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Sample records for harbour sites north-western

  1. The stranding anomaly as population indicator: the case of harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena in North-Western Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Peltier

    Full Text Available Ecological indicators for monitoring strategies are expected to combine three major characteristics: ecological significance, statistical credibility, and cost-effectiveness. Strategies based on stranding networks rank highly in cost-effectiveness, but their ecological significance and statistical credibility are disputed. Our present goal is to improve the value of stranding data as population indicator as part of monitoring strategies by constructing the spatial and temporal null hypothesis for strandings. The null hypothesis is defined as: small cetacean distribution and mortality are uniform in space and constant in time. We used a drift model to map stranding probabilities and predict stranding patterns of cetacean carcasses under H0 across the North Sea, the Channel and the Bay of Biscay, for the period 1990-2009. As the most common cetacean occurring in this area, we chose the harbour porpoise Phocoena phocoena for our modelling. The difference between these strandings expected under H0 and observed strandings is defined as the stranding anomaly. It constituted the stranding data series corrected for drift conditions. Seasonal decomposition of stranding anomaly suggested that drift conditions did not explain observed seasonal variations of porpoise strandings. Long-term stranding anomalies increased first in the southern North Sea, the Channel and Bay of Biscay coasts, and finally the eastern North Sea. The hypothesis of changes in porpoise distribution was consistent with local visual surveys, mostly SCANS surveys (1994 and 2005. This new indicator could be applied to cetacean populations across the world and more widely to marine megafauna.

  2. Phytoplankton community structure in local water types at a coastal site in north-western Bay of Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliarsingh, S K; Srichandan, Suchismita; Lotliker, Aneesh A; Sahu, K C; Srinivasa Kumar, T

    2016-07-01

    A comprehensive analysis on seasonal distribution of phytoplankton community structure and their interaction with environmental variables was carried out in two local water types (type 1  30 m isobath) at a coastal site in north-western Bay of Bengal. Phytoplankton community was represented by 211 taxa (146 marine, 37 fresh, 2 brackish, 20 marine-fresh, and 6 marine-brackish-fresh) belonging to seven major groups including 45 potential bloom forming and 22 potential toxin producing species. The seasonal variability depicted enrichment of phytoplankton during pre-monsoon in both water types. Total phytoplankton abundance pattern observed with inter-annual shift during monsoon and post-monsoon period at both water types. In both water types, diatom predominance was observed in terms of species richness and abundance comprising of centric (82 sp.) and pennate (58 sp.) forms. Pennate diatoms, Thalassiothrix longissima and Skeletonema costatum preponderated in both the water types. The diatom abundance was higher in type 1 in comparison to type 2. In general, SiO4 found to fuel growth of the dominant phytoplankton group, diatom in both the water types despite comparative lower concentration of other macronutrients in type 2.

  3. Remote sensing and hydrogeological methodologies for irrigation canal leakage detection: the Osasco and Fossano test sites (NorthWestern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Luigi; Clemente, Paolo; De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Dino, Giovanna; Lasagna, Manuela

    2013-04-01

    Seventy percent of global fresh water is usually used for irrigation. This rate is three times the amount of water used by industry and ten times the amount used in domestic and urban environment (Hotchkiss et al., 2001). However, the average efficiency of the water transport for agricultural purposes in different contexts (at world scale) is variable between 30% and 80%. Studies conducted in Italy confirms that rates are similar from the case studies abroad. In this research, satellite image analysis and hydrological-hydrogeological methods were used in two pilot sites (Osasco channel and Fossano channel, in the Noth-Western Italy) to identify the areas most prone to this problem and to quantify the losses. The aim of the study is to define a multidisciplinary approach in order to identify the critical situations of irrigation channels for a sustainable water resource use and management. The use of remote sensing techniques can identify, on a regional scale and at relative low cost, the channels section potentially critical upon which focus the attention and perform in-situ investigation. The presence of leakage from the irrigation canals, indeed, tends to induce variations of moisture on the surface ground. These variations affect the vegetation (e.g. vegetation state), and certain physical characteristics of the soil (e.g. the capacity and thermal conductivity). The analysis of these anomalies, conducted with digital image processing techniques (with infrared spectrum bands particularly sensitive to the above indicators) help to identify those areas with anomalies related to increased losses (Huang and Fipps, 2002). The use of satellite imagery in the proposed approach is an innovative application of Earth Observation for land and water monitoring (Huang et al., 2005). After the identification of anomalies, hydrological-hydrogeological methods were applied to evaluate the losses. At fist an hydrogeological characterisation of the study area and the bottom of the

  4. Quantifying the contribution of Long-Range Transport to PM, NOx, and SO2 loadings at a suburban site in the North-Western Indo Gangetic Basin

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    Pawar, Harshita; Sachan, Himanshu; Garg, Saryu; Arya, Ruhani; Singh, Nitin Kumar; Sinha, Baerbel; Sinha, Vinayak

    2013-04-01

    We investigate the climatology of air masses arriving at the IISER Mohali Atmospheric Chemistry facility (30.67°N, 76.73°E; 310 m amsl) through 3-day backtrajectories arriving at 20 m above ground level for the period August 2011-November 2012. IISER Mohali is a suburban site in the North-Western Indo Gangetic Basin. The trajectories are computed in ensemble mode twice daily with an arrival time of 2:30 pm local time (daytime) and 4:30 am local time (nighttime) using the HYSPLIT 4 model with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's GDAS file as meterological input data. Due to the close proximity of the site to the Himalayan mountain range the trajectory output is found to be very sensitive to the models input data. IISER Air Quality station is located in the IGB at an altitude of 310 m amsl approximately 20 km south west of the Shivalik hills, but the model terrain height for the site in the ensemble run output varies between 200 m amsl and 3500 m amsl for the GDAS dataset and 200 m amsl to 5000 m amsl for the reanalysis dataset. We conclude that the GDAS dataset performs better than than reanalysis dataset for our site and selected only those trajectories from the trajectory ensemble for cluster analysis, for which the terrain height in the model output was 400 m amsl for Shimla (a site located at an altitude of 1000 m amsl in the mountains 60 km north east of Mohali). We subjected the trajectories to hierarchical, and non-hierarchical (K-means) clustering and found that the air mass transport to our station can be characterised by 10 distinct airflow patterns; 3 of which occur only during the monsoon season. For pre-monsoon season (March-June), post-monsoon season (Sept-Nov) and winter season (Dec-Feb), air mass transport to our site is predominantly from the west. Direct transport of north westerly air masses to our site is subdivided into three clusters (slow, medium and rapid) while other clusters are attributed to south westerly air currents

  5. Soil microbial biomass under pine forests in the north-western Spain: influence of stand age, site index and parent material

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    Mahia, J.; Perez-Ventura, L.; Cabaneiro, A.; Diaz-Ravina, M.

    2006-07-01

    The effects of stand age, site index and parent material on soil biochemical properties related to biomass (extractable C, microbial C and metabolic quotient) were examined in the 0-15 cm mineral soil layers of Pinus pinaster and Pinus sylvestris stand from NW Spain. Two productivity levels (low and high site index), two ages (young and old) and two parent soil materials (granite and acid schists) were considered. The data indicated that there were differences in microbial parameters in soils under different species. In general in P. pinaster forest higher values of biochemical parameters expressed on organic C basis, were observed in the stands of high site index as compared with the low ones; in contrast, in P. sylvestris no differences among stand site index were detected. In both species different results were also observed depending on parent material and a significant effect of stand age was detected for extractable C and microbial C in P. pinaster forest developed over granite. The data seem to indicate that measured parameters may have the potential to be used as indicators of the effect of forest management on soil organic matter quality. (Author) 25 refs.

  6. Scientific evidence for the identification of an Aboriginal massacre at the Sturt Creek sites on the Kimberley frontier of north-western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pamela A; Raven, Mark D; Walshe, Keryn; Fitzpatrick, Robert W; Pate, F Donald

    2017-10-01

    Archival research into episodes of frontier violence in the Kimberley region of Western Australia indicate that the bodies of Aboriginal victims of massacres were frequently incinerated following the event. This paper presents the results of a scientific investigation of a reported massacre at Sturt Creek where burnt bone fragments were identified in two adjacent sites and documents the archaeological signatures associated with the sites. The methodology used to undertake the project brought together three systems of knowledge: the oral testimonies of the descent group originating from a sole adult survivor of the massacre; archival, historical and scientific research. An archaeological survey defined the two distinct sites containing hundreds of fragile bone fragments; a third site was found to be highly disturbed. Scientific investigations included macroscopic and microscopic examination of selected bone fragments by an anatomical pathologist and a zooarchaeologist and X-ray diffraction analysis of sixteen bone fragments. The anatomical pathologist and zooarchaeologist undertook macroscopic and microscopic examinations of selected bone samples to identify morphological evidence for human origin. It was concluded that three bone fragments examined may have been human, and two of the fragments may have been from the vault of a skull. It was concluded that the likelihood of them being human would be strengthened if it was found that the three samples had been subjected to high temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis of 16 bone fragments provided this evidence. All fragments showed sharp hydroxylapatite peaks (crystallite sizes 9882nm and 597nm respectively) and all had been subjected to extreme temperatures of either 600°C for more than 80h, 650°C for more than 20h, 700°C for more than 4h or 800°C for more than 1h. XRD analyses were also done on bone samples collected from three cooking hearths at three different archaeological sites. It was found that two of

  7. The first assessment of marine debris in a Site of Community Importance in the north-western Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea).

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    Melli, Valentina; Angiolillo, Michela; Ronchi, Francesca; Canese, Simonepietro; Giovanardi, Otello; Querin, Stefano; Fortibuoni, Tomaso

    2017-01-30

    At present, few studies have investigated the marine litter abundance, composition and distribution on rocky bottoms due to sampling constraints. We surveyed by means of the ROV imaging technique a system of biogenic rocky outcrops classified as a Site of Community Importance in the Adriatic Sea. A mean density of 3.3 (±1.8) items/100m 2 was recorded, with a strong dominance of fishing- and aquaculture-related debris, accounting for 69.4% and 18.9% of the total, respectively. The abundance of litter over the rocky bottoms was significantly higher than that on soft substrates, and its spatial distribution proved to be related to hydrographic factors. Litter-fauna interactions were high, with most of the debris (65.7%) entangling or covering benthic organisms, in particular habitat constructors such as the endangered sea sponge Geodia cydonium. Unless appropriate measures are undertaken to address this problem, the abundance of marine litter in the area is likely to increase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. ( Etelerix algirus ) in north western Libya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ectoparasites in hedgehogs (Etelerix algirus) in north western region of Libya. Seventy hedgehogs were sampled, and 39 (55.7%) were infested with external parasites. A total of 44 ticks, 491 fleas were collected from the infested hedgehogs and four species of ...

  9. Grey and harbour seals in France: Distribution at sea, connectivity and trends in abundance at haulout sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Cécile; Huon, Mathilde; Caurant, Florence; Dabin, Willy; Deniau, Armel; Dixneuf, Stéphane; Dupuis, Laetitia; Elder, Jean-François; Fremau, Marie-Hélène; Hassani, Sami; Hemon, Audrey; Karpouzopoulos, Jacky; Lefeuvre, Cécile; McConnell, Bernie J.; Moss, Simon E. W.; Provost, Pascal; Spitz, Jérôme; Turpin, Yannis; Ridoux, Vincent

    2017-07-01

    Grey (Halichoerus grypus) and harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) are sympatric seal species, but they display distinct strategies of habitat use and connectivity between haulout sites. The distribution patterns and variations in relative abundance of both species were investigated along the French coast of the English Channel, at the southern limit of their range where seal numbers are increasing. Regular censuses conducted at all main haulout sites in mainland France showed significant seasonal variations at most sites, with more harbour seals counted during summer (breeding and moulting seasons), and more grey seals during summer only in the eastern English Channel. Trends in maximum haulout numbers at haulout sites showed a significant increase over the last five years, ranging from 9.7% to 30.9% per year for harbour seals, and from 5.8% (in the western English Channel) to 49.2% (in the eastern English Channel) per year for grey seals. These rates of increase in grey seal numbers are not linked to local pup production and most probably result from seal movements from the southwest British Isles and the North Sea, respectively. Aerial surveys conducted across the English Channel showed that most seal observations at sea were concentrated in the north-eastern English Channel. Telemetry showed that the 28 harbour seals tracked remained highly coastal, within a radius of 100 km from their haulout sites, and did not move to other known colonies. Grey seals moved much greater distances, reaching up to 1200 km from their capture site. More than half of the 45 grey seals tracked crossed the English Channel, especially during the breeding season, moving to known colonies in the southwest British Isles and the North Sea. Combining individual tracks and long-term surveys of the seal populations allowed a better understanding of the dynamics of these populations and their connectivity at a larger regional scale. The findings provide direct information for the management of grey

  10. SITE DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: SOIL RECYCLING TREATMENT TRAIN - THE TORONTO HARBOUR COMMISSIONERS

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    The Toronto Harbour Commissioners (THC) have developed a soil treatment train designed to treat inorganic and organic contaminants in soils. THC has conducted a large-scale demonstration of these technologies in an attempt to establish that contaminated soils at the Toronto Port...

  11. Environmental impact assessment in the pipeline industry. Experiences with the UK north western ethylene pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryde, A.

    1997-12-31

    The north western ethylene pipeline is the final link between Shell`s oil and gas fields in the North Sea and its petrochemical complexes in Cheshire. The natural gas from which ethylene is obtained comes from the Brent and central fields in the North Sea. Environmental impacts are discussed in this paper covering topics as follow: Regulatory and legal aspects; environmental assessment during planning and design; environmental control during construction; environmental management during operation; environmental controls at sensitive sites on the north western ethylene pipeline: some examples. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Metabolic syndrome in urban city of North-Western Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metabolic syndrome in urban city of North-Western Nigeria: prevalence and ... fasting blood sugar, lipid profiles, insulin resistance and blood pressure was ... Most of the women had low HDL (62.2%) and central obesity elevated (49.8%).

  13. Investigations of harbour porpoises at the planned site for wind turbines at Horns Reef. Status report. 1/1 2001 - 31/12 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skov, H. [Ornis Consult A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark); Teilmann, J.; Damsgaard Henriksen, O. [National Environmental Res. Inst., Dept. of Arctic Environment, Roskilde (Denmark); Carstensen, Jacob [National Environmental Res. Inst., Dept. of Marine Ecology, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2002-07-15

    An offshore wind farm is currently being established at Horns Reef. EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) studies were carried out in 2000 following the guidelines jointly drawn up by the Danish Energy Agency and the National Forest and Nature Agency. Part of the demonstration program for the Horns Reef wind farm is to assess the effect of wind farms on the environment, and one of the tasks is to monitor whether wind farms will cause measurable, temporary or permanent, changes in the local stock of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). On the basis of two-years of ship-based surveys and analyses of historic data, the impact assessment regarding harbour porpoises for the Horns Reef wind farm was finalised in February 2000. The results of the impact assessment suggested that short-term effects on harbour porpoises would take place as a result of disturbance during the construction phase caused by a large number of service boats and sound emissions from the ramming activities. The EIA estimated that the animals would disappear from the wind farm area during construction, and subsequently return to the site after construction activities have ceased. On the basis of the fact that the sound emissions from the turbines during production are more regular and at a low level and a modest disturbance from service vessels the long-term effects on the number of harbour porpoises on Horns Reef during the production phase was estimated to be relatively small, or equivalent to 25% as compared to the base line level. Following the EIA, a monitoring programme was launched to measure the level of long-term effects on harbour porpoises on Horns Reef, and base-line investigations have been carried out up to the present time, - at the onset of the construction phase. This report deals with the results of the investigations on harbour porpoises on Horns Reef during the period from January 2001 to December 2001. These investigations involve a range of new field and analysis techniques

  14. Malaria in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria | Abdullahi | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria. K Abdullahi, U Abubakar, T Adamu, AI Daneji, RU Aliyu, N Jiya, MTO Ibraheem, SU Nata'ala. Abstract. Malaria remains a major cause of mortality among children under the age of five years; it is endemic throughout Nigeria with seasonal variation in different geographic zones of the ...

  15. Determination of Gold from Gold Matrix of North Western Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research paper presents analytical results of Au, Mn and V concentrations of some Nigerian gold ores using two techniques: epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) and proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Fourteen samples were collected from gold fields of North Western Nigeria, prepared separately to a ...

  16. Haemato-biochemical and endocrine profiling of north western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was aimed to provide baseline data regarding haemato-biochemical and endocrine profiling of Gaddi sheep found in north western Himalayan region of Himachal Pradesh, India. Each random sample was collected from 45 Gaddi sheep reared in government sheep breeding farm Tal, Hamirpur, India, during ...

  17. Petroleum hydrocarbons and trace metals in Visakhapatnam harbour and Kakinada Bay, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.; VaraPrasad, S.J.D.; Gupta, G.V.M.; Sudhakar, U.

    High concentrations of PHC were observed in the inner channels (viz. South lighter canal, Northern arm, North Western arm and Western arm) of Visakhapatnam Harbour, Andhra Pradesh, India. The estimation of trace metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Co, Ni and Cr...

  18. THERMAL VARIATIONS IN OCTOBER 2013 IN NORTH-WESTERN ROMANIA

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    TUDOSE T.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present analysis refers two weather situations in October 2013 in north-western Romania, represented by a period of cold weather in the first part of the month, and, respectively, a warm period in the last decade of the month. The cold wave produced minimum daily temperatures ranging between -6.4 and -1.9°C, in the lower areas, while in the mountainous region they were between -9.4 and -7.2°C. These values are by 0.2 to 5.6°C lower than the absolute daily minimum temperatures registered between 1961-2012 period. Positive deviations from the maximum daily absolute temperatures up to 4.0°C were recorded in the warm period at the end of the month. The data base used in the study was made up of minimum and maximum daily temperatures for the periods 3-8 and 22-30 October 2013, registered at 14 meteorological stations situated in north-western Romania. Other data used were the air temperature at standard isobaric levels of 850, 700 and 500 hPa, in the period 1973-2013. Synoptic reanalysis maps for the period 1961-2013 were also used.

  19. Hambantota Fishery Harbour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everts, P.S.; Julianus, E.J.B.; Marijnissen, M.; Voorend, S.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    At the southern coast of Sri Lanka a small fishery harbour is located in Hambantota. Soon after construction of the harbour in 2006 the harbour started silting up at various places. From that point onwards the harbour’s basin has been dredged multiple times, but the problem turned out to be

  20. Elephantiasis of non-filarial origin (podoconiosis) in the highlands of north-western Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanji, S; Tendongfor, N; Esum, M; Che, J N; Mand, S; Tanga Mbi, C; Enyong, P; Hoerauf, A

    2008-09-01

    Lymphoedema, a condition of localized fluid retention, results from a compromised lymphatic system. Although one common cause in the tropics is infection with filarial worms, non-filarial lymphoedema, also known as podoconiosis, has been reported among barefoot farmers in volcanic highland zones of Africa, Central and South America and north-western India. There are conflicting reports on the causes of lymphoedema in the highland regions of Cameroon, where the condition is of great public-health importance. To characterise the focus of lymphoedema in the highlands of the North West province of Cameroon and investigate its real causes, a cross-sectional study was carried out on the adults (aged > or =15 years) living in the communities that fall within the Ndop and Tubah health districts. The subjects, who had to have lived in the study area for at least 10 years, were interviewed, examined clinically, and, when possible, checked for microfilaraemia. The cases of lymphoedema confirmed by ultrasonography and a random sample of the other subjects were also tested for filarial antigenaemia. The interviews, which explored knowledge, attitudes and perceptions (KAP) relating to lymphoedema, revealed that the condition was well known, with each study community having a local name for it. Of the 834 individuals examined clinically, 66 (8.1%) had lymphoedema of the lower limb, with all the clinical stages of this condition represented. None of the 792 individuals examined parasitologically, however, had microfilariae of W. bancrofti (or any other filarial parasite) in their peripheral blood, and only one (0.25%) of the 399 individuals tested for the circulating antigens of W. bancrofti gave a positive result. In addition, none of the 504 mosquitoes caught landing on human bait in the study area and dissected was found to harbour any stage of W. bancrofti. These findings indicate that the elephantiasis seen in the North West province of Cameroon is of non-filarial origin.

  1. Enhancement of the aerosol direct radiative effect by semi-volatile aerosol components: airborne measurements in North-Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. T. Morgan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A case study of atmospheric aerosol measurements exploring the impact of the vertical distribution of aerosol chemical composition upon the radiative budget in North-Western Europe is presented. Sub-micron aerosol chemical composition was measured by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS on both an airborne platform and a ground-based site at Cabauw in the Netherlands. The examined period in May 2008 was characterised by enhanced pollution loadings in North-Western Europe and was dominated by ammonium nitrate and Organic Matter (OM. Both ammonium nitrate and OM were observed to increase with altitude in the atmospheric boundary layer. This is primarily attributed to partitioning of semi-volatile gas phase species to the particle phase at reduced temperature and enhanced relative humidity. Increased ammonium nitrate concentrations in particular were found to strongly increase the ambient scattering potential of the aerosol burden, which was a consequence of the large amount of associated water as well as the enhanced mass. During particularly polluted conditions, increases in aerosol optical depth of 50–100% were estimated to occur due to the observed increase in secondary aerosol mass and associated water uptake. Furthermore, the single scattering albedo was also shown to increase with height in the boundary layer. These enhancements combined to increase the negative direct aerosol radiative forcing by close to a factor of two at the median percentile level. Such increases have major ramifications for regional climate predictions as semi-volatile components are often not included in aerosol models.

    The results presented here provide an ideal opportunity to test regional and global representations of both the aerosol vertical distribution and subsequent impacts in North-Western Europe. North-Western Europe can be viewed as an analogue for the possible future air quality over other polluted regions of the Northern Hemisphere, where

  2. Trace elements in reindeer from Rybatsjij Ostrov, north western Russia

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    Aksel Bernhoft

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus grazing the Rybatsjij Ostrov peninsula, north western Russia, northeast of the industrial towns of Nikel and Zapoljarnij, were analysed for hepatic concentrations of trace elements [arsenic (As, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, cobalt (Co, copper (Cu, lead (Pb, mercury (Hg, nickel (Ni, selenium (Se, and zinc (Zn] by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The median (range concentrations (jig/g wet weight deter¬mined in liver samples from 40 reindeer with even sex ratio and representation from different age classes were As 0.035 (0.017-0.048, Cd 0.34 (0.15-1.2, Cr 0.008 (<0.002-0.022, Co 0.09 (0.06-0.12, Cu 98 (29-220, Pb 0.56 (0.23-1.0, Hg 0.16 (0.08-0.31, Ni 0.027 (<0.020-0.13, Se 0.88 (0.56-1.3 and Zn 37 (24-105. The concentrations of Cd increased and Ni decreased with age. The measured liver concentrations were below levels of toxicological sig¬nificance to the animals. It can be inferred that there is no risk with the measured trace elements to human health associated with the consumption of meat from these reindeer.

  3. Temperature and Precipitation trends in Kashmir valley, North Western Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, Mifta Ul; Rasool, Rehana; Ahmed, Pervez; Dimri, A. P.

    2018-01-01

    Climate change has emerged as an important issue ever to confront mankind. This concern emerges from the fact that our day-to-day activities are leading to impacts on the Earth's atmosphere that has the potential to significantly alter the planet's shield and radiation balance. Developing countries particularly whose income is particularly derived from agricultural activities are at the forefront of bearing repercussions due to changing climate. The present study is an effort to analyze the changing trends of precipitation and temperature variables in Kashmir valley along different elevation zones in the north western part of India. As the Kashmir valley has a rich repository of glaciers with its annual share of precipitation, slight change in the temperature and precipitation regime has far reaching environmental and economic consequences. The results from Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) data of the period 1980-2014 reveals that the annual mean temperature of Kashmir valley has increased significantly. Accelerated warming has been observed during 1980-2014, with intense warming in the recent years (2001-2014). During the period 1980-2014, steeper increase, in annual mean maximum temperature than annual mean minimum temperature, has been observed. In addition, mean maximum temperature in plain regions has shown higher rate of increase when compared with mountainous areas. In case of mean minimum temperature, mountainous regions have shown higher rate of increase. Analysis of precipitation data for the same period shows a decreasing trend with mountainous regions having the highest rate of decrease which can be quite hazardous for the fragile mountain environment of the Kashmir valley housing a large number of glaciers.

  4. The vegetation of the north-western Orange Free State, South Africa. 1. Physical environment

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    M. S. Kooij

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The physiography, geology, soil, land types and climate of the north-western Orange Free State are described. The description provides a contextual framework for the subsequent vegetation classification.

  5. The vegetation of the north-western Orange Free State, South Africa. 1. Physical environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Kooij

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available The physiography, geology, soil, land types and climate of the north-western Orange Free State are described. The description provides a contextual framework for the subsequent vegetation classification.

  6. Subsurface chlorophyll maxima in the north-western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.; Aswanikumar, V.

    The depth profiles of phytoplankton pigments in the north-western Bay of Bengal are generally characterizEd. by a subsurface chlorophyll maximum. The occurrence of subsurface chlorophyll maxima is discussed in relation to other information on water...

  7. Interdisciplinary Archaeological Research Programme Maasvlakte 2, Rotterdam : Twenty meters deep! The mesolithic period at the Yangtze Harbour site - Rotterdam Maasvlakte, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, J.J.; Brinkhuizen, D.C.; Bunnik, F.P.M.; Cohen, K.M.; Cremer, H.; Exaltus, R.P.; van Kappel, K.; Kooistra, L.I.; Koolmees, H.; de Kruyk, H.; Kubiak-Martens, L.; Moree, J.M.; Niekus, M.J.L.Th.; Peeters, J.H.M.; Schiltmans, D.E.A.; Verbaas, A.; Verbruggen, F.; Vos, P.C.; Zeiler, J.T.

    2015-01-01

    In 2011 a systematic underwater field survey and an invasive investigation were executed in the Yangtze Harbour planning area, Maasvlakte, Rotterdam, commissioned by Port of Rotterdam Authority. The aim of the work was to locate and document any archaeological remains in submerged Late Pleistocene

  8. Twenty metres deep! The Mesolithic period at the site Yangtze Harbour in the Rotterdam Maasvlakte, the Netherlands. Early Holocene landscape development and habitation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sier, M.M.; Cohen, K.M.; Kooistra, L.; Kubiak-Martens, L.; Moree, J.M.; Niekus, M.; Peeters, J.H.M.; Schiltmans, D.E.A.; Verbaas, A.; Verbruggen, F.; Vos, P.C.; Zeiler, J.T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In November 2011 archaeologists of City of Rotterdam Archaeological Service (BOOR) conducted underwater research in the Yangtze harbour, Rotterdam Maasvlakte, The Netherlands. The research was carried out by order of Port of Rotterdam Authority and supervised by the Cultural Heritage

  9. North-Western Palaearctic species of Pristiphora (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae

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    Marko Prous

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available North-Western Palaearctic species of Pristiphora Latreille, 1810 are revised. Altogether, 90 species are treated, two of which are described as new: P. caraganae Vikberg & Prous, sp. n. from Finland and P. dedeara Liston & Prous, sp. n. from Germany. Host plant of P. caraganae is Caragana arborescens Lam. Pristiphora dasiphorae (Zinovjev, 1993 (previously known from East Palaearctic and P. cadma Wong & Ross, 1960 (previously known from North America are recorded for the first time from Europe. Nematus nigricans Eversmann, 1847 [= Pristiphora nigricans (Eversmann, 1847, comb. n.], N. breviusculus Eversmann, 1847 [= Euura melanocephalus (Hartig, 1837], and N. caudalis Eversmann, 1847 [= E. caudalis (Eversmann, 1847, comb. n.] are removed from synonymy with P. pallidiventris (Fallén, 1808, N. paralellus Hartig, 1840 [= P. paralella (Hartig, 1840, comb. n.] is removed from synonymy with P. bufo (Brischke, 1883, and P. mesatlantica Lacourt, 1976 is removed from synonymy with P. insularis Rohwer, 1910. The following 29 new synonymies are proposed: P. nigropuncticeps Haris, 2002, syn. n. with P. albitibia (Costa, 1859; Lygaeonematus karvoneni Lindqvist, 1952, syn. n. with P. alpestris (Konow, 1903; P. (P. anivskiensis Haris, 2006, syn. n. with P. appendiculata (Hartig, 1837; Nematus canaliculatus Hartig, 1840, syn. n with P. carinata (Hartig, 1837; P. nigrogroenblomi Haris, 2002, syn. n. with P. cincta Newman, 1837; Tenthredo flavipes Zetterstedt, 1838, syn. n., Nematus congener W.F. Kirby, 1882, syn. n., and P. thomsoni Lindqvist, 1953, syn. n. with P. dochmocera (Thomson, 1871; P. atrata Lindqvist, 1975, syn. n. with P. friesei (Konow, 1904; P. gelida Wong, 1968, syn. n. with P. frigida (Boheman, 1865; Pachynematus nigricorpus Takagi, 1931, syn. n. with P. laricis (Hartig, 1837; Nematus (Pikonema piceae Zhelochovtsev in Zhelochovtsev and Zinovjev, 1988, syn. n. and P. (P. hoverlaensis Haris, 2001, syn. n. with P. leucopodia (Hartig, 1837; Mesoneura

  10. Bioprospecting of plant growth promoting psychrotrophic Bacilli from the cold desert of north western Indian Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ajar Nath; Sachan, Shashwati Ghosh; Verma, Priyanka; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The plant growth promoting psychrotrophic Bacilli were investigated from different sites in north western Indian Himalayas. A total of 247 morphotypes were obtained from different soil and water samples and were grouped into 43 clusters based on 16S rDNA-RFLP analysis with three restriction endonucleases. Sequencing of representative isolates has revealed that these 43 Bacilli belonged to different species of 11 genera viz., Desemzia, Exiguobacterium, Jeotgalicoccus, Lysinibacillus, Paenibacillus, Planococcus, Pontibacillus, Sinobaca, Sporosarcina, Staphylococcus and Virgibacillus. With an aim to develop microbial inoculants that can perform efficiently at low temperatures, all representative isolates were screened for different plant growth promoting traits at low temperatures (5-15 degrees C). Among the strains, variations were observed for production (%) of indole-3-acetic acid (20), ammonia (19), siderophores (11), gibberellic acid (4) and hydrogen cyanide (2); solubilisation (%) of zinc (14), phosphate (13) and potassium (7); 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity (6%) and biocontrol activity (4%) against Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. Among all the strains, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus muralis, Desemzia incerta, Paenibacillus tylopili and Sporosarcina globispora were found to be potent candidates to be developed as inoculants as they exhibited multiple PGP traits at low temperature.

  11. Geodiversity action plans for the enhancement of geoheritage in the Piemonte region (north-western Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ferrero

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A geoethical approach to geodiversity allows better understanding of the value of abiotic nature and enhances its conservation and development. Our basic assumption is that even during an economical crisis, geoheritage sites can serve both public and private interests. A set of nine strategic geothematic areas were chosen to represent the geodiversity of the Piemonte region, north-western Italy, each of which is characterized by great potential for scientific studies, enhancement of public understanding of science, recreational activities, and economic support to the local communities. Specialized research teams individuated critical aspects to advance our knowledge of the geological history of the Piemonte region, through climate and environmental changes, natural hazards, soil processes, and georesources. The scientific concepts and techniques were coupled with geodiffusion actions and products: not only geosites, but also museum collections, evidence of mining and quarrying activities, science exhibitions, and nature trails. The preliminary results have allowed action plans to be developed with local partners, to assess the geoheritage management requirements. A series of investigations were carried out to improve the visual representation of the geological processes and the evolutionary scenarios. Further outcomes of the project will include didactic tools for educators, schools, and the public in general.

  12. Prospecting cold deserts of north western Himalayas for microbial diversity and plant growth promoting attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ajar Nath; Sachan, Shashwati Ghosh; Verma, Priyanka; Saxena, Anil Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Microbial communities in different samples collected from cold deserts of north western Himalayas, India, were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) analysis. A total of 232 bacterial isolates were characterized employing 16S rDNA-Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis with the three restriction endonucleases Alu I, Msp I and Hae III, which led to formation of 29-54 groups for the different sites, adding up to169 groups. 16S rRNA gene based phylogenetic analysis, revealed that 82 distinct species of 31 different genera, belonged to four phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. PLFA profiling was performed for concerned samples which gave an estimate of microbial communities without cultivating the microorganisms. PLFA analysis led to characterization of diverse group of microbes in different samples such as gram-negative, gram-positive bacteria, actinomycetes, cyanobacteria, anaerobic bacteria, sulphate reducing bacteria and fungi. The representative strains were screened for their plant growth promoting attributes, which included production of ammonia, HCN, gibberellic acid, IAA and siderophore; solubilization of phosphorus and activity of ACC deaminase. In vitro antifungal activity assay was performed against Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. Cold adapted microorganisms may serve as inoculants for crops growing under cold climatic conditions. To our knowledge, this is the first report for the presence of Arthrobacter nicotianae, Brevundimonas terrae, Paenibacillus tylopili and Pseudomonas cedrina in cold deserts and exhibit multifunctional PGP attributes at low temperatures. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Changing climate-changing pathogens: Toxoplasma gondii in North-Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerburg, B.G.; Kijlstra, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this review, we describe the effects of global climate change for one specific pathogen: the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. It is postulated that an increase of T. gondii prevalence in humans can occur in some regions of North-Western Europe as a result of changing environmental conditions. Such a

  14. The intention of North-Western Ethiopian dairy farmers to control mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Sefinew Alemu; Koop, Gerrit; Lam, Theo J.G.M.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the intentions of dairy farmers towards mastitis control is important to design effective udder health control programs. We used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to explore the intentions of North-Western Ethiopian dairy farmers towards implementing non-specified mastitis control

  15. Connecting endangered brown bear subpopulations in the Cantabrian Range (north-western Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. C. Mateo-Sanchez; Samuel Cushman; S. Saura

    2014-01-01

    The viability of many species depends on functional connectivity of their populations through dispersal across broad landscapes. This is particularly the case for the endangered brown bear in north-western Spain, with a total population of about 200 individuals in two subpopulations that are separated by a wide gap with low permeability. Our goal in this paper...

  16. A new species of Phrynobatrachus (Amphibia: Anura: Phrynobatrachidae) from north-western Guinea, West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillers, A.; Zimkus, B.; Rödel, M.-O.

    2008-01-01

    A new small Phrynobatrachus species from a gallery forest in north-western Guinea is described. Phrynobatrachus pintoi sp. nov. exhibits a combination of unique morphological characters and a distinctive color pattern, including: compact, oval body, short snout, warty dorsum and eyelid (although no

  17. Benthic nutrient cycling and diagenetic pathways in the North-western Black Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedrich, J.; Dinkel, C.; Friedl, G.; Pimenov, N.; Wijsman, J.W.M.; Gomoiu, M-T.; Cociasu, A.; Popa, L.; Wehrli, B.

