WorldWideScience

Sample records for hardened microprocessor volume

  1. Radiation hardened COTS-based 32-bit microprocessor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, N.; Brown, R.; Cronauer, T.; Phan, H.

    1999-01-01

    A high performance radiation hardened 32-bit RISC microprocessor based upon a commercial single chip CPU has been developed. This paper presents the features of radiation hardened microprocessor, the methods used to radiation harden this device, the results of radiation testing, and shows that the RAD6000 is well-suited for the vast majority of space applications. (authors)

  2. Radiation-hardened bulk Si-gate CMOS microprocessor family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stricker, R.E.; Dingwall, A.G.F.; Cohen, S.; Adams, J.R.; Slemmer, W.C.

    1979-01-01

    RCA and Sandia Laboratories jointly developed a radiation-hardened bulk Si-gate CMOS technology which is used to fabricate the CDP-1800 series microprocessor family. Total dose hardness of 1 x 10 6 rads (Si) and transient upset hardness of 5 x 10 8 rads (Si)/sec with no latch up at any transient level was achieved. Radiation-hardened parts manufactured to date include the CDP-1802 microprocessor, the CDP-1834 ROM, the CDP-1852 8-bit I/O port, the CDP-1856 N-bit 1 of 8 decoder, and the TCC-244 256 x 4 Static RAM. The paper is divided into three parts. In the first section, the basic fundamentals of the non-hardened C 2 L technology used for the CDP-1800 series microprocessor parts is discussed along with the primary reasons for hardening this technology. The second section discusses the major changes in the fabrication sequence that are required to produce radiation-hardened devices. The final section details the electrical performance characteristics of the hardened devices as well as the effects of radiation on device performance. Also included in this section is a discussion of the TCC-244 256 x 4 Static RAM designed jointly by RCA and Sandia Laboratories for this application

  3. Microprocessors

    CERN Document Server

    Cornillie, O A R

    1985-01-01

    Microprocessors presents an overview of the state of the art in the field of microprocessors and illustrates, with the aid of patents, its utilization and application. Organized into six parts, the book begins with an introduction to the microprocessor, microcomputer, and software. Parts I-III focus on program control, digital control, and electrical motor control. Subsequent parts show the medical applications, measuring instruments, and treatment of data in microprocessors.

  4. Total dose and dose rate radiation characterization of EPI-CMOS radiation hardened memory and microprocessor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gingerich, B.L.; Hermsen, J.M.; Lee, J.C.; Schroeder, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The process, circuit discription, and total dose radiation characteristics are presented for two second generation hardened 4K EPI-CMOS RAMs and a first generation 80C85 microprocessor. Total dose radiation performance is presented to 10M rad-Si and effects of biasing and operating conditions are discussed. The dose rate sensitivity of the 4K RAMs is also presented along with single event upset (SEU) test data

  5. SEU simulation and testing of resistor-hardened D-latches in the SA3300 microprocessor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton, F.W.; Corbett, W.T.; Treece, R.K.; Hass, K.J.; Axness, C.L.; Hash, G.L.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Wunsch, T.F.; Hughes, K.L.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the SEU tolerance of the SA3300 microprocessor with feedback resistors is presented and compared to the SA3300 without feedback resistors and to the commercial version (NS32016). Upset threshold at room temperature increased from 23 MeV-cm 2 /mg and 180 MeV-cm 2 /mg with feedback resistors of 50 kΩ and 160 kΩ, respectively. The performance goal of 10 MHz over the full temperature range of -55 degrees C to +125 degrees C is exceeded for feedback resistors of 160 kΩ and less. Error rate calculations for this design predict that the error rate is less than once every 100 years when 50 kΩ feedback resistors are used in the D-latch design. Analysis of the SEU response using a lumped-parameter circuit simulator imply a charge collection depth of 4.5 μm. This is much deeper than the authors would expect for prompt collection in the epi and funnel regions and has been explained in terms of diffusion current in the heavily doped substrate

  6. Principles and techniques of radiation hardening. Volume 3. Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and system generated EMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudie, N.J.

    1976-01-01

    The three-volume book is intended to serve as a review of the effects of thermonuclear explosion induced radiation (x-rays, gamma rays, and beta particles) and the resulting electromagnetic pulse (EMP). Volume 3 deals with the following topics: selected fundamentals of electromagnetic theory; EMP induced currents on antennas and cables; the EMP response of electronics; EMP hardening; EMP testing; injection currents; internal electromagnetic pulse (IEMP); replacement currents; and system generated electromagnetic pulse (SGEMP) hardening

  7. Quantitative analysis of CT brain images: a statistical model incorporating partial volume and beam hardening effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLoughlin, R.F.; Ryan, M.V.; Heuston, P.M.; McCoy, C.T.; Masterson, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct and evaluate a statistical model for the quantitative analysis of computed tomographic brain images. Data were derived from standard sections in 34 normal studies. A model representing the intercranial pure tissue and partial volume areas, with allowance for beam hardening, was developed. The average percentage error in estimation of areas, derived from phantom tests using the model, was 28.47%. We conclude that our model is not sufficiently accurate to be of clinical use, even though allowance was made for partial volume and beam hardening effects. (author)

  8. Development of production methods of volume source by the resinous solution which has hardening

    CERN Document Server

    Motoki, R

    2002-01-01

    Volume sources is used for standard sources by radioactive measurement using Ge semiconductor detector of environmental sample, e.g. water, soil and etc. that require large volume. The commercial volume source used in measurement of the water sample is made of agar-agar, and that used in measurement of the soil sample is made of alumina powder. When the plastic receptacles of this two kinds of volume sources were damaged, the leakage contents cause contamination. Moreover, if hermetically sealing performance of volume source made of agar-agar fell, volume decrease due to an evaporation off moisture gives an error to radioactive measurement. Therefore, we developed the two type methods using unsaturated polyester resin, vinilester resin, their hardening agent and acrylicresin. The first type is due to dispersing the hydrochloric acid solution included the radioisotopes uniformly in each resin and hardening the resin. The second is due to dispersing the alumina powder absorbed the radioisotopes in each resin an...

  9. Principles and techniques of radiation hardening. Volume 2. Transient radiation effects in electronics (TREE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudie, N.J.

    1976-01-01

    The three-volume book is intended to serve as a review of the effects of thermonuclear explosion induced radiation (x-rays, gamma rays, and beta particles) and the resulting electromagnetic pulse (EMP). Volume 2 deals with the following topics: radiation effects on quartz crystals, tantalum capacitors, bipolar semiconductor devices and integrated circuits, field effect transistors, and miscellaneous electronic devices; hardening electronic systems to photon and neutron radiation; nuclear radiation source and/or effects simulation techniques; and radiation dosimetry

  10. Microprocessor interfacing

    CERN Document Server

    Vears, R E

    2014-01-01

    Microprocessor Interfacing provides the coverage of the Business and Technician Education Council level NIII unit in Microprocessor Interfacing (syllabus U86/335). Composed of seven chapters, the book explains the foundation in microprocessor interfacing techniques in hardware and software that can be used for problem identification and solving. The book focuses on the 6502, Z80, and 6800/02 microprocessor families. The technique starts with signal conditioning, filtering, and cleaning before the signal can be processed. The signal conversion, from analog to digital or vice versa, is expl

  11. Microprocessor engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Holdsworth, B

    2013-01-01

    Microprocessor Engineering provides an insight in the structures and operating techniques of a small computer. The book is comprised of 10 chapters that deal with the various aspects of computing. The first two chapters tackle the basic arithmetic and logic processes. The third chapter covers the various memory devices, both ROM and RWM. Next, the book deals with the general architecture of microprocessor. The succeeding three chapters discuss the software aspects of machine operation, while the last remaining three chapters talk about the relationship of the microprocessor with the outside wo

  12. Analysis of the Effect of Cooling Intensity Under Volume-Surface Hardening on Formation of Hardened Structures in Steel 20GL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evseev, D. G.; Savrukhin, A. V.; Neklyudov, A. N.

    2018-01-01

    Computer simulation of the kinetics of thermal processes and structural and phase transformations in the wall of a bogie side frame produced from steel 20GL is performed with allowance for the differences in the cooling intensity under volume-surface hardening. The simulation is based on the developed method employing the diagram of decomposition of austenite at different cooling rates. The data obtained are used to make conclusion on the effect of the cooling intensity on propagation of martensite structure over the wall section.

  13. Microprocessorized message multiplexer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejzman, S.; Guglielmi, L.; Jaeger, J.J.

    1980-07-01

    The 'Microprocessorized Message Multiplexer' is an elementary development tool used to create and debug the software of a target microprocessor (User Module: UM). It connects together four devices: a terminal, a cassette recorder, the target microprocessor and a host computer where macro and editor for the M 6800 microprocessor are resident [fr

  14. Radiation-hardened bulk CMOS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawes, W.R. Jr.; Habing, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    The evolutionary development of a radiation-hardened bulk CMOS technology is reviewed. The metal gate hardened CMOS status is summarized, including both radiation and reliability data. The development of a radiation-hardened bulk silicon gate process which was successfully implemented to a commercial microprocessor family and applied to a new, radiation-hardened, LSI standard cell family is also discussed. The cell family is reviewed and preliminary characterization data is presented. Finally, a brief comparison of the various radiation-hardened technologies with regard to performance, reliability, and availability is made

  15. Microprocessors principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Debenham, Michael J

    1979-01-01

    Microprocessors: Principles and Applications deals with the principles and applications of microprocessors and covers topics ranging from computer architecture and programmed machines to microprocessor programming, support systems and software, and system design. A number of microprocessor applications are considered, including data processing, process control, and telephone switching. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with a historical overview of computers and computing, followed by a discussion on computer architecture and programmed machines, paying particular attention to t

  16. A microarchitecture for resource-limited superscalar microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Todd David

    1999-11-01

    Microelectronic components in space and satellite systems must be resistant to total dose radiation, single-even upset, and latchup in order to accomplish their missions. The demand for inexpensive, high-volume, radiation hardened (rad-hard) integrated circuits (ICs) is expected to increase dramatically as the communication market continues to expand. Motorola's Complementary Gallium Arsenide (CGaAsTM) technology offers superior radiation tolerance compared to traditional CMOS processes, while being more economical than dedicated rad-hard CMOS processes. The goals of this dissertation are to optimize a superscalar microarchitecture suitable for CGaAsTM microprocessors, develop circuit techniques for such applications, and evaluate the potential of CGaAsTM for the development of digital VLSI circuits. Motorola's 0.5 mum CGaAsTM process is summarized and circuit techniques applicable to digital CGaAsTM are developed. Direct coupled FET, complementary, and domino logic circuits are compared based on speed, power, area, and noise margins. These circuit techniques are employed in the design of a 600 MHz PowerPCTM arithmetic logic unit. The dissertation emphasizes CGaASTM-specific design considerations, specifically, low integration level. A baseline superscalar microarchitecture is defined and SPEC95 integer benchmark simulations are used to evaluate the applicability of advanced architectural features to microprocessors having low integration levels. The performance simulations center around the optimization of a simple superscalar core, small-scale branch prediction, instruction prefetching, and an off-chip primary data cache. The simulation results are used to develop a superscalar microarchitecture capable of outperforming a comparable sequential pipeline, while using only 500,000 transistors. The architecture, running at 200 MHz, is capable of achieving an estimated 153 MIPS, translating to a 27% performance increase over a comparable traditional pipelined

  17. Newnes microprocessor pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Money, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Newnes Microprocessor Pocket Book explains the basic hardware operation of a microprocessor and describes the actions of the various types of instruction that can be executed. A summary of the characteristics of many of the popular microprocessors is presented. Apart from the popular 8- and 16-bit microprocessors, some details are also given of the popular single chip microcomputers and of the reduced instruction set computer (RISC) type processors such as the Transputer, Novix FORTH processor, and Acorn ARM processor.Comprised of 15 chapters, this book discusses the principles involved in bot

  18. Memory, microprocessor, and ASIC

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Wai-Kai

    2003-01-01

    System Timing. ROM/PROM/EPROM. SRAM. Embedded Memory. Flash Memories. Dynamic Random Access Memory. Low-Power Memory Circuits. Timing and Signal Integrity Analysis. Microprocessor Design Verification. Microprocessor Layout Method. Architecture. ASIC Design. Logic Synthesis for Field Programmable Gate Array (EPGA) Technology. Testability Concepts and DFT. ATPG and BIST. CAD Tools for BIST/DFT and Delay Faults.

  19. OS Friendly Microprocessor Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    NOTES Patrick La Fratta is now affiliated with Micron Technology, Inc., Boise, Idaho. 14. ABSTRACT We present an introduction to the patented ...Operating System Friendly Microprocessor Architecture (OSFA). The software framework to support the hardware-level security features is currently patent ...Army is assignee. OS Friendly Microprocessor Architecture. United States Patent 9122610. 2015 Sep. 2. Jungwirth P, inventor; US Army is assignee

  20. The microprocessor boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The applications of microprocessors in high energy physics experiments are discussed. Many benefits are predicted for data acquisition and handling systems and for control and monitoring functions. (W.D.L.).

  1. Multi-core Microprocessors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Based on empirical data, Gordon Moore .... there are numerous models of the same Intel microprocessor such as Pentium. 3). ... returns. The limit on instruction and thread-level processing coupled with ..... This style of parallel programming is.

  2. Microprocessor hardware reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, R I

    1982-01-01

    Microprocessor-based technology has had an impact in nearly every area of industrial electronics and many applications have important safety implications. Microprocessors are being used for the monitoring and control of hazardous processes in the chemical, oil and power generation industries, for the control and instrumentation of aircraft and other transport systems and for the control of industrial machinery. Even in the field of nuclear reactor protection, where designers are particularly conservative, microprocessors are used to implement certain safety functions and may play increasingly important roles in protection systems in the future. Where microprocessors are simply replacing conventional hard-wired control and instrumentation systems no new hazards are created by their use. In the field of robotics, however, the microprocessor has opened up a totally new technology and with it has created possible new and as yet unknown hazards. The paper discusses some of the design and manufacturing techniques which may be used to enhance the reliability of microprocessor based systems and examines the available reliability data on lsi/vlsi microcircuits. 12 references.

  3. Technology transfer of military space microprocessor developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorden, C.; King, D.; Byington, L.; Lanza, D.

    1999-01-01

    Over the past 13 years the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) has led the development of microprocessors and computers for USAF space and strategic missile applications. As a result of these Air Force development programs, advanced computer technology is available for use by civil and commercial space customers as well. The Generic VHSIC Spaceborne Computer (GVSC) program began in 1985 at AFRL to fulfill a deficiency in the availability of space-qualified data and control processors. GVSC developed a radiation hardened multi-chip version of the 16-bit, Mil-Std 1750A microprocessor. The follow-on to GVSC, the Advanced Spaceborne Computer Module (ASCM) program, was initiated by AFRL to establish two industrial sources for complete, radiation-hardened 16-bit and 32-bit computers and microelectronic components. Development of the Control Processor Module (CPM), the first of two ASCM contract phases, concluded in 1994 with the availability of two sources for space-qualified, 16-bit Mil-Std-1750A computers, cards, multi-chip modules, and integrated circuits. The second phase of the program, the Advanced Technology Insertion Module (ATIM), was completed in December 1997. ATIM developed two single board computers based on 32-bit reduced instruction set computer (RISC) processors. GVSC, CPM, and ATIM technologies are flying or baselined into the majority of today's DoD, NASA, and commercial satellite systems.

  4. Microprocessor monitored Auger spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapin, Michel; Ghaleb, Dominique; Pernot, Bernard.

    1982-05-01

    The operation of an Auger spectrometer, used for studying surface impurity diffusion, has been fully automatized with the help of a microprocessor. The characteristics, performance and practical use of the system are described together with the main advantage for the experimentator [fr

  5. The engineering of microprocessor systems guidelines on system development

    CERN Document Server

    1979-01-01

    The Engineering of Microprocessor Systems: Guidelines on System Development provides economical and technical guidance for use when incorporating microprocessors in products or production processes and assesses the alternatives that are available. This volume is part of Project 0251 undertaken by The Electrical Research Association, which aims to give managers and development engineers advice and comment on the development process and the hardware and software needed to support the engineering of microprocessor systems. The results of Phase 1 of the five-phase project are contained in this fir

  6. Microprocessorized NMR measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijllart, A.

    1984-01-01

    An MC68000 CAMAC microprocessor system for fast and accurate NMR signal measurement will be presented. A stand-alone CAMAC microprocessor system (MC68000 STAC) with a special purpose interface sweeps a digital frequency synthesizer and digitizes the NMR signal with a 16-bit ADC of 17 μs conversion time. It averages the NMR signal data over many sweeps and then transfers it through CAMAC to a computer for calculation of the signal parameters. The computer has full software control over the timing and sweep settings of this signal averager, and thus allows optimization of noise suppression. Several of these processor systems can be installed in the same crate for parallel processing, and the flexibility of the STAC also allows easy adaptation to other applications such as transient recording or phase-sensitive detection. (orig.)

  7. Process control by microprocessors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arndt, W [ed.

    1978-12-01

    Papers from the workshop Process Control by Microprocessors being organized by the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center, Project PDV, together with the VDI/VDE-Gesellschaft fuer Mess- und Regelungstechnik are presented. The workshop was held on December 13 and 14, 1978 at the facilities of the Nuclear Research Center. The papers are arranged according to the topics of the workshop; one chapter deals with today's state of the art of microprocessor hardware and software technology; 5 chapters are dedicated to applications. The report also contains papers which will not be presented at the workshop. Both the workshop and the report are expected to improve and distribute the know-how about this modern technology.

  8. Low cost design of microprocessor EDAC circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Li; Yu Lixin; Peng Heping; Zhuang Wei

    2015-01-01

    An optimization method of error detection and correction (EDAC) circuit design is proposed. The method involves selecting or constructing EDAC codes of low cost hardware, associated with operation scheduling implementation based on 2-input XOR gates structure, and two actions for reducing hardware cells, which can reduce the delay penalties and area costs of the EDAC circuit effectively. The 32-bit EDAC circuit hardware implementation is selected to make a prototype, based on the 180 nm process. The delay penalties and area costs of the EDAC circuit are evaluated. Results show that the time penalty and area cost of the EDAC circuitries are affected with different parity-check matrices and different hardware implementation for the EDAC codes with the same capability of correction and detection code. This method can be used as a guide for low-cost radiation-hardened microprocessor EDAC circuit design and for more advanced technologies. (paper)

  9. The European Logarithmic Microprocessor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Coleman, J. N.; Softley, C. I.; Kadlec, Jiří; Matoušek, R.; Tichý, Milan; Pohl, Zdeněk; Heřmánek, Antonín; Benschop, N. F.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2008), s. 532-546 ISSN 0018-9340 Grant - others:Evropská komise(BE) ESPRIT 33544 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : Processor architecture * arithmetic unit * logarithmic arithmetic Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software Impact factor: 2.611, year: 2008 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/ZS/kadlec-the%20european%20logarithmic%20microprocessor.pdf

  10. TRIESTE: College on Microprocessors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The International Centre for Theoretical Physics, set up at Trieste in 1964, has as its major task the provision of a stimulating intellectual environment for physicists from developing countries. This goal is furthered by a varied programme of courses for visiting scientists. Not all the courses remain in the rarefied atmosphere of theory and in September a very successful 'College on Microprocessors: Technology and Applications in Physics' was held. It was a prime example of the efforts being made to spread important modern technology into the developing countries

  11. Energy conservation applications of microprocessors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, James Y.

    1979-07-01

    A survey of the application of microprocessors for industrial and commercial energy conservation has been made. Microprocessor applications for HVAC, chiller control, and automotive equipment are discussed. A case study of successful replacement of a conventional cooling plant control is recounted. The rapid advancement of microelectronic technology will affect efficient energy control, more sophisticated control methodology, and more investment in controls.

  12. Radiation hardening of smart electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, C.W.; Cain, V.R.; Marks, K.A.; Millward, D.G.

    1991-02-01

    Microprocessor based ''smart'' pressure, level, and flow transmitters were tested to determine the radiation hardness of this class of electronic instrumentation for use in reactor building applications. Commercial grade Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits used in these transmitters were found to fail at total gamma dose levels between 2500 and 10,000 rad. This results in an unacceptably short lifetime in many reactor building radiation environments. Radiation hardened integrated circuits can, in general, provide satisfactory service life for normal reactor operations when not restricted to the extremely low power budget imposed by standard 4--20 mA two-wire instrument loops. The design of these circuits will require attention to vendor radiation hardness specifications, dose rates, process control with respect to radiation hardness factors, and non-volatile programmable memory technology. 3 refs., 2 figs

  13. CAMAC multipurpose microprocessor controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyakova, M.P.; Nemesh, T.; Buj Zoan Chong.

    1978-01-01

    The use of CAMAC controllers in an autonomous system of data acquisition and measurement is considered. The system consists of a control intelligence controller, memory modules, and user modules in the CAMAC standard. The controller and all the modules have an output into the highway and this permits to exchange data among them without using special external cables. To increase the servicing rate, an auxiliary controller which has direct access to memory and controls the user modules, is additionally connected to the data acquisition and measurement system. In this case, the intelligence controller is passive. The system of data acquisition can be realized in the form of a multiple system with branch usage. The controller module width is three units, and the controller incorporates the Intel-8080-type microprocessor and the following interfaces: of CAMAC highways, of interruption, of memory bootstrap, and of data sequence channel

  14. Microprocessors in automatic chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goujon de Beauvivier, M.; Perez, J.-J.

    1979-01-01

    Application of microprocessors to programming and computing of solutions chemical analysis by a sequential technique is examined. Safety, performances reliability are compared to other methods. An example is given on uranium titration by spectrophotometry [fr

  15. Microprocessor based techniques at CESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannini, G.; Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY

    1981-01-01

    Microprocessor based systems succesfully used in connection with the High Energy Physics experimental program at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring are described. The multiprocessor calibration system for the CUSB calorimeter is analyzed in view of present and future applications. (orig.)

  16. A hardenability test proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, N.V.S.N. [Ingersoll-Rand (I) Ltd., Bangalore (India)

    1996-12-31

    A new approach for hardenability evaluation and its application to heat treatable steels will be discussed. This will include an overview and deficiencies of the current methods and discussion on the necessity for a new approach. Hardenability terminology will be expanded to avoid ambiguity and over-simplification as encountered with the current system. A new hardenability definition is proposed. Hardenability specification methods are simplified and rationalized. The new hardenability evaluation system proposed here utilizes a test specimen with varying diameter as an alternative to the cylindrical Jominy hardenability test specimen and is readily applicable to the evaluation of a wide variety of steels with different cross-section sizes.

  17. Microprocessor multi-task monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludemann, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-task monitor program for microprocessors. Although written for the Intel 8085, it incorporates features that would be beneficial for implementation in other microprocessors used in controlling and monitoring experiments and accelerators. The monitor places permanent programs (tasks) arbitrarily located throughout ROM in a priority ordered queue. The programmer is provided with the flexibility to add new tasks or modified versions of existing tasks, without having to comply with previously defined task boundaries or having to reprogram all of ROM. Scheduling of tasks is triggered by timers, outside stimuli (interrupts), or inter-task communications. Context switching time is of the order of tenths of a milllisecond

  18. Microprocessors in detectors and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siskind, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    The increasing need in high energy physics experiments for computation power for both online and offline applications, coupled with the current microprocessor revolution, has led to the examination of the use of microprocessors in various aspects of HEP computing. A brief (and admittedly somewhat biased) review is given of current hardware products, the costs of developing and producing hardware systems, and the costs of providing appropriate software support tools which allow one to make effective use of physicists' time, and the applicability of certain systems to the various needs of HEP computing

  19. Microprocessors in detectors and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siskind, E.J.

    1982-01-01

    The increasing need in high energy physics experiments for computation power for both online and offline applications, coupled with the current microprocessor revolution, has led us to examine the use of microprocessors in various aspects of HEP computing. The following article is a brief (and admittedly somewhat biased) review of current hardware products, the costs of developing and producing hardware systems, and the costs of providing appropriate software support tools which allow one to make effective use of physicists' time, and the applicability of certain systems to the various needs of HEP computing

  20. Microprocessor control of a wind turbine generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnecco, A. J.; Whitehead, G. T.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes a microprocessor based system used to control the unattended operation of a wind turbine generator. The turbine and its microcomputer system are fully described with special emphasis on the wide variety of tasks performed by the microprocessor for the safe and efficient operation of the turbine. The flexibility, cost and reliability of the microprocessor were major factors in its selection.

  1. Creation of a mobile plant for hardening low volumes of liquid radioactive waste with low specific activity at the sport of their formation.; Sozdanie peredvizhnoj ustanovki dlya otverzhdeniya malykh ob`emov zhidkikh radioaktivnykh otkhodov nizkoj udel`noj aktivnosti v mestakh ikh obrazovaniya.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, V N; Petrichenko, V S [Naukovo-Tekhnyichnij Tsentr z dezaktivatsyiyi ta kompleksnogo povodzhennya z radyioaktivnimi vyidkhodami, Zhovtyi Vodi (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    A device and a principle of work of an experimental prototype of a mobile plant intended for immediate hardening of low volumes (to 10 l) of liquid radioactive waste with low level of activity at the enterprises have been described.

  2. Microprocessors control of fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawzy, A S; Hinton, O R

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents three schemes for the solution of the optimal control of fermentation process. It also shows the advantages of using microprocessors in controlling and monitoring this process. A linear model of the system is considered. An optimal feedback controller is determined which maintains the states (substrate and organisms concentration) at desired values when the system is subjected to disturbances in the influent substrate and organisms concentration. Simulation results are presented for the three cases.

  3. Multichannel analyzer based on microprocessors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, M.

    1983-06-01

    A multichannel analyser for nuclear spectrometry, that would attend the needs of research laboratories and could be industrialized in Brazil, was developed. The design was based on INTEL 8080/85 microprocessors; other processors were also used to implement specific functions, such as shared busbar using direct memory access. A prototype was developed and tested through simulation, using a nuclear spectrometry chain. The results were fully satisfactory. (Author) [pt

  4. Microprocessor-controlled surface testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droscha, H

    1982-09-01

    For the quality inspection on continuous flow material webs with transverse scanning laser beam, the microprocessor control, realized now for the first time in combination with appropriate units, shows a considerable progress. Thanks to the here used electronics, surface errors can be localized within the web according to their x-y-position, quantitative analysis can be carried out and automatic sorting and registration functions can be used.

  5. Microprocessor-controlled CAMAC data link module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, J.M.

    1978-05-01

    Communication between the central control computer and remote, satellite data-acquisition/control stations at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) is presently accomplished through the use of CAMAC-based Data Link modules. With the advent of the microprocessor, a new philosophy for digital data communications has evolved. Data Link modules containing microprocessor controllers provide link management and communication network protocol through algorithms executed in the Data Link microprocessor. 13 figures

  6. Microprocessors applications in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethridge, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    Microprocessors in the nuclear industry, particularly at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, have been and are being utilized in a wide variety of applications ranging from data acquisition and control for basic physics research to monitoring special nuclear material in long-term storage. Microprocessor systems have been developed to support weapons diagnostics measurements during underground weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site. Multiple single-component microcomputers are now controlling the measurement and recording of nuclear reactor operating power levels. The CMOS microprocessor data-acquisition instrumentation has operated on balloon flights to monitor power plant emissions. Target chamber mirror-positioning equipment for laser fusion facilities employs microprocessors

  7. Microprocessor based systems for the higher technician

    CERN Document Server

    Vears, RE

    2013-01-01

    Microprocessor Based Systems for the Higher Technician provides coverage of the BTEC level 4 unit in Microprocessor Based Systems (syllabus U80/674). This book is composed of 10 chapters and concentrates on the development of 8-bit microcontrollers specifically constructed around the Z80 microprocessor. The design cycle for the development of such a microprocessor based system and the use of a disk-based development system (MDS) as an aid to design are both described in detail. The book deals with the Control Program Monitor (CP/M) operating system and gives background information on file hand

  8. Microprocessor controlled digital period meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.J.; McDowell, W.P.; Rusch, G.K.

    1980-01-01

    A microprocessor controlled digital period meter has been developed and tested operationally on a reactor at Argonne National Laboratory. The principle of operation is the mathematical relationship between asymptotic periods and pulse counting circuitry. This relationship is used to calculate and display the reactor periods over a range of /plus or minus/1 second to /plus or minus/999 seconds. The time interval required to update each measurement automatically varies from 8 seconds at the lowest counting rates to 2 seconds at higher counting rates. The paper will describe hardware and software design details and show the advantages of this type of Period Meter over the conventional circuits. 1 ref

  9. Small Microprocessor for ASIC or FPGA Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleyner, Igor; Katz, Richard; Blair-Smith, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    A small microprocessor, suitable for use in applications in which high reliability is required, was designed to be implemented in either an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) or a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The design is based on commercial microprocessor architecture, making it possible to use available software development tools and thereby to implement the microprocessor at relatively low cost. The design features enhancements, including trapping during execution of illegal instructions. The internal structure of the design yields relatively high performance, with a significant decrease, relative to other microprocessors that perform the same functions, in the number of microcycles needed to execute macroinstructions. The problem meant to be solved in designing this microprocessor was to provide a modest level of computational capability in a general-purpose processor while adding as little as possible to the power demand, size, and weight of a system into which the microprocessor would be incorporated. As designed, this microprocessor consumes very little power and occupies only a small portion of a typical modern ASIC or FPGA. The microprocessor operates at a rate of about 4 million instructions per second with clock frequency of 20 MHz.

  10. Fermilab ACP multi-microprocessor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaines, I.; Areti, H.; Biel, J.; Bracker, S.; Case, G.; Fischler, M.; Husby, D.; Nash, T.

    1984-08-01

    We report on the status of the Fermilab Advanced Computer Program's project to provide more cost-effective computing engines for the high energy physics community. The project will exploit the cheap, but powerful, commercial microprocessors now available by constructing modular multi-microprocessor systems. A working test bed system as well as plans for the next stages of the project are described

  11. Microprocessor aided data acquisition at VEDAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziem, P.; Drescher, B.; Kapper, K.; Kowallik, R.

    1985-01-01

    Three microprocessor systems have been developed to support data acquisition in nuclear physics multiparameter experiments. A bit-slice processor accumulates up to 256 1-dim spectra and 16 2-dim spectra. A microprocessor, based on the AM 29116 ALU, performs a fast consistency check on the coincidence data. A VME-Bus double-processor displays a colored scatterplot

  12. Microprocessor controller for stepping motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, B.G.; Thuot, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    A new concept for digital computer control of multiple stepping motors which operate in a severe electromagnetic pulse environment is presented. The motors position mirrors in the beam-alignment system of a 100-kJ CO 2 laser. An asynchronous communications channel of a computer is used to send coded messages, containing the motor address and stepping-command information, to the stepping-motor controller in a bit serial format over a fiber-optics communications link. The addressed controller responds by transmitting to the computer its address and other motor information, thus confirming the received message. Each controller is capable of controlling three stepping motors. The controller contains the fiber-optics interface, a microprocessor, and the stepping-motor driven circuits. The microprocessor program, which resides in an EPROM, decodes the received messages, transmits responses, performs the stepping-motor sequence logic, maintains motor-position information, and monitors the motor's reference switch. For multiple stepping-motor application, the controllers are connected in a daisy chain providing control of many motors from one asynchronous communications channel of the computer

  13. Analysis of the work-hardening process in spheroidized steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, J.L.

    1981-07-01

    An elementary model for the work-hardening process in duplex-structures steels (ferrite - spheroidite) is proposed and tested on low, medium and high carbon content, which seems to give good results concerning the influence of the volume fraction and particle size of the second phase on the work-hardening behaviour. (Author) [pt

  14. Microprocessor based image processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, M.I.; Siddiqui, M.N.; Rangoonwala, A.

    1987-01-01

    Rapid developments in the production of integrated circuits and introduction of sophisticated 8,16 and now 32 bit microprocessor based computers, have set new trends in computer applications. Nowadays the users by investing much less money can make optimal use of smaller systems by getting them custom-tailored according to their requirements. During the past decade there have been great advancements in the field of computer Graphics and consequently, 'Image Processing' has emerged as a separate independent field. Image Processing is being used in a number of disciplines. In the Medical Sciences, it is used to construct pseudo color images from computer aided tomography (CAT) or positron emission tomography (PET) scanners. Art, advertising and publishing people use pseudo colours in pursuit of more effective graphics. Structural engineers use Image Processing to examine weld X-rays to search for imperfections. Photographers use Image Processing for various enhancements which are difficult to achieve in a conventional dark room. (author)

  15. Mold heating and cooling microprocessor conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D. P.

    1995-07-01

    Conversion of the microprocessors and software for the Mold Heating and Cooling (MHAC) pump package control systems was initiated to allow required system enhancements and provide data communications capabilities with the Plastics Information and Control System (PICS). The existing microprocessor-based control systems for the pump packages use an Intel 8088-based microprocessor board with a maximum of 64 Kbytes of program memory. The requirements for the system conversion were developed, and hardware has been selected to allow maximum reuse of existing hardware and software while providing the required additional capabilities and capacity. The new hardware will incorporate an Intel 80286-based microprocessor board with an 80287 math coprocessor, the system includes additional memory, I/O, and RS232 communication ports.

  16. Microprocessor Protection of Power Reducing Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Romanuk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains analysis of advantages and disadvantages of existing differential protection terminals of power reducing transformers. The paper shows that there are good reasons to develop microprocessor protection of power reducing transformer which contains required functions and settings and which is based on Belarusian principles of relay protection system construction. The paper presents functional structure of microprocessor terminal of power reducing transformer which is developed. 

  17. Microprocessor Protection of Power Reducing Transformers

    OpenAIRE

    F. A. Romanuk; S. P. Korolev; M. S. Loman

    2011-01-01

    The paper contains analysis of advantages and disadvantages of existing differential protection terminals of power reducing transformers. The paper shows that there are good reasons to develop microprocessor protection of power reducing transformer which contains required functions and settings and which is based on Belarusian principles of relay protection system construction. The paper presents functional structure of microprocessor terminal of power reducing transformer which is developed. 

  18. ''NICRO'' microprogramming language for sectional microprocessors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, Yu.A.; Chudakov, V.N.

    1982-01-01

    ''MICRO'' microprogramming input language developed for sectional microprocessors is described. The structure of micromanual, purpose of particular fields, the corresponding mne-- mocodes and requirements they have to meet are considered. Program for integer division with a sign written in the ''MICRO'' language is given as an example. The possibilities of modif ying the translator for its adaptation to different types of processor and microprocessor sets are analyzed

  19. Microprocessor controller for phasing the accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howry, S.K.; Wilmunder, A.R.

    1977-03-01

    A microprocessor controller is being developed to perform automatic phasing of the SLAC accelerator. It will replace the existing relay/analog boxes which are ten years old. The new system is all solid state except for the stepping motors that drive the phase shifters. A description is given of the components of the system, the control algorithm, microprocessor hardware and software design and development, and interaction with SLAC's computer control system

  20. Hardening Azure applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gaurav, Suraj

    2015-01-01

    Learn what it takes to build large scale, mission critical applications -hardened applications- on the Azure cloud platform. This 208 page book covers the techniques and engineering principles that every architect and developer needs to know to harden their Azure/.NET applications to ensure maximum reliability and high availability when deployed at scale. While the techniques are implemented in .NET and optimized for Azure, the principles here will also be valuable for users of other cloud-based development platforms. Applications come in a variety of forms, from simple apps that can be bui

  1. Radiation hardenable coating mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, D.D.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to coatings that harden under radiation and to their compositions. Specifically, this invention concerns unsaturated urethane resins polymerisable by addition and to compositions, hardening under the effect of radiation, containing these resins. These resins feature the presence of at least one unsaturated ethylenic terminal group of structure CH 2 =C and containing the product of the reaction of an organic isocyanate compound with at least two isocyanate groups and one polyester polyol with at least two hydroxyl groups, and one unsaturated monomer compound polymerisable by addition having a single active hydrogen group reacting with the isocyanate [fr

  2. Unified microprocessor CAMAC module for preliminary data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaushitsin, V.L.; Kulik, O.V.; Repin, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    The UP-80 unified active module is described. It is made in the CAMAC standard on the base of the K580IK80 microprocessor allowing to increase the rate of large-volume experimental spectroscopic data processing by an order. Loading of 5 different programs for data processing is possible. Data from the operative storage with 1K capacity (8 bits) are recorded and read out trhough the CAMAC line (the regime of unit exchange is possible) or through the joint of the external line

  3. Concrete, hardened: Self desiccation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Persson, Bertil

    1999-01-01

    The test method covers the determination of internal relative humidity (RH) in hardened concrete and cement mortar using RH instruments. The determination of RH is done on crushed samples of concrete or cement motar. This test method is only for measuring equipment which gives off or takes up...

  4. An INTEL 8080 microprocessor development system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, P.J.

    1977-01-01

    The INTEL 8080 has become one of the two most widely used microprocessors at CERN, the other being the MOTOROLA 6800. Even thouth this is the case, there have been, to date, only rudimentary facilities available for aiding the development of application programs for this microprocessor. An ideal development system is one which has a sophisticated editing and filing system, an assembler/compiler, and access to the microprocessor application. In many instances access to a PROM programmer is also required, as the application may utilize only PROMs for program storage. With these thoughts in mind, an INTEL 8080 microprocessor development system was implemented in the Proton Synchrotron (PS) Division. This system utilizes a PDP 11/45 as the editing and file-handling machine, and an MSC 8/MOD 80 microcomputer for assembling, PROM programming and debugging user programs at run time. The two machines are linked by an existing CAMAC crate system which will also provide the means of access to microprocessor applications in CAMAC and the interface of the development system to any other application. (Auth.)

  5. RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-10-01

    A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

  6. RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D.

    1997-10-01

    A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program

  7. Grind hardening process

    CERN Document Server

    Salonitis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the grind-hardening process and the main studies published since it was introduced in 1990s.  The modelling of the various aspects of the process, such as the process forces, temperature profile developed, hardness profiles, residual stresses etc. are described in detail. The book is of interest to the research community working with mathematical modeling and optimization of manufacturing processes.

  8. Radiation hardening coating material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, W.H.; Prucnal, P.J.; DeMajistre, Robert.

    1977-01-01

    This invention concerns a radiation hardening coating material. First a resin is prepared by reaction of bisphenol diglycidylic ether with acrylic or methacrylic acids. Then the reactive solvent is prepared by reaction of acrylic or methacrylic acids with epichlorhydrine or epibromhydrine. Then a solution consisting of the resin dissolved in the reactive solvent is prepared. A substrate (wood, paper, polyesters, polyamines etc.) is coated with this composition and exposed to ionizing radiations (electron beams) or ultraviolet radiations [fr

  9. Automated mixed traffic transit vehicle microprocessor controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, R. A.; Cassell, P.; Johnston, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    An improved Automated Mixed Traffic Vehicle (AMTV) speed control system employing a microprocessor and transistor chopper motor current controller is described and its performance is presented in terms of velocity versus time curves. The on board computer hardware and software systems are described as is the software development system. All of the programming used in this controller was implemented using FORTRAN. This microprocessor controller made possible a number of safety features and improved the comfort associated with starting and shopping. In addition, most of the vehicle's performance characteristics can be altered by simple program parameter changes. A failure analysis of the microprocessor controller was generated and the results are included. Flow diagrams for the speed control algorithms and complete FORTRAN code listings are also included.

  10. Microprocessor system design a practical introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Spinks, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Microprocessor System Design: A Practical Introduction describes the concepts and techniques incorporated into the design of electronic circuits, particularly microprocessor boards and their peripherals. The book reviews the basic building blocks of the electronic systems composed of digital (logic levels, gate output circuitry) and analog components (resistors, capacitors, diodes, transistors). The text also describes operational amplifiers (op-amp) that use a negative feedback technique to improve the parameters of the op-amp. The design engineer can use programmable array logic (PAL) to rep

  11. Application of microprocessors to radiation protection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zappe, D.; Meldes, C.

    1982-01-01

    In radiation protection measurements signals from radiation detectors or dosemeters have to be transformed into quantities relevant to radiation protection. In most cases this can only be done by taking into account various parameters (e.g. the quality factor). Moreover, the characteristics of the statistical laws of nuclear radiation emission have to be considered. These problems can properly be solved by microprocessors. After reviewing the main properties of microprocessors, some typical examples of applying them to problems of radiation protection measurement are given. (author)

  12. Microprocessor protection relays: new prospects or new problems?

    OpenAIRE

    Gurevich, Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    The internal architecture and principles of operation of microprocessor-based devices including so-called "microprocessor protective relays" have little in common with devices called "electric relays". But microprocessor-based relay protection devices are gradually driving out the traditional electromechanical and even electronic relay protection of virtually from all fields of power and electrical engineering. Advantages of microprocessor-based protection means over traditional ones are far ...

  13. Update on radiation-hardened microcomputers for robotics and teleoperated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sias, F.R. Jr.; Tulenko, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    Since many programs sponsored by the Department of Defense are being canceled, it is important to select carefully radiation-hardened microprocessors for projects that will mature (or will require continued support) several years in the future. At the present time there are seven candidate 32-bit processors that should be considered for long-range planning for high-performance radiation-hardened computer systems. For Department of Energy applications it is also important to consider efforts at standardization that require the use of the VxWorks operating system and hardware based on the VMEbus. Of the seven processors, one has been delivered and is operating and other systems are scheduled to be delivered late in 1993 or early in 1994. At the present time the Honeywell-developed RH32, the Harris RH-3000 and the Harris RHC-3000 are leading contenders for meeting DOE requirements for a radiation-hardened advanced 32-bit microprocessor. These are all either compatible with or are derivatives of the MIPS R3000 Reduced Instruction Set Computer. It is anticipated that as few as two of the seven radiation-hardened processors will be supported by the space program in the long run

  14. Microprocessors: From basic chips to complete systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobinson, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    These lectures aim to present and explain in general terms some of the characteristics of microprocessor chips and associated components. They show how systems are synthesized from the basic integrated circuit building blocks which are currently available; processor, memory, input-output (I/0) devices, etc. (orig./HSI)

  15. Microprocessor Controlled Capacitor Bank Switching System for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, analysis and development of a microprocessor controlled capacitor bank switching system for deployment in a smart distribution network was carried out. This system was implemented by the use of discreet components such as resistors, capacitors, transistor, diode, automatic voltage regulator, with the ...

  16. Practical aspects of systems hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Applications of hardening technology in a practical system require a balance between the factors governing affordability, producibility, and survivability of the finished design. Without careful consideration of the top-level system operating constraints, a design engineer may find himself with a survivable but overweight, unproductive, expensive design. This paper explores some lessons learned in applying hardening techniques to several laser communications programs and is intended as an introductory guide to novice designers faced with the task of hardening a space system

  17. Beam hardening correction algorithm in microtomography images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales, Erika S.; Lima, Inaya C.B.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Assis, Joaquim T. de

    2009-01-01

    Quantification of mineral density of bone samples is directly related to the attenuation coefficient of bone. The X-rays used in microtomography images are polychromatic and have a moderately broad spectrum of energy, which makes the low-energy X-rays passing through a sample to be absorbed, causing a decrease in the attenuation coefficient and possibly artifacts. This decrease in the attenuation coefficient is due to a process called beam hardening. In this work the beam hardening of microtomography images of vertebrae of Wistar rats subjected to a study of hyperthyroidism was corrected by the method of linearization of the projections. It was discretized using a spectrum in energy, also called the spectrum of Herman. The results without correction for beam hardening showed significant differences in bone volume, which could lead to a possible diagnosis of osteoporosis. But the data with correction showed a decrease in bone volume, but this decrease was not significant in a confidence interval of 95%. (author)

  18. Beam hardening correction algorithm in microtomography images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sales, Erika S.; Lima, Inaya C.B.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: esales@con.ufrj.b, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Assis, Joaquim T. de, E-mail: joaquim@iprj.uerj.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Politecnico. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2009-07-01

    Quantification of mineral density of bone samples is directly related to the attenuation coefficient of bone. The X-rays used in microtomography images are polychromatic and have a moderately broad spectrum of energy, which makes the low-energy X-rays passing through a sample to be absorbed, causing a decrease in the attenuation coefficient and possibly artifacts. This decrease in the attenuation coefficient is due to a process called beam hardening. In this work the beam hardening of microtomography images of vertebrae of Wistar rats subjected to a study of hyperthyroidism was corrected by the method of linearization of the projections. It was discretized using a spectrum in energy, also called the spectrum of Herman. The results without correction for beam hardening showed significant differences in bone volume, which could lead to a possible diagnosis of osteoporosis. But the data with correction showed a decrease in bone volume, but this decrease was not significant in a confidence interval of 95%. (author)

  19. Nuclear effects hardened shelters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindke, P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the Houston Fearless 76 Government Projects Group that has been actively engaged for more than twenty-five years as a sub-contractor and currently as a prime contractor in the design, manufacture, repair and logistics support of custom mobile ground stations and their equipment accommodations. Other associated products include environmental control units (ECU's), mobilizers for shelters and a variety of mobile power generation units (MPU's). Since 1984, Houston Fearless 76 has designed and manufactured four 8 foot by 8 foot x 22 foot nuclear hardened mobile shelters. These shelters were designed to contain electronic data processing/reduction equipment. One shelter is currently being operated by the Air Force as a Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) approved and certified Special Compartmented Information Facility (SCIF). During the development and manufacturing process of the shelters, we received continual technical assistance and design concept evaluations from Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) Operations Analysis and Logistics Engineering Division and the Nondestructive Inspection Lab at McClellan AFB. SAIC was originally employed by the Air Force to design the nuclear hardening specifications applied to these shelters

  20. New On-board Microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigand, R.

    Two new processor devices have been developed for the use on board of spacecrafts. An 8-bit 8032-microcontroller targets typical controlling applications in instruments and sub-systems, or could be used as a main processor on small satellites, whereas the LEON 32-bit SPARC processor can be used for high performance controlling and data processing tasks. The ADV80S32 is fully compliant to the Intel 80x1 architecture and instruction set, extended by additional peripherals, 512 bytes on-chip RAM and a bootstrap PROM, which allows downloading the application software using the CCSDS PacketWire pro- tocol. The memory controller provides a de-multiplexed address/data bus, and allows to access up to 16 MB data and 8 MB program RAM. The peripherals have been de- signed for the specific needs of a spacecraft, such as serial interfaces compatible to RS232, PacketWire and TTC-B-01, counters/timers for extended duration and a CRC calculation unit accelerating the CCSDS TM/TC protocol. The 0.5 um Atmel manu- facturing technology (MG2RT) provides latch-up and total dose immunity; SEU fault immunity is implemented by using SEU hardened Flip-Flops and EDAC protection of internal and external memories. The maximum clock frequency of 20 MHz allows a processing power of 3 MIPS. Engineering samples are available. For SW develop- ment, various SW packages for the 8051 architecture are on the market. The LEON processor implements a 32-bit SPARC V8 architecture, including all the multiply and divide instructions, complemented by a floating-point unit (FPU). It includes several standard peripherals, such as timers/watchdog, interrupt controller, UARTs, parallel I/Os and a memory controller, allowing to use 8, 16 and 32 bit PROM, SRAM or memory mapped I/O. With on-chip separate instruction and data caches, almost one instruction per clock cycle can be reached in some applications. A 33-MHz 32-bit PCI master/target interface and a PCI arbiter allow operating the device in a plug-in card

  1. Microprocessor-controlled scanning densitometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shurtliff, R.W.

    1980-04-01

    An Automated Scanning Densitometer System has been developed by uniting a microprocessor with a low energy x-ray densitometer system. The microprocessor controls the detector movement, provides self-calibration, compensates raw readings to provide time-linear output, controls both data storage and the host computer interface, and provides measurement output in engineering units for immediate reading. The densitometer, when used in a scanning mode, is a precision reference instrument that provides chordal average density measurements over the cross section of a pipe under steady-state flow conditions. Results have shown an improvement over the original densitometer in reliability and repeatability of the system, an a factor-of-five improvement in accuracy

  2. Microprocessors in physics experiments at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochester, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    The increasing size and complexity of high energy physics experiments is changing the way data are collected. To implement a trigger or event filter requires complex logic which may have to be modified as the experiment proceeds. Simply to monitor a detector, large amounts of data must be processed online. The use of microprocessors or other programmable devices can help to achieve these ends flexibly and economically. At SLAC, a number of microprocessor-based systems have been built and are in use in experimental setups, and others are now being developed. This talk is a review of existing systems and their use in experiments, and of developments in progress and future plans. (orig.)

