WorldWideScience

Sample records for hard x-rays measured

  1. Application of thermoluminescence dosimeter on the measurement of hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Zhaohui; Wang Baohui; Wang Kuilu; Hei Dongwei; Sun Fengrong; Li Gang

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the application of thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) which composed by TLD-3500 reader and GR-100 M chips on the measurement of hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum. The idea using Filter Fluorescence Method (FFM) and TLD to measure hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum (from 10 keV to 100 keV) is discussed in details. Considering all the factors of the measuring surrounding, the measurement system of hard X-ray pulse has been devised. The calibration technique of absolute energy response of TLD is established. This method has been applied successfully on the radiation parameters measurement of the huge pulse radiation device-high-power pulser I. Hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum data of the pulser are acquired

  2. The application of thermoluminescence dosimeter on the measurement of hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Zhaohui; Wang Baohui; Wang Kuilu; Hei Dongwei; Sun Fengrong; Li Gang

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduce the application of thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) which composed by TLD-3500 Reader and TLD-100M chips on the measurement of hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum. The idea, using Filter Fluorescence Method (FFM) and TLD to measure hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum (from 10 keV to 100 keV), is discussed in details. Considering all the factors of the measuring surroundings, the measurement system of hard X-ray pulse has been devised. The calibration technique of absolute energy response of TLD is established. This method has been applied successfully on the radiation parameters measurement of the huge pulse radiation device -high-power pulser I. Hard X-ray pulse energy spectrum data of the pulser are acquired

  3. A laboratory-based hard x-ray monochromator for high-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy and x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidler, G. T., E-mail: seidler@uw.edu; Mortensen, D. R.; Remesnik, A. J.; Pacold, J. I.; Ball, N. A.; Barry, N.; Styczinski, M.; Hoidn, O. R. [Physics Department, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    We report the development of a laboratory-based Rowland-circle monochromator that incorporates a low power x-ray (bremsstrahlung) tube source, a spherically bent crystal analyzer, and an energy-resolving solid-state detector. This relatively inexpensive, introductory level instrument achieves 1-eV energy resolution for photon energies of ∼5 keV to ∼10 keV while also demonstrating a net efficiency previously seen only in laboratory monochromators having much coarser energy resolution. Despite the use of only a compact, air-cooled 10 W x-ray tube, we find count rates for nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy comparable to those achieved at monochromatized spectroscopy beamlines at synchrotron light sources. For x-ray absorption near edge structure, the monochromatized flux is small (due to the use of a low-powered x-ray generator) but still useful for routine transmission-mode studies of concentrated samples. These results indicate that upgrading to a standard commercial high-power line-focused x-ray tube or rotating anode x-ray generator would result in monochromatized fluxes of order 10{sup 6}–10{sup 7} photons/s with no loss in energy resolution. This work establishes core technical capabilities for a rejuvenation of laboratory-based hard x-ray spectroscopies that could have special relevance for contemporary research on catalytic or electrical energy storage systems using transition-metal, lanthanide, or noble-metal active species.

  4. Measured reflectance of graded multilayer mirrors designed for astronomical hard X-ray telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Craig, W.W.; Windt, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    Future astronomical X-ray telescopes, including the balloon-borne High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT) and the Constellation-X Hard X-ray Telescope (Con-X HXT) plan to incorporate depth-graded multilayer coatings in order to extend sensitivity into the hard X-ray (10 less than or similar to E less......-graded W/Si multilayers optimized for broadband performance up to 69.5 keV (WK-edge). These designs are ideal for both the HEFT and Con-X HXT applications. We compare the measurements to model calculations to demonstrate that the reflectivity can be well described by the intended power law distribution...

  5. Hard x-ray measurements of the hot-electron rings in EBT-S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillis, D.L.

    1982-06-01

    A thorough understanding of the hot electron rings in ELMO Bumpy Torus-Scale (EBT-S) is essential to the bumpy torus concept of plasma production, since the rings provide bulk plasma stability. The hot electrons are produced via electron cyclotron resonant heating using a 28-GHz cw gyrotron, which has operated up to power levels of 200 kW. The parameters of the energetic electron rings are studied via hard x-ray measurement techniques and with diamagnetic pickup coils. The hard x-ray measurements have used collimated NaI(Tl) detectors to determine the electron temperature T/sub e/ and electron density n/sub e/ for the hot electron annulus. Typical values of T/sub e/ are 400 to 500 keV and of n/sub e/ 2 to 5 x 10 11 cm -3 . The total stored energy of a single energetic electron ring as measured by diamagnetic pickup loops approaches approx. 40 J and is in good agreement with that deduced from hard x-ray measurements. By combining the experimental measurements from hard x-rays and the diamagnetic loops, an estimate can be obtained for the volume of a single hot electron ring. The ring volume is determined to be approx. 2.2 litres, and this volume remains approximately constant over the T-mode operating regime. Finally, the power in the electrons scattered out of the ring is measured indirectly by measuring the x-ray radiation produced when those electrons strike the chamber walls. The variation of this radiation with increasing microwave power levels is found to be consistent with classical scattering estimates

  6. Neutron and hard x-ray measurements during pellet deposition in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidbrink, W.W.; Milora, S.L.; Schmidt, G.L.; Schneider, W.; Ramsey, A.

    1986-06-01

    Measurements of neutrons and hard x rays are made with a pair of plastic scintillators during injection of deuterium pellets into deuterium TFTR plasmas. Three cases are investigated. During ohmic heating in plasmas with few runaway electrons, the neutron emission does not increase when a pellet is injected, indicating that strong acceleration of the pellet ions does not occur. In ohmic plasmas with low but detectable levels of runaway electrons, an x-ray burst is observed on a detector near the pellet injector as the pellet ablates, while a detector displaced 126/sup 0/ toroidally from the injector does not measure a synchronous burst. Reduced pellet penetration correlates with the presence of x-ray emission, suggesting that the origin of the burst is bremsstrahlung from runaway electrons that strike the solid pellet. In deuterium beam-heated discharges, an increase in the d-d neutron emission is observed when the pellet ablates. In this case, the increase is due to fusion reactions between beam ions and the high density neutral and plasma cloud produced by ablation of the pellet; this localized density perturbation equilibrates in about 700 ..mu..sec. Analysis of the data indicates that the density propagates without forming a sharp shock front with a rapid initial propagation velocity (greater than or equal to 2 x 10/sup 7/ cm/sec) that subsequently decreases to around 3 x 10/sup 6/ cm/sec. Modelling suggests that the electron heat flux into the pellet cloud is much less than the classical Spitzer value.

  7. High spectral resolution measurements of a solar flare hard X-ray burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, R.P.; Schwartz, R.A.; NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD)

    1987-01-01

    Observations are reported of an intense solar flare hard X-ray burst on June 27, 1980, made with a balloon-borne array of liquid nitrogen-cooled Ge detector which provided unprecedented spectral resolution (no more than 1 keV FWHM). The hard X-ray spectra throughout the impulsive phase burst fitted well to a double power-law form, and emission from an isothermal 0.1-1 billion K plasma can be specifically excluded. The temporal variations of the spectrum indicate that the hard X-ray burst is made up of two superposed components: individual spikes lasting about 3-15 sec, which have a hard spectrum and a break energy of 30-65 keV; and a slowly varying component characterized by a soft spectrum with a constant low-energy slope and a break energy which increases from 25 kev to at least 100 keV through the event. The double power-law shape indicates that DC electric field acceleration, similar to that occurring in the earth's auroral zone, may be the source of the energetic electrons which produce the hard X-ray emission. 39 references

  8. Hard X-ray measurements of A0535+26 during low state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polcaro, V.F.; Bazzano, A.; La Padula, C.; Ubertini, P.; Vialetto, G.

    1982-01-01

    A number of measurements of the recurrent transient X-ray source A0535+26 have been made during its outburst phase, since its detection in 1975 by Ariel V. The optical counterpart of the source (Be Star 245770) has also been extensively studied both in active and quiescent state in optical I.R. and U.V. bands. These data show a positive correlation with the X-ray flux during on state. The X-ray flux from the source during the outburst increases to about twice the Crab intensity in soft X-ray band and gradually decreases to 100 mCrab during 30 to 50 days. However positive detection of the sources has not been reported until now during the low state. In this paper we present the spectral measurements of the source in the energy band 20-100 KeV made during the low state in 1981. (orig.)

  9. Measurements of hard cosmic X-rays with special reference to burst phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, J.S.

    1978-06-01

    The bulk of this work is concerned with the development and subsequent flights of two balloon-borne gamma-burst detectors. The first was a 1 m 2 device which accumulated a total of 13 1/2 hours flying time at a latitude of 40 0 . The second was a large 7 m 2 detector which was flown from Alice Springs, N. Australia. Both detectors were sensitive to 50 keV to 2 MeV X-rays. The results of these flights are discussed with particular reference to the origin of gamma-bursts. The nature of X-ray bursts is also discussed, together with the results of observations by Experiment F on Ariel V, of the region of the sky centred on the rapid burster MXB1730-335. The last chapter is concerned with the development of a large area hard X-ray detector. This device is designed to be built in modular form and have a total collecting area up to 1 m 2 . It is sensitive to X-rays in the range 20 to 200 keV and is collimated by a tantalum honeycomb which has a field of view of 2 0 FWHM. A small version of this detector was flown on the same platform as the large burst detector. (author)

  10. A comparison of calculated and measured background noise rates in hard X-ray telescopes at balloon altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, A. J.; Dipper, N. A.; Lewis, R. A.; Perotti, F.

    1985-01-01

    An actively shielded hard X-ray astronomical telescope has been flown on stratospheric balloons. An attempt is made to compare the measured spectral distribution of the background noise counting rates over the energy loss range 20-300 keV with the contributions estimated from a series of Monte Carlo and other computations. The relative contributions of individual particle interactions are assessed.

  11. Prospects for supermirrors in hard x-ray spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Karsten D.; Gorenstein, Paul; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1994-01-01

    . The measured x-ray reflectivities are well accounted for by the standard dynamical theories of multilayer reflection. Hard x ray applications that could benefit from x-ray supermirror coatings include focusing and imaging instrumentation for astrophysics, collimating and focusing devices for synchrotron...

  12. Subgroup report on hard x-ray microprobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice, G.E.; Barbee, T.; Bionta, R.; Howells, M.; Thompson, A.C.; Yun, W.

    1994-01-01

    The increasing availability of synchrotron x-ray sources has stimulated the development of advanced hard x-ray (E≥5 keV) microprobes. New x-ray optics have been demonstrated which show promise for achieving intense submicron hard x-ray probes. These probes will be used for extraordinary elemental detection by x-ray fluorescence/absorption and for microdiffraction to identify phase and strain. The inherent elemental and crystallographic sensitivity of an x-ray microprobe and its inherently nondestructive and penetrating nature makes the development of an advanced hard x-ray microprobe an important national goal. In this workshop state-of-the-art hard x-ray microprobe optics were described and future directions were discussed. Gene Ice, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), presented an overview of the current status of hard x-ray microprobe optics and described the use of crystal spectrometers to improve minimum detectable limits in fluorescent microprobe experiments. Al Thompson, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), described work at the Center for X-ray Optics to develop a hard x-ray microprobe based on Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) optics. Al Thompson also showed the results of some experimental measurements with their KB optics. Malcolm Howells presented a method for bending elliptical mirrors and Troy Barbee commented on the use of graded d spacings to achieve highest efficiency in KB multilayer microfocusing. Richard Bionta, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), described the development of the first hard x-ray zone plates and future promise of so called open-quotes jelly rollclose quotes or sputter slice zone plates. Wenbing Yun, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), described characterization of jelly roll and lithographically produced zone plates and described the application of zone plates to focus extremely narrow bandwidths by nuclear resonance. This report summarizes the presentations of the workshop subgroup on hard x-ray microprobes

  13. Hard X-ray Photoelectric Polarimeter

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our objective is to determine the gas mixtures and pressures that would enable a sensitive, hard X-ray polarimeter using existing flight components with the goal of...

  14. Recent applications of hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, Conan; Woicik, Joseph C., E-mail: Joseph.Woicik@NIST.gov [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Rumaiz, Abdul K. [National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Pianetta, Piero [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Recent applications of hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) demonstrate its many capabilities in addition to several of its limitations. Examples are given, including measurement of buried interfaces and materials under in situ or in operando conditions, as well as measurements under x-ray standing-wave and resonant excitation. Physical considerations that differentiate HAXPES from photoemission measurements utilizing soft x-ray and ultraviolet photon sources are also presented.

  15. Hard X ray lines from neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polcaro, V.F.; Bazzano, A.; La Padula, C.; Ubertini, P.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental evidence is presented and evaluated concerning the features of the hard X-ray spectra detected in a number of cosmic X-ray sources which contain a neutron star. The strong emission line at cyclotron resonance detected in the spectrum of Her XI at an energy of 58 keV is evaluated and the implications of this finding are discussed. Also examined is the presence of spectral features in the energy range 20-80 keV found in the spectra of gamma-ray bursts, which have been interpreted as cyclotron resonance from interstellar-gas-accreting neutron stars. The less understood finding of a variable emission line at approximately 70 keV in the spectrum of the Crab Pulsar is considered. It is determined that several features varying with time are present in the spectra of cosmic X-ray sources associated with neutron stars. If these features are due to cyclotron resonance, it is suggested that they provide a direct measurement of neutron star magnetic fields on the order of 10 to the 11th-10 to the 13th Gauss. However, the physical condition of the emitting region and its geometry are still quite obscure.

  16. Hard X-Ray Flare Source Sizes Measured with the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Pernak, Rick L.

    2009-01-01

    Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) observations of 18 double hard X-ray sources seen at energies above 25 keV are analyzed to determine the spatial extent of the most compact structures evident in each case. The following four image reconstruction algorithms were used: Clean, Pixon, and two routines using visibilities maximum entropy and forward fit (VFF). All have been adapted for this study to optimize their ability to provide reliable estimates of the sizes of the more compact sources. The source fluxes, sizes, and morphologies obtained with each method are cross-correlated and the similarities and disagreements are discussed. The full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the major axes of the sources with assumed elliptical Gaussian shapes are generally well correlated between the four image reconstruction routines and vary between the RHESSI resolution limit of approximately 2" up to approximately 20" with most below 10". The FWHM of the minor axes are generally at or just above the RHESSI limit and hence should be considered as unresolved in most cases. The orientation angles of the elliptical sources are also well correlated. These results suggest that the elongated sources are generally aligned along a flare ribbon with the minor axis perpendicular to the ribbon. This is verified for the one flare in our list with coincident Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) images. There is evidence for significant extra flux in many of the flares in addition to the two identified compact sources, thus rendering the VFF assumption of just two Gaussians inadequate. A more realistic approximation in many cases would be of two line sources with unresolved widths. Recommendations are given for optimizing the RHESSI imaging reconstruction process to ensure that the finest possible details of the source morphology become evident and that reliable estimates can be made of the source dimensions.

  17. Coherent hard x-ray focusing optics and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, W.B.; Viccaro, P.J.; Chrzas, J.; Lai, B.

    1991-01-01

    Coherent hard x-ray beams with a flux exceeding 10{sup 9} photons/second with a bandwidth of 0.1% will be provided by the undulator at the third generation synchrotron radiation sources such as APS, ESRF, and Spring-8. The availability of such high flux coherent x-ray beams offers excellent opportunities for extending the coherence-based techniques developed in the visible and soft x-ray part of the electromagnetic spectrum to the hard x-rays. These x-ray techniques (e.g., diffraction limited microfocusing, holography, interferometry, phase contrast imaging and signal enhancement), may offer substantial advantages over non-coherence-based x-ray techniques currently used. For example, the signal enhancement technique may be used to enhance an anomalous x-ray or magnetic x-ray scattering signal by several orders of magnitude. Coherent x-rays can be focused to a very small (diffraction-limited) spot size, thus allowing high spatial resolution microprobes to be constructed. The paper will discuss the feasibility of the extension of some coherence-based techniques to the hard x-ray range and the significant progress that has been made in the development of diffraction-limited focusing optics. Specific experimental results for a transmission Fresnel phase zone plate that can focus 8.2 keV x-rays to a spot size of about 2 microns will be briefly discussed. The comparison of measured focusing efficiency of the zone plate with that calculated will be made. Some specific applications of zone plates as coherent x-ray optics will be discussed. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Microfabrication of hard x-ray lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stöhr, Frederik

    This thesis deals with the development of silicon compound refractive lenses (Si-CRLs) for shaping hard x-ray beams. The CRLs are to be fabricated using state of the art microfabrication techniques. The primary goal of the thesis work is to produce Si-CRLs with considerably increased structure...... and characterized with respect to their shape. Their optical performances were tested at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). Two 1D-focusing Si-CRLs suitable as condensers in hard-XRM were developed utilizing the aforementioned two different strategies. The first Si-condenser showed focusing of a 56...... of space for sample surroundings and ensure low-divergent and wide x-ray beams with narrow waists. Both results are substantial improvements to what was available at the start of this thesis work. The challenge of making x-ray objectives in silicon by interdigitation of lenslets alternately focusing...

  19. Prepulse dependence in hard x-ray generation from microdroplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anand, M.; Kahaly, S.; Kumar, G. Ravindra; Sandhu, A. S.; Gibbon, P.; Krishnamurthy, M.

    2006-01-01

    We report on experiments which show that liquid microdroplets are very efficient in hard x-ray generation. We make a comparative study of hard x-ray emission from 15 μm methanol microdroplets and a plain slab target of similar atomic composition at similar laser intensities. The hard X-ray yield from droplet plasmas is about 35 times more than that obtained from solid plasmas. A prepulse that is about 10ns and at least 2% in intensity of the main pulse is essential for hard x-ray generation from the droplets at about 1015 W cm-2. A hot electron temperature of 36 keV is measured from the droplets at 8 x 1014 W cm-2; three times higher intensity is needed to obtain similar hot electron temperature from solid plasmas that have similar atomic composition. We use 1D-PIC simulation to obtain qualitative correlation to the experimental observations

  20. Hard x-ray telescope mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorenstein, P.; Worrall, D.; Joensen, K.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Hard X-Ray Telescope was selected for study as a possible new intermediate size mission for the early 21st century. Its principal attributes are: (1) multiwavelength observing with a system of focussing telescopes that collectively observe from the UV to over 1 MeV, (2) much higher sensitivity...

  1. Hard X-ray studies on the Castor tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlynar, J.

    1990-04-01

    The electron runaway processes in tokamaks are discussed with regard to hard X radiation measurements. The origin and confinement of runaway electrons, their bremsstrahlung spectra and the influence of lower hybrid current drive on the distribution of high-energy electrons are analyzed for the case of the Castor tokamak. The hard X-ray spectrometer designed for the Castor tokamak is also described and preliminary qualitative results of hard X-ray measurements are presented. The first series of integral measurements made it possible to map the azimuthal dependence of the hard X radiation

  2. High-spatial resolution and high-spectral resolution detector for use in the measurement of solar flare hard x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, U.D.; Orwig, L.E.

    1988-01-01

    In the areas of high spatial resolution, the evaluation of a hard X-ray detector with 65 micron spatial resolution for operation in the energy range from 30 to 400 keV is proposed. The basic detector is a thick large-area scintillator faceplate, composed of a matrix of high-density scintillating glass fibers, attached to a proximity type image intensifier tube with a resistive-anode digital readout system. Such a detector, combined with a coded-aperture mask, would be ideal for use as a modest-sized hard X-ray imaging instrument up to X-ray energies as high as several hundred keV. As an integral part of this study it was also proposed that several techniques be critically evaluated for X-ray image coding which could be used with this detector. In the area of high spectral resolution, it is proposed to evaluate two different types of detectors for use as X-ray spectrometers for solar flares: planar silicon detectors and high-purity germanium detectors (HPGe). Instruments utilizing these high-spatial-resolution detectors for hard X-ray imaging measurements from 30 to 400 keV and high-spectral-resolution detectors for measurements over a similar energy range would be ideally suited for making crucial solar flare observations during the upcoming maximum in the solar cycle

  3. Hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Keisuke

    2009-01-01

    Except in the very early stage of the development of X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) by Kai Siegbahn and his coworkers, the excitation sources for XPS studies have predominantly been the Al Kα and Mg Kα emission lines. The advent of synchrotron radiation sources opened up the possibility of tuning the excitation photon energy with much higher throughputs for photoemission spectroscopy, however the excitation energy range was limited to the vacuum ultra violet and soft X-ray regions. Over the past 5-6 years, bulk-sensitive hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy using high-brilliance high-flux X-rays from third generation synchrotron radiation facilities has been developed. This article reviews the history of HXPES covering the period from Kai Siegbahn and his coworkers' pioneering works to the present, and describes the fundamental aspects, instrumentation, applications to solid state physics, applied physics, materials science, and industrial applications of HXPES. Finally, several challenging new developments which have been conducted at SPring-8 by collaborations among several groups are introduced.

  4. Quantitative Phase Imaging Using Hard X Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugent, K.A.; Gureyev, T.E.; Cookson, D.J.; Paganin, D.; Barnea, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The quantitative imaging of a phase object using 16keV xrays is reported. The theoretical basis of the techniques is presented along with its implementation using a synchrotron x-ray source. We find that our phase image is in quantitative agreement with independent measurements of the object. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  5. Hard X-ray imaging with a slat collimated telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Zhuguo; Kotov, Yu.D.; Suslov, A.Yu.

    1995-01-01

    Imaging experiments with a slat collimated hard X-ray telescope are described in this paper demonstrating the feasibility of the direct demodulation imaging method used in hard X-ray scanning modulation experiments. On 25 September 1993 an X-ray raster scan observation of Cyg X-1 was performed in a balloon flight with the hard X-ray telescope HAPI-4. An experiment to image radioactive X-ray sources was performed in the laboratory before. In both experiments the expected X-ray images were obtained, confirming the imaging capability of this method. (orig.)

  6. Hard X-ray observation of HER X-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; La Padula, C.; Polcaro, V.F.; Vialetto, G. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Frascati (Italy). Lab. di Astrofisica Spaziale); Manchanda, R.K. (Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India))

    1981-01-01

    A hard X-rays (15-170 KeV) measurement of the spectrum of Her X-1, during a mid turn-on is presented. The presence of an emission line at about 53 KeV during the mid-on state is confirmed by the present measure.

  7. Hard X-ray observation of HER X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; La Padula, C.; Polcaro, V.F.; Vialetto, G.

    1981-01-01

    A hard X-rays (15-170 KeV) measurement of the spectrum of Her X-1, during a mid turn-on is presented. The presence of an emission line at about 53 KeV during the mid-on state is confirmed by the present measure. (orig.)

  8. Bonded Multilayer Laue Lens for focusing hard X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chian; Conley, R.; Qian, J.; Kewish, C.M.; Macrander, A.T.; Maser, J.; Kang, H.C.; Yan, H.; Stephenson, G.B.

    2007-01-01

    We have fabricated partial Multilayer Laue Lens (MLL) linear zone plate structures with thousands of alternating WSi 2 and Si layers and various outermost zone widths according to the Fresnel zone plate formula. Using partial MLL structures, we were able to focus hard X-rays to line foci with a width of 30 nm and below. Here, we describe challenges and approaches used to bond these multilayers to achieve line and point focusing. Bonding was done by coating two multilayers with AuSn and heating in a vacuum oven at 280-300 o C. X-ray reflectivity measurements confirmed that there was no change in the multilayers after heating to 350 o C. A bonded MLL was polished to a 5-25 μm wedge without cracking. SEM image analyses found well-positioned multilayers after bonding. These results demonstrate the feasibility of a bonded full MLL for focusing hard X-rays

  9. Submicron hard X-ray fluorescence imaging of synthetic elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P; Aryal, Baikuntha P; Gorman-Lewis, Drew; Paunesku, Tatjana; Lai, Barry; Vogt, Stefan; Woloschak, Gayle E

    2012-04-13

    Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) using hard X-rays focused into sub-micron spots is a powerful technique for elemental quantification and mapping, as well as microspectroscopic measurements such as μ-XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure). We have used XFM to image and simultaneously quantify the transuranic element plutonium at the L(3) or L(2)-edge as well as Th and lighter biologically essential elements in individual rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells after exposure to the long-lived plutonium isotope (242)Pu. Elemental maps demonstrate that plutonium localizes principally in the cytoplasm of the cells and avoids the cell nucleus, which is marked by the highest concentrations of phosphorus and zinc, under the conditions of our experiments. The minimum detection limit under typical acquisition conditions with an incident X-ray energy of 18 keV for an average 202 μm(2) cell is 1.4 fg Pu or 2.9×10(-20) moles Pu μm(-2), which is similar to the detection limit of K-edge XFM of transition metals at 10 keV. Copper electron microscopy grids were used to avoid interference from gold X-ray emissions, but traces of strontium present in naturally occurring calcium can still interfere with plutonium detection using its L(α) X-ray emission. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Blazars in Hard X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisellini, Gabriele

    2009-05-01

    Although blazars are thought to emit most of their luminosity in the γ-ray band, there are subclasses of them very prominent in hard X-rays. These are the best candidates to be studied by Simbol-X. They are at the extremes of the blazar sequence, having very small or very high jet powers. The former are the class of TeV emitting BL Lacs, whose synchrotron emission often peaks at tens of keV or more. The latter are the blazars with the most powerful jets, have high black hole masses accreting at high (i.e. close to Eddington) rates. These sources are predicted to have their high energy peak even below the MeV band, and therefore are very promising candidates to be studied with Simbol-X.

  11. Hard X-ray mirrors for Nuclear Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descalle, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brejnholt, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hill, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Decker, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Alameda, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Soufli, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pivovaroff, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pardini, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-07

    Research performed under this LDRD aimed to demonstrate the ability to detect and measure hard X-ray emissions using multilayer X-ray reflective optics above 400 keV, to enable the development of inexpensive and high-accuracy mirror substrates, and to investigate applications of hard X-ray mirrors of interest to the nuclear security community. Experiments conducted at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility demonstrated hard X-ray mirror reflectivity up to 650 keV for the first time. Hard X-ray optics substrates must have surface roughness under 3 to 4 Angstrom rms, and three materials were evaluated as potential substrates: polycarbonates, thin Schott glass and a new type of flexible glass called Willow Glass®. Chemical smoothing and thermal heating of the surface of polycarbonate samples, which are inexpensive but have poor intrinsic surface characteristics, did not yield acceptable surface roughness. D263 Schott glass was used for the focusing optics of the NASA NuSTAR telescope. The required specialized hardware and process were costly and motivated experiments with a modified non-contact slumping technique. The surface roughness of the glass was preserved and the process yielded cylindrical shells with good net shape pointing to the potential advantage of this technique. Finally, measured surface roughness of 200 and 130 μm thick Willow Glass sheets was between 2 and 2.5 A rms. Additional results of flexibility tests and multilayer deposition campaigns indicated it is a promising substrate for hard X-ray optics. The detection of U and Pu characteristics X-ray lines and gamma emission lines in a high background environment was identified as an area for which X-ray mirrors could have an impact and where focusing optics could help reduce signal to noise ratio by focusing signal onto a smaller detector. Hence the first one twelvetant of a Wolter I focusing optics for the 90 to 140 keV energy range based on aperiodic multilayer coating was designed. Finally

  12. Hard x-ray (>100 keV) imager to measure hot electron preheat for indirectly driven capsule implosions on the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döppner, T; Dewald, E L; Divol, L; Thomas, C A; Burns, S; Celliers, P M; Izumi, N; Kline, J L; LaCaille, G; McNaney, J M; Prasad, R R; Robey, H F; Glenzer, S H; Landen, O L

    2012-10-01

    We have fielded a hard x-ray (>100 keV) imager with high aspect ratio pinholes to measure the spatially resolved bremsstrahlung emission from energetic electrons slowing in a plastic ablator shell during indirectly driven implosions at the National Ignition Facility. These electrons are generated in laser plasma interactions and are a source of preheat to the deuterium-tritium fuel. First measurements show that hot electron preheat does not limit obtaining the fuel areal densities required for ignition and burn.

  13. Effective high voltage at X-ray tube in hard X-ray chest imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, J.

    1987-01-01

    The FRG standard TGL 36 661 (March 1980) for synoptical chest pictures of large size in adults specifies the 120 kV voltage at the X-ray tube together with maximal, 100% use of the capacity of the tube (hard picture, short exposure time). By means of circular recording and by measuring the high voltage at the X-ray tube it was quantitatively shown that the effective voltage during exposure is (according to the exposure time and the attenuation phase of the generator) always lower than the set-up voltage of 120 kV. This phenomenon is the more marked the shorter the actual exposure time in comparison with the attenuation phase of the generator. The typical characteristic of a hard X-ray chest picture is thus not given only by the setting-up of voltage. The impact of the reduction in voltage is thus quantitatively shown also from the aspect of the radiation burden for the patient. (author). 7 figs., 8 refs

  14. Investigation of the hard x-ray background in backlit pinhole imagers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fein, J. R., E-mail: jrfein@umich.edu; Holloway, J. P. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2143 (United States); Peebles, J. L. [Center for Energy Research, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Keiter, P. A.; Klein, S. R.; Kuranz, C. C.; Manuel, M. J.-E.; Drake, R. P. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2143 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Hard x-rays from laser-produced hot electrons (>10 keV) in backlit pinhole imagers can give rise to a background signal that decreases signal dynamic range in radiographs. Consequently, significant uncertainties are introduced to the measured optical depth of imaged plasmas. Past experiments have demonstrated that hard x-rays are produced when hot electrons interact with the high-Z pinhole substrate used to collimate the softer He-α x-ray source. Results are presented from recent experiments performed on the OMEGA-60 laser to further study the production of hard x-rays in the pinhole substrate and how these x-rays contribute to the background signal in radiographs. Radiographic image plates measured hard x-rays from pinhole imagers with Mo, Sn, and Ta pinhole substrates. The variation in background signal between pinhole substrates provides evidence that much of this background comes from x-rays produced in the pinhole substrate itself. A Monte Carlo electron transport code was used to model x-ray production from hot electrons interacting in the pinhole substrate, as well as to model measurements of x-rays from the irradiated side of the targets, recorded by a bremsstrahlung x-ray spectrometer. Inconsistencies in inferred hot electron distributions between the different pinhole substrate materials demonstrate that additional sources of hot electrons beyond those modeled may produce hard x-rays in the pinhole substrate.

  15. Modeling of proton-induced radioactivation background in hard X-ray telescopes: Geant4-based simulation and its demonstration by Hitomi's measurement in a low Earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odaka, Hirokazu; Asai, Makoto; Hagino, Kouichi; Koi, Tatsumi; Madejski, Greg; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Ohno, Masanori; Saito, Shinya; Sato, Tamotsu; Wright, Dennis H.; Enoto, Teruaki; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Kataoka, Jun; Katsuta, Junichiro; Kawaharada, Madoka; Kobayashi, Shogo B.; Kokubun, Motohide; Laurent, Philippe; Lebrun, Francois; Limousin, Olivier; Maier, Daniel; Makishima, Kazuo; Mimura, Taketo; Miyake, Katsuma; Mori, Kunishiro; Murakami, Hiroaki; Nakamori, Takeshi; Nakano, Toshio; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Noda, Hirofumi; Ohta, Masayuki; Ozaki, Masanobu; Sato, Goro; Sato, Rie; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Tanaka, Takaaki; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Terada, Yukikatsu; Uchiyama, Hideki; Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Watanabe, Shin; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Yasuda, Tetsuya; Yatsu, Yoichi; Yuasa, Takayuki; Zoglauer, Andreas

    2018-05-01

    Hard X-ray astronomical observatories in orbit suffer from a significant amount of background due to radioactivation induced by cosmic-ray protons and/or geomagnetically trapped protons. Within the framework of a full Monte Carlo simulation, we present modeling of in-orbit instrumental background which is dominated by radioactivation. To reduce the computation time required by straightforward simulations of delayed emissions from activated isotopes, we insert a semi-analytical calculation that converts production probabilities of radioactive isotopes by interaction of the primary protons into decay rates at measurement time of all secondary isotopes. Therefore, our simulation method is separated into three steps: (1) simulation of isotope production, (2) semi-analytical conversion to decay rates, and (3) simulation of decays of the isotopes at measurement time. This method is verified by a simple setup that has a CdTe semiconductor detector, and shows a 100-fold improvement in efficiency over the straightforward simulation. To demonstrate its experimental performance, the simulation framework was tested against data measured with a CdTe sensor in the Hard X-ray Imager onboard the Hitomi X-ray Astronomy Satellite, which was put into a low Earth orbit with an altitude of 570 km and an inclination of 31°, and thus experienced a large amount of irradiation from geomagnetically trapped protons during its passages through the South Atlantic Anomaly. The simulation is able to treat full histories of the proton irradiation and multiple measurement windows. The simulation results agree very well with the measured data, showing that the measured background is well described by the combination of proton-induced radioactivation of the CdTe detector itself and thick Bi4Ge3O12 scintillator shields, leakage of cosmic X-ray background and albedo gamma-ray radiation, and emissions from naturally contaminated isotopes in the detector system.

  16. Hard X-ray techniques suitable for polymer experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bras, W; Goossens, H; Goderis, B, E-mail: Wim.Bras@esrf.fr [Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) (Netherlands); DUBBLE-ESRF, BP 220, F38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Molecular and Nanomaterials, Chemistry Department, Catholic University of Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200F (Belgium)

    2010-11-15

    Polymers have been studied since 1979 with 8-12 keV synchrotron radiation X-ray scattering methods and the number and sophistication of the experiments have rapidly grown ever since. More recently, new experimental techniques have been developed that use softer or harder X-rays in less conventional ways. This article provides a brief overview of the possibilities of hard X-ray techniques and indicates some areas that might gain from further developments.

  17. Hard X-ray techniques suitable for polymer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bras, W; Goossens, H; Goderis, B

    2010-01-01

    Polymers have been studied since 1979 with 8-12 keV synchrotron radiation X-ray scattering methods and the number and sophistication of the experiments have rapidly grown ever since. More recently, new experimental techniques have been developed that use softer or harder X-rays in less conventional ways. This article provides a brief overview of the possibilities of hard X-ray techniques and indicates some areas that might gain from further developments.

  18. Femtosecond X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy at a Hard X-ray Free Electron Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemke, Henrik T.; Bressler, Christian; Chen, Lin X.

    2013-01-01

    X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) deliver short (current (SASE based) XFELs, they can be used for measuring high......-quality X-ray absorption data and we report femtosecond time-resolved X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) measurements of a spin-crossover system, iron(II) tris(2,2'-bipyridine) in water. The data indicate that the low-spin to high-spin transition can be modeled by single-exponential kinetics...

  19. Broad-band hard X-ray reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K.D.; Gorenstein, P.; Hoghoj, P.

    1997-01-01

    Interest in optics for hard X-ray broad-band application is growing. In this paper, we compare the hard X-ray (20-100 keV) reflectivity obtained with an energy-dispersive reflectometer, of a standard commercial gold thin-film with that of a 600 bilayer W/Si X-ray supermirror. The reflectivity...... of the multilayer is found to agree extraordinarily well with theory (assuming an interface roughness of 4.5 Angstrom), while the agreement for the gold film is less, The overall performance of the supermirror is superior to that of gold, extending the band of reflection at least a factor of 2.8 beyond...... that of the gold, Various other design options are discussed, and we conclude that continued interest in the X-ray supermirror for broad-band hard X-ray applications is warranted....

  20. Backscatter, anisotropy, and polarization of solar hard X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, T.; Ramaty, R.

    1978-01-01

    Hard X-rays incident upon the photosphere with energies > or approx. =15 keV have high probabilities of backscatter due to Compton collisions with electrons. This effect has a strong influence on the spectrum, intensity, and polarization of solar hard X-rays - especially for anisotropic models in which the primary X-rays are emitted predominantly toward the photosphere. We have carried out a detailed study of X-ray backscatter, and we have investigated the interrelated problems of anisotropy, polarization, center-to-limb variation of the X-ray spectrum, and Compton backscatter in a coherent fashion. The results of this study are compared with observational data. Because of the large contribution from backscatter, for an anisotropic primary X-ray source which is due to bremsstrahlung of accelerated electrons moving predominantly down toward the photosphere, the observed X-ray flux around 30 keV does not depend significantly on the position of flare on the Sun. For such an anisotropic source, the X-ray spectrum observed in the 15-50 keV range becomes steeper with the increasing heliocentric angle of the flare. These results are compatible with the data. The degree of polarization of the sum of the primary and reflected X-rays with energies between about 15 and 30 keV can be very large for anisotropic primary X-ray sources, but it is less than about 4% for isotropic sources. We also discuss the characteristics of the brightness distribution of the X-ray albedo patch created by the Compton backscatter. The height and anisotropy of the primary hard X-ray source might be inferred from the study of the albedo patch

  1. Deducing Electron Properties from Hard X-Ray Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, E. P.; Brown, J. C.; Emslie, A. G.; Hajdas, W.; Holman, G. D.; Hurford, G. J.; Kasparova, J.; Mallik, P. C. V.; Massone, A. M.; McConnell, M. L.; hide

    2011-01-01

    X-radiation from energetic electrons is the prime diagnostic of flare-accelerated electrons. The observed X-ray flux (and polarization state) is fundamentally a convolution of the cross-section for the hard X-ray emission process(es) in question with the electron distribution function, which is in turn a function of energy, direction, spatial location and time. To address the problems of particle propagation and acceleration one needs to infer as much information as possible on this electron distribution function, through a deconvolution of this fundamental relationship. This review presents recent progress toward this goal using spectroscopic, imaging and polarization measurements, primarily from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). Previous conclusions regarding the energy, angular (pitch angle) and spatial distributions of energetic electrons in solar flares are critically reviewed. We discuss the role and the observational evidence of several radiation processes: free-free electron-ion, free-free electron-electron, free-bound electron-ion, photoelectric absorption and Compton backscatter (albedo), using both spectroscopic and imaging techniques. This unprecedented quality of data allows for the first time inference of the angular distributions of the X-ray-emitting electrons and improved model-independent inference of electron energy spectra and emission measures of thermal plasma. Moreover, imaging spectroscopy has revealed hitherto unknown details of solar flare morphology and detailed spectroscopy of coronal, footpoint and extended sources in flaring regions. Additional attempts to measure hard X-ray polarization were not sufficient to put constraints on the degree of anisotropy of electrons, but point to the importance of obtaining good quality polarization data in the future.

  2. Hard X-ray sources from miniature plasma focus devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raspa, V.; Silva, P.; Moreno, J.; Zambra, M.; Soto, L.

    2004-01-01

    As first stage of a program to design a repetitive pulsed radiation generator for industrial applications, two miniature plasma foci have been designed and constructed at the Chilean commission of nuclear energy. The devices operate at an energy level of the order of tens of joules (PF-50 J, 160 nF capacitor bank, 20-35 kV, 32-100 J, ∼ 150 ns time to peak current) and hundred of joules (PF-400 J, 880 nF, 20-35 kV, 176-539 J, ∼ 300 ns time to peak current). Hard X-rays are being studied in these devices operating with hydrogen. Images of metallic plates with different thickness were obtained on commercial radiographic film, Agfa Curix ST-G2, in order to characterize the energy of the hard X-ray outside of the discharge chamber of PF-400 J. An effective energy of the order of 90 keV was measured under those conditions. X ray images of different metallic objects also have been obtained. (authors)

  3. Hard X-ray sources from miniature plasma focus devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raspa, V. [Buenos Aires Univ., PLADEMA, CONICET and INFIP (Argentina); Silva, P.; Moreno, J.; Zambra, M.; Soto, L. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile)

    2004-07-01

    As first stage of a program to design a repetitive pulsed radiation generator for industrial applications, two miniature plasma foci have been designed and constructed at the Chilean commission of nuclear energy. The devices operate at an energy level of the order of tens of joules (PF-50 J, 160 nF capacitor bank, 20-35 kV, 32-100 J, {approx} 150 ns time to peak current) and hundred of joules (PF-400 J, 880 nF, 20-35 kV, 176-539 J, {approx} 300 ns time to peak current). Hard X-rays are being studied in these devices operating with hydrogen. Images of metallic plates with different thickness were obtained on commercial radiographic film, Agfa Curix ST-G2, in order to characterize the energy of the hard X-ray outside of the discharge chamber of PF-400 J. An effective energy of the order of 90 keV was measured under those conditions. X ray images of different metallic objects also have been obtained. (authors)

  4. Polarization of hard X-rays, a contribution to the measurement of the non-thermal electron distribution function (L.H.C.D.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, M.; Platz, P.

    1990-01-01

    The hard X-ray spectrum emitted by a plasma containing non-thermal electrons generated during Lower Hybrid Current Drive experiments has already been measured on several tokamaks, but the properties of the bremsstrahlung have not yet been studied. The present study starts with the comparison of tractable analytical expressions of cross-sections with more precise computer-calculated values; then an evaluation of the polarization is carried out under real tokamak current drive situations and finally a proposal of a new diagnostic for the Tore Supra LHCD experiment is presented. (author) 6 refs., 6 figs

  5. A hard X-ray nanoprobe beamline for nanoscale microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winarski, Robert P., E-mail: winarski@anl.gov; Holt, Martin V. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60441 (United States); Rose, Volker [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60441 (United States); Fuesz, Peter; Carbaugh, Dean; Benson, Christa; Shu, Deming; Kline, David; Stephenson, G. Brian; McNulty, Ian [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60441 (United States); Maser, Jörg [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60441 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Beamline is a precision platform for scanning probe and full-field microscopy with 3–30 keV X-rays. A combination of high-stability X-ray optics and precision motion sensing and control enables detailed studies of the internal features of samples with resolutions approaching 30 nm. The Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Beamline (or Nanoprobe Beamline) is an X-ray microscopy facility incorporating diffraction, fluorescence and full-field imaging capabilities designed and operated by the Center for Nanoscale Materials and the Advanced Photon Source at Sector 26 of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. This facility was constructed to probe the nanoscale structure of biological, environmental and material sciences samples. The beamline provides intense focused X-rays to the Hard X-ray Nanoprobe (or Nanoprobe) which incorporates Fresnel zone plate optics and a precision laser sensing and control system. The beamline operates over X-ray energies from 3 to 30 keV, enabling studies of most elements in the periodic table, with a particular emphasis on imaging transition metals.

  6. The Hard X-ray Sky: Recent Observational Progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.

    2009-01-01

    The last fifty years have witnessed the birth, development, and maturation to full potential of hard X-ray astrophysics. The primary force driving the history of the field has been the development of space-based instrumentation optimized for getting the maximum science out of observations of high-energy photons from astrophysical sources. Hard X-ray telescopes are leading research in areas such as galactic diffuse emission, galactic transients, and active galactic nuclei.

  7. Hard X-ray Microscopic Imaging Of Human Breast Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung H.; Kim, Hong T.; Kim, Jong K.; Jheon, Sang H.; Youn, Hwa S.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray microscopy with synchrotron radiation will be a useful tool for innovation of x-ray imaging in clinical and laboratory settings. It helps us observe detailed internal structure of material samples non-invasively in air. And, it also has the potential to solve some tough problems of conventional breast imaging if it could evaluate various conditions of breast tissue effectively. A new hard x-ray microscope with a spatial resolution better than 100 nm was installed at Pohang Light Source, a third generation synchrotron radiation facility in Pohang, Korea. The x-ray energy was set at 6.95 keV, and the x-ray beam was monochromatized by W/B4C monochromator. Condenser and objective zone plates were used as x-ray lenses. Zernike phase plate next to condenser zone plate was introduced for improved contrast imaging. The image of a sample was magnified 30 times by objective zone plate and 20 times by microscope objective, respectively. After additional 10 times digital magnification, the total magnifying power was up to 6000 times in the end. Phase contrast synchrotron images of 10-μm-thick female breast tissue of the normal, fibroadenoma, fibrocystic change and carcinoma cases were obtained. By phase contrast imaging, hard x-rays enable us to observe many structures of breast tissue without sample preparations such as staining or fixation.

  8. Hard X-ray Microscopic Imaging Of Human Breast Tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung H.; Kim, Hong T.; Kim, Jong K.; Jheon, Sang H.; Youn, Hwa S.

    2007-01-01

    X-ray microscopy with synchrotron radiation will be a useful tool for innovation of x-ray imaging in clinical and laboratory settings. It helps us observe detailed internal structure of material samples non-invasively in air. And, it also has the potential to solve some tough problems of conventional breast imaging if it could evaluate various conditions of breast tissue effectively. A new hard x-ray microscope with a spatial resolution better than 100 nm was installed at Pohang Light Source, a third generation synchrotron radiation facility in Pohang, Korea. The x-ray energy was set at 6.95 keV, and the x-ray beam was monochromatized by W/B4C monochromator. Condenser and objective zone plates were used as x-ray lenses. Zernike phase plate next to condenser zone plate was introduced for improved contrast imaging. The image of a sample was magnified 30 times by objective zone plate and 20 times by microscope objective, respectively. After additional 10 times digital magnification, the total magnifying power was up to 6000 times in the end. Phase contrast synchrotron images of 10-μm-thick female breast tissue of the normal, fibroadenoma, fibrocystic change and carcinoma cases were obtained. By phase contrast imaging, hard x-rays enable us to observe many structures of breast tissue without sample preparations such as staining or fixation

  9. The over-the-limb hard X-ray events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, H. S.

    Over-the-limb hard X-ray events offer a uniquely direct view of the hard X-ray emission from the solar corona during a major flare. Limb occultation at angles greater than about 10 deg (an arbitrary definition of this class of events) excludes any confusion with brighter chromospheric sources. Published observations of seven over-the-limb events, beginning with the prototype flare of March 30, 1969, are reviewed. The hard X-ray spectra appear to fall into two classes: hard events, with power-law index of about 2.0; and soft events, with power-law index about 5.4. This tendency towards bimodality is only significant at the 90-percent confidence level due to the smallness of the number of events observed to date. If borne out by future data, the bimodality would suggest the existence of two different acceleration mechanisms.

  10. Hard X-ray balloon observations of compact galactic and extragalactic X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staubert, R.; Kendziorra, E.; Pietsch, W.; Proctor, R.J.; Reppin, C.; Steinle, H.; Truemper, J.; Voges, W.

    1981-01-01

    A balloon program in hard X-ray astronomy (20-200 keV) is jointly pursued by the Astronomisches Institut der Universitaet Tuebingen (AIT) and the Max Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik in Garching (MPE). Since 1973 nine succussful balloon flights have been performed from Texas and Australia. Here results on Centaurus A and on several galactic binary X-ray sources are summarized. In particular the high energy photon spectrum of Hercules X-1 and the evidence for the cyclotron line feature which was discovered by us in 1976 is reviewed. (orig.)

  11. The Ferrara hard X-ray facility for testing/calibrating hard X-ray focusing telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffredo, Gianluca; Frontera, Filippo; Pellicciotta, Damiano; Pisa, Alessandro; Carassiti, Vito; Chiozzi, Stefano; Evangelisti, Federico; Landi, Luca; Melchiorri, Michele; Squerzanti, Stefano

    2005-12-01

    We will report on the current configuration of the X-ray facility of the University of Ferrara recently used to perform reflectivity tests of mosaic crystals and to calibrate the experiment JEM X aboard Integral. The facility is now located in the technological campus of the University of Ferrara in a new building (named LARIX laboratory= LARge Italian X-ray facility) that includes a tunnel 100 m long with, on the sides, two large experimental rooms. The facility is being improved for determining the optical axis of mosaic crystals in Laue configuration, for calibrating Laue lenses and hard X-ray mirror prototypes.

  12. A hard X-ray laboratory for monochromator characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelin, B [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Since their installation at ILL during the 1970`s the ILL {gamma}-ray diffractometers have been intensively used in the development of neutron monochromators. However, the ageing of the sources and new developments in hard X-ray diffractometry lead to a decision at the end of 1995 to replace the existing {gamma}-ray laboratory with a hard X-ray laboratory, based on a 420 keV generator, making available in the long term several beam-lines for rapid characterisation of monochromator crystals. The facility is now installed and its characteristics and advantages are outlined. (author). 2 refs.

  13. Model independent method to deconvolve hard X-ray spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polcaro, V.F.; Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, P.; La Padula, C. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Frascati (Italy). Lab. di Astrofisica Spaziale); Manchanda, R.K. (Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India))

    1984-07-01

    A general purpose method to deconvolve the energy spectra detected by means of the use of a hard X-ray telescope is described. The procedure does not assume any form of input spectrum and the observed energy loss spectrum is directly deconvolved into the incident photon spectrum, the form of which can be determined independently of physical interpretation of the data. Deconvolution of the hard X-ray spectrum of Her X-1, detected during the HXR 81M experiment, by the method independent method is presented.

  14. Multi-spacecraft observations of solar hard X-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, S.R.

    1981-01-01

    The role of multi-spacecraft observations in solar flare research is examined from the point of view of solar hard X-ray bursts and their implications with respect to models of the impulsive phase. Multi-spacecraft measurements provide a stereoscopic view of the flare region, and hence represent the only direct method of measuring directivity of X-rays. In absence of hard X-ray imaging instruments with high spatial and temporal resolution, multi-spacecraft measurements provide the only means of determining the radial (vertical) structure of the hard X-ray source. This potential of the multi-spacecraft observations is illustrated with an analysis of the presently available observations of solar hard X-ray bursts made simultaneously by two or more of the following spacecraft: International Sun Earth Explorer-3 (ISEE-3), Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO), Helios-B and High Energy Astrophysical Observatory-A (HEAO-A). In particular, some conclusions have been drawn about the spatial structure and directivity of 50-100 keV X-rays from impulsive flares. Desirable features of future multi-spacecraft missions are briefly discussed followed by a short description of the hard X-ray experiment on the International Solar Polar Mission which has been planned specifically for multi-spacecraft observations of the Sun. (orig.)

  15. Development and characterization of a laser-based hard x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillman, C.

    1996-11-01

    A laser-produced plasma was generated by focusing 100 fs laser pulses, with an energy of 150 mJ, onto metal targets. The laser intensity was expected to reach 10 17 W/cm -2 . Radiation was emitted from the created plasma, with photon energies up to the MeV region. The laser-based X-ray source was optimized, with the purpose of making it a realistic source of hard X-rays (>10 keV). Dedicated equipment was developed for efficient generation and utilization of the hard X-rays. The X-ray source was characterized with respect to its spatial extent and the X-ray yield. Measurements were made of the spectral distribution, by the use of single-photon-counting detectors in different geometries, crystal spectrometers and dose measurements in combination with absorption filters. Ablation of the target material in the laser produced plasma was investigated. Imaging applications have been demonstrated, including ultrafast (picosecond) X-ray imaging, magnification imaging of up to x80, differential imaging in the spectral domain, and imaging of various biological and technical objects. The biological response of ultra-intense X-ray pulses was assessed in cell-culture exposures. The results indicate that the biological response from ultra-intense X-ray exposures is similar to the response with conventional X-ray tubes. 82 refs., 14 figs

  16. Development and characterization of a laser-based hard x-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillman, C.

    1996-11-01

    A laser-produced plasma was generated by focusing 100 fs laser pulses, with an energy of 150 mJ, onto metal targets. The laser intensity was expected to reach 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup -2}. Radiation was emitted from the created plasma, with photon energies up to the MeV region. The laser-based X-ray source was optimized, with the purpose of making it a realistic source of hard X-rays (>10 keV). Dedicated equipment was developed for efficient generation and utilization of the hard X-rays. The X-ray source was characterized with respect to its spatial extent and the X-ray yield. Measurements were made of the spectral distribution, by the use of single-photon-counting detectors in different geometries, crystal spectrometers and dose measurements in combination with absorption filters. Ablation of the target material in the laser produced plasma was investigated. Imaging applications have been demonstrated, including ultrafast (picosecond) X-ray imaging, magnification imaging of up to x80, differential imaging in the spectral domain, and imaging of various biological and technical objects. The biological response of ultra-intense X-ray pulses was assessed in cell-culture exposures. The results indicate that the biological response from ultra-intense X-ray exposures is similar to the response with conventional X-ray tubes. 82 refs., 14 figs.

  17. Hard X-ray intensity reduction during lower hybrid current drive experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlynar, J.; Stoeckel, J.; Magula, P.

    1993-01-01

    A strong hard X-ray intensity reduction during a standard LHCD at the CASTOR tokamak was studied. From discussion it followed that the magnetic fluctuations level decrease is likely to be responsible for this effect beside the loop voltage decrease. To verify this idea, the connection between the magnetic fluctuation level and the hard X-ray intensity was studied in a nonstandard LHCD regime with a zero loop voltage reduction. These measurements strongly supported the concept that magnetic fluctuations level substantially influences the runaway electrons cross-field transport. Though, more data and a good code for modelling the anomalous transport and hard X-rays production would be of high value. Similar measurements especially for higher RF power should be carried out soon. Besides, the reduction of hard X-rays was observed in the experiments with edge plasma polarization lately; therefore, the magnetic fluctuations level in these experiments should be studied soon. (author) 6 figs., 6 refs

  18. Crab Nebula Variations in Hard X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2012-01-01

    The Crab Nebula was surprisingly variable from 2001-2010, with less variability before 2001 and since mid-2010. We presented evidence for spectral softening from RXTE, Swift/BAT, and Fermi GBM during the mid-2008-2010 flux decline. We see no clear connections between the hard X-ray variations and the GeV flares

  19. New hard X-ray sources at 380 declination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; La Padula, C.; Polcaro, V.F.

    1981-01-01

    We report the detection of three new hard X-rays sources emitting in the range 15-150 KeV. Their observation was carried out by means of a balloon borne payload, consisting of two large area high spectral resolution Multiwire Spectroscopic Proportional Counters. (orig.)

  20. Studies in useful hard x-ray induced chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravica, Michael; Bai, Ligang; Sneed, Daniel; Park, Changyong

    2013-06-01

    The observed rapid decomposition of potassium chlorate (via 2KClO3 + h ν --> 2KCl +3O2) via synchrotron hard x-ray irradiation (>10 keV) has enabled experiments that are developing novel and useful hard x-ray chemistry. We have observed a number of radiation-induced in situ decomposition reactions in various substances which release O2, H2, N2, NH3, and H2O in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) at ambient and high pressures. These novel acatalytic and isothermal reactions represent a highly controllable, penetrating, and focused method to initiate chemistry (including x-ray induced combustion) in sealed and/or isolated chambers which maintain matter under extreme conditions. During our studies, we have typically observed a slowing of decomposition with pressure including phase dependent decomposition of KClO3. Energy dependent studies have observed an apparent resonance near 15 keV at which the decomposition rate is maximized. This may enable use of much lower flux and portable x-ray sources (e.g. x-ray tubes) in larger scale experiments. These developments support novel means to load DACs and control chemical reactions providing novel routes of synthesis of novel materials under extreme conditions.

  1. Nustar Detection of Hard X-Ray Phase Lags from the Accreting Pulsar GS 0834-430

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Bachetti, Matteo; Harrison, Fiona A.

    2013-01-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array hard X-ray telescope observed the transient Be/X-ray binary GS 0834-430 during its 2012 outburst-the first active state of this system observed in the past 19 yr. We performed timing and spectral analysis and measured the X-ray spectrum between 3-79 keV w...

  2. Monitoring the Galactic - Search for Hard X-Ray Transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Francis

    Hard X-ray transients with fluxs from ~1 to ~30 mCrab are a common feature of the galactic plane with apparent concentrations in specific regions of the plane. Concentrations in the Scutum and Carina fields probably indicate an enhancement of Be X-ray binaries along the tangent direction of two spiral arms. The frequency of outbursts suggest that at any one time 1 or 2 transients are active in the Scutum field alone. We propose weekly scans of the galactic plane to understand this population of sources. The scans will also monitor about 50 already known sources with better spectral information than available with the ASM.

  3. Applications of Hard X-ray Full-Field Transmission X-ray Microscopy at SSRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Andrews, J. C.; Mehta, A.; Pianetta, P.; Meirer, F.; Gil, S. Carrasco; Sciau, P.; Mester, Z.

    2011-01-01

    State-of-the-art hard x-ray full-field transmission x-ray microscopy (TXM) at beamline 6-2C of Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource has been applied to various research fields including biological, environmental, and material studies. With the capability of imaging a 32-micron field-of-view at 30-nm resolution using both absorption mode and Zernike phase contrast, the 3D morphology of yeast cells grown in gold-rich media was investigated. Quantitative evaluation of the absorption coefficient was performed for mercury nanoparticles in alfalfa roots exposed to mercury. Combining XANES and TXM, we also performed XANES-imaging on an ancient pottery sample from the Roman pottery workshop at LaGraufesenque (Aveyron).

  4. Applications of Hard X-ray Full-Field Transmission X-ray Microscopy at SSRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Andrews, J. C.; Meirer, F.; Mehta, A.; Gil, S. Carrasco; Sciau, P.; Mester, Z.; Pianetta, P.

    2011-09-01

    State-of-the-art hard x-ray full-field transmission x-ray microscopy (TXM) at beamline 6-2C of Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource has been applied to various research fields including biological, environmental, and material studies. With the capability of imaging a 32-micron field-of-view at 30-nm resolution using both absorption mode and Zernike phase contrast, the 3D morphology of yeast cells grown in gold-rich media was investigated. Quantitative evaluation of the absorption coefficient was performed for mercury nanoparticles in alfalfa roots exposed to mercury. Combining XANES and TXM, we also performed XANES-imaging on an ancient pottery sample from the Roman pottery workshop at LaGraufesenque (Aveyron).

  5. Hard X-ray Sources for the Mexican Synchrotron Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Herrera, Juan

    2016-01-01

    One of the principal tasks for the design of the Mexican synchrotron was to define the storage ring energy. The main criteria for choosing the energy come from studying the electromagnetic spectrum that can be obtained from the synchrotron, because the energy range of the spectrum that can be obtained will determine the applications available to the users of the future light source. Since there is a public demand of hard X-rays for the experiments in the synchrotron community users from Mexico, in this work we studied the emission spectra from some hard X-ray sources which could be the best options for the parameters of the present Mexican synchrotron design. The calculations of the flux and the brightness for one Bending Magnet and four Insertion Devices are presented; specifically, for a Superconducting Bending Magnet (SBM), a Superconducting Wiggler (SCW), an In Vacuum Short Period Undulator (IV-SPU), a Superconducting Undulator (SCU) and for a Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Undulator (CPMU). Two commonly available synchrotron radiation programs were used for the computation (XOP and SRW). From the results, it can be concluded that the particle beam energy from the current design is enough to have one or more sources of hard X-rays. Furthermore, a wide range of hard X-ray region can be covered by the analyzed sources, and the choice of each type should be based on the specific characteristics of the X-ray beam to perform the experiments at the involved beamline. This work was done within the project Fomix Conacyt-Morelos ”Plan Estrategico para la construccion y operación de un Sincrotron en Morelos” (224392). (paper)

  6. Hard X-ray Sources for the Mexican Synchrotron Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Herrera, Juan

    2016-10-01

    One of the principal tasks for the design of the Mexican synchrotron was to define the storage ring energy. The main criteria for choosing the energy come from studying the electromagnetic spectrum that can be obtained from the synchrotron, because the energy range of the spectrum that can be obtained will determine the applications available to the users of the future light source. Since there is a public demand of hard X-rays for the experiments in the synchrotron community users from Mexico, in this work we studied the emission spectra from some hard X-ray sources which could be the best options for the parameters of the present Mexican synchrotron design. The calculations of the flux and the brightness for one Bending Magnet and four Insertion Devices are presented; specifically, for a Superconducting Bending Magnet (SBM), a Superconducting Wiggler (SCW), an In Vacuum Short Period Undulator (IV-SPU), a Superconducting Undulator (SCU) and for a Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Undulator (CPMU). Two commonly available synchrotron radiation programs were used for the computation (XOP and SRW). From the results, it can be concluded that the particle beam energy from the current design is enough to have one or more sources of hard X-rays. Furthermore, a wide range of hard X-ray region can be covered by the analyzed sources, and the choice of each type should be based on the specific characteristics of the X-ray beam to perform the experiments at the involved beamline. This work was done within the project Fomix Conacyt-Morelos ”Plan Estrategico para la construccion y operación de un Sincrotron en Morelos” (224392).

  7. Cryogenic radiometry in the hard X-ray range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlach, M.; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Muller, P.; Rabus, H.; Ulm, G.

    2008-01-01

    For many applications in radiometry, spectroscopy or astrophysics, absolute measurement of radiant power with low uncertainty is essential. Cryogenic electrical substitution radiometers (ESRs) are regarded as the highest-accuracy primary standard detector in radiometry, from the infrared to the ultraviolet region; in combination with tuneable monochromatized synchrotron radiation from electron storage rings, their range of operation has been extended to the soft x-ray region. ESRs are absolute thermal detectors, based on the equivalence of electrical power and radiant power that can be traced back to electrical SI units and be measured with low uncertainties. Their core piece is a cavity absorber, which is typically made of copper to achieve a short response time suitable for use with synchrotron radiation. At higher photon energies, the use of copper prevents the operation of ESRs due to increasing transmittance. A new absorber design for hard x-rays has been developed at the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the electron storage ring BESSY II. The Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4 was applied to optimize its absorptance for photon energies of up to 60 keV, resulting in a cavity absorber with a gold base and a cylindrical shell made of copper, in combination with a thermal sensitivity of around 150 mK μW -1 and a time constant of less than 3 min, which is short compared with the lifetime of many hours for the storage ring current. The measurement of the radiant power of monochromatized synchrotron radiation was achieved with relative standard uncertainties of less than 0.2%, covering the entire photon energy range of three beamlines from 50 eV to 60 keV. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity was used to calibrate silicon photodiodes against the ESR for photon energies up to 60 keV with relative standard uncertainties below 0.3%. (authors)

  8. Cryogenic radiometry in the hard X-ray range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, M.; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Muller, P.; Rabus, H.; Ulm, G. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig and Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    For many applications in radiometry, spectroscopy or astrophysics, absolute measurement of radiant power with low uncertainty is essential. Cryogenic electrical substitution radiometers (ESRs) are regarded as the highest-accuracy primary standard detector in radiometry, from the infrared to the ultraviolet region; in combination with tuneable monochromatized synchrotron radiation from electron storage rings, their range of operation has been extended to the soft x-ray region. ESRs are absolute thermal detectors, based on the equivalence of electrical power and radiant power that can be traced back to electrical SI units and be measured with low uncertainties. Their core piece is a cavity absorber, which is typically made of copper to achieve a short response time suitable for use with synchrotron radiation. At higher photon energies, the use of copper prevents the operation of ESRs due to increasing transmittance. A new absorber design for hard x-rays has been developed at the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the electron storage ring BESSY II. The Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4 was applied to optimize its absorptance for photon energies of up to 60 keV, resulting in a cavity absorber with a gold base and a cylindrical shell made of copper, in combination with a thermal sensitivity of around 150 mK {mu}W{sup -1} and a time constant of less than 3 min, which is short compared with the lifetime of many hours for the storage ring current. The measurement of the radiant power of monochromatized synchrotron radiation was achieved with relative standard uncertainties of less than 0.2%, covering the entire photon energy range of three beamlines from 50 eV to 60 keV. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity was used to calibrate silicon photodiodes against the ESR for photon energies up to 60 keV with relative standard uncertainties below 0.3%. (authors)

  9. Cryogenic radiometry in the hard x-ray range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, M.; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Müller, P.; Rabus, H.; Ulm, G.