    2002-01-01

    Benthic fluxes of nutrients and metals were measured in the coastal zone of the north-western Black Sea, which is influenced by the Danube and Dniestr rivers. The results from the benthic flux chambers deployed during two EROS 21 cruises in summer 1995 and in spring 1997 yield information on benthic

  18. THE TECTONOPHYSICAL RESEARCHES OF THE SEMISAMSKAYA ANTICLINE (NORTH-WESTERN CAUCASUS FOLD AND THRUST BELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Marinin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural paragenetic and cataclastic analysis methods were applied to study tectonic fracturing within one of the folds of the southern wing of the North-Western Caucasus fold-and-thrust belt. The object of the study was the Semisamskaya anticline (Fig. 1 and 2 comprising the Upper Cretaceous and Paleogenic layered terrigenic-carbonate sediments that contain various well-developed geological indicators of palaeostresses (Fig. 3, 5, 7, and 9.In the folded structure under study, a paragenesis is revealed which is associated with the effect of sub-horizontal minimum compression (deviator extension stresses of the north-western orientation (NW 320° and traced by detached normal fault systems striking in the north-eastern direction (Fig. 6, 8, 10, 11, and 17. Upthrust-overthrust systems of the north-western strike (NW–SE, which are of importance for the whole folded structure of the North-Western Caucasus, are mainly manifested in the wings of the Semisamskaya anticline (Fig. 6, 12, and 13.The overall field of stresses related to formation of the folded structure is significantly variable as evidenced by the pattern of local parameters of the paleostress field, which are calculated by the cataclastic analysis method (Figure 15, 16, and 17.It is established that the geodynamic regime within the anticline is considerably variable by types (Fig. 18. Areas with horizontal extension in the axial part of the fold are replaced by areas of horizontal compression at its wings (Fig. 19.  

  19. HIV-INFECTION IN THE NORTH-WESTERN FEDERAL REGION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. T. Smolskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. In the current review the results of HIV surveillance in 11 administrative territories of the North-western federal region of the Russian Federation (NWFR in 2009 are summarized. The analysis of epidemic process is based on the data of HIV cases detected in the administrative territories of the NWFR by serological screening and registered in the state reporting forms.

  20. Influences of climate on fire regimes in montane forests of north-western Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl N. Skinner; Jack H. Burk; Michael G. Barbour; Ernesto Franco-Vizcaino; Scott L. Stephens

    2008-01-01

    Aim To identify the influence of interannual and interdecadal climate variation on the occurrence and extent of fires in montane conifer forests of north-western Mexico. Location This study was conducted in Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi Grev. & Balf.)- dominated mixed-conifer...

  1. Assessing malaria transmission in a low endemicity area of north-western Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Speybroeck, Niko

    2013-01-01

    Where malaria endemicity is low, control programmes need increasingly sensitive tools for monitoring malaria transmission intensity (MTI) and to better define health priorities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a low endemicity area of the Peruvian north-western coast to assess the MTI u...

  2. Influence of environmental changes in the north-western Atlantic Ocean on a parasite, Echinorhynchus gadi (Acanthocephala) of Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) occurring off coastal Labrador, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, R A

    2008-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of environmental change on an endoparasite, Echinorhynchus gadi (Acanthocephala) of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) over a 30-year period off the coast of Labrador in the north-western Atlantic, North Atlantic Fisheries Organization subareas 2J-3K. Cod, once an abundant fish species that had been commercially exploited for many decades, declined precipitously during the mid-1980s onwards. This decline was attributed to climatic changes that affected the entire food chain from zooplankton to fish, sea birds and marine mammals. A monitoring programme was introduced, sampling cod by otter trawling using research vessels. The fish, after capture, were frozen at - 20 degrees C, subsequently thawed and the digestive tract removed and examined for the parasite in 2006. Data from samples taken in 1976, 1980-81, 1986, 1990, 2000 and 2003 were compared statistically with those collected in 2006. The results indicate a decline in the prevalence and mean abundance of E. gadi in 1986 with a minimum in 2000 but increasing gradually in 2003 and 2006. These changes were coincident initially with a decline of oceanic temperature and the entire food web, including capelin (Mallotus villosus), a preferred prey of cod and primary source of E. gadi. The increase in prevalence and mean abundance of the parasite in 2006 were associated with an increase of oceanic temperature and the return of small schools of capelin to offshore areas. Cod older than 4 years harboured a greater abundance of E. gadi than younger fish, while no difference was observed between the sexes. The results suggest that the abundance of E. gadi can be useful as a bioindicator of environmental changes in the north-western Atlantic.

  3. Pictorial keys for predominant Bactrocera and Dacus fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of north western Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    C. S. Prabhakar; Pankaj Sood; P. K. Mehta

    2012-01-01

    A pictorial key for 13 species of fruit flies under 2 genera namely Bactrocera and Dacus of subfamily Dacinae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is presented in this paper based on actual photographs of fruit flies collected from north western Himalaya of India during 2009-2010. Among these, Bactrocera diversa (Coquillett), Bactrocera scutellaris (Bezzi), Bactrocera tau (Walker), Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), B...

  4. Hourly to Decadal variability of sea surface carbon parameters in the north western Mediteranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Jacqueline; Merlivat, Liliane; Antoine, David; Beaumont, Laurence; Golbol, Melek; Velluci, Vincenzo

    2017-04-01

    Sea surface CO2 fugacity, fCO2, is recorded hourly in the north western Mediterranean Sea since 2013 by two CARIOCA (Carbon Interface Ocean Atmosphere) sensors installed on the BOUSSOLE (Buoy for the acquisition of long term optical time series, http://www.obs-vlfr.fr/Boussole/html/project/introduction.php) mooring at 3m and 10m depth. fCO2 exhibits a large seasonal cycle, about 150 microatm peak to peak, very consistent with earlier CARIOCA measurements taken in 1995-1999 at the DYFAMED site (located 6km apart from the BOUSSOLE mooring) (Hood and Merlivat, JMR, 2001; Copin-Montegut et al., Mar. Chem., 2004): this seasonal cycle is driven primarily by intense mixing in Winter, biological uptake during Spring and warming during Summer. Interannual variability of these processes leads to interannual variability of monthly mean fCO2 that can reach more than 20 microatm. The short term variability (1 hour to 1 week) is large, especially during Summer 2014 (more than 40 microatm) due to a very strong vertical stratification and to the influence of internal waves. The hourly CARIOCA measurements allow to correctly filter out the high frequency variability while the three year long time series allow to smooth out interannual variability. Hence, for the first time, we get a precise estimate of the change of fCO2 in surface waters within 20 years. Over the 1995-2015 interval, we estimate an increase of fCO2 computed at a constant temperature of 13˚ C equal to 1.8 microatm per year. Given the alkalinity/salinity relationship in this region, we estimate mean annual rates of change of -0.0023+/-0.0001 pH unit and of +1.47+/-0.03 μmol kg-1 for pH and DIC respectively. These results give a quantitative estimate of the penetration of anthropogenic carbon in the surface waters of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, about 80% via air-sea exchange and 20% via transport of carbon from the Atlantic across the Strait of Gibraltar as suggested by Palmieri et al (BG, 2015). We estimate

  5. Characterization of archaeological ceramics from the north western lowland Maya Area, using the technique of neutron activation analysis; Caracterizacion de ceramicas arqueologicas de las tierras bajas noroccidentales del Area Maya, empleando la tecnica de activacion neutronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez R, M. C.; Tenorio, D.; Jimenez R, M. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Terreros, E. [Museo del Templo Mayor, INAH, Seminario No. 8, Col. Centro, Mexico 06060, D. F. (Mexico); Ochoa, L. [UNAM, Instituto de Investigaciones Antropologicas, Circuito Exterior s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico 04510, D. F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    It is a study on 50 samples of ceramics from various archaeological sites of the north western lowland Maya Area. This study was performed by neutron activation analysis of 19 chemical elements and the treatments relevant statistical data. Significant differences were found among the pieces that led to group them into five major groups, the difference is the site of their manufacture and therefore in the raw materials used for this. (Author)

  6. Movements and site fidelity of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in Kattegat, Denmark, with implications for the epidemiology of the phocine distemper virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, R.; Teilmann, J.; Andersen, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Kattegat with a maximum distance of 249 km from the tagging haul-out site. Overall, females travelled over a wider area compared with males [90% kernel home range (KHR) females, 5189 km2; males, 3293 km2). KHR calculated for yearlings (6414 km2) is larger than for subadults (2534 km2), which again...... is larger than for adult seals (1713 km2), showing a strong site fidelity, indicating limited gene flow between haul-out sites. Distances moved and home range sizes increased across autumn, peaked in February–March, and decreased through spring. During the breeding season in spring, all seals were very...

  7. The Vegetation of North-Western Mongolia: Floristic Checklist and Conservation Status of Mongolian Grassland Flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Lapin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mongolia´s grassland (steppe is reported to be vulnerable to climate change, degradation, and densifi cation. The traditional Mongolian pastoral herding system is currently transforming due to changes in market relations and economic developments, and this transformation has an impact on species composition and biodiversity. For this study, we observed the current situation of the fl ora in the north-western Mongolian territories to provide data on plant species occurrence in this remote area. A vegetation assessment was conducted for 15 locations in June and July 2016. Indicator plant species were determined to assess the level of grazing and degradation, as well as the respective steppe sub-type. The conservation status of all recorded plant species was assessed in accordance with the IUCN Red List. In total, 106 vascular plant species belonging to 73 genera and 26 families were recorded. Four endemic plant species were observed. All locations were classifi ed into three steppe sub-types: Desert-steppe, dry-steppe and mountain-steppe. A large number of degradation indicator plant species were observed in almost all locations. No endangered species in the Mongolian IUCN Red List were observed. The observation indicates that the vegetation in the north-western area of Mongolia is partly showing tendencies towards overgrazing and degradation. The conservation status of the most recorded species is currently unknown, and more studies on Mongolian vegetation will need to be conducted to assess these species’ status. We emphasize the urgent need for further studies on the vegetation and plant species composition, and indicators in north-western Mongolia, especially in context of the ongoing rapid economic, social, and ecological changes in the region

  8. Climate change increases deoxynivalenol contamination of wheat in north-western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Fels-Klerx, H J; Olesen, Jørgen E; Madsen, M S

    2012-01-01

    will be earlier in the season because of climate change effects, about 1 to 2 weeks. Deoxynivalenol contamination was found to increase in most of the study region, with an increase of the original concentrations by up to 3 times. The study results may inform governmental and industrial risk managers to underpin...... decision-making and planning processes in north-western Europe. On the local level, deoxynivalenol contamination should be closely monitored to pick out wheat batches with excess levels at the right time. Using predictive models on a more local scale could be helpful to assist other monitoring measures...

  9. Food composition of some low altitude Lissotriton montandoni (Amphibia, Caudata populations from North-Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Covaciu-Marcov S.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of some populations of Lissotriton montandoni from north-western Romania is composed of prey belonging to 20 categories. The food components of the Carpathian newts are similar to those of other species of newts. Most of the prey are aquatic animals, but terrestrial prey also has a high percentage abundance. The consumed prey categories are common in the newts' habitats as well, but in natural ponds the prey item with the highest abundance in the diet is not the most frequent one in the habitat. Thus, although the Carpathian newts are basically opportunistic predators, they still display a certain trophic selectivity.

  10. Kinetic Algorithms for Harbour Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, C. M.; Goralski, R. I.

    2012-07-01

    Modern harbour management for a busy port needs to resolve a variety of simultaneous problems. Harbour traffic may be busy and the waterways congested, both by the major shipping and by the attendant harbour tugs. The harbour channel may be narrow and tortuous, and rapidly changing tides may require frequent course adjustments. Navigation aids must be clearly specified and immediately identifiable, in order to permit safe passage for the vessels. This requires a GIS with attributes not easily available with traditional products. The GeoVS system is a kinetic GIS with full three-dimensional visualisation, so that ships, bathymetry and landscape may be viewed in a form that is immediately understandable to both harbour pilots and the harbour authority. The system is kinetic because the data structures used to preserve the topological relationships between ships, seafloor and coastline are able to be maintained on a real-time basis, taking account of ship movement recorded on the compulsory AIS (Automatic Information System) beacons. Maintenance of this real-time topology allows for easy detection of potential collisions, as well as real-time bathymetric estimations, necessary to prevent ship grounding in highly tidal environments. The system, based on previous research into kinetic Voronoi diagrams, as well as development of a completely new graphical engine, is now in commercial production, where its advantages over simpler twodimensional models without automatic collision and grounding detection are becoming evident. Other applications are readily envisaged, and will be addressed in the near future.

  11. KINETIC ALGORITHMS FOR HARBOUR MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Gold

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern harbour management for a busy port needs to resolve a variety of simultaneous problems. Harbour traffic may be busy and the waterways congested, both by the major shipping and by the attendant harbour tugs. The harbour channel may be narrow and tortuous, and rapidly changing tides may require frequent course adjustments. Navigation aids must be clearly specified and immediately identifiable, in order to permit safe passage for the vessels. This requires a GIS with attributes not easily available with traditional products. The GeoVS system is a kinetic GIS with full three-dimensional visualisation, so that ships, bathymetry and landscape may be viewed in a form that is immediately understandable to both harbour pilots and the harbour authority. The system is kinetic because the data structures used to preserve the topological relationships between ships, seafloor and coastline are able to be maintained on a real-time basis, taking account of ship movement recorded on the compulsory AIS (Automatic Information System beacons. Maintenance of this real-time topology allows for easy detection of potential collisions, as well as real-time bathymetric estimations, necessary to prevent ship grounding in highly tidal environments. The system, based on previous research into kinetic Voronoi diagrams, as well as development of a completely new graphical engine, is now in commercial production, where its advantages over simpler twodimensional models without automatic collision and grounding detection are becoming evident. Other applications are readily envisaged, and will be addressed in the near future.

  12. Molecular characterization of hepatitis A virus strains in a tertiary care health set up in north western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mini Pritam; Majumdar, Manasi; Thapa, Babu Ram; Gupta, Puneet Kumar; Khurana, Jasmine; Budhathoki, Bimal; Ratho, Radha Kanta

    2015-02-01

    Hepatitis A virus usually causes acute viral hepatitis (AVH) in the paediatric age group with a recent shift in age distribution and disease manifestations like acute liver failure (ALF). This has been attributed to mutations in 5'non-translated region (5'NTR) which affects the viral multiplication. The present study was aimed to carry out the molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis A virus strains circulating in north western India. Serum samples from in patients and those attending out patient department of Pediatric Gastroenterology in a tertiary care hospital in north India during 2007-2011 with clinically suspected AVH were tested for anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) IgM antibodies. Acute phase serum samples were subjected to nested PCR targeting the 5'NTR region followed by sequencing of the representative strains. A total of 1334 samples were tested, 290 (21.7%) were positive for anti-HAV IgM antibody. Of these, 78 serum samples (hepatitis A still a disease of children with III A as a circulating genotype in this region. The mutations at 5'NTR region warrant further analysis as these affect the structure of internal ribosomal entry site which is important for viral replication.

  13. Fossil population structure and mortality analysis of the cave bears from Urşilor Cave, north-western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Robu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research in cave bear palaeobiology focusing on population structure and mortality analysis may improve our understanding regarding the ecology of this species which vanished at the end of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 3, prior to Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, if assessed populations are large enough. Such population is available in Urşilor Cave, from north-western Romania, known as one of the most rich and complex European MIS3 cave bear sites. From the palaeontological excavation, situated at the lower level of the cave (= Scientific Reserve, more than 210 cave bear isolated lower molars, 160 mandibles and almost 180 canines were extracted and analyzed. The results obtained on the wear stages of the studied molars and mandibles indicated an “L”-shaped curve and suggest a non-attritional death pattern and a bone assemblage juvenile dominated. Moreover, the sex-ratio of upper and lower canines indicates a net dominance of females (5.4 females: 1 male. Although a “catastrophic” death pattern was obtained for cave bears, the animals seem to have died diachronically (non-simultaneously, over a time span of more than 6000 years. The triangular graph of age distribution is not appropriate for death assemblages from traps such as karst caves, where taphonomic processes like predation or scavenging would have played a less important role.

  14. The Central Valencian region in the context of the Neolithisation of the North-Western Mediterranean facade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Atiénzar, Gabriel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of neolithisation of the Mediterranean facade of the Iberian Peninsula has traditionally been associated with the cardial paradigm of the french-iberian region. However, better knowledge of the material record from the north-western Mediterranean arc, the revision of various archaeological sites of the central Valencian region and observation of the patterns of occupation and exploitation of territory in the western Mediterranean allow us to propose a process of Neolithic introduction that is more complex than previously thought and be linked with the world of the Mediterranean impressed pottery.

    El proceso de neolitización de la fachada mediterránea peninsular se ha asociado tradicionalmente al paradigma cardial del ámbito franco-ibérico. No obstante, el mejor conocimiento del registro material del arco noroccidental mediterráneo, la revisión de diversos conjuntos arqueológicos de las comarcas centromeridionales valencianas y la observación de los patrones de ocupación y explotación del territorio en el Mediterráneo occidental permiten proponer un proceso de implantación neolítica más complejo del considerado hasta ahora que se puede enlazar con el mundo de la ceramica impressa mediterránea.

  15. Muddy waters and the Wadden Sea harbours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekelen, van E.; Baptist, M.J.; Dankers, P.; Grasmeijer, B.T.; Kessel, van T.; Maren, van D.S.

    2016-01-01

    Several harbours along the Dutch Wadden Sea deal with large siltation rates and limited possibilities for developments. However, development of new harbour activities is needed for these harbours to be able to survive in the long run. As these harbours lie in or close to areas with a protected

  16. Unsaturated fish assemblages in rivers of the North-Western France : potential consequences for species introductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BELKESSAM D.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Introductions of freshwater fish into French rivers have been carried out with increasing frequency in the last decades. Thus, the potential impact of these introductions is of major concern for biologists and fishery managers. Knowledge of the degree of saturation of a community provides an important basis for understanding how the community reacts or will react to the introduction of new species. In this paper, we compare local and regional freshwater fish species richness in similar sizes tributaries and coastal rivers located in the same biogeographic region (North-Western France. We show 1 that species richness is greater for tributaries than for coastal rivers on both local (station and regional (catchment scales, and 2 that, whatever the rivers studied (tributaries or coastal rivers, there is a significant, positive linear relationship between local species richness and regional species richness. These findings suggest that local, and probably regional, freshwater fish communities in North-Western French rivers are unsaturated and thus, that major impacts on the community, such as short-term extinctions, are not to be expected. However, competition for food and space, predation, introduction of exotic parasites and diseases, could also affect some native species.

  17. Impact of meteorological factors on the emergence of bronchiolitis in North-western Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsabouri, S; Gkoutsias, A; Lolis, C J; Makis, A; Chaliasos, N; Bartzokas, A

    2017-05-05

    To evaluate the relationship between meteorological factors in North-western Greece and the incidence of bronchiolitis. Meteorological data (air temperature and rainfall) for Ioannina city in North-western Greece and medical data from hospitalised patients at University Hospital of Ioannina were collected between January 2002 and December 2013. The association between meteorological factors and rate of hospitalisation due to bronchiolitis was investigated. The data processing was done using the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient and applying the chi-square test at contingency tables of the parameters. Of the 792 hospitalised cases, 670 related to infants (<1 year) and 122 concerned patients aged 1-2 years old. The disease is more common among boys (59.5%) than girls (40.5%). The disease course through the year has a double variation with a main maximum in March and a main minimum in August. The statistical study showed statistically significant correlation of bronchiolitis with: (a) the temperature parameters on an annual basis; (b) precipitation in autumn and dryness in spring; and (c) with sudden changes in diurnal temperature range on an annual basis. A peak incidence of bronchiolitis was noticed in cold and wet seasons during the five days preceding hospitalisation. Copyright © 2017 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Observed Current Variability on the North Western Bay of Bengal using HF Radar Derived Ocean Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, S.; Sil, S.

    2016-12-01

    A pair of HF Radar (Courtesy: INCOIS, Hyderabad) has been operating in the North Western Bay of Bengal (BoB) along the Odisha Coast from late 2009 to enable us to study the current variability in this region for the very first time. Due to the absence of the observed in-situ current observations, the HF radar derived surface currents are validated with geostrophic (AVISO) and the wind driven (ASCAT) currents on the daily scale. The higher correlation in the current magnitude and direction gave the confidence to study the high frequency variability. The tidal analysis of the HF Radar datasets indicates that the semi-diurnal tidal component (M2) dominates in the North-Western BoB along with S2 and N2 components. This result agrees with the past studies from the tide observations and model. In addition, the well-known diurnal tidal components K1, O1 and Q1 have also been observed, pointing out that the tidal regime is of mixed type and mainly semi-diurnal. Keywords: Bay of Bengal, HF Radar, Ocean currents, Ocean Circulation, Tides

  19. Seasonal and Interannual Variability of the North-Western Black Sea Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Staneva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the coupling between physical and biogeochemical models and analyses the response of the ecosystem in the north-western Black Sea to nutrient loads and climate changes. The basic physical and biological dynamics of the upper north-western Black Sea is illustrated as well. The physical model is based on the Princeton Ocean Model (POM; additionally, a parameterisation of mixed layer is included. The biogeochemical model is based on the European Regional Sea Ecosystem Model (ERSEM and consists of five modules: (1 primary producers, (2 microbial loop, (3 mesozooplankton, (4 benthic nutrients, and (5 benthic biology. The ecosystem in ERSEM is subdivided into three functional types, producers (phytoplankton, decomposers (pelagic and benthic bacteria and consumers (zooplankton and zoobenthos. Model-data comparisons have been performed for both calibrating and verifying coupled model simulations. We address here the impact of nutrient discharge from the Danube River on the functioning of the biological system. The evolution of the mixed layer, as well as the response of the biological system to variability of the nutrient discharge from the Danube River is described in detail. Several scenarios have been developed to study the impact which nutrient reduction has on the coastal marine system. The model predictions indicate that the biological system is very sensitive to the changes in nutrient concentrations, as well as to their ratios.

  20. Inner harbour wave agitation using boussinesq wave model

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    Panigrahi Jitendra K.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Short crested waves play an important role for planning and design of harbours. In this context a numerical simulation is carried out to evaluate wave tranquility inside a real harbour located in east coast of India. The annual offshore wave climate proximity- to harbour site is established using Wave Model (WAM hindcast wave data. The deep water waves are transformed to harbour front using a Near Shore spectral Wave model (NSW. A directional analysis is carried out to determine the probable incident wave directions towards the harbour. Most critical threshold wave height and wave period is chosen for normal operating conditions using exceedence probability analysis. Irregular random waves from various directions are generated confirming to Pierson Moskowitz spectrum at 20m water depth. Wave incident into inner harbor through harbor entrance is performed using Boussinesq Wave model (BW. Wave disturbance experienced inside the harbour and at various berths are analysed. The paper discusses the progresses took place in short wave modeling and it demonstrates application of wave climate for the evaluation of harbor tranquility using various types of wave models.

  1. Inner harbour wave agitation using boussinesq wave model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra K. Panigrahi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Short crested waves play an important role for planning and design of harbours. In this context a numerical simulation is carried out to evaluate wave tranquility inside a real harbour located in east coast of India. The annual offshore wave climate proximity to harbour site is established using Wave Model (WAM hindcast wave data. The deep water waves are transformed to harbour front using a Near Shore spectral Wave model (NSW. A directional analysis is carried out to determine the probable incident wave directions towards the harbour. Most critical threshold wave height and wave period is chosen for normal operating conditions using exceedence probability analysis. Irregular random waves from various directions are generated confirming to Pierson Moskowitz spectrum at 20 m water depth. Wave incident into inner harbor through harbor entrance is performed using Boussinesq Wave model (BW. Wave disturbance experienced inside the harbour and at various berths are analysed. The paper discusses the progresses took place in short wave modeling and it demonstrates application of wave climate for the evaluation of harbor tranquility using various types of wave models.

  2. SECURITY SYSTEMS FOR MARITIME HARBOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgică SLĂMNOIU

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure protection objectives are at the top of the agenda of those responsible in the European Union. Currently Romania is one of the countries on its eastern border of the Union and this has special implications in terms of security measures that are required to be implemented. Ships and harbours are important current conflict stage. An integrated system of protection of harbours must be prepared in advance in order to continuously provide information that will increase the overall performance of the intervention forces.

  3. Soligenous wetlands of North-western Poland as an environment for endangered mire species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesław Wołejko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental conditions and the occurrence of protected and rare species have been studied in 18 groundwater-fed wetland complexes in north-western Poland. The plant cover of studied objects consisted of 81 syntaxa of water-, spring-, rush and sedge-, mire-, meadow-, tall-forb-, willow carr- and alderwood communities, as well as of 4 syntaxa of the mesophytic forests. Their microhabitat differentiation has been discussed. The expression of environmental conditions in the groundwater-fed communities has been analysed on the basis of Ellenberg's indicator values and the occurrence of protected and rare species. A signifficant negative correlation has been found between the occurrence of rare species and the trophy index. The special position of the mesotrophic rich fen communities, concerning their role in preservation of a large number of endangered species, as well as of rare plant communities is emphasized.

  4. Beyond Positive Sciences : an Anthropological Approach to Market Analysis in North-Western Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessein, JPG.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Western science has often been thought of as an universally applicable, dominant and neutral knowledge system. Recently this view has been challenged by various scientists, who try to revalue the subjugated knowledge systems of local people by appreciating its characteristics. But this upgrading of endogenous knowledge often is but another example of the hegemonie position of Western science : it evaluates local situations with Western criteria, neglecting the cultural paradigms of the people involved. This article is a plea for a new multidisciplinary and intercultural research approach which takes as its foundation an understanding of the local culture and paradigms on which selected topics can be analysed, rather than a traditional disciplinary approach in which, afterwards, a foreign cultural component is being inscribed. This appeal is supported by material from a local market in North-western Ghana, where the Lobi peasants sell their harvest to the Wala traders.

  5. Evaluation of artificial radioactivity of the North Western Mediterranean Sea and evaluation of the sanitary consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmet, D.; Daburon, M.L.; Willemot, J.M. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France))

    1985-01-01

    The results of radiological measurements of the North Western Mediterranean observation network outline the level of artificial radionuclides coming from industrial seewages, WRu and from atmospheric fall out, TXCs and sup(239 + 240)Pu measured on 3 differents types of bioindicators: Mytilus sp., Posidonia oceanica (L.) Del. and demersal fishes as Solea sp., Anguilla anguilla L., Conger conger L. Mytilus sp. is quite a perfect bioindicator of radionuclides contamination but must be linked with fishes sampling which muscles concentrate Cesium at higher level. The sanitary consequences for the waterside population involved by molluscs and fishes ingestion contamined by these 3 radionuclides lead to a fraction (10 V) of the annual dose limit recommanded by the ICRP 26.

  6. Chemical Composition of the Volatile Components of Tropaeolum majus L. (Garden Nasturtium from North Western Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. BENYELLES

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil from Tropaeolum majus L. aerial parts, a plant native to North Western Algeria, was obtained by hydrodistillation. The oil volatile components were identified by a combination of gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID, GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS techniques, and NMR spectroscopy. Nine components representing 92.0 % of the essential oil total (GC/FID chromatogram were identified. The most abundant compounds were benzyl isothiocyanate (82.5 %, benzene acetonitrile (3.9 % and 2-phenylethyl isovalerate (2.9 %. Higher content in nitrogen- and sulfur-containing compounds accounting to 86.4 % of the volatile fraction composition of T. majus were quantified.

  7. Pictorial keys for predominant Bactrocera and Dacus fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae of north western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Prabhakar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A pictorial key for 13 species of fruit flies under 2 genera namely Bactrocera and Dacus of subfamily Dacinae (Diptera: Tephritidae is presented in this paper based on actual photographs of fruit flies collected from north western Himalaya of India during 2009-2010. Among these, Bactrocera diversa (Coquillett, Bactrocera scutellaris (Bezzi, Bactrocera tau (Walker, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders, Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel, Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel and Dacus ciliatus Loew are the pests of agricultural and horticultural ecosystems. Bactrocera latifrons, Bactrocera nigrofemoralis White and Tsuruta, Dacus longicornis Wiedemann and Dacus sphaeroidalis (Bezzi are the new records from the region of which host range has yet to be investigated. The pictorial keysdeveloped for these species will help the researchers for their easy and accurate identification.

  8. Postglacial uplift of the Earth crust in the North-Western part of the Kola region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolstobrov D.S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The new lithological, micropaleontological and chronological data received as a result of studying the lake bottom sediments sequences in a valley of the Tuloma River have been presented. Investigation of lakes situated in different areas of the Tuloma River valley at different elevations and their correlation with position of ancient marine coastal lines and forms has allowed recognizing the character of sedimentation and specific of neotectonic movements of the Earth's crust in the Late Glacial and Holocene in the North-Western part of the Kola region. The equidistant diagram of relative lines of the Earth's crust uplift has been presented for the studied area. The magnitude of the different-age uplift correlated to these lines, and uplift gradient along the valley of the Tuloma River and Kola Bay of the Barents Sea has been estimated

  9. Ectopic pelvic kidney in a neonate in Gusau, Zamfara, North Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilkisu Garba Ilah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic kidney occurs as a result of cessation in migration of kidneys to their usual position in the lumbar region. Several cases have been reported worldwide, however only one case of ectopic kidney in infant has been reported in North Western Nigeria which was not a pelvic kidney. We present an incidental case of unilateral ectopic pelvic kidney managed in our facility. A 28-day-old male infant presented with a week history of crying while defecating and fever. He had normal abdominal findings. Abdominal ultra sound scan revealed a unilateral left ectopic pelvic kidney with no associated abnormalities. Full blood count showed elevated white blood cell count predominately neutrophils. He was managed as a case of neonatal sepsis with antibiotics. A thorough antenatal ultrasonography and early neonatal ultrasound are required for early diagnosis. Asymptomatic and noncomplicated cases are managed conservatively.

  10. [B chromosome polymorphism of blackflies (Diptera, Simuliidae) from the north-western region of Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubareva, L A; Petrova, N A

    2006-01-01

    We have studied karyofonds of natural populations and B-chromosome morphology of 8 species of blackflies from the North-Western region of Russia: Odagmia ornata Mg., Hellichiella crassa Rubz., Simulium morsitans Edw., Simulium argyreatum Mg., Shoenbaueria pusilla Fries., Cnetha fontinalis Radzv., Stegopterna duo-decimata Rubz., and Archesimulium tuberosum Lundstr. For this purpose we made slides of squashed blackflies larvae with salivary gland polytene chromosomes stained by aceto-orcein, in addition to similarly stained slides with mitotic chromosomes from gonads and ganglia. Morphology of polytene B-chromosomes of Shoenbaueria pusilla Fries., Cnetha fontinalis Radzv., Stegopterna duodecimata Rubz., and Archesimulium tuberosum Lundstr. has been first described. B-chromosome polymorphism was found in all species, but the number of B chromosomes was conserved within each differences in polytene individual. Stable and distinct interspecific differences in the morphology of polytene B-chromosomes were demonstrated, and these characters are advisable to use to distinguish the species. We have investigated for the first time karyofonds of Od. ornata populations from Arkhangelsk Region (Solovetskie Islands) and Leningrad Region (railway station Sablino), and those of S. argyreatum populations from Murmansk Region (Kandalaksha environs) and Karelia (railway station Chupa). A long term study of Od. ornata and S. argyrestum population from North-Western Russia revealed interspecific and interpopulation dynamics of the occurrence of specimens with B-chromosomes. Some populations showed an increased percentage of individuals with B-chromosomes. It is suggested that B-chromosomes may play a role in adaptation of polulations to severe environmental conditions.

  11. Modern epidemiology of hepatitis A in the north-western region of the Russian Federation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shliakhtenko, L; Plotnikova, V; Levakova, I; Rubis, L; Solovieva, E; Mukomolov, S

    2008-10-01

    The epidemiological features of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection were studied in eleven territories located in the north-western region of the Russian Federation. The dynamics of HAV infection in Russia and in the region were evaluated during a 17-year period. The age-specific incidence was calculated and 229 305 patients with acute HAV were identified. The analysed database included HA mixed with other viral hepatitis infections: it included information about 8 809 HAV patients. Special attention has been paid to the sero-epidemiological studies conducted in St Petersburg city. These studies included analysis of age-specific incidence in persons 20 years of age and older during 6 years and testing of blood sera from 1 892 healthy persons for IgG anti-HAV. In general there is a trend to reduction of HAV incidence in Russia, and in the north-western region, high indices were registered in some provinces in different years. It was established three types of age-specific incidence distribution: predominated incidence in 3-14 years of age (first type), 15-29 years of age (second type) and uniform distribution in different age groups (third type). It was shown that decrease of HAV incidence in children and young adults lead to the reduction of sero-positivity level in the groups 20+ years of age. These characteristics should be taken in account to define indications for HAV vaccine prophylaxis. HAV infection in 10-13% of cases mixed with acute or chronic hepatitis B and C in the last 15 years in St Petersburg. In the middle of 1990s, HAV mostly mixed with acute viral hepatitis of different aetiology, but in the modern time predominated type of mixture was presented by HAV and chronic HBV and HCV infections. The obtained results are useful for viral hepatitis surveillance and control.

  12. Impact of oil pollution on the North-western coast of Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksissou, M.

    2003-04-01

    The North-western coast of Morocco has approximately 160 km from Asila city while passing by the towns of Tangier, Fnideq, M'diq and Tetouan to Oued Laou and shelters wetlands (lake Smir.), beaches, cliffs and mountains. Investigations carried out in 2000-2001 in this zone show scattered beaches and wetlands (Smir lake, Maleh river) polluted by oil. These polluted beaches and coastal wetlands are generally close to Marina or fishing ports and to the residential areas. Cases of fish (Rays and other Chondrychtiens), tortoises (Caretta caretta) and dolphins dead have been noted in some of these beaches during spring and summer (2000-2001) most probably because of oil pollution. Increased dredging in beaches (Haouara, Martil...) involves the salinity of the ground water and the disturbance of the marine biodiversity. Some management (construction of Kabila marina and Smir dam) involved disturbance of hydrology (salinity increased) and biodiversity (migration of the Birds from Smir lake towards Smir dam) in Smir lake. This management, dredging, algae extraction and oil act on the coastal biodiversity and involve the deterioration of the natural environment. The beaches polluted by oil obstruct the tourism activity. Measurements of prevention (by prohibition to get rid of the motor oil and the washing of the boats on the open sea, construction of sewage stations and industrial water purification) are necessary for the conservation of biological diversity and the tourism development. The cleaning of the beaches polluted within the framework of the activities of the ONG or the local communities is also necessary. An integrated coastal zone management is necessary for the nature conservation and the sustainable development of the North Western of Morocco. Keywords: Oil pollution, Biodiversity, Coast, Morocco.

  13. Pubertal breast development in primary school girls in Sokoto, North-western Nigeria

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    M O Ugege

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is wide variation in normal pubertal timing among various populations. Objectives. To determine the mean age of pubertal stages of breast development and menarche, and the influence of nutrition and ethnicity on pubertal onset in primary school girls in Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria. Methods. A cross-sectional study using a multistage random sampling design was conducted on 994 primary school girls in grades 3 - 6. Weight and height measurements and Tanner breast staging were done. Body mass index (BMI was calculated, and a BMI-for-age percentile was used to categorise nutritional status. There were four major ethnic groups. P≤0.05 was taken as showing statistical significance. Results. The participants’ mean age was 10.23 years (standard deviation (SD 1.70, range 6 - 15 years. Of the 994 girls, 628 (63.2% were pre-pubertal, and 366 (36.8% were pubertal. Of the latter, 158 (15.9% were in breast stage 2, while 112 (11.3%, 70 (7.0% and 26 (2.6% were in breast stages 3, 4 and 5, respectively. The mean ages (SD; range of pubertal onset and menarche were 10.50 (1.33; 8 - 13, and 12.67 (1.65; 11 - 15, years, respectively. The overnourished (overweight/obese and Igbo ethnic group girls had early-normal pubertal onset (p=0.006 and p=0.001, respectively. Conclusion. The mean ages of Tanner breast stages 1 - 5 and menarcheal age of girls in Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria, were within the age ranges reported worldwide. Pubertal onset was influenced by nutrition.