  3. Microprocessors in physics experiments at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochester, L.S.

    1981-04-01

    The increasing size and complexity of high energy physics experiments is changing the way data are collected. To implement a trigger or event filter requires complex logic which may have to be modified as the experiment proceeds. Simply to monitor a detector, large amounts of data must be processed on line. The use of microprocessors or other programmable devices can help to achieve these ends flexibly and economically. At SLAC, a number of microprocessor-based systems have been built and are in use in experimental setups, and others are now being developed. This talk is a review of existing systems and their use in experiments, and of developments in progress and future plans

  4. A realtime feedback microprocessor for the TEVATRON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrup, D.A.; Chapman, L.; Franck, A.; Groves, T.; Lublinsky, B.

    1993-01-01

    A feedback microprocessor has been built for the TEVATRON. Its inputs are realtime accelerator measurements, data describing the state of the TEVATRON, and ramp tables. The microprocessor includes a finite state machine. Each state corresponds to a specific TEVATRON operation. Transitions between states are initiated by the global TEVATRON clock. Each state includes a cyclic routine which is called periodically and where all calculations are performed. The output corrections are inserted onto a fast TEVATRON-wide link from which the power supplies will read the realtime correction. The authors also store all of the input data and output corrections in a set of buffers which can easily be retrieved for diagnostic analysis. This talk will describe use of this device to control the TEVATRON tunes and discuss other uses

  5. Multiple microprocessor based nuclear reactor power monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, P.S.; Ethridge, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    The reactor power monitor is a portable multiple-microprocessor controlled data acquisition device being built for the International Atomic Energy Association. Its function is to measure and record the hourly integrated operating thermal power level of a nuclear reactor for the purpose of detecting unannounced plutonium production. The monitor consists of a 3 He proportional neutron detector, a write-only cassette tape drive and control electronics based on two INTEL 8748 microprocessors. The reactor power monitor operates from house power supplied by the plant operator, but has eight hours of battery backup to cover power interruptions. Both the hourly power levels and any line power interruptions are recorded on tape and in memory. Intermediate dumps from the memory to a data terminal or strip chart recorder can be performed without interrupting data collection

  6. Cardiac output measurement instruments controlled by microprocessors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, M.; Barritault, L.; Boeri, C.; Fauchet, M.; Gambini, D.; Vernejoul, P. de

    The nuclear medicine and biophysics laboratory of the Necker-Enfants malades University Hospital Centre has built a microprocessor controlled Cardiac flowmetre. The principle of the cardiac output measurement from a radiocardiogram is well established. After injection of a radioactive indicator upstream from the heart cavities the dilution curve is obtained by the use of a gamma-ray precordial detector. This curve normally displays two peaks due to passage of the indicator into the right and left sides of the heart respectively. The output is then obtained from the stewart Hamilton principle once recirculation is eliminated. The graphic method used for the calculation however is long and tedious. The decreasing fraction of the dilution curve is projected in logarithmic space in order to eliminate recirculation by determining the mean straight line from which the decreasing exponential is obtained. The principle of the use of microprocessors is explained (electronics, logics) [fr

  7. A feedback microprocessor for hadron colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrup, D.A.; Chapman, L.; Franck, A.; Groves, T.; Lublinsky, B.

    1992-12-01

    A feedback microprocessor has been built for the TEVATRON. It has been constructed to be applicable to hadron colliders in general. Its inputs are realtime accelerator measurements, data describing the state of the TEVATRON, and ramp tables. The microprocessor software includes a finite state machine. Each state corresponds to a specific TEVATRON operation and has a state-specific TEVATRON model. Transitions between states are initiated by the global TEVATRON clock. Each state includes a cyclic routine which is called periodically and where all calculations are performed. The output corrections are inserted onto a fast TEVATRON-wide link from which the power supplies will read the realtime corrections. We also store all of the input data and output corrections in a set of buffers which can easily be retrieved for diagnostic analysis. In this paper we will describe this device and its use to control the TEVATRON tunes as well as other possible applications

  8. Hardware math for the 6502 microprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissel, R.; Currie, J.

    1985-01-01

    A floating-point arithmetic unit is described which is being used in the Ground Facility of Large Space Structures Control Verification (GF/LSSCV). The experiment uses two complete inertial measurement units and a set of three gimbal torquers in a closed loop to control the structural vibrations in a flexible test article (beam). A 6502 (8-bit) microprocessor controls four AMD 9511A floating-point arithmetic units to do all the computation in 20 milliseconds.

  9. Microprocessor-based stepping motor driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.

    1979-09-01

    The Pion Generation for Medical Irradiations (PIGMI) program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory requires a versatile stepping motor driver to do beam diagnostic measurements. A driver controlled by a microprocessor that can move eight stepping motors simultaneously was designed. The driver can monitor and respond to clockwise- and counterclockwise-limit switches, and it can monitor a 0- to 10-V dc position signal. The software controls start and stop ramping and maximum stepping rates. 2 figures, 1 table

  10. The specifications a multichannel analyser using microprocessor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontes, E.W.

    The idea of a small nuclear data acquisition system (stand - alone CAMAC system) used for spectroscopy, is presented. The system is composed by an autonomous controller with microprocessor with one fast programable unit (1-2 μsec/CAMAC instructions) and with modulus of general functions as: CAMAC memory, interface for video, interface for analogy to digital converter and temporizing. (E.G.) [pt

  11. Some software algorithms for microprocessor ratemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savic, Z.

    1991-01-01

    After a review of the basic theoretical ratemeter problem and a general discussion of microprocessor ratemeters, a short insight into their hardware organization is given. Three software algorithms are described: the old ones the quasi-exponential and floating mean algorithm, and a new weighted moving average algorithm. The equations for statistical characterization of the new algorithm are given and an intercomparison is made. It is concluded that the new algorithm has statistical advantages over the old ones. (orig.)

  12. Some software algorithms for microprocessor ratemeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savic, Z. (Military Technical Inst., Belgrade (Yugoslavia))

    1991-03-15

    After a review of the basic theoretical ratemeter problem and a general discussion of microprocessor ratemeters, a short insight into their hardware organization is given. Three software algorithms are described: the old ones the quasi-exponential and floating mean algorithm, and a new weighted moving average algorithm. The equations for statistical characterization of the new algorithm are given and an intercomparison is made. It is concluded that the new algorithm has statistical advantages over the old ones. (orig.).

  13. CAMAC based computer--computer communications via microprocessor data links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, J.M.; Machen, D.R.; Naivar, F.J.; Elkins, E.P.; Simmonds, D.D.

    1976-01-01

    Communications between the central control computer and remote, satellite data acquisition/control stations at The Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) is presently accomplished through the use of CAMAC based Data Link Modules. With the advent of the microprocessor, a new philosophy for digital data communications has evolved. Data Link modules containing microprocessor controllers provide link management and communication network protocol through algorithms executed in the Data Link microprocessor

  14. SNOOP module CAMAC interface to the 168/E microprocessor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, D.; Carroll, J.T.; Mitnick, V.H.; Paffrath, L.; Parker, D.B.

    1979-10-01

    A pair of 168/E microprocessors will be used to meet the realtime computing requirements of the SLAC Hybrid Facility. A SNOOP module and 168/E Interface provide the link between the host computer and the microprocessors. By eavesdropping on normal CAMAC read operations, the SNOOP provides a direct data transfer from CAMAC to microprocessor memory. The host computer controls the processors using standard CAMAC programmed I/O to the SNOOP

  15. Microprocessor Controlled Maximum Power Point Tracker for Photovoltaic Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiya, J. D.; Tahirou, G.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a microprocessor controlled maximum power point tracker for photovoltaic module. Input current and voltage are measured and multiplied within the microprocessor, which contains an algorithm to seek the maximum power point. The duly cycle of the DC-DC converter, at which the maximum power occurs is obtained, noted and adjusted. The microprocessor constantly seeks for improvement of obtained power by varying the duty cycle

  16. Radiation-hardened CMOS integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikor, A.; Reiss, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    Substantial effort has been directed at radiation-hardening CMOS integrated circuits using various oxide processes. While most of these integrated circuits have been successful in demonstrating megarad hardness, further investigations have shown that the 'wet-oxide process' is most compatible with the RCA CD4000 Series process. This article describes advances in the wet-oxide process that have resulted in multimegarad hardness and yield to MIL-M-38510 screening requirements. The implementation of these advances into volume manufacturing is geared towards supplying devices for aerospace requirements such as the Defense Meterological Satellite program (DMSP) and the Global Positioning Satellite (GPS). (author)

  17. Computer modelling of age hardening for cast aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Linda; Ferguson, W George

    2009-01-01

    Age hardening, or precipitation hardening, is one of the most widely adopted techniques for strengthening of aluminium alloys. Although various age hardening models have been developed for aluminium alloys, from the large volume of literature reviewed, it appears that the bulk of the research has been concentrated on wrought aluminium alloys, only a few of the established precipitation models have been applied to the casting aluminium alloys. In the present work, there are two modelling methods that have been developed and applied to the casting aluminium alloys A356 and A357. One is based on the Shercliff-Ashby methodology to produce a process model, by which we mean a mathematical relationship between process variables (alloy composition, ageing temperature and time) and material properties (yield strength or hardness) through microstructure evolution (precipitate radius, volume fraction). The other method is based on the Kampmann and Wagner Numerical (KWN) model which deals with concomitant nucleation, growth and coarsening and is thus capable of predicting the full evolution of the particle size distribution and then a strength model is used to evaluate the resulting change in hardness or yield strength at room temperature by taking into account contributions from lattice resistance, solid solution hardening and precipitation hardening.

  18. Microprocessor-controlled portable neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.F.; Kaifer, R.C.; Slaughter, D.R.; Strout, R.E. II; Rueppel, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    A neutron spectrometer that acquires and unfolds data in the field has been developed for use in the energy range from 1 to 20 MeV. The system includes an NE213 organic scintillation detector, automatic gain stabilization, automatically stabilized pulseshape discrimination, an LSl-11 microprocessor for control and data reduction, and a multichannel analyzer for data acquisition. The system, with the exception of the multichannel analyzer, is mounted in a suitcase 47 by 66 by 23.5 cm. The mass is 23.5 kg

  19. System architecture for microprocessor based protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.M. Jr.; Lilly, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    This paper discusses the architectural design features to be employed by Westinghouse in the application of distributed digital processing techniques to the protection system. While the title of the paper makes specific reference to microprocessors, this is only one (and the newest) of the building blocks which constitutes a distributed digital processing system. The actual system structure (as realized through utilization of the various building blocks) is established through considerations of reliability, licensability, and cost. It is the intent of the paper to address these considerations licenstions as they relate to the architectural design features. (orig.) [de

  20. Microprocessor-based accelerating power level detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, M.; Zarecki, W.; Albrecht, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    An accelerating power level detector was built using state-of-the-art microprocessor technology at Powertech Labs Inc. The detector will monitor the real power flowing in two 300 kV transmission lines out of Kemano Hydroelectric Generating Station and will detect any sudden loss of load due to a fault on either line under certain pre-selected power flow conditions. This paper discusses the criteria of operation for the detector and its implementation details, including digital processing, hardware, and software.

  1. Microprocessor architectures RISC, CISC and DSP

    CERN Document Server

    Heath, Steve

    1995-01-01

    'Why are there all these different processor architectures and what do they all mean? Which processor will I use? How should I choose it?' Given the task of selecting an architecture or design approach, both engineers and managers require a knowledge of the whole system and an explanation of the design tradeoffs and their effects. This is information that rarely appears in data sheets or user manuals. This book fills that knowledge gap.Section 1 provides a primer and history of the three basic microprocessor architectures. Section 2 describes the ways in which the architectures react with the

  2. Future microprocessor farms: Offline and online

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Areti, H.

    1990-01-01

    Microprocessor farms have been successfully employed in high energy physics for both offline analysis and online triggers. As the experiments continue to grow in size, so do the demands for processing power. The preliminary indications are that the large collider experiments will require at least a million VAX-11/780 equivalents of processing power for online trigger decisions and offline event reconstruction. This paper examines the current technology trends and projects the processing power that may be expected with the current farm architectures. 3 refs., 6 figs

  3. Microprocessor-controlled, programmable ramp voltage generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopwood, J.

    1978-11-01

    A special-purpose voltage generator has been developed for driving the quadrupole mass filter of a residual gas analyzer. The generator is microprocessor-controlled with desired ramping parameters programmed by setting front-panel digital thumb switches. The start voltage, stop voltage, and time of each excursion are selectable. A maximum of five start-stop levels may be pre-selected for each program. The ramp voltage is 0 to 10 volts with sweep times from 0.1 to 999.99 seconds

  4. The shrinkage of hardening cement paste and mortar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de G.D.; Kreijger, P.C.; Niël, E.M.M.G.; Slagter, J.C.; Stein, H.N.; Theissing, E.M.; Wallendael, van M.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is an abstract from the report of the commission B10: "The influence of the shrinkage of cement on the shrink-age of concrete", of the Netherlands Committee for Concrete Research. Measurements of pulse velocity, volume shrinkage and heat of hydration on hardening portland cement support

  5. DART II documentation. Volume III. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    The DART II is a remote, interactive, microprocessor-based data acquistion system suitable for use with air monitors. This volume of DART II documentation contains the following appendixes: adjustment and calibration procedures; mother board signature list; schematic diagrams; device specification sheets; ROM program listing; 6800 microprocessor instruction list, octal listing; and cable lists. (RWR)

  6. Dynamic instruction set extension of microprocessors with embedded FPGAs

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Heiner

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly complex applications and recent shifts in technology scaling have created a large demand for microprocessors which can perform tasks more quickly and more energy efficient. Conventional microarchitectures exploit multiple levels of parallelism to increase instruction throughput and use application specific instruction sets or hardware accelerators to increase energy efficiency. Reconfigurable microprocessors adopt the same principle of providing application specific hardware, how...

  7. Sub-50 nm gate length SOI transistor development for high performance microprocessors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horstmann, M.; Greenlaw, D.; Feudel, Th.; Wei, A.; Frohberg, K.; Burbach, G.; Gerhardt, M.; Lenski, M.; Stephan, R.; Wieczorek, K.; Schaller, M.; Hohage, J.; Ruelke, H.; Klais, J.; Huebler, P.; Luning, S.; Bentum, R. van; Grasshoff, G.; Schwan, C.; Cheek, J.; Buller, J.; Krishnan, S.; Raab, M.; Kepler, N.

    2004-01-01

    Partial depleted (PD) SOI technologies have reached maturity for production of high speed, low power microprocessors. The paper will highlight several challenges found during the course of development for bringing 40 nm gate length (L GATE ) PD SOI transistors into volume manufacturing for high-speed microprocessors. The key innovations developed for this transistor in order to overcome classical gate oxide and L GATE scaling is an unique differential triple spacer structure, stressed overlayer films inducing strain in the Silicon channel and optimized junctions. This transistor structure yields an outstanding ring oscillator speed with an unloaded inverter delay of 5.5 ps. The found improvements are highly manufacturable and scaleable for future device technologies like FD SOI

  8. Software tools for microprocessor based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halatsis, C.

    1981-01-01

    After a short review of the hardware and/or software tools for the development of single-chip, fixed instruction set microprocessor-based sytems we focus on the software tools for designing systems based on microprogrammed bit-sliced microprocessors. Emphasis is placed on meta-microassemblers and simulation facilties at the register-transfer-level and architecture level. We review available meta-microassemblers giving their most important features, advantages and disadvantages. We also make extentions to higher-level microprogramming languages and associated systems specifically developed for bit-slices. In the area of simulation facilities we first discuss the simulation objectives and the criteria for chosing the right simulation language. We consertrate to simulation facilities already used in bit-slices projects and discuss the gained experience. We conclude by describing the way the Signetics meta-microassembler and the ISPS simulation tool have been employed in the design of a fast microprogrammed machine, called MICE, made out of ECL bit-slices. (orig.)

  9. Radiation-hardenable diluents for radiation-hardenable compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, K.E.; Rosenkranz, H.J.; Furh, K.; Ruedolph, H.

    1979-01-01

    Radiation-crosslinkable diluents for radiation-hardenable compositions (binders) consisting of a mixture of triacrylates of a reaction product of trimethylol propane and ethylene oxide with an average degree of ethoxylation of from 2.5 to 4 are described. The ethoxylated trimethylol propane is substantially free from trimethylol propane and has the following distribution: 4 to 5% by weight of monoethoxylation product, 14 to 16% by weight of diethoxylation product, 20 to 30% by weight of triethoxylation product, 20 to 30% by weight of tetraethoxylation product, 16 to 18% by weight of pentaethoxylation product, and 6 to 8% by weight of hexaethoxylation product. The diluents effectively reduce the viscosity of radiation-hardenable compositions and do not have any adverse effect upon their reactivity or upon the properties of the resulting hardened products

  10. API testing program - calibration of microprocessor based flowmeters for integrated metering systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot, Kenneth D. [Omni Flow Computers, Inc., Stafford, TX (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Microprocessor based flowmeter technologies for liquids, such as Coriolis mass meters, and Ultrasonic flowmeters hold great promise. These technologies offer many advantages, such as no rotating parts, self-diagnostic checks, which can help anticipate and warn of impending failures before they have a major impact on the measurement. These meters are substantially different though than other primary devices due to their heavy reliance on the accompanying secondary electronics. One method to prove that they are accurate would be proving the flowmeter, using a pipe prover or small volume prover (SVP), but these proving methods are designed to count 'real time' pulses from a turbine or PD meter between a known volume, they are not designed to count 'time delayed' 'manufactured pulses' from a microprocessor. There are limitations of the manufactured pulse train and it affects the ability of the flowmeter to be proved using current proving technology. The author of this paper, a chairman of an American Petroleum Institute working group, investigated how the 'microprocessor generated pulses' produced by these types of flowmeters, interacted with the existing measurement technologies in use today. Several microprocessor based flowmeter technologies have been tested, including; Ultrasonic, Coriolis, and Helical Turbine with pulse multiplying preamplifier. Wherever possible, flowmeters of various sizes, and from several vendors have been tested. A significant amount of data has been collected which sheds light into why these types of flowmeters are sometimes difficult to prove. This paper describes the API testing program, and the methodology behind it. It presents results and findings, and offers specific recommendations that may eventually be incorporated into API documents and/or standards in the future. (author)

  11. Effect of ethephon on hardening of Pachystroma longifolium seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alexandre Lopes Dranski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Immediately after planting, tree seedlings face adverse environmental and biotic stresses that must be overcome to ensure survival and to yield a desirable growth. Hardening practices in the nursery may help improve seedling stress resistance through reduction of aboveground plant tissues and increased root volume and biomass. We conducted an assay to quantify changes in the morphogenesis following application of ethephon on seedlings of Pachystroma longifolium (Ness I. M. Johnst.during hardening. The results showed no effect of the ethephon treatments on the number of leaves but a reduction of up to 50% in seedling height increment, and an increase in stem diameter increment of up to 44% with the 600 mg L-1 ethephon treatment, which consequently altered seedling Dickson Quality Index. Our results indicate that ethephon may help to promote desired morphological changes that occur during seedling hardening in nurseries.

  12. Reducing beam hardening effects and metal artefacts using Medipix3RX: With applications from biomaterial science

    CERN Document Server

    Rajendran, K; de Ruiter, N J A; Chernoglazov, A I; Panta, R K; Butler, A P H; Butler, P H; Bell, S T; Anderson, N G; Woodfield, T B F; Tredinnick, S J; Healy, J L; Bateman, C J; Aamir, R; Doesburg, R M N; Renaud, P F; Gieseg, S P; Smithies, D J; Mohr, J L; Mandalika, V B H; Opie, A M T; Cook, N J; Ronaldson, J P; Nik, S J; Atharifard, A; Clyne, M; Bones, P J; Bartneck, C; Grasset, R; Schleich, N; Billinghurst, M

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses methods for reducing beam hardening effects using spectral data for biomaterial applications. A small-animal spectral scanner operating in the diagnostic energy range was used. We investigate the use of photon-processing features of the Medipix3RX ASIC in reducing beam hardening and associated artefacts. A fully operational charge summing mode was used during the imaging routine. We present spectral data collected for metal alloy samples, its analysis using algebraic 3D reconstruction software and volume visualisation using a custom volume rendering software. Narrow high energy acquisition using the photon-processing detector revealed substantial reduction in beam hardening effects and metal artefacts.

  13. A microprocessor based mobile radiation survey system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.W.; McCormack, W.D.

    1984-01-01

    A microprocessor-based system has been designed and constructed to enhance the performance of routine radiation surveys on roads within the Hanford site. This device continually monitors system performance and output from four sodium iodide detectors mounted on the rear bumper of a 4-wheel drive truck. The gamma radiation count rate in counts-per-second is monitored, and a running average computed, with the results compared to predefined limits. If an abnormal instantaneous or average count rate is detected, an alarm is sounded with responsible data displayed on a liquid crystal panel in the cab of the vehicle. The system also has the capability to evaluate detector output using multiple time constants and to perform more complex tests and comparison of the data. Data can be archived for later analysis on conventional chart recorders or stored in digital form on magnetic tape or other digital storage media

  14. Microprocessor based mobile radiation survey system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.W.; McCormack, W.D.

    1983-12-01

    A microprocessor-based system has been designed and constructed to enhance the performance of routine radiation surveys on roads within the Hanford site. This device continually monitors system performance and output from four sodium iodide detectors mounted on the rear bumper of a 4-wheel drive truck. The gamma radiation count rate in counts-per-second is monitored, and a running average computed, with the results compared to predefined limits. If an abnormal instantaneous or average count rate is detected, an alarm is sounded with responsible data displayed on a liquid crystal panel in the cab of the vehicle. The system also has the capability to evaluate detector output using multiple time constants and to perform more complex tests and comparison of the data. Data can be archived for later analysis on conventional chart recorders or stored in digital form on magnetic tape or other digital storage media. 4 figures

  15. Microprocessor-based integrated LMFBR core surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmeiner, L.

    1984-06-01

    This report results from a joint study of KfK and INTERATOM. The aim of this study is to explore the advantages of microprocessors and microelectronics for a more sophisticated core surveillance, which is based on the integration of separate surveillance techniques. Due to new developments in microelectronics and related software an approach to LMFBR core surveillance can be conceived that combines a number of measurements into a more intelligent decision-making data processing system. The following techniques are considered to contribute essentially to an integrated core surveillance system: - subassembly state and thermal hydraulics performance monitoring, - temperature noise analysis, - acoustic core surveillance, - failure characterization and failure prediction based on DND- and cover gas signals, and - flux tilting techniques. Starting from a description of these techniques it is shown that by combination and correlation of these individual techniques a higher degree of cost-effectiveness, reliability and accuracy can be achieved. (orig./GL) [de

  16. Microprocessor system for temperature regulation and stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Nhi Dien; Rodionov, K.G.

    1989-01-01

    Microprocessor based system for temperature regulation and stabilization of an operation external object is described. The system has the direct current amplifier working according to modulator-demodulator principle. The overal gain is 100, 1000, 2000. The maximum output signal is ±10 V. The power amplifier is a thyristor one and its line voltage is 220 V, 50 Hz. The output power is 0-2 kVA. The microcontroller has a remote display terminal. Data input is 8 and data output is one. Input and output voltage is ±(0-10) V. The preselection time for stabilization is within 1 s - 18 h. The program algorithm is given. 5 figs.; 1 tab

  17. A microprocessor based picture analysis system for automatic track measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, W.; Trakowski, W.; Beer, J.; Schucht, R.

    1982-01-01

    In the last few years picture analysis became a powerful technique for measurements of nuclear tracks in plastic detectors. For this purpose rather expensive commercial systems are available. Two inexpensive microprocessor based systems with different resolution were developed. The video pictures of particles seen through a microscope are digitized in real time and the picture analysis is done by software. The microscopes are equipped with stages driven by stepping motors, which are controlled by separate microprocessors. A PDP 11/03 supervises the operation of all microprocessors and stores the measured data on its mass storage devices. (author)

  18. A light-powered sub-threshold microprocessor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Ming; Chen Hong; Zhang Chun; Li Changmeng; Wang Zhihua, E-mail: lium02@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-11-15

    This paper presents an 8-bit sub-threshold microprocessor which can be powered by an integrated photosensitive diode. With a custom designed sub-threshold standard cell library and 1 kbit sub-threshold SRAM design, the leakage power of 58 nW, dynamic power of 385 nW - 165 kHz, EDP 13 pJ/inst and the operating voltage of 350 mV are achieved. Under a light of about 150 kLux, the microprocessor can run at a rate of up to 500 kHz. The microprocessor can be used for wireless-sensor-network nodes.

  19. Accelerated age hardening by plastic deformation in Al-Cu with minor additions of Si and Ge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victoria Castro Riglos, M.; Taquire de la Cruz, M.; Tolley, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    An extremely fast hardening response with no reduction in peak hardness was obtained in Al-Cu with minor additions of Si and Ge by 8% plastic deformation before artificial aging. The mechanism for the accelerated hardening was determined by detailed characterization with transmission electron microscopy. Plastic deformation was found to enhance the nucleation rate of Si-Ge precipitates, resulting in a higher volume density. Such precipitates catalyzed the formation of θ' precipitates that are responsible for hardening.

  20. Working hardening modelization in zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, P.; Pochettino, Alberto A.

    1999-01-01

    Working hardening effects on mechanical properties and crystallographic textures formation in Zr-based alloys are studied. The hardening mechanisms for different grain deformations and topological conditions of simple crystal yield are considered. Results obtained show that the differences in the cold rolling textures (L and T textures) can be related with hardening microstructural parameters. (author)

  1. Solution hardening and strain hardening at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocks, U.F.

    1982-10-01

    Solutes can significantly increase the rate of strain hardening; as a consequence, the saturation stress, at which strain hardening tends to cease for a given temperature and strain rate, is increased more than the yield stress: this is the major effect of solutes on strength at elevated temperatures, especially in the regime where dynamic strain-aging occurs. It is shown that local solute mobility can affect both the rate of dynamic recovery and the dislocation/dislocation interaction strength. The latter effect leads to multiplicative solution strengthening. It is explained by a new model based on repeated dislocation unlocking, in a high-temperature limit, which also rationalizes the stress dependence of static and dynamic strain-aging, and may help explain the plateau of the yield stress at elevated temperatures. 15 figures

  2. Microprocessor protection devices: The present and the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurevich Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents the analysis of the basic constructive disadvantages of the present day microprocessor-based protective devices (MBR and offers the basic principles for creating a new MBR that can be used in newly constructed devices.

  3. A Fault-tolerant RISC Microprocessor for Spacecraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoc, Constantin; Benz, Harry

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on a fault-tolerant RISC microprocessor for spacecraft applications are presented. Topics covered include: reduced instruction set computer; fault tolerant registers; fault tolerant ALU; and double rail CMOS logic.

  4. Evaluation of the performance of microprocessor-based colorimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Randhawa, S. S.; Gupta, R. C.; Bhandari, A. K.; Malhotra, P. S.

    1992-01-01

    Colorimetric estimations have an important role in quantitative studies. An inexpensive and portable microprocessor-based colorimeter developed by the authors is described in this paper. The colorimeter uses a light emitting diode as the light source; a pinphotodiode as the detector and an 8085A microprocessor. Blood urea, glucose, total protein, albumin and bilirubin from patient blood samples were analysed with the instrument and results obtained were compared with assays of the same blood ...

  5. An SEU rate prediction method for microprocessors of space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jie; Li Qiang

    2012-01-01

    In this article,the relationship between static SEU (Single Event Upset) rate and dynamic SEU rate in microprocessors for satellites is studied by using process duty cycle concept and fault injection technique. The results are compared to in-orbit flight monitoring data. The results show that dynamic SEU rate by using process duty cycle can estimate in-orbit SEU rate of microprocessor reasonable; and the fault injection technique is a workable method to estimate SEU rate. (authors)

  6. Superheat effect on bainite steel hardenability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubachek, V.V.; Sklyuev, P.V.

    1978-01-01

    The bainite hardenability of 34KhN1M and 35 KhN1M2Ph steels has been investigated by the end-face hardening technique. It is established that, as the temperature of austenitization rises from 900 to 1280 deg C, the temperature of bainite transformation increases and bainite hardenability of the steels falls off. A repeated slow heating to 900 deg C of previously overheated 34KhN1M steel breaks up grain, lowers the temperature of the bainite transformation and raises the hardenability to values obtained with ordinary hardening from 900 deg C. A similar heating of previously overheated 35KhN1M2Ph steel is accompanied by restoration of initial coarse grains and maintenance of both the elevated bainite transformation temperature and to lower hardenability corresponding to hardening from the temperature of previous overheating

  7. A non-linear kinematic hardening function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottosen, N.S.

    1977-05-01

    Based on the classical theory of plasticity, and accepting the von Mises criterion as the initial yield criterion, a non-linear kinematic hardening function applicable both to Melan-Prager's and to Ziegler's hardening rule is proposed. This non-linear hardening function is determined by means of the uniaxial stress-strain curve, and any such curve is applicable. The proposed hardening function considers the problem of general reversed loading, and a smooth change in the behaviour from one plastic state to another nearlying plastic state is obtained. A review of both the kinematic hardening theory and the corresponding non-linear hardening assumptions is given, and it is shown that material behaviour is identical whether Melan-Prager's or Ziegler's hardening rule is applied, provided that the von Mises yield criterion is adopted. (author)

  8. Radiation hardening of semiconductor parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter is an overview of total-ionizing-dose and single-event hardening techniques and should be used as a guide to a range of research publications. It should be stressed that there is no clear and simple route to a radiation-tolerant silicon integrated circuit. What works for one fabrication process may not work for another, and there are many complex interactions within individual processes and designs. The authors have attempted to highlight the most important factors and those process changes which should bring improved hardness. The main point is that radiation-hardening as a procedure must be approached in a methodical fashion and with a good understanding of the response mechanisms involved

  9. Scintillation-Hardened GPS Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    CommLargo, Inc., has developed a scintillation-hardened Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver that improves reliability for low-orbit missions and complies with NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) architecture standards. A software-defined radio (SDR) implementation allows a single hardware element to function as either a conventional radio or as a GPS receiver, providing backup and redundancy for platforms such as the International Space Station (ISS) and high-value remote sensing platforms. The innovation's flexible SDR implementation reduces cost, weight, and power requirements. Scintillation hardening improves mission reliability and variability. In Phase I, CommLargo refactored an open-source GPS software package with Kalman filter-based tracking loops to improve performance during scintillation and also demonstrated improved navigation during a geomagnetic storm. In Phase II, the company generated a new field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based GPS waveform to demonstrate on NASA's Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) test bed.

  10. Radiation-hardened control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandermolen, R.I.; Smith, S.F.; Emery, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    A radiation-hardened bit-slice control system with associated input/output circuits was developed to prove that programmable circuits could be constructed to successfully implement intelligent functions in a highly radioactive environment. The goal for this effort was to design and test a programmable control system that could withstand a minimum total dose of 10 7 rads (gamma). The Radiation Hardened Control System (RHCS) was tested in operation at a dose rate that ranged up to 135 krad/h, with an average total dose of 10.75 Mrads. Further testing beyond the required 10 7 rads was also conducted. RHCS performed properly through the target dose of 10 7 rads, and sporadic intermittent failures in some programmable logic devices were noted after ∼ 13 Mrads

  11. Energetic model of metal hardening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatova O.N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on Bailey hypothesis on the link between strain hardening and elastic lattice defect energy this paper suggests a shear strength energetic model that takes into consideration plastic strain intensity and rate as well as softening related to temperature annealing and dislocation annihilation. Metal strain hardening was demonstrated to be determined only by elastic strain energy related to the energy of accumulated defects. It is anticipated that accumulation of the elastic energy of defects is governed by plastic work. The suggested model has a reasonable agreement with the available experimental data for copper up to P = 70 GPa , for aluminum up to P = 10 GPa and for tantalum up to P = 20 GPa.

  12. Microprocessor isotope gauges for measurement of coating thickness and of air dust pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machaj, B.; Zrudelny, F.; Sikora, A.; Jaszczuk, J.

    1986-01-01

    The article describes a coating thickness gauge based on measurement of backscattered beta particles, and an air dust pollution gauge based on measurement of dust deposited from known volume of ambient air passed through a filter, by attenuation of beta radiation. In both cases to control the gauges and to process head signals microcomputer system based on Intel 8080 microprocessor is employed. Algorithms for processing and control of the gauges and corresponding flow charts are presented. Block diagram of microcomputer system used is presented, as well as the manner of operation of the gauges. (author)

  13. Nuclear criticality evacuation with telemonitoring and microprocessors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fergus, R.W.; Moe, H.J. Sr.

    1979-01-01

    At Argonne National Laboratory, criticality alarms are required at widely separated locations to evacuate personnel in case of accident while emergency teams or maintenance personnel respond from a central location. The system functions have been divided in a similar manner. The alarm site hardware can independently detect a criticality and sound the evacuation signal while general monitoring and routine tests are handled by a communication link to a central monitoring station. The radiation detectors and evacuation sounders at each site are interconnected by a common two conductor cable in a unique telemonitoring format. This format allows both control and data information to be received or transmitted at any point on the cable which can be up to 3000 meters total length. The site microprocessor maintains a current data table, detects several faults, drives a printer, and communicates with the central telemonitoring station. The radiation detectors are made with plastic scintillators and photomultiplier tubes operated in a constant current mode with a 4 decade measurement range. The detectors also respond within microseconds to the criticality radiation burst. These characteristics can be tested with an internal light emitting diode either completely with a manual procedure or routinely with a system test initiated by the central monitoring station. Although the system was developed for a criticality alarm which requires reliable and redundant features, the basic techniques are useable for other monitoring and instrumentation applications

  14. Real time computer system with distributed microprocessors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heger, D.; Steusloff, H.; Syrbe, M.

    1979-01-01

    The usual centralized structure of computer systems, especially of process computer systems, cannot sufficiently use the progress of very large-scale integrated semiconductor technology with respect to increasing the reliability and performance and to decreasing the expenses especially of the external periphery. This and the increasing demands on process control systems has led the authors to generally examine the structure of such systems and to adapt it to the new surroundings. Computer systems with distributed, optical fibre-coupled microprocessors allow a very favourable problem-solving with decentralized controlled buslines and functional redundancy with automatic fault diagnosis and reconfiguration. A fit programming system supports these hardware properties: PEARL for multicomputer systems, dynamic loader, processor and network operating system. The necessary design principles for this are proved mainly theoretically and by value analysis. An optimal overall system of this new generation of process control systems was established, supported by results of 2 PDV projects (modular operating systems, input/output colour screen system as control panel), for the purpose of testing by apllying the system for the control of 28 pit furnaces of a steel work. (orig.) [de

  15. Trust versus confidence: Microprocessors and personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaro, P.J. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Due to recent technological advances, substantial improvements have been made in personnel contamination monitoring. In all likelihood, these advances will close out the days of manually frisking personnel for radioactive contamination. Unfortunately, as microprocessor-based monitors become more widely used, not only at commercial power reactors but also at government facilities, questions concerning their trustworthiness arise. Algorithms make decisions that were previously made by technicians. Trust is placed not in technicians but in machines. In doing this it is assumed that the machine never misses. Inevitably, this trust drops, due largely to open-quotes false alarms.close quotes This is especially true when monitoring for alpha contamination. What is a open-quotes false alarm?close quotes Do these machines and their algorithms that we put our trust in make mistakes? An analysis was performed on half-body and hand-and-foot monitors at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in order to justify the suggested confidence level used for alarm point determination. Sources used in this analysis had activities approximating ORNL's contamination limits

  16. Trust versus confidence: Microprocessors and personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaro, P.J. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Due to recent technological advances, substantial improvements have been made in personnel contamination monitoring. In all likelihood, these advances will close out the days of manually frisking personnel for radioactive contamination. Unfortunately, as microprocessor-based monitors become more widely used, not only at commercial power reactors but also at government facilities, questions concerning their trustworthiness arise. Algorithms make decisions that were previously made by technicians. Trust is placed not in technicians but in machines. In doing this it is assumed that the machine never misses. Inevitably, this trust drops, due largely to ''false alarms''. This is especially true when monitoring for alpha contamination. What is a ''false alarm''? Do these machines and their algorithms that we put our trust in make mistakes? An analysis was performed on half-body and hand-and-foot monitors at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in order to justify the suggested confidence level used for alarm point determination. Sources used in this analysis had activities approximating ORNL's contamination limits

  17. Trust versus confidence: Microprocessors and personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaro, P.J. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Due to recent technological advances, substantial improvements have been made in personnel contamination monitoring. In all likelihood, these advances will close out the days of manually frisking personnel for radioactive contamination. Unfortunately, as microprocessor-based monitors become more widely used, not only at commercial power reactors but also at government facilities, questions concerning their trustworthiness arise. Algorithms make decisions that were previously made by technicians. Trust is placed not in technicians but in machines. In doing this it is assumed that the machine never misses. Inevitably, this trust drops, due largely to ''false alarms''. This is especially true when monitoring for alpha contamination. What is a ''false alarm''? Do these machines and their algorithms that they put their trust in make mistakes? An analysis was performed on half-body and hand-and-foot monitors at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in order to justify the suggested confidence level used for alarm point determination. Sources used in this analysis had activities approximating ORNL's contamination limits

  18. Nanoparticle amount, and not size, determines chain alignment and nonlinear hardening in polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, H. Samet; Meng, Fanlong; Hosseinkhani, Babak; Malm, Christian; Bonn, Daniel; Bonn, Mischa; Zaccone, Alessio

    2017-01-01

    Polymer nanocomposites—materials in which a polymer matrix is blended with nanoparticles (or fillers)—strengthen under sufficiently large strains. Such strain hardening is critical to their function, especially for materials that bear large cyclic loads such as car tires or bearing sealants. Although the reinforcement (i.e., the increase in the linear elasticity) by the addition of filler particles is phenomenologically understood, considerably less is known about strain hardening (the nonlinear elasticity). Here, we elucidate the molecular origin of strain hardening using uniaxial tensile loading, microspectroscopy of polymer chain alignment, and theory. The strain-hardening behavior and chain alignment are found to depend on the volume fraction, but not on the size of nanofillers. This contrasts with reinforcement, which depends on both volume fraction and size of nanofillers, potentially allowing linear and nonlinear elasticity of nanocomposites to be tuned independently. PMID:28377517

  19. Microprocessor Card for Cuban Series polarimeters Laserpol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arista Romeu, E.; Mora Mazorra, W.

    2012-01-01

    We present the design consists of a card based on a micro-processor 8-bit adds new software components and their basic living, which allow to deliver new services and expand the possibilities for use in other applications of the polarimeter LASERPOL series, as the polarimetric detection. Given the limitations of the original card it was necessary to introduce a series of changes that would allow to address new user requirements, and expand the possible applications of the instruments. This was done the expansion of the capacity of the EPROM and RAM memory, the decoder circuit was implemented memory map using a programmable integrated circuit, and introduced a real time clock with nonvolatile RAM, these features are exploited to the introduction of new features such as the realization of the polarimeter calibration by the user from a sample pattern or a calibration pattern used as a reference, and the incorporation of the time and date to the reports of measurements required industry for quality control processes. Card that is achieved along with the rest of the components is compatible with polarimeters LASERPOL 101M Series, 3M and LP4, pin to pin, which facilitates their incorporation into the polarimeters in operation in the industry 'in situ' replacement cards from previous models, allowing to extend the possibilities of statistical processing, precision and accuracy of the instruments. Improved measurements in the industry, resulting in significant savings by elimination of losses in production and raw materials. The improved response speed of reading the polarimeters LASERPOL Use and polarimetric detectors. (Author)

  20. Induction Hardening of External Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukanin, V. A.; Ivanov, A. N.; Zenkov, A. E.; Vologdin, V. V.; Vologdin, V. V., Jr.

    2018-03-01

    Problems and solution of gear induction hardening are described. Main attention is paid to the parameters of heating and cooling systems. ELTA 7.0 program has been used to obtain the required electrical parameters of inductor, power sources, resonant circuits, as well as to choose the quenching media. Comparison of experimental and calculated results of investigation is provided. In order to compare advantages and disadvantages of single- and dual-frequency heating processes, many variants of these technologies were simulated. The predicted structure and hardness of steel gears are obtained by use of the ELTA data base taken into account the Continuous Cooling Transformation diagrams.

  1. A Novel Radiation Hardened CAM

    CERN Document Server

    Shojaii, Seyed Ruhollah; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    This poster describes an innovative Content Addressable Memory cell with radiation hardened (RH-CAM) architecture. The RH-CAM is designed in a commercial 28 nm CMOS technology. The circuit has been simulated in worst-case conditions, and the effects due to single particles are analyzed injecting a fault current into a circuit node. The proposed architecture can perform on-time pattern recognition tasks in harsh environments, such as very front-end electronics in hadron colliders and in space applications.

  2. Optimization of resistively hardened latches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, G.; Savaria, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The design of digital circuits tolerant to single-event upsets is considered. The results of a study are presented on which an analytical model was used to predict the behavior of a standard resistively hardened latch. It is shown that a worst case analysis for all possible single-event upset situations (on the latch or in the logic) can be derived from studying the effects of a transient disturbed write cycle. The existence of an intrinsic minimum write period to tolerate a transient of a given duration is also demonstrated

  3. Instabilities in power law gradient hardening materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Tvergaard, Viggo

    2005-01-01

    Tension and compression instabilities are investigated for specimens with dimensions in the micron range. A finite strain generalization of a higher order strain gradient plasticity theory is implemented in a finite element scheme capable of modeling power law hardening materials. Effects...... of gradient hardening are found to delay the onset of localization under plane strain tension, and significantly reduce strain gradients in the localized zone. For plane strain compression gradient hardening is found to increase the load-carrying capacity significantly....

  4. Segmentation-free empirical beam hardening correction for CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schüller, Sören; Sawall, Stefan [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Stannigel, Kai; Hülsbusch, Markus; Ulrici, Johannes; Hell, Erich [Sirona Dental Systems GmbH, Fabrikstraße 31, 64625 Bensheim (Germany); Kachelrieß, Marc, E-mail: marc.kachelriess@dkfz.de [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: The polychromatic nature of the x-ray beams and their effects on the reconstructed image are often disregarded during standard image reconstruction. This leads to cupping and beam hardening artifacts inside the reconstructed volume. To correct for a general cupping, methods like water precorrection exist. They correct the hardening of the spectrum during the penetration of the measured object only for the major tissue class. In contrast, more complex artifacts like streaks between dense objects need other techniques of correction. If using only the information of one single energy scan, there are two types of corrections. The first one is a physical approach. Thereby, artifacts can be reproduced and corrected within the original reconstruction by using assumptions in a polychromatic forward projector. These assumptions could be the used spectrum, the detector response, the physical attenuation and scatter properties of the intersected materials. A second method is an empirical approach, which does not rely on much prior knowledge. This so-called empirical beam hardening correction (EBHC) and the previously mentioned physical-based technique are both relying on a segmentation of the present tissues inside the patient. The difficulty thereby is that beam hardening by itself, scatter, and other effects, which diminish the image quality also disturb the correct tissue classification and thereby reduce the accuracy of the two known classes of correction techniques. The herein proposed method works similar to the empirical beam hardening correction but does not require a tissue segmentation and therefore shows improvements on image data, which are highly degraded by noise and artifacts. Furthermore, the new algorithm is designed in a way that no additional calibration or parameter fitting is needed. Methods: To overcome the segmentation of tissues, the authors propose a histogram deformation of their primary reconstructed CT image. This step is essential for the

  5. Segmentation-free empirical beam hardening correction for CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, Sören; Sawall, Stefan; Stannigel, Kai; Hülsbusch, Markus; Ulrici, Johannes; Hell, Erich; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2015-02-01

    The polychromatic nature of the x-ray beams and their effects on the reconstructed image are often disregarded during standard image reconstruction. This leads to cupping and beam hardening artifacts inside the reconstructed volume. To correct for a general cupping, methods like water precorrection exist. They correct the hardening of the spectrum during the penetration of the measured object only for the major tissue class. In contrast, more complex artifacts like streaks between dense objects need other techniques of correction. If using only the information of one single energy scan, there are two types of corrections. The first one is a physical approach. Thereby, artifacts can be reproduced and corrected within the original reconstruction by using assumptions in a polychromatic forward projector. These assumptions could be the used spectrum, the detector response, the physical attenuation and scatter properties of the intersected materials. A second method is an empirical approach, which does not rely on much prior knowledge. This so-called empirical beam hardening correction (EBHC) and the previously mentioned physical-based technique are both relying on a segmentation of the present tissues inside the patient. The difficulty thereby is that beam hardening by itself, scatter, and other effects, which diminish the image quality also disturb the correct tissue classification and thereby reduce the accuracy of the two known classes of correction techniques. The herein proposed method works similar to the empirical beam hardening correction but does not require a tissue segmentation and therefore shows improvements on image data, which are highly degraded by noise and artifacts. Furthermore, the new algorithm is designed in a way that no additional calibration or parameter fitting is needed. To overcome the segmentation of tissues, the authors propose a histogram deformation of their primary reconstructed CT image. This step is essential for the proposed

  6. Influence of Cooling Condition on the Performance of Grinding Hardened Layer in Grind-hardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G. C.; Chen, J.; Xu, G. Y.; Li, X.

    2018-02-01

    45# steel was grinded and hardened on a surface grinding machine to study the effect of three different cooling media, including emulsion, dry air and liquid nitrogen, on the microstructure and properties of the hardened layer. The results show that the microstructure of material surface hardened with emulsion is pearlite and no hardened layer. The surface roughness is small and the residual stress is compressive stress. With cooling condition of liquid nitrogen and dry air, the specimen surface are hardened, the organization is martensite, the surface roughness is also not changed, but high hardness of hardened layer and surface compressive stress were obtained when grinding using liquid nitrogen. The deeper hardened layer grinded with dry air was obtained and surface residual stress is tensile stress. This study provides an experimental basis for choosing the appropriate cooling mode to effectively control the performance of grinding hardened layer.

  7. Single event effect testing of the Intel 80386 family and the 80486 microprocessor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, A.; LaBel, K.; Gates, M.; Seidleck, C.; McGraw, R.; Broida, M.; Firer, J.; Sprehn, S.

    1996-01-01

    The authors present single event effect test results for the Intel 80386 microprocessor, the 80387 coprocessor, the 82380 peripheral device, and on the 80486 microprocessor. Both single event upset and latchup conditions were monitored

  8. Design of microprocessor-based hardware for number theoretic transform implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anwar Ahmed Shamim

    1985-01-01

    The Winograd (1976) Fourier Transform algorithm (WFTA) was implemented on a TMS9900 microprocessor to compute NTTs. Since multiplication conducted modulo m is very time consuming a special purpose external hardware modular multiplier was designed, constructed and interfaced with the TMS9900 microprocessor. This external hardware modular multiplier allowed an improvement in the transform execution time. Computation time may further be reduced by employing several microprocessors. Taking advantage of the inherent parallelism of the WFTA, a dedicated parallel microprocessor system was designed and constructed to implement a 15-point WFTA in parallel. Benchmark programs were written to choose a suitable microprocessor for the parallel microprocessor system. A master or a host microprocessor is used to control the parallel microprocessor system and provides an interface to the outside world. An analogue to digital (a/d) and a digital to analogue (d/a) converter allows real time digital signal processing.

  9. Microprocessor-based data acquisition systems for Hera experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, W.J.

    1989-09-01

    Sophisticated multi-microprocessor configurations are envisaged to cope with the technical challenges of the HERA electron-proton collider and the high data rates from the two large experiments H1 and ZEUS. These lecture notes concentrate on many of the techniques employed, with much emphasis being placed on the use of the IEEE standard VMEbus as a unifying element. The role of modern 32-bit CISC and RISC microprocessors, in the handling of data and the filtering of physics information, is highlighted together with the integration of personal computer stations for monitoring and control. (author)

  10. Cross software for microprocessor program development at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicken, H. von; Montuelle, J.; Willers, I.; Blake, J.

    1981-01-01

    Programs for a variety of microprocessors (including Intel 8080; Motorola 6800 and 6809 and 68000; and Texas Instruments 9900) can be prepared on different host computers (such as IBM 370, CDC 6000, and Nord 10) using portable programs developed at CERN. The range of cross software consists of: an assembler for each target microprocessor, a single linkage editor, a single object module librarian, and a variety of pre-loaders which convert object modules from CERN's format (CUFOM) into manufacturers' formats. The programs are written in BCPL and PASCAL, programming languages which are available on a wide range of computers. (orig.)

  11. Evaluation of the performance of microprocessor-based colorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, S S; Gupta, R C; Bhandari, A K; Malhotra, P S

    1992-01-01

    Colorimetric estimations have an important role in quantitative studies. An inexpensive and portable microprocessor-based colorimeter developed by the authors is described in this paper. The colorimeter uses a light emitting diode as the light source; a pinphotodiode as the detector and an 8085A microprocessor. Blood urea, glucose, total protein, albumin and bilirubin from patient blood samples were analysed with the instrument and results obtained were compared with assays of the same blood using a Spectronic 21. A good correlation was found between the results from the two instruments.