    2008-10-01

    For many applications in radiometry, spectroscopy or astrophysics, absolute measurement of radiant power with low uncertainty is essential. Cryogenic electrical substitution radiometers (ESRs) are regarded as the highest-accuracy primary standard detector in radiometry, from the infrared to the ultraviolet region; in combination with tuneable monochromatized synchrotron radiation from electron storage rings, their range of operation has been extended to the soft x-ray region. ESRs are absolute thermal detectors, based on the equivalence of electrical power and radiant power that can be traced back to electrical SI units and be measured with low uncertainties. Their core piece is a cavity absorber, which is typically made of copper to achieve a short response time suitable for use with synchrotron radiation. At higher photon energies, the use of copper prevents the operation of ESRs due to increasing transmittance. A new absorber design for hard x-rays has been developed at the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the electron storage ring BESSY II. The Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4 was applied to optimize its absorptance for photon energies of up to 60 keV, resulting in a cavity absorber with a gold base and a cylindrical shell made of copper, in combination with a thermal sensitivity of around 150 mK µW-1 and a time constant of less than 3 min, which is short compared with the lifetime of many hours for the storage ring current. The measurement of the radiant power of monochromatized synchrotron radiation was achieved with relative standard uncertainties of less than 0.2%, covering the entire photon energy range of three beamlines from 50 eV to 60 keV. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity was used to calibrate silicon photodiodes against the ESR for photon energies up to 60 keV with relative standard uncertainties below 0.3%.

  10. NuSTAR Hard X-ray Survey of the Galactic Center Region. I. Hard X-ray Morphology and Spectroscopy of the Diffuse Emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Kaya; Hailey, Charles J.; Krivonos, Roman

    2015-01-01

    We present the first sub-arcminute images of the Galactic Center above 10 keV, obtained with NuSTAR. NuSTAR resolves the hard X-ray source IGR J17456-2901 into non-thermal X-ray filaments, molecular clouds, point sources, and a previously unknown central component of hard X-ray emission (CHXE). Nu...

  11. Black hole and neutron star soft X-ray transients: a hard X-ray view of their outbursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, W.

    2004-01-01

    The RXTE public observations of the outbursts of black hole soft X-ray transients XTE J1550-564, XTE J1859+226, 4U 1630-47, XTE J1118+480, XTE J1650-500, and the neutron star soft X-ray transients 4U 1608-52, Aquila X-1, including a variable 'persistent' neutron star low mass X-ray binary 4U 1705-44, are summarized in this paper. The hard X-ray view of those outbursts, which is quite different from that of the soft X-ray band, suggests that there are several types of outbursts which result in different hard X-ray outburst profile - the outburst profiles are energy dependent. One type is the low/hard state outbursts, the other type is the outburst showing transitions from the low/hard state to the high/soft state, or to the intermediate or to the very high state. The later has an initial low/hard state, introducing the phenomena that the hard X-ray precedes the soft X-ray in the outburst rise. Such outbursts in XTE J1550-564, Aql X-1 and 4U 1705-44 support a two-accretion-flow model which involves one Keplerian disk flow and one sub-Keplerian flow for the initial outburst rise

  12. Achieving few-femtosecond time-sorting at hard X-ray free-electron lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmand, M.; Coffee, R.; Bionta, M. R.; Chollet, M.; French, D.; Zhu, D.; Fritz, D. M.; Lemke, H. T.; Medvedev, N.; Ziaja, B.; Toleikis, S.; Cammarata, M.

    2013-03-01

    Recently, few-femtosecond pulses have become available at hard X-ray free-electron lasers. Coupled with the available sub-10 fs optical pulses, investigations into few-femtosecond dynamics are not far off. However, achieving sufficient synchronization between optical lasers and X-ray pulses continues to be challenging. We report a `measure-and-sort' approach, which achieves sub-10 fs root-mean-squared (r.m.s.) error measurement at hard X-ray FELs, far beyond the 100-200 fs r.m.s. jitter limitations. This timing diagnostic, now routinely available at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), is based on ultrafast free-carrier generation in optically transparent materials. Correlation between two independent measurements enables unambiguous demonstration of ~6 fs r.m.s. error in reporting the optical/X-ray delay, with single shot error suggesting the possibility of reaching few-femtosecond resolution.

  13. Hard X-ray spectrum of Her X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; La Padula, C.D.; Polcaro, V.F.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a balloon borne hard X-ray observation of Her X-1 is presented. The experiment, released from the base of Hyderabad (India) the 19th April 1980, was a collaboration between the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale (Italy) and the TIFR (India). The data obtained are compatible with a thermal emission at low energy with a strong emission line overimposed on the continuum around 50-60 keV

  14. Full Multilayer Laue Lens for Focusing Hard X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chian; Shi, B.; Qian, J.; Conley, R.; Yan, H.; Wieczorek, M.; Macrander, A. T.; Maser, J.; Stephenson, G. B.

    2010-01-01

    Multilayer Laue Lenses (MLLs) were developed by us using dynamic diffraction effects to efficiently focus hard x-rays to very small spots. Using a partial MLL we were able to focus 19.5-keV hard x-rays to a line focus of 16 nm with an efficiency of 31%. A full MLL is a complete linear MLL structure. It can be fabricated by bonding two partial MLL wafers, or by growing the full structure using magnetron sputtering without bonding. A 40-μm full MLL, with a total of 5166 layers of WSi 2 and Si, has been successfully grown by sputter deposition. The layer thicknesses gradually vary from 4 nm to ∼400 nm and then back to 4 nm. Two coating runs were used to grow the full structure, one for each half. It took over 56 h for each run. A 100-μm nearly-full MLL was constructed by bonding. Each 50-μm half-structure has 1788 WSi 2 and Si layers with 12-nm to ∼32-nm thicknesses and ∼32-μm total thickness, followed by a thick WSi 2 layer of ∼17 μm, and an AuSn layer of ∼1 μm. Both full MLL structures survived dicing and polishing. The primary results demonstrate the feasibility and potential of a full MLL with a doubled numerical aperture and large beam acceptance for hard x-rays.

  15. Bulk sensitive hard x-ray photoemission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patt, M., E-mail: m.patt@fz-juelich.de; Wiemann, C. [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-6) and JARA-FIT, Research Center Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Weber, N.; Escher, M.; Merkel, M. [Focus GmbH, Neukirchner Str. 2, D-65510 Hünstetten (Germany); Gloskovskii, A.; Drube, W. [DESY Photon Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Schneider, C. M. [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-6) and JARA-FIT, Research Center Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Fakultät f. Physik and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) has now matured into a well-established technique as a bulk sensitive probe of the electronic structure due to the larger escape depth of the highly energetic electrons. In order to enable HAXPES studies with high lateral resolution, we have set up a dedicated energy-filtered hard x-ray photoemission electron microscope (HAXPEEM) working with electron kinetic energies up to 10 keV. It is based on the NanoESCA design and also preserves the performance of the instrument in the low and medium energy range. In this way, spectromicroscopy can be performed from threshold to hard x-ray photoemission. The high potential of the HAXPEEM approach for the investigation of buried layers and structures has been shown already on a layered and structured SrTiO{sub 3} sample. Here, we present results of experiments with test structures to elaborate the imaging and spectroscopic performance of the instrument and show the capabilities of the method to image bulk properties. Additionally, we introduce a method to determine the effective attenuation length of photoelectrons in a direct photoemission experiment.

  16. The Correlation between Hard X-Ray Peak Flux and Soft X-Ray Peak Flux in the Outburst Rise of Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, W.; van der Klis, M.; Fender, R.P.

    2004-01-01

    We have analyzed Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer pointed observations of the outbursts of black hole and neutron star soft X-ray transients in which an initial low/hard state, or ``island'' state, followed by a transition to a softer state was observed. In three sources-the black hole transient XTE

  17. Guiding hard x rays with glass polycapillary fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Q.F.; Ponomarev, I.Y.; Kolomitsev, A.I.; Gibson, D.M.; Dilmanian, F.A.; Nachaliel, E.

    1993-01-01

    X rays can be guided through a polycapillary fiber by multiple total reflections from the smooth channel walls of the fiber. Using monochromatic Synchrotron Radiation at energies of 22 and 44 keV, we measured the efficiency of transmission of x rays through polycapillary fibers with channel diameters of about 13 μm. Efficiencies of 57.3% and 54.5% for 22 keV and 44 keV x rays, respectively, were obtained with a 120-mm-long straight polycapillary fiber aligned with the incident beam. These values are close to the open fraction of the fiber, which is about 60%. In addition, transmission efficiency was measured as a function of the tilt angle between the incident beam and the axis of the fiber. We also measured the transmission efficiency as a function of the deflection angle for a 114-mm-long curved polycapillary fiber. The measurements are compared with a ray-tracing simulation

  18. THE SWIFT/BAT HARD X-RAY TRANSIENT MONITOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krimm, H. A.; Holland, S. T.; Corbet, R. H. D.; Pearlman, A. B.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Cummings, J. R.; Romano, P.; Kennea, J. A.; Bloom, J. S.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Gehrels, N.; Lien, A. Y.; Markwardt, C. B.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Palmer, D. M.; Sakamoto, T.; Stamatikos, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) hard X-ray transient monitor provides near real-time coverage of the X-ray sky in the energy range 15-50 keV. The BAT observes 88% of the sky each day with a detection sensitivity of 5.3 mCrab for a full-day observation and a time resolution as fine as 64 s. The three main purposes of the monitor are (1) the discovery of new transient X-ray sources, (2) the detection of outbursts or other changes in the flux of known X-ray sources, and (3) the generation of light curves of more than 900 sources spanning over eight years. The primary interface for the BAT transient monitor is a public Web site. Between 2005 February 12 and 2013 April 30, 245 sources have been detected in the monitor, 146 of them persistent and 99 detected only in outburst. Among these sources, 17 were previously unknown and were discovered in the transient monitor. In this paper, we discuss the methodology and the data processing and filtering for the BAT transient monitor and review its sensitivity and exposure. We provide a summary of the source detections and classify them according to the variability of their light curves. Finally, we review all new BAT monitor discoveries. For the new sources that are previously unpublished, we present basic data analysis and interpretations

  19. On hard X-ray spectra of accreting neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheleznyakov, V.V.

    1982-01-01

    Formation of the spectra of X-ray pulsars and gamma bursters is investigated. Interpretation of a hard X-ray spectrum of pulsars containing cyclotron lines is feasible on the basis of an isothermal model of a polar spot heated due to acccretion to a neutron star. It has been ascertained that in the regions responsible for the formation of continuum radiation and lines the mode polarization is determined by a magnetized vacuum rather than by a plasma. Bearing this in mind, the influence of the magnetic field of a star on the wide wings of the cyclotron line and on its depth is discussed. The part played by the accreting column in the case of strong accretion (approx. equal to 10 19 el cm -3 ) needed for long sustaining of the high level of X-rays from a neutron star-pulsar is studied. There occur the gaps in spectrum at frequencies close to the electron gyro-frequency and its harmonics due to the screening of the hot spot by the opaque gyro-resonant layer located within the accreting column. These gaps ensure the formation of cyclotron lines in absorption irrespective of the presence of such lines in the X-ray spectrum of a polar hot spot. (orig./WL)

  20. THE SWIFT/BAT HARD X-RAY TRANSIENT MONITOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krimm, H. A.; Holland, S. T.; Corbet, R. H. D.; Pearlman, A. B.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Cummings, J. R. [Center for Research and Exploration in Space Science and Technology (CRESST) and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Romano, P. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, Via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Kennea, J. A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Bloom, J. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Barthelmy, S. D.; Gehrels, N.; Lien, A. Y.; Markwardt, C. B.; Ukwatta, T. N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Palmer, D. M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, B244, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Sakamoto, T. [Department of Physics and Mathematics, College of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara-shi, Kanagawa 252-5258 (Japan); Stamatikos, M. [Department of Physics and Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) hard X-ray transient monitor provides near real-time coverage of the X-ray sky in the energy range 15-50 keV. The BAT observes 88% of the sky each day with a detection sensitivity of 5.3 mCrab for a full-day observation and a time resolution as fine as 64 s. The three main purposes of the monitor are (1) the discovery of new transient X-ray sources, (2) the detection of outbursts or other changes in the flux of known X-ray sources, and (3) the generation of light curves of more than 900 sources spanning over eight years. The primary interface for the BAT transient monitor is a public Web site. Between 2005 February 12 and 2013 April 30, 245 sources have been detected in the monitor, 146 of them persistent and 99 detected only in outburst. Among these sources, 17 were previously unknown and were discovered in the transient monitor. In this paper, we discuss the methodology and the data processing and filtering for the BAT transient monitor and review its sensitivity and exposure. We provide a summary of the source detections and classify them according to the variability of their light curves. Finally, we review all new BAT monitor discoveries. For the new sources that are previously unpublished, we present basic data analysis and interpretations.

  1. The hard x-ray imager onboard IXO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Limousin, Olivier; Kokubun, Motohide; Watanabe, Shin; Laurent, Philippe; Arnaud, Monique; Tajima, Hiroyasu

    2010-07-01

    The Hard X-ray Imager (HXI) is one of the instruments onboard International X-ray Observatory (IXO), to be launched into orbit in 2020s. It covers the energy band of 10-40 keV, providing imaging-spectroscopy with a field of view of 8 x 8 arcmin2. The HXI is attached beneath the Wide Field Imager (WFI) covering 0.1-15 keV. Combined with the super-mirror coating on the mirror assembly, this configuration provides observation of X-ray source in wide energy band (0.1-40.0 keV) simultaneously, which is especially important for varying sources. The HXI sensor part consists of the semiconductor imaging spectrometer, using Si in the medium energy detector and CdTe in the high energy detector as its material, and an active shield covering its back to reduce background in orbit. The HXI technology is based on those of the Japanese-lead new generation X-ray observatory ASTRO-H, and partly from those developed for Simbol-X. Therefore, the technological development is in good progress. In the IXO mission, HXI will provide a major assets to identify the nature of the object by penetrating into thick absorbing materials and determined the inherent spectral shape in the energy band well above the structure around Fe-K lines and edges.

  2. The Swift/BAT Hard X-ray Transient Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimm, H. A.; Holland, S. T.; Corbet, R.H.D.; Pearlman, A. B.; Romano, P.; Kennea, J. A.; Bloom, J. S.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Cummings, J. R.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) hard X-ray transient monitor provides near real-time coverage of the X-ray sky in the energy range 15-50 keV. The BAT observes 88% of the sky each day with a detection sensitivity of 5.3 mCrab for a full-day observation and a time resolution as ne as 64 seconds. The three main purposes of the monitor are (1) the discovery of new transient X-ray sources, (2) the detection of outbursts or other changes in the ux of known X-ray sources, and (3) the generation of light curves of more than 900 sources spanning over eight years. The primary interface for the BAT transient monitor is a public web page. Since 2005 February, 242 sources have been detected in the monitor, 149 of them persistent and 93 detected only in outburst. Among these sources, 16 were previously unknown and discovered in the transient monitor. In this paper, we discuss the methodology and the data processing and ltering for the BAT transient monitor and review its sensitivity and exposure. We provide a summary of the source detections and classify them according to the variability of their light curves. Finally, we review all new BAT monitor discoveries and present basic data analysis and interpretations for those sources with previously unpublished results.

  3. The Swift-BAT Hard X-Ray Transient Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimm, H. A.; Holland, S. T.; Corbet, R. H. D.; Pearlman, A. B.; Romano, P.; Kennea, J. A.; Bloom, J. S.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Cummings, J. R.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) hard X-ray transient monitor provides near real-time coverage of the X-ray sky in the energy range 15-50 keV. The BAT observes 88% of the sky each day with a detection sensitivity of 5.3 mCrab for a full-day observation and a time resolution as fine as 64 s. The three main purposes of the monitor are (1) the discovery of new transient X-ray sources, (2) the detection of outbursts or other changes in the flux of known X-ray sources, and (3) the generation of light curves of more than 900 sources spanning over eight years. The primary interface for the BAT transient monitor is a public Web site. Between 2005 February 12 and 2013 April 30, 245 sources have been detected in the monitor, 146 of them persistent and 99 detected only in outburst. Among these sources, 17 were previously unknown and were discovered in the transient monitor. In this paper, we discuss the methodology and the data processing and filtering for the BAT transient monitor and review its sensitivity and exposure.We provide a summary of the source detections and classify them according to the variability of their light curves. Finally, we review all new BAT monitor discoveries. For the new sources that are previously unpublished, we present basic data analysis and interpretations.

  4. The advantages of soft X-rays and cryogenic spectrometers for measuring chemical speciation by X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, Owen B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Advanced Detector Group, 7000 East Ave., L-270, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); UC Davis, Biophysics Graduate Group, 1 Shields Ave, CA 95616 (United States); LBNL, Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray Facility, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 6-2100, Berkeley, CA 92720 (United States); Friedrich, Stephan [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Advanced Detector Group, 7000 East Ave., L-270, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States) and LBNL, Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray Facility, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 6-2100, Berkeley, CA 92720 (United States)]. E-mail: friedrich1@llnl.gov; George, Simon J. [LBNL, Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray Facility, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 6-2100, Berkeley, CA 92720 (United States); Cramer, Stephen P. [UC Davis, Biophysics Graduate Group, 1 Shields Ave, CA 95616 (United States); LBNL, Advanced Biological and Environmental X-ray Facility, 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 6-2100, Berkeley, CA 92720 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    We have built a 36-pixel high-resolution superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) soft X-ray spectrometer for chemical analysis of dilute metals by fluorescence-detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the Advanced Light Source synchrotron. Soft X-ray absorption edges are preferred over traditional hard X-ray spectroscopy at the K-edges, since they have narrower natural linewidths and exhibit stronger chemical shifts. STJ detectors are preferred in the soft X-ray band over traditional Ge or grating spectrometers, since they have sufficient energy resolution to resolve transition metal L and M lines from light element K emission, and sufficient detection efficiency to measure the weak lines of dilute specimens within an acceptable time. We demonstrate the capabilities of our STJ spectrometer for chemical analysis with soft XAS measurements of molybdenum speciation on the Mo M{sub 4,5}-edges.

  5. Time-Resolved Hard X-Ray Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenneth Moya; Ian McKennaa; Thomas Keenana; Michael Cuneob

    2007-01-01

    Wired array studies are being conducted at the SNL Z accelerator to maximize the x-ray generation for inertial confinement fusion targets and high energy density physics experiments. An integral component of these studies is the characterization of the time-resolved spectral content of the x-rays. Due to potential spatial anisotropy in the emitted radiation, it is also critical to diagnose the time-evolved spectral content in a space-resolved manner. To accomplish these two measurement goals, we developed an x-ray spectrometer using a set of high-speed detectors (silicon PIN diodes) with a collimated field-of-view that converged on a 1-cm-diameter spot at the pinch axis. Spectral discrimination is achieved by placing high Z absorbers in front of these detectors. We built two spectrometers to permit simultaneous different angular views of the emitted radiation. Spectral data have been acquired from recent Z shots for the radial and polar views. UNSPEC1 has been adapted to analyze and unfold the measured data to reconstruct the x-ray spectrum. The unfold operator code, UFO2, is being adapted for a more comprehensive spectral unfolding treatment

  6. NuSTAR Hard X-ray Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koglin, Jason E.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Craig, William W.

    2005-01-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is a small explorer (SMEX) mission currently under an extended Phase A study by NASA. NuSTAR will be the first satellite mission to employ focusing optics in the hard X-ray band (8- 80 keV). Its design eliminates high detector backgrounds, allows...... and production process. We also describe the progress of several components of our independent optics development program that are beginning to reach maturity and could possibly be incorporated into the NuSTAR production scheme. We then present environmental test results that are being conducted in preparation...... of full space qualification of the NuSTAR optics....

  7. Probing deeper by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risterucci, P.; Renault, O., E-mail: olivier.renault@cea.fr; Martinez, E.; Delaye, V. [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Detlefs, B. [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Zegenhagen, J. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Gaumer, C. [STMicroelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38926 Crolles (France); Grenet, G. [Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon (INL), UMR CNRS 5270, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, 36, avenue Guy de Collongue 69 134 Ecully Cedex (France); Tougaard, S. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2014-02-03

    We report an hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy method combining high excitation energy (15 keV) and improved modelling of the core-level energy loss features. It provides depth distribution of deeply buried layers with very high sensitivity. We show that a conventional approach relying on intensities of the core-level peaks is unreliable due to intense plasmon losses. We reliably determine the depth distribution of 1 ML La in a high-κ/metal gate stack capped with 50 nm a-Si. The method extends the sensitivity of photoelectron spectroscopy to depths beyond 50 nm.

  8. Young Stellar Objects from Soft to Hard X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güdel, Manuel

    2009-05-01

    Magnetically active stars are the sites of efficient particle acceleration and plasma heating, processes that have been studied in detail in the solar corona. Investigation of such processes in young stellar objects is much more challenging due to various absorption processes. There is, however, evidence for violent magnetic energy release in very young stellar objects. The impact on young stellar environments (e.g., circumstellar disk heating and ionization, operation of chemical networks, photoevaporation) may be substantial. Hard X-ray devices like those carried on Simbol-X will establish a basis for detailed studies of these processes.

  9. Design and Tests of the Hard X-ray Polarimeter X-Calibur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Beilicke

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available X-ray polarimetry promises to give qualitatively new information bout high-energy astrophysical sources, such as binary black hole  systems, micro-quasars, active galactic nuclei, and gamma-ray bursts. We designed, built and tested ahard X-ray polarimeter, X-Calibur, to be used in the focal plane of the InFOCuS grazing incidence hard X-ray telescope.X-Calibur combines a low-Z Compton scatterer with a CZT detector assembly to measure the polarization of 20−60 keV X-rays making use of the fact that polarized photons Compton scatter preferentially perpendicular to the electric field orientation; in principal, a similar space-borne experiment could be operated in the 5−100 keV regime. X-Calibur achieves a high detection efficiency of order unity.

  10. Imaging escape gated MPWC for hard X-ray astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; Boccaccini, L.; La Padula, C.; Mastropietro, M.; Patriarca, R.; Polcaro, V.F.; Barbareschi, L.; Perotti, F.; Villa, G.

    1983-11-15

    A scientific forward step in the hard X-ray and soft gamma-ray astronomy will only be possible with the use of a new generation of space borne instruments. Their main characteristics have to be the two-dimensional imaging capability over a large collecting area and the fine spectral resolution in order to discriminate between the weak signal coming from cosmic sources to be detected and the strong background induced by cosmic rays, in the space environment, on the detector. To reach this goal we have developed a new hard X-ray position sensitive proportional counter operating with the escape gate technique in the range 15-150 keV, to be used together with a pseudo-random coded mask in order to obtain sky images. The detector is a high pressure (5 bar) xenon-argon-isobutane filled chamber with a spatial resolution of 30x2 mm and a spectral resolution of 5% at 60 keV on the sensitive area of 3000 cm/sup 2/.

  11. Study of runaway electrons using dosimetry of hard x-ray radiations in Damavand tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasouli, C.; Pourshahab, B.; Rasouli, H. [Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini Pooya, S. M.; Orouji, T. [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this work several studies have been conducted on hard x-ray emissions of Damavand tokamak based on radiation dosimetry using the Thermoluminescence method. The goal was to understand interactions of runaway electrons with plasma particles, vessel wall, and plasma facing components. Total of 354 GR-200 (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) crystals have been placed on 118 points – three TLDs per point – to map hard x-ray radiation doses on the exterior of the vacuum vessel. Results show two distinctive levels of x-ray radiations doses on the exterior of the vessel. The low-dose area on which measured dose is about 0.5 mSv/shot. In the low-dose area there is no particular component inside the vessel. On the contrary, on high-dose area of the vessel, x-ray radiations dose exceeds 30 mSv/shot. The high-dose area coincides with the position of limiters, magnetic probe ducts, and vacuum vessel intersections. Among the high-dose areas, the highest level of dose is measured in the position of the limiter, which could be due to its direct contact with the plasma column and with runaway electrons. Direct collisions of runaway electrons with the vessel wall and plasma facing components make a major contribution for production of hard x-ray photons in Damavand tokamak.

  12. Polymer Compund Refractive Lenses for Hard X-ray Nanofocusing

    OpenAIRE

    Krywka, Christina; Last, Arndt; Marschall, Felix; Markus, Otto; Georgi, Sebastian; Mueller, Martin; Mohr, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Compound refractive lenses fabricated out of SU-8 negative photoresist have been used to generate a nanofocused, i.e. sub-μm sized X-ray focal spot at an X-ray nanodiffraction setup. X-ray microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques have conceptually different demands on nanofocusing optical elements and so with the application of X-ray nanodiffraction in mind, this paper presents the results of an initial characterization of polymer lenses used as primary focusin...

  13. X-ray beam splitting design for concurrent imaging at hard X-ray FELs and synchrotron facilities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oberta, Peter; Mokso, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 729, NOV (2013), s. 85-89 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/412 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : diffractive-refractive optics * hard X-ray FEL * X-ray imaging Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.316, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168900213009613

  14. Characterisation and application of a laser-based hard x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graetz, M.

    1998-11-01

    Hard X-rays are generated by focusing 110 fs laser pulses with intensities of about 1017 W/cm 2 onto solid metal targets. Characteristic properties of this X-ray source are the small source size, the short pulse duration and the high peak flux. The aim of the present work was to characterise this X-ray source and to demonstrate possible applications. A comparison with other X-ray sources and conventional imaging techniques is made. Characterising measurements were performed, including source size, emission spectrum, temporal behaviour, source stability and the influence of various laser parameters. The emission spectrum was measured using both energy-dispersive solid-state detectors and wavelength-dispersive crystal spectroscopy. The conversion efficiency from laser light to X-ray radiation was measured for different target materials. The laser ablation from different targets was studied. The feasibility of special imaging techniques, e.g. differential imaging and time-gated imaging, was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Differential imaging allows for selective imaging of contrast agents, while time-gated imaging can reduce the influence of scattered radiation in X-ray imaging. Time-gated imaging was demonstrated in different imaging geometries, both for planar imaging and computed tomography imaging. Reasonable agreement between theoretically calculated values and experimental results was obtained

  15. Characterisation and application of a laser-based hard x-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graetz, M

    1998-11-01

    Hard X-rays are generated by focusing 110 fs laser pulses with intensities of about 1017 W/cm{sup 2} onto solid metal targets. Characteristic properties of this X-ray source are the small source size, the short pulse duration and the high peak flux. The aim of the present work was to characterise this X-ray source and to demonstrate possible applications. A comparison with other X-ray sources and conventional imaging techniques is made. Characterising measurements were performed, including source size, emission spectrum, temporal behaviour, source stability and the influence of various laser parameters. The emission spectrum was measured using both energy-dispersive solid-state detectors and wavelength-dispersive crystal spectroscopy. The conversion efficiency from laser light to X-ray radiation was measured for different target materials. The laser ablation from different targets was studied. The feasibility of special imaging techniques, e.g. differential imaging and time-gated imaging, was investigated both theoretically and experimentally. Differential imaging allows for selective imaging of contrast agents, while time-gated imaging can reduce the influence of scattered radiation in X-ray imaging. Time-gated imaging was demonstrated in different imaging geometries, both for planar imaging and computed tomography imaging. Reasonable agreement between theoretically calculated values and experimental results was obtained 120 refs, figs, tabs

  16. Hard X-ray Spectrum of Mkn 421 during the Active Phase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging Solutions)

    Spectral measurement of Mkn 421 were made in the hard X-ray energy band of ... In the canonical models for blazars, the observed radiation in radio, UV and low ... defined by a slat collimator specially designed with a sandwiched material of.

  17. Hard X-ray-induced optical luminescence via biomolecule-directed metal clusters†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratx, Guillem; Sun, Conroy; Sakamoto, Masanori; Ahmad, Moiz; Volotskova, Olga; Ong, Qunxiang; Teranishi, Toshiharu; Harada, Yoshie

    2014-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that biomolecule-directed metal clusters are applicable in the study of hard X-ray excited optical luminescence, promising a new direction in the development of novel X-ray-activated imaging probes. PMID:24463467

  18. Time-dependent wave front propagation simulation of a hard x-ray split-and-delay unit: Towards a measurement of the temporal coherence properties of x-ray free electron lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Roling

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available For the European x-ray free electron laser (XFEL a split-and-delay unit based on geometrical wavefront beam splitting and multilayer mirrors is built which covers the range of photon energies from 5 keV up to 20 keV. Maximum delays between Δτ=±2.5  ps at hν=20  keV and up to Δτ=±23  ps at hν=5  keV will be possible. Time-dependent wave-optics simulations have been performed by means of Synchrotron Radiation Workshop software for XFEL pulses at hν=5  keV. The XFEL radiation was simulated using results of time-dependent simulations applying the self-amplified spontaneous emission code FAST. Main features of the optical layout, including diffraction on the beam splitter edge and optics imperfections measured with a nanometer optic component measuring machine slope measuring profiler, were taken into account. The impact of these effects on the characterization of the temporal properties of XFEL pulses is analyzed. An approach based on fast Fourier transformation allows for the evaluation of the temporal coherence despite large wavefront distortions caused by the optics imperfections. In this way, the fringes resulting from time-dependent two-beam interference can be filtered and evaluated yielding a coherence time of τ_{c}=0.187  fs (HWHM for real, nonperfect mirrors, while for ideal mirrors a coherence time of τ_{c}=0.191  fs (HWHM is expected.

  19. Stress measurement by x-ray diffractometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, C M

    1985-10-22

    This invention relates to x-ray diffractometry and more particularly to apparatus and methods for the measurement of residual stress in polycrystalline, e.g. metallic, specimens. The procedure is based on measurement of the lattice strain of crystals by x-ray diffraction, in which change in the interplanar spacing of a set of crystal lattice planes due to strain causes a change in the diffraction angle of the scattered x-ray beam, from which latter change the magnitude of the strain can be determined. In a polycrystalline specimen, from well know relations for elastic behaviour in isotropic materials, the stress on a plane normal to a given direction in the surface has a component in the given direction which can be calculated from measurement of lattice strain in two directions in a plane containing the given direction and the normal to the specimen surface. In general three such stress components in three directions in the surface are required to determine the principal stresses and thus express the state of stress in the surface. (author). 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  20. A cryogenic electrical substitution radiometer for hard X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlach, M.; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Mueller, P.; Ulm, G.

    2007-01-01

    Cryogenic electrical substitution radiometers (ESR) are well established in radiometry to determine radiant power with low uncertainties from the infrared to the soft X-ray region. The absorbers are made of copper to achieve a small time constant. At higher photon energies, the use of copper prevents the operation of ESR due to increasing transmittance. A new absorber design for hard X-rays has been developed at the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at BESSY II. In the first place, extensive simulations were performed for a variety of materials and absorber geometries using the Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4. The accuracy of the simulations was verified comparing them to scattering experiments performed at a 7 T wavelength shifter beamline at BESSY II. It was shown that Geant4 describes the photo-effect, including fluorescence as well as Compton- and Rayleigh scattering, with high accuracy. The simulations and experiments resulted in an absorber with a gold base 500 μm in thickness, inclined by 30 deg., and a cylindrical shell made of copper 80 μm in thickness to reduce losses caused mainly by fluorescence. The absorber was manufactured at PTB by means of electroforming and was implemented into an existing ESR. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity was used to calibrate silicon photodiodes against the ESR for photon energies up to 60 keV with relative uncertainties below 1%

  1. A cryogenic electrical substitution radiometer for hard X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, M. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: Martin.Gerlach@ptb.de; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Mueller, P.; Ulm, G. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2007-09-21

    Cryogenic electrical substitution radiometers (ESR) are well established in radiometry to determine radiant power with low uncertainties from the infrared to the soft X-ray region. The absorbers are made of copper to achieve a small time constant. At higher photon energies, the use of copper prevents the operation of ESR due to increasing transmittance. A new absorber design for hard X-rays has been developed at the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at BESSY II. In the first place, extensive simulations were performed for a variety of materials and absorber geometries using the Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4. The accuracy of the simulations was verified comparing them to scattering experiments performed at a 7 T wavelength shifter beamline at BESSY II. It was shown that Geant4 describes the photo-effect, including fluorescence as well as Compton- and Rayleigh scattering, with high accuracy. The simulations and experiments resulted in an absorber with a gold base 500 {mu}m in thickness, inclined by 30 deg., and a cylindrical shell made of copper 80 {mu}m in thickness to reduce losses caused mainly by fluorescence. The absorber was manufactured at PTB by means of electroforming and was implemented into an existing ESR. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity was used to calibrate silicon photodiodes against the ESR for photon energies up to 60 keV with relative uncertainties below 1%.

  2. A cryogenic electrical substitution radiometer for hard X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, M.; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Müller, P.; Ulm, G.

    2007-09-01

    Cryogenic electrical substitution radiometers (ESR) are well established in radiometry to determine radiant power with low uncertainties from the infrared to the soft X-ray region. The absorbers are made of copper to achieve a small time constant. At higher photon energies, the use of copper prevents the operation of ESR due to increasing transmittance. A new absorber design for hard X-rays has been developed at the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at BESSY II. In the first place, extensive simulations were performed for a variety of materials and absorber geometries using the Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4. The accuracy of the simulations was verified comparing them to scattering experiments performed at a 7 T wavelength shifter beamline at BESSY II. It was shown that Geant4 describes the photo-effect, including fluorescence as well as Compton- and Rayleigh scattering, with high accuracy. The simulations and experiments resulted in an absorber with a gold base 500 μm in thickness, inclined by 30°, and a cylindrical shell made of copper 80 μm in thickness to reduce losses caused mainly by fluorescence. The absorber was manufactured at PTB by means of electroforming and was implemented into an existing ESR. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity was used to calibrate silicon photodiodes against the ESR for photon energies up to 60 keV with relative uncertainties below 1%.

  3. Measuring Cavitation with Synchrotron X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Daniel; Kastengren, Alan; Powell, Chris; X-Ray Fuel Spray Group, Energy Systems Division Team

    2012-11-01

    Cavitation plays an important role in the formation of sprays from small nozzles such as those found in fuel injection systems. A sharp-edged inlet from the sac into the nozzle of a diesel fuel injector is shown to inititate a strong sheet-like cavitation along the boundary layer of the nozzle throat, which is difficult to measure and can lead to acoustic damage. To investigate this phenomenon, a diagnostic technique capable of mapping the density field of the nozzle through regions of intense cavitation is required. Available visible-light techniques are limited to qualitative observations of the outer extent of cavitation zones. However, brilliant X-rays from a synchrotron source have negligible refraction and are capable of penetrating the full extent of cavitation zones. We present the early results of a novel application of line-of-sight, time-resolved X-ray radiography on a cavitating model nozzle. Experiments were conducted at Sector 7-BM of the Advanced Photon Source. Density and vapor distribution are measured from the quantitative absorption of monochromatic X-rays. The density field can then be tomographically reconstructed from the projections. The density is then validated against a range of compressible and incompressible numerical simulations. This research was performed at the 7-BM beamline of the Advanced Photon Source. We acknowledge the support of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and the DOE Vehicle Technologies Program (DOE-EERE).

  4. A new hard X-ray transient discovered by INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibaud, L.; Bazzano, A.; Bozzo, E.

    2011-01-01

    INTEGRAL discovered a new hard X-ray transient, IGR J17498-2921, during the observations performed from 2011-08-11 22:45 to 2011-08-12 05:54 UTC. The source is detected in the IBIS/ISGRI mosaic at a preliminary significance level of 11 and 9 sigma in the 20-40 keV and 40-80 keV energy bands......, respectively. The corresponding fluxes are 19+/-2 and 23+/-3 mCrab (68% c.l., only statistical). The best determined source position is at RA=17:49:49; DEC=-29:21:14 (J2000) with a 90% confinement radius of 2.3 arcmin. The IBIS/ISGRI spectrum (exposure time 15.9 ks) can be well described by a a power...

  5. Long duration hard X-ray transatlantic payload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Padula, C.D.; Bazzano, A.; Boccaccini, L.; Mastropietro, M.; Patriarca, R.; Polcaro, V.F.; Ubertini, P.

    1981-01-01

    The HXR80M large-area hard X-ray experiment, to be flown aboard a transatlantic balloon, is described. The detectors are two multiwire spectroscopic proportional counters (MWSPC) with a 2700-sq-cm sensitive area each. The two detectors are filled with an extremely pure xenon-isobutane mixture at high pressure (3-6 atm) in order to obtain good spectral resolution and high efficiency. The onboard data handling is performed by microprocessor-controlled electronics. The scientific aim of the experiment is the survey of the sky belt around the 38th parallel and in particular the observation of faint galactic objects and galactic binary systems in the 15-200 keV range

  6. The Relationship Between Solar Radio and Hard X-Ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S. M.; Benz, A. O.; Christe, S.; Farnik, F.; Kundu, M. R.; Mann, G.; Ning, Z.; Raulin, J.-P.; Silva-Valio, A. V. R.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; hide

    2011-01-01

    This review discusses the complementary relationship between radio and hard Xray observations of the Sun using primarily results from the era of the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager satellite. A primary focus of joint radio and hard X-ray studies of solar flares uses observations of nonthermal gyrosynchrotron emission at radio wavelengths and bremsstrahlung hard X-rays to study the properties of electrons accelerated in the main flare site, since it is well established that these two emissions show very similar temporal behavior. A quantitative prescription is given for comparing the electron energy distributions derived separately from the two wavelength ranges: this is an important application with the potential for measuring the magnetic field strength in the flaring region, and reveals significant differences between the electrons in different energy ranges. Examples of the use of simultaneous data from the two wavelength ranges to derive physical conditions are then discussed, including the case of microflares, and the comparison of images at radio and hard X-ray wavelengths is presented. There have been puzzling results obtained from observations of solar flares at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths, and the comparison of these results with corresponding hard X-ray data is presented. Finally, the review discusses the association of hard X-ray releases with radio emission at decimeter and meter wavelengths, which is dominated by plasma emission (at lower frequencies) and electron cyclotron maser emission (at higher frequencies), both coherent emission mechanisms that require small numbers of energetic electrons. These comparisons show broad general associations but detailed correspondence remains more elusive.

  7. Observation of hard X-rays line emission from Her X-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polcaro, V.F.; Bazzano, A.; la Padula, C.; Ubertini, P.; Vialetto, G.; Manchanda, R.K.; Damle, S.V.

    1982-04-01

    We present the results of a hard X-ray measurement of the binary source Her X-1, carried out with a balloon borne X-ray telescope consisting of two Multiwire Proportional Counters, having 900 cm/sup 2/ sensitive area each and spectral resolution of 15% and 24% FWHM respectively at 60 keV. The source was observed during the 'Mid-on' state. Our data confirm the previously reported high energy emission line overimposed on the low energy thermal spectrum.

  8. Characteristics of hard X-ray double sources in impulsive solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakao, T.; Kosugi, T.; Masuda, S.; Yaji, K.; Inda-Koide, M.; Makishima, K.

    1996-01-01

    Imaging observations of solar flare hard X-ray sources with the Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT) aboard the Yohkoh satellite have revealed that hard X-ray emissions (greater than 30 ke V) originate most frequently from double sources. The double sources are located on both sides of the magnetic neutral line, suggesting that the bulk of hard X-rays is emitted from footpoints of flaring magnetic loops. We also found that hard X-rays from the double sources are emitted simultaneously within a fraction of second and that the weaker source tends to be located in the stronger magnetic field region, showing a softer spectrum. Physcial implications on the observed characteristics of the hard X-ray double sources are discussed.

  9. Hard X-ray bursts and DD microfusion neutrons from complex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    explosive destruction of micrograins is accompanied by X-ray radiation (during hydrody- ... makes it possible to produce lasing in hard X-rays due to the effects of multiple scattering ... portant, information on the X-ray random media, including some indirect diagnostics. In ... stages of ionization in the total flux of particles.

  10. A Fabry-Perot interferometer for hard X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caticha, A.; Caticha-Ellis, S.

    1990-01-01

    Reflection and transmission coefficients are calculated of a sequence of N thin parallel crystals diffracting close to normal incidence and separated by thin non-diffracting gaps. From the study of the particular case N=2 a new Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) is proposed for hard X-rays (wavelengths of the order of Angstroms). It is found that the FPI plates do not need to be carved from a single perfect crystal block but may be grown or cleaved by other methods. This interesting possibility is suggested by two facts. First, it is known that for incidence close to normal various features of dynamical diffraction are much less sensitive to crystal defects and crystal orientation. Second, the existence of a mismatch between the lattices of the two FPI plates may affect but does not qualitatively alter the performance of the FPI. It is shown that the optimal thickness of the plates is of the order of a few microns or less. The plates may be built from a wide variety of materials. The transmission of X-rays is studied as a function of the energy and direction of the incident photons for various values of the plate thickness, of the gap, of the lattice mismatch, and also for different materials in the gap. The transmission profile exhibits a peak which is spectrally very sharp (about 10 -3 eV for low order reflections and even less for higher ones) and which can be easily tuned by changing either the lattice mismatch or the temperature. FPI plates built of materials with low absorption such as graphite seem to be particularly convenient. Several possible applications are suggested. (author)

  11. Hard state neutron star and black hole X-ray binaries in the radio:X-ray luminosity plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Elena; Degenaar, Nathalie; van den Eijnden, Jakob

    2018-05-01

    Motivated by the large body of literature around the phenomenological properties of accreting black hole (BH) and neutron star (NS) X-ray binaries in the radio:X-ray luminosity plane, we carry out a comparative regression analysis on 36 BHs and 41 NSs in hard X-ray states, with data over 7 dex in X-ray luminosity for both. The BHs follow a radio to X-ray (logarithmic) luminosity relation with slope β = 0.59 ± 0.02, consistent with the NSs' slope (β =0.44^{+0.05}_{-0.04}) within 2.5σ. The best-fitting intercept for the BHs significantly exceeds that for the NSs, cementing BHs as more radio loud, by a factor ˜22. This discrepancy can not be fully accounted for by the mass or bolometric correction gap, nor by the NS boundary layer contribution to the X-rays, and is likely to reflect physical differences in the accretion flow efficiency, or the jet powering mechanism. Once importance sampling is implemented to account for the different luminosity distributions, the slopes of the non-pulsating and pulsating NS subsamples are formally inconsistent (>3σ), unless the transitional millisecond pulsars (whose incoherent radio emission mechanism is not firmly established) are excluded from the analysis. We confirm the lack of a robust partitioning of the BH data set into separate luminosity tracks.

  12. Communication: The electronic structure of matter probed with a single femtosecond hard x-ray pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szlachetko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical, biological, and chemical transformations are initiated by changes in the electronic configuration of the species involved. These electronic changes occur on the timescales of attoseconds (10−18 s to femtoseconds (10−15 s and drive all subsequent electronic reorganization as the system moves to a new equilibrium or quasi-equilibrium state. The ability to detect the dynamics of these electronic changes is crucial for understanding the potential energy surfaces upon which chemical and biological reactions take place. Here, we report on the determination of the electronic structure of matter using a single self-seeded femtosecond x-ray pulse from the Linac Coherent Light Source hard x-ray free electron laser. By measuring the high energy resolution off-resonant spectrum (HEROS, we were able to obtain information about the electronic density of states with a single femtosecond x-ray pulse. We show that the unoccupied electronic states of the scattering atom may be determined on a shot-to-shot basis and that the measured spectral shape is independent of the large intensity fluctuations of the incoming x-ray beam. Moreover, we demonstrate the chemical sensitivity and single-shot capability and limitations of HEROS, which enables the technique to track the electronic structural dynamics in matter on femtosecond time scales, making it an ideal probe technique for time-resolved X-ray experiments.

  13. X-Ray Absorption with Transmission X-Ray Microscopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, F.M.F.

    2016-01-01

    In this section we focus on the use of transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) to measure the XAS spectra. In the last decade a range of soft X-ray and hard X-ray TXM microscopes have been developed, allowing the measurement of XAS spectra with 10–100 nm resolution. In the hard X-ray range the TXM

  14. Hard X-ray dosimetry of a plasma focus suitable for industrial radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblauch, P.; Raspa, V.; Di Lorenzo, F.; Clausse, A.; Moreno, C.

    2018-04-01

    Dosimetric measurements of the hard X-ray emission by a small-chamber 4.7 kJ Mather-type plasma focus device capable of producing neat radiographs of metallic objects, were carried out with a set of thermoluminescent detectors TLD 700 (LiF:Mg,Ti). Measurements of the hard X-ray dose dependence with the angular position relative to the electrodes axis, are presented. The source-detector distance was changed in the range from 50 to 100 cm, and the angular positions were explored between ± 70°, relative to the symmetry axis of the electrodes. On-axis measurements show that the X-ray intensity is uniform within a half aperture angle of 6°, in which the source delivers an average dose of (1.5 ± 0.1) mGy/sr per shot. Monte Carlo calculations suggest that the energy of the electron beam responsible for the X-ray emission ranges 100-600 keV.

  15. Sub-micron Hard X-ray Fluorescence Imaging of Synthetic Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P.; Aryal, Baikuntha P.; Gorman-Lewis, Drew; Paunesku, Tatjana; Lai, Barry; Vogt, Stefan; Woloschak, Gayle E.

    2013-01-01

    Synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy (SXFM) using hard X-rays focused into sub-micron spots is a powerful technique for elemental quantification and mapping, as well as microspectroscopic measurement such as μ-XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure). We have used SXFM to image and simultaneously quantify the transuranic element plutonium at the L3 or L2 edge as well as lighter biologically essential elements in individual rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells after exposure to the long-lived plutonium isotope 242Pu. Elemental maps reveal that plutonium localizes principally in the cytoplasm of the cells and avoids the cell nucleus, which is marked by the highest concentrations of phosphorus and zinc, under the conditions of our experiments. The minimum detection limit under typical acquisition conditions for an average 202 μm2 cell is 1.4 fg Pu/cell or 2.9 × 10−20 moles Pu/μm2, which is similar to the detection limit of K-edge SXFM of transition metals at 10 keV. Copper electron microscopy grids were used to avoid interference from gold X-ray emissions, but traces of strontium present in naturally occurring calcium can still interfere with plutonium detection using its Lα X-ray emission. PMID:22444530

  16. Measuring device for soft X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dissing, E.

    1978-09-01

    An instrument for the measurement of the absorbed energy per unit area of diagnostic X-rays in soft human tissue was developed. The instrument is intended for dosimetry applications in the field of dental and small skeleton radiography and for mammography. The detector assembly consists of a Polyvinyltoluene scintillator 2.54 diametre x 5.08 cm CsSb semitransparent head-on vacuum phototube. Polyvinyltoluene being a pure hydrocarbon may be considered a good representative material of human soft tissue concerning the absorption of X-rays. In the photon energy range of interest, 5 - 40 keV, the mass energy absorption coefficient for muscle tissue and for PVT differ about a factor 2 due to the considerable content of Oxygen in muscle tissue. This is to some extend reflected in the photon energy response characteristic for the instrument. For human adipose, the characteristic is practically flat from 5- 40 keV. The instrument is integrating the absorbed power per unit area and the digital display shows Joules/m 2 . The range for the instrument is from 000.1 μJ/m 2 to 19.99 J/m 2 (absorbed energy in 5 cm tissue). (author)

  17. Possibilities and Challenges of Scanning Hard X-ray Spectro-microscopy Techniques in Material Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Somogyi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Scanning hard X-ray spectro-microscopic imaging opens unprecedented possibilities in the study of inhomogeneous samples at different length-scales. It gives insight into the spatial variation of the major and minor components, impurities and dopants of the sample, and their chemical and electronic states at micro- and nano-meter scales. Measuring, modelling and understanding novel properties of laterally confined structures are now attainable. The large penetration depth of hard X-rays (several keV to several 10 keV beam energy makes the study of layered and buried structures possible also in in situ and in operando conditions. The combination of different X-ray analytical techniques complementary to scanning spectro-microscopy, such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray excited optical luminescence, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS and nano-SIMS, provides access to optical characteristics and strain and stress distributions. Complex sample environments (temperature, pressure, controlled atmosphere/vacuum, chemical environment are also possible and were demonstrated, and allow as well the combination with other analysis techniques (Raman spectroscopy, infrared imaging, mechanical tensile devices, etc. on precisely the very same area of the sample. The use of the coherence properties of X-rays from synchrotron sources is triggering emerging experimental imaging approaches with nanometer lateral resolution. New fast analytical possibilities pave the way towards statistically significant studies at multi- length-scales and three dimensional tomographic investigations. This paper gives an overview of these techniques and their recent achievements in the field of material sciences.

  18. X-ray Measurements of Black Hole X-ray Binary Source GRS 1915+ ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    March 30th, 1997 during a quiescent phase of the source. .... The field of view ... tagged with a 25µsec resolution and transmitted to ground on a 40 Kbit PCM/FM ... only composite model fits for the soft and hard X ray band are used and the ...

  19. HOST GALAXY PROPERTIES OF THE SWIFT BAT ULTRA HARD X-RAY SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koss, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Winter, Lisa M.; Baumgartner, Wayne; Tueller, Jack; Gehrels, Neil; Valencic, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    We have assembled the largest sample of ultra hard X-ray selected (14-195 keV) active galactic nucleus (AGN) with host galaxy optical data to date, with 185 nearby (z * >10.5) have a 5-10 times higher rate of spiral morphologies than in SDSS AGNs or inactive galaxies. We also see enhanced far-infrared emission in BAT AGN suggestive of higher levels of star formation compared to the comparison samples. BAT AGNs are preferentially found in the most massive host galaxies with high concentration indexes indicative of large bulge-to-disk ratios and large supermassive black holes. The narrow-line (NL) BAT AGNs have similar intrinsic luminosities as the SDSS NL Seyferts based on measurements of [O III] λ5007. There is also a correlation between the stellar mass and X-ray emission. The BAT AGNs in mergers have bluer colors and greater ultra hard X-ray emission compared to the BAT sample as a whole. In agreement with the unified model of AGNs, and the relatively unbiased nature of the BAT sources, the host galaxy colors and morphologies are independent of measures of obscuration such as X-ray column density or Seyfert type. The high fraction of massive spiral galaxies and galaxy mergers in BAT AGNs suggest that host galaxy morphology is related to the activation and fueling of local AGN.

  20. Weak hard X-ray emission from broad absorption line quasars: evidence for intrinsic X-ray weakness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Scott, A. E.; Alexander, D. M.; Gandhi, P.; Stern, D.; Teng, S. H.; Arévalo, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Farrah, D.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Koss, M.; Ogle, P.; Puccetti, S.; Saez, C.

    2014-01-01

    We report NuSTAR observations of a sample of six X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. These targets, at z = 0.148-1.223, are among the optically brightest and most luminous BAL quasars known at z < 1.3. However, their rest-frame ≈2 keV luminosities are 14 to >330 times weaker than expected for typical quasars. Our results from a pilot NuSTAR study of two low-redshift BAL quasars, a Chandra stacking analysis of a sample of high-redshift BAL quasars, and a NuSTAR spectral analysis of the local BAL quasar Mrk 231 have already suggested the existence of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars, i.e., quasars not emitting X-rays at the level expected from their optical/UV emission. The aim of the current program is to extend the search for such extraordinary objects. Three of the six new targets are weakly detected by NuSTAR with ≲ 45 counts in the 3-24 keV band, and the other three are not detected. The hard X-ray (8-24 keV) weakness observed by NuSTAR requires Compton-thick absorption if these objects have nominal underlying X-ray emission. However, a soft stacked effective photon index (Γ eff ≈ 1.8) for this sample disfavors Compton-thick absorption in general. The uniform hard X-ray weakness observed by NuSTAR for this and the pilot samples selected with <10 keV weakness also suggests that the X-ray weakness is intrinsic in at least some of the targets. We conclude that the NuSTAR observations have likely discovered a significant population (≳ 33%) of intrinsically X-ray weak objects among the BAL quasars with significantly weak <10 keV emission. We suggest that intrinsically X-ray weak quasars might be preferentially observed as BAL quasars.

  1. Exploring the Hard and Soft X-ray Emission of Magnetic Cataclysmic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Martino, D.; Anzolin, G.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J.-M.; Falanga, M.; Matt, G.; Mouchet, M.; Mukai, K.; Masetti, N.

    2009-05-01

    A non-negligible fraction of galactic hard (>20 keV) X-ray sources were identified as CVs of the magnetic Intermediate Polar type in INTEGRAL, SWIFT and RXTE surveys, that suggests a still hidden but potentially important population of faint hard X-ray sources. Simbol-X has the unique potential to simultaneously characterize their variable and complex soft and hard X-ray emission thus allowing to understand their putative role in galactic populations of X-ray sources.

  2. Hard-x-ray phase-difference microscopy with a low-brilliance laboratory x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwabara, Hiroaki; Yashiro, Wataru; Harasse, Sebastien; Momose, Atsushi; Mizutani, Haruo

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a hard-X-ray phase-imaging microscopy method using a low-brilliance X-ray source. The microscope consists of a sample, a Fresnel zone plate, a transmission grating, and a source grating creating an array of mutually incoherent X-ray sources. The microscope generates an image exhibiting twin features of the sample with opposite signs separated by a distance, which is processed to generate a phase image. The method is quantitative even for non-weak-phase objects that are difficult to be quantitatively examined by the widely used Zernike phase-contrast microscopy, and it has potentially broad applications in the material and biological science fields. (author)

  3. Multilayer on-chip stacked Fresnel zone plates: Hard x-ray fabrication and soft x-ray simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Kenan; Wojcik, Michael J.; Ocola, Leonidas E.; Divan, Ralu; Jacobsen, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Fresnel zone plates are widely used as x-ray nanofocusing optics. To achieve high spatial resolution combined with good focusing efficiency, high aspect ratio nanolithography is required, and one way to achieve that is through multiple e-beam lithography writing steps to achieve on-chip stacking. A two-step writing process producing 50 nm finest zone width at a zone thickness of 1.14 µm for possible hard x-ray applications is shown here. The authors also consider in simulations the case of soft x-ray focusing where the zone thickness might exceed the depth of focus. In this case, the authors compare on-chip stacking with, and without, adjustment of zone positions and show that the offset zones lead to improved focusing efficiency. The simulations were carried out using a multislice propagation method employing Hankel transforms.

  4. Hard X-ray observation of cygnus X-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendziorra, E.; Staubert, R.; Reppin, C.; Pietsch, W.; Truemper, J.; Voges, W.

    1979-05-01

    During a balloon observation on October 18, 1977 the high energy X-ray spectrum (20 - 90 keV) of Cyg X-3 has been measured with high statistical accuracy. It is found to be consistent with a thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum with kT = 17.5 +3.1/-2.6 keV or a power law Esup(γ) of the differential photon flux spectrum with γ=3.6 +-0.3. The extrapolation of the observed spectrum to approximately 100 MeV yields a gamma ray intensity which is at least three orders of magnitude below the intensity found by SAS-2 (Lamb et al. 1977). This indicates that the overall spectral behaviour of Cygnus X-3 is much different from that of the Crab- and Vela-pulsar. (orig.) [de

  5. Indirect measurements of X-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainardi, R.T.

    2006-01-01

    To the effects of measuring the spectral distribution of the radiation emitted by the x-ray tubes and electron accelerators, numerous procedures that are grouped in two big categories exist at the present time: direct and indirect methods. The first ones use high resolution detectors that should be positioned, together with the appropriate collimator, in the direction of the x ray beam. The user should be an expert in the use and correction of the obtained data by the different effects that affect the detector operation such as efficiency and resolution in terms of the energy of the detected radiation. The indirect procedures, although its are more simple to use, its also require a considerable space along the beam to position the ionization chamber and the necessary absorbents to construct by this way the denominated attenuation curve. We will analyze the operation principle of the indirect methods and a new proposal in which such important novelties are introduced as the beam dispersion to avoid to measure along the main beam and that of determination of the attenuation curve in simultaneous form. By this way, with a single shot of the tube, the attenuation curve is measured, being necessary at most a shot of additional calibration to know the relative response of the detectors used in the experimental array. The physical processes involved in the obtaining of an attenuation curve are very well well-known and this it finishes it can be theoretically calculated if the analytic form of the spectrum is supposed well-known. Finally, we will see a spectra reconstruction example with the Kramers parametric form and comparisons with numeric simulations carried out with broadly validated programs as well as the possibility of the use of solid state dosemeters in the obtention of the attenuation curve. (Author)

  6. Focusing of hard x-rays to 16 nanometers with a multilayer Laue lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hyon Chol; Yan Hanfei; Winarski, Robert P.; Holt, Martin V.; Maser, Joerg; Liu Chian; Conley, Ray; Vogt, Stefan; Macrander, Albert T.; Stephenson, G. Brian

    2008-01-01

    We report improved results for hard x-ray focusing using a multilayer Laue lens (MLL). We have measured a line focus of 16 nm width with an efficiency of 31% at a wavelength λ=0.064 nm (19.5 keV) using a partial MLL structure with an outermost zone width of 5 nm. The results are in good agreement with the theoretically predicted performance

  7. Bragg concentrators for hard (> 10 keV) X-ray astronomy: Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareschi, G.; Pasqualini, G. [Ferrara, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Frontera, F. [CNR, Bologna (Italy). Istituto di TESRE]|[Ferrara, Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica

    1997-09-01

    The use of focusing telescopes in hard X-ray (E > 10 keV) astronomy will provide better flux sensitivity and imaging performances with respect to the direct-viewing detectors, utilized until now. They present recent results obtained from their group regarding the possible use of Bragg-diffraction technique to design hard X-ray focusing telescopes.

  8. Bragg concentrators for hard (> 10 keV) X-ray astronomy: Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareschi, G.; Pasqualini, G.; Frontera, F.; Ferrara, Univ.

    1997-01-01

    The use of focusing telescopes in hard X-ray (E > 10 keV) astronomy will provide better flux sensitivity and imaging performances with respect to the direct-viewing detectors, utilized until now. They present recent results obtained from their group regarding the possible use of Bragg-diffraction technique to design hard X-ray focusing telescopes

  9. Annealing induced atomic rearrangements on (Ga,In) (N,As) probed by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Fumitaro; Higashi, Kotaro; Fuyuno, Satoshi; Morifuji, Masato; Kondow, Masahiko; Trampert, Achim

    2018-04-13

    We study the effects of annealing on (Ga 0.64 ,In 0.36 ) (N 0.045 ,As 0.955 ) using hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure measurements. We observed surface oxidation and termination of the N-As bond defects caused by the annealing process. Specifically, we observed a characteristic chemical shift towards lower binding energies in the photoelectron spectra related to In. This phenomenon appears to be caused by the atomic arrangement, which produces increased In-N bond configurations within the matrix, as indicated by the X-ray absorption fine structure measurements. The reduction in the binding energies of group-III In, which occurs concomitantly with the atomic rearrangements of the matrix, causes the differences in the electronic properties of the system before and after annealing.

  10. Design parameters of transmission curved crystal spectrometer for hard X-ray diagnoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Feng; Cao Leifeng; Zhou Weimin; Zhao Zongqing; Gu Yuqiu; Yan Yonghong; Wei Lai; Xiao Shali

    2013-01-01

    The high resolving measurement of hard X-ray spectra generated in laser-produced plasma is usually performed using a cylindrically curved crystal spectrometer. In this paper, theoretical analysis and numerical simulation are performed to investigate the dependence of the energy range and resolving power on various design parameters, including crystal bending radius, source to crystal standoff distance, source size, location of the detector, etc. The investigation provides a means to design and develop cylindrically transmission curved crystal spectrometer which is used in hard X-ray diagnostics. The results show that crystal bending radius has a great influence on energy range of spectra and resolving power, and the separation between the spectral lines increases with the distance behind the focal circle faster than the line width, resulting in increased resolving power with distance. (authors)

  11. Polarization and spectral features of the hard x-ray continuum from non-thermal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, M.; Platz, P.

    1989-12-01

    Starting from the cross-sections for the free-free radiation obtained within the relativistic Born-Elwert theory, we calculate the spectral and polarization properties of the hard X-ray continuum (hν > 50 KeV) for plasmas containing fast electrons with an anisotropic velocity distribution. The physical and geometrical quantities of our model are oriented towards the future lower-hybrid current drive (LHCD) experiments on Tore-Supra. Our parameter space covers parallel and perpendicular temperatures, the nuclear charge of the ions (mainly Z = 14 and 28), the cut-off energy of the electrons, the radial current profile and the viewing angle. Extensive calculations open on the optimum conditions for polarization measurements and also give guide-lines for the quantitative interpretation of data under real plasma conditions. A second part of this report will treat with the operational principles and expected performances of hard X-ray polarimeters

  12. NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Survey of the Galactic Center Region. II. X-Ray Point Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, JaeSub; Mori, Kaya; Hailey, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    persistent luminous X-ray binaries (XBs) and the likely run-away pulsar called the Cannonball. New source-detection significance maps reveal a cluster of hard (>10 keV) X-ray sources near the Sgr. A diffuse complex with no clear soft X-ray counterparts. The severe extinction observed in the Chandra spectra...

  13. X-ray scattering measurements from thin-foil x-ray mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; BYRNAK, BP; Hornstrup, Allan

    1992-01-01

    Thin foil X-ray mirrors are to be used as the reflecting elements in the telescopes of the X-ray satellites Spectrum-X-Gamma (SRG) and ASTRO-D. High resolution X-ray scattering measurements from the Au coated and dip-lacquered Al foils are presented. These were obtained from SRG mirrors positioned...... in a test quadrant of the telescope structure and from ASTRO-D foils held in a simple fixture. The X-ray data is compared with laser data and other surface structure data such as STM, atomic force microscopy (AFM), TEM, and electron micrography. The data obtained at Cu K-alpha(1), (8.05 keV) from all...