  14. Aquatic Coleoptera assemblages in protected wetlands of North-western Spain

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    Amaia Pérez-Bilbao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are diverse and productive ecosystems endangered by human pressure, which degradation implies a biodiversity loss worldwide. Among the biological assemblages of these habitats, aquatic Coleoptera is one of the most diverse and useful groups when assessing the ecological conditions of the ecosystems they inhabit. The aims of the present study were to analyze the diversity and composition of aquatic Coleoptera assemblages in 24 wetlands protected by the Natura 2000 network of North-western Spain and the influence of environmental variables on the distribution of species, in order to detect differences between the different types of standing water habitats. A total of 11,136 individuals of 105 species belonging to 12 families of aquatic Coleoptera (Gyrinidae, Haliplidae, Noteridae, Paelobiidae, Dytiscidae, Helophoridae, Hydrochidae, Hydrophilidae, Hydraenidae, Scirtidae, Elmidae and Dryopidae were collected. In general, wetlands presented high richness and diversity values, Dytiscidae and Hydrophilidae having the highest species richness. Most of recorded species have a wide biogeographical distribution and only 12 endemic ones were captured. Cluster and Non-Metric Multi-Dimensional Scaling (NMDS analyses showed the clustering of the studied ponds and lagoons in four groups based on biological data. In general, the wetlands of each group seem to have distinct aquatic Coleoptera faunas, as showed by the most representative species. A combination of altitude, SST and hydroperiod was the best explaining factor of the distribution of the species throughout the study area. This study shows the high biodiversity of standing water habitats in North-western Spain and the usefulness of water beetles in establishing habitat typologies.

  15. The interruption of Onchocerca volvulus and Wuchereria bancrofti transmission by integrated chemotherapy in the Obongi focus, North Western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luroni, Lakwo Thomson; Gabriel, Matwale; Tukahebwa, Edridah; Onapa, Ambrose Winston; Tinkitina, Benjamin; Tukesiga, Ephraim; Nyaraga, Michael; Auma, Anna Mary; Habomugisha, Peace; Byamukama, Edson; Oguttu, David; Katabarwa, Moses; Unnasch, Thomas Raymond

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have documented the interruption of onchocerciasis and Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) by integrated chemotherapy in Uganda. The study describes the interruption of transmission of the two diseases co-endemic in Obongi focus, north western Uganda. Base line data for Onchocerciasis and LF were collected in 1994 and 2006, respectively. Annual mass drug administration for onchocerciasis (Ivermectin) and Lymphatic Filariasis (Ivermectin + albendazole) was conducted for 20 and 6 years, respectively. Thereafter, assessments by skin snip, larval searches in rivers and human landing catches were performed. Children 65% was achieved in the six treatment rounds. Household ownership of ITN's and utilization was 96% and 72.4%., respectively. Parasitological examinations conducted for onchocerciasis among 807 adults and children, revealed a reduction in mf prevalence from 58% in 1994 to 0% in 2012. Entomological monitoring conducted at the two sites had no single Simulium damnosum fly caught. Serological analysis using Ov16 ELISA for onchocerciasis revealed that out of the 3,308 children <10 years old screened in 2013, only 3/3308 (0.091%) positive cases were detected. All Ov16 positive children were negative when tested for patent infection by skin snip PCR. A reduction in LF microfilaria prevalence from 2.5% (n = 13/522) in 2006 to 0.0% (n = 602) in 2014 was observed. LF TAS1 conducted in 2015 among 1,532 children 6-7 years, all were negative for antigens of W. bancrofti. The results concluded that interruption of onchocerciasis and LF has been achieved.

  16. The interruption of Onchocerca volvulus and Wuchereria bancrofti transmission by integrated chemotherapy in the Obongi focus, North Western Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakwo Thomson Luroni

    Full Text Available Few studies have documented the interruption of onchocerciasis and Lymphatic Filariasis (LF by integrated chemotherapy in Uganda. The study describes the interruption of transmission of the two diseases co-endemic in Obongi focus, north western Uganda. Base line data for Onchocerciasis and LF were collected in 1994 and 2006, respectively. Annual mass drug administration for onchocerciasis (Ivermectin and Lymphatic Filariasis (Ivermectin + albendazole was conducted for 20 and 6 years, respectively. Thereafter, assessments by skin snip, larval searches in rivers and human landing catches were performed. Children 65% was achieved in the six treatment rounds. Household ownership of ITN's and utilization was 96% and 72.4%., respectively.Parasitological examinations conducted for onchocerciasis among 807 adults and children, revealed a reduction in mf prevalence from 58% in 1994 to 0% in 2012. Entomological monitoring conducted at the two sites had no single Simulium damnosum fly caught. Serological analysis using Ov16 ELISA for onchocerciasis revealed that out of the 3,308 children <10 years old screened in 2013, only 3/3308 (0.091% positive cases were detected. All Ov16 positive children were negative when tested for patent infection by skin snip PCR. A reduction in LF microfilaria prevalence from 2.5% (n = 13/522 in 2006 to 0.0% (n = 602 in 2014 was observed. LF TAS1 conducted in 2015 among 1,532 children 6-7 years, all were negative for antigens of W. bancrofti.The results concluded that interruption of onchocerciasis and LF has been achieved.

  17. Reconstruction of Holocene environmental changes in Southern Kurils (North-Western Pacific) based on palaeolake sediment proxies from Shikotan Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarova, Larisa; Grebennikova, Tatiana A.; Razjigaeva, Nadezhda G.; Ganzey, Larisa A.; Belyanina, Nina I.; Arslanov, Khikmat A.; Kaistrenko, Victor M.; Gorbunov, Aleksey O.; Kharlamov, Andrey A.; Rudaya, Natalia; Palagushkina, Olga; Biskaborn, Boris K.; Diekmann, Bernhard

    2017-12-01

    We investigated a well-dated sediment section of a palaeolake situated in the coastal zone of Shikotan Island (Lesser Kurils) for organic sediment-geochemistry and biotic components (diatoms, chironomids, pollen) in order to provide a reconstruction of the palaeoenvironmental changes and palaeo-events (tsunamis, sea-level fluctuations and landslides) in Holocene. During the ca 8000 years of sedimentation the changes in organic sediment-geochemistry and in composition of the diatoms and chironomids as well as the shifts in composition of terrestrial vegetation suggest that the period until ca 5800 cal yr BP was characterized by a warm and humid climate (corresponds to middle Holocene optimum) with climate cooling thereafter. A warm period reconstructed from ca 900 to at least ca 580 cal yr BP corresponds to a transition to a Nara-Heian-Kamakura warm stage and can be correlated to a Medieval Warm Period. After 580 cal yr PB, the lake gradually dried out and climatic signals could not be obtained from the declining lacustrine biological communities, but the increasing role of spruce and disappearance of the oak from the vegetation give evidences of the climate cooling that can be correlated with the LIA. The marine regression stages at the investigated site are identified for ca 6200-5900 (at the end of the middle Holocene transgression), ca 5500-5100 (Middle Jomon regression or Kemigawa regression), and ca 1070-360 cal yr BP (at the end of Heian transgression). The lithological structure of sediments and the diatom compositions give evidences for the multiple tsunami events of different strengths in the Island. Most remarkable of them can be dated at around ca 7000, 6460, 5750, 4800, 950 cal yr BP. The new results help to understand the Holocene environmental history of the Southern Kurils as a part of the Kuril-Kamchatka and Aleutian Marginal Sea-Island Arc Systems in the North-Western Pacific region.

  18. Site-Specific Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik; Hemmersam, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Currently, cities across the Northern European region are actively redeveloping their former industrial harbours. Indeed, harbours areas are essential in the long-term transition from industrial to information and experience societies; harbours are becoming sites for new businesses and residences...... question is how innovation may contribute to urban life and site-specific qualities....

  19. Household-Level Determinants of Soil and Water Conservation Adoption Phases: Evidence from North-Western Ethiopian Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teshome, Akalu; Graaff, de J.; Kassie, M.

    2016-01-01

    Soil and water conservation (SWC) practices have been promoted in the highlands of Ethiopia during the last four decades. However, the level of adoption of SWC practices varies greatly. This paper examines the drivers of different stages of adoption of SWC technologies in the north-western highlands

  20. Provisions for the Elderly in North-Western Europe: Almshouses around the North Sea, Sixteenth-Twentieth Centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    In Early Modern north-western Europe a unique form of charitable foundation developed – almshouses. These were inhabited by elderly men and women, who had led honourable middle-class lives, but had become unable to support themselves. In towns that were rapidly growing through immigration, many

  1. Linguistic advergence and divergence in north-western Catalan : A dialectometric investigation of dialect leveling and border effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valls, Esteve; Wieling, Martijn; Nerbonne, John

    This article investigates several linguistic changes which are ongoing in north-western Catalan using a contemporary corpus. We take advantage of a range of dialectometric methods that allow us to calculate and analyse the linguistic distance between varieties in apparent time from an aggregate

  2. Investments in land management in the north-western highlands of Ethiopia: the role of social capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firew, A.T.; Graaff, de J.; Kessler, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    In the north-western highlands of Ethiopia investments in land management (LM) have not always been successful. The objectives of this study were to assess farmers⿿ perceptions about implementation approaches of soil and water conservation (SWC) practices and to explore the relationship between the

  3. Spatial variability of the structure of the lower troposphere over north western Indian Ocean during 1983 summer monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Sadhuram, Y.; Michael, G.S.; Rao, L.V.G.

    The spatial variability of the structure of the lower troposphere over the north western Indian Ocean during the period 12th July to 2nd September, 1983 has been studied using the upper air data collected during the first scientific cruise of @i...

  4. High amphibian diversity related to unexpected environmental values in a biogeographic transitional area in north-western Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, J.M.; Berlanga-Robles, C.A.; Ruiz-Luna, A.

    2014-01-01

    Amphibian diversity and distribution patterns in Sinaloa state (north-western Mexico) were assessed from the Global Amphibian Assessment database (GAA-2010). A geographic information system (GIS) was used to evaluate diversity based on distribution maps of 41 species, associated with environmental

  5. Nematodes of the genus Amidostomum (Railliet et Henry, 1909) in wild ducks (Anatinae) of North-western Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavetska, K.M.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    The study was aimed to quantify infections with nematodes of the genus Amidostomum in wild ducks of north-western Poland. The birds examined (282 individuals re-presenting 16 species) belonged to three, ecologically different, tribes: the Anatini, Aythyini and Mergini. The 923 individuals of

  6. Conodont biostratigraphy of the Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician of north-western Öland, south-eastern Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wamel, W.A. van

    1974-01-01

    This paper forms part of the author's thesis "Lithostratigraphy, environmental interpretation and conodont biostratigraphy of the Upper Cambrian and Lower Ordovician of north-western bland, south-eastern Sweden". The purpose of this investigation was to unravel the lithogenesis and the history

  7. Evaluation of soil and water conservation practices in the north-western Ethiopian highlands using multi-criteria analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teshome Firew, A.; Graaff, de J.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2014-01-01

    Investments by farmers in soil and water conservation (SWC) practices are influenced by the physical effectiveness, financial efficiency, and social acceptability of these practices. The objective of this study is to evaluate different SWC practices in the north-western highlands of Ethiopia using

  8. Recent findings regarding non-native or poorly known diatom taxa in north-western Italian rivers

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    Elisa Falasco

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Diatoms of the major rivers of North-Western Italy were investigated to highlight the presence of species of particular ecological interest but not as yet recorded. The survey area included streams belonging to seven different hydroecoregions (HERs with a wide range of physical characteristics. Between 2008 and 2010, 200 samples were taken for the study of the diatom community composition, while a larger set of samples was examined to determine the presence or absence of the nuisance diatom species Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngbye Schmidt. A specific field study was performed in two rivers characterized by persistent blooms of this species to evaluate the effects of its proliferation on the benthic communities. D. geminata was present in almost 20% of the samples. From a comparison with published data, we can confirm that D. geminata has recently been expanding its ecological range, as it has been found also in mesotrophic lowlands water. In some instances the formation of massive proliferation has been recorded. The calculation of autecological values confirmed its preference for oligotrophic waters with low mineral content and organic loading, although with a wider ecological amplitude than recorded in the first studies on this species. Another four taxa of particular interest were detected: Achnanthidium subhudsonis (Hustedt Kobayasi (in 15 sites, Cymbella tropica Krammer (11 sites, Mayamaea cahabaensis Morales and Manoylov (2 sites and Reimeria uniseriata Sala, Guerrero and Ferrario (18 sites. The first three species must be considered new records for Northern Italy. A. subhudsonis and C. tropica reached up to 20% relative abundance. From the analysis of their distribution and autecological values, we can assert that A. subhudsonis and M. cahabaensis show a preference for high values of nitrogen, this latter preferring also quite high values of total phosphorus. C. tropica prefers intermediate values of nitrogen nutrients and R. uniseriata is

  9. LATTARA: the ancient and Medieval harbour of Lattes

    OpenAIRE

    Marriner, Nick

    2009-01-01

    The LATTARA series, named after the ancient town, publishes work on the archaeological site of Latte and its harbour environment. Subjects discussed range from past research to recent multidisciplinary excavations. Over three decades ago, Arnal et al. (1974) published «Le port de Lattara (Lattes, Hérault)» a work which summarised the discoveries made in and around Latte. The term «harbour» was taken in the largest sense of the word, that is to say a maritime city with strong links to the sea....

  10. Prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia among blood donors in Sokoto, North Western, Nigeria

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    Buhari Hauwa Ali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the prevalence and socio-demographic factors associated with iron deficiency anaemia among blood donors in Sokoto, North Western, Nigeria using a combination of haemoglobin haematocrit and serum ferritin measurements. Methods: One hundred and fifty consecutively recruited whole blood donors, comprising of 148 (98.7% family replacement donors and 2 (1.3% voluntary non-remunerated donors aged 18-60 years and mean age 39±21 years constituted the subjects for this study. The full blood count was carried out using Mythic 22 CT fully automated haematology analyser (Orphee SA, Switzerland. Serum was tested for ferritin using a human ferritin enzyme immunoassay kitACCU Diag™ ELISA Ferritin kit (Diagnostic Automation/Cortez Diagnostic Inc. California, USA. Results: The prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin<11.0 g/dL was evident in 24 (16% and iron deficiency anaemia (serum ferritin<12 ng/mL+haemoglobin<11 g/dL in 5 (10% of donors. The haemoglobin and ferritin levels was significantly lower among regular voluntary remunerated blood donors (13.50±0.00 and 34.88±0.00 compared to family replacement donors (14.10±2.40 and 74.12±45.20 respectively (P=0.01 and 0.05 respectively. The mean haemoglobin and ferritin level was compared among donors based on gender. The haemoglobin and ferritin was significantly higher among male donors (14.20±2.00, 78.02±49.10 compared to female donors (12.35±2.5 and 42.20±32.13 (P=0.01. The mean haemoglobin and ferritin level was compared among donors based on occupational groups. The haemoglobin and ferritin was significantly higher among civil servants compared to farmers and students (P=0.01. Conclusions: Iron deficiency anaemia is prevalent among blood donors in Sokoto, North Western, Nigeria. There is need to include routine ferritin in the blood donor testing protocol in the area to enable the diagnosis of donors with latent iron deficiency anaemia to facilitate iron supplementation for

  11. Transfer pricing and safe harbours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Solilová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transfer prices are significant for both taxpayers and tax administrations because they determine in large part taxable profits of associated enterprises in different tax jurisdictions. Moreover, in the context of taxation, transfer prices must be complied with the arm’s length principle. However, Multinational Enterprises have been faced daily by conflicting rules and approaches to applying the arm’s length principle, burdensome documentation requirements, inconsistent audit standards and unpredictable competent authority outcomes. Therefore, the Committee on Fiscal Affairs launched another project on the administrative aspects of transfer pricing in 2010. On 16 May 2013 as a partial solution of this project was approved by the OECD Council the Revised Section E on Safe Harbours in Chapter IV of the Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Authorities. The paper is focused on significant changes of newly approved chapter IV of the Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Authorities, further on analysis of practice in this area, on advantages and disadvantages of safe harbours for taxpayers and competent authorities with aim to suggest recommendations on use of safe harbours in the Czech Republic.

  12. Emissions of N2O from organic soils managed by agriculture in North Western Denmark (Possible production and reduction spots)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh-Toosi, Arezoo; Elsgaard, Lars; Ernstsen, Vibeke; Clough, Tim J.; Petersen, Søren O.

    2017-04-01

    In North Western Denmark, organic soils are extensively under agricultural management for cereal and high-value cash crop production or as grazing land. The area (overlying raised seabed) has been classified as potentially acid sulfate soil. Drainage and tillage of organic soil is known to promote emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), but a previous monitoring program found annual N2O emissions from adjacent fields with rotational grass and potato that were, respectively, 3 and 5 times higher than default values proposed by The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2014). In order to study underlying mechanisms, the same two sites and two new reference sites along an East-West transect were investigated during 2015. The four sites (i.e. two with rotational grass and two sites with a potato crop) were equipped for weekly monitoring of soil surface N2O emissions and sub-soil N2O concentrations to 1 m depth during spring and autumn 2015. Also, various environmental variables (precipitation, air and soil temperature, soil moisture, groundwater level, and soil mineral N) were monitored. In April and August 2015, intact cores to 1 m depth were collected at the paired grassland and potato sites and analysed for pH, EC, nitrite, reactive Fe, acid volatile S (AVS) and chromium-reducible S (CRS). Nitrous oxide concentrations in the soil profile showed strong temporal dynamics reflecting water table changes, as well as precipitation and in some cases fertilization. At the paired site concentrations in the potato field (reaching 2000 μL N2O L-1) were much higher than in the adjacent grassland (up to 20 μL N2O L-1). Soil pH averaged 4.9 at the two paired sites. The difference was confirmed at reference sites. Accumulated emissions of N2O during monitoring periods (in total 151-174 d) corresponded to 18 and 48 kg N ha-1 at potato sites, but only 3 and 4 kg N ha-1 at the grassland sites. Nitrous oxide accumulated at depth in the soil during phases of declining water

  13. Preliminary report on osteochondrosis in cattle in the north-western parts of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prozesky, Leon; Neser, Johan; Meissner, Heinz; Botha, Kenneth; Jacobs, Lubbe; Shepstone, Craig; Viljoen, Hannes; Köster, Hinner; De Brouwer, Chris; Van Zyl, Jan; Van der Veen, Gerjan

    2016-07-27

    The north-western part of South Africa, in particular, is well known for mineral imbalances. Aphosphorosis, resulting in rickets and osteomalacia, received a lot of attention at the turn of the nineteenth century (1882-1912). This was followed in 1997 by research on Vryburg hepatosis, another area-specific mineral imbalance-related disease in young calves reared on manganese-rich soil derived from the weathering of dolomitic (carbonate) rock formations. In 1982, a totally new syndrome (osteochondrosis) manifested in, amongst others, areas in South Africa where aphosphorosis was rife. Osteochondrosis was also identified in the south-western parts of Namibia as well as southern Botswana and other areas in South Africa. Osteochondrosis has a multifactorial aetiology and this study focused on the role of minerals, particularly phosphorus, in the development of the disease. A significant improvement in the clinical signs in experimental animals and a reduction of osteochondrosis occurred on farms where animals received bioavailable trace minerals and phosphorus as part of a balanced lick. An increase in the occurrence of the disease on farms during severe drought conditions in 2012-2013 prompted researchers to investigate the possible role of chronic metabolic acidosis in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  14. Preliminary report on osteochondrosis in cattle in the north-western parts of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Prozesky

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The north-western part of South Africa, in particular, is well known for mineral imbalances. Aphosphorosis, resulting in rickets and osteomalacia, received a lot of attention at the turn of the nineteenth century (1882–1912. This was followed in 1997 by research on Vryburg hepatosis, another area-specific mineral imbalance–related disease in young calves reared on manganese-rich soil derived from the weathering of dolomitic (carbonate rock formations. In 1982, a totally new syndrome (osteochondrosis manifested in, amongst others, areas in South Africa where aphosphorosis was rife. Osteochondrosis was also identified in the south-western parts of Namibia as well as southern Botswana and other areas in South Africa. Osteochondrosis has a multifactorial aetiology and this study focused on the role of minerals, particularly phosphorus, in the development of the disease. A significant improvement in the clinical signs in experimental animals and a reduction of osteochondrosis occurred on farms where animals received bioavailable trace minerals and phosphorus as part of a balanced lick. An increase in the occurrence of the disease on farms during severe drought conditions in 2012–2013 prompted researchers to investigate the possible role of chronic metabolic acidosis in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  15. Empirical relations to convert magnitudes of the earthquake catalogue for the north western of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belayadi, Ilyes; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Fontiela, João; Nadji, Amansour

    2017-04-01

    North Algeria is one of the most seismically active regions on the western Mediterranean basin and it is related with the boundaries of the Eurasian and Nubian plates. We compiled an earthquake catalogue for the north western of Algeria, within the area -2°W-1°E and 34°N-37°N for the time span 1790 - 2016. To compile the earthquake catalogue we merge all available catalogues either national and international. Then we remove all duplicates and fake earthquakes. The lower level of the catalogue entries is set at M = 2.5. Nevertheless, the magnitudes reported on the catalogue are ML, Ms, Mb, Mw and macroseismic intensity. Thus, we develop new empirical relations to calculate the Mw from the different magnitudes and intensity suitable to the seismic hazard and geodynamic context of North Algeria. Acknowledgements: Ilyes Belayadi is funded entirely by the University of Oran 2 Mohamed Ben Ahmed (Algeria). This work is co-financed by the European Union through the European Regional Development Fund under COMPETE 2020 (Operational Program for Competitiveness and Internationalization) through the ICT project (UID / GEO / 04683/2013) under the reference POCI-01-0145 -FEDER-007690.

  16. Nitrate Determination of Vegetables in Varzeghan City, North-western Iran

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    Parviz Nowrouz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vegetables play an important role in human nutrition. Nitrate content is a signifi-cant quality criterion to determine characteristic of vegetables. About 80% of nitrate intake in human is from vegetables and fruits. High dietary intake of nitrate is seen as an undesirable be-cause of its association with gastric cancer and infantile methemoglobinemia. Varzeghan, North-western Iran is one of the cities with high Age-standardized incidence rates (ASR of gastric can-cer in Iran. Currently, in Varzeghan there is no available and accurate information describing ni-trate concentration as one of the important risk factors of vegetables for human consumption.Methods: In this cross sectional study totally 11 types of vegetables (cabbage, lettuce, spinach, parsley, coriander, dill, leek, fenugreek, tarragon, fumitory and mint from several different green-grocery of Varzeghan were collected in spring (April and autumn (November and December 2011 and their nitrate contents were analyzed.Results: Mean nitrate contents at the above noted fresh vegetables were 161, 781, 83, 707, 441,501, 1702, 684, 805, 772 and 191 mg NO3-kg-1 respectively. In none of the 11 fresh vegetablesnitrate content were not more than established limitations.Conclusion: Nitrate concentrations were below of others reported at different countries. The mean concentration of nitrate at all vegetables in autumn was higher than in spring significantly.

  17. Lost in Translation? Pussy Riot Solidary Activism and the danger of perpetuating North/Western Hegemonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Wiedlack

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article critically discusses solidarity actions in support of Pussy Riot within the global North/West, arguing that most solidarity projects within popular culture as well as within the queer-feminist counterculture are based on a lopsided interpretation of Pussy Riot as Russian version of Riot Grrrl feminists. This one-dimensional interpretation of the performance art group as Riot Grrrl-identities further leads to labelling their performance at the Christ the Saviour Cathedral as anti-religious. Within this framework the group’s negotiation of Orthodox religion within their song lyrics, performances as well as statements is ignored, supporting the binary construction of The North/West as progressive – tolerant and secular – and Russia as backward – dogmatic and fundamentalist religious. We attempt to complicate the view on Pussy Riot’s performances and reread them within the Russian context, highlighting several political statements that got lost in North/Western translations. The focus of the analysis concentrates on the ‘Punk Prayer, its mimicry of religious language and references to the leadership of the Russian Orthodox Church as well as the local public critical discourses.

  18. Urban floods: a case study in the Savigliano area (North-Western Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Audisio

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood processes and effects are examined, concerning two rivers in an urbanized area in North-Western Italy (Piedmont – Cuneo Plain. In May 2008, some areas in Northern Italy were struck by intense and persistent rainfall. In the Cuneo province (Southern Piedmont, floodplain with some urban areas was inundated over ca. ten square kilometres, and the city of Savigliano (about 21 000 inhabitants was particularly hit by flood. A purposely-made historical research has evidenced approximately fifty flood events as having occurred since 1350 in the Savigliano area. Based upon historical data, both documents and maps, GIS (Geographical Information System technique and field surveys were used to quantitatively assess the growing urbanization of the city and to describe flood processes and effects over years. This work aims to describe the dynamic behaviour of the 2008 flood, also comparing it to past events, in particular those that occurred in 1896. It is emphasized how the knowledge of past events can be helpful in reducing urban flooding.

  19. Pemphigus in North-Western Yemen: A therapeutic study of 75 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Mishri Lal

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of pemphigus, though not documented, seems to be quite high in Yemen. There is no universal consensus on the treatment of this disease. The aim was to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of different therapeutic regimens used in patients of pemphigus in North-Western Yemen. Seventy-five Yemeni patients (39 males and 36 females) were included. Diagnosis was based on clinical features, histopathology and the Tzanck test. Results of treatment with these different therapeutic regimens were compared: (1) dexamethasone-cyclophosphamide pulse (DCP), (2) dexamethasone pulse with oral azathioprine, (3) oral prednisolone with azathioprine, (4) oral prednisolone with oral cyclophosphamide, and (5) prednisolone monotherapy. Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) was diagnosed in 46 patients, pemphigus foliaceus (PF) in 23, pemphigus vegetans (PVEG) in 5 and pemphigus herpetiformis (PH) in one. Among the 16 patients who received regular DCP therapy, 13 were in remission for 6 months to 11 years without medications (phase 4). Remission without pharmacotherapy could not be achieved with the other regimens and steroid-induced side-effects appeared to be more than with DCP. Immunofluorescence was not available to confirm the diagnosis of pemphigus. Randomization was not done. The DCP regimen seemed to be superior to the other regimens used.

  20. HYDROCARBON POLLUTION IN THE NORTH-WESTERN PART OF THE CASPIAN SEA

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    E. V. Ostrovskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The paper is aimed to estimate the current level of hydrocarbon pollution of the marine environment in the North-Western part of the Caspian Sea.Methods. The paper discusses the results of three-year studies conducted in 2012-2014 within the framework of Roshydromet’s Programme of monitoring of transboundary waters of the Caspian Sea. Spatial distribution of concentrations of hydrocarbons (total and polyaromatic in water and bottom sediments of the area was analysed. Concentrations of total hydrocarbons were determined by means of infrared spectrometry and PAHs – of gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.Results. The range of the total hydrocarbons in the area’s water is from slight traces to 240 µg/l, in sediments – from traces to 114 µg/g (dry weight. Total concentrations of PAHs in water varied from traces to 321 ng/l, in sediments – from traces to 699 ng/g (dry weight. For the source identification, data of satellite monitoring of the area were used. The data showed increasing input of hydrocarbons coming into the marine environment with discharges from vessels.Conclusion. The results of these studies are compared to those of previous research and show that the level of hydrocarbons in the area is typical for slightly polluted areas.

  1. Bovine Trypanosomosis and Its Vector Type and Density at Debre Elias District, North-western, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achenef Melaku

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available .A cross sectional study was conducted from September to November, 2011 to determine the status of trypanosomosis in bovine, vector type and density in Debre Elias district, north-western Ethiopia. Totally, 581 blood samples were collected and analyzed using wet and thin smears, and buffy coat technique. Four traps at randomly selected areas were deployed, and type and number of flies trapped were recorded. The overall prevalence of trypanosomosis was 10.67%. The prevalence were significantly (p0.05 variation between sex groups. Trypanosoma vivax and T. congolense were the two species identified in the area accounting 56.45% and 43.55% of the positive cases, respectively. A total of 912 flies were caught. Of these, 192 (21.05% were belonging to Glossina species, whereas the remaining were Stomoxys and Tabanus. The apparent density of Glossina, Tabanus and Stomoxys were 1.60, 4.3 and 1.7 fly/trap/day, respectively. From this particular study, it was confirmed that bovine trypanosomosis is a disease of concern in the district. Therefore, appropriate strategies have to be designed to reduce its effect on livestock production.

  2. An Appraisal of Farmers Internet Use for Sourcing Agricultural Information in North-Western Nigeria

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    Haruna Abdul-Aziz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the level of farmers awareness and experiences in use of the Internet for sourcing agricultural information by farmers in the north-western Nigeria who are also privileged to have Internet services and cafes’ available in their communities. The study adopted survey method using questionnaire as an instrument for data collection. The population sampled for the survey was farmers who as well leave in both semi-urban and rural areas of Kaduna and Kano State of the North West agro-ecological Zone, of Nigeria. A total of one hundred (100 farmers were randomly selected using purposive sampling technics to form the sample size. Findings revealed that farmers lack awareness for using the Internet as an alternative means of getting Agricultural Information easily even with the shortage of extension agents. The study further identifies the farmer’s constraints in using the internet for information to low awareness, low access and lack skills. The study thus, recommended that agricultural agencies and other stakeholders in Nigeria should embark on advocacy and awareness campaign to farmer’s cooperative societies/groups on the uses of Internet for sourcing agricultural information.

  3. Holocene changes in fire frequency in north-western boreal forest of Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyr, D.; Bergeron, Y.; Carcaillet, C.; Gauthier, S.; Hely-Alleaume, C.; Flannigan, M.

    2004-12-01

    Changes in fire frequency were reconstructed for the last 8,000 yrs in the boreal forest of north-western Quebec using dendrochronology and charcoal records in lake sediments and organic soils. During the middle Holocene, fire frequency was characterized by a long period of low frequency between ca. 7500 and 2000 yrs BP. The high fire frequency during the last 2000 years was interrupted by periods of lower fire frequency notably since the end of the Little Ice Age ca 1850 AD. Climate appears to be the main process triggering fire. Simulations using GCMs (2xCO2 scenarios), buttressed by palaeoecological and dendrochronological evidence, suggest that future warming is unlikely to significantly increase fire frequency in the boreal forest of north-eastern Quebec since higher temperature appears to be associated with less frequent drought in this area. Palaeoecological and dendrochronological data clearly demonstrate the changing nature of forest ecosystem dynamics. We discuss the implications of these dynamics on disturbance-based forest management strategies

  4. Ectoparasites infestation of free-ranging hedgehog (Etelerix algirus) in north western Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosni, M.M.; Maghrbi, A.A. El

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of ectoparasites in hedgehogs (Etelerix algirus) in north western region of Libya. Seventy hedgehogs were sampled, and 39 (55.7%) were infested with external parasites. A total of 44 ticks, 491 fleas were collected from the infested hedgehogs and four species of ectoparasites were identified, one mite (Sarcoptes scabiei), one tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus) and two fleas (Xenopsylla cheopis and Ctenocephalides canis). For ectoparasites, 10/39 (25.6%) were infested by S. scabiei, 8/39 (20.5%) by Rh. appendiculatus and 11/39 (28.2%) by fleas. The prevalence of mixed infestation with S. scabiei and C. canis was 3(7.7%), Rh. appendiculatus and C. canis was 2 (5.1%) and infestation by two species of fleas was 5 (12.8%). The overall mixed infestation was 10 (25.6%). We concluded that the hedgehogs may play an important role in spreading external parasites and transmission of diseases from one region to another and from wildlife animals to domestic animals and human. PMID:26623333

  5. Flower colour variation and chromosome numbers in the north western distributional area of Turners sidoides (Turneraceae

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    Viviana G. Solís Neffa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the evolutionary studies that are being carried out in Turners sidoides autopolyploid complex (x= 7, a systematic survey was made in the northwestern area (Bolivia of its distribution. Six populations with salmon flowers and thirty five with yellow ones of the subsp. pinnatifida were found. The distribution of these populations is associated with climatic and spatial variables. The populations with salmon flowers live in the dry forests (Chaco Boreal Biogeographical Province, while yellow flowered populations occur in the inter-andean valleys (Boliviano-Tucumana Biogeographical Province. All the population studied are diploid. The results obtained support the allopatric diversification model of populations with yellow and salmon flowers at the diploid level, probably favoured by the orographic barriers and climatic changes that have arisen during the Andes development and Quaternary glaciations. Moreover, our analysis evidences that the north western area of T. sidoides constitutes an important centre of variation of the subsp. pinnatifida and the major centre of diploids hitherto detected

  6. Understanding north-western Mediterranean climate variability: a multi-proxy and multi-sequence approach based on wavelet analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuara, Julien; Lebreton, Vincent; Jalali, Bassem; Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; Sabatier, Pierre; Dezileau, Laurent; Peyron, Odile; Frigola, Jaime; Combourieu-Nebout, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    Forcings and physical mechanisms underlying Holocene climate variability still remain poorly understood. Comparison of different paleoclimatic reconstructions using spectral analysis allows to investigate their common periodicities and helps to understand the causes of past climate changes. Wavelet analysis applied on several proxy time series from the Atlantic domain already revealed the first key-issues on the origin of Holocene climate variability. However the differences in duration, resolution and variance between the time-series are important issues for comparing paleoclimatic sequences in the frequency domain. This work compiles 7 paleoclimatic proxy records from 4 time-series from the north-western Mediterranean all ranging from 7000 to 1000 yrs cal BP: -pollen and clay mineral contents from the lagoonal sediment core PB06 recovered in southern France, -Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) derived from alkenones, concentration of terrestrial alkanes and their average chain length (ACL) from core KSGC-31_GolHo-1B recovered in the Gulf of Lion inner-shelf, - δ18O record from speleothems recovered in the Asiul Cave in north-western Spain, -grain size record from the deep basin sediment drift core MD99-2343 north of Minorca island. A comparison of their frequency content is proposed using wavelet analysis and cluster analysis of wavelet power spectra. Common cyclicities are assessed using cross-wavelet analysis. In addition, a new algorithm is used in order to propagate the age model errors within wavelet power spectra. Results are consistents with a non-stationnary Holocene climate variability. The Halstatt cycles (2000-2500 years) depicted in many proxies (ACL, errestrial alkanes and SSTs) demonstrate solar activity influence in the north-western Mediterranean climate. Cluster analysis shows that pollen and ACL proxies, both indicating changes in aridity, are clearly distinct from other proxies and share significant common periodicities around 1000 and 600 years

  7. 'Natural background' soil water repellency in conifer forests of the north-western USA: Its prediction and relationship to wildfire occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, S.H.; Woods, S.W.; Martin, D.A.; Casimiro, M.

