in Grammars and Language Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    analysis. With a tool such as Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, to be ex- plained below, the grammar writer or programmer working with language analysis can define his or her own constraint solvers specifically tailored for the linguistic problems at hand. We concentrate on grammars and lan- guage analysis...

  9. The Effects of Using Online Concordancers on Teaching Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkmen, Yasemin; Aydin, Selami

    2016-01-01

    Studies conducted so far have mainly focused on the effects of online concordancers on teaching vocabulary, while there is a lack of research focusing on the effects of online concordancers on teaching and learning grammar. Thus, this study aims to review the studies on the effects of online concordancers on teaching and learning grammar and how…

  10. Towards a Rationale for Research into Grammar Teaching in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontich, Xavier; Camps, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This article hopes to bring new insights to the debate about the effect of grammar knowledge on language use, especially writing. It raises the question of the need to look more closely at the following three questions: (1) What is the aim of grammar teaching?; (2) How capable are students of conceptualising about language and how is their…

  11. Effectiveness of Inductive and Deductive Methods in Teaching Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzu'bi, Mohammad Akram

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the comparative effectiveness of teaching English grammar by using deductive and inductive teaching models. The study also attempts to see which of these two methods has a positive effect on the grammar academic achievement of the university students and elementary school students in Jordan so it answers the following…

  12. Researching the effects of teaching grammar rules to English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article describes the effects of an interventionist form-focused course on the written English of first-year second language university learners. For two semester courses the form (or grammar) of the language was concentrated upon. During the first semester the use of correct grammar was focussed on intensively, while ...

  13. Grammar Teaching and Learning in L2: Necessary, but Boring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Gladys; Simard, Daphnee

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive inquiry-based study targeted second language (L2) high school students' (n = 2321) and teachers' (n = 45) beliefs and perceptions about grammar instruction, specifically about grammatical accuracy, corrective feedback, and diverse forms of grammar teaching and learning. Results showed only slight discrepancies between students'…

  14. Effect of Jigsaw I Technique on Teaching Turkish Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Akif

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out the effect of Jigsaw I technique on students' academic success and attitude towards the course in teaching Turkish grammar. For that purpose, three grammar topics (spelling and punctuation marks rules) were determined and an experimental study conforming to "control group preliminary-testing final…

  15. Functional Grammar and Its Implications for English Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhiwen

    2013-01-01

    Functional grammar has received more and more attention from domestic scholars in the world of linguistics since 1970s, but it is still new to most EFL teachers. In spite of controversies about its applications into classroom teaching, this new grammar model has its own advantages and can facilitate EFL students to achieve academic success. This…

  16. Yemeni Teachers' Beliefs of Grammar Teaching and Classroom Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzi, Nemah Abdullah Ayash

    2012-01-01

    Beliefs of in-service English teachers about grammar learning/teaching and the influence of such beliefs on their classroom practices remain relatively unexplored. More precisely, this study explores English teachers' beliefs about grammar learning and teaching. It throws light on the teachers' actual practices in the classrooms of 7th -12th…

  17. The Role of Teaching Grammar in First Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Sezgin; Erdogan, Ayse

    2018-01-01

    Grammar; while originating from the natural structure of the language also is the system which makes it possible for different language functions meet within the body of common rules especially communication. Having command of the language used, speaking and writing it correctly require strong grammar knowledge actually. However only knowing the…

  18. English spelling performance of Dutch grammar school students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeijmakers, M.; de Bree, E.; Keijzer, M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates English spelling performance of Dutch grammar school students to establish whether Dutch grammar school students are able to spell words differing in complexity, as well as whether they are sensitive to the information available in the spellings (phonological,

  19. Linguistics deviation, a tool for teaching English grammar: evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We have always advocated that those teaching the Use of English must seek out novel ways of teaching the grammar of English to take out the drudgery of the present approach. Here, we proposed using Linguistic deviation as a tool for teaching English grammar. This approach will produce students who are both strong in ...

  20. A Unifying Framework for Concatenation-based Grammar Formalisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.V. Groenink (Annius); S.T. Fischer (Sarah); M.H. Trautwein

    1995-01-01

    htmlabstractLinear Context Free Rewriting Systems (LCFRS, [Wei88]) are a general class of trans-context-free grammar systems; it is the largest well-known class of mildly context sensitive grammar; languages recognized by LCFRS strictly include those generated by the HG, TAG, LIG, CCG family.

  1. Environmental Peace Education in Foreign Language Learners' English Grammar Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Arda

    2009-01-01

    English language teachers create contexts to teach grammar so that meaningful learning occurs. In this study, English grammar is contextualized through environmental peace education activities to raise students' awareness of global issues. Two sources provided data to evaluate the success of this instructional process. Fourth-year pre-service…

  2. GRAMMAR IN TEFL: A CRITIQUE OF INDONESIAN HIGH SCHOOL TEXTBOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Collins

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this paper is to critically assess the presentation of English grammar in textbooks used in secondary schools in Indonesia. The influence of the Communicative Approach is in evidence in the books examined, and yet the importance of explicit grammar instruction is not ignored, reflecting the view of many today that grammatical forms cannot be successfully learnt merely on the basis of comprehensible input. Despite recognition of its central role, the grammar instruction presented in the textbooks invites questions as to its linguistic adequacy and accuracy. Writers often seem unwilling to take on board the insights recorded in the influential and authoritative descriptive grammars of recent years, continuing to accept tacitly the principles exposed in Traditional Grammar.

  3. Introduction (of 'The Noun Phrase in Functional Discourse Grammar')

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Velasco, Daniel; Rijkhoff, Jan

    2008-01-01

    are handled in FDG. Moreover, to analyse a major linguistic construction from various perspectives (textual, typological, logical, semantic, morphosyntactic, etc.) is an excellent way to test a new model of grammar with regard to some of the standards of adequacy for linguistic theories (see also section 1......The articles in this volume analyse the noun phrase within the framework of Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG), the successor to Simon C. Dik’s Functional Grammar (FG). The Noun Phrase was the main conference theme of the 11th International Conference on Functional Grammar, which took place......, the most recent treatment of NPs by Dik in terms of “classical FG” was published (posthumously) in 1997, in the first volume of The Theory of Functional Grammar. Given the fact that FDG presents a strongly revised version of Dikkian FG with respect to rules, variables, representations and overall design...

  4. Finite-State Approximation of Phrase-Structure Grammars

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, F C N; Pereira, Fernando C. N.; Wright, Rebecca N.

    1996-01-01

    Phrase-structure grammars are effective models for important syntactic and semantic aspects of natural languages, but can be computationally too demanding for use as language models in real-time speech recognition. Therefore, finite-state models are used instead, even though they lack expressive power. To reconcile those two alternatives, we designed an algorithm to compute finite-state approximations of context-free grammars and context-free-equivalent augmented phrase-structure grammars. The approximation is exact for certain context-free grammars generating regular languages, including all left-linear and right-linear context-free grammars. The algorithm has been used to build finite-state language models for limited-domain speech recognition tasks.

  5. Bookmarks in Grammar-Compressed Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cording, Patrick Hagge; Gawrychowski, Pawel; Weimann, Oren

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of storing a grammar of size n compressing a string of size N, and a set of positions {i1, . . . , i } (bookmarks) such that any substring of length l crossing one of the positions can be decompressed in O(l) time. Our solution uses space O((n + b) max{1, log* n − log*( n....../b + b/n)}). Existing solutions for the bookmarking problem either require more space or a super-constant “kick-off” time to start the decompression....

  6. Universal moral grammar: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupoux, Emmanuel; Jacob, Pierre

    2007-09-01

    A new framework for the study of the human moral faculty is currently receiving much attention: the so-called 'universal moral grammar' framework. It is based on an intriguing analogy, first pointed out by Rawls, between the study of the human moral sense and Chomsky's research program into the human language faculty. To assess UMG, we ask: is moral competence modular? Does it have an underlying hierarchical grammatical structure? Does moral diversity rest on culture-dependant parameters? We review the evidence and argue that formal grammatical concepts are of limited value for the study of moral judgments, moral development and moral diversity.

  7. Human behavior understanding for assisted living by means of hierarchical context free grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosani, A.; Conci, N.; De Natale, F. G. B.

    2014-03-01

    Human behavior understanding has attracted the attention of researchers in various fields over the last years. Recognizing behaviors with sufficient accuracy from sensors analysis is still an unsolved problem, because of many reasons, including the low accuracy of the data, differences in the human behaviors as well as the gap between low-level sensors data and high-level scene semantics. In this context, an application that is attracting the interest of both public and industrial entities is the possibility to allow elderly or physically impaired people conducting a normal life at home. Ambient intelligence (AmI) technologies, intended as the possibility of automatically detecting and reacting to the status of the environment and of the persons, is probably the major enabling factor for the achievement of such an ambitious objective. AmI technologies require suitable networks of sensors and actuators, as well as adequate processing and communication technologies. In this paper we propose a solution based on context free grammars for human behavior understanding with an application to assisted living. First, the grammars of the different actions performed by a person in his/her daily life are discovered. Then, a longterm analysis of the behavior is used to generate a control grammar, taking care of the context when an action is performed, and adding semantics. The proposed framework is tested on a dataset acquired in a real environment and compared with state of the art methods already available for the problem considered.

  8. Grammar, Writing, and Technology: A Sample Technology-Supported Approach to Teaching Grammar and Improving Writing for ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegelheimer, Volker; Fisher, David

    2006-01-01

    English language learners are frequently unable to benefit from the prevailing process-writing approaches due to a lack of grammar and vocabulary knowledge relevant to academic writing. This paper describes how the need for explicit grammar instruction as part of preparing students to write can be addressed by using a collection of learner texts…

  9. Grammar for Writing? An Investigation of the Effects of Contextualised Grammar Teaching on Students' Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan; Myhill, Debra; Bailey, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    The role of grammar instruction in the teaching of writing is contested in most Anglophone countries, with several robust meta-analyses finding no evidence of any beneficial effect. However, existing research is limited in that it only considers isolated grammar instruction and offers no theorisation of an instructional relationship between…

  10. Making Grammar Instruction More Empowering: An Exploratory Case Study of Corpus Use in the Learning/Teaching of Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dilin

    2011-01-01

    Despite a long debate and the accompanying call for changes in the past few decades, grammar instruction in college English classes, according to some scholars, has remained largely "disempowering,""decontextualized," and "remedial" (Micciche, 2004, p. 718). To search for more effective and empowering grammar teaching, this study explores the use…

  11. An Exploration of the Relationship between Vietnamese Students' Knowledge of L1 Grammar and Their English Grammar Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tammie M.