  14. Detectability of rotation-powered pulsars in future hard X-ray surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei

    2009-01-01

    Recent INTEGRAL/IBIS hard X-ray surveys have detected about 10 young pulsars. We show hard X-ray properties of these 10 young pulsars, which have a luminosity of 10 33 -10 37 erg s -1 and a photon index of 1.6-2.1 in the energy range of 20-100 keV. The correlation between X-ray luminosity and spin-down power of L X ∝ L sd 1.31 suggests that the hard X-ray emission in rotation-powered pulsars is dominated by the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) component. Assuming spectral properties are similar in 20-100 keV and 2-10 keV for both the pulsar and PWN components, the hard X-ray luminosity and flux of 39 known young X-ray pulsars and 8 millisecond pulsars are obtained, and a correlation of L X ∝ L sd 1.5 is derived. About 20 known young X-ray pulsars and 1 millisecond pulsars could be detected with future INTEGRAL and HXMT surveys. We also carry out Monte Carlo simulations of hard X-ray pulsars in the Galaxy and the Gould Belt, assuming values for the pulsar birth rate, initial position, proper motion velocity, period, and magnetic field distribution and evolution based on observational statistics and the L X - L sd relations: L X ∝ L sd 1.31 and L X ∝ L sd 1.5 . More than 40 young pulsars (mostly in the Galactic plane) could be detected after ten years of INTEGRAL surveys and the launch of HXMT. So, the young pulsars would be a significant part of the hard X-ray source population in the sky, and will contribute to unidentified hard X-ray sources in present and future hard X-ray surveys by INTEGRAL and HXMT.

  15. Hard x-ray phase contrastmicroscopy - techniques and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzner, Christian

    In 1918, Einstein provided the first description of the nature of the refractive index for X-rays, showing that phase contrast effects are significant. A century later, most x-ray microscopy and nearly all medical imaging remains based on absorption contrast, even though phase contrast offers orders of magnitude improvements in contrast and reduced radiation exposure at multi-keV x-ray energies. The work presented is concerned with developing practical and quantitative methods of phase contrast for x-ray microscopy. A theoretical framework for imaging in phase contrast is put forward; this is used to obtain quantitative images in a scanning microscope using a segmented detector, and to correct for artifacts in a commercial phase contrast x-ray nano-tomography system. The principle of reciprocity between scanning and full-field microscopes is then used to arrive at a novel solution: Zernike contrast in a scanning microscope. These approaches are compared on a theoretical and experimental basis in direct connection with applications using multi-keV x-ray microscopes at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. Phase contrast provides the best means to image mass and ultrastructure of light elements that mainly constitute biological matter, while stimulated x-ray fluorescence provides high sensitivity for studies of the distribution of heavier trace elements, such as metals. These approaches are combined in a complementary way to yield quantitative maps of elemental concentration from 2D images, with elements placed in their ultrastructural context. The combination of x-ray fluorescence and phase contrast poses an ideal match for routine, high resolution tomographic imaging of biological samples in the future. The presented techniques and demonstration experiments will help pave the way for this development.

  16. Hard X-ray quantum optics in thin films nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, Johann Friedrich Albert

    2017-05-01

    This thesis describes quantum optical experiments with X-rays with the aim of reaching the strong-coupling regime of light and matter. We make use of the interaction which arises between resonant matter and X-rays in specially designed thin-film nanostructures which form X-ray cavities. Here, the resonant matter are Tantalum atoms and the Iron isotope "5"7Fe. Both limit the number of modes available to the resonant atoms for interaction, and enhances the interaction strength. Thus we have managed to observe a number of phenomena well-known in quantum optics, which are the building blocks for sophisticated applications in e.g. metrology. Among these are the strong coupling of light and matter and the concurrent exchange of virtual photons, often called Rabi oscillations. Furthermore we have designed and tested a type of cavity hitherto unused in X-ray optics. Finally, we develop a new method for synchrotron Moessbauer spectroscopy, which not only promises to yield high-resolution spectra, but also enables the retrieval of the phase of the scattered light. The results open new avenues for quantum optical experiments with X-rays, particularly with regards to the ongoing development of high-brilliance X-ray free-electron lasers.

  17. Hard X-ray quantum optics in thin films nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, Johann Friedrich Albert

    2017-05-15

    This thesis describes quantum optical experiments with X-rays with the aim of reaching the strong-coupling regime of light and matter. We make use of the interaction which arises between resonant matter and X-rays in specially designed thin-film nanostructures which form X-ray cavities. Here, the resonant matter are Tantalum atoms and the Iron isotope {sup 57}Fe. Both limit the number of modes available to the resonant atoms for interaction, and enhances the interaction strength. Thus we have managed to observe a number of phenomena well-known in quantum optics, which are the building blocks for sophisticated applications in e.g. metrology. Among these are the strong coupling of light and matter and the concurrent exchange of virtual photons, often called Rabi oscillations. Furthermore we have designed and tested a type of cavity hitherto unused in X-ray optics. Finally, we develop a new method for synchrotron Moessbauer spectroscopy, which not only promises to yield high-resolution spectra, but also enables the retrieval of the phase of the scattered light. The results open new avenues for quantum optical experiments with X-rays, particularly with regards to the ongoing development of high-brilliance X-ray free-electron lasers.

  18. X-ray measurements on wood - spectra measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Signe Kamp; Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Gerward, Leif

    The report concerns simultaneous non-destructive measurements of water content and density of wood. Theoretically, this should be possible using a x-ray equipment newly build at BKM, and this work is an attempt to use the equipment for assessing water content and density of wood samples under...... laboratory conditions. A number of wood samples with different densities are placed at different relative humidities from 0.5 to 97 %RH. When equilibrium is obtained the samples are measured with the x-ray equipment such that 10 points are measured in the sample followed by measurements outside the sample...... (free-scanning). In this way 100 points are measured for each wood sample. This produces information about moisture content and density of the samples as water and wood attenuations of the x-rays are different for the different energy levels contained in the x-rays. The "real" density and moisture...

  19. Photoemission measurements for low energy x-ray detector applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Photoemission has been studied for nearly 100 years as both a means of investigating quantum physics, and as a practical technique for transducing optical/x-ray photons into electrical currents. Numerous x-ray detection schemes, such as streak cameras and x-ray sensitive diodes, exploit this process because of its simplicity, adaptability, and speed. Recent emphasis on diagnostics for low temperature, high density, and short-lived, plasmas for inertial confinement fusion has stimulated interest in x-ray photoemission in the sub-kilovolt regime. In this paper, a review of x-ray photoemission measurements in the 50 eV to 10 keV x-ray region is given and the experimental techniques are reviewed. A semiempirical model of x-ray photoemission is discussed and compared to experimental measurements. Finally, examples of absolutely calibrated instruments are shown

  20. Hard X-ray Vela supernova observation on rocket experiment WRX-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehlikova, V.; Urban, M.; Nentvich, O.; Daniel, V.; Sieger, L.; Tutt, J.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a hard X-ray telescope for the Vela nebula observation during a sounding rocket flight. The Water Recovery X-ray Rocket (WRX-R) experiment is organised by the Pennsylvania State University (PSU), USA with a primary payload of a soft X-ray spectroscope. The Czech team developed a hard X-ray Lobster-eye telescope as a secondary payload. The Czech experiment’s astrophysical object of study is the Vela pulsar in the centre of the Vela nebula.

  1. Hard X-ray Optics Technology Development for Astronomy at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Ramsey, Brian; Kilaru, Kiranmayee

    2009-01-01

    Grazing-incidence telescopes based on Wolter 1 geometry have delivered impressive advances in astrophysics at soft-x-ray wavelengths, while the hard xray region remains relatively unexplored at fine angular resolution and high sensitivities. The ability to perform ground-breaking science in the hard-x-ray energy range had been the motivation for technology developments aimed at fabricating low-cost, light-weight, high-quality x-ray mirrors. Grazing-incidence x-ray optics for high-energy astrophysical applications is being developed at MSFC using the electroform-nickel replication process.

  2. Recurrent pulse trains in the solar hard X-ray flare of 1980 June 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiplinger, A.L.; Dennis, B.R.; Frost, K.J.; Orwig, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    This study presents a detailed examination of the solar hard X-ray and γ-ray flare of 1980 June 7 as seen by the Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer on SMM. The hard X-ray profile is most unusual in that it is characterized by an initial pulse train of seven intense hard X-ray spikes. However, the event is unique among the 6300 events observed by HXRBS in that the temporal signature of this pulse train recurs twice during the flare. Such signatures of temporal stability in impulsive solar flares have not been observed before. Examinations of the hard X-ray data in conjunction with radio and γ-ray observations show that the 28--480 keV X-ray emission is simultaneous with the 17 GHz microwave fluxes within 128 ms and that the 3.5--6.5 MeV prompt γ-ray line emission is coincident with secondary maxima of the microwave and X-ray fluxes. Studies of the temporal and spectral properties of the pulses indicate that the pulses are not produced by purely reversible processes, and that if the source is oscillatory, it is not a high quality oscillator. Although the absence of spatially resolved hard X-ray observations leaves other possibilities open, a parameterization of the event as a set of seven sequentially firing loops is presented that offers many satisfying explanations of the observations

  3. SENSITIVITY OF STACKED IMAGING DETECTORS TO HARD X-RAY POLARIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muleri, Fabio; Campana, Riccardo, E-mail: fabio.muleri@iaps.inaf.it [INAF-IAPS, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy)

    2012-06-01

    The development of multi-layer optics which allow to focus photons up to 100 keV and more promises an enormous jump in sensitivity in the hard X-ray energy band. This technology is already planned to be exploited by future missions dedicated to spectroscopy and imaging at energies >10 keV, e.g., Astro-H and NuSTAR. Nevertheless, our understanding of the hard X-ray sky would greatly benefit from carrying out contemporaneous polarimetric measurements, because the study of hard spectral tails and of polarized emission are often two complementary diagnostics of the same non-thermal and acceleration processes. At energies above a few tens of keV, the preferred technique to detect polarization involves the determination of photon directions after a Compton scattering. Many authors have asserted that stacked detectors with imaging capabilities can be exploited for this purpose. If it is possible to discriminate those events which initially interact in the first detector by Compton scattering and are subsequently absorbed by the second layer, then the direction of scattering is singled out from the hit pixels in the two detectors. In this paper, we give the first detailed discussion of the sensitivity of such a generic design to the X-ray polarization. The efficiency and the modulation factor are calculated analytically from the geometry of the instruments and then compared with the performance as derived by means of Geant4 Monte Carlo simulations.

  4. X-ray characterization of curved crystals for hard x-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffagni, Elisa; Bonnini, Elisa; Ferrari, Claudio; Virgilli, Enrico; Frontera, Filippo

    2015-05-01

    Among the methods to focus photons the diffraction in crystals results as one of the most effective for high energy photons. An assembling of properly oriented crystals can form a lens able to focus x-rays at high energy via Laue diffraction in transmission geometry; this is a Laue lens. The x-ray diffraction theory provides that the maximum diffraction efficiency is achieved in ideal mosaic crystals, but real mosaic crystals show diffraction efficiencies several times lower than the ideal case due to technological problems. An alternative and convenient approach is the use of curved crystals. We have recently optimized an efficient method based on the surface damage of crystals to produce self-standing uniformly curved Si, GaAs and Ge tiles of thickness up to 2-3 mm and curvature radii R down to a few meters. We show that, for curved diffracting planes, such crystals have a diffraction efficiency nearly forty times higher than the diffraction efficiency of perfect similar flat crystals, thus very close to that of ideal mosaic crystals. Moreover, in an alternative configuration where the diffracting planes are perpendicular to the curved ones, a focusing effect occurs and will be shown. These results were obtained for several energies between 17 and 120 keV with lab sources or at high energy facilities such as LARIX at Ferrara (Italy), ESRF at Grenoble (France), and ANKA at Karlsruhe (Germany).

  5. Solar flare hard and soft x ray relationship determined from SMM HXRBS and BCS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toot, G. David

    1989-01-01

    The exact nature of the solar flare process is still somewhat a mystery. A key element to understanding flares if the relationship between the hard x rays emitted by the most energetic portions of the flare and the soft x rays from other areas and times. This relationship was studied by comparing hard x ray light curved from the Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer (HXRBS) with the soft x ray light curve and its derivation from the Bent Crystal Spectrometer (BCS) which is part of the X-Ray Polychrometer (XRP), these instruments being on the Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft (SMM). Data sample was taken from flares observed with the above instruments during 1980, the peak of the previous maximum of solar activity. Flares were chosen based on complete coverage of the event by several instruments. The HXRBS data covers the x ray spectrum from about 25 keV to about 440 keV in 15 spectral channels, while the BCS data used covers a region of the Spectrum around 3 angstroms including emission from the Ca XIX ion. Both sets of data were summed over their spectral ranges and plotted against time at a maximum time resolution of around 3 seconds. The most popular theory of flares holds that a beam of electrons produces the hard x rays by bremsstrahlung while the soft x rays are the thermal response to this energy deposition. The question is whether the rate of change of soft x ray emission might reflect the variability of the electron beam and hence the variability of the hard x rays. To address this, we took the time derivative of the soft x ray light curve and compared it to the hard flares, 12 of them showed very closed agreement between the soft x ray derivative and the hard x ray light curve. The other five did not show this behavior but were similar to each other in general soft x ray behavior. Efforts to determine basic differences between the two kinds of flares continue. In addition the behavior of soft x ray temperature of flares was examined.

  6. Optimising hard X-ray generation from laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindheimer, C.

    1995-04-01

    The aim of this work is to increase the X-ray yield for a laser produced plasma by optimising the focusing conditions and temporal shape of the laser pulses. The focusing conditions are improved by introducing a control system that secures the laser target surface to exact focus within a range of a few micrometers, allowing continuously high laser intensity for plasma generation. The temporal shape of the laser pulses is changed by introducing a saturable absorber in the laser beam. The laser produces a substantial pre-pulse that heats and expands the target material prior to main pulse arrival. The saturable absorber can increase the main pulse/pre-pulse ratio of the laser pulse up to four orders of magnitude and consequently reduce expansion of the target material before the main pulse. The belief is that an increase in target density at the time of main pulse arrival will change the energy distribution of the X-rays, towards a more efficient X-ray production in the hard X-ray region. This report and the work connected to it, includes the preliminary measurements and results for these improvements. 17 refs

  7. Signatures of Synchrotron: Low-cutoff X-ray emission and the hard X-ray spectrum of Cas A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stage, Michael D.; Fedor, Emily Elizabeth; Martina-Hood, Hyourin

    2018-06-01

    In soft X-rays, bright, young Galactic remnants (Cas A, Kepler, Tycho, etc.) present thermal line emission and bremsstrahlung from ejecta, and synchrotron radiation from the shocks. Their hard X-ray spectra tend to be dominated by power-law sources. However, it can be non-trivial to discriminate between contributions from processes such as synchrotron and bremsstrahlung from nonthermally accelerated electrons, even though the energies of the electrons producing this radiation may be very different. Spatially-resolved spectroscopic analysis of 0.5-10 keV observations with, e.g., Chandracan provide leverage in identifying the processes and their locations. Previously, Stage & Allen (2006), Allen & Stage (2007) and Stage & Allen (2011) identified regions characterized by high-cutoff synchrotron radiation. Extrapolating synchrotron model fits to the emission in the Chandra band, they estimated the synchrotron contribution to the hard X-ray spectrum at about one-third the observed flux, fitting the balance with nonthermal bremsstrahlung emission produced by nonthermal electrons in the ejecta. Although it is unlikely this analysis missed regions of the highest-cutoff synchrotron emission, which supplies the bulk of the synchrotron above 15 keV, it may have missed regions of lower-cutoff emission, especially if they are near bright ejecta and the reverse shock. These regions cannot explain the emission at the highest energies (~50 keV), but may make significant contributions to the hard spectrum at lower energies (~10 keV). Using the technique described in Fedor, Martina-Hood & Stage (this meeting), we revisit the analysis to include regions that may be dominated by low-cutoff synchrotron, located in the interior of the remnant, and/or correlated with the reverse shock. Identifying X-ray emission from accelerated electrons associated with the reverse-shock would have important implications for synchrotron and non-thermal bremsstrahlung radiation above the 10 keV.

  8. NuSTAR HARD X-RAY SURVEY OF THE GALACTIC CENTER REGION. I. HARD X-RAY MORPHOLOGY AND SPECTROSCOPY OF THE DIFFUSE EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Kaya; Hailey, Charles J.; Perez, Kerstin; Nynka, Melania; Zhang, Shuo; Canipe, Alicia M. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Krivonos, Roman; Tomsick, John A.; Barrière, Nicolas; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hong, Jaesub [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ponti, Gabriele [Max-Planck-Institut f. extraterrestrische Physik, HEG, Garching (Germany); Bauer, Franz [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Alexander, David M. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Baganoff, Frederick K. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusets Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Barret, Didier [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space—National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Forster, Karl [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Giommi, Paolo, E-mail: kaya@astro.columbia.edu [ASI Science Data Center, Via del Politecnico snc I-00133, Roma (Italy); and others

    2015-12-01

    We present the first sub-arcminute images of the Galactic Center above 10 keV, obtained with NuSTAR. NuSTAR resolves the hard X-ray source IGR J17456–2901 into non-thermal X-ray filaments, molecular clouds, point sources, and a previously unknown central component of hard X-ray emission (CHXE). NuSTAR detects four non-thermal X-ray filaments, extending the detection of their power-law spectra with Γ ∼ 1.3–2.3 up to ∼50 keV. A morphological and spectral study of the filaments suggests that their origin may be heterogeneous, where previous studies suggested a common origin in young pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). NuSTAR detects non-thermal X-ray continuum emission spatially correlated with the 6.4 keV Fe Kα fluorescence line emission associated with two Sgr A molecular clouds: MC1 and the Bridge. Broadband X-ray spectral analysis with a Monte-Carlo based X-ray reflection model self-consistently determined their intrinsic column density (∼10{sup 23} cm{sup −2}), primary X-ray spectra (power-laws with Γ ∼ 2) and set a lower limit of the X-ray luminosity of Sgr A* flare illuminating the Sgr A clouds to L{sub X} ≳ 10{sup 38} erg s{sup −1}. Above ∼20 keV, hard X-ray emission in the central 10 pc region around Sgr A* consists of the candidate PWN G359.95–0.04 and the CHXE, possibly resulting from an unresolved population of massive CVs with white dwarf masses M{sub WD} ∼ 0.9 M{sub ⊙}. Spectral energy distribution analysis suggests that G359.95–0.04 is likely the hard X-ray counterpart of the ultra-high gamma-ray source HESS J1745–290, strongly favoring a leptonic origin of the GC TeV emission.

  9. Hard X-ray Emission and Efficient Particle Acceleration by Supernova Remnants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vink, Jacco

    2009-01-01

    I discuss the non-thermal X-ray emission from young supernova remnants. Over the last decade it has become clear from both X-ray and γ-ray observations that young supernovae accelerate particles up to 100 TeV. In soft X-rays the accelerated >10 TeV electrons produce synchrotron radiation, coming from narrow filaments located at the shock fronts. The width of these filaments shows that the magnetic fields are relatively high, thus providing evidence for magnetic field amplification.The synchrotron radiation of several remnants is known to extend into the hard X-ray regime. In particular Cas A, has a spectrum that appears as a power law up to almost 100 TeV. This is very surprising, as a steepening is expected going from the soft to the hard X-ray band. The spectrum is likely a result of many superimposed individual spectra, each steepening at different energies. This implies considerable spatial variation in hard X-rays, an obvious target for Simbol-X. The variations will be important to infer local shock acceleration properties, but also magnetic field fluctuations may cause spatial and temporal variations.Finally, I draw the attention to super bubbles and supernovae as sources of cosmic rays. As such they may be sources of hard X-ray emission. In particular, supernovae exploding inside the dense red supergiants winds of their progenitors ares promising candidates for hard X-ray emission.

  10. Hard X-ray Emission and Efficient Particle Acceleration by Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Jacco

    2009-05-01

    I discuss the non-thermal X-ray emission from young supernova remnants. Over the last decade it has become clear from both X-ray and γ-ray observations that young supernovae accelerate particles up to 100 TeV. In soft X-rays the accelerated >10 TeV electrons produce synchrotron radiation, coming from narrow filaments located at the shock fronts. The width of these filaments shows that the magnetic fields are relatively high, thus providing evidence for magnetic field amplification. The synchrotron radiation of several remnants is known to extend into the hard X-ray regime. In particular Cas A, has a spectrum that appears as a power law up to almost 100 TeV. This is very surprising, as a steepening is expected going from the soft to the hard X-ray band. The spectrum is likely a result of many superimposed individual spectra, each steepening at different energies. This implies considerable spatial variation in hard X-rays, an obvious target for Simbol-X. The variations will be important to infer local shock acceleration properties, but also magnetic field fluctuations may cause spatial and temporal variations. Finally, I draw the attention to super bubbles and supernovae as sources of cosmic rays. As such they may be sources of hard X-ray emission. In particular, supernovae exploding inside the dense red supergiants winds of their progenitors ares promising candidates for hard X-ray emission.

  11. Recent progress of hard x-ray imaging microscopy and microtomography at BL37XU of SPring-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yoshio, E-mail: yoshio@spring8.or.jp; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Terada, Yasuko; Uesugi, Kentaro [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI/SPring-8), Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Mizutani, Ryuta [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Tokai University, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)

    2016-01-28

    A hard x-ray imaging microscopy and microtomography system is now being developed at the beamline 37XU of SPring-8. In the latest improvement, a spatial resolution of about 50 nm is achieved in two-dimensional imaging at 6 keV x-ray energy using a Fresnel zone plate objective with an outermost zone width of 35 nm. In the tomographic measurement, a spatial resolution of about 100 nm is achieved at 8 keV using an x-ray guide tube condenser optic and a Fresnel zone plate objective with an outermost zone width of 50 nm.

  12. Upgrading multilayer zone plate technology for hard x-ray focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirotomo, Toshiki; Konishi, Shigeki [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); SPring-8 Service Co., Ltd (Japan); Takano, Hidekazu, E-mail: htakano@sci.u-hyogo.ac.jp; Sumida, Kazuhiro; Tsusaka, Yoshiyuki; Kagoshima, Yasushi [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Koyama, Takahisa [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI/SPring-8) (Japan); Ichimaru, Satoshi; Ohchi, Tadayuki [NTT Advanced Technology Corporation (Japan); Takenaka, Hisataka [NTT Advanced Technology Corporation (Japan); TOYAMA Corporation (Japan)

    2016-01-28

    Multilayer zone plate (MZP) technology for hard X-ray focusing was upgraded and its focusing performance was evaluated using 20-keV X-rays at the synchrotron beamline (BL24XU) of SPring-8. The MZP consists of MoSi{sub 2} and Si layers alternately deposited on a glass fiber by magnetron sputtering so that all zone boundaries satisfy the Fresnel zone configuration. The focused beam was evaluated using knife-edge scanning in which the measured intensity distribution is identical to the line spread function (LSF) in the focal plane. The focused beamsize of about 30 nm was estimated by oscillation peaks observed in the measured LSF according to Rayleigh’s criterion.

  13. X-ray imaging and spectroscopic measurements of implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammel, B.A.; Ress, D.R.; Keane, C.J.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Landen, O.L.; Bell, P.; Pasha, R.; Wallace, R.J.; Bradley, D.K.

    1992-01-01

    Time-resolved x-ray measurements are essential in the investigation of laser-driven inertial confinement fusion, where neutron and x-ray emission are the only observable signatures of the compressed core conditions. High-speed detectors, available for x-ray measurement, provide a means of measuring the rapidly evolving conditions in imploding capsules on picosecond time scales. We address a wide range of issues in our indirectly driven implosion experiments on Nova, with a large variety of x-ray measurement techniques. Critical issues include symmetry of the compressed core, fuel density and temperature and hydrodynamic mix at the pusher/fuel interface

  14. Measurement of X-ray beam emittance using crystal optics at an X-ray undulator beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Kohmura, Y; Awaji, M; Tanaka, T; Hara, T; Goto, S; Ishikawa, T

    2000-01-01

    We present a method of using crystal optics to measure the emittance of the X-ray source. Two perfect crystals set in (++) configuration work as a high-resolution collimator. The phase-space diagram (i.e. beam cross-section and angular distribution) could be determined without any assumptions on the light source. When the measurement is done at short wavelength radiation from undulator, the electron beam emittance is larger than the diffraction limit of the X-rays. Therefore, the electron beam emittance could be estimated. The measurement was done with the hard X-rays of 18.5 and 55 keV from an undulator beamline, BL 47XU, of SPring-8. The horizontal emittance of the X-ray beam was estimated to be about 7.6 nmrad, close to the designed electron beam emittance of the storage ring (7 nmrad). Some portions of the instrumental functions, such as the scattering by filters and windows along the beamline and the slight bent of the crystal planes of the monochromator, could not be precisely evaluated, but an upper li...

  15. Measurement of X-ray beam emittance using crystal optics at an X-ray undulator beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohmura, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Yoshio; Awaji, Mitsuhiro; Tanaka, Takashi; Hara, Toru; Goto, Shunji; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2000-01-01

    We present a method of using crystal optics to measure the emittance of the X-ray source. Two perfect crystals set in (++) configuration work as a high-resolution collimator. The phase-space diagram (i.e. beam cross-section and angular distribution) could be determined without any assumptions on the light source. When the measurement is done at short wavelength radiation from undulator, the electron beam emittance is larger than the diffraction limit of the X-rays. Therefore, the electron beam emittance could be estimated. The measurement was done with the hard X-rays of 18.5 and 55 keV from an undulator beamline, BL 47XU, of SPring-8. The horizontal emittance of the X-ray beam was estimated to be about 7.6 nmrad, close to the designed electron beam emittance of the storage ring (7 nmrad). Some portions of the instrumental functions, such as the scattering by filters and windows along the beamline and the slight bent of the crystal planes of the monochromator, could not be precisely evaluated, but an upper limit for the vertical emittance of the electron beam could be obtained as 0.14 nmrad

  16. Effects of X-ray tube parameters on thickness measure precision in X-ray profile gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Jichen; Wu Zhifang; Xing Guilai

    2011-01-01

    Instantaneous profile gauge technology has been widely used in metallurgy industry because it can on-line get the profile of steel strip. It has characters of high measure precision and wide measure range, but the X-ray tube parameters only can be set few different values during measurement. The relations of thickness measure precision and X-ray tube current, X-ray tube voltage were analyzed. The results show that the X-ray tube current affects the thickness measure precision and the X-ray tube voltage determines the thickness measure range. The method of estimating the X-ray current by thickness measure precision was provided in the end. This method is the base of X-ray source selection and X-ray source parameter's setting in the instantaneous profile gauge. (authors)

  17. The Emerging Population of Pulsar Wind Nebulae in Hard X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattana, F.; Götz, D.; Terrier, R.; Renaud, M.; Falanga, M.

    2009-05-01

    The hard X-ray synchrotron emission from Pulsar Wind Nebulae probes energetic particles, closely related to the pulsar injection power at the present time. INTEGRAL has disclosed the yet poorly known population of hard X-ray pulsar/PWN systems. We summarize the properties of the class, with emphasys on the first hard X-ray bow-shock (CTB 80 powered by PSR B1951+32), and highlight some prospects for the study of Pulsar Wind Nebulae with the Simbol-X mission.

  18. Relationship between type III-V radio and hard X-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, R.T.

    1978-01-01

    Type III-V radio bursts are found to be closely associated with impulsive hard X-ray bursts. Probably 0.1% to 1% of the fast electrons in the X-ray source region escape to heights >0.1 solar radii in the corona and excite the type III-V burst. (Auth.)

  19. Hard X-ray brightening of Ginga 1843+009 seen by INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyder, J.-C.; Chenevez, Jérôme; Fiocchi, M.T.

    2005-01-01

    The transient X-ray pulsar, Ginga 1843+009, appears to be undergoing a hard X-ray outburst brighter than the one reported in May 2003 (ATEL #159). The source has been observed during ISWT observations of the Scutum Arm region with INTEGRAL and was first detected when the source was in the field o...

  20. Polarization and dipole effects in hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, M. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Metrologie Nucleaire (CP 165/84), 50 av. F. D. Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Pauly, N., E-mail: nipauly@ulb.ac.be [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Metrologie Nucleaire (CP 165/84), 50 av. F. D. Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Dubus, A. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Metrologie Nucleaire (CP 165/84), 50 av. F. D. Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-rays are unpolarized or linearly polarized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A difference of polarization implies a variation in path travelled by the photoelectrons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show the influence of the polarization on the partial intensity distributions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We also point out the influence of the dipole approximation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use Monte Carlo simulations. - Abstract: Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HXPS) using X-rays in the 1.5-15 keV energy range generated by synchrotron sources becomes an increasingly important analysis technique due to its potential for bulk sensitive measurements. However, besides their high energy, another characteristic of photons generated by synchrotron sources is their linear polarization while X-rays from Al K{alpha} or Mg K{alpha} for instance are unpolarized. This difference implies a possible variation in total path travelled by the photoelectrons generated by the X-rays inside the medium and consequently a modification of the resulting spectrum shape. We show the influence of the polarization on the partial intensity distributions, namely the number of electrons escaping after n inelastic scattering events, for photoelectron with energies of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 keV and originating from Si 1s{sub 1/2}, Cu 1s{sub 1/2}, Cu 2p{sub 3/2}, Au 4d{sub 3/2} and Au 4f{sub 7/2} subshells. Moreover, we point out the influence of the dipole approximation leading to an underestimation of the partial intensity distributions due to the neglect of the forward-backward asymmetry of the angular photoelectron distribution.

  1. Hard X-ray irradiation of cosmic silicate analogs: structural evolution and astrophysical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilan, L.; Jäger, C.; Simionovici, A.; Lemaire, J. L.; Sabri, T.; Foy, E.; Yagoubi, S.; Henning, T.; Salomon, D.; Martinez-Criado, G.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Protoplanetary disks, interstellar clouds, and active galactic nuclei contain X-ray-dominated regions. X-rays interact with the dust and gas present in such environments. While a few laboratory X-ray irradiation experiments have been performed on ices, X-ray irradiation experiments on bare cosmic dust analogs have been scarce up to now. Aims: Our goal is to study the effects of hard X-rays on cosmic dust analogs via in situ X-ray diffraction. By using a hard X-ray synchrotron nanobeam, we seek to simulate cumulative X-ray exposure on dust grains during their lifetime in these astrophysical environments and provide an upper limit on the effect of hard X-rays on dust grain structure. Methods: We prepared enstatite (MgSiO3) nanograins, which are analogs to cosmic silicates, via the melting-quenching technique. These amorphous grains were then annealed to obtain polycrystalline grains. These were characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) before irradiation. Powder samples were prepared in X-ray transparent substrates and were irradiated with hard X-rays nanobeams (29.4 keV) provided by beamline ID16B of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (Grenoble). X-ray diffraction images were recorded in transmission mode, and the ensuing diffractograms were analyzed as a function of the total X-ray exposure time. Results: We detected the amorphization of polycrystalline silicates embedded in an organic matrix after an accumulated X-ray exposure of 6.4 × 1027 eV cm-2. Pure crystalline silicate grains (without resin) do not exhibit amorphization. None of the amorphous silicate samples (pure and embedded in resin) underwent crystallization. We analyze the evolution of the polycrystalline sample embedded in an organic matrix as a function of X-ray exposure. Conclusions: Loss of diffraction peak intensity, peak broadening, and the disappearance of discrete spots and arcs reveal the amorphization

  2. AN OSCILLATOR CONFIGURATION FOR FULL REALIZATION OF HARD X-RAY FREE ELECTRON LASER*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.-J.; Kolodziej, T.; Lindberg, R. R.; Shu, D.; Shvyd' ko, Y.; Stoupin, S.; Maxwell, T.J.; Ding, Y.; Fawley, W. M.; Hastings, J.; Huang, Z; Krzywinski, J.; Marcus, G.; Qin, Weilun; Medvedev, N.; Zemella, J.; Blank, V.; Terentyev, S.

    2017-06-01

    An x-ray free electron laser oscillator (XFELO) is feasible by employing an X-ray cavity with Bragg mirrors such as diamond crystals. An XFELO at the 5th harmonic frequency may be implemented at the LCLS II using its 4 GeV superconducting linac, producing stable, fully coherent, high-spectral-purity hard x-rays. In addition, its output can be a coherent seed to the LCLS amplifier for stable, high-power, femto-second x-ray pulses. We summarize the recent progress in various R&D efforts addressing critical issues for realizing an XFELO at LCLS II.

  3. Host Galaxy Properties of the Swift BAT Ultra Hard X-Ray Selected AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Winter, Lisa M.; Baumgartner, Wayne; Tueller, Jack; Gehrels, Neil; Valencic, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    We have assembled the largest sample of ultra hard X-ray selected (14-195 keV) AGN with host galaxy optical data to date, with 185 nearby (zBAT) sample. The BAT AGN host galaxies have intermediate optical colors (u -- r and g -- r) that are bluer than a comparison sample of inactive galaxies and optically selected AGN from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) which are chosen to have the same stellar mass. Based on morphological classifications from the RC3 and the Galaxy Zoo, the bluer colors of BAT AGN are mainly due to a higher fraction of mergers and massive spirals than in the comparison samples. BAT AGN in massive galaxies (log Stellar Mass >10.5) have a 5 to 10 times higher rate of spiral morphologies than in SDSS AGN or inactive galaxies. We also see enhanced far-IR emission in BAT AGN suggestive of higher levels of star formation compared to the comparison samples. BAT AGN are preferentially found in the most massive host galaxies with high concentration indexes indicative of large bulge-to-disk ratios and large supermassive black holes. The narrow-line (NL) BAT AGN have similar intrinsic luminosities as the SDSS NL Seyferts based on measurements of [O III] Lambda 5007. There is also a correlation between the stellar mass and X-ray emission. The BAT AGN in mergers have bluer colors and greater ultra hard X-ray emission compared to the BAT sample as whole. In agreement with the Unified Model of AGN, and the relatively unbiased nature of the BAT sources, the host galaxy colors and morphologies are independent of measures of obscuration such as X-ray column density or Seyfert type. The high fraction of massive spiral galaxies and galaxy mergers in BAT AGN suggest that host galaxy morphology is related to the activation and fueling of local AGN.

  4. Hard X-ray emission spectroscopy with pink beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvashnina, Kristina O.; Rossberg, Andre; Exner, Joerg; Scheinost, Andreas C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Molecular Structures

    2017-06-01

    Valence-band X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) with a ''pink beam'', i.e. a beam with large energy bandwidth produced by a double-multilayer monochromator, is introduced here to overcome the weak count rate of monochromatic beams produced by conventional double-crystal monochromators. Our results demonstrate that - in spite of the large bandwidth in the order of 100 eV - the high spectral resolution of the Johann-type spectrometer is maintained, while the two orders of magnitude higher flux greatly reduces the required counting time. The short working distance Johann-type X-ray emission spectrometer and multilayer monochromator is available at ROBL.

  5. Measurement of characteristic X-rays by positron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Y.; Saito, F.; Itoh, Y.; Goto, A.; Hyodo, T.

    2004-01-01

    An X-ray detector with thin Si(Li) crystals has been fabricated and employed to detect the characteristic X-rays by positron impact. Use of thin detector crystals is essential for the measurements of the characteristic X-rays induced by positron impact. Otherwise the background produced in the crystals by the annihilation γ-rays is too large to isolate the X-ray peaks. The data has been analyzed to obtain the inner-shell ionization cross sections by positron impact. (orig.)

  6. Fluence thresholds for grazing incidence hard x-ray mirrors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aquila, A.; Sobierajski, R.; Ozkan, C.; Hájková, Věra; Burian, Tomáš; Chalupský, Jaromír; Juha, Libor; Störmer, M.; Bajt, S.; Klepka, M.T.; Dlužewski, P.; Morawiec, K.; Ohashi, H.; Koyama, T.; Tono, K.; Inubushi, Y.; Yabashi, M.; Sinn, H.; Tschentscher, T.; Mancuso, A.P.; Gaudin, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 24 (2015), "241905-1"-"241905-5" ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-29772S Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101221 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : XFEL * Free Electron Laser * damage threshold * X-ray optics Subject RIV: BH - Optics , Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.142, year: 2015

  7. Spectral and temporal properties of the X-ray pulsar SMC X-1 at hard X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, M.; Gruber, D. E.; Kendziorra, E .; Kretschmar, P.; Maisack, M.; Mony, B.; Staubert, R.; Doebereiner, S.; Englhauser, J.; Pietsch, W.

    1993-01-01

    The binary X-ray pulsar SMC X- 1 has been observed at hard X-rays with the High Energy X-Ray Experiment (HEXE) on nine occasions between Nov. 1987 and March 1989. A thin thermal bremsstrahlung fit to the phase averaged spectrum yields a plasma temperature (14.4 +/- 1.3) keV and a luminosity above (1.1 +/- 0.1) x 10 exp 38 erg/s in the 20-80 keV band. Pulse period values have been established for three observations, confirming the remarkably stable spin-up trend of SMC X-1. In one of the three observations the pulse profile was seen to deviate from a dominant double pulsation, while at the same time the pulsed fraction was unusually large. For one observation we determined for the first time the pulsed fraction in narrow energy bands. It increases with photon energy from about 20 percent up to over 60 percent in the energy range from 20 to 80 keV.

  8. Non-thermal Hard X-Ray Emission from Coma and Several Abell Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, C

    2004-01-01

    We report results of hard X-Ray observations of the clusters Coma, Abell 496, Abell754, Abell 1060, Abell 1367, Abell2256 and Abell3558 using RXTE data from the NASA HEASARC public archive. Specifically we searched for clusters with hard x-ray emission that can be fitted by a power law because this would indicate that the cluster is a source of non-thermal emission. We are assuming the emission mechanism proposed by Vahk Petrosian where the inter cluster space contains clouds of relativistic electrons that by themselves create a magnetic field and emit radio synchrotron radiation. These relativistic electrons Inverse-Compton scatter Microwave Background photons up to hard x-ray energies. The clusters that were found to be sources of non-thermal hard x-rays are Coma, Abell496, Abell754 and Abell 1060

  9. Adaptive Lobster-Eye Hard X-Ray Telescope, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA needs for hard X-ray telescopes for starlight detection and wavefront analysis, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop an Adjustable...

  10. POLAR on board of the Tiangong 2 Chinese space station: measuring the polarization of hard X-rays photons, in particular the polarization of prompt photons from gamma ray bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Produit, Nicolas

    2012-07-01

    POLAR is an homogeneous wide field Compton polarimeter using plastic scintillators and multichannel photomultipliers. The goal of this polarimeter is to measure with controlled systematics the polarization of hard X-ray emitted by unpredictable transient sources The instrument energy range sensitivity is optimized for the detection of the prompt emission of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRB). Monte-Carlo studies and calibration data collected in polarized photon beams predict that POLAR will be able to measure the polarization degree of 10 GRB per year with a combined systematics and statistical accuracy of better then 10%. POLAR will be mounted outside of the Tiangong 2 Chinese space station that will be launched in space in 2014.

  11. Extragalactic Hard X-ray Surveys: From INTEGRAL to Simbol-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltani, S.; Dwelly, T.; Walter, R.; McHardy, I. M.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.

    2009-05-01

    We present some results of the deepest extragalactic survey performed by the INTEGRAL satellite. The fraction of very absorbed AGN is quite large. The sharp decrease in the absorption fraction with X-ray luminosity observed at lower-energy X-rays is not observed. The current lack of truly Compton-thick objects, with an upper limit of 14% to the size of this population, is just compatible with recent modeling of the cosmic X-ray background. We also study the prospects for a future hard X-ray serendipitous survey with Simbol-X. We show that Simbol-X will easily detect a large number of serendipitous AGN, allowing us to study the evolution of AGN up to redshifts about 2, opening the door to the cosmological study of hard X-ray selected AGN, which is barely possible with existing satellites like Swift and INTEGRAL.

  12. NuSTAR hard X-ray observations of the Jovian magnetosphere during Juno perijove and apojove intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, W.; Mori, K.; Hailey, C. J.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Grefenstette, B.; Jackman, C. M.; Hord, B. J.; Ray, L. C.

    2017-12-01

    emission is spatially associated with the FUV auroral oval. NuSTAR spectral analysis will measure to how high an energy the non-thermal bremsstrahlung component extends, and detect an expected spectral cutoff between 7 and 27 keV. Since NuSTAR operates in the hard X-ray energy band, it probes the maximum energy of accelerating electrons in the Jovian magnetosphere.

  13. A quality measurement study of a diagnostic x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishitani, Motohiro; Fujimoto, Nobuhisa; Yamada, Katsuhiko

    1982-01-01

    It is important to check periodically the quality and quantity of the X-rays emitted, in order to obtain the best possible performance from your diagnostic X-ray apparatus. The best way of checking the exact quality of the X-ray is to measure the spectrum of the X-ray, but it is not an easy task to carry out. The second way is to plot the attenuation curve of the X-rays. We have developed a method to plot the attenuation curve by a single exposure, utilizing J.r. Greening's empirical formula. The output of the three cavity ionization chambers, one with 7 mmAl filter, another with a 3 mmAl and the third without any filter, exposed to the same X-ray, were put into a microcomputer. The programming was arranged to display the attenuation curve of the X-rays, effective energy of the X-rays, the 1st HVL and the 2nd HVL on the CRT. The attenuation curves of the X-rays, emitted at a tube voltage at between 60 and 140 kV obtained by this method, agreed with the experimental results with an error of +-4 %. The effective energy obtained by this method agreed with the experimental data with an error of +-1 %. (author)

  14. Hard X-Ray PHA System on the HT-7 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Shiyao; Shi Yuejiang; Wan Baonian; Chen Zhongyong; Hu Liqun

    2006-01-01

    A new hard X-ray pulse-height analysis (PHA) system has been established on HT-7 tokamak for long pulse steady-state operation. This PHA system consists of hard X-ray diagnostics and multi-channel analysers (MCA). The hard X-ray diagnostics consists of a vertical X-ray detector array (CdTe) and a horizontal X-ray detector array (NaI). The hard X-ray diagnostics can provide the profile of power deposition and the distribution function of fast electron during radio frequency (RF) current drive. The MCA system is the electronic part of the PHA system, which has been modularized and linked to PC through LAN. Each module of MCA can connect with 8 X-ray detectors. The embedded Ethernet adapter in the MCA module makes the data communication between PC and MCA very convenient. A computer can control several modules of MCA through certain software and a hub. The RAM in MCA can store 1024 or more spectra for each detector and therefore the PHA system can be applied in the long pulse discharge of several minutes

  15. Hard X-ray Flux from Low-Mass Stars in the Cygnus OB2 Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramazza, M.; Drake, J. J.; Micela, G.; Flaccomio, E.

    2009-05-01

    We investigate the X-ray emission in the 20-40 keV band expected from the flaring low-mass stellar population in Cygnus OB2 assuming that the observed soft X-ray emission is due to a superposition of flares and that the ratio of hard X-ray to soft X-ray emission is described by a scaling found for solar flares by Isola and co-workers. We estimate a low-mass stellar hard X-ray flux in the 20-40 keV band in the range ~7×1031-7×1033 erg/s and speculate the limit of this values. Hard X-ray emission could lie at a level not much below the current observed flux upper limits for Cygnus OB2. Simbol-X, with its broad energy band (10-100 keV) and its sensitivity should be able to detect this emission and would provide insights into the hard X-ray production of flares on pre-main sequence stars.

  16. Some new possibilities in direct visible and x ray measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gex, J.P.; Sauneuf, R.; Boutot, J.P.; Delmotte, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Subnanosecond photodetection measurements in visible and X ray range with vacuum cell and very thin microchannel plate phototube (coupled with a fast scintillator or not) in conjunction with fast oscilloscope (5 GHz) are presented. They are compared to those given by a visible or a gold photocathode X-ray streak camera (temporal resolution better than 20 ps). (author)

  17. The background counting rates in a balloon borne hard X-ray telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, A.J.; Dipper, N.A.; Lewis, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    A detailed Monte Carlo model of a hard (20-300 keV) X-ray astronomical telescope has been developed in order to calculate the energy loss distribution of the unwanted background noise events in the prime detection elements. The spectral distributions of the background rates measured at balloon altitudes over Palestine, Texas are compared to the predictions of the theoretical model. Good agreement has been found in terms of both the overall intensity level as well as the spectral distribution. (orig.)

  18. Hard X-ray nanoimaging method using local diffraction from metal wire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, Hidekazu, E-mail: htakano@sci.u-hyogo.ac.jp; Konishi, Shigeki; Shimomura, Sho; Azuma, Hiroaki; Tsusaka, Yoshiyuki; Kagoshima, Yasushi [Center for Novel Material Science under Multi-Extreme Conditions, Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan)

    2014-01-13

    A simple hard X-ray imaging method achieving a high spatial resolution is proposed. Images are obtained by scanning a metal wire through the wave field to be measured and rotating the sample to collect data for back projection calculations; the local diffraction occurring at the edges of the metal wire operates as a narrow line probe. In-line holograms of a test sample were obtained with a spatial resolution of better than 100 nm. The potential high spatial resolution of this method is shown by calculations using diffraction theory.

  19. Performance of a hard x-ray undulator at CHESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilderback, D.H.; Batterman, B.W.; Bedzyk, M.J.; Finkelstein, K.; Henderson, C.; Merlini, A.; Schildkamp, W.; Shen, Q.; White, J.; Blum, E.B.; Viccaro, P.J.; Mills, D.M.; Kim, S.; Shenoy, G.K.; Robinson, K.E.; James, F.E.; Slater, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    A 3.3-cm period Nd-Fe-B hybrid undulator has been designed and successfully operated in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR). This 2-m-long, 123-pole insertion device is a prototype of one of the undulators planned for the Advanced Photon Source. In dedicated operation, the undulator produced the expected brightness at 5.437 GeV with the fundamental x-ray energy ranging from 4.3 to 7.9 keV corresponding to a change in gap from 1.5 to 2.8 cm

  20. SWIFT OBSERVATIONS OF HARD X-RAY EMITTING WHITE DWARFS IN SYMBIOTIC STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennea, J. A.; Burrows, D. N.; Mukai, K.; Markwardt, C. B.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Luna, G. J. M.; Tueller, J.

    2009-01-01

    The X-ray emission from most accreting white dwarfs (WDs) in symbiotic binary stars is quite soft. Several symbiotic WDs, however, produce strong X-ray emission at energies greater than ∼20 keV. The Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) instrument has detected hard X-ray emission from four such accreting WDs in symbiotic stars: RT Cru, T CrB, CD -57 3057, and CH Cyg. In one case (RT Cru), Swift detected X-rays out to greater than 50 keV at >5σ confidence level. Combining data from the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and BAT detectors, we find that the 0.3-150 keV spectra of RT Cru, T CrB, and CD -57 3057 are well described by emission from a single-temperature, optically thin thermal plasma, plus an unresolved 6.4-6.9 keV Fe line complex. The X-ray spectrum of CH Cyg contains an additional bright soft component. For all four systems, the spectra suffer high levels of absorption from material that both fully and partially covers the source of hard X-rays. The XRT data did not show any of the rapid, periodic variations that one would expect if the X-ray emission were due to accretion onto a rotating, highly magnetized WD. The X-rays were thus more likely from the accretion-disk boundary layer around a massive, non-magnetic WD in each binary. The X-ray emission from RT Cru varied on timescales of a few days. This variability is consistent with being due to changes in the absorber that partially covers the source, suggesting localized absorption from a clumpy medium moving into the line of sight. The X-ray emission from CD -57 3057 and T CrB also varied during the nine months of Swift observations, in a manner that was also consistent with variable absorption.

  1. Design of grazing-incidence multilayer supermirrors for hard-X-ray reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K. D.; Voutov, P.; Szentgyorgyi, A.

    1995-01-01

    Extremely broadband grazing-incidence multilayers for hard-X-ray reflection can be obtained by a gradual change of the layer thicknesses down through the structure. Existing approaches for designing similar neutron optics, called supermirrors, are shown to provide respectable performance when...... applied to X-ray multilayers. However, none of these approaches consider the effects of imperfect layer interfaces and absorption in the overlying layers. Adaptations of neutron designs that take these effects into account are presented, and a thorough analysis of two specific applications (a single hard......-X-ray reflector and a hard-X-ray telescope) shows that an improved performance can be obtained. A multilayer whose bilayer thicknesses are given by a power law expression is found to provide the best solution; however, it is only slightly better than some of the adapted neutron designs...

  2. The Elusive Soft Emission from Hard X-ray Symbiotic System RT Cru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karovska, Margarita

    2014-09-01

    RT Cru is a fascinating member of a new class of hard X-ray emitting symbiotic binaries showing X-ray emission extending to over 50keV. While its hard X-ray emission has been studied in detail, the soft component of the spectrum, including flares, remains elusive, since previous observations have focused on the high-energy regime. We propose Chandra HRC-S/LETG observations to determine the spatial, spectral, and temporal characteristics of the source of the soft X-ray emission with a goal to establish the origin of the soft component, and determine whether and how it is tied to the hard component. Determining the origin of the soft emission is a crucial piece of the puzzle to understanding the geometry, energetics, and the environment of WD accretion in this class of symbiotic systems.

  3. Fabrication of 200 nanometer period centimeter area hard x-ray absorption gratings by multilayer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, S K; Liu, C; Morgan, N Y; Xiao, X; Gomella, A A; Mazilu, D; Bennett, E E; Assoufid, L; de Carlo, F; Wen, H

    2012-01-01

    We describe the design and fabrication trials of x-ray absorption gratings of 200 nm period and up to 100:1 depth-to-period ratios for full-field hard x-ray imaging applications. Hard x-ray phase-contrast imaging relies on gratings of ultra-small periods and sufficient depth to achieve high sensitivity. Current grating designs utilize lithographic processes to produce periodic vertical structures, where grating periods below 2.0 μm are difficult due to the extreme aspect ratios of the structures. In our design, multiple bilayers of x-ray transparent and opaque materials are deposited on a staircase substrate, and mostly on the floor surfaces of the steps only. When illuminated by an x-ray beam horizontally, the multilayer stack on each step functions as a micro-grating whose grating period is the thickness of a bilayer. The array of micro-gratings over the length of the staircase works as a single grating over a large area when continuity conditions are met. Since the layers can be nanometers thick and many microns wide, this design allows sub-micron grating periods and sufficient grating depth to modulate hard x-rays. We present the details of the fabrication process and diffraction profiles and contact radiography images showing successful intensity modulation of a 25 keV x-ray beam. PMID:23066175

  4. Development of Compton X-ray spectrometer for high energy resolution single-shot high-flux hard X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Sadaoki, E-mail: kojima-s@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: sfujioka@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp; Ikenouchi, Takahito; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Sakata, Shohei; Zhang, Zhe; Abe, Yuki; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Fujioka, Shinsuke, E-mail: kojima-s@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: sfujioka@ile.osaka-u.ac.jp; Azechi, Hiroshi [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ozaki, Tetsuo [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Miyamoto, Shuji; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Takemoto, Akinori [Laboratory of Advanced Science and Technology for Industry, University of Hyogo, 3-1-2 Kouto, Kamigori-cho, Ako-gun, Hyogo 678-1205 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    Hard X-ray spectroscopy is an essential diagnostics used to understand physical processes that take place in high energy density plasmas produced by intense laser-plasma interactions. A bundle of hard X-ray detectors, of which the responses have different energy thresholds, is used as a conventional single-shot spectrometer for high-flux (>10{sup 13} photons/shot) hard X-rays. However, high energy resolution (Δhv/hv < 0.1) is not achievable with a differential energy threshold (DET) X-ray spectrometer because its energy resolution is limited by energy differences between the response thresholds. Experimental demonstration of a Compton X-ray spectrometer has already been performed for obtaining higher energy resolution than that of DET spectrometers. In this paper, we describe design details of the Compton X-ray spectrometer, especially dependence of energy resolution and absolute response on photon-electron converter design and its background reduction scheme, and also its application to the laser-plasma interaction experiment. The developed spectrometer was used for spectroscopy of bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by intense laser-plasma interactions using a 200 μm thickness SiO{sub 2} converter. The X-ray spectrum obtained with the Compton X-ray spectrometer is consistent with that obtained with a DET X-ray spectrometer, furthermore higher certainly of a spectral intensity is obtained with the Compton X-ray spectrometer than that with the DET X-ray spectrometer in the photon energy range above 5 MeV.

  5. DCARR: a spectrograph for measuring low-energy x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    DCARR, the Differential Critical Angle Reflection Refraction detector system, is described. This detector was designed to measure low-energy x rays, 500 to 5000 eV, with a high degree of resolution, 250 eV. DCARR was developed because these low-energy measurements are of interest in the diagnostics of x-radiation in nuclear tests and available equipment could not make measurements at this low an energy in field tests. DCARR is a versatile piece of equipment that can also be used as a laboratory tool, such as in measuring the low-energy x rays emitted by lasers and various x-ray machines

  6. Combined use of infrared and hard X-ray microprobes for spectroscopy-based neuroanatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surowka, A. D.; Ziomber, A.; Czyzycki, M.; Migliori, A.; Pieklo, L.; Kasper, K.; Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, M.

    2018-05-01

    Understanding the pathological triggers that affect the structural and physiological integrity of biochemical milieu of neurons is crucial to extend our knowledge on brain disorders, that are in many circumstances hardly treatable. Over recently, by using sophisticated hyperspectral micro-imaging modalities, it has been placed within our reach to get an insight into high fidelity histological details along with corresponding biochemical information in a label-free fashion, without using any additional chemical fixatives. However, in order to push forwards extensive application of these methods in the clinical arena, it is viable to make further iterations in novel data analysis protocols in order to boost their sensitivity. Therefore, in our study we proposed a new combined approach utilizing both benchtop Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) micro-spectroscopies coupled with multivariate data clustering using the K-means algorithm for combined molecular and elemental micro-imaging, so that these complimentary analytical tools could be used for delineating between various brain structures based on their biochemical composition. By utilizing mid-IR transmission FTIR experiments, the biochemical composition in terms of lipids, proteins and phosphodiesters became accessible. In turn, the SR-XRF experiment was carried out at the advanced IAEA X-ray spectrometry station at Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste. By measuring in vacuum and by using the primary exciting X-ray beam, monochromatized to 10.5 keV, we took advantage of accessing the characteristic X-ray lines of a variety of elements ranging from carbon to zinc. Herein, we can report that the developed methodology has high specificity for label-free discriminating between lipid- and protein-rich brain tissue areas.

  7. Development and application of cryogenic radiometry with hard X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlach, Martin

    2008-01-01

    To establish cryogenic radiometry with hard X-ray radiation for photon energies of up to 60 keV, a novel type of cavity absorber had to be developed for the cryogenic radiometer SYRES I, which is deployed by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) as primary standard detector at the electron storage ring BESSY II. This new type of cavity absorber allows for the complete absorption of hard X-ray radiation in combination with an appropriate sensitivity and an adequate time constant for the measurement of synchrotron radiation at BESSY II. As the process of fabrication of different types of absorbers is very time-consuming, the interaction of hard X-ray radiation with different absorber materials and geometries was studied intensively by using the Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4. The accuracy of the simulations was verified comparing them to scattering experiments performed at a wavelength shifter beamline at BESSY II with a calibrated energy dispersive detector. It was shown that Geant4 describes the photo-effect, including fluorescence as well as Compton- and Rayleigh scattering, with high accuracy. The simulations and experiments resulted in a cavity absorber with a gold base 550 μm in thickness and a cylindrical shell made of copper 90 μm in thickness to reduce losses caused by fluorescence and scattered radiation. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity was then used to calibrate semiconductor photodiodes, which can be used as compact and inexpensive secondary standard detectors, against a cryogenic radiometer, covering the entire photon energy range of three beamlines from 50 eV to 60 keV with relative uncertainties of less than 0.5 %. Furthermore the spatial homogeneity of the spectral responsivity, the transmittance and the linearity of the photodiodes was investigated. Through a direct comparison of the free-air ionization chamber PK100, a primary detector standard of PTB used in dosimetry, and the cryogenic radiometer SYRES

  8. Analysis of the 1980 November 18 limb flare observed by the hard X-ray imaging spectrometer (HXIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyng, P.; Haug, E.; Elwert, G.

    1984-01-01

    X-ray images of the 18 November 1980 limb flare taken by the HXIS instrument aboard SMM were analysed. The hard X-rays originated from three spots on the SW limb of the solar disk with different altitudes and time evolution. The locations of the brightest spots in hard and soft X-rays are compared

  9. INTEGRAL hard X-ray spectra of the cosmic X-ray background and Galactic ridge emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türler, M.; Chernyakova, M.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Lubiński, P.; Neronov, A.; Produit, N.; Walter, R.

    2010-03-01

    Aims: We derive the spectra of the cosmic X-ray background (CXB) and of the Galactic ridge X-ray emission (GRXE) in the ~20-200 keV range from the data of the IBIS instrument aboard the INTEGRAL satellite obtained during the four dedicated Earth-occultation observations in early 2006. Methods: We analyze the modulation of the IBIS/ISGRI detector counts induced by the passage of the Earth through the field of view of the instrument. Unlike previous studies, we do not fix the spectral shape of the various contributions, but model instead their spatial distribution and derive for each of them the expected modulation of the detector counts. The spectra of the diffuse emission components are obtained by fitting the normalizations of the model lightcurves to the observed modulation in different energy bins. Because of degeneracy, we guide the fits with a realistic choice of the input parameters and a constraint for spectral smoothness. Results: The obtained CXB spectrum is consistent with the historic HEAO-1 results and falls slightly below the spectrum derived with Swift/BAT. A 10% higher normalization of the CXB cannot be completely excluded, but it would imply an unrealistically high albedo of the Earth. The derived spectrum of the GRXE confirms the presence of a minimum around 80 keV with improved statistics and yields an estimate of ~0.6 M⊙ for the average mass of white dwarfs in the Galaxy. The analysis also provides updated normalizations for the spectra of the Earth's albedo and the cosmic-ray induced atmospheric emission. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the potential of INTEGRAL Earth-occultation observations to derive the hard X-ray spectra of three fundamental components: the CXB, the GRXE and the Earth emission. Further observations would be extremely valuable to confirm our results with improved statistics.

  10. Measurement of mass attenuation coefficients around the K absorption edge by parametric X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Masaya; Akimoto, Tadashi; Aoki, Yohei; Ikeda, Jiro; Sato, Koichi; Fujita, Fumiyuki; Homma, Akira; Sawamura, Teruko; Narita, Masakuni

    2002-01-01

    When electrons at relativistic velocities pass through a crystal plate, such as silicon, photons are emitted around the Bragg angle for X-ray diffraction. This phenomenon is called parametric X-ray radiation (PXR). The monochromaticity and directivity of PXR are adequate and the energy can be changed continuously by rotating the crystal. This study measured the mass attenuation coefficient around the K-shell absorption edge of Nb, Zr and Mo as a PXR application of monochromatic hard X-ray radiation sources

  11. Measurement of mass attenuation coefficients around the K absorption edge by parametric X-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Tamura, M; Aoki, Y; Ikeda, J; Sato, K; Fujita, F; Homma, A; Sawamura, T; Narita, M

    2002-01-01

    When electrons at relativistic velocities pass through a crystal plate, such as silicon, photons are emitted around the Bragg angle for X-ray diffraction. This phenomenon is called parametric X-ray radiation (PXR). The monochromaticity and directivity of PXR are adequate and the energy can be changed continuously by rotating the crystal. This study measured the mass attenuation coefficient around the K-shell absorption edge of Nb, Zr and Mo as a PXR application of monochromatic hard X-ray radiation sources.

  12. Current status of the hard x-ray nanoprobe beamline at the SSRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Aiguo; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Zhaohong; He, Yan; Zhao, Gaofeng; Shu, Deming

    2017-09-01

    The hard X-ray nanoprobe beamline (HXN) designed at the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation facility (SSRF) will be of capability to realize a focal spot size of 10 nm for hard X-rays to satisfy requirements in biology, environmental, material sciences and etc.. The beamline includes two modes of operation, high energy resolution mode and high flux mode respectively. High flux mode utilizes the multilayer KB system to obtain high-flux diffraction-limited focusing of 10nm. An ultra-high-precision figure fabrication for diffraction-limited focusing is required to meet the Rayleigh Criterion. An idea to overcome this problem is to introduce a phase compensator upstream of the KB system to compensate the wavefront errors in the beamline. At wavelength speckle-based method will be used to measure the wavefront error in the beamline and feedback to the phase compensator. Vibration measurements have been carried out at the secondary source and endstation hutch. The flexure hinge mechanisms and high-precision actuators ensure the KB system and sample manipulator working with high stability. The building of HXN has been designed and is under construction at present.

  13. eHXI: a permanently installed, hard x-ray imager for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Döppner, T.; Bachmann, B.; Albert, F.; Bell, P.; Burns, S.; Celeste, J.; Chow, R.; Divol, L.; Dewald, E.L.; Huntington, C.M.; Izumi, N.; LaCaille, G.; Landen, O.L.; Palmer, N.; Park, H.-S.; Thomas, C.A.; Hohenberger, M.

    2016-01-01

    We have designed and built a multi-pinhole imaging system for high energy x-rays (≥ 50 keV) that is permanently installed in the equatorial plane outside of the target chamber at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). It records absolutely-calibrated, time-integrated x-ray images with the same line-of-sight as the multi-channel, spatially integrating hard x-ray detector FFLEX [McDonald et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75 (2004) 3753], having a side view of indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosion targets. The equatorial hard x-ray imager (eHXI) has recorded images on the majority of ICF implosion experiments since May 2011. eHXI provides valuable information on hot electron distribution in hohlraum experiments, target alignment, potential hohlraum drive asymmetries and serves as a long term reference for the FFLEX diagnostics.

  14. Extended hard-X-ray emission in the inner few parsecs of the Galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Kerstin; Hailey, Charles J.; Bauer, Franz E.

    2015-01-01

    of objects emitting soft X-rays (less than 10 kiloelectronvolts) within the surrounding hundreds of parsecs, as well as the population responsible for unresolved X-ray emission extending along the Galactic plane, is dominated by accreting white dwarf systems. Observations of diffuse hard-X-ray (more than 10...... kiloelectronvolts) emission in the inner 10 parsecs, however, have been hampered by the limited spatial resolution of previous instruments. Here we report the presence of a distinct hard-X-ray component within the central 4 × 8 parsecs, as revealed by subarcminute-resolution images in the 20-40 kiloelectronvolt...... outflows interacting with the surrounding radiation field, dense molecular material or magnetic fields. However, all these interpretations pose significant challenges to our understanding of stellar evolution, binary formation, and cosmic-ray production in the Galactic Centre....