    2009-01-01

    Soils under a wide range of vegetation types exhibit water repellency following the passage of a fire. This is viewed by many as one of the main causes for accelerated post-fire runoff and soil erosion and it has often been assumed that strong soil water repellency present after wildfire is fire-induced. However, high levels of repellency have also been reported under vegetation types not affected by fire, and the question arises to what degree the water repellency observed at burnt sites actually results from fire. This study aimed at determining 'natural background' water repellency in common coniferous forest types in the north-western USA. Mature or semi-mature coniferous forest sites (n = 81), which showed no evidence of recent fires and had at least some needle cast cover, were sampled across six states. After careful removal of litter and duff at each site, soil water repellency was examined in situ at the mineral soil surface using the Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT) method for three sub-sites, followed by collecting near-surface mineral soil layer samples (0-3 cm depth). Following air-drying, samples were further analyzed for repellency using WDPT and contact angle (??sl) measurements. Amongst other variables examined were dominant tree type, ground vegetation, litter and duff layer depth, slope angle and aspect, elevation, geology, and soil texture, organic carbon content and pH. 'Natural background' water repellency (WDPT > 5 s) was detected in situ and on air-dry samples at 75% of all sites examined irrespective of dominant tree species (Pinus ponderosa, Pinus contorta, Picea engelmanii and Pseudotsuga menziesii). These findings demonstrate that the soil water repellency commonly observed in these forest types following burning is not necessarily the result of recent fire but can instead be a natural characteristic. The notion of a low background water repellency being typical for long-unburnt conifer forest soils of the north-western USA is

  8. Phylogeography of the rare Gymnocarpos przewalskii (Caryophyllaceae): indications of multiple glacial refugia in north-western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. M. Ma; M. L. Zhang; S. C. Sanderson

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the phylogeography of Gymnocarpos przewalskii Maxim. (Caryophyllaceae), a rare relictual shrub restricted to north-western China, in the context of Quaternary climate oscillations. ThreecpDNAregions (psbA­trnH, ycf6­psbM and rpl32-trnL (UAG)) were sequenced for 160 individuals from 16 populations. High genetic diversity (hT = 0.930, hS = 0.425) and a...

  9. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: TORONTO HARBOUR COMMISSIONERS (THC) SOIL RECYCLE TREATMENT TRAIN. Project Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    A demonstration of the Toronto Harbour Commissioners' (THC) Soil Recycle Treatment Train was performed under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program at a pilot plant facility in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Soil Recycle Treatment Train, which consists of s...

  10. Teleconnections between El Niño events and the north western Iberian Peninsula extreme rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Isabel; Nieves Lorenzo, M.; Rodríguez-Fonseca, Belén; Taboada, Juan J.; Gómez-Gesteira, Moncho

    2015-04-01

    Climate variability in the Euro-Atlantic sector is difficult to forecast. The area is located in the mid-latitude belt, which is dominated by internal variability. This makes the identification of a clear connection between atmosphere and ocean a complex task and increases the effort needed to make a seasonal forecast (Lorenzo et al., 2009). The North Atlantic atmospheric variability exerts an influence over European climate but also tropical oceans (Rodriguez-Fonseca et al., 2010). A previous research has studied the impact of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on Europe (Lorenzo et al., 2011). The mechanisms that explain the ENSO teleconnections are not linear and the way in which the ENSO signal reaches the Euro-Atlantic sector is under debate involving different hypotheses. The area under study is located in the western mid-latitude belt of Europe, where it receives a significant amount of rainfall throughout the year. Its location produces that some climatic variables depend on more than one atmospheric pattern to explain their variability and the strength of the correlation between atmospheric modes and stream flow is not stationary, reducing the skill of teleconnection indices to be used for seasonal forecasting. This non stationarity could be related with different atmospheric modes or changes, as the so-called Climate Shift (CS). This term is used to define a change in the atmosphere-ocean system circulation that took place in the North Pacific Ocean between 1976 and 1977 produced by the change in the sign of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index. The present work finds that the relationship between the Pacific El Niño phenomenon in winter and the anomalous spring rainfall in the north western Iberian Peninsula is not stationary or linear, varying with the different El Niño spatial configurations (central versus eastern El Niño), phases, and periods. In this way, extreme positive rainfall events are related to central El Niño events before the

  11. Molecular characterization of hepatitis A virus strains in a tertiary care health set up in north western India

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    Mini Pritam Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Hepatitis A virus usually causes acute viral hepatitis (AVH in the paediatric age group with a recent shift in age distribution and disease manifestations like acute liver failure (ALF. This has been attributed to mutations in 5′non-translated region (5′NTR which affects the viral multiplication. The present study was aimed to carry out the molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis A virus strains circulating in north western India. Methods: Serum samples from in patients and those attending out patient department of Pediatric Gastroenterology in a tertiary care hospital in north India during 2007-2011 with clinically suspected AVH were tested for anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV IgM antibodies. Acute phase serum samples were subjected to nested PCR targeting the 5′NTR region followed by sequencing of the representative strains. Results: A total of 1334 samples were tested, 290 (21.7% were positive for anti-HAV IgM antibody. Of these, 78 serum samples (< 7 days old were subjected to PCR and 47.4% (37/78 samples showed the presence of HAV RNA. Children < 15 yr of age accounted for majority (94% of cases with highest seropositivity during rainy season. Sequencing of 15 representative strains was carried out and the circulating genotype was found to be III A. The nucleotide sequences showed high homology among the strains with a variation ranging from 0.1-1 per cent over the years. An important substitution of G to A at 324 position was shown by both AVH and ALF strains. The cumulative substitution in AVH strains Vs ALF strains as compared to GBM, Indian and prototype strain in the 200-500 region of 5′ NTR was comparable. Interpretation & conclusion: Our results showed hepatitis A still a disease of children with III A as a circulating genotype in this region. The mutations at 5′NTR region warrant further analysis as these affect the structure of internal ribosomal entry site which is important for

  12. The intention of North-Western Ethiopian dairy farmers to control mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Sefinew Alemu; Koop, Gerrit; Lam, Theo J G M; Hogeveen, Henk

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the intentions of dairy farmers towards mastitis control is important to design effective udder health control programs. We used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to explore the intentions of North-Western Ethiopian dairy farmers towards implementing non-specified mastitis control measures (nsMCMs) and towards implementing 4 specific MCMs. Face to face interviews were held with 134 dairy farmers to study associations between their intentions and any of three factors (attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control) that, according to the TPB, determine intentions. The majority of the farmers (93%) had a positive intention to implement nsMCMs, whereas a smaller majority of farmers had the intention to implement the specific MCMs to improve udder cleaning (87%), to improve stall hygiene (78%), to improve feeding of cows (76%), and to perform foremilk stripping (74%). Farmers had a more positive attitude, but lower subjective norm and lower perceived behavioural control towards implementing nsMCMs compared with implementing most specific MCMs, although the subjective norms for stall hygiene and perceived behavioural control for improving feeding of cows were also low. Attitude was positively associated with intentions to implement nsMCMs, to improve cleaning of the udders, to improve stall hygiene and to implement foremilk stripping. Both the intention to improve udder cleaning and to implement foremilk stripping, were positively associated to subjective norms towards these MCMs. Our data can help tailor intervention programs aiming to increase the intention of Ethiopian dairy farmers to implement MCMs and thus to improve udder health in this country. We show that such programs should primarily focus on changing attitude and secondarily on improving the farmers' subjective norms.

  13. Presentation and outcome of snake bite among children in Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria

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    Usman M Sani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Snake bite with envenomation is a medical emergency. Children are at risk of severe manifestations due to small body mass. Unlike adult population, there is limited data on snake bite among children in Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria. We described the presentation and outcome of snake bite in children presenting to the Emergency Pediatric Unit of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto. Materials and Methods: Case records of all children managed for snake bites from 1 st January 2003 to 31 st December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic and other relevant information were retrieved and data analyzed using Microsoft Excel. Results: Out of 23,570 Pediatric admissions, 36 children had snake bites giving prevalence of 0.0015 (1.5/1000. Male: Female ratio was 1.6:1, with a mean (standard deviation age of 9.6 ± 2.8 years (range = 1-14 years. Snakebites involved the lower limbs in 52.8%; and at home in 69.4%, and during the night in 58.3% of patients. The highest prevalence of bite was between April and July. Features of envenomation included local swelling (100%, prolonged clotting time (61.1% and spontaneous hemorrhage (epistaxis and hematemesis in 11.1%. One patient (2.8% had seizure which may be incidental, though common causes such as hypoglycemia, malaria and meningitis were excluded by laboratory investigations. Polyvalent anti-snake venom was administered in 29 (80.6% children, with adverse reaction observed in 13.8% (4/29 of the patients. Thirteen patients (36.1% signed against medical advice while the remaining 23 (63.9% were discharged home. Conclusion: Snake envenomation is associated with low morbidity and mortality in our study. Measures aimed at eliminating snake habitats around residential areas should be encouraged.

  14. Identification of the influencing factors on groundwater drought and depletion in north-western Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Syed Md. Touhidul; Abdollahi, Khodayar; Verbeiren, Boud; Huysmans, Marijke

    2017-08-01

    Groundwater drought is a specific type of hydrological drought that concerns groundwater bodies. It may have a significant adverse effect on the socio-economic, agricultural, and environmental conditions. Investigating the effect of different climatic and anthropogenic factors on groundwater drought provides essential information for sustainable planning and management of (ground) water resources. The aim of this study is to identify the influencing factors on groundwater drought in north-western Bangladesh, to understand the forcing mechanisms. A multi-step methodology is proposed to achieve this objective. The standardised precipitation index (SPI) and reconnaissance drought index (RDI) have been used to quantify the aggregated deficit between precipitation and the evaporative demand of the atmosphere, i.e. meteorological drought. The influence of land-cover patterns on the groundwater drought has been identified by calculating spatially distributed groundwater recharge as a function of land cover. Groundwater drought is defined by a threshold method. The results show that the evapotranspiration and rainfall deficits are determining meteorological drought, which shows a direct relation with groundwater recharge deficits. Land-cover change has a small effect on groundwater recharge but does not seem to be the main cause of groundwater-level decline (depletion) in the study area. The groundwater depth and groundwater-level deficit (drought) is continuously increasing with little correlation to meteorological drought or recharge anomalies. Overexploitation of groundwater for irrigation seems to be the main cause of groundwater-level decline in the study area. Efficient irrigation management is essential to reduce the growing pressure on groundwater resources and ensure sustainable water management.

  15. Childhood diabetes mellitus in sokoto, north-western Nigeria: A ten year review

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    Omoshalewa Ugege

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : There is paucity of literature on childhood diabetes mellitus (DM from developing countries, especially North-Western Nigeria. We describe the clinical presentation and outcome of childhood DM as seen in Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital (UDUTH Sokoto, Nigeria. Materials and Methods : This was a 10-year retrospective review of case files of children aged 15 years and below with childhood DM seen between September 1 st 2001 and August 31 st 2011. The age, gender, presenting features, complications, laboratory features, and outcome of the patients were extracted and analyzed. Results: Eight out of the 23,931 children admitted during the study period were diagnosed with type 1 (T1 DM, giving a case prevalence rate of 0.33/1000 (3/10 000. The male-to-female ratio was 1:1. The mean age at presentation was 11.8 ± 3.1 years. The mean duration of symptoms before presentation was 6 ± 4.9 weeks (range 1.2-12 weeks. The most prevalent symptoms were polyuria and weight loss, 7 (87.5% each, polydipsia, 6 (75%, polyphagia, 5 (62.5%, and weakness, 4 (50%. Five (62.5% patients presented with diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA. The mean random blood sugar (RBS was 22.6 ± 12.01 (range 13-49.5 mmol/L. Five (62.5% patients were discharged while three (37.2% left against medical advice. Four (80% of the discharges were lost to follow up. Conclusion: Childhood DM is relatively uncommon in UDUTH, Sokoto. There is a high frequency of DKA, late presentation, and default to follow up. We recommend increased awareness campaigns and health education on childhood DM.

  16. Sea level extremes around the north-western Iberian Peninsula and their link to atmospheric forcings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauels, A.; Xoplaki, E.; Tsimplis, M.; Shaw, A.; Luterbacher, J.

    2009-04-01

    In the context of increasing flood risks through rising sea levels, the danger of flooding is primarily linked to regional extreme sea levels, thus single events superimposed on the mean sea level trend. The majority of extreme sea levels are caused by tropical or extra-tropical cyclonic activity. Here, we aim at a better understanding of the link between extreme sea levels at the western and northern Iberian Peninsula and the large-scale atmospheric circulation. For this we have analyzed sea level data from 8 tide gauge stations. The four longest stations, Santander, La Coruna, Vigo and Ceuta cover the 60-year period 1943-2005. Records of Bilbao, Gijon, Cascais and Lagos are maximum 15 years long. The extreme values from the quality-checked, hourly tidal residuals time series were derived by fitting a General Pareto Distribution (GPD) to the five largest values per year. The 10 largest events per year have been extracted for the detection of existing trends. Highest values of 230-260 cm are found at the northern coast of the Iberian Peninsula. For the western stations, extreme values are slightly lower (200-217 cm). For each extreme event the corresponding large-scale sea level pressure (SLP) fields are derived from the NCEP reanalysis. Composite analyses are presented. The results are well correlated with the positive NAO-signal. As expected, geographically close stations often show very similar SLP distributions for their local extremes. Extracted predominant pressure fields will be compared with SLP trends from regional climate models to gather information about the future evolution of potentially hazardous forcings at the north-western coasts of the Iberian Peninsula.

  17. The climate space of fire regimes in north-western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Ellen; Batllori, Enric; Parisien, Marc-André; Miller, Carol; Coop, Jonathan D.; Krawchuk, Meg A; Chong, Geneva W.; Haire, Sandra L

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Studies of fire activity along environmental gradients have been undertaken, but the results of such studies have yet to be integrated with fire-regime analysis. We characterize fire-regime components along climate gradients and a gradient of human influence. Location. We focus on a climatically diverse region of north-western North America extending from northern British Columbia, Canada, to northern Utah and Colorado, USA.Methods. We used a multivariate framework to collapse 12 climatic variables into two major climate gradients and binned them into 73 discrete climate domains. We examined variation in fire-regime components (frequency, size, severity, seasonality and cause) across climate domains. Fire-regime attributes were compiled from existing databases and Landsat imagery for 1897 large fires. Relationships among the fire-regime components, climate gradients and human influence were examined through bivariate regressions. The unique contribution of human influence was also assessed.Results. A primary climate gradient of temperature and summer precipitation and a secondary gradient of continentality and winter precipitation in the study area were identified. Fire occupied a distinct central region of such climate space, within which fire-regime components varied considerably. We identified significant interrelations between fire-regime components of fire size, frequency, burn severity and cause. The influence of humans was apparent in patterns of burn severity and ignition cause.Main conclusions. Wildfire activity is highest where thermal and moisture gradients converge to promote fuel production, flammability and ignitions. Having linked fire-regime components to large-scale climate gradients, we show that fire regimes – like the climate that controls them – are a part of a continuum, expanding on models of varying constraints on fire activity. The observed relationships between fire-regime components, together with the distinct role of climatic

  18. Cultural Transmission of Traditional Knowledge in two populations of North-western Patagonia

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    Lozada Mariana

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the present study we have investigated the cultural transmission of two types of traditional plant knowledge in two communities of North-western Patagonia, Argentina. In the Pilcaniyeu community, we studied the transmission of traditional knowledge related to horticultural practices in home-gardens, greenhouses and gardens; while in the community of Cuyin Manzano, we studied wild plant gathering customs. Methods Ethnobotanical fieldwork was conducted by means of semi-structured interviews, in which we investigated which plants are used, at what life history phase was learned, modes of transmission and who the principal transmitters were in childhood and adulthood. In both communities, each of this three aspects related to cultural transmission were categorized and the frequencies of each category were obtained. The total number of species recorded in each community was also calculated. Frequencies were analyzed with the Chi-square test of independence. Results and discussion In both communities, transmission of traditional plant knowledge begins at an early age, as a family custom, in which women play a predominant role. Wild plant use and horticultural knowledge continue to be learned during adulthood. This was particularly registered associated with horticultural learning, which receives greater influence from extension agents who are introducing new practices and technology. This outside influence, which implies novelty, could imply syncretism but also traditional knowledge loss. Conclusion Given the remarkable acculturation processes occurring at present in rural communities of Northwestern Patagonia, it might be of vital importance to document traditional knowledge of ancient practices. Moreover, it could be interesting to share our results with both populations in order to encourage participatory activities within the communities which could enhance traditional knowledge horizontal transmission, particularly among

  19. The intention of North-Western Ethiopian dairy farmers to control mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, Gerrit; Lam, Theo J. G. M.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the intentions of dairy farmers towards mastitis control is important to design effective udder health control programs. We used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to explore the intentions of North-Western Ethiopian dairy farmers towards implementing non-specified mastitis control measures (nsMCMs) and towards implementing 4 specific MCMs. Face to face interviews were held with 134 dairy farmers to study associations between their intentions and any of three factors (attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control) that, according to the TPB, determine intentions. The majority of the farmers (93%) had a positive intention to implement nsMCMs, whereas a smaller majority of farmers had the intention to implement the specific MCMs to improve udder cleaning (87%), to improve stall hygiene (78%), to improve feeding of cows (76%), and to perform foremilk stripping (74%). Farmers had a more positive attitude, but lower subjective norm and lower perceived behavioural control towards implementing nsMCMs compared with implementing most specific MCMs, although the subjective norms for stall hygiene and perceived behavioural control for improving feeding of cows were also low. Attitude was positively associated with intentions to implement nsMCMs, to improve cleaning of the udders, to improve stall hygiene and to implement foremilk stripping. Both the intention to improve udder cleaning and to implement foremilk stripping, were positively associated to subjective norms towards these MCMs. Our data can help tailor intervention programs aiming to increase the intention of Ethiopian dairy farmers to implement MCMs and thus to improve udder health in this country. We show that such programs should primarily focus on changing attitude and secondarily on improving the farmers’ subjective norms. PMID:28787018

  20. Genetic and phytochemical diversity analysis in Bunium persicum populations of north-western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahota, Rakesh Kumar; Sharma, Vikas; Ghani, Minerva; Sharma, Tilak Raj; Rana, Jai Chand; Sharma, Shyam Kumar

    2017-04-01

    The present study explores morphological, genetic and phytochemical composition of Bunium persicum populations belonging to high altitudinal areas of Indian Himalayan region. In total, 23 morphological traits (13 quantitative and 10 qualitative traits) and 32 Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA primers were employed to infer the population structure of the species. Of the fourteen populations, five genetically diverse populations were analyzed for phytochemical diversity. Among morphological traits, inflorescence, seed and branch traits were most significant in detecting variation. At molecular level, primers TIBMBA-06 and OPR-16 were found most polymorphic with respect to Polymorphism Information Content and Marker Index values. Dendrogram grouped all populations into two major clusters while population from Shong region out grouped separately showing its distantness from all other populations. STRUCTURE analysis was done by using Bayesian model, which characterised all populations into four clusters and some degree of admixture was also observed within individuals. Shong population showed distinct genetic makeup as also suggested by dendrogram. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of 55 components, of which, 2-methyl-3-phenyl propanal, benzeneacetic acid, 1-phellandrene, γ-terpene, α-terpinolene, Δ0.3-carene and sabinene were major components in its essential oils. The present study revealed high genetic and phytochemical diversity in B. persicum accessions from north-western Himalayan regions. Specifically, accessions from Saptal regions were having higher quantity of essential oils and can be selected for cultivation to meet the commercial demand to some extent. Further, the diversity information provided herein can be useful in management and improvement of this species through future breeding programmes.

  1. Spatio-temporal patterns in the north-western Mediterranean from MERIS derived chlorophyll a concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gordoa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We address the major surface signatures of chlorophyll a in the Catalan Sea within the context of the dynamics of the north-western Mediterranean basin. Monthly composites from MERIS measurements and CHL products for Case 1 waters were analysed from June 2002 to June 2005. Composite images of variability were used to identify surface dynamics. The results showed that coastal and open sea waters were separated by a belt of low variability, a permanent oligotrophic belt that is noticeable with respect to the bloom conditions of the surrounding areas. The width of this Catalan Oligotrophic Belt (COB located along the continental slope, varied between 17 and 30 km and became blurred in the southernmost area. The chlorophyll a temporal pattern over the shelf showed an almost steady increase from September to March. A similar behaviour but with lower concentrations was observed in oceanic waters. Both temporal patterns showed a disruption during January and/or February that coincided with the well known deep water formation event in the Gulf of Lions. In 2004, the convection was weaker and the offshore temporal trend was not disrupted; however, the opposite was observed in 2005. The spatial chlorophyll a distribution of oceanic waters presented a clear north-south decreasing trend, while the coastal distribution did not show any latitudinal patterns but rather peaks in the areas enriched by river runoff. The observed seasonality was similar to the one published from SeaWiFS data and slightly different from the seasonality shown by CZCS data. Nevertheless, we did not discard the possibility that some of the observed seasonal differences could be a true temporal shift in chlorophyll a production.

  2. Carbon allocation, sequestration and carbon dioxide mitigation under plantation forests of north western Himalaya, India

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    Bandana Devi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The organic carbon and soils of the world comprise bulk of the terrestrial carbon and serve as a major sink and source of atmospheric carbon. Increasing atmospheric concentrations of green house gases may be mitigated by increasing carbon sequestration in vegetation and soil. The study attempted to estimate biomass production and carbon sequestration potential of different plantation ecosystems in north western Himalaya, India. Biomass, carbon density of biomass, soil, detritus, carbon sequestration and CO2 mitigation potential were studied under different plantation forest ecosystems comprising of eight different tree species: Quercus leucotrichophora, Pinus roxburghii, Acacia catechu, Acacia mollissima, Albizia procera, Alnusnitida, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Ulmus villosa. Above (185.57±48.99tha-1 and below ground (42.47±10.38 tha-1 biomass was maximum in Ulmus villosa. The vegetation carbon density was maxium in Albizia procera(118.37±1.49 tha-1 and minimum (36.50±9.87 tha-1 in Acacia catechu. Soil carbon density was maximum (219.86±10.34 tha-1 in Alnus nitida, and minimum (170.83±20.60 tha-1 in Pinus roxburghii. Detritus was higher in Pinus roxburghii (6.79±2.0 tha-1. Carbon sequestration (7.91±3.4 tha-1 and CO2 mitigation potential (29.09±12.78 tha-1 was maximum in Ulmus villosa. Pearson correlation matrix revealed significant positive relationship of ecosystem carbon with plantation biomass, soil carbon and CO2 mitigation potential. With the emerging threat of climate change, such assessment of forest and soil carbon inventory would allow to devise best land management and policy decisions for sustainable management of fragile hilly ecosystem.

  3. Carbon allocation, sequestration and carbon dioxide mitigation under plantation forests of north western Himalaya, India

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    Bandana Devi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The organic carbon and soils of the world comprise bulk of the terrestrial carbon and serve as amajorsink and source of atmospheric carbon. Increasing atmospheric concentrations of green house gases may be mitigated by increasing carbon sequestration in vegetation and soil. The study attempted to estimate biomass production and carbon sequestration potential of different plantation ecosystems in north western Himalaya, India. Biomass, carbon density of biomass, soil, detritus, carbon sequestration and CO2 mitigation potential were studied underdifferent plantation forest ecosystems comprising of eight different tree species viz. Quercus leucotrichophora, Pinus roxburghii, Acacia catechu, Acacia mollissima, Albizia procera, Alnus nitida, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Ulmus villosa. Above (185.57 ą 48.99 tha-1 and below ground (42.47 ą 10.38 tha-1 biomass was maximum in Ulmus villosa. The vegetation carbon density was maxium in Albizia procera (118.37 ą 1.49 tha-1 and minimum (36.50 ą 9.87 tha-1 in Acacia catechu. Soil carbon density was maximum (219.86ą 10.34 tha-1 in Alnus nitida, and minimum (170.83ą 20.60 tha-1in Pinus roxburghii. Detritus was higher in Pinus roxburghii (6.79 ą 2.0 tha-1. Carbon sequestration (7.91ą 3.4 tha-1 and CO2 mitigation potential (29.09 ą 12.78 tha-1 was maximum in Ulmus villosa. Pearson correlation matrix revealed significant positive relationship of ecosystem carbon with plantation biomass, soil carbon and CO2 mitigation potential. With the emerging threat of climate change, such assessment of forest and soil carbon inventory would allow to devise best land management and policy decisions forsustainable management of fragile hilly ecosystem. 

  4. Ocean disposal of dredged materials from Atlantic Canadian harbours ll. small craft harbours, Gulf Region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1984-01-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a compilation of all data related to dredging/ocean disposal of dredged materials from harbours maintained by the Small Craft Harbours Branch of Fisheries...

  5. Status of the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina in Southern Scandinavia

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    Morten Tange Olsen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The harbour seal population in Southern Scandinavia has experienced repeated declines caused by hunting and epizootics. These events have shaped the current distribution and abundance of the population. This paper assesses the current status of the population. We estimate trends in abundance of harbour seals from long term survey data, compare these with historic trends inferred from previously published material, and discuss past and potential threats to the harbour seal population of Southern Scandinavia. It is evident that harbour seals have disappeared from haulout areas along the Danish shores of Kattegat and in the westernmost part of the Baltic Sea, where they were previously numerous. In the 1920-30s, when abundance was at its lowest, the population is estimated to have been only a fraction of its original size. Following 30 years of protection the population is currently approaching historic abundance and might have reached the carrying capacity in some areas. Further development depends largely on effects of future epizootics, anthropogenic disturbance, and availability of suitable haulout sites.

  6. Soil quality under forest compared to other landuses in acid soil of North Western Himalaya, India

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    Sharmistha Pal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to examine the impact of land?use on soil fertility in an Alfisol, at Dharamshala district of north western Himalayan region, India. Soil samples were collected from 0-15, 15-30, 30-45 and 45-60 cm soil depths of five land-uses viz. natural forest of Pinus roxburghii, grassland, horticulture, agriculture and wasteland. Soil was examined for pH, organic carbon (OC, electrical conductivity (EC, cation exchange capacity (CEC, available nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, exchangeable calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, potassium (K, aluminium (Al, microbial biomass carbon (MBC, microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN, microbial biomass phosphorus (MBP, acid phosphatase activity (APHA and dehydrogenase activity (DHA. Soil pH varied from 5.22 in forest and 5.72 in grassland. OC content was higher in forest (3.01%, followed by grassland (2.16% and was least (0.36% in deeper layers of agriculture. Highest N content was found under forest (699, 654, 623 and 597 kg/ha, at 0-15, 15-30, 30-45 and 45-60 cm depth, respectively, followed by grassland, horticulture and agriculture and least in wasteland. Exchangeable Ca and Mg were higher in grassland (0.801 c mol kg-1 and 0.402 c mol kg-1, respectively. Exchangeable K and Al were higher under forest (0.231 c mol kg-1 and 1.89 c mol kg-1, respectively least in wasteland. Soil biological properties were highest under surface soil of forest (576 mg kg-1, 31.24 mg kg-1, 6.55 mg kg-1, 29.6 mg PNP g-1h-1 and 35.65 ľg TPF 24 h-1 g-1 dry soil, respectively for MBC, MBN, MBP, APHA and DHA and least in 45-60 cm layer, under wasteland. The forest had a higher fertility index and soil evaluation factor followed by grassland, horticulture, agriculture as compared to wasteland. 

  7. Assessing malaria transmission in a low endemicity area of north-western Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Speybroeck, Niko; Cook, Jackie; Contreras-Mancilla, Juan; Soto, Veronica; Gamboa, Dionicia; Pozo, Edwar; Ponce, Oscar J; Pereira, Mayne O; Soares, Irene S; Theisen, Michael; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Erhart, Annette

    2013-09-22

    Where malaria endemicity is low, control programmes need increasingly sensitive tools for monitoring malaria transmission intensity (MTI) and to better define health priorities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a low endemicity area of the Peruvian north-western coast to assess the MTI using both molecular and serological tools. Epidemiological, parasitological and serological data were collected from 2,667 individuals in three settlements of Bellavista district, in May 2010. Parasite infection was detected using microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Antibodies to Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-119 (PvMSP1₁₉) and to Plasmodium falciparum glutamate-rich protein (PfGLURP) were detected by ELISA. Risk factors for exposure to malaria (seropositivity) were assessed by multivariate survey logistic regression models. Age-specific antibody prevalence of both P. falciparum and P. vivax were analysed using a previously published catalytic conversion model based on maximum likelihood for generating seroconversion rates (SCR). The overall parasite prevalence by microscopy and PCR were extremely low: 0.3 and 0.9%, respectively for P. vivax, and 0 and 0.04%, respectively for P. falciparum, while seroprevalence was much higher, 13.6% for P. vivax and 9.8% for P. falciparum. Settlement, age and occupation as moto-taxi driver during previous year were significantly associated with P. falciparum exposure, while age and distance to the water drain were associated with P. vivax exposure. Likelihood ratio tests supported age seroprevalence curves with two SCR for both P. vivax and P. falciparum indicating significant changes in the MTI over time. The SCR for PfGLURP was 19-fold lower after 2002 as compared to before (λ1 = 0.022 versus λ2 = 0.431), and the SCR for PvMSP1₁₉ was four-fold higher after 2006 as compared to before (λ1 = 0.024 versus λ2 = 0.006). Combining molecular and serological tools considerably enhanced the capacity of

  8. Pattern of Presentation and Survival of Breast Cancer in a Teaching Hospital in North Western Nigeria

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    Terfa S. Kene

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Developing countries are experiencing demographic and epidemiologic transition and the prevalence of non-communicable diseases especially cancers which is on the increase. Breast cancer is the most common and lethal malignancy in developing countries with varying presentation. This study aims to determine the pattern of presentation and survival of breast cancer patients in North Western Nigeria.Methods:A five-year retrospective review of breast cancer records from 2001-2005 was conducted. Relevant information was retrieved and analyzed using statistical package for social science software. Manchester stage III and IV were classified as advance disease. Survival analysis was carried out with survival defined as the time between the date of commencement of treatment and the date of last follow-up or death.Results: Most of the patients were in the 4th and 5th decades 58 (57.4% with a mean age of 44.5±13 years. Majority of the patients were females 99 (96.1%. One of the four males had invasive lobular carcinoma while the others presented with invasiveductal carcinoma 3 (75.0%. Most of the patients were premenopausal 62 (62.6% and were presented late with advanced breast cancer disease 64 (62.1%. The left breast was more affected 64 (62.1%, and the upper outer quadrant was mostly involved 48 (60.7%, followed by the areola, 43(41.7% either singly or in combination. Invasive ductal carcinoma was detected in 85 (82.5% cases and was the predominant histological finding. Survival rate beyond 30 months was observed in 24.5% of cases and 100% for advanced and early breast cancer respectively, (p=0.0001. The overall survival rate beyond 36 months was 70.4% and postmenopausal patients (70.6% had better survival beyond 36 months than premenopausal (68.5% patients (p=0.05.Conclusion: The overall survival rate was low and patients with early breast cancer had better survival than those with advanced disease. Majority of the patients were young

  9. Approaches to environmental restoration of a polluted harbour with submerged archaeology: the Alexandria case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Rayis, Osman A; Hemeda, Engy I; Ismael, Amany M; Jammo, K

    2003-01-01

    Many invaluable underwater buildings of archaeological interest in Alexandria were discovered in 1996 at different sites in the Eastern Harbour of Alexandria. There is a belief that the best way to protect these invaluable heritages is to transfer them to an underwater park or museum. Obviously, the execution of such a project depends essentially upon the water quality (including water transparency) improving in the future. The harbour is presently polluted by discharge of wastewater effluents from different sources. It has recently been decided to restore this important coastal area through: (1) stopping the direct discharge of wastewater effluents into this semi-enclosed harbour in 1993 and (2) gradually reducing the discharge of the municipal wastewater through marine outfalls at two sites lying at the outer sides of the harbour. Zero discharge is expected to be effective by the end of the year 2001. The present work, therefore, is a follow up of the study of water quality in the harbour after 1993: in 1996 and 1999-2000. The water quality of an open sea reference station was also studied for comparison. The results reveal occurrence of an improvement of the environmental conditions in the harbour. The water has turned from being eutrophic to mesotrophic. The harbour is expected to become meso/oligotrophic as soon as the complete cessation of the discharge from the two outside sources is attained.

  10. Microtremor exploration for shallow S-wave velocity profiles at stations in local strong motion network in Bursa, Yalova, and Kocaeli in north-western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özmen, Özgür Tuna; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Chimoto, Kosuke; Çeken, Ulubey; Alkan, Mehmet Akif; Tekin, Kudret; Ateş, Erkan

    2017-05-01

    We conducted microtremor array surveys for shallow S-wave velocity profiles at 20 sites in Bursa, Yalova and Kocaeli provinces in the north-western part of Turkey to provide fundamental data to assess the seismic hazard in the area. All of the measurement sites were positioned very close to strong motion stations belonging to the Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency of Turkey (AFAD) in order to further understand site amplification factors in strong motion records. Of the 20 study sites, two were located in Yalova, four in Bursa and 14 in Kocaeli. We temporarily installed two small arrays to obtain simultaneous records of vertical microtremors. Then, the spatial autocorrelation method was applied to retrieve Rayleigh wave phase velocity curves in a frequency range from 1 to 30 Hz from the array records. The phase velocities in the western part of the Kocaeli area are low across a wide frequency range, while relatively high phase velocities are found in the eastern part of the Kocaeli province. The phase velocities in the Yalova and Bursa provinces are widely distributed suggesting large variations in soil conditions. The observed phase velocity curve at each site was inverted to a one-dimensional (1D) S-wave velocity profile to a depth of 100 m, using a hybrid heuristic inversion method. All the S-wave velocity profiles in the eastern Kocaeli area are similar; however, the sites in the western Kocaeli and Yalova-Bursa areas have profiles with different features from the others. Finally, we discuss amplification factors for S-waves using the inverted profiles. The dominant fundamental periods of the amplification factors were distributed in a frequency range from 0.7 to 5 Hz. The profiles obtained are also used to map average S-wave velocities in the study area, with an addition of existing data at strong motion stations of the AFAD.

  11. The Prevalence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease by the Global Lung Initiative Equations in North-Western Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Elena; Pokhaznikova, Marina; Lebedev, Anatoly; Moiseeva, Irina; Kutznetsova, Olga; Degryse, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) varies in different countries, while the cut-off for airflow obstruction (AO) is still contested. No COPD prevalence data based on the Global Lung Initiative (GLI) 2012 equations are available in Russia. This study aims to assess AO prevalence by the GLI lower limit of normal (GLI-LLN) and the fixed cut-off, to identify AO risk factors and to assess the diagnostic value of respiratory symptoms in north-western Russia. In a north-western Russian population-based sample of 2,974 adults aged 35-70 years, data on socio-demographics, smoking, occupational exposures and respiratory symptoms were collected, and spirometry was performed before and after bronchodilator (BD) administration. The AO prevalence was 6.8% (95% CI 5.8-7.9) based on the fixed and 4.8% (95% CI 3.9-5.7) based on the GLI-LLN cut-off. 22.5% of the participants with post-BD AO had a positive bronchodilator test, and 1% showed a paradoxical BD response. Of the environmental factors studied, only smoking was independently associated with AO (odds ratio 2.47, 95% CI 1.60-3.82). The positive predictive value of respiratory symptoms for AO was 11% based on the fixed and 8% based on the GLI-LLN cut-off. In a sample of adults in north-western Russia, the AO prevalence by the GLI-LLN cut-off was lower than that by the fixed cut-off. The predictive value of respiratory symptoms was low. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Typhlocirolana longimera sp. n. (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cirolanidae from north-western Algerian ground waters with notes on Algerian Typhlocirolana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhakim Mahi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of hypogean cirolanid isopod, Typhlocirolana longimera sp. n. is reported and described from a region located in north-western Algeria. Typhlocirolana longimera sp. n. can be distinguished from all other species of the genus especially by the peculiar shape of the merus of pereiopod I longer than in any other Typhlocirolana species, and for the presence of 6 molariform robust conical robust setae, the bottle shape of uropods and the aesthetasc formula of flagellum in antennulae. The presence in the same region of the two already known species T. fontis and T. gurneyi is also discussed.