  12. Concept report: Microprocessor control of electrical power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, E.

    1977-01-01

    An electrical power system which uses a microprocessor for systems control and monitoring is described. The microprocessor controlled system permits real time modification of system parameters for optimizing a system configuration, especially in the event of an anomaly. By reducing the components count, the assembling and testing of the unit is simplified, and reliability is increased. A resuable modular power conversion system capable of satisfying a large percentage of space applications requirements is examined along with the programmable power processor. The PC global controller which handles systems control and external communication is analyzed, and a software description is given. A systems application summary is also included.

  13. Upset due to a single particle caused propagated transients in a bulk CMOS microprocessor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leavy, J.F.; Hoffmann, L.F.; Shoran, R.W.; Johnson, M.T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on data pattern advances observed in preset, single event upset (SEU) hardened clocked flip-flops, during static Cf-252 exposures on a bulk CMOS microprocessor, that were attributable to particle caused anomalous clock signals, or propagated transients. SPICE simulations established that particle strikes in the output nodes of a clock control logic flip-flop could produce transients of sufficient amplitude and duration to be accepted as legitimate pulses by clock buffers fed by the flip-flop's output nodes. The buffers would then output false clock pulses, thereby advancing the state of the present flip-flops. Masking the clock logic on one of the test chips made the flip-flop data advance cease, confirming the clock logic as the source of the SEU. By introducing N 2 gas, at reduced pressures, into the SEU test chamber to attenuate Cf-252 particle LET's, a 24-26 MeV-cm 2 /mg LET threshold was deduced. Subsequent tests, at the 88-inch cyclotron at Berkeley, established an LET threshold of 30 MeV-cm 2 /mg (283 MeV Cu at 0 degrees) for the generation of false clocks. Cyclotron SEU tests are considered definitive, while Cf-252 data usually is not. However, in this instance Cf-252 tests proved analytically useful, providing SEU characterization data that was both timely and inexpensive

  14. CFD-simulation of radiator for air cooling of microprocessors in a limitided space

    OpenAIRE

    Trofimov V. E.; Pavlov A. L.; Mokrousova E. A.

    2016-01-01

    One of the final stages of microprocessors development is heat test. This procedure is performed on a special stand, the main element of which is the switching PCB with one or more mounted microprocessor sockets, chipsets, interfaces, jumpers and other components which provide various modes of microprocessor operation. The temperature of microprocessor housing is typically changed using thermoelectric module. The cold surface of the module with controlled temperature is in direct thermal c...

  15. Hardening of niobium alloys at precrystallization annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'eva, E.V.; Pustovalov, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    Niobium base alloys were investigated. It is shown that precrystallization annealing of niobium-molybdenum, niobium-vanadium and niobium-zirconium alloys elevates much more sufficiently their resistance to microplastic strains, than to macroplastic strains. Hardening effect differs sufficiently for different alloys. The maximal hardening is observed for niobium-vanadium alloys, the minimal one - for niobium-zirconium alloys

  16. Investigation of a Hardened Cement Paste Grout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteves, Luis Pedro; Sørensen, Eigil Verner

    This report documents a series of tests performed on a hardened cement paste grout delivered by the client, Det Norske Veritas A/S.......This report documents a series of tests performed on a hardened cement paste grout delivered by the client, Det Norske Veritas A/S....

  17. Radiation hardening of integrated circuits technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auberton-Herve, A.J.; Leray, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    The radiation hardening studies started in the mid decade -1960-1970. To survive the different military or space radiative environment, a new engineering science borned, to understand the degradation of electronics components. The different solutions to improve the electronic behavior in such environment, have been named radiation hardening of the technologies. Improvement of existing technologies, and qualification method have been widely studied. However, at the other hand, specific technologies was developped : The Silicon On Insulator technologies for CMOS or Bipolar. The HSOI3HD technology (supported by DGA-CEA DAM and LETI with THOMSON TMS) offers today the highest hardening level for the integration density of hundreds of thousand transistors on the same silicon. Full complex systems would be realized on a single die with a technological radiation hardening and no more system hardening

  18. Challenges in hardening technologies using shallow-trench isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Dodd, P.E.; Draper, B.L.; Flores, R.S.

    1998-02-01

    Challenges related to radiation hardening CMOS technologies with shallow-trench isolation are explored. Results show that trench hardening can be more difficult than simply replacing the trench isolation oxide with a hardened field oxide

  19. Comparison of Thermal Creep Strain Calculation Results Using Time Hardening and Strain Hardening Rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Junehyung; Cheon, Jinsik; Lee, Byoungoon; Lee, Chanbock

    2014-01-01

    One of the design criteria for the fuel rod in PGSFR is the thermal creep strain of the cladding, because the cladding is exposed to a high temperature for a long time during reactor operation period. In general, there are two kind of calculation scheme for thermal creep strain: time hardening and strain hardening rules. In this work, thermal creep strain calculation results for HT9 cladding by using time hardening and strain hardening rules are compared by employing KAERI's current metallic fuel performance analysis code, MACSIS. Also, thermal creep strain calculation results by using ANL's metallic fuel performance analysis code, LIFE-METAL which adopts strain hardening rule are compared with those by using MACSIS. Thermal creep strain calculation results for HT9 cladding by using time hardening and strain hardening rules were compared by employing KAERI's current metallic fuel performance analysis code, MACSIS. Also, thermal creep strain calculation results by using ANL's metallic fuel performance analysis code, LIFE-METAL which adopts strain hardening rule were compared with those by using MACSIS. Tertiary creep started earlier in time hardening rule than in strain hardening rule. Also, calculation results by MACSIS with strain hardening and those obtained by using LIFE-METAL were almost identical to each other

  20. Electron beam hardened paint binder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, O.B.; Labana, S.S.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a paint binder hardened by the effect of electron beams (0.1-100 Mrad/sec). It consists of a dispersion of (A) an ethylenic unsaturated material in (B) at least one vinyl monomer. The component (A) in a reaction product of degraded rubber particles (0.1-4 μm) and an ethylenic unsaturated component with a reactive epoxy, hydroxy or carboxy group which is bonded to the rubber particles by ester or urethane compounds. The rubber particles possess a nucleus and a cross-linked elastomeric acryl polymer, an outer shell with reactive groups and an intermediate layer formed by the monomers of the nucleus and the shell. The manner of production is described in great detail and supplemented by 157 examples. The coatings are suitable to coat articles which will be subject to deformation. (UWI) [de

  1. Digital Fractional Order Controllers Realized by PIC Microprocessor: Experimental Results

    OpenAIRE

    Petras, I.; Grega, S.; Dorcak, L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the fractional-order controllers and their possible hardware realization based on PIC microprocessor and numerical algorithm coded in PIC Basic. The mathematical description of the digital fractional -order controllers and approximation in the discrete domain are presented. An example of realization of the particular case of digital fractional-order PID controller is shown and described.

  2. Design and implementation of a microprocessor based room ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the development of a microprocessor based room illumination control system that offers advantage of improved efficiency in the use of electrical energy and reduced cost of electricity over manually controlled lighting systems. This system is developed to regulate the intensity of light from direct current ...

  3. Application of microprocessor based controller in the Breeder Reactor Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messick, N.C.; Lukas, M.P.

    1985-01-01

    This paper treats Argonne National Laboratory's experience using microprocessor based controllers presently in use on several control loops within the EBR-II reactor facility as well as tests being performed by these controllers. Also included is a discussion of the expandability, modularity, range of capabilities and higher level functions possible using such equipment

  4. Architecture of 32 bit CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) microprocessors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jove, T.M.; Ayguade, E.; Valero, M.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper we describe the main topics about the architecture of the best known 32-bit CISC microprocessors; i80386, MC68000 family, NS32000 series and Z80000. We focus on the high level languages support, operating system design facilities, memory management, techniques to speed up the overall performance and program debugging facilities. (Author)

  5. Small private key MQPKS on an embedded microprocessor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hwajeong; Kim, Jihyun; Choi, Jongseok; Park, Taehwan; Liu, Zhe; Kim, Howon

    2014-03-19

    Multivariate quadratic (MQ) cryptography requires the use of long public and private keys to ensure a sufficient security level, but this is not favorable to embedded systems, which have limited system resources. Recently, various approaches to MQ cryptography using reduced public keys have been studied. As a result of this, at CHES2011 (Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, 2011), a small public key MQ scheme, was proposed, and its feasible implementation on an embedded microprocessor was reported at CHES2012. However, the implementation of a small private key MQ scheme was not reported. For efficient implementation, random number generators can contribute to reduce the key size, but the cost of using a random number generator is much more complex than computing MQ on modern microprocessors. Therefore, no feasible results have been reported on embedded microprocessors. In this paper, we propose a feasible implementation on embedded microprocessors for a small private key MQ scheme using a pseudo-random number generator and hash function based on a block-cipher exploiting a hardware Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) accelerator. To speed up the performance, we apply various implementation methods, including parallel computation, on-the-fly computation, optimized logarithm representation, vinegar monomials and assembly programming. The proposed method reduces the private key size by about 99.9% and boosts signature generation and verification by 5.78% and 12.19% than previous results in CHES2012.

  6. Small Private Key MQPKS on an Embedded Microprocessor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwajeong Seo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate quadratic (MQ cryptography requires the use of long public and private keys to ensure a sufficient security level, but this is not favorable to embedded systems, which have limited system resources. Recently, various approaches to MQ cryptography using reduced public keys have been studied. As a result of this, at CHES2011 (Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, 2011, a small public key MQ scheme, was proposed, and its feasible implementation on an embedded microprocessor was reported at CHES2012. However, the implementation of a small private key MQ scheme was not reported. For efficient implementation, random number generators can contribute to reduce the key size, but the cost of using a random number generator is much more complex than computing MQ on modern microprocessors. Therefore, no feasible results have been reported on embedded microprocessors. In this paper, we propose a feasible implementation on embedded microprocessors for a small private key MQ scheme using a pseudo-random number generator and hash function based on a block-cipher exploiting a hardware Advanced Encryption Standard (AES accelerator. To speed up the performance, we apply various implementation methods, including parallel computation, on-the-fly computation, optimized logarithm representation, vinegar monomials and assembly programming. The proposed method reduces the private key size by about 99.9% and boosts signature generation and verification by 5.78% and 12.19% than previous results in CHES2012.

  7. Small Private Key PKS on an Embedded Microprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hwajeong; Kim, Jihyun; Choi, Jongseok; Park, Taehwan; Liu, Zhe; Kim, Howon

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate quadratic ( ) cryptography requires the use of long public and private keys to ensure a sufficient security level, but this is not favorable to embedded systems, which have limited system resources. Recently, various approaches to cryptography using reduced public keys have been studied. As a result of this, at CHES2011 (Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, 2011), a small public key scheme, was proposed, and its feasible implementation on an embedded microprocessor was reported at CHES2012. However, the implementation of a small private key scheme was not reported. For efficient implementation, random number generators can contribute to reduce the key size, but the cost of using a random number generator is much more complex than computing on modern microprocessors. Therefore, no feasible results have been reported on embedded microprocessors. In this paper, we propose a feasible implementation on embedded microprocessors for a small private key scheme using a pseudo-random number generator and hash function based on a block-cipher exploiting a hardware Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) accelerator. To speed up the performance, we apply various implementation methods, including parallel computation, on-the-fly computation, optimized logarithm representation, vinegar monomials and assembly programming. The proposed method reduces the private key size by about 99.9% and boosts signature generation and verification by 5.78% and 12.19% than previous results in CHES2012. PMID:24651722

  8. Use of a microprocessor in a remote working level monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keffe, D.J.; McDowell, W.P.; Groer, P.G.

    1975-01-01

    A remote working level monitor was designed to measure short-lived radon-daughter concentrations in sealed chambers having potentially high radiation levels (up to 2000 WL). The system is comprised of surface barrier detectors, multiplexer and buffers, microprocessor and teletype

  9. Microprocessor controlled dual parameter ADC system with a CAMAC interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, D G; Nickell, Jr, J D [Los Alamos Scientific Lab., NM (USA)

    1978-09-01

    Presented here is the design of a dual parameter ADC system which is controlled by a microprocessor and also interfaced to CAMAC. The system was designed to be mobile in that it may work wherever there is a CAMAC crate. In such cases where the CAMAC system is inoperative, the system may operate in a stand-alone mode.

  10. The Microprocessor controls the activity of mammalian retrotransposons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heras, Sara R.; Macias, Sara; Plass, Mireya

    2013-01-01

    RNA biogenesis, also recognizes and binds RNAs derived from human long interspersed element 1 (LINE-1), Alu and SVA retrotransposons. Expression analyses demonstrate that cells lacking a functional Microprocessor accumulate LINE-1 mRNA and encoded proteins. Furthermore, we show that structured regions...

  11. A microprocessor based multiscaling data acquisition system for moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohm, C.; Ekdahl, T.

    1985-01-01

    A microprocessor based data acquisition system is described, which was developed for use in Moessbauer spectroscopy. It is designed to record two spectra simultaneously, one of which could be a calibration spectrum. It is autonomous, but uses a host computer for initialization and permanent storage of data. The host communication software is also described. (Author)

  12. Significance of rate of work hardening in tempered martensite embrittlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietikainen, J.

    1995-01-01

    The main explanations for tempered martensite embrittlement are based on the effects of impurities and cementite precipitation on the prior austenite grain boundaries. There are some studies where the rate of work hardening is proposed as a potential reason for the brittleness. One steel was studied by means of a specially developed precision torsional testing device. The test steel had a high Si and Ni content so ε carbide and Fe 3 C appear in quite different tempering temperature ranges. The M S temperature is low enough so that self tempering does not occur. With the testing device it was possible to obtain the true stress - true strain curves to very high deformations. The minimum toughness was always associated with the minimum of rate of work hardening. The change of deformed steel volume before the loss of mechanical stability is proposed as at least one reason for tempered martensite embrittlement. The reasons for the minimum of the rate of work hardening are considered. (orig.)

  13. Temperature dependence of work hardening in sparsely twinning zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jaiveer; Mahesh, S.; Roy, Shomic; Kumar, Gulshan; Srivastava, D.; Dey, G.K.; Saibaba, N.; Samajdar, I.

    2017-01-01

    Fully recrystallized commercial Zirconium plates were subjected to uniaxial tension. Tests were conducted at different temperatures (123 K - 623 K) and along two plate directions. Both directions were nominally unfavorable for deformation twinning. The effect of the working temperature on crystallographic texture and in-grain misorientation development was insignificant. However, systematic variation in work hardening and in the area fraction and morphology of deformation twins was observed with temperature. At all temperatures, twinning was associated with significant near boundary mesoscopic shear, suggesting a possible linkage with twin nucleation. A binary tree based model of the polycrystal, which explicitly accounts for grain boundary accommodation and implements the phenomenological extended Voce hardening law, was implemented. This model could capture the measured stress-strain response and twin volume fractions accurately. Interestingly, slip and twin system hardness evolution permitted multiplicative decomposition into temperature-dependent, and accumulated strain-dependent parts. Furthermore, under conditions of relatively limited deformation twinning, the work hardening of the slip and twin systems followed two phenomenological laws proposed in the literature for non-twinning single-phase face centered cubic materials.

  14. Reduction of metal artifacts: beam hardening and photon starvation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadava, Girijesh K.; Pal, Debashish; Hsieh, Jiang

    2014-03-01

    The presence of metal-artifacts in CT imaging can obscure relevant anatomy and interfere with disease diagnosis. The cause and occurrence of metal-artifacts are primarily due to beam hardening, scatter, partial volume and photon starvation; however, the contribution to the artifacts from each of them depends on the type of hardware. A comparison of CT images obtained with different metallic hardware in various applications, along with acquisition and reconstruction parameters, helps understand methods for reducing or overcoming such artifacts. In this work, a metal beam hardening correction (BHC) and a projection-completion based metal artifact reduction (MAR) algorithms were developed, and applied on phantom and clinical CT scans with various metallic implants. Stainless-steel and Titanium were used to model and correct for metal beam hardening effect. In the MAR algorithm, the corrupted projection samples are replaced by the combination of original projections and in-painted data obtained by forward projecting a prior image. The data included spine fixation screws, hip-implants, dental-filling, and body extremity fixations, covering range of clinically used metal implants. Comparison of BHC and MAR on different metallic implants was used to characterize dominant source of the artifacts, and conceivable methods to overcome those. Results of the study indicate that beam hardening could be a dominant source of artifact in many spine and extremity fixations, whereas dental and hip implants could be dominant source of photon starvation. The BHC algorithm could significantly improve image quality in CT scans with metallic screws, whereas MAR algorithm could alleviate artifacts in hip-implants and dentalfillings.

  15. Laser Surface Hardening of Groove Edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, A.; Hamdani, A. H.; Akhter, R.; Aslam, M.

    2013-06-01

    Surface hardening of groove-edges made of 3Cr13 Stainless Steel has been carried out using 500 W CO2 laser with a rectangular beam of 2.5×3 mm2. The processing speed was varied from 150-500 mm/min. It was seen that the hardened depth increases with increase in laser interaction time. A maximum hardened depth of around 1mm was achieved. The microhardness of the transformed zone was 2.5 times the hardness of base metal. The XRD's and microstructural analysis were also reported.

  16. Ductility and work hardening in nano-sized metallic glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D. Z., E-mail: dzchen@caltech.edu [Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Gu, X. W. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); An, Q.; Goddard, W. A. [Materials and Process Simulation Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Greer, J. R. [Division of Engineering and Applied Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); The Kavli Nanoscience Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2015-02-09

    In-situ nano-tensile experiments on 70 nm-diameter free-standing electroplated NiP metallic glass nanostructures reveal tensile true strains of ∼18%, an amount comparable to compositionally identical 100 nm-diameter focused ion beam samples and ∼3 times greater than 100 nm-diameter electroplated samples. Simultaneous in-situ observations and stress-strain data during post-elastic deformation reveal necking and work hardening, features uncharacteristic for metallic glasses. The evolution of free volume within molecular dynamics-simulated samples suggests a free surface-mediated relaxation mechanism in nano-sized metallic glasses.

  17. The microstructural origin of work hardening stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, D. A.; Hansen, N.

    2018-01-01

    The strain evolution of the flow stress and work hardening rate in stages III and IV is explored by utilizing a fully described deformation microstructure. Extensive measurements by transmission electron microscopy reveal a hierarchical subdivision of grains by low angle incidental dislocation...... addition of the classical Taylor and Hall-Petch formulations. Model predictions agree closely with experimental values of flow stress and work hardening rate in stages III and IV. Strong connections between the evolutionary stages of the deformation microstructure and work hardening rates create a new...... (modern) basis for the classic problem of work hardening in metals and alloys. These connections lead the way for the future development of ultra high strength ductile metals produced via plastic deformation.(c) 2018 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  18. COMPLEX SURFACE HARDENING OF STEEL ARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kovalchuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of complex surface hardening of steel detailswas designed. The method is a compound of two processes of hardening: chemical heat treatment and physical vapor deposition (PVD of the coating. The result, achieved in this study is much higher, than in other work on this topic and is cumulative. The method designed can be used in mechanical engineering, medicine, energetics and is perspective for military and space technologies.

  19. Real-time fetal ECG system design using embedded microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Baese, Uwe; Muddu, Harikrishna; Schinhaerl, Sebastian; Kumm, Martin; Zipf, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The emphasis of this project lies in the development and evaluation of new robust and high fidelity fetal electrocardiogram (FECG) systems to determine the fetal heart rate (FHR). Recently several powerful algorithms have been suggested to improve the FECG fidelity. Until now it is unknown if these algorithms allow a real-time processing, can be used in mobile systems (low power), and which algorithm produces the best error rate for a given system configuration. In this work we have developed high performance, low power microprocessor-based biomedical systems that allow a fair comparison of proposed, state-of-the-art FECG algorithms. We will evaluate different soft-core microprocessors and compare these solutions to other commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardcore solutions in terms of price, size, power, and speed.

  20. Design and Implementation of O/C relay using Microprocessor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Abdul-Sattar H. Jasim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the design and implementation of a versatile digital overcurrent (O/C relay using a single microprocessor. The relay is implemented by a combination of a look-up table and a counter. The software development and hardware testing are done using a microcomputer module based on a 8-bit microprocessor. The digital processing of measured currents enables a separate setting of operating values selection of all types of inverse or constant time characteristics overcurrent protection. This protection provides reasonably fast tripping, even at terminal close to the power source were the most serve faults can occur excluding the transient condition. So this method has an excellent compromise between accuracy hardware and speed

  1. Fermilab advanced computer program multi-microprocessor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, T.; Areti, H.; Biel, J.

    1985-06-01

    Fermilab's Advanced Computer Program is constructing a powerful 128 node multi-microprocessor system for data analysis in high-energy physics. The system will use commercial 32-bit microprocessors programmed in Fortran-77. Extensive software supports easy migration of user applications from a uniprocessor environment to the multiprocessor and provides sophisticated program development, debugging, and error handling and recovery tools. This system is designed to be readily copied, providing computing cost effectiveness of below $2200 per VAX 11/780 equivalent. The low cost, commercial availability, compatibility with off-line analysis programs, and high data bandwidths (up to 160 MByte/sec) make the system an ideal choice for applications to on-line triggers as well as an offline data processor

  2. Microprocessor event analysis in parallel with Camac data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cords, D.; Eichler, R.; Riege, H.

    1981-01-01

    The Plessey MIPROC-16 microprocessor (16 bits, 250 ns execution time) has been connected to a Camac System (GEC-ELLIOTT System Crate) and shares the Camac access with a Nord-1OS computer. Interfaces have been designed and tested for execution of Camac cycles, communication with the Nord-1OS computer and DMA-transfer from Camac to the MIPROC-16 memory. The system is used in the JADE data-acquisition-system at PETRA where it receives the data from the detector in parallel with the Nord-1OS computer via DMA through the indirect-data-channel mode. The microprocessor performs an on-line analysis of events and the result of various checks is appended to the event. In case of spurious triggers or clear beam gas events, the Nord-1OS buffer will be reset and the event omitted from further processing. (orig.)

  3. General-purpose microprocessor-based control chassis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Swenson, D.A.

    1979-12-01

    The objective of the Pion Generation for Medical Irradiations (PIGMI) program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is to develop the technology to build smaller, less expensive, and more reliable proton linear accelerators for medical applications. For this program, a powerful, simple, inexpensive, and reliable control and data acquisition system was developed. The system has a NOVA 3D computer with a real time disk-operating system (RDOS) that communicates with distributed microprocessor-based controllers which directly control data input/output chassis. At the heart of the controller is a microprocessor crate which was conceived at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. This idea was applied to the design of the hardware and software of the controller

  4. Microprocessor event analysis in parallel with CAMAC data acquisition

    CERN Document Server

    Cords, D; Riege, H

    1981-01-01

    The Plessey MIPROC-16 microprocessor (16 bits, 250 ns execution time) has been connected to a CAMAC System (GEC-ELLIOTT System Crate) and shares the CAMAC access with a Nord-10S computer. Interfaces have been designed and tested for execution of CAMAC cycles, communication with the Nord-10S computer and DMA-transfer from CAMAC to the MIPROC-16 memory. The system is used in the JADE data-acquisition-system at PETRA where it receives the data from the detector in parallel with the Nord-10S computer via DMA through the indirect-data-channel mode. The microprocessor performs an on-line analysis of events and the results of various checks is appended to the event. In case of spurious triggers or clear beam gas events, the Nord-10S buffer will be reset and the event omitted from further processing. (5 refs).

  5. Applications of microprocessors in upgrading of accelerator controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, K.B.

    1977-03-01

    Experience at SLAC demonstrates that the criteria for selection and use of microprocessors in modifying an existing control system may differ from the criteria that apply during installation of the control system of a new accelerator. Considerations such as cost of individual projects, progressive installation without disruption of operations and training of on-board personnel can outweigh ''obvious'' goals such as standardization of hardware, uniformity of software, or even a rigid specification of link protocols with the main computer system

  6. Small Private Key PKS on an Embedded Microprocessor

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Hwajeong; Kim, Jihyun; Choi, Jongseok; Park, Taehwan; Liu, Zhe; Kim, Howon

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate quadratic (MQ) cryptography requires the use of long public and private keys to ensure a sufficient security level, but this is not favorable to embedded systems, which have limited system resources. Recently, various approaches to MQ cryptography using reduced public keys have been studied. As a result of this, at CHES2011 (Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, 2011), a small public key MQ scheme, was proposed, and its feasible implementation on an embedded microprocessor...

  7. Overview of real-time operating systems on microprocessor platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luong, T.T.

    1994-01-01

    This paper attempts to overview the real-time operating systems on microprocessor platforms in the field of experimental physics facility controls. The key issues regarding operating systems as well as standards and development environment are discussed. As an illustration, some current industrial products are indicated. Also, real-time systems operating in some institutes of the EPS/EPCS inter divisional group are reviewed. (author). 3 refs., 4 figs

  8. Design analysis and microprocessor based control of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbakh, N.J.

    1988-01-01

    The object of this thesis is to design and test a microprocessor based controller, to a simulated nuclear reactor system. The mathematical model that describes the dynamics of a typical nuclear reactor of one group of delayed neutrons approximations with temperature feedback was chosen. A digital computer program has been developed for the design and analysis of a simulated model based on the concept of state-variable feedback in order to meet a desired system response with maximum overshoot of 3.4% and setting time of 4 sec. The state variable feedback coefficients are designed for the continuous system, then an approximation is used to obtain in the state variable feedback vector for the discrete system. System control was implemented utilizing Direct Digital Control (DDC) of a nuclear reactor simulated model through a control algorithm that was performed by means of a microprocessor based system. The controller performance was satisfactorily tested by exciting the reactor system with a transient reactivity disturbance and by a step change in power demand. Direct digital control, when implemented on a microprocessor adds versatility, flexibility in system design with the added advantage of possible use of optimal control algorithms. 6 tabs.; 30 figs.; 46 refs.; 6 apps

  9. Auxiliary/Master microprocessor CAMAC Crate Controller applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsotti, E.

    1975-01-01

    The need for further sophistication of an already complex serial CAMAC control system at Fermilab led to the development of an Auxilary/Master CAMAC Crate Controller. The controller contains a Motorola 6800 microprocessor, 2K bytes of RAM, and 8K bytes of PROM memory. Bussed dataway lines are time shared with CAMAC signals to provide memory expansion and direct addressing of peripheral devices without the need of external cabling. The Auxiliary/Master Crate Controller (A/MCC) can function as either a Master, i.e., stand alone, crate controller or as an Auxiliary controller to Fermilab's Serial Crate Controller (SCC). Two modules, one single- and one double-width, make up an A/MCC. The microprocessor has one nonmaskable and one maskable vectored interrupt. Time sharing the dataway between SCC programmed and block transfer generated dataway cycles and A/MCC operations still allows a 99 percent microprocessor CPU busy time. Since the conception of the A/MCC, there has been an increasing number of control system-related projects proposed which would not have been possible or would have been very difficult to implement without such a device. The first such application now in use at Fermilab is a stand-alone control system for a mass spectrometer experiment in the Main Ring Internal Target Area. This application in addition to other proposed A/MCC applications, both stand-alone and auxiliary, is discussed

  10. G-cueing microcontroller (a microprocessor application in simulators)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horattas, C. G.

    1980-01-01

    A g cueing microcontroller is described which consists of a tandem pair of microprocessors, dedicated to the task of simulating pilot sensed cues caused by gravity effects. This task includes execution of a g cueing model which drives actuators that alter the configuration of the pilot's seat. The g cueing microcontroller receives acceleration commands from the aerodynamics model in the main computer and creates the stimuli that produce physical acceleration effects of the aircraft seat on the pilots anatomy. One of the two microprocessors is a fixed instruction processor that performs all control and interface functions. The other, a specially designed bipolar bit slice microprocessor, is a microprogrammable processor dedicated to all arithmetic operations. The two processors communicate with each other by a shared memory. The g cueing microcontroller contains its own dedicated I/O conversion modules for interface with the seat actuators and controls, and a DMA controller for interfacing with the simulation computer. Any application which can be microcoded within the available memory, the available real time and the available I/O channels, could be implemented in the same controller.

  11. The secondary hardening phenomenon in strain-hardened MP35N alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asgari, S.; El-Danaf, E.; Shaji, E.; Kalidindi, S.R.; Doherty, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    Mechanical testing and microscopy techniques were used to investigate the influence of aging on the structure and strengthening of MP35N alloy. It was confirmed that aging the deformed material at 600 C for 4 h provided additional strengthening, here referred to as secondary hardening, in addition to the primary strain hardening. The secondary hardening phenomenon was shown to be distinctly different from typical age hardening processes in that it only occurred in material deformed beyond a certain cold work level. At moderate strains, aging caused a shift in the entire stress-strain curve of the annealed material to higher stresses while at high strains, it produced shear localization and limited work softening. The secondary hardening increment was also found to be grain size dependent. The magnitude of the secondary hardening appeared to be controlled by the flow stress in the strain hardened material. A model is proposed to explain the observations and is supported by direct experimental evidence. The model is based on formation of h.c.p. nuclei through the Suzuki mechanism, that is segregation of solute atoms to stacking faults, on aging the strain hardened material. The h.c.p. precipitates appear to thicken only in the presence of high dislocation density produced by prior cold work

  12. Simultaneous surface engineering and bulk hardening of precipitation hardening stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Rasmus Berg; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses simultaneous bulk precipitation hardening and low temperature surface engineering of two commercial precipitation hardening stainless steels: Sandvik Nanoflex® and Uddeholm Corrax®. Surface engineering comprised gaseous nitriding or gaseous carburising. Microstructural....... The duration and temperature of the nitriding/carburising surface hardening treatment can be chosen in agreement with the thermal treatment for obtaining optimal bulk hardness in the precipitation hardening stainless steel....... characterisation of the cases developed included X-ray diffraction analysis, reflected light microscopy and micro-hardness testing. It was found that the incorporation of nitrogen or carbon resulted in a hardened case consisting of a combination of (tetragonal) martensite and expanded (cubic) austenite...

  13. Experimental study and theoretical simulation of the cross hardening effect in shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movchan, A. A.; Sil'chenko, A. L.; Kazarina, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    The shapes and the relative position of martensitic inelasticity and forward transformation diagrams are experimentally studied. The strain dependences of the stress in loading under martensitic inelasticity conditions after an experiment on the accumulation of the forward transformation-induced strain at a constant or variable stress are investigated on titanium nickelide samples. It is found that the hardening of the martensite part of the representative volume of a shape memory alloy (titanium nickelide) after forward transformation under a nonmonotonically changing stress can be nonuniform. The cross hardening phenomenon is theoretically described in terms of the model of nonlinear deformation of a shape memory alloy during phase and structural transformations.

  14. Precipitation and Hardening in Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jian-Feng

    2012-11-01

    Magnesium alloys have received an increasing interest in the past 12 years for potential applications in the automotive, aircraft, aerospace, and electronic industries. Many of these alloys are strong because of solid-state precipitates that are produced by an age-hardening process. Although some strength improvements of existing magnesium alloys have been made and some novel alloys with improved strength have been developed, the strength level that has been achieved so far is still substantially lower than that obtained in counterpart aluminum alloys. Further improvements in the alloy strength require a better understanding of the structure, morphology, orientation of precipitates, effects of precipitate morphology, and orientation on the strengthening and microstructural factors that are important in controlling the nucleation and growth of these precipitates. In this review, precipitation in most precipitation-hardenable magnesium alloys is reviewed, and its relationship with strengthening is examined. It is demonstrated that the precipitation phenomena in these alloys, especially in the very early stage of the precipitation process, are still far from being well understood, and many fundamental issues remain unsolved even after some extensive and concerted efforts made in the past 12 years. The challenges associated with precipitation hardening and age hardening are identified and discussed, and guidelines are outlined for the rational design and development of higher strength, and ultimately ultrahigh strength, magnesium alloys via precipitation hardening.

  15. Introduction to 6800/6802 microprocessor systems hardware, software and experimentation

    CERN Document Server

    Simpson, Robert J

    1987-01-01

    Introduction to 6800/6802 Microprocessor Systems: Hardware, Software and Experimentation introduces the reader to the features, characteristics, operation, and applications of the 6800/6802 microprocessor and associated family of devices. Many worked examples are included to illustrate the theoretical and practical aspects of the 6800/6802 microprocessor.Comprised of six chapters, this book begins by presenting several aspects of digital systems before introducing the concepts of fetching and execution of a microprocessor instruction. Details and descriptions of hardware elements (MPU, RAM, RO

  16. Formation and evolution of the hardening precipitates in a Mg-Y-Nd alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barucca, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Ingegneria dei Materiali e del Territorio, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, I-60131 Ancona (Italy); Ferragut, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, LNESS and CNISM, Politecnico di Milano, Via Anzani 42, I-22100 Como (Italy); Fiori, F. [Dipartimento SAIFET, Sezione di Scienze Fisiche, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, I-60131 Ancona (Italy); Lussana, D. [Dipartimento di Chimica IFM and NIS Centre, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 9, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Mengucci, P., E-mail: p.mengucci@univpm.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Ingegneria dei Materiali e del Territorio, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, I-60131 Ancona (Italy); Moia, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, LNESS and CNISM, Politecnico di Milano, Via Anzani 42, I-22100 Como (Italy); Riontino, G. [Dipartimento di Chimica IFM and NIS Centre, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 9, I-10125 Torino (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    The formation and evolution of hardening precipitates in a Mg-Y-Nd (WE43) alloy during artificial ageing at 150 and 210 deg. C is followed by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements, Vickers microhardness tests and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. A quantitative description of the alloy studied during the early and advanced stages of the precipitation sequence is presented. In situ SAXS evolution at 210 deg. C of the size, volume fraction and number density of the subnanometer and nanometer particles that evolve in the {beta}'' phase was obtained. TEM and microhardness results indicate that the hardening mechanism is based on {beta}'' transformation of pre-precipitates and their growth at 150 deg. C, while at 210 deg. C hardening is mainly associated with {beta}'' {yields} {beta}' transformation.

  17. Formation and evolution of the hardening precipitates in a Mg-Y-Nd alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barucca, G.; Ferragut, R.; Fiori, F.; Lussana, D.; Mengucci, P.; Moia, F.; Riontino, G.

    2011-01-01

    The formation and evolution of hardening precipitates in a Mg-Y-Nd (WE43) alloy during artificial ageing at 150 and 210 deg. C is followed by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements, Vickers microhardness tests and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. A quantitative description of the alloy studied during the early and advanced stages of the precipitation sequence is presented. In situ SAXS evolution at 210 deg. C of the size, volume fraction and number density of the subnanometer and nanometer particles that evolve in the β'' phase was obtained. TEM and microhardness results indicate that the hardening mechanism is based on β'' transformation of pre-precipitates and their growth at 150 deg. C, while at 210 deg. C hardening is mainly associated with β'' → β' transformation.

  18. A procedure for the hardening of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1984-01-01

    A method of hardening metals or ceramics which have fcc, bcc or hcp structures in which two species of differing atomic radii are introduced into the material to be hardened. One species is of a size such that it can diffuse through the lattice normally. The other is of a size such that it can diffuse readily only along dislocations. Ion bombardment is the preferred method of introducing the species with different atomic radii. The material to be hardened is subjected to heat and plastic deformation so as to cause a large number of dislocations with jogs. The species meet at the jogs where they interact and are trapped and set up strain fields which prevent further deformation of the material. (author)

  19. An Anisotropic Hardening Model for Springback Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Danielle; Xia, Z. Cedric

    2005-08-01

    As more Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) are heavily used for automotive body structures and closures panels, accurate springback prediction for these components becomes more challenging because of their rapid hardening characteristics and ability to sustain even higher stresses. In this paper, a modified Mroz hardening model is proposed to capture realistic Bauschinger effect at reverse loading, such as when material passes through die radii or drawbead during sheet metal forming process. This model accounts for material anisotropic yield surface and nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening behavior. Material tension/compression test data are used to accurately represent Bauschinger effect. The effectiveness of the model is demonstrated by comparison of numerical and experimental springback results for a DP600 straight U-channel test.

  20. An Anisotropic Hardening Model for Springback Prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Danielle; Xia, Z. Cedric

    2005-01-01

    As more Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) are heavily used for automotive body structures and closures panels, accurate springback prediction for these components becomes more challenging because of their rapid hardening characteristics and ability to sustain even higher stresses. In this paper, a modified Mroz hardening model is proposed to capture realistic Bauschinger effect at reverse loading, such as when material passes through die radii or drawbead during sheet metal forming process. This model accounts for material anisotropic yield surface and nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening behavior. Material tension/compression test data are used to accurately represent Bauschinger effect. The effectiveness of the model is demonstrated by comparison of numerical and experimental springback results for a DP600 straight U-channel test

  1. Ion irradiation-induced swelling and hardening effect of Hastelloy N alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S.J. [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro-and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Li, D.H.; Chen, H.C.; Lei, G.H.; Huang, H.F.; Zhang, W.; Wang, C.B. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Yan, L., E-mail: yanlong@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Fu, D.J. [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro-and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Tang, M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2017-06-15

    The volumetric swelling and hardening effect of irradiated Hastelloy N alloy were investigated in this paper. 7 MeV and 1 MeV Xe ions irradiations were performed at room temperature (RT) with irradiation dose ranging from 0.5 to 27 dpa. The volumetric swelling increases with increasing irradiation dose, and reaches up to 3.2% at 27 dpa. And the irradiation induced lattice expansion is also observed. The irradiation induced hardening initiates at low ion dose (≤1dpa) then saturates with higher ion dose. The irradiation induced volumetric swelling may be ascribed to excess atomic volume of defects. The irradiation induced hardening may be explained by the pinning effect where the defects can act as obstacles for the free movement of dislocation lines. And the evolution of the defects' size and number density could be responsible for the saturation of hardness. - Highlights: •Irradiation Swelling: The irradiation induced volumetric swelling increases with ion dose. •Irradiation Hardening: The irradiation hardening initiates below 1 dpa, then saturates with higher ion dose (1–10 dpa). •Irradiation Mechanism: The irradiation phenomena are ascribed to the microstructural evolution of the irradiation defects.

  2. Investigation on the effect of chemical composition on the texture and bake hardening I F steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kariman, M.; Motaghi, A.; Raygan, Sh.; Habibi Parsa, M.; Nili Ahmadabadi, M.

    2008-01-01

    Interstitial free steels have good formability and also excellent deep draw ability. These features make them one of the applicable materials in automotive industry. Chemical composition and thermomechanical treatment used to process these steels have important role in final properties of them. In this study, the effect of chemical composition on texture, anisotropic properties and bake harden ability of these steels were investigated. The results showed that contribution of vanadium as a weak carbonitride former element with titanium as strong carbonitride former could change the texture of steels. Replacing titanium with vanadium caused harmful effect on mechanical properties. In this research deep drawing properties of five steels were compared based on I {111} / I{001} and I {111} / I{110} parameters. The results of bake harden ability test showed that there were critical limits for vanadium volume fractions above which bake harden properties was improved. It was shown that the bake harden properties of Nb-steels were better than that of Ti-steels. This was due to the better solution of Nb(C,N) compared to Ti(C,N). Addition of vanadium to Ti-steels may improve bake harden properties of I F steels

  3. Effects of solute elements on hardening of thermally-aged RPV model alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohi, Kenji; Nishida, Kenji; Nomoto, Akiyoshi; Soneda, Naoki; Liu, Li; Sekimura, Naoto; Li Zhengcao

    2012-01-01

    The investigation of effects of solute elements on the copper-enriched cluster, which is a cause of radiation embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel steels, is needed in order to understand the mechanism of the hardening and the cluster formation. The dependence of the hardness change and the formation of thermally-aged Fe-Cu model alloys doped Ni, Si and Mn on aging time are investigated using Vickers harness tester and three dimensional atom probe. Ni addition suppresses hardening, and Si addition accelerates hardening slightly at the initial stage of the aging. Mn addition accelerates hardening much more but does not almost affect the peak hardness. Ni and Si addition increase the number density and the size of the cluster, while Mn addition remarkably increases the number density and the size of the cluster at the initial stage of the aging. In addition, there is no clear correlation between the square root of the volume fraction of the clusters and the hardness change for all of the alloys. The reasons are considered to be the decrease in the solute hardening caused by the cluster formation and the difference in the shear modulus of the cluster due to the difference in the chemical composition of the cluster. (author)

  4. Technology of hardening fills for mined spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simek, P.; Holas, M.; Chyla, A.; Pech, P.

    1985-01-01

    The technology is described of hardening fills for mined spaces of uranium deposits in North Bohemian chalk. A special equipment was developed for the controlled preparation of a hardening mixture. The composition of the fill is determined by the strength of the filled rock, expecially by the standard strength, i.e., the minimal strength of the filling under uniaxial pressure. The said parameter determines the consumption of binding materials and thereby the total costs of the filling. A description is presented of the filling technology, including rabbit tube transport of the mixture and quality control. (Pu)

  5. Radiation hardening revisited: Role of intracascade clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, B.N.; Foreman, A.J.E.; Trinkaus, H.

    1997-01-01

    be explained in terms of conventional dispersed-barrier hardening because (a) the grown-in dislocations are not free, and (b) irradiation-induced defect clusters are not rigid indestructible Orowan obstacles. A new model called 'cascade-induced source hardening' is presented where glissile loops produced...... directly in cascades are envisaged to decorate the grown-in dislocations so that they cannot act as dislocation sources. The upper yield stress is related to the breakaway stress which is necessary to pull the dislocation away from the clusters/loops decorating it. The magnitude of the breakaway stress has...

  6. Practical design of digital circuits basic logic to microprocessors

    CERN Document Server

    Kampel, Ian

    1983-01-01

    Practical Design of Digital Circuits: Basic Logic to Microprocessors demonstrates the practical aspects of digital circuit design. The intention is to give the reader sufficient confidence to embark upon his own design projects utilizing digital integrated circuits as soon as possible. The book is organized into three parts. Part 1 teaches the basic principles of practical design, and introduces the designer to his """"tools"""" - or rather, the range of devices that can be called upon. Part 2 shows the designer how to put these together into viable designs. It includes two detailed descriptio

  7. A fastbus master based on a risc microprocessor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerrito, L.; Chorowicz, V.; Lebbolo, H.; Vallereau, A.

    1990-01-01

    SISIFUS is a general purpose Fastbus Master and Slave able to perform any operation on both Fastbus segments. Master operations are directed either by the processor or by two fast sequencers. A Block Mover function is implemented allowing direct data block transfers between two Slaves. SISIFUS uses the AM 29000 RISC microprocessor which can execute every assembler instruction in 40ns. The on-board monitor/debugger allows programs to be written in assembler from a terminal connected to the module or written in C and cross compiled on a host computer (PC)

  8. Use of a microprocessor in a remote working level monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.J.; McDowell, W.P.; Groer, P.G.

    1976-01-01

    The instrument described measures the short-lived 222 Rn-daughter concentrations and the Working Level (WL) in sealed ''hot chambers'' located in uranium mines. Radiation-induced pulses from two separate sensors are transmitted through 500 ft. cables to a microprocessor, which processes the pulses and controls the operation of the system. A read-only memory stores a fixed program which is used to calculate the desired concentrations. The results are printed as pCi/l (Rn-daughter concentrations) and WL

  9. Microprocessor-assisted calibration for a remote working level monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, W.P.; Keefe, D.J.; Groer, P.G.; Witek, R.T.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for calibrating a Remote Working Level Monitor, an instrument which measures Working Level and Rn-daughter concentrations in the atmosphere. The method makes use of a microprocessor to calculate beta efficiencies for RaB and RaC from the counts accumulated in the RaA, Ra(B + C) and RaC' channels of the instrument. Both the alpha spectroscopic and total-alpha methods are used to determine the Rn-daughter concentrations. These methods require the processor to solve systems of linear equations with several unknowns. No assumptions about Rn-daughter equilibrium are made

  10. Microprocessor-assisted calibration for a remote working level monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, W.P.; Keefe, D.J.; Groer, P.G.; Witek, R.T.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for calibrating a Remote Working Level Monitor, an instrument which measures Working Level and Rn-daughter concentrations in the atmosphere. The method makes use of a microprocessor to calculate beta efficiencies for RaB and RaC from the counts accumulated in the RaA, Ra(B + C) and RaC' channels of the instrument. Both the alpha spectroscopic and total-alpha methods are used to determine the Rn-daughter concentrations. These methods require the processor to solve systems of linear equations with several unknowns. No assumptions about Rn-daughter equilibrium are made

  11. Microprocessor Control Design for a Low-Head Crossflow Turbine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Controllers For a Typical 10 KW Hydroturbine ............ 1-5 I-1 Ely’s Crossflow Turbine . ........ 11-2 11-2 Basic Turbine * * 0 * 0 11-5 11-3 Turbine...the systems. For example, a 25 kilowatt hydroturbine built and installed by Bell Hydroelectric would cost approximately $20,000 in 1978 (6:49). The...O Manual Controller S2 E- Microprocessor Controller 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 YEARS Fig. 1-2 Comparative Costs of Controllers For a Typical 10 KW Hydroturbine

  12. Microprocessor based beam loss monitor system for the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witkover, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    An array of 120 long radiation monitors (LRM) have been installed around the AGS. Each monitor is an extended coaxial ion chamber, 5 meters long, made from hollow core coaxial transmission cable pressured with argon. The LRM's are each connected to a low current preamplifier and voltage-to-frequency converter (VFC). The digital output of each channel is fed to a 16 bit counter chip which bridges the bus of an 8085 microprocessor. This circuit is connected to the AGS PD-10 for data taking or may function as a stand-alone unit. Various operating modes can be selected for data readout. System design and operating performance are described

  13. Monitoring with new microprocessor cuts cost of control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehling, K L

    1985-08-01

    Programmable logic controllers (PLC) were originally developed as an alternative to relays, counters and timers for sequential and interlock control systems. They are now also used as part of distributive control systems which include diagnostic monitoring functions. The paper describes how a wiring scheme can be simplified and installation costs reduced by incorporating a newly-developed microprocessor-based monitoring device as an interface between remote devices and a PLC. An industrial application, the 400 tph coal handling facility at Bowater Southern Paper Co's mill in Calhoun, Tennessee, is considered. The control system design is outlined, the micro-monitor is described and the benefits of simplicity are stated in the paper.

  14. [Microstructural changes in hardened beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujica, Maria Virginia; Granito, Marisela; Soto, Naudy

    2015-06-01

    (Phaseolus vulgaris). The hardening of Phaseolus vulgaris beans stored at high temperature and high relative humidity is one of the main constraints for consumption. The objective of this research was to evaluate by scanning electron microscopy, structural changes in cotyledons and testa of the hardened beans. The freshly harvested grains were stored for twelve months under two conditions: 5 ° C-34% RH and 37 ° C-75% RH, in order to promote hardening. The stored raw and cooked grains were lyophilized and fractured. The sections of testa and cotyledons were observed in an electron microscope JSM-6390. After twelve months, grains stored at 37 ° C-75% RH increased their hardness by 503%, whereas there were no significant changes in grains stored at 5 ° C-34% RH. At the microstructural level, the cotyledons of the raw grains show clear differences in appearance of the cell wall, into the intercellular space size and texture matrix protein. There were also differences in compaction of palisade and sub-epidermal layer in the testa of raw grains. After cooking, cotyledon cells of the soft grains were well separated while these ofhard grains were seldom separated. In conclusion, the found differences in hard and soft grains showed a significant participation of both structures, cotyledons and testa, in the grains hardening.

  15. Radiation dose effects, hardening of electronic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont-Nivet, E.

    1991-01-01

    This course reviews the mechanism of interaction between ionizing radiation and a silicon oxide type dielectric, in particular the effect of electron-hole pairs creation in the material. Then effects of cumulated dose on electronic components and especially in MOS technology are examined. Finally methods hardening of these components are exposed. 93 refs

  16. CASE-HARDENING OF STAINLESS STEEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The invention relates to case-hardening of a stainless steel article by means of gas including carbon and/or nitrogen, whereby carbon and/or nitrogen atoms diffuse through the surface into the article. The method includes activating the surface of the article, applying a top layer on the activated...

  17. Thermomechanical properties of radiation hardened oligoesteracrylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomonosova, N.V.; Chikin, Yu.A.