    2010-01-01

    The problem. This research study explores an important issue in the field of TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) and second language acquisition (SLA). Its purpose is to examine the relationship between Vietnamese students' L1 grammar knowledge and their English grammar proficiency. Furthermore, it investigates the extent to…

  12. TCM grammar systems: an approach to aid the interpretation of the molecular interactions in Chinese herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing; Wang, Yun; Luo, Si-Jun; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2011-09-01

    Interpreting the molecular interactions in Chinese herbal medicine will help to understand the molecular mechanisms of Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) and predict the new pharmacological effects of TCM. Yet, we still lack a method which could integrate the concerned pieces of parsed knowledge about TCM. To solve the problem, a new method named TCM grammar systems was proposed in the present article. The possibility to study the interactions of TCM at the molecular level using TCM grammar systems was explored using Herba Ephedrae Decoction (HED) as an example. A platform was established based on the formalism of TCM grammar systems. The related molecular network of Herba Ephedrae Decoction (HED) can be extracted automatically. The molecular network indicates that Beta2 adrenergic receptor, Glucocorticoid receptor and Interleukin12 are the relatively important targets for the anti-anaphylaxis asthma function of HED. Moreover, the anti-anaphylaxis asthma function of HED is also related with suppressing inflammation process. The results show the feasibility using TCM grammar systems to interpret the molecular mechanism of TCM. Although the results obtained depend on the database absolutely, recombination of existing knowledge in this method provides new insight for interpreting the molecular mechanism of TCM. TCM grammar systems could aid the interpretation of the molecular interactions in TCM to some extent. Moreover, it might be useful to predict the new pharmacological effects of TCM. The method is an in silico technology. In association with the experimental techniques, this method will play an important role in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of TCM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effectiveness of Teaching Traditional Grammar on Writing Composition at the High School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Gina

    2011-01-01

    Traditional grammar instruction is a challenging element of the English curriculum; both students and teachers struggle with the rules and dull nature of grammar. However, understanding grammar is important because students need to understand the language they speak in order to be effective communicators, and teachers provide grammar instruction…

  14. The Effects of Communicative Grammar Teaching on Students' Achievement of Grammatical Knowledge and Oral Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Pham Vu Phi; The Binh, Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    So far the students of Le Hong Phong Junior High School have been taught grammar with GTM (Grammar-Translation Method), which just prepares learners for conventional grammar-paper tests. Despite their considerable knowledge of grammar, the students fail to use the language they have learnt to communicate in real-life situations. The purpose of…

  15. The Role of Grammar Teaching in Writing in Second Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Li

    2008-01-01

    "Grammar is the sound, structure, and meaning system of language. All languages have grammar, and each language has its own grammar" (Beverly, 2007, p.1). People who speak the same language are able to communicate with each other because they all know the grammar system and structure of that language, that is, the meaningful rules of…

  16. Understanding the Complex Processes in Developing Student Teachers' Knowledge about Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svalberg, Agneta M.-L.

    2015-01-01

    This article takes the view that grammar is driven by user choices and is therefore complex and dynamic. This has implications for the teaching of grammar in language teacher education and how teachers' cognitions about grammar, and hence their own grammar teaching, might change. In this small, interpretative study, the participants--students on…

  17. Finger Search in Grammar-Compressed Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Christiansen, Anders Roy; Cording, Patrick Hagge

    2016-01-01

    the grammar, and let N be the size of the string. For the static variant we give a linear space representation that supports placing the finger in O(log(N)) time and subsequently accessing in O(log(D)) time, where D is the distance between the finger and the accessed index. For the dynamic variant we give...... a linear space representation that supports placing the finger in O(log(N)) time and accessing and moving the finger in O(log(D) + log(log(N))) time. Compared to the best linear space solution to random access, we improve a O(log(N)) query bound to O(log(D)) for the static variant and to O(log(D) + log......(log(N))) for the dynamic variant, while maintaining linear space. As an application of our results we obtain an improved solution to the longest common extension problem in grammar compressed strings. To obtain our results, we introduce several new techniques of independent interest, including a novel van Emde Boas style...

  18. A Contribution Towards A Grammar of Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Berry

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past thirty years there has been an increasing interest in the social and cultural implications of digital technologies and ‘informationalism’ from the social sciences and humanities. Generally this has concentrated on the implications of the “convergence” of digital devices and services, understood as linked to the discrete processing capabilities of computers, which rely on logical operations, binary processing and symbolic representation. In this paper, I wish to suggest that a ‘grammar of code’ might provide a useful way of thinking about the way in which digital technologies operate as a medium and can contribute usefully to this wider debate. I am interested in the way in which the dynamic properties of code can be understood as operating according to a grammar reflected in its materialisation and operation in the lifeworld – the discretisation of the phenomenal world. As part of that contribution in this paper I develop some tentative Weberian ‘ideal-types’. These ideal-types are then applied to the work of the Japanese composer, Masahiro Miwa, whose innovative ‘Reverse-Simulation music’ models the operation of basic low-level digital circuitry for the performance and generation of musical pieces.

  19. Information packaging in Functional Discourse Grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Smit

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The paper addresses the modelling of information packaging in Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG, in particular the treatment of Topic, Comment and Focus. Current FDG has inherited the traditional Functional Grammar (FG representation of these categories as functions, which attach to Subacts of evocation. However, arguments of a formal, notional and descriptive nature can be advanced against pragmatic function assignment and in favour of an alternative analysis in which informational and evocational structures are dissociated so as to command their own primitives. In the context of a model of discourse knowledge organisation in which communicated contents are associated with packaging instructions that tell the Addressee how to treat the evoked knowledge, it is argued that focality can be modelled by means of a Focus operator that can attach to various constituents at the Interpersonal Level. Topicality, on the other hand, concerns binomial and monomial modes of presenting communicated contents. This can be rendered by means of the dedicated informational units Topic (Top and Comment (Cm, that interact in frames.

  20. Impacts assessment of dynamic speed harmonization with queue warning : task 3, impacts assessment report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This report assesses the impacts of a prototype of Dynamic Speed Harmonization (SPD-HARM) with Queue : Warning (Q-WARN), which are two component applications of the Intelligent Network Flow Optimization : (INFLO) bundle. The assessment is based on an...

  1. Implicit Learning of Recursive Context-Free Grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmeier, Martin; Fu, Qiufang; Dienes, Zoltan

    2012-01-01

    Context-free grammars are fundamental for the description of linguistic syntax. However, most artificial grammar learning experiments have explored learning of simpler finite-state grammars, while studies exploring context-free grammars have not assessed awareness and implicitness. This paper explores the implicit learning of context-free grammars employing features of hierarchical organization, recursive embedding and long-distance dependencies. The grammars also featured the distinction between left- and right-branching structures, as well as between centre- and tail-embedding, both distinctions found in natural languages. People acquired unconscious knowledge of relations between grammatical classes even for dependencies over long distances, in ways that went beyond learning simpler relations (e.g. n-grams) between individual words. The structural distinctions drawn from linguistics also proved important as performance was greater for tail-embedding than centre-embedding structures. The results suggest the plausibility of implicit learning of complex context-free structures, which model some features of natural languages. They support the relevance of artificial grammar learning for probing mechanisms of language learning and challenge existing theories and computational models of implicit learning. PMID:23094021

  2. Grammar-Based Specification and Parsing of Binary File Formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Underwood

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The capability to validate and view or play binary file formats, as well as to convert binary file formats to standard or current file formats, is critically important to the preservation of digital data and records. This paper describes the extension of context-free grammars from strings to binary files. Binary files are arrays of data types, such as long and short integers, floating-point numbers and pointers, as well as characters. The concept of an attribute grammar is extended to these context-free array grammars. This attribute grammar has been used to define a number of chunk-based and directory-based binary file formats. A parser generator has been used with some of these grammars to generate syntax checkers (recognizers for validating binary file formats. Among the potential benefits of an attribute grammar-based approach to specification and parsing of binary file formats is that attribute grammars not only support format validation, but support generation of error messages during validation of format, validation of semantic constraints, attribute value extraction (characterization, generation of viewers or players for file formats, and conversion to current or standard file formats. The significance of these results is that with these extensions to core computer science concepts, traditional parser/compiler technologies can potentially be used as a part of a general, cost effective curation strategy for binary file formats.

  3. Reading Stories to Enhance English Grammar Intake: Correlational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoseph Gebrehiwot Tedla

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Today, stories are recommended by many scholars in the area of ELT as good vehicles for presenting grammar items contextually. The roles they play increase as they become appropriate to students’ level, experience and interest. Students get the opportunity to see grammar points functioning within real contexts when they get exposed to stories, and they learn the varied ways of expressing a single thought through different structural formations in stories. In this respect, this paper is a part of the project which was designed to investigate whether association exists between reading stories for longer hours and grammar intake in the elementary levels in the Ethiopian context or not. After attending reading sessions for a specified number of hours, participants (from the total were randomly selected (to reduce the effects of any extraneous variables and were given grammar test, and then their scores were analyzed. Accordingly, the correlation coefficient was found to be (r = 0.668, which indicated a strong positive relationship. The significance value was recorded as (p < 0.001, indicating that a significant correlation exists between number of hours spent on reading stories and grammar intake. Based on the results and findings, the paper also recommends that material developers, in general, and classroom practitioners, specifically, should consider the contribution of carefully selected stories to the enhancement of students’ grammar intake and should use them as a technique of grammar presentation.

  4. Implicit learning of recursive context-free grammars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Rohrmeier

    Full Text Available Context-free grammars are fundamental for the description of linguistic syntax. However, most artificial grammar learning experiments have explored learning of simpler finite-state grammars, while studies exploring context-free grammars have not assessed awareness and implicitness. This paper explores the implicit learning of context-free grammars employing features of hierarchical organization, recursive embedding and long-distance dependencies. The grammars also featured the distinction between left- and right-branching structures, as well as between centre- and tail-embedding, both distinctions found in natural languages. People acquired unconscious knowledge of relations between grammatical classes even for dependencies over long distances, in ways that went beyond learning simpler relations (e.g. n-grams between individual words. The structural distinctions drawn from linguistics also proved important as performance was greater for tail-embedding than centre-embedding structures. The results suggest the plausibility of implicit learning of complex context-free structures, which model some features of natural languages. They support the relevance of artificial grammar learning for probing mechanisms of language learning and challenge existing theories and computational models of implicit learning.

  5. Introduction to abstract harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Loomis, Lynn H

    2011-01-01

    Written by a prominent figure in the field of harmonic analysis, this classic monograph is geared toward advanced undergraduates and graduate students and focuses on methods related to Gelfand's theory of Banach algebra. 1953 edition.

  6. Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for tissue harmonic synthetic aperture imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of synthetic aperture imaging in ultrasound, which has shown great potentials in the clinic. Suggestions for synthetic aperture tissue...... system complexity compared to conventional synthetic aperture techniques. In this project, SASB is sought combined with a pulse inversion technique for 2nd harmonic tissue harmonic imaging. The advantages in tissue harmonic imaging (THI) are expected to further improve the image quality of SASB....... The first part of the scientific contribution investigates an implementation of pulse inversion for THI on the experimental ultrasound system SARUS. The technique is initially implemented for linear array transducers and then expanded for convex array transducers. The technique is evaluated based on spatial...

  7. DEVELOPING YOUNG LEARNERS‘ PERCEPTION OF FUNDAMENTAL GRAMMAR THROUGH TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE

    OpenAIRE

    Betari Irma Ghasani

    2017-01-01

    Reconsidering the role of grammar as a fundamental aspect in second language learner have become important nowadays. It is argued that acquiring grammar can build their basic skill as second language learner. In addition, developing their correct perception of fundamental grammar is also needed in order to expand learners‘ ability in using grammar precisely in foreign language teaching and learning process. These beliefs have led to an increased interest in teaching grammar, es...

  8. Harmonic structures and intrinsic torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Diego; Madsen, Thomas Bruun

    We discuss the construction of 8-manifolds with harmonic Sp(2)Sp(1)-structures. In particular, we find 10 new examples of nilmanifolds that admit a closed 4-form Omega whose stabiliser is Sp(2)Sp(1). Our constructions entail the notion of SO(4)-structures on 7-manifolds. We present a thorough inv...... investigation of the intrinsic torsion of such structures; in addition to the construction of harmonic structures, this analysis leads to explicit Lie group examples with invariant intrinsic torsion....

  9. "Artificial grammar learning" in pigeons: a preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbranson, Walter T; Shimp, Charles P

    2003-02-01

    An avian analogue to human artificial or synthetic grammar learning (Reber, 1967) was developed. Pigeons viewed horizontal strings of three to eight colored letters. These strings either conformed to Reber's artificial grammar or violated it in one or two locations. Pigeons categorized the letter strings as grammatical (left keypeck) or nongrammatical (right keypeck). Overall accuracy of categorization was above chance to both familiar training strings and to novel transfer strings, thereby satisfying a conventional criterion for learning an abstract concept. The results support a multiple mechanisms point of view according to which pigeons, like humans, learn both abstract concepts and specific strings, or specific parts of strings, in artificial grammar learning tasks.