  15. Hard X-ray Microscopy with Elemental, Chemical and Structural Contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, C.G.; Boye, P.; Feldkamp, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    We review hard X-ray microscopy techniques with a focus on scanning microscopy with synchrotron radiation. Its strength compared to other microscopies is the large penetration depth of hard x rays in matter that allows one to investigate the interior of an object without destructive sample preparation. In combination with tomography, local information from inside of a specimen can be obtained, even from inside special non-ambient sample environments. Different X-ray analytical techniques can be used to produce contrast, such as X-ray absorption, fluorescence, and diffraction, to yield chemical, elemental, and structural information about the sample, respectively. This makes X-ray microscopy attractive to many fields of science, ranging from physics and chemistry to materials, geo-, and environmental science, biomedicine, and nanotechnology. Our scanning microscope based on nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses has a routine spatial resolution of about 100 nm and supports the contrast mechanisms mentioned above. In combination with coherent X-ray diffraction imaging, the spatial resolution can be improved to the 10 nm range. The current state-of-the-art of this technique is illustrated by several examples, and future prospects of the technique are given. (author)

  16. Impact of a Vertically Polarized Undulator on LCLS Hard X-ray Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, David [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2014-11-14

    The LCLS-II project will install two variable gap, horizontally polarized undulators into the LCLS undulator hall. One undulator is designed to produce soft x-rays spanning an energy range of 200-1250 eV (SXU) while the other is designed for the hard spectral range of 1-25 keV (HXU). The hard x-ray LCLS instruments (X-ray Pump- Probe [XPP], X-ray correlation Spectroscopy [XCS], Coherent X-ray Imaging [CXI], Matter in Extreme Conditions [MEC]) will be repurposed to operate on the HXU line while two new soft x-ray beamlines will be created for the SXU line. An alternate HXU undulator design is being considered that could provide advantages over the present design choice. In particular, the project team is collaborating with Argonne National Laboratory to develop a vertically polarized undulator (VPU). A 1-m prototype VPU device was successfully constructed this year and a full size prototype is in process. A decision to alter the project baseline, which is the construction of a horizontally polarized device, must be made in the coming weeks to not impact the present project schedule. Please note that a change to the soft x-ray undulator is not under discussion at the moment.

  17. A Hard X-Ray Power-Law Spectral Cutoff in Centaurus X-4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarty, Deepto; Tomsick, John A.; Grefenstette, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    The low-mass X-ray binary Cen X-4 is the brightest and closest (<1.2 kpc) quiescent neutron star transient. Previous 0.5-10 keV X-ray observations of Cen X-4 in quiescence identified two spectral components: soft thermal emission from the neutron star atmosphere and a hard power-law tail of unkno...... behavior with PSR J1023+0038, IGR J18245-2452, and XSS J12270-4859, which have shown transitions between LMXB and radio pulsar modes at a similar X-ray luminosity....

  18. X-ray measurements of water fog density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, A.L.

    1982-11-01

    Water-fog densities were measured in a laboratory experiment using x-ray diagnostics. Fog densities were measured, varying the flow rate, nozzle type, nozzle configuration, nozzle height above the x-ray beam, and water surface tension. Suspended water volume fractions between 0.0008 and 0.0074 percent were measured. The fog density increases approximately as the square root of the flow rate; the other parameters had little effect on the density

  19. X-ray beam splitting design for concurrent imaging at hard X-ray FELs and synchrotron facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberta, P., E-mail: peter.oberta@rigaku.com [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Na Slovance 2, Praha 8, CZ-18221 (Czech Republic); Rigaku, Novodvorská 994, Praha 4, CZ-14221 (Czech Republic); Mokso, R. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2013-11-21

    A new configuration of diffractive–refractive optics for beam splitting is investigated. The set-up can be applied to perform imaging with two beams simultaneously. It brings advantages toward dynamic studies using image guided diffraction or fluorescence spectroscopy. The optimal energy range of operation for the beam-splitter is between 7 keV and 24 keV, reaching best efficiency at an energy of 10 keV. Due to the long focusing distances (several tens of meters) created by the diffractive–refractive optics and the higher refraction efficiency in the softer energy range, the presented set-ups are ideal for hard X-ray FEL sources.

  20. X-Ray-Scattering Measurements Of Strain In PEEK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebe, Peggy; Lowry, Lynn E.; Chung, Shirley Y.; Yavrouian, Andre H.; Gupta, Amitava

    1988-01-01

    Internal stress relieved by heating above glass-transition temperature. Report describes wide-angle x-ray scattering and differential scanning calorimetry of specimens of poly(etheretherketone) having undergone various thermal treatments. Wide-angle x-ray scattering particularly useful in determining distances between atoms, crystallinity, and related microstructurally generated phenomena, as thermal expansion and strain. Calorimetric measurements aid interpretation of scattering measurements by enabling correlation with thermal effects.

  1. Measurement of non-invasive X-ray measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Shinji

    2013-01-01

    Described are the history, measuring system, characteristics and present state of the instruments in the title (NXMI). NXMI, non-invasive to the inner circuit of X-ray generator, is now essential for the quality control of generator with reference to definitions by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and Japan Industrial Standards (JIS). Non-invasive measurement of the generator's tube voltage in 1944 is the first report where the absorption difference of Cu plates with different thickness is used. At present, NXMI, being compact, can measure multiple properties of X-ray generated, such as the tube voltage (TV), current (TC), imaging time, dose/dose rate, total filtration, half value layer, and TV/output waveform. TV is measurable by the penetration difference of X-rays through Cu filters of different thickness, which is a linear function of TV; TC, with the clamp-type ammeter placed at the generator high voltage cable; and the dose, with the semiconductor detector. Characteristics can be evaluable within the upper trigger level of the detector (radiation time, dose measured here), in which measured are the irradiation (imaging) time, delay time, and TV (within the window width). Authors' practical quality control of the generator is conducted through calibration for which data are obtained by invasive (direct) precise measurement of TV, TC, imaging time and dose with reference to JIS. Periodical calibration and consequent quality control of NXMI are essential for the maintenance of precision of the generator. (T.T.)

  2. The NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Survey of the Norma Arm Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornasini, Francesca M. [Astronomy Department, University of California, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Tomsick, John A.; Chiu, Jeng-Lun; Clavel, Maïca; Krivonos, Roman A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hong, JaeSub [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gotthelf, Eric V.; Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Bauer, Franz; Corral-Santana, Jesús [Instituto de Astrofísica and Centro de Astroingeniería, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Rahoui, Farid [European Southern Observatory, K. Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bodaghee, Arash [Georgia College, 231 W. Hancock Street, Milledgeville, GA 31061 (United States); Alexander, David M. [Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Barret, Didier [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); CNRS, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Christensen, Finn E., E-mail: f.fornasini@berkeley.edu [DTU Space—National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); and others

    2017-04-01

    We present a catalog of hard X-ray sources in a square-degree region surveyed by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array ( NuSTAR ) in the direction of the Norma spiral arm. This survey has a total exposure time of 1.7 Ms, and the typical and maximum exposure depths are 50 ks and 1 Ms, respectively. In the area of deepest coverage, sensitivity limits of 5 × 10{sup −14} and 4 × 10{sup −14} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2} in the 3–10 and 10–20 keV bands, respectively, are reached. Twenty-eight sources are firmly detected, and 10 are detected with low significance; 8 of the 38 sources are expected to be active galactic nuclei. The three brightest sources were previously identified as a low-mass X-ray binary, high-mass X-ray binary, and pulsar wind nebula. Based on their X-ray properties and multiwavelength counterparts, we identify the likely nature of the other sources as two colliding wind binaries, three pulsar wind nebulae, a black hole binary, and a plurality of cataclysmic variables (CVs). The CV candidates in the Norma region have plasma temperatures of ≈10–20 keV, consistent with the Galactic ridge X-ray emission spectrum but lower than the temperatures of CVs near the Galactic center. This temperature difference may indicate that the Norma region has a lower fraction of intermediate polars relative to other types of CVs compared to the Galactic center. The NuSTAR log N –log S distribution in the 10–20 keV band is consistent with the distribution measured by Chandra at 2–10 keV if the average source spectrum is assumed to be a thermal model with kT  ≈ 15 keV, as observed for the CV candidates.

  3. CORRELATION OF HARD X-RAY AND WHITE LIGHT EMISSION IN SOLAR FLARES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhar, Matej; Krucker, Säm; Battaglia, Marina; Kleint, Lucia; Casadei, Diego [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Bahnhofstrasse 6, 5210 Windisch (Switzerland); Oliveros, Juan Carlos Martinez; Hudson, Hugh S. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A statistical study of the correlation between hard X-ray and white light emission in solar flares is performed in order to search for a link between flare-accelerated electrons and white light formation. We analyze 43 flares spanning GOES classes M and X using observations from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager. We calculate X-ray fluxes at 30 keV and white light fluxes at 6173 Å summed over the hard X-ray flare ribbons with an integration time of 45 s around the peak hard-X ray time. We find a good correlation between hard X-ray fluxes and excess white light fluxes, with a highest correlation coefficient of 0.68 for photons with energy of 30 keV. Assuming the thick target model, a similar correlation is found between the deposited power by flare-accelerated electrons and the white light fluxes. The correlation coefficient is found to be largest for energy deposition by electrons above ∼50 keV. At higher electron energies the correlation decreases gradually while a rapid decrease is seen if the energy provided by low-energy electrons is added. This suggests that flare-accelerated electrons of energy ∼50 keV are the main source for white light production.

  4. The 105-Month Swift-BAT All-Sky Hard X-Ray Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyuseok; Koss, Michael; Markwardt, Craig B.; Schawinski, Kevin; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Gehrels, Neil; Mushotzky, Richard; Petulante, Abigail; hide

    2018-01-01

    We present a catalog of hard X-ray sources detected in the first 105 months of observations with the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) coded-mask imager on board the Swift observatory. The 105-month Swift-BAT survey is a uniform hard X-ray all-sky survey with a sensitivity of 8.40 x 10(exp -12) erg s(exp -1) cm(exp -2) over 90% of the sky and 7.24 x 10(exp -12) erg s(exp -1) cm(exp -2) over 50% of the sky in the 14-195 keV band. The Swift-BAT 105-month catalog provides 1632 (422 new detections) hard X-ray sources in the 14-195 keV band above the 4.8 sigma significance level. Adding to the previously known hard X-ray sources, 34% (144/422) of the new detections are identified as Seyfert active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in nearby galaxies (z < 0.2). The majority of the remaining identified sources are X-ray binaries (7%, 31) and blazars/BL Lac objects (10%, 43). As part of this new edition of the Swift-BAT catalog, we release eight-channel spectra and monthly sampled light curves for each object in the online journal and at the Swift-BAT 105-month website.

  5. Hard x ray imaging and the relative contribution of thermal and nonthermal emission in flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    The question of whether the impulsive 25 to 100 keV x ray emission from solar flares is thermal or nonthermal has been a long-standing controversy. Both thermal and nonthermal (beam) models have been developed and applied to the hard x ray data. It now seems likely that both thermal and nonthermal emission have been observed at hard x ray energies. The Hinotori classification scheme, for example, is an attempt to associate the thermal-nonthermal characteristics of flare hard x ray emission with other flare properties. From a theoretical point of view, it is difficult to generate energetic, nonthermal electrons without dumping an equal or greater amount of energy into plasma heating. On the other hand, any impulsive heating process will invariably generate at least some nonthermal particles. Hence, strictly speaking, although thermal or nonthermal emission may dominate the hard x ray emission in a given energy range for a given flare, there is no such thing as a purely thermal or nonthermal flare mechanism

  6. Great microwave bursts and hard X-rays from solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiehl, H.J.; Batchelor, D.A.; Crannell, C.J.; Dennis, B.R.; Price, P.N.

    1983-06-01

    The microwave and hard X-ray charateristics of 13 solar flares that produced microwave fluxes greater than 500 Solar Flux Units were analyzed. These Great Microwave Bursts were observed in the frequency range from 3 to 35 GHz at Berne, and simultaneous hard X-ray observations were made in the energy range from 30 to 500 keV with the Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft. The principal aim of this analysis is to determine whether or not the same distribution of energetic electrons can explain both emissions. Correlations were found between respective temporal characteristics and, for the first time, between microwave and hard X-ray spectral characteristics. A single-temperature and a multi-temperature model from the literature were tested for consistency with the coincident X-ray and microwave spectra at microwave burst maximum. Four events are inconsistent with both of the models tested, and neither of the models attempts to explain the high-frequency part of the microwave spectrum. A model in which the emissions above and below the peak frequency originate in two different parts of a diverging magnetic loop is proposed. With this model the entire microwave spectrum of all but one of the events is explained

  7. 3D visualization of subcellular structures of Schizosaccharomyces pombe by hard X-ray tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Li, W; Liu, G; Zhang, X; Chen, J; Wu, W; Guan, Y; Xiong, Y; Tian, Y; Wu, Z

    2010-10-01

    Cellular structures of the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, were examined by using hard X-ray tomography. Since cells are nearly transparent to hard X-rays, Zernike phase contrast and heavy metal staining were introduced to improve image contrast. Through using such methods, images taken at 8 keV displayed sufficient contrast for observing cellular structures. The cell wall, the intracellular organelles and the entire structural organization of the whole cells were visualized in three-dimensional at a resolution better than 100 nm. Comparison between phase contrast and absorption contrast was also made, indicating the obvious advantage of phase contrast for cellular imaging at this energy. Our results demonstrate that hard X-ray tomography with Zernike phase contrast is suitable for cellular imaging. Its unique abilities make it have potential to become a useful tool for revealing structural information from cells, especially thick eukaryotic cells. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 The Royal Microscopical Society.

  8. Thermoluminescent dosimeters for low dose X-ray measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Sol Fernández, S.; García-Salcedo, R.; Sánchez-Guzmán, D.; Ramírez-Rodríguez, G.; Gaona, E.; León-Alfaro, M.A. de; Rivera-Montalvo, T.

    2016-01-01

    The response of TLD-100, CaSO_4:Dy and LiF:Mg,Cu,P for a range of X-ray low dose was measured. For calibration, the TLDs were arranged at the center of the X-ray field. The dose output of the X-ray machine was determined using an ACCU-Gold. All dosimeters were exposed at the available air kerma values of 14.69 mGy within a field 10×10 cm"2 at 80 cm of SSD. Results of LiF:Mg,Cu,P X-ray irradiated showed 4.8 times higher sensitivity than TLD-100. Meanwhile, TL response of CaSO_4:Dy exposed at the same dose was 5.6 time higher than TLD-100. Experimental results show for low dose X-ray measurements a better linearity for LiF:Mg,Cu,P compared with that of TLD-100. CaSO_4:Dy showed a linearity from 0.1 to 60 mGy - Highlights: • Low dose X-ray doses for personal dosimetry were measured. • Radiation dose (µGy ) for environmental dosimetry were determined. • Scattering radiation dose were measured by TLDs. • Linearity of pair TLD system was successful in the range of microgray. • Pair TLDs composed by CaSO_4:Dy and by LiF:Mg,Cu,P. is suggested for clinical dosimetry.

  9. Identification of Hard X-ray Sources in Galactic Globular Clusters: Simbol-X Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servillat, M.

    2009-05-01

    Globular clusters harbour an excess of X-ray sources compared to the number of X-ray sources in the Galactic plane. It has been proposed that many of these X-ray sources are cataclysmic variables that have an intermediate magnetic field, i.e. intermediate polars, which remains to be confirmed and understood. We present here several methods to identify intermediate polars in globular clusters from multiwavelength analysis. First, we report on XMM-Newton, Chandra and HST observations of the very dense Galactic globular cluster NGC 2808. By comparing UV and X-ray properties of the cataclysmic variable candidates, the fraction of intermediate polars in this cluster can be estimated. We also present the optical spectra of two cataclysmic variables in the globular cluster M 22. The HeII (4868 Å) emission line in these spectra could be related to the presence of a magnetic field in these objects. Simulations of Simbol-X observations indicate that the angular resolution is sufficient to study X-ray sources in the core of close, less dense globular clusters, such as M 22. The sensitivity of Simbol-X in an extended energy band up to 80 keV will allow us to discriminate between hard X-ray sources (such as magnetic cataclysmic variables) and soft X-ray sources (such as chromospherically active binaries).

  10. TRACING THE REVERBERATION LAG IN THE HARD STATE OF BLACK HOLE X-RAY BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marco, B.; Ponti, G.; Nandra, K.; Muñoz-Darias, T.

    2015-01-01

    We report results obtained from a systematic analysis of X-ray lags in a sample of black hole X-ray binaries, with the aim of assessing the presence of reverberation lags and studying their evolution during outburst. We used XMM-Newton and simultaneous Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations to obtain broadband energy coverage of both the disk and the hard X-ray Comptonization components. In most cases the detection of reverberation lags is hampered by low levels of variability-power signal-to-noise ratio (typically when the source is in a soft state) and/or short exposure times. The most detailed study was possible for GX 339-4 in the hard state, which allowed us to characterize the evolution of X-ray lags as a function of luminosity in a single source. Over all the sampled frequencies (∼0.05–9 Hz), we observe the hard lags intrinsic to the power-law component, already well known from previous RXTE studies. The XMM-Newton soft X-ray response allows us to detail the disk variability. At low frequencies (long timescales) the disk component always leads the power-law component. On the other hand, a soft reverberation lag (ascribable to thermal reprocessing) is always detected at high frequencies (short timescales). The intrinsic amplitude of the reverberation lag decreases as the source luminosity and the disk fraction increase. This suggests that the distance between the X-ray source and the region of the optically thick disk where reprocessing occurs gradually decreases as GX 339-4 rises in luminosity through the hard state, possibly as a consequence of reduced disk truncation

  11. Sub-100 nm hard X-ray microbeam generation with Fresnel zone plate optics

    CERN Document Server

    Takano, H; Takeuchi, A

    2003-01-01

    A hard X-ray focusing test of a Fresnel zone plate has been performed with a synchrotron radiation source at the undulator beamline 20XU of SPring-8. Fresnel zone plate with a radius of 150 mu m, and an outermost zone width of 100 nm was used for the X-ray focusing device. The 248-m-long beamline provides fully coherent illumination for the focusing device. The focused beam evaluated by the knife-edge-scan method and scanning microscope test using test charts. Nearly diffraction- limited focusing with a size of 120 nm was achieved for the first-order diffraction at 10 keV X-ray. Evaluation for the third order diffraction was also performed at 8 keV X-ray, and a focal size of 50 m has been obtained. (author)

  12. Cosmological evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers unveiled by hard X-ray observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    We review the current understanding of the cosmological evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers elucidated by X-ray surveys of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Hard X-ray observations at energies above 2 keV are the most efficient and complete tools to find "obscured" AGNs, which are dominant populations among all AGNs. Combinations of surveys with various flux limits and survey area have enabled us to determine the space number density and obscuration properties of AGNs as a function of luminosity and redshift. The results have essentially solved the origin of the X-ray background in the energy band below ∼10 keV. The downsizing (or anti-hierarchical) evolution that more luminous AGNs have the space-density peak at higher redshifts has been discovered, challenging theories of galaxy and black hole formation. Finally, we summarize unresolved issues on AGN evolution and prospects for future X-ray missions.

  13. Study of adsorption states for lubricant molecule using hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikenaga, E.; Kobata, M.; Kim, J.J.; Wakabayashi, A.; Nishino, Y.; Tamasaku, K.; Sakane, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Komiya, S.; Kobayashi, K.

    2007-01-01

    The adsorption states for lubricant molecules have been investigated using hard X-ray (hν = 7.95 keV) photoemission spectroscopy (HX-PES). This method has the advantage for the organic molecules to be able to measure damage few. Being aware of the fact that P atoms exist only in cyclotriphosphazene base, we measured the take-off angle dependence of the P1s spectra. Each spectrum consists from two peaks, that is, substrate NiP peak and cyclotriphosphazene P peak. The cyclotriphosphazene P peak rapidly disappears with increasing take-off angle. We have also measured C1s spectra. Combining these experimental results, we have found that the adsorption state of cyclotriphosphazene end group is undergoing

  14. Hard X-ray full field microscopy and magnifying microtomography using compound refractive lenses

    CERN Document Server

    Schrör, C; Benner, B; Kuhlmann, M; Tümmler, J; Lengeler, B; Rau, C; Weitkamp, T; Snigirev, A; Snigireva, I

    2001-01-01

    For hard X-rays, parabolic compound refractive lenses (PCRLs) are genuine imaging devices like glass lenses for visible light. Based on these new lenses, a hard X-ray full field microscope has been constructed that is ideally suited to image the interior of opaque samples with a minimum of sample preparation. As a result of a large depth of field, CRL micrographs are sharp projection images of most samples. To obtain 3D information about a sample, tomographic techniques are combined with magnified imaging.

  15. Hard X-ray full field microscopy and magnifying microtomography using compound refractive lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroer, Christian G.; Günzler, Til Florian; Benner, Boris; Kuhlmann, Marion; Tümmler, Johannes; Lengeler, Bruno; Rau, Christoph; Weitkamp, Timm; Snigirev, Anatoly; Snigireva, Irina

    2001-07-01

    For hard X-rays, parabolic compound refractive lenses (PCRLs) are genuine imaging devices like glass lenses for visible light. Based on these new lenses, a hard X-ray full field microscope has been constructed that is ideally suited to image the interior of opaque samples with a minimum of sample preparation. As a result of a large depth of field, CRL micrographs are sharp projection images of most samples. To obtain 3D information about a sample, tomographic techniques are combined with magnified imaging.

  16. Hard X-ray full field microscopy and magnifying microtomography using compound refractive lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, Christian G.; Guenzler, Til Florian; Benner, Boris; Kuhlmann, Marion; Tuemmler, Johannes; Lengeler, Bruno; Rau, Christoph; Weitkamp, Timm; Snigirev, Anatoly; Snigireva, Irina

    2001-01-01

    For hard X-rays, parabolic compound refractive lenses (PCRLs) are genuine imaging devices like glass lenses for visible light. Based on these new lenses, a hard X-ray full field microscope has been constructed that is ideally suited to image the interior of opaque samples with a minimum of sample preparation. As a result of a large depth of field, CRL micrographs are sharp projection images of most samples. To obtain 3D information about a sample, tomographic techniques are combined with magnified imaging

  17. Bragg concentrators for hard (> 10keV) x-ray astronomy: Status report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareschi, G.; Frontera, F.; Pasqualini, G.

    1997-01-01

    The use of focusing telescopes in hard X-ray (E > 10 keV) astronomy will provide better flux sensitivity and imaging performances with respect to the direct-viewing detectors, utilized until now. We present recent results obtained from our group regarding the possible use of Bragg-diffraction tec......The use of focusing telescopes in hard X-ray (E > 10 keV) astronomy will provide better flux sensitivity and imaging performances with respect to the direct-viewing detectors, utilized until now. We present recent results obtained from our group regarding the possible use of Bragg...

  18. A model independent method to deconvolve hard X-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polcaro, V.F.; Bazzano, A.; Ubertini, P.; La Padula, C.

    1984-01-01

    A general purpose method to deconvolve the energy spectra detected by means of the use of a hard X-ray telescope is described. The procedure does not assume any form of input spectrum and the observed energy loss spectrum is directly deconvolved into the incident photon spectrum, the form of which can be determined independently of physical interpretation of the data. Deconvolution of the hard X-ray spectrum of Her X-1, detected during the HXR 81M experiment, by the method independent method is presented. (orig.)

  19. Thick and large area PIN diodes for hard X-ray astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Ota, N; Sugizaki, M; Kaneda, M; Tamura, T; Ozawa, H; Kamae, T; Makishima, K; Takahashi, T; Tashiro, M; Fukazawa, Y; Kataoka, J; Yamaoka, K; Kubo, S; Tanihata, C; Uchiyama, Y; Matsuzaki, K; Iyomoto, N; Kokubun, M; Nakazawa, T; Kubota, A; Mizuno, T; Matsumoto, Y; Isobe, N; Terada, Y; Sugiho, M; Onishi, T; Kubo, H; Ikeda, H; Nomachi, M; Ohsugi, T; Muramatsu, M; Akahori, H

    1999-01-01

    Thick and large area PIN diodes for the hard X-ray astronomy in the 10-60 keV range are developed. To cover this energy range in a room temperature and in a low background environment, Si PIN junction diodes of 2 mm in thickness with 2.5 cm sup 2 in effective area were developed, and will be used in the bottom of the Phoswich Hard X-ray Detector (HXD), on-board the ASTRO-E satellite. Problems related to a high purity Si and a thick depletion layer during our development and performance of the PIN diodes are presented in detail.

  20. The nature of 50 Palermo Swift-BAT hard X-ray objects through optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, A. F.; Masetti, N.; Minniti, D.; Jiménez-Bailón, E.; Chavushyan, V.; Hau, G.; McBride, V. A.; Bassani, L.; Bazzano, A.; Bird, A. J.; Galaz, G.; Gavignaud, I.; Landi, R.; Malizia, A.; Morelli, L.; Palazzi, E.; Patiño-Álvarez, V.; Stephen, J. B.; Ubertini, P.

    2017-06-01

    We present the nature of 50 hard X-ray emitting objects unveiled through an optical spectroscopy campaign performed at seven telescopes in the northern and southern hemispheres. These objects were detected with the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) instrument onboard the Swift satellite and listed as of unidentified nature in the 54-month Palermo BAT catalogue. In detail, 45 sources in our sample are identified as active galactic nuclei of which, 27 are classified as type 1 (with broad and narrow emission lines) and 18 are classified as type 2 (with only narrow emission lines). Among the broad-line emission objects, one is a type 1 high-redshift quasi-stellar object, and among the narrow-line emission objects, one is a starburst galaxy, one is a X-ray bright optically normal galaxy, and one is a low ionization nuclear emission line region. We report 30 new redshift measurements, 13 confirmations and 2 more accurate redshift values. The remaining five objects are galactic sources: three are Cataclismic Variables, one is a X-ray Binary probably with a low mass secondary star, and one is an active star. Based on observations obtained from the following observatories: Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory (Chile); Astronomical Observatory of Bologna in Loiano (Italy); Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (San Pedro Mártir, Mexico); Radcliffe telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory (Sutherland, South Africa); Sloan Digital Sky Survey; Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Canary Islands, Spain) and New Technology Telescope (NTT) of La Silla Observatory, Chile.

  1. A HARD X-RAY POWER-LAW SPECTRAL CUTOFF IN CENTAURUS X-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarty, Deepto; Nowak, Michael A. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Tomsick, John A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Grefenstette, Brian W.; Fürst, Felix; Harrison, Fiona A.; Rana, Vikram [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Psaltis, Dimitrios [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier [Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Christensen, Finn E. [Division of Astrophysics, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Kaspi, Victoria M. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, PQ H3A 2T8 (Canada); Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wik, Daniel R.; Zhang, William W. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Wilms, Jörn, E-mail: deepto@mit.edu [Dr. Karl-Remeis-Sternwarte and Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, D-96049 Bamberg (Germany)

    2014-12-20

    The low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Cen X-4 is the brightest and closest (<1.2 kpc) quiescent neutron star transient. Previous 0.5-10 keV X-ray observations of Cen X-4 in quiescence identified two spectral components: soft thermal emission from the neutron star atmosphere and a hard power-law tail of unknown origin. We report here on a simultaneous observation of Cen X-4 with NuSTAR (3-79 keV) and XMM-Newton (0.3-10 keV) in 2013 January, providing the first sensitive hard X-ray spectrum of a quiescent neutron star transient. The 0.3-79 keV luminosity was 1.1×10{sup 33} D{sub kpc}{sup 2} erg s{sup –1}, with ≅60% in the thermal component. We clearly detect a cutoff of the hard spectral tail above 10 keV, the first time such a feature has been detected in this source class. We show that thermal Comptonization and synchrotron shock origins for the hard X-ray emission are ruled out on physical grounds. However, the hard X-ray spectrum is well fit by a thermal bremsstrahlung model with kT{sub e} = 18 keV, which can be understood as arising either in a hot layer above the neutron star atmosphere or in a radiatively inefficient accretion flow. The power-law cutoff energy may be set by the degree of Compton cooling of the bremsstrahlung electrons by thermal seed photons from the neutron star surface. Lower thermal luminosities should lead to higher (possibly undetectable) cutoff energies. We compare Cen X-4's behavior with PSR J1023+0038, IGR J18245–2452, and XSS J12270–4859, which have shown transitions between LMXB and radio pulsar modes at a similar X-ray luminosity.

  2. MODELING THE THERMAL DIFFUSE SOFT AND HARD X-RAY EMISSION IN M17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velázquez, P. F.; Rodríguez-González, A.; Esquivel, A.; Rosado, M.; Reyes-Iturbide, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present numerical models of very young wind driven superbubbles. The parameters chosen for the simulations correspond to the particular case of the M17 nebula, but are appropriate for any young superbubble in which the wind sources have not completely dispersed their parental cloud. From the simulations, we computed the diffuse emission in the soft ([0.5-1.5] keV) and hard ([1.5-5] keV) X-ray bands. The total luminosity in our simulations agrees with the observations of Hyodo et al., about two orders of magnitude below the prediction of the standard model of Weaver et al.. The difference with respect to the standard (adiabatic) model is the inclusion of radiative cooling, which is still important in such young bubbles. We show that for this type of object the diffuse hard X-ray luminosity is significant compared to that of soft X-rays, contributing as much as 10% of the total luminosity, in contrast with more evolved bubbles where the hard X-ray emission is indeed negligible, being at least four orders of magnitude lower than the soft X-ray emission.

  3. Hard X-ray variability of V404 Cygni during the 2015 outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fernández, C.; Kajava, J. J. E.; Motta, S. E.; Kuulkers, E.

    2017-06-01

    Aims: Hard X-ray spectra of black hole binaries (BHB) are produced by Comptonization of soft seed photons by hot electrons near the black hole. The slope of the resulting energy spectra is governed by two main parameters: the electron temperature (Te) and optical depth (τ) of the emitting plasma. Given the extreme brightness of V404 Cyg during the 2015 outburst, we aim to constrain the source spectral properties using an unprecedented time resolution in hard X-rays, and to monitor the evolution of Te and τ over the outburst. Methods: We have extracted and analysed 602 X-ray spectra of V404 Cyg obtained by the IBIS/ISGRI instrument on-board INTEGRAL during the 2015 June outburst, using effective integration times ranging between 8 and 176 000 s. We fitted the resulting spectra in the 20-200 keV energy range. Results: We find that while the light curve and soft X-ray spectra of V404 Cyg are remarkably different from those of other BHBs, the spectral evolution of V404 Cyg in hard X-rays and the relations between the spectral parameters are consistent with those observed in other BHBs. We identify a hard branch in which the Te is anti-correlated with the hard X-ray flux, and a soft flaring branch in which the relation reverses. In addition, we find that during long X-ray plateaus detected at intermediate fluxes, the thermal Comptonization models fail to describe the spectra. However, the statistics improve if we allow NH to vary freely in the fits to these spectra. Conclusions: We conclude that the hard branch in V404 Cyg is analogous to the canonical hard state of BHBs. V404 Cyg never seems to enter the canonical soft state, although the soft flaring branch bears resemblance to the BHB intermediate state and ultra-luminous state. The X-ray plateaus are likely the result of absorption by a Compton-thick outflow (NH ≳ 1024 cm-2) which reduces the observed flux by a factor of about 10. Variable covering of the central source by this Compton-thick material may be the

  4. NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Observation of a Sub-A Class Solar Flare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glesener, Lindsay [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States); Krucker, Säm; Hudson, Hugh [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley (United States); Hannah, Iain G. [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Grefenstette, Brian W. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (United States); White, Stephen M. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Albuquerque (United States); Smith, David M.; Marsh, Andrew J. [Santa Cruz Institute of Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz (United States)

    2017-08-20

    We report a Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array ( NuSTAR ) observation of a solar microflare, SOL2015-09-01T04. Although it was too faint to be observed by the GOES X-ray Sensor, we estimate the event to be an A0.1 class flare in brightness. This microflare, with only ∼5 counts s{sup −1} detector{sup −1} observed by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager ( RHESSI ), is fainter than any hard X-ray (HXR) flare in the existing literature. The microflare occurred during a solar pointing by the highly sensitive NuSTAR astrophysical observatory, which used its direct focusing optics to produce detailed HXR microflare spectra and images. The microflare exhibits HXR properties commonly observed in larger flares, including a fast rise and more gradual decay, earlier peak time with higher energy, spatial dimensions similar to the RHESSI microflares, and a high-energy excess beyond an isothermal spectral component during the impulsive phase. The microflare is small in emission measure, temperature, and energy, though not in physical size; observations are consistent with an origin via the interaction of at least two magnetic loops. We estimate the increase in thermal energy at the time of the microflare to be 2.4 × 10{sup 27} erg. The observation suggests that flares do indeed scale down to extremely small energies and retain what we customarily think of as “flare-like” properties.

  5. Carbon-based Fresnel optics for hard x-ray astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braig, Christoph; Zizak, Ivo

    2018-03-10

    We investigate the potential of large-scale diffractive-refractive normal-incidence transmission lenses for the development of space-based hard x-ray telescopes with an angular resolution in the range of (10 -6 -10 -3 )  arcsec over a field of view that is restricted by the available detector size. Coherently stepped achromatic lenses with diameters up to 5 m for compact apertures and 13 m in the case of segmentation provide an access to spectrally resolved imaging within keV-wide bands around the design energy between 10 and 30 keV. Within an integration time of 10 6   s, a photon-limited 5σ sensitivity down to (10 -9 -10 -7 )  s -1  cm -2  keV -1 can be achieved depending on the specific design. An appropriate fabrication strategy, feasible nowadays with micro-optical technologies, is considered and relies on the availability of high-purity carbon or polymer membranes. X-ray fluorescence measurements of various commercially available carbon-based materials prove for most of them the existence of a virtually negligible contamination by critical trace elements such as transition metals on the ppm level.

  6. Scattered hard X-ray and γ-ray generation from a chromatic electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, J. E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Welch, D. R.; Miller, C. L. [Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108 (United States)

    2015-11-14

    An array of photon diagnostics has been deployed on a high power relativistic electron beam diode. Electrons are extracted through a 17.8 cm diode from the surface discharge of a carbon fiber velvet cathode with a nominal diode voltage of 3.8 MV. <10% of the 100 ns electron pulse is composed of off energy electrons (1–3 MeV) accelerated during the rise and fall of the pulse that impact the stainless steel beam pipe and generate a Bremsstrahlung spectrum of 0.1–3 MeV photons with a total count of 10{sup 11}. The principal objective of these experiments is to quantify the electron beam dynamics and spatial dynamics of the hard X-ray and γ-ray flux generated in the diode region. A qualitative comparison of experimental and calculated results are presented, including time and energy resolved electron beam propagation and scattered photon measurements with X-ray PIN diodes and a photomultiplier tube indicating a dose dependence on the diode voltage >V{sup 4} and detected photon counts of nearly 10{sup 6} at a radial distance of 1 m which corresponds to dose ∼40 μrad at 1 m.

  7. The hard X-ray spectrum of Cyg X-1 during the transition in November 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, M.; Maurus, H.; Urbach, R.

    1976-01-01

    Some observations are reported of the hard X-ray spectrum of Cyg X-1 during a transition to the high state in November 1975, made with a balloon-borne X-ray detector. The range covered was 25 to 150 keV. The data obtained appeared to confirm the characteristic spectral time variation, and suggested a single power law spectrum from 3 to 80 keV, with an increasing spectral index during the upward transition to the high state. A power spectrum is expected if it is assumed that the universe Compton effect is the basic mechanism that produces the hard X-ray tail of Cyg X-1. Spectral time variation may be caused by a varying intensity of an inner soft photon source within a stable hot cloud. (U.K.)

  8. Recent advances in synchrotron-based hard x-ray phase contrast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Nelson, J.; Holzner, C.; Andrews, J. C.; Pianetta, P.

    2013-12-01

    Ever since the first demonstration of phase contrast imaging (PCI) in the 1930s by Frits Zernike, people have realized the significant advantage of phase contrast over conventional absorption-based imaging in terms of sensitivity to ‘transparent’ features within specimens. Thus, x-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) holds great potential in studies of soft biological tissues, typically containing low Z elements such as C, H, O and N. Particularly when synchrotron hard x-rays are employed, the favourable brightness, energy tunability, monochromatic characteristics and penetration depth have dramatically enhanced the quality and variety of XPCI methods, which permit detection of the phase shift associated with 3D geometry of relatively large samples in a non-destructive manner. In this paper, we review recent advances in several synchrotron-based hard x-ray XPCI methods. Challenges and key factors in methodological development are discussed, and biological and medical applications are presented.

  9. Recent advances in synchrotron-based hard x-ray phase contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y; Nelson, J; Andrews, J C; Pianetta, P; Holzner, C

    2013-01-01

    Ever since the first demonstration of phase contrast imaging (PCI) in the 1930s by Frits Zernike, people have realized the significant advantage of phase contrast over conventional absorption-based imaging in terms of sensitivity to ‘transparent’ features within specimens. Thus, x-ray phase contrast imaging (XPCI) holds great potential in studies of soft biological tissues, typically containing low Z elements such as C, H, O and N. Particularly when synchrotron hard x-rays are employed, the favourable brightness, energy tunability, monochromatic characteristics and penetration depth have dramatically enhanced the quality and variety of XPCI methods, which permit detection of the phase shift associated with 3D geometry of relatively large samples in a non-destructive manner. In this paper, we review recent advances in several synchrotron-based hard x-ray XPCI methods. Challenges and key factors in methodological development are discussed, and biological and medical applications are presented. (paper)

  10. Hard x-ray nanoprobe of beamline P06 at PETRA III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroer, C. G., E-mail: christian.schroer@desy.de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Department Physik, Universität Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Baumbach, C. [Institute of Optics and Photonics of Condensed Matter, Technische Universität Chemnitz, D-09126 Chemnitz (Germany); Döhrmann, R.; Kahnt, M.; Reinhardt, J.; Scholz, M.; Schropp, A.; Seyrich, M.; Wittwer, F.; Falkenberg, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Klare, S.; Hoppe, R.; Patommel, J.; Ritter, S.; Samberg, D.; Seiboth, F. [Institut für Strukturphysik, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-07-27

    The hard x-ray scanning microscope at beamline P06 of PETRA III at DESY in Hamburg serves a large user community, from physics, chemistry, and nanotechnology to the bio-medical, materials, environmental, and geosciences. It has been in user operation since 2012, and is mainly based on nanofocusing refractive x-ray lenses. Using refractive optics, nearly gaussian-limited nanobeams in the range from 50 to 100 nm can be generated in the hard x-ray energy range from 8 to 30 keV. The degree of coherence can be traded off against the flux in the nanobeam by a two-stage focusing scheme. We give a brief overview on published results from this instrument and describe its most important components and parameters.

  11. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of tetragonal Mn72Ge28 epitaxial thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhyeok; Mizuguchi, Masaki; Inami, Nobuhito; Ueno, Tetsuro; Ueda, Shigenori; Takanashi, Koki

    2018-04-01

    An epitaxially grown Mn72Ge28 film with a tetragonal crystal structure was fabricated. It was clarified that the film had a perpendicular magnetization and a high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy energy of 14.3 Merg/cm3. The electronic structure was investigated by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The obtained X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectrum revealed that the Mn orbital magnetic moment governed the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the Mn72Ge28 film. A doublet structure was observed for the Mn 2p3/2 peak of hard X-ray photoelectron spectrum, indicating the spin exchange interaction between the 2p core-hole and 3d valence electrons.

  12. Development of a hard x-ray focal plane compton polarimeter: a compact polarimetric configuration with scintillators and Si photomultipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, T.; Vadawale, S. V.; Goyal, S. K.; Mithun, N. P. S.; Patel, A. R.; Shukla, R.; Ladiya, T.; Shanmugam, M.; Patel, V. R.; Ubale, G. P.

    2016-02-01

    X-ray polarization measurement of cosmic sources provides two unique parameters namely degree and angle of polarization which can probe the emission mechanism and geometry at close vicinity of the compact objects. Specifically, the hard X-ray polarimetry is more rewarding because the sources are expected to be intrinsically highly polarized at higher energies. With the successful implementation of Hard X-ray optics in NuSTAR, it is now feasible to conceive Compton polarimeters as focal plane detectors. Such a configuration is likely to provide sensitive polarization measurements in hard X-rays with a broad energy band. We are developing a focal plane hard X-ray Compton polarimeter consisting of a plastic scintillator as active scatterer surrounded by a cylindrical array of CsI(Tl) scintillators. The scatterer is 5 mm diameter and 100 mm long plastic scintillator (BC404) viewed by normal PMT. The photons scattered by the plastic scatterer are collected by a cylindrical array of 16 CsI(Tl) scintillators (5 mm × 5 mm × 150 mm) which are read by Si Photomultiplier (SiPM). Use of the new generation SiPMs ensures the compactness of the instrument which is essential for the design of focal plane detectors. The expected sensitivity of such polarimetric configuration and complete characterization of the plastic scatterer, specially at lower energies have been discussed in [11, 13]. In this paper, we characterize the CsI(Tl) absorbers coupled to SiPM. We also present the experimental results from the fully assembled configuration of the Compton polarimeter.

  13. Steep Hard-X-ray Spectra Indicate Extremely High Accretion Rates in Weak Emission-Line Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlar, Andrea; Shemmer, Ohad; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. Niel; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan, Xiaohui; Luo, Bin; Plotkin, Richard; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Wu, Jianfeng

    2018-06-01

    We present XMM-Newton imaging spectroscopy of ten weak emission-line quasars (WLQs) at 0.928 ≤ z ≤ 3.767, six of which are radio quiet and four which are radio intermediate. The new X-ray data enabled us to measure the hard-X-ray power-law photon index (Γ) in each source with relatively high accuracy. These measurements allowed us to confirm previous reports that WLQs have steeper X-ray spectra, therefore indicating higher accretion rates with respect to "typical" quasars. A comparison between the Γ values of our radio-quiet WLQs and those of a carefully-selected, uniform sample of 84 quasars shows that the first are significantly higher, at the ≥ 3σ level. Collectively, the four radio-intermediate WLQs have lower Γ values with respect to the six radio-quiet WLQs, as may be expected if the spectra of the first group are contaminated by X-ray emission from a jet. These results suggest that, in the absence of significant jet emission along our line of sight, WLQs constitute the extreme high end of the accretion rate distribution in quasars. We detect soft excess emission in our lowest-redshift radio-quiet WLQ, in agreement with previous findings suggesting that the prominence of this feature is associated with a high accretion rate. We have not detected signatures of Compton reflection, Fe Kα lines, or strong variability between two X-ray epochs in any of our WLQs.

  14. Providing Bright-Hard X-ray Beams from a Lower Energy Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, David

    2002-04-01

    At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) there had been an increasing demand for more high brightness harder X-ray sources in the 7 to 40 KeV range. In response to that demand, the ALS storage ring was modified in August 2001. Three 1.3 Tesla normal conducting bending magnets were removed and replaced with three 5 Tesla superconducting magnets (Superbends). The radiation produced by these Superbends is an order of magnitude higher in photon brightness and flux at 12 keV than the 1.3 Tesla bends, making them excellent sources of harder x-rays for protein crystallography and other harder x-ray applications. At the same time the Superbends do not compromise the performance of the facility in the UV and Soft X-ray regions of the spectrum. The Superbends will eventually feed 12 new x-ray beam lines greatly enhancing the facility's capacity in the hard x-ray region. The Superbend project is the biggest upgrade to the ALS storage ring since the ring was commissioned in 1993. In this paper we present, a history of the project, details of the magnet, installation, commissioning, and resulting performance of the ALS with Superbends.

  15. Nanometer Linear Focusing of Hard X Rays by a Multilayer Laue Lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, H.C.; Stephenson, G.B.; Maser, J.; Liu, C.; Conley, R.; Macrander, A.T.; Vogt, S.

    2006-01-01

    We report on a type of linear zone plate for nanometer-scale focusing of hard x rays, a multilayer Laue lens (MLL), produced by sectioning a multilayer and illuminating it in Laue diffraction geometry. Because of its large optical depth, a MLL spans the diffraction regimes applicable to a thin Fresnel zone plate and a crystal. Coupled wave theory calculations indicate that focusing to 5 nm or smaller with high efficiency should be possible. Partial MLL structures with outermost zone widths as small as 10 nm have been fabricated and tested with 19.5 keV synchrotron radiation. Focal sizes as small as 30 nm with efficiencies up to 44% are measured

  16. The First Focused Hard X-Ray Images of the Sun With NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grefenstette, Brian W.; Glesener, Lindsay; Krucker, Sam

    2016-01-01

    We present results from the the first campaign of dedicated solar observations undertaken by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope ARray (NuSTAR) hard X-ray (HXR) telescope. Designed as an astrophysics mission, NuSTAR nonetheless has the capability of directly imaging the Sun at HXR energies (>3 ke......V) with an increase in sensitivity of at least two magnitude compared to current non-focusing telescopes. In this paper we describe the scientific areas where NuSTAR will make major improvements on existing solar measurements. We report on the techniques used to observe the Sun with NuSTAR, their limitations......, and full-disk HXR images of the Sun....

  17. Suprathermal electron studies in the TCV tokamak: Design of a tomographic hard-x-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnesin, S.; Coda, S.; Decker, J.; Peysson, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance heating and electron cyclotron current drive, disruptive events, and sawtooth activity are all known to produce suprathermal electrons in fusion devices, motivating increasingly detailed studies of the generation and dynamics of this suprathermal population. Measurements have been performed in the past years in the tokamak a configuration variable (TCV) tokamak using a single pinhole hard-x-ray (HXR) camera and electron-cyclotron-emission radiometers, leading, in particular, to the identification of the crucial role of spatial transport in the physics of ECCD. The observation of a poloidal asymmetry in the emitted suprathermal bremsstrahlung radiation motivates the design of a proposed new tomographic HXR spectrometer reported in this paper. The design, which is based on a compact modified Soller collimator concept, is being aided by simulations of tomographic reconstruction. Quantitative criteria have been developed to optimize the design for the greatly variable shapes and positions of TCV plasmas.

  18. Characterization of temporal coherence of hard X-ray free-electron laser pulses with single-shot interferograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taito Osaka

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Temporal coherence is one of the most fundamental characteristics of light, connecting to spectral information through the Fourier transform relationship between time and frequency. Interferometers with a variable path-length difference (PLD between the two branches have widely been employed to characterize temporal coherence properties for broad spectral regimes. Hard X-ray interferometers reported previously, however, have strict limitations in their operational photon energies, due to the specific optical layouts utilized to satisfy the stringent requirement for extreme stability of the PLD at sub-ångström scales. The work presented here characterizes the temporal coherence of hard X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL pulses by capturing single-shot interferograms. Since the stability requirement is drastically relieved with this approach, it was possible to build a versatile hard X-ray interferometer composed of six separate optical elements to cover a wide photon energy range from 6.5 to 11.5 keV while providing a large variable delay time of up to 47 ps at 10 keV. A high visibility of up to 0.55 was observed at a photon energy of 10 keV. The visibility measurement as a function of time delay reveals a mean coherence time of 5.9 ± 0.7 fs, which agrees with that expected from the single-shot spectral information. This is the first result of characterizing the temporal coherence of XFEL pulses in the hard X-ray regime and is an important milestone towards ultra-high energy resolutions at micro-electronvolt levels in time-domain X-ray spectroscopy, which will open up new opportunities for revealing dynamic properties in diverse systems on timescales from femtoseconds to nanoseconds, associated with fluctuations from ångström to nanometre spatial scales.

  19. Atomic physics with hard X-rays from high brilliance synchrotron light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, S.; Gemmell, D.

    1996-08-01

    A century after the discovery of x rays, the experimental capability for studying atomic structure and dynamics with hard, bright synchrotron radiation is increasing remarkably. Tempting opportunities arise for experiments on many-body effects, aspects of fundamental photon-atom interaction processes, and relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic phenomena. Some of these possibilities are surveyed in general terms

  20. INTEGRAL detection of a hard X-ray transient in NGC 6440

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuulkers, E.; Bozzo, E.; Bazzano, A.

    2015-01-01

    Referred to by ATel #: 7106, 7136, 7183 Tweet During INTEGRAL Galactic bulge monitoring (e.g., ATel #438) observations performed on UT 2015 February 17 at 12.53-16:45, IBIS/ISGRI detected renewed activity at hard X-rays from a transient within the Globular Cluster NGC 6440. The best determined...

  1. Development of thermally formed glass optics for astronomical hard X-ray telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craig, W.W.; Hailey, C.J.; Jimenez-Garate, M.

    2000-01-01

    The next major observational advance in hard X-ray/soft gamma-ray astrophysics will come with the implementation of telescopes capable of focusing 10-200 keV radiation. Focusing allows high signal-to-noise imaging and spectroscopic observations of many sources in this band for the first time...

  2. Development of a CZT spectroscopic 3D imager prototype for hard X ray astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auricchio, N.; Caroli, E.; Basili, A.

    2013-01-01

    The development of focusing optics based on wide band Laue lenses operating from ∼60 keV up to several hundreds of keV is particularly challenging. This type of hard X-ray or gamma ray optics requires a high performance focal plane detector in order to exploit to the best its intrinsic capabiliti...

  3. Experimental study of hard X-rays emitted from meter-scale positive discharges in air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.O. Kochkin (Pavlo); C.V. Nguyen; A. van Deursen (Arie); U. M. Ebert (Ute)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate structure and evolution of long positive spark breakdown; and we study at which stage pulses of hard x-rays are emitted. Positive high-voltage pulses of standardized lightning impulse wave form of about 1 MV were applied to about 1 m of ambient air. The discharge evolution

  4. New hard X-ray sources at 38/sup 0/ declination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; La Padula, C.; Polcaro, V.F. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Frascati (Italy). Lab. di Astrofisica Spaziale)

    1981-01-01

    We report the detection of three new hard X-rays sources emitting in the range 15-150 KeV. Their observation was carried out by means of a balloon borne payload, consisting of two large area high spectral resolution Multiwire Spectroscopic Proportional Counters.

  5. Multilayer coating facility for the HEFT hard x-ray telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Chen, Hubert

    2001-01-01

    A planar magnetron sputtering facility has been established at the Danish Space Research Institute (DSRI) for the production coating of depth graded multilayers on the thermally slumped glass segments which form the basis for the hard X-ray telescope on the HEFT balloon project. The facility...

  6. The 105-Month Swift-BAT All-sky Hard X-Ray Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyuseok; Koss, Michael; Markwardt, Craig B.; Schawinski, Kevin; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Gehrels, Neil; Mushotzky, Richard; Petulante, Abigail; Ricci, Claudio; Lien, Amy; Trakhtenbrot, Benny

    2018-03-01

    We present a catalog of hard X-ray sources detected in the first 105 months of observations with the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) coded-mask imager on board the Swift observatory. The 105-month Swift-BAT survey is a uniform hard X-ray all-sky survey with a sensitivity of 8.40× {10}-12 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 {cm}}-2 over 90% of the sky and 7.24× {10}-12 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 {cm}}-2 over 50% of the sky in the 14–195 keV band. The Swift-BAT 105-month catalog provides 1632 (422 new detections) hard X-ray sources in the 14–195 keV band above the 4.8σ significance level. Adding to the previously known hard X-ray sources, 34% (144/422) of the new detections are identified as Seyfert active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in nearby galaxies (zBAT catalog, we release eight-channel spectra and monthly sampled light curves for each object in the online journal and at the Swift-BAT 105-month website.

  7. X-Ray pictures of the developmental anomalis of the hard dental tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecetkova, A.; Ondrasovicova, J.

    2008-01-01

    Dental anomalies are rare lessions of the hard dental tissue. They are as symptoms varies of the syndromes. They are as follow: hyperdoncia, hypodoncia, oligodoncia, anodoncia, mesiodens, macrodoncia and microdoncia. All of the above anomalis are detected by X-ray diagnostics ( intraoral and extra-oral radiography ). (authors)

  8. Hard X-ray/soft gamma-ray telescope designs for future astrophysics missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland; Pivovaroff, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    We present several concept designs of hard X-ray/soft λ-ray focusing telescopes for future astrophysics missions. The designs are based on depth graded multilayer coatings. These have been successfully employed on the NuSTAR mission for energies up to 80 keV. Recent advances in demonstrating...

  9. Atomic physics with hard X-rays from high brilliance synchrotron light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, S.; Gemmell, D.

    1996-08-01

    A century after the discovery of x rays, the experimental capability for studying atomic structure and dynamics with hard, bright synchrotron radiation is increasing remarkably. Tempting opportunities arise for experiments on many-body effects, aspects of fundamental photon-atom interaction processes, and relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic phenomena. Some of these possibilities are surveyed in general terms.

  10. Decimetric type III radio bursts and associated hard X-ray spikes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, B. R.; Benz, A. O.; Ranieri, M.; Simnett, G. M.

    1984-01-01

    For a relatively weak solar flare on August 6, 1981, at 10:32 UT, a detailed comparison is made between hard X-ray spikes and decimetric type III radio bursts. The hard X-ray observations are made at energies above 30 keV, and the radio data are obtained in the frequency range from 100 to 1000 MHz. The time resolution for all the data sets is approximately 0.1 s or better. The dynamic radio spectrum exhibits many fast drift type III radio bursts with both normal and reverse slope, whereas the X-ray time profile contains many well resolved short spikes with durations less than or equal to 1 s. Some of the X-ray spikes are seen to be associated in time with reverse-slope bursts, indicating either that the electron beams producing the radio burst contain two or three orders of magnitude more fast electrons than has previously been assumed or that the electron beams can induce the acceleration of additional electrons or occur in coincidence with this acceleration. A case is presented in which a normal slope radio burst at approximately 600 MHz occurs in coincidence with the peak of an X-ray spike to within 0.1 s.

  11. Optomechanical Design of a Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Instrument with Nanometer-Scale Active Vibration Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Preissner, C.; Smolyanitskiy, A.; Maser, J.; Winarski, R.; Holt, M.; Lai, B.; Vogt, S.; Stephenson, G. B.

    2007-01-01

    We are developing a new hard x-ray nanoprobe instrument that is one of the centerpieces of the characterization facilities of the Center for Nanoscale Materials being constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. This new probe will cover an energy range of 3-30 keV with 30-nm spacial resolution. The system is designed to accommodate x-ray optics with a resolution limit of 10 nm, therefore, it requires staging of x-ray optics and specimens with a mechanical repeatability of better than 5 nm. Fast feedback for differential vibration control between the zone-plate x-ray optics and the sample holder has been implemented in the design using a digital-signal-processor-based real-time closed-loop feedback technique. A specially designed, custom-built laser Doppler displacement meter system provides two-dimensional differential displacement measurements with subnanometer resolution between the zone-plate x-ray optics and the sample holder. The optomechanical design of the instrument positioning stage system with nanometer-scale active vibration control is presented in this paper

  12. Optomechanical design of a hard x-ray nanoprobe instrument with active vibration control in nanometer scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Maser, J.; Holt, M.; Winarski, R.; Preissner, C.; Smolyanitskiy, A.; Lai, B.; Vogt, S.; Stephenson, G.

    2007-01-01

    We are developing a new hard x-ray nanoprobe instrument that is one of the centerpieces of the characterization facilities of the Center for Nanoscale Materials being constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. This new probe will cover an energy range of 3-30 keV with 30-nm spatial resolution. The system is designed to accommodate x-ray optics with a resolution limit of 10 nm, therefore, it requires staging of x-ray optics and specimens with a mechanical repeatability of better than 5 nm. Fast feedback for differential vibration control between the zone-plate x-ray optics and the sample holder has been implemented in the design using a digital-signal-processor-based real-time closed-loop feedback technique. A specially designed, custom-built laser Doppler displacement meter system provides two-dimensional differential displacement measurements with subnanometer resolution between the zone-plate x-ray optics and the sample holder. The optomechanical design of the instrument positioning stage system with nanometer-scale active vibration control is presented in this paper.

  13. Analysis of biological samples by x-ray attenuation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesareo, R.

    1988-01-01

    Over the last few years there has been an increasing interest in X-ray attenuation measurements, mainly due to the enormous development of computer assisted tomography (CAT). With CAT, analytical information concerning the density and the mean atomic number distributions in a sample is deduced from a large number of attenuation measurements. Particular transmission methods developed, based on the differential attenuation method are discussed. The theoretical background for attenuation of radiation and for differential attenuation of radiation is given. Details about the generation of monoenergetic X-rays are discussed. Applications of attenuation measurements in the field of Medicine are presented

  14. Research on temperature measurement by X-ray transmission intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shuyue; Cheng, Rong

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between temperature and X-ray transmission intensity was researched and analyzed by inspecting material density change, which is caused by thermal expansion. A digital radiographic system was employed to obtain the images. On this basis, we deduced the temperature formula based on the average gray level of the captured images. The measured temperatures were obtained from the experiments and the errors were analyzed. We concluded that when X-rays pass through an object, the X-ray strength and the gray level of the image under high temperatures are greater than those under lower temperatures and the image gray level error has great impact on the accuracy of the measured temperature. The presented approach allowed the non-contact temperature measurement of material

  15. Fabrication, performance, and figure metrology of epoxy-replicated aluminum foils for hard x-ray focusing multilayer-coated segmented conical optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez-Garate, M.A.; Craig, W.W.; Hailey, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    We fabricated x-ray mirrors for hard x-ray (greater than or equal to 10 keV) telescopes using multilayer coatings and an improved epoxy-replicated aluminum foil (ERAF) nonvacuum technology. The ERAF optics have similar to1 arcmin axial figure half-power diameter (HPD) and passed environmental...... telescope HPD, we designed a figure metrology system and a new mounting technique. We describe a cylindrical metrology system built for fast axial and roundness figure measurement of hard x-ray conical optics. These developments lower cost and improve the optics performance of the HEFT (high-energy focusing...

  16. Femtosecond response of polyatomic molecules to ultra-intense hard X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, A; Inhester, L; Hanasaki, K; Li, X; Robatjazi, S J; Erk, B; Boll, R; Toyota, K; Hao, Y; Vendrell, O; Bomme, C; Savelyev, E; Rudek, B; Foucar, L; Southworth, S H; Lehmann, C S; Kraessig, B; Marchenko, T; Simon, M; Ueda, K; Ferguson, K R; Bucher, M; Gorkhover, T; Carron, S; Alonso-Mori, R; Koglin, J E; Correa, J; Williams, G J; Boutet, S; Young, L; Bostedt, C; Son, S-K; Santra, R; Rolles, D

    2017-06-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers enable the investigation of the structure and dynamics of diverse systems, including atoms, molecules, nanocrystals and single bioparticles, under extreme conditions. Many imaging applications that target biological systems and complex materials use hard X-ray pulses with extremely high peak intensities (exceeding 10 20 watts per square centimetre). However, fundamental investigations have focused mainly on the individual response of atoms and small molecules using soft X-rays with much lower intensities. Studies with intense X-ray pulses have shown that irradiated atoms reach a very high degree of ionization, owing to multiphoton absorption, which in a heteronuclear molecular system occurs predominantly locally on a heavy atom (provided that the absorption cross-section of the heavy atom is considerably larger than those of its neighbours) and is followed by efficient redistribution of the induced charge. In serial femtosecond crystallography of biological objects-an application of X-ray free-electron lasers that greatly enhances our ability to determine protein structure-the ionization of heavy atoms increases the local radiation damage that is seen in the diffraction patterns of these objects and has been suggested as a way of phasing the diffraction data. On the basis of experiments using either soft or less-intense hard X-rays, it is thought that the induced charge and associated radiation damage of atoms in polyatomic molecules can be inferred from the charge that is induced in an isolated atom under otherwise comparable irradiation conditions. Here we show that the femtosecond response of small polyatomic molecules that contain one heavy atom to ultra-intense (with intensities approaching 10 20 watts per square centimetre), hard (with photon energies of 8.3 kiloelectronvolts) X-ray pulses is qualitatively different: our experimental and modelling results establish that, under these conditions, the ionization of a molecule is

  17. Hard X-ray Variations in the Crab Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Cherry, M. L.; Case, G. L.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Beklen, E.; Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, M. S.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Connaughton, V.; Finger, M. H.; hide

    2013-01-01

    In the first two years of science operations of the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), August 2008 to August 2010, approximately 7% (70 mcrab) decline was discovered in the overall Crab Nebula flux in the 15 - 50 keV band, measured with the Earth occultation technique. This decline was independently confirmed with four other instruments: the RXTE/PCA, Swift/BAT, INTEGRAL/IBIS, and INTEGRAL/SPI. The pulsed flux measured with RXTE/PCA from 1999-2010 was consistent with the pulsar spin-down, indicating that the observed changes were nebular. From 2001 to 2010, the Crab nebula flux measured with RXTE/ PCA was particularly variable, changing by up to approximately 3.5% per year in the 15-50 keV band. These variations were confirmed with INTEGRAL/SPI starting in 2003, Swift/BAT starting in 2005, and Fermi GBM starting in 2008. Before 2001 and since 2010, the Crab nebula flux has appeared more stable, varying by less than 2% per year. I will present updated light curves in multiple energy bands for the Crab Nebula, including recent data from Fermi GBM, Swift/BAT, INTEGRAL and MAXI, and a 16-year long light curve from RXTE/PCA.

  18. Soft x-ray measurements on the PLT Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Goeler, S.; Sauthoff, N.; Bitter, M.

    1977-10-01

    Four experiments are described that currently run on the PLT tokamak and which utilize the soft x-ray emission of the plasma as a diagnostic: the pulse height analysis system for temperature and impurity measurements; the curved crystal Bragg spectrometer for the determination of ionization states of impurities; ''windowless'' surface barrier detectors for the investigation of the ultra soft x-ray radiation in the energy range 0.1 keV < hν < 1 keV and a silicon diode array for x-ray fluctuation measurements. For each diagnostic a short technical description and some recent results obtained with it on PLT are given in order to demonstrate its use

  19. A New Measurement of the Cosmic X-ray Background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretti, A.

    2009-01-01

    I present a new analytical description of the cosmic X-ray background (CXRB) spectrum in the 1.5-200 keV energy band, obtained by combining the new measurement performed by the Swift X-ray telescope (XRT) with the recently published Swift burst alert telescope (BAT) measurement. A study of the cosmic variance in the XRT band (1.5-7 keV) is also presented. I find that the expected cosmic variance (expected from LogN-LogS) scales as Ω -0.3 (where Ω is the surveyed area) in very good agreement with XRT data.

  20. X-ray measurements and protection, 1913-1964

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, L.S.

    1981-12-01

    This report reviews the development of measurement standards and protection against x rays. The story of x rays can be divided into three periods up to 1925, a period of discovery, application, and a recognized new danger; up to 1955, a period of exploitation, measurement, control, and protection, and from then, a time of consolidation, public awareness, and political activism. This book is an account of how government and non-government organizations have worked together. Attention is directed to some of the changes and differences between government laboratory operations today and those in the first half of the 20th century

  1. A novel probe of intrinsic electronic structure: hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takata, Y.; Tamasaku, K.; Nishino, Y.; Miwa, D.; Yabashi, M.; Ikenaga, E.; Horiba, K.; Arita, M.; Shimada, K.; Namatame, H.; Nohira, H.; Hattori, T.; Soedergren, S.; Wannberg, B.; Taniguchi, M.; Shin, S.; Ishikawa, T.; Kobayashi, K.