    1984-01-01

    Thermomechanical properties of radiation hardened oligoesteracrylates are studied by the methods of isothermal heating and thermal mechanics. Films of dimethacrylate of ethylene glycol, triethylene glycol (TGM-3), tetraethylene glycol, tridecaethylene glycol and TGM-3 mixture with methyl methacrylate hardened by different doses (5-150 kGy) using Co 60 installation with a dose rate of 2x10 -3 kGy/s served as a subject of the research. During oligoesteracrylate hargening a space network is formed, chain sections between lattice points of which are in a stressed state. Maximum of deformation is observed at 210-220 deg C on thermomechanical curves of samples hardened by doses > 5 kGy, which form and intensity is dependent on an absorbed dose. Presence of a high-temperature maximum on diaqrams of isometric heating of spatially cross-linked oligoesteracrylates is discovered. High thermal stability of three-dimensional network of radiation hardened oligoesteracrylates provides satisfactory tensile properties (40% of initial strength) in sample testing an elevated temperatures (200-250 deg C)

  18. Microprocessor system to recover data from a self-scanning photodiode array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppel, L.N.; Gadd, T.J.

    1975-01-01

    A microprocessor system developed at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory has expedited the recovery of data describing the low energy x-ray spectra radiated by laser-fusion targets. An Intel microprocessor controls the digitization and scanning of the data stream of an x-ray-sensitive self-scanning photodiode array incorporated in a crystal diffraction spectrometer

  19. High-speed multiple-channel analog to digital data-acquisition module for microprocessor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethridge, C.D.

    1977-01-01

    Intelligent data acquisition and instrumentation systems established by the incorporation of microprocessor technology require high-speed analog to digital conversion of multiple-channel input signals. Sophisticated data systems or subsystems are enabled by the microprocessor software flexibility to establish adaptive input data procedures. These adaptive procedures are enhanced by versatile interface circuitry which is software controlled

  20. High speed serial link for UA1 microprocessor network

    CERN Document Server

    Cittolin, S; Zurfluh, E

    1981-01-01

    The UA1 data acquisition system consists of a set of distributed microprocessor units. An interprocessor link, independent of the CAMAC data readout, has been developed in order to have continuous remote control and run-time data handling, e.g. transmission of calibration programs/parameters, equipment test/status and histogram accumulation. The data transmission system is designed to be used in a loop configuration equipped with transceivers for twisted pair cables (RS-422). As an economical system, it is running as an ancillary serial loop-link between microprocessors, like Data Acquisition Crate Controllers and systems with distributed intelligence. The software driver consists of a loop-controller package, which may run in a BAMBI Computer Language environment and a fully interrupt controlled program for all other secondary stations. A special single-character mode provides a handy link for remote debugging in a pseudo-full-duplex mode. The format is based on the HDLC protocol without sequence numbering. ...

  1. High speed serial link for UA1 microprocessor network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cittolin, S.; Loefstedt, B.; Zurfluh, E.

    1981-01-01

    The UA1 data acquisition system consists of a set of distributed microprocessor units. An interprocessor link, independent of the CAMAC data readout, has been developed in order to have continuous remote control and run-time data handling, e.g. transmission of calibration programs/parameters, equipment rest/status and histogram accumulation. The data transmission system is designed to be used in a loop configuration equipped with transceivers for twisted pair cables (RS-422). As an economical system it is running as an ancillary serial loop-link between microprocessors Like Data Acquisition Crate Controllers and systems with distributed intelligence. The software driver consists of a loop-controller package, which may run in a BAMBI Computer Language environment and a fully interrupt controlled program for all other secondary stations. A special single-character mode provides a handy link for remote debugging in a pseudo-full-duplex mode. The format is based on the HDLC protocol without sequence numbering. The Chip MC-6854 from Motorola, Inc. enables an implementation with few components. (orig.)

  2. High speed serial link for UA1 microprocessor network

    CERN Document Server

    Cittolin, Sergio; Zurfluh, E

    1981-01-01

    The UA1 data acquisition system consists of a set of distributed microprocessor units. An interprocessor link, independent of the CAMAC data readout, has been developed in order to have continuous remote control and run-time data handling, e.g. transmission of calibration programs/parameters, equipment test/status and histogram accumulation. The data transmission system is designed to be used in a loop configuration equipped with transceivers for twisted pair cables (RS-422). As an economical system, it is running as an ancillary serial loop-link between microprocessors, like data acquisition crate controllers and systems with distributed intelligence. The software driver consists of a loop-controller package, which may run in a BAMBI computer language environment and a fully interrupt controlled program for all other secondary stations. A special single-character mode provides a handy link for remote debugging in a pseudo-full-duplex mode. The format is based on the HDLC protocol without sequence numbering. ...

  3. A microprocessor based on a two-dimensional semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Stefan; Polyushkin, Dmitry K.; Bethge, Ole; Mueller, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The advent of microcomputers in the 1970s has dramatically changed our society. Since then, microprocessors have been made almost exclusively from silicon, but the ever-increasing demand for higher integration density and speed, lower power consumption and better integrability with everyday goods has prompted the search for alternatives. Germanium and III-V compound semiconductors are being considered promising candidates for future high-performance processor generations and chips based on thin-film plastic technology or carbon nanotubes could allow for embedding electronic intelligence into arbitrary objects for the Internet-of-Things. Here, we present a 1-bit implementation of a microprocessor using a two-dimensional semiconductor--molybdenum disulfide. The device can execute user-defined programs stored in an external memory, perform logical operations and communicate with its periphery. Our 1-bit design is readily scalable to multi-bit data. The device consists of 115 transistors and constitutes the most complex circuitry so far made from a two-dimensional material.

  4. Microprocessor based data acquisition system for Moessbauer spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patwardhan, P.K.; Indurkar, V.S.

    1981-01-01

    A data acquisition system, for Moessbauer spectrometer and other probability distribution spectrum is described. This utilizes the advantages of incorporating a microcomputer for providing a flexible analytical capability and speed of hard wired MCS unit updating channel contents in DMA. Holbourn, Player and Woodhams have recently described a microprocessor controlled Moessbauer spectrometer where microprocessor performs the task of updating channel contents, requiring about 60 micro seconds in interrupt mode. This imposes restrictions on increasing the channel number and on increasing the velocity scan frequency in order to cover higher velocity ranges. The system described in this article performs data acquisition in faster direct memory access. It is a two module system, (1) MCS module (2) Microcomputer module, arranged around a common address, data and control buses. The microcomputer module has an access to the system data during flyback periods and can be programmed for the task of monitor on progess of experiment and as a manipulator of various control operations needed during experiment. The system firmware includes: (1) MONITOR (2) BLOCK-TRANSFER (3) DATA-SMOOTHING (4) DECIMAL-CONVERTER (5) MATH. The scope of this firmware is briefly described. (author)

  5. A microprocessor controlled read out system for drift chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Centro, Sandro; Cittolin, Sergio; Dreesen, P; Petrolo, E; Rubbia, Carlo; Schinzel, D

    1981-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. A General Purpose Microprocessor Controller GPMC has been developed for applications where CAMAC modules with complex control functions are needed. Each application requires an appropriate Interface Module (IM) to be connected to the GPMC. The GPMC consists of a 6800 Microprocessor, 16K EPROM, 2K RAM, CAMAC I/O ports and interface, a RS 232C serial interface, an Advanced Data Link controller and a port for controlling the IM, GPMC and IM are housed in a 2-U wide CAMAC module. A special IM has been designed, which has 1K bute of RAM with its own control and which allows autonomous setting and reading analog voltages through a DAC and ADC. The GPMC can take control of the IM memory and set new voltages. This system is used to control pedestals and gains of a driftchamber readout system, which is housed in a 5-U wide CAMAC module, holding 24 data cards corresponding to 24 sense wires. The data card receives pulses from the left and right end of a sense wire, amplifies and int...

  6. Microprocessor controlled pulse charge and testing of batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerezov, A.; Gishin, S.; Ivanov, Ratcho; Savov, S.

    2002-01-01

    The principle of the developed new method for pulse charge of batteries with microprocessor control of the electrochemical processes is the use of current pulses with microprocessor control of the period and the amplitude according to the dynamically changing state of the electrochemical system. In order to realize the method described above a programmable current source was developed. It is connected with a Personal Computer via RS232 standard serial interface in order to control the electrochemical processes. The parameters to be set, the graphical presentation of the pulse current and tension, the used quantity of electricity and electrical energy for every pulse and for the process as a hole are shown on the PC display. In order to test dry-charged and wet-charged batteries a specialized current generator was developed. It is connected also with a Personal Computer via R5232 standard serial interface in order to con-trol the testing of the starting capability of the batteries according to the requirements of the Bulgarian State Standard Ell 60095-1. (Author)

  7. The use of distributed microprocessors for control devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lejon, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    The use of distributed individual microprocessors provided the basis for the development of the μZ system, which is a modular numerical control device which in its main part contains no elements whatever with multiple functions. With this system, total availability of control is achieved and the failure of any individual element causes loss of automatic control only over one actuator or over a small group of interdependent actuators. The human operator, who cannot be omitted even with an inherently safe control system, can operate the single faulty channel manually. The microprocessors have a free-format with which all possible algorithms within the limits of the memory size of the various cards can be performed. This program can be loaded either in random access memory (RAM) or in read-only memory (ROM). The configuration is made either by assembling software modules in a hard-copy dialogue without any knowledge of data processing being necessary, or from a program written in Fortran. If the user does not have a configurator he can use read-only memories supplied by the manufacter either in the standard form or in a requested design. The parameters are loaded by means of a portable microconsole whose keyboard and displays can be used for a hard-copy dialogue with the regulating cards. Manual control and indications can be carried out from three completely independent configurations which can be used separately or in parallel: individual station, multiple-function station or cathode colour console. (author)

  8. Radiation Hardened Electronics Destined For Severe Nuclear Reactor Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holbert, Keith E. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Clark, Lawrence T. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2016-02-19

    Post nuclear accident conditions represent a harsh environment for electronics. The full station blackout experience at Fukushima shows the necessity for emergency sensing capabilities in a radiation-enhanced environment. This NEET (Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies) research project developed radiation hardened by design (RHBD) electronics using commercially available technology that employs commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) devices and present generation circuit fabrication techniques to improve the total ionizing dose (TID) hardness of electronics. Such technology not only has applicability to severe accident conditions but also to facilities throughout the nuclear fuel cycle in which radiation tolerance is required. For example, with TID tolerance to megarads of dose, electronics could be deployed for long-term monitoring, inspection and decontamination missions. The present work has taken a two-pronged approach, specifically, development of both board and application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) level RHBD techniques. The former path has focused on TID testing of representative microcontroller ICs with embedded flash (eFlash) memory, as well as standalone flash devices that utilize the same fabrication technologies. The standalone flash devices are less complicated, allowing better understanding of the TID response of the crucial circuits. Our TID experiments utilize biased components that are in-situ tested, and in full operation during irradiation. A potential pitfall in the qualification of memory circuits is the lack of rigorous testing of the possible memory states. For this reason, we employ test patterns that include all ones, all zeros, a checkerboard of zeros and ones, an inverse checkerboard, and random data. With experimental evidence of improved radiation response for unbiased versus biased conditions, a demonstration-level board using the COTS devices was constructed. Through a combination of redundancy and power gating, the demonstration

  9. Strain hardening of cold-rolled lean-alloyed metastable ferritic-austenitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papula, Suvi [Aalto University School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, P.O. Box 14200, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Anttila, Severi [Centre for Advanced Steels Research, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 4200, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Talonen, Juho [Outokumpu Oyj, P.O. Box 245, FI-00181 Helsinki (Finland); Sarikka, Teemu; Virkkunen, Iikka; Hänninen, Hannu [Aalto University School of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, P.O. Box 14200, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2016-11-20

    Mechanical properties and strain hardening of two pilot-scale lean-alloyed ferritic-austenitic stainless steels having metastable austenite phase, present at 0.50 and 0.30 volume fractions, have been studied by means of tensile testing and nanoindentation. These ferritic-austenitic stainless steels have high strain-hardening capacity, due to the metastable austenite phase, which leads to an improved uniform elongation and higher tensile strength in comparison with most commercial lean duplex stainless steels. According to the results, even as low as 0.30 volume fraction of austenite seems efficient for achieving nearly 40% elongation. The austenite phase is initially the harder phase, and exhibits more strain hardening than the ferrite phase. The rate of strain hardening and the evolution of the martensite phase were found to depend on the loading direction: both are higher when strained in the rolling direction as compared to the transverse direction. Based on the mechanical testing, characterization of the microstructure by optical/electron microscopy, magnetic balance measurements and EBSD texture analysis, this anisotropy in mechanical properties of the cold-rolled metastable ferritic-austenitic stainless steels can be explained by the elongated dual-phase microstructure, fiber reinforcement effect of the harder austenite phase and the presence and interplay of rolling textures in the two phases.

  10. Integration in a nuclear physics experiment of a visualization unit managed by a microprocessor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre, M.

    1976-01-01

    A microprocessor (Intel 8080) is introduced in the equipment controlling the (e,e'p) experiment that will take place at the linear accelerator operating in the premises of CEA (Orme des Merisiers, Gif-sur-Yvette, France). The purpose of the microprocessor is to handle the visualization tasks that are necessary to have a continuous control of the experiment. By doing so more time and more memory will be left for data processing by the calculator unit. In a forward version of the system, the controlling of the level of helium in the target might also be in charge of the microprocessor. This work is divided into 7 main parts: 1) a presentation of the linear accelerator and its experimental facilities, 2) the Intel 8080 micro-processor and its programming, 3) the implementation of the micro-processor in the electronic system, 4) the management of the memory, 5) data acquisition, 6) the keyboard, and 7) the visualization unit [fr

  11. EFFECT OF HARDENING TIME ON DEFORMATION-STRENGTH INDICATORS OF CONCRETE FOR INJECTION WITH A TWO-STAGE EXPANSION DURING HARDENING IN WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana N. Zhilnikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives Concretes for injection with a two-stage expansion are a kind of selfstressing concrete obtained with the use of self-stressing cement.The aim of the work is to study the influence of the duration of aging on the porosity, strength and self-stress of concrete hardening in water, depending on the expansion value at the first stage. At the first stage, the compacted concrete mixture is expanded to ensure complete filling of the formwork space. At the second stage, the hardening concrete expands due to the formation of an increased amount of ettringite. This process is prolonged in time, with the amount of self-stress and strength dependant on the conditions of hardening. Methods  Experimental evaluation of self-stress, strength and porosity of concretes that are permanently hardened in water, under air-moist and air-dry conditions after different expansion at the first stage. The self-stress of cement stone is the result of superposition of two processes: the hardening of the structure due to hydration of silicates and its expansion as a result of hydration of calcium aluminates with the subsequent formation of ettringite. The magnitude of self-stress is determined by the ratio of these two processes. The self-stress of the cement stone changes in a manner similar to the change in its expansion. The stabilisation of expansion is accompanied by stabilisation of self-stress of cement stone. Results  The relationship of self-stress, strength and porosity of concrete for injection with a two-stage expansion on the duration and humidity conditions of hardening, taking into account the conditions of deformation limitation at the first stage, is revealed. Conclusion During prolonged hardening in an aqueous medium, self-stresses are reduced up to 25% with the exception of expansion at the first stage and up to 20% with an increase in volume up to 5% at the first stage. The increase in compressive strength is up to 28% relative to

  12. Structural heredity influence upon principles of strain wave hardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiricheck, A. V.; Barinov, S. V.; Yashin, A. V.

    2017-02-01

    It was established experimentally that by penetration of a strain wave through material hardened not only the technological modes of processing, but also a technological heredity - the direction of the fibers of the original macrostructure have an influence upon the diagram of microhardness. By penetration of the strain wave along fibers, the degree of hardening the material is less, however, a product is hardened throughout its entire section mainly along fibers. In the direction of the strain waves across fibers of the original structure of material, the degree of material hardening is much higher, the depth of the hardened layer with the degree of hardening not less than 50% makes at least 3 mm. It was found that under certain conditions the strain wave can completely change the original structure of the material. Thus, a heterogeneously hardened structure characterized by the interchange of harder and more viscous areas is formed, which is beneficial for assurance of high operational properties of material.

  13. Hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility of laser-hardened 4140 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsay, L.W.; Lin, Z.W. [Nat. Taiwan Ocean Univ., Keelung (Taiwan). Inst. of Mater. Eng.; Shiue, R.K. [Institute of Materials Sciences and Engineering, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien, Taiwan (Taiwan); Chen, C. [Institute of Materials Sciences and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (Taiwan)

    2000-10-15

    Slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) tests were performed to investigate the susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement of laser-hardened AISI 4140 specimens in air, gaseous hydrogen and saturated H{sub 2}S solution. Experimental results indicated that round bar specimens with two parallel hardened bands on opposite sides along the loading axis (i.e. the PH specimens), exhibited a huge reduction in tensile ductility for all test environments. While circular-hardened (CH) specimens with 1 mm hardened depth and 6 mm wide within the gauge length were resistant to gaseous hydrogen embrittlement. However, fully hardened CH specimens became susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement for testing in air at a lower strain rate. The strength of CH specimens increased with decreasing the depth of hardened zones in a saturated H{sub 2}S solution. The premature failure of hardened zones in a susceptible environment caused the formation of brittle intergranular fracture and the decrease in tensile ductility. (orig.)

  14. Radiation-hardened optoelectronic components: detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiczer, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    In this talk, we will survey recent research in the area of radiation hardened optical detectors. We have studied conventional silicon photodiode structures, special radiation hardened silicon photodiodes, and special double heterojunction AlGaAs/GaAs photodiodes in neutron, gamma, pulsed x-ray and charged particle environments. We will present results of our work and summarize other research in this area. Our studies have shown that detectors can be made to function acceptably after exposures to neutron fluences of 10 15 n/cm 2 , total dose gamma exposures of 10 8 rad (Si), and flash x-ray environments of 10 8 rad/sec (Si). We will describe detector structures that can operate through these conditions, pre-rad and post-rad operational characteristics, and experimental conditions that produced these results. 23 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  15. Hardened Solar Array High Temperature Adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    SHERWOOO. D SASIU.IS F3361S-0-C-201S UNCLASSI ED 1AC-SCG-IOOIIR AFVAL-TR-OL-201? NLm,,hinii EhhhEE11I1 AFWAL-TR-81- 2017 i : HARDENED SOLAR ARRAY D HIGH...Tg and as a consequence forms a film on the container and also precipitates as tacky waxlike particles, rather than the desired flocullated

  16. Hardening by means of ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoor, H.; Demmler, K.

    1979-01-01

    The polymerisable ethylic unsaturated mixture can be hardened by means of electron irradiation and used as a corrosion preventive layer. The mixture mainly consists of at least a di-olefinic unsaturated polyester, partial esters of polycarbonic acids, in particular the monoester of dicarbonic acids, with a copolymerizable C-C double bond, and mono-olefine unsaturated hydrocarbons, for example vinyl aromatics. The coatings exhibit good adhesion to the substrate, in particular to metal, and good flexibility. (DG) [de

  17. Microprocessor-based integrated LMFBR core surveillance. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elies, V.

    1985-12-01

    This report is the result of the KfK part of a joint study of KfK and INTERATOM. The aim of this study is to explore the advantages of microprocessors and microelectronics for a more sophisticated core surveillance, which is based on the integration of separate surveillance techniques. After a description of the experimental results gained with the different surveillance techniques so far, it is shown which kinds of correlation can be done using the evaluation results obtained from the single surveillance systems. The main part of this report contains the systems analysis of a microcomputer-based system integrating different surveillance methods. After an analysis of the hardware requirements a hardware structure for the integrated system is proposed. The software structure is then described for the subsystem performing the different surveillance algorithms as well as for the system which does the correlation thus deriving additional information from the single results. (orig.) [de

  18. A Fourier transform with speed improvements for microprocessor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokerson, D. C.; Rochelle, R.

    1980-01-01

    A fast Fourier transform algorithm for the RCA 1802microprocessor was developed for spacecraft instrument applications. The computations were tailored for the restrictions an eight bit machine imposes. The algorithm incorporates some aspects of Walsh function sequency to improve operational speed. This method uses a register to add a value proportional to the period of the band being processed before each computation is to be considered. If the result overflows into the DF register, the data sample is used in computation; otherwise computation is skipped. This operation is repeated for each of the 64 data samples. This technique is used for both sine and cosine portions of the computation. The processing uses eight bit data, but because of the many computations that can increase the size of the coefficient, floating point form is used. A method to reduce the alias problem in the lower bands is also described.

  19. Satisfying STEM Education Using the Arduino Microprocessor in C Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Brandyn M.

    There exists a need to promote better Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM) education at the high school level. To satisfy this need a series of hands-on laboratory assignments were created to be accompanied by 2 educational trainers that contain various electronic components. This project provides an interdisciplinary, hands-on approach to teaching C programming that meets several standards defined by the Tennessee Board of Education. Together the trainers and lab assignments also introduce key concepts in math and science while allowing students hands-on experience with various electronic components. This will allow students to mimic real world applications of using the C programming language while exposing them to technology not currently introduced in many high school classrooms. The developed project is targeted at high school students performing at or above the junior level and uses the Arduino Mega open-source Microprocessor and software as the primary control unit.

  20. Application of a microprocessor system to stream monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.; Shank, K.E.

    1978-01-01

    Low-level liquid wastes originating from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are discharged, after treatment, into White Oak Creek, which is a small tributary of the Clinch River located in East Tennessee. Samples of White Oak Creek discharges are collected at White Oak Dam by a continuous digital proportional water sampler and analyzed weekly for radioactivity. The sampler contains a control system with a microprocessor that has been programmed to solve nonlinear weir equations. This system was designed and installed at ORNL by the Instrumentation and Controls Division and was tested by the Environmental Surveillance and Evaluation Section of the Industrial Safety and Applied Health Physics Division. The control system was designed to measure water flow rates from 0 to 334 ft 3 /sec to within 0.1%. Results of our test program and possible applications to other liquid sampling needs are discussed

  1. Microprocessor tester for the treat upgrade reactor trip system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenkszus, F.R.; Bucher, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    The upgrading of the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) Facility at ANL-Idaho has been designed to provide additional experimental capabilities for the study of core disruptive accident (CDA) phenomena. In addition, a programmable Automated Reactor Control System (ARCS) will permit high-power transients up to 11,000 MW having a controlled reactor period of from 15 to 0.1 sec. These modifications to the core neutronics will improve simulation of LMFBR accident conditions. Finally, a sophisticated, multiply-redundant safety system, the Reactor Trip System (RTS), will provide safe operation for both steady state and transient production operating modes. To insure that this complex safety system is functioning properly, a Dedicated Microprocessor Tester (DMT) has been implemented to perform a thorough checkout of the RTS prior to all TREAT operations

  2. Supply system with microprocessor control for electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duplin, N.I.; Sergeev, N.N.

    1988-01-01

    Precision supply system for electron gun used in Auger-spectrometer is described. The supply system consists of control and high-voltage parts, made as separate units. Supply high-voltage unit includes system supply module, filament module to supply electron gun cathode and 6 high-volt modules to supply accelerating, modulating and three focusing electrodes of the gun. High-voltage modules have the following characteristics: U-(100-1000)V output voltage, 5x10 -5 U stability, 10 -5 xU pulsation amplitude, J-(0-5)A filament current change range at 10 -4 xJ stability. Control unit including microprocessor, timer and storage devices forms control voltage for all modules and regulates voltage and current of filament at electrodes

  3. A low cost, microprocessor-based battery charge controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulfrey, D L; Hacker, J [Pulfrey Solar Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the design, construction, testing, and evaluation of a microprocessor-based battery charge controller that uses charge integration as the method of battery state-of-charge estimation. The controller is intended for use in medium-size (100-1000W) photovoltaic systems that employ 12V lead-acid batteries for charge storage. The controller regulates the charge flow to the battery and operates in three, automatically-determined modes, namely: charge, equalize, and float. The prototype controller is modular in nature and can handle charge/discharge currents of magnitude up to 80A, depending on the number of circuit boards employed. Evaluation tests and field trials have shown the controller to be very accurate and reliable. Based on the cost of the prototype, it appears that an original equipment manufacturer's selling price of $400 for a 40A (500W) unit may be realistic. 18 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. CFD-simulation of radiator for air cooling of microprocessors in a limitided space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trofimov V. E.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the final stages of microprocessors development is heat test. This procedure is performed on a special stand, the main element of which is the switching PCB with one or more mounted microprocessor sockets, chipsets, interfaces, jumpers and other components which provide various modes of microprocessor operation. The temperature of microprocessor housing is typically changed using thermoelectric module. The cold surface of the module with controlled temperature is in direct thermal contact with the microprocessor housing designed for cooler installation. On the hot surface of the module a radiator is mounted. The radiator dissipates the cumulative heat flow from both the microprocessor and the module. High density PCB layout, the requirement of free access to the jumpers and interfaces, and the presence of numerous sensors limit the space for radiator mounting and require the use of an extremely compact radiator, especially in air cooling conditions. One of the possible solutions for this problem may reduce the area of the radiator heat-transfer surfaces due to a sharp growth of the heat transfer coefficient without increasing the air flow rate. To ensure a sharp growth of heat transfer coefficient on the heat-transfer surface one should make in the surface one or more dead-end cavities into which the impact air jets would flow. CFD simulation of this type of radiator has been conducted. The heat-aerodynamic characteristics and design recommendations for removing heat from microprocessors in a limited space have been determined.

  5. Fatigue of coated and laser hardened steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Cruz, P. de.

    1990-01-01

    In the present work the effect of ion nitriding, laser hardening and hot dip galvanizing upon the fatigue limit and notch sensitivity of a B-Mn Swedish steel SS 2131 have been investigated. The fatigue tests were performed in plane reverse bending fatigue (R=1). The quenched and tempered condition was taken as the reference condition. The microstructure, microhardness, fracture surface and coating appearance of the fatigue surface treated specimens were studied. Residual stress and retained austenite measurements were also carried out. It was found that ion nitriding improves the fatigue limit by 53 % for smooth specimens and by 115 % for notched specimens. Laser hardening improves the fatigue limit by 18 % and 56 % for smooth and notched specimen respectively. Hot dip galvanizing gives a slight deterioration of the fatigue limit (9 % and 10 % for smooth and notched specimen respectively). Ion nitriding and laser hardening decrease the value of the notch sensitivity factor q by 78 % and 65 % respectively. Hot dip galvanizing does not modify it. A simple schematic model based on a residual stress distribution, has been used to explain the different effects. It seems that the presence of the higher compressive residual stresses and the higher uniformity of the microstructure may be the causes of the better fatigue performance of ion nitrided specimens. (119 refs.) (author)

  6. GRAVITY PIPELINE TRANSPORT FOR HARDENING FILLING MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid KROUPNIK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In underground mining of solid minerals becoming increasingly common development system with stowing hardening mixtures. In this case the natural ore array after it is replaced by an artificial excavation of solidified filling mixture consisting of binder, aggregates and water. Such a mixture is prepared on the surface on special stowing complexes and transported underground at special stowing pipelines. However, it is transported to the horizons of a few kilometers, which requires a sustainable mode of motion of such a mixture in the pipeline. Hardening stowing mixture changes its rheological characteristics over time, which complicates the calculation of the parameters of pipeline transportation. The article suggests a method of determining the initial parameters of such mixtures: the status coefficient, indicator of transportability, coefficient of hydrodynamic resistance to motion of the mixture. These indicators characterize the mixture in terms of the possibility to transport it through pipes. On the basis of these indicators is proposed methodology for calculating the parameters of pipeline transport hardening filling mixtures in drift mode when traffic on the horizontal part of the mixture under pressure column of the mixture in the vertical part of the backfill of the pipeline. This technique allows stable operation is guaranteed to provide pipeline transportation.

  7. Novel circuits for radiation hardened memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haraszti, T.P.; Mento, R.P.; Moyer, N.E.; Grant, W.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on implementation of large storage semiconductor memories which combine radiation hardness with high packing density, operational speed, and low power dissipation and require both hardened circuit and hardened process technologies. Novel circuits, including orthogonal shuffle type of write-read arrays, error correction by weighted bidirectional codes and associative iterative repair circuits, are proposed for significant improvements of SRAMs' immunity against the effects of total dose and cosmic particle impacts. The implementation of the proposed circuit resulted in fault-tolerant 40-Mbit and 10-Mbit monolithic memories featuring a data rate of 120 MHz and power dissipation of 880 mW. These experimental serial-parallel memories were fabricated with a nonhardened standard CMOS processing technology, yet provided a total dose hardness of 1 Mrad and a projected SEU rate of 1 x 10 - 12 error/bit/day. Using radiation hardened processing improvements by factors of 10 to 100 are predicted in both total dose hardness and SEU rate

  8. MICROSTRUCTURAL FEATURES EVALUATION OF AGE-HARDENED A 226 CAST ALLOY BY IMAGE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Kuchariková

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-hardening provides one of the most widely used mechanisms for the strengthening of aluminum alloys. The age-hardening involves three steps: solution treatment, quenching and aging. The temperature of solution treatment and aging is very important in order to reach desired properties of castings. The optimum temperature of solution treatment and aging led to formation microstructural features in form which does not lead to decreasing properties, but increasing ones. The major microstructural features in A 226 cast alloys which are responsible for increasing properties are: eutectic Si particles, Cu-rich phases, Fe-rich phases and porosity. The increase of properties depends on morphology, size and volume of microstructural features. In order to assess age-hardening influence on microstructural features in A226 cast alloys were used as possibilities of evaluation by means of image analysis. Quantitative analysis decelerate changes in microstructure includes the spheroidization and coarsening of eutectic silicon, gradual disintegration, shortening and thinning of Fe-rich intermetallic phases, the dissolution of precipitates and the precipitation of finer hardening phase (Al2Cu further increase in the hardness and tensile strength in the alloy. Changes of mechanical properties were measured in line with STN EN ISO.

  9. Effect of Fibers and Filler Types on Fresh and Hardened Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed K. Rejeb* , Majid Kh . N. Ayad A. M.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with studying the fresh and hardened properties of self-compacting concrete, by using three types of filler (silica fume, clinker powder & lime stone powder, and two types of fibers (steel & glass fibers with volume fractions of (0.5% and (0.1% respectively. For each type of fillers, the fresh properties are measured by using Slump test, J- ring and V- funnel, while hardened properties include the compressive strength, splitting tensile strength and flexural strength. The results show that adding fibers to the self-compacting concrete (SCC well reduces the workability and improves the hardened properties. Also, the study concluded that better workability is obtained by using (lime stone, silica fume and clinker powder as fillers, respectively. While the higher hardened properties are gained by using silica fume were rather than those of other types of fillers 

  10. On residual stresses and fatigue of laser hardened steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Ru.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis deals with studies on residual stresses and fatigue properties of laser-transformation hardened steels. Two types of specimens, cylinders and fatigue specimens were used in the studies. The cylinders, made of Swedish steels SS 2244 and SS 2258 which correspond to AISI 4140 and AISI 52100 respectively, were locally hardened by a single scan of laser beam in the longitudinal direction, with various laser parameters. Residual stress distributions across the hardened tracks were measured by means of X-ray diffraction. The origins of residual stresses were investigated and discussed. For the fatigue specimens, including smooth and notched types made of Swedish steels SS 2244, SS 2225 and SS 1572 (similar to AISI 4140, AISI 4130 and AISI 1035, respectively), laser hardening was carried out in the gauge section. The residual stress field induced by the hardening process and the fatigue properties by plane bending fatigue test were studied. In order to investigate the stability of the residual stress field, stress measurements were also made on specimens being loaded near the fatigue limits for over 10 7 cycles. Further the concept of local fatigue strength was employed to correlate quantitatively the effect of hardness and residual stress field on the fatigue limits. In addition a group of smooth specimens of SS 2244 was induction hardened and the hardening results were compared with the corresponding laser hardened ones in terms of residual stress and fatigue behaviour. It has been found that compressive stresses exist in the hardened zone of all the specimens studied. The laser hardening condition, the specimen and how the hardening is carried out can significantly affect the residual stress field. Laser hardening can greatly improve the fatigue properties by inducing a hardened and compressed surface layer. (112 refs.)(au)

  11. On residual stresses and fatigue of laser hardened steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Ru.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis deals with studies on residual stresses and fatigue properties of laser-transformation hardened steels. Two types of specimens, cylinders and fatigue specimens were used in the studies. The cylinders, made of Swedish steels SS 2244 and SS 2258 which correspond to AISI 4140 and AISI 52100 respectively, were locally hardened by a single scan of laser beam in the longitudinal direction, with various laser parameters. Residual stress distributions across the hardened tracks were measured by means of X-ray diffraction. The origins of residual stresses were investigated and discussed. For the fatigue specimens, including smooth and notched types made of Swedish steels SS 2244, SS 2225 and SS 1572 (similar to AISI 4140, AISI 4130 and AISI 1035, respectively), laser hardening was carried out in the gauge section. The residual stress field induced by the hardening process and the fatigue properties by plane bending fatigue test were studied. In order to investigate the stability of the residual stress field, stress measurements were also made on specimens being loaded near the fatigue limits for over 10[sup 7] cycles. Further the concept of local fatigue strength was employed to correlate quantitatively the effect of hardness and residual stress field on the fatigue limits. In addition a group of smooth specimens of SS 2244 was induction hardened and the hardening results were compared with the corresponding laser hardened ones in terms of residual stress and fatigue behaviour. It has been found that compressive stresses exist in the hardened zone of all the specimens studied. The laser hardening condition, the specimen and how the hardening is carried out can significantly affect the residual stress field. Laser hardening can greatly improve the fatigue properties by inducing a hardened and compressed surface layer. (112 refs.)(au).

  12. Microprocessor-controlled Nd:YAG laser for hyperthermia induction in the RIF-1 tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldow, S M; Russell, G E; Wallner, P E

    1992-01-01

    Near-infrared radiation from a Nd:YAG laser at 1,064 nm was used interstitially or superficially to induce hyperthermia in RIF-1 tumors in C3H male mice. A single 600-microns quartz fiber with a 0.5-cm cylindrical diffusor or a weakly diverging microlens at its distal end was used to deliver laser energy to tumors in the hind leg (mean volume = 100 mm3). Two thermocouples were inserted into each tumor. One thermocouple controlled a microprocessor-driven hyperthermia program (maximum output of 3.5 Watts) to maintain the desired temperature. Tumors were exposed to various temperature-time combinations (42-45 degrees C/30 min). Our initial results indicated that excellent temperature control to within 0.2 degrees C of the desired temperature at the feedback thermocouple was achievable during both superficial and interstitial heat treatments. Temperatures at the second thermocouple, however, were found to be lower by as much as 2.3 degrees C (using the cylindrical diffusor) or higher by up to 4.6 degrees C (using the microlens) when compared to the feedback thermocouple temperature. Several correlations were seen between total dose, tumor growth delay, percent skin necrosis, and temperature at the second thermocouple after several superficial and interstitial treatments. Statistically significant improvements in tumor growth delay (at 42 and 45 degrees C) and increased percent skin necrosis at all temperatures were observed after superficial versus interstitial treatment.

  13. Fatigue hardening and softening studies on strain hardened 18-8 austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishna Prasad, C.; Vasudevan, R.

    1976-01-01

    Metals when subjected to fatigue harden or soften depending on their previous mechanical history. Annealed or mildly cold worked metals are known to harden while severely cold worked metals soften when subjected to fatigue loading. In the present work samples of austenitic 18-8 steel cold worked to 11% and 22% reduction in area were mounted in a vertical pulsator and fatigued in axial tension-compression. Clear cut effects were produced and it was noticed that these depended on the extent of cold work, the amplitude as well as the number of cycles of fatigue and mean stress if any. (orig.) [de

  14. Laser transformation hardening effect on hardening zone features and surface hardness of tool steel AISI D2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lesyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship of technological input regimes of the laser transformation hardening on change the hardening depth, hardening width, and hardening angle, as well as surface hardness of the tool steel AISI D2 using multifactor experiment with elements of the analysis of variance and regression equations was determined. The laser transformation hardening process implemented by controlling the heating temperature using Nd:YAG fiber laser with scanner, pyrometer and proportional-integral-differential controller. The linear and quadratic regression models are developed, as well as response surface to determine the effect of the heating temperature and feed rate of the treated surface on the energy density of the laser beam, hardening depths, hardening width, hardening angle, and surface hardness are designed. The main effect on the energy density of the laser beam has a velocity laser treatment, on the other hand, the main effect on the geometrical parameters of the laser hardened zone and surface hardness has temperature heating are shown. The optimum magnitudes of the heating temperature (1270 °C and feed rate of the treated surface (90 mm/min for laser transformation hardening of the tool steel AISI D2 using fiber laser with scanner were defined.

  15. Microprocessor system for data acquisition and processing for the Flora device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimov, V.M.

    1986-01-01

    ''VEhFORMIKA'' microprocessor system for data collection and processing when conducting experiments at the ''Flora'' device is described, its application is grounded. The complex allows one to conduct investigations using multichannel methods and exercise the device electrophysical control

  16. BUSFET -- A radiation-hardened SOI transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwank, J.R.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Draper, B.L.; Dodd, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    The total-dose hardness of SOI technology is limited by radiation-induced charge trapping in gate, field, and SOI buried oxides. Charge trapping in the buried oxide can lead to back-channel leakage and makes hardening SOI transistors more challenging than hardening bulk-silicon transistors. Two avenues for hardening the back-channel are (1) to use specially prepared SOI buried oxides that reduce the net amount of trapped positive charge or (2) to design transistors that are less sensitive to the effects of trapped charge in the buried oxide. In this work, the authors propose a partially-depleted SOI transistor structure for mitigating the effects of trapped charge in the buried oxide on radiation hardness. They call this structure the BUSFET--Body Under Source FET. The BUSFET utilizes a shallow source and a deep drain. As a result, the silicon depletion region at the back channel caused by radiation-induced charge trapping in the buried oxide does not form a conducting path between source and drain. Thus, the BUSFET structure design can significantly reduce radiation-induced back-channel leakage without using specially prepared buried oxides. Total dose hardness is achieved without degrading the intrinsic SEU or dose rate hardness of SOI technology. The effectiveness of the BUSFET structure for reducing total-dose back-channel leakage depends on several variables, including the top silicon film thickness and doping concentration, and the depth of the source. 3-D simulations show that for a body doping concentration of 10 18 cm -3 , a drain bias of 3 V, and a source depth of 90 nm, a silicon film thickness of 180 nm is sufficient to almost completely eliminate radiation-induced back-channel leakage. However, for a doping concentration of 3 x 10 17 cm -3 , a thicker silicon film (300 nm) must be used

  17. Fuzzy Concurrent Object Oriented Expert System for Fault Diagnosis in 8085 Microprocessor Based System Board

    OpenAIRE

    Mr.D. V. Kodavade; Dr. Mrs.S.D.Apte

    2014-01-01

    With the acceptance of artificial intelligence paradigm, a number of successful artificial intelligence systems were created. Fault diagnosis in microprocessor based boards needs lot of empirical knowledge and expertise and is a true artificial intelligence problem. Research on fault diagnosis in microprocessor based system boards using new fuzzy-object oriented approach is presented in this paper. There are many uncertain situations observed during fault diagnosis. These uncertain situations...

  18. Nonconformance in electromechanical output relays of microprocessor-based protection devices under actual operating conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Gurevich, Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    Microprocessor-based protection relays are gradually driving out traditional electromechanical and even electronic protection devices from virtually all fields of power and electrical engineering. In this paper, one of many problems of microprocessor-based relays is discussed: nonconformance of miniature electromechanical output relays under actual operation conditions: switching inductive loads (with tripping CB coils or lockout relay coils) at 220 VDC, and "dry" switching of some control ci...

  19. Coating compositions hardenable by ionization beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhari, D.; Haering, E.; Dobbelstein, A.; Hoselmann, W.

    1976-01-01

    Coating compositions hardenable by ionizing radiation are described which contain as binding agents a mixture of at least 1 unsaturated olefin compound containing urethane groups, and at least 1 further unsaturated olefin compound that may be copolymerized. The unsaturated olefin compound containing the urethane groups is a reaction product of a compound containing carboxylic acid groups and a compound containing at least 1 isocyanate group where the mixture of the two olefins may contain conventional additives of the lacquer industry. 6 claims, no drawings

  20. An Innovative Radiation Hardened CAM Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Shojaii, Seyed Ruhollah; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    This article describes an innovative Content Addressable Memory (CAM) cell with radiation hardened (RH) architecture. The RH-CAM is designed in a commercial 28 nm CMOS technology. The circuit has been simulated in worst-case conditions, and the effects due to single particles have been analyzed by injecting a current pulse into a circuit node. The proposed architecture is suitable for on-time pattern recognition tasks in harsh environments, such as front-end electronics in hadron colliders and in space applications.

  1. Radiation-hardened nonvolatile MNOS RAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrobel, T.F.; Dodson, W.H.; Hash, G.L.; Jones, R.V.; Nasby, R.D.; Olson, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    A radiation hardened nonvolatile MNOS RAM is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The memory organization is 128 x 8 bits and utilizes two p-channel MNOS transistors per memory cell. The peripheral circuitry is constructed with CMOS metal gate and is processed with standard Sandia rad-hard processing techniques. The devices have memory retention after a dose-rate exposure of 1E12 rad(Si)/s, are functional after total dose exposure of 1E6 rad(Si), and are dose-rate upset resistant to levels of 7E8 rad(Si)/s

  2. Application of submerged induction hardening; Ekichu koshuha yakiire no jitsuyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimori, Y; Nagai, Y; Amii, Y [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan); Tanaka, Y [Netsuren Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Mizuma, T [Toyo Advanced Technologies Co. Ltd., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    As a cost-cutting measure, the linerless diesel engine was adopted by applying submerged induction hardening process which can harden partial inner surface of cylinder block bore. In applying this process, (1) development of induction coil which can form any shape of quenched pattern and (2) the development of machining technology which can hone precisely the distorted bore after quenching, were important. With these improvements, submerged Induction hardening was made practical. 1 ref., 11 figs.

  3. Hardening device, by inserts, of electronic component against radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Val, C.

    1987-01-01

    The hardening device includes at least two materials, one with high atomic number with respect to the other. One of these materials is set as inserts in a layer of the other material. The hardening device is then made by stacking of such layers, the insert density varying from one layer to the other, making thus vary the atomic number resulting from the hardening device along its thickness, following a predefined law [fr

  4. Investigation of srawberry hardening in low temperatures in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Lukoševičiūtė, Vanda; Rugienius, Rytis; Kavaliauskaitė, Danguolė

    2007-01-01

    Cold resistance of different strawberry varieties in vitro and ability to retain hardening after defrosting and repeated hardening. Phytohormons – gibberellin and abscisic acid added in the growing medium were investigated in Horticulture plant genetic and biotechnology department of LIH. We tried to model common conditions in temperate zone when freeze-thaw cycles often occur during wintertime. For investigation in vitro strawberries for the first time hardened in light at the temperature of...

  5. MicroShell Minimalist Shell for Xilinx Microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werne, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    MicroShell is a lightweight shell environment for engineers and software developers working with embedded microprocessors in Xilinx FPGAs. (MicroShell has also been successfully ported to run on ARM Cortex-M1 microprocessors in Actel ProASIC3 FPGAs, but without project-integration support.) Micro Shell decreases the time spent performing initial tests of field-programmable gate array (FPGA) designs, simplifies running customizable one-time-only experiments, and provides a familiar-feeling command-line interface. The program comes with a collection of useful functions and enables the designer to add an unlimited number of custom commands, which are callable from the command-line. The commands are parameterizable (using the C-based command-line parameter idiom), so the designer can use one function to exercise hardware with different values. Also, since many hardware peripherals instantiated in FPGAs have reasonably simple register-mapped I/O interfaces, the engineer can edit and view hardware parameter settings at any time without stopping the processor. MicroShell comes with a set of support scripts that interface seamlessly with Xilinx's EDK tool. Adding an instance of MicroShell to a project is as simple as marking a check box in a library configuration dialog box and specifying a software project directory. The support scripts then examine the hardware design, build design-specific functions, conditionally include processor-specific functions, and complete the compilation process. For code-size constrained designs, most of the stock functionality can be excluded from the compiled library. When all of the configurable options are removed from the binary, MicroShell has an unoptimized memory footprint of about 4.8 kB and a size-optimized footprint of about 2.3 kB. Since MicroShell allows unfettered access to all processor-accessible memory locations, it is possible to perform live patching on a running system. This can be useful, for instance, if a bug is

  6. Configurable Radiation Hardened High Speed Isolated Interface ASIC, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NVE Corporation will design and build an innovative, low cost, flexible, configurable, radiation hardened, galvanically isolated, interface ASIC chip set that will...

  7. PASSOLAR - user handbook for microprocessors. Calculations in the planning stage of solar systems. PASSOLAR - Benutzer-Handbuch fuer Mikrocomputer. Berechnungen bei der Planung von passiven Sonnenenergie-Systemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graeff, R.W.; Martin, N.H.; Lovy, D.; Lawton, L.

    1983-01-01

    PASSOLAR is an interactive program for microprocessors permitting to carry through a computer evaluation of parts of buildings designed for passive solar energy use. It follows the methods described in the 'Passive Solar Design Handbook, Volume Three' (7). Users are to be enabled to calculate the monthly values for the heating load, its solar fraction and the auxiliary heating load as easily as possible. These calculations are not only possible for 94 different types of solar energy supply systems in winter gardens and by direct and indirect solar radiation but also for many other systems varying more or less from the supply systems. (orig./BWI).

  8. Deflection hardening behaviour of short fibre reinforced fly ash based geopolymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, F.U.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Deflection hardening behaviour is achieved in the DFRGC similar to that observed in DFRCC. • The first crack load or in other word the limit of proportionality (LOP) of DFRGC is similar to that of DFRCC. • The DFRGC also exhibited higher deflection at peak load than DFRCC. • The toughness at peak load of DFRGC is also high than that of DFRCC. • The ductility of DFRGC is also higher than that of DFRCC. - Abstract: This paper reports the newly developed ductile fibre reinforced geopolymer composite (DFRGC) exhibiting deflection hardening and multiple cracking behaviour. The binder of the above composite is different from that used in conventional cement based system. The class F fly ash is used instead of Portland cement in DFRGC and is activated by alkaline liquids (sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate). In this study, two types of fibres namely steel (ST) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibres are used in mono as well as in ST–PVA hybrid form, with a total volume fraction of 2%. The deflection hardening behaviour of newly developed DFRGC is also compared with that of conventional ductile fibre reinforced cementitious composites (DFRCC). The effects of two different sizes of sand (1.18 mm, and 0.6 mm) and sand/binder ratios of 0.5 and 0.75 on the deflection hardening and multiple cracking behaviour of both DFRGC and DFRCC are also evaluated. Results revel that the deflection hardening and multiple cracking behaviour is achieved in geopolymer based DFRGC similar to that of cement based system. For a given sand size and sand content, comparable deflection hardening behaviour, ultimate flexural strength and the deflection at peak load are observed in both cement and geopolymer based composites irrespective of fibre types and combination. The deflection hardening behaviour of DFRGC is also confirmed by the calculated toughness index values of I 20 > 20. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) study shows no degradation of PVA and steel fibres in the

  9. Induction surface hardening of hard coated steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantleon, K.; Kessler, O.; Hoffann, F.; Mayr, P. [Stiftung Inst. fuer Werkstofftechnik, Bremen (Germany)

    1999-11-01

    The properties of hard coatings deposited using CVD processes are usually excellent. However, high deposition temperatures negatively influence the substrate properties, especially in the case of low alloyed steels. Therefore, a subsequent heat treatment is necessary to restore the properties of steel substrates. Here, induction surface hardening is used as a method of heat treatment after the deposition of TiN hard coatings on AISI 4140 (DIN42CrMo4) substrates. The influences of the heat treatment on both the coating and the substrate properties are discussed in relation to the parameters of induction heating. Thereby, the heating time, heating atmosphere and the power input into the coating-substrate compounds are varied. As a result of induction surface hardening, the properties of the substrates are improved without losing good coating properties. High hardness values in the substrate near the interface allow the AISI 4140 substrates to support TiN hard coatings very well. Consequently, higher critical loads are measured in scratch tests after the heat treatment. Also, compressive residual stresses in the substrate are generated. In addition, only a very low distortion appears. (orig.)