  10. Random Access to Grammar-Compressed Strings and Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Landau, Gad M.; Raman, Rajeev

    2015-01-01

    Grammar-based compression, where one replaces a long string by a small context-free grammar that generates the string, is a simple and powerful paradigm that captures (sometimes with slight reduction in efficiency) many of the popular compression schemes, including the Lempel-Ziv family, run...... and other operations on grammar-compressed ordered trees. All of the above bounds significantly improve the currently best known results. To achieve these bounds, we introduce several new techniques and data structures of independent interest, including a predecessor data structure, two “biased” weighted...

  11. SAGPAR: structural grammar-based automated pathway reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagore, Somnath; De, Rajat K

    2012-06-01

    In-silico metabolic engineering is a very useful branch of systems biology for modeling, analysis and prediction of various outcomes of metabolic pathways. It can also be used for detecting interactions and dynamics within a network. Various protocols have been proposed for modeling a pathway. But most of these protocols have various disadvantages and shortcomings with respect to automated pathway modeling and analysis. In the present article, we have proposed a novel algorithm for automated pathway reconstruction. We have also made a comparative study of our algorithm with other standard protocols and discussed its advantages over others. We present StructurAl Grammar-based automated PAthway Reconstruction (SAGPAR), a fast and robust algorithm that generates any metabolic pathway using some given structural representations of metabolites. Users can model any pathway based on some pre-required features that are asked as an input by the algorithm. The algorithm also takes into considerations various thermodynamic thresholds and structural properties while modeling a pathway. The given algorithm has been tested on the standard pathway datasets of 25 pathways of Mycoplasma pneumoniae M129 and 24 pathways of Homo sapiens. The dataset is taken from KEGG and PubChem Compound data repositories. SAGPAR performs much better than some already present metabolic pathway analysis tools like Copasi, PHT, Gepasi, Jarnac and Path-A.

  12. Grammar Teaching in the EFL Classroom: An Analysis of Grammar Tasks in Three Textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Askeland, Eilén

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to examine the grammar tasks in three EFL textbooks. Despite other tools available, the textbook remains an important instructional medium in the classroom. There are several reasons for analysing textbooks. First, it is important that the textbooks are good in order for the teaching to be effective. Second, it is important to investigate whether the textbook is in accordance with the current trends in language teaching. Third, a textbook analysi...

  13. To teach, or not to teach grammar? - Teachers’ approaches to grammar teaching in lower secondary school

    OpenAIRE

    Bentsen, Lisa Gunhild

    2017-01-01

    This MA study combines a descriptive analysis of 32 videotaped English lessons taught by seven teachers in seven classrooms at different lower secondary schools (Year 9), with interviews with two of these teachers. The data were collected as part of the Linking Instruction and Student Experiences (LISE) project, led by Professor Kirsti Klette and with Associate Professor Lisbeth M. Brevik as coordinator. The data were analyzed to identify grammar instruction in the English classroom, to chara...

  14. General Lp-harmonic Blaschke bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lutwak introduced the harmonic Blaschke combination and the harmonic Blaschke body of a star body. Further, Feng and Wang introduced the concept of the -harmonic Blaschke body of a star body. In this paper, we define the notion of general -harmonic Blaschke bodies and establish some of its properties.

  15. General Lp-harmonic Blaschke bodies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Lutwak introduced the harmonic Blaschke combination and the harmonic. Blaschke body of a star body. Further, Feng and Wang introduced the concept of the L p- harmonic Blaschke body of a star body. In this paper, we define the notion of general. L p-harmonic Blaschke bodies and establish some of its ...

  16. Prony Analysis for Power System Transient Harmonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cartes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Proliferation of nonlinear loads in power systems has increased harmonic pollution and deteriorated power quality. Not required to have prior knowledge of existing harmonics, Prony analysis detects frequencies, magnitudes, phases, and especially damping factors of exponential decaying or growing transient harmonics. In this paper, Prony analysis is implemented to supervise power system transient harmonics, or time-varying harmonics. Further, to improve power quality when transient harmonics appear, the dominant harmonics identified from Prony analysis are used as the harmonic reference for harmonic selective active filters. Simulation results of two test systems during transformer energizing and induction motor starting confirm the effectiveness of the Prony analysis in supervising and canceling power system transient harmonics.

  17. Data-Aware Retrodiction for Asynchronous Harmonic Measurement in a Cyber-Physical Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youda Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cyber-physical energy systems provide a networked solution for safety, reliability and efficiency problems in smart grids. On the demand side, the secure and trustworthy energy supply requires real-time supervising and online power quality assessing. Harmonics measurement is necessary in power quality evaluation. However, under the large-scale distributed metering architecture, harmonic measurement faces the out-of-sequence measurement (OOSM problem, which is the result of latencies in sensing or the communication process and brings deviations in data fusion. This paper depicts a distributed measurement network for large-scale asynchronous harmonic analysis and exploits a nonlinear autoregressive model with exogenous inputs (NARX network to reorder the out-of-sequence measuring data. The NARX network gets the characteristics of the electrical harmonics from practical data rather than the kinematic equations. Thus, the data-aware network approximates the behavior of the practical electrical parameter with real-time data and improves the retrodiction accuracy. Theoretical analysis demonstrates that the data-aware method maintains a reasonable consumption of computing resources. Experiments on a practical testbed of a cyber-physical system are implemented, and harmonic measurement and analysis accuracy are adopted to evaluate the measuring mechanism under a distributed metering network. Results demonstrate an improvement of the harmonics analysis precision and validate the asynchronous measuring method in cyber-physical energy systems.

  18. Validation of phantom-based harmonization for patient harmonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panetta, Joseph V; Daube-Witherspoon, Margaret E; Karp, Joel S

    2017-07-01

    To improve the precision of multicenter clinical trials, several efforts are underway to determine scanner-specific parameters for harmonization using standardized phantom measurements. The goal of this study was to test the correspondence between quantification in phantom and patient images and validate the use of phantoms for harmonization of patient images. The National Electrical Manufacturers' Association image quality phantom with hot spheres was scanned on two time-of-flight PET scanners. Whole-body [18 F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET scans were acquired of subjects on the same systems. List-mode events from spheres (diam.: 10-28 mm) measured in air on each scanner were embedded into the phantom and subject list-mode data from each scanner to create lesions with known uptake with respect to the local background in the phantom and each subject's liver and lung regions, as a proxy to characterize true lesion quantification. Images were analyzed using the contrast recovery coefficient (CRC) typically used in phantom studies and serving as a surrogate for the standardized uptake value used clinically. Postreconstruction filtering (resolution recovery and Gaussian smoothing) was applied to determine if the effect on the phantom images translates equivalently to subject images. Three postfiltering strategies were selected to harmonize the CRCmean or CRCmax values between the two scanners based on the phantom measurements and then applied to the subject images. Both the average CRCmean and CRCmax values for lesions embedded in the lung and liver in four subjects (BMI range 25-38) agreed to within 5% with the CRC values for lesions embedded in the phantom for all lesion sizes. In addition, the relative changes in CRCmean and CRCmax resulting from the application of the postfilters on the subject and phantom images were consistent within measurement uncertainty. Further, the root mean squared percent difference (RMSpd ) between CRC values on the two scanners

  19. Syntactic transfer in artificial grammar learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, T; Wills, A J; Le Pelley, M E

    2010-02-01

    In an artificial grammar learning (AGL) experiment, participants were trained with instances of one grammatical structure before completing a test phase in which they were required to discriminate grammatical from randomly created strings. Importantly, the underlying structure used to generate test strings was different from that used to generate the training strings. Despite the fact that grammatical training strings were more similar to nongrammatical test strings than they were to grammatical test strings, this manipulation resulted in a positive transfer effect, as compared with controls trained with nongrammatical strings. It is suggested that training with grammatical strings leads to an appreciation of set variance that aids the detection of grammatical test strings in AGL tasks. The analysis presented demonstrates that it is useful to conceptualize test performance in AGL as a form of unsupervised category learning.

  20. Individual strategies in artificial grammar learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Ingmar; Raijmakers, Maartje E J; Pothos, Emmanuel M

    2009-01-01

    Artificial grammar learning (AGL) has been used extensively to study theories of learning, but compelling conclusions cannot be drawn without an analysis of individual strategies. We describe a new statistical method for doing so, based on the increasingly popular framework of latent variable models, which is especially suited to capture heterogeneity in participants' responses. We applied the method of latent class regression models, in which the intercept and regression coefficients can have different values in different latent groups of participants; each latent group represents different reliance on the potentially available sources of knowledge in AGL, such as grammaticality and fragment overlap. The results indicate that grammaticality and fragment overlap can be understood as distinct aspects of learning performance, as evidenced by different groups of participants adopting predominantly one or the other strategy in a series of comparable datasets from AGL studies.

  1. Grammar resources for modelling dialogue dynamically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargett, Andrew; Gregoromichelaki, Eleni; Kempson, Ruth; Purver, Matthew; Sato, Yo

    2009-12-01

    This paper argues that by analysing language as a mechanism for growth of information (Cann et al. in The Dynamics of Language, Elsevier, Oxford, 2005; Kempson et al. in Dynamic Syntax, Blackwell, Oxford, 2001), not only does a unitary basis for ellipsis become possible, otherwise thought to be irredeemably heterogeneous, but also a whole range of sub-types of ellipsis, otherwise thought to be unique to dialogue, emerge as natural consequences of use of language in context. Dialogue fragment types modelled include reformulations, clarification requests, extensions, and acknowledgements. Buttressing this analysis, we show how incremental use of fragments serves to progressively narrow down the otherwise mushrooming interpretational alternatives in language use, and hence is central to fluent conversational interaction. We conclude that, by its ability to reflect dialogue dynamics as a core phenomenon of language use, a grammar with inbuilt parsing dynamics opens up the potential for analysing language as a mechanism for communicative interaction.

  2. An entropy model for artificial grammar learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Pothos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A model is proposed to characterize the type of knowledge acquired in Artificial Grammar Learning (AGL. In particular, Shannon entropy is employed to compute the complexity of different test items in an AGL task, relative to the training items. According to this model, the more predictable a test item is from the training items, the more likely it is that this item should be selected as compatible with the training items. The predictions of the entropy model are explored in relation to the results from several previous AGL datasets and compared to other AGL measures. This particular approach in AGL resonates well with similar models in categorization and reasoning which also postulate that cognitive processing is geared towards the reduction of entropy.

  3. A grammar checker based on web searching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Moré

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an English grammar and style checker for non-native English speakers. The main characteristic of this checker is the use of an Internet search engine. As the number of web pages written in English is immense, the system hypothesises that a piece of text not found on the Web is probably badly written. The system also hypothesises that the Web will provide examples of how the content of the text segment can be expressed in a grammatically correct and idiomatic way. Thus, when the checker warns the user about the odd nature of a text segment, the Internet engine searches for contexts that can help the user decide whether he/she should correct the segment or not. By means of a search engine, the checker also suggests use of other expressions that appear on the Web more often than the expression he/she actually wrote.

  4. Lexical competence and Functional Discourse Grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel García Velasco

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available

    This article discusses the role of the lexicon component within Functional Discourse Grammar. It argues that the treatment of lexical meaning in most grammatical models is not adequate and proposes an alternative analysis based on Marconi’s (1997 notion of lexical competence, according to which lexical meaning comprises two different dimensions: referential and inferential lexical knowledge. It is further claimed that decompositional models of lexical meaning do not really capture speakers’ inferential knowledge, as it is doubtful that they possess detailed and similar definitions for most lexical items. It is claimed that speakers associate beliefs and specifications with lexical items and that communication emerges when those beliefs converge dynamically in verbal interaction. Finally, the implications of this analysis for FDG are examined. It is suggested that abstract meaning definitions are not really needed in the model and that the lexicon should be in close contact with the conceptual component.

  5. Towards harmonized data interchange in food consumption data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakkala, H.; Christensen, Tue; Presser, K.