    2005-01-01

    We have realized hard X-ray (HX) photoemission spectroscopy (PES) with high throughput and high-energy resolution for core level and valence band studies using high-energy and high-brilliance synchrotron radiation at SPring-8. This is a brand new method because large escape depth of high-energy photoelectrons enables us to probe intrinsic bulk states free from surface condition. By use of a newly developed electron energy analyzer and well-focused X-rays, high-energy resolution of 75 meV (E/ΔE 79,000) was realized for 5.95 keV photoelectrons

  2. Design of a scattering polarimeter for hard X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, E.; Cinti, M.N.; Feroci, M.; Matt, G.; Rapisarda, M.

    1995-01-01

    The design of a new hard X-ray Compton scattering polarimeter based on scintillating fibre technology is presented and studied in detail by means of Monte Carlo calculations. Several different configurations and materials have been tested in order to optimise the sensitivity in the medium/high energy X-ray band. A high sensitivity over the energy band 20-200 keV is obtained for a two material configuration. The advantages deriving from employing a new scintillating material, the YAP (YAlO 3 ), are also discussed. (orig.)

  3. Status of the Nanoscopium Scanning Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Beamline of Synchrotron Soleil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, A.; Kewish, C. M.; Ribbens, M.; Moreno, T.; Polack, F.; Baranton, G.; Desjardins, K.; Samama, J. P.

    2013-10-01

    The Nanoscopium 155 m-long scanning hard X-ray nanoprobe beamline of Synchrotron Soleil (St Aubin, France) is dedicated to quantitative multi-modal 2D/3D imaging. The beamline aims to reach down to 30 nm spatial resolution in the 5-20 keV energy range. Two experimental stations working in consecutive operation mode will be dedicated to coherent diffractive imaging and scanning X-ray nanoprobe techniques. The beamline is in the construction phase, the first user experiments are expected in 2014. The main characteristics of the beamline and an overview of its status are given in this paper.

  4. Status of the Nanoscopium Scanning Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Beamline of Synchrotron Soleil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, A; Kewish, C M; Ribbens, M; Moreno, T; Polack, F; Baranton, G; Desjardins, K; Samama, J P

    2013-01-01

    The Nanoscopium 155 m-long scanning hard X-ray nanoprobe beamline of Synchrotron Soleil (St Aubin, France) is dedicated to quantitative multi-modal 2D/3D imaging. The beamline aims to reach down to 30 nm spatial resolution in the 5–20 keV energy range. Two experimental stations working in consecutive operation mode will be dedicated to coherent diffractive imaging and scanning X-ray nanoprobe techniques. The beamline is in the construction phase, the first user experiments are expected in 2014. The main characteristics of the beamline and an overview of its status are given in this paper

  5. Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of bulk and thin films of Heusler compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozina, Xeniya

    2012-03-26

    recently it has been widely applied for the characterization of surfaces using low energy photons, the bulk properties have stayed inaccessible. Therefore in this work this method was integrated to HAXPES to provide an access to exploration of magnetic phenomena in the buried layers of the complex multilayer structures. Chapter 8 contains the results of the MCDAD measurements employing hard x-rays for exploration of magnetic properties of the common CoFe-based band-ferromagnets as well as half-metallic ferromagnet Co{sub 2}FeAl-based MTJs. In as much as the magnetoresistive characteristics in spintronic devices are fully defined by the electron spins of ferromagnetic materials their direct measurements always attracted much attention but up to date have been limited by the surface sensitivity of the developed techniques. Chapter 9 presents the results on the successfully performed spin-resolved HAXPES experiment using a spin polarimeter of the SPLEED-type on a buried Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 0.5}Si{sub 0.5} magnetic layer. The measurements prove that a spin polarization of about 50 % is retained during the transmission of the photoelectrons emitted from the Fe 2p{sub 3/2} state through a 3-nm-thick oxide capping layer.

  6. HARD X-RAY AND MICROWAVE EMISSIONS FROM SOLAR FLARES WITH HARD SPECTRAL INDICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawate, T. [Kwasan and Hida Observatory, Kitashirakawa-oiwakecho, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Nishizuka, N. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan); Oi, A. [College of Science, Ibaraki University, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Ohyama, M. [Faculty of Education, Shiga University, 2-5-1 Hiratsu, Otsu, Shiga 1-1, Baba Hikone city, Siga 522-8522 (Japan); Nakajima, H., E-mail: kawate@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Nobeyama Solar Radio Observatory, NAOJ, Nobeyama, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan)

    2012-03-10

    We analyze 10 flare events that radiate intense hard X-ray (HXR) emission with significant photons over 300 keV to verify that the electrons that have a common origin of acceleration mechanism and energy power-law distribution with solar flares emit HXRs and microwaves. Most of these events have the following characteristics. HXRs emanate from the footpoints of flare loops, while microwaves emanate from the tops of flare loops. The time profiles of the microwave emission show delays of peak with respect to those of the corresponding HXR emission. The spectral indices of microwave emissions show gradual hardening in all events, while the spectral indices of the corresponding HXR emissions are roughly constant in most of the events, though rather rapid hardening is simultaneously observed in some for both indices during the onset time and the peak time. These characteristics suggest that the microwave emission emanates from the trapped electrons. Then, taking into account the role of the trapping of electrons for the microwave emission, we compare the observed microwave spectra with the model spectra calculated by a gyrosynchrotron code. As a result, we successfully reproduce the eight microwave spectra. From this result, we conclude that the electrons that have a common acceleration and a common energy distribution with solar flares emit both HXR and microwave emissions in the eight events, though microwave emission is contributed to by electrons with much higher energy than HXR emission.

  7. Characterizations of MCP performance in the hard x-ray range (6–25 keV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Ming, E-mail: minwu@sandia.gov; Rochau, Greg [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Moy, Ken [Special Technology Laboratories, NSTec, Santa Barbara, California 93111-2335 (United States); Kruschwitz, Craig [National Security Technologies, LLC, Los Alamos Operations, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    MCP detector performance at hard x-ray energies from 6 to 25 keV was recently investigated using NSLS beamline X15A at BNL. Measurements were made with an NSTec Gen-II (H-CA-65) framing camera, based on a Photonis MCP with ∼10 μm in diameter pores, ∼12 μm center-center spacing, an L/D ratio of 46, and a bias angle of 8°. The MCP characterizations were focused on (1) energy and angle dependent sensitivity, (2) energy and angle dependent spatial resolution, (3) energy dependent gain performance, and (4) energy dependent dynamic range. These measurement corroborated simulation results using a Monte Carlo model that included hard x-ray interactions and the subsequent electron cascade in the MCP.

  8. NuSTAR DETECTION OF HARD X-RAY PHASE LAGS FROM THE ACCRETING PULSAR GS 0834–430

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Harrison, Fiona A.; Fürst, Felix; Bellm, Eric C.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Walton, Dominic J. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Tomsick, John A. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Chakrabarty, Deepto [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Chenevez, Jerome; Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Natalucci, Lorenzo [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, INAF, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, Roma I-00133 (Italy); Pottschmidt, Katja [CRESST, UMBC, and NASA GSFC, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wilms, Jörn, E-mail: miyasaka@srl.caltech.edu [Dr. Karl-Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Sternwartstr. 7, D-96049 Bamberg (Germany); and others

    2013-09-20

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array hard X-ray telescope observed the transient Be/X-ray binary GS 0834–430 during its 2012 outburst—the first active state of this system observed in the past 19 yr. We performed timing and spectral analysis and measured the X-ray spectrum between 3-79 keV with high statistical significance. We find the phase-averaged spectrum to be consistent with that observed in many other magnetized, accreting pulsars. We fail to detect cyclotron resonance scattering features that would allow us to constrain the pulsar's magnetic field in either phase-averaged or phase-resolved spectra. Timing analysis shows a clearly detected pulse period of ∼12.29 s in all energy bands. The pulse profiles show a strong, energy-dependent hard phase lag of up to 0.3 cycles in phase, or about 4 s. Such dramatic energy-dependent lags in the pulse profile have never before been reported in high-mass X-ray binary pulsars. Previously reported lags have been significantly smaller in phase and restricted to low energies (E < 10 keV). We investigate the possible mechanisms that might produce this energy-dependent pulse phase shift. We find the most likely explanation for this effect is a complex beam geometry.

  9. Computerized x-ray radiographic system for fuel pellet measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.R.; Karnesky, R.A.; Bromley, C.

    1977-01-01

    The development and operation of a computerized system for determination of fuel pellet diameters from x-ray radiography is described. Actual fuel pellet diameter measurements made with the system are compared to micrometer measurements on the same pellets, and statistically evaluated. The advantages and limitations of the system are discussed, and recommendations are made for further development

  10. Discovery of Diffuse Hard X-ray Emission associated with Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoe, Y.; Miyoshi, Y.; Ishikawa, K.; Ohashi, T.; Terada, N.; Uchiyama, Y.; Negoro, H.

    2009-12-01

    Our discovery of diffuse hard (1-5 keV) X-ray emission around Jupiter is reported. Recent Chandra and XMM-Newton observations revealed several types of X-rays in the vicinity of Jupiter such as auroral and disk emission from Jupiter and faint diffuse X-rays from the Io Plasma Torus (see Bhardwaj et al. 2007 for review). To investigate possible diffuse hard X-ray emission around Jupiter with the highest sensitivity, we conducted data analysis of Suzaku XIS observations of Jupiter on Feb 2006. After removing satellite and planetary orbital motions, we detected a significant diffuse X-ray emission extending to ~6 x 3 arcmin with the 1-5 keV X-ray luminosity of ~3e15 erg/s. The emitting region very well coincided with the Jupiter's radiation belts. The 1-5 keV X-ray spectrum was represented by a simple power law model with a photon index of 1.4. Such a flat continuum strongly suggests non-thermal origin. Although such an emission can be originated from multiple background point sources, its possibility is quite low. We hence examined three mechanisms, assuming that the emission is truly diffuse: bremsstrahlung by keV electrons, synchrotron emission by TeV electrons, and inverse Compton scattering of solar photons by MeV electrons. The former two can be rejected because of the X-ray spectral shape and implausible existence of TeV electrons around Jupiter, respectively. The last possibility was found to be possible because tens MeV electrons, which have been confirmed in inner radiation belts (Bolton et al. 2002), can kick solar photons to the keV energy range and provide a simple power-law continuum. We estimated an average electron density from the X-ray luminosity assuming the oblate spheroid shaped emitting region with 8 x 8 x 4 Jovian radii. The necessary density was 0.02 1/cm3 for 50 MeV electrons. Hence, our results may suggest a new particle acceleration phenomenon around Jupiter.

  11. Development of Small-Pixel CZT Detectors for Future High-Resolution Hard X-ray Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilicke, Matthias

    Owing to recent breakthroughs in grazing incidence mirror technology, next-generation hard X-ray telescopes will achieve angular resolutions of between 5 and 10 arc seconds - about an order of magnitude better than that of the NuSTAR hard X-ray telescope. As a consequence, the next generation of hard X-ray telescopes will require pixelated hard X- ray detectors with pixels on a grid with a lattice constant of between 120 and 240 um. Additional detector requirements include a low energy threshold of less than 5 keV and an energy resolution of less than 1 keV. The science drivers for a high angular-resolution hard X-ray mission include studies and measurements of black hole spins, the cosmic evolution of super-massive black holes, AGN feedback, and the behavior of matter at very high densities. We propose a R&D research program to develop, optimize and study the performance of 100-200 um pixel pitch CdTe and Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors of 1-2 mm thickness. Our program aims at a comparison of the performance achieved with CdTe and CZT detectors, and the optimization of the pixel, steering grid, and guard ring anode patterns. Although these studies will use existing ASICs (Application Specific Integrated Circuits), our program also includes modest funds for the development of an ultra-low noise ASIC with a 2-D grid of readout pads that can be directly bonded to the 100-200 um pixel pitch CdTe and CZT detectors. The team includes the Washington University group (Prof. M. Beilicke and Co-I Prof. H.S.W. Krawczynski et al.), and co-investigator G. De Geronimo at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The Washington University group has a 10 year track record of innovative CZT detector R&D sponsored by the NASA Astronomy and Physics Research and Analysis (APRA) program. The accomplishments to date include the development of CZT detectors with pixel pitches between 350 um and 2.5 mm for the ProtoExist, EXIST, and X-Calibur hard X-ray missions with some of the best

  12. 13.1 micrometers hard X-ray focusing by a new type monocapillary X-ray optic designed for common laboratory X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuepeng; zhang, Xiaoyun; Zhu, Yu; Wang, Yabing; Shang, Hongzhong; Zhang, Fengshou; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi

    2018-04-01

    A new type of monocapillary X-ray optic, called 'two bounces monocapillary X-ray optics' (TBMXO), is proposed for generating a small focal spot with high power-density gain for micro X-ray analysis, using a common laboratory X-ray source. TBMXO is consists of two parts: an ellipsoidal part and a tapered part. Before experimental testing, the TBMXO was simulated by the ray tracing method in MATLAB. The simulated results predicted that the proposed TBMXO would produce a smaller focal spot with higher power-density gain than the ellipsoidal monocapillary X-ray optic (EMXO). In the experiment, the TBMXO performance was tested by both an optical device and a Cu target X-ray tube with focal spot of 100 μm. The results indicated that the TBMXO had a slope error of 57.6 μrad and a 13.1 μm focal spot and a 1360 gain in power density were obtained.

  13. Reflections on hard X-ray photon-in/photon-out spectroscopy for electronic structure studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatzel, Pieter, E-mail: glatzel@esrf.fr [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble (France); Weng, Tsu-Chien; Kvashnina, Kristina; Swarbrick, Janine; Sikora, Marcin [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble (France); Gallo, Erik [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble (France); Department of Inorganic, Physical and Materials Chemistry, INSTM Reference Center and NIS Centre of Excellence, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Smolentsev, Nikolay [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble (France); Research Center for Nanoscale Structure of Matter, Southern Federal University, str. Zorge 5, 344090 Rostov-on-Don (Russian Federation); Mori, Roberto Alonso [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble (France)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► Overview of some recent developments in hard X-ray RXES/RIXS. ► Evaluation of spectral line broadening in RXES/RIXS. ► Modelling of RXES/RIXS by ground state DFT calculations. ► Discussion on when HERFD provides a good approximation to XAS. -- Abstract: An increasing community of researchers in various fields of natural sciences is combining X-ray absorption with X-ray emission spectroscopy (XAS–XES) to study electronic structure. With the applications becoming more diverse, the objectives and the requirements in photon-in/photon-out spectroscopy are becoming broader. It is desirable to find simple experimental protocols, robust data reduction and theoretical tools that help the experimentalist to understand their data and learn about the electronic structure. This article presents a collection of considerations on non-resonant and resonant XES with the aim to guide the experimentalist to make good use of this technique.

  14. The Swift BAT Hard X-ray Survey - A New Window on the Local AGN Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The Swift Burst and Transient telescope (BAT) has surveyed the entire sky for the last 3.5 years obtaining the first sensitive all sky survey of the 14-195 keV sky. At high galactic latitudes the vast majority of the detected sources are AGN. Since hard x-rays penetrate all but Compton thick obscuring material (Column densities of 1.6E24 atms/cm2) this survey is unbiased with respect to obscuration, host galaxy type, optical , radio or IR properties. We will present results on the broad band x-ray properties, the nature of the host galaxies, the luminosity function and will discuss a few of the optical, IR and x-ray results in detail.

  15. Hard X-ray nano-focusing with Montel mirror optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Wenjun, E-mail: wjliu@anl.gov [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Ice, Gene E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Assoufid, Lahsen; Liu Chian; Shi Bing; Zschack, Paul [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Tischler, Jon [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Qian Jun; Khachartryan, Ruben; Shu Deming [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors in the Montel (or nested) configuration were tested for hard X-ray nanoscale focusing at a third generation synchrotron beamline. In this scheme, two mirrors, mounted side-by-side and perpendicular to each other, provide for a more compact focusing system and a much higher demagnification and flux than the traditional sequential K-B mirror arrangement. They can accept up to a 120 {mu}mx120 {mu}m incident X-ray beam with a long working distance of 40 mm and broad-bandpass of energies up to {approx}30 keV. Initial test demonstrated a focal spot of about 150 nm in both horizontal and vertical directions with either polychromatic or monochromatic beam. Montel mirror optics is important and very appealing for achromatic X-ray nanoscale focusing in conventional non-extra-long synchrotron beamlines.

  16. Recent X-ray hybrid CMOS detector developments and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Samuel V.; Falcone, Abraham D.; Burrows, David N.; Wages, Mitchell; Chattopadhyay, Tanmoy; McQuaide, Maria; Bray, Evan; Kern, Matthew

    2017-08-01

    The Penn State X-ray detector lab, in collaboration with Teledyne Imaging Sensors (TIS), have progressed their efforts to improve soft X-ray Hybrid CMOS detector (HCD) technology on multiple fronts. Having newly acquired a Teledyne cryogenic SIDECARTM ASIC for use with HxRG devices, measurements were performed with an H2RG HCD and the cooled SIDECARTM. We report new energy resolution and read noise measurements, which show a significant improvement over room temperature SIDECARTM operation. Further, in order to meet the demands of future high-throughput and high spatial resolution X-ray observatories, detectors with fast readout and small pixel sizes are being developed. We report on characteristics of new X-ray HCDs with 12.5 micron pitch that include in-pixel CDS circuitry and crosstalk-eliminating CTIA amplifiers. In addition, PSU and TIS are developing a new large-scale array Speedster-EXD device. The original 64 × 64 pixel Speedster-EXD prototype used comparators in each pixel to enable event driven readout with order of magnitude higher effective readout rates, which will now be implemented in a 550 × 550 pixel device. Finally, the detector lab is involved in a sounding rocket mission that is slated to fly in 2018 with an off-plane reflection grating array and an H2RG X-ray HCD. We report on the planned detector configuration for this mission, which will increase the NASA technology readiness level of X-ray HCDs to TRL 9.

  17. The Variable Crab Nebula: Evidence for a Connection Between GeV Flares and Hard X-ray Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E. A.; Cherry, M. L.; Case, G. L.; Finger, M. H.; Jenke, P.; Zhang, X.

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, hard X-ray variations (Wilson-Hodge et al. 2011) and GeV flares (Tavani et al 2011, Abdo et al. 2011) from the Crab Nebula were discovered. Connections between these two phenomena were unclear, in part because the timescales were quite different, with yearly variations in hard X-rays and hourly to daily variations in the GeV flares. The hard X-ray flux from the Crab Nebula has again declined since 2014, much like it did in 2008-2010. During both hard X-ray decline periods, the Fermi LAT detected no GeV flares, suggesting that injection of particles from the GeV flares produces the much slower and weaker hard X-ray variations. The timescale for the particles emitting the GeV flares to lose enough energy to emit synchrotron photons in hard X-rays is consistent with the yearly variations observed in hard X-rays and with the expectation that the timescale for variations slowly increases with decreasing energy. This hypothesis also predicts even slower and weaker variations below 10 keV, consistent with the non-detection of counterparts to the GeV flares by Chandra (Weisskopf et al 2013). We will present a comparison of the observed hard X-ray variations and a simple model of the decay of particles from the GeV flares to test our hypothesis.

  18. Development of a hard x-ray wavefront sensor for the EuXFEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berujon, Sebastien; Ziegler, Eric; Cojocaru, Ruxandra; Martin, Thierry

    2017-05-01

    We present developments on a hard X-ray wavefront sensing instrument for characterizing and monitoring the beam of the European X-ray Free Electron Lasers (EuXFEL). The pulsed nature of the intense X-ray beam delivered by this new class of facility gives rise to strong challenges for the optics and their diagnostic. In the frame of the EUCALL project Work Package 7, we are developing a sensor able to observe the beam in the X-ray energy range [8-40] keV without altering it. The sensor is based on the speckle tracking principle and employs two semi-transparent optics optimized such that their X-ray absorption is reduced. Furthermore, this instrument requires a scattering object with small random features placed in the beam and two cameras to record images of the beam at two different propagation distances. The analysis of the speckle pattern and its distortion from one image to the other allows absolute or differential wavefront recovery from pulse to pulse. Herein, we introduce the stakes and challenges of wavefront sensing at an XFEL source and explain the strategies adopted to fulfil the high requirements set by such a source.

  19. Hybrid setup for micro- and nano-computed tomography in the hard X-ray range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fella, Christian; Balles, Andreas; Hanke, Randolf; Last, Arndt; Zabler, Simon

    2017-12-01

    With increasing miniaturization in industry and medical technology, non-destructive testing techniques are an area of ever-increasing importance. In this framework, X-ray microscopy offers an efficient tool for the analysis, understanding, and quality assurance of microscopic samples, in particular as it allows reconstructing three-dimensional data sets of the whole sample's volume via computed tomography (CT). The following article describes a compact X-ray microscope in the hard X-ray regime around 9 keV, based on a highly brilliant liquid-metal-jet source. In comparison to commercially available instruments, it is a hybrid that works in two different modes. The first one is a micro-CT mode without optics, which uses a high-resolution detector to allow scans of samples in the millimeter range with a resolution of 1 μm. The second mode is a microscope, which contains an X-ray optical element to magnify the sample and allows resolving 150 nm features. Changing between the modes is possible without moving the sample. Thus, the instrument represents an important step towards establishing high-resolution laboratory-based multi-mode X-ray microscopy as a standard investigation method.

  20. Advances in indirect detector systems for ultra high-speed hard X-ray imaging with synchrotron light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbinado, M. P.; Grenzer, J.; Pradel, P.; De Resseguier, T.; Vagovic, P.; Zdora, M.-C.; Guzenko, V. A.; David, C.; Rack, A.

    2018-04-01

    We report on indirect X-ray detector systems for various full-field, ultra high-speed X-ray imaging methodologies, such as X-ray phase-contrast radiography, diffraction topography, grating interferometry and speckle-based imaging performed at the hard X-ray imaging beamline ID19 of the European Synchrotron—ESRF. Our work highlights the versatility of indirect X-ray detectors to multiple goals such as single synchrotron pulse isolation, multiple-frame recording up to millions frames per second, high efficiency, and high spatial resolution. Besides the technical advancements, potential applications are briefly introduced and discussed.

  1. Soft x-ray measurements from the PDX tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, E.H.; Bitter, M.; Brau, K.; Eames, D.; Greenberger, A.; Hill, K.W.; Meade, D.M.; Roney, W.; Sauthoff, N.R.; von Goeler, S.

    1982-05-01

    Temporally and spatially-resolved profiles of the PDX soft x-ray spectra have been measured during single tokamak pulses of circular and divertor plasmas with a recently developed pulse height analyzer. This detection system incorporates an array of five vertically displaced sets of lithium-drifted silicon detectors, each consisting of three independent channels optimized for rapid data collection in adjacent energy regions. Simultaneous measurement of x-ray emission integrated along five chords of the plasma cross section can thereby be achieved. Abel inversion of these data yields temporally-resolved radial profiles of the local electron temperature from the slope of the continuum, concentrations of high-Z impurities from the characteristic line intensities, and a measure of Z/sub eff/ from the continuum intensity. The techniques of x-ray pulse height analysis, with illustrations featuring the results from the initial PDX circular plasma experiments are discussed in detail. In addition, comparisons between circular and divertor plasmas on PDX, derived from the x-ray measurements, are also presented

  2. Soft x-ray measurements in the TRIAM-1 tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, T; Toi, K; Nakamura, K; Nakamura, Y; Hiraki, N [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1981-07-01

    Soft X-ray pulse height analysis system has been designed and constructed for measurements of electron distribution function and impurity with high spatial resolution (0.5 cm) and temporal resolution (2 msec) in the TRIAM-1 tokamak. The experimental results about electron temperature, enhancement factor, Z sub(eff) and runaway electrons are presented and discussed.

  3. Fusion cross sections from measurements of delayed X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, A.J.; Gregorio, D.E. di; Fernandez Niello, J.O; Elgue, M.

    1988-01-01

    The program XRAY is a FORTRAN 77 computer code for the extraction of fusion cross sections from delayed X-ray measurements. This is accomplished by calculating the theoretical expressions of the time dependence of the evaporation-residue cross sections and taking them as adjustable parameters in a χ 2 minimization procedure. (orig.)

  4. Design and development of the multilayer optics for the new hard x-ray mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareschi, G.; Basso, S.; Citterio, O.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Civitani, M.; Raimondi, L.; Sironi, G.; Cotroneo, V.; Negri, B.; Parodi, Giancarlo; Martelli, F.; Borghi, G.; Orlandi, A.; Vernani, D.; Valsecchi, G.; Binda, R.; Romaine, S.; Gorenstein, P.; Attinà, P.

    2017-11-01

    The New Hard X-ray Mission (NHXM) project will be operated by 2017 and is currently undergoing a Phase B study, under the coordination of the Italian Space Agency (ASI). The project is being proposed by an international team in the context of the ESA Call CV M3 as a Small Mission program, with a large Italian participation. It is based on 4 hard X-ray optics modules, each formed by 60 evenly spaced multilayer coated Wolter I mirror shells. An extensible bench is used to reach the 10 m focal length. The Wolter I monolithic substrates with multilayer coating are produced in NiCo by electroforming replication. Three of the mirror modules will host in the focal plane a hybrid a detector system (a soft X-ray Si DEPFET array plus a high energy CdTe detector). The detector of the fourth telescope will be a photoelectric polarimeter with imaging capabilities, operating from 2 up to 35 keV. The total on axis effective area of the three telescopes at 1 keV and 30 kev is of 1500 cm2 and 350 cm2 respectively, with an angular resolution of 20 arcsec HEW at 30 keV. In this paper we report on the design and development of the multilayer coated X-ray mirrors based on NiCo shells.

  5. A novel synthesis of polymeric CO via useful hard X-ray photochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pravica

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on the synchrotron hard X-ray-induced decomposition of strontium oxalate (SrC2O4 pressurized to 7 GPa inside a diamond anvil cell (DAC. After some 4 h of irradiation in a white X-ray synchrotron beam, a dark reddish/brown region formed in the area of irradiation which was surrounded by a yellowish brown remainder in the rest of the sample. Upon depressurization of the sample to ambient conditions, the reacted/decomposed sample was recoverable as a dark brown/red and yellow waxy solid. Synchrotron infrared spectroscopy confirmed the strong presence of CO2 even under ambient conditions with the sample exposed to air and other strongly absorbing regions, suggesting that the sample may likely be polymerized CO (in part with dispersed CO2 and SrO trapped within the polymer. These results will have significant implications in the ability to readily produce and trap CO2 in situ via irradiation of a simple powder for useful hard X-ray photochemistry and in the ability to easily manufacture polymeric CO (via loading of powders in a DAC or high volume press without the need for the dangerous and complex loading of toxic CO. A novel means of X-ray-induced polymerization under extreme conditions has also been demonstrated.

  6. THE 22 MONTH SWIFT-BAT ALL-SKY HARD X-RAY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tueller, J.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Markwardt, C. B.; Skinner, G. K.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Barthelmy, S.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Holland, S.; Ajello, M.; Beardmore, A.; Evans, P.; Godet, O.; Brandt, W. N.; Burrows, D.; Grupe, D.; Chincarini, G.; Campana, S.; Cusumano, G.; Fenimore, E.

    2010-01-01

    We present the catalog of sources detected in the first 22 months of data from the hard X-ray survey (14-195 keV) conducted with the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) coded mask imager on the Swift satellite. The catalog contains 461 sources detected above the 4.8σ level with BAT. High angular resolution X-ray data for every source from Swift-XRT or archival data have allowed associations to be made with known counterparts in other wavelength bands for over 97% of the detections, including the discovery of ∼30 galaxies previously unknown as active galactic nuclei and several new Galactic sources. A total of 266 of the sources are associated with Seyfert galaxies (median redshift z ∼ 0.03) or blazars, with the majority of the remaining sources associated with X-ray binaries in our Galaxy. This ongoing survey is the first uniform all-sky hard X-ray survey since HEAO-1 in 1977. Since the publication of the nine-month BAT survey we have increased the number of energy channels from four to eight and have substantially increased the number of sources with accurate average spectra. The BAT 22 month catalog is the product of the most sensitive all-sky survey in the hard X-ray band, with a detection sensitivity (4.8σ) of 2.2 x 10 -11 erg cm -2 s -1 (1 mCrab) over most of the sky in the 14-195 keV band.

  7. Active silicon x-ray for measuring electron temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snider, R.T.

    1994-07-01

    Silicon diodes are commonly used for x-ray measurements in the soft x-ray region between a few hundred ev and 20 keV. Recent work by Cho has shown that the charge collecting region in an underbiased silicon detector is the depletion depth plus some contribution from a region near the depleted region due to charge-diffusion. The depletion depth can be fully characterized as a function of the applied bias voltage and is roughly proportional to the squart root of the bias voltage. We propose a technique to exploit this effect to use the silicon within the detector as an actively controlled x-ray filter. With reasonable silicon manufacturing methods, a silicon diode detector can be constructed in which the sensitivity of the collected charge to the impinging photon energy spectrum can be changed dynamically in the visible to above the 20 keV range. This type of detector could be used to measure the electron temperature in, for example, a tokamak plasma by sweeping the applied bias voltage during a plasma discharge. The detector samples different parts of the energy spectrum during the bias sweep, and the data collected contains enough information to determine the electron temperature. Benefits and limitations of this technique will be discussed along with comparisons to similar methods for measuring electron temperature and other applications of an active silicon x-ray filter

  8. Weak Hard X-Ray Emission from Two Broad Absorption Line Quasars Observed with NuStar: Compton-Thick Absorption or Intrinsic X-Ray Weakness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.; Harrison, F. A.; Stern, D.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W..; hide

    2013-01-01

    We present Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) hard X-ray observations of two X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, PG 1004+130 (radio loud) and PG 1700+518 (radio quiet). Many BAL quasars appear X-ray weak, probably due to absorption by the shielding gas between the nucleus and the accretion-disk wind. The two targets are among the optically brightest BAL quasars, yet they are known to be significantly X-ray weak at rest-frame 2-10 keV (16-120 times fainter than typical quasars). We would expect to obtain approx. or equal to 400-600 hard X-ray (is greater than or equal to 10 keV) photons with NuSTAR, provided that these photons are not significantly absorbed N(sub H) is less than or equal to 10(exp24) cm(exp-2). However, both BAL quasars are only detected in the softer NuSTAR bands (e.g., 4-20 keV) but not in its harder bands (e.g., 20-30 keV), suggesting that either the shielding gas is highly Compton-thick or the two targets are intrinsically X-ray weak. We constrain the column densities for both to be N(sub H) 7 × 10(exp 24) cm(exp-2) if the weak hard X-ray emission is caused by obscuration from the shielding gas. We discuss a few possibilities for how PG 1004+130 could have Compton-thick shielding gas without strong Fe Ka line emission; dilution from jet-linked X-ray emission is one likely explanation. We also discuss the intrinsic X-ray weakness scenario based on a coronal-quenching model relevant to the shielding gas and disk wind of BAL quasars. Motivated by our NuSTAR results, we perform a Chandra stacking analysis with the Large Bright Quasar Survey BAL quasar sample and place statistical constraints upon the fraction of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars; this fraction is likely 17%-40%.

  9. WEAK HARD X-RAY EMISSION FROM TWO BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASARS OBSERVED WITH NuSTAR: COMPTON-THICK ABSORPTION OR INTRINSIC X-RAY WEAKNESS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Alexander, D. M.; Hickox, R. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Harrison, F. A.; Fuerst, F.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Madsen, K. K. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bauer, F. E. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space-National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Comastri, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Fabian, A. C. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Farrah, D. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Fiore, F. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone (Italy); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Matt, G. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Universita degli Studi Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Ogle, P. [IPAC, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

    2013-08-01

    We present Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) hard X-ray observations of two X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, PG 1004+130 (radio loud) and PG 1700+518 (radio quiet). Many BAL quasars appear X-ray weak, probably due to absorption by the shielding gas between the nucleus and the accretion-disk wind. The two targets are among the optically brightest BAL quasars, yet they are known to be significantly X-ray weak at rest-frame 2-10 keV (16-120 times fainter than typical quasars). We would expect to obtain Almost-Equal-To 400-600 hard X-ray ({approx}> 10 keV) photons with NuSTAR, provided that these photons are not significantly absorbed (N{sub H} {approx}< 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}). However, both BAL quasars are only detected in the softer NuSTAR bands (e.g., 4-20 keV) but not in its harder bands (e.g., 20-30 keV), suggesting that either the shielding gas is highly Compton-thick or the two targets are intrinsically X-ray weak. We constrain the column densities for both to be N{sub H} Almost-Equal-To 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2} if the weak hard X-ray emission is caused by obscuration from the shielding gas. We discuss a few possibilities for how PG 1004+130 could have Compton-thick shielding gas without strong Fe K{alpha} line emission; dilution from jet-linked X-ray emission is one likely explanation. We also discuss the intrinsic X-ray weakness scenario based on a coronal-quenching model relevant to the shielding gas and disk wind of BAL quasars. Motivated by our NuSTAR results, we perform a Chandra stacking analysis with the Large Bright Quasar Survey BAL quasar sample and place statistical constraints upon the fraction of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars; this fraction is likely 17%-40%.

  10. Diagnostics of underwater electrical wire explosion through a time- and space-resolved hard x-ray source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheftman, D; Shafer, D; Efimov, S; Gruzinsky, K; Gleizer, S; Krasik, Ya E

    2012-10-01

    A time- and space-resolved hard x-ray source was developed as a diagnostic tool for imaging underwater exploding wires. A ~4 ns width pulse of hard x-rays with energies of up to 100 keV was obtained from the discharge in a vacuum diode consisting of point-shaped tungsten electrodes. To improve contrast and image quality, an external pulsed magnetic field produced by Helmholtz coils was used. High resolution x-ray images of an underwater exploding wire were obtained using a sensitive x-ray CCD detector, and were compared to optical fast framing images. Future developments and application of this diagnostic technique are discussed.

  11. Theoretical modeling of Comptonized X-ray spectra of super-Eddington accretion flow: Origin of hard excess in ultraluminous X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaki, Takaaki; Mineshige, Shin; Ohsuga, Ken; Kawashima, Tomohisa

    2017-12-01

    X-ray continuum spectra of super-Eddington accretion flow are studied by means of Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations based on the radiation hydrodynamic simulation data, in which both thermal- and bulk-Compton scatterings are taken into account. We compare the calculated spectra of accretion flow around black holes with masses of MBH = 10, 102, 103, and 104 M⊙ for a fixed mass injection rate (from the computational boundary at 103 rs) of 103 LEdd/c2 (with rs, LEdd, and c being the Schwarzschild radius, the Eddington luminosity, and the speed of light, respectively). The soft X-ray spectra exhibit mass dependence in accordance with the standard-disk relation; the maximum surface temperature is scaled as T ∝ M_{ BH}^{ -1/4}. The spectra in the hard X-ray band, by contrast with soft X-ray, look to be quite similar among different models, if we normalize the radiation luminosity by MBH. This reflects that the hard component is created by thermal- and bulk-Compton scatterings of soft photons originating from an accretion flow in the overheated and/or funnel regions, the temperatures of which have no dependence on mass. The hard X-ray spectra can be reproduced by a Wien spectrum with the temperature of T ˜ 3 keV accompanied by a hard excess at photon energy above several keV. The excess spectrum can be fitted well with a power law with a photon index of Γ ˜ 3. This feature is in good agreement with that of the recent NuSTAR observations of ULXs (ultra-luminous X-ray sources).

  12. kHz femtosecond laser-plasma hard X-ray and fast ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoss, A.; Korn, G.; Stiel, H.; Voigt, U.; Elsaesser, T.; Richardson, M.C.; Siders, C.W.; Faubel, M.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the first demonstration of a new stable, kHz femtosecond laser-plasma source of hard x-ray continuum and K α emission using a thin liquid metallic jet target. kHz femtosecond x-ray sources will find many applications in time-resolved x-ray diffraction and microscopy studies. As high intensity lasers become more compact and operate at increasingly high repetition-rates, they require a target configuration that is both repeatable from shot-to-shot and is debris-free. We have solved this requirement with the use of a fine (10-30 μm diameter) liquid metal jet target that provides a pristine, unperturbed filament surface at rates >100 kHz. A number of liquid metal targets are considered. We will show hard x-ray spectra recorded from liquid Ga targets that show the generation of the 9.3 keV and 10.3 keV, K α and K β lines superimposed on a multi-keV Bremsstrahlung continuum. This source was generated by a 50fs duration, 1 kHz, 2W, high intensity Ti:Sapphire laser. We will discuss the extension of this source to higher powers and higher repetition rates, providing harder x-ray emission, with the incorporation of pulse-shaping and other techniques to enhance the x-ray conversion efficiency. Using the same liquid target technology, we have also demonstrated the generation of forward-going sub-MeV protons from a 10 μm liquid water target at 1 kHz repetition rates. kHz sources of high energy ions will find many applications in time-resolved particle interaction studies, as well as lead to the efficient generation of short-lived isotopes for use in nuclear medicine and other applications. The protons were detected with CR-39 track detectors both in the forward and backward directions up to energies of ∼500 keV. As the intensity of compact high repetition-rate lasers sources increase, we can expect improvements in the energy, conversion efficiency and directionality to occur. The impact of these developments on a number of fields will be discussed. As compact

  13. A FOCUSED, HARD X-RAY LOOK AT ARP 299 WITH NuSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ptak, A.; Hornschemeier, A.; Lehmer, B.; Yukita, M.; Wik, D.; Tatum, M. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Zezas, A. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, Herakleion (Greece); Antoniou, V. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Argo, M. K. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Ballo, L.; Della Ceca, R. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera (INAF), via Brera 28, I-20121 Milano (Italy); Bechtol, K. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Boggs, S.; Craig, W. W.; Krivonos, R. [U.C. Berkeley Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Christensen, F. E. [National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Harrison, F. A. [Caltech Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, Pasadena, CA (United States); Maccarone, T. J. [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); and others

    2015-02-20

    We report on simultaneous observations of the local starburst system Arp 299 with NuSTAR and Chandra, which provides the first resolved images of this galaxy up to energies of ∼45 keV. Fitting the 3-40 keV spectrum reveals a column density of N {sub H} ∼ 4 × 10{sup 24} cm{sup –2}, characteristic of a Compton-thick active galactic nucleus (AGN), and a 10-30 keV luminosity of 1.2 × 10{sup 43} erg s{sup –1}. The hard X-rays detected by NuSTAR above 10 keV are centered on the western nucleus, Arp 299-B, which previous X-ray observations have shown to be the primary source of neutral Fe-K emission. Other X-ray sources, including Arp 299-A, the eastern nucleus also thought to harbor an AGN, as well as X-ray binaries, contribute ≲ 10% to the 10-20 keV emission from the Arp 299 system. The lack of significant emission above 10 keV other than that attributed to Arp 299-B suggests that: (1) any AGN in Arp 299-A must be heavily obscured (N {sub H} > 10{sup 24} cm{sup –2}) or have a much lower luminosity than Arp 299-B and (2) the extranuclear X-ray binaries have spectra that cut-off above ∼10 keV. Such soft spectra are characteristic of ultraluminous X-ray sources observed to date by NuSTAR.

  14. Magnified hard x-ray microtomography: toward tomography with submicron resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroer, Christian G.; Benner, Boris; Guenzler, Til F.; Kuhlmann, Marion; Lengeler, Bruno; Rau, Christoph; Weitkamp, Timm; Snigirev, Anatoly A.; Snigireva, Irina

    2002-01-01

    Parabolic compound refractive lenses (PCRLs) are high quality imaging optics for hard x-rays that can be used as an objective lens in a new type of hard x-ray full field microscope. Using an aluminium PCRL, this new type of microscope has been shown to have a resolution of 350 nm. Further improvement of the resolution down to 50 nm can be expected using beryllium as a lens material. The large depth of field (several mm) of the microscope results in sharp projection images for samples that fit into the field of view of about 300 micrometers. This allows to combine magnified imaging with tomographic techniques. First results of magnified microtomography are shown. Contrast formation in the microscope and the consequences for tomographic reconstruction are discussed. An outlook on further developments is given.

  15. Reconnection, Particle Acceleration, and Hard X-ray Emission in Eruptive Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Petrus C.

    1998-11-01

    The frequent occurrence of Hard X-ray emission from the top of flaring loops was one of the discoveries by the Hard X-ray telescope on board the Japanese Yohkoh satellite. I will show how the combined effect of magnetic field convergence and pitch- angle scattering of non-thermal electrons injected at the top of the loop results in the generation of looptop sources with properties akin to those observed by Yohkoh. In addition it is shown that the injection of proton beams in the loop legs, expected from theory, reproduces the observed high temperature ``ridges" in the loop legs by mirroring and energy loss through collisions. I will interpret these numerical results as supporting the now widely accepted model of an erupting magnetic flux tube generating a reconnecting current sheet in its wake, where most of the energy release takes place. The strong similarity with the reconnection observed in the MRX experiment in Princeton will be analyzed in detail.

  16. Quantitative 3D imaging of yeast by hard X-ray tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ting; Li, Wenjie; Guan, Yong; Song, Xiangxia; Xiong, Ying; Liu, Gang; Tian, Yangchao

    2012-05-01

    Full-field hard X-ray tomography could be used to obtain three-dimensional (3D) nanoscale structures of biological samples. The image of the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, was clearly visualized based on Zernike phase contrast imaging technique and heavy metal staining method at a spatial resolution better than 50 nm at the energy of 8 keV. The distributions and shapes of the organelles during the cell cycle were clearly visualized and two types of organelle were distinguished. The results for cells during various phases were compared and the ratios of organelle volume to cell volume can be analyzed quantitatively. It showed that the ratios remained constant between growth and division phase and increased strongly in stationary phase, following the shape and size of two types of organelles changes. Our results demonstrated that hard X-ray microscopy was a complementary method for imaging and revealing structural information for biological samples. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Extending synchrotron-based atomic physics experiments into the hard X-ray region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBrun, T.

    1996-01-01

    The high-brightness, hard x-ray beams available from third-generation synchrotron sources are opening new opportunities to study the deepest inner shells of atoms, an area where little work has been done and phenomena not observed in less tightly bound inner-shells are manifested. In addition scattering processes which are weak at lower energies become important, providing another tool to investigate atomic structure as well as an opportunity to study photon/atom interactions beyond photoabsorption. In this contribution the authors discuss some of the issues related to extending synchrotron-based atomic physics experiments into the hard x-ray region from the physical and the experimental point of view. They close with a discussion of a technique, resonant Raman scattering, that may prove invaluable in determining the spectra of the very highly-excited states resulting from the excitation of deep inner shells

  18. A hard x-ray prototype production exposure station at NSLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.D.; Milne, J.C.

    1997-07-01

    Exposures conducted at the NSLS R and D beamline (X-27B) for High Aspect Ratio Precision Manufacture have proven sufficiently successful that the authors are constructing a dedicated hard x-ray exposure beamline. The new beamline (X-14B) provides an exposure field ∼ 120 mm wide, three times larger than that of X-27B. The scanner is based on the hydraulic system from the X-27B program. It is optimized for planar exposures and takes advantage of the full 525 mm stroke available. Exposures of multiple substrates and masks will be possible, with the fixturing supporting mounting of substrate holders from other groups (ALS, APS, CAMD, and UW). The function of this beamline is to establish a hard x-ray exposure station where manufacturing scale protocols can be developed and ultimately exploited for production runs

  19. Hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy of transition-metal oxide thin films and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadati, H.; Fujimori, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Photoemission spectroscopy is a powerful technique to study the electronic structures of transition-metal oxides. •Hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HXPES) is a new type of photoemission spectroscopy which can probe bulk states. •HXPES is very suitable for studying oxide thin films such as the composition dependence and the film thickness dependence. -- Abstract: Photoemission spectroscopy is a powerful experimental technique to study the electronic structures of solids, especially of transition-metal oxides. Recently, hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HXPES) has emerged as a more relevant experimental technique to obtain clear information about bulk states. Here, we describe how HXPES can be conveniently applied to study the interesting subjects on oxide thin films such as the composition dependence and the film thickness dependence of the electronic structures and the interfacial electronic structure of multilayers

  20. Searches for hard X-ray gamma-ray burst afterglows with the BAT on Swift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krimm, Hans A.; Ozawa, Hideki; Weidenspointner, Georg; Barbier, Louis M.; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Gehrels, Neil; Parsons, Ann M.; Tueller, Jack; Eftekharzadeh, Ardeshir; Hullinger, Derek D.; Markwardt, Craig; Fenimore, Edward E.; Palmer, David M.

    2003-01-01

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on the Swift gamma ray burst mission will continue to observe the fields of all detected gamma-ray bursts for several days after the prompt emission has faded. Utilizing first event-by-event data, then one minute and later five minute survey accumulations, the BAT will be extremely sensitive to the hard X-ray afterglow known to be associated with many bursts. This data will cover the crucial transition of the afterglow from rapid variability to the smoothly decaying power law in time and will extend observations of the tails of individual bursts to longer time scales than have been achievable so far. Since Swift is sensitive to short duration GRBs, we will also be able to determine whether hard X-ray afterglows are associated with short GRBs. The BAT will provide high resolution spectra of burst afterglows, allowing us to study in detail the time evolution of GRB spectra

  1. A Hard X-Ray Study of the Normal Star-Forming Galaxy M83 with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yukita, M.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Lehmer, B. D.

    2016-01-01

    We present the results from sensitive, multi-epoch NuSTAR observations of the late-type star-forming galaxy M83 (d = 4.6 Mpc). This is the first investigation to spatially resolve the hard (E > 10 keV) X-ray emission of this galaxy. The nuclear region and similar to 20 off-nuclear point sources......, including a previously discovered ultraluminous X-ray source, are detected in our NuSTAR observations. The X-ray hardnesses and luminosities of the majority of the point sources are consistent with hard X-ray sources resolved in the starburst galaxy NGC 253. We infer that the hard X-ray emission is most...

  2. Hard synchrotron radiation scattering from a nonideal surface grating from multilayer X-ray mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punegov, V.I.; Nesterets, Ya.I.; Mytnichenko, S.V.; Kovalenko, N.V.; Chernov, V.A.

    2003-01-01

    The hard synchrotron radiation scattering from a multilayer surface grating is theoretically and experimentally investigated. The numerical calculations of angular distribution of scattering intensity from X-ray mirror Ni/C are executed with use of recurrence formulae and statistical dynamical theory of diffraction. It is shown, that the essential role in formation of a diffraction pattern plays a diffuse scattering caused by structure imperfection of a multilayer grating [ru

  3. Optimization of a multilayer Laue lens system for a hard x-ray nanoprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Hui; Wang, Hua; Mao, Chengwen; Li, Aiguo; He, Yan; Dong, Zhaohui; Zheng, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Detailed designs of a multilayer Laue lens system for a hard x-ray nanoprobe, including flat and wedged types, are presented, to realize nanoscale point focus and high diffraction efficiency simultaneously. The difficulty of movement and alignment for lens, aperture and sample are considered in the optimization process. Considering the practical requirements of future experiments, the features of the beamline and the structural imperfections, the working energy range, the beam vibration and structural errors are estimated and discussed. (paper)

  4. HARD X-RAY TAIL DISCOVERED IN THE CLOCKED BURSTER GS 1826–238

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodi, J.; Jourdain, E.; Roques, J. P., E-mail: jrodi@irap.omp.eu [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France)

    2016-02-01

    The low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) neutron star (NS) GS 1826–238 was discovered by Ginga in 1988 September. Due to the presence of quasi-periodicity in the type I X-ray burst rate, the source has been a frequent target of X-ray observations for almost 30 years. Though the bursts were too soft to be detected by INTEGRAL/SPI, the persistent emission from GS 1826–238 was detected over 150 keV during the ∼10 years of observations. Spectral analysis found a significant high-energy excess above a Comptonization model that is well fit by a power law, indicating an additional spectral component. Most previously reported spectra with hard tails in LMXB NS have had an electron temperature of a few keV and a hard tail dominating above ∼50 keV with an index of Γ ∼ 2–3. GS 1826–238 was found to have a markedly different spectrum with kT{sub e} ∼ 20 keV and a hard tail dominating above ∼150 keV with an index of Γ ∼ 1.8, more similar to black hole X-ray binaries. We report on our search for long-term spectral variability over the 25–370 keV energy range and on a comparison of the GS 1826–238 average spectrum to the spectra of other LMXB NSs with hard tails.

  5. The NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Survey of the Norma Arm Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fornasini, Francesca M.; Tomsick, John A.; Hong, JaeSub

    2017-01-01

    We present a catalog of hard X-ray sources in a square-degree region surveyed by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) in the direction of the Norma spiral arm. This survey has a total exposure time of 1.7 Ms, and the typical and maximum exposure depths are 50 ks and 1 Ms, respectively...... model with kT ≈ 15 keV, as observed for the CV candidates....

  6. Self-standing quasi-mosaic crystals for focusing hard X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camattari, Riccardo; Guidi, Vincenzo; Bellucci, Valerio; Neri, Ilaria; Frontera, Filippo; Jentschel, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A quasi mosaic bent crystal for high-resolution diffraction of X and γ rays has been realized. A net curvature was imprinted to the crystal thanks to a series of superficial grooves to keep the curvature without external devices. The crystal highlights very high diffraction efficiency due to quasi mosaic curvature. Quasi mosaic crystals of this kind are proposed for the realization of a high-resolution focusing Laue lens for hard X-rays.

  7. Structure of the Circumnuclear Region of Seyfert 2 Galaxies Revealed by RXTE Hard X-Ray Observations of NGC 4945

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madejski, G.; Zycki, P.; Done, C.; Valinia, A.; Blanco, P.; Rothschild, R.; Turek, B.

    2000-01-01

    NGC 4945 is one of the brightest Se.yfert galaxies on the sky at 100 keV, but is completely absorbed below 10 keV, implying an optical depth of the absorber to electron scattering of a few; its absorption column is probably the largest which still allows a direct view of the nucleus at hard X-ray energies. Our observations of it with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) satellite confirm the large absorption, which for a simple phenomenological fit using an absorber with Solar abundances implies a column of 4.5(sup 0.4, sub -0.4) x 10(exp 24) /sq cm. Using a a more realistic scenario (requiring Monte Carlo modeling of the scattering), we infer the optical depth to Thomson scattering of approximately 2.4. If such a scattering medium were to subtend a large solid angle from the nucleus, it should smear out any intrinsic hard X-ray variability on time scales shorter than the light travel time through it. The rapid (with a time scale of approximately a day) hard X-ray variability of NGC 4945 we observed with the RXTE implies that the bulk of the extreme absorption in this object does not originate in a parsec-size, geometrically thick molecular torus. Limits on the amount of scattered flux require that the optically thick material on parsec scales must be rather geometrically thin, subtending a half-angle < 10 deg. This is only marginally consistent with the recent determinations of the obscuring column in hard X-rays, where only a quarter of Seyfert 2s have columns which are optically thick, and presents a problem in accounting for the Cosmic X-ray Background primarily with AGN possessing the geometry as that inferred by us. The small solid angle of the obscuring material, together with the black hole mass (of approximately 1.4 x 10(exp 6) solar mass) from megamaser measurements. allows a robust determination of the source luminosity, which in turn implies that the source radiates at approximately 10% of the Eddington limit.

  8. Short term variation of Cyg X-1 in the hard x-ray region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, Kosei [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. of Space and Aeronautical Science

    1978-08-01

    Cyg X-1 is a peculiar celestial body considered to be a close binary system of a black hole and a blue super-giant star. It is presently known that the time fluctuation of Cyg X-1 is considerably complex, ranging from seconds to days or months. Of these variation, attention has been paid to the short time variation in relation to the black hole theory. Observations of fluctuations in the order of second have been limited to soft X-ray (20 keV or more) so far, because great technical difficulties are involved due to the low intensity of hard X-ray. The present investigation is based on the fluctuations in the order of second in hard X-ray, and was conducted by employing an unprecedented large area X-ray telescope. The text describes on the brief history of the short time fluctuation, explains the experimental plan, X-ray detecting system, flight of a balloon and the analyses and discussions of fluctuation factor by variation function method, and gives the analysis data and conclusion. The observations resulted in the fact that the fluctuations in the order of second were small at 20 to 30 keV, but become large when energy is higher or lower than this value. The most natural explanation available for this result may be that it is essentially spectrum fluctuation, being inverse correlation in higher and lower energies. Physical meaning of such spectrum fluctuation is considered in connection with precipitating disk model around a black hole.

  9. Short term variation of Cyg X-1 in the hard x-ray region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Kosei

    1978-01-01

    Cyg X-1 is a peculiar celestial body considered to be a close binary system of a black hole and a blue super-giant star. It is presently known that the time fluctuation of Cyg X-1 is considerably complex, ranging from seconds to days or months. Of these variation, attention has been paid to the short time variation in relation to the black hole theory. Observations of fluctuations in the order of second have been limited to soft X-ray (20 keV or more) so far, because great technical difficulties are involved due to the low intensity of hard X-ray. The present investigation is based on the fluctuations in the order of second in hard X-ray, and was conducted by employing an unprecedented large area X-ray telescope. The text describes on the brief history of the short time fluctuation, explains the experimental plan, X-ray detecting system, flight of a balloon and the analyses and discussions of fluctuation factor by variation function method, and gives the analysis data and conclusion. The observations resulted in the fact that the fluctuations in the order of second were small at 20 to 30 keV, but become large when energy is higher or lower than this value. The most natural explanation available for this result may be that it is essentially spectrum fluctuation, being inverse correlation in higher and lower energies. Physical meaning of such spectrum fluctuation is considered in connection with precipitating disk model around a black hole. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  10. Indirect measure of X-rays spectra using TLDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonzi, E. V.; Mainardi, R. T.

    2011-10-01

    A methodology of indirect measure of X-rays spectra, emitted by conventional tubes, was developed recently and its feasibility verified in the first place by Monte Carlo simulations. For that case is intended to measure, by means of plastic scintillators, attenuation curves of dispersed beams previously. In this work were carried out measurements of attenuation curves with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) to verify the kindness of the indirect measure method. The attenuation curve was also measured using an ionization chamber brand Capintec (model 192) with the purpose of making a comparison. The results of the attenuation curve measured with both dosimeters present a good resolution inside the statistical fluctuations and the spectral reconstruction using diverse parametric functions is carried out in a quick and simple way with excellent resolutions in the functional form. For this reconstruction method are of fundamental importance the following properties of the used dosimeter: in the first place the repetition of the measures, property that could check; in second place the precision of the measured data and lastly the dosimeter response, this is, the increase of the thermoluminescent signal before an increase of the photons flow of X-rays. This parameter is the gradient of the curve thermoluminescent signal versus the dose imparted to the dosimeter. The measures were realized with a generator of X-rays brand Kevex provided of a conventional tube with tungsten anti cathode that polarizes with high tension to a maximum value of 50 kV and current of 0.5 ma. (Author)

  11. Calibration of the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) Hard X-ray Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Gaskin, Jessica; Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert; Tennant, Allyn; Swartz, Doug; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Elsner, Ron; Kolodziejczak, Jeff; Ramsey, Brian

    2014-01-01

    On September 21-22, 2013, the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) hard X-ray telescope, flew as a balloon payload from Ft. Sumner, N.M. HEROES observed the Sun, the black hole binary GRS 1915+105, and the Crab Nebula during its 27 hour flight. In this paper we describe laboratory calibration measurements of the HEROES detectors using line and continuum sources, applications of these measurements to define channel to energy (gain) corrections for observed events and to define detector response matrices. We characterize the HEROES X-ray grazing incidence optics using measurements taken in the Stray-Light (SLF) Facility in Huntsville, AL, and using ray traces.

  12. THE 70 MONTH SWIFT-BAT ALL-SKY HARD X-RAY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, W. H.; Tueller, J.; Markwardt, C. B.; Skinner, G. K.; Barthelmy, S.; Gehrels, N.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Evans, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    We present the catalog of sources detected in 70 months of observations with the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) hard X-ray detector on the Swift gamma-ray burst observatory. The Swift-BAT 70 month survey has detected 1171 hard X-ray sources (more than twice as many sources as the previous 22 month survey) in the 14-195 keV band down to a significance level of 4.8σ, associated with 1210 counterparts. The 70 month Swift-BAT survey is the most sensitive and uniform hard X-ray all-sky survey and reaches a flux level of 1.03 × 10 –11 erg s –1 cm –2 over 50% of the sky and 1.34 × 10 –11 erg s –1 cm –2 over 90% of the sky. The majority of new sources in the 70 month survey continue to be active galactic nuclei, with over 700 in the catalog. As part of this new edition of the Swift-BAT catalog, we also make available eight-channel spectra and monthly sampled light curves for each object detected in the survey in the online journal and at the Swift-BAT 70 month Web site

  13. THE 70 MONTH SWIFT-BAT ALL-SKY HARD X-RAY SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, W. H.; Tueller, J.; Markwardt, C. B.; Skinner, G. K.; Barthelmy, S.; Gehrels, N. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Science Division, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Mushotzky, R. F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Evans, P. A., E-mail: whbaumga@alum.mit.edu [X-Ray and Observational Astronomy Group/Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    We present the catalog of sources detected in 70 months of observations with the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) hard X-ray detector on the Swift gamma-ray burst observatory. The Swift-BAT 70 month survey has detected 1171 hard X-ray sources (more than twice as many sources as the previous 22 month survey) in the 14-195 keV band down to a significance level of 4.8{sigma}, associated with 1210 counterparts. The 70 month Swift-BAT survey is the most sensitive and uniform hard X-ray all-sky survey and reaches a flux level of 1.03 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} over 50% of the sky and 1.34 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} over 90% of the sky. The majority of new sources in the 70 month survey continue to be active galactic nuclei, with over 700 in the catalog. As part of this new edition of the Swift-BAT catalog, we also make available eight-channel spectra and monthly sampled light curves for each object detected in the survey in the online journal and at the Swift-BAT 70 month Web site.

  14. X-ray ablation measurements and modeling for ICF applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.T.

    1996-09-01

    X-ray ablation of material from the first wall and other components of an ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion) chamber is a major threat to the laser final optics. Material condensing on these optics after a shot may cause damage with subsequent laser shots. To ensure the successful operation of the ICF facility, removal rates must be predicted accurately. The goal for this dissertation is to develop an experimentally validated x-ray response model, with particular application to the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Accurate knowledge of the x-ray and debris emissions from ICF targets is a critical first step in the process of predicting the performance of the target chamber system. A number of 1-D numerical simulations of NIF targets have been run to characterize target output in terms of energy, angular distribution, spectrum, and pulse shape. Scaling of output characteristics with variations of both target yield and hohlraum wall thickness are also described. Experiments have been conducted at the Nova laser on the effects of relevant x-ray fluences on various materials. The response was diagnosed using post-shot examinations of the surfaces with scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope instruments. Judgments were made about the dominant removal mechanisms for each material. Measurements of removal depths were made to provide data for the modeling. The finite difference ablation code developed here (ABLATOR) combines the thermomechanical response of materials to x-rays with models of various removal mechanisms. The former aspect refers to energy deposition in such small characteristic depths (∼ micron) that thermal conduction and hydrodynamic motion are significant effects on the nanosecond time scale. The material removal models use the resulting time histories of temperature and pressure-profiles, along with ancillary local conditions, to predict rates of surface vaporization and the onset of conditions that would lead to spallation

  15. Machine learning from hard x-ray surveys: applications to magnetic cataclysmic variable studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaringi, Simone

    2009-11-01

    Within this thesis are discussed two main topics of contemporary astrophysics. The first is that of machine learning algorithms for astronomy whilst the second is that of magnetic cataclysmic variables (mCVs). To begin, an overview is given of ISINA: INTEGRAL Scouce Identifiction Network Algorithm. This machine learning algorithm, using random forests, is applied to the IBIS/ISGRI data set in order to ease the production of unbiased future soft gamma-ray source catalogues. The feature extraction process on an initial candidate list is described together with feature merging. Three trainng and testing sets are created in order to deal with the diverse time-scales encountered when dealing with the gamma-ray sky: one dealing with faint persistent source recognition, one dealing with strong persistent sources and a final one dealing with transients. For the latter, a new transient detection technique is introduced and described: the transient matrix. Finally the performance of the network is assessed and discussed using the testing set and some illustrative source examples. ISINA is also compared to the more conventional approach of visual inspection. Next mCVs are discussed, and in particular the properties arising from a hard X-ray selected sample which has proven remarkably efficient in detecting intermediate polars and asynchronous polars, two of the rarest type of cataclysmic variables (CVs). This thesis focuses particularly on the link between hard X-ray properties and spin/orbital periods. To this end, a new sample of these objects is constructed by cross-corelating candidate sources detected in INTEGRAL/IBIS observations against catalogues of known CVs. Also included in the analysis are hard X-ray Observations from Swift/BAT and SUZAKU/HXD in order to make the study more complete. It is found that most hard X-ray detected mCVs have Pspin/Porb<0.1 above the period gap. In this respect, attention is given to the very low number of detected systems in any ban

  16. The first multi-wavelength campaign of AXP 4U 0142+61 from radio to hard X-rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, P.R.; Kuiper, L.; Hermsen, W.; Rea, N.; Durant, M.; Stappers, B.; Kaspi, V.M.; Dib, R.

    2007-01-01

    For the first time a quasi-simultaneous multi-wavelength campaign has been performed on an Anomalous X-ray Pulsar from the radio to the hard X-ray band. 4U 0142+61 was an INTEGRAL target for 1 Ms in July 2005. During these observations it was also observed in the X-ray band with Swift and RXTE, in

  17. Study of hard braking x-ray radiation on the radiation-beam complex ''TEMP''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batrakov, A.B.; Glushko, E.G.; Egorov, A.M.; Zinchenko, A.A.; Litvinenko, V.V.; Lonin, Yu.F.; Ponomarev, A.G.; Rybka, A.V.; Fedotov, S.I.; Uvarov, V.T.

    2015-01-01

    A calculation over of basic parameters of the hard brake x-rayed radiation for the microsecond accelerating of relativistic electronic beam T EMP . Optimization of converters is conducted for these aims. Maximal doses are experimentally got brake x-rayed radiation on beam-radiation complex T EMP . The diagrams of orientation of the brake x-rayed radiation are taken off depending on energies of bunches and forms of electrodes.

  18. X-ray diffraction and measurement of residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeder, G.; Lebrun, J.L.; Corcaud, L.