  13. Intersex in Littorina littorea and DNA damage in Mytilus edulis as indicators of harbour polllution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Jette

    2009-01-01

    Intersex in snails (Littorina littorea) and DNA damage in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) were analysed to assess how these bio-indicators reflected the level of chemical contamination at two sites in a highly contaminated harbour in Denmark. The comet assay using mussel gill cells was an indicator...... effects were found to reflect the levels of the chemicals, and it was concluded that intersex in L. littorea and DNA damage in M. edulis can be used as bio-indicators of harbour pollution...

  14. Hydrogeological features conditioning trophic levels of quarry lakes in western Po plain (north-western Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Domenico Antonio; Castagna, Sara; Lasagna, Manuela

    2013-04-01

    Quarry lakes occur in plains areas due to the extraction of alluvial sand and gravel used for grout and concrete in the construction industry. Excavation depths can reach and intersect the groundwater surface, thus creating a lake. Because of the need to optimize efficiency, the number of active open pit mines has increased in recent years; consequently, the global number of pit lakes will increase in coming decades (Castendyk and Eary 2009; Klapper and Geller 2001; Castro and Moore 2000). Similar to natural lakes, pit lakes are subject to eutrophication process, both during and after quarrying activity; during mining activity, the eutrophic level is strongly controlled by the excavation method. In the Piedmont territory (north-western Italy) there are 70 active quarry lakes, corresponding to approximately 0.1% of the entire plain area. Quarry lakes, located primarily along the main rivers occur in alluvial deposits of the plain area and have average depths between 20 and 30 m (maximum of 60 m deep) and surface areas between 3 and 30 hectares (Castagna 2008). The present study describes the trophic status of 23 active quarry lakes in the Piedmont plain that were evaluated by applying classifications from scientific literature. Currently, the majority of the studied quarry lakes may be defined as mesotrophic or eutrophic according to the trophic state classifications. Based on historic data, lake trophic levels have increased over time, during active mining. At the end of mining activity, further deterioration of water quality was expected, especially for smaller lakes with minimal oxygen stratification and higher levels of nutrients and algal growth. In addition, the paper focuses on the pit lake water quality and pit dimension; From an environmental perspective the excavation of quarry lakes with an appreciable size will likely result in a better safeguard of water quality and enhanced possibilities for lake end use after the cessation of mining. Piedmont quarry

  15. Identification of host blood-meal sources and Borrelia in field-collected Ixodes ricinus ticks in north-western Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodecka, Beata; Skotarczak, Bogumila

    2016-01-01

    Forest animals play fundamental roles in the maintenance of Ixodes ricinus and Borrelia species in the forest biotope. To identify the forest vertebrate species that are host for I. ricinus and for the recognition of the reservoirs of Borrelia species, the blood-meal of 325 I. ricinus ticks collected at two forest sites in north-western Poland were analysed. Nested PCR was used to detect polymorphisms in a fragment of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene for the identification of the hosts species. The products were digested with the restriction enzymes, a combination that allows the identification of 60 vertebrate species, comprising 17 bird, 4 reptile and 39 mammalian species. Host DNA was detected in 244 (75%) I. ricinus individuals, with the species being detected and classified for 210 (86%) samples. The restriction patterns resulted in the identification of 14 vertebrate species, including 2 species of birds, lizard, badger, rabbit, deer; most of the samples contained DNA from wild boar (Sus scrofa), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Identification of Borrelia species was based on the flaB gene using nested PCR coupled to RFLP. This method allows the identification of all Borrelia species transmitted by I. ricinus in Europe, including B. miyamotoi and 3 genetic variants of B. garinii. In the studied isolates, 2 species belonging to B. burgdorferi sensu lato were identified--B. garinii and B. afzelii, and B. miyamotoi, which are related to relapsing fever borreliae.

  16. Integrated management of Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion in north-western Italy: basic approaches for supervised control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautino, Giulia C; Bosco, Lara; Tavella, Luciana

    2012-02-01

    Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is a major pest on onion, Allium cepa L., worldwide. In 2010, research was conducted in a commercial onion field in north-western Italy in order (i) to evaluate the efficacy of different insecticides and of the SAR activator acibenzolar-S-methyl, (ii) to correlate thrips infestation levels with bulb size and weight at harvest and (iii) to implement a reliable thrips sampling method. Efficacy of the three active ingredients spinosad, lambda-cyhalothrin and acibenzolar-S-methyl on local thrips populations were also evaluated in laboratory bioassays. During field surveys, the highest and the lowest thrips infestations were observed in plots treated with lambda-cyhalothrin and with spinosad and acibenzolar-S-methyl respectively. The effectiveness of spinosad was also confirmed in laboratory bioassays. At harvest, bulb size and weight did not significantly differ between treatments. A high correlation with visual inspection made plant beating a suitable sampling method for routine practice, enabling a good estimate of thrips infestation. Damage caused by thrips is often not severe enough to warrant the frequent pesticide applications the crops receive in north-western Italy. The use of spinosad and acibenzolar-S-methyl is suggested as an alternative to conventional insecticides for the preservation of natural enemies. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Childhood and adolescent injuries in elementary schools in north-western Uganda: extent, risk and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutto, Milton; Lawoko, Stephen; Ovuga, Emilio; Svanstrom, Leif

    2012-01-01

    Childhood injuries remain understudied in Uganda. The objective of this study was to determine the extent, nature and determinants of school-related childhood injury risk in north-western Uganda. A cohort of 1000 grade fives from 13 elementary schools was followed-up for one term. Survival and multi-level modelling techniques compared the risk rates across gender, schools and locations. Childhood injuries are common in north-western Uganda. Most of them occur during travel, breaks, practical classes and gardening, while walking, playing, learning and digging. Most injuries result from collisions with objects, sports and falls. Two-thirds of children receive first aid and hospital care. Times to injury were 72.1 and 192.9 person days (p = 0.0000). Gender differences in time to event were significant (p = 0.0091). Girls had better survival rates: cumulative prevalence of childhood injury was 36.1%; with significant gender differences (p = 0.007). Injury rate was 12.3/1000 person days, with a hazard ratio of 1.4. Compared to girls, boys had a 37% higher injury rate (p = 0.004). Rates varied among schools. Associated factors include sex and school. Rural-urban location and school differences do influence childhood injury risk. Childhood injuries are common: the risk is high, gender- and school-specific. Determinants include gender and school. Location and school contexts influence injury risk.

  18. PALAEOECOLOGIC AND PALAEOBIOGEOGRAPHIC CHARACTER OF MIDDLE PLIOCENE NON-MARINE MOLLUSC FAUNAS FROM NORTH-WESTERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA ESU

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Significant new records of rich Middle Pliocene nonmarine mollusc assemblages from the Piedmont basin (North-western Italy have led to an update of the systematic position of some taxa known since the end of the 19th century. The recorded molluscs come from deposits belonging to the San Martino unit in the "Villafranchian type-area" (Villafranca d’Asti and to Cuneo and Alessandria districts. Vertebrate remains referred to the Middle Pliocene Triversa Faunal Unit (Mammal Neogene zone MN16a are often associated with molluscs. A detailed palaeoecologic and palaeobiogeographic picture of the Middle Pliocene aquatic and terrestrial mollusc faunas is outlined. The assemblages are characterised by a high degree of species diversity and by the dominance of land prosobranchs and pulmonates. The palaeoecologic character is related to the different sedimentary facies recognised in the lithostratigraphic units: hygrophilous land faunas in paleosols and dominant aquatic taxa in lacustrine-palustrine sediments. Thermophilous swampy and forest taxa point to warm-temperate and humid climate conditions. A high number of extinct taxa and a high rate of endemism are underlined. A Mio-Pliocene Central-western European origin is noticed for many species. In the Middle Pliocene a spreading of some terrestrial species took place from North-western Italy towards Central Italy. Some new extinct taxa, belonging to the families Aciculidae (Renea sp. 1 and Clausiliidae [Monoptychia (subgen. n. sp. 1; Neostyriacasp. 1; Fusulus (Fusulus sp. 1], are identified.

  19. Mercury in Thana creek, Bombay harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Desai, B.N.

    weight) with marked increased from harbour to the creek region suggests substantial mercury input in the head region. Chemical extraction by hydrogen peroxide indicated that more than 70% of mercury was leachable and probably organically bound...

  20. Marriage in North-Western Transylvania (2nd Half of the 19th Century – Beginning of the 20th Century). External Conditionings and Marital Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Brie, Mircea

    2009-01-01

    Marriage in North-Western Transylvania (2nd Half of the 19th Century – Beginning of the 20th Century). External Conditionings and Marital Strategies In the latter half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, in north-western Transylvania there was a traditional rural society, except for some urban centres and their neighbouring areas (the urban character is also proved by the analysis of the marital behaviour). The major events in the family life, such as baptism, marriage ...

  1. Retraction: Characterization of cellulolytic activities of newly isolated Thelephora sowerbyi from North-Western Himalayas on different lignocellulosic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepika; Goel, Gunjan; Bansal, Saurabh; Mahajan, Rishi; Sharma, B M; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2016-12-01

    Characterization of cellulolytic activities of newly isolated Thelephora sowerbyi from North-Western Himalayas on different lignocellulosic substrate J. Basic Microbiol. 2015, 55, 1-11 - DOI: 10.1002/jobm.201500107 The above article from the Journal of Basic Microbiology, published online on 08 June 2015 in Wiley Online Library as Early View (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jobm.201500107/pdf), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the Editor-in-Chief and Wiley-VCH GmbH & Co. KGaA. The retraction has been agreed because the microorganism studied in the described experiments has been identified as the fungus Cotylidia pannosa (Gene Accession No. KT008117) instead of Thelephora sowerbyi. The culture has been identified on the basis of the sequence of the amplified ITS region of the microorganism which was submitted by the authors to the NCBI database. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Quality of life in Hepatitis C virus infection: assessment of rural patients living in north-western New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekera, Sanjeevani; Fraser, John; Alexander, Christian

    2008-07-01

    To measure the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of rural Australian Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients living in north-western New South Wales. A cross-sectional survey, including the Short Form 36 (SF36) questionnaire as well as topics concerning demographic data and items relating to the perceived mode and duration of HCV infection. A total of 80 patients with HCV infection were identified, using non-random, convenience sampling, during October 2004 to June 2005. These patients attended either the Hepatitis C clinic, the Alcohol and Other Drugs clinic or general practitioner surgeries in rural north-western New South Wales. Of the 80 patients selected, 65 completed the survey instrument, yielding a response rate of 81%. HRQOL in terms of the standard eight SF36 subscores as well as aggregate physical and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores based on the SF36. Patients attending the Alcohol and Other Drugs clinic had a significantly (P = 0.024) lower vitality score than patients attending either the Hepatitis C clinic or the general practice surgeries. Otherwise, the three groups had similar scores in respect of the remaining seven SF36 dimensions. Most participants (86%) stated that their families are aware of their HCV status and 74% of participants mentioned that their families are supporting them in respect of their HCV status. Our rural HCV-infected patients have comparable HRQOL measures to their counterparts selected from patients attending the Liver Diseases Clinic or the Infectious Diseases Clinic in Adelaide. Both groups have reduced HRQOL compared with the Australian population norm.

  3. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Wild Olives from the North-western Mediterranean Assessed by SSR Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaj, Angjelina; Muñoz-Diez, Concepción; Baldoni, Luciana; Porceddu, Andrea; Barranco, Diego; Satovic, Zlatko

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims This study examines the pattern of genetic variability and genetic relationships of wild olive (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. sylvestris) populations in the north-western Mediterranean. Recent bottleneck events are also assessed and an investigation is made of the underlying population structure of the wild olive populations. Methods The genetic variation within and between 11 wild olive populations (171 individuals) was analysed with eight microsatellite markers. Conventional and Bayesian-based analyses were applied to infer genetic structure and define the number of gene pools in wild olive populations. Key Results Bayesian model-based clustering identified four gene pools, which was in overall concordance with the Factorial Correspondence Analysis and Fitch–Margoliash tree. Two gene pools were predominantly found in southern Spain and Italian islands, respectively, in samples gathered from undisturbed forests of the typical Mediterranean climate. The other two gene pools were mostly detected in the north-eastern regions of Spain and in continental Italy and belong to the transition region between the temperate and Mediterranean climate zones. Conclusions On the basis of these results, it can be assumed that the population structure of wild olives from the north-western Mediterranean partially reflects the evolutionary history of these populations, although hybridization between true oleasters and cultivated varieties in areas of close contact between the two forms must be assumed as well. The study indicates a degree of admixture in all the populations, and suggests some caution regarding genetic differentiation at the population level, making it difficult to identify clear-cut genetic boundaries between candidate areas containing either genuinely wild or feral germplasm. PMID:17613587

  4. Determinants of farmers’ perception to invest in soil and water conservation technologies in the North-Western Highlands of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desalew Meseret Moges

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion by water is a severe and continuous ecological problem in the north-western Highlands of Ethiopia. Limited perception of farmers to practice soil and water conservation (SWC technologies is one of the major causes that have resulted accelerated soil erosion. Therefore, this paper examines the major determinants of farmers’ perception to use and invest in SWC technologies in Ankasha District, north-western highlands of Ethiopia. A detailed field survey was carried out among 338 households, randomly selected from two rural sample kebeles (called villages here after. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression model were used to analyse the effects of multiple variables on farmers’ perception. The results indicate that educational level of the respondents and their access to trainings were found to have a positive and very significant association (P<0.01 with farmers’ perception. Likewise, land ownership, plot size, slope type, and extension contact positively and significantly influenced farmers’ perception at 5% level of significance. On the other hand, the influence of respondents’ age and plot distance from the homestead was found to be negative and significant (P<0.05. The overall results of this study indicate that the perception of farmers to invest in SWC technologies was highly determined by socioeconomic, institutional, attitudinal and biophysical factors. Thus, a better understanding of constrains that influence farmers' perception is very important while designing and implementing SWC technologies. Frequent contacts between farmers and extension agents and continues agricultural trainings are also needed to increase awareness of the impacts of SWC benefits.

  5. Identification of host blood-meal sources and Borrelia in field-collected Ixodes ricinus ticks in north-western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Wodecka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Forest animals play fundamental roles in the maintenance of [i]Ixodes ricinus[/i] and [i]Borrelia[/i] species in the forest biotope. To identify the forest vertebrate species that are host for I. ricinus and for the recognition of the reservoirs of [i]Borrelia[/i] species, the blood-meal of 325 [i]I. ricinus[/i] ticks collected at two forest sites in north-western Poland were analysed. Nested PCR was used to detect polymorphisms in a fragment of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene for the identification of the hosts species. The products were digested with the restriction enzymes, a combination that allows the identification of 60 vertebrate species, comprising 17 bird, 4 reptile and 39 mammalian species. Host DNA was detected in 244 (75%[i] I. ricinus[/i] individuals, with the species being detected and classified for 210 (86% samples. The restriction patterns resulted in the identification of 14 vertebrate species, including 2 species of birds, lizard, badger, rabbit, deer; most of the samples contained DNA from wild boar ([i]Sus scrofa[/i], red fox ([i]Vulpes vulpes[/i], red deer ([i]Cervus elaphus[/i] and roe deer ([i]Capreolus capreolus[/i]. Identification of Borrelia species was based on the flaB gene using nested PCR coupled to RFLP. This method allows the identification of all [i]Borrelia[/i] species transmitted by [i]I. ricinus [/i]in Europe, including [i]B. miyamotoi[/i] and 3 genetic variants of [i]B. garinii[/i]. In the studied isolates, 2 species belonging to [i]B. burgdorferi[/i] sensu lato were identified – B. [i]garinii [/i]and B. [i]afzelii[/i], and B. [i]miyamotoi,[/i] which are related to relapsing fever borreliae.

  6. Geodetic infrastructure at the Barcelona harbour for sea level monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Benjamin, Juan Jose; Gili, Josep; Lopez, Rogelio; Tapia, Ana; Pros, Francesc; Palau, Vicenc; Perez, Begona

    2015-04-01

    The presentation is directed to the description of the actual geodetic infrastructure of Barcelona harbour with three tide gauges of different technologies for sea level determination and contribution to regional sea level rise and understanding past and present sea level rise in the Barcelona harbour. It is intended that the overall system will constitute a CGPS Station of the ESEAS (European Sea Level) and TIGA (GPS Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring) networks. At Barcelona harbour there is a MIROS radar tide gauge belonging to Puertos del Estado (Spanish Harbours).The radar sensor is over the water surface, on a L-shaped structure which elevates it a few meters above the quay shelf. 1-min data are transmitted to the ENAGAS Control Center by cable and then sent each 1 min to Puertos del Estado by e-mail. The information includes wave forescast (mean period, significant wave height, sea level, etc.This sensor also measures agitation and sends wave parameters each 20 min. There is a GPS station Leica Geosystems GRX1200 GG Pro and antenna AX 1202 GG. The Control Tower of the Port of Barcelona is situated in the North dike of the so-called Energy Pier in the Barcelona harbor (Spain). This tower has different kind of antennas for navigation monitoring and a GNSS permanent station. As the tower is founded in reclaimed land, and because its metallic structure, the 50 m building is subjected to diverse movements, including periodic fluctuations due to temperature changes. In this contribution the 2009, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 the necessary monitoring campaigns are described. In the framework of a Spanish Space Project, the instrumentation of sea level measurements has been improved by providing the Barcelona site with a radar tide gauge Datamar 2000C from Geonica S.L. in June 2014 near an acoustic tide gauge from the Barcelona Harbour installed in 2013. Precision levelling has been made several times in the last two years because the tower is founded in reclaimed land and

  7. Epidemiological analysis of the 2006 bluetongue virus serotype 8 epidemic in north-western Europe, A risk map for epidemic potential in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeijer, de A.; Hartemink, N.; Boender, G.J.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Hesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of vector-borne infections is the strong influence of weather and climate on the transmission. In response to the major epidemic of bluetongue in north western Europe between summer and autumn 2006, an interest in BTV control issues developed. In this context, a map

  8. Roman and early-medieval long-distance transport routes in north-western Europe : Modelling frequent-travel zones using a dendroarchaeological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lanen, Rowin J.; Jansma, Esther; van Doesburg, Jan; Groenewoudt, Bert J.

    2016-01-01

    To what extent long-distance transport in north-western Europe changed after the Roman period is generally unknown. Few historical sources are available and existing archaeological records are unclear and sometimes conflicting. Traditionally, research on the long-distance exchange of goods mostly

  9. Population differentiation and hybridisation of Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins in North-Western Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, Alexander M.; Kopps, Anna M.; Allen, Simon J.; Bejder, Lars; Littleford-Colquhoun, Bethan; Parra, Guido J.; Cagnazzi, Daniele; Thiele, Deborah; Palmer, Carol; Frere, Celine H.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins ('snubfin' and 'humpback dolphins', hereafter) of north-western Australia. While both species are listed as 'near threatened' by the IUCN, data deficiencies are impeding rigorous

  10. Possible routes of introduction of bluetongue serotype 8 virus into the epicentre of the 2006 epidemic in north-western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mintiens, K.; Meroc, E.; Mellor, P.S.; Staubach, C.; Gerbier, G.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Hendrickx, G.; Clercq, K.

    2008-01-01

    In August 2006, bluetongue (BT) was notified in The Netherlands on several animal holdings. This was the onset of a rapidly spreading BT-epidemic in north-western Europe (latitude >51°N) that affected cattle and sheep holdings in The Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, France and Luxembourg. The

  11. NEW DATA ON COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF NOCTUID MOTHS (LEPIDOPTERA, NOCTUIDAE OF THE ISLANDS TULENEI, CHECHEN AND NORDOVIY OF THE NORTH-WESTERN CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The work gives the species composition and geographical distribution of the noctuid moths (Lepidoptera,Noctuidae of the islands Tulenei, Chechen and Nordoviy of the north-western Caspian sea. Provides a list of common species of moths for all three of the Islands, as well as the list of rare with small populations of species.

  12. Ethno-cognitive connections between HIV/AIDS and banana plants in the Bahaya agricultural society in north-western Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Githinji, V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on ethno-cognitive connections between HIV/AIDS and banana plants in the Bahaya agricultural society that emerged from an anthropological study carried out in 2005-2006 in Nsisha, a rural village in Bukoba District, north-western Tanzania. The paper briefly describes the

  13. Source of Aegean Sea harbour porpoises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lockyer, Christina; Rosel, P. E.; Frantzis, A.

    2003-01-01

    Documented sightings of harbour porpoises in the Mediterranean are rare, although the species is common in the neighbouring North Atlantic and Black Sea. However, in the past 2 decades, 4 harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena have been recorded in the northern Aegean Sea in the eastern Mediterranean...... Basin. Samples were taken from 2 of these. Both have a genetic signature indicative of the Black Sea and their age and small size further suggest they originated from the Black Sea rather than the Atlantic population. These results are the first to indicate probable movement of porpoises out...... of the Black Sea and into the Mediterranean Sea....

  14. Subsurface geology of the Bombay Harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Almeida, F.; Ramana, M.V.; Vora, K.H.; Bhattacharya, G.C.; Subrahmanyam, V.

    As part of engineering pre-design investigations, high resolution geophysical surveys were carried out in and around Bombay harbour, India. The depth in the area varies from dries over the mudflats to about 14m towards the offshore end. The seabed...

  15. Seabed surveys of Victoria harbour, Mahe, Seychelles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hashimi, N.H.; Wagle, B.G.

    The seabed surveys in the Victoria Harbour, Mahe, Seychelles shows that the prominent feature is the navigational channel aligned in the northeast-southwest direction with a width varying from 300 to 450m. The depth in the channel ranges from 14...

  16. Earlier pupping in harbour seals, Phoca vitulina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, P.J.H.; Brasseur, S.M.J.M.; Meesters, H.W.G.

    2010-01-01

    The annual reproductive cycle of most seal species is characterized by a tight synchrony of births. Typically, timing of birth shows little inter-annual variation. Here, however we show that harbour seals Phoca vitulina from the Wadden Sea (southeast North Sea) have shortened their yearly cycle,

  17. Additional Glacial Relicts in Carei Plain Natural Protected Area, North-Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szatmari Paul-Marian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new scientific data on the spread of mountain elements in the plains of the northwestern part of Romania, species that managed to survive in this area since the last glacial period. Previous studies revealed that the northwestern part of Romania does not exhibit vegetation specific to the region of forest steppe, hills or low mountain areas, as expected. Many species common to mountainous regions were previously observed not only in Carei Plain, but also in Ier Plain, Tur Plain, Tăşnad Hills or Oaş region across Satu Mare, Bihor and Sălaj counties. The same observations were made in other parts of Carei Plain in Hungary, and conclusions were drawn that the area was a glacial refuge. On the Hungarian side of the Carei Plain, the ecosystems were also better preserved comparative to the Romanian side, where most of the natural ecosystems of the Carei Plain were destroyed due to the conversion to agricultural land starting with the 19th century and culminating in the communist period during the 20th century. The study is also intended to be a complement to the data on "Natura 2000" sites, whose goal is the protection of biodiversity in Europe along with their conservation in the most favorable conditions. An update of these sites is becoming increasingly necessary since in recent decades they have been greatly impacted by human activities.

  18. The impact of Saharan dust on the particulate export in the water column of the North Western Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ternon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric deposition and of sinking particles at 200 and 1000 m depth, were performed in the Ligurian Sea (North-Western Mediterranean between 2003 and 2007, along with phytoplanktonic activity derived from satellite images. Atmospheric deposition of Saharan dust particles was very irregular and confirmed the importance of sporadic high magnitude events over the annual average (11.4 g m−2 yr−1 for the 4 years. The average marine total mass flux was 31 g m−2 yr−1, the larger fraction being the lithogenic one (~37%. The marine total mass flux displayed a seasonal pattern with a maximum in winter, occurring before the onset of the spring bloom. The highest POC fluxes did not occur during the spring bloom nor could they be directly related to any noticeable increase in the surface phytoplanktonic biomass. Over the 4 years of the study, the strongest POC fluxes were concomitant with large increases of the lithogenic marine flux, which had originated from either recent Saharan fallout events (February 2004 and August 2005, from "old" Saharan dust "stored" in the upper water column layer (March 2003 and February 2005, or alternatively from lithogenic material originating from Ligurian riverine flooding (December 2003, Arno, Roya and Var rivers. Those associated export fluxes defined as "lithogenic events", are believed to result from a combination of forcing (winter mixing or Saharan events, in particular extreme ones, biological (zooplankton activity, and also organic-mineral aggregation inducing a ballast effect. By fertilising the surface layer, mixed Saharan dust events were shown to be able to induce "lithogenic events" during the stratification period. These events would be more efficient in transferring POC to the deeper layers than the spring bloom itself. The extreme Saharan event of February 2004 exported ~45% of the total annual POC, compared to an average of

  19. The impact of Saharan dust on the particulate export in the water column of the North Western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternon, E.; Guieu, C.; Loã¿E-Pilot, M.-D.; Leblond, N.; Bosc, E.; Gasser, B.; Miquel, J.-C.; Martín, J.

    2010-03-01

    Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric deposition and of sinking particles at 200 and 1000 m depth, were performed in the Ligurian Sea (North-Western Mediterranean) between 2003 and 2007, along with phytoplanktonic activity derived from satellite images. Atmospheric deposition of Saharan dust particles was very irregular and confirmed the importance of sporadic high magnitude events over the annual average (11.4 g m-2 yr-1 for the 4 years). The average marine total mass flux was 31 g m-2 yr-1, the larger fraction being the lithogenic one (~37%). The marine total mass flux displayed a seasonal pattern with a maximum in winter, occurring before the onset of the spring bloom. The highest POC fluxes did not occur during the spring bloom nor could they be directly related to any noticeable increase in the surface phytoplanktonic biomass. Over the 4 years of the study, the strongest POC fluxes were concomitant with large increases of the lithogenic marine flux, which had originated from either recent Saharan fallout events (February 2004 and August 2005), from "old" Saharan dust "stored" in the upper water column layer (March 2003 and February 2005), or alternatively from lithogenic material originating from Ligurian riverine flooding (December 2003, Arno, Roya and Var rivers). Those associated export fluxes defined as "lithogenic events", are believed to result from a combination of forcing (winter mixing or Saharan events, in particular extreme ones), biological (zooplankton) activity, and also organic-mineral aggregation inducing a ballast effect. By fertilising the surface layer, mixed Saharan dust events were shown to be able to induce "lithogenic events" during the stratification period. These events would be more efficient in transferring POC to the deeper layers than the spring bloom itself. The extreme Saharan event of February 2004 exported ~45% of the total annual POC, compared to an average of ~25% for the bloom period. This emphasises the role played by

  20. Spectrum of LDLR gene mutations, including a novel mutation causing familial hypercholesterolaemia, in North-western Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakou, Maria; Miltiadous, George; Xenophontos, Stavroulla L; Manoli, Panayiotis; Cariolou, Marios A; Elisaf, Moses

    2011-10-01

    Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a clinical syndrome characterised by elevated serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, by tendon xanthomata and clinical manifestations of ischaemic heart disease in early life. Typically, it results from mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene. Furthermore, there are 3 additional genetic disorders that cause clinical syndromes that mimic FH. These are: 1) familial ligand-defective apolipoprotein (apo)-B (FLDH), 2) familial hypercholesterolaemia type 3 (FH3) and 3) autosomal recessive hypercholesterolaemia (ARH). The aim of this study was to elaborate the impact of the above genetic disorders in Greek patients with a clinical diagnosis of FH. In this study, we assessed the contribution of the LDLR, Apo B, ARH and PCSK9 genes in the expression of FH in North-western Greece. Two hundred and fifty-four (254) probands with a clinical diagnosis of FH were included in the study. One hundred and sixty-nine (169) patients had one of the following LDLR gene mutations: 81T>G, 1775G>A, 517T>C, 858C>A, 1352T>C, 1285G>A, 761A>C, 1195G>A, 1646G>A and a deletion mutation g.387-410del24 in exon 4. We sequenced the Apo B, ARH and PCSK9 genes in 40, randomly selected patients, from the 85 patients with no identified LDLR gene defects. In these 40, randomly selected patients, with the exception of benign single nucleotide polymorphisms, no functional mutations were identified for all the above mentioned sequenced genes. Our results reveal substantial genetic heterogeneity for FH in North-western Greece with at least ten LDLR gene mutations present in the study population. One of these mutations although quite rare is reported here for the first time in the scientific literature. The detection of these mutations is important as they may be used to design multiplex detection assays for large scale population screening programmes to facilitate primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in the region

  1. Impact investigations of access channel modifications of Cochin harbour, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.

    Though the modernization projects over the decades for harbour development also brought about several severe environmental modifications in Cochin harbour, along the west coast of India, so far, the physical processes involved are seldom...

  2. Pollution characteristics and water quality in the Visakhapatnam harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.; Raju, G.R.K.; Babu, T.B.

    The impact of organic pollution on the quality of waters in the Visakhapatnam harbour has been studied over a year at 8 stations. The enrichment of nutrients in these waters enhances the eutrophication. The construction of outer harbour retards...

  3. Submerged oceanic shoals of north Western Australia are a major reservoir of marine biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Cordelia; Cappo, Mike; Radford, Ben; Heyward, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    This paper provides a first assessment of fish communities associated with the submerged oceanic banks and shoals in north-west Australia. Until recently, little was known about these deeper and more inaccessible reefs. The mesophotic coral-reef habitats (20-80 m) were a major reservoir of marine biodiversity, with unique and exceptionally high fish diversity and abundance. Species richness in the study region was 1.4 times, and abundance almost twice, that recorded for similar mesophotic habitats on the Great Barrier Reef in north-east Australia. A review of the published literature revealed that Australia's NW oceanic shoals support the highest fish species richness reported for mesophotic reefs to date. We made regional comparisons of fish community structure (species composition, richness and abundance) and assessed the influence of depth, substrate and location. The presence of consolidated calcareous reef, depth and aspect (a surrogate for exposure) had the greatest influence on species richness. In contrast, aspect and the presence of benthic biota had the greatest influence on fish abundance. Sites most exposed to the prevailing currents (facing north-east) had lowest fish abundance, while highest abundances were recorded on moderately exposed sites (along the north-west and south-east edges). The most abundant species were small ( Pomacentrus coelestis) and large ( Naso hexacanthus) planktivorous fish. Currently, 29.3% of NE Australia mesophotic reefs are within no-take management zones of the Great Barrier Reef. In contrast, just 1.3% of the NW oceanic shoals are designated as no-take areas. The location and extent of mesophotic reefs remain poorly quantified globally. Because these habitats support significant biodiversity and have the potential to act as important refugia, understanding their extent is critical to maintaining coral-reef biodiversity and resilience and supporting sustainable management.

  4. Analysis of the performance of swash in harbour domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alabart, J.; Sanchez-Arcilla, A.; Van Vledder, G.P.

    2014-01-01

    Wave penetration inside harbours has been one the main issues that port planners and engineers have had to deal with in recent years. Wave conditions inside harbours trigger vessel movements, create dynamic loads on port structures and condition harbour exploitation and safety. For this reason in

  5. The zooplankton community of Richards Bay Harbour and adjacent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During construction of the current Richards Bay Harbour in the early 1970s, the original shallow Mhlathuze Estuary was divided into two separate systems: a new estuary and a deep-water harbour. This study compares the zooplankton communities of the current systems with reference to that of the original, before harbour ...

  6. Migration by seed dispersal of ACCase-inhibitor-resistant Avena fatua in north-western Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafoya-Razo, J Antonio; Núñez-Farfán, Juan; Torres-García, Jesús R

    2017-01-01

    Biotypes of Avena fatua resistant to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides have been reported in the States of Baja California (BC) and Sonora (SON), Mexico. We hypothesised that resistant biotypes present in SON (Valle de Hermosillo and Valle del Yaqui) are derived from a resistant population from BC (Valle de Mexicali) via gene flow through the transport and exchange of contaminated wheat seed. This study aimed to determine (1) the resistance of A. fatua to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in populations from BC and SON, (2) the mutation at the site of action and (3) the genetic structure and gene flow among populations. DNA sequencing showed that all biotypes shared the same mutation (Leu × Ile at codon 1781). Microsatellites showed evidence of a genetic bottleneck in SON, and spatial analysis of molecular variance grouped one biotype from the Valle de Mexicali with two biotypes from the Valle de Hermosillo. Migration analysis suggested gene flow from the Valle de Mexicali to the Valle de Hermosillo, but not to the Valle del Yaqui. The presence of resistant biotypes of A. fatua in the Valle de Hermosillo, SON, are likely derived from seeds from BC, possibly through the transport of contaminated wheat seeds. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Management of Ureteric Calculi in Dhule City of North-western Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokesh Patni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urolithiasis, usually affecting people in the prime of life, causes significant morbidity and loss of productivity. Uretericstones account for 2/3rd of all urinary calculi brought to attention of doctors. The damaging effects of the calculi may result in obstruction with dilatation of the urinary tract, leading to stasis and severe infection. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate patients with urinary stones with regards to the incidence, age, sex,clinical presentation, site, size, side, management and their complications. Material and Methods:It was a prospective study carried out by Department of Surgery at Annasaheb Chudaman Patil Memorial Medical College, and Hospital Dhule for a period of two years. Patients were selected after they were diagnosed as having ureteric calculi. The patients were treated by conservative or surgical methods, and the outcome was monitored. Statistical analysis of the data was done for obtaining results.Result: The majority of the patients were males with peak age group in the second and third decade. Pain in abdomen or loin tenderness was the most common presenting symptom. Most of the patients were treated by conservative medical management. Endourological procedures were the most commonly performed surgical intervention. Conclusion: Most of the patients with ureteric calculi present with painin abdomen and majority can be treated by medical management. With the availability of better facilities the requirement for open surgery is decreasing and endourological procedures are becoming the means of surgical intervention.Complications are minimal with surgical expertise for endourological procedures.

  8. Analysis of the pattern of maxillofacial fractures in north western of Iran: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesgarzadeh, Ali Hossein; Shahamfar, Mohamadreza; Azar, Samira Feizi; Shahamfar, Jafar

    2011-01-01

    Maxillofacial fractures can lead to substantial long-term functional, esthetic and psychological complications. The aim of this study is to evaluate these injuries in a Turkish Iranian population. A retrospective study of 170 patients with 210 maxillofacial fractures admitted to the emergency department of a central referral emergency hospital in the area over a 5 year period is presented. Patients' data included demographic information, etiology, site and associated injuries and complications. Road traffic accident was the commonest cause (40%) and the age group of 21-30 comprised the biggest group (30%). Mandibular fractures outnumbered midface fractures (150 vs. 60). Ramus (21.5%) and zygoma (26.5%) were the commonest fracture regions respectively in mandible and midface. Male: female ratio was 3.8:1 Almost half of patients (46%) had sustained associated injuries most of which was soft tissue laceration of the face (17.5%). 22 patient (13%) had associated complication and the hemorrhage was the commonest form of that (9%). It seems that road traffic accidents continue to be the leading cause of maxillofacial fractures and there is an urgent need to implement enhanced regulations and monitoring on motor vehicular traffic.