    2014-01-01

    Food consumption data are collected and used in several fields of science. The data are often combined from various sources and interchanged between different systems. There is, however, no harmonized and widely used data interchange format. In addition, food consumption data are often combined...... with other data such as food composition data. In the field of food composition, successful harmonization has recently been achieved by the European Food Information Resource Network, which is now the basis of a standard draft by the European Committee for Standardization. We present an XML-based data...... interchange format for food consumption based on work and experiences related to food composition.The aim is that the data interchange format will provide a basis for wider harmonization in the future....

  6. Information theory and artificial grammar learning: inferring grammaticality from redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Randall K; Nevzorova, Uliana; Lee, Graham; Mewhort, D J K

    2016-03-01

    In artificial grammar learning experiments, participants study strings of letters constructed using a grammar and then sort novel grammatical test exemplars from novel ungrammatical ones. The ability to distinguish grammatical from ungrammatical strings is often taken as evidence that the participants have induced the rules of the grammar. We show that judgements of grammaticality are predicted by the local redundancy of the test strings, not by grammaticality itself. The prediction holds in a transfer test in which test strings involve different letters than the training strings. Local redundancy is usually confounded with grammaticality in stimuli widely used in the literature. The confounding explains why the ability to distinguish grammatical from ungrammatical strings has popularized the idea that participants have induced the rules of the grammar, when they have not. We discuss the judgement of grammaticality task in terms of attribute substitution and pattern goodness. When asked to judge grammaticality (an inaccessible attribute), participants answer an easier question about pattern goodness (an accessible attribute).

  7. DIFFICULTIES IN TEACHING AND LEARNING GRAMMAR IN AN EFL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdu Mohammed Al-Mekhlafi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of grammar instruction in an ESL/EFL context has been for decades a major issue for students and teachers alike. Researchers have debated whether grammar should be taught in the classroom and students, for their part, have generally looked upon grammar instruction as a necessary evil at best, and an avoidable burden at worst. The paper reports a study undertaken to investigate the difficulties teachers face in teaching grammar to EFL students as well as those faced by students in learning it, in the teachers' perception. The study aimed to find out whether there are significant differences in teachers' perceptions of difficulties in relation to their gender, qualification, teaching experience, and the level they teach in school, thus providing insights into their own and their students' difficulties. Mean scores and t-test were used to interpret the data. The main findings are reported with implications.

  8. Construction Grammar as a tool for diachronic analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fried, Mirjam

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2009), s. 262-291 ISSN 1876-1933 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90610518 Keywords : grammatical change * gradualness of change * internal reconstruction * Construction Grammar Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  9. Teacher beliefs and practices of grammar teaching: focusing on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ESL contexts in the world. For example, many large-scale national curriculum reforms around the world have targeted mainly one end – the meaning-focused communicative approach by encouraging implicit learning of grammar in many ...

  10. Teacher beliefs and practices of grammar teaching: focusing on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    focused communicative approaches over the years, studies report that most language teachers still follow transmission-based grammar-oriented approaches. It is known that the success of any curriculum innovation is dependent on teachers.

  11. Stars in the teaching of astrophysics at grammar schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štefl, V.

    The paper subjects to theoretical analysis the topic "Stars" of the teaching programme of astrophysics at grammar schools. Diagrams express the relations among parameters of stars, sources of energy, structure and evolution of stars.

  12. XPath Node Selection over Grammar-Compressed Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Maneth

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available XML document markup is highly repetitive and therefore well compressible using grammar-based compression. Downward, navigational XPath can be executed over grammar-compressed trees in PTIME: the query is translated into an automaton which is executed in one pass over the grammar. This result is well-known and has been mentioned before. Here we present precise bounds on the time complexity of this problem, in terms of big-O notation. For a given grammar and XPath query, we consider three different tasks: (1 to count the number of nodes selected by the query, (2 to materialize the pre-order numbers of the selected nodes, and (3 to serialize the subtrees at the selected nodes.

  13. Compiling a corpus-based dictionary grammar: an example for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article it is shown how a corpus-based dictionary grammar may be compiled — that is, a mini-grammar fully based on corpus data and specifically written for use in and inte-grated with a dictionary. Such an effort is, to the best of our knowledge, a world's first. We exem-plify our approach for a Northern Sotho ...

  14. Normal ordering problem and the extensions of the Stirling grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, S.-M.; Mansour, T.; Schork, M.

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the connection between context-free grammars and normal ordered problem, and then to explore various extensions of the Stirling grammar. We present grammatical characterizations of several well known combinatorial sequences, including the generalized Stirling numbers of the second kind related to the normal ordered problem and the r-Dowling polynomials. Also, possible avenues for future research are described.

  15. Multiple Grammars and the Logic of Learnability in L2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom W Roeper

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to enhance the technical description of multi-lingual speakers in terms of a theoryof Multiple Grammars where more than one language utilizes a grammar. The challenge of V2 and itsimplications for interfaces from the perspective of the L2 learner is the focus. A number of constructionsare considered including: Quotation, Topicaliation, Empty subjects and Objects, Expletives, and Subject-auxiliary inversoni.

  16. Artificial intelligence tools for grammar and spelling instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Pijls, F.; Daelemans, W.; Kempen, G.

    1987-01-01

    In The Netherlands, grammar teaching is an especially important subject in the curriculum of children aged 10-15 for several reasons. However, in spite of all attention and time invested, the results are poor. This article describes the problems and our attempt to overcome them by developing an intelligent computational instructional environment consisting of: a linguistic expert system, containing a module representing grammar and spelling rules and a number of modules to manipulate these ru...

  17. Addressing grammar in the interaction task-based learning environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Brent M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major problems in language teaching is developing grammatical accuracy. This paper proposes that using error correction based on a functional grammar in a task-based learning approach may be a suitable solution. Towards this end an emic (using categories intrinsic to the language functional grammar of the verb phrase is proposed and a description of how this fits into the focus on form component of task-based learning is provided.

  18. Parsing for Semidirectional Lambek Grammar is NP-Complete

    CERN Document Server

    Dörre, J

    1996-01-01

    We study the computational complexity of the parsing problem of a variant of Lambek Categorial Grammar that we call {\\em semidirectional}. In semidirectional Lambek calculus $\\SDL$ there is an additional non-directional abstraction rule allowing the formula abstracted over to appear anywhere in the premise sequent's left-hand side, thus permitting non-peripheral extraction. that. We show that the parsing problem for semidirectional Lambek Grammar is NP-complete by a reduction of the 3-Partition problem.

  19. A Constraint-Satisfaction Parser for Context-Free Grammars

    OpenAIRE

    Quesada, Luis; Berzal, Fernando; Cortijo, Francisco J.

    2011-01-01

    Traditional language processing tools constrain language designers to specific kinds of grammars. In contrast, model-based language specification decouples language design from language processing. As a consequence, model-based language specification tools need general parsers able to parse unrestricted context-free grammars. As languages specified following this approach may be ambiguous, parsers must deal with ambiguities. Model-based language specification also allows the definition of ass...

  20. TAX HARMONIZATION VERSUS FISCAL COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Alexandru MACSIM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have brought into discussion once again subjects like tax harmonization and fiscal competition. Every time the European Union tends to take a step forward critics enter the scene and give contrary arguments to European integration. Through this article we have offered our readers a compelling view over the “battle” between tax harmonization and fiscal competition. While tax harmonization has key advantages as less costs regarding public revenues, leads to higher degree of integration and allows the usage of fiscal transfers between regions, fiscal competition is no less and presents key advantages as high reductions in tax rates and opens a large path for new investments, especially FDI. Choosing tax harmonization or fiscal competition depends on a multitude of variables, of circumstances, the decision of choosing one path or the other being ultimately influenced by the view of central and local authorities. Our analysis indicates that if we refer to a group of countries that are a part of a monetary union or that form a federation, tax harmonization seems to be the best path to choose. Moving the analysis to a group of regions that aren’t taking any kind of correlated actions or that have not signed any major treaties regarding monetary or fiscal policies, the optimal solution is fiscal competition.

  1. Harmonic Instability Analysis of Single-Phase Grid Connected Converter using Harmonic State Space (HSS) modeling method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei; Bak, Claus Leth

    2015-01-01

    The increasing number of renewable energy sources at the distribution grid is becoming a major issue for utility companies, since the grid connected converters are operating at different operating points due to the probabilistic characteristics of renewable energy. Besides, typically, the harmoni...... impedance matrixes, where that represents the harmonic coupling characteristic as well as the different instability characteristics. The theoretical modeling and analysis are verified by simulations and also experimental results.......The increasing number of renewable energy sources at the distribution grid is becoming a major issue for utility companies, since the grid connected converters are operating at different operating points due to the probabilistic characteristics of renewable energy. Besides, typically, the harmonics...... and impedance from other renewable energy sources are not taken carefully into account in the installation and design. However, this may bring an unknown harmonic instability into the multiple power sourced system and also make the analysis difficult due to the complexity of the grid network. This paper...

  2. Prototype for harmonic compensation in three phase systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Alzate Gómez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: The traditional methodology for the control of harmonics consists in the use of passive filters tuned to the harmonic components to be eliminated. Passive filters require a frequency-demanding design to avoid resonance phenomena with other elements and they not respond to changes in the dynamics of the electric power system. Method: A best-performing solution alternative is parallel power active filters. These filters, unlike passive filters, inject compensation currents into the network and have adaptation  to changes in operating conditions. The implementation of an active filter involves hardware development but also software development. Algorithms are required for calculation of compensation currents and dc bus voltage control. Results: In this work a prototype for the harmonic compensation of 5kVA is designed and built in three phase distribution systems of 220V. The hardware fundamental elements are: coupling coil, capacitor, semiconductor devices and controller. The control algorithms that are responsible for the operation of the active filter at each instant of time are PQ theory, Linear Control-PWM and PI Control. Conclusions: The active power filters are a solution to the presence of harmonics in power systems. They compensate the harmonics generated by nonlinear loads and they don‘t have resonance problems and good dynamic response.

  3. Extended Gersgorin Theorem-Based Parameter Feasible Domain to Prevent Harmonic Resonance in Power Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Lin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Harmonic resonance may cause abnormal operation and even damage of power facilities, further threatening normal and safe operation of power systems. For renewable energy generations, controlled loads and parallel reactive power compensating equipment, their operating statuses can vary frequently. Therefore, the parameters of equivalent fundamental and harmonic admittance/impedance of these components exist in uncertainty, which will change the elements and eigenvalues of harmonic network admittance matrix. Consequently, harmonic resonance in power grid is becoming increasingly more complex. Hence, intense research about prevention and suppression of harmonic resonance, particularly the parameter feasible domain (PFD which can keep away from harmonic resonance, are needed. For rapid online evaluation of PFD, a novel method without time-consuming pointwise precise eigenvalue computations is proposed. By analyzing the singularity of harmonic network admittance matrix, the explicit sufficient condition that the matrix elements should meet to prevent harmonic resonance is derived by the extended Gersgorin theorem. Further, via the non-uniqueness of similar transformation matrix (STM, a strategy to determine the appropriate STM is proposed to minimize the conservation of the obtained PFD. Eventually, the availability and advantages in computation efficiency and conservation of the method, are demonstrated through four different scale benchmarks.

  4. HARMONIZED EUROPE OR EUROPEAN HARMONY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Marinescu

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent evolutions in Europe raise questions on the viability of the present economic and social model that defines the European construction project. In this paper, the author will try to explain the viability of institutional European model that sticks between free market mechanisms and protectionism. The main challenge for the EU is about the possibility to bring together the institutional convergence and the welfare for all Europeans. This is the result of the view, still dominant, of European politics elite, according to which institutional harmonization is the solution of a more dynamic and prosper Europe. But, economic realities convince us that, more and more, a harmonized, standardized Europe is not necessarily identical with a Europe of harmony and social cooperation. If „development through integration” seems to be harmonization through „institutional transplant”, how could then be the European model one sufficiently wide open to market, which creates the prosperity so long waited for by new member countries?