    1977-01-01

    X-ray diffraction technique is a non destructive method for measuring the residual stresses in mechanical parts. This method, called sin 2 PSI method is investigated. It is applied to the measurement of elastic constants in different directions of crystals of Zr alloy (Zircaloy 4) and Ti alloy (TA6V). Stresses in TA6V sheets welded by TIG and electron beam processes are also studied [fr

  19. Calibration of the hard x-ray detectors for the FOXSI solar sounding rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athiray, P. S.; Buitrago-Casas, Juan Camilo; Bergstedt, Kendra; Vievering, Juliana; Musset, Sophie; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Glesener, Lindsay; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Watanabe, Shin; Courtade, Sasha; Christe, Steven; Krucker, Säm.; Goetz, Keith; Monson, Steven

    2017-08-01

    The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) sounding rocket experiment conducts direct imaging and spectral observation of the Sun in hard X-rays, in the energy range 4 to 20 keV. These high-sensitivity observations are used to study particle acceleration and coronal heating. FOXSI is designed with seven grazing incidence optics modules that focus X-rays onto seven focal plane detectors kept at a 2m distance. FOXSI-1 was flown with seven Double-sided Si Strip Detectors (DSSD), and two of them were replaced with CdTe detectors for FOXSI-2. The upcoming FOXSI-3 flight will carry DSSD and CdTe detectors with upgraded optics for enhanced sensitivity. The detectors are calibrated using various radioactive sources. The detector's spectral response matrix was constructed with diagonal elements using a Gaussian approximation with a spread (sigma) that accounts for the energy resolution of the detector. Spectroscopic studies of past FOXSI flight data suggest that the inclusion of lower energy X-rays could better constrain the spectral modeling to yield a more precise temperature estimation of the hot plasma. This motivates us to carry out an improved calibration to better understand the finer-order effects on the spectral response, especially at lower energies. Here we report our improved calibration of FOXSI detectors using experiments and Monte-Carlo simulations.

  20. Time-resolved hard x-ray studies using third-generation synchrotron radiation sources (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The third-generation, high-brilliance, synchrotron radiation sources currently under construction will usher in a new era of x-ray research in the physical, chemical, and biological sciences. One of the most exciting areas of experimentation will be the extension of static x-ray scattering and diffraction techniques to the study of transient or time-evolving systems. The high repetition rate, short-pulse duration, high-brilliance, variable spectral bandwidth, and large particle beam energies of these sources make them ideal for hard x-ray, time-resolved studies. The primary focus of this presentation will be on the novel instrumentation required for time-resolved studies such as optics which can increase the flux on the sample or disperse the x-ray beam, detectors and electronics for parallel data collection, and methods for altering the natural time structure of the radiation. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, BES-Materials Science, under Contract No. W-31-109-ENG-38

  1. A hard x-ray spectrometer for high angular resolution observations of cosmic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hailey, C.J.; Ziock, K.P.; Harrison, F.; Kahn, S.M.; Liedahl, D.; Lubin, P.M.; Seiffert, M.

    1988-01-01

    LAXRIS (large area x-ray imaging spectrometer) is an experimental, balloon-borne, hard x-ray telescope that consists of a coaligned array of x-ray imaging spectrometer modules capable of obtaining high angular resolution (1--3 arcminutes) with moderate energy resolution in the 20- to 300-keV region. Each spectrometer module consists of a CsI(Na) crystal coupled to a position-sensitive phototube with a crossed-wire, resistive readout. Imaging is provided by a coded aperture mask with a 4-m focal length. The high angular resolution is coupled with rather large area (/approximately/800 cm 2 ) to provide good sensitivity. Results are presented on performance and overall design. Sensitivity estimates are derived from a Monte-Carlo code developed to model the LAXRIS response to background encountered at balloon altitudes. We discuss a variety of observations made feasible by high angular resolution. For instance, spatially resolving the nonthermal x-ray emission from clusters of galaxies is suggested as an ideal program for LAXRIS. 15 refs., 5 figs

  2. Modeling of finite systems irradiated by intense ultrashort hard X-ray pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurek, Zoltan [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Ziaja, Beata [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Santra, Robin [Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Hamburg, Jungiusstrasse 9, 20355 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Large number of experiments have already been carried out at the existing hard X-Ray Free-Electron Laser facilities (LCLS, SACLA) during the recent years. Their great success generates even higher anticipation for the forthcoming X-ray sources (European XFEL). Single molecule imaging and nanoplasma formation are the challenging projects with XFELs that investigate the interaction of finite, small objects, e.g. single molecules, atomic clusters with intense X-ray radiation. Accurate modelling of the time evolution of such irradiated systems is required in order to understand the current experiments and to inspire new directions of experimental investigation. In this presentation we report on our theoretical molecular-dynamics tool able to follow non-equilibrium dynamics within finite systems irradiated by intense X-ray pulses. We introduce the relevant physical processes, present computational methods used, discuss their limitations and also the specific constraints on calculations imposed by experimental conditions. Finally, we conclude with a few simulation examples.

  3. Hard X-Ray Emission from Partially Occulted Solar Flares: RHESSI Observations in Two Solar Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Effenberger, Frederic; Costa, Fatima Rubio da; Petrosian, Vahé [Department of Physics and KIPAC, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Oka, Mitsuo; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Krucker, Säm [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Liu, Wei [Bay Area Environmental Research Institute, 625 2nd Street, Suite 209, Petaluma, CA 94952 (United States); Glesener, Lindsay, E-mail: feffen@stanford.edu, E-mail: frubio@stanford.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Flares close to the solar limb, where the footpoints are occulted, can reveal the spectrum and structure of the coronal looptop source in X-rays. We aim at studying the properties of the corresponding energetic electrons near their acceleration site, without footpoint contamination. To this end, a statistical study of partially occulted flares observed with Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager is presented here, covering a large part of solar cycles 23 and 24. We perform detailed spectra, imaging, and light curve analyses for 116 flares and include contextual observations from SDO and STEREO when available, providing further insights into flare emission that were previously not accessible. We find that most spectra are fitted well with a thermal component plus a broken power-law, non-thermal component. A thin-target kappa distribution model gives satisfactory fits after the addition of a thermal component. X-ray imaging reveals small spatial separation between the thermal and non-thermal components, except for a few flares with a richer coronal source structure. A comprehensive light curve analysis shows a very good correlation between the derivative of the soft X-ray flux (from GOES ) and the hard X-rays for a substantial number of flares, indicative of the Neupert effect. The results confirm that non-thermal particles are accelerated in the corona and estimated timescales support the validity of a thin-target scenario with similar magnitudes of thermal and non-thermal energy fluxes.

  4. Fast solar hard X-ray bursts and large scale coronal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simnett, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    The conditions at the Sun at the times corresponding to a selected set 22 fast impulsive hard X-ray bursts reported by Crannell et al. are examined. It is suggested that one of the bursts must arise from a precipitating beam of subrelativistic electrons; the source of the electrons is postulated to be in a region very remote from the X-ray site on the basis of type III and other radio data. The connection is via a coronal magnetic loop extending to approx.3 R/sub sun/ above the photosphere. The energy in the electron beam is estimated at 3 x 10 27 ergs. Intense soft X-ray and/or microwave radio storms at times corresponding to many of the impulsive X-ray bursts lead the conclusion that 14, and possibly 18, of the 22 bursts could have the same interpretation. The energy in such an electron beam could be important when considering the trigger phase of some flares

  5. Correlation of electron beams and hard x-ray emissions in ISTTOK Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakubowski, L.; Malinowski, K.; Sadowski, M.J.; Zebrowski, J.; Rabinski, M.; Jakubowski, M.J. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), Otwock (Poland); Plyusnin, V.V.; Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Duarte, P. [Association Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-11-15

    The paper reports on experimental studies of electron beams in the ISTTOK tokamak, those were performed by means of an improved four-channel detector. The Cherenkov-type detector measuring head was equipped with four radiators made of two types of alumina-nitrate (AlN) poly-crystals: machinable and translucent ones, both of 10 mm in diameter and 2.5 mm in thickness. The movable support that enabled the whole detectors to be placed inside the tokamak vacuum chamber, at chosen positions along the ISTTOK minor radius. Since the electron energy distribution is one of the most important characteristics of tokamak plasmas, the main aim of the study was to perform estimations of an energy spectrum of the recorded electrons. For this purpose the radiators were coated with molybdenum (Mo) layers of different thickness. The technique based on the use of Cherenkov-type detectors enabled the detection of fast electrons (of energy above 66 keV) and determination of their spatial and temporal characteristics in the ISTTOK experiment. Measurements of hard X-rays (HXR), which were emitted during ISTTOK discharges, have also been performed. Particular attention was paid to the correlation measurements of HXR pulses with run-away electron beams. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  6. Properties of an impulsive compact solar flare determined from Solar Maximum Mission X-ray measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, G. A.; Wolfson, C. J.

    1988-01-01

    Soft X-ray, hard X-ray magnetogram, and H-alpha data have been analyzed for an impulsive compact solar flare which occurred on May 21, 1985. The derived flare loop dimensions are about 20,000 km length and about 150 km diameter. Measurements of line ratios from the Mg XI ion indicate that the plasma density varied from about 4 x 10 to the 12th/cu cm early in the flare to about 10 to the 12th/cu cm during the flare decay. The initial temperature of this plasma was about 8 x 10 to the 6th K and dropped to about 5 x 10 to the 6th K during the decay phase. The simplest interpretation of the event is one in which the source of the soft X-ray flare emission is confined to a thin loop of very high density.

  7. Properties of an impulsive compact solar flare determined from Solar Maximum Mission X-ray measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, G.A.; Wolfson, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    Soft X-ray, hard X-ray magnetogram, and H-alpha data have been analyzed for an impulsive compact solar flare which occurred on May 21, 1985. The derived flare loop dimensions are about 20,000 km length and about 150 km diameter. Measurements of line ratios from the Mg XI ion indicate that the plasma density varied from about 4 x 10 to the 12th/cu cm early in the flare to about 10 to the 12th/cu cm during the flare decay. The initial temperature of this plasma was about 8 x 10 to the 6th K and dropped to about 5 x 10 to the 6th K during the decay phase. The simplest interpretation of the event is one in which the source of the soft X-ray flare emission is confined to a thin loop of very high density. 44 references

  8. Properties of an impulsive compact solar flare determined from Solar Maximum Mission X-ray measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linford, G.A.; Wolfson, C.J.

    1988-08-01

    Soft X-ray, hard X-ray magnetogram, and H-alpha data have been analyzed for an impulsive compact solar flare which occurred on May 21, 1985. The derived flare loop dimensions are about 20,000 km length and about 150 km diameter. Measurements of line ratios from the Mg XI ion indicate that the plasma density varied from about 4 x 10 to the 12th/cu cm early in the flare to about 10 to the 12th/cu cm during the flare decay. The initial temperature of this plasma was about 8 x 10 to the 6th K and dropped to about 5 x 10 to the 6th K during the decay phase. The simplest interpretation of the event is one in which the source of the soft X-ray flare emission is confined to a thin loop of very high density. 44 references.

  9. Hard x-ray contact microscopy with 250 nm spatial resolution using a LiF film detector and a tabletop microsource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almaviva, S.; Bonfigli, F.; Franzini, I.; Lai, A.; Montereali, R. M.; Pelliccia, D.; Cedola, A.; Lagomarsino, S.

    2006-01-01

    An innovative route for deep-submicrometer spatial resolution hard x-ray microscopy with tabletop x-ray source is proposed. A film of lithium fluoride (LiF) was used as imaging detector in contact mode. We present here the x-ray images recorded on LiF films of a Fresnel zone plate with submicrometer gold structures and of an onion cataphyll. The images were read with an optical confocal microscope in fluorescence mode. The measured spatial resolution was about 250 nm, i.e., close to the resolution limit of the confocal microscope. The advantages and drawbacks, and the possible improvements, of this route are discussed

  10. Magnetic X-ray measurements using the elliptical multipole wiggler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montano, P. A.; Li, Y.; Beno, M. A.; Jennings, G.; Kimball, C. W.

    1999-01-01

    The EMW at the BESSRC beam lines at the APS provides high photon flux at high energies with the capability of producing circular polarization on axis. The authors observe a high degree of circularly polarized x-rays at such energies. The polarization and frequency tunability of the elliptical multipole wiggler (EMW) is an ideal source for many magnetic measurements from X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) to Compton scattering experiments. They performed Compton scattering measurements to determine the polarization and photon flux at the sample as a function of the deflection parameters K y and K x . They used for their measurements a Si (220) Laue monochromator providing simultaneous photon energies at 50 keV, 100 keV and 150 keV. Magnetic Compton Profiles were determined by either switching the magnet polarity or the photon helicity. The results obtained using Fe(110) single crystals were very similar

  11. Laboratory measurements of 50-300 eV X rays from collisions of cometary interest: Ne and S L X rays, Fe M X rays and others

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verzani, C.J.; Miller, K.; Wrigley, A.; Kessel, Q.; Smith, W.W.; Smith, S.J.; Hossain, S.; Chutjian, A.

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory measurements simulating the impact of certain solar wind ions on CO have been made. Preliminary analysis of the X rays in the 50-300 eV energy range produced by these collisions suggests that a dominant role is played by electron capture and subsequent relaxation of the electron to the n = 2 levels of solar wind ions such as Ne and S. In particular our data show that X rays from Ne play a role that is at least as significant as that of the more dominant solar wind ion O 6+ in this X-ray energy range. It may be assumed that Mg and Si may also play an important role; however, these ions were not included in the present experiment

  12. High-resolution hard x-ray spectroscopy of high-temperature plasmas using an array of quantum microcalorimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Daniel B; Gu, Ming F; Brown, Greg V; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Porter, F Scott; Kilbourne, Caroline A; Kelley, Richard L

    2008-10-01

    Quantum microcalorimeters show promise in being able to fully resolve x-ray spectra from heavy highly charged ions, such as would be found in hot plasmas with temperatures in excess of 50 keV. Quantum microcalorimeter arrays are able to achieve this as they have a high-resolving power and good effective quantum efficiency for hard x-ray photons up to 60 keV. To demonstrate this, we present a measurement using an array of thin HgTe quantum microcalorimeters to measure the K-shell spectrum of hydrogenlike through carbonlike praseodymium (Z=57). With this device we are able to attain a resolving power, E/DeltaE, of 1000 at a photon energy of 37 keV.

  13. LIFTING THE VEIL ON OBSCURED ACCRETION: ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI NUMBER COUNTS AND SURVEY STRATEGIES FOR IMAGING HARD X-RAY MISSIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballantyne, D. R.; Draper, A. R.; Madsen, K. K.; Rigby, J. R.; Treister, E.

    2011-01-01

    Finding and characterizing the population of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that produces the X-ray background (XRB) is necessary to connect the history of accretion to observations of galaxy evolution at longer wavelengths. The year 2012 will see the deployment of the first hard X-ray imaging telescope which, through deep extragalactic surveys, will be able to measure the AGN population at the energies where the XRB peaks (∼20-30 keV). Here, we present predictions of AGN number counts in three hard X-ray bandpasses: 6-10 keV, 10-30 keV, and 30-60 keV. Separate predictions are presented for the number counts of Compton thick AGNs, the most heavily obscured active galaxies. The number counts are calculated for five different models of the XRB that differ in the assumed hard X-ray luminosity function, the evolution of the Compton thick AGNs, and the underlying AGN spectral model. The majority of the hard X-ray number counts will be Compton thin AGNs, but there is a greater than tenfold increase in the Compton thick number counts from the 6-10 keV to the 10-30 keV band. The Compton thick population shows enough variation that a hard X-ray number counts measurement will constrain the models. The computed number counts are used to consider various survey strategies for the NuSTAR mission, assuming a total exposure time of 6.2 Ms. We find that multiple surveys will allow a measurement of Compton thick evolution. The predictions presented here should be useful for all future imaging hard X-ray missions.

  14. THE FIRST FOCUSED HARD X-RAY IMAGES OF THE SUN WITH NuSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grefenstette, Brian W.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Forster, Karl; Harrison, Fiona A. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, 1216 E. California Blvd, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Glesener, Lindsay [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota—Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Krucker, Säm; Hudson, Hugh; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hannah, Iain G. [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Smith, David M.; Marsh, Andrew J. [Physics Department and Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Vogel, Julia K. [Physics Division, Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); White, Stephen M. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Caspi, Amir [Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Chen, Bin [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Shih, Albert [Solar Physics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kuhar, Matej [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, CH-5210 Windisch (Switzerland); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, Charles J., E-mail: bwgref@srl.caltech.edu [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); and others

    2016-07-20

    We present results from the the first campaign of dedicated solar observations undertaken by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope ARray ( NuSTAR ) hard X-ray (HXR) telescope. Designed as an astrophysics mission, NuSTAR nonetheless has the capability of directly imaging the Sun at HXR energies (>3 keV) with an increase in sensitivity of at least two magnitude compared to current non-focusing telescopes. In this paper we describe the scientific areas where NuSTAR will make major improvements on existing solar measurements. We report on the techniques used to observe the Sun with NuSTAR , their limitations and complications, and the procedures developed to optimize solar data quality derived from our experience with the initial solar observations. These first observations are briefly described, including the measurement of the Fe K-shell lines in a decaying X-class flare, HXR emission from high in the solar corona, and full-disk HXR images of the Sun.

  15. The hard X-ray response of epitaxial GaAs detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, A; Kraft, S; Peacock, A; Nenonen, S; Andersson, H

    2000-01-01

    We report on hard X-ray measurements with two epitaxial GaAs detectors of active areas 2.22 mm sup 2 and thicknesses 40 and 400 mu m at the ESRF and HASYLAB synchrotron research facilities. The detectors were fabricated using high-purity material and in spite of an order of magnitude difference in depletion depths, they were found to have comparable performances with energy resolutions at -45 deg. C of approx 1 keV fwhm at 7 keV rising to approx 2 keV fwhm at 200 keV and noise floors in the range 1-1.5 keV. At energies <30 keV, the energy resolution was dominated by leakage current and electromagnetic pick-up, while at the highest energies measured, the resolutions approach the expected Fano limit (e.g., approx 1 keV near 200 keV). Both detectors are remarkably linear, with average rms non-linearities of 0.2% over the energy range 10-60 keV, which, taken in conjunction with Monte-Carlo results indicate that charge collection efficiencies must be in excess of 98%. This is consistent with material science me...

  16. The First Focused Hard X-Ray Images of the Sun with NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grefenstette, Brian W.; Glesener, Lindsay; Kruckner, Sam; Hudson, Hugh; Hannah, Iain G.; Smith, David M.; Vogel, Julia K.; White, Stephen M.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Marsh, Andrew J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present results from the first campaign of dedicated solar observations undertaken by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope ARray (NuSTAR) hard X-ray (HXR) telescope. Designed as an astrophysics mission, NuSTAR nonetheless has the capability of directly imaging the Sun at HXR energies (3 keV) with an increase in sensitivity of at least two magnitude compared to current non-focusing telescopes. In this paper we describe the scientific areas where NuSTAR will make major improvements on existing solar measurements. We report on the techniques used to observe the Sun with NuSTAR, their limitations and complications, and the procedures developed to optimize solar data quality derived from our experience with the initial solar observations. These first observations are briefly described, including the measurement of the Fe K-shell lines in a decaying X-class flare, HXR emission from high in the solar corona, and full-disk HXR images of the Sun.

  17. Mechanical design of thin-film diamond crystal mounting apparatus for coherence preservation hard x-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Deming; Shvyd’ko, Yuri V.; Stoupin, Stanislav; Kim, Kwang-Je

    2016-01-01

    A new thin-film diamond crystal mounting apparatus has been designed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) for coherence preservation hard x-ray optics with optimized thermal contact and minimized crystal strain. This novel mechanical design can be applied to new development in the field of: x-ray optics cavities for hard x-ray free-electron laser oscillators (XFELOs), self-seeding monochromators for hard x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) with high average thermal loading, high heat load diamond crystal monochromators and beam-sharing/beam-split-and-delay devices for XFEL facilities and future upgraded high-brightness coherent x-ray source in the MBA lattice configuration at the APS.

  18. Mechanical design of thin-film diamond crystal mounting apparatus for coherence preservation hard x-ray optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Deming, E-mail: shu@aps.anl.gov; Shvyd’ko, Yuri V.; Stoupin, Stanislav; Kim, Kwang-Je [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, U.S.A (United States)

    2016-07-27

    A new thin-film diamond crystal mounting apparatus has been designed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) for coherence preservation hard x-ray optics with optimized thermal contact and minimized crystal strain. This novel mechanical design can be applied to new development in the field of: x-ray optics cavities for hard x-ray free-electron laser oscillators (XFELOs), self-seeding monochromators for hard x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) with high average thermal loading, high heat load diamond crystal monochromators and beam-sharing/beam-split-and-delay devices for XFEL facilities and future upgraded high-brightness coherent x-ray source in the MBA lattice configuration at the APS.

  19. X-ray measurement with Pin type semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez J, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    Here are presented the experimental results of the applications of Pin type radiation detectors developed in a National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) project, in the measurement of low energy gamma and X-rays. The applications were oriented mainly toward the Medical Physics area. It is planned other applications which are in process of implementation inside the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico. (Author)

  20. X-ray thickness measurement of aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    The theory of x-ray thickness gauging is extended to reveal the conditions under which a fixed anode voltage is ideal. A mathematical model of an alloy and computations reveal that two voltages can be used to measure the aluminum alloys with an error of roughly 1 percent, determined by the tolerance on manganese content rather than the large errors ordinarily a consequence of the tolerances on copper and zinc content. Implementation is discussed

  1. The inner-relationship of hard X-ray and EUV bursts during solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emslie, A.G.; Brown, J.C.; Donnelly, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison is made between the flux-versus-time profile in the EUV band and the thick target electron flux profile as inferred from hard X-rays for a number of moderately large solar flares. This complements Kane and Donnelly's (1971) study of small flares. The hard X-ray data are from ESRO TD-1A and the EUV inferred from SFD observations. Use of a chi 2 minimising method shows that the best overall fit between the profile fine structures obtains for synchronism to < approximately 5 s which is within the timing accuracy. This suggests that neither conduction nor convection is fast enough as the primary mechanism of energy transport into the EUV flare and rather favours heating by the electrons themselves or by some MHD wave process much faster than acoustic waves. The electron power deposited, for a thick target model, is however far greater than the EUV luminosity for any reasonable assumptions about the area and depth over which EUV is emitted. This means that either most of the power deposited is conducted away to the optical flare or that only a fraction < approximately 1-10% of the X-ray emitting electrons are injected downwards. Recent work on Hα flare heating strongly favours the latter alternative - i.e. that electrons are mostly confined in the corona. (Auth.)

  2. Observation of cosmic hard x-ray by L-3H-9 rocket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Sachio; Makino, Fumiyoshi; Matsui, Yutaka; Fukada, Yutaka.

    1978-01-01

    It has been considered that the isotropic constituents of cosmic hard X-ray have their origins outside the galactic system. As the spectra are uncertain, the generation mechanism of X-ray has not been clearly known yet. It was attempted to make more reliable observation by shutter method and the technique removing charged particles, using the L-3H-8 rocket. The equipment consists of NaI scintillation counter, a front counter, a Xenon counter, a UV sensor, a collimator, a shutter and a shutter-driving device. The L-3H-9 rocket was launched on August 16, 1977, and reached height of 310 km in about 300 seconds. Then the observation was started, but it was not able to observe the isotropic constituents of hard X-ray which were aimed at, as the shutter didn't work normally. It is expected to make another observation with the K-9M-64 rocket in August, 1978, after investigating the action of the shutter and employing and improved driving device. (Kobatake, H.)

  3. Hard X-ray bremsstrahlung production in solar flares by high-energy proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, A. G.; Brown, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    The possibility that solar hard X-ray bremsstrahlung is produced by acceleration of stationary electrons by fast-moving protons, rather than vice versa, as commonly assumed, was investigated. It was found that a beam of protons which involves 1836 times fewer particles, each having an energy 1836 times greater than that of the electrons in the equivalent electron beam model, has exactly the same bremsstrahlung yield for a given target, i.e., the mechanism has an energetic efficiency equal to that of conventional bremsstrahlung models. Allowance for the different degrees of target ionization appropriate to the two models (for conventional flare geometries) makes the proton beam model more efficient than the electron beam model, by a factor of order three. The model places less stringent constraints than a conventional electron beam model on the flare energy release mechanism. It is also consistent with observed X-ray burst spectra, intensities, and directivities. The altitude distribution of hard X-rays predicted by the model agrees with observations only if nonvertical injection of the protons is assumed. The model is inconsistent with gamma-ray data in terms of conventional modeling.

  4. Accretion flow diagnostics with X-ray spectral timing: the hard state of SWIFT J1753.5-0127

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassatella, P.; Uttley, P.; Maccarone, T.

    2012-01-01

    Recent XMM-Newton studies of X-ray variability in the hard states of black hole X-ray binaries (BHXRBs) indicate that the variability is generated in the ‘standard’ optically thick accretion disc that is responsible for the multi-colour blackbody emission. The variability originates in the disc as

  5. Measurement of the energy dependence of X-ray-induced decomposition of potassium chlorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravica, Michael; Bai, Ligang; Sneed, Daniel; Park, Changyong

    2013-03-21

    We report the first measurements of the X-ray induced decomposition of KClO3 as a function of energy in two experiments. KClO3 was pressurized to 3.5 GPa and irradiated with monochromatic synchrotron X-rays ranging in energy from 15 to 35 keV in 5 keV increments. A systematic increase in the decomposition rate as the energy was decreased was observed, which agrees with the 1/E(3) trend for the photoelectric process, except at the lowest energy studied. A second experiment was performed to access lower energies (10 and 12 keV) using a beryllium gasket; suggesting an apparent resonance near 15 keV or 0.83 Ǻ maximizing the chemical decomposition rate. A third experiment was performed using KIO3 to ascertain the anionic dependence of the decomposition rate, which was observed to be far slower than in KClO3, suggesting that the O-O distance is the critical factor in chemical reactions. These results will be important for more efficiently initiating chemical decomposition in materials using selected X-ray wavelengths that maximize decomposition to aid useful hard X-ray-induced chemistry and contribute understanding of the mechanism of X-ray-induced decomposition of the chlorates.

  6. Electronic properties of Nd2−xCexCuO4+δ: A hard X-ray photoemission investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarino, A.; Panaccione, G.; Offi, F.; Monaco, G.; Fondacaro, A.; Torelli, P.; Fittipaldi, R.; Vecchione, A.; Pace, S.; Nigro, A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We grow and characterize Nd 2−x Ce x CuO 4+δ samples as thin film and single crystal. • We study the Cu 2p levels of our samples by hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. • We investigate bulk features of the Nd 2−x Ce x CuO 4+δ samples. • Signature of the bulk response is correlated with the crystallinity of the samples. - Abstract: Cu 2p core levels spectra measured by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy of selected as-grown Nd 2−x Ce x CuO 4+δ samples are presented and discussed. The presence of a satellite peak in the 2p core level of Nd 2−x Ce x CuO 4+δ single crystal by hard X-ray photoemission is confirmed in all non-superconducting samples, films and single crystals investigated in this work. The comparison of the spectral features of the different samples suggests that the presence and the intensity of this satellite peak is not related to the electric transport properties, but to the texture characteristics.

  7. Picosecond X-ray streak camera dynamic range measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuber, C., E-mail: celine.zuber@cea.fr; Bazzoli, S.; Brunel, P.; Gontier, D.; Raimbourg, J.; Rubbelynck, C.; Trosseille, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Fronty, J.-P.; Goulmy, C. [Photonis SAS, Avenue Roger Roncier, BP 520, 19106 Brive Cedex (France)

    2016-09-15

    Streak cameras are widely used to record the spatio-temporal evolution of laser-induced plasma. A prototype of picosecond X-ray streak camera has been developed and tested by Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives to answer the Laser MegaJoule specific needs. The dynamic range of this instrument is measured with picosecond X-ray pulses generated by the interaction of a laser beam and a copper target. The required value of 100 is reached only in the configurations combining the slowest sweeping speed and optimization of the streak tube electron throughput by an appropriate choice of high voltages applied to its electrodes.

  8. Measuring and interpreting X-ray fluorescence from planetary surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Alan; Beckhoff, Burkhard; Fraser, George; Kolbe, Michael; Krumrey, Michael; Mantero, Alfonso; Mantler, Michael; Peacock, Anthony; Pia, Maria-Grazia; Pullan, Derek; Schneider, Uwe G; Ulm, Gerhard

    2008-11-15

    As part of a comprehensive study of X-ray emission from planetary surfaces and in particular the planet Mercury, we have measured fluorescent radiation from a number of planetary analog rock samples using monochromatized synchrotron radiation provided by the BESSY II electron storage ring. The experiments were carried out using a purpose built X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer chamber developed by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany's national metrology institute. The XRF instrumentation is absolutely calibrated and allows for reference-free quantitation of rock sample composition, taking into account secondary photon- and electron-induced enhancement effects. The fluorescence data, in turn, have been used to validate a planetary fluorescence simulation tool based on the GEANT4 transport code. This simulation can be used as a mission analysis tool to predict the time-dependent orbital XRF spectral distributions from planetary surfaces throughout the mapping phase.

  9. A diamond detector for inertial confinement fusion X-ray bang-time measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacPhee, A G; Brown, C; Burns, S; Celeste, J; Glenzer, S H; Hey, D; Jones, O S; Landen, O; Mackinnon, A J; Meezan, N; Parker, J; Edgell, D; Glebov, V Y; Kilkenny, J; Kimbrough, J

    2010-11-09

    An instrument has been developed to measure X-ray bang-time for inertial confinement fusion capsules; the time interval between the start of the laser pulse and peak X-ray emission from the fuel core. The instrument comprises chemical vapor deposited polycrystalline diamond photoconductive X-ray detectors with highly ordered pyrolytic graphite X-ray monochromator crystals at the input. Capsule bang-time can be measured in the presence of relatively high thermal and hard X-ray background components due to the selective band pass of the crystals combined with direct and indirect X-ray shielding of the detector elements. A five channel system is being commissioned at the National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for implosion optimization measurements as part of the National Ignition Campaign. Characteristics of the instrument have been measured demonstrating that X-ray bang-time can be measured with {+-} 30ps precision, characterizing the soft X-ray drive to +/- 1eV or 1.5%.

  10. SMM hard X-ray observations of the soft gamma-ray repeater 1806-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouveliotou, C.; Norris, J. P.; Cline, T. L.; Dennis, B. R.; Desai, U. D.; Orwig, L. E.

    1987-01-01

    Six bursts from the soft gamma-ray repeater (SGR) 1806-20 have been recorded with the SMM Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer during a highly active phase in 1983. Rise and decay times of less than 5 ns have been detected. Time profiles of these events indicate low-level emission prior to and after the main peaks. The results suggest that SGRs are distinguished from classical gamma-ray bursts by repetition, softer nonvarying spectra, short durations, simple temporal profiles, and a tendency for source locations to correlate with Population I objects. SGR characteristics differ from those of type I X-ray bursts, but they appear to have similarities with the type II bursts from the Rapid Burster.

  11. Hard X-ray synchrotron light source for industrial and materials research applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehr, H.; Ehrfeld, W.; Moser, H.O.; Schmidt, M.; Herminghaus, H.

    1992-01-01

    The requirements for industrial production or for an industry-related analytical environment is demonstrated for the case of the proposed hard X-ray synchrotron light source. The source is intended to provide radiation mainly for deep X-ray lithography as part of the LIGA-process in microfabrication, and for analytical and diagnostic purposes in materials research and microtechnology. It offers up to 48 bending magnet beamlines with a characteristic wavelength of 2 A. An electron energy of 2.5 GeV and normal conducting magnets will be used. A FODO lattice with a beam emittance of 3x10 -7 m rad and four dispersion-free straight sections to accommodate insertion devices, injection elements and RF structures has been designed. (R.P.) 5 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  12. SMM hard X-ray observations of the soft gamma-ray repeater 1806-20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouveliotou, C.; Norris, J.P.; Cline, T.L.; Dennis, B.R.; Desai, U.D.; Orwig, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Six bursts from the soft gamma-ray repeater (SGR) 1806-20 have been recorded with the SMM Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer during a highly active phase in 1983. Rise and decay times of less than 5 ns have been detected. Time profiles of these events indicate low-level emission prior to and after the main peaks. The results suggest that SGRs are distinguished from classical gamma-ray bursts by repetition, softer nonvarying spectra, short durations, simple temporal profiles, and a tendency for source locations to correlate with Population I objects. SGR characteristics differ from those of type I X-ray bursts, but they appear to have similarities with the type II bursts from the Rapid Burster. 19 references

  13. SuperAGILE: The hard X-ray imager for the AGILE space mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feroci, M.; Costa, E.; Soffitta, P.; Del Monte, E.; Di Persio, G.; Donnarumma, I.; Evangelista, Y.; Frutti, M.; Lapshov, I.; Lazzarotto, F.; Mastropietro, M.; Morelli, E.; Pacciani, L.; Porrovecchio, G.; Rapisarda, M.; Rubini, A.; Tavani, M.; Argan, A.

    2007-01-01

    SuperAGILE is a coded mask experiment based on silicon microstrip detectors. It operates in the 15-45 keV nominal energy range, providing crossed one-dimensional images of the X-ray sky with an on-axis angular resolution of 6 arcmin, over a field of view in excess of 1 sr. It was designed as the hard X-ray monitor of the AGILE space mission, a small satellite of the Italian Space Agency devoted to image the gamma-ray sky in the 30 MeV-50 GeV energy band. The AGILE mission was launched in a low-earth orbit on 23rd April 2007. In this paper we describe the SuperAGILE experiment, its construction and test processes, and its performance before flight, based on the on-ground test and calibrations

  14. SuperAGILE: The Hard X-ray Imager of AGILE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feroci, M.; Costa, E.; Barbanera, L.; Del Monte, E.; Di Persio, G.; Frutti, M.; Lapshov, I.; Lazzarotto, F.; Pacciani, L.; Porrovecchio, G.; Preger, B.; Rapisarda, M.; Rubini, A.; Soffitta, P.; Tavani, M.; Mastropietro, M.; Morelli, E.; Argan, A.; Ghirlanda, G.; Mereghetti, S.

    2004-01-01

    SuperAGILE is the hard X-ray (10-40 keV) imager for the gamma-ray mission AGILE, currently scheduled for launch in mid-2005. It is based on 4 Si-microstrip detectors, with a total geometric area of 1444 cm 2 (max effective about 300 cm 2 ), equipped with one-dimensional coded masks. The 4 detectors are perpendicularly oriented, in order to provide pairs of orthogonal one-dimensional images of the X-ray sky. The field of view of each 1-D detector is 107 deg. x 68 deg., at zero response, with an overlap in the central 68 deg. x 68 deg. area. The angular resolution on axis is 6 arcmin (pixel size). We present here the current status of the hardware development and the scientific potential for GRBs, for which an onboard trigger and imaging system will allow distributing locations through a fast communication telemetry link from AGILE to the ground

  15. The size of coronal hard X-ray sources in solar flares: How big are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effenberger, F.; Krucker, S.; Rubio da Costa, F.

    2017-12-01

    Coronal hard X-ray sources are considered to be one of the key signatures of non-thermal particle acceleration and heating during the energy release in solar flares. In some cases, X-ray observations reveal multiple components spatially located near and above the loop top and even further up in the corona. Here, we combine a detailed RHESSI imaging analysis of near-limb solar flares with occulted footpoints and a multi-wavelength study of the flare loop evolution in SDO/AIA. We connect our findings to different current sheet formation and magnetic break-out scenarios and relate it to particle acceleration theory. We find that the upper and usually fainter emission regions can be underestimated in their size due to the majority of flux originating from the lower loops.

  16. Hard X-ray Microscopy with sub 30 nm Spatial Resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, M.-T.; Song, Y.-F.; Yin, G.-C.; Chen, J.-H.; Chen, Y.-M.; Liang, Keng S.; Chen, F.-R.; Duewer, F.; Yun Wenbing

    2007-01-01

    A transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) has been installed at the BL01B beamline at National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center in Taiwan. This state-of-the-art TXM operational in a range 8-11 keV provides 2D images and 3D tomography with spatial resolution 60 nm, and with the Zernike-phase contrast mode for imaging light materials such as biological specimens. A spatial resolution of the TXM better than 30 nm, apparently the best result in hard X-ray microscopy, has been achieved by employing the third diffraction order of the objective zone plate. The TXM has been applied in diverse research fields, including analysis of failure mechanisms in microelectronic devices, tomographic structures of naturally grown photonic specimens, and the internal structure of fault zone gouges from an earthquake core. Here we discuss the scope and prospects of the project, and the progress of the TXM in NSRRC

  17. Pollen structure visualization using high-resolution laboratory-based hard X-ray tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiong; Gluch, Jürgen; Krüger, Peter; Gall, Martin; Neinhuis, Christoph; Zschech, Ehrenfried

    2016-10-14

    A laboratory-based X-ray microscope is used to investigate the 3D structure of unstained whole pollen grains. For the first time, high-resolution laboratory-based hard X-ray microscopy is applied to study pollen grains. Based on the efficient acquisition of statistically relevant information-rich images using Zernike phase contrast, both surface- and internal structures of pine pollen - including exine, intine and cellular structures - are clearly visualized. The specific volumes of these structures are calculated from the tomographic data. The systematic three-dimensional study of pollen grains provides morphological and structural information about taxonomic characters that are essential in palynology. Such studies have a direct impact on disciplines such as forestry, agriculture, horticulture, plant breeding and biodiversity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Weak Hard X-Ray Emission from Broad Absorption Line Quasars: Evidence for Intrinsic X-Ray Weakness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.

    2014-01-01

    We report NuSTAR observations of a sample of six X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars. These targets, at z = 0.148-1.223, are among the optically brightest and most luminous BAL quasars known at z 330 times weaker than...... expected for typical quasars. Our results from a pilot NuSTAR study of two low-redshift BAL quasars, a Chandra stacking analysis of a sample of high-redshift BAL quasars, and a NuSTAR spectral analysis of the local BAL quasar Mrk 231 have already suggested the existence of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL...... quasars, i.e., quasars not emitting X-rays at the level expected from their optical/UV emission. The aim of the current program is to extend the search for such extraordinary objects. Three of the six new targets are weakly detected by NuSTAR with ≲ 45 counts in the 3-24 keV band, and the other three...

  19. Scheme for generation of fully-coherent, TW power level hard X-ray pulses from baseline undulators at the European X-ray FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2010-07-01

    The most promising way to increase the output power of an X-ray FEL (XFEL) is by tapering the magnetic field of the undulator. Also, significant increase in power is achievable by starting the FEL process from a monochromatic seed rather than from noise. This report proposes to make use of a cascade self-seeding scheme with wake monochromators in a tunable-gap baseline undulator at the European XFEL to create a source capable of delivering coherent radiation of unprecedented characteristics at hard X-ray wavelengths. Compared with SASE X-ray FEL parameters, the radiation from the new source has three truly unique aspects: complete longitudinal and transverse coherence, and a peak brightness three orders of magnitude higher than what is presently available at LCLS. Additionally, the new source will generate hard X-ray beam at extraordinary peak (TW) and average (kW) power level. The proposed source can thus revolutionize fields like single biomolecule imaging, inelastic scattering and nuclear resonant scattering. The self-seeding scheme with the wake monochromator is extremely compact, and takes almost no cost and time to be implemented. The upgrade proposed in this paper could take place during the commissioning stage of the European XFEL, opening a vast new range of applications from the very beginning of operations.We present feasibility study and examplifications for the SASE2 line of the European XFEL. (orig.)

  20. Resolving the hard X-ray emission of GX 5-1 with INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paizis, A.; Ebisawa, K.; Tikkanen, T.

    2005-01-01

    We present the study of one year of INTEGRAL data on the neutron star low mass X-ray binary GX 5-1. Thanks to the excellent angular resolution and sensitivity of INTEGRAL, we are able to obtain a high quality spectrum of GX 5-1 from similar to 5keV to similar to 100 keV, for the first time without...... contamination from the nearby black hole candidate GRS 1758-258 above 20 keV. During our observations, GX 5-1 was mostly found in the horizontal and normal branch of its hardness intensity diagram. A clear hard X-ray emission is observed above similar to 30 keV which exceeds the exponential cut-off spectrum...... expected from lower energies. This spectral flattening may have the same origin of the hard components observed in other Z sources as it shares the property of being characteristic to the horizontal branch. The hard excess is explained by introducing Compton up-scattering of soft photons from the neutron...

  1. A SUZAKU SEARCH FOR NONTHERMAL EMISSION AT HARD X-RAY ENERGIES IN THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wik, Daniel R.; Sarazin, Craig L.; Finoguenov, Alexis; Matsushita, Kyoko; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Clarke, Tracy E.

    2009-01-01

    The brightest cluster radio halo known resides in the Coma cluster of galaxies. The relativistic electrons producing this diffuse synchrotron emission should also produce inverse Compton emission that becomes competitive with thermal emission from the intracluster medium (ICM) at hard X-ray energies. Thus far, claimed detections of this emission in Coma are controversial. We present a Suzaku HXD-PIN observation of the Coma cluster in order to nail down its nonthermal hard X-ray content. The contribution of thermal emission to the HXD-PIN spectrum is constrained by simultaneously fitting thermal and nonthermal models to it and a spatially equivalent spectrum derived from an XMM-Newton mosaic of the Coma field. We fail to find statistically significant evidence for nonthermal emission in the spectra which are better described by only a single- or multitemperature model for the ICM. Including systematic uncertainties, we derive a 90% upper limit on the flux of nonthermal emission of 6.0 x 10 -12 erg s -1 cm -2 (20-80 keV, for Γ = 2.0), which implies a lower limit on the cluster-averaged magnetic field of B>0.15 μG. Our flux upper limit is 2.5 times lower than the detected nonthermal flux from RXTE and BeppoSAX. However, if the nonthermal hard X-ray emission in Coma is more spatially extended than the observed radio halo, the Suzaku HXD-PIN may miss some fraction of the emission. A detailed investigation indicates that ∼50%-67% of the emission might go undetected, which could make our limit consistent with that of Rephaeli and Gruber and Fusco-Femiano et al. The thermal interpretation of the hard Coma spectrum is consistent with recent analyses of INTEGRAL and Swift data.

  2. Multiwavelength observations of Active Galactic Nuclei from the radio to the hard X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchert, Tobias

    2017-07-01

    Active Galaxies form a peculiar type of galaxies. Their cores, the so-called "Active Galactic Nuclei" (AGN), are the most persistent luminous objects in the universe. Accretion of several solar masses per year onto black holes of Millions to Billions of solar masses drive the immense energy output of these systems, which can exceed that of the entire galaxy. The compact energy source, however, only measures about one over a Billion times that of the entire galaxy. Subject of my thesis are observations of the two main channels of energy release of selected AGN systems, both of which are encompassed by profound and yet unanswered questions. These channels are on the one hand the pronounced X-ray emission of the hot and compact accreting environment in close vicinity of the black hole, and on the other hand the radio synchrotron emission of magnetically collimated jets that are fed by portions of the accreted matter. These jets also function as effective accelerators and drive the injected matter deep into the intergalactic medium. As the circumnuclear environment of AGN is too compact to be spatially resolved in the X-rays, I show how X-ray spectroscopy can be used to: (1) understand the effects of strong gravity to trace the geometry and physics of the X-ray source and (2) more consistently quantify matter that surrounds and dynamically absorbs our direct line of sight towards the X-ray source. Second, I unveil the valuable information contained in the polarized radio light being emitted from magnetized jet outflows. In contrast to the X-ray emitting region, I am able to spatially resolve the inner parts of the jet of a prominent galaxy with help of the Very Long Baseline Array, a large network of radio telescopes. The resulting polarization maps turn out to be exceptionally promising in answering fundamental questions related to jet physics.

  3. Time Delays Between Decimetric Type-Iii Bursts and Associated Hard X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, H. S.; Lattari, C. J. B.; Benz, A. O.; Dennis, B. R.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. En julio de 1987, se efectuaron radio observaciones en 1.6 CHz usando la antena de 13.7-m de Itapetinga con un tiempo de resoluci5n de 3 ms. Las observaciones en rayos-X fueron obtenidas del HXRBS en SMM. Comparaciones de observaciones de 1.6 CHz con espectro dinamico en el intervalo de (1000 - 100) MHz y rayos-X duros muestran los siguientes resultados: I) en 12 casos, identificamos la continuaci6n de brotes de tipo Ill-RD hasta 1.6 GHz. ii) Por primera vez, hemos identificadopicos de rayos-X demorados en comparaci6n con el brote decimetrico tipolll-RD. Estos retardos son mas largos - 1 5 - que lo esperado ( " 100 ms) y han sido interpretados suponiendo que la emisi6n decimetrica es la 2a. ar- m6nica y esta causada por el borde delantero del excitador, mientras que los picos de los rayos-X han sido atribuidos a la entrada completa del excitador dentro de la regi6n que produce los rayos-X. ABSTRACT. In July, 1985 radio observations were made at 1.6 GHz using 13.7 m Itapetinga antenna with time resolution of 3 ms. The hard X-ray observations were obtained from HXRBS on SMM. Comparison of 1.6 GHz observations with dynamic spectra in the frequency range of (1000 - 100) MHz and hard X-rays shows the following results: i) In 12 cases, we identify continuation of type Ill-RD bursts up to 1.6 GHz suggesting presence of type Ill-RD bursts at 1.6 GHz. ii) For the first time, we have idetified hard X-ray peaks delayed in comparison to decimetric type Ill-RD bursts. These dalays are longer - 1 5 - than expected ( 100 ms) and have been interpreted assuming that the decimetric emission is at 2 nd harmonic and caused by the leading edge of the exciter, whereas peaks of X-rays have been attributed to entire entry of the exciter into the X-ray producing region. Keq : SUN BURSTS - SUN-

  4. Scintillation properties and X-ray irradiation hardness of Ce3+-doped Gd2O3-based scintillation glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Liwan; Shao, Chongyun; Zhang, Yu; Liao, Xili; Yang, Qiuhong; Hu, Lili; Chen, Danping

    2016-01-01

    Ce 3+ -doped Gd 2 O 3 -based scintillation glasses are prepared within an air or CO atmosphere. The effects of fluorine, lutetium, barium, and the melting atmosphere on the optical properties, scintillation properties and irradiation hardness are studied. Absorption spectra, luminescence spectra under UV and X-ray excitation, and the X-ray radiation-induced spectra are presented. The results show that the density can be increased by doping with fluorine, lutetium and barium. The luminescence intensity decreases after X-ray irradiation. Because of charge transfer quenching, fluorine and lutetium enhance the UV-excited and X-ray excited luminescence intensity, but barium decreases. Moreover, fluorine and lutetium are advantageous to irradiation hardness while barium is not. In addition, a non-reducing atmosphere provides a higher irradiation hardness than a reducing atmosphere. Fluorine-doped glass is promising to enhance luminescence intensity, promote irradiation hardness, and increase the density.

  5. Uncooled Radiation Hard Large Area SiC X-ray and EUV Detectors and 2D Arrays, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project seeks to design, fabricate, characterize and commercialize large area, uncooled and radiative hard 4H-SiC EUV ? soft X-ray detectors capable of ultra...

  6. Radial profiles of hard X-ray emission during steady state current drive in the TRIAM-1M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Takabatake, Y.; Jotaki, E.; Moriyama, S.; Nagao, A.; Nakamura, K.; Hiraki, N.; Itoh, S.

    1990-01-01

    The hard X-ray emission from the TRIAM-1M tokamak plasma during steady state lower hybrid current drive with a discharge duration of a few minutes was measured with sodium iodide scintillation spectrometers. The radial profiles of the X-ray emission were also measured and indicate that, in the low density regime (n e =(1-3)x10 12 cm -3 ), the current carrying high energy electrons are mainly in the inner region of the plasma column and their radial profile remains unchanged during current drive. On the other hand, high density discharges (n e =(3-6)x10 12 cm -3 ) are always accompanied by an abrupt drop of the plasma current, and the X-ray emission profile changes from peaked to broad. This change can be attributed to the conditions of wave accessibility. As the electron density increases, the accessibility of the plasma to lower hybrid waves with low values of the parallel wave number n parallel is significantly reduced and high energy electrons resonating with the waves are produced at the plasma periphery. Interaction of these electrons with the limiters causes an increase of the electron density in this region; waves with low n parallel then become completely excluded from the inner part of the plasma column. This interpretation is supported by measurements of the density profile and impurity radiation, and has been confirmed in an investigation of discharges with additional gas puffing. (author). 17 refs, 21 figs

  7. New developments for the investigation of hard X-rays emitted by peeling adhesive tapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, D; Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D; Lühmann, B; Keite-Telgenbüscher, K; Frahm, R

    2013-05-01

    We realized an advanced apparatus for the investigation of emitted X-rays produced by peeling adhesive tape rolls under vacuum conditions. Two stepper motors can unwind and rewind a tape roll, and an additional roller with an optical encoder provides measurement and control of the tape speed. This way reproducible and consecutive experiments are feasible without having to change the tape or break the vacuum. The dependence of the X-ray emission on tape speed, gas pressure, type of adhesive tape, and detector angle has been investigated. The resulting spectra are continuous and span an X-ray energy range of typically 2-60 keV with high intensity. Furthermore, the new apparatus allows the in situ metalization of adhesive tape rolls by a gold sputter source. A significantly increased X-ray emission was observed for adhesive tapes with a metal coating. Thin metal foils have been placed between the tape and the detector, different K- and L-absorption edges could be measured. A considerable enhancement of the emission was achieved under the influence of the magnetic field of an NdFeB permanent magnet.

  8. Design of a radiation hard silicon pixel sensor for X-ray science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwandt, Joern

    2014-06-15

    At DESY Hamburg the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (EuXFEL) is presently under construction. The EuXFEL has unique properties with respect to X-ray energy, instantaneous intensity, pulse length, coherence and number of pulses/sec. These properties of the EuXFEL pose very demanding requirements for imaging detectors. One of the detector systems which is currently under development to meet these challenges is the Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector, AGIPD. It is a hybrid pixel-detector system with 1024 x 1024 p{sup +} pixels of dimensions 200 μm x 200 μm, made of 16 p{sup +}nn{sup +}- silicon sensors, each with 10.52 cm x 2.56 cm sensitive area and 500 μm thickness. The particular requirements for the AGIPD are a separation between noise and single photons down to energies of 5 keV, more than 10{sup 4} photons per pixel for a pulse duration of less than 100 fs, negligible pile-up at the EuXFEL repetition rate of 4.5 MHz, operation for X-ray doses up to 1 GGy, good efficiency for X-rays with energies between 5 and 20 keV, and minimal inactive regions at the edges. The main challenge in the sensor design is the required radiation tolerance and high operational voltage, which is required to reduce the so-called plasma effect. This requires a specially optimized sensor. The X-ray radiation damage results in a build-up of oxide charges and interface traps which lead to a reduction of the breakdown voltage, increased leakage current, increased interpixel capacitances and charge losses. Extensive TCAD simulations have been performed to understand the impact of X-ray radiation damage on the detector performance and optimize the sensor design. To take radiation damage into account in the simulation, radiation damage parameters have been determined on MOS capacitors and gate-controlled diodes as function of dose. The optimized sensor design was fabricated by SINTEF. Irradiation tests on test structures and sensors show that the sensor design is radiation hard and

  9. Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, Michael E.; Chapman, David J.; White, Thomas G.; Drakopoulos, Michael; Rack, Alexander; Eakins, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Scintillator performance in time-resolved, hard, indirect detection X-ray studies on the sub-microsecond timescale at synchrotron light sources is reviewed, modelled and examined experimentally. LYSO:Ce is found to be the only commercially available crystal suitable for these experiments. The short pulse duration, small effective source size and high flux of synchrotron radiation is ideally suited for probing a wide range of transient deformation processes in materials under extreme conditions. In this paper, the challenges of high-resolution time-resolved indirect X-ray detection are reviewed in the context of dynamic synchrotron experiments. In particular, the discussion is targeted at two-dimensional integrating detector methods, such as those focused on dynamic radiography and diffraction experiments. The response of a scintillator to periodic synchrotron X-ray excitation is modelled and validated against experimental data collected at the Diamond Light Source (DLS) and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). An upper bound on the dynamic range accessible in a time-resolved experiment for a given bunch separation is calculated for a range of scintillators. New bunch structures are suggested for DLS and ESRF using the highest-performing commercially available crystal LYSO:Ce, allowing time-resolved experiments with an interframe time of 189 ns and a maximum dynamic range of 98 (6.6 bits)

  10. Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, Michael E.; Chapman, David J.; White, Thomas G. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Drakopoulos, Michael [Diamond Light Source, I12 Joint Engineering, Environmental, Processing (JEEP) Beamline, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Rack, Alexander [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Eakins, Daniel E., E-mail: d.eakins@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-24

    Scintillator performance in time-resolved, hard, indirect detection X-ray studies on the sub-microsecond timescale at synchrotron light sources is reviewed, modelled and examined experimentally. LYSO:Ce is found to be the only commercially available crystal suitable for these experiments. The short pulse duration, small effective source size and high flux of synchrotron radiation is ideally suited for probing a wide range of transient deformation processes in materials under extreme conditions. In this paper, the challenges of high-resolution time-resolved indirect X-ray detection are reviewed in the context of dynamic synchrotron experiments. In particular, the discussion is targeted at two-dimensional integrating detector methods, such as those focused on dynamic radiography and diffraction experiments. The response of a scintillator to periodic synchrotron X-ray excitation is modelled and validated against experimental data collected at the Diamond Light Source (DLS) and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). An upper bound on the dynamic range accessible in a time-resolved experiment for a given bunch separation is calculated for a range of scintillators. New bunch structures are suggested for DLS and ESRF using the highest-performing commercially available crystal LYSO:Ce, allowing time-resolved experiments with an interframe time of 189 ns and a maximum dynamic range of 98 (6.6 bits)

  11. First NuSTAR Limits on Quiet Sun Hard X-Ray Transient Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Andrew J.; Smith, David M.; Glesener, Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    We present the first results of a search for transient hard X-ray (HXR) emission in the quiet solar corona with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) satellite. While NuSTAR was designed as an astrophysics mission, it can observe the Sun above 2 keV with unprecedented sensitivity due...... to its pioneering use of focusing optics. NuSTAR first observed quiet-Sun regions on 2014 November 1, although out-of-view active regions contributed a notable amount of background in the form of single-bounce (unfocused) X-rays. We conducted a search for quiet-Sun transient brightenings on timescales...... as model-independent photon fluxes. The limits in both bands are well below previous HXR microflare detections, though not low enough to detect events of equivalent T and EM as quiet-Sun brightenings seen in soft X-ray observations. We expect future observations during solar minimum to increase the Nu...

  12. Modeling Flare Hard X-ray Emission from Electrons in Contracting Magnetic Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidoni, Silvina E.; Allred, Joel C.; Alaoui, Meriem; Holman, Gordon D.; DeVore, C. Richard; Karpen, Judith T.

    2016-05-01

    The mechanism that accelerates particles to the energies required to produce the observed impulsive hard X-ray emission in solar flares is not well understood. It is generally accepted that this emission is produced by a non-thermal beam of electrons that collides with the ambient ions as the beam propagates from the top of a flare loop to its footpoints. Most current models that investigate this transport assume an injected beam with an initial energy spectrum inferred from observed hard X-ray spectra, usually a power law with a low-energy cutoff. In our previous work (Guidoni et al. 2016), we proposed an analytical method to estimate particle energy gain in contracting, large-scale, 2.5-dimensional magnetic islands, based on a kinetic model by Drake et al. (2010). We applied this method to sunward-moving islands formed high in the corona during fast reconnection in a simulated eruptive flare. The overarching purpose of the present work is to test this proposed acceleration model by estimating the hard X-ray flux resulting from its predicted accelerated-particle distribution functions. To do so, we have coupled our model to a unified computational framework that simulates the propagation of an injected beam as it deposits energy and momentum along its way (Allred et al. 2015). This framework includes the effects of radiative transfer and return currents, necessary to estimate flare emission that can be compared directly to observations. We will present preliminary results of the coupling between these models.

  13. The measurement of patient doses from diagnostic x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, N.D.; Solomon, S.B.

    1980-06-01

    As part of the National Health and Medical Research Council survey to determine the genetic and mean bone-marrow doses to the Australian population from the medical, dental and chiropractic uses of radiation sources, doses to patients undergoing X-ray diagnostic procedures were evaluated. The doses were measured using capsules of LiF or CaF 2 :Dy thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD). The evaluation of the TLD measurements is described and the mean values of the skin doses for patients undergoing various radiographic examinations in Australia in 1970 are presented

  14. Penumbral measurements in water for high-energy x rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, D.J.; Schroeder, N.J.; Hoya, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Ionization chambers of varying inside diameter have been used to investigate the penumbral region of 60 Co, 6-MV, and 31-MV x-ray beams. Measurements were made in water at varying depths up to 25 cm for a square field of side length 10 cm. The dependence of the penumbral widths on both the inside diameter of the ionization chamber and the depth in water is established along with the asymmetry of the penumbral distributions about the 50% level. A standard correction is indicated to eliminate the dependence of the measured penumbral widths on the inside diameter of the ionization chamber

  15. The variable hard x-ray emission of NGC 4945 as observed by NUSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puccetti, Simonetta; Comastri, Andrea; Fiore, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    We present a broadband (~0.5-79 keV) spectral and temporal analysis of multiple NuSTAR observations combined with archival Suzaku and Chandra data of NGC 4945, the brightest extragalactic source at 100 keV. We observe hard X-ray (>10 keV) flux and spectral variability, with flux variations of a f...... of a factor of two on timescales of 20 ks. A variable primary continuum dominates the high-energy spectrum (>10 keV) in all states, while the reflected/scattered flux that dominates at E...

  16. Phase-matched generation of coherent soft and hard X-rays using IR lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popmintchev, Tenio V.; Chen, Ming-Chang; Bahabad, Alon; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.

    2013-06-11

    Phase-matched high-order harmonic generation of soft and hard X-rays is accomplished using infrared driving lasers in a high-pressure non-linear medium. The pressure of the non-linear medium is increased to multi-atmospheres and a mid-IR (or higher) laser device provides the driving pulse. Based on this scaling, also a general method for global optimization of the flux of phase-matched high-order harmonic generation at a desired wavelength is designed.

  17. The one square meter hard X-ray (15-200 KeV) sky survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; La Padula, C.D.; Polcaro, V.F.

    1981-01-01

    A long term program was started at I.A.S. since 1979 to perform a survey of the hard X-ray sky using multiwire high pressure Xenon filled Spectroscopic Proportional Counters (SPC). The first payload consisting of two very large area SPC (2,700 cm 2 each) was flown during summer 1980 from the Milo Base (Sicily, Italy). The instrument duplicated to reach 10,800 cm 2 geometric area is expected to fly from northern (1981), southern (1982) and equatorial (1983) bases to perform a deep sky survey

  18. Ronchi test for characterization of nanofocusing optics at a hard x-ray free-electron laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Uhlén, Fredrik; Holmberg, Anders; Hertz, Hans M; Schropp, Andreas; Patommel, Jens; Hoppe, Robert; Seiboth, Frank; Meier, Vivienne; Schroer, Christian G; Galtier, Eric; Nagler, Bob; Lee, Hae Ja; Vogt, Ulrich

    2012-12-15

    We demonstrate the use of the classical Ronchi test to characterize aberrations in focusing optics at a hard x-ray free-electron laser. A grating is placed close to the focus and the interference between the different orders after the grating is observed in the far field. Any aberrations in the beam or the optics will distort the interference fringes. The method is simple to implement and can provide single-shot information about the focusing quality. We used the Ronchi test to measure the aberrations in a nanofocusing Fresnel zone plate at the Linac Coherent Light Source at 8.194 keV.

  19. Practical chemical analysis of Pt and Pd based heterogeneous catalysts with hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, H., E-mail: YOSHIKAWA.Hideki@nims.go.jp [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Matolínová, I.; Matolín, V. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holešovičkách 2, 18000 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) enables interface analysis of catalyst. •HAXPES enables overall analysis of porous film of Pt-doped CeO{sub 2} and related catalyst. •HAXPES enables analysis of trace elements for Pd and Pt{sub 3}Ni nanoparticle catalysts. -- Abstract: Interfacial properties including configuration, porosity, chemical states, and atomic diffusion greatly affect the performance of supported heterogeneous catalysts. Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) can be used to analyze the interfaces of heterogeneous catalysts because of its large information depth of more than 20 nm. We use HAXPES to examine Pt-doped CeO{sub 2} and related thin film catalysts evaporated on Si, carbon, and carbon nanotube substrates, because Pt-doped CeO{sub 2} has great potential as a noble metal-based heterogeneous catalyst for fuel cells. The HAXPES measurements clarify that the dopant material, substrate material, and surface pretreatment of substrate are important parameters that affect the interfacial properties of Pt-doped CeO{sub 2} and related thin film catalysts. Another advantage of HAXPES measurement of heterogeneous catalysts is that it can be used for chemical analysis of trace elements by detecting photoelectrons from deep core levels, which have large photoionization cross-sections in the hard X-ray region. We use HAXPES for chemical analysis of trace elements in Pd nanoparticle catalysts immobilized on sulfur-terminated substrates and Pt{sub 3}Ni nanoparticle catalysts enveloped by dendrimer molecules.

  20. X-ray measurement of residual stress on bolt threads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Masaya; Nakahara, Kanefumi; Yoshimoto, Isamu.

    1989-01-01

    This study deals with X-ray measurement of residual stress at the local area around the thread root of a bolt. Residual stress in the 0.5 mm x 5 mm area was measured using a method of stepped scanning and parabolic approximation. The conditions of measurement had been determined and evaluated through the preliminary measurement of compressive stress acting on the cylindrical surface. Furthermore, the fatigue strength estimated by applying the residual stress data to the previously presented hypothesis was compared with the experimental results. The main conclusions obtained were as follows: (1) The residual stress in a relatively small area on the cylindrical surface with large curvature can be measured by X-ray using a method of stepped scanning and parabolic approximation; (2) The compressive residual stress measured at the thread root was larger for the bolt manufactured by thread rolling after heat treatment than for one manufactured by thread rolling before heat treatment; (3) The distribution of residual stress along the axial direction from the thread root to the portion under crest did not represent remarkable change in its value; (4) The residual stress of a bolt was somewhat decreased by fatigue loading on the condition of low mean stress; (5) The fatigue strength estimated using residual stress data showed the tendency of experimental results well. (author)

  1. High resolution hard X-ray photoemission using synchrotron radiation as an essential tool for characterization of thin solid films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.J.; Ikenaga, E.; Kobata, M.; Takeuchi, A.; Awaji, M.; Makino, H.; Chen, P.P.; Yamamoto, A.; Matsuoka, T.; Miwa, D.; Nishino, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Yao, T.; Kobayashi, K.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, we have shown that hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy using undulator X-rays at SPring-8 is quite feasible with both high resolution and high throughput. Here we report an application of hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy to the characterization of electronic and chemical states of thin solid films, for which conventional PES is not applicable. As a typical example, we focus on the problem of the scatter in the reported band-gap values for InN. We show that oxygen incorporation into the InN film strongly modifies the valence and plays a crucial role in the band gap problem. The present results demonstrate the powerful applicability of high resolution photoemission spectroscopy with hard X-rays from a synchrotron source

  2. Measurements of X-rays from antiprotonic helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.A.; Batty, C.J.; Moir, J.; Sakamoto, S.; Davies, J.D.; Lowe, J.; Nelson, J.M.; Pyle, G.J.; Squier, G.T.A.; Welsh, R.E.; Winter, R.G.; Lingeman, E.W.A.