  10. A microprocessor-based power control data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, S.

    1982-10-01

    The project reported deals with one of the aspects of power plant control and management. In order to perform optimal distribution of power and load switching, one has to solve a specific optimization problem. In order to solve this problem one needs to collect current and power expenditure data from a large number of channels and have them processed. This particular procedure is defined as data acquisition and it constitutes the main topic of this project. A microprocessor-based data acquisition system for power management is investigated and developed. The current and power data of about 100 analog channels are sampled and collected in real-time. These data are subsequently processed to calculate the power factor (cos phi) for each channel and the maximum demand. The data is processed by an AMD 9511 Arithmetic Processing Unit and the whole system is controlled by an Intel 8080A CPU. All this information is then transfered to a universal computer through a synchronized communication channel. The optimization computations would be performed by the high level computer. Different ways of performing the search of data over a large number of channels have been investigated. A particular solution to overcome the gain and offset drift of the A/D converter, using software, has been proposed. The 8080A supervises the collection and routing of data in real time, while the 9511 performs calculation, using these data. (Author)

  11. Biosorption of gold from computer microprocessor leachate solutions using chitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côrtes, Letícia N; Tanabe, Eduardo H; Bertuol, Daniel A; Dotto, Guilherme L

    2015-11-01

    The biosorption of gold from discarded computer microprocessor (DCM) leachate solutions was studied using chitin as a biosorbent. The DCM components were leached with thiourea solutions, and two procedures were tested for recovery of gold from the leachates: (1) biosorption and (2) precipitation followed by biosorption. For each procedure, the biosorption was evaluated considering kinetic, equilibrium, and thermodynamic aspects. The general order model was able to represent the kinetic behavior, and the equilibrium was well represented by the BET model. The maximum biosorption capacities were around 35 mg g(-1) for both procedures. The biosorption of gold on chitin was a spontaneous, favorable, and exothermic process. It was found that precipitation followed by biosorption resulted in the best gold recovery, because other species were removed from the leachate solution in the precipitation step. This method enabled about 80% of the gold to be recovered, using 20 g L(-1) of chitin at 298 K for 4 h. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Microprocessor-controlled wide-range streak camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Amy E.; Hollabaugh, Craig

    2006-08-01

    Bechtel Nevada/NSTec recently announced deployment of their fifth generation streak camera. This camera incorporates many advanced features beyond those currently available for streak cameras. The arc-resistant driver includes a trigger lockout mechanism, actively monitors input trigger levels, and incorporates a high-voltage fault interrupter for user safety and tube protection. The camera is completely modular and may deflect over a variable full-sweep time of 15 nanoseconds to 500 microseconds. The camera design is compatible with both large- and small-format commercial tubes from several vendors. The embedded microprocessor offers Ethernet connectivity, and XML [extensible markup language]-based configuration management with non-volatile parameter storage using flash-based storage media. The camera's user interface is platform-independent (Microsoft Windows, Unix, Linux, Macintosh OSX) and is accessible using an AJAX [asynchronous Javascript and XML]-equipped modem browser, such as Internet Explorer 6, Firefox, or Safari. User interface operation requires no installation of client software or browser plug-in technology. Automation software can also access the camera configuration and control using HTTP [hypertext transfer protocol]. The software architecture supports multiple-simultaneous clients, multiple cameras, and multiple module access with a standard browser. The entire user interface can be customized.

  13. Microprocessor-controlled, wide-range streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amy E. Lewis; Craig Hollabaugh

    2006-01-01

    Bechtel Nevada/NSTec recently announced deployment of their fifth generation streak camera. This camera incorporates many advanced features beyond those currently available for streak cameras. The arc-resistant driver includes a trigger lockout mechanism, actively monitors input trigger levels, and incorporates a high-voltage fault interrupter for user safety and tube protection. The camera is completely modular and may deflect over a variable full-sweep time of 15 nanoseconds to 500 microseconds. The camera design is compatible with both large- and small-format commercial tubes from several vendors. The embedded microprocessor offers Ethernet connectivity, and XML [extensible markup language]-based configuration management with non-volatile parameter storage using flash-based storage media. The camera's user interface is platform-independent (Microsoft Windows, Unix, Linux, Macintosh OSX) and is accessible using an AJAX [asynchronous Javascript and XML]-equipped modem browser, such as Internet Explorer 6, Firefox, or Safari. User interface operation requires no installation of client software or browser plug-in technology. Automation software can also access the camera configuration and control using HTTP [hypertext transfer protocol]. The software architecture supports multiple-simultaneous clients, multiple cameras, and multiple module access with a standard browser. The entire user interface can be customized

  14. EOSCOR: a light weight, microprocessor controlled solar neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, R.; Albats, P.; Frye, G.M. Jr.; Schindler, S.M.; Denehy, B.V.; Hopper, V.D.; Mace, O.B.

    1979-01-01

    A light weight high energy neutron detector with vertical detection efficiency of 0.005 at 40 MeV and 1.4 m 2 sensitive area has been developed for long duration super-pressure balloon flight observations of solar neutrons and gamma rays. It consists of two sets of four plastic scintillator hodoscopes separated by a 1 m time-of-flight path to observe n-p, C(n,p), and C(n,d) interactions. The neutron interactions are separated from gamma ray events through TOF measurements. For a large flare, the signal from solar neutrons is expected to be an order of magnitude greater than that of the atmospheric background. The microprocessor controls the data acquisition, accumulation of histograms, and the encoding of data for the telemetry systems. A test flight of the detector was made with a zero-pressure balloon. The expected many-week duration of a super-pressure balloon flight would significantly increase the probability of observing 20-150 MeV neutrons from a medium or large flare. (Auth.)

  15. Microprocessor-controlled, wide-range streak camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amy E. Lewis, Craig Hollabaugh

    2006-09-01

    Bechtel Nevada/NSTec recently announced deployment of their fifth generation streak camera. This camera incorporates many advanced features beyond those currently available for streak cameras. The arc-resistant driver includes a trigger lockout mechanism, actively monitors input trigger levels, and incorporates a high-voltage fault interrupter for user safety and tube protection. The camera is completely modular and may deflect over a variable full-sweep time of 15 nanoseconds to 500 microseconds. The camera design is compatible with both large- and small-format commercial tubes from several vendors. The embedded microprocessor offers Ethernet connectivity, and XML [extensible markup language]-based configuration management with non-volatile parameter storage using flash-based storage media. The camera’s user interface is platform-independent (Microsoft Windows, Unix, Linux, Macintosh OSX) and is accessible using an AJAX [asynchronous Javascript and XML]-equipped modem browser, such as Internet Explorer 6, Firefox, or Safari. User interface operation requires no installation of client software or browser plug-in technology. Automation software can also access the camera configuration and control using HTTP [hypertext transfer protocol]. The software architecture supports multiple-simultaneous clients, multiple cameras, and multiple module access with a standard browser. The entire user interface can be customized.

  16. Model based design introduction: modeling game controllers to microprocessor architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungwirth, Patrick; Badawy, Abdel-Hameed

    2017-04-01

    We present an introduction to model based design. Model based design is a visual representation, generally a block diagram, to model and incrementally develop a complex system. Model based design is a commonly used design methodology for digital signal processing, control systems, and embedded systems. Model based design's philosophy is: to solve a problem - a step at a time. The approach can be compared to a series of steps to converge to a solution. A block diagram simulation tool allows a design to be simulated with real world measurement data. For example, if an analog control system is being upgraded to a digital control system, the analog sensor input signals can be recorded. The digital control algorithm can be simulated with the real world sensor data. The output from the simulated digital control system can then be compared to the old analog based control system. Model based design can compared to Agile software develop. The Agile software development goal is to develop working software in incremental steps. Progress is measured in completed and tested code units. Progress is measured in model based design by completed and tested blocks. We present a concept for a video game controller and then use model based design to iterate the design towards a working system. We will also describe a model based design effort to develop an OS Friendly Microprocessor Architecture based on the RISC-V.

  17. GPS/MEMS IMU/Microprocessor Board for Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gender, Thomas K.; Chow, James; Ott, William E.

    2009-01-01

    A miniaturized instrumentation package comprising a (1) Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, (2) an inertial measurement unit (IMU) consisting largely of surface-micromachined sensors of the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) type, and (3) a microprocessor, all residing on a single circuit board, is part of the navigation system of a compact robotic spacecraft intended to be released from a larger spacecraft [e.g., the International Space Station (ISS)] for exterior visual inspection of the larger spacecraft. Variants of the package may also be useful in terrestrial collision-detection and -avoidance applications. The navigation solution obtained by integrating the IMU outputs is fed back to a correlator in the GPS receiver to aid in tracking GPS signals. The raw GPS and IMU data are blended in a Kalman filter to obtain an optimal navigation solution, which can be supplemented by range and velocity data obtained by use of (l) a stereoscopic pair of electronic cameras aboard the robotic spacecraft and/or (2) a laser dynamic range imager aboard the ISS. The novelty of the package lies mostly in those aspects of the design of the MEMS IMU that pertain to controlling mechanical resonances and stabilizing scale factors and biases.

  18. Different microprocessor controlled devices for ITU TRIGA Mark II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Can, B.; Omuz, S.; Uzun, S.; Apan, H.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the design of a period meter and multichannel thermometer, which are controlled by a microprocessor, in order to be used at ITU TRIGA Mark-II Reactor is presented. The system works as a simple microcomputer, which includes a CPU, a EPROM, a RAM, a CTC, a PIO, a PIA a keyboard and displays, using the assembly language. The period meter can work either with pulse signal or with analog signal depending on demand of the user. The period is calculated by software and its range is -99,9 sec, to +2.1 sec. When the period drops +3 sec, the system gives alarm illuminating a LED. The multichannel thermometer has eight temperature channels. Temperature channels can manually or automatically be selected. The channel selection time can be adjusted. The thermometer gives alarm illuminating a LED, when the temperature rises to 600 C. Temperature data is stored in the RAM and is shown on a display. This system provides us to use four spare thermocouples in the reactor. (orig.)

  19. Environmental dose measurement with microprocessor based portable TLD reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Feher, I.

    1996-01-01

    Application of TL method for environmental gamma-radiation dosimetry involves uncertainty caused by the dose collected during the transport from the point of annealing to the place of exposure and back to the place of evaluation. Should an accident occur read out is delayed due to the need to transport to a laboratory equipped with a TLD reader. A portable reader capable of reading out the TL dosemeter at the place of exposure ('in situ TLD reader') eliminates the above mentioned disadvantages. We have developed a microprocessor based portable TLD reader for monitoring environmental gamma-radiation doses and for on board reading out of doses on space stations. The first version of our portable, battery operated reader (named Pille - 'butterfly') was made at the beginning of the 80s. These devices used CaSO 4 bulb dosemeters and the evaluation technique was based on analogue timing circuits and analogue to digital conversion of the photomultiplier current with a read out precision of 1 μGy and a measuring range up to 10 Gy. The measured values were displayed and manually recorded. The version with an external power supply was used for space dosimetry as an onboard TLD reader

  20. The irradiation hardening of Ni-Mo-Cr and Ni-W-Cr alloy under Xe26+ ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaican; Hai, Yang; Liu, Renduo; Jiang, Li; Ye, Xiang-xi; Li, Jianjian; Xue, Wandong; Wang, Wanxia; Tang, Ming; Yan, Long; Yin, Wen; Zhou, Xingtai

    2018-04-01

    The irradiation hardening of Ni-Mo-Cr and Ni-W-Cr alloy was investigated. 7 MeV Xe26+ ion irradiation was performed at room temperature and 650 °C with peak damage dose from 0.05 to 10 dpa. With the increase of damage dose, the hardness of Ni-Mo-Cr and Ni-W-Cr alloy increases, and reaches saturation at damage dose ≥1 dpa. Moreover, the damage dose dependence of hardness in both alloys can be described by the Makin and Minter's equation, where the effective critical volume of obstacles can be used to represent irradiation hardening resistance of the alloys. Our results also show that Ni-W-Cr alloy has better irradiation hardening resistance than Ni-Mo-Cr alloy. This is ascribed to the fact that the W, instead of Mo in the alloy, can suppress the formation of defects under ion irradiation.

  1. Plasma Methods of Obtainment of Multifunctional Composite Materials, Dispersion-Hardened by Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizonenko, O. N.; Grigoryev, E. G.; Pristash, N. S.; Zaichenko, A. D.; Torpakov, A. S.; Lypian, Ye. V.; Tregub, V. A.; Zholnin, A. G.; Yudin, A. V.; Kovalenko, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    High voltage electric discharge (HVED) in disperse system "hydrocarbon liquid - powder" due to impact of plasma discharge channel, electromagnetic fields, shock waves mechanical impact, hydro flows and volume microcavitation leads to synthesis of nanocarbon, metal powders dispersion and synthesis of micro- (from 10-6 to 10-7 m) and nanosized (from 10-7 to 10-9 m) composite powders of hardening phases. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) of powder mixtures allows targeted control of grain growth rate and thus allows obtainment of multifunctional composite materials dispersion hardened by nanoparticles. Processes of HVED synthesis of micro- and nanosized powders of new compositions from elemental metal powders and their mixtures with the subsequent application of high-speed SPS of obtained powders create conditions for increase of strength (by 10-20 %), hardness and wear-resistance (by 30-60 %) of obtained materials.

  2. A detailed investigation of the strain hardening response of aluminum alloyed Hadfield steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadinc, Demircan

    The unusual strain hardening response exhibited by Hadfield steel single and polycrystals under tensile loading was investigated. Hadfield steel, which deforms plastically through the competing mechanisms slip and twinning, was alloyed with aluminum in order to suppress twinning and study the role of slip only. To avoid complications due to a grained structure, only single crystals of the aluminum alloyed Hadfield steel were considered at the initial stage of the current study. As a result of alloying with aluminum, twinning was suppressed; however a significant increase in the strain hardening response was also present. A detailed microstructural analysis showed the presence of high-density dislocation walls that evolve in volume fraction due to plastic deformation and interaction with slip systems. The very high strain hardening rates exhibited by the aluminum alloyed Hadfield steel single crystals was attributed to the blockage of glide dislocations by the high-density dislocation walls. A crystal plasticity model was proposed, that accounts for the volume fraction evolution and rotation of the dense dislocation walls, as well as their interaction with the active slip systems. The novelty of the model lies in the simplicity of the constitutive equations that define the strain hardening, and the fact that it is based on experimental data regarding the microstructure. The success of the model was tested by its application to different crystallographic orientations, and finally the polycrystals of the aluminum alloyed Hadfield steel. Meanwhile, the capability of the model to predict texture was also observed through the rotation of the loading axis in single crystals. The ability of the model to capture the polycrystalline deformation response provides a venue for its utilization in other alloys that exhibit dislocation sheet structures.

  3. Regulation of Plant Microprocessor Function in Shaping microRNA Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Dolata

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are small molecules (∼21 nucleotides long that are key regulators of gene expression. They originate from long stem–loop RNAs as a product of cleavage by a protein complex called Microprocessor. The core components of the plant Microprocessor are the RNase type III enzyme Dicer-Like 1 (DCL1, the zinc finger protein Serrate (SE, and the double-stranded RNA binding protein Hyponastic Leaves 1 (HYL1. Microprocessor assembly and its processing of microRNA precursors have been reported to occur in discrete nuclear bodies called Dicing bodies. The accessibility of and modifications to Microprocessor components affect microRNA levels and may have dramatic consequences in plant development. Currently, numerous lines of evidence indicate that plant Microprocessor activity is tightly regulated. The cellular localization of HYL1 is dependent on a specific KETCH1 importin, and the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1 indirectly protects HYL1 from degradation in a light-dependent manner. Furthermore, proper localization of HYL1 in Dicing bodies is regulated by MOS2. On the other hand, the Dicing body localization of DCL1 is regulated by NOT2b, which also interacts with SE in the nucleus. Post-translational modifications are substantial factors that contribute to protein functional diversity and provide a fine-tuning system for the regulation of protein activity. The phosphorylation status of HYL1 is crucial for its activity/stability and is a result of the interplay between kinases (MPK3 and SnRK2 and phosphatases (CPL1 and PP4. Additionally, MPK3 and SnRK2 are known to phosphorylate SE. Several other proteins (e.g., TGH, CDF2, SIC, and RCF3 that interact with Microprocessor have been found to influence its RNA-binding and processing activities. In this minireview, recent findings on the various modes of Microprocessor activity regulation are discussed.

  4. Bake hardening of nanograin AA7075 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghani, Kamran

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► The bake hardening behavior of AA7075 was studied and compared with its coarse-grain counterpart. ► Nanograin AA7075 exhibited 88–100% increase in bake hardenability. ► Nanograin AA7075 exhibited 36–38% increase in final yield strength after baking. ► Maximum bake hardenability and final yield stress were about 185 MPa and 719 MPa. - Abstract: In the present work, the bake hardening of nanostructured AA7075 aluminum alloy was compared with that of its coarse-grain counterpart. Surface severe plastic deformation (SSPD) was used to produce nanograin layers on both surfaces of workpieces. The nanostructured layers were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. The thickness of nanostructured layer, having the grains of 50–110 nm, was about 75 μm on each side of workpiece. The bake hardenability of nanograin and coarse-grain AA7075 was then compared by pre-straining to 2, 4 and 6% followed by baking at 100 °C and 200 °C for 20 min. Comparing to coarse-grain case, there was about 88–100% increase in bake hardenability and about 36–38% increase in yield strength after the bake hardening of present nanograin AA7075. Such an increase in bake hardenability and strength was achieved when the thickness of two nanograin layers was about only one-tenth of the whole thickness.

  5. Work hardening correlation for monotonic loading based on state variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.H.; Li, C.Y.

    1977-01-01

    An absolute work hardening correlation in terms of the hardness parameter and the internal stress based on the state variable approach was developed. It was found applicable to a variety of metals and alloys. This correlation predicts strain rate insensitive work hardening properties at low homologous temperatures and produces strain rate effects at higher homologous temperatures without involving thermally induced recovery processes

  6. Design and characterization of cellulose nanocrystal-enhanced epoxy hardeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane X. Peng; Robert J. Moon; Jeffrey P. Youngblood

    2014-01-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are renewable, sustainable, and abundant nanomaterial widely used as reinforcing fillers in the field of polymer nanocomposites. In this study, two-part epoxy systems with CNC-enhanced hardeners were fabricated. Three types of hardeners, Jeffamine D400 (JD400), diethylenetriamine (DETA), and (±)-trans-1,2- diaminocyclohexane (DACH), were...

  7. ANISOTROPIC STRAIN-HARDENING IN POLYCRYSTALLINE COPPER AND ALUMINUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HESS, F

    1993-01-01

    A new viscoplastic model for the plastic stress-strain behaviour of f.c.c. metals is presented. In this model the strain hardening results from increasing dislocation densities. The observed stagnation of strain hardening after strain reversals is explained by a lowering of the increase in

  8. A review of the stages of work hardening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollett, A.D.; Kocks, U.F.

    1993-07-01

    Stages of work hardening are reviewed with emphasis on links between each stage. Simple quantitative descriptions are given for each stage. Similarities between stage I, easy glide, and stage IV, large strain hardening, are pointed out both in terms of magnitude of the hardening rate and of the underlying mechanism of dislocation debris accumulation. Stage II is described as an athermal hardening stage that occurs when statistical variations in the dislocation ``forest`` lead to geometrical storage of dislocations. The steadily decreasing hardening rate observed in stage III is characterized by the increasing rate of loss of dislocation density due to dynamic recovery. Stage III appears to have an asymptote to a saturation stress which is determined by the characteristics of the dislocation tangles, or cell walls. The imperfect nature of the dynamic recovery process, however, leads to the accumulation of dislocation debris and this, by analogy with stage 1, causes the apparent saturation stress to rise, thus causing stage IV.

  9. Coating compositions hardenable by ionization beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhari, D.; Haering, E.; Dobbelstein, A.; Hoselmann, W.

    1976-01-01

    Coating compositions hardenable by ionizing radiation comprise as binding agents a mixture of A. at least 1 unsaturated olefin compound containing urethane groups, and B. at least 1 further unsaturated olefin compound that may be copolymerized. The unsaturated olefin compound A. containing the urethane groups in a reaction product of (a) a compound of the general formula (CHR 1 = CR 2 COOCH 2 CH(OH)CH 2 O CO-)/sub n/R where n is 1 or 2, where R stands for a straight chain or branched alkyl group of valence n, where R 1 is hydrogen, methyl; or the group -COOCH 2 CH(OH)CH 2 OCOR 3 - where R 3 is a monovalent alkyl residue and where R 2 is hydrogen or methyl, and (b) a compound containing at least 1 isocyanate group where the mixture of (A) and (B) may contain conventional additives of the lacquer industry. 6 claims

  10. Keystroke Dynamics-Based Credential Hardening Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlow, Nick; Cukic, Bojan

    abstract Keystroke dynamics are becoming a well-known method for strengthening username- and password-based credential sets. The familiarity and ease of use of these traditional authentication schemes combined with the increased trustworthiness associated with biometrics makes them prime candidates for application in many web-based scenarios. Our keystroke dynamics system uses Breiman’s random forests algorithm to classify keystroke input sequences as genuine or imposter. The system is capable of operating at various points on a traditional ROC curve depending on application-specific security needs. As a username/password authentication scheme, our approach decreases the system penetration rate associated with compromised passwords up to 99.15%. Beyond presenting results demonstrating the credential hardening effect of our scheme, we look into the notion that a user’s familiarity to components of a credential set can non-trivially impact error rates.

  11. Radiation hardening of MOS devices by boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danchenko, V.

    1975-01-01

    A novel technique is disclosed for radiation hardening of MOS devices and specifically for stabilizing the gate threshold potential at room temperature of a radiation subjected MOS field-effect device of the type having a semiconductor substrate, an insulating layer of oxide on the substrate, and a gate electrode disposed on the insulating layer. In the preferred embodiment, the novel inventive technique contemplates the introduction of boron into the insulating oxide, the boron being introduced within a layer of the oxide of about 100A to 300A thickness immediately adjacent the semiconductor-insulator interface. The concentration of boron in the oxide layer is preferably maintained on the order of 10 atoms/ cm 3 . The novel technique serves to reduce and substantially annihilate radiation induced positive gate charge accumulations, which accumulations, if not eliminated, would cause shifting of the gate threshold potential of a radiation subjected MOS device, and thus render the device unstable and/or inoperative. (auth)

  12. Rapid cold hardening: a gut feeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worland, M R; Convey, P; Luke ov , A

    2000-01-01

    This study examined the rate of cold hardening of a field population of Antarctic springtails and the effect of eating food with particular levels of ice nucleating activity on the animal's whole body freezing point. The SCPs of samples of c. 20, freshly collected, Cryptopygus antarcticus were measured hourly over a 32 hour collection period using differential scanning calorimetry and related to habitat temperature. The mean SCP of the springtails increased from -24 to -10 degree C during which time the habitat temperature warmed slowly from -2.5 to +2.5 degree C. In laboratory experiments, previously starved, cold tolerant springtails were fed on selected species of algae with measured SCP's but there was no clear correlation between the SCP of food and that of the animals after feeding. Microscopic examination of faecal pellets and guts from springtails showed that algal cells were completely destroyed during digestion.

  13. FPGAs Emulate Microprocessors-A Successful Case for HFC NPP Digital I and C Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Allen; Crow, Ivan; Reese, Carl; Kim, Jong; Yang, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), as programmable logic devices (PLDs) have gained a great deal of interests for implementing safety I and C applications in nuclear power plants (NPPs) largely owing to the FPGAs'potential advantage over the currently more common microprocessor-based digital I and C applications. First of all, FPGAs have adequate capabilities for most digital I and C applications in NPPs. Secondly, FPGAs provide products with longer lifetime, improve testability, and reduce the drift which occurs in analog-based systems, from hardware perspective. Thirdly, FPGAs, from software perspective, can be made simpler, less reliant on complex software such as operating systems, which should make FPGAs easier to qualify for nuclear safety applications. Fourthly, FPGAs are less vulnerable to cyber attacks when FPGAs implement the I and C systems that do not contain high-level, general purpose software that may be easily subjected to malicious modifications. Finally, FPGAs can bring cost reduction in an I and C digital upgrade because FPGAs can provide simpler licensing process than microprocessor-based digital I and C, and FPGAs can be implemented more efficiently. This paper will present one successful case for YGN Unit I and C upgrade using FPGA-based components to replace the obsolete Intel 8085 Microprocessor-based controllers. In this case, FPGAs emulated the process of the existing microprocessors and interpreted the execution of CPU processing. More than 160 of the FPGA-based SBC-01 controllers replacing the Intel 8085 Microprocessor-based Printed Circuit Boards have been installed and running successfully for safety I and C applications over the last five years. In this upgrade, the new FPGA-based controller board SBC-01 emulated the functions of Intel 8085 microprocessor correctly. It is a successful and cost-effective upgrade.vIn this paper, lifecycle design and implementation process and rigorous V and V activities that were used in the

  14. FPGAs Emulate Microprocessors-A Successful Case for HFC NPP Digital I and C Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Allen; Crow, Ivan; Reese, Carl; Kim, Jong; Yang, Steve [Doosan HF Controls Corp, Carrollton (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), as programmable logic devices (PLDs) have gained a great deal of interests for implementing safety I and C applications in nuclear power plants (NPPs) largely owing to the FPGAs'potential advantage over the currently more common microprocessor-based digital I and C applications. First of all, FPGAs have adequate capabilities for most digital I and C applications in NPPs. Secondly, FPGAs provide products with longer lifetime, improve testability, and reduce the drift which occurs in analog-based systems, from hardware perspective. Thirdly, FPGAs, from software perspective, can be made simpler, less reliant on complex software such as operating systems, which should make FPGAs easier to qualify for nuclear safety applications. Fourthly, FPGAs are less vulnerable to cyber attacks when FPGAs implement the I and C systems that do not contain high-level, general purpose software that may be easily subjected to malicious modifications. Finally, FPGAs can bring cost reduction in an I and C digital upgrade because FPGAs can provide simpler licensing process than microprocessor-based digital I and C, and FPGAs can be implemented more efficiently. This paper will present one successful case for YGN Unit I and C upgrade using FPGA-based components to replace the obsolete Intel 8085 Microprocessor-based controllers. In this case, FPGAs emulated the process of the existing microprocessors and interpreted the execution of CPU processing. More than 160 of the FPGA-based SBC-01 controllers replacing the Intel 8085 Microprocessor-based Printed Circuit Boards have been installed and running successfully for safety I and C applications over the last five years. In this upgrade, the new FPGA-based controller board SBC-01 emulated the functions of Intel 8085 microprocessor correctly. It is a successful and cost-effective upgrade.vIn this paper, lifecycle design and implementation process and rigorous V and V activities that were used in the

  15. Waste tyre rubberized concrete: properties at fresh and hardened state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, M A; Leuzzi, F

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate the properties of various concrete mixtures at fresh and hardened state, obtained by a partial substitution of coarse and fine aggregate with different volume percentages of waste tyres rubber particles, having the same dimensions of the replaced aggregate. Workability, unit weight, compressive and flexural strength and post-cracking behaviour were evaluated and a comparison of the results for the different rubcrete mixtures were proposed in order to define the better mix proportions in terms of mechanical properties of the rubberized concrete. Results showed in this paper were also compared to data reported in literature. Moreover, a preliminary geometrical, physical and mechanical characterization on scrap tyre rubber shreds was made. The rubberized concrete mixtures showed lower unit weight compared to plain concrete and good workability. The results of compressive and flexural tests indicated a larger reduction of mechanical properties of rubcrete when replacing coarse aggregate rather than fine aggregate. On the other hand, the post-cracking behaviour of rubberized concrete was positively affected by the substitution of coarse aggregate with rubber shreds, showing a good energy absorption and ductility indexes in the range observed for fibrous concrete, as suggested by standard (ASTM C1018-97, 1997). 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A microprocessor based area monitor system for neutron and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, R.; Heusser, G.

    1980-01-01

    The conventional electronics of the area monitors at the MPI-Heidelberg accelerators have been replaced by a microprocessor system consisting of individual detector-microprocessors and a central microcomputer. The detector microprocessors convert the count rates of BF3 and GM counter tubes into dose rates and control three different radiation thresholds (failure, low and high level). Different warning signals are operated directly by the detector processors, whereas the dose rates are transferred to the central microcomputer. Here the data are processed for recording on tape and displaying on TV monitors. The detector as well as the central processors have been developed on the basis of a 16-bit microprocessor. In the control rooms the dose rates of the individual monitors are displayed and on an indicator board showing the different locations, the high radiation level and the state of the doors (open, locked, and closed, locked but open) are sianaled by different LED. If a high radiation threshold is surpassed, the doors adjacent to that area can be locked either by switches on the indicator board or automatically. Within the experimental area, the low and high radiation level is indicated by acoustic and light signals. The whole concept permits keeping the absorbed doses of the personnel as low as possible without affecting the flexibility of the experimental operations. The independence of the microprocessor driven area monitors guarantees a high reliability. Compared to conventional electronics the advantages of the system are its reliability and cost. (Author)

  17. Application of multiwall carbon nanotubes for thermal dissipation in a micro-processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui Hung Thang; Phan Ngoc Hong; Phan Hong Khoi; Phan Ngoc Minh [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay District, Hanoi (Viet Nam)], E-mail: minhpn@ims.vast.ac.vn

    2009-09-01

    One of the most valuable properties of the carbon nanotubes materials is its high thermal conductivity with 2000 W/m.K (compared to thermal conductivity of Ag 419 W/m.K). It suggested an approach in applying the CNTs in thermal dissipation media to improve the performance of computer processors and other high power electronic devices. In this research, the multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) made by thermal chemical vapour deposition (CVD) at our laboratory was employed as the heat dissipation media in a microprocessor a Personal Computer with configuration: Intel Pentium IV 3.066 GHz, 512Mb of RAM and Windows XP Service Pack 2 Operating System. We directly measured the temperature of the microprocessor during the operation of the computer in two modes: 100% usage CPU mode and over-clocking mode. The measured results showed that when using our thermal dissipation media (a mixture of the mentioned commercial thermal compound and 2 wt.%. MWCNTs), the temperature of the microprocessor decreased 5 deg. C, and the time for increasing the temperature of the microprocessor was three times longer than that when using commercial thermal compound. In over-clocking mode, the processor speed reached 3.8 GHz with 165 MHz of system bus clock speed; it was 1.24 times higher than that in non over-clocking mode. The results confirmed a promising way of using MWCNTs as the thermal dissipation media for microprocessor and high power electronic devices.

  18. Application of multiwall carbon nanotubes for thermal dissipation in a micro-processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Bui Hung; Hong, Phan Ngoc; Khoi, Phan Hong; Minh, Phan Ngoc

    2009-09-01

    One of the most valuable properties of the carbon nanotubes materials is its high thermal conductivity with 2000 W/m.K (compared to thermal conductivity of Ag 419 W/m.K). It suggested an approach in applying the CNTs in thermal dissipation media to improve the performance of computer processors and other high power electronic devices. In this research, the multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) made by thermal chemical vapour deposition (CVD) at our laboratory was employed as the heat dissipation media in a microprocessor a Personal Computer with configuration: Intel Pentium IV 3.066 GHz, 512Mb of RAM and Windows XP Service Pack 2 Operating System. We directly measured the temperature of the microprocessor during the operation of the computer in two modes: 100% usage CPU mode and over-clocking mode. The measured results showed that when using our thermal dissipation media (a mixture of the mentioned commercial thermal compound and 2 wt.%. MWCNTs), the temperature of the microprocessor decreased 5°C, and the time for increasing the temperature of the microprocessor was three times longer than that when using commercial thermal compound. In over-clocking mode, the processor speed reached 3.8 GHz with 165 MHz of system bus clock speed; it was 1.24 times higher than that in non over-clocking mode. The results confirmed a promising way of using MWCNTs as the thermal dissipation media for microprocessor and high power electronic devices.

  19. Application of multiwall carbon nanotubes for thermal dissipation in a micro-processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui Hung Thang; Phan Ngoc Hong; Phan Hong Khoi; Phan Ngoc Minh

    2009-01-01

    One of the most valuable properties of the carbon nanotubes materials is its high thermal conductivity with 2000 W/m.K (compared to thermal conductivity of Ag 419 W/m.K). It suggested an approach in applying the CNTs in thermal dissipation media to improve the performance of computer processors and other high power electronic devices. In this research, the multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) made by thermal chemical vapour deposition (CVD) at our laboratory was employed as the heat dissipation media in a microprocessor a Personal Computer with configuration: Intel Pentium IV 3.066 GHz, 512Mb of RAM and Windows XP Service Pack 2 Operating System. We directly measured the temperature of the microprocessor during the operation of the computer in two modes: 100% usage CPU mode and over-clocking mode. The measured results showed that when using our thermal dissipation media (a mixture of the mentioned commercial thermal compound and 2 wt.%. MWCNTs), the temperature of the microprocessor decreased 5 deg. C, and the time for increasing the temperature of the microprocessor was three times longer than that when using commercial thermal compound. In over-clocking mode, the processor speed reached 3.8 GHz with 165 MHz of system bus clock speed; it was 1.24 times higher than that in non over-clocking mode. The results confirmed a promising way of using MWCNTs as the thermal dissipation media for microprocessor and high power electronic devices.

  20. Influence of Glass Fiber on Fresh and Hardened Properties of Self Compacting Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharathi Murugan, R.; Haridharan, M. K.; Natarajan, C.; Jayasankar, R.

    2017-07-01

    The practical need of self-compacting concrete (SCC) is increasing due to increase in the infrastructure competence all over the world. The effective way of increasing the strength of concrete and enhance the behaviour under extreme loading (fire) is the keen interest. Glass fibers were added for five different of volume fractions (0%, 0.1%, 0.3%, 0.5% and 0.6%) to determine the optimum percentage of glass fiber without compensating the fresh properties and enhanced hardened properties of SCC concrete. The fresh state of concrete is characterized by slump flow, T-50cm slump flow, and V-funnel and L- box tests. The results obtained in fresh state are compared with the acceptance criteria of EFNARC specification. Concrete specimens were casted to evaluate the hardened properties such as compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength and modulus of elasticity. Incorporation the glass fiber into SCC reduces the workability but within the standard specification. The hardened properties of SCC glass fiber reinforced concrete were enhanced, due to bridging the pre-existing micro cracks in concrete by glass fiber addition.

  1. Modification of Grange-Kiefer Approach for Determination of Hardenability in Eutectoid Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushanthi, Neethi; Maity, Joydeep

    2014-12-01

    In this research work, an independent mathematical modeling approach has been adopted for determination of the hardenability of steels. In this model, at first, cooling curves were generated by solving transient heat transfer equation through discretization with pure explicit finite difference scheme coupled with MATLAB-based programming considering variable thermo-physical properties of 1080 steel. Thereafter, a new fundamental approach is proposed for obtaining CCT noses as a function of volume fraction transformed through modification of Grange-Kiefer approach. The cooling curves were solved against 50 pct transformation nose of CCT diagram in order to predict hardening behavior of 1080 steel in terms of hardenability parameters (Grossmann critical diameter, D C; and ideal critical diameter, D I) and the variation of the unhardened core diameter ( D u) to diameter of steel bar ( D) ratio with diameter of the steel bar ( D). The experiments were also performed to ascertain actual D C value of 1080 steel for still water quenching. The D C value obtained by the developed model was found to match the experimental D C value with only 3 pct deviation. Therefore, the model developed in the present work can be used for direct determination of D I, D C and D u without resorting to any rigorous experimentation.

  2. Hardening and softening mechanisms of pearlitic steel wire under torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Tian-Zhang; Zhang, Shi-Hong; Zhang, Guang-Liang; Song, Hong-Wu; Cheng, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Mechanical behavior of pearlitic steel wire is studied using torsion. • Work hardening results from refinement lamellar pearlitic structure. • Softening results from recovery, shear bands and lamellar fragmentations. • A microstructure based analytical flow stress model is established. - Abstract: The mechanical behaviors and microstructure evolution of pearlitic steel wires under monotonic shear deformation have been investigated by a torsion test and a number of electron microscopy techniques including scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), with an aim to reveal the softening and hardening mechanisms of a randomly oriented pearlitic structure during a monotonic stain path. Significantly different from the remarkable strain hardening in cold wire drawing, the strain hardening rate during torsion drops to zero quickly after a short hardening stage. The microstructure observations indicate that the inter-lamellar spacing (ILS) decreases and the dislocations accumulate with strain, which leads to hardening of the material. Meanwhile, when the strain is larger than 0.154, the enhancement of dynamic recovery, shear bands (SBs) and cementite fragmentations results in the softening and balances the strain hardening. A microstructure based analytical flow stress model with considering the influence of ILS on the mean free path of dislocations and the softening caused by SBs and cementite fragmentations, has been established and the predicted flow shear curve meets well with the measured curve in the torsion test

  3. Numerical and experimental comparison of plastic work-hardening rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haisler, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe recent numerical and experimental correlation studies of several plastic work-hardening rules. The mechanical sublayer model and the combined kinematic-isotropic hardening rules are examined and the numerical results for several structural geometries are compared to experimental results. Both monotonic and cyclic loads are considered. The governing incremental plasticity relations are developed for both work-hardening models. The combined kinematic-isotropic hardening model is developed in terms of a ratio γ which controls the relative contribution of kinematic hardening (yield surface translation) and isotropic hardening (yield surface expansion). In addition to making use of a uniaxial stress-strain curve as input data, the model allows for the input of a yield surface size vs. uniaxial plastic strain curve obtained from a cyclic uniaxial reverse loading test. The mechanical sublayer model is developed in general form and a new method for determining the sublayer parameters (stress weighting factors and yield stresses) is presented. It is demonstrated that former procedures used to obtain the sublayer parameters are inconsistent for multiaxial loading. Numerical and experimental results are presented for a cylinder, circular plate with punch, and a steel pressure vessel. The numerical results are obtained with the computer program AGGIE I. The comparison study indicates that reasonable agreement is obtained with both hardening models; the choice depending upon whether the loading is monotonic or cyclic

  4. Work hardening behavior study of structural alloys for cryogenic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, D.; Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Previous investigation on aluminum-lithium alloys have indicated different dependencies of the work hardening behavior on temperature. This variation in temperature dependence is attributed to differences in microstructure rather than composition. An understanding of the microstructural effect on the observed thermal dependency is important as it may allow the tailoring of deformation properties through mechanical processing. Work hardening analyses on other aluminum alloys and a number of structural steels have been performed to better elucidate the role played by microstructure in determining the work hardening behavior. In the paper correlations between the differences in mechanical behavior and the various microstructures observed are presented

  5. Microprocessor, Setx, Xrn2, and Rrp6 Co-operate to Induce Premature Termination of Transcription by RNAPII

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagschal, Alexandre; Rousset, Emilie; Basavarajaiah, Poornima; Contreras, Xavier; Harwig, Alex; Laurent-Chabalier, Sabine; Nakamura, Mirai; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Ke; Meziane, Oussama; Boyer, Frédéric; Parrinello, Hugues; Berkhout, Ben; Terzian, Christophe; Benkirane, Monsef; Kiernan, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Transcription elongation is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism of gene regulation. Here, we show that microprocessor controls gene expression in an RNAi-independent manner. Microprocessor orchestrates the recruitment of termination factors Setx and Xrn2, and the 30-50 exoribonuclease,

  6. Distributed Microprocessor Automation Network for Synthesizing Radiotracers Used in Positron Emission Tomography [PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J. A. G.; Alexoff, D. L.; Wolf, A. P.

    1984-09-01

    This presentation describes an evolving distributed microprocessor network for automating the routine production synthesis of radiotracers used in Positron Emission Tomography. We first present a brief overview of the PET method for measuring biological function, and then outline the general procedure for producing a radiotracer. The paper identifies several reasons for our automating the syntheses of these compounds. There is a description of the distributed microprocessor network architecture chosen and the rationale for that choice. Finally, we speculate about how this network may be exploited to extend the power of the PET method from the large university or National Laboratory to the biomedical research and clinical community at large. (DT)

  7. Optimization of Reciprocals and Square Roots on the i860 Microprocessor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinclair, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The i860 microprocessor lacks both a divide and a square root instruction. The consequences of this for code involving many reciprocal square roots, such as many-body simulations involving Coulomb-like potentials, are discussed with a particular emphasis on high performance.......The i860 microprocessor lacks both a divide and a square root instruction. The consequences of this for code involving many reciprocal square roots, such as many-body simulations involving Coulomb-like potentials, are discussed with a particular emphasis on high performance....

  8. Neutron beam irradiation study of workload dependence of SER in a microprocessor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalak, Sarah E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Graves, Todd L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hong, Ted [STANFORD; Ackaret, Jerry [IBM; Sonny, Rao [IBM; Subhasish, Mitra [STANFORD; Pia, Sanda [IBM

    2009-01-01

    It is known that workloads are an important factor in soft error rates (SER), but it is proving difficult to find differentiating workloads for microprocessors. We have performed neutron beam irradiation studies of a commercial microprocessor under a wide variety of workload conditions from idle, performing no operations, to very busy workloads resembling real HPC, graphics, and business applications. There is evidence that the mean times to first indication of failure, MTFIF defined in Section II, may be different for some of the applications.

  9. Distributed microprocessor automation network for synthesizing radiotracers used in positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.A.G.; Alexoff, D.L.; Wolf, A.P.

    1984-01-01

    This presentation describes an evolving distributed microprocessor network for automating the routine production synthesis of radiotracers used in Positron Emission Tomography. We first present a brief overview of the PET method for measuring biological function, and then outline the general procedure for producing a radiotracer. The paper identifies several reasons for our automating the syntheses of these compounds. There is a description of the distributed microprocessor network architecture chosen and the rationale for that choice. Finally, we speculate about how this network may be exploited to extend the power of the PET method from the large university or National Laboratory to the biomedical research and clinical community at large. 20 refs. (DT)

  10. Design description of a microprocessor based Engine Monitoring and Control unit (EMAC) for small turboshaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, A. N.

    1985-01-01

    Research programs have demonstrated that digital electronic controls are more suitable for advanced aircraft/rotorcraft turbine engine systems than hydromechanical controls. Commercially available microprocessors are believed to have the speed and computational capability required for implementing advanced digital control algorithms. Thus, it is desirable to demonstrate that off-the-shelf microprocessors are indeed capable of performing real time control of advanced gas turbine engines. The engine monitoring and control (EMAC) unit was designed and fabricated specifically to meet the requirements of an advanced gas turbine engine control system. The EMAC unit is fully operational in the Army/NASA small turboshaft engine digital research program.

  11. Application of a 16-bit microprocessor to the digital control of machine tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issaly, Alain

    1979-01-01

    After an overview of machine tools (various types, definition standardization, associated technologies for motors and position sensors), this research thesis describes the principles of computer-based digital control: classification of machine tool command systems, machining programming, programming languages, dialog function, interpolation function, servo-control function, tool compensation function. The author reports the application of a 16-bit microprocessor to the computer-based digital control of a machine tool: feasibility, selection of microprocessor, hardware presentation, software development and description, machining mode, translation-loading mode

  12. The micro-processor controlled process radiation monitoring system for reactor safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, K.; Noguchi, A.; Kumagami, S.; Gotoh, Y.; Kumahara, T.; Arita, S.

    1986-01-01

    Digital computers are soon expected to be applied to various real-time safety and safety-related systems in nuclear power plants. Hitachi is now engaged in the development of a micro-processor controlled process radiation monitoring system, which operates on digital processing methods employed with a log ratemeter. A newly defined methodology of design and test procedures is being applied as a means of software program verification for these safety systems. Recently implemented micro-processor technology will help to achieve an advanced man-machine interface and highly reliable performance. (author)

  13. Open Source Radiation Hardened by Design Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The proposed technology allows use of the latest microcircuit technology with lowest power and fastest speed, with minimal delay and engineering costs, through new Radiation Hardened by Design (RHBD) techniques that do not require extensive process characterization, technique evaluation and re-design at each Moore's Law generation. The separation of critical node groups is explicitly parameterized so it can be increased as microcircuit technologies shrink. The technology will be open access to radiation tolerant circuit vendors. INNOVATION: This technology would enhance computation intensive applications such as autonomy, robotics, advanced sensor and tracking processes, as well as low power applications such as wireless sensor networks. OUTCOME / RESULTS: 1) Simulation analysis indicates feasibility. 2)Compact voting latch 65 nanometer test chip designed and submitted for fabrication -7/2016. INFUSION FOR SPACE / EARTH: This technology may be used in any digital integrated circuit in which a high level of resistance to Single Event Upsets is desired, and has the greatest benefit outside low earth orbit where cosmic rays are numerous.

  14. Radiation-hardened microwave communications system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.F.; Crutcher, R.I.; Vandermolen, R.I.

    1990-01-01

    The consolidated fuel reprocessing program (CFRP) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing signal transmission techniques and equipment to improve the efficiency of remote handling operations for nuclear applications. These efforts have been largely directed toward the goals of (a) remotely controlling bilateral force-reflecting servomanipulators for dexterous manipulation-based operations in remote maintenance tasks and (b) providing television viewing of the work site. In September 1987, developmental microwave transceiving hardware operating with dish antennas was demonstrated in the advanced integrated maintenance system (AIMS) facility at ORNL, successfully implementing both high-quality one-way television transmissions and simultaneous bidirectional digital control data transmissions with very low error rates. Initial test results based on digital transmission at a 1.0-Mbaud data rate indicated that the error rates of the microwave system were comparable to those of a hardwired system. During these test intervals, complex manipulator operations were performed, and the AIMS transporter was moved repeatedly without adverse effects on data integrity. Results of these tests have been factored into subsequent phases of the development program, with an ultimate goal of designing a fully radiation-hardened microwave signal transmission system for use in nuclear facilities

  15. A Radiation Hardened Housekeeping Slave Node (RH-HKSN) ASIC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This projects seeks to continue the development of the Radiation Hardened Housekeeping Slave Node (RH-HKSN) ASIC. The effort has taken parallel paths by implementing...

  16. Stress corrosion cracking evaluation of precipitation-hardening stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.

    1970-01-01

    Accelerated test program results show which precipitation hardening stainless steels are resistant to stress corrosion cracking. In certain cases stress corrosion susceptibility was found to be associated with the process procedure.

  17. Radiation-chemical hardening of phenol-formaldehyde oligomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlapatskaya, V.V.; Omel'chenko, S.I.

    1978-01-01

    Radiation-chemical hardening of phenol formaldehyde oligomers of the resol type has been studied in the presence of furfural and diallylphthalate diluents. The samples have been hardened on an electron accelerator at an electron energy of 1.0-1.1 MeV and a dose rate of 2-3 Mrad/s. The kinetics of hardening has been studied on the yield of gel fraction within the range of absorbed doses from 7 to 400 Mrad. Radiation-chemical hardening of the studied compositions is activated with sensitizers, namely, amines, metal chlorides, and heterocyclic derivatives of metals. Furfural and diallylphthalate compositions are suitable for forming glass-fibre plastic items by the wet method and coatings under the action of ionizing radiations

  18. Technologies Enabling Custom Radiation-Hardened Component Development, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two primary paths are available for the creation of a Rad-Hard ASIC. The first approach is to use a radiation hardened process such as existing Rad-Hard foundries....

  19. system hardening architecture for safer access to critical business

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    System hardening is a defence strategy, where several different security measures are applied at various layers, all of which .... commerce have tremendously imparted on corporate services ..... Technology and Exploring Engineering, Vol. 2,.

  20. Space Qualified, Radiation Hardened, Dense Monolithic Flash Memory, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radiation hardened nonvolatile memories for space is still primarily confined to EEPROM. There is high density effective or cost effective NVM solution available to...

  1. Generation Mechanism of Work Hardened Surface Layer in Metal Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikiji, Rikio; Kondo, Eiji; Kawagoishi, Norio; Arai, Minoru

    Finish machining used to be carried out in grinding, but it is being replaced by cutting with very small undeformed chip thickness. In ultra precision process, the effects of the cutting conditions and the complicated factors on the machined surface integrity are the serious problems. In this research, work hardened surface layer was dealt with as an evaluation of the machined surface integrity and the effect of the mechanical factors on work hardening was investigated experimentally in orthogonal cutting. As a result, it was found that work hardened surface layer was affected not only by the shear angle varied under the cutting conditions and the thrust force of cutting resistance, but also by the thrust force acting point, the coefficient of the thrust force and the compressive stress equivalent to the bulk hardness. Furthermore, these mechanical factors acting on the depth of the work hardened surface layer were investigated with the calculation model.

  2. Radiation Hardened Ethernet PHY and Switch Fabric, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innoflight will develop a new family of radiation hardened (up to 3 Mrad(Si)), fault-tolerant, high data-rate (up to 8 Gbps), low power Gigabit Ethernet PHY and...

  3. Space Qualified, Radiation Hardened, Dense Monolithic Flash Memory, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Micro proposes to build a radiation hardened by design (RHBD) flash memory, using a modified version of our RH-eDRAM Memory Controller to solve all the single...

  4. System Hardening Architecture for Safer Access to Critical Business ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    System Hardening Architecture for Safer Access to Critical Business Data. ... and the threat is growing faster than the potential victims can deal with. ... in this architecture are applied to the host, application, operating system, user, and the ...