  5. The contribution of phonological short-term memory to artificial grammar learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Jackie; Baddeley, Alan

    2011-05-01

    Three experiments investigated the contribution of phonological short-term memory (STM) to grammar learning by manipulating rehearsal during study of an auditory artificial grammar made up from a vocabulary of spoken Mandarin syllables. Experiment 1 showed that concurrent, irrelevant articulation impaired grammar learning compared with a nonverbal control task. Experiment 2 replicated and extended this finding, showing that repeating the grammatical strings at study improved grammar learning compared with suppressing rehearsal or remaining silent during learning. Experiment 3 found no effects of rehearsal on grammar learning once participants had learned the component syllables. The findings suggest that phonological STM aids artificial grammar learning via effects on vocabulary learning.

  6. Elements of abstract harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bachman, George

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Abstract Harmonic Analysis provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts and basic theorems of abstract harmonic analysis. In order to give a reasonably complete and self-contained introduction to the subject, most of the proofs have been presented in great detail thereby making the development understandable to a very wide audience. Exercises have been supplied at the end of each chapter. Some of these are meant to extend the theory slightly while others should serve to test the reader's understanding of the material presented. The first chapter and part of the second give

  7. Harmonic functions with varying coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dziok

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complex-valued harmonic functions that are univalent and sense preserving in the open unit disk can be written in the form f = h + g ‾ $f=h+\\overline{g}$ , where h and g are analytic. In this paper we investigate some classes of univalent harmonic functions with varying coefficients related to Janowski functions. By using the extreme points theory we obtain necessary and sufficient convolution conditions, coefficients estimates, distortion theorems, and integral mean inequalities for these classes of functions. The radii of starlikeness and convexity for these classes are also determined.

  8. Optimal Selective Harmonic Control for Power Harmonics Mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Keliang; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    of power harmonics. The proposed optimal SHC is of hybrid structure: all recursive SHC modules with weighted gains are connected in parallel. It bridges the real “nk+-m order RC” and the complex “parallel structure RC”. Compared to other IMP based control solutions, it offers an optimal trade-off among...

  9. Probabilistic Harmonic Modeling of Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guest, Emerson; Jensen, Kim H.; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    2017-01-01

    A probabilistic sequence domain (SD) harmonic model of a grid-connected voltage-source converter is used to estimate harmonic emissions in a wind power plant (WPP) comprised of Type-IV wind turbines. The SD representation naturally partitioned converter generated voltage harmonics into those...... with deterministic phase and those with probabilistic phase. A case study performed on a string of ten 3MW, Type-IV wind turbines implemented in PSCAD was used to verify the probabilistic SD harmonic model. The probabilistic SD harmonic model can be employed in the planning phase of WPP projects to assess harmonic...

  10. Grammar instruction in the Hispanic area : the case of Spain with attention to empirical studies on metalinguistic activity

    OpenAIRE

    Fontich Vicens, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    Grammar instruction is an unresolved issue in the Hispanic area, having long been approached from within the disjunction between rhetoric (teaching how to use language, especially writing) and grammar (teaching the grammar content). Over time grammar instruction has generated an intense debate around two positions: direct instruction on grammar content, versus instruction devoted to prompting reflection on grammar and language use. There has been an insistent and recurring tendency towards th...

  11. How Universal is Chomsky's Universal Grammar?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Effendi Kadarisman

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The publication of this book signifies three important things. First, syntactic theory in generative grammar—after nearly five decades of its inception—remains a thriving discipline. In fact, it seems to have been too progressive and dynamic, making some drastic change in a rather unex­pected manner. Considering the proliferation and world-wide fame of the Government-Binding (GB Theory during the 1980s and early 1990s, Chomsky 's publication of The Minimalist Program (1995 might have taken GB syntacticians by surprise, since this book was intended as a major revi­sion of GB syntax. Second, syntax, as ever, remains central and plays the leading role in generative grammar. The creative aspect of human lan­guage, the argument goes, is best explained by syntax—part of the linguis­tic competence which contributes most to accounting for native speakers' ability to understand and produce novel utterances in their language. The centrality of syntax also shows up very clearly in the most influential books by Chomsky. Prior to The Minimalist Program, the earlier hallmarks in the generative enterprise are Syntactic Structures (1957, Aspects of the Theory of Syntax (1965, and Lectures on Government and Binding (1981. These books, while dealing with linguistic theory in general, dwelled heavily into syntax. Third, as is "notorious" among students of language, Chomsky re-mains a hard reading. Readers familiar with GB Theory would recall that Chomsky 1981 is intellectually accessible only to well-trained syntacticians. Therefore, during the past two decades syntacticians were busy "translat­ing" GB syntax to make it accessible to language students in general. Works by Cook (1988, Cowper (1992, Radford (1988, and Sells (1985—to cite just a few examples—are simplified versions of GB syntax intended for beginners. It is along this line of "simplification" that the book now being reviewed was written. In other

  12. Sums of Generalized Harmonic Series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 9. Sums of Generalized Harmonic Series: For Kids from Five to Fifteen. Zurab Silagadze. General Article Volume 20 Issue 9 September 2015 pp 822-843 ... Keywords. Riemann zeta function; integral representation; Basel problem.

  13. The grammar of approximating number pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Kimmo; Bailey, Drew H; Geary, David C

    2010-04-01

    In the present article, we studied approximating pairs of numbers (a, b) that were used to estimate quantity in a single phrase ("two, three years ago"). Pollmann and Jansen (1996) found that only a few of the many possible pairs are actually used, suggesting an interaction between the ways in which people estimate quantity and their use of quantitative phrases in colloquial speech. They proposed a set of rules that describe which approximating pairs are used in Dutch phrases. We revisited this issue in an analysis of Swedish and American language corpora and in a series of three experiments in which Swedish and American adults rated the acceptability of various approximating pairs and created approximating pairs of their own in response to various estimation tasks. We found evidence for Pollmann and Jansen's rules in both Swedish and English phrases, but we also identified additional rules and substantial individual and cross-language variation. We will discuss implications for the origin of this loose "grammar" of approximating pairs.

  14. Adaptation to aphasia: grammar, prosody and interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhys, Catrin S; Ulbrich, Christiane; Ordin, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates recurrent use of the phrase very good by a speaker with non-fluent agrammatic aphasia. Informal observation of the speaker's interaction reveals that she appears to be an effective conversational partner despite very severe word retrieval difficulties that result in extensive reliance on variants of the phrase very good. The question that this paper addresses using an essentially conversation analytic framework is: What is the speaker achieving through these variants of very good and what are the linguistic and interactional resources that she draws on to achieve these communicative effects? Tokens of very good in the corpus were first analyzed in a bottom-up fashion, attending to sequential position, structure and participant orientation. This revealed distinct uses that were subsequently subjected to detailed acoustic analysis in order to investigate specific prosodic characteristics within and across the interactional variants. We identified specific clusters of prosodic cues that were exploited by the speaker to differentiate interactional uses of very good. The analysis thus shows how, in the adaptation to aphasia, the speaker exploits the rich interface between prosody, grammar and interaction both to manage the interactional demands of conversation and to communicate propositional content.

  15. CLIL in physics lessons at grammar school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štefančínová, Iveta; Valovičová, Ľubomíra

    2017-01-01

    Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) is one of the most outstanding approaches in foreign language teaching. This teaching method has promising prospects for the future of modern education as teaching subject and foreign languages are combined to offer a better preparation for life in Europe, especially when the mobility is becoming a highly significant factor of everyday life. We realized a project called Foreign languages in popularizing science at grammar school. Within the project five teachers with approbation subjects of English, French, German and Physics attended the methodological courses abroad. The teachers applied the gained experience in teaching and linking science teaching with the teaching of foreign languages. Outputs of the project (e.g. English-German-French-Slovak glossary of natural science terminology, student activity sheets, videos with natural science orientation in a foreign language, physical experiments in foreign languages, multimedia fairy tales with natural contents, posters of some scientists) are prepared for the CLIL-oriented lessons. We collected data of the questionnaire for students concerning attitude towards CLIL. The questionnaire for teachers showed data about the attitude, experience, and needs of teachers employing CLIL in their lessons.

  16. Tides and tidal harmonics at Umbharat, Gujarat

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A.; Swamy, G.N.

    A part of the data on tides recorded at Machiwada near Umbharat, Gulf of Cambay during April 1978 was subjected to harmonic analysis following the Admiralty procedure. The general tidal characteristics and the value of four major harmonic...

  17. Dual-System Symbolic Computational Model of Artificial Grammar Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Ivanchei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the work is simulation of human cognitive processes. Authors propose a computational model of artificial grammar learning – the task allowing researchers to explore processing of environmental statistical regularities in humans. A number of the experiments are presented in the literature demonstrating that several cognitive systems take part in human information processing. The aim of the present work is to describe the model, consistent with the accumulated empirical data.The proposed model implements the dual-system approach in the form of formalized algorithms. It contains two independent blocks that process upcoming information independently. Authors describe the principles of the interaction of these blocks allowing us to simulate human behavior in different task conditions. The simulation results are compared with human experimental data represented in the literature and obtained by the authors.The model appeared to be in good agreement with the experimental data. Successful and unsuccessful aspects of the model are described and their possible reasons are discussed. In contrast to most of the current dual-system models, the presented model does not contain neural networks. The advantages of dual-system approaches are described, and symbolic and connectionist approaches to cognitive modeling are discussed. Dual-system models allow us to describe the dissociations between implicit and explicit components in human experience. Connectionist models are criticized for their complexity. Authors suggest that at the same explanatory power, symbolic models should be preferred rather than connectionist ones. They allow better understanding what information processing mechanisms that take place in the human mind.The results of the presented work can be applied in construction and testing of theoretical models in psychology, and in the development of cognitive architectures based on the human information processing mechanisms.

  18. Modeling structure-function relationships in synthetic DNA sequences using attribute grammars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhi Cai

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing that certain biological functions can be associated with specific DNA sequences has led various fields of biology to adopt the notion of the genetic part. This concept provides a finer level of granularity than the traditional notion of the gene. However, a method of formally relating how a set of parts relates to a function has not yet emerged. Synthetic biology both demands such a formalism and provides an ideal setting for testing hypotheses about relationships between DNA sequences and phenotypes beyond the gene-centric methods used in genetics. Attribute grammars are used in computer science to translate the text of a program source code into the computational operations it represents. By associating attributes with parts, modifying the value of these attributes using rules that describe the structure of DNA sequences, and using a multi-pass compilation process, it is possible to translate DNA sequences into molecular interaction network models. These capabilities are illustrated by simple example grammars expressing how gene expression rates are dependent upon single or multiple parts. The translation process is validated by systematically generating, translating, and simulating the phenotype of all the sequences in the design space generated by a small library of genetic parts. Attribute grammars represent a flexible framework connecting parts with models of biological function. They will be instrumental for building mathematical models of libraries of genetic constructs synthesized to characterize the function of genetic parts. This formalism is also expected to provide a solid foundation for the development of computer assisted design applications for synthetic biology.

  19. Transfer and access to universal grammar in adult second language acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauter, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Summary This dissertation focuses on the roles of first language transfer and Universal Grammar in adult second (or foreign) language acquisition. It contributes to the ongoing debate whether second language acquisition is constrained by Universal Grammar. According to generative linguists,

  20. Consistency of Measured Accuracy in Grammar Knowledge Tests and Writing: TOEFL PBT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ahangari, Saeideh; Barghi, Ali Hamed

    2012-01-01

    Almost no language test is void of grammar items, and the reason is probably the assumption that there exists a positive correlation between examinees' grammar knowledge and the actual demonstrable...

  1. Applying cognitive grammar in the foreign language classroom teaching English tense and aspect

    CERN Document Server

    Bielak, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    This book shows how Cognitive Grammar can be used in foreign language classrooms to help learners better grasp the complexities of English grammar. Reports on a study comparing traditional pedagogic methods with CG-grounded ones, and discusses future research.