  9. Analysis of the pattern of maxillofacial fractures in north western of Iran: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesgarzadeh Ali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Maxillofacial fractures can lead to substantial long-term functional, esthetic and psychological complications. Aim : The aim of this study is to evaluate these injuries in a Turkish Iranian population. Materials and Methods : A retrospective study of 170 patients with 210 maxillofacial fractures admitted to the emergency department of a central referral emergency hospital in the area over a 5 year period is presented. Patients′ data included demographic information, etiology, site and associated injuries and complications. Results : Road traffic accident was the commonest cause (40% and the age group of 21-30 comprised the biggest group (30%. Mandibular fractures outnumbered midface fractures (150vs.60. Ramus (21.5% and zygoma (26.5% were the commonest fracture regions respectively in mandible and midface. Male: female ratio was 3.8:1 Almost half of patients (46% had sustained associated injuries most of which was soft tissue laceration of the face (17.5%. 22 patient (13% had associated complication and the hemorrhage was the commonest form of that (9%. Conclusion : It seems that road traffic accidents continue to be the leading cause of maxillofacial fractures and there is an urgent need to implement enhanced regulations and monitoring on motor vehicular traffic.

  10. Red fox Vulpes vulpes (L., 1758) as a bioindicator of mercury contamination in terrestrial ecosystems of north-western Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Lisowski, Piotr; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta Izabela

    2012-02-01

    In this study, we determined the concentrations of total mercury (Hg) in samples of liver, kidney and skeletal muscle of 27 red foxes Vulpes vulpes (L., 1758) from north-western Poland, and examined the morphometric characteristics of the collected specimens. The analysis also included the relationship between Hg concentration and the fox size, and the suitability of individual organs as bioindicators in indirect evaluation of environmental mercury contamination. Determination of Hg concentration was performed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. In the analysed samples, the Hg concentration was low and the maximum value did not exceed 0.85 mgHg/kg dry weight (dw). There were no significant differences in Hg concentrations in the analysed material between males and females or between immature and adult groups. The median concentrations of Hg in the liver, kidney and skeletal muscle were 0.22, 0.11 and 0.05 mgHg/kg dw, respectively. The correlation coefficients were significant between the concentrations of mercury in the liver, kidney and skeletal muscle (positive) and between the kidney Hg concentration and kidney mass (negative). Taking into account our results and findings of other authors, it may be argued that the red fox exhibits a measurable response to mercury environmental pollution and meets the requirements of a bioindicator.

  11. Seasonal distribution and abundance of cetaceans within French waters- Part I: The North-Western Mediterranean, including the Pelagos sanctuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laran, Sophie; Pettex, Emeline; Authier, Matthieu; Blanck, Aurélie; David, Léa; Dorémus, Ghislain; Falchetto, Hélène; Monestiez, Pascal; Van Canneyt, Olivier; Ridoux, Vincent

    2017-07-01

    The biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea is undergoing important changes. Cetaceans, as top predators, are an important component of marine ecosystems. The seasonal distribution and abundance of several cetacean species were studied with a large aerial survey over the North-Western Mediterranean Sea, including the international Pelagos sanctuary, the largest Marine Protected Area (MPA) designed for marine mammals in the Mediterranean. A total of 8 distinct species of cetaceans were identified, and their occurrence within the sanctuary was investigated. Abundance estimates were obtained for three groups of species: the small delphinids (striped dolphins mainly), the bottlenose dolphin and the fin whale. There was a seasonal variation in striped dolphin abundance between winter (57,300 individuals, 95% CI: 34,500-102,000) and summer (130,000, 95% CI: 76,800-222,100). In contrast, bottlenose dolphin winter abundance was thrice that of summer. It was also the only species to exhibit any preference for the Pelagos sanctuary. Fin whale abundance had the reverse pattern with winter abundance (1000 individuals, 95% CI: 500-2500) and summer (2500 individuals, 95% CI: 1500-4300), without any preference for the sanctuary. Risso's dolphins, pilot whales and sperm whales did not exhibit strong seasonal pattern in their abundance. These results provide baseline estimates which can be used to inform conservation policies and instruments such as the Habitats Directive or the recent European Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

  12. Projected changes of the low-latitude north-western Pacific wind-driven circulation under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Jing; Chen, Zhaohui; Wu, Lixin

    2017-05-01

    Based on the outputs of 25 models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5, the projected changes of the wind-driven circulation in the low-latitude north-western Pacific are evaluated. Results demonstrate that there will be a decrease in the mean transport of the North Equatorial Current (NEC), Mindanao Current, and Kuroshio Current in the east of the Philippines, accompanied by a northward shift of the NEC bifurcation Latitude (NBL) off the Philippine coast with over 30% increase in its seasonal south-north migration amplitude. Numerical simulations using a 1.5-layer nonlinear reduced-gravity ocean model show that the projected changes of the upper ocean circulation are predominantly determined by the robust weakening of the north-easterly trade winds and the associated wind stress curl under the El Niño-like warming pattern. The changes in the wind forcing and intensified upper ocean stratification are found equally important in amplifying the seasonal migration of the NBL.

  13. Making a difference with Vision 2020: The Right to Sight? Lessons from two states of North Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, N; Adamu, M D

    2014-01-01

    Settings and Aim: The World Health Organization launched in 1999 an initiative to eliminate the global avoidable blindness and prevent the projected doubling of avoidable visual impairment between 1990 and 2020 (Vision 2020: The Right to Sight). The World Health Assembly (WHA) adopted resolutions WHA 59.25, WHA 56.26 urging member states to adopt the Vision 2020 principles. More than 90 nongovernmental development organizations, agencies, and institutions, together with a number of major corporations, are now working together in this global partnership. Two neighboring states in North Western Nigeria provide eye care services using different approaches; one state uses the principles of Vision 2020, the other uses a different strategy. The aim of the study was to assess awareness and utilization of eye care services in two Nigerian states. A population-based cross-sectional interview of households was conducted in two neighboring states using a structured questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 21 and a P vs. 44%, P vs. 69%, P vs. 5.9%, P < 0.0005). The service utilization rate was however low in the two states. The principles of Vision 2020: The Right to Sight is adaptable to different cultures/societies and has demonstrated a potential to increase awareness and a felt need for eye care in poor resource settings.

  14. Integrated geophysical survey for the geological structural and hydrogeothermal study of the North-western Gargano promontory (Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Schiavone

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A multimethodological geophysical survey was performed in the north-western part of the Gargano promontory to study the geological structural setting and the underground fluid flow characteristics. The area has a complex tectonics with some magmatic outcrops and shallow low-enthalpy waters. Electrical, seismic reflection, gravimetric and magnetic surveys were carried out to reconstruct the geological structures; and in order to delineate the hydrogeothermal characteristics of the area, the self-potential survey was mainly used. Moreover magnetic and self-potential measurements were also performed in the Lesina lake. The joint three-dimensional interpretation of the geophysical data disclosed a large horst and graben structure covering a large part of the area. In the central part of the horst a large ramified volcanic body was modelled. The models show some intrusions rising from it to or near to the surface. The main structures are well deep-seated in the Crust and along them deep warm fluids rise as the SP data interpretation indicates.

  15. Prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes ricinus ticks from three islands in north-western Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Katrine M; Pedersen, Benedikte N; Soleng, Arnulf; Okbaldet, Yohannes B; Pettersson, John H-O; Dudman, Susanne G; Ottesen, Preben; Vik, Inger Sofie Samdal; Vainio, Kirsti; Andreassen, Åshild

    2015-09-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is the most important viral tick-borne disease in Europe and can cause severe disease in humans. In Norway, human cases have been reported only from the southern coast. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from the north-western part of Norway. A total of 4509 ticks were collected by flagging in May and June 2014. A subpopulation of 2220 nymphs and 162 adult ticks were analysed by real-time PCR and positive samples were confirmed by pyrosequencing. The estimated prevalence of TBEV was 3.08% among adult ticks from Sekken in Møre og Romsdal County and 0.41% among nymphs from both Hitra and Frøya in Sør-Trøndelag County. This study indicates that TBEV might be more widespread than the distribution of reported human cases suggests. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Characterization of the optical and X-ray properties of the north-western wisps in the Crab nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, T.; Bucciantini, N.; Idec, W.; Nilsson, K.; Tennant, A.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Zanin, R.

    2013-08-01

    We have studied the wisps to the north-west of the Crab pulsar as part of a multiwavelength campaign in the visible and in X-rays. Optical observations were obtained using the Nordic Optical Telescope in La Palma and X-ray observations were made with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The observing campaign took place from 2010 October until 2012 September. About once per year we observe wisps forming and peeling off from (or near) the region commonly associated with the termination shock of the pulsar wind. We find that the exact locations of the north-western wisps in the optical and in X-rays are similar but not coincident, with X-ray wisps preferentially located closer to the pulsar. This suggests that the optical and X-ray wisps are not produced by the same particle distribution. Our measurements and their implications are interpreted in terms of a Doppler-boosted ring model that has its origin in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modelling. While the Doppler boosting factors inferred from the X-ray wisps are consistent with current MHD simulations of pulsar wind nebulae, the optical boosting factors are not, and typically exceed values from MHD simulations by about a factor of 3.

  17. Integration of Andrographis paniculata as Potential Medicinal Plant in Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii Sarg. Plantation of North-Western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Shekher Sanwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of Andrographis paniculata under Pinus roxburghii (Chir pine plantation has been studied to evaluate the growth and yield for its economic viability and conservation. It was grown on three topographical aspects, namely, northern, north-western, and western, at a spacing of 30 cm × 30 cm, followed by three tillage depths, namely, minimum (0 cm, medium (up to 10 cm, and deep (up to 15 cm tillage. The growth parameters, namely, plant height and number of branches per plant, were recorded as significantly higher on western aspect and lowest on northern aspect except for leaf area index which was found nonsignificant. However under all tillage practices all the growth parameters in both understorey and open conditions were found to be nonsignificant except for plant height which was found to be significantly highest under deep tillage and lowest under minimum tillage. The study of net returns for Andrographis paniculata revealed that it had positive average annual returns even in understorey conditions which indicate its possible economic viability under integration of Chir pine plantations. Hence net returns can be enhanced by integrating Andrographis paniculata and this silvimedicinal system can be suggested which will help utilizing an unutilized part of land and increase total productivity from such lands besides conservation of the A. paniculata in situ.

  18. Comparison of Ocean Dynamics with a Regional Circulation Model and Improved Altimetry in the North-Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Bouffard

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal resolution of satellite altimetry is usually sufficient for monitoring the changes of sea surface topography in the open ocean. However, coastal ocean dynamics are much more complex, being characterized by smaller spatial and temporal scales of variability. The quality and availability of satellite-derived products along the coasts have to be improved, with a strategy optimized for coastal targets. Therefore a coastal multi-satellite altimetry dataset (TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1; Envisat; GFO at a 10 - 20 Hz sampling rate has been derived from routine geophysical data products using a new processing software dedicated to coastal zone applications. Improved along-track sea level variations with fine space scales are available in the North-western Mediterranean Sea from 2001 to 2003, and are compared with high-resolution numerical model elevations from the eddy-resolving model SYMPHONIE. This preparatory work emphasizes the potential of improved multi-satellite altimetry for validating coastal hydro-dynamical models and could contribute in the future to a better tuning of the boundary conditions of the simulations.

  19. THE ROLE OF AIR ADVECTION AND ATMOSPHERIC STABILITY INDICES FOR IDENTIFING HEAVY RAIN STORMS IN NORTH-WESTERN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TUDOSE T.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Air advection and convection at different levels in the atmosphere affect its vertical stability. The degree of stability / instability can be determined by using vertical wind profile (hodograph and stability indices. Analysis of these two elements was used to determine the degree of atmospheric instability for heavy rains in north-western Romania, for the warm season of the 2010-2012 period. The hodographs were made using the atmospheric soundings in Cluj-Napoca, which permitted to determine the air advection intensity between different layers of the atmosphere (sea level-925 hPa, 925-850 hPa, 850-700 and 700-500 hPa. The atmospheric stability indices were used to calculate the intensity of instability. The results show that for an unstable environment a warm advection in the lower layers of the atmosphere and a cold one, in the middle layers are needed. On the other hand, in the case of stability indices, the most useful for assessing atmospheric instability are those that include data about air moisture near the ground level.

  20. ESTIMATED DATE OF COMPLETION OF THE PLANNED MOTORWAY SEGMENTS IN THE CENTRAL, NORTH-WESTERN AND WESTERN REGIONS OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CSUTAK ISTVAN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Romania’s highways are standing ahead of considerably high investments. In the last few decades thetransport infrastructure has been pushed into the background due to lack of financial support. The 21st Centuryhas brought important breakthroughs in the building of highways. In the report on global risks in 2013published by WEF (World Economic Forum the "The prolonged neglect of infrastructure" is being consideredsuch a risk. Our study focuses on the construction works that have been carried out in the Central, North-Western and Western regions of Romania. The highways of the above mentioned regions will be analysed basedon three main points of focus: highways that have already been built, highways currently under construction andhighways that are planned to be built. The aim is to present and compare the 3 regions’ highway infrastructure,determination of an approximate end date for the highways that are currently under construction. It has beenconcluded, that until 2013 the construction work on segments funded by the EU progressed much faster, than theones funded by the government. The results of the study refer to how soon could the construction works reach anend on segments currently in progress.

  1. Ocean disposal of dredged materials from Atlantic Canadian harbours. 1. Small craft harbours, Scotia-Fundy Region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a compilation of all data related to dredging/ocean disposal of dredged materials from harbours maintained by the Small Craft Harbours Branch of Fisheries...

  2. Sources and mixing state of summertime background aerosol in the north-western Mediterranean basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arndt

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS was employed to provide real-time single particle mixing state and thereby source information for aerosols impacting the western Mediterranean basin during the ChArMEx-ADRIMED and SAF-MED campaigns in summer 2013. The ATOFMS measurements were made at a ground-based remote site on the northern tip of Corsica. Twenty-seven distinct ATOFMS particle classes were identified and subsequently grouped into eight general categories: EC-rich (elemental carbon, K-rich, Na-rich, amines, OC-rich (organic carbon, V-rich, Fe-rich and Ca-rich particles. Mass concentrations were reconstructed for the ATOFMS particle classes and found to be in good agreement with other co-located quantitative measurements (PM1, black carbon (BC, organic carbon, sulfate mass and ammonium mass. Total ATOFMS reconstructed mass (PM2. 5 accounted for 70–90 % of measured PM10 mass and was comprised of regionally transported fossil fuel (EC-rich and biomass burning (K-rich particles. The accumulation of these transported particles was favoured by repeated and extended periods of air mass stagnation over the western Mediterranean during the sampling campaigns. The single particle mass spectra proved to be valuable source markers, allowing the identification of fossil fuel and biomass burning combustion sources, and was therefore highly complementary to quantitative measurements made by Particle into Liquid Sampler ion chromatography (PILS-IC and an aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM, which have demonstrated that PM1 and PM10 were comprised predominantly of sulfate, ammonium and OC. Good temporal agreement was observed between ATOFMS EC-rich and K-rich particle mass concentrations and combined mass concentrations of BC, sulfate, ammonium and low volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA. This combined information suggests that combustion of fossil fuels and biomass produced primary EC- and OC-containing particles, which

  3. Latitudinal distributions of particulate carbon export across the North Western Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puigcorbé, Viena; Roca-Martí, Montserrat; Masqué, Pere; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia; Rutgers van der Loeff, Michiel; Bracher, Astrid; Moreau, Sebastien

    2017-11-01

    234Th-derived carbon export fluxes were measured in the Atlantic Ocean under the GEOTRACES framework to evaluate basin-scale export variability. Here, we present the results from the northern half of the GA02 transect, spanning from the equator to 64°N. As a result of limited site-specific C/234Th ratio measurements, we further combined our data with previous work to develop a basin wide C/234Th ratio depth curve. While the magnitude of organic carbon fluxes varied depending on the C/234Th ratio used, latitudinal trends were similar, with sizeable and variable organic carbon export fluxes occurring at high latitudes and low to negligible fluxes occurring in oligotrophic waters. Our results agree with previous studies, except at the boundaries between domains, where fluxes were relatively enhanced. Three different models were used to obtain satellite-derived net primary production (NPP). In general, NPP estimates had similar trends along the transect, but there were significant differences in the absolute magnitude depending on the model used. Nevertheless, organic carbon export efficiencies were generally models from Dunne et al. (2005) (D05), Laws et al. (2011) (L11) and Henson et al. (2011) (H11) were also compared to our 234Th-derived carbon exports fluxes. D05 and L11 provided estimates closest to values obtained with the 234Th approach (within a 3-fold difference), but with no clear trends. The H11 model, on the other hand, consistently provided lower export estimates. The large increase in export data in the Atlantic Ocean derived from the GEOTRACES Program, combined with satellite observations and modeling efforts continue to improve the estimates of carbon export in this ocean basin and therefore reduce uncertainty in the global carbon budget. However, our results also suggest that tuning export models and including biological parameters at a regional scale is necessary for improving satellite-modeling efforts and providing export estimates that are more

  4. Epidemiology of adult cleft patients in North-western Nigeria: our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajike, Sunday O; Adebola, Rafel A; Efunkoya, Akinwale; Adeoye, Joshua; Akitoye, Olumide; Veror, Ngutu

    2013-01-01

    To review cleft lip and palate procedures over a three-year (2008-2010) partnership between the smile train and our organization, the Grasssroot Smile Initiative (GSI). A three-year retrospective study (2008-2010) involving 79 adult patients with clefts. Seventy nine (14.4%) of 550 patients with orofacial clefts seen and treated within a three-year period were adults with age range of 17 to 81 years; mean 31.45 ± 13.09. Majority were between 20 and 39 years. There were 54 (68.4%) males and 25 (31.6%) females, with the male:female ratio of 2.2:1. Analysis of the cleft types/site revealed 35 (44.3%) lip alone, 22 (27.8%) lip and alveolus, 7 (8.9%) lip and palate and 15 (19%) palate alone. Seven (8.9%) of these patients had other relatives with clefts. Sources of information were friends and relatives; 33 (41.8%), radio; 18 (22.8%), charity organization/NGO; 13 (16.5%), hospitals/physicians; 5 (6.3%), and others; 10 (12.7%). 57 patients with lip clefts had surgery under local anesthesia while the remaining 22 patients were done under general anesthesia. All clefts of the lip were repaired using the Millard advancement rotational flap for complete cleft, simple straight line closure for incomplete and double layer closure for the palate. The incidence of adult patients with orofacial cleft is not rare in our community, probably due to limited access to specialized health care facilities, poverty and ignorance. Furthermore, some of these patients are not aware that these facial defects can be repaired. The advent of the smile train organization and free services has resulted in this harvesting phenomenon.

  5. Three for two. The forms of settlement in North Western Iberian Iron Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parcero Oubiña, César

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A detailed locational analysis of Iron Age hillforts in an area of Galicia is performed, using a methodology based on the use of Geographic Information Systems. Two models of location are revealed from this analysis, corresponding to differences in the formal appearance of hillforts. That allows us to suggest a sequence of 'cultural development' rather than the three traditional phases. This is structured in an Early Iron Age, which is fairly different from the apparent continuity between the Second Iron Age and the indigenous-Roman period. Finally the alternative option of the long term occupation is discussed, based on the data from the site of Alto do Castro and its coherence with the proposed historical sequence is shown. This also allows us to evaluate the significance of the results obtained in the selected area.

    Se realiza un detallado análisis locacional de los poblados cástrenos de un área de Galicia según una propuesta metodológica apoyada en el empleo de Sistemas de Información Geográfica. Con ello se distinguen dos modelos de situación de los yacimientos, que se corresponden con diferencias en los rasgos formales de los propios castros. Esto permite establecer una secuencia de 'desarrollo cultural' alternativa a las tres fases tradicionales, articulada en una Primera Edad del Hierro bien diferenciada de la aparente continuidad entre la Segunda Edad del Hierro y la época de ocupación romana. Para terminar, tomando como eje argumental datos del yacimiento de Alto do Castro, se discute la opción alternativa de la larga continuidad en la ocupación de un mismo punto y se muestra que no es contradictoria con la secuencia histórica propuesta. Esto permite además valorar la representatividad de los resultados obtenidos en el área elegida.

  6. Mathematical modeling of ice flow in the north-western Greenland and interpretation of deep drilling data at the NEEM camp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Rybak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The new ice core obtained from the NEEM site in the north-western Greenland (77.449˚N, 51.056˚W, 2447 m a.s.l in 2008–2012 was expected to improve our knowledge about the Last interglacial (also known as the Eemian, ca. 115 to 130 kyr before present. A numerical modeling, the overview of which is given in this paper, aims at assistance in interpretation of the NEEM ice core. For this purpose, an area of 400 × 400 km was delineated in northwestern Greenland as the domain for the fine-scale model at 2.5 km resolution. Modeled present-day surface velocity was in good agreement with satellite and GPS measurements. The nested ice-sheet model was run over the last two glacial cycles to reconstruct the flow history relevant for interpreting the NEEM ice core. A Lagrangian backtracing procedure was applied to determine the particle trajectories of the ice drilled at the NEEM site. This provides the places of origin at the time of deposition of NEEM ice, from which the ice chronology and non-climatic biases of the records are determined. The latter biases arise from elevation changes of the ice sheet, advection of higher upstream ice, and from latitudinal contrasts in isotopical composition of the ice. These need to be separated from the isotope records to retrieve the climatic signal. In spite of initial expectations, the segment in the NEEM ice core between 2206 m and 2435 m turned out to be heavily disturbed. The presence of high isotope values below 2206 m depth however reveals that there is ice from the previous warm interglacial. Our model locates the EMBED Equation.DSMT4 maximum of the warmest Eemian ice at the right depth (2400 m. On this basis we suggest that the measured contrast between the present and the Eemian EMBED Equation.DSMT4 must be increased by about 1.5 ‰. Most of this non-climatic bias results from upstream advection over an estimated distance of ~175 km. Except for the disturbed section, we are still confident to be able to

  7. The Ancient Harbours of the Piraeus, Volume I.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lovén, Bjørn

    of Athenian power. This first volume in the peer-reviewed Ancient Harbours of the Piraeus series is the culmination of the first phase of archaeological investigations conducted by the Zea Harbour Project, 2001-2006. The study focuses on Zea Harbour, where two previously unidentified building phases were...... and measurement of the relative changes in sea level since antiquity - a key piece of the puzzle, and one that has led to a broader understanding of the topography of the ancient harbours of the Piraeus. The naval installations built in Zea Harbour in the 4th century BC were amongst the largest building complexes...

  8. Estimation of Wave Disturbance in Harbours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helm-Petersen, Jacob

    been presented for the analysis of reflected wave fields in 2D and 3D. The Bayesian Directional Wave Spectrum Estimation Method has been applied throughout the study. Reflection characteristics have been investigated by use of physical models for three types of coastal structures with vertical fronts......The motivation for the present study has been to improve the reliability in using numerical wave propagation models as a tool for estimating wave disturbance in harbours. Attention has been directed towards the importance of the modelling of reflection in the applied mild-slope model. Methods have....... The analyses include mainly directional waves. Analysis of field measurements has also taken place. Simulations with a mild-slope model have been carried out with individual structures and a complete harbour. The analyses clarify to a wide extent the behaviour of the sponge layers applied in the model...

  9. Year-round spatiotemporal distribution of harbour porpoises within and around the Maryland wind energy area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E Wingfield

    Full Text Available Offshore windfarms provide renewable energy, but activities during the construction phase can affect marine mammals. To understand how the construction of an offshore windfarm in the Maryland Wind Energy Area (WEA off Maryland, USA, might impact harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena, it is essential to determine their poorly understood year-round distribution. Although habitat-based models can help predict the occurrence of species in areas with limited or no sampling, they require validation to determine the accuracy of the predictions. Incorporating more than 18 months of harbour porpoise detection data from passive acoustic monitoring, generalized auto-regressive moving average and generalized additive models were used to investigate harbour porpoise occurrence within and around the Maryland WEA in relation to temporal and environmental variables. Acoustic detection metrics were compared to habitat-based density estimates derived from aerial and boat-based sightings to validate the model predictions. Harbour porpoises occurred significantly more frequently during January to May, and foraged significantly more often in the evenings to early mornings at sites within and outside the Maryland WEA. Harbour porpoise occurrence peaked at sea surface temperatures of 5°C and chlorophyll a concentrations of 4.5 to 7.4 mg m-3. The acoustic detections were significantly correlated with the predicted densities, except at the most inshore site. This study provides insight into previously unknown fine-scale spatial and temporal patterns in distribution of harbour porpoises offshore of Maryland. The results can be used to help inform future monitoring and mitigate the impacts of windfarm construction and other human activities.

  10. Year-round spatiotemporal distribution of harbour porpoises within and around the Maryland wind energy area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Jessica E; O'Brien, Michael; Lyubchich, Vyacheslav; Roberts, Jason J; Halpin, Patrick N; Rice, Aaron N; Bailey, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Offshore windfarms provide renewable energy, but activities during the construction phase can affect marine mammals. To understand how the construction of an offshore windfarm in the Maryland Wind Energy Area (WEA) off Maryland, USA, might impact harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), it is essential to determine their poorly understood year-round distribution. Although habitat-based models can help predict the occurrence of species in areas with limited or no sampling, they require validation to determine the accuracy of the predictions. Incorporating more than 18 months of harbour porpoise detection data from passive acoustic monitoring, generalized auto-regressive moving average and generalized additive models were used to investigate harbour porpoise occurrence within and around the Maryland WEA in relation to temporal and environmental variables. Acoustic detection metrics were compared to habitat-based density estimates derived from aerial and boat-based sightings to validate the model predictions. Harbour porpoises occurred significantly more frequently during January to May, and foraged significantly more often in the evenings to early mornings at sites within and outside the Maryland WEA. Harbour porpoise occurrence peaked at sea surface temperatures of 5°C and chlorophyll a concentrations of 4.5 to 7.4 mg m-3. The acoustic detections were significantly correlated with the predicted densities, except at the most inshore site. This study provides insight into previously unknown fine-scale spatial and temporal patterns in distribution of harbour porpoises offshore of Maryland. The results can be used to help inform future monitoring and mitigate the impacts of windfarm construction and other human activities.

  11. The War which was not:Russian, Turkish and Western Historiography on the North-Western Caucasus of the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika V. Tsibenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we analysed in a historical perspective the formation of the key concepts concerning the military actions in the North-Western Caucasus of the 19th century in Russian, Turkish and Western historiography. We didn't set before ourselves the task to find out, “what really happened in the western North Caucasus”, but rather how actually “what happened in the western North Caucasus” is interpreted in different historiographical traditions. Our study has shown that Russian, Turkish and Western historiography on the North-Western Caucasus of the 19th century so strongly depends on local traditions that we can say about three separate historiographies. Current situation is noticeable for the development of Circassian ‘auto-historiography’ which is characterised by ethnocentrism and victimisation due to the trends of counter-history. In spite of interaction between Russian, Turkish and Western historiographies, each of them was formed according to own logic of development. Thus, the misunderstandings in the terminology on the North-Western Caucasus of the 19th century (in particular, with the term ‘Caucasian War’ lean on the differences of historiographical traditions leading to the conflicts of interpretations.

  12. BIOECOLOGY OF DIORYCTRIA ABIETELLA DENIS AND SCHIFF. A PEST OF CONIFERS IN THE NORTH-WESTERN HIMALAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. VERMA

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Cones and seeds of conifers, such as Pinus roxburghii, P. wallichiana, P. gerardiana, Cedrus deodara, Abies pindrow and Picea smithiana are seriously damaged by Dioryctria abietella Denis and Schiff. (Lepidoptera : Pyralidae in the North-Western Himalayan region of India. Bioecological studies carried out during 1991 - '92 revealed that the females laid whitish, elliptical eggs singly on the depressed surface of the young cones. The average egg size was 1.00 ± 0.11 x 0.60 ±0.08 mm and this stage lasted for 3 - 5 days. The larval stage passed through five instars. All the instars differed in appearance, size and duration and larvae became full-fed in an average of 24.8 ± 1.9 days. The full-fed larva spun a cocoon around itself, sealed it with white papery membrane and pupated inside the cone or any other outside protected place. The prepupal and pupal periods lasted for 7-8 and 10-14 days, respectively. The pupa was dark brown, 13.8 ± 0.07 mm in length. Total period from egg to adult varied from 46 to 59 days (52.7 ±4.8 days. Adults were dirty brown in appearance and were 13.59±0.115 mm long with an average wing expanse of 29.0 ± 1.00 mm. They lived for 4 to 5 days. Under laboratory conditions, the pest completed two generations per year and full-fed larvae of 3rd generation overwintered during September - October. Two larval parasites belonging to order Hymenoptera and Diptera, and a fungal pathogen (Fusarium sp. were found associated with this pest. The detailed biology, nature and extent of damage, along with its distribution have been discussed and methods of control suggested.

  13. Effect of altitude on picroside content in core collections of Picrorhiza kurrooa from the north western Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoch, Meenu; Fazli, I S; Suri, K A; Ahuja, A; Qazi, G N

    2011-07-01

    Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth (Scrophulariaceae), commonly known as Kutki, is a major ingredient of many ayurvedic preparations prescribed in the treatment of various diseases. Picrosides I and II are the active agents responsible for the medicinal effects of Kutki, and the variation in content of these compounds in plants at different altitudes is a major question to be addressed. The picroside I and II content in various plant parts of P. kurrooa collected from different altitudes, viz. Sonemarg (2,740 m a.s.l.), Tangmarg (2,690 m a.s.l.), and Pulwama (1,630 m a.s.l.) in the north-western Kashmir Himalayas was analyzed by HPLC. A considerable degree of variation in picroside content was observed. Picroside I and II was highest in populations collected from Sonemarg followed by Tangmarg, suggesting that picroside accumulation is directly correlated with altitudinal change. More picroside I was found in the rhizome and roots of the Pulwama population as compared to Tangmarg samples, whereas the quantity of Picroside II was reduced in plants from Pulwama compared to the Tangmarg population, suggesting that cultivation of P. kurroa at lower altitude reduces the picroside content. The quantities of picrosides also varied spatially, being highest in rhizome followed by roots, inflorescence and leaves in the populations from all three locations. The study concludes that picroside I and II accumulation depends on altitude, which could help in the selection and collection of superior genotypes with uniform effects for utilization by the pharmaceutical industry.

  14. Investigation of heavy metals in frequently utilized medicinal plants collected from environmentally diverse locations of north western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulhari, Alpana; Sheorayan, Arun; Bajar, Somvir; Sarkar, Susheel; Chaudhury, Ashok; Kalia, Rajwant K

    2013-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of environmental pollution, especially soil contamination with heavy metals has led to their uptake in the human food chains through plant parts. Accumulation and magnification of heavy metals in human tissues through consumption of herbal remedies can cause hazardous impacts on health. Therefore, chemical profiling of nine heavy metals (Mn, Cr, Pb, Fe, Cd, Co, Zn, Ni and Hg) was undertaken in stem and leaf samples of ten medicinal plants (Acacia nilotica, Bacopa monnieri, Commiphora wightii, Ficus religiosa, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Hemidesmus indicus, Salvadora oleoides, Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia chebula and Withania somnifera) collected from environmentally diverse regions of Haryana and Rajasthan states in North-Western India. Concentration of all heavy metals, except Cr, was within permissible limits in the tested stem and leaf samples. Leaf samples had consistently more Cr compared to respective stem samples with highest concentration in leaf samples of Bacopa monnieri (13.19 ± 0.0480 ppm) and stem samples of Withania somnifera (4.93 ± 0.0185 ppm) both collected from Bahadurgarh (heavy industrial area), Haryana. This amount was beyond the permissible limit of 2.0 ppm defined by WHO for raw herbal material. Other two most perilous metals Pb (2.64 ± 0.0260) and Cd (0.04 ± 0.0274) were also recorded in Bahadurgarh region, although below permissible limits. Concentration of Hg remained below detectable levels in all the leaf and stem samples tested. These results suggested that cultivation of medicinal plants and other dietary herbs should be curtailed near environmentally polluted especially industrial areas for avoidance of health hazards.

  15. Knowledge and practices of infection control among healthcare workers in a Tertiary Referral Center in North-Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliyasu, Garba; Dayyab, Farouq Muhammad; Habib, Zaiyad Garba; Tiamiyu, Abdulwasiu Bolaji; Abubakar, Salisu; Mijinyawa, Mohammad Sani; Habib, Abdulrazaq Garba

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare acquired infections (HCAIs) otherwise call nosocomial infection is associated with increased morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients and predisposes healthcare workers (HCWs) to an increased risk of infections. The study explores the knowledge and practices of infection control among HCW in a tertiary referral center in North-Western Nigeria. This is a cross-sectional study. A self-administered structured questionnaire was distributed to the study group (of doctors and nurses). Data on knowledge and practice of infection control were obtained and analyzed. Study population were selected by convenience sampling. A total of 200 responses were analyzed, 152 were nurses while 48 were doctors. The median age and years of working experience of the respondents were 35 years (interquartile range [IQR] 31-39) and 7 years (IQR 4-12), respectively. Most of the respondents 174/198 (87.9%) correctly identified hand washing as the most effective method to prevent HCAI, with nurses having better knowledge 139/152 (91%) (P = 0.001). Majority agreed that avoiding injury with sharps 172/200 (86%), use of barrier precaution 180/200 (90%) and hand hygiene 184/200 (92%) effectively prevent HCAI. Only 88/198 (44.4%), 122/198 (61.6%), and 84/198 (42.4%) of the respondents were aware of the risks of infection following exposure to human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus-infected blood, respectively. About 52% of doctors and 76% of nurses (P = 0.002) always practice hand hygiene in between patient care. Gaps have been identified in knowledge and practice of infection control among doctors' and nurses' in the study; hence, it will be beneficial for all HCW to receive formal and periodic refresher trainings.

  16. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli and enteric Helicobacter in domestic and free living birds in North-Western Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robino, P; Tomassone, L; Tramuta, C; Rodo, M; Giammarino, M; Vaschetti, G; Nebbia, P

    2010-09-01

    In order to investigate the prevalence of some thermophilic Campylobacter (C. jejuni and C. coli) and enteric Helicobacter (H. pullorum and H. canadensis) in domestic and wild birds, a total of 278 bird caecal samples were analyzed over a 2 year period in North-Western Italy. Samples were collected from poultry raised in intensive farming at the slaughterhouse (n=102, group A) and in small scale rural farms (n=60, group B) as well as from wild birds (n=116, group C). PCR amplifications were carried out on DNA extracted from caecal samples. Molecular assays targeted the hipO gene for C. jejuni, the asp gene for C. coli and the 16S rRNA gene of H. pullorum/H. canadensis. To differentiate H. pullorum from H. canadensis, PCR products were subjected to an ApaLI digestion assay. Prevalence of thermophilic Campylobacter and enteric Helicobacter was significantly different among groups (p<0.0001). Campylobacter infections were detected in all three bird groups (78.4% group A, 18.3% group B and 38.8% group C, respectively), Helicobacter infections were only detected in poultry, with H. pullorum infecting 68.6% of group A and 21.7% of group B birds. H. canadensis was detected in Guinea fowls (group A) and for the first time in pheasants (group B). Mixed infections by enteric Campylobacter and Helicobacter were shown in 53.9% of group A and in 5.0 % of group B. Our results show that both microorganisms commonly infect poultry, especially intensive farming animals. Only hooded crows among the wild bird group (group C), proved to be highly sensitive to Campylobacter infection.

  17. Household-Level Determinants of Soil and Water Conservation Adoption Phases: Evidence from North-Western Ethiopian Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshome, Akalu; de Graaff, Jan; Kassie, Menale

    2016-03-01

    Soil and water conservation (SWC) practices have been promoted in the highlands of Ethiopia during the last four decades. However, the level of adoption of SWC practices varies greatly. This paper examines the drivers of different stages of adoption of SWC technologies in the north-western highlands of Ethiopia. This study is based on a detailed farm survey among 298 households in three watersheds. Simple descriptive statistics were applied to analyze the stages of adoption. An ordered probit model was used to analyze the drivers of different stages of adoption of SWC. This model is used to analyze more than two outcomes of an ordinal dependent variable. The results indicate that sampled households are found in different phases of adoption, i.e., dis-adoption/non-adoption (18.5 %), initial adoption (30.5 %), actual adoption (20.1 %), and final adoption (30.9 %). The results of the ordered probit model show that some socio-economic and institutional factors affect the adoption phases of SWC differently. Farm labor, parcel size, ownership of tools, training in SWC, presence of SWC program, social capital (e.g., cooperation with adjacent farm owners), labor sharing scheme, and perception of erosion problem have a significant positive influence on actual and final adoption phases of SWC. In addition, the final adoption phase of SWC is positively associated with tenure security, cultivated land sizes, parcel slope, and perception on SWC profitability. Policy makers should take into consideration factors affecting (continued) adoption of SWC such as profitability, tenure security, social capital, technical support, and resource endowments (e.g., tools and labor) when designing and implementing SWC policies and programs.

  18. Palynostratigraphy and paleoenvironmental significance of the Cretaceous succession in the Gebel Rissu-1 well, north Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Beialy, Salah; El-Soughier, Maher; Mohsen, Sayed Abdel; El Atfy, Haytham

    2011-02-01

    Palynological investigation of the Cretaceous Abu Roash, Bahariya, Kharita, Alamein, Alam El Bueib and Betty formations, encountered in the Gebel Rissu-1 well, north Western Desert, Egypt yielded 27 species of pteridophytic spores, 24 of gymnosperm pollen, 25 of angiosperm pollen and 11 of dinoflagellate cysts in addition to some acritarchs, foraminiferal test linings and freshwater algae. This enabled us to recognize five miospore biozones arranged from youngest to oldest as: Classopollis brasiliensis- Afropollis cf. kahramanensis- Dichastopollenites ghazalataensis Assemblage Zone (Late Cenomanian); Elaterosporites klaszii- Sofrepites legouxae- Afropollis jardinus Assemblage Zone (Middle/Late Albian-Early Cenomanian); Pennipollis peroreticulatus- Duplexisporites generalis-Tricolpates Assemblage Zone (Early Aptian-Early Albian); Tucanopollis crisopolensis- Afropollis sp. Assemblage Zone (Barremian) and Appendicisporites cf. tricornitatus- Ephedripites spp. Assemblage Zone (Late Neocomian). The Early Cretaceous Kharita, Alam El Bueib and the Betty formations encountered in the Gebel Rissu-1 well are interpreted to indicate oxic proximal and distal shelf deposits, characterized by type III/IV, V kerogen, which is gas prone but having little potential to produce hydrocarbons. The Upper Cretaceous Abu Roash and Bahariya formations are characterized by a distal suboxic-anoxic and marginal dysoxic-anoxic environment, and their kerogen type III/II indicates gas/oil prone nature. The Bahariya and Kharita Albian-Cenomanian sediments in the present study witnessed the onset of a semi-arid to arid climate, with local or seasonal humid conditions, based on the continuous high abundance of the elaterates pollen and Afropollis-producing plants that inhabited the paleotropical humid coastal plains.

  19. Age and growth of the sand lizards (Lacerta agilis from a high Alpine population of north-western Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio M. Guarino

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We studied growth and longevity of Lacerta agilis from a sample (34 adults and 2 small-sized juveniles of a population living at high altitude in north-western Italy using skeletochronological method. Snout vent length (SVL mean of males did not significantly differ from that of females although the latter were in average bigger (SVL ± SD, males: 69.3 ± 7.1 mm, n = 11; females: 73.9 ± 9.7 mm, n = 22; Mann-Whitney U-test, U = 1.76, P = 0.077. Age ranged from 2 to 4 years (mean age ± SD = 2.3 ± 0.2 in males and from 2 to 3 years in females (mean age ± SD = 2.59 ± 0.5 years. Age mean did not significantly differ between the sexes (Mann-Whitney U-test, U = 1.35, P = 0.174. The two juveniles were 30 and 32 mm in SVL and both were 1-2 months old. In both sexes, a significant positive correlation between SVL and age was recorded although weakly significant for males (Spearman’s correlation coefficient, males: rs = 0.70, P = 0.05; females: rs = 0.75, P < 0.001. Von Bertalanffy growth curves well fitted to the relationships between age and SVL and showed a different profile between males (asymptotics size, SVLmax = 81.9 mm; growth coefficient, k = 0.63 and females (SVLmax = 100 mm; k = 0.40. Results indicate that individuals of L. agilis studied by us are short-living when compared with other populations of the same species.

  20. Sydney harbourings, rehabilitations and the politics of procurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine de Lorenzo

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last three years Sydney has been transformed to an unprecedented extent by public art projects, most of which have been developed by government instrumentalities, agencies or partnerships. The central city council has initiated a Sculpture Walk through the streets and around the rocky foreshores of the inner city; the Sydney Olympic site at Homebush Bay is home to a number of public art works; the government’s water utility company has sponsored an annual, temporary art installation walk along a spectacularly rugged ocean escarpment linking several medium-density suburbs; another instrumentality recently established to oversee the reuse of abandoned heavy industrial sites in the harbour, has established the ‘Promenart’ program along fifteen kilometres of harbour foreshores; and a government-appointed statutory authority responsible for the redevelopment of an extensive and highly polluted former industrial site between the CDB and the airport, has worked closely with designers and artists to develop comprehensive briefs addressing environmental rehabilitation and social interaction. This impressive list is by no means exhaustive. The surge in bureaucratic and artistic creative energy demands critical evaluation. In this paper I will contrast two sets of projects. This first concerns actual projects, in or near the spectacular Sydney Harbour setting, which are premised on placemaking principles and on the whole elicit actual or imagined histories for the delight and reverie of the promenader. Despite the popular and aesthetic success of these projects, one of them, the ambitious Sculpture Walk, is currently being re-evaluated. The second set, in more mundane suburban environments and centred on toxic waterways, concerns projects that at this stage are either being implemented or nearing commencement by interdisciplinary groups of artists, designers, engineers, environmentalists, community representatives, and other specialists. Their

  1. Deciphering natural to anthropogenic control on sedimentation: the Late Holocene Magdala (Kinneret Lake, Israel) harbour hystory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, G.; Rossi, V.; Amorosi, A.; Bertoni, D.; Ribolini, A.; Sammartino, I.; Zanchetta, G.

    2012-04-01

    Using a multidisciplinary approach involving geologists, geomorphologists and archeologists, the late Holocene sedimentary succession buried beneath the ancient Magdala harbour area (Kinneret Lake, Israel) was studied, in order to highlight the strict relationships among harbour evolutive phases (e.g. foundation, siltation, abandonment), natural events (e.g. sea-level variations, climatic changes and earthquakes among the most important) and, obviously, archaeological history. Recent excavations performed within the "Magdala Project" have discovered a harbour structure with late Hellenistic-Roman mooring stones at altitudes of 208.100 m and 208.320 m bsl respectively, suggestive of a higher lake-level (about 212 m bsl) than previously hypothesized. Along the most representative sections of trenches, integrated sedimentological, micropalaeontological (benthic meiofauna and pollen) and geochemical analyses were carried out on sedimentary deposits underlying and overlying the harbour structures, to define the main depositional facies and evolution phases that took place during the last millennia. Spatial variability of coeval palaeoenvironments across the archaeological site allowed to reconstruct a comprehensive picture of the harbour complex, evidencing the occurrence of three main evolution phases, similar to those reported from several Mediterranean Sea harbour systems: 1) a pre-harbor foundation phase; 2) a sin-harbor activity phase and 3) an harbor-abandonment phase. The first phase corresponds to the development of a natural lacustrine sandy beach barren in archaeological remains and containing an ostracod fauna very similar to the one observed within the present-day lake basin at ca. 5 m water depth. The second phase was characterized by the formation of an early Hellenistic sheltered lacustrine basin, recording the first anthropogenic control exerted on coastal sedimentation by the construction of harbour structures ("anthropogenically forced sheltered basin

  2. Chemical tracers of shipping emissions in a Mediterranean harbour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, M.; Amato, F.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; Román, A.; García, M.

    2009-04-01

    Particle emissions from transport-related activities are known as one of the most important sources contributing to the PM mass concentrations in urban environments. However, only limited information is currently available in the literature on the contribution to PM levels by specific transport related sources such as shipping emissions, even though according to the latest IPCC report (Ribeiro et al., 2007), shipping emissions are receiving increased scrutiny by international and regional regulatory agencies because of their potential impact on air quality and human health in communities downwind from major shipping lanes and ports (Dominguez et al., 2008). One of the main reasons for this lack of information is the complexity in the detection of shipping emissions, given that no specific emission tracers have so far been identified as a consequence of the vast variability of combustion fuels burnt by vessels. The city of Melilla was selected for the study of shipping emissions due to its location on the South-Western sector of the Mediterranean basin, on the Northern coast of Morocco and less than 200 km from the Gibraltar Strait (35°17´40" N, 2°56´30" W). The city covers an extension of 13.4 km2, with a population of 70000 inhabitants. The monitoring station selected for the present study is representative of urban background levels, and it is located at approximately 150 m from the Melilla harbour. The harbour is mainly characterised by commercial traffic (passanger and container), although minerals and other loose materials are also stocked on the docks located farthest away from the monitoring site. PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 levels were determined on an hourly basis between 12/01/2008 and 19/12/2008 using a GRIMM laser spectrometer, which produced more than 8000 data points for each size fraction (24000 data points in total). In addition, PM10 and PM2.5 levels were sampled on quartz fibre filter substrates (Munktell) by means of high-volume samplers (PM1025 MCV

  3. Post-Harbour Areas - New Urban Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowacka-Rejzner Urszula

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article on selected examples one illustrated the different solutions for shaping post-harbour areas. One highlighted the complexity and longevity of activities conducted in these areas, which include both: the modernization of building structures, shaping of new functional and spatial interactions, reproduction of natural resources, protection and sharing of preserved buildings and complexes of cultural heritage, but also well balanced management of transformed area. The basis for conducted deliberations constitute studies and field studies concerning the development of urban structures, conducted for many years by the author.

  4. Ethnomedicine of the Kagera Region, north western Tanzania. Part 3: plants used in traditional medicine in Kikuku village, Muleba District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshi Mainen J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Kagera region of north western Tanzania has a rich culture of traditional medicine use and practice. Traditional medicines are the mainstay of healthcare in this region and are known to support the management of many illnesses such as malaria, bacterial infections, epilepsy, gynecological problems and others. However, most of the plants being used have either not been documented or evaluated for safety and efficacy or both. This study, the sixth of an ongoing series, reports on the medicinal plants that are used at Kikuku village, Muleba District. Methodology A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on the common/local names of the plants, parts of the plants used, diseases treated, methods of preparing the herbal remedies, dosage of the remedies administered, frequency and duration of treatment and toxicity of the medicines. A literature review was carried out for information on the ethnomedical uses of the reported plants. Results A total of 49 plant species belonging to 47 genera and 24 plant families were documented. The family Euphorbiaceae and Asteraceae had the highest representation. The plants are used for the treatment of skin conditions (10 plants; 20%, bacterial infections and wounds (14 plants; 28.6%, malaria (14 plants; 28.6%, gastrointestinal disorders (11 plants; 22.4%, gynecological problems including infertility (8 plants; 16.3%, hypertension (5 plants; 10.2%, viral infections (7 plants; 14.3%, chest problems (5 plants; 10.2%, diabetes (3 plants; 6.1%, cancer (2 plants; 4.1%, inflammatory conditions (arthritis, rheumatism, HIV and AIDS, and hernia each treated by 1 plant (3 plants in total; 6.1%. Information obtained from the literature indicate that 25 (51.0% of the therapeutic claims are supported by laboratory results or have similar claims of ethnomedical use from other countries. Conclusion Herbal remedies comprise an important and effective component of the healthcare system

  5. Ethnomedicine of the Kagera Region, north western Tanzania. Part 2: The medicinal plants used in Katoro Ward, Bukoba District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbabazi Pamela K

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Kagera region of north western Tanzania has a rich culture of traditional medicine use and practices. The dynamic inter-ethnic interactions of different people from the surrounding countries constitute a rich reservoir of herbal based healing practices. This study, the second on an ongoing series, reports on the medicinal plant species used in Katoro ward, Bukoba District, and tries to use the literature to establish proof of the therapeutic claims. Methodology Ethnomedical information was collected using Semi-structured interviews in Kyamlaile and Kashaba villages of Katoro, and in roadside bushes on the way from Katoro to Bukoba through Kyaka. Data collected included the common/local names of the plants, parts used, the diseases treated, methods of preparation, dosage, frequency and duration of treatments. Information on toxicity and antidote were also collected. Literature was consulted to get corroborative information on similar ethnomedical claims and proven biological activities of the plants. Results Thirty three (33 plant species for treatement of 13 different disease categories were documented. The most frequently treated diseases were those categorized as specific diseases/conditions (23.8% of all remedies while eye diseases were the least treated using medicinal plants (1.5% of all remedies. Literature reports support 47% of the claims including proven anti-malarial, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activity or similar ethnomedical uses. Leaves were the most frequently used plant part (20 species followed by roots (13 species while making of decoctions, pounding, squeezing, making infusions, burning and grinding to powder were the most common methods used to prepare a majority of the therapies. Conclusion Therapeutic claims made on plants used in traditional medicine in Katoro ward of Bukoba district are well supported by literature, with 47% of the claims having already been reported. This study further

  6. Towards an impact assessment of bauxite red mud waste on the knowledge of the structure and functions of bathyal ecosystems: The example of the Cassidaigne canyon (north-western Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvin, Jean-Claude

    2010-02-01

    Since 1967, the alumina plants in the Marseilles area (Barasse and Gardanne) have been discharging the mineral residue (i.e., red mud) resulting from the alkaline processing of bauxite into the submarine Cassidaigne canyon (north-western Mediterranean Sea) through pipes situated at 320-330 m in depth. The Barasse pipe stopped being used in 1988. From 1987 to 1996, many decrees and regulations were promulgated by the French State to rule the conditions under which the Gardanne alumina refinery was authorized to dispose of the bauxite residue in the sea. The refinery was required: (i) to study the hydrodynamic circulation in the Cassidaigne canyon to evaluate the potential dispersion and transport of fine elements discharged into the water mass and their impact on the pelagic ecosystem; (ii) to survey the marine environment every five years to control the expansion and thickness of the red mud deposit and compare the evolution of the benthic macrofauna at representative sampling sites in the environment affected by the red mud discharge with that of reference sites outside of the red mud plume; (iii) to study the effect of the discharge on fishing activities; and (iv) to investigate the toxicity of the red mud, particularly its persistence, accumulation, interaction and effect on the marine ecosystem, paying special attention to the bio-accumulation of chromium and vanadium. A Scientific Committee was created to insure an independent evaluation of the studies promised by the manufacturer in response to the State's regulations. Since the beginning of the 1960s, data have been accumulating on the structure and long-term functioning of the Cassidaigne bathyal ecosystem. This paper presents the collaborative efforts of the State-Manufacturer-Committee triplet and summarizes the main results obtained during the last period's sea campaigns (1991-2007). This paper also illustrates how national regulations concerning manufacturers, such as Gardanne alumina refinery, have

  7. An innovative early warning system for floods and operational risks in harbours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smets, Steven; Bolle, Annelies; Mollaert, Justine; Buitrago, Saul; Gruwez, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Early Warning Systems (EWS) are nowadays becoming fairly standard in river flood forecasting or in large scale hydrometeorological predictions. For complex coastal morphodynamic problems or in the vicinity of complex coastal structures, such as harbours, EWS are much less used because they are both technically and computationally still very challenging. To advance beyond the state-of-the-art, the EU FP7 project Risc-KIT (www.risc-kit.eu) is developing prototype EWS which address specifically these topics. This paper describes the prototype EWS which IMDC has developed for the case study site of the harbour of Zeebrugge. The harbour of Zeebrugge is the largest industrial seaport on the coast of Belgium, extending more than 3 km into the sea. Two long breakwaters provide shelter for the inner quays and docks for regular conditions and frequent storms. Extreme storms surges and waves can however still enter the harbour and create risks for the harbour operations and infrastructure. The prediction of the effects of storm surges and waves inside harbours are typically very complex and challenging, due to the need of different types of numerical models for representing all different physical processes. In general, waves inside harbours are a combination of locally wind generated waves and offshore wave penetration at the port entrance. During extreme conditions, the waves could overtop the quays and breakwaters and flood the port facilities. Outside a prediction environment, the conditions inside the harbour could be assessed by superimposing processes. The assessment can be carried out by using a combination of a spectral wave model (i.e. SWAN) for the wind generated waves and a Boussinesq type wave model (i.e. Mike 21 BW) for the wave penetration from offshore. Finally, a 2D hydrodynamic model (i.e. TELEMAC) can be used to simulate the overland flooding inside the port facilities. To reproduce these processes in an EWS environment, an additional challenge is to cope

  8. Loblolly Pine Growth 16 Years After Four Site Preparation Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Adams; Clyde Vidrine

    2002-01-01

    Thirteen-year growth results of 1-0 planted loblolly pine seedlings (Pinus taeda L.) on differently prepared upland mixed pine-hardwood sites located in north western Louisiana are presented. The study was designed as a randomized complete block consisting of three blocks of four site preparation treatments, which included: chop and burn, windrow,...

  9. Assessing the importance of alien macro-Crustacea (Malacostraca) within macroinvertebrate assemblages in Belgian coastal harbours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boets, Pieter; Lock, Koen; Goethals, Peter L. M.

    2012-06-01

    Harbours, which are often characterised by anthropogenic stress in combination with intensive international ship traffic, tend to be very susceptible to aquatic invasions. Since alien macrocrustaceans are known to be very successful across many European waters, a study was made on their distribution and impact in the four Belgian coastal harbours (Nieuwpoort, Ostend, Blankenberge and Zeebrugge). Biological and physical-chemical data were gathered at 43 sampling sites distributed along a salinity gradient in the four harbours. One-fourth of all crustacean species recorded were alien and represented on average 30% of the total macrocrustacean abundance and 65% of the total macrocrustacean biomass. The large share of alien crustaceans in the total macrocrustacean biomass was mainly due to several large alien crab species. Most alien species were found in the oligohaline zone, whereas the number of indigenous species slightly increased with increasing salinity. The low number of indigenous species present at low salinities was probably not only caused by salinity, but also by the lower water quality in this salinity range. Based on the site-specific biocontamination index (SBCI), which was used to assess the ecological water quality, the harbour of Nieuwpoort and Ostend scored best and were classified as good, indicating the limited abundance and the low number of alien macrocrustaceans. Sampling locations situated more inland generally had a higher SBCI and a lower ecological water quality. Zeebrugge and Blankenberge were characterised by a severe biocontamination. For Zeebrugge, this is probably related to the intensive transcontinental commercial ship traffic, whereas for Blankenberge, this could be due to introduction of alien species via recreational crafts or due to its geographical location in the proximity of Zeebrugge. Consistent monitoring of estuarine regions and harbours, which are seen as hotspots for introductions, could help in understanding and

  10. Metal contamination in harbours impacts life-history traits and metallothionein levels in snails.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alexandra Bighiu

    Full Text Available Harbours with limited water exchange are hotspots of contaminant accumulation. Antifouling paints (AF contribute to this accumulation by leaching biocides that may affect non-target species. In several leisure boat harbours and reference areas in the Baltic Sea, chronic exposure effects were evaluated using caging experiments with the snail Theodoxus fluviatilis. We analysed variations in ecologically relevant endpoints (mortality, growth and reproduction in concert with variation in metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP levels. The latter is a biomarker of exposure to metals, such as copper (Cu and zinc (Zn, which are used in AF paints as active ingredient and stabilizer, respectively. In addition, environmental samples (water, sediment were analysed for metal (Cu and Zn and nutrient (total phosphorous and nitrogen concentrations. All life-history endpoints were negatively affected by the exposure, with higher mortality, reduced growth and lower fecundity in the harbours compared to the reference sites. Metal concentrations were the key explanatory variables for all observed adverse effects, suggesting that metal-driven toxicity, which is likely to stem from AF paints, is a source of anthropogenic stress for biota in the harbours.

  11. Genomic population structure of freshwater-resident and anadromous ide (Leuciscus idus) in north-western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovrind, Mikkel; Olsen, Morten Tange; Garrett Vieira, Filipe Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Climate change experts largely agree that future climate change and associated rises in oceanic water levels over the upcoming decades, will affect marine salinity levels. The subsequent effects on fish communities in estuarine ecosystems however, are less clear. One species that is likely...... species. In addition to providing a first insight into the population structure of north-western European ide, our data also (1) provide indications of a single illegal introduction by man; (2) suggest limited genetic effects of heavy pollution in the past; and (3) indicate possible historical anadromous...

  12. Sediment quality dredging from Viareggio harbour; Valutazione della qualita` di sedimenti del porto di Viareggio da sottoporre ad escavo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ausili, A.; Pellegrini, D. [ICRAM, Istituto Centrale per la -ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica Applicata al Mare, Rome (Italy); Onorati, F.; De Ranieri, S. [CIBM, Centro Interuniversitario di Biologia Marina, Livorno (Italy)

    1998-01-01

    Several areas of Viareggio Harbour (Italy) (inside, outer-port and harbour-entrance) a tourist attended port close to the Thyrrhenian coast, has to be dredged. This operation requires accurate determination of physical, chemical and toxicological characteristics before the following disposal or alternative uses (e.g. in beach nourishment). Sediment texture, heavy metal concentrations, polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined, and preliminary bioassays were performed in order to evaluate sediment quality and toxicity. This study shows that harbour-entrance sediments are mainly clean sands, while in the other sites the finer fraction is dominant. High concentrations of anthropic contaminants in the inner port make them not suitable for the disposal in the dumping site.

  13. Using 36Cl data to quantify the paleorecharge in arid region. Example of the North Western Saharan Aquifer System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriane Petersen, Jade; Deschamps, Pierre; Gonçalvès, Julio; Hamelin, Bruno; Michelot, Jean-Luc; Guendouz, Abdelhamid; Zouari, Kamel

    2014-05-01

    A comprehensive understanding of large-scale systems such as multi-layer aquifers in sedimentary basins (e.g. North Western Saharan Aquifer System -NWSAS- or the Great Artesian Basin) requires to investigate the recharge history to Quaternary timescale. In fact, for such systems, the residence time of groundwater is often in the order of 100 000 years to 1 million years, the recharge occurring during past, intermittent humid periods paced by the quaternary climatic cycles. In this study, we propose to reconstruct the history of the recharge over the Continental Intercalaire (CI) aquifer, one of the two main aquifers of the NWSAS. It extends over 1 million km2, shared between Algeria, Tunisia and Libya. We focus on the main recharge area of the CI aquifer located in the Algerian Atlas Mountains. Existing chlorine-36 data (36Cl half-life: 301 ka) indicate that groundwater residence time in this system is around 1 million years. A set of modeling approaches is combined to model the theoretical 36Cl/Cl distribution within the aquifer as a function of different recharge scenarios. Seventeen 36Cl/Cl data from two distinct flowpaths provide temporal constraints on groundwater ages. A simple piston model is used to simulate the distribution of theoretical 36Cl along these flowlines as a function of the distance from the outcrop with respect to a recharge scenario. Simplified climatic scenarios are constructed considering humid periods only during interglacial cycles. This allows to define 9 recharge rates (Rh(i)) associated to last interglacials (from marine isotope stages MIS1 to MIS19). In addition, a constant recharge Rg was considered during glacial periods. For each recharge scenario, the recharge values are constrained by using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) inversion, which yields the best agreement between measured and modeled 36Cl/Cl. This MCMC probabilistic inversion approach allows identifying plausible sets of the 10 parameters (9 Rh(i) and Rg) involved in

  14. Disturbance-induced responses of VHF and satellite tagged harbour seals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Signe May; Teilmann, Jonas; Dietz, Rune

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT 1. The response of individual harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) to controlled and sporadic disturbances when hauled out in the Anholt seal reserve, Denmark, was studied. Sporadic disturbances from pedestrians, boats, low-flying aeroplanes and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) were observed...... in or near the reserve. VHF and satellite transmitters were attached to eight harbour seals to determine post-disturbance and undisturbed behaviour during the pre-breeding period (25 April to 21 May 2008). 2. Both disturbed and undisturbed seals mostly returned to the haul-out site from dusk and throughout...... within 40 km from the haul-out site. The maximum extent of post-disturbance trips, however, varied among individuals and disturbance types, and was strongly correlated with the duration of trips. 3. Disturbed and undisturbed seals used the same areas, suggesting that these areas represent normal foraging...

  15. Results of Optical Detection Trials in Harbour Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, D.J.J. de; Dijk, J.; Schwering, P.B.W.; Kemp, R.A.W.; Groot, J.F. de; Broek, S.P. van den

    2008-01-01

    In harbour environments operators should perform tasks as detection and classification. Present-day threats of smallobjects, as jet skis etc, should be detected, classified and recognized. Furthermore threat intention should be analysed. As harbour environments contain several hiding spaces, due to

  16. Reuse of harbour sediments in the Greenlandic construction industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmonte, Louise Josefine; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate possibilities of using harbour sediments from the Greenlandic harbours as substitutes in the Greenlandic construction industry, mainly for concrete production and road construction. Materials for use in the Greenlandic construction industry are shipped...

  17. Sediment dynamics in Lagos Harbour reconnaissance on effects of dredging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijverberg, T.; Reneerkens, M.J.J.; Winterwerp, J.C.; Scholl, O.; Haruna, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Due to economic growth, Lagos Harbour is expanding. Capital dredging is needed to allow larger vessels to call the port. As harbour siltation is already a problem, increase of maintenance dredging is a worry. In the past no data was available to understand the hydraulics and sediment transport to

  18. Lead intoxication in Sydney Harbour Bridge workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, C A; Ibels, L S

    1988-02-01

    Thirty-eight Sydney Harbour Bridge workers were assessed for possible lead intoxication. Forty-seven per cent were found to have significant lead intoxication as assessed by calcium disodium edetate chelation (Ca EDTA) testing and were subsequently effectively and safely treated with Ca EDTA. The prevalence of neurological, constitutional, gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal symptoms was significantly greater in those with, than those without, lead toxicity. Although blood lead levels and, to a lesser extent, hematological parameters were of some use in diagnosis, they were not sufficiently sensitive and thus should not be used in screening workers at risk of lead intoxication. Ca EDTA testing remains the diagnostic method of choice. Patients exposed to lead dust and fumes, in whom symptoms of lead intoxication are present, should undergo such testing and if a positive result is obtained, then EDTA chelation therapy should be instituted.

  19. Groundwater vulnerability assessment of the Cork Harbour area, SW Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, A. R.; Milenic, D.

    2007-11-01

    In the Cork Harbour area of SW Ireland, high yield karst and intergranular gravel aquifers are extremely vulnerable to pollution from a variety of sources, mainly due to the limited protection afforded by the thin cover of low permeability glacial and alluvial overburden. The main potential sources of pollution are due to rapid urbanisation of the Cork city area and its attendant infrastructure, and increased industrialisation in the area, with numerous new industries, particularly pharmaceutical and chemical industries, located around Cork Harbour. Other potential sources of pollution are a number of landfills in the area and an oil refinery near the mouth of Cork Harbour. Traditional agricultural sources of pollution also exist, due to increased use of chemical fertilisers. Finally, the susceptibility to saline intrusion of the karst and gravel aquifers around Cork Harbour is high due to the long coastline of the harbour and the low-lying nature of the karst synclines with their superimposed buried valleys.

  20. Harbour of Ravenna: The contribution of harbour traffic to air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucialli, Patrizia; Ugolini, Pamela; Pollini, Elisa

    Ravenna is one of the main Italian ports and has assumed a leadership position in Italy for some products and markets. The commercial harbour and the adjacent industrial area are very important for the economic system of Ravenna but, at the same time, they are highly critical areas. In particular, on average 8000 ships per year pass through the harbour of Ravenna, influencing air quality in harbour environment. The paper originates from a study about the contribution of different sources of air pollution in Ravenna and its aim is to evaluate the maritime traffic contribution to the air quality in the port area and to determine the suitability of an urban air quality model to support the air quality management in Ravenna. NO x and PM are selected as modelled pollutants. The study is made up of two parts. The first deals with the evaluation of annual emission of PM 10 and NO x coming from ships through a standard European methodology while in the second we simulated the diffusion of these pollutants in the whole area. In order to evaluate the capability of the model to treat maritime traffic emissions, we compared hour-by-hour simulated concentrations with data collected by a fixed monitoring station located near the Candiano Canal. NO x concentrations obtained by short- and long-term simulations show a good match with the values measured by the fixed monitoring station, located in the centre of harbour area, and these results are also supported by FA2 performance index. Instead the omission of the secondary particulate and the contribution of other sources of particulate matter in the port area are probably the most important causes of the PM 10 underestimation. The worse results obtained according to the performance indexes indicate the need to consider the formation and transport of secondary particulate matter in order to obtain more reliable predictions.

  1. Observation of oxygen ventilation into deep waters through targeted deployment of multiple Argo-O2 floats in the north-western Mediterranean Sea in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, L.; Prieur, L.; Taupier-Letage, I.; Estournel, C.; Testor, P.; Lefevre, D.; Belamari, S.; LeReste, S.; Taillandier, V.

    2017-08-01

    During the winter 2013, an intense observation and monitoring was performed in the north-western Mediterranean Sea to study deep water formation process that drives thermohaline circulation and biogeochemical processes (HYMEX SOP2 and DEWEX projects). To observe intensively and continuously the impact of deep convection on oxygen (O2) ventilation, an observation strategy was based on the enhancement of the Argo-O2 floats to monitor the offshore dense water formation area (DWF) in the Gulf of Lion prior to and at the end of the convective period (December 2012 to April 2013). The intense O2 measurements performed through shipborne CTD casts and Argo-O2 floats deployment revealed an O2 inventory rapidly impacted by mixed layer (ML) deepening on the month scale. The open-sea convection in winter 2013 ventilated the deep waters from mid-February to the end of May 2013. The newly ventilated dense water volume, based on an Apparent Oxygen Utilization (AOU) threshold, was estimated to be about 1.5 × 1013 m3 during the DWF episode, increasing the deep O2 concentrations from 196 to 205 µmol kg-1 in the north-western basin.

  2. Don?t forget the porpoise: acoustic monitoring reveals fine scale temporal variation between bottlenose dolphin and harbour porpoise in Cardigan Bay SAC

    OpenAIRE

    Nuuttila, Hanna K.; Courtene-Jones, Winnie; Baulch, Sarah; Simon, Malene; Evans, Peter G. H.

    2017-01-01

    Populations of bottlenose dolphin and harbour porpoise inhabit Cardigan Bay, which was designated a Special Area of Conservation (SAC), with bottlenose dolphin listed as a primary feature for its conservation status. Understanding the abundance, distribution and habitat use of species is fundamental for conservation and the implementation of management. Bottlenose dolphin and harbour porpoise usage of feeding sites within Cardigan Bay SAC was examined using passive acoustic monitoring. Acoust...

  3. Magnetic imaging of a submerged Roman harbour, Caesarea Maritima, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, J. I.; Reinhardt, E. G.; Raban, A.; Pozza, M. R.

    2003-04-01

    The harbour built by King Herod's engineers at Caesarea represented a major advance in Roman harbour construction that incorporated the use of large (390 m^3), form-filled hydraulic concrete blocks to build an extensive foundation for the harbour moles and breakwater barriers. Marine geophysical surveys were recently conducted across the submerged harbour in an attempt to map the configuration of the buried concrete foundation. A total of 107 line km of high-resolution marine magnetic surveys (nominal 15 m line separations) and bathymetry data were acquired over a 1 km^2 area of the submerged harbour using an Overhauser marine magnetometer, integrated DGPS and single-beam (200 KHz) echosounder. The feasibility of magnetic detection of the concrete was established before the survey by magnetic susceptibility testing of concrete core samples. All concrete samples contained appreciable amounts of fe-oxide-rich volcanic ash ('pozzolana') and showed uniformly high susceptibility values (k > 10^-^4 cgs) when compared to harbour bottom sediments and building stones (k construction of the harbour moles and quays.

  4. Fine-scale hydrodynamics influence the spatio-temporal distribution of harbour porpoises at a coastal hotspot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, A.R.; Hosegood, P.; Wynn, R.B.; Boer, de M.N.; Butler-Cowdry, S.; Embling, C.B.

    2014-01-01

    The coastal Runnelstone Reef, off southwest Cornwall (UK), is characterised by complex topography and strong tidal flows and is a known high-density site for harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena); a European protected species. Using a multidisciplinary dataset including: porpoise sightings from a

  5. Imposex in the indigenous Nassarius kraussianus (Mollusca: Neogastropoda) from South African harbours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, David J; Rajkumar, Anisha

    2003-09-01

    Nassarius kraussianus populations in the Durban and Richards Bay harbours (along the eastern seaboard of southern Africa) and in the Knysna lagoon (southern Cape coast) showed imposex development, confirming bioavailability of tributyltin (TBT) in these waterways. Incidence of imposex (which ranged from 29% to 100%) and relative penis length of females (RPL; which ranged from 1.3% to 55.2%) were markedly variable among populations from different sites in each waterway, indicative of localised effects of TBT contamination. Shell length of the snails was apparently not correlated with contamination level, as assessed from imposex measurements. While population imposex features are easy to determine and often provide a sensitive biomarker of TBT exposure, the discussion outlines reservations when extrapolating these to general ecological situations. Additionally, this study represents the first published report on the topic for sub-Saharan, African harbours, some of which seem remarkably less affected than suggested for other world regions.

  6. The harbour of Elaia: A palynological archive for human environmental interactions during the last 7500 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumilovskikh, Lyudmila S.; Seeliger, Martin; Feuser, Stefan; Novenko, Elena; Schlütz, Frank; Pint, Anna; Pirson, Felix; Brückner, Helmut

    2016-10-01

    Elaia, the harbour city for ancient Pergamon (western Turkey), was investigated using geoarchaeological methods. The rise and fall of Elaia were closely linked to the flourishing period of Pergamon, which ruled wide parts of today's western Turkey in Hellenistic times. In the framework of this research, the palynological analysis of a 9 m sediment core, Ela-70, retrieved from the enclosed harbour of the city, was carried out to reconstruct the vegetation and environmental history of the wider Gulf of Elaia region. An age-depth model, based on 11 calibrated radiocarbon ages, starting from 7.5 ka BP, provides the basis for the high resolution study of sediments from the Hellenistic period, as well as before and after. The lower part of the pollen diagram is characterised by high percentages of deciduous oaks and pines, suggesting the dominance of open forests close to the coring site. The change from oak forests to a cultural landscape, with olive, pistachio, walnut, and grape, started around 850 BC, reaching a maximum ca. 250 BC, and continuing to ca. AD 800. This period is characterised by increase of fire activity, soil erosion intensity, and pastoral farming. Such long-lasting intensive land use likely led to the climax ecosystem turnover from open deciduous oak forests to pine stands, while salt marshes developed around the coring site. The discovery of the dinoflagellate cysts of Peridinium ponticum, a Black Sea endemic species, in the harbour of Elaia evidences maritime trade between the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea; its first occurrence coincides with the time of the Mithridatic Wars (1st century BC). In conclusion, palynological data, in addition to historical and archaeological records, provide a deeper insight into human environmental interactions, as derived from the geoarchaeological archive of the harbour of Elaia.