  5. USAFA/8086 - A State of the Art Microprocessor System. Volume II. Software Documentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    8217IDENT’ IS USED TO IDENTIFY WHICH OF THE TWO LINKIAGE MAP BlUFFERS (IDENT IS LINKI , IDENT-- IS LINK2) THAT IS TO BE USED. 4/ 32 1 LINKSIN$OUT...CALL DATSIN$OT(, FMDRIVE, LINKi (I). TRK, , - LINi(I). SECT, 9); /s WRITE NEW FILE s 429, 4 CALL DfITAINOUT(iTODRELINK2I). TRIG LINK2(I). SECT, 9); 439...CALL DATR$INSOU(B, DRIVE, RTRACK, RSECTOR, PTR); 559 4 END, /* GET NEXT LINKAGE WI SECTOR *i- 568 3 LINKECTO=INK W SECT; 561 3 LINKTRACK- LINKi (1

  6. AGARD Flight Test Instrumentation Series. Volume 18. Microprocessor Applications in Airborne Flight Test Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    flowcharting . 3. ProEram Codin in HLL. This stage consists of transcribing the previously designed program into R an t at can be translated into the machine...specified conditios 7. Documentation. Program documentation is necessary for user information, for maintenance, and for future applications. Flowcharts ...particular CP U. Asynchronous. Operating without reference to an overall timing source. BASIC. Beginners ’ All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code; a widely

  7. DMILL circuits. The hardened electronics decuples its performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Thanks to the DMILL (mixed logic-linear hardening) technology under development at the CEA, MHS, a French company specialized in the fabrication of integrated circuits now produces hardened electronic circuits ten times more resistant to radiations than its competitors. Outside the initial market (several thousands of circuits for the LHC particle accelerator of Geneva), a broad choice of applications is opened to this technology: national defense, space, civil nuclear and medical engineering, and high temperature applications. Short paper. (J.S.)

  8. Micromilling of hardened tool steel for mould making applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissacco, Giuliano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2005-01-01

    geometries as those characterizing injection moulding moulds. The realization of the micromilling process in connection with hardened tool steel as workpiece material is particularly challenging. The low strength of the miniaturized end mills implies reduction and accurate control of the chip load which...... wear. This paper presents the micromilling process applied to the manufacturing of micro injection moulding moulds in hardened tool steel, presenting experimental evidence and possible solutions to the above-mentioned issues....

  9. Radiation hardening of metals irradiated by heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didyk, A.Yu.; Skuratov, V.A.; Mikhajlova, N.Yu.; Regel', V.R.

    1988-01-01

    The damage dose dependence in the 10 -4 -10 -2 dpa region of radiation hardening of Al, V, Ni, Cu irradiated by xenon ions with 124 MeV energy is investigated using the microhardness technique and transmission electron microscope. It is shown that the pure metals radiation hardening is stimulated for defects clusters with the typical size less than 5 nm, as in the case of neutron and the light charge ion irradiation

  10. The characterization of Vicker's microhardness indentations and pile-up profiles as a strain-hardening microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, C. Jr.

    1998-04-01

    Microhardness measurements have long been used to examine strength properties and changes in strength properties in metals, for example, as induced by irradiation. Microhardness affords a relatively simple test that can be applied to very small volumes of material. Microhardness is nominally related to the flow stress of the material at a fixed level of plastic strain. Further, the geometry of the pile-up of material around the indentation is related to the strain-hardening behavior of a material; steeper pile-ups correspond to smaller strain-hardening rates. In this study the relationship between pile-up profiles and strain hardening is examined using both experimental and analytical methods. Vickers microhardness tests have been performed on a variety of metal alloys including low alloy, high Cr and austenitic stainless steels. The pile-up topology around the indentations has been quantified using confocal microscopy techniques. In addition, the indentation and pile-up geometry has been simulated using finite element method techniques. These results have been used to develop an improved quantification of the relationship between the pile-up geometry and the strain-hardening constitutive behavior of the test material

  11. Developing precipitation hardenable high entropy alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwalani, Bharat

    High entropy alloys (HEAs) is a concept wherein alloys are constructed with five or more elements mixed in equal proportions; these are also known as multi-principle elements (MPEs) or complex concentrated alloys (CCAs). This PhD thesis dissertation presents research conducted to develop precipitation-hardenable high entropy alloys using a much-studied fcc-based equi-atomic quaternary alloy (CoCrFeNi). Minor additions of aluminium make the alloy amenable for precipitating ordered intermetallic phases in an fcc matrix. Aluminum also affects grain growth kinetics and Hall-Petch hardenability. The use of a combinatorial approach for assessing composition-microstructure-property relationships in high entropy alloys, or more broadly in complex concentrated alloys; using laser deposited compositionally graded AlxCrCuFeNi 2 (0 mechanically processed via conventional techniques. The phase stability and mechanical properties of these alloys have been investigated and will be presented. Additionally, the activation energy for grain growth as a function of Al content in these complex alloys has also been investigated. Change in fcc grain growth kinetic was studied as a function of aluminum; the apparent activation energy for grain growth increases by about three times going from Al0.1CoCrFeNi (3% Al (at%)) to Al0.3CoCrFeNi. (7% Al (at%)). Furthermore, Al addition leads to the precipitation of highly refined ordered L12 (gamma') and B2 precipitates in Al0.3CoCrFeNi. A detailed investigation of precipitation of the ordered phases in Al0.3CoCrFeNi and their thermal stability is done using atom probe tomography (APT), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Synchrotron X-ray in situ and ex situ analyses. The alloy strengthened via grain boundary strengthening following the Hall-Petch relationship offers a large increment of strength with small variation in grain size. Tensile strength of the Al0.3CoFeNi is increased by 50% on precipitation fine-scale gamma' precipitates

  12. Zinc coated sheet steel for press hardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Zahra N.

    Galvanized steels are of interest to enhance corrosion resistance of press-hardened steels, but concerns related to liquid metal embrittlement have been raised. The objective of this study was to assess the soak time and temperature conditions relevant to the hot-stamping process during which Zn penetration did or did not occur in galvanized 22MnB5 press-hardening steel. A GleebleRTM 3500 was used to heat treat samples using hold times and temperatures similar to those used in industrial hot-stamping. Deformation at both elevated temperature and room temperature were conducted to assess the coating and substrate behavior related to forming (at high temperature) and service (at room temperature). The extent of alloying between the coating and substrate was assessed on undeformed samples heat treated under similar conditions to the deformed samples. The coating transitioned from an α + Gamma1 composition to an α (bcc Fe-Zn) phase with increased soak time. This transition likely corresponded to a decrease in availability of Zn-rich liquid in the coating during elevated temperature deformation. Penetration of Zn into the substrate sheet in the undeformed condition was not observed for any of the processing conditions examined. The number and depth of cracks in the coating and substrate steel was also measured in the hot-ductility samples. The number of cracks appeared to increase, while the depth of cracks appeared to decrease, with increasing soak time and increasing soak temperature. The crack depth appeared to be minimized in the sample soaked at the highest soak temperature (900 °C) for intermediate and extended soak times (300 s or 600 s). Zn penetration into the substrate steel was observed in the hot-ductility samples soaked at each hold temperature for the shortest soak time (10 s) before being deformed at elevated temperature. Reduction of area and elongation measurements showed that the coated sample soaked at the highest temperature and longest soak time

  13. Reliability of microprocessor-based relay protection devices: Myths and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurevich Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines four basic theses about the ostensibly extremely high reliability of microprocessor-based relay protection (MP touted by supporters of MP. Through detailed analysis based on many references it is shown that the basis of these theses are widespread myths, and actually MP reliability is lower than the reliability of electromechanical and electronic protective relays on discrete components.

  14. Microprocessor control unit of thyristor regulator of microhydroelectric power station ballast load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomokonova, Yu; Bogdanov, E

    2014-01-01

    The operational principle of microhydroelectric power station ballast load is presented. The comparative overview of the mathematical modeling methods is performed. The ranges of thyristors optimal work are shown as a result of the regulator regimes analysis. Shows the necessity of regulation the ballast load in microhydroelectric power station with help of developed algorithm of the program for microprocessor control

  15. A new design approach for control circuits of pipelined single-flux-quantum microprocessors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanashi, Y; Akimoto, A; Yoshikawa, N; Tanaka, M; Kawamoto, T; Kamiya, Y; Fujimaki, A; Terai, H; Yorozu, S

    2006-01-01

    A novel method of design for controllers of pipelined microprocessors using single-flux-quantum (SFQ) logic has been proposed. The proposed design approach is based on one hot encoding and is very suitable for designing a finite state machine using SFQ logic circuits, where each internal state of the microprocessor is represented by a flip-flop. In this approach, decoding of the internal state can be performed instantaneously, in contrast to the case in the conventional method using a binary state register. Moreover, pipelining is effectively implemented without increasing the circuit size because no pipeline registers are required in the one hot encoding. By using this method, we have designed a controller for our new SFQ microprocessors, which employs pipelining. The number of Josephson junctions of the newly designed controller is 1067, while the previous version without pipelining contains 1721 Josephson junctions. These results indicate that the proposed design approach is very effective for pipelined SFQ microprocessors. We have implemented a new controller using the NEC 2.5 kA cm -2 Nb standard process and confirmed its correct operation experimentally

  16. Instrument for bone mineral measurement using a microprocessor as the control and arithmetic element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberi, J.L.; Hardy, W.H. II.

    1975-11-01

    A self-contained instrument for the determination of bone mineral content by photon absorptometry is described. A high-resolution detection system allows measurements to be made at up to 16 photon energies. Control and arithmetic functions are performed by a microprocessor. Analysis capability and limitations are discussed

  17. Design of microprocessor data acquisition system for pedestrian portal SNM monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wenliang

    2003-01-01

    The paper introduces the hardware structure and composition of data acquisition system for pedestrian portal special nuclear material (SNM) monitor. The hardware and software of single chip microprocessor AT89C52, LCM, keyboard and serial communication interface software are also discussed. (authors)

  18. Adapting to change: influence of a microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee on gait adaptations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinsen, Erik Christiaan

    2016-01-01

    Advancement in prosthetic knee design have led to the introduction of microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knees (MPKs). MPKs incorporate sensors that are able to measure prosthetic loading, the knee angle, and knee angular velocity. Based on the sensor information, MPKs determine the optimal level

  19. A CAMAC-resident microprocessor for the monitoring of polarimeter spin states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, D.; DuPlantis, D.; Yoder, N.; Dale, D.

    1992-01-01

    A CAMAC module for the reporting of polarimeter spin states is being developed using a resident microcontroller. The module will allow experimenters at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility to monitor spin states and correlate spin information with other experimental data. The use of a microprocessor allows for adaptation of the module as new requirements ensue without change to the printed circuit board layout. (author)

  20. Microprocessor system for data acquisition processing and display for Auger electrons spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, Z.; Cudny, W.; Hildebrandt, S.; Marzec, J.; Walentek, J.; Zaremba, K.

    1984-01-01

    Data acquisition system for Auger electron spectrometry is developed. The system is used for chemical and structural analysis of materials and consists of a cylindrical mirror analyzer being a measuring spectrometer device, CAMAC unit and control unit. The control unit comprises a microcomputer based on INTEL 8080 microprocessor and display

  1. The design of an asynchronous Tiny RISC TM/TR4101 microprocessor core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kåre Tais; Jensen, P.; Korger, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an asynchronous version of the TR4101 embedded microprocessor core developed by LSI Logic Inc. The asynchronous processor, called ARISC, was designed using the same CAD tools and the same standard cell library that was used to implement the TR4101. The paper repo...

  2. Extracting material response from simple mechanical tests on hardening-softening-hardening viscoplastic solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Nisha

    Compliant foams are usually characterized by a wide range of desirable mechanical properties. These properties include viscoelasticity at different temperatures, energy absorption, recoverability under cyclic loading, impact resistance, and thermal, electrical, acoustic and radiation-resistance. Some foams contain nano-sized features and are used in small-scale devices. This implies that the characteristic dimensions of foams span multiple length scales, rendering modeling their mechanical properties difficult. Continuum mechanics-based models capture some salient experimental features like the linear elastic regime, followed by non-linear plateau stress regime. However, they lack mesostructural physical details. This makes them incapable of accurately predicting local peaks in stress and strain distributions, which significantly affect the deformation paths. Atomistic methods are capable of capturing the physical origins of deformation at smaller scales, but suffer from impractical computational intensity. Capturing deformation at the so-called meso-scale, which is capable of describing the phenomenon at a continuum level, but with some physical insights, requires developing new theoretical approaches. A fundamental question that motivates the modeling of foams is `how to extract the intrinsic material response from simple mechanical test data, such as stress vs. strain response?' A 3D model was developed to simulate the mechanical response of foam-type materials. The novelty of this model includes unique features such as the hardening-softening-hardening material response, strain rate-dependence, and plastically compressible solids with plastic non-normality. Suggestive links from atomistic simulations of foams were borrowed to formulate a physically informed hardening material input function. Motivated by a model that qualitatively captured the response of foam-type vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) pillars under uniaxial compression [2011,"Analysis of

  3. Architectural and compiler techniques for energy reduction in high-performance microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellas, Nikolaos

    1999-11-01

    The microprocessor industry has started viewing power, along with area and performance, as a decisive design factor in today's microprocessors. The increasing cost of packaging and cooling systems poses stringent requirements on the maximum allowable power dissipation. Most of the research in recent years has focused on the circuit, gate, and register-transfer (RT) levels of the design. In this research, we focus on the software running on a microprocessor and we view the program as a power consumer. Our work concentrates on the role of the compiler in the construction of "power-efficient" code, and especially its interaction with the hardware so that unnecessary processor activity is saved. We propose techniques that use extra hardware features and compiler-driven code transformations that specifically target activity reduction in certain parts of the CPU which are known to be large power and energy consumers. Design for low power/energy at this level of abstraction entails larger energy gains than in the lower stages of the design hierarchy in which the design team has already made the most important design commitments. The role of the compiler in generating code which exploits the processor organization is also fundamental in energy minimization. Hence, we propose a hardware/software co-design paradigm, and we show what code transformations are necessary by the compiler so that "wasted" power in a modern microprocessor can be trimmed. More specifically, we propose a technique that uses an additional mini cache located between the instruction cache (I-Cache) and the CPU core; the mini cache buffers instructions that are nested within loops and are continuously fetched from the I-Cache. This mechanism can create very substantial energy savings, since the I-Cache unit is one of the main power consumers in most of today's high-performance microprocessors. Results are reported for the SPEC95 benchmarks in the R-4400 processor which implements the MIPS2 instruction

  4. Study on pore structure and diffusion coefficient of chloride ion in hardened low-alkaline cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, Morihiro; Torii, Kazuyuki

    2009-03-01

    Low-alkaline cement using pozzolans is under consideration as a possible filling and structural material in geological disposal for long-lived radioactive waste. Silica fume and fly ash are used to develop the low-alkaline cement which is named HFSC, High-volume Fly ash Silica fume Cement. In this study, pore structure and diffusivity of chloride ion in HFSC pastes were investigated in order to understand the fundamental transport properties of ions. HFSC which included different contents of fly ash (40%, 50% and 60%) with silica fume (20%) and ordinary Portland (OPC) cement were prepared. Hardened cement pastes were supplied to pore structure analysis and in-diffusion experiment with NaCl and CaCl 2 solution. Mercury intrusion method (MIP) commonly used and image analysis of backscattered electron microscopy (BSE) for pore in hardened cement paste were performed to investigate the pore structure. The porosity of HFSC was larger than that of OPC measured by MIP. However, pore diameter increasing pore volume of HFSC was smaller than that of OPC. It was observed that lager pores were in HFSC than in OPC from BSE. These large pores in HFSC were originated from cenosphere of FA. The apparent diffusivity of chloride in HFSC with fly ash of 40% showed smallest value in the cement pastes. It was concluded that the smallest diffusion coefficient was caused by a pore of HFSC which had a bended structure and ion exclusion/filtration effect. (author)

  5. Process design of press hardening with gradient material property influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neugebauer, R.; Schieck, F.; Rautenstrauch, A.

    2011-01-01

    Press hardening is currently used in the production of automotive structures that require very high strength and controlled deformation during crash tests. Press hardening can achieve significant reductions of sheet thickness at constant strength and is therefore a promising technology for the production of lightweight and energy-efficient automobiles. The manganese-boron steel 22MnB5 have been implemented in sheet press hardening owing to their excellent hot formability, high hardenability, and good temperability even at low cooling rates. However, press-hardened components have shown poor ductility and cracking at relatively small strains. A possible solution to this problem is a selective increase of steel sheet ductility by press hardening process design in areas where the component is required to deform plastically during crash tests. To this end, process designers require information about microstructure and mechanical properties as a function of the wide spectrum of cooling rates and sequences and austenitizing treatment conditions that can be encountered in production environments. In the present work, a Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) diagram with corresponding material properties of sheet steel 22MnB5 was determined for a wide spectrum of cooling rates. Heating and cooling programs were conducted in a quenching dilatometer. Motivated by the importance of residual elasticity in crash test performance, this property was measured using a micro-bending test and the results were integrated into the CCT diagrams to complement the hardness testing results. This information is essential for the process design of press hardening of sheet components with gradient material properties.

  6. Single-Event Upset and Scaling Trends in New Generation of the Commercial SOI PowerPC Microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irom, Farokh; Farmanesh, Farhad; Kouba, Coy K.

    2006-01-01

    Single-event upset effects from heavy ions are measured for Motorola silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microprocessor with 90 nm feature sizes. The results are compared with previous results for SOI microprocessors with feature sizes of 130 and 180 nm. The cross section of the 90 nm SOI processors is smaller than results for 130 and 180 nm counterparts, but the threshold is about the same. The scaling of the cross section with reduction of feature size and core voltage for SOI microprocessors is discussed.

  7. Microstructural and bulk property changes in hardened cement paste during the first drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Ippei, E-mail: ippei@dali.nuac.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, ES Building, No. 546, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464–8603 (Japan); Nishioka, Yukiko; Igarashi, Go [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, ES Building, No. 539, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464–8603 (Japan); Matsui, Kunio [Products and Marketing Development Dept. Asahi-KASEI Construction Materials Corporation, 106 Someya, Sakai-machi, Sashima-gun, Ibaraki, 306–0493 (Japan)

    2014-04-01

    This paper reports the microstructural changes and resultant bulk physical property changes in hardened cement paste (hcp) during the first desorption process. The microstructural changes and solid-phase changes were evaluated by water vapor sorption, nitrogen sorption, ultrasonic velocity, and {sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al nuclear magnetic resonance. Strength, Young's modulus, and drying shrinkage were also examined. The first drying process increased the volume of macropores and decreased the volume of mesopores and interlayer spaces. Furthermore, in the first drying process globule clusters were interconnected. During the first desorption, the strength increased for samples cured at 100% to 90% RH, decreased for 90% to 40% RH, and increased again for 40% to 11% RH. This behavior is explained by both microstructural changes in hcp and C–S–H globule densification. The drying shrinkage strains during rapid drying and slow drying were compared and the effects of the microstructural changes and evaporation were separated.

  8. Influence of Hardening Model on Weld Residual Stress Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullins, Jonathan; Gunnars, Jens (Inspecta Technology AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-06-15

    This study is the third stage of a project sponsored by the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) to improve the weld residual stress modelling procedures currently used in Sweden. The aim of this study was to determine which material hardening model gave the best agreement with experimentally measured weld residual stress distributions. Two girth weld geometries were considered: 19mm and 65mm thick girth welds with Rin/t ratios of 10.5 and 2.8, respectively. The FE solver ABAQUS Standard v6.5 was used for analysis. As a preliminary step some improvements were made to the welding simulation procedure used in part one of the project. First, monotonic stress strain curves and a mixed isotropic/kinematic hardening model were sourced from the literature for 316 stainless steel. Second, more detailed information was obtained regarding the geometry and welding sequence for the Case 1 weld (compared with phase 1 of this project). Following the preliminary step, welding simulations were conducted using isotropic, kinematic and mixed hardening models. The isotropic hardening model gave the best overall agreement with experimental measurements; it is therefore recommended for future use in welding simulations. The mixed hardening model gave good agreement for predictions of the hoop stress but tended to under estimate the magnitude of the axial stress. It must be noted that two different sources of data were used for the isotropic and mixed models in this study and this may have contributed to the discrepancy in predictions. When defining a mixed hardening model it is difficult to delineate the relative contributions of isotropic and kinematic hardening and for the model used it may be that a greater isotropic hardening component should have been specified. The kinematic hardening model consistently underestimated the magnitude of both the axial and hoop stress and is not recommended for use. Two sensitivity studies were also conducted. In the first the effect of using a

  9. Influence of Hardening Model on Weld Residual Stress Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullins, Jonathan; Gunnars, Jens

    2009-06-01

    This study is the third stage of a project sponsored by the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) to improve the weld residual stress modelling procedures currently used in Sweden. The aim of this study was to determine which material hardening model gave the best agreement with experimentally measured weld residual stress distributions. Two girth weld geometries were considered: 19mm and 65mm thick girth welds with Rin/t ratios of 10.5 and 2.8, respectively. The FE solver ABAQUS Standard v6.5 was used for analysis. As a preliminary step some improvements were made to the welding simulation procedure used in part one of the project. First, monotonic stress strain curves and a mixed isotropic/kinematic hardening model were sourced from the literature for 316 stainless steel. Second, more detailed information was obtained regarding the geometry and welding sequence for the Case 1 weld (compared with phase 1 of this project). Following the preliminary step, welding simulations were conducted using isotropic, kinematic and mixed hardening models. The isotropic hardening model gave the best overall agreement with experimental measurements; it is therefore recommended for future use in welding simulations. The mixed hardening model gave good agreement for predictions of the hoop stress but tended to under estimate the magnitude of the axial stress. It must be noted that two different sources of data were used for the isotropic and mixed models in this study and this may have contributed to the discrepancy in predictions. When defining a mixed hardening model it is difficult to delineate the relative contributions of isotropic and kinematic hardening and for the model used it may be that a greater isotropic hardening component should have been specified. The kinematic hardening model consistently underestimated the magnitude of both the axial and hoop stress and is not recommended for use. Two sensitivity studies were also conducted. In the first the effect of using a

  10. General analytical shakedown solution for structures with kinematic hardening materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baofeng; Zou, Zongyuan; Jin, Miao

    2016-09-01

    The effect of kinematic hardening behavior on the shakedown behaviors of structure has been investigated by performing shakedown analysis for some specific problems. The results obtained only show that the shakedown limit loads of structures with kinematic hardening model are larger than or equal to those with perfectly plastic model of the same initial yield stress. To further investigate the rules governing the different shakedown behaviors of kinematic hardening structures, the extended shakedown theorem for limited kinematic hardening is applied, the shakedown condition is then proposed, and a general analytical solution for the structural shakedown limit load is thus derived. The analytical shakedown limit loads for fully reversed cyclic loading and non-fully reversed cyclic loading are then given based on the general solution. The resulting analytical solution is applied to some specific problems: a hollow specimen subjected to tension and torsion, a flanged pipe subjected to pressure and axial force and a square plate with small central hole subjected to biaxial tension. The results obtained are compared with those in literatures, they are consistent with each other. Based on the resulting general analytical solution, rules governing the general effects of kinematic hardening behavior on the shakedown behavior of structure are clearly.

  11. Microstructure-property relationships and constitutive response of plastically graded case hardened steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klecka, Michael A.

    Case hardened materials, popularly used in many demanding engineering applications such as bearings, gears, and wear/impact surfaces, have high surface hardness and a gradient in material properties (hardness, yield strength, etc.) as a function of depth; therefore, they behave as plastically graded materials. In the current study, two different commercially available case carburized steels along with two through hardened steels are characterized to obtain relationships among the volume fraction of subsurface carbides, indentation hardness, elastic modulus, and yield strength as a function of depth. A variety of methods including microindentation, nanoindentation, ultrasonic measurements, compression testing, rule of mixtures, and upper and lower bound models are used to determine the relationships for elastic modulus and compare the experimental results with model predictions. In addition, the morphology, composition, and properties of the carbide particles are also determined. The gradient in hardness with depth in graded materials is commonly determined using microindentation on the cross-section of the material which contains the gradation in microstructure or composition. In the current study, a novel method is proposed to predict the hardness gradient profile using solely surface indentations at a range of loads. The method does not require the graded material to be sectioned, and has practical utility in the surface heat-treatment industry. For a material with a decreasing gradient in hardness, higher indent loads result in a lower measured hardness due to the influence of the softer subsurface layers. A power-law model is presented which relates the measured surface indentation hardness under increasing load to the subsurface gradient in hardness. A coordinated experimental and numerical study is presented to extract the constitutive response of graded materials, utilizing relationships between hardness, plastic deformation, and strain hardening response

  12. Strain-hardening behavior and microstructure development in polycrystalline as-cast Mg-Zn-Y alloys with LPSO phase subjected to cyclic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraishi, Kazuma [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1, Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Mayama, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: mayama@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Priority Organization for Innovation and Excellence, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1, Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Yamasaki, Michiaki [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Qld 4072 (Australia); Magnesium Research Center/Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1, Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kawamura, Yoshihito [Magnesium Research Center/Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1, Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2016-08-30

    The strain-hardening behavior and microstructural development of polycrystalline as-cast Mg-Zn-Y alloys with various volume fractions of the long-period stacking ordered (LPSO) phase subjected to cyclic loading were experimentally evaluated. For all alloys, cyclic loading tests with a constant strain amplitude of 0.5% for up to 100 cycles showed asymmetric cyclic hardening behavior. That is, the absolute value of the compressive peak stress significantly increased during cyclic loading while the tensile peak stress slightly decreased. With increasing volume fraction of the LPSO phase, the stress amplitude significantly increased. Cyclic loading tests after compressive preloading up to 200 or 250 MPa resulted in a significant increase in the stress amplitude, while a number of kink bands developed during preloading. For the cyclic hardening behavior, the contribution of the increase in kinematic hardening was significant in the alloys with a higher volume fraction of the LPSO phase. Transmission electron microscopy observation of the cyclically deformed Mg{sub 85}Zn{sub 6}Y{sub 9} alloy indicated the formation of a deformation-induced band, where the crystal structure was transformed from 18R-LPSO to hcp-Mg with the exclusion of solute elements.

  13. Influence of coolant motion on structure of hardened steel element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kulawik

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Presented paper is focused on volumetric hardening process using liquid low melting point metal as a coolant. Effect of convective motion of the coolant on material structure after hardening is investigated. Comparison with results obtained for model neglecting motion of liquid is executed. Mathematical and numerical model based on Finite Element Metod is described. Characteristic Based Split (CBS method is used to uncouple velocities and pressure and finally to solve Navier-Stokes equation. Petrov-Galerkin formulation is employed to stabilize convective term in heat transport equation. Phase transformations model is created on the basis of Johnson-Mehl and Avrami laws. Continuous cooling diagram (CTPc for C45 steel is exploited in presented model of phase transformations. Temporary temperatures, phases participation, thermal and structural strains in hardening element and coolant velocities are shown and discussed.

  14. Investigation of magnesium oxychloride cement at the initial hardening stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Averina Galina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the process of variation of magnesium oxychloride cement deformations at the initial hardening stage depending on the activity of magnesium oxide powder which is determined by the parameters of the source material burning. Investigation is focused on magnesium cements obtained from pure magnesium hydroxide. Source materials were burnt at various temperatures with the purpose to obtain magnesium oxide powder with different activity. Regular content of hydrated phases was determined in hardened magnesium cement prepared on the basis of binders with different activity. The study reveals the influence of magnesium oxide powder activity on the process of deformation occurrence in hardened magnesium cement and its tendency to crack formation.

  15. Branching structure and strain hardening of branched metallocene polyethylenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Enrique; Li, Si-Wan; Costeux, Stéphane; Dealy, John M.

    2015-01-01

    There have been a number of studies of a series of branched metallocene polyethylenes (BMPs) made in a solution, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) polymerization. The materials studied vary in branching level in a systematic way, and the most highly branched members of the series exhibit mild strain hardening. An outstanding question is which types of branched molecules are responsible for strain hardening in extension. This question is explored here by use of polymerization and rheological models along with new data on the extensional flow behavior of the most highly branched members of the set. After reviewing all that is known about the effects of various branching structures in homogeneous polymers and comparing this with the structures predicted to be present in BMPs, it is concluded that in spite of their very low concentration, treelike molecules with branch-on-branch structure provide a large number of deeply buried inner segments that are essential for strain hardening in these polymers

  16. Branching structure and strain hardening of branched metallocene polyethylenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Enrique; Li, Si-Wan; Costeux, Stéphane; Dealy, John M., E-mail: john.dealy@mcgill.ca [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 0C4 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    There have been a number of studies of a series of branched metallocene polyethylenes (BMPs) made in a solution, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) polymerization. The materials studied vary in branching level in a systematic way, and the most highly branched members of the series exhibit mild strain hardening. An outstanding question is which types of branched molecules are responsible for strain hardening in extension. This question is explored here by use of polymerization and rheological models along with new data on the extensional flow behavior of the most highly branched members of the set. After reviewing all that is known about the effects of various branching structures in homogeneous polymers and comparing this with the structures predicted to be present in BMPs, it is concluded that in spite of their very low concentration, treelike molecules with branch-on-branch structure provide a large number of deeply buried inner segments that are essential for strain hardening in these polymers.

  17. Nonlinear kinematic hardening under non-proportional loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottosen, N.S.

    1979-07-01

    Within the framework of conventional plasticity theory, it is first determined under which conditions Melan-Prager's and Ziegler's kinematic hardening rules result in identical material behaviour. Next, assuming initial isotropy and adopting the von Mises yield criterion, a nonlinear kinematic hardening function is proposed for prediction of metal behaviour. The model assumes that hardening at a specific stress point depends on the direction of the new incremental loading. Hereby a realistic response is obtained for general reversed loading, and a smooth behaviour is assured, even when loading deviates more and more from proportional loading and ultimately results in reversed loading. The predictions of the proposed model for non-proportional loading under plane stress conditions are compared with those of the classical linear kinematic model, the isotropic model and with published experimental data. Finally, the limitations of the proposaed model are discussed. (author)

  18. Kinematic Hardening: Characterization, Modeling and Impact on Springback Prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, J. L.; Bouvier, S.; Jomaa, M.; Billardon, R.; Oliveira, M. C.; Menezes, L. F.

    2007-01-01

    The constitutive modeling of the materials' mechanical behavior, usually carried out using a phenomenological constitutive model, i.e., a yield criterion associated to the isotropic and kinematic hardening laws, is of paramount importance in the FEM simulation of the sheet metal forming processes, as well as in the springback prediction. Among others, the kinematic behavior of the yield surface plays an essential role, since it is indispensable to describe the Bauschinger effect, i.e., the materials' answer to the multiple tension-compression cycles to which material points are submitted during the forming process. Several laws are usually used to model and describe the kinematic hardening, namely: a) the Prager's law, which describes a linear evolution of the kinematic hardening with the plastic strain rate tensor b) the Frederick-Armstrong non-linear kinematic hardening, basically a non-linear law with saturation; and c) a more advanced physically-based law, similar to the previous one but sensitive to the strain path changes. In the present paper a mixed kinematic hardening law (linear + non-linear behavior) is proposed and its implementation into a static fully-implicit FE code is described. The material parameters identification for sheet metals using different strategies, and the classical Bauschinger loading tests (i.e. in-plane forward and reverse monotonic loading), are addressed, and their impact on springback prediction evaluated. Some numerical results concerning the springback prediction of the Numisheet'05 Benchmark no. 3 are briefly presented to emphasize the importance of a correct modeling and identification of the kinematic hardening behavior

  19. Correlation of microstructure and strain hardening behavior in the ultrafine-grained Nb-bearing dual phase steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghatei Kalashami, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kermanpur, A., E-mail: ahmad_k@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghassemali, E. [Jönköping University, School of Engineering, Department of Materials and Manufacturing, P.O. Box 1026, SE-551 11 Jönköping (Sweden); Najafizadeh, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mazaheri, Y. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Materials Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan 65178-38695 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Ultrafine-grained dual phase (DP) steels with different Nb contents (0.00, 0.06 and 0.12 wt%) were produced by cold-rolling followed by intercritical annealing of ferrite/martensite starting microstructure at 770 °C for different holding times. Scanning electron microscopy, equipped with electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) detector, nanoindentation and tensile testing were used to characterize microstructural evolutions and their correlations to the strain hardening and fracture behavior. EBSD results confirmed the retardation effect of Nb on recrystallization. It was found that the strains stored in the grains and density of geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs) were increased with the addition of Nb. Strain hardening analysis showed that plastic deformation of the DP steels occurred in three distinct stages, which based on the EBSD results, nanoindentation and fracture analysis, were controlled by microstructural features such martensite volume fraction and size, density of GNDs and individual ferrite and martensite tensile properties.

  20. Hardening mechanisms of spray formed Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys with scandium and other elemental additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, M.M.; Amateau, M.F.; Eden, T.J.

    2006-01-01

    The hardening mechanisms in spray formed Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys with additions of chromium, zinc and scandium were studied. The microstructure of the spray formed alloys was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. A range of tensile strengths were achieved, and varied based on elemental additions, and second phase particle strengthening. To explain the significantly higher strength in one alloy with scandium, theoretical results due to the yield stress of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys as a function of volume fraction and precipitate particle size, were compared to experimental data. Both the possibilities of coherency and order strengthening are examined. The significant additional hardening achieved in the alloy with scandium is attributed to small ordered particles of Al 3 Sc, which precipitated during aging

  1. Interaction between α-calcium sulfate hemihydrate and superplasticizer from the point of adsorption characteristics, hydration and hardening process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Baohong; Ye Qingqing; Zhang Jiali; Lou Wenbin; Wu Zhongbiao

    2010-01-01

    Superplasticizers (SPs), namely sulfonated melamine formaldehyde (SMF) and polycarboxylate (PC), were independently admixed with α-calcium sulfate hemihydrate based plaster to improve the material's performance. SMF and PC gave, respectively, 38% and 25% increases in the 2 h bending strength at the optimum dosages of 0.5 wt.% and 0.3 wt.%, which are determined essentially by the maximum water-reducing efficiency. The peak shift of binding energy of Ca2p 3/2 detected by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) suggests that SPs are chemically adsorbed on gypsum surface. A careful examination of the strength development of set plaster allowed the hydration and hardening process to be divided roughly into five stages. SMF accelerates early hydration, while PC decelerates it. Both SPs allowed similar maximum water reductions, giving a more compact structure and a decrease in total pore volume and average pore diameter, and thus leading to higher strengths in the hardened plasters with SPs.

  2. The application and processing of paints hardened by electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Electron beam hardening is a process for changing liquid surface coatings of different thicknesses by irradiation with electrons of high energy into solid, hard, elastic films. In contrast to the UV process, one can harden pigmented paints with electron beams. An electron accelerator, which remits free electrons is used as the energy source for starting the chemical reaction in the coating material. In order to irradiate flat parts, which were coated with liquid paint by rolling, pouring or spraying, equally with electrons, one must produce an 'electron curtain', similar to that in a paint pouring machine. (orig./PW) [de

  3. Why semiconductors must be hardened when used in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winokur, P.S.

    2000-01-01

    The natural space radiation environment presents a great challenge to present and future satellite systems with significant assets in space. Defining requirements for such systems demands knowledge about the space radiation environment and its effects on electronics and optoelectronics technologies, as well as suitable risk assessment of the uncertainties involved. For mission of high radiation levels, radiation-hardened integrated circuits will be required to preform critical mission functions. The most successful systems in space will be those that are best able to blend standard commercial electronics with custom radiation-hardened electronics in a mix that is suitable for the system of interest

  4. Influence of anisotropic hardening on longitudinal welding strains and stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatovskij, K.M.; Revutskij, M.N.

    1981-01-01

    The algorithm and program for estimation of longitudinal welding strains and stresses with account of hardening and Bauschinger effect, which expand the possibilities of more complete description of stress change during thermodeformation welding cycles at bead surfacing on plate made of the 06Kh18N9T steel and AMg61 alloy. It is shown that for metals, deformation curves which are characterized by considerable yield moduli (Esub(T)/E>=0.05) hardening effect is considerable and its account leads to the decrease of stress level in the heataffected zone (down to 20%) [ru

  5. Radiation Hardened 10BASE-T Ethernet Physical Layer (PHY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Michael R. (Inventor); Petrick, David J. (Inventor); Ballou, Kevin M. (Inventor); Espinosa, Daniel C. (Inventor); James, Edward F. (Inventor); Kliesner, Matthew A. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments may provide a radiation hardened 10BASE-T Ethernet interface circuit suitable for space flight and in compliance with the IEEE 802.3 standard for Ethernet. The various embodiments may provide a 10BASE-T Ethernet interface circuit, comprising a field programmable gate array (FPGA), a transmitter circuit connected to the FPGA, a receiver circuit connected to the FPGA, and a transformer connected to the transmitter circuit and the receiver circuit. In the various embodiments, the FPGA, transmitter circuit, receiver circuit, and transformer may be radiation hardened.

  6. Aspect-oriented security hardening of UML design models

    CERN Document Server

    Mouheb, Djedjiga; Pourzandi, Makan; Wang, Lingyu; Nouh, Mariam; Ziarati, Raha; Alhadidi, Dima; Talhi, Chamseddine; Lima, Vitor

    2015-01-01

    This book comprehensively presents a novel approach to the systematic security hardening of software design models expressed in the standard UML language. It combines model-driven engineering and the aspect-oriented paradigm to integrate security practices into the early phases of the software development process. To this end, a UML profile has been developed for the specification of security hardening aspects on UML diagrams. In addition, a weaving framework, with the underlying theoretical foundations, has been designed for the systematic injection of security aspects into UML models. The

  7. Work hardening and plastic equation of state of tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gypen, L.A.; Aernoudt, E.; Deruyttere, A.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of cold deformation on the thermal and athermal components of the flow stress of tantalum was investigated. Up to high deformation levels the strain hardening is due only to the development of internal stress fields; the effective stress remains almost constant. The athermal strain hardening of tantalum is parabolic at low deformation levels (epsilon < 0.5) and linear at high deformation levels, as for other bcc metals. Hart's plastic equation of state is shown to be valid for tantalum at room temperature in the whole deformation range investigated (from epsilon = 0.005 to epsilon = 2.8). (author)

  8. Microstructure and properties of cast iron after laser surface hardening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Laser surface hardening of cast iron is not trivial due to the material’s heterogeneity and coarse-grained microstructure, particularly in massive castings. Despite that, hardening of heavy moulds for automotive industry is in high demand. The present paper summarises the findings collected over several years of study of materials structure and surface properties. Phase transformations in the vicinity of graphite are described using examples from production of body parts in automotive industry. The description relates to formation of martensite and carbide-based phases, which leads to hardness values above 65 HRC and to excellent abrasion resistance.

  9. Numerical simulations of progressive hardening by using ABAQUS FEA software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domański Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns numerical simulations of progressive hardening include phase transformations in solid state of steel. Abaqus FEA software is used for numerical analysis of temperature field and phase transformations. Numerical subroutines, written in fortran programming language are used in computer simulations where models of the distribution of movable heat source, kinetics of phase transformations in solid state as well as thermal and structural strain are implemented. Model for evaluation of fractions of phases and their kinetics is based on continuous heating diagram and continuous cooling diagram. The numerical analysis of thermal fields, phase fractions and strain associated progressive hardening of elements made of steel were done.

  10. Exploration of a radiation hardening stabilized voltage power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zeyuan; Xu Xianguo

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly introduces the design method of radiation hardening stabilized voltage power supply that makes use of commercial radiation resistant electronic devices and the test results of radiation performance of the power supply and devices are presented in detail. The experiment results show that the hardened power supply can normally work until 1000 Gy (Si) total dose and 1 × 10 14 n/cm 2 neutron radiation, and it doesn't latchup at about 1 × l0 9 Gy (Si)/s gamma transient dose rate. (authors)

  11. Effect of aluminizing on hardenability of steel (S45C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayitno, D.; Sugiarto, R.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of research is to know the effect of aluminizing on hardenability of steel (S45C). The research methodologies were as follows. The Steels (S45C) were machined into the Jominy test samples. Next the samples were preheating at 700 ° C for 30 minutes and then the samples were dipped into the molten of aluminium for 3 minutes as a hot dip aluminizng method. The aluminium molten was 700 ° C. Then the samples were cooled into room temperatures. Finally the samples were into the jominy tested. The results show that the aluminizing (include the preheating process) increases the hardenability of steel (S45C).

  12. Structure of hardened alloys of Sr-Rh system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobromyslov, A.V.; Taluth, N.I.

    1997-01-01

    Methods of X-ray diffraction analysis, optical metallography, transmission electron microscopy and hardness measurement were applied to study the structure of hardened zirconium-rhodium system alloys with rhodium contents up to 4.5 at.%. It is shown that in hardening alloys with rhodium concentration lower 2.2 at.% the eutectoid decomposition takes place and bainite-like structure is formed. A metastable ω-phase is formed in alloys with rhodium concentration equal to 2.65 at.% and above. The formation of ω-phase suppresses the process of eutectoid decomposition

  13. Changes in hardness of magnesium alloys due to precipitation hardening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Oršulová

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of changes in hardness of magnesium alloys during precipitation hardening that are nowadays widely used in different fields of industry. It focuses exactly on AZ31, AZ61 and AZ91 alloys. Observing material hardness changes serves as an effective tool for determining precipitation hardening parameters, such as temperature and time. Brinell hardness measurement was chosen based on experimental needs. There was also necessary to make chemical composition analysis and to observe the microstructures of tested materials. The obtained results are presented and discussed in this paper.

  14. Thermal stress ratcheting analysis of a time-hardening structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hada, Kazuhiko

    1999-01-01

    Thermal stress ratcheting and shakedown is analyzed for a time-hardening structure: the yield stress increases as time goes on under exposure to neutron irradiation or thermal aging. New three modes of ratcheting and shakedown are identified as transition to other deformation modes. Stress regimes and thermal ratchet strains are formulated as a function of time-increasing yield stress. Moreover, a new model of trouble occurrence frequency as a modification to a bath-tube curve is proposed for calculating a time period of a thermal cycle. Application of the proposed formulation tells us a benefit of taking into account the time hardening due to neutron irradiation. (author)

  15. 15 CFR 744.17 - Restrictions on certain exports and reexports of general purpose microprocessors for “military...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... reexports of general purpose microprocessors for âmilitary end-usesâ and to âmilitary end-users.â 744.17...: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.17 Restrictions on certain exports and reexports of general purpose microprocessors for “military end-uses” and to “military end-users.” (a) General prohibition. In addition to the...

  16. Tests of microprocessor-based relay protection devices: Problems and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurevich Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Usually, the operational condition of relay protection devices is checked with specific settings used for the relay operation in a certain network point. In the author's opinion in order to verify the proper operation of complex multifunctional microprocessor-based protection devices (MPD at their inspection, start-up after repairs or during periodic tests there is no need to use the actual settings at which the relay is to be operated in a certain network's point. It should be tested for proper operation at several of its most critical preset characteristic points as well as in several preset characteristics constituting its most complicated (combined operation modes, including the dynamic operation modes with preset transition processes specific for standard power networks (not necessarily for a specific point. The proposed set of actions for the unification of software platforms of the modern, microprocessor-based relay protection test systems will enable examination of modern MPD in an absolutely new way. .

  17. Sectional microprocessor based microcomputer and its application to express analysis using interactive language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, I.; Leveleki, L.; Salai, M.; Turani, D.

    1984-01-01

    Sectional microprocessor TPA-L/128H based mini-computer being a part of the TPA-8 computer family is developed. A substantial increase of the computer operation rate is attained at the expense of microprogram monitoring. The central processor is constructed on the base of the AM2900 sectional microprocessor elements. The TPA-L/128H computer is program compatible with TPA-8 computer, perfectly equipped with software: high level languages as well as OS/L, COS/H, RTS/H, PAL/128, WPS, TEASYS-8 and IL 128 ensuring statistical data processing, physical experiments automation and interactive experimental data processing. The real time basis problems and CAMAC devices monitoring are efficiently solved

  18. Failure analysis on false call probe pins of microprocessor test equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L. W.; Ong, N. R.; Mohamad, I. S. B.; Alcain, J. B.; Retnasamy, V.

    2017-09-01

    A study has been conducted to investigate failure analysis on probe pins of test modules for microprocessor. The `health condition' of the probe pin is determined by the resistance value. A test module of 5V power supplied from Arduino UNO with "Four-wire Ohm measurement" method is implemented in this study to measure the resistance of the probe pins of a microprocessor. The probe pins from a scrapped computer motherboard is used as the test sample in this study. The functionality of the test module was validated with the pre-measurement experiment via VEE Pro software. Lastly, the experimental work have demonstrated that the implemented test module have the capability to identify the probe pin's `health condition' based on the measured resistance value.

  19. The use of microprocessors at TRIUMF in the control of radiation safety interlock systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, L.

    1988-01-01

    At TRIUMF the cyclotron vault, all primary beam lines, and each experimental area has a dedicated control unit to manage the safety interlock control of the area lockup sequence, beam blocker drive and area access. Typically each area has 24 devices which are monitored to control 16 outputs. These control units (Area Safety Units) were first implemented through the use of relay logic. The relay logic was reliable but difficult to modify to incorporate changes to the areas. In 1979 it was decided to use microprocessors in the form of single board computers to control the Area Safety Units. The details of the hardware and software is discussed as well as the advantages of microprocessor control

  20. Leak detection system with distributed microprocessor in the primary containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inahara, K.; Yoshioka, K.; Tomizawa, T.

    1980-01-01

    Responding to the demand for greater improvements of the safety monitoring system, less public radiation exposure, and increase of plant availability, measuring and control systems in nuclear power plants have undergone many improvements. Leak detection systems are also required to give earlier warning, additional accuracy, and continuous monitoring function. This paper describes the drywell sump leakage detection system utilizing a distributed microprocessor, which is a successful application owing to its versatile function and ease of installation. The microprocessor performs various functions such as a rate of level change computation, conversion to leakage flow rate, initiation of alarm, and sump pump control. This system has already been applied to three operating BWR plants that demonstrate its efficiency. (auth)

  1. Recent applications of microprocessor-based instruments in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, N.R.; Dennis, U.E.

    1988-01-01

    The incorporation of microprocessors in the design of nuclear power plant instrumentation has led to levels of measurement and control not available previously. In addition to the expected expansion of functional (system) capability, numerous desirable features now are possible. The added ability to both self-calibrate and perform compensation algorithms has led to dramatic improvements in accuracies, response times, and noise rejection. Automated performance checking and self-testing simplify troubleshooting and required periodic surveillance. Alphanumeric displays allow both menu-driven operation and user-prompting, which, in turn, contribute to mistake avoidance. New features of these microprocessor-based instruments are of specific benefit in nuclear power reactors, were safety is of prime concern. Greater reliability and accuracy can be provided. Shortened calibration, surveillance, and repair times reduce the exposure to unnecessary challenges of the plant's protection systems that can arise from spurious noise signals

  2. A measurement of cosmic-ray LET-spectra using a microprocessor supported microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, J.; Heinrich, W.

    1982-01-01

    A microprocessor supported semi-automatic system for measurements of nuclear tracks in plastic detectors is presented. It consists of a microscope and a stepping motor driven stage. A Motorola microprocessor MC 6800 controls the measurement. It accepts the co-ordinates of the stage as well as the position of the focus and computes cone length and dip angle from the three-dimensional co-ordinates. LET-spectra were measured from two cellulose nitrate foils of the Biostack III experiment flown with the Apollo-Soyus-Test-Project in 1975. One of these foils was shielded by 3 g/cm 2 and the other one by 15 g/cm 2 . The two spectra show no statistically significant decrease of intensity. (author)

  3. Use of a microprocessor in the CAMAC standard. The dedicated microcomputer: JCAM-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallice, Pierre.

    1978-01-01

    The general purpose minicomputers and dedicated crate controllers currently used in small CAMAC systems are now being superseded by autonomous crate controllers with built-in microprocessor such as the JCAM-10, which is in fact a CAMAC dedicated microcomputer. This controller has been designed around the INTEL-8080 microprocessor and employs a semiconductor memory. The very much reduced price and smaller packaging of this module, and the relatively large potential market of CAMAC systems justify the tremendous efforts required for the study of its complete system as well in hardware than in software. After a short description of the CAMAC standard this paper will describe the principle of the microcomputer JCAM-10, and its complementary system: hardware (peripheral modules) and software (TTY command processor, Input Output, Control system, interrupt system, text editor, local macro-assembler, LP and BASICAM local compilers). As application examples, an autonomous counting system and a distributed intelligence system will be described [fr

  4. LSI microprocessor circuit families based on integrated injection logic. Mikroprotsessornyye komplekty bis na osnove integral'noy inzhektsionnoy logiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, V.S.; Vlasov, F.S.; Kaloshkin, E.P.; Serzhanovich, D.S.; Sukhoparov, A.I.