  2. Detection of Harmonic Occurring using Kalman Filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Shoro, Ghulam Mustafa; Imran, Raja Muhammed

    2014-01-01

    As long as the load to a power system is linear which has been the case before 80's, typically no harmonics are produced. However, the modern power electronic equipment for controlled power consumption produces harmonic disturbances, these devices/equipment possess nonlinear voltage/current chara...... using Kalman filter. This may be very useful for example to quickly switching on certain filters based on the harmonic present. We are using a unique technique to detect the occurrence of harmonics....

  3. Earlier Latin Grammars as (Indirect Sources for the First Slovene Grammar Written by Adam Bohorič

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozma Ahačič

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes some possible sources, direct and indirect, for the grammar authored by the Slovene Protestant writer Adam Bohorič. Entitled Arcticae horulae succisivae de Latinocarniolana literatura(Winter Hours of Leisure on Latin-Carniolian Grammar, it was published in 1584 as the first grammar of Slovene. Since its language is Latin, the present discussion is limited to Latin grammar works. The two direct sources of Bohorič's chapter on etymology are identified as the second or third set of editions of Melanchthon's grammar (i.e., the text as edited in 1540 by Iacobus Micyllus and slightly revised in 1550 by Joachim Camerarius and as one of the (probably bilingual editions of Donatus published before 1540 (perhaps the so-called "Torgauer Donat", of which we had access to the edition Aelii Donati Methodus ?eu Declinandi coniungandique prima elementa, pro pueris Alphabetarijs, rerum grammaticarum pror?us ignaris, diligentiori cura nunc primum concinata. Cum Epistola Phil. Mel., Vitebergae, 1542. The direct source of Bohorič's chapter on syntax is identified as the second set of editions of Melanchthon's syntax, edited in 1538 by Vitus Oertelius Winshemius. The editions of Melanchthon's Latin grammar and syntax not used by Bohorič are likewise treated in detail. Among the indirect sources, there is a brief reference to Priscian's oeuvre, with detailed descriptions reserved for the major Latin humanist grammars published before Bohorič's work: Valla, Perotti, Perger, Sulpicius, Nebrija, Manutius, Despauterius, Linacre, Alvarus, Scaliger, and Ramus.

  4. Effective harmonic oscillator description of anharmonic molecular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. The validity of an effective harmonic oscillator approximation for anharmonic molecular vibrations is tested and compared with vibrational self consistent field and vibrational configurational interaction results. The effective harmonic oscillator is constructed variationally, by taking the trial wave function as a harmonic ...

  5. Third Harmonic Imaging using a Pulse Inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim; Du, Yigang; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2011-01-01

    The pulse inversion (PI) technique can be utilized to separate and enhance harmonic components of a waveform for tissue harmonic imaging. While most ultrasound systems can perform pulse inversion, only few image the 3rd harmonic component. PI pulse subtraction can isolate and enhance the 3rd...

  6. Harmonic Detection at Initialization With Kalman Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Imran, Raja Muhammad; Shoro, Ghulam Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    the affect of harmonics on the supply. For the detection of these harmonics various techniques are available and one of that technique is the Kalman filter. In this paper we investigate that what are the consequences when harmonic detection system based on Kalman Filtering is initialized...

  7. Using the critical impedance method for determining the dominant harmonic source in medium voltage circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pável Julián Garcia M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Automating industrial processes has led to the distortion of current and voltage waveforms, causing harmonic contamination in distribution networks. This paper shows the application of a practical methodology which de- termines the dominant harmonic source at the point of common coupling (PCC between the network operator (NO and the client. This is known as the critical impedance (CI method, requiring monitoring voltage, current and phase angle signals for each existing harmonic component and NO and client Thevenin impedance values seen in PCC. The method needs approximate impedance information to operate and a simple and structured mathematical analysis based on studying the measurements prolecting a useful, reliable and practical solution for detecting the dominant harmonic source in distribution systems.

  8. Economical implications regarding the operation of power transformers in harmonic polluted power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Pop

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The segment of loads causing harmonic pollution of power systems is increasing due to the rising volume of electronic and power electronic components. Each nonlinear load generates periodic events (e.g. harmonics that could lead to serious problems within power system networks and its components (e.g. transformers. If transformers operate in networks where the harmonic spectra exceed a certain limit, they will additionally be heated up and losses are increased,compared to operation under normal conditions. This paper discusses different effects of harmonics on power ransformers, such as increasing power losses, reduction of efficiency, decrease of power factor and derating of transformers. An economical analysis is performed in order to determinate the life cycle cost of transformers for different rated powers.

  9. Harmonic Brain Modes: A Unifying Framework for Linking Space and Time in Brain Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasoy, Selen; Deco, Gustavo; Kringelbach, Morten L; Pearson, Joel

    2017-09-01

    A fundamental characteristic of spontaneous brain activity is coherent oscillations covering a wide range of frequencies. Interestingly, these temporal oscillations are highly correlated among spatially distributed cortical areas forming structured correlation patterns known as the resting state networks, although the brain is never truly at "rest." Here, we introduce the concept of harmonic brain modes-fundamental building blocks of complex spatiotemporal patterns of neural activity. We define these elementary harmonic brain modes as harmonic modes of structural connectivity; that is, connectome harmonics, yielding fully synchronous neural activity patterns with different frequency oscillations emerging on and constrained by the particular structure of the brain. Hence, this particular definition implicitly links the hitherto poorly understood dimensions of space and time in brain dynamics and its underlying anatomy. Further we show how harmonic brain modes can explain the relationship between neurophysiological, temporal, and network-level changes in the brain across different mental states ( wakefulness, sleep, anesthesia, psychedelic). Notably, when decoded as activation of connectome harmonics, spatial and temporal characteristics of neural activity naturally emerge from the interplay between excitation and inhibition and this critical relation fits the spatial, temporal, and neurophysiological changes associated with different mental states. Thus, the introduced framework of harmonic brain modes not only establishes a relation between the spatial structure of correlation patterns and temporal oscillations (linking space and time in brain dynamics), but also enables a new dimension of tools for understanding fundamental principles underlying brain dynamics in different states of consciousness.

  10. Probabilistic Harmonic Analysis on Distributed Photovoltaic Integration Considering Typical Weather Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Che; Ruoying, Yu; Dongsheng, Dang; Xiangyan, Wang

    2017-05-01

    Distributed Generation (DG) integrating to the network would cause the harmonic pollution which would cause damages on electrical devices and affect the normal operation of power system. On the other hand, due to the randomness of the wind and solar irradiation, the output of DG is random, too, which leads to an uncertainty of the harmonic generated by the DG. Thus, probabilistic methods are needed to analyse the impacts of the DG integration. In this work we studied the harmonic voltage probabilistic distribution and the harmonic distortion in distributed network after the distributed photovoltaic (DPV) system integrating in different weather conditions, mainly the sunny day, cloudy day, rainy day and the snowy day. The probabilistic distribution function of the DPV output power in different typical weather conditions could be acquired via the parameter identification method of maximum likelihood estimation. The Monte-Carlo simulation method was adopted to calculate the probabilistic distribution of harmonic voltage content at different frequency orders as well as the harmonic distortion (THD) in typical weather conditions. The case study was based on the IEEE33 system and the results of harmonic voltage content probabilistic distribution as well as THD in typical weather conditions were compared.

  11. Economic impacts of current harmonic from nonlinear loads on residential electricity distribution networks; Impactos economicos dos harmonicos de corrente das cargas nao lineares em redes eletricas de distribuicao residenciais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Carlos Henrique

    2010-04-15

    To achieve more efficient energy use, power electronics systems (PES) may be employed. However, this introduce nonlinear loads into the system by generating undesired frequencies that are harmonic in relation to (multiples of) the fundamental frequency (60 Hz in Brazil). Consequently, devices using PES (power electronics systems) are more efficient but also contribute significantly to degradation of power quality. Besides this, both the conventional rules on design and operation of power systems and the usual premises followed in energy efficiency programs (without mentioning the electricity consumed by the devices themselves) consider the sinusoidal voltage and current waveforms at the fixed fundamental frequency (60 Hz in Brazil) of the power grid. Thus, analysis of electricity consumption reductions in energy efficiency programs that include the use of PES considers the reduction of kWh to the final consumer but not the additional losses caused by the increase in harmonic distortion. This dissertation investigates this problem by exploring a case study of the ownership and use of television sets (TV sets) to estimate the economic impacts of residential PES on a mainly residential electricity distribution system. (author)

  12. Grammar Correction in the Writing Centre: Expectations and Experiences of Monolingual and Multilingual Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Although most writing centres maintain policies against providing grammar correction during writing tutorials, it is undeniable that students expect some level of grammar intervention there. Just how much students expect and receive is a matter of speculation. This article examines the grammar-correction issue by reporting on a survey of L1, L2,…

  13. A constraint-based bottom-up counterpart to definite clause grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2004-01-01

    A new grammar formalism, CHR Grammars (CHRG), is proposed that provides a constraint-solving approach to language analysis, built on top of the programming language of Constraint Handling Rules in the same way as Definite Clause Grammars (DCG) on Prolog. CHRG works bottom-up and adds the following...

  14. Spelling and Grammar--Their Importance to Journalism: What Journalism Schools Are Doing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Thomas A.; And Others

    With increasing enrollments in journalism, many journalism instructors contend that problems of spelling, grammar, usage, and punctuation are particularly acute. Some of the questions raised at recent gatherings include: Are formal rules of English grammar dying? Is proper punctuation mere pedantry? What can journalism schools do about grammar and…

  15. Language Practice with Multimedia Supported Web-Based Grammar Revision Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baturay, Meltem Huri; Daloglu, Aysegul; Yildirim, Soner

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of elementary-level English language learners towards web-based, multimedia-annotated grammar learning. WEBGRAM, a system designed to provide supplementary web-based grammar revision material, uses audio-visual aids to enrich the contextual presentation of grammar and allows learners to…

  16. Corpus-based Grammar and the Heineken Effect: Lexico-grammatical Description for Language Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Charles

    1993-01-01

    The current status of corpus-based lexico-grammar is assessed. Particular reference is to the one substantial descriptive grammar of English to have made use of the new computational techniques, the Collins COBUILD English Grammar. (39 references) (Author/LB)

  17. Impact of Consciousness-Raising Activities on Young English Language Learners' Grammar Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemipour, Hamidreza; Hemmati, Shiva

    2015-01-01

    Grammar Consciousness-Raising (GCR) is an approach to teaching of grammar which learners instead of being taught the given rules, experience language data. The data challenge them to rethink, restructure their existing mental grammar and construct an explicit rule to describe the grammatical feature which the data illustrate (Ellis, 2002). And…

  18. The Role of Grammar in the Writing Curriculum: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhill, Debra; Watson, Annabel

    2014-01-01

    For most Anglophone countries, the history of grammar teaching over the past 50 years is one of contestation, debate and dissent: and 50 years on we are no closer to reaching a consensus about the role of grammar in the English/Language Arts curriculum. The debate has been described through the metaphor of battle and grammar wars (Kamler, 1995;…

  19. Development and Validation of a Diagnostic Grammar Test for Japanese Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Rie; Sakai, Hideki; Ido, Takahiro; Ota, Hiroshi; Hayama, Megumi; Sato, Masatoshi; Nemoto, Akiko

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the development and validation of the English Diagnostic Test of Grammar (EDiT Grammar) for Japanese learners of English. From among the many aspects of grammar, this test focuses on the knowledge of basic English noun phrases (NPs), especially their internal structures, because previous research has indicated the…

  20. Harmonic Stability Analysis of Inverter-Fed Power Systems Using Component Connection Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanbo; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a Component Connection Method (CCM)-based harmonic stability analysis for ac power-electronic-fed power systems. In the approach, the system is partitioned as individual components, including the controllers of DG units, LC filters, network impedances, and power loads...... is formulated. And the harmonic stability is assessed based on eigenvalue traces of the composite model. Simulations and experimental results are given to validate the effectiveness of the analysis method, which can be employed to assess the system harmonic stability for any combinations of system parameters...