    1989-01-01

    The absolute yields of X-rays from anti pHe atoms for 14 transitions covering the L, M and N series have been measured at target gas densities of 0.125, 0.25, 0.92, 1.0, 1.23, 2.0, 3.0 and 10.0 ρ STP and compared with the predictions of cascade calculations. The strong interaction width of the 3d state, has been determined to be 2.07±0.11 meV. (orig.)

  3. Achromatic nested Kirkpatrick–Baez mirror optics for hard X-ray nanofocusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wenjun; Ice, Gene E.; Assoufid, Lahsen; Liu, Chian; Shi, Bing; Khachatryan, Ruben; Qian, Jun; Zschack, Paul; Tischler, Jonathan Z.; Choi, J.-Y.

    2011-01-01

    A nested Kirkpatrick–Baez mirror pair has been designed, fabricated and tested for achromatic nanofocusing synchrotron hard X-rays. The prototype system achieved a FWHM focal spot of about 150 nm in both horizontal and vertical directions. The first test of nanoscale-focusing Kirkpatrick–Baez (KB) mirrors in the nested (or Montel) configuration used at a hard X-ray synchrotron beamline is reported. The two mirrors are both 40 mm long and coated with Pt to produce a focal length of 60 mm at 3 mrad incident angle, and collect up to a 120 µm by 120 µm incident X-ray beam with maximum angular acceptance of 2 mrad and a broad bandwidth of energies up to 30 keV. In an initial test a focal spot of about 150 nm in both horizontal and vertical directions was achieved with either polychromatic or monochromatic beam. The nested mirror geometry, with two mirrors mounted side-by-side and perpendicular to each other, is significantly more compact and provides higher demagnification than the traditional sequential KB mirror arrangement. Ultimately, nested mirrors can focus larger divergence to improve the diffraction limit of achromatic optics. A major challenge with the fabrication of the required mirrors is the need for near-perfect mirror surfaces near the edge of at least one of the mirrors. Special polishing procedures and surface profile coating were used to preserve the mirror surface quality at the reflecting edge. Further developments aimed at achieving diffraction-limited focusing below 50 nm are underway

  4. Searching for Dual AGNs in Galaxy Mergers: Understanding Double-Peaked [O III] and Ultra Hard X-rays as Selection Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGurk, Rosalie C.; Max, Claire E.; Medling, Anne; Shields, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    When galaxies merge, gas accretes onto both central supermassive black holes. Thus, one expects to see close pairs of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), or dual AGNs, in a fraction of galaxy mergers. However, finding them remains a challenge. The presence of double-peaked [O III] or of ultra hard X-rays have been proposed as techniques to select dual AGNs efficiently. We studied a sample of double-peaked narrow [O III] emitting AGNs from SDSS DR7. By obtaining new and archival high spatial resolution images taken with the Keck 2 Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics system and the near-infrared (IR) camera NIRC2, we showed that 30% of double-peaked [O III] emission line SDSS AGNs have two spatial components within a 3' radius. However, spatially resolved spectroscopy or X-ray observations are needed to confirm these galaxy pairs as systems containing two AGNs. We followed up these spatially-double candidate dual AGNs with integral field spectroscopy from Keck OSIRIS and Gemini GMOS and with long-slit spectroscopy from Keck NIRSPEC and Shane Kast Double Spectrograph. We find double-peaked emitters are caused sometimes by dual AGN and sometimes by outflows or narrow line kinematics. We also performed Chandra X-ray ACIS-S observations on 12 double-peaked candidate dual AGNs. Using our observations and 8 archival observations, we compare the distribution of X-ray photons to our spatially double near-IR images, measure X-ray luminosities and hardness ratios, and estimate column densities. By assessing what fraction of double-peaked emission line SDSS AGNs are true dual AGNs, we can better determine whether double-peaked [O III] is an efficient dual AGN indicator and constrain the statistics of dual AGNs. A second technique to find dual AGN is the detection of ultra hard X-rays by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope. We use CARMA observations to measure and map the CO(1-0) present in nearby ultra-hard X-ray Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) merging with either a quiescent companion

  5. Flash X-Ray (FXR) Accelerator Optimization Electronic Time-Resolved Measurement of X-Ray Source Size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, J; Ong, M; Wargo, P

    2005-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is currently investigating various approaches to minimize the x-ray source size on the Flash X-Ray (FXR) linear induction accelerator in order to improve x-ray flux and increase resolution for hydrodynamic radiography experiments. In order to effectively gauge improvements to final x-ray source size, a fast, robust, and accurate system for measuring the spot size is required. Timely feedback on x-ray source size allows new and improved accelerator tunes to be deployed and optimized within the limited run-time constraints of a production facility with a busy experimental schedule; in addition, time-resolved measurement capability allows the investigation of not only the time-averaged source size, but also the evolution of the source size, centroid position, and x-ray dose throughout the 70 ns beam pulse. Combined with time-resolved measurements of electron beam parameters such as emittance, energy, and current, key limiting factors can be identified, modeled, and optimized for the best possible spot size. Roll-bar techniques are a widely used method for x-ray source size measurement, and have been the method of choice at FXR for many years. A thick bar of tungsten or other dense metal with a sharp edge is inserted into the path of the x-ray beam so as to heavily attenuate the lower half of the beam, resulting in a half-light, half-dark image as seen downstream of the roll-bar; by measuring the width of the transition from light to dark across the edge of the roll-bar, the source size can be deduced. For many years, film has been the imaging medium of choice for roll-bar measurements thanks to its high resolution, linear response, and excellent contrast ratio. Film measurements, however, are fairly cumbersome and require considerable setup and analysis time; moreover, with the continuing trend towards all-electronic measurement systems, film is becoming increasingly difficult and expensive to procure. Here, we shall

  6. ELECTRON ENERGY PARTITION IN THE ABOVE-THE-LOOPTOP SOLAR HARD X-RAY SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Mitsuo; Krucker, Säm; Hudson, Hugh S.; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal, E-mail: moka@ssl.berkeley.edu [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Solar flares produce non-thermal electrons with energies up to tens of MeVs. To understand the origin of energetic electrons, coronal hard X-ray (HXR) sources, in particular above-the-looptop sources, have been studied extensively. However, it still remains unclear how energies are partitioned between thermal and non-thermal electrons within the above-the-looptop source. Here we show that the kappa distribution, when compared to conventional spectral models, can better characterize the above-the-looptop HXRs (≳15 keV) observed in four different cases. The widely used conventional model (i.e., the combined thermal plus power-law distribution) can also fit the data, but it returns unreasonable parameter values due to a non-physical sharp lower-energy cutoff E{sub c}. In two cases, extreme-ultraviolet data were available from SDO/AIA and the kappa distribution was still consistent with the analysis of differential emission measure. Based on the kappa distribution model, we found that the 2012 July 19 flare showed the largest non-thermal fraction of electron energies about 50%, suggesting equipartition of energies. Considering the results of particle-in-cell simulations, as well as density estimates of the four cases studied, we propose a scenario in which electron acceleration is achieved primarily by collisionless magnetic reconnection, but the electron energy partition in the above-the-looptop source depends on the source density. In low-density above-the-looptop regions (few times 10{sup 9} cm{sup –3}), the enhanced non-thermal tail can remain and a prominent HXR source is created, whereas in higher-densities (>10{sup 10} cm{sup –3}), the non-thermal tail is suppressed or thermalized by Coulomb collisions.

  7. Measurement of soft X-ray power from high-power Z-pinch plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wensheng; Qiu Aici; Sun Fengrong; Luo Jianhui; Zhou Haisheng; He Duohui

    2003-01-01

    A Ni-film bolometer driven by the pulsed constant-voltage supply was developed for measuring soft X-ray energy under 1 keV generated from the Qiang-Guang-I, while the measuring system of the soft X-ray power was established with an X-ray diode detector. Results of the soft X-ray energy and power measurements were obtained at the experiment of Kr gas-puff high-power Z-pinch plasma

  8. Solar Coronal Events with Extended Hard X-ray and Gamma-ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, H. S.

    2017-12-01

    A characteristic pattern of solar hard X-ray emission, first identified in SOL1969-03-31 by Frost & Dennis (1971) now has been linked to prolonged high-energy gamma-ray emission detected by the Fermi/LAT experiment, for example in SOL2014-09-01. The distinctive features of these events include flat hard X-ray spectra extending well above 100 keV, a characteristic pattern of time development, low-frequency gyrosynchrotron peaks, CME association, and gamma-rays identifiable with pion decay originating in GeV ions. The identification of these events with otherwise known solar structures nevertheless remains elusive, in spite of the wealth of imagery available from AIA. The quandary is that these events have a clear association with CMEs in the high corona, and yet the gamma-ray production implicates the photosphere itself. The vanishingly small loss cone in the nominal acceleration region makes this extremely difficult. I propose direct inward advection of a part of the SEP particle population, as created on closed field structures, as a possible resolution of this puzzle, and note that this requires retracting magnetic structures on long time scales following the flare itself.

  9. Hard X-ray submicrometer tomography of human brain tissue at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimchenko, A.; Bikis, C.; Schulz, G.; Zdora, M.-C.; Zanette, I.; Vila-Comamala, J.; Schweighauser, G.; Hench, J.; Hieber, S. E.; Deyhle, H.; Thalmann, P.; Müller, B.

    2017-06-01

    There is a lack of the necessary methodology for three-dimensional (3D) investigation of soft tissues with cellular resolution without staining or tissue transformation. Synchrotron radiation based hard X-ray in-line phase contrast tomography using single-distance phase reconstruction (SDPR) provides high spatial resolution and density contrast for the visualization of individual cells using a standard specimen preparation and data reconstruction. In this study, we demonstrate the 3D characterization of a formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human cerebellum specimen by SDPR at the Diamond-Manchester Imaging Branchline I13-2 (Diamond Light Source, UK) at pixel sizes down to 0.45 μm. The approach enables visualization of cerebellar layers (Stratum moleculare and Stratum granulosum), the 3D characterization of individual cells (Purkinje, stellate and granule cells) and can even resolve some subcellular structures (nucleus and nucleolus of Purkinje cells). The tomographic results are qualitatively compared to hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained histological sections. We demonstrate the potential benefits of hard X-ray microtomography for the investigations of biological tissues in comparison to conventional histology.

  10. Hard X-ray submicrometer tomography of human brain tissue at Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khimchenko, A; Bikis, C; Schulz, G; Hieber, S E; Deyhle, H; Thalmann, P; Müller, B; Zdora, M-C; Zanette, I; Vila-Comamala, J; Schweighauser, G; Hench, J

    2017-01-01

    There is a lack of the necessary methodology for three-dimensional (3D) investigation of soft tissues with cellular resolution without staining or tissue transformation. Synchrotron radiation based hard X-ray in-line phase contrast tomography using single-distance phase reconstruction (SDPR) provides high spatial resolution and density contrast for the visualization of individual cells using a standard specimen preparation and data reconstruction. In this study, we demonstrate the 3D characterization of a formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human cerebellum specimen by SDPR at the Diamond-Manchester Imaging Branchline I13-2 (Diamond Light Source, UK) at pixel sizes down to 0.45 μm. The approach enables visualization of cerebellar layers ( Stratum moleculare and Stratum granulosum ), the 3D characterization of individual cells (Purkinje, stellate and granule cells) and can even resolve some subcellular structures (nucleus and nucleolus of Purkinje cells). The tomographic results are qualitatively compared to hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stained histological sections. We demonstrate the potential benefits of hard X-ray microtomography for the investigations of biological tissues in comparison to conventional histology. (paper)

  11. Simbol-X: Imaging The Hard X-ray Sky with Unprecedented Spatial Resolution and Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Simbol-X Joint Scientific Mission Group

    2009-01-01

    Simbol-X is a hard X-ray mission, with imaging capability in the 0.5-80 keV range. It is based on a collaboration between the French and Italian space agencies with participation of German laboratories. The launch is foreseen in late 2014. It relies on a formation flight concept, with two satellites carrying one the mirror module and the other one the focal plane detectors. The mirrors will have a 20 m focal length, while the two focal plane detectors will be put one on top of the other one. This combination will provide over two orders of magnitude improvement in angular resolution and sensitivity in the hard X-ray range with respect to non-focusing techniques. The Simbol-X revolutionary instrumental capabilities will allow us to elucidate outstanding questions in high energy astrophysics such as those related to black-holes accretion physics and census, and to particle acceleration mechanisms. We will give an overall description of the mission characteristics, performances and scientific objectives.

  12. CdTe Based Hard X-ray Imager Technology For Space Borne Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limousin, Olivier; Delagnes, E.; Laurent, P.; Lugiez, F.; Gevin, O.; Meuris, A.

    2009-01-01

    CEA Saclay has recently developed an innovative technology for CdTe based Pixelated Hard X-Ray Imagers with high spectral performance and high timing resolution for efficient background rejection when the camera is coupled to an active veto shield. This development has been done in a R&D program supported by CNES (French National Space Agency) and has been optimized towards the Simbol-X mission requirements. In the latter telescope, the hard X-Ray imager is 64 cm² and is equipped with 625µm pitch pixels (16384 independent channels) operating at -40°C in the range of 4 to 80 keV. The camera we demonstrate in this paper consists of a mosaic of 64 independent cameras, divided in 8 independent sectors. Each elementary detection unit, called Caliste, is the hybridization of a 256-pixel Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) detector with full custom front-end electronics into a unique 1 cm² component, juxtaposable on its four sides. Recently, promising results have been obtained from the first micro-camera prototypes called Caliste 64 and will be presented to illustrate the capabilities of the device as well as the expected performance of an instrument based on it. The modular design of Caliste enables to consider extended developments toward IXO type mission, according to its specific scientific requirements.

  13. An imaging escape gated MPWC for hard X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubertini, P.; Bazzano, A.; Boccaccini, L.; La Padula, C.; Mastropietro, M.; Patriarca, R.; Polcaro, V.F.; Barbareschi, L.; Perotti, F.; Villa, G.; Butler, R.C.; Di Cocco, G.; Spada, G.; Charalambous, P.; Dean, A.J.; Stephen, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    A scientific forward step in the hard X-ray and soft gamma-ray astronomy will only be possible with the use of a new generation of space borne instruments. Their main characteristics have to be the two-dimensional imaging capability over a large collecting area and the fine spectral resolution in order to discriminate between the weak signal coming from cosmic sources to be detected and the strong background induced by cosmic rays, in the space environment, on the detector. To reach this goal we have developed a new hard X-ray position sensitive proportional counter operating with the escape gate technique in the range 15-150 keV, to be used together with a pseudo-random coded mask in order to obtain sky images. The detector is a high pressure (5 bar) xenon-argon-isobutane filled chamber with a spatial resolution of 30x2 mm and a spectral resolution of 5% at 60 keV on the sensitive area of 3000 cm 2 . (orig.)

  14. Atomic Physics Measurements in Support of X-ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiersdorfer, Peter; Brown, G. V.; Kelley, R. E.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Leutenegger, M.; Porter, F. S.; Obst, M.; Lepson, J. K.; Desai, P.; Gu, M. F.

    2010-10-01

    X-ray astronomy has been a voracious consumer of atomic data, especially after the launch of the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray Observatories, which have produced very high-resolution grating spectra of point sources. One of the important issues has been to understand the physics underlying the Fe L-shell spectra, and the Fe XVII spectrum in particular. A lot of progress has been made, including measurements of the electron-impact and resonance excitation cross sections, which now provides a rather clear picture of the production mechanism of the Fe XVII spectrum. Recent measurements of the radiative rates provide additional information on the deexcitation channels, while investigations of dielectronic satellite transitions provide a measure of the electron temperature. Many questions, however, still remain. Work at LLNL was performed under the auspices of DOE under contract DE-AC53-07NA27344 and supported by NASA's APRA program under contracts NNH07AF81I and NNG06WF08I. Part of this work was supported by Chandra Cycle 10 Award AR9-0002X.

  15. Investigation of biomedical inner microstructures with hard X-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu Hang [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, 100049 Beijing (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100864 Beijing (China); Zhu Peiping [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, 100049 Beijing (China); Chen Bo [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Liu Bo; Yin Hongxia [Capital University of Medical Sciences, 100054 Beijing (China); Li Enrong [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, 100049 Beijing (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100864 Beijing (China); Liu Yijin [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Wang Junyue [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, 100049 Beijing (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100864 Beijing (China); Yuan Qingxi; Huang Wanxia; Fang Shouxian [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, 100049 Beijing (China); Wu Ziyu [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, 100049 Beijing (China); National Center for NanoScience and Technology, 100080 Beijing (China)], E-mail: wuzy@ihep.ac.cn

    2007-09-21

    Hard X-ray Phase-Contrast Imaging (HX-PCI) is a new and valuable method that may provide information of the inner parts of an opaque object. Previous reports demonstrated its applicability in soft and hard tissue imaging. Here we provide further evidence for improved image quality and the effective capability to distinguish inner microstructures in real biomedical systems such as cochlea. Experiments performed both at the 4W1A beamline of the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) and at the Taiwan National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC) clearly show details of samples' inner microstructure with a resolution of a few microns. The improved spatial resolution is a relevant achievement for future improved understanding and clinical trials.

  16. Experimental device for the X-ray energetic distribution measurement in a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Navarro, A.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental system to measure the X-ray spectrum in a tokamak plasma is described, emphasizing its characteristics: resolution, dead time and the pulse pile-up distortion effects on the X-ray spectra. (author) [es

  17. Development and application of cryogenic radiometry with hard X-rays; Entwicklung und Anwendung der Kryoradiometrie mit harter Roentgenstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, Martin

    2008-06-06

    To establish cryogenic radiometry with hard X-ray radiation for photon energies of up to 60 keV, a novel type of cavity absorber had to be developed for the cryogenic radiometer SYRES I, which is deployed by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) as primary standard detector at the electron storage ring BESSY II. This new type of cavity absorber allows for the complete absorption of hard X-ray radiation in combination with an appropriate sensitivity and an adequate time constant for the measurement of synchrotron radiation at BESSY II. As the process of fabrication of different types of absorbers is very time-consuming, the interaction of hard X-ray radiation with different absorber materials and geometries was studied intensively by using the Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4. The accuracy of the simulations was verified comparing them to scattering experiments performed at a wavelength shifter beamline at BESSY II with a calibrated energy dispersive detector. It was shown that Geant4 describes the photo-effect, including fluorescence as well as Compton- and Rayleigh scattering, with high accuracy. The simulations and experiments resulted in a cavity absorber with a gold base 550 {mu}m in thickness and a cylindrical shell made of copper 90 {mu}m in thickness to reduce losses caused by fluorescence and scattered radiation. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity was then used to calibrate semiconductor photodiodes, which can be used as compact and inexpensive secondary standard detectors, against a cryogenic radiometer, covering the entire photon energy range of three beamlines from 50 eV to 60 keV with relative uncertainties of less than 0.5 %. Furthermore the spatial homogeneity of the spectral responsivity, the transmittance and the linearity of the photodiodes was investigated. Through a direct comparison of the free-air ionization chamber PK100, a primary detector standard of PTB used in dosimetry, and the cryogenic radiometer

  18. Bone composition measured by x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, M.; Hukins, D.W.L.

    1992-01-01

    Ten composite samples consisting of cortical bone and adipose tissue, in known proportions, were made. The intensity of monochromatic x-rays (energy 8 keV) scattered by these samples was determined as a function of the modulus of the scattering vector, K. The ratio of the heights of peaks at K values of around 134 and 22 nm -1 provided a measure of the ratio of adipose tissue to bone mineral in these samples. This method was then used to determine the ratio of adipose tissue to mineral in samples of trabecular bone from 16 vertebral bodies. The results were correlated with measurements of the bone composition determined by ashing (r = 0.66) and histomorphometry (r = 0.66). Furthermore, the ashing and histomorphometry results were correlated with each other (r = 0.68). The feasibility of using higher energy x-rays (35-80 keV) for obtaining the same information from bone within the body is briefly discussed. (author)

  19. CO-ANALYSIS OF SOLAR MICROWAVE AND HARD X-RAY SPECTRAL EVOLUTIONS. I. IN TWO FREQUENCY OR ENERGY RANGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Qiwu; Huang Guangli; Nakajima, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Solar microwave and hard X-ray spectral evolutions are co-analyzed in the 2000 June 10 and 2002 April 10 flares, and are simultaneously observed by the Owens-Valley Solar Array in the microwave band and by Yohkoh/Hard X-ray Telescope or RHESSI in the hard X-ray band, with multiple subpeaks in their light curves. The microwave and hard X-ray spectra are fitted by a power law in two frequency ranges of the optical thin part and two photon energy ranges, respectively. Similar to an earlier event in Shao and Huang, the well-known soft-hard-soft pattern of the lower energy range changed to the hard-soft-hard (HSH) pattern of the higher energy range during the spectral evolution of each subpeak in both hard X-ray flares. This energy dependence is actually supported by a positive correlation between the overall light curves and spectral evolution in the lower energy range, while it becomes an anti-correlation in the higher energy range. Regarding microwave data, the HSH pattern appears in the spectral evolution of each subpeak in the lower frequency range, which is somewhat similar to Huang and Nakajima. However, it returns back to the well-known pattern of soft-hard-harder for the overall spectral evolution in the higher frequency range of both events. This frequency dependence is confirmed by an anti-correlation between the overall light curves and spectral evolution in the lower frequency range, but it becomes a positive correlation in the higher frequency range. The possible mechanisms are discussed, respectively, for reasons why hard X-ray and microwave spectral evolutions have different patterns in different energy and frequency intervals.

  20. Flat Field Anomalies in an X-Ray CCD Camera Measured Using a Manson X-Ray Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael Haugh

    2008-01-01

    The Static X-ray Imager (SXI) is a diagnostic used at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the position of the X-rays produced by lasers hitting a gold foil target. It determines how accurately NIF can point the laser beams and is critical to proper NIF operation. Imagers are located at the top and the bottom of the NIF target chamber. The CCD chip is an X-ray sensitive silicon sensor, with a large format array (2k x 2k), 24 (micro)m square pixels, and 15 (micro)m thick. A multi-anode Manson X-ray source, operating up to 10kV and 2mA, was used to characterize and calibrate the imagers. The output beam is heavily filtered to narrow the spectral beam width, giving a typical resolution E/ΔE ∼ 12. The X-ray beam intensity was measured using an absolute photodiode that has accuracy better than 1% up to the Si K edge and better than 5% at higher energies. The X-ray beam provides full CCD illumination and is flat, within ±1.5% maximum to minimum. The spectral efficiency was measured at 10 energy bands ranging from 930 eV to 8470 eV. The efficiency pattern follows the properties of Si. The maximum quantum efficiency is 0.71. We observed an energy dependent pixel sensitivity variation that showed continuous change over a large portion of the CCD. The maximum sensitivity variation was >8% at 8470 eV. The geometric pattern did not change at lower energies, but the maximum contrast decreased and was less than the measurement uncertainty below 4 keV. We were also able to observe debris on the CCD chip. The debris showed maximum contrast at the lowest energy used, 930 eV, and disappeared by 4 keV. The Manson source is a powerful tool for characterizing the imaging errors of an X-ray CCD imager. These errors are quite different from those found in a visible CCD imager

  1. Comparison of hard X-ray spectra obtained by spectrometers on Hinotori and SMM and detection of 'superhot' component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Nariaki

    1988-01-01

    Hard X-ray spectra in solar flares obtained by the broadband spectrometers aboard Hinotori and SMM are compared. Within the uncertainty brought about by assuming the typical energy of the background X-rays, spectra by the Hinotori spectrometer are usually consistent with those by the SMM spectrometer for flares in 1981. On the contrary, flares in 1982 persistently show 20-50-percent higher flux by Hinotori than by SMM. If this discrepancy is entirely attributable to errors in the calibration of energy ranges, the errors would be about 10 percent. Despite such a discrepancy in absolute flux, in the the decay phase of one flare, spectra revealed a hard X-ray component (probably a 'superhot' component) that could be explained neither by emission from a plasma at about 2 x 10 to the 7th K nor by a nonthermal power-law component. Imaging observations during this period show hard X-ray emission nearly cospatial with soft X-ray emission, in contrast with earlier times at which hard and soft X-rays come from different places.

  2. Measurements of fast electron beams and soft X-ray emission from plasma-focus experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surała Władysław

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports results of the recent experimental studies of pulsed electron beams and soft X-rays in plasma-focus (PF experiments carried out within a modified PF-360U facility at the NCBJ, Poland. Particular attention was focused on time-resolved measurements of the fast electron beams by means of two different magnetic analyzers, which could record electrons of energy ranging from about 41 keV to about 715 keV in several (6 or 8 measuring channels. For discharges performed with the pure deuterium filling, many strong electron signals were recorded in all the measuring channels. Those signals were well correlated with the first hard X-ray pulse detected by an external scintillation neutron-counter. In some of the analyzer channels, electron spikes (lasting about dozens of nanoseconds and appearing in different instants after the current peculiarity (so-called current dip were also recorded. For several discharges, fast ion beams, which were emitted along the z-axis and recorded with nuclear track detectors, were also investigated. Those measurements confirmed a multibeam character of the ion emission. The time-integrated soft X-ray images, which were taken side-on by means of a pinhole camera and sensitive X-ray films, showed the appearance of some filamentary structures and so-called hot spots. The application of small amounts of admixtures of different heavy noble gases, i.e. of argon (4.8% volumetric, krypton (1.6% volumetric, or xenon (0.8% volumetric, decreased intensity of the recorded electron beams, but increased intensity of the soft X-ray emission and showed more distinct and numerous hot spots. The recorded electron spikes have been explained as signals produced by quasi-mono-energetic microbeams emitted from tiny sources (probably plasma diodes, which can be formed near the observed hot spots.

  3. Near K-edge measurement of the X-ray attenuation coefficient of heavy elements using a tuneable X-ray source based on an electron LINAC

    CERN Document Server

    Materna, T; Mondelaers, W; Masschaele, B

    2000-01-01

    The X-ray attenuation coefficients of bismuth and of uranium were measured in the regions of 40-240 and 70-240 keV, respectively, using a tuneable hard X-ray source based on the linear electron accelerator at the University of Ghent. Results were compared with the semi-empirical values of Storm and Israel and to the theoretical values of Berger and Hubbell. We also propose a simple function for the attenuation coefficient in the vicinity of the K-edge for uranium and in an extended range of energy for bismuth. The set-up of the source at Ghent is described and the future improvements are explained.

  4. Valence change detection in memristive oxide based heterostructure cells by hard X-ray photoelectron emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindsmüller, A.; Schmitz, C.; Wiemann, C.; Skaja, K.; Wouters, D. J.; Waser, R.; Schneider, C. M.; Dittmann, R.

    2018-04-01

    The switching mechanism of valence change resistive memory devices is widely accepted to be an ionic movement of oxygen vacancies resulting in a valence change of the metal cations. However, direct experimental proofs of valence changes in memristive devices are scarce. In this work, we have employed hard X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (PEEM) to probe local valence changes in Pt/ZrOx/Ta memristive devices. The use of hard X-ray radiation increases the information depth, thus providing chemical information from buried layers. By extracting X-ray photoelectron spectra from different locations in the PEEM images, we show that zirconia in the active device area is reduced compared to a neighbouring region, confirming the valence change in the ZrOx film during electroforming. Furthermore, we succeeded in measuring the Ta 4f spectrum for two different resistance states on the same device. In both states, as well as outside the device region, the Ta electrode is composed of different suboxides without any metallic contribution, hinting to the formation of TaOx during the deposition of the Ta thin film. We observed a reduction of the Ta oxidation state in the low resistance state with respect to the high resistive state. This observation is contradictory to the established model, as the internal redistribution of oxygen between ZrOx and the Ta electrode during switching would lead to an oxidation of the Ta layer in the low resistance state. Instead, we have to conclude that the Ta electrode takes an active part in the switching process in our devices and that oxygen is released and reincorporated in the ZrOx/TaOx bilayer during switching. This is confirmed by the degradation of the high resistance state during endurance measurements under vacuum.

  5. Application of an EMCCD Camera for Calibration of Hard X-Ray Telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Julia K.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Nagarkar, V. V.

    2012-01-01

    has seen focusing optics developed for balloon experiments [1] and they will soon be implemented in approved space missions such as the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) [2] and ASTRO-H [3]. The full characterization of x-ray optics for astrophysical and solar imaging missions, including...... measurement of the point spread function (PSF) as well as scattering and reflectivity properties of substrate coatings, requires a very high spatial resolution, high sensitivity, photon counting and energy discriminating, large area detector. Novel back-thinned Electron Multiplying Charge-Coupled Devices...... high frame rates due to its controllable internal gain. Additionally, thick CsI(Tl) yields high detection efficiency for x-rays [6]. This type of detector has already proven to be a unique device very suitable for calibrations in astrophysics: such a camera was used to support the characterization...

  6. Development of TES microcalorimeters with Sn absorber for hard x-ray detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatakeyama, Shuichi; Ohno, Masashi; Damayanthi, R.M. Thushara; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Superconducting transition edge sensors (TES) are used for high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy. In this study, we have designed a new TES detector using a superconducting tin (Sn) absorber to detect high energy photons over 100 keV. The Sn absorber is coupled to an Ir/Au super-conducting film which is deposited on an ultra-thin SiN membrane (500 nm thick) with a small amount of epoxy post (Stycast 2850FT) by handling with a flip-chip bonding machine. The 241 Am photoelectron peak, the Sn K α and K β X-ray escape peaks are clearly observed. The measured energy resolution is 320 eV FWHM at 59.5 keV and is better than that of HPGe detector. (author)

  7. Observation of Ortho-III correlations by neutron and hard x-ray scattering in an untwinned YBa2Cu3O6.77 single crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleger, P.; Casalta, H.; Hadfield, R.

    1995-01-01

    We present measurements of Ortho-III phase correlations in an untwinned single crystal of YBa2Cu3O6.77 by neutron scattering and the novel method of hard (95 keV) X-ray scattering. The Ortho-III ordering is essentially two-dimensional, exhibiting Lorentzian peak shapes in the a-b plane. At room...

  8. Study of electron beams within ISTTOK tokamak by means of a multi-channel Cherenkov detector; their correlation with hard X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakubowski, L., E-mail: Lech.Jakubowski@ipj.gov.p [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Malinowski, K.; Sadowski, M.J.; Zebrowski, J. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Plyusnin, V.V. [Association Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Rabinski, M. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Duarte, P. [Association Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Jakubowski, M.J. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    2010-11-11

    The paper describes experimental studies of electron beams emitted from a plasma torus within the ISTTOK tokamak, which were performed by means of a new four-channel detector of the Cherenkov type. A range of electron energy was estimated. There were also measured hard X-rays, and their correlation with the fast run-away electron beams was investigated experimentally.

  9. Improvement of density resolution in short-pulse hard x-ray radiographic imaging using detector stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borm, B.; Gärtner, F.; Khaghani, D. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Neumayer, P. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    We demonstrate that stacking several imaging plates (IPs) constitutes an easy method to increase hard x-ray detection efficiency. Used to record x-ray radiographic images produced by an intense-laser driven hard x-ray backlighter source, the IP stacks resulted in a significant improvement of the radiograph density resolution. We attribute this to the higher quantum efficiency of the combined detectors, leading to a reduced photon noise. Electron-photon transport simulations of the interaction processes in the detector reproduce the observed contrast improvement. Increasing the detection efficiency to enhance radiographic imaging capabilities is equally effective as increasing the x-ray source yield, e.g., by a larger drive laser energy.

  10. Application of x-ray residual stress measurement to products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, T.; Iwamura, T.

    1975-01-01

    The X-ray residual stress measuring method is the only nondestructive method for measuring residual stress in polycrystalline materials. It is capable of obtaining information not only on macroscopic stress but also microscopic stress. The authors are employing this method for the development of pre-service and in-service inspection methods and for the improvement of various manufacturing techniques. In this paper, the results of measurement of some products as examples of its application are described. The examples introduced concern the following: (1) Selection of optimum conditions in heat treatment and stress-relief treatment. (2) Residual stress produced by mechanical processes such as autofrettage and flow form. (3) Check of manufacturing processes of rotary shaft and welded parts. (4) Estimation of fatigue strength of shot-peened part. (5) Detection of fatigue damage of shot-peened part. (auth.)

  11. Hard x-ray to low energy gamma ray spectrum of the Crab Nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, G.V.

    1986-01-01

    The spectrum of the Crab Nebula has been determined in the energy range 10 keV to 5 MeV from the data of the UCSD/MIT Hard-X-ray and Low Energy Gamma Ray Experiment on the first High Energy Astronomy Observatory, HEAO-1. The x-ray to γ-ray portion of the continuous emission from the Crab is indicative of the electron spectrum, its transport through the nebula, and the physical conditions near the shocked interface between the nebular region and the wind which is the physical link between the nebula and the pulsar, NP0532. The power-law dependence of the spectrum found in the lower-energy decade of this observation (10 to 100 keV) is not continued without modification to higher energies. Evidence for this has been accumulating from previous observations in the γ-ray ranges of 1-10 MeV and above 35 MeV. The observations on which this dissertation is based further characterize the spectral change in the 100 keV to 1 MeV region. These observations provide a crucial connection between the x-ray and γ-ray spectrum of the non-pulsed emission of the Crab Nebula. The continuity of this spectrum suggests that the emission mechanism responsible for the non-pulsed γ-rays observed above 35 MeV is of the same origin as the emission at lower energies, i.e. that of synchrotron radiation in the magnetic field of the nebula

  12. Measurements of radio frequent cavity volt ages by X-ray spectrum measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toprek Dragan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with X-ray spectrum measurement as a method for the measurement of radio frequent cavity voltage and the theory of X-ray spectrum calculation. Experimental results at 72 MHz for three different values of the radio frequent power of ACCEL K250 super conducting cyclotron are being presented.

  13. Picosecond x-ray measurements from 100 eV to 30 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attwood, D.T.; Kauffman, R.L.; Stradling, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    Picosecond x-ray measurements relevant to the Livermore Laser Fusion Program are reviewed. Resolved to 15 picoseconds, streak camera detection capabilities extend from 100 eV to higher than 30 keV, with synchronous capabilities in the visible, near infrared, and ultraviolet. Capabilities include automated data retrieval using charge coupled devices (CCD's), absolute x-ray intensity levels, novel cathodes, x-ray mirror/reflector combinations, and a variety of x-ray imaging devices

  14. Experimental strategies for imaging bioparticles with femtosecond hard X-ray pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt J. Daurer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the capabilities of the Coherent X-ray Imaging Instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source to image small biological samples. The weak signal from small samples puts a significant demand on the experiment. Aerosolized Omono River virus particles of ∼40 nm in diameter were injected into the submicrometre X-ray focus at a reduced pressure. Diffraction patterns were recorded on two area detectors. The statistical nature of the measurements from many individual particles provided information about the intensity profile of the X-ray beam, phase variations in the wavefront and the size distribution of the injected particles. The results point to a wider than expected size distribution (from ∼35 to ∼300 nm in diameter. This is likely to be owing to nonvolatile contaminants from larger droplets during aerosolization and droplet evaporation. The results suggest that the concentration of nonvolatile contaminants and the ratio between the volumes of the initial droplet and the sample particles is critical in such studies. The maximum beam intensity in the focus was found to be 1.9 × 1012 photons per µm2 per pulse. The full-width of the focus at half-maximum was estimated to be 500 nm (assuming 20% beamline transmission, and this width is larger than expected. Under these conditions, the diffraction signal from a sample-sized particle remained above the average background to a resolution of 4.25 nm. The results suggest that reducing the size of the initial droplets during aerosolization is necessary to bring small particles into the scope of detailed structural studies with X-ray lasers.

  15. X-ray diffraction measurements in KCl shocked along [100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Almeida, T.; Gupta, Y.M.

    2000-01-01

    Real time x-ray diffraction measurements were used to examine the polymorphic phase transformation in KCl shocked along the [100] direction. Shock wave continuum data, obtained previously by Hayes, were used to design the experiments and to predict diffraction from KCl shocked to different peak stresses. Here, we present the results obtained below the transition stress: between 1.4 and 2 GPa. Diffraction data obtained were quantitatively related to macroscopic compression. Interplanar spacing measurements revealed isotropic compression of the unit cell in contrast to previously reported results. Above the transition stress, descriptions of the atomic arrangement with respect to shock propagation (not available in the literature) are required for setting up the detection system. Hence, continuum results in combination with various crystallographic considerations were utilized to obtain data above the transition stress

  16. Quantitative spectromicroscopy from inelastically scattered photoelectrons in the hard X-ray range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renault, O., E-mail: olivier.renault@cea.fr; Zborowski, C.; Risterucci, P. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble, France and CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Wiemann, C.; Schneider, C. M. [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-6) and JARA-FIT, Research Center Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Grenet, G. [Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon, Ecole Centrale, 69134 Ecully Cedex (France); Tougaard, S. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2016-07-04

    We demonstrate quantitative, highly bulk-sensitive x-ray photoelectron emission microscopy by analysis of inelastically scattered photoelectrons in the hard X-ray range, enabling elemental depth distribution analysis in deeply buried layers. We show results on patterned structures used in electrical testing of high electron mobility power transistor devices with an epitaxial Al{sub 0.25}Ga{sub 0.75}N channel and a Ti/Al metal contact. From the image series taken over an energy range of up to 120 eV in the Ti 1s loss feature region and over a typical 100 μm field of view, one can accurately retrieve, using background analysis together with an optimized scattering cross-section, the Ti depth distribution from 14 nm up to 25 nm below the surface. The method paves the way to multi-elemental, bulk-sensitive 3D imaging and investigation of phenomena at deeply buried interfaces and microscopic scales by photoemission.

  17. Hard X-ray Full Field Nano-imaging of Bone and Nanowires at SSRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, Joy C.; Pianetta, Piero; Meirer, Florian; Chen Jie; Almeida, Eduardo; Meulen, Marjolein C. H. van der; Alwood, Joshua S.; Lee, Cathy; Zhu Jia; Cui Yi

    2010-01-01

    A hard X-ray full field microscope from Xradia Inc. has been installed at SSRL on a 54-pole wiggler end station at beam line 6-2. It has been optimized to operate from 5-14 keV with resolution as high as 30 nm. High quality images are achieved using a vertical beam stabilizer and condenser scanner with high efficiency zone plates with 30 nm outermost zone width. The microscope has been used in Zernike phase contrast, available at 5.4 keV and 8 keV, as well as absorption contrast to image a variety of biological, environmental and materials samples. Calibration of the X-ray attenuation with crystalline apatite enabled quantification of bone density of plate-like and rod-like regions of mouse bone trabecula. 3D tomography of individual lacuna revealed the surrounding cell canaliculi and processes. 3D tomography of chiral branched PbSe nanowires showed orthogonal branches around a central nanowire.

  18. Hard X-ray Full Field Nano-imaging of Bone and Nanowires at SSRL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Joy C; Pianetta, Piero; Meirer, Florian; Chen, Jie; Almeida, Eduardo; van der Meulen, Marjolein C H; Alwood, Joshua S; Lee, Cathy; Zhu, Jia; Cui, Yi

    2010-06-23

    A hard X-ray full field microscope from Xradia Inc. has been installed at SSRL on a 54-pole wiggler end station at beam line 6-2. It has been optimized to operate from 5-14 keV with resolution as high as 30 nm. High quality images are achieved using a vertical beam stabilizer and condenser scanner with high efficiency zone plates with 30 nm outermost zone width. The microscope has been used in Zernike phase contrast, available at 5.4 keV and 8 keV, as well as absorption contrast to image a variety of biological, environmental and materials samples. Calibration of the X-ray attenuation with crystalline apatite enabled quantification of bone density of plate-like and rod-like regions of mouse bone trabecula. 3D tomography of individual lacuna revealed the surrounding cell canaliculi and processes. 3D tomography of chiral branched PbSe nanowires showed orthogonal branches around a central nanowire.

  19. Hard X-ray Full Field Nano-imaging of Bone and Nanowires at SSRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Joy C.; Pianetta, Piero; Meirer, Florian; Chen, Jie; Almeida, Eduardo; van der Meulen, Marjolein C. H.; Alwood, Joshua S.; Lee, Cathy; Zhu, Jia; Cui, Yi

    2010-06-01

    A hard X-ray full field microscope from Xradia Inc. has been installed at SSRL on a 54-pole wiggler end station at beam line 6-2. It has been optimized to operate from 5-14 keV with resolution as high as 30 nm. High quality images are achieved using a vertical beam stabilizer and condenser scanner with high efficiency zone plates with 30 nm outermost zone width. The microscope has been used in Zernike phase contrast, available at 5.4 keV and 8 keV, as well as absorption contrast to image a variety of biological, environmental and materials samples. Calibration of the X-ray attenuation with crystalline apatite enabled quantification of bone density of plate-like and rod-like regions of mouse bone trabecula. 3D tomography of individual lacuna revealed the surrounding cell canaliculi and processes. 3D tomography of chiral branched PbSe nanowires showed orthogonal branches around a central nanowire.

  20. Hard X-ray phase-contrast microscope for observing transparent specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagoshima, Y.; Yokoyama, Y.; Niimi, T.; Koyama, T.; Tsusaka, Y.; Matsui, J. [Himeji Institute of Technology, Graduate School of Science, Hyogo (Japan); Takai, K. [Japan synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Mikazuki, Hyogo (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    A hard X-ray transmission imaging microscope has been in use at the beamline BL24XU of Spring-8. It makes use of a phase zone plate made of tantalum as its X-ray lens, and is capable of imaging the structure as fine as 125-nm line-and-space pattern. The Zernike's phase-contrast method has been implemented to the microscope with phase plates made of gold. The photon energy was tuned to 12 keV just above the L{sub 3} absorption edge of gold (11.9 keV) in order to increase the image contrast. Polystyrene micro particles as transparent specimens were imaged clearly in the opposite image contrast with phase plates to shift the phase of the central order spectra in the back focal plane of the objective by one-quarter and three-quarters of a period, while the absorption contrast image showed little image contrast. Performance of the newly developed phase zone plate has been tested and it was confirmed that the structure as fine as 60-mm line-and-space pattern was able to be imaged. (authors)

  1. Boron Doped diamond films as electron donors in photovoltaics: An X-ray absorption and hard X-ray photoemission study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapilashrami, M.; Zegkinoglou, I. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Conti, G.; Nemšák, S.; Conlon, C. S.; Fadley, C. S. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Törndahl, T.; Fjällström, V. [Ångström Solar Center, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Lischner, J. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Louie, Steven G. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Hamers, R. J.; Zhang, L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Guo, J.-H. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Himpsel, F. J., E-mail: fhimpsel@wisc.edu [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2014-10-14

    Highly boron-doped diamond films are investigated for their potential as transparent electron donors in solar cells. Specifically, the valence band offset between a diamond film (as electron donor) and Cu(In,Ga)Se₂ (CIGS) as light absorber is determined by a combination of soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which is more depth-penetrating than standard soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In addition, a theoretical analysis of the valence band is performed, based on GW quasiparticle band calculations. The valence band offset is found to be small: VBO=VBM{sub CIGS} – VBM{sub diamond}=0.3 eV±0.1 eV at the CIGS/Diamond interface and 0.0 eV±0.1 eV from CIGS to bulk diamond. These results provide a promising starting point for optimizing the band offset by choosing absorber materials with a slightly lower valence band maximum.

  2. Boron Doped diamond films as electron donors in photovoltaics: An X-ray absorption and hard X-ray photoemission study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapilashrami, M.; Zegkinoglou, I.; Conti, G.; Nemšák, S.; Conlon, C. S.; Fadley, C. S.; Törndahl, T.; Fjällström, V.; Lischner, J.; Louie, Steven G.; Hamers, R. J.; Zhang, L.; Guo, J.-H.; Himpsel, F. J.

    2014-01-01

    Highly boron-doped diamond films are investigated for their potential as transparent electron donors in solar cells. Specifically, the valence band offset between a diamond film (as electron donor) and Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) as light absorber is determined by a combination of soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which is more depth-penetrating than standard soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. In addition, a theoretical analysis of the valence band is performed, based on GW quasiparticle band calculations. The valence band offset is found to be small: VBO = VBM CIGS – VBM diamond  = 0.3 eV ± 0.1 eV at the CIGS/Diamond interface and 0.0 eV ± 0.1 eV from CIGS to bulk diamond. These results provide a promising starting point for optimizing the band offset by choosing absorber materials with a slightly lower valence band maximum.

  3. Long time scale hard X-ray variability in Seyfert 1 galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Alex Gary

    This dissertation examines the relationship between long-term X-ray variability characteristics, black hole mass, and luminosity of Seyfert 1 Active Galactic Nuclei. High dynamic range power spectral density functions (PSDs) have been constructed for six Seyfert 1 galaxies. These PSDs show "breaks" or characteristic time scales, typically on the order of a few days. There is resemblance to PSDs of lower-mass Galactic X-ray binaries (XRBs), with the ratios of putative black hole masses and variability time scales approximately the same (106--7) between the two classes of objects. The data are consistent with a linear correlation between Seyfert PSD break time scale and black hole mass estimate; the relation extrapolates reasonably well over 6--7 orders of magnitude to XRBs. All of this strengthens the case for a physical similarity between Seyfert galaxies and XRBs. The first six years of RXTE monitoring of Seyfert 1s have been systematically analyzed to probe hard X-ray variability on multiple time scales in a total of 19 Seyfert is in an expansion of the survey of Markowitz & Edelson (2001). Correlations between variability amplitude, luminosity, and black hole mass are explored, the data support the model of PSD movement with black hole mass suggested by the PSD survey. All of the continuum variability results are consistent with relatively more massive black holes hosting larger X-ray emission regions, resulting in 'slower' observed variability. Nearly all sources in the sample exhibit stronger variability towards softer energies, consistent with softening as they brighten. Direct time-resolved spectral fitting has been performed on continuous RXTE monitoring of seven Seyfert is to study long-term spectral variability and Fe Kalpha variability characteristics. The Fe Kalpha line displays a wide range of behavior but varies less strongly than the broadband continuum. Overall, however, there is no strong evidence for correlated variability between the line and

  4. Measuring and understanding ultrafast phenomena using X-rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Kristoffer; Nielsen, Martin Meedom

    2014-01-01

    Within the last decade, significant advances in X-ray sources and instrumentation as well as simultaneous developments in analysis methodology has allowed the field of fast- and ultrafast time-resolved X-ray studies of solution-state systems to truly come of age. We here describe some aspects of ...

  5. Orbital Evolution Measurement of the Accreting Millisecond X-ray ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    accretion-powered millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1808.4–3658 using. X-ray data .... converts the photon arrival times to the solar system barycenter. ... applies all the known RXTE clock corrections and converts the photon arrival times.

  6. Calibration of hard x-ray (15 - 50 keV) optics at the MPE test facility PANTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuninger, Heinrich; Burkert, Wolfgang; Hartner, Gisela D.; Citterio, Oberto; Ghigo, Mauro; Mazzoleni, Francesco; Pareschi, Giovanni; Spiga, Daniele

    2004-02-01

    The Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE) in Garching, Germany, operates the large X-ray beam line facility PANTER for testing astronomical systems. At PANTER a number of telescopes like EXOSAT, ROSAT, SAX, JET-X, ABRIXAS, XMM and SWIFT operating in the soft energy range (0.02 - 15 keV) have been successfully calibrated. In the present paper we report on an important upgrade recently implemented that enables the calibration of hard X-ray optics (from 15 up to 50 keV). Currently hard X-ray optics based on single and multilayer coating are being developed for several future X-ray missions. The hard X-ray calibrations at PANTER are carried out by a high energy source based on an electron gun and several anodes, able to cover the energy range from 4.5 up to 50 keV. It provides fluxes up to 104 counts/sec/cm2 at the instrument chamber with a stability better than 1%. As detector a pn-CCD camera operating between 0.2 and 50 keV and a collecting area of 36 cm2 is used. Taking into account the high energy resolution of the CCD (145 eV at 6 keV), a very easy way to operate the facility in hard X-ray is in energy-dispersive mode (i.e. with a broad-band beam). A double crystal monochromator is also available providing energies up to 20 keV. In this paper we present the first results obtained by using PANTER for hard X-ray characterizations, performed on prototype multilayer optics developed by the Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera (OAB), Milano, Italy, and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA), Cambridge, MA, USA.

  7. Quality control measurements for digital x-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, N W [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals Leuven, 49 Herenstraat, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Mackenzie, A [National Co-ordinating Centre for the Physics of Mammography, Medical Physics, Level B, St Luke' s Wing, The Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Trust, Egerton Road, Guildford, GU2 7XX (United Kingdom); Honey, I D, E-mail: nicholas.marshall@uz.kuleuven.ac.be [Department of Medical Physics, Floor 3, Henriette Raphael House, Guy' s and St Thomas' Hospital, London, SE1 9RT (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-21

    This paper describes a digital radiography (DR) quality control protocol for DR detectors from the forthcoming report from the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM). The protocol was applied to a group of six identical caesium iodide (CsI) digital x-ray detectors to assess reproducibility of methods, while four further detectors were assessed to examine the wider applicability. Twelve images with minimal spatial frequency processing are required, from which the detector response, lag, modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and threshold contrast-detail (c-d) detectability are calculated. The x-ray spectrum used was 70 kV and 1 mm added copper filtration, with a target detector air kerma of 2.5 {mu}Gy for the NNPS and c-d results. In order to compare detector performance with previous imaging technology, c-d data from four screen/film systems were also acquired, at a target optical density of 1.5 and an average detector air kerma of 2.56 {mu}Gy. The DR detector images were typically acquired in 20 min, with a further 45 min required for image transfer and analysis. The average spatial frequency for the 50% point of the MTF for six identical detectors was 1.29 mm{sup -1} {+-} 0.05 (3.9% coefficient of variation (cov)). The air kerma set for the six systems was 2.57 {mu}Gy {+-} 0.13 (5.0% cov) and the NNPS at this air kerma was 1.42 x 10{sup -5} mm{sup 2} (6.5% cov). The detective quantum efficiency (DQE) measured for the six identical detectors was 0.60 at 0.5 mm{sup -1}, with a maximum cov of 10% at 2.9 mm{sup -1}, while the average DQE was 0.56 at 0.5 mm{sup -1} for three CsI detectors from three different manufacturers. Comparable c-d performance was found for these detectors (5.9% cov) with an average threshold contrast of 0.46% for 11 mm circular discs. The average threshold contrast for the S/F systems was 0.70% at 11 mm, indicating superior imaging performance for the digital systems. The protocol was found

  8. Depth-resolved X-ray residual stress analysis in PVD (Ti, Cr) N hard coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Genzel, C

    2003-01-01

    Physical vapour deposition (PVD) of thin hard coatings on TiN basis is usually performed at rather low temperatures (T sub D < 500 C) far from thermal equilibrium, which leads to high intrinsic residual stresses in the growing film. In contrast to the extrinsic thermal residual stresses which can easily be estimated from the difference of the coefficients of thermal expansion between the substrate and the coating, a theoretical prediction of the intrinsic residual stresses is difficult, because their amount as well as their distribution within the film depend in a very complex way on the deposition kinetics. By the example of strongly fibre-textured PVD (Ti, Cr)N coatings which have been prepared under defined variation of the deposition parameters in order to adjust the residual stress distribution within the coatings, the paper compares different X-ray diffraction techniques with respect to their applicability for detecting residual stresses which are non-uniform over the coating thickness. (orig.)

  9. Studies of the Hard X-ray Emission from the Filippov Type Plasma Focus Device, Dena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafreshi, M. A.; Saeedzadeh, E.

    2006-12-01

    This article is about the characteristics of the hard X-ray (HXR) emission from the Filippov type plasma focus (PF) device, Dena. The article begins with a brief presentation of Dena, and the mechanism of the HXR production in PF devices. Then using the differential absorption spectrometry, the energy resolved spectrum of the HXR emission from a 37 kJ discharge in Dena, is estimated. The energy flux density and the energy fluence of this emission have also been calculated to be 1.9 kJ cm-2 s-1 and 9.4 × 10-5 J cm-2. In the end, after presentation of radiography of sheep bones and calf ribs, the medical application of the PF devices has been discussed.

  10. Hard X-ray diffraction enhanced imaging only using two crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gang; WANG Nan; WU Ziyu

    2004-01-01

    Different configurations for the monochromator crystals and the analyzer crystals have been used in hard X-ray diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI) methods to overcome the complex task to adjust each of them to the ideal position. Here we present a very compact DEI configuration, and preliminary results of experiments performed at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) using only two crystals: the first one acting as monochromator and the second one as analyzer in the Bragg geometry. Refraction contrast images characterized by high contrast and spatial resolution are obtained and compared with absorption images. Differences among these images will be outlined and discussed emphasizing the potential capabilities of this very simple layout that guarantees a high transmission efficiency.

  11. Hard x-ray microimaging techniques based on phase zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, B.; Yun, W.B.; Legnini, D.; Xiao, Y.H.; Chrzas, J.

    1992-01-01

    Phase zone plates of high focusing efficiency and submicron resolution have been demonstrated in the hard x-ray region. A scanning microscope based on these focusing optics will create many new applications. Preliminary results in the applications of the microscope are reported here. In the area of imaging, we have utilized absorption contrast to clearly identify the locations of Au and Ni constituents in a sample of two interleaved grids. Micro-EXAFS spectra has also been obtained on a Ni foil. Fluorescence from a nuclear fuel sample, as an example of microanalysis, has revealed the elemental distribution at the interfaces. Lastly, microdiffraction from AgBr crystallites has been studied. 5 figs, 7 refs

  12. Hard X-ray emission from accretion shocks around galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Doron; Waxman, Eli

    2010-02-01

    We show that the hard X-ray (HXR) emission observed from several galaxy clusters is consistent with a simple model, in which the nonthermal emission is produced by inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons by electrons accelerated in cluster accretion shocks: The dependence of HXR surface brightness on cluster temperature is consistent with that predicted by the model, and the observed HXR luminosity is consistent with the fraction of shock thermal energy deposited in relativistic electrons being lesssim0.1. Alternative models, where the HXR emission is predicted to be correlated with the cluster thermal emission, are disfavored by the data. The implications of our predictions to future HXR observations (e.g. by NuStar, Simbol-X) and to (space/ground based) γ-ray observations (e.g. by Fermi, HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) are discussed.

  13. Hard X-ray emission from accretion shocks around galaxy clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushnir, Doron; Waxman, Eli, E-mail: doron.kushnir@weizmann.ac.il, E-mail: eli.waxman@weizmann.ac.il [Physics Faculty, Weizmann Institute of Science, PO Box 26, Rehovot (Israel)

    2010-02-01

    We show that the hard X-ray (HXR) emission observed from several galaxy clusters is consistent with a simple model, in which the nonthermal emission is produced by inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons by electrons accelerated in cluster accretion shocks: The dependence of HXR surface brightness on cluster temperature is consistent with that predicted by the model, and the observed HXR luminosity is consistent with the fraction of shock thermal energy deposited in relativistic electrons being ∼<0.1. Alternative models, where the HXR emission is predicted to be correlated with the cluster thermal emission, are disfavored by the data. The implications of our predictions to future HXR observations (e.g. by NuStar, Simbol-X) and to (space/ground based) γ-ray observations (e.g. by Fermi, HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) are discussed.

  14. Hard X-ray emission from accretion shocks around galaxy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushnir, Doron; Waxman, Eli

    2010-01-01

    We show that the hard X-ray (HXR) emission observed from several galaxy clusters is consistent with a simple model, in which the nonthermal emission is produced by inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons by electrons accelerated in cluster accretion shocks: The dependence of HXR surface brightness on cluster temperature is consistent with that predicted by the model, and the observed HXR luminosity is consistent with the fraction of shock thermal energy deposited in relativistic electrons being ∼<0.1. Alternative models, where the HXR emission is predicted to be correlated with the cluster thermal emission, are disfavored by the data. The implications of our predictions to future HXR observations (e.g. by NuStar, Simbol-X) and to (space/ground based) γ-ray observations (e.g. by Fermi, HESS, MAGIC, VERITAS) are discussed

  15. On the Origin of Hard X-ray Structures in the VELA Supernova Remnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvaramadze, V. V.

    1998-12-01

    We propose an alternative explanation for the origin of two hard X-ray structures recently discovered in the central part of the Vela supernova remnant (SNR) by Willmore et al. (1992, MNRAS, 254, 139) and Markwardt & Ogelman (1995, Nature, 375, 40; 1997, ApJ, 480, L13), and interpreted as a plerion and a pulsar jet respectively. We suggest that the first structure is a dense material shed by the supernova progenitor star during the red supergiant stage, and reheated after the supernova exploded, while the "jet" is simply a dense filament in the Vela SNR's general shell, whose origin is connected with the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the (main-sequence) wind-driven shell reaccelerated by the supernova blast wave.

  16. DUAL-STAGE RECONNECTION DURING SOLAR FLARES OBSERVED IN HARD X-RAY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yan; Jing Ju; Wang Haimin; Cao Wenda

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, we present hard X-ray (HXR) observation by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager of the 2003 October 29 X10 flare. Two pairs of HXR conjugate footpoints have been identified during the early impulsive phase. This geometric configuration is very much in the manner predicted by the 'tether-cutting' scenario first proposed by Moore and Roumeliotis. The HXR light curves show that the outer pair of footpoints disappeared much faster than the other pair. This temporal behavior further confirms that this event is a good example of the 'tether-cutting' model. In addition, we reconstructed a three-dimensional magnetic field based on the nonlinear force-free extrapolation and found that each pair of HXR footpoints were indeed linked by corresponding magnetic field lines.

  17. System for calibration of instruments of x-ray measurement (CIR-X) applying the PGCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaytan G, E.; Rivero G, T.; Cruz E, P.; Tovar M, V.M.; Vergara M, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Metrology of Ionizing Radiations of the ININ carries out calibration of instruments for X-ray measurement that determine the operation parameters in X-ray diagnostic machines of the health and private sectors. To facilitate this task, the Department of Automation and Instrumentation developed a system for acquisition and signals processing coming from a reference voltage divider with traceability at NIST that is connected directly to the X-rays tube. The system is integrated by the X-ray unit, the X-ray measurement equipment Dynalizer IIIU of RADCAL, a data acquisition card, a personal computer and the acquisition software and signals processing. (Author)

  18. Measurements of X ray absorbed doses to dental patients in two dental X ray units in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogundare, F.O.; Oni, O.M.; Balogun, F.A.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of absorbed doses from radiographic examinations to various anatomical sites in the head and neck of patients with an average age of 45 years using intra-oral dental radiography have been carried out. LiF (TLD-100) dosemeters were used for the measurements of the absorbed dose. The measured absorbed doses to the various anatomical sites in the two units are reported, discussed and compared with results from the literature. Quality control measurements were also performed using a Victoreen quality control test device on the X ray units. The tube voltage accuracies for the two units were found to be within acceptable limits (less than ±10%). On the other hand the exposure time accuracies for these units have large deviations (>20%). These results and those that have been reported in the literature may be an indication that high patient doses are common in most dental X ray centres and countries. As a result of this, regular compliance and performance checks of dental diagnostic X ray equipment are essential in order to ensure proper performance and to minimise unnecessary patient and operator doses. (author)

  19. Behavior of hard X-ray emission in discharges with current disruptions in the DAMAVAND and TVD tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farshi, E.; Amrollahy, R.; Bortnikov, A.V.; Brevnov, N.N.; Gott, Yu.V.; Shurygin, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    Results are presented from studies of the behavior of hard X-ray emission in discharges with current disruptions in the DAMAVAND and TVD tokamaks. The current disruptions are caused by either an MHD instability or the instability related to the vertical displacement of the plasma column. Experiments were conducted at a fixed value of the safety factor at the plasma boundary (q a ≅ 2.3). Experimental data show that, during a disruption caused by an MHD instability, hard X-ray emission is suppressed by this instability if the amplitude of the magnetic field fluctuations exceeds a certain level. If the disruption is caused by the instability related to the vertical displacement of the plasma column, then hard X-ray emission is observed at the instant of disruption. The experimental results show that the physical processes resulting in the generation and suppression of runaway electron beams are almost identical in large and small tokamaks

  20. Cosmic and solar gamma-ray x-ray and particle measurements from high altitude balloons in Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    For measurements of cosmic and solar gamma-rays, hard X-rays, and particles, Antarctica offers the potential for very long, 10--20 day, continuous, twenty-four-hour-a-day observations, with balloon flights circling the South Pole during austral summer. For X-ray/gamma-ray sources at high south latitude the overlying atmosphere is minimized, and for cosmic ray measurements the low geomagnetic cutoff permits entry of low rigidity particles. The first Antarctic flight of a heavy (∼2400 lb.) payload on a large (11.6x10 6 cu. ft.) balloon took place in January, 1988, to search for the gamma-ray lines of 56 Co produced in the new supernova SN 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The long duration balloon flights presently planned from Antarctica include those for further gamma-ray/hard X-ray studies of SN 1987A and for the NASA Max '91 program for solar flare studies

  1. Measuring Quasar Spin via X-ray Continuum Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Matthew; Pooley, David; Rappaport, Saul; Steiner, Jack

    2018-01-01

    We have identified several quasars whose X-ray spectra appear very soft. When fit with power-law models, the best-fit indices are greater than 3. This is very suggestive of thermal disk emission, indicating that the X-ray spectrum is dominated by the disk component. Galactic black hole binaries in such states have been successfully fit with disk-blackbody models to constrain the inner radius, which also constrains the spin of the black hole. We have fit those models to XMM-Newton spectra of several of our identified soft X-ray quasars to place constraints on the spins of the supermassive black holes.