    1984-01-01

    Progress in developing microprocessor computer hardware is based on progress and improvement in systems engineering, circuit engineering and manufacturing process methods of design and development of large-scale integrated circuits (BIS). Development of these methods with widespread use of computer-aided design (CAD) systems has allowed developing 4- and 8-bit microprocessor families (MPK) of LSI circuits based on integrated injection logic (I/sup 2/L), characterized by relatively high speed and low dissipated power. The emergence of LSI and VLSI microprocessor circuits required computer system developers to make changes to theory and practice of computer system design. Progress in technology upset the established relation between hardware and software component development costs in systems being designed. A characteristic feature of using LSI circuits is also the necessity of building devices from standard modules with large functional complexity. The existing directions of forming compositions of LSI microprocessor families allow the system developer to choose a particular methodology of design, proceeding from the efficiency function and field of application of the system being designed. The efficiency of using microprocessor families is largely governed by the user's understanding in depth of the structure of LSI microprocessor family circuits and the features of using them to implement a broad class of computer devices and modules being developed. This book is devoted to solving this problem.

  5. Emulation of MS DOS Operational System on the Autonomous Crate-Controller with I8086 microprocessor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hons, Z.; Cizek, P.; Streit, V.

    1988-01-01

    KM-DOS operating system for CAMAC autonomous crate-controller based on Intel 8086/8087 microprocessor connected with Pravec-16 IBM PC is described. The KM-DOS system fully emulates the MS DOS environment on the CAMAC controller. Thus ASSEMBLER, FORTRAN, C and PASCAL programs compiled and linked on IBM PC and compatible can be run on the CAMAC controller and parall work of both computers is enabled

  6. Microprocessor-controlled inhalation system for repeated exposure of animals to aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, R.L.; Barr, F.P.; Leydig, R.L.; Rajala, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    A microprocessor-controlled inhalation exposure system (MCIES) has been built to automate aerosol generation and sampling while controlling exposure time for animal toxicity studies. The system has a time resolution of 0.1 s and automatically sequences the exposure events from initiation to temination of the exposure. The operator is required to preset all airflows, read in a paper tape containing the time sequence of events, and initiate the automatic sequence by closing a switch

  7. Front end embedded microprocessors in the JET computer-based control system, past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steed, C.A.; VanderBeken, H.; Browne, M.L.; Fullard, K.; Reed, K.; Tilley, M.; Schmidt, V.

    1987-01-01

    A brief history of the use of Front End Microprocessors in the JET Control and Data Acquisition System (CODAS) is presented. The present expansion in their use from 2 or 3 in 1983 to 27 now, is covered along with the reasoning behind their present usage. Finally, their future planned use in the area of remote handling is discussed and the authors present views on the use of front end processing in future large distributed control systems are presented

  8. Use of a Microprocessor to Implement an ADCCP Protocol (Federal Standard 1003).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    results of other studies, to evaluate the operational and economic impact of incorporating various options in Federal Standard 1003. The effort...the LSI interface and the microprocessor; the LSI chip deposits bytes in its buffer as the producer, and the MPU reads this data as the consumer...on the interface between the MPU and the LSI protocol chip. This requires two main processes to be running at the same time--transmit and receive. The

  9. MONICA - a programmable microprocessor for track recognition in an e+e- experiment at PETRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schildt, P.; Stuckenberg, H.J.; Wermes, N.

    1981-01-01

    The microprocessor device MONICA is used in the TASSO experiment at PETRA. Its task is to reconstruct events in the cylindrical driftchamber on-line. Used as an event filter MONICA provides a 2 prong trigger without any further requirements. The speed of the processor (event reconstruction times must be in the order of 1 ms) is achieved by a 4 x 4 bit slice processor in ECL technology, content addressable memories and table look up. The track finding efficiency is 80%. (orig.)

  10. A fail-safe microprocessor-based protection system utilising low-level multiplexed sensor signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orme, S.; Evans, N.J.; Wey, B.O.

    1985-01-01

    The paper describes a fail-safe reactor protection system, called the individual sub-assembly temperature monitoring system (ISAT). It is being developed for the commercial demonstration fast reactor. The system incorporates recent advances in solid-state electronics and in particular microprocessors to implement time-shared data acquisition techniques to obtain and process data from around 1400 fast response thermocouples whilst meeting the required levels for reliability and availability. (author)

  11. A microprocessor-controlled assay for the estimation of human placental lactogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, T.; Roulston, J.E.; Bagshawe, K.D.

    1979-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for human placental lactogen (HPL) is described using the KEMTEK 3000, which is a modular radioimmunoassay apparatus controlled by a microprocessor. Operation of the KEMTEK 3000 is largely automatic and it requires minimal intervention from the operator. It is capable of 300 reactions per hour so that a large number of estimations can readily be performed. HPL was assayed by a double antibody method on serum samples from pregnant women and patients with trophoblastic tumours. (Auth.)

  12. Autonomous controller (JCAM 10) for CAMAC crate with 8080 (INTEL) microprocessor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallice, P.; Mathis, M.

    1975-01-01

    The CAMAC crate autonomous controller JCAM-10 is designed around an INTEL 8080 microprocessor in association with a 5K RAM and 4K REPROM memory. The concept of the module is described, in which data transfers between CAMAC modules and the memory are optimised from software point of view as well as from execution time. In fact, the JCAM-10 is a microcomputer with a set of 1000 peripheral units represented by the CAMAC modules commercially available

  13. Application of Microprocessor-Based Equipment in Nuclear Power Plants - Technical Basis for a Qualification Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsah, K.

    2001-01-01

    This document (1) summarizes the most significant findings of the ''Qualification of Advanced Instrumentation and Control (I and C) Systems'' program initiated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); (2) documents a comparative analysis of U.S. and European qualification standards; and (3) provides recommendations for enhancing regulatory guidance for environmental qualification of microprocessor-based safety-related systems. Safety-related I and C system upgrades of present-day nuclear power plants, as well as I and C systems of Advanced Light-Water Reactors (ALWRs), are expected to make increasing use of microprocessor-based technology. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) recognized that the use of such technology may pose environmental qualification challenges different from current, analog-based I and C systems. Hence, it initiated the ''Qualification of Advanced Instrumentation and Control Systems'' program. The objectives of this confirmatory research project are to (1) identify any unique environmental-stress-related failure modes posed by digital technologies and their potential impact on the safety systems and (2) develop the technical basis for regulatory guidance using these findings. Previous findings from this study have been documented in several technical reports. This final report in the series documents a comparative analysis of two environmental qualification standards--Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Std 323-1983 and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 60780 (1998)--and provides recommendations for environmental qualification of microprocessor-based systems based on this analysis as well as on the findings documented in the previous reports. The two standards were chosen for this analysis because IEEE 323 is the standard used in the U.S. for the qualification of safety-related equipment in nuclear power plants, and IEC 60780 is its European counterpart. In addition, the IEC document was published in

  14. Microprocessor-controlled time domain reflectometer for dynamic shock position measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virchow, C.F.; Conrad, G.E.; Holt, D.M.; Hodson, E.K.

    1980-01-01

    Time-domain reflectometry is used in a novel way to measure dynamically shock propagation in various media. The primary component in this measurement system is a digital time domain reflectometer, which uses local intelligence, a Motorola 6800 microprocessor, to make the unit adaptable and versatile. The recorder, its operating theory and its method of implementation are described and typical data are reviewed. Applications include nuclear explosion yield estimates and explosive energy flow measurements

  15. AFRRI's conversion to a microprocessor-based reactor instrumentation and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Mark L.; Hodgdon, Kenneth M.

    1986-01-01

    The Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) is procuring a state-of- the-art microprocessor-based instrumentation and control system to operate AFRRI's 1 MW (steady-state), 3000 MW (pulse) TRIGA Mark-F reactor. This system will replace the current control console while improving or maintaining the existing operational capabilities and safety characteristics. The new unit will have a 15-year design life using state-of-the-art components

  16. Front-end data processing using the bit-sliced microprocessor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machen, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    A state-of-the-art computing device, based upon the high-speed bit-sliced microprocessor, was developed into hardware for front-end data processing in both control and experiment applications at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The CAMAC Instrumentation Standard provides the framework for the high-speed hardware, allowing data acquisition and processing to take place at the data source in a CAMAC crate. 5 figures

  17. Software support for Motorola 68000 microprocessor at CERN. M68MIL cross macro assembler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicken, H. von.

    1983-01-01

    This document is a user's guide for programming the Motorola 68000 microprocessor in assembly language. It describes the programming model, addressing modes and instruction set of the M 68000 as well as the use of the M68mil cross macro assembler. Version 3.6 of the assembler has been installed at CERN on CDC, DEC VAX, IBM, Norsk Data and Siemens computers. The source code of the assembler is available from CERN on request. (orig.)

  18. A monitoring and protective system for mine hoists using a microprocessor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jianlin, Zhu

    1981-11-01

    In view of the existing problems of depth indicators and tachometers currently used in mine hoists, a measuring technique using a 'wire cable magnetic stripe' and a tentative proposal for a monitoring system with a microprocessor are described. The system can be used for measuring and indicating the depth, speed of the hoisting system, and can provide protection against overwinding, overspeeding and slack rope as well as monitoring the direction of hoisting. (In Chinese)

  19. INVESTIGATION OF MICROPROCESSOR CURRENT PROTECTION LINES WITH IMPROVED INDICES OF TECHNICAL PERFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Buloichyk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Technical perfection improvement of microprocessor current protection of distribution networks lines is provided by introduction of asymmetrical fault mode determination and fault location functions in the algorithm of its functioning. As a result of computing experiment the basic indices of the technical perfection of current protection have been obtained in the paper. The paper proves high efficiency of the proposed methods that ensure selective and proper operation in the different modes of the controlled line.

  20. Data acquisition and processing system of energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer with microprocessor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horkay, G.; Kis-Varga, M.; Lakatos, T.; Molnar, J.; Zsurzs, M.

    1984-01-01

    For quantitative analysis of chemical elements by the method of X-ray spectroscopy a multichannel analyzer on the base of minicomputer with the INTEL 8080 A microprocessor is developed. The data acquisition and data processing systems which comprise a central processor, memory unit, ADC and display are described. Major system subprograms are enumerated. An example of Pb concentration determinating in a bronze specimen is given

  1. Environmental qualification and functional issues for microprocessor-based reactor protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsah, K.; Kisner, R.; Wood, R.T.; Antonescu, C.

    1992-01-01

    Issues of obsolescence and lack of intrastructural support in (analog) spare parts, coupled with the potential benefits of digital systems, are driving the nuclear industry to retrofit analog instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems with digital and microprocessor-based systems. This movement away from analog can be expected to increase in advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs), which will make extensive use of fiber optic transmission, multiplexing techniques, and microprocessor-based technology. Although these technologies have several advantages and, in fact, have been in widespread use in the non-nuclear industry for several years, their application to safety-related systems in nuclear power plants raises key issues relating to the systems' environmental and functional reliability. For example, does the new hardware introduce additional system aging degradation mechanisms that could adversely impact the safety of the plant? Do the systems introduce the possibility of new and different malfunction scenarios or increase the probability of common-mode failures that could reduce the reliability of the safety system?. Are current environmental qualification standards adequate for microprocessor-based I ampersand C systems? Accordingly in 1991 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated the qualification of advanced Instrumentation and Control Systems program at ORNL to investigate issues that may arise with the use of advanced digital I ampersand C in ALWRs. The results of our studies to date are summarized in this paper

  2. A lightweight security scheme for wireless body area networks: design, energy evaluation and proposed microprocessor design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selimis, Georgios; Huang, Li; Massé, Fabien; Tsekoura, Ioanna; Ashouei, Maryam; Catthoor, Francky; Huisken, Jos; Stuyt, Jan; Dolmans, Guido; Penders, Julien; De Groot, Harmke

    2011-10-01

    In order for wireless body area networks to meet widespread adoption, a number of security implications must be explored to promote and maintain fundamental medical ethical principles and social expectations. As a result, integration of security functionality to sensor nodes is required. Integrating security functionality to a wireless sensor node increases the size of the stored software program in program memory, the required time that the sensor's microprocessor needs to process the data and the wireless network traffic which is exchanged among sensors. This security overhead has dominant impact on the energy dissipation which is strongly related to the lifetime of the sensor, a critical aspect in wireless sensor network (WSN) technology. Strict definition of the security functionality, complete hardware model (microprocessor and radio), WBAN topology and the structure of the medium access control (MAC) frame are required for an accurate estimation of the energy that security introduces into the WBAN. In this work, we define a lightweight security scheme for WBAN, we estimate the additional energy consumption that the security scheme introduces to WBAN based on commercial available off-the-shelf hardware components (microprocessor and radio), the network topology and the MAC frame. Furthermore, we propose a new microcontroller design in order to reduce the energy consumption of the system. Experimental results and comparisons with other works are given.

  3. Microprocessor Activity Controls Differential miRNA Biogenesis In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Conrad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In miRNA biogenesis, pri-miRNA transcripts are converted into pre-miRNA hairpins. The in vivo properties of this process remain enigmatic. Here, we determine in vivo transcriptome-wide pri-miRNA processing using next-generation sequencing of chromatin-associated pri-miRNAs. We identify a distinctive Microprocessor signature in the transcriptome profile from which efficiency of the endogenous processing event can be accurately quantified. This analysis reveals differential susceptibility to Microprocessor cleavage as a key regulatory step in miRNA biogenesis. Processing is highly variable among pri-miRNAs and a better predictor of miRNA abundance than primary transcription itself. Processing is also largely stable across three cell lines, suggesting a major contribution of sequence determinants. On the basis of differential processing efficiencies, we define functionality for short sequence features adjacent to the pre-miRNA hairpin. In conclusion, we identify Microprocessor as the main hub for diversified miRNA output and suggest a role for uncoupling miRNA biogenesis from host gene expression.

  4. The bit slice micro-processor 'GESPRO' as a project in the UA2 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Becam, C; Delanghe, J; Fest, H M; Lecoq, J; Martin, H; Mencik, M; MerkeI, B; Meyer, J M; Perrin, M; Plothow, H; Rampazzo, J P; Schittly, A

    1981-01-01

    The bit slice micro-processor GESPRO is a CAMAC module plugged into a standard Elliot system crate via which it communicates as a slave with its host computer. It has full control of CAMAC as a master unit. GESPRO is a 24 bit machine with multi-mode memory addressing capacity of 64K words. The micro-processor structure uses 5 buses including pipe-line registers to mask access time and 16 interrupt levels. The micro-program memory capacity is 2K (RAM) words of 48 bits each. A special hardwired module allows floating point, as well as integer, multiplication of 24*24 bits, result in 48 bits, in about 200 ns. This micro-processor could be used in the UA2 data acquisition chain and trigger system for the following tasks: (a) online data reduction, i.e. to read DURANDAL, process the information resulting in accepting or rejecting the event; (b) readout and analysis of the accepted data; (c) preprocess the data. The UA2 version of GESPRO is under construction, programs and micro-programs are under development. Hard...

  5. The bit slice micro-processor 'GESPRO' as a project in the UA2 experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becam, C.; Bernaudin, P.; Delanghe, J.; Mencik, M.; Merkel, B.; Plothow, H.; Fest, H.M.; Lecoq, J.; Martin, H.; Meyer, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    The bit slice micro-processor GESPRO, as it is proposed for use in the UA 2 data acquisition chain and trigger system, is a CAMAC module plugged into a standard Elliott System crate via which it communicates as a slave with its host computer (ND, DEC). It has full control of CAMAC as a master unit. GESPRO is a 24 bit machine (150 ns effective cycle time) with multi-mode memory addressing capacity of 64 K words. The micro-processor structure uses 5 busses including pipe-line registers to mask access time and 16 interrupt levels. The micro-program memory capacity is 2 K (RAM) words of 48 bits each. A special hardwired module allows floating point (as well as integer) multiplication of 24 x 24 bits, result in 48 bits, in about 200 ns. This micro-processor could be used in the UA2 data acquisition chain and trigger system for the following tasks: a) online data reduction, i.e. to read DURANDAL (fast ADC's = the hardware trigger in the experiment), process the information (effective mass calculation, etc.) resulting in accepting or rejecting the event. b) read out and analysis of the accepted data (collect statistical information). c) preprocess the data (calculation of pointers, address decoding, etc.). The UA2 version of GESPRO is under construction, programs and micro-programs are under development. Hardware and software will be tested with simulated data. First results are expected in about one year from now. (orig.)

  6. Designs and performance of three new microprocessor-controlled knee joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Julius; Schöllig, Christina; Bellmann, Malte; Kraft, Marc

    2018-02-09

    A crossover design study with a small group of subjects was used to evaluate the performance of three microprocessor-controlled exoprosthetic knee joints (MPKs): C-Leg 4, Plié 3 and Rheo Knee 3. Given that the mechanical designs and control algorithms of the joints determine the user outcome, the influence of these inherent differences on the functional characteristics was investigated in this study. The knee joints were evaluated during level-ground walking at different velocities in a motion analysis laboratory. Additionally, technical analyses using patents, technical documentations and X-ray computed tomography (CT) for each knee joint were performed. The technical analyses showed that only C-Leg 4 and Rheo Knee 3 allow microprocessor-controlled adaptation of the joint resistances for different gait velocities. Furthermore, Plié 3 is not able to provide stance extension damping. The biomechanical results showed that only if a knee joint adapts flexion and extension resistances by the microprocessor all known advantages of MPKs can become apparent. But not all users may benefit from the examined functions: e.g. a good accommodation to fast walking speeds or comfortable stance phase flexion. Hence, a detailed comparison of user demands and performance of the designated knee joint is mandatory to ensure a maximum in user outcome.

  7. Microprocessor Recruitment to Elongating RNA Polymerase II Is Required for Differential Expression of MicroRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A. Church

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The cellular abundance of mature microRNAs (miRNAs is dictated by the efficiency of nuclear processing of primary miRNA transcripts (pri-miRNAs into pre-miRNA intermediates. The Microprocessor complex of Drosha and DGCR8 carries this out, but it has been unclear what controls Microprocessor’s differential processing of various pri-miRNAs. Here, we show that Drosophila DGCR8 (Pasha directly associates with the C-terminal domain of the RNA polymerase II elongation complex when it is phosphorylated by the Cdk9 kinase (pTEFb. When association is blocked by loss of Cdk9 activity, a global change in pri-miRNA processing is detected. Processing of pri-miRNAs with a UGU sequence motif in their apical junction domain increases, while processing of pri-miRNAs lacking this motif decreases. Therefore, phosphorylation of RNA polymerase II recruits Microprocessor for co-transcriptional processing of non-UGU pri-miRNAs that would otherwise be poorly processed. In contrast, UGU-positive pri-miRNAs are robustly processed by Microprocessor independent of RNA polymerase association.

  8. An Asynchronous Circuit Design Technique for a Flexible 8-Bit Microprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaki, Nobuo; Nanmoto, Takashi; Inoue, Satoshi

    This paper presents an asynchronous design technique, an enabler for the emerging technology of flexible microelectronics that feature low-temperature processed polysilicon (LTPS) thin-film transistors (TFT) and surface-free technology by laser annealing/ablation (SUFTLA®). The first design instance chosen is an 8-bit microprocessor. LTPS TFTs are good for realizing displays having integrated VLSI circuit at lower costs. However, LTPS TFTs have drawbacks, including substantial deviations in characteristics and the self-heating phenomenon. To solve these problems, the authors adopted the asynchronous circuit design technique and developed an asynchronous design language called Verilog+, which is based on a subset of Verilog HDL® and includes minimal primitives used for describing the communications between modules, and the dedicated tools including a translator called xlator and a synthesizer called ctrlsyn. The flexible 8-bit microprocessor stably operates at 500kHz, drawing 180μA from a 5V power source. The microprocessor's electromagnetic emissions are 21dB less than those of the synchronous counterpart.

  9. Innovative Structural Materials and Sections with Strain Hardening Cementitious Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Vikram

    The motivation of this work is based on development of new construction products with strain hardening cementitious composites (SHCC) geared towards sustainable residential applications. The proposed research has three main objectives: automation of existing manufacturing systems for SHCC laminates; multi-level characterization of mechanical properties of fiber, matrix, interface and composites phases using servo-hydraulic and digital image correlation techniques. Structural behavior of these systems were predicted using ductility based design procedures using classical laminate theory and structural mechanics. SHCC sections are made up of thin sections of matrix with Portland cement based binder and fine aggregates impregnating continuous one-dimensional fibers in individual or bundle form or two/three dimensional woven, bonded or knitted textiles. Traditional fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) use random dispersed chopped fibers in the matrix at a low volume fractions, typically 1-2% to avoid to avoid fiber agglomeration and balling. In conventional FRC, fracture localization occurs immediately after the first crack, resulting in only minor improvement in toughness and tensile strength. However in SHCC systems, distribution of cracking throughout the specimen is facilitated by the fiber bridging mechanism. Influence of material properties of yarn, composition, geometry and weave patterns of textile in the behavior of laminated SHCC skin composites were investigated. Contribution of the cementitious matrix in the early age and long-term performance of laminated composites was studied with supplementary cementitious materials such as fly ash, silica fume, and wollastonite. A closed form model with classical laminate theory and ply discount method, coupled with a damage evolution model was utilized to simulate the non-linear tensile response of these composite materials. A constitutive material model developed earlier in the group was utilized to characterize and

  10. Composite Strain Hardening Properties of High Performance Hybrid Fibre Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Jothi Jayakumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid fibres addition in concrete proved to be a promising method to improve the composite mechanical properties of the cementitious system. Fibre combinations involving different fibre lengths and moduli were added in high strength slag based concrete to evaluate the strain hardening properties. Influence of hybrid fibres consisting of steel and polypropylene fibres added in slag based cementitious system (50% CRL was explored. Effects of hybrid fibre addition at optimum volume fraction of 2% of steel fibres and 0.5% of PP fibres (long and short steel fibre combinations were observed in improving the postcrack strength properties of concrete. Test results also indicated that the hybrid steel fibre additions in slag based concrete consisting of short steel and polypropylene (PP fibres exhibited a the highest compressive strength of 48.56 MPa. Comparative analysis on the performance of monofibre concrete consisting of steel and PP fibres had shown lower residual strength compared to hybrid fibre combinations. Hybrid fibres consisting of long steel-PP fibres potentially improved the absolute and residual toughness properties of concrete composite up to a maximum of 94.38% compared to monofibre concrete. In addition, the relative performance levels of different hybrid fibres in improving the matrix strain hardening, postcrack toughness, and residual strength capacity of slag based concretes were evaluated systematically.

  11. Probing the nanostructural evolution of age-hardenable Al alloys with atom-probe tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Aniruddha

    2010-01-01

    Atom Probe Tomographic (APT) Microscope is a lens-less point-projection 3-D analytical microscope that has the unique capability of (i) three-dimensional imaging at the atomic scale and (ii) compositional analysis with sub-nanometre spatial resolution and single-atom sensitivity. Modern 3-D APT microscope offers the highest the spatial resolution among all the available analytical techniques. It can simultaneously achieve a spatial resolution better than 0.3 nm in all three directions of a three-dimensional analysis-volume. As a result, 3-D APT microscopy, especially as practiced by the high speed, large field of view instruments is the most appropriate tool for studying nano-scale precipitates and their heterophase interfaces. This talk will introduce the technique, discuss its brief historical background and use examples from age-hardenable Al-alloys. The results include a detailed APT study of the compositional evolution of the nano-scale precipitates: θ and Q present in commercial age hardenable aluminium alloy, W319

  12. Disorientations and work-hardening behaviour during severe plastic deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Orientation differences develop during plastic deformation even in grains of originally uniform orientation. The evolution of these disorientations is modelled by dislocation dynamics taking into account different storage mechanisms. The predicted average disorientation angles across different ty...... pressure torsion, but also rationalizes the work-hardening behaviour at large plastic strains as well as a saturation of the flow stress....

  13. Preparation of Dispersion-Hardened Copper by Internal Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted, Povl; Sørensen, Ole Toft

    1978-01-01

    Internal oxidation experiments in CO2/CO atmospheres on Cu-Al alloys for preparation of dispersion-hardened Cu are described. The oxygen pressures of the atmospheres used in the experiments were controlled with a solid electrolyte oxygen cell based on ZrO2 (CaO). The particle size distributions o...

  14. Influence of alloying and secondary annealing on anneal hardening ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Influence of alloying and secondary annealing on anneal hardening effect at sintered copper alloys. SVETLANA NESTOROVIC. Technical Faculty Bor, University of Belgrade, Bor, Yugoslavia. MS received 11 February 2004; revised 29 October 2004. Abstract. This paper reports results of investigation carried out on sintered ...

  15. Influence of degree of deformation in rolling on anneal hardening ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Influence of degree of deformation in rolling on anneal hardening effect of a cast copper alloy. SVETLANA NESTOROVIC*, DESIMIR MARKOVIC and LJUBICA IVANIC. Technical Faculty Bor, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Yugoslavia. MS received 15 May 2003. Abstract. This paper reports results of investigations carried ...

  16. Fatigue Hardening and Nucleation of Persistent Slip Bands in Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Bøcker; Winter, A. T.

    1982-01-01

    A study of fatigue hardening in single crystals of pure copper shows that, before saturation, stress-strain loops can display workhardening rates of about a third of the elastic shear modulus. These rates exceed tensile workhardening rates by roughly two orders of magnitude. This suggests that th...

  17. A unified theoretical and experimental study of anisotropic hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehler, J.P.; Raclin, J.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a consistent formulation of the constitutive relations regarding anisotropic hardening materials. Attention is focused on the appearance and the evolution of mechanical anisotropies during irreversible processes, such as plastic forming and inelastic deformation of structures. The representation theorems for anisotropic tensor functions constitute a theoretical basis, allowing to reduce arbitrariness and to obtain a unified formulation of anisotropic hardening. In this approach, a general three-dimensional constitutive law is developed for prestrained initially orthotropic materials. Introduction of the plastic behavior results in the general forms of both the flow-law and the yield criterion. The developed theory is then specialized for the case of plane stress and different modes of anisotropic hardening are analyzed. A new generalization of the Von Mises criterion is proposed, in considering a homogeneous form of order two in stress and employing the simplest combinations of the basic invariants entering the general form of the yield condition. The proposed criterion involves specific terms accounting for the initial anisotropy, the deformation induced anisotropy and correlative terms between initial and induced anisotropy. The effects of prestrainings result in both isotropic and anisotropic hardening. An adequate experimental program, consisting of uniaxial tensile tests on oriented specimens of prestrained sheet-metal, was performed, in order to determine the specific form and the evolution of the anisotropic failure criterion for soft-steel subjected to different irreversible prestrainings. (orig.)

  18. Epoxy modified bitumen : Chemical hardening and its interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolidis, P.; Pipintakos, G.; van de Ven, M.F.C.; Liu, X.; Erkens, Sandra; Scarpas, Athanasios

    2018-01-01

    Epoxy modified bitumen (EMB) is a promising technology for long lasting paving materials ensuring higher resistance to rutting, oxygen- and moisture-induced damage. In this paper, an analysis of the chemical reactions that take place during the chemical hardening process (curing) of epoxy modified

  19. New Stainless Steel Alloys for Low Temperature Surface Hardening?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2015-01-01

    The present contribution showcases the possibility for developing new surface hardenable stainless steels containing strong nitride/carbide forming elements (SNCFE). Nitriding of the commercial alloys, austenitic A286, and ferritic AISI 409 illustrates the beneficial effect of having SNCFE presen...

  20. Hardening digital systems with distributed functionality: robust networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaskova, Anna; Portela-Garcia, Marta; Garcia-Valderas, Mario; López-Ongil, Celia; Portilla, Jorge; Valverde, Juan; de la Torre, Eduardo; Riesgo, Teresa

    2013-05-01

    Collaborative hardening and hardware redundancy are nowadays the most interesting solutions in terms of fault tolerance achieved and low extra cost imposed to the project budget. Thanks to the powerful and cheap digital devices that are available in the market, extra processing capabilities can be used for redundant tasks, not only in early data processing (sensed data) but also in routing and interfacing1

  1. BUSFET - A Novel Radiation-Hardened SOI Transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, P.E.; Draper, B.L.; Schwank, J.R.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    A partially-depleted SOI transistor structure has been designed that does not require the use of specially-processed hardened buried oxides for total-dose hardness and maintains the intrinsic SEU and dose rate hardness advantages of SOI technology

  2. Surface Induction Hardening of Axi-Symmetric Bodies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barglik, J.; Doležel, Ivo; Škopek, M.; Ulrych, B.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2001), s. 11-16 ISSN 1335-8243 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/01/0184 Grant - others:-(PL) 7T08603716 Keywords : induction heating * induction hardening * numerical solution Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  3. Coefficient of work-hardening in stage-IV

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    1994-04-15

    Full Text Available The theory of work hardening in stage IV depends on the relation between the relative misorientation Psi of neighbouring subgrains and the plastic strain gamma (Psi = B gamma exp). The value of the constant B is suggested to be better related...

  4. Multiaxial ratcheting with advanced kinematic and directional distortional hardening rules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feigenbaum, H. P.; Dugdale, J.; Dafalias, Y.F.; Kourousis, K. I.; Plešek, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 22 (2012), s. 3063-3076 ISSN 0020-7683 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10024 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : plasticity * directional distortional hardening * thermodynamics Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 1.871, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020768312002612

  5. Surface modification on PMMA : PVDF polyblend: hardening under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Keywords. Polyblend; surface modification; microhardness; hardening; plasticization; segmental mobility. 1. Introduction. Polymeric materials have a specific feature of stability towards various aggressive chemical environments, which depends on a multiplicity of factors like structure and nature of the polymers and chemical ...

  6. Role of work hardening characteristics of matrix alloys in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    with increasing prismatic punching of dislocations in the order 7075, 2014, 7010, 2024, 6061 and commercial purity aluminium leading to increased strength increments is noted. Keywords. Metal matrix composites; strengthening; work hardening rate; dislocation density. 1. Introduction. While in continuous fibre composites, ...

  7. Process for hardening synthetic resins by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, W.; Ritz, J.

    1975-01-01

    Synthetic resins containing hydroxy groups and polymerizable carbon-carbon bonds are reacted with diketenes to yield aceto ester derivatives, which when reacted with metal compounds to form chelates, and mixed with copolymerizable monomers, are capable of being hardened by unusually low radiation doses to form coatings and articles with superior properties. (E.C.B.)

  8. Simulation of Hamming Coding and Decoding for Microcontroller Radiation Hardening

    OpenAIRE

    Rehab I. Abdul Rahman; Mazhar B. Tayel

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method of hardening the 8051 micro-controller, able to assure reliable operation in the presence of bit flips caused by radiation. Aiming at avoiding such faults in the 8051 micro-controller, Hamming code protection was used in its SRAM memory and registers. A VHDL code has been used for this hamming code protection.

  9. Effect of hardening methods of moulding sands with water glass on structure of bonding bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stachowicz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Research on influence of hardening methods on structure of bonding bridges in moulding sands with sodium water glass is presented.Moulding sands with addition of 2.5 % of binder with molar module 2.0 were hardened with CO2 and dried in traditional way or hardenedwith microwaves. It was proved that the hardening method affects structure of bonding bridges, correlating with properties of the hardened moulding sands. It was found that strength of the moulding sands hardened with microwaves for 4 min is very close to that measured after traditional drying at 110 °C for 120 min. So, application of microwave hardening ensures significant shortening of the process time to the value comparable with CO2 hardening but guaranteeing over 10-fold increase of mechanical properties. Analysis of SEM images of hardened moulding sands permitted explaining differences in quality parameters of moulding sands by connecting them with structure of the created bonding bridges.

  10. Processing, Microstructures and Properties of a Dual Phase Precipitation-Hardening PM Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Christopher

    apparent hardness was found. Aging also lead to an unexpected and concurrent increase in ductility and impact toughness. The alloys also showed an increase in strain hardening on aging. The increase in ductility varied with the v/o martensite in the microstructure and was shown to occur after short time intervals at the optimum aging temperature. Compressive strength measurements revealed that the increase in ductility was due to the relaxation of residuals stresses that occur when the high temperature austenite transforms to martensite in the dual phase microstructure. The specific volume of martensite is much larger than that of austenite so that when the transformation takes place, a compressive stress is induced in the ferrite. In the sintered state, the residual stress leads to a higher work hardening rate in tension. When the alloy is aged, the work hardening rate is reduced and the ductility is increased compared with the sintered state, even though aging increases the strength and apparent hardness.

  11. OCCUPATIONAL ASTHMA CAUSED BY A HARDENER CONTAINING AN ALIPHATIC AND A CYCLOALIPHATIC DIAMINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ALEVA, RM; AALBERS, R; KOETER, GH; DEMONCHY, JGR

    An otherwise healthy 44-yr-old man experienced a serious attack of bronchial obstruction after working with resins and hardeners, releasing fumes of a mixture of an aliphatic and a cycloaliphatic diamine hardener. Eight hours after deliberate challenge with the hardener a large increase of airway

  12. A model for strain hardening, recovery, recrystallization and grain growth with applications to forming processes of nickel base alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, Hermann, E-mail: hermann.riedel@iwm.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Materials Mechanics, Wöhlerstr. 11, 79108 Freiburg (Germany); Svoboda, Jiri, E-mail: svobj@ipm.cz [Institute of Physics of Materials, Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Zizkova 22, Brno (Czech Republic)

    2016-05-17

    An ensemble of n spherical grains is considered, each of which is characterized by its radius r{sub i} and by a hardening variable a{sub i}. The hardening variable obeys a Chaboche-type evolution equation with dynamic and static recovery. The grain growth law includes the usual contribution of the grain boundary energy, a term for the stored energy associated with the hardening variable, and the Zener pinning force exerted by particles on the migrating grain boundaries. New grains develop by recrystallization in grains whose stored energy density exceeds a critical value. The growth or shrinkage of the particles, which restrain grain boundary migration, obeys a thermodynamic/kinetic evolution equation. This set of first order differential equations for r{sub i}, a{sub i} and the particle radius is integrated numerically. Fictitious model parameters for a virtual nickel base alloy are used to demonstrate the properties and capabilities of the model. For a real nickel alloy, model parameters are adjusted using measured stress-strain curves, as well as recrystallized volume fractions and grain size distributions. Finally the model with adjusted parameters is applied to a forming process with complex temperature-strain rate histories.

  13. Effect of alloying element partitioning on ferrite hardening in a low alloy ferrite-martensite dual phase steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimian, A., E-mail: ebrahimiana@yahoo.com; Ghasemi Banadkouki, S.S.

    2016-11-20

    In this paper, the effect of carbon and other alloying elements partitioning on ferrite hardening behavior were studied in details using a low alloy AISI4340 ferrite-martensite dual phase (DP) steel. To do so, various re-austenitised samples at 860 °C for 60 min were isothermally heated at 650 °C from 3 to 60 min and then water–quenched to obtain the final ferrite-martensite DP microstructures containing different ferrite and martensite volume fractions. Light and electron microscopic observations were supplemented with electron dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and nanoindentation tests to explore the localized compositional and hardening variations within ferrite grains in DP samples. The experimental results showed that the ferrite hardness was varied with progress of austenite to ferrite phase transformation in DP samples. In the case of a particular ferrite grain in a particular DP sample, despite a homogeneous distribution of carbon concentration, the ferrite hardness was significantly increased by increasing distance from the central location toward the interfacial α/γ areas. Beside a considerable influence of martensitic phase transformation on adjacent ferrite hardness, these results were rationalized in part to the significant level of Cr and Mo pile-up at α/γ interfaces leading to higher solid solution hardening effect of these regions. The reduction of potential energy developed by attractive interaction between C-Cr and C-Mo couples toward the carbon enriched prior austenite areas were the dominating driving force for pile-up segregation.

  14. Radiation hardening and embrittlement of some refractory metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabritsiev, S.; Pokrovskyb

    2007-01-01

    Tungsten is proposed for application in the ITER divertor and limiter as plasma facing material. The tungsten operation temperature in the ITER divertor is relatively high. Hence, the ductile properties of tungsten will be controlled by the low temperature radiation embrittlement. The mechanism of radiation hardening and embrittlement under neutron irradiation at low temperature is well studied for FCC metals, in particular for copper. At the same time, low-temperature radiation hardening of BCC materials, in particular for refractory metals, is less studied. This study presents the results of investigation into radiation hardening and embrittlement of pure metals: W, Mo and Nb, and W-Re and Ta-4W alloys. The materials were in the annealed conditions. The specimens were irradiated in the SM-2 reactor to doses of 10 -4 -10 -1 dpa at 80 C and then tested for tension at 80 C. The study of the stress-strain curves of unirradiated specimens revealed a yield drop for W, Mo, Nb, Ta-4W, W-Re. After the yield drop some metals (Mo,Nb) retain their capability for strain hardening and demonstrate a high elongation (20-50%). Radiation hardening is maximum in Mo (∝400MPa) and minimum in Nb (∝100 MPa). In this case the dependence slope for Nb is similar to that for pure copper irradiated in SM-2 under the same conditions. Ii and Ta-4W have a higher slope. Measurement of electrical resistivity of irradiated specimens showed that for all materials it is increased monotonously with an increase in the irradiation dose. A minimum gain in electrical resistivity with a dose was observed for Nb (∝3% at 0.1 dpa). As for Mo it was essentially higher, i.e. ∝ 30%. The gain was maximum for W-Re alloy. Comparison of radiation hardening dose dependencies obtained in this study with the data for FCC metals (Cu) showed that in spite of the quantitative difference the qualitative behavior of these two classes of metals is similar. (orig.)

  15. Design Features of Hardening Turners with Outstripping Plastic Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Yaroslavtsev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficiency of the cutting method with outstripping plastic deformation (OPD in lathe works is defined in many respects by design features of the add-on devices for mechanical hardening of a cut-off layer material in the course of cutting. Applied on lathes, deforming OPD devices can have differing dimensions, placement on the lathe, drive type (manual, electric, hydraulic, pneumatic, pneumohydraulic, electromagnetic, and autonomy degree towards the metalcutting equipment and industrial equipment.At the same time there are a number of inherent design features of work-hardening devices the modernized lathes with OPD use for machining. Now the OPD standard devices implement two principle construction options: loading device is placed on the machine or on the OPD slide support separate of the tool, or it is structurally aligned with the cutting tool. In the latter case the OPD device for turning is called a tool mandrel, which is mounted in a tool post of the machine or, at large dimensions, such a mandrel is mounted on the machine instead of the tool mandrel.When designing the OPD devices, is important to take into consideration production requirements and recommendations for the technological equipment, developed in the course of creation, working off and introduction of such installations for mechanical hardening of material. In compliance with it, OPD devices, their placement on the machine, and working displacements shouldn't limit technological capabilities of the applied metal-cutting equipment. OPD stresses have to be smoothly regulated, with maximum loads being limited to admissible values for the machine model to be modernized. It is necessary to ensure synchronized longitudinal and cross displacements of the cutting tool and OPD hardener with respect to the axis of billet rotation to enable regulation and readjustment of the hardener and tool placement. It ought to foresee the increased mobile components rigidity and manufacturing

  16. Adaptive support ventilation: A translational study evaluating the size of delivered tidal volumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veelo, Denise P.; Dongelmans, Dave A.; Binnekade, Jan M.; Paulus, Frederique; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Adaptive support ventilation (ASV) is a microprocessor-controlled, closed-loop mode of mechanical ventilation that adapts respiratory rates and tidal volumes (V(T)s) based on the Otis least work of breathing formula. We studied calculated V(T)s in a computer simulation model, and V(T)s

  17. Devising Strain Hardening Models Using Kocks–Mecking Plots—A Comparison of Model Development for Titanium Aluminides and Case Hardening Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Bambach

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the development of strain hardening models taking into account the peculiarities of titanium aluminides. In comparison to steels, whose behavior has been studied extensively in the past, titanium aluminides possess a much larger initial work hardening rate, a sharp peak stress and pronounced softening. The work hardening behavior of a TNB-V4 (Ti–44.5Al–6.25Nb–0.8Mo–0.1B alloy is studied using isothermal hot compression tests conducted on a Gleeble 3500 simulator, and compared to the typical case hardening steel 25MoCrS4. The behavior is analyzed with the help of the Kocks-Mecking plots. In contrast to steel the TNB-V4 alloy shows a non-linear course of θ (i.e., no stage-III hardening initially and exhibits neither a plateau (stage IV hardening nor an inflection point at all deformation conditions. The present paper describes the development and application of a methodology for the design of strain hardening models for the TNB-V4 alloy and the 25CrMoS4 steel by taking the course of the Kocks-Mecking plots into account. Both models use different approaches for the hardening and softening mechanisms and accurately predict the flow stress over a wide range of deformation conditions. The methodology may hence assist in further developments of more sophisticated physically-based strain hardening models for TiAl-alloys.

  18. Skin hardening effect in patients with polymorphic light eruption: comparison of UVB hardening in hospital with a novel home UV-hardening device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, S M; Genders, R E; de Gruijl, F R; Rustemeyer, T; Pavel, S

    2013-01-01

    An effective prophylactic treatment of patients with polymorphic light eruption (PLE) consists of repeated low, gradually increasing exposures to UVB radiation. This so-called UV(B) hardening induces better tolerance of the skin to sunlight. SunshowerMedical company (Amsterdam) has developed an UV (B) source that can be used during taking shower. The low UV fluence of this apparatus makes it an interesting device for UV hardening. In a group of PLE patients, we compared the effectiveness of the irradiation with SunshowerMedical at home with that of the UVB treatment in the hospital. The PLE patients were randomized for one of the treatments. The hospital treatment consisted of irradiations with broad-band UVB (Waldmann 85/UV21 lamps) twice a week during 6 weeks. The home UV-device was used each day with the maximal irradiation time of 6 min. The outcome assessment was based on the information obtained from patients' dermatological quality of life (DLQI) questionnaires, the ability of both phototherapies to reduce the provocation reaction and from the patients' evaluation of the long-term benefits of their phototherapies. Sixteen patients completed treatment with SunshowerMedical and thirteen completed treatment in hospital. Both types of phototherapy were effective. There was a highly significant improvement in DLQI with either treatment. In most cases, the hardening reduced or even completely suppressed clinical UV provocation of PLE. The patients using SunshowerMedical at home were, however, much more content with the treatment procedure than the patients visiting the dermatological units. Both treatments were equally effective in the induction of skin tolerance to sunlight in PLE patients. However, the home treatment was much better accepted than the treatment in the hospital. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  19. Minimalist fault-tolerance techniques for mitigating single-event effects in non-radiation-hardened microcontrollers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Douglas Wyche

    Commercial microcontrollers--monolithic integrated circuits containing microprocessor, memory and various peripheral functions--such as are used in industrial, automotive and military applications, present spacecraft avionics system designers an appealing mix of higher performance and lower power together with faster system-development time and lower unit costs. However, these parts are not radiation-hardened for application in the space environment and Single-Event Effects (SEE) caused by high-energy, ionizing radiation present a significant challenge. Mitigating these effects with techniques which require minimal additional support logic, and thereby preserve the high functional density of these devices, can allow their benefits to be realized. This dissertation uses fault-tolerance to mitigate the transient errors and occasional latchups that non-hardened microcontrollers can experience in the space radiation environment. Space systems requirements and the historical use of fault-tolerant computers in spacecraft provide context. Space radiation and its effects in semiconductors define the fault environment. A reference architecture is presented which uses two or three microcontrollers with a combination of hardware and software voting techniques to mitigate SEE. A prototypical spacecraft function (an inertial measurement unit) is used to illustrate the techniques and to explore how real application requirements impact the fault-tolerance approach. Low-cost approaches which leverage features of existing commercial microcontrollers are analyzed. A high-speed serial bus is used for voting among redundant devices and a novel wire-OR output voting scheme exploits the bidirectional controls of I/O pins. A hardware testbed and prototype software were constructed to evaluate two- and three-processor configurations. Simulated Single-Event Upsets (SEUs) were injected at high rates and the response of the system monitored. The resulting statistics were used to evaluate

  20. The effects of induction hardening on wear properties of AISI 4140 steel in dry sliding conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totik, Y.; Sadeler, R.; Altun, H.; Gavgali, M.

    2002-01-01

    Wear behaviour of induction hardened AISI 4140 steel was evaluated under dry sliding conditions. Specimens were induction hardened at 1000 Hz for 6, 10, 14, 18, 27 s, respectively, in the inductor which was a three-turn coil with a coupling distance of 2.8 mm. Normalised and induction hardened specimens were fully characterised before and after the wear testing using hardness, profilometer, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The wear tests using a pin-on-disc machine showed that the induction hardening treatments improved the wear behaviour of AISI 4140 steel specimens compared to normalised AISI 4140 steel as a result of residual stresses and hardened surfaces. The wear coefficients in normalised specimens are greater than that in the induction hardened samples. The lowest coefficient of the friction was obtained in specimens induction-hardened at 875 deg. C for 27 s

  1. The effects of induction hardening on wear properties of AISI 4140 steel in dry sliding conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totik, Y.; Sadeler, R.; Altun, H.; Gavgali, M

    2002-02-15

    Wear behaviour of induction hardened AISI 4140 steel was evaluated under dry sliding conditions. Specimens were induction hardened at 1000 Hz for 6, 10, 14, 18, 27 s, respectively, in the inductor which was a three-turn coil with a coupling distance of 2.8 mm. Normalised and induction hardened specimens were fully characterised before and after the wear testing using hardness, profilometer, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The wear tests using a pin-on-disc machine showed that the induction hardening treatments improved the wear behaviour of AISI 4140 steel specimens compared to normalised AISI 4140 steel as a result of residual stresses and hardened surfaces. The wear coefficients in normalised specimens are greater than that in the induction hardened samples. The lowest coefficient of the friction was obtained in specimens induction-hardened at 875 deg. C for 27 s.

  2. Surface hardening of titanium alloys with melting depth controlled by heat sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Laurance L.; Turner, Paul C.

    1995-01-01

    A process for forming a hard surface coating on titanium alloys includes providing a piece of material containing titanium having at least a portion of one surface to be hardened. The piece having a portion of a surface to be hardened is contacted on the backside by a suitable heat sink such that the melting depth of said surface to be hardened may be controlled. A hardening material is then deposited as a slurry. Alternate methods of deposition include flame, arc, or plasma spraying, electrodeposition, vapor deposition, or any other deposition method known by those skilled in the art. The surface to be hardened is then selectively melted to the desired depth, dependent on the desired coating thickness, such that a molten pool is formed of the piece surface and the deposited hardening material. Upon cooling a hardened surface is formed.

  3. Study of radiation hardening in reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogiwa, Kimihiro; Nishimura, Akihiko

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the dependence of hardening on copper precipitate diameter and density, in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations during tensile tests of dislocation gliding through copper rich-precipitates in thermally aged and neutron irradiated Fe-Cu alloys were performed. The obstacle strength has been estimated from the critical bow-out angle, φ, of dislocations. The obstacle distance on the dislocation line measured from in-situ TEM observations were compared with number density and diameter measured by 3D-AP (three dimensional atom probe) and TEM observation. A comparison is made between hardening estimation based on the critical bowing angles and those obtained from conventional tensile tests. (author)

  4. Radiation effects in semiconductors: technologies for hardened integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlot, J.M.