  1. Frequency Domain Modeling and Simulation of DC Power Electronic Systems Using Harmonic State Space Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    . Through this method, the required computation time and CPU memory can be reduced, where this faster simulation can be an advantage of a large network simulation. Besides, the achieved results show the same results as the non-linear time-domain simulation. Furthermore, the HSS modeling can describe how...... with different switching frequency or harmonics from ac-dc converters makes that harmonics and frequency coupling are both problems of ac system and challenges of dc system. This paper presents a modeling and simulation method for a large dc power electronic system by using Harmonic State Space (HSS) modeling...

  2. Static harmonization of dynamically harmonized Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanova, Ekaterina; Kostyukevich, Yury; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2017-08-01

    Static harmonization in the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance cell improves the resolving power of the cell and prevents dephasing of the ion cloud in the case of any trajectory of the charged particle, not necessarily axisymmetric cyclotron (as opposed to dynamic harmonization). We reveal that the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance cell with dynamic harmonization (paracell) is proved to be statically harmonized. The volume of the statically harmonized potential distribution increases with an increase in the number of trap segments.

  3. Automating 3D reconstruction using a probabilistic grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hanwei; Xu, Jun; Xu, Chenxi; Pan, Ming

    2015-10-01

    3D reconstruction of objects from point clouds with a laser scanner is still a laborious task in many applications. Automating 3D process is an ongoing research topic and suffers from the complex structure of the data. The main difficulty is due to lack of knowledge of real world objects structure. In this paper, we accumulate such structure knowledge by a probabilistic grammar learned from examples in the same category. The rules of the grammar capture compositional structures at different levels, and a feature dependent probability function is attached for every rule. The learned grammar can be used to parse new 3D point clouds, organize segment patches in a hierarchal way, and assign them meaningful labels. The parsed semantics can be used to guide the reconstruction algorithms automatically. Some examples are given to explain the method.

  4. A Compositional Treatment of Polysemous Arguments in Categorial Grammar

    CERN Document Server

    Mineur, A M; Mineur, Anne-Marie; Buitelaar, Paul

    1995-01-01

    We discuss an extension of the standard logical rules (functional application and abstraction) in Categorial Grammar (CG), in order to deal with some specific cases of polysemy. We borrow from Generative Lexicon theory which proposes the mechanism of {\\em coercion}, next to a rich nominal lexical semantic structure called {\\em qualia structure}. In a previous paper we introduced coercion into the framework of {\\em sign-based} Categorial Grammar and investigated its impact on traditional Fregean compositionality. In this paper we will elaborate on this idea, mostly working towards the introduction of a new semantic dimension. Where in current versions of sign-based Categorial Grammar only two representations are derived: a prosodic one (form) and a logical one (modelling), here we introduce also a more detaled representation of the lexical semantics. This extra knowledge will serve to account for linguistic phenomena like {\\em metonymy\\/}.

  5. Data harmonization and model performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Joint Committee on Urban Storm Drainage of the International Association for Hydraulic Research (IAHR) and International Association on Water Pollution Research and Control (IAWPRC) was formed in 1982. The current committee members are (no more than two from a country): B. C. Yen, Chairman (USA); P. Harremoes, Vice Chairman (Denmark); R. K. Price, Secretary (UK); P. J. Colyer (UK), M. Desbordes (France), W. C. Huber (USA), K. Krauth (FRG), A. Sjoberg (Sweden), and T. Sueishi (Japan).The IAHR/IAWPRC Joint Committee is forming a Task Group on Data Harmonization and Model Performance. One objective is to promote international urban drainage data harmonization for easy data and information exchange. Another objective is to publicize available models and data internationally. Comments and suggestions concerning the formation and charge of the Task Group are welcome and should be sent to: B. C. Yen, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Univ. of Illinois, 208 N. Romine St., Urbana, IL 61801.

  6. Harmonic vibrations of multispan beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes

    1996-01-01

    Free and forced harmonic vibrations of multispan beams are determined by a method which implies 1 equation regardless of the configuration. The necessary formulas are given in the paper. For beams with simple supports and the same length of all (n) spans, there is a rather big difference between...... the n´th and the (n+1)´th eigenfrequency. The reason for this phenomenon is explained.Keywords: Vibrations, Eigenfrequencies, Beams....

  7. Representation Discovery using Harmonic Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mahadevan, Sridhar

    2008-01-01

    Representations are at the heart of artificial intelligence (AI). This book is devoted to the problem of representation discovery: how can an intelligent system construct representations from its experience? Representation discovery re-parameterizes the state space - prior to the application of information retrieval, machine learning, or optimization techniques - facilitating later inference processes by constructing new task-specific bases adapted to the state space geometry. This book presents a general approach to representation discovery using the framework of harmonic analysis, in particu

  8. Harmonic ratcheting for fast acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cook

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in the design of rf cavities for the acceleration of medium-energy charged ions is the need to rapidly sweep the radio frequency over a large range. From low-power medical synchrotrons to high-power accelerator driven subcritical reactor systems, and from fixed focus alternating gradient accelerators to rapid cycling synchrotrons, there is a strong need for more efficient, and faster, acceleration of protons and light ions in the semirelativistic range of hundreds of MeV/u. A conventional way to achieve a large, rapid frequency sweep (perhaps over a range of a factor of 6 is to use custom-designed ferrite-loaded cavities. Ferrite rings enable the precise tuning of the resonant frequency of a cavity, through the control of the incremental permeability that is possible by introducing a pseudoconstant azimuthal magnetic field. However, rapid changes over large permeability ranges incur anomalous behavior such as the “Q-loss” and “f-dot” loss phenomena that limit performance while requiring high bias currents. Notwithstanding the incomplete understanding of these phenomena, they can be ameliorated by introducing a “harmonic ratcheting” acceleration scheme in which two or more rf cavities take turns accelerating the beam—one turns on when the other turns off, at different harmonics—so that the radio frequency can be constrained to remain in a smaller range. Harmonic ratcheting also has straightforward performance advantages, depending on the particular parameter set at hand. In some typical cases it is possible to halve the length of the cavities, or to double the effective gap voltage, or to double the repetition rate. This paper discusses and quantifies the advantages of harmonic ratcheting in general. Simulation results for the particular case of a rapid cycling medical synchrotron ratcheting from harmonic number 9 to 2 show that stability and performance criteria are met even when realistic engineering details

  9. Renormalization for free harmonic oscillators

    OpenAIRE

    Sonoda, H.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a model of free harmonic oscillators that requires renormalization. The model is similar to but simpler than the soluble Lee model. We introduce two concrete examples: the first, resembling the three dimensional $\\phi^4$ theory, needs only mass renormalization, and the second, resembling the four dimensional $\\phi^4$ theory and the Lee model, needs additional renormalization of a coupling and a wave function.

  10. On Anaphora and the Binding Principles in Categorial Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Glyn; Valentín, Oriol

    In type logical categorial grammar the analysis of an expression is a resource-conscious proof. Anaphora represents a particular challenge to this approach in that the antecedent resource is multiplied in the semantics. This duplication, which corresponds logically to the structural rule of contraction, may be treated lexically or syntactically. Furthermore, anaphora is subject to constraints, which Chomsky (1981) formulated as Binding Principles A, B, and C. In this paper we consider English anaphora in categorial grammar including reference to the binding principles. We invoke displacement calculus, modal categorial calculus, categorial calculus with limited contraction, and entertain addition of negation as failure.

  11. An Evaluation of Universal Grammar and the Phonological Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Daniel L

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues against the hypothesis of a "phonological mind" advanced by Berent. It establishes that there is no evidence that phonology is innate and that, in fact, the simplest hypothesis seems to be that phonology is learned like other human abilities. Moreover, the paper fleshes out the original claim of Philip Lieberman that Universal Grammar predicts that not everyone should be able to learn every language, i.e., the opposite of what UG is normally thought to predict. The paper also underscores the problem that the absence of recursion in Pirahã represents for Universal Grammar proposals.

  12. A Sign-Based Phrase Structure Grammar for Turkish

    CERN Document Server

    Sehitoglu, O T

    1996-01-01

    This study analyses Turkish syntax from an informational point of view. Sign based linguistic representation and principles of HPSG (Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar) theory are adapted to Turkish. The basic informational elements are nested and inherently sorted feature structures called signs. In the implementation, logic programming tool ALE (Attribute Logic Engine) which is primarily designed for implementing HPSG grammars is used. A type and structure hierarchy of Turkish language is designed. Syntactic phenomena such a s subcategorization, relative clauses, constituent order variation, adjuncts, nomina l predicates and complement-modifier relations in Turkish are analyzed. A parser is designed and implemented in ALE.

  13. Conversation Trees: A Grammar Model for Topic Structure in Forums

    OpenAIRE

    Louis, Annie; Cohen, Shay B.

    2015-01-01

    Online forum discussions proceed differently from face-to-face conversations and any single thread on an online forum contains posts on different subtopics. This work aims to characterize the content of a forum thread as a conversation tree of topics. We present models that jointly per- form two tasks: segment a thread into sub-parts, and assign a topic to each part. Our core idea is a definition of topic structure using probabilistic grammars. By leveraging the flexibility of two grammar for...

  14. Route description in Iwaidja: grammar and conceptualisation of motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cris Edmonds-Wathen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focussed on the effect of grammar of Iwaidja, an indigenous Australian language, on mathematical conceptualisation. It investigated route description in Iwaidja. Spatial concepts such as direction, height and movement in relation to another object are briefly described using examples. Differences between English and Iwaidja are used to illustrate the some of the impact of grammar on mathematical conceptualisation. The implications are discussed in terms of how understanding these grammatical features can help teachers, especially when children are not fluent in the language of instruction, as well as providing keys to cross-linguistic investigations of mathematical cognition.

  15. The Briefest English Grammar and Punctuation Guide Ever!

    CERN Document Server

    Coleman, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Now in one handy volume: the bestselling The Briefest English Grammar Ever! and The Briefest Punctuation Guide Ever! Covering the basics of English grammar and punctuation, this friendly guide is perfect for students at all levels. It clearly and simply explains how language works and functions and strips out all the jargon to make understanding punctuation easy. So if you need to sort out your verbs from your nouns and your adjectives from your adverbs, or if you aren't sure whether a comma should go before or after a word or when to start a new sentence, then this concise, unintimidating gui

  16. How to describe grammar and vocabulary in ELT

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Dilin

    2013-01-01

    Language description plays an important role in language learning/teaching because it often determines what specific language forms, features, and usages are taught and how. A good understanding of language description is vital for language teachers and material writers and should constitute an important part of their knowledge. This book provides a balanced treatment of both theory and practice. It focuses on some of the most important and challenging grammar and vocabulary usage questions. Using these questions as examples, it shows how theory can inform practice and how grammar and vocab

  17. Data harmonization and federated analysis of population-based studies: the BioSHaRE project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Dany; Burton, Paul; Marcon, Yannick; Gaye, Amadou; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Perola, Markus; Stolk, Ronald P; Foco, Luisa; Minelli, Cosetta; Waldenberger, Melanie; Holle, Rolf; Kvaløy, Kirsti; Hillege, Hans L; Tassé, Anne-Marie; Ferretti, Vincent; Fortier, Isabel

    2013-11-21

    Individual-level data pooling of large population-based studies across research centres in international research projects faces many hurdles. The BioSHaRE (Biobank Standardisation and Harmonisation for Research Excellence in the European Union) project aims to address these issues by building a collaborative group of investigators and developing tools for data harmonization, database integration and federated data analyses. Eight population-based studies in six European countries were recruited to participate in the BioSHaRE project. Through workshops, teleconferences and electronic communications, participating investigators identified a set of 96 variables targeted for harmonization to answer research questions of interest. Using each study's questionnaires, standard operating procedures, and data dictionaries, harmonization potential was assessed. Whenever harmonization was deemed possible, processing algorithms were developed and implemented in an open-source software infrastructure to transform study-specific data into the target (i.e. harmonized) format. Harmonized datasets located on server in each research centres across Europe were interconnected through a federated database system to perform statistical analysis. Retrospective harmonization led to the generation of common format variables for 73% of matches considered (96 targeted variables across 8 studies). Authenticated investigators can now perform complex statistical analyses of harmonized datasets stored on distributed servers without actually sharing individual-level data using the DataSHIELD method. New Internet-based networking technologies and database management systems are providing the means to support collaborative, multi-center research in an efficient and secure manner. The results from this pilot project show that, given a strong collaborative relationship between participating studies, it is possible to seamlessly co-analyse internationally harmonized research databases while allowing

  18. Input Harmonic Analysis on the Slim DC-Link Drive Using Harmonic State Space Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Feng; Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei

    2017-01-01

    variation according to the switching instant, the harmonics at the steady-state condition, as well as the coupling between the multiple harmonic impedances. By using this model, the impaction on the harmonics performance by the film capacitor and the grid inductance is derived. Simulation and experimental......The harmonic performance of the slim dc-link adjustable speed drives has shown good performance in some studies but poor in some others. The contradiction indicates that a feasible theoretical analysis is still lacking to characterize the harmonic distortion for the slim dc-link drive. Considering...... the shortcomings of the present harmonic analysis methods, such as the time-domain simulation, or the Fourier analysis, this paper proposes a Harmonic State Space model to study the harmonics performance for this type of drive. In this study, this model is utilized to describe the behavior of the harmonic...