  2. Comparison of three types of XPAD3.2/CdTe single chip hybrids for hard X-ray applications in material science and biomedical imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buton, C., E-mail: clement.buton@synchrotron-soleil.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L´Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin — BP 48 91192, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Dawiec, A. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L´Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin — BP 48 91192, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Graber-Bolis, J.; Arnaud, K. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Bérar, J.F.; Blanc, N.; Boudet, N. [Université Grenoble Alpes, Institut NÉEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); CNRS, Institut NÉEL, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Clémens, J.C.; Debarbieux, F. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Delpierre, P.; Dinkespiler, B. [imXPAD SAS — Espace Mistral, Athélia IV, 297 avenue du Mistral, 13600 La Ciotat (France); Gastaldi, T. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Hustache, S. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L´Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin — BP 48 91192, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Morel, C.; Pangaud, P. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Perez-Ponce, H. [imXPAD SAS — Espace Mistral, Athélia IV, 297 avenue du Mistral, 13600 La Ciotat (France); Vigeolas, E. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France)

    2014-09-11

    The CHIPSPECT consortium aims at building a large multi-modules CdTe based photon counting detector for hard X-ray applications. For this purpose, we tested nine XPAD3.2 single chip hybrids in various configurations (i.e. Ohmic vs. Schottky contacts or electrons vs. holes collection mode) in order to select the most performing and best suited configuration for our experimental requirements. Measurements have been done using both X-ray synchrotron beams and {sup 241}Am source. Preliminary results on the image quality, calibration, stability, homogeneity and linearity of the different types of detectors are presented.

  3. Measurement of X-ray attenuation coefficients around K-absorption edges using Fe Kα X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerur, B.R.; Thontadarya, S.R.; Hanumaiah, B.

    1993-01-01

    The x-ray mass attenuation coefficients were measured around the K-absorption edges of elements in the range 16 ≤ Z ≤ 30 using Fe Kα x-rays of energy 6.400 keV, which is the weighted average energy of Kα 1 and Kα 2 x-ray components from the 57 Co radioactive source. Kβ x-rays were almost eliminated by the differential absorption technique. The small difference in energy between Kα 1 and Kα 2 , 13 eV, was shown to be inconsequential by comparing the measured and theoretical values of μ/ρ for standard materials such as Al, Cu, Mo and Ta. The effect of fine structure of the K-absorption edge on μ/ρ was elucidated by using the compounds of elements in the range 16 ≤ X ≤ 30, containing one element with its K-absorption edge energy (E k ) close to the incident photon energy (E x ). The results clearly indicate the validity of the theoretical mixture rule for all those compounds whose K edge is far away from the incident energy but show deviations of as much as 10% for the manganese compound whose K edge is 140 eV above E x and about 12% for the chromium compound whose K edge is 410 eV below E x . These deviations are attributed to the possible influence of resonance Raman scattering when the incident photon energy E x is less than the edge and to the influence of EXAFS when E x is more than the edge energy. (Author)

  4. Development of the measurement system with interferometers for ultraprecise X-ray mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Yamauchi, K; Mimura, H

    2003-01-01

    A figure measurement system with a stitching method has been developed for evaluation and fabrication of the ultraprecise hard X-ray mirror optics. This system was constructed by two interferometers. One is the Michelson-type microscopic interferometer which is improved to keep the focus distance within 0.1 mu m. Another is the Fizeau's interferometer employed to compensate stitching error in the long spatial wavelength range. To estimate the absolute accuracy in this figure measurement system, the reflection X-ray intensity distributions of flat and aspherical mirrors, which are fabricated by us, were predicted by wave-optical simulation based on measured profile an compared with actually observed distributions. As the result, they are in good agreements. These agreements prove that the developed system has sub-nanometer absolute accuracy in all the spatial wavelength range longer than 0.5mm, because sub-nanometer figure error in those spatial wavelength ranges are known to affect reflection X-ray intensity ...

  5. Structure determination of a multilayer with an island-like overlayer using hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isomura, N., E-mail: isomura@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Kataoka, K.; Horibuchi, K.; Dohmae, K.; Kitazumi, K.; Takahashi, N.; Kimoto, Y. [Toyota Central R& D Laboratories, Inc., 41-1 Yokomichi, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Oji, H.; Cui, Y.-T.; Son, J.-Y. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    We use hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) to obtain the surface structure of a multilayer Au/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate sample with an island-like overlayer. Photoelectron intensities are measured as a function of incident photon energy (PE) and take-off angle (TOA, measured from the sample surface). The Au layer coverage and Au and SiO{sub 2} layer thicknesses are obtained by the PE dependence, and are used for the following TOA analysis. The Au island lateral width in the cross section is obtained by the TOA dependence, including information about surface roughness, in consideration of the island shadowing at small TOAs. In both cases, curve-fitting analysis is conducted. The surface structure, which consists of layer thicknesses, overlayer coverage and island width, is determined nondestructively by a combination of PE and TOA dependent HAXPES measurements.

  6. A study on the measurement of effective energy of leakage X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fijimoto, Nobuhisa; Oogama, Noboru; Nishitani, Motohiro; Yamada, Katsuhiko

    1997-01-01

    It is important to correct for the energy response of the X-ray detector in measuring X-ray leakage from the protective barrier of the examination room. However, measurement of effective energy of leakage X-rays is very difficult in the clinical setting. In this paper, we discuss a method for estimating the effective energy of both primary and scattered X-rays. This method is based on the measurement of leakage X-ray spectra using a semiconductor-fitted X-ray detector and analyzing the relationship between X-ray tube voltage and effective energy. In this study. we found that the effective energy of leakage X-rays was not dependent on the thickness of shielding materials like concrete and lead. With the concrete barrier, it was possible to express the relation-ship between X-ray tube voltage and the effective energy of leakage X-rays with a simple approximate equation. With the lead-lined barrier, the absorption of the K-edge of lead needs to be considered in estimating the effective energy of leakage X-rays at relatively high tube voltages. (author)

  7. Determination of electronic and atomic properties of surface, bulk and buried interfaces: Simultaneous combination of hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio-Zuazo, J., E-mail: rubio@esrf.fr [SpLine, Spanish CRG BM25 Beamline at the ESRF, ESRF, B.P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, ICMM, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Castro, G.R. [SpLine, Spanish CRG BM25 Beamline at the ESRF, ESRF, B.P. 220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, ICMM, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •We have developed a novel and exceptional tool for non-destructive characterization of bulk and buried interfaces that combine XRD and HAXPES. •We studied the correlation between the atomic, electronic and transport properties of oxygen deficient manganite thin films. •The diffraction data showed a cooperative tilt of the MnO{sub 6} block along the out-of-plane direction. •We shown the absence of the conventional basal plane rotation for the oxygen deficient samples. -- Abstract: Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) is a powerful novel emerging technique for bulk compositional, chemical and electronic properties determination in a non-destructive way. It benefits from the exceptionally large escape depth of high kinetic energy photoelectrons enabling the study of bulk and buried interfaces up to several tens of nanometres depth. Its advantage over conventional XPS is based on the long mean free path of high kinetic energetic photoelectrons. Using the advantage of tuneable X-ray radiation provided by synchrotron sources the photoelectron kinetic energy, i.e. the information depth can be changed and consequently electronic and compositional depth profiles can be obtained. The combination of HAXPES with an atomic structure sensitive technique, as X-ray diffraction, opens a new research field with great potential for many systems in which their electronic properties are intimately linked to their crystallographic structure. At SpLine, the Spanish CRG Beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) we have developed a novel and exceptional set-up that combine grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and HAXPES. Both techniques can be operated simultaneously on the same sample and using the same excitation source. The set-up includes a heavy 2S+3D diffractometer and UHV chamber equipped with an electrostatic analyzer. The UHV chamber has also MBE evaporation sources, an ion gun, a LEED optic, a sample heating and cooling

  8. Copper L X-ray spectra measured by a high resolution ion-induced X-ray spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Ryohei; Hamaguchi, Dai; Kageyama, Hiroyoshi [Kyoto Inst. of Tech. (Japan); and others

    1997-03-01

    High resolution L X-ray emission spectra of Cu have been measured by 0.75 MeV/u H, He, and F, 0.73 MeV/u Ar, 0.64 MeV/u Si, and 0.073 MeV/u Si ion impacts with a crystal spectrometer. The X-ray transition energies in the Cu target for L{iota}, L{eta}, L{alpha}{sub 1,2}, L{beta}{sub 1}, and L{beta}{sub 3,4} diagram lines induced by light ion impacts are determined, which are in good agreement with those given in the reference. The difference in L X-ray emission spectra produced by H, He, F, Si, and Ar ions are considered and the L{alpha}{sub 1,2} and L{beta}{sub 1} emission spectra are compared with the calculated ones based on the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method. (author)

  9. Layer thickness measurement using the X-ray fluorescence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengelkamp, B.

    1980-01-01

    Curium 244 having a gamma energy of about 15.5 keV is used as excitation emitter for contactless and continuous measuring of the thickness of metallic layers on iron strip. Soft gamma radiation is absorbed in matter according to the photo effect, so that X-ray fluorescence radiation is generated in the matter, which depends on the element and is radiated to all sides. For instance, it amounts for iron 6.4 keV and is measured with a specific ionisation chamber for this energy range. With increasing atomic number of the elements, the energy of fluorescence radiation increases and hence also the emission signal of the detector. The prerequisite for a usable measuring effect is an element distance of at least two and the thickness of the layer to be measured being in an optimum range. A signal dependent on the thickness of the layer is produced either by absorption of iron radiation (absorption method - aluminium and tin) or by build-up radiation of the material of the layer (emission method - zinc and lead). (orig./GSCH) [de

  10. Plasma heating in solar flares and their soft and hard X-ray emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falewicz, R.

    2014-01-01

    symmetric and there are no differences in the emissions originating from the feet of the flares loop and by relative simplicity of the applied numerical 1D code and procedures. No doubt a significant refinement of the applied numerical models and more sophisticated implementation of the various physical mechanisms involved are required to achieve a better agreement. Despite these problems, a collation of modeled results with observations shows that soft and hard X-ray emissions observed for analyzed single-loop-like events may be fully explained by electron-beam-driven evaporation only.

  11. Plasma Heating in Solar Flares and their Soft and Hard X-Ray Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falewicz, R.

    2014-07-01

    symmetric and there are no differences in the emissions originating from the feet of the flares loop and by relative simplicity of the applied numerical 1D code and procedures. No doubt a significant refinement of the applied numerical models and more sophisticated implementation of the various physical mechanisms involved are required to achieve a better agreement. Despite these problems, a collation of modeled results with observations shows that soft and hard X-ray emissions observed for analyzed single-loop-like events may be fully explained by electron-beam-driven evaporation only.

  12. A MODEL FOR THE CORRELATION OF HARD X-RAY INDEX WITH EDDINGTON RATIO IN BLACK HOLE X-RAY BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Erlin; Liu, B. F.

    2013-01-01

    Observations show that there is a positive correlation between the Eddington ratio λ and hard X-ray index Γ for λ ∼> 0.01, and there is an anti-correlation between λ and Γ for λ ∼ bol /L Edd ). In this work, we theoretically investigate the correlation between Γ and λ within the framework of a disk-corona model. We improve the model by taking into account all cooling processes, including synchrotron and self-Compton radiations in the corona, Comptonization of the soft photons from the underlying accretion disk, and the bremsstrahlung radiations. Presuming that the coronal flow above the disk can reach up to the 0.1 Eddington rate at the outer region, we calculate the structure of the two-phase accretion flows and the emergent spectra for accretion rates from 0.003 to 0.1. We find that at accretion rates larger than bsim0.01 Eddington rate, a fraction of coronal gas condenses into the disk and an inner disk can be sustained by condensation. In this case, the X-ray emission is dominated by the scattering of the soft photon from the underlying disk in the corona. The emission from the inner disk and corona can produce the positive correlation between λ and Γ. While at accretion rates lower than bsim0.01 Eddington accretion rate, the inner disk vanishes completely by evaporation, and the accretion is dominated by advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs), in which the X-ray emission is produced by the Comptonization of the synchrotron and bremsstrahlung photons of ADAF itself. The emission from ADAFs can produce the anti-correlation between λ and Γ. We show that our model can roughly explain the observed evolution of Γ 3-25keV with L 0.5-25keV /L Edd for the black hole X-ray transient H1743–322 in the decay of 2003 from the thermal-dominated state to low/hard state.

  13. Nanoscopium: a Scanning Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Beamline at Synchrotron Soleil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, A.; Polack, F.; Moreno, T.

    2010-06-01

    Nanoscopium is the single scanning hard X-ray nano-probe beamline planned at SOLEIL. This ˜155 m long beamline will fully exploit the high brilliance and coherence characteristics of the X-ray beam both for diffraction limited focusing and for contrast formation. It will offer the most advanced imaging techniques in multimodal mode and will be a research tool for a wide user community working in the fields of earth-, environmental-, and life-sciences. The different μ-μnano-probe techniques offered by the beamline will permit elemental mapping at trace (ppm) levels (scanning XRF), speciation mapping (XANES), phase gradient mapping (scanning differential phase contrast), and density-contrast based imaging of internal structures (coherent diffraction imaging) in the 30 nm to 1 μm spatial resolution range, also in "in situ conditions". Nanoscopium will cover the 5-20 keV energy range. The stability of the nanobeam will be ensured by horizontally reflecting beamline optics (a sagitally and a tangentially pre-focusing mirror, horizontally reflecting monochromators) in front of the overfilled secondary source. Trade-off between high energy resolution (ΔE/E˜10-4) and high flux (1011 ph/s with ΔE/E˜10-2) will be achieved by two interchangeable monochromators (a double crystal and a double multilayer one). KB mirror and FZP lenses will be used as focusing devices. The beamline is in the design and construction phase. It is foreseen to be open for users at the beginning of 2013.

  14. Caliste-SO, a CdTe based spectrometer for bright solar event observations in hard X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meuris, A., E-mail: aline.meuris@cea.fr [CEA-Irfu – CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Limousin, O.; Gevin, O.; Blondel, C.; Martignac, J. [CEA-Irfu – CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Vassal, M.-C.; Soufflet, F.; Fiant, N. [3D Plus – 408 rue Hélène Boucher, F-78532 Buc Cedex (France); Bednarzik, M.; Stutz, S. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Grimm, O.; Commichau, V. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Particle Physics, Schafmattstrasse 20, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    Caliste-SO is a CdTe hybrid detector designed to be used as a spectrometer for a hard X-ray Fourier telescope. The imaging technique was implemented in the Yohkoh satellite in 1991 and the RHESSI satellite in 2002 to achieve arc-second angular resolution images of solar flares with spectroscopic capabilities. The next generation of such instruments will be the Spectrometer Telescope Imaging X-rays (STIX) on-board the Solar Orbiter mission adopted by the European Space Agency in 2011 for launch in 2017. The design and performance of Caliste-SO allows both high spectral resolution and high count rate measurements from 4 to 150 keV with limited demands on spacecraft resources such as mass, power and volume (critical for interplanetary missions). The paper reports on the flight production of the Caliste-SO devices for STIX, describing the test facilities built-up in Switzerland and France. It illustrates some results obtained with the first production samples that will be mounted in the STIX engineering model.

  15. Evaluation of radiation tolerance of FETs used for Astro-E2 hard X-ray detector (HXD-II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Takeshi; Niko, Hisako; Kokubun, Motohide; Makishima, Kazuo; Kawaharada, Madoka; Takahashi, Isao; Miyasaka, Hiromasa

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the radiation tolerance of three types of metal-can MOS Field Effect Transistors (FETs). They are candidates for flight electronics of the Hard X-ray Detector (HXD-II) experiment which is onboard the cosmic X-ray satellite Astro-E2 scheduled for launch in 2005. We irradiated FETs with a Co60γ-ray source under several different experimental conditions, and measured changes in their I-V characteristic curves. After a 10krad irradiation during which the gate voltage is set at 0V, all types showed a decrease in the switching voltage by ∼0.2-0.4V. In addition, the gate conductance increased under some irradiation conditions. These experimental results may be explained in terms of trapped charges and boundary levels in the oxide layer beneath the gate electrode. We have confirmed that at least two types of FETs can be used in our satellite-borne experiment, one as relay-driving FETs and the other in TTL-ECL conversion circuits

  16. Enabling liquid solvent structure analysis using hard x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a transferrable microfluidic reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Feng; Yu, Xiao-Ying

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a vacuum compatible microfluidic device, system for analysis at the liquid vacuum interface, is integrated to hard x-ray absorption spectroscopy to obtain the local structure of K3[Fe(CN)6] in aqueous solutions with three concentrations of 0.5 M, 0.05 M, and 0.005 M. The solutions were sealed in a microchannel 500 µm wide and 300 µm deep in a portable microfluidic device. The Fe K-edge x-ray absorption spectra indicate a presence of Fe(III) in the complex in water, with an octahedral geometry coordinated with 6 C atoms in the first shell with a distance of ~1.92 Å and 6 N atoms in the second shell with a distance of ~3.10 Å. Varying the concentration has no observable influence on the structure of K3[Fe(CN)6]. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using microfluidic based liquid cells in large synchrotron facilities. Using portable microfludic reactors provides a viable approach to enable multifaceted measurements of liquids in the future.

  17. Enabling liquid solvent structure analysis using hard x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a transferrable microfluidic reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Feng; Yu, Xiao-Ying

    2018-04-11

    In this paper, a vacuum compatible microfluidic device, System for Analysis at the Liquid Vacuum Interface (SALVI), is integrated to hard x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to obtain the local structure of K3[Fe(CN)6] in aqueous solutions with three concentrations of 0.5 M, 0.05 M, and 0.005 M. The solutions were sealed in a microchannel of 500 μm wide and 300 µm deep in a portable microfluidic device. The Fe K-edge x-ray absorption spectra show that the complex in water is Fe(III). The complex is present with octahedral geometry coordinated with 6 C atoms in the first shell with a distance of ~1.92 Å and 6 N atoms in the second shell with a distance of ~3.10 Å. Varying the concentration has no observable influence on the structure of K3[Fe(CN)6]. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using microfluidic based liquid cells in large synchrotron facilities and it is a viable approach to enable multifaceted measurements of liquids in the future.

  18. A Shack-Hartmann Sensor for Single-Shot Multi-Contrast Imaging with Hard X-rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomy dos Santos Rolo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available An array of compound refractive X-ray lenses (CRL with 20 × 20 lenslets, a focal distance of 20cm and a visibility of 0.93 is presented. It can be used as a Shack-Hartmann sensor for hard X-rays (SHARX for wavefront sensing and permits for true single-shot multi-contrast imaging the dynamics of materials with a spatial resolution in the micrometer range, sensitivity on nanosized structures and temporal resolution on the microsecond scale. The object’s absorption and its induced wavefront shift can be assessed simultaneously together with information from diffraction channels. In contrast to the established Hartmann sensors the SHARX has an increased flux efficiency through focusing of the beam rather than blocking parts of it. We investigated the spatiotemporal behavior of a cavitation bubble induced by laser pulses. Furthermore, we validated the SHARX by measuring refraction angles of a single diamond CRL, where we obtained an angular resolution better than 4 μ rad.

  19. Measurement of scattered and transmitted X-rays from intra-oral and panoramic dental X-ray equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, John Richard

    2018-04-10

    To quantify the levels of transmitted radiation arising from the use of intra-oral dental X-ray equipment and scattered radiation arising from the use of both intra-oral and panoramic X-ray equipment. Methods: Levels of scattered radiation were measured at 1 m from a phantom, using an 1800 cc ion chamber. Transmitted radiation was measured using both: i) a phantom and Dose Area Product (DAP) meter, ii) a patient and an 1800 cc ion chamber. Results: For intra-oral radiography the patient study gave a maximum transmission of 1.80% (range 0.04% to 1.80%, mean 0.26%) and the phantom study gave a maximum transmission of 6% (range 2% to 6%, mean 5%). The maximum scattered radiation, per unit DAP, was 5.5 nGy (mGy cm2)-1 at 70 kVp and a distance of 1 m. For panoramic radiography the maximum scattered radiation was 9.3 nGy (mGy cm2)-1 at 80 kVp and a distance of 1 m. Conclusions: Typical doses from scattered and transmitted radiation in modern dental practice have been measured and values are presented to enable the calculation of adequate protection measures for dental radiography rooms. Advances in knowledge: Previous studies have used a phantom and measured radiation doses at 1 m from the phantom to determine the radiation dose transmitted through a patient, whereas this study uses both patient and phantom measurements together with a large area dose meter, positioned to capture the entire X-ray beam, to ensure more realistic dose measurements can be made. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  20. The detection of hard x-rays (10-140 KeV) by channel plate electron multipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.

    1976-12-01

    Results are presented indicating that hard X-rays in the energy range 10 to 50 keV can be detected with good efficiency (5 to 10%) in channel plate electron multipliers (CPEM). From 50 keV to 140 keV the detection efficiency lies in the range 1 to 2%. A simple physical model is developed which indicates that not only can good detection efficiency be obtained but that very good X-ray imaging is possible. The model predicts that with further development, a wideband, hard X-ray detector can be realised with a detection efficiency in the range 5 to 20% and spatial response better than 10 lp/mm in the energy range 10 to 140 keV. (author)

  1. Modelling properties of hard x-rays generated by the interaction between relativistic electrons and very intense laser beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, Alexandru

    2009-01-01

    In a previous paper we presented a calculation model for high harmonic generation by relativistic Thomson scattering of the electromagnetic radiation by free electrons. In this paper we present a similar model for the calculation of the energies of hard x-rays (20- 200 keV) resulted from the interaction between relativistic electrons (20-100 MeV) and very intense laser beams. Starting from the relativistic equations of motion of an electron in the electromagnetic field we show that the Lienard-Wiechert equation leads to electromagnetic waves whose frequencies are in the domain of hard x-rays. When the relativistic parameter of the laser beam is greater than unity, the model predicts the existence of harmonics of the above frequencies. Our theoretical values are in good agreement with experimental values of the x-ray energies from the literature and predict accurately their angular distribution.

  2. Ultrashort hard x-ray pulses generated by 90 degrees Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, A.H.; Schoenlein, R.W.; Glover, T.E.

    1997-01-01

    Ultrashort x-ray pulses permit observation of fast structural dynamics in a variety of condensed matter systems. The authors have generated 300 femtosecond, 30 keV x-ray pulses by 90 degrees Thomson scattering between femtosecond laser pulses and relativistic electrons. The x-ray and laser pulses are synchronized on a femtosecond time scale, an important prerequisite for ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy. Analysis of the x-ray beam properties also allows for electron bunch characterization on a femtosecond time scale

  3. Spatial and temporal structures of impulsive bursts from solar flares observed in UV and hard X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C.-C.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Bruner, E. C.; Orwig, L.; Frost, K. J.; Kenny, P. J.; Woodgate, B. E.; Shine, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    New observations are presented of impulsive UV and hard X-rays bursts in two solar flares obtained with instruments on Solar Maximum Mission. The UV bursts were observed in the Si IV and O IV emission lines, whose intensity ratio is density-sensitive. By comparing the spatially resolved Si IV/O IV observations with the corresponding hard X-ray observations, it is possible to study their spatial and temporal relationships. For one flare, the individual component spikes in the multiply peaked hard X-ray burst can be identified with different discrete Si IV/O IV flaring kernels of size 4 arcsec x 4 arcsec or smaller, which brighten up sequentially in time. For the other, many Si IV/O kernels, widely distributed over a large area, show impulsive bursts at the same time, which correlate with the main peak of the impulsive hard X-ray burst. The density of the flaring Si IV/O IV kernels is in the range from 5 x 10 to the 12th-13th/cu cm.

  4. Design of the data management system for hard X-ray modulation telescope based on real-time Linux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Tao; Zhang Zhi

    2004-01-01

    Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope is an electronic subsystem, the data management system for capturing the data of the telescope, then managing and transferring them. The data management system also deals with the communication with the satellite. Because of these functions, it needs highly steady quality and good real-time performance. This paper describes the design of the system. (authors)

  5. Transition radiation in metal-metal multilayer nanostructures as a medical source of hard x-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokrovsky, A. L.; Kaplan, A. E.; Shkolnikov, P. L.

    2006-01-01

    We show that a periodic metal-metal multilayer nanostructure can serve as an efficient source of hard x-ray transition radiation. Our research effort is aimed at developing an x-ray source for medical applications, which is based on using low-energy relativistic electrons. The approach toward choosing radiator-spacer couples for the generation of hard x-ray resonant transition radiation by few-MeV electrons traversing solid multilayer structures for the energies of interest to medicine (30-50 keV) changes dramatically compared with that for soft x-ray radiation. We show that one of the main factors in achieving the required resonant line is the absence of the contrast of the refractive indices between the spacer and the radiator at the far wings of the radiation line; for that purpose, the optimal spacer, as a rule, should have a higher atomic number than the radiator. Having experimental goals in mind, we have considered also the unwanted effects due to bremsstrahlung radiation, absorption and scattering of radiated photons, detector-related issues, and inhibited coherence of transition radiation due to random deviation of spacing between the layers. Choosing as a model example a Mo-Ag radiator-spacer pair of materials, we demonstrate that the x-ray transition radiation line can be well resolved with the use of spatial and frequency filtering

  6. Hard-x-ray phase-imaging microscopy using the self-imaging phenomenon of a transmission grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashiro, Wataru; Harasse, Sebastien; Momose, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2010-01-01

    We report on a hard-x-ray imaging microscope consisting of a lens, a sample, and a transmission grating. After the theoretical framework of self-imaging phenomenon by the grating in the system is presented, equations for the electric field on the image plane are derived for ideal and real lenses and an equation for the intensity on the image plane for partially coherent illumination is derived. The equations are simple and similar to those applying to a projection microscope consisting of a transmission grating except that there is no defocusing effect, regardless of whether the grating is in front of or behind the lens. This means that x-ray phase-imaging microscopy can be done without the defocusing effect. It is also shown that, by resolving the self-image on the image plane, high-sensitive x-ray phase-imaging microscopy can be attained without degradation in the spatial resolution due to diffraction by the grating. Experimental results obtained using partially coherent illumination from a synchrotron x-ray source confirm that hard-x-ray phase-imaging microscopy can be quantitatively performed with high sensitivity and without the spatial resolution degradation.

  7. Comptonization of low-frequency radiation in accretion disks Angular distribution and polarization of hard X-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suniaev, R.A.; Titarchuk, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    Analytical consideration is given to the comptonization of photons and its effects on the radiation emitted from accretion disks of compact X-ray sources, such as black holes and neutron stars. Attention is given to the photon distribution during escape from the disk, the angular distribution of hard radiation from the disk, the polarization of hard radiation and the electron temperature distribution over the optical depth. It is shown that the hard radiation spectrum is independent of the low-frequency photon source distribution. The angular distribution and polarization of the outgoing X-rays are a function of the optical depth. A Thomson approximation is used to estimate the angular distribution of the hard radiation and the polarization over the disk. The polarization results are compared with OSO-8 satellite data for Cyg X-1 and show good agreement at several energy levels. 17 references

  8. Characterization of a pulsed x-ray source for fluorescent lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankespoor, S.C.; Derenzo, S.E.; Moses, W.W.; Rossington, C.S.; Ito, M.; Oba, K.

    1994-01-01

    To search for new, fast, inorganic scintillators, the authors have developed a bench-top pulsed x-ray source for determining fluorescent lifetimes and wavelengths of compounds in crystal or powdered form. This source uses a light-excited x-ray tube which produces x-rays when light from a laser diode strikes its photocathode. The x-ray tube has a tungsten anode, a beryllium exit window, a 30 kV maximum tube bias, and a 50 μA maximum average cathode current. The laser produces 3 x 10 7 photons at 650 nm per ∼100 ps pulse, with up to 10 7 pulses/sec. The time spread for the laser diode, x-ray tube, and a microchannel plate photomultiplier tube is less than 120 ps fwhm. The mean x-ray energy at tube biases of 20, 25, and 30 kV is 9.4, 10.3, and 11.1 keV, respectively. The authors measured 140, 230, and 330 x-ray photons per laser diode pulse per steradian, at tube biases of 20, 25, and 30 kV, respectively. Background x-rays due to dark current occur at a rate of 1 x 10 6 and 3 x 10 6 photons/sec/steradian at biases of 25 and 30 kV, respectively. Data characterizing the x-ray output with an aluminum filter in the x-ray beam are also presented

  9. Calibration of the Gamma-RAy Polarimeter Experiment (GRAPE) at a polarized hard X-ray beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloser, P.F.; Legere, J.S.; McConnell, M.L.; Macri, J.R.; Bancroft, C.M.; Connor, T.P.; Ryan, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The Gamma-RAy Polarimeter Experiment (GRAPE) is a concept for an astronomical hard X-ray Compton polarimeter operating in the 50-500 keV energy band. The instrument has been optimized for wide-field polarization measurements of transient outbursts from energetic astrophysical objects such as gamma-ray bursts and solar flares. The GRAPE instrument is composed of identical modules, each of which consists of an array of scintillator elements read out by a multi-anode photomultiplier tube (MAPMT). Incident photons Compton scatter in plastic scintillator elements and are subsequently absorbed in inorganic scintillator elements; a net polarization signal is revealed by a characteristic asymmetry in the azimuthal scattering angles. We have constructed a prototype GRAPE module containing a single CsI(Na) calorimeter element, at the center of the MAPMT, surrounded by 60 plastic elements. The prototype has been combined with custom readout electronics and software to create a complete 'engineering model' of the GRAPE instrument. This engineering model has been calibrated using a nearly 100% polarized hard X-ray beam at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. We find modulation factors of 0.46±0.06 and 0.48±0.03 at 69.5 and 129.5 keV, respectively, in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we present details of the beam test, data analysis, and simulations, and discuss the implications of our results for the further development of the GRAPE concept.

  10. LAMBDA 2M GaAs—A multi-megapixel hard X-ray detector for synchrotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennicard, D.; Smoljanin, S.; Pithan, F.; Sarajlic, M.; Rothkirch, A.; Yu, Y.; Liermann, H. P.; Morgenroth, W.; Winkler, B.; Jenei, Z.; Stawitz, H.; Becker, J.; Graafsma, H.

    2018-01-01

    Synchrotrons can provide very intense and focused X-ray beams, which can be used to study the structure of matter down to the atomic scale. In many experiments, the quality of the results depends strongly on detector performance; in particular, experiments studying dynamics of samples require fast, sensitive X-ray detectors. "LAMBDA" is a photon-counting hybrid pixel detector system for experiments at synchrotrons, based on the Medipix3 readout chip. Its main features are a combination of comparatively small pixel size (55 μm), high readout speed at up to 2000 frames per second with no time gap between images, a large tileable module design, and compatibility with high-Z sensors for efficient detection of higher X-ray energies. A large LAMBDA system for hard X-ray detection has been built using Cr-compensated GaAs as a sensor material. The system is composed of 6 GaAs tiles, each of 768 by 512 pixels, giving a system with approximately 2 megapixels and an area of 8.5 by 8.5 cm2. While the sensor uniformity of GaAs is not as high as that of silicon, its behaviour is stable over time, and it is possible to correct nonuniformities effectively by postprocessing of images. By using multiple 10 Gigabit Ethernet data links, the system can be read out at the full speed of 2000 frames per second. The system has been used in hard X-ray diffraction experiments studying the structure of samples under extreme pressure in diamond anvil cells. These experiments can provide insight into geological processes. Thanks to the combination of high speed readout, large area and high sensitivity to hard X-rays, it is possible to obtain previously unattainable information in these experiments about atomic-scale structure on a millisecond timescale during rapid changes of pressure or temperature.

  11. Measurement of grain size of polycrystalline materials with confocal energy dispersive micro-X-ray diffraction technology based on polycapillary X-ray optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Weiyuan; Liu, Zhiguo [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Sun, Tianxi, E-mail: stx@bnu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Peng, Song [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Ma, Yongzhong [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Beijing, Beijing 100013 (China); Li, Fangzuo; Sun, Xuepeng; Ding, Xunliang [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2014-11-11

    The confocal energy dispersive micro-X-ray diffraction (EDMXRD) based on polycapillary X-ray optics was used to determine the grain size of polycrystalline materials. The grain size of a metallographic specimen of nickel base alloy was measured by using the confocal EDMXRD. The experimental results demonstrated that the confocal EDMXRD had potential applications in measuring large grain size.

  12. Measurement of spherical compound refractive X-ray lens at ANKA synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudchik, Yu.I.; Simon, R.; Baumbach, T.

    2007-01-01

    Parameters of compound refractive X-ray lens were measured at ANKA synchrotron radiation source. The lens consists of 224 spherical concave epoxy microlenses formed inside glass capillary. The curvature radius of individual microlens is equal to 100 microns. Measured were: X-ray focal spot, lens focal length and gain in intensity. The energy of X-ray beam was equal to 12 keV and 14 keV. It is shown that when X-ray lens is used, the gain in intensity of the X-ray beam in some cases may exceed value of 100. Tested lens is suitable to focus X-rays into, at least, 2-microns in size spot. (authors)

  13. Manufacturing method for hard x-ray focusing mirrors with ellipsoidal surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumoto, Hirokatsu; Koyama, Takahisa; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to establishing the manufacturing method for hard x-ray nano-focusing mirrors with ellipsoidal surface. Ellipsoidal mirror optics, which can produce point focus with a mirror, has a noticeable feature of a high focusing efficiency, although an ultra-precise surface figure with an accuracy of a few nanometers is required for nano-focusing mirrors. Here, we examined the effectiveness of the manufacturing process for ellipsoidal mirrors, which is consisted of a precision grinding process, a removal process of surface roughness, and a computer-controlled shape correction. The precision processing machine for both a removal of surface roughness and a shape correction was developed. This validated the utility of removing surface roughness with a spatial wavelength of 40 μm, which is the tool mark of the grinding process. The developed process achieved the improvement of surface roughness from 1.6 nm to 0.1 nm (RMS), and the figure correction with a high accuracy of < 10 nm and a spatial resolution of < 2 mm. (author)

  14. An XMM-Newton study of the hard X-ray sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piconcelli, E.; Cappi, M.; Bassani, L.; Di Cocco, G.; Dadina, M.

    2003-12-01

    We report on the spectral properties of a sample of 90 hard X-ray selected serendipitous sources detected in 12 XMM-Newton observations with 1 law modified by Galactic absorption offers an acceptable fit to ~ 65% of the source spectra. This fit yields an average photon index of ≈ 1.55 over the whole sample. We also find that the mean slope of the QSOs in our sample turns out to remain nearly constant ( (≈ 1.8-1.9) between 0 1022 cm-2) is ~ 30%, with little evolution in the range 2 <≈ F2-10˜< 80 x 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1. Interestingly, this value is a factor ~ 2 lower than predicted by the synthesis models of the CXB. This finding, detected for the first time in this survey, therefore suggests that most of the heavily obscured objects which make up the bulk of the CXB will be found at lower fluxes (F2-10< 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1). This mismatch together with other recent observational evidences which contrast with CXB model predictions suggest that one (or more) of the assumptions usually included in these models need to be revised.

  15. Prospects for CW and LP operation of the European XFEL in hard X-ray regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkmann, R.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Sekutowicz, J.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2014-03-01

    The European XFEL will operate nominally at 17.5 GeV in SP (short pulse) mode with 0.65 ms long bunch train and 10 Hz repetition rate. A possible upgrade of the linac to CW (continuous wave) or LP (long pulse) modes with a corresponding reduction of electron beam energy is under discussion since many years. Recent successes in the dedicated R and D program allow to forecast a technical feasibility of such an upgrade in the foreseeable future. One of the challenges is to provide sub-Aangstrom FEL operation in CW and LP modes. In this paper we perform a preliminary analysis of a possible operation of the European XFEL in the hard X-ray regime in CW and LP modes with the energies of 7 GeV and 10 GeV, respectively. We consider lasing in the baseline XFEL undulator as well as in a new undulator with a reduced period. We show that, with reasonable requirements on electron beam quality, lasing on the fundamental will be possible in sub-Aangstrom regime. As an option for generation of brilliant photon beams at short wavelengths we also consider harmonic lasing that has recently attracted a significant attention.

  16. Risetime discrimination applied to pressurized Xe gas proportional counter for hard x-ray detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Masami; Doi, Kosei

    1978-01-01

    A high pressure Xe proportional counter has been developed for hard X-ray observation. This counter has better energy-resolving power than a NaI scintillation counter, and the realization of large area is relatively easy. This counter is constructed with a cylindrical aluminum tube, and this tube can be used at 40 atmospheric pressure. The detection efficiency curves were obtained in relation to gas pressure. It is necessary to reduce impurities in the Xe gas to increase the energy-resolving power of the counter. The increase of gas pressure made the resolving power worse. The characteristics of the counter were stable for at least a few months. The wave form discrimination was applied to reduce the background signals such as pulses caused by charged particles and gamma-ray. This method has been used for normal pressure counter, and in the present study, it was applied for the high pressure counter. It was found that the discrimination method was able to be applied to this case. (Kato, T.)

  17. Quantitative hard x-ray phase contrast imaging of micropipes in SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohn, V. G.; Argunova, T. S.; Je, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Peculiarities of quantitative hard x-ray phase contrast imaging of micropipes in SiC are discussed. The micropipe is assumed as a hollow cylinder with an elliptical cross section. The major and minor diameters can be restored using the least square fitting procedure by comparing the experimental data, i.e. the profile across the micropipe axis, with those calculated based on phase contrast theory. It is shown that one projection image gives an information which does not allow a complete determination of the elliptical cross section, if an orientation of micropipe is not known. Another problem is a weak accuracy in estimating the diameters, partly because of using pink synchrotron radiation, which is necessary because a monochromatic beam intensity is not sufficient to reveal the weak contrast from a very small object. The general problems of accuracy in estimating the two diameters using the least square procedure are discussed. Two experimental examples are considered to demonstrate small as well as modest accuracies in estimating the diameters

  18. Distributed seeding for narrow-line width hard x-ray free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Anisimov, Petr Mikhaylovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Buechler, Cynthia Eileen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lewellen, IV, John W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Marksteiner, Quinn R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-09

    We describe a new FEL line-narrowing technique called distributed seeding (DS), using Si(111) Bragg crystal monochromators to enhance the spectral brightness of the MaRIE hard X-ray freeelectron laser. DS differs from self-seeding in three important aspects. First, DS relies on spectral filtering of the radiation at multiple locations along the undulator, with a monochromator located every few power gain lengths. Second, DS performs filtering early in the exponential gain region before SASE spikes start to appear in the radiation longitudinal profile. Third, DS provides the option to select a wavelength longer than the peak of the SASE gain curve, which leads to improved spectral contrast of the seeded FEL over the SASE background. Timedependent Genesis simulations show the power-vs-z growth curves for DS exhibit behaviors of a seeded FEL amplifier, such as exponential growth region immediately after the filters. Of the seeding approaches considered, the two-stage DS spectra produce the highest contrast of seeded FEL over the SASE background and that the three-stage DS provides the narrowest linewidth with a relative spectral FWHM of 8 X 10-5 .

  19. In-flight PSF calibration of the NuSTAR hard X-ray optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Hongjun; Madsen, Kristin K.; Westergaard, Niels J.

    2014-01-01

    We present results of the point spread function (PSF) calibration of the hard X-ray optics of the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). Immediately post-launch, NuSTAR has observed bright point sources such as Cyg X-1, Vela X-1, and Her X-1 for the PSF calibration. We use the point source...... observations taken at several off-axis angles together with a ray-trace model to characterize the in-orbit angular response, and find that the ray-trace model alone does not fit the observed event distributions and applying empirical corrections to the ray-trace model improves the fit significantly. We...... describe the corrections applied to the ray-trace model and show that the uncertainties in the enclosed energy fraction (EEF) of the new PSF model is less than or similar to 3 for extraction apertures of R greater than or similar to 60" with no significant energy dependence. We also show that the PSF...

  20. Caliste 64, an innovative CdTe hard X-ray micro-camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meuris, A.; Limousin, O.; Pinsard, F.; Le Mer, I.; Lugiez, F.; Gevin, O.; Delagnes, E.; Vassal, M.C.; Soufflet, F.; Bocage, R.

    2008-01-01

    A prototype 64 pixel miniature camera has been designed and tested for the Simbol-X hard X-ray observatory to be flown on the joint CNES-ASI space mission in 2014. This device is called Caliste 64. It is a high performance spectro-imager with event time-tagging capability, able to detect photons between 2 keV and 250 keV. Caliste 64 is the assembly of a 1 or 2 min thick CdTe detector mounted on top of a readout module. CdTe detectors equipped with Aluminum Schottky barrier contacts are used because of their very low dark current and excellent spectroscopic performance. Front-end electronics is a stack of four IDeF-X V1.1 ASICs, arranged perpendicular to the detection plane, to read out each pixel independently. The whole camera fits in a 10 * 10 * 20 mm 3 volume and is juxtaposable on its four sides. This allows the device to be used as an elementary unit in a larger array of Caliste 64 cameras. Noise performance resulted in an ENC better than 60 electrons rms in average. The first prototype camera is tested at -10 degrees C with a bias of -400 V. The spectrum summed across the 64 pixels results in a resolution of 697 eV FWHM at 13.9 keV and 808 eV FWFM at 59.54 keV. (authors)

  1. Micro Hard-X Ray Camera: From Caliste 64 to Caliste 256

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meuris, A.; Limousin, O.; Le Mer, I.; Pinsard, F.; Blondel, C.; Daly, F.; Lugiez, F.; Gevin, O.; Delagnes, E.; Chavassieux, M.; Vassal, M.C.; Bocage, R.; Soufflet, F.

    2009-01-01

    Caliste project aims at hybridizing 1 cm 2 Cd(Zn)Te detectors with low noise front-end electronics, in a single component standing in a 1 * 1 * 2 cm 3 volume. The micro-camera is a spectroscopic imager for X and gamma rays detection, with time-tagging capability. Hybridization consists in stacking full custom ASICs perpendicular to the detection surface. The first prototype Caliste 64 integrates a detector of 8 * 8 pixels of 1 mm pitch. Fabrication and characterizations of nine cameras units validate the design and the hybridization concept. Spectroscopic tests result in a mean energy resolution of ∼0.7 keV FWHM at 14 keV and ∼0.85 keV FWHM at 60 keV using 1 mm-thick Al Schottky CdTe detectors biased at -400 V and cooled down to 15 degrees C. The new prototype called Caliste 256 integrates 16 * 16 pixels of 580 m pitch in the same volume as Caliste 64. Electrical tests with the first sample fabricated without detector result in a mean equivalent noise charge of 64e - rms (9.6 μs, no leakage current). Caliste devices are 4-side buttable and can be used as elementary detection units of a large hard X-ray focal plane, as for the 64 cm 2 high energy detector of the Simbol-X astronomical space mission. (authors)

  2. Caliste 64, an innovative CdTe hard X-ray micro-camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meuris, A.; Limousin, O.; Pinsard, F.; Le Mer, I. [CEA Saclay, DSM, DAPNIA, Serv. Astrophys., F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Lugiez, F.; Gevin, O.; Delagnes, E. [CEA Saclay, DSM, DAPNIA, Serv. Electron., F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Vassal, M.C.; Soufflet, F.; Bocage, R. [3D-plus Company, F-78532 Buc (France)

    2008-07-01

    A prototype 64 pixel miniature camera has been designed and tested for the Simbol-X hard X-ray observatory to be flown on the joint CNES-ASI space mission in 2014. This device is called Caliste 64. It is a high performance spectro-imager with event time-tagging capability, able to detect photons between 2 keV and 250 keV. Caliste 64 is the assembly of a 1 or 2 min thick CdTe detector mounted on top of a readout module. CdTe detectors equipped with Aluminum Schottky barrier contacts are used because of their very low dark current and excellent spectroscopic performance. Front-end electronics is a stack of four IDeF-X V1.1 ASICs, arranged perpendicular to the detection plane, to read out each pixel independently. The whole camera fits in a 10 * 10 * 20 mm{sup 3} volume and is juxtaposable on its four sides. This allows the device to be used as an elementary unit in a larger array of Caliste 64 cameras. Noise performance resulted in an ENC better than 60 electrons rms in average. The first prototype camera is tested at -10 degrees C with a bias of -400 V. The spectrum summed across the 64 pixels results in a resolution of 697 eV FWHM at 13.9 keV and 808 eV FWFM at 59.54 keV. (authors)

  3. Prospects for CW and LP operation of the European XFEL in hard X-ray regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmann, R.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Sekutowicz, J.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2014-03-15

    The European XFEL will operate nominally at 17.5 GeV in SP (short pulse) mode with 0.65 ms long bunch train and 10 Hz repetition rate. A possible upgrade of the linac to CW (continuous wave) or LP (long pulse) modes with a corresponding reduction of electron beam energy is under discussion since many years. Recent successes in the dedicated R and D program allow to forecast a technical feasibility of such an upgrade in the foreseeable future. One of the challenges is to provide sub-Aangstrom FEL operation in CW and LP modes. In this paper we perform a preliminary analysis of a possible operation of the European XFEL in the hard X-ray regime in CW and LP modes with the energies of 7 GeV and 10 GeV, respectively. We consider lasing in the baseline XFEL undulator as well as in a new undulator with a reduced period. We show that, with reasonable requirements on electron beam quality, lasing on the fundamental will be possible in sub-Aangstrom regime. As an option for generation of brilliant photon beams at short wavelengths we also consider harmonic lasing that has recently attracted a significant attention.

  4. Confinement of hot, hard x-ray producing electrons in solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.F.; Lilliequist, C.G.

    1979-01-01

    Possible thermal models for solar, hard X-ray emission, consisting of small volumes in which the electrons are rapidly heated to 4 x 10 8 K, are examined to determine under what conditions such models can be more efficient than nonthermal models. The primary energy-loss mechanism in these models is source expansion due to heat conduction which deviates from its classical value by mechanisms which are reviewed and systematized. One such mechanism is saturation of the heat flux at its maximum possible value, corresponding to direct convection by electrons. Another mechanism is anomalous limitation of the heat flux due to instability of the return current which must compensate the electron current carrying the heat. A simple, one-dimensional model in which a section of the flux tube of constant density is heated to 4 x 10 8 K is analyzed. A conduction front, determined by the above collisionless process, moves along the flux tube at the head of the expanding source. A more realistic, one-dimensional, one-fluid, two-temperature model with a spatially and temporally varying energy source which delivers energy to the electrons at a finite rate is formulated and solved numerically. This results in some ion heating and mass motions which, by themselves, represent only a small energy loss. However, because of changes in the anomalous limitation of the heat flux with higher ion temperature, the expansion losses increase considerably

  5. HARD X-RAY ASYMMETRY LIMITS IN SOLAR FLARE CONJUGATE FOOTPOINTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daou, Antoun G.; Alexander, David, E-mail: agdaou@rice.edu, E-mail: dalex@rice.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, MS 108, Houston, TX, 77005 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    The transport of energetic electrons in a solar flare is modeled using a time-dependent one-dimensional Fokker–Planck code that incorporates asymmetric magnetic convergence. We derive the temporal and spectral evolution of the resulting hard X-ray (HXR) emission in the conjugate chromospheric footpoints, assuming thick target photon production, and characterize the time evolution of the numerically simulated footpoint asymmetry and its relationship to the photospheric magnetic configuration. The thick target HXR asymmetry in the conjugate footpoints is found to increase with magnetic field ratio as expected. However, we find that the footpoint HXR asymmetry saturates for conjugate footpoint magnetic field ratios ≥4. This result is borne out in a direct comparison with observations of 44 double-footpoint flares. The presence of such a limit has not been reported before, and may serve as both a theoretical and observational benchmark for testing a range of particle transport and flare morphology constraints, particularly as a means to differentiate between isotropic and anisotropic particle injection.

  6. Design optimization of ultra-precise elliptical mirrors for hard x-ray nanofocusing at Nanoscopium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kewish, Cameron M.; Polack, François; Signorato, Riccardo; Somogyi, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    The design and implementation of a pair of 100 mm-long grazing-incidence total-reflection mirrors for the hard X-ray beamline Nanoscopium at Synchrotron Soleil is presented. A vertically and horizontally nanofocusing mirror pair, oriented in Kirkpatrick-Baez geometry, has been designed and fabricated with the aim of creating a diffraction-limited high-intensity 5 - 20 keV beam with a focal spot size as small as 50 nm. We describe the design considerations, including wave-optical calculations of figures-of-merit that are relevant for spectromicroscopy, such as the focal spot size, depth of field and integrated intensity. The mechanical positioning tolerance in the pitch angle that is required to avoid introducing high-intensity features in the neighborhood of the focal spot is demonstrated with simulations to be of the order of microradians, becoming tighter for shorter focal lengths and therefore directly affecting all nanoprobe mirror systems. Metrology results for the completed mirrors are presented, showing that better than 1.5 °A-rms figure error has been achieved over the full mirror lengths with respect to the designed elliptical surfaces, with less than 60 nrad-rms slope errors.

  7. Nonlinear approaches for phase retrieval in the Fresnel region for hard X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidoiu, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    The development of highly coherent X-ray sources offers new possibilities to image biological structures at different scales exploiting the refraction of X-rays. The coherence properties of the third-generation synchrotron radiation sources enables efficient implementations of phase contrast techniques. One of the first measurements of the intensity variations due to phase contrast has been reported in 1995 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). Phase imaging coupled to tomography acquisition allows three dimensional imaging with an increased sensitivity compared to absorption CT. This technique is particularly attractive to image samples with low absorption constituents. Phase contrast has many applications, ranging from material science, paleontology, bone research to medicine and biology. Several methods to achieve X-ray phase contrast have been proposed during the last years. In propagation based phase contrast, the measurements are made at different sample-to-detector distances. While the intensity data can be acquired and recorded, the phase information of the signal has to be 'retrieved' from the modulus data only. Phase retrieval is thus an ill-posed nonlinear problem and regularization techniques including a priori knowledge are necessary to obtain stable solutions. Several phase recovery methods have been developed in recent years. These approaches generally formulate the phase retrieval problem as a linear one. Nonlinear treatments have not been much investigated. The main purpose of this work was to propose and evaluate new algorithms, in particularly taking into account the nonlinearity of the direct problem. In the first part of this work, we present a Landweber type nonlinear iterative scheme to solve the propagation based phase retrieval problem. This approach uses the analytic expression of the Frechet derivative of the phase-intensity relationship and of its adjoint, which are presented in detail. We also study the effect of

  8. Discovery of Hard Nonthermal Pulsed X-Ray Emission from the Anomalous X-Ray Pulsar 1E 1841-045

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, L.; Hermsen, W.; Méndez, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    We report the discovery of nonthermal pulsed X-ray/soft gamma-ray emission up to ~150 keV from the anomalous 11.8 s X-ray pulsar AXP 1E 1841-045 located near the center of supernova remnant Kes 73 using Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) Proportional Counter Array and High Energy X-Ray Timing

  9. Using acoustic levitation in synchrotron based laser pump hard x-ray probe experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bin; Lerch, Jason; Suthar, Kamlesh; Dichiara, Anthony

    Acoustic levitation provides a platform to trap and hold a small amount of material by using standing pressure waves without a container. The technique has a potential to be used for laser pump x-ray probe experiments; x-ray scattering and laser distortion from the container can be avoided, sample consumption can be minimized, and unwanted chemistry that may occur at the container interface can be avoided. The method has been used at synchrotron sources for studying protein and pharmaceutical solutions using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). However, pump-probe experiments require homogeneously excited samples, smaller than the absorption depth of the material that must be held stably at the intersection of both the laser and x-ray beams. We discuss 1) the role of oscillations in acoustic levitation and the optimal acoustic trapping conditions for x-ray/laser experiments, 2) opportunities to automate acoustic levitation for fast sample loading and manipulation, and 3) our experimental results using SAXS to monitor laser induced thermal expansion in gold nanoparticles solution. We also performed Finite Element Analysis to optimize the trapping performance and stability of droplets ranging from 0.4 mm to 2 mm. Our early x-ray/laser demonstrated the potential of the technique for time-resolved X-ray science.

  10. Experimental study on hard X-rays emitted from metre-scale negative discharges in air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.O. Kochkin (Pavlo); A. van Deursen (Arie); U. M. Ebert (Ute)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe investigate the development of metre long negative discharges and focus on their x-ray emissions. We describe appearance, timing and spatial distribution of the x-rays. They appear in bursts of nanosecond duration mostly in the cathode area. The spectrum can be characterized by an

  11. Dense plasma focus PACO as a hard X-ray emitter: a study on the radiation source

    OpenAIRE

    Supán, L.; Guichón, S.; Milanese, Maria Magdalena; Niedbalski, Jorge Julio; Moroso, Roberto Luis; Acuña, H.; Malamud, Florencia

    2016-01-01

    The radiation in the X-ray range detected outside the vacuum chamber of the dense plasma focus (DPF) PACO, are produced on the anode zone. The zone of emission is studied in a shot-to-shot analysis, using pure deuterium as filling gas. We present a diagnostic method to determine the place and size of the hard X-ray source by image analysis of high density radiography plates. Fil: Supán, L.. Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas. Insti...

  12. SphinX MEASUREMENTS OF THE 2009 SOLAR MINIMUM X-RAY EMISSION

    OpenAIRE

    Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Gburek, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Kuzin, S.; Farnik, F.; Reale, F.; Phillips, K. J. H.; Bakala, J.; Gryciuk, M.; Podgorski, P.; Sylwester, B.

    2012-01-01

    The SphinX X-ray spectrophotometer on the CORONAS-PHOTON spacecraft measured soft X-ray emission in the 1-15 keV energy range during the deep solar minimum of 2009 with a sensitivity much greater than GOES. Several intervals are identified when the X-ray flux was exceptionally low, and the flux and solar X-ray luminosity are estimated. Spectral fits to the emission at these times give temperatures of 1.7-1.9 MK and emission measures between 4 x 10^47 cm^-3 and 1.1 x 10^48 cm^-3. Comparing Sph...

  13. Deformation and stress in PMMA during hard X-ray exposure for deep lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldovan, N.

    1999-01-01

    The availability of high-energy, high-flux, collimated synchrotrons radiation has extended the application of deep X-ray lithography (DXRL) to thickness values of the PMMA resist of several millimeters. Some of the most severe limitations come from plastic deformation, stress, and cracks induced in PMMA during exposure and development. We have observed and characterized these phenomena quantitatively. Profilometry measurements revealed that the PMMA is subjected either to local shrinkage or to expansion, while compression and expansion evolve over time. Due to material loss and crosslinking, the material undergoes a shrinkage, while the radiation-induced decomposition generates gases expanding the polymer matrix. The overall dynamics of the material microrelief and stress during and after the exposure depend on the balance between compaction and outgassing. These depend in turn on the exposure conditions (spectrum; dose, dose rate, seaming, temperature), post-exposure storage conditions, PMMA material properties and thickness, and also on the size and geometry of the exposed patterns

  14. Sub-second pulsations simultaneously observed at microwaves and hard X-rays in a solar burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takakura, T.; Degaonkar, S.S.; Nitta, N.; Ohki, N.

    1982-11-01

    Sub-second time structures have been found in the emissions during solar bursts in mm-waves and, independently, in hard X-rays. However, simultaneous observations of such fast time structure in mm radio and X-ray ranges has not been available so far. Accordingly, coordinated observations of solar bursts in November 1981 with a high time resolution of a few milliseconds were planned. The hard X-rays (30-40 KeV were observed with hard X-ray monitor (HXM) aboard the Hinotori Satellite with a time resolution of 7.81 ms and the radio emissions were observed on the ground with 45ft dish at Itapetinga Radio Observatory with a high time resolution (1 ms) and high sensitivities at 22 GHz and 44 GHz, supplemented by a patrol observation at 7 GHz with time resolution of 100 ms. The pulsations repeated with a period of about 300 ms. The physical implication of the good correlation is not clear at this stage, but it may give a clue to the understanding of the high energy phenomena occuring during the solar flares. (Author) [pt

  15. Note: Application of a pixel-array area detector to simultaneous single crystal x-ray diffraction and x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Cheng-Jun; Brewe, Dale L.; Heald, Steve M.; Zhang, Bangmin; Chen, Jing-Sheng; Chow, G. M.; Venkatesan, T.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) are two main x-ray techniques in synchrotron radiation facilities. In this Note, we present an experimental setup capable of performing simultaneous XRD and XAS measurements by the application of a pixel-array area detector. For XRD, the momentum transfer in specular diffraction was measured by scanning the X-ray energy with fixed incoming and outgoing x-ray angles. By selecting a small fixed region of the detector to collect the XRD signal, the rest of the area was available for collecting the x-ray fluorescence for XAS measurements. The simultaneous measurement of XRD and X-ray absorption near edge structure for Pr 0.67 Sr 0.33 MnO 3 film was demonstrated as a proof of principle for future time-resolved pump-probe measurements. A static sample makes it easy to maintain an accurate overlap of the X-ray spot and laser pump beam

  16. Hard X-ray polarimetry with position sensitve germanium detectors. Studies of the recombination transitions into highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashenov, Stanislav

    2005-07-01

    In this work a first study of the photon polarization for the process of radiative recombination has been performed. This was done at the ESR storage ring at GSI for uranium ions colliding with N2 at various collision energies. For this measurement a high purity Ge Pixel Detector with a 4 x 4 segmentation matrix was applied. The investigation was performed at the Gas-jet target of the ESR. The detector was placed at 60 and 90 observation angles. The sensitivity of the Compton scattering effect to the linear polarization of the X-Ray radiation was employed for the polarization measurement. Detailed investigations of the scattering and geometrical effects inside the detector were performed in order to develop a method to interpret the experimental data and extract the degree of the linear polarization in the hard X-Ray regime with a high precision. A special emphasis was given to the geometry of the detector and it's influence on the measured pixel-to-pixel Compton scattering intensities. The developed method enabled to achieve a precision of the order of 10% with the Pixel Detector which is dominated by the statistical uncertainties. The obtained results show a good agreement with the theoretical values derived from the exact relativistic calculations. For the case of the linear polarization of the K-REC photons, the measured data con rm the theoretical prediction that strong depolarization effects occur for high projectile charges in the forward hemisphere. The latter is in disagreement with the nonrelativistic theory which predicts a 100 % polarization regardless of the emission angle. (orig.)

  17. Hard X-ray polarimetry with position sensitve germanium detectors. Studies of the recombination transitions into highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashenov, Stanislav

    2005-01-01

    In this work a first study of the photon polarization for the process of radiative recombination has been performed. This was done at the ESR storage ring at GSI for uranium ions colliding with N2 at various collision energies. For this measurement a high purity Ge Pixel Detector with a 4 x 4 segmentation matrix was applied. The investigation was performed at the Gas-jet target of the ESR. The detector was placed at 60 and 90 observation angles. The sensitivity of the Compton scattering effect to the linear polarization of the X-Ray radiation was employed for the polarization measurement. Detailed investigations of the scattering and geometrical effects inside the detector were performed in order to develop a method to interpret the experimental data and extract the degree of the linear polarization in the hard X-Ray regime with a high precision. A special emphasis was given to the geometry of the detector and it's influence on the measured pixel-to-pixel Compton scattering intensities. The developed method enabled to achieve a precision of the order of 10% with the Pixel Detector which is dominated by the statistical uncertainties. The obtained results show a good agreement with the theoretical values derived from the exact relativistic calculations. For the case of the linear polarization of the K-REC photons, the measured data con rm the theoretical prediction that strong depolarization effects occur for high projectile charges in the forward hemisphere. The latter is in disagreement with the nonrelativistic theory which predicts a 100 % polarization regardless of the emission angle. (orig.)

  18. XMM-Newton Detection of Hard X-Ray Emission in the Nitrogen-Type Wolf-Rayet Star WR 110

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Stephen L.; Zhekov, Svetozar A.; Güdel, Manuel; Schmutz, Werner

    2002-06-01

    We have used the excellent sensitivity of XMM-Newton to obtain the first high-quality X-ray spectrum of a Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star that is not known to be a member of a binary system. Our target, the nitrogen-type star WR 110 (HD 165688), was also observed and detected with the Very Large Array at four different frequencies. The radio flux density increases with frequency according to a power law Sν~ν+0.64+/-0.10, in very good agreement with the behavior expected for free-free wind emission. The radio data give an ionized mass-loss rate M=4.9×10-5 Msolar yr-1 for an assumed spherical constant-velocity wind. The undispersed CCD X-ray spectra reveal strong emission lines from He-like ions of Mg, Si, and S. The emission measure distribution shows a dominant contribution from cool plasma with a characteristic temperature kTcool~0.5 keV (~6 MK). Little or no excess absorption of this cool component above the value expected from the visual extinction is present. We conclude that the bulk of the cool plasma detected by XMM-Newton lies at hundreds of stellar radii or more if the wind is approximately spherical and homogeneous, but it could lie closer to the star if the wind is clumped. If the cool plasma is due to instability-driven wind shocks, then typical shock velocities are vs~340-550 km s-1 and the average filling factor of X-ray-emitting gas in the wind is no larger than f~10-6. A surprising result is the unambiguous detection of a hard X-ray component that is clearly seen in the hard-band images and the spectra. This hard component accounts for about half of the observed flux and can be acceptably fitted by a hot, optically thin thermal plasma or a power-law model. If the emission is thermal, then a temperature kThot>=3 keV is derived. Such high temperatures are not predicted by current instability-driven wind shock models, and a different mechanism is thus required to explain the hard X-rays. We examine several possible mechanisms and show that the hard emission

  19. NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Observation of the Gamma-Ray Binary Candidate HESS J1832–093

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Kaya; Gotthelf, E. V.; Hailey, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    −093, is detected up to ~30 keV and is well-described by an absorbed power-law model with a best-fit photon index . A re-analysis of archival Chandra and XMM-Newton data finds that the long-term X-ray flux increase of XMMU J183245−0921539 is (90% C.L.), much less than previously reported. A search for a pulsar spin...... of XMMU J183245−0921539 are most consistent with a non-accreting binary generating synchrotron X-rays from particle acceleration in the shock formed as a result of the pulsar and stellar wind collision. We also report on three nearby hard X-ray sources, one of which may be associated with diffuse emission...

  20. Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft x-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trebes, J.E.; Mrowka, S.; London, R.A.; Barbee, T.W.; Carter, M.R.; MacGowan, B.J.; Matthews, D.L.; Da Silva, L.B.; Stone, G.F.; Feit, M.D.; Nugent, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    The spatial coherence of a neon-like selenium x-ray laser operating at 206 and 210 Angstroems has been measured using a technique based on partially coherent x-ray diffraction. The time integrated spatial coherence of the selenium x-ray laser was determined to be equivalent to that of a quasi-monochromatic spatially incoherent disk source whose diameter is comparable to the line focus of the visible light laser pumping the x-ray laser. The spatial coherence was improved by narrowing the line focus width. 20 refs., 4 figs