  7. Pollution studies on harbours and jetties in Nigeria | Agbagwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    40%) were Vibrio parahaemolyticus, four isolates were also identified as Salmonella species. The high distribution of the bacteria which is of public health importance in the harbours/jetties, indicates pollution. Physiochemical parameters such ...

  8. Results of optical detection trials in harbour environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Rob A. W.; de Groot, Johannes F.; van den Broek, Sebastiaan P.; de Lange, Dirk-Jan J.; Dijk, Judith; Schwering, Piet B. W.

    2008-04-01

    In harbour environments operators should perform tasks as detection and classification. Present-day threats of small objects, as jet skis etc, should be detected, classified and recognized. Furthermore threat intention should be analysed. As harbour environments contain several hiding spaces, due to fixed and floating neutral objects, correct assessment of the threats is complicated when detection tracks are intermittently known. For this purpose we have analysed the capability of our image enhancement and detection technology to assess the performance of the algorithms in a harbour environment. Data were recorded in a warm harbour location. During these trials several small surfaces targets were used, that were equipped with ground truth equipment. In these environments short-range detection is mandatory, followed by immediate classification. Results of image enhancement and detection are shown. An analysis was made into the performance assessment of the detection algorithms.

  9. Swainsonine-induced lysosomal storage disease in goats caused by the ingestion of Sida rodrigoi Monteiro in North-western Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheloud, Juan Francisco; Marin, Raúl; Colque-Caro, Luis Adrián; Martínez, Olga Gladys; Gardner, Dale; Gimeno, Eduardo Juan

    2017-03-15

    There are numerous poisonous plants that can induce intralysosomal accumulation of glycoproteins and neurologic syndromes. Here we describe for the first time, a disease caused by ingesting Sida rodrigoi Monteiro in goats in North-western Argentina. The animals showed weight loss, indifference to the environment, unsteady gait and ataxia. Histopathologic studies showed vacuolization in cells of various organs, mainly in the CNS. The material deposited in the cells was positive for LCA (Lens culinaris agglutinin), WGA (Triticum vulgaris agglutinin), sWGA (succinyl-Triticum vulgaris agglutinin) and Con-A (Concanavalia ensiformis agglutinin) lectins. Finally, toxic levels of swansonine were identified in the plant. The present investigation allowed to recognize S. rodrigoi Monteiro poisoning as a plant induced α-mannosidosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ecology, tourism and management of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina)

    OpenAIRE

    Granquist, Sandra M.

    2016-01-01

    In cases where human and wildlife are co-using the same geographical areas and resources, management issues often get complex and stakeholder conflicts are common. The Icelandic harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) population is rapidly decreasing, but direct culling of seals still occurs. At the same time seals are becoming an important resource due to increased interest in wildlife watching. Despite the complicated management situation, the Icelandic harbour seal population is one of the least stu...

  11. Population Differentiation and Hybridisation of Australian Snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific Humpback (Sousa chinensis) Dolphins in North-Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alexander M.; Kopps, Anna M.; Allen, Simon J.; Bejder, Lars; Littleford-Colquhoun, Bethan; Parra, Guido J.; Cagnazzi, Daniele; Thiele, Deborah; Palmer, Carol; Frère, Celine H.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins (‘snubfin’ and ‘humpback dolphins’, hereafter) of north-western Australia. While both species are listed as ‘near threatened’ by the IUCN, data deficiencies are impeding rigorous assessment of their conservation status across Australia. Understanding the genetic structure of populations, including levels of gene flow among populations, is important for the assessment of conservation status and the effective management of a species. Using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, we assessed population genetic diversity and differentiation between snubfin dolphins from Cygnet (n = 32) and Roebuck Bays (n = 25), and humpback dolphins from the Dampier Archipelago (n = 19) and the North West Cape (n = 18). All sampling locations were separated by geographic distances >200 km. For each species, we found significant genetic differentiation between sampling locations based on 12 (for snubfin dolphins) and 13 (for humpback dolphins) microsatellite loci (FST = 0.05–0.09; Pgenetic diversity and differentiation for snubfin and humpback dolphins in Western Australia, providing valuable information towards the assessment of their conservation status in this rapidly developing region. Our results suggest that north-western Australian snubfin and humpback dolphins may exist as metapopulations of small, largely isolated population fragments, and should be managed accordingly. Management plans should seek to maintain effective population size and gene flow. Additionally, while interactions of a socio-sexual nature between these two species have been observed previously, here we provide strong evidence for the first documented case of hybridisation between a female snubfin dolphin and a male humpback dolphin. PMID:24988113

  12. An inverse method to derive surface fluxes from the closure of oceanic heat and water budgets: Application to the north-western Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniaux, G.; Prieur, L.; Giordani, H.; Redelsperger, J.-L.

    2017-04-01

    The large amount of data collected during DeWEX, MOOSE, and HyMeX campaigns in the north-western Mediterranean in 2012-2013 allowed to implement an inverse method to solve the difficult problem of heat and water budget closure. The inverse method is based on the simulation of the observed heat and water budgets, strongly constrained by observations collected during the campaigns and on the deduction of adjusted surface fluxes. The inverse method uses a genetic algorithm that generates 50,000 simulations of a single-column model and optimizes some adjustable coefficients introduced in the surface fluxes. Finally, the single-column model forced by the adjusted fluxes during 1 year and over a test area of about 300 × 300 km2 simulates the daily mean satellite bulk SST with an accuracy/uncertainty of 0.011 ± 0.072°C, as well as daily mean SSS and residual buoyancy series deduced from wintertime analyses with an accuracy of 0.011 ± 0.008 and 0.03 ± 0.012 m2 s-2, respectively. The adjusted fluxes close the annual heat and rescaled water budgets by less than 5 W m-2. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such a flux data set is produced. It can thus be considered as a reference for the north-western Mediterranean and be used for estimating other flux data sets, for forcing regional models and for process studies. Compared with the adjusted fluxes, some operational numerical weather prediction models (ARPEGE, NCEP, ERA-INTERIM, ECMWF, and AROME), often used to force oceanic models, were evaluated: they are unable to retrieve the mean annual patterns and values.

  13. Population differentiation and hybridisation of Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins in north-western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alexander M; Kopps, Anna M; Allen, Simon J; Bejder, Lars; Littleford-Colquhoun, Bethan; Parra, Guido J; Cagnazzi, Daniele; Thiele, Deborah; Palmer, Carol; Frère, Celine H

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni) and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis) dolphins ('snubfin' and 'humpback dolphins', hereafter) of north-western Australia. While both species are listed as 'near threatened' by the IUCN, data deficiencies are impeding rigorous assessment of their conservation status across Australia. Understanding the genetic structure of populations, including levels of gene flow among populations, is important for the assessment of conservation status and the effective management of a species. Using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, we assessed population genetic diversity and differentiation between snubfin dolphins from Cygnet (n = 32) and Roebuck Bays (n = 25), and humpback dolphins from the Dampier Archipelago (n = 19) and the North West Cape (n = 18). All sampling locations were separated by geographic distances >200 km. For each species, we found significant genetic differentiation between sampling locations based on 12 (for snubfin dolphins) and 13 (for humpback dolphins) microsatellite loci (FST = 0.05-0.09; Pdolphins in Western Australia, providing valuable information towards the assessment of their conservation status in this rapidly developing region. Our results suggest that north-western Australian snubfin and humpback dolphins may exist as metapopulations of small, largely isolated population fragments, and should be managed accordingly. Management plans should seek to maintain effective population size and gene flow. Additionally, while interactions of a socio-sexual nature between these two species have been observed previously, here we provide strong evidence for the first documented case of hybridisation between a female snubfin dolphin and a male humpback dolphin.

  14. Marine debris in harbour porpoises and seals from German waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, B; Herr, H; Benke, H; Böhmert, M; Burkhardt-Holm, P; Dähne, M; Hillmann, M; Wolff-Schmidt, K; Wohlsein, P; Siebert, U

    2017-09-01

    Records of marine debris in and attached to stranded harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) were studied comprising information on 6587 carcasses collected along the German coast between 1990 and 2014, the decomposition state allowed for necropsy in 1622 cases. Marine debris items were recorded in 31 carcasses including 14 entanglements (5 harbour porpoises, 6 harbour seals, 3 grey seals) and 17 cases of ingestion (4 harbour porpoises, 10 harbour seals, 3 grey seals). Objects comprised general debris (35.1%) and fishing related debris (64.9%). Injuries associated with marine debris included lesions, suppurative ulcerative dermatitis, perforation of the digestive tract, abscessation, suppurative peritonitis and septicaemia. This study is the first investigation of marine debris findings in all three marine mammal species from German waters. It demonstrates the health impacts marine debris can have, including severe suffering and death. The results provide needed information on debris burdens in the North and Baltic Seas for implementing management directives, such as the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A note on harbour seal (Phoca vitulina distribution and abundance in France and Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Hassani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The most southern European colonies of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina are located in France, in three areas: Baie du Mont Saint Michel, Baie des Veys and Baie de Somme. The largest colony is situated at the Baie de Somme, with a maximum of 186 individuals recorded on one occasion in the summer of 2008. All colonies are regularly monitored by different organisations. Different monitoring methods are used, including land-based, air-based and ship-based survey techniques. The basic results of the monitoring indicate a regular increase in the population size since 1990, with the total count of hauled out harbour seals for the three colonies increasing from 24 in 1990 to 295 in 2008. During the last years, an increasing number of pregnant females, pups and postweaned seals have been observed. The recorded number of pups in 2008 was 53. Along the Belgian coast, no harbour seal colonies exist anymore, although individual animals and small groups are regularly observed at different locations. The high recreational use of Belgian beachesmay prevent the establishment of colonies or regularly used haulout sites.

  16. Characterisation of microcontaminants in Darwin Harbour, a tropical estuary of northern Australia undergoing rapid development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Veronica A; King, Susan Codi; Kumar, Anu; Northcott, Grant; McGuinness, Keith; Parry, David

    2015-12-01

    The detection of microcontaminants in aquatic environments raises concerns about their potential to exert ecotoxicological effects and impact human health. In contrast to freshwater habitats, little information is available on environmental concentrations in urban estuarine and marine environments. This study investigated an extensive range of organic and inorganic microcontaminants in the Darwin Harbour catchment, a tropical estuary in northern Australia undergoing rapid urbanisation and industrial development. We sampled wastewater effluent and surface water from seven sites in Darwin Harbour for pharmaceuticals and personal care products, alkylphenols, hormones, pesticides, herbicides and metals. In vitro bioassays were used to estimate the (anti)estrogenic and (anti)androgenic activities of samples. Seventy-nine of 229 organic microcontaminants analysed were detected at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 20 μg/L, with acesulfame, paracetamol, cholesterol, caffeine, DEET and iopromide detected at the highest concentrations in wastewater effluent (20 μg/L, 17 μg/L, 11 μg/L, 11 μg/L, 10 μg/L and 7.6 μg/L, respectively). Levels of estrogenic activity ranged from estradiol equivalency quotients (EEQs) of Darwin Harbour. The measured concentration range of DEET was higher than ranges reported in previous studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Copper speciation survey from UK marinas, harbours and estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bryn; Bolam, Thi

    2007-08-01

    The use of copper in antifouling paints has increased in the UK in the last 20 years as TBT and several other organic biocides have been phased out. To assess the probable impact of copper on estuarine systems a survey was undertaken to measure the different fractions of copper present in the water column at current usage. The different fractions measured were; labile copper, (LCu) considered as both the free copper ions and inorganically bound copper, the total dissolved copper (TDCu) present, and the difference between them taken as the organically bound likely non-toxic copper fraction. The survey considered sites with different levels of boat use, namely marinas, harbours and estuaries, differing physical parameters of suspended and dissolved organic matter, different seasons of the year and different depths in the water column all of which control speciation behaviour. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) values were measured at all sites and increased from West to East coast locations (5.7-34.4 mg/l). Dissolved organic matter (DOM) values ranged from 0.58 to 2.2mg/l C. The total dissolved copper concentrations ranged from 0.30 to 6.68 microg/l, with labile fraction ranging from 0.02 to 2.69 microg/l, and most labile copper concentrations below 1 microg/l. None of the yearly mean copper measurements exceeded the 76/464/EEC EQS of 5 microg/l. Of the 306 measurements, only one dissolved copper value in one season was above 5 microg/l. This ratio of labile to total copper was between 10 and 30%. The results from this survey suggest that if toxicity of copper is due to the labile fraction then using the total dissolved copper concentrations as an indicator of impact overestimate the risk by a factor of four times.

  18. Monitoring effects of remediation on natural sediment recovery in Sydney Harbour, Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Tony R; Macaskill, Devin; Rushton, Theresa; Thalheimer, Andrew; Weaver, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Chemical contaminants were assessed in Sydney Harbour, Nova Scotia during pre-remediation (baseline) and 3 years of remediation of a former coking and steel facility after nearly a century of operation and historical pollution into the Sydney Tar Ponds (STP). Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls, metals, and inorganic parameters measured in sediments and total suspended solids in seawater indicate that the overall spatial distribution pattern of historical contaminants remains unchanged, although at much lower concentrations than previously reported due to natural sediment recovery, despite remediation activities. Measured sediment deposition rates in bottom-moored traps during baseline were low (0.4-0.8 cm year(-1)), but during dredging operations required for construction of new port facilities in the inner Sydney Harbour, sedimentation rates were equivalent to 26-128 cm year(-1). Measurements of sediment chemical contaminants confirmed that natural recovery rates of Sydney Harbour sediments were in broad agreement with predicted concentrations, or in some cases, lower than originally predicted despite remediation activities at the STP site. Overall, most measured contaminants in sediments showed little temporal variability (4 years), except for the detection of significant increases in total PAH concentrations during the onset of remediation monitoring compared to baseline. This slight increase represents only a short-term interruption in the overall natural recovery of sediments in Sydney Harbour, which were enhanced due to the positive impacts of large-scale dredging of less contaminated outer harbor sediments which were discharged into a confined disposal area located in the inner harbor.

  19. Modelling the distribution of hard seabed using calibrated multibeam acoustic backscatter data in a tropical, macrotidal embayment: Darwin Harbour, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwabessy, P. Justy W.; Tran, Maggie; Picard, Kim; Brooke, Brendan P.; Huang, Zhi; Smit, Neil; Williams, David K.; Nicholas, William A.; Nichol, Scott L.; Atkinson, Ian

    2017-05-01

    Spatial information on the distribution of seabed substrate types in high use coastal areas is essential to support their effective management and environmental monitoring. For Darwin Harbour, a rapidly developing port in northern Australia, the distribution of hard substrate is poorly documented but known to influence the location and composition of important benthic biological communities (corals, sponges). In this study, we use angular backscatter response curves to model the distribution of hard seabed in the subtidal areas of Darwin Harbour. The angular backscatter response curve data were extracted from multibeam sonar data and analysed against backscatter intensity for sites observed from seabed video to be representative of "hard" seabed. Data from these sites were consolidated into an "average curve", which became a reference curve that was in turn compared to all other angular backscatter response curves using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit. The output was used to generate interpolated spatial predictions of the probability of hard seabed (p-hard) and derived hard seabed parameters for the mapped area of Darwin Harbour. The results agree well with the ground truth data with an overall classification accuracy of 75% and an area under curve measure of 0.79, and with modelled bed shear stress for the Harbour. Limitations of this technique are discussed with attention to discrepancies between the video and acoustic results, such as in areas where sediment forms a veneer over hard substrate.

  20. Australia's first underseas road tunnel. ; Sydney Harbour Tunnel. Australia hatsu no kaitei doro tonneru no kensetsu. ; Sydney/harbour/tonneru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, N. (Kumagai Gumi Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    The Sydney Harbour Tunnel has been constructed by a joint venture of Kumagai Gumi and local construction company, and has opened on August 31st, 1992. As the project has been undertaken in a beautiful and residential location, in comparison with the conventional undersea tunnel, measures for labor problems and measures for environmental protection (tunnel ventilation measure, normal days working hours are limited to 6 to 18 hours, management of the waste water in the construction site, etc.) have been taken. In addition, the tunnel has been constructed on the basis of solving Harbour Bridge traffic problem, without troubling the people around the site and without creating environmental problems. New techniques have been employed for the immersed tube tunnel construction such as a long ocean towing of tunnel units, a flexible final joint, etc. As compared to the conventional construction method, in case of the flexible joint the benefits have been clarified that the work inside the tunnel has not been complicated. This construction has been completed with the consideration of surrounding environment and is highly evaluated. 2 refs., 19 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Exploitation of the Intermittent SBAS (ISBAS) algorithm with COSMO-SkyMed data for landslide inventory mapping in north-western Sicily, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novellino, A.; Cigna, F.; Sowter, A.; Ramondini, M.; Calcaterra, D.

    2017-03-01

    A large scale study of landslide processes was undertaken by coupling conventional geomorphological field surveys with aerial photographs along with an advanced Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) analysis of ground instability in north-western Sicily. COSMO-SkyMed satellite images for the period between 2008 and 2011 were processed using the Intermittent Small BAseline Subset (ISBAS) technique, recently developed at the Department of Civil Engineering of the University of Nottingham. The use of ISBAS allowed the derivation of ground surface displacements across non-urbanized areas, thus overcoming one of the main limitations of conventional interferometric techniques. ISBAS provides ground motion information not only for urban but also for rural, woodland, grassland and agricultural terrains, which cover > 60% of north-western Sicily, thereby improving by 40 times in some cases, the slope instability investigation capabilities of InSAR methods. ISBAS ground motion data enabled the updating of the landslide inventory for the areas of Piana degli Albanesi and Marineo (over 130 km2), which encompass a number of active, dormant and inactive landslides according to the pre-existing landslide inventory maps produced through aerial photo-interpretation and local field checks. An average of ∼ 7000 ISBAS pixels km- 2 allowed the detection of small displacements in regions difficult to access. In particular, 226 landslides - mainly slides, flows and creep and four badlands were identified, comprising a total area of 25.3 km2. When compared to the previous landslide inventory maps, 84 phenomena were confirmed, 67 new events were detected and 79 previously mapped events were re-assessed, modifying their typology, boundary and/or state of activity. Because the InSAR method used here is designed to measure slow rates of velocity and therefore may not detect fast-moving, events such as falls and topples, the results for Piana degli Albanesi and Marineo demonstrate

  2. Structural framework of the Lufilian Fold Belt in the Domes region of North Western Province, Zambia from interpretation of geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P. R.; Nisbet, B. W.

    2017-05-01

    The area around the Kabompo and Mwombezhi Domes in the North Western Province of Zambia is characterized by poor outcrop, and as is common with other areas in Zambia, correlation of units between isolated outcrops is complicated by the similarity of lithology in many sections of the stratigraphy. Aeromagnetic data, airborne radiometric and electromagnetic data were used to provide control on correlation between outcrops, and therefore allowed interpretation of a robust structural framework. The two domes are Paleoproterozoic basement-cored anticlines unconformably overlain by Neoproterozoic Roan Group rocks of the lower Katangan Supergroup. The Katangan Supergroup was deposited in an extensional basin formed as part of the breakup of the supercontinent Rodinia. From the geophysical interpretation several normal faults are identified that probably formed during this stage of basin formation, and there is good evidence for at least four regional transfer zones having formed at this time. The fault architecture initiated during the Katangan extensional tectonic event is shown in this interpretation to have strongly influenced the geometry of the Lufilian Fold Belt. Evidence in the domes area suggests that salt tectonics may explain the localization of the regional décollement at the top of the Lower Roan, and provide a structural mechanism for the formation of high-pressure metamorphic rocks in the area. Sinistral reverse faulting and associated folding dominates the Lufilian structural fabric in the east of area, and these faults appear to sole out on the regional décollement. Sigmoidal fold profiles have developed between adjacent fault zones, with east-west oriented fold axes in more distal areas rotating into parallelism adjacent to the faults, suggesting synchronous folding and faulting during north-directed compression. In the north-western part of the study area, fold hinge orientations and basement-cover interactions, indicate north north-westerly directed

  3. Prevalence of Fluorosis in 5-12 Year-old Children in the North-Western Villages of Makoo in 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esrafil Balaei

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and aims. Fluorosis is defined as a sort of enamel hypocalcification. Clinical features of fluorosis vary from thin white lines on the enamel to chalky and opaque enamel. The enamel may be destroyed after tooth eruption. Various prevalence rates have been reported in different populations. Major contributing factors are temperature, altitude and hygienic trends. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and severity of fluorosis in 5-12 year-old children in the North-Western villages of Makoo.

    Materials and methods. A total of 58 children aged between 5 and 6, and 421 students aged between 7 and 12 from the North-Western villages of Makoo were selected. Dean Index was used to evaluate the prevalence of fluorosis in the primary and permanent dentition. To compare the severity of fluorosis in the maxilla and mandible and also to assess the coordination rate of fluorosis in the left and right sides of the jaw, TF Index was used. TSIF was used to compare fluorosis rate in different tooth surfaces. Discoloration prevalence and rate were compared between maxillary and mandibular incisors. Chi-square test and t-test were used to analyze the results.

    Results. Fluorosis rate in the primary and permanent dentition was 100%. According to TF Index, the highest coordination rate was observed in mandibular incisors and the least was observed in maxillary second molars. The difference in the severity of fluorosis between maxilla and mandible was statistically significant (p< 0.05. Discoloration rate increased in maxillary central incisors with age.

    Conclusion. Very high prevalence rate of fluorosis in the primary and permanent teeth in the North-West of Makoo revealed a major regional problem; therefore, preventive strategies such as informing people of improper use of fluoride-containing supplements and reduction of the fluoride content of

  4. Population differentiation and hybridisation of Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis dolphins in north-western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M Brown

    Full Text Available Little is known about the Australian snubfin (Orcaella heinsohni and Indo-Pacific humpback (Sousa chinensis dolphins ('snubfin' and 'humpback dolphins', hereafter of north-western Australia. While both species are listed as 'near threatened' by the IUCN, data deficiencies are impeding rigorous assessment of their conservation status across Australia. Understanding the genetic structure of populations, including levels of gene flow among populations, is important for the assessment of conservation status and the effective management of a species. Using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, we assessed population genetic diversity and differentiation between snubfin dolphins from Cygnet (n = 32 and Roebuck Bays (n = 25, and humpback dolphins from the Dampier Archipelago (n = 19 and the North West Cape (n = 18. All sampling locations were separated by geographic distances >200 km. For each species, we found significant genetic differentiation between sampling locations based on 12 (for snubfin dolphins and 13 (for humpback dolphins microsatellite loci (FST = 0.05-0.09; P<0.001 and a 422 bp sequence of the mitochondrial control region (FST = 0.50-0.70; P<0.001. The estimated proportion of migrants in a population ranged from 0.01 (95% CI 0.00-0.06 to 0.13 (0.03-0.24. These are the first estimates of genetic diversity and differentiation for snubfin and humpback dolphins in Western Australia, providing valuable information towards the assessment of their conservation status in this rapidly developing region. Our results suggest that north-western Australian snubfin and humpback dolphins may exist as metapopulations of small, largely isolated population fragments, and should be managed accordingly. Management plans should seek to maintain effective population size and gene flow. Additionally, while interactions of a socio-sexual nature between these two species have been observed previously, here we provide strong evidence for

  5. Fouling Bryozoa from some Alexandria harbours, EGYPT. (I Erect species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KH.M. ABDEL-SALAM

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The fouling erect Bryozoa settled on polystyrene test panels immersed half a meter deep in the water of Abu Qir Harbour, the Eastern Harbour and El-Dekheila Harbour were studied. The present study yields 5 species of erect bryozoa. These areAmathia pruvoti, Zoobotryon verticillatum, Bowerbankia gracilis,Bugula neritina and Bugula stolonifera. The first three ones pertain to 3 genera of the family Vesiculariidae belonging to suborder the Stolonifera; while the other two species affiliate to the genus Bugula belonging to the family Bugulidae of suborder Anasca. The present record of Amathia pruvoti is the first from the Egyptian Mediterranean waters. A re-description, supplied with full structural illustrations of the recorded species is given. Moreover, the temporal and spatial distributions of the species recorded are encountered.

  6. Effects of waves and currents on the siltation problem of Damietta harbour, Nile Delta coast, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABO BAKER.I. ABO ZED

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the effect of prevailing dynamic factors on the sedimentation process in Damietta Harbour along the Nile delta coast of Egypt. The monitoring program spanned the period between 1978 and 1999 and included measurements of waves, currents and bathymetric profiles. The evaluation was based on determination of erosion and accretion rates, current regime, sediment transport, wave characteristics and wave refraction. Results revealed that the predominant wave direction from N-NW sector (86 % throughout the year is responsible for generation of a longshore eastward current. Less frequent waves from the N-NE sector generate an opposing longshore westward current. The refraction pattern for the prevailing wave direction indicates that the harbour and its navigation channel are located within a divergence of wave orthogonal and in an accretion sediment sink area. The annual net rate of littoral drift on the western side of the harbour is about 1.43 * 105 m3 (accretion, while the annual net rate of littoral drift on the eastern side is about 2.54 * 105 m3 (erosion. Currents fluctuate tremendously in speed and direction, especially during the winter months. Hence, sediment transport takes place in offshore, eastward, and onshore directions. Progressive vector diagrams show that the largest near bottom offshore, onshore and easterly net drift occurs during summer, spring and winter respectively. The onshore sediment transport generated during spring and summer plays an important role in the redistribution of eroded sediments during the winter. The overall study of dynamic factors indicated that the harbour site is characterized by eastern, western, offshore and onshore sediment movements. Therefore, the north-south orientation of the navigation channel, with its depth greater than the surrounding area, interrupts sediment drift from different directions and reduces the current speed. Consequently, the sediments sink within the navigation

  7. Analysis of Lower Green Bay and Fox River, Collingwood Harbour, Spanish Harbour, and the Metro Toronto and Region remedial action plan (RAP) processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtner-Zimmermann, Arnold

    1996-07-01

    This article presents a model of remedial action planning, which includes four key variables that determine progress in plan development and implementation and explain the differing level of achievement in individual sites. The model is illustrated by the characteristics and developments of four remedial action plan (RAP) processes (Lower Green Bay and Fox River, Collingwood Harbour, Spanish Harbour, and the Metro Toronto and Region RAPs). Differences in the local context of the plans have, to a significant degree, predisposed individual planning and implementation experiences. Local context includes three variables, namely geographical—technical and sociopolitical aspects and the previous history of water pollution management in the area. RAP precursors are a necessary precondition for progress in planning and substantive achievements. While there is a tendency that most geographically focused RAPs in administratively simple areas accomplish most, the motivation and political clout of RAP participants are strongly intervening factors. Resource input from upper levels of government, in particular financial commitment for plan implementation, is the fourth necessary ingredient for progress due to the RAPs' weak regulatory and institutional framework. Unfortunately, upper levels of government have shown widespread reluctance to lead in remedial action planning. This was only in part offset by local commitment and support for RAP and its cause.

  8. Spatial and temporal spread of Citrus tristeza virus and its aphid vectors in the North western area of Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhaddad, Abdesslam; ElAmrani, Amal; Fereres, Alberto; Moreno, Aranzazu

    2016-12-01

    First report of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV,Closterovirus) in Morocco datesback to 1961 in collections of citrus varieties. An exhaustive survey of citrus in the north of the country in 2009 revealed that CTV was spread all over the citrus production area. We attempted to evaluate the relative contribution of different aphid species in the spread of CTV disease in a Citrus reticulata orchard at the Loukkous region during 2 years (2012 and 2013). The overall CTV incidence estimated in the experimental site increased from 17.8% in 2012 to 31.15% in 2013. The most abundant aphid species colonising clementine trees was Aphis spiraecola and A. gossypii. Both aphid species reached their maximum peaks during the spring season. The rate of viruliferous aphids, estimated by real-time RT-PCR of single aphid, revealed that 35.4% of winged A. gossypii and 28.8% of winged A. spiraecola were viruliferous, confirming a high inoculum pressure in the area surrounding the experimental site. The aphid species Toxoptera citricida, which is able to transmit the aggressive isolates of CTV, was not found in the Loukkous region. The study of the spatial distribution of the CTV showed that in general, the disease was randomly distributed in the field. Overall, the results seem to indicate that A. spiraecola may be considered as the major aphid species contributing to CTV spread in our experimental conditions. The prevalence of mild strains in the region and the high level of aphid flight activity could explain the rapid evolution of CTV incidence in the experimental area. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. Modelling changes in the coastal geomorphology of Unst, Shetland and the implications for understanding High to Late Medieval harbour changes in the Norse North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, John; Dugmore, Andrew; Newton, Anthony; Mudd, Simon

    2016-04-01

    none currently exist. Blown sand deposits were formed in the 12th-13th century, consistent with High Medieval settlement times and the onset of the Little Ice Age, suggesting that some of the Norse landing sites began to destabilise at this time. This research shows how beach instability can be modelled to determine the likely circumstances under which beaches formed, changed or disappeared and thus the potential geomorphological drivers of coastal change, harbour use and our ability to identify past harbour sites.

  10. Toronto Harbour Commissioners (THC) soil recycle treatment train. Applications analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrenreich, L.C.; Matuson, A.; Peters, J.; Evans, J.

    1993-04-01

    This project consists of a demonstration of the Toronto Harbour Commissioners (THC) Soil Recycle Treatment Train. The treatment train consists of three processes. The first process utilizes an attrition soil wash process to separate relatively uncontaminated soil from a more heavily contaminated fine slurry. The contaminated fine slurry is then further processed in a metals removal process or a bioslurry reactor process or both to remove organic contaminants and heavy metals contamination. The Toronto Harbour Commissioners conducted a long-term evaluation of this treatment train at a 55 tons per day pilot plant at 185 Cherry Street in the port of Toronto, located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program conducted a demonstration project that examined in detail the processing of soil from one of the sites being evaluated in the overall project. The goals of this study were to evaluate the technical effectiveness and economics of a treatment process sequence and to assess the potential applicability of the process to other wastes and/or other Superfund and hazardous waste sites.

  11. Acoustic and optical variations during rapid downward motion episodes in the deep north-western Mediterranean Sea

    CERN Document Server

    van Haren, H; Aguilar, J A; Albert, A; Anghinolfi, M; Anton, G; Anvar, S; Ardid, M; Jesus, A C Assis; Astraatmadja, T; Aubert, J -J; Auer, R; Baret, B; Basa, S; Bazzotti, M; Bertin, V; Biagi, S; Bigongiari, C; Bou-Cabof, M; Bouwhuis, M C; Brown, A; Brunner, J; Busto, J; Camarena, F; Capone, A; Carminati, G; Carr, J; Castel, D; Castorina, E; Cavasinni, V; Cecchini, S; Charvis, Ph; Chiarusi, T; Circella, M; Coniglione, R; Costantini, H; Cottini, N; Coyleh, P; Curtil, C; De Bonis, G; Decowski, M P; Dekeyser, I; Deschamps, A; Distefano, C; Donzaud, C; Dornic, D; Drouhin, D; Eberl, T; Emanuele, U; Ernenwein, J -P; Escoffier, S; Fehr, F; Flaminio, V; Fratini, K; Fritsch, U; Fuda, J -L; Giacomelli, G; Gómez-González, J P; Graf, K; Guillard, G; Halladjian, G; Hallewell, G; Heijboer, A J; Hello, Y; Hernández-Rey, J J; Hößl, J; de Jong, M; Kalantar-Nayestanakia, N; Kalekin, O; Kappes, A; Katz, U; Kooijman, P; Kopper, C; Kouchner, A; Kretschmer, W; Lahmann, R; Lamare, P; Lambard, G; Laros, G; Laschinsky, H; Lefèvre, D; Lelaizant, G; Lim, G; Presti, D Lo; Loehner, H; Loucatos, S; Lucarelli, F; Lyons, K; Mangano, S; Marcelin, M; Margiotta, A; Martinez-Mora, J A; Maurin, G; Mazure, A; Melissas, M; Montaruli, T; Morganti, M; Moscoso, L; Motz, H; Naumann, C; Neff, M; Ostasch, R; Palioselitis, G; Păvălaş, G E; Payre, P; Petrovic, J; Piattelli, P; Picot-Clemente, N; Picqu, C; Pillet, R; Popa, V; Pradier, T; Presani, E; Racca, C; Radu, A; Reed, C; Riccobene, G; Richardt, C; Rujoiu, M; Russo, G V; Sales, F; Schoeck, F; Schuller, J -P; Shanidze, R; Simeone, F; Spurio, M; Steijger, J J M; Stolarczyk, Th; Tamburini, C; Tasca, L; Toscano, S; Vallage, B; Van Elewyck, V; Vecchi, M; Vernin, P; Wijnker, G; de Wolf, E; Yepes, H; Zaborov, D; Zornoza, J D; Zúñiga, J

    2011-01-01

    An Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) was moored at the deep-sea site of the ANTARES neutrino telescope near Toulon, France, thus providing a unique opportunity to compare high-resolution acoustic and optical observations between 70 and 170 m above the sea bed at 2475 m. The ADCP measured downward vertical currents of magnitudes up to 0.03 m s-1 in late winter and early spring 2006. In the same period, observations were made of enhanced levels of acoustic reflection, interpreted as suspended particles including zooplankton, by a factor of about 10 and of horizontal currents reaching 0.35 m s-1. These observations coincided with high light levels detected by the telescope, interpreted as increased bioluminescence. During winter 2006 deep dense-water formation occurred in the Ligurian subbasin, thus providing a possible explanation for these observations. However, the 10-20 days quasi-periodic episodes of high levels of acoustic reflection, light and large vertical currents continuing into the summer are ...

  12. Histopathology of Tilapia tissues harbouring Clinostomum tilapiae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tissues obtained from infected Oreochromis niloticus were processed sectioned and stained with haemotoxylin and eosin. Good sections were selected, studied and photographed. The histopathology revealed a proliferation of eosinophiles at the secondary lamellar of the gills. The site of attachment on the fish skin ...

  13. Declining trend of Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) mutant alleles after the withdrawal of Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine in North Western Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessema, Sofonias K; Kassa, Moges; Kebede, Amha; Mohammed, Hussein; Leta, Gemechu Tadesse; Woyessa, Adugna; Guma, Geremew Tasew; Petros, Beyene

    2015-01-01

    Antimalarial drug resistance is one of the major challenges in global efforts of malaria control and elimination. In 1998, chloroquine was abandoned and replaced with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, which in turn was replaced with artemether/lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in 2004. Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine resistance is associated with mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (Pfdhps) genes. The prevalence of mutation in Pfdhfr and Pfdhps genes were evaluated and compared for a total of 159 isolates collected in two different time points, 2005 and 2007/08, from Pawe hospital, in North Western Ethiopia. The frequency of triple Pfdhfr mutation decreased significantly from 50.8% (32/63) to 15.9% (10/63) (Pdrug-resistant parasites caused by the strong drug pressure imposed when sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine was the first-line drug, followed by lower fitness of