  19. Active and Passive Minimum of Grammar in Teaching a Foreign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandras Velička

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the problem of active and passive minimum of grammar is analysed alongside with the questions relevant to this problem: the aspects of selection of grammar material, its presentation, teaching, consolidation and realization in communicational process. The author, while analysing students mistakes, states that the main criteria for selecting passive minimum of grammar must be the frequency of the subject and the possibilities of its usage in a definite text. The main factor for choosing active grammar minimum is communicative value of grammar. In the article it has been stated that different grammar exercises are needed for receptive and reproductive learning. The possibilities of grammar material presentation, consolidation and realization in a concrete situation are also touched on in the article.

  20. Harmonic generation in the generalized Sagdeev pseudopotential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we study the nonlinear harmonic generation effect in different oscillator models. For weakly nonlinear systems, we use the generalized forced Korteweg de Vries Burgers (KdVB) and modified KdVB (mKdVB) models in order to classify three fundamentally different harmonic structures in a nonlinear dynamical system. The first is called the internal harmonic structure which exists due to the self oscillation of the system in the absence of dissipation effect and is shown to follow either relations of nf or (2n - 1)f depending on the symmetry of oscillator potential in which n is an integer number and f is the fundamental frequency which is exactly obtained for the Helmholtz oscillator. The second structure is the resonant harmonics which appears in the presence of damping and follows the harmonic structure nf0 in which f0 is the linear resonance frequency. Finally, the last harmonic structure appears in the presence of dissipation and external periodic forcing effects which we call the external harmonic pattern. It is shown that the external harmonic pattern, in which f1 is the driving frequency, always follows the nf1 rule regardless of the potential symmetry. We then extend our analysis to study the harmonic generation in the fully nonlinear generalized Sagdeev potential for real plasmas with isothermal and adiabatic ion fluids and investigate the effects of different plasma parameters such as the fractional ion temperature and normalized ion acoustic speed on all three kinds of harmonic generation.

  1. Grammar Errors Made by ESL Tertiary Students in Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Charanjit Kaur Swaran; Singh, Amreet Kaur Jageer; Razak, Nur Qistina Abd; Ravinthar, Thilaga

    2017-01-01

    The educational context in Malaysia demands students to be equipped with sound grammar so that they can produce good essays in the examination. However, despite having learnt English in primary and secondary schools, students in the higher learning institutions tend to make some grammatical errors in their writing. This study presents the…

  2. Reconstructive description of eighteenth-century Xinka grammar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sachse, Frauke

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation presents a comprehensive description of Xinka based on the missionary grammar "Arte de la lengua szinca" that was written by the priest Manuel Maldonado de Matos around 1773. Xinka is an isolate family of today mostly extinct, closely related languages in southeastern Guatemala.

  3. A Model for Teaching Literary Analysis Using Systemic Functional Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrocklin, Shannon; Slater, Tammy

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces an approach that middle-school teachers can follow to help their students carry out linguistic-based literary analyses. As an example, it draws on Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG) to show how J.K. Rowling used language to characterize Hermione as an intelligent female in "Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows."…

  4. Grammar Is a System That Characterizes Talk in Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginzburg, Jonathan; Poesio, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Much of contemporary mainstream formal grammar theory is unable to provide analyses for language as it occurs in actual spoken interaction. Its analyses are developed for a cleaned up version of language which omits the disfluencies, non-sentential utterances, gestures, and many other phenomena that are ubiquitous in spoken language. Using evidence from linguistics, conversation analysis, multimodal communication, psychology, language acquisition, and neuroscience, we show these aspects of language use are rule governed in much the same way as phenomena captured by conventional grammars. Furthermore, we argue that over the past few years some of the tools required to provide a precise characterizations of such phenomena have begun to emerge in theoretical and computational linguistics; hence, there is no reason for treating them as "second class citizens" other than pre-theoretical assumptions about what should fall under the purview of grammar. Finally, we suggest that grammar formalisms covering such phenomena would provide a better foundation not just for linguistic analysis of face-to-face interaction, but also for sister disciplines, such as research on spoken dialogue systems and/or psychological work on language acquisition.

  5. A Grammar of Conversation with a Quantitative Empirical Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stech, Ernest L.

    1979-01-01

    Examines a grammar of conversation using three units of analysis: talk acts (statements, questions, agreements, and disagreements); turns at talk; and topic sequences. Rules covering the use of talk acts and definitions of units of analysis provide the basis for propositions about the location of categories of talk acts. (JMF)

  6. Spoken Grammar: Where Are We and Where Are We Going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Ronald; McCarthy, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This article synthesises progress made in the description of spoken (especially conversational) grammar over the 20 years since the authors published a paper in this journal arguing for a re-thinking of grammatical description and pedagogy based on spoken corpus evidence. We begin with a glance back at the 16th century and the teaching of Latin…

  7. What do animals learn in artificial grammar studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Gabriël J L; Berwick, Robert C; Okanoya, Kazuo; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2017-10-01

    Artificial grammar learning is a popular paradigm to study syntactic ability in nonhuman animals. Subjects are first trained to recognize strings of tokens that are sequenced according to grammatical rules. Next, to test if recognition depends on grammaticality, subjects are presented with grammar-consistent and grammar-violating test strings, which they should discriminate between. However, simpler cues may underlie discrimination if they are available. Here, we review stimulus design in a sample of studies that use particular sounds as tokens, and that claim or suggest their results demonstrate a form of sequence rule learning. To assess the extent of acoustic similarity between training and test strings, we use four simple measures corresponding to cues that are likely salient. All stimulus sets contain biases in similarity measures such that grammatical test stimuli resemble training stimuli acoustically more than do non-grammatical test stimuli. These biases may contribute to response behaviour, reducing the strength of grammatical explanations. We conclude that acoustic confounds are a blind spot in artificial grammar learning studies in nonhuman animals. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Geelong Grammar boy saw deep inside the atom

    CERN Multimedia

    Persse, M C

    2003-01-01

    "John Gordon Rushbrooke, whose brilliant career as a high-energy physicist has been cut short by cancer, was one of a succession of scientists educated at Geelong Grammar School in the middle years of the 20th century who achieved world eminence in their fields" (1 page).

  9. Performance and competence in usage-based construction grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2014-01-01

    -based definition of the language system, his paper explores the interplay between performance and competence in a construction grammar perspective in which grammatical constructions are considered meaningful symbolic units on par with lexemes, in relation to the [V until ADJ]-construction, based on a study...

  10. Professional Interventions as a State-Crafting Grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian; Øland, Trine

    2015-01-01

    This article is written in connection with a joint research project which adopts a comparative outlook in investigating post-war Danish professional interventions aimed at immigrants. Specifically, these interventions are investigated as a state-crafting grammar. One project primarily focuses...

  11. A Fast and Simple Online Synchronous Context Free Grammar Extractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Baltescu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical phrase-based machine translation systems rely on the synchronous context free grammar formalism to learn and use translation rules containing gaps. The grammars learned by such systems become unmanageably large even for medium sized parallel corpora. The traditional approach of preprocessing the training data and loading all possible translation rules into memory does not scale well for hierarchical phrase-based systems. Online grammar extractors address this problem by constructing memory efficient data structures on top of the source sideof the parallel data (often based on suffix arrays, which are usedto efficiently match phrases in the corpus and to extract translation rules on the fly during decoding. This paper describes an open source implementation of an online synchronous context free grammar extractor. Our approach builds on the work of Lopez (2008a and introduces a new technique for extending the lists of phrase matches for phrases containing gaps that reduces the extraction time by a factor of 4. Our extractor is available as part of the cdec toolkit1 (Dyer et al., 2010.

  12. Adverbial Placement in Ewe: A Role and Reference Grammar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is a description of Ewe adverb placement and interpretation from an RRG (Role and Reference Grammar) perspective. Ewe is a member of the Kwa branch of Niger Congo languages. It is also described as a dialect of GBE (Capo 1982). GBE is a cluster of five languages; Aja,. Ewe, Fon, Gen, and Phla-Phera.

  13. A Practical Spanish Grammar for Border Patrol Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Border Patrol Academy, El Paso, TX.

    Designed to be used in the Spanish training program for probationary officers at the Border Patrol Academy in El Paso, Texas, this revised 21-lesson traditional grammar text includes special features that make it pertinent to the job of a patrol inspector in the Mexican border area. An extensive appendix is comprised of exercise translations,…

  14. An Organic Approach to the Teaching of Grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, David

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship between grammar and discourse and explores the implications of this relationship for language education. Suggests that the linear approach to language acquisition is problematic and does not reflect what is known about the process of acquisition. Argues for an "organic" approach. (Author/VWL)

  15. A grammar of Tadaksahak a northern Songhay language of Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christiansen-Bolli, Regula

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a descriptive grammar of the language Tadaksahak spoken by about 30,000 people living in the most eastern part of Mali. The four chapters of the book give 1. Information about the background of the group. 2. The phonological features of the language with the inventory of the

  16. English grammar and teaching strategies lifeline to literacy

    CERN Document Server

    Pollock, Joy

    2012-01-01

    This text aims to demystify grammar and equip any teacher to teach it in the classroom. Carefully set out for ease of reference, each grammatical term is clearly defined. Varieties of usage are illustrated and teaching strategies can be extended according to the age and key stage of the pupil.

  17. A Grammar of Peripheralization : Neill Blomkamp’s District 9

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosello, M.

    2016-01-01

    This article claims that no community is peripheral. In a collection of studies devoted to the periphery, the hypothesis may sound paradoxical. The point is not to provoke but to argue that peripheral subjects must first be constructed as such but a grammar of peripheralization. To explore the rules

  18. The P600 in implicit artificial grammar learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, S.; Folia, V.; Hagoort, P.; Petersson, K.M.

    2017-01-01

    The suitability of the artificial grammar learning (AGL) paradigm to capture relevant aspects of the acquisition of linguistic structures has been empirically tested in a number of EEG studies. Some have shown a syntax-related P600 component, but it has not been ruled out that the AGL P600 effect is

  19. What Artificial Grammar Learning Reveals about the Neurobiology of Syntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Karl-Magnus; Folia, Vasiliki; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we examine the neurobiological correlates of syntax, the processing of structured sequences, by comparing FMRI results on artificial and natural language syntax. We discuss these and similar findings in the context of formal language and computability theory. We used a simple right-linear unification grammar in an implicit artificial…

  20. Architectural design with simple shape grammars and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Jiménez-Morales

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a proposal for the automatic generation of architectural design. This scheme is based on the training of simple shape grammars through reinforcement learning technics. Finally, the results of the implemented system by this technic for the generation of dwelling design with certain restrictions are presented and analyzed.