    1983-09-01

    Various technologies are used to manufacture integrated circuits for electronic systems. But for specific applications, including those with radiation environment, it is necessary to choose an appropriate technologie or to improve a specific one in order to reach a definite hardening level. The aim of this paper is to present the main effects induced by radiation (neutrons and gamma rays) into the basic semiconductor devices, to explain some physical degradation mechanisms and to propose solutions for hardened integrated circuit fabrication. The analysis involves essentially the monolithic structure of the integrated circuits and the isolation technology of active elements. In conclusion, the advantages of EPIC and SOS technologies are described and the potentialities of new technologies (GaAs and SOI) are presented

  5. Radiation effects in semiconductors: technologies for hardened integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlot, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Various technologies are used to manufacture integrated circuits for electronic systems. But for specific applications, including those with radiation environment, it is necessary to choose an appropriate technology or to improve a specific one in order to reach a definite hardening level. The aim of this paper is to present the main effects induced by radiation (neutrons and gamma rays) into the basic semiconductor devices, to explain some physical degradation mechanisms and to propose solutions for hardened integrated circuit fabrication. The analysis involves essentially the monolithic structure of the integrated circuits and the isolation technology of active elements. In conclusion, the advantages of EPIC and SOS technologies are described and the potentialities of new technologies (GaAs and SOI) are presented. (author)

  6. On use of radial evanescence remain term in kinematic hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the interest which lies in non-linear kinematic hardening rule with radial evanescence remain term as proposed for modelling multiaxial ratchetting. From analytical calculations in the case of the tension/torsion test, this ratchetting is compared with that proposed by Armstrong and Frederick. A modification is then proposed for Chaboche's elastoplastic model with two non-linear kinematic variables, by coupling the two types of hardening by means of two scalar parameters. Identification of these two parameters returns to speculate on the directions of strain in order to adjust the ratchetting to experimental observations. Using biaxial ratchetting tests on stainless steel 316 L specimens at ambient temperature, it is shown that satisfactory modelling of multiaxial ratchetting is obtained. (author). 4 refs., 5 figs

  7. An energy-based beam hardening model in tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casteele, E van de; Dyck, D van; Sijbers, J; Raman, E

    2002-01-01

    As a consequence of the polychromatic x-ray source, used in micro-computer tomography (μCT) and in medical CT, the attenuation is no longer a linear function of absorber thickness. If this nonlinear beam hardening effect is not compensated, the reconstructed images will be corrupted by cupping artefacts. In this paper, a bimodal energy model for the detected energy spectrum is presented, which can be used for reduction of artefacts caused by beam hardening in well-specified conditions. Based on the combination of the spectrum of the source and the detector efficiency, the assumption is made that there are two dominant energies which can describe the system. The validity of the proposed model is examined by fitting the model to the experimental datapoints obtained on a microtomograph for different materials and source voltages

  8. work hardening, recovery and recrystallization of alloys containing dispersed precipitates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilha, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the work hardening, recovery and recrystallization mechanisms in alloys containing dispersed precipitates. In the section on work hardening, the influence od spacing, particle size and shape on the density and distribution of dislocations have been discussed. They represent a large part of the energy stored in the material following drformation, which in turn is driving force for recrystallization. Next, the role of precipitates on recovery, on the formation and the growth of recrystallized regions has been discussed in detail. The competition between recovery and recrystallization and recrystallization of supersaturated solid solutions have also been mentioned. Finally, the technological relevance of the aspects treated in this paper has been discussed. (author) [pt

  9. Hardening by annealing and softening by deformation in nanostructured metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, X.; Hansen, N.; Tsuji, N.

    2006-01-01

    We observe that a nanostructured metal can be hardened by annealing and softened when subsequently deformed, which is in contrast to the typical behavior of a metal. Microstructural investigation points to an effect of the structural scale on fundamental mechanisms of dislocation-dislocation and ......We observe that a nanostructured metal can be hardened by annealing and softened when subsequently deformed, which is in contrast to the typical behavior of a metal. Microstructural investigation points to an effect of the structural scale on fundamental mechanisms of dislocation....... As a consequence, the strength decreases and the ductility increases. These observations suggest that for materials such as the nanostructured aluminum studied here, deformation should be used as an optimizing procedure instead of annealing....

  10. Coatings hardenable by ionizing radiation and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronoff, E.J.; Labana, S.S.

    1976-01-01

    The invention deals with the production of a coating medium which can be hardened by ionizing radiation. The composition includes tetravinyl compounds containing no free hydroxyl groups which were obtained by the conversion of di-epoxides with acryl or methacryl acid via the intermediary step of a divinyl ester condensation product. The intermediary product is converted with acryloyl or methacryloyl halides. The mass still contains non-polymerisable solvent (such as tolual, xylol), pigments and fillers. It is of advantage if the di-epoxide has a molecular weight of 140 to 500. Furthermore, coatings are to be made of this coating medium which are hardened by ionizing radiation at temperatures between 20 0 C and 70 0 C. 19 examples. (HK) [de

  11. Plasma nitriding - an eco friendly surface hardening process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, S.

    2015-01-01

    Surface hardening is a process of heating the metal such that the surface gets only hardened. This process is adopted for many components like gears, cams, and crankshafts, which desire high hardness on the outer surface with a softer core to withstand the shocks. So, to attain such properties processes like carburising, nitriding, flame hardening and induction hardening are employed. Amongst these processes nitriding is the most commonly used process by many industries. In nitriding process the steel material is heated to a temperature of around 550 C and then exposed to atomic nitrogen. This atomic nitrogen reacts with iron and other alloying elements and forms nitrides, which are very hard in nature. By this process both wear resistance and hardness of the product can be increased. The atomic nitrogen required for this process can be obtained using ammonia gas (gas nitriding), cyanide based salt bath (liquid nitriding) and plasma medium (plasma nitriding). However, plasma nitriding has recently received considerable industrial interest owing to its characteristic of faster nitrogen penetration, short treatment time, low process temperature, minimal distortion, low energy use and easier control of layer formation compared with conventional techniques such as gas and liquid nitriding. This process can be used for all ferrous materials including stainless steels. Plasma nitriding is carried out using a gas mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen gas at sub atmospheric pressures hence, making it eco-friendly in nature. Plasma nitriding allows modification of the surface layers and hardness profiles by changing the gas mixture and temperature. The wide applicable temperature range enables a multitude of applications, beyond the possibilities of gas or salt bath processes. This has led to numerous applications of this process in industries such as the manufacture of machine parts for plastics and food processing, packaging and tooling as well as pumps and hydraulic, machine

  12. Numerical implementation of a model with directional distortional hardening

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marek, René; Plešek, Jiří; Hrubý, Zbyněk; Parma, Slavomír; Feigenbaum, H. P.; Dafalias, Y.F.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 141, č. 12 (2015), 04015048-04015048 ISSN 0733-9399 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH14018; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-20666S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : plasticity * directional distortional hardening * finite-element procedures Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 1.346, year: 2015 http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/%28ASCE%29EM.1943-7889.0000954

  13. Account of low temperature hardening in calculation of permissible stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, N.V.; Ul'yanenko, A.P.; Gorodyskij, N.I.

    1980-01-01

    Suggested is a calculation scheme of permissible stresses with the account of temperature hardening for steels and alloys, the dependences of strength, plasticity and rupture work of which on cooling temperature do not have threshold changes in a wide range of low temperatures (from 300 to 4.2 K). Application of the suggested scheme is considered on the example of 12Kh18N10T austenitic chromium-nickel steel

  14. Radiation-hardened CMOS/SOS LSI circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubuchon, K.G.; Peterson, H.T.; Shumake, D.P.

    1976-01-01

    The recently developed technology for building radiation-hardened CMOS/SOS devices has now been applied to the fabrication of LSI circuits. This paper describes and presents results on three different circuits: an 8-bit adder/subtractor (Al gate), a 256-bit shift register (Si gate), and a polycode generator (Al gate). The 256-bit shift register shows very little degradation after 1 x 10 6 rads (Si), with an increase from 1.9V to 2.9V in minimum operating voltage, a decrease of about 20% in maximum frequency, and little or no change in quiescent current. The p-channel thresholds increase from -0.9V to -1.3V, while the n-channel thresholds decrease from 1.05 to 0.23V, and the n-channel leakage remains below 1nA/mil. Excellent hardening results were also obtained on the polycode generator circuit. Ten circuits were irradiated to 1 x 10 6 rads (Si), and all continued to function well, with an increase in minimum power supply voltage from 2.85V to 5.85V and an increase in quiescent current by a factor of about 2. Similar hardening results were obtained on the 8-bit adder, with the minimum power supply voltage increasing from 2.2V to 4.6V and the add time increasing from 270 to 350 nsec after 1 x 10 6 rads (Si). These results show that large CMOS/SOS circuits can be hardened to above 1 x 10 6 rads (Si) with either the Si gate or Al gate technology. The paper also discusses the relative advantages of the Si gate versus the Al gate technology

  15. Concrete hardened characterization using table scanner and microtomography computed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.E.; Pessoa, J.R.; Assis, J.T. de; Dominguez, D.S.; Dias, L.A.; Santana, M. R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of image processing technologies to analyze hardened concrete samples obtained from table scanner and micro tomography. Techniques will be used to obtain numerical data on the distribution and geometry of aggregates and pores of the concrete, as well as their relative position. It is expected that the data obtained can produce information on the research of concrete pathologies such as AAR, and the freeze / thaw process. (author)

  16. Partial electron beam hardening of cast iron camshafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csizmazia, A.; Reti, T. [Szechenyi Istvan Univ., Gyoer (Hungary); Horvath, M.; Olah, I. [Audi Hungaria Motor Kft., Gyoer (Hungary)

    2005-07-01

    In order to improve the local surface properties (hardness, wear and contact fatigue resistance) of cast iron camshafts, detailed experiments with partial electron beam hardening have been performed. It was found that the required case depth of 0.3-0.5 mm and surface hardness of 600-700 HV can be achieved by using appropriately selected, computer-controlled processing parameters (angular speed, specific energy input, beam deflection). (orig.)

  17. Heat Flow In Cylindrical Bodies During Laser Surface Transformation Hardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandven, Ole A.

    1980-01-01

    A mathematical model for the transient heat flow in cylindrical specimens is presented. The model predicts the temperature distribution in the vicinity of a moving ring-shaped laser spot around the periphery of the outer surface of a cylinder, or the inner surface of a hollow cylinder. It can be used to predict the depth of case in laser surface transformation hardening. The validity of the model is tested against experimental results obtained on SAE 4140 steel.

  18. Description of hardening curves of fcc single- and polycrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecking, H.

    1975-01-01

    Stress-strain curves are analyzed over their entire strain region and over a wide range of temperatures to arrive at a general analytic description of work-hardening curves. The data were obtained with fcc single and polycrystals, but there is experimental and theoretical evidence that the principles of the analysis are also applicable for other crystal structures and even for more complex technical materials. 9 figs, 1 table, 46 refs

  19. Sequential circuit design for radiation hardened multiple voltage integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lawrence T [Phoenix, AZ; McIver, III, John K.

    2009-11-24

    The present invention includes a radiation hardened sequential circuit, such as a bistable circuit, flip-flop or other suitable design that presents substantial immunity to ionizing radiation while simultaneously maintaining a low operating voltage. In one embodiment, the circuit includes a plurality of logic elements that operate on relatively low voltage, and a master and slave latches each having storage elements that operate on a relatively high voltage.

  20. Effects of residual stress on irradiation hardening in stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okubo, N.; Kondo, K.; Kaji, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naga-gun, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Miwa, Y. [Nuclear Energy and Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Structural materials in fusion reactor with water cooling system will undergo corrosion in aqueous environment and heavier irradiation than that in LWR. Irradiation assisted stress corrosion (IASCC) may be induced in stainless steels exposed in these environment for a long term of reactor operation. The IASCC is considered to be caused in a welding zone. It is difficult to predict and estimate the IASCC, because several irradiation effects (irradiation hardening, swelling, irradiation induced stress relaxation, etc) work intricately. Firstly, effects of residual stress on irradiation hardening were investigated in stainless steels. Specimens used in this study were SUS316 and SUS316L. By bending deformation, the specimens with several % plastic strain, which corresponds to weld residual stress, were prepared. Ion irradiations of 12 MeV Ni{sup 3+} were performed at 330, 400 and 550 deg. C to 45 dpa in TIARA facility at JAEA. No bent specimen was simultaneously irradiated with the bent specimen. The residual stress was estimated by X-ray residual stress measurements before and after the irradiation. The micro-hardness was measured by using nano-indenter. The irradiation hardening and the stress relaxation were changed by irradiation under bending deformation. The residual stress did not relax even for the case of the higher temperature aging at 500 deg. C for the same time of irradiation. The residual stress after ion irradiation, however, relaxed at these experimental temperatures in SUS316L. The hardness was obviously suppressed in bent SUS316L irradiated at 300 deg. C to 6 or 12 dpa. It was evident that irradiation induced stress relaxation occasionally suppressed the irradiation hardening in SUS316L. (authors)

  1. Microprocessor-controlled tester for evaluation of the Self-Energized Credential System (SECS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlis, N.E.

    1980-03-01

    The Self-Energized Credential System (SECS) was developed for use in the Plutonium Protection System (PPS) installed at Hanford, Washington. Evaluation and development of the SECS system was enhanced by the use of a microprocessor-controlled portal tester. This tester used infrared (ir) beam sensors to provide information on the direction of travel of the credential wearer and to detect inoperative credentials. A printed record of the portal number, actual code read, time, and direction of the credential passage provided information essential to an assessment of the operability of the SECS

  2. A microprocessor-based gamma-ray spectrometer with gain stabilized single-channel analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, P.J.; Huppert, P.; Phillips, P.L.; Waddington, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    The design and performance of a self-contained microprocessor-based gamma-ray spectrometer for use in geophysical measurements using nuclear techniques is described. The instrument uses single-channel analyzers which are inherently simpler and faster than the Wilkinson or successive approximation ADC. A novel technique of gain stabilization together with a simple means of energy calibration has been developed. The modular design of the equipment makes it suitable for multidetector usage, required in a number of nucleonic gauges for the quantitative measurement of chemical constituents. (orig.)

  3. Microprocessor-controlled data-acquisition instrument for neutron-activation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a microprocessor controlled data acquisition instrument designed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to provide experimenters with a diagnostic tool for measuring the performance of laser imploded fusion targets via neutron activation techniques. This instrument features the ability to count four independent inputs simultaneously while providing a front panel readout of these inputs, plus a time of day clock. A hardcopy printout of the data is also provided by a built-in thermal printer. All running modes and parameters are user selectable via a front panel keypad, and a complete set of internal self-testing diagnostics are available for debug

  4. Data acquisition and command system for use with a microprocessor-based control chassis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Martinez, V.A. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The Pion Generation for Medical Irradiations (PIGMI) program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is developing the technology to build smaller, less expensive, and more reliable proton linear accelerators for medical applications, and has designed a powerful, simple, inexpensive, and reliable control and data acquisition system that is central to the program development. The system is a NOVA-3D minicomputer interfaced to several outlying microprocessor-based controllers, which accomplish control and data acquisition through data I/O chasis. The equipment interface chassis, which can issue binary commands, read binary data, issue analog commands, and read timed and untimed analog data is described

  5. ITRA 084 - a microprocessor controlled rapid analyzer in mining and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kliem, V.; Kreher, M.; Boy, N.

    1986-01-01

    A new rapid analyzer of the ITRA series has been developed at the Freiberg Research Institute of Non-Ferrous Metals for single and multi-element analysis in mining and non-ferrous metallurgy. INTRA-08 represents an efficient microprocessor-controlled on-line X-ray fluorescence analyzer based on the main principles utilized with success hitherto in device engineering (isotope excitation, four-channel modification, balance filter method). A U880 single-chip microcomputer provides the central control of the device including the execution of an extensive program for the matrix correction. The efficiency of the analyzer is demonstrated taking measured values as a basis

  6. Software support for Motorola 68000 microprocessor at CERN. CERN convention for programming the MC68000 family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cailliau, R.; Carpenter, B.

    1984-01-01

    The CERN convention for programming the MC68000 family of microprocessors gives a set of rules describing the layout of the memory and stack frames used by routines as they should appear before and after their calling sequences. It does not deal with the instructions used to achieve these states. The aim of the convention is to allow programming language mixing as well as debugging of programs built from units written in different languages. It is to be followed by programmers and programming-language compilers. (orig.)

  7. Experience in installing a microprocessor-based protection system on a UK nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.D.; Smith, I.C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a recently completed project to install a microprocessor-based reactor protection system on a twin reactor station in the United Kingdom. This represented the first application of digital technology as part of such a system in the UK. The background of the application and details of the chosen solution are provided. The experience gained during the installation, commissioning and early operation of the equipment is reviewed by the operators. Interactions between the utility and the regulatory body are outlined and the impact of the regulatory process on the utility's resources and the project timescales are discussed

  8. Development of a microprocessor controller for stand-alone photovoltaic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millner, A. R.; Kaufman, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    A controller for stand-alone photovoltaic systems has been developed using a low power CMOS microprocessor. It performs battery state of charge estimation, array control, load management, instrumentation, automatic testing, and communications functions. Array control options are sequential subarray switching and maximum power control. A calculator keypad and LCD display provides manual control, fault diagnosis and digital multimeter functions. An RS-232 port provides data logging or remote control capability. A prototype 5 kW unit has been built and tested successfully. The controller is expected to be useful in village photovoltaic power systems, large solar water pumping installations, and other battery management applications.

  9. Wide-bandwidth low-voltage PLL for powerPC(sup TM) microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Jose; Sanchez, Hector; Gerosa, Gianfranco; Countryman, Roger

    1995-04-01

    A 3.3 V Phase-Locked-Loop (PLL) clock synthesizer implemented in 0.5 micron CMOS technology is described. The PLL supports internal to external clock frequency ratios of 1, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 as well as numerous static power down modes for PowerPC(sup TM) microprocessors. The CPU clock lock range spans from 6 to 175 MHz. Lock times below 15 mu s, PLL power dissipation below 10mW as well as phase error and jitter below +/- 100 ps have been measured. The total area of the PLL is 0.52 mm(exp 2).

  10. Microprocessor-based data acquisition system for extensive air shower studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumdar, G.K.D.; Kalita, P.M.; Bordoloi, T.C.; Pathak, K.M.

    1989-01-01

    Studies on electromagnetic radiation from large extensive air showers (Esub(p) ≥> 10 16 eV) have been of recent importance in the investigation of properties of EAS in problems involving mass composition, arrival time, radio emission. Cerenkov radiation etc. Such studies need fast electronic circuitry preferably for digitisation. A microprocessor based data acquisition system having scintillation counters, PA, MA, Pd, S/H and control unit has been developed and is being used in the EAS studies at Gauhati University Cosmic Ray Research Laboratory. Description of the different units along with their functioning and method of standardisation is presented in this paper. (author). 3 figs

  11. A high resolution wire scanner beam profile monitor with a microprocessor data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutler, R.I.; Mohr, D.L.; Whittaker, J.K.; Yoder, N.R.

    1983-01-01

    A beam profile monitor has been constructed for the NBS-LANL Racetrack Microtron. The monitor consists of two perpendicular 30 μm diameter carbon wires that are driven through an electron beam by a pneumatic actuator. A long-lifetime, electroformed nickel bellows is used for the linear-motion vacuum feedthrough. Secondary emission current from the wires and a signal from a transducer measuring the position of the wires are simultaneously digitized by a microprocessor to yield beam current density profiles in two dimensions. The wire scanner is designed for use with both pulsed and cw beams

  12. Microprocessor-based control for independently-phased RF linac cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    A microprocessor based system has been built to control the RF amplifiers associated with independently phased linac cavities. The system has an 8080A at each amplifier station, together with associated ROM, RAM, I/O, etc. At a central NOVA 3 computer an additional 8080A system is incorporated in the interface to the NOVA I/O bus. The NOVA interface is connected by a bus of eighteen twisted pairs to each amplifier station, providing bilateral transmission between each station and the NOVA. The system architecture, bus protocol, and operating characteristics are described

  13. Effect of particle morphology and microstructure on strength, work-hardening and ductility behaviour of ODS-(7-13)Cr steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preininger, D.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of particle morphology and grain refinement to the nanometer scale on strength, work-hardening and tensile ductility of reduced activation ODS-(7-13)Cr steels has been modelled with a dependence on deformation temperature (T=RT-700 deg. C) and a superimposed irradiation hardening. The Orowan model predictions describe as the upper limit the observed particle strengthening of various ODS-(7-13)Cr-(≤0.5 wt% yttria) steels. An optimum particle size d p * congruent with 7-22 nm (f v =0.004-0.05) and strength, together with a lower limiting ultra-fine grain size d K,c ≥90 nm result in maximum uniform ductility increase by grain refinement and dispersion hardening (DIGD). Optimum size d p * increases with increasing particle volume fraction f v and deformation temperature and decreases with irradiation hardening and grain refinement. The region of DIGD is limited to achieve a critical strength σ L corresponding to a critical particle volume fraction f v,c and grain size d K,c , above which uniform strain becomes limited by the strong drop of fracture strain. Grain refinement and irradiation hardening decrease σ L , f v,c and increase d K,c . In accordance with experimental results of ODS-Eurofer, nominal uniform strain increases with increasing f v by about ε u,n =B e +A e lnf v , most strongly around 300 deg. C, but weakly at the 600 deg. C minimum. The strong ductility increase above 600 deg. C results from a reduction of dislocation annihilation and structural recovery of strength. At T K,c for lower f v toward a saturation value which increases with increasing ratio of shear modulus to Hall-Petch constant. The enhanced uniform ductility at T≥300 deg. C is otherwise strongly decreased by grain refinement, more pronounced at lower f v and for strengths above σ L

  14. Process controls for radiation hardened aluminum gate bulk silicon CMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, B.L.

    1975-01-01

    Optimized dry oxides have recently yielded notable improvements in CMOS radiation-hardness. By following the proper procedures and recipes, it is now possible to produce devices which will function satisfactorily after exposure to a total ionizing dose in excess of 10 6 RADS (Si). This paper is concerned with the controls required on processing parameters once the optimized process is defined. In this process, the pre-irradiation electrical parameters must be closely controlled to insure that devices will function after irradiation. In particular, the specifications on n- and p-channel threshold voltages require tight control of fixed oxide charge, surface-state density, oxide thickness, and substrate and p-well surface concentrations. In order to achieve the above level of radiation hardness, certain processing procedures and parameters must also be closely controlled. Higher levels of cleanliness are required in the hardened process than are commonly required for commercial CMOS since, for hardened dry oxides, no impurity gettering can be employed during or after oxidation. Without such gettering, an unclean oxide is unacceptable due to bias-temperature instability. Correct pre-oxidation cleaning, residual surface damage removal, proper oxidation and annealing temperatures and times, and the correct metal sintering cycle are all important in determining device hardness. In a reproducible, hardened process, each of these processing steps must be closely controlled. (U.S.)

  15. Hardening in AlN induced by point defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suematsu, H.; Mitchell, T.E.; Iseki, T.; Yano, T.

    1991-01-01

    Pressureless-sintered AIN was neutron irradiated and the hardness change was examined by Vickers indentation. The hardness was increased by irradiation. When the samples were annealed at high temperature, the hardness gradually decreased. Length was also found to increase and to change in the same way as the hardness. A considerable density of dislocation loops still remained, even after the hardness completely recovered to the value of the unirradiated sample. Thus, it is concluded that the hardening in AIN is caused by isolated point defects and small clusters of point defects, rather than by dislocation loops. Hardness was found to increase in proportion to the length change. If the length change is assumed to be proportional to the point defect density, then the curve could be fitted qualitatively to that predicted by models of solution hardening in metals. Furthermore, the curves for three samples irradiated at different temperatures and fluences are identical. There should be different kinds of defect clusters in samples irradiated at different conditions, e.g., the fraction of single point defects is the highest in the sample irradiated at the lowest temperature. Thus, hardening is insensitive to the kind of defects remaining in the sample and is influenced only by those which contribute to length change

  16. Recent developments in turning hardened steels - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraman, V.; Prakash, S.

    2017-05-01

    Hard materials ranging from HRC 45 - 68 such as hardened AISI H13, AISI 4340, AISI 52100, D2 STL, D3 STEEL Steel etc., need super hard tool materials to machine. Turning of these hard materials is termed as hard turning. Hard turning makes possible direct machining of the hard materials and also eliminates the lubricant requirement and thus favoring dry machining. Hard turning is a finish turning process and hence conventional grinding is not required. Development of the new advanced super hard tool materials such as ceramic inserts, Cubic Boron Nitride, Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride etc. enabled the turning of these materials. PVD and CVD methods of coating have made easier the production of single and multi layered coated tool inserts. Coatings of TiN, TiAlN, TiC, Al2O3, AlCrN over cemented carbide inserts has lead to the machining of difficult to machine materials. Advancement in the process of hard machining paved way for better surface finish, long tool life, reduced tool wear, cutting force and cutting temperatures. Micro and Nano coated carbide inserts, nanocomposite coated PCBN inserts, micro and nano CBN coated carbide inserts and similar developments have made machining of hardened steels much easier and economical. In this paper, broad literature review on turning of hardened steels including optimizing process parameters, cooling requirements, different tool materials etc., are done.

  17. Influences of Steelmaking Slags on Hydration and Hardening of Concretes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsanova, A. A.; Dildin, A. N.; Maksimov, S. P.

    2017-11-01

    It is shown that the slag of metallurgical production can be used in the construction industry as an active mineral additive for concrete. This approach allows us to solve environmental problems and reduce costs for the production of binder and concrete simultaneously. Most often slag is used in the form of a filler, an active mineral additive or as a part of a binder for artificial conglomerates. The introduction of slag allows one to notice a part of the cement, to obtain concretes that are more resistant to the impact of aggressive sulfate media. The paper shows the possibility of using recycled steel-smelting slags in the construction industry for the production of cement. An assessment was made of their effect on the hydration of the cement stone and hardening of the concrete together with the plasticizer under normal conditions. In the process of work, we used the slag of the Zlatoust Electrometallurgical Factory. Possible limitations of the content of steel-slag slag in concrete because of the possible presence of harmful impurities are shown. It is necessary to enter slag in conjunction with superplasticizers to reduce the flow of water mixing. Slags can be used as a hardening accelerator for cement concrete as they allow one to increase the degree of cement hydration and concrete strength. It is shown that slags can be used to produce fast-hardening concretes and their comparative characteristics with other active mineral additives are given.

  18. Importance of calcium and magnesium in water - water hardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barloková, D.; Ilavský, J.; Kapusta, O.; Šimko, V.

    2017-10-01

    Basic information about importance of calcium and magnesium in water, about their properties, effect to human health, problems what can cause under the lower ( 5 mmol/L) concentrations in water supply distribution systems, the most commonly used methods of water hardening are presented. The article contains the water hardening results carried out during the pilot plant experiments in WTP Hriňová and WTP Turček. For water hardening, treated water at the end of the process line, i.e., after coagulation, sedimentation and filtration, saturated with CO2 and filtrated through half-burnt dolomite material (PVD) was used. The results show that the filtration rate is 17.1 m/h in the case of WTP Hriňová and 15.2 m/h in the case of WTP Turček to achieve the recommended concentration of Ca and Mg in the treated water after the addition of CO2 and filtration through PVD. The longer the water contact time with PVD (depending on the CO2 content), the more water is enriched with magnesium, but the calcium concentration has not so much increased.

  19. Residual stress analysis of drive shafts after induction hardening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Guilherme Vieira Braga; Rocha, Alexandre da Silva; Nunes, Rafael Menezes, E-mail: lemos_gl@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Algre, RS (Brazil); Hirsch, Thomas Karl [Stiftung Institut für Werkstofftechnik (IWT), Bremen (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Typically, for automotive shafts, shape distortion manifests itself in most cases after the induction hardening by an effect known as bending. The distortion results in a boost of costs, especially due to machining parts in the hardened state to fabricate its final tolerances. In the present study, residual stress measurements were carried out on automotive drive shafts made of DIN 38B3 steel. The samples were selected in consequence of their different distortion properties by an industrial manufacturing line. One tested shaft was straightened, because of the considerable dimensional variation and the other one not. Firstly, the residual stress measurements were carried out by using a portable diffractometer, in order to avoid cutting the shafts and evaluate the original state of the stresses, and afterwards a more detailed analysis was realized by a conventional stationary diffractometer. The obtained results presented an overview of the surface residual stress profiles after induction hardening and displayed the influence of the straightening process on the redistribution of residual stresses. They also indicated that the effects of the straightening in the residual stresses cannot be neglected. (author)

  20. Helium-induced hardening effect in polycrystalline tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanhang; Qu, Miao; Yan, Sha; Zhang, Ailin; Peng, Shixiang; Xue, Jianming; Wang, Yugang

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, helium induced hardening effect of tungsten was investigated. 50 keV He2+ ions at fluences vary from 5 × 1015 cm-2 to 5 × 1017 cm-2 were implanted into polycrystalline tungsten at RT to create helium bubble-rich layers near the surface. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the irradiated specimens were studied by TEM and nano-indentor. Helium bubble rich layers are formed in near surface region, and the layers become thicker with the rise of fluences. Helium bubbles in the area of helium concentration peak are found to grow up, while the bubble density is almost unchanged. Obvious hardening effect is induced by helium implantation in tungsten. Micro hardness increases rapidly with the fluence firstly, and more slowly when the fluence is above 5 × 1016 cm-2. The hardening effect of tungsten can be attributed to helium bubbles, which is found to be in agreement with the Bacon-Orowan stress formula. The growing diameter is the major factor rather than helium bubbles density (voids distance) in the process of helium implantation at fluences below 5 × 1017 cm-2.

  1. Design Example of Useful Memory Latency for Developing a Hazard Preventive Pipeline High-Performance Embedded-Microprocessor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hwa Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of structural, control, and data hazards presents a major challenge in designing an advanced pipeline/superscalar microprocessor. An efficient memory hierarchy cache-RAM-Disk design greatly enhances the microprocessor's performance. However, there are complex relationships among the memory hierarchy and the functional units in the microprocessor. Most past architectural design simulations focus on the instruction hazard detection/prevention scheme from the viewpoint of function units. This paper emphasizes that additional inboard memory can be well utilized to handle the hazardous conditions. When the instruction meets hazardous issues, the memory latency can be utilized to prevent performance degradation due to the hazard prevention mechanism. By using the proposed technique, a better architectural design can be rapidly validated by an FPGA at the start of the design stage. In this paper, the simulation results prove that our proposed methodology has a better performance and less power consumption compared to the conventional hazard prevention technique.

  2. Influence of Plastic Deformation on Low Temperature Surface Hardening of Austenitic and Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels by Gaseous Nitriding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottoli, Federico; Winther, Grethe; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses an investigation of the influence of plastic deformation on low temperature surface hardening by gaseous nitriding of three commercial austenitic stainless steels: AISI 304, EN 1.4369 and Sandvik Nanoflex® with various degrees of austenite stability. The materials were...... case included X-ray diffraction analysis, reflected light microscopy and microhardness. The results demonstrate that a case of expanded austenite develops and that, in particular, strain-induced martensite has a large influence on the nitrided zone....

  3. Microprocessors & their operating systems a comprehensive guide to 8, 16 & 32 bit hardware, assembly language & computer architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, R C

    1989-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive guide to all of the major microprocessor families (8, 16 and 32 bit). The hardware aspects and software implications are described, giving the reader an overall understanding of microcomputer architectures. The internal processor operation of each microprocessor device is presented, followed by descriptions of the instruction set and applications for the device. Software considerations are expanded with descriptions and examples of the main high level programming languages (BASIC, Pascal and C). The book also includes detailed descriptions of the three main operatin

  4. Design of a microprocessor-based Control, Interface and Monitoring (CIM unit for turbine engine controls research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaat, J. C.; Soeder, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    High speed minicomputers were used in the past to implement advanced digital control algorithms for turbine engines. These minicomputers are typically large and expensive. It is desirable for a number of reasons to use microprocessor-based systems for future controls research. They are relatively compact, inexpensive, and are representative of the hardware that would be used for actual engine-mounted controls. The Control, Interface, and Monitoring Unit (CIM) contains a microprocessor-based controls computer, necessary interface hardware and a system to monitor while it is running an engine. It is presently being used to evaluate an advanced turbofan engine control algorithm.

  5. The HXR80M-balloon experiment: a microprocessor-controlled transatlantic payload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; Boccaccini, L.

    1980-01-01

    Following the results obtained from the succesful transatlantic flight launched during the summer 1976 from the CNR Milo Base, Sicily, the Laboratorio di Astrofisica Spaziale has started a new program in the hard X-ray astronomy field. It basically consists in the development of high resolution large area Multiwire Proportional Chambers to be employed in long duration balloon flights to study and monitor galactic and extragalactic sources. This note will describe the flight configuration and performances of the HXR80M payload. The experiment is expected to fly during July 1980 from the Milo Base in the framework of the CNR experimental balloon campaign. The note will analyze the main characteristics of the detectors employed, of the data handling electronics and in particular of the hardware and the software of the on-board microprocessor controlled multichannel analyzer. In fact the limitation due to the low bit rate HF link (1.2kbit/s) and the long flight duration (about one week) make imperative the use of an on-board microprocessor system to handle and select in real time the scientific data and to control the housekeeping and the telecommand systems

  6. A microprocessor based exchange data collection and analysis terminal application to A.E.A. PABX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, F.A.; Ezzat, A.K.; Ayad, N.M.A.

    1978-01-01

    The traffic data acquisition and analysis comprises micro-processer based data collection, terminals (MBDCT) and a centralized computer. The MBDCT's can communicate with the computer through a data set system. Each (MBDCT) remote terminal is connected to about two hundreds subscriber lines. It scans the trunk lines to detect the on/off hook states and to calculate the call time and the called number. If the called subscriber is not from the 200 local lines, its status should be detected though the computer communication with the two terminals. The data collected by the terminal can be slightly analysed using the microprocessor programming capability. More-over short quality performance reports can be printed on a printer interfaced to the microprocessor. Also, data can be transmitted to the central computer for further data traffic investigation. The analysis outcome can be utilized for telephone line maintenance and reorganization. This report is concerned with the terminal details as applied to the A-E-A. PABX. It consists mainly of five external lines and about 300 internal lines

  7. Electric protections based in microprocessors in power plants; Protecciones electricas basadas en microprocesadores en centrales generadoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libreros, Domitilo; Castanon Jimenez, Jose Ismael [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    This article is centered around the substitution of the conventional electric protections of a power plant in connection type unit for protections based in microprocessors. A general model of conventional protection of a power plant is described and the number of analogic and digital signals that intervene in that model are quantified. A model is setup for power plant protection with microprocessors, analyzing each one of the modules that would form it. Finally, the algorithms to carry on such protection are presented. [Espanol] Este articulo se centra en torno a la sustitucion de las protecciones electricas convencionales de una central generadora en conexion tipo unidad por protecciones basadas en microprocesadores. Se describe el modelo general de proteccion convencional de una central generadora y se cuantifica el numero de senales analogicas y digitales que interviene en dicho modelo. Se propone un modelo para proteccion de centrales generadoras mediante microprocesadores, analizandose cada uno de los modulos que lo conformarian. Finalmente, se presentan los algoritmos para realizar dicha proteccion.

  8. Electric protections based in microprocessors in power plants; Protecciones electricas basadas en microprocesadores en centrales generadoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libreros, Domitilo; Castanon Jimenez, Jose Ismael [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    This article is centered around the substitution of the conventional electric protections of a power plant in connection type unit for protections based in microprocessors. A general model of conventional protection of a power plant is described and the number of analogic and digital signals that intervene in that model are quantified. A model is setup for power plant protection with microprocessors, analyzing each one of the modules that would form it. Finally, the algorithms to carry on such protection are presented. [Espanol] Este articulo se centra en torno a la sustitucion de las protecciones electricas convencionales de una central generadora en conexion tipo unidad por protecciones basadas en microprocesadores. Se describe el modelo general de proteccion convencional de una central generadora y se cuantifica el numero de senales analogicas y digitales que interviene en dicho modelo. Se propone un modelo para proteccion de centrales generadoras mediante microprocesadores, analizandose cada uno de los modulos que lo conformarian. Finalmente, se presentan los algoritmos para realizar dicha proteccion.

  9. Influence of Microstructure and Process Conditions on Simultaneous Low-Temperature Surface Hardening and Bulk Precipitation Hardening of Nanoflex®

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bottoli, Federico; Winther, Grethe; Christiansen, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Precipitation hardening martensitic stainless steel Nanoflex was low-temperature nitrided or nitrocarburized. In these treatments, simultaneous hardening of the bulk, by precipitation hardening, and the surface by dissolving nitrogen/carbon can be obtained because the treatment temperatures...... and times for these essentially different hardening mechanisms are compatible. The effect of the processing history of the steel on the nitrided/nitrocarburized case was investigated by varying the amounts of austenite and martensite through variation of the degree of plastic deformation by tensile strain...... consisting of martensite results in the deepest nitrided case, while a shallow case develops on a microstructure consisting of austenite. For an initial microstructure consisting of both martensite and austenite a non-uniform case depth is achieved. Simultaneous bulk and surface hardening is only possible...

  10. Microstructural changes and strain hardening effects in abrasive contacts at different relative velocities and temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojacz, H., E-mail: rojacz@ac2t.at [AC2T research GmbH, Viktor-Kaplan-Straße 2C, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Mozdzen, G. [Aerospace & Advanced Composites GmbH, Viktor-Kaplan-Straße 2F, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Weigel, F.; Varga, M. [AC2T research GmbH, Viktor-Kaplan-Straße 2C, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria)

    2016-08-15

    Strain hardening is commonly used to reach the full potential of materials and can be beneficial in tribological contacts. 2-body abrasive wear was simulated in a scratch test, aimed at strain hardening effects in various steels. Different working conditions were examined at various temperatures and velocities. Strain hardening effects and microstructural changes were analysed with high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), micro hardness measurements and nanoindentation. Statistical analysing was performed quantifying the influence of different parameters on microstructures. Results show a crucial influence of temperature and velocity on the strain hardening in tribological contacts. Increased velocity leads to higher deformed microstructures and higher increased surface hardness at a lower depth of the deformed zones at all materials investigated. An optimised surface hardness can be achieved knowing the influence of velocity (strain rate) and temperature for a “tailor-made” surface hardening in tribological systems aimed at increased wear resistance. - Highlights: •Hardening mechanisms and their intensity in tribological contacts are dependent on relative velocity and temperature. •Beneficial surface hardened zones are formed at certain running-in conditions; the scientific background is presented here. •Ferritic-pearlitic steels strain hardens via grain size reduction and decreasing interlamellar distances in pearlite. •Austenitic steels show excellent surface hardening (120% hardness increase) by twinning and martensitic transformation. •Ferritic steels with hard phases harden in the ferrite phase as per Hall-Petch equation and degree of deformation.

  11. Microstructural changes and strain hardening effects in abrasive contacts at different relative velocities and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojacz, H.; Mozdzen, G.; Weigel, F.; Varga, M.

    2016-01-01

    Strain hardening is commonly used to reach the full potential of materials and can be beneficial in tribological contacts. 2-body abrasive wear was simulated in a scratch test, aimed at strain hardening effects in various steels. Different working conditions were examined at various temperatures and velocities. Strain hardening effects and microstructural changes were analysed with high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), micro hardness measurements and nanoindentation. Statistical analysing was performed quantifying the influence of different parameters on microstructures. Results show a crucial influence of temperature and velocity on the strain hardening in tribological contacts. Increased velocity leads to higher deformed microstructures and higher increased surface hardness at a lower depth of the deformed zones at all materials investigated. An optimised surface hardness can be achieved knowing the influence of velocity (strain rate) and temperature for a “tailor-made” surface hardening in tribological systems aimed at increased wear resistance. - Highlights: •Hardening mechanisms and their intensity in tribological contacts are dependent on relative velocity and temperature. •Beneficial surface hardened zones are formed at certain running-in conditions; the scientific background is presented here. •Ferritic-pearlitic steels strain hardens via grain size reduction and decreasing interlamellar distances in pearlite. •Austenitic steels show excellent surface hardening (120% hardness increase) by twinning and martensitic transformation. •Ferritic steels with hard phases harden in the ferrite phase as per Hall-Petch equation and degree of deformation.

  12. Comparative Study of Hardening Mechanisms During Aging of a 304 Stainless Steel Containing α'-Martensite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, S. W.; Kang, U. G.; Choi, J. Y.; Nam, W. J.

    2012-09-01

    Strain aging and hardening behaviors of a 304 stainless steel containing deformation-induced martensite were investigated by examining mechanical properties and microstructural evolution for different aging temperature and time. Introduced age hardening mechanisms of a cold rolled 304 stainless steel were the additional formation of α'-martensite, hardening of α'-martensite, and hardening of deformed austenite. The increased amount of α'-martensite at an aging temperature of 450 °C confirmed the additional formation of α'-martensite as a hardening mechanism in a cold rolled 304 stainless steel. Additionally, the increased hardness in both α'-martensite and austenite phases with aging temperature proved that hardening of both α'-martensite and austenite phases would be effective as hardening mechanisms in cold rolled and aged 304 stainless steels. The results suggested that among hardening mechanisms, hardening of an α'-martensite phase, including the diffusion of interstitial solute carbon atoms to dislocations and the precipitation of fine carbide particles would become a major hardening mechanism during aging of cold rolled 304 stainless steels.

  13. Precipitation hardening of Zn0.1 at.%Ti single crystals deformed on the (0 0 0 1) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boczkal, G.; Mikulowski, B.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanical properties (the critical resolved shear stress - CRSS, the work-hardening coefficient - θ A ) and a thermodynamic parameter (the activation volume--V*) have been studied in single crystals of Zn0.1 at.%Ti. The sample orientation allowed slip on the (0 0 0 1) system over a large range of strain. The investigations were conducted on samples which were both heat treated and not. The investigations were made using compression and stress relaxation tests in the range of easy glide at temperatures from 77 to 493 K. The single crystals appear to be hardened by precipitates while Ti solubility in Zn is negligible. Two types of the precipitates have been identified by TEM and microanalysis; very small precipitates were located uniformly in the matrix, and large needle-shaped obstacles with size of the order of 0.1 mm on the (0 0 0 1) orientation. The CRSS and the θ A showed a strong dependence on the temperature. The determined values of the CRSS were in the range of 4 MPa for 493 K to 12 MPa for 77 K. The obtained values of the activation volume V* were in the range of (10-110) x 10 -16 cm 3 and it was strongly dependent on the temperature and the stress at the beginning of relaxation. This value is attributed to small precipitates which are barriers for dislocation movement

  14. Multi-MGy Radiation Hardened Camera for Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Sylvain; Boukenter, Aziz; Ouerdane, Youcef; Goiffon, Vincent; Corbiere, Franck; Rolando, Sebastien; Molina, Romain; Estribeau, Magali; Avon, Barbara; Magnan, Pierre; Paillet, Philippe; Duhamel, Olivier; Gaillardin, Marc; Raine, Melanie

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in developing cameras for surveillance systems to monitor nuclear facilities or nuclear waste storages. Particularly, for today's and the next generation of nuclear facilities increasing safety requirements consecutive to Fukushima Daiichi's disaster have to be considered. For some applications, radiation tolerance needs to overcome doses in the MGy(SiO 2 ) range whereas the most tolerant commercial or prototypes products based on solid state image sensors withstand doses up to few kGy. The objective of this work is to present the radiation hardening strategy developed by our research groups to enhance the tolerance to ionizing radiations of the various subparts of these imaging systems by working simultaneously at the component and system design levels. Developing radiation-hardened camera implies to combine several radiation-hardening strategies. In our case, we decided not to use the simplest one, the shielding approach. This approach is efficient but limits the camera miniaturization and is not compatible with its future integration in remote-handling or robotic systems. Then, the hardening-by-component strategy appears mandatory to avoid the failure of one of the camera subparts at doses lower than the MGy. Concerning the image sensor itself, the used technology is a CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) designed by ISAE team with custom pixel designs used to mitigate the total ionizing dose (TID) effects that occur well below the MGy range in classical image sensors (e.g. Charge Coupled Devices (CCD), Charge Injection Devices (CID) and classical Active Pixel Sensors (APS)), such as the complete loss of functionality, the dark current increase and the gain drop. We'll present at the conference a comparative study between these radiation-hardened pixel radiation responses with respect to conventional ones, demonstrating the efficiency of the choices made. The targeted strategy to develop the complete radiation hard camera

  15. Multi-MGy Radiation Hardened Camera for Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Sylvain; Boukenter, Aziz; Ouerdane, Youcef [Universite de Saint-Etienne, Lab. Hubert Curien, UMR-CNRS 5516, F-42000 Saint-Etienne (France); Goiffon, Vincent; Corbiere, Franck; Rolando, Sebastien; Molina, Romain; Estribeau, Magali; Avon, Barbara; Magnan, Pierre [ISAE, Universite de Toulouse, F-31055 Toulouse (France); Paillet, Philippe; Duhamel, Olivier; Gaillardin, Marc; Raine, Melanie [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2015-07-01

    There is an increasing interest in developing cameras for surveillance systems to monitor nuclear facilities or nuclear waste storages. Particularly, for today's and the next generation of nuclear facilities increasing safety requirements consecutive to Fukushima Daiichi's disaster have to be considered. For some applications, radiation tolerance needs to overcome doses in the MGy(SiO{sub 2}) range whereas the most tolerant commercial or prototypes products based on solid state image sensors withstand doses up to few kGy. The objective of this work is to present the radiation hardening strategy developed by our research groups to enhance the tolerance to ionizing radiations of the various subparts of these imaging systems by working simultaneously at the component and system design levels. Developing radiation-hardened camera implies to combine several radiation-hardening strategies. In our case, we decided not to use the simplest one, the shielding approach. This approach is efficient but limits the camera miniaturization and is not compatible with its future integration in remote-handling or robotic systems. Then, the hardening-by-component strategy appears mandatory to avoid the failure of one of the camera subparts at doses lower than the MGy. Concerning the image sensor itself, the used technology is a CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) designed by ISAE team with custom pixel designs used to mitigate the total ionizing dose (TID) effects that occur well below the MGy range in classical image sensors (e.g. Charge Coupled Devices (CCD), Charge Injection Devices (CID) and classical Active Pixel Sensors (APS)), such as the complete loss of functionality, the dark current increase and the gain drop. We'll present at the conference a comparative study between these radiation-hardened pixel radiation responses with respect to conventional ones, demonstrating the efficiency of the choices made. The targeted strategy to develop the complete radiation hard camera

  16. Determination of the strain hardening rate of metals and alloys by X ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadalbert, Robert

    1977-01-01

    This report for engineering graduation is based on the study of X ray diffraction line profile which varies with the plastic strain rate of the metal. After some generalities of strain hardening (consequence of a plastic deformation on the structure of a polycrystalline metal, means to study a strain hardened structure, use of X ray diffraction to analyse the strain hardened crystalline structure), the author reports the strain hardening rate measurement by using X ray diffraction. Several aspects are addressed: principles, experimental technique, apparatus, automation and programming of the measurement cycle, method sensitivity and precision. In the next part, the author reports applications: measurement of the strain hardening rate in different materials (tubes with hexagonal profile, cylindrical tubes in austenitic steel), and study of the evolution of strain hardening with temperature [fr

  17. BUSFET - A Novel Radiation-Hardened SOI Transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwank, J.R.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Draper, B.L.; Dodd, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    The total-dose hardness of SOI technology is limited by radiation-induced charge trapping in gate, field, and SOI buried oxides. Charge trapping in the buried oxide can lead to back-channel leakage and makes hardening SOI transistors more challenging than hardening bulk-silicon transistors. Two avenues for hardening the back-channel are (1) to use specially prepared SOI buried oxides that reduce the net amount of trapped positive charge or (2) to design transistors that are less sensitive to the effects of trapped charge in the buried oxide. In this work, we propose a new partially-depleted SOI transistor structure that we call the BUSFET--Body Under Source FET. The BUSFET utilizes a shallow source and a deep drain. As a result, the silicon depletion region at the back channel caused by radiation-induced charge trapping in the buried oxide does not form a conducting path between source and drain. Thus, the BUSFET structure design can significantly reduce radiation-induced back-channel leakage without using specially prepared buried oxides. Total dose hardness is achieved without degrading the intrinsic SEU and dose rate hardness of SOI technology. The effectiveness of the BUSFET structure for reducing total-dose back-channel leakage depends on several variables, including the top silicon film thickness and doping concentration and the depth of the source. 3-D simulations show that for a doping concentration of 10 18 cm -3 and a source depth of 90 nm, a silicon film thickness of 180 nm is sufficient to almost completely eliminate radiation-induced back-channel leakage. However, for a doping concentration of 3x10 17 cm -3 , a thicker silicon film (300 nm) must be used

  18. General Friction Model Extended by the Effect of Strain Hardening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris V.; Martins, Paulo A.F.; Bay, Niels

    2016-01-01

    An extension to the general friction model proposed by Wanheim and Bay [1] to include the effect of strain hardening is proposed. The friction model relates the friction stress to the fraction of real contact area by a friction factor under steady state sliding. The original model for the real...... contact area as function of the normalized contact pressure is based on slip-line analysis and hence on the assumption of rigid-ideally plastic material behavior. In the present work, a general finite element model is established to, firstly, reproduce the original model under the assumption of rigid...

  19. The development of radiation hardened robot for nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Jung, Seung Ho; Kim, Byung Soo and others

    2000-04-01

    The work conducted in this stage covers development of core technology of tele-robot system including monitoring technique in high-level radioactive area, tele-sensing technology and radiation-hardened technology for the non-destructive tele-inspection system which monitors the primary coolant system during the normal operations of PHWR(Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) NPPs and measures the decrease of bending part of feeder pipe during overall. Based on the developed core technology, the monitoring mobile robot system of the primary coolant system and the feeder pipe inspecting robot system are developed.

  20. The development of radiation hardened robot for nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Jung, Seung Ho; Kim, Byung Soo and others

    2000-04-01

    The work conducted in this stage covers development of core technology of tele-robot system including monitoring technique in high-level radioactive area, tele-sensing technology and radiation-hardened technology for the non-destructive tele-inspection system which monitors the primary coolant system during the normal operations of PHWR(Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) NPPs and measures the decrease of bending part of feeder pipe during overall. Based on the developed core technology, the monitoring mobile robot system of the primary coolant system and the feeder pipe inspecting robot system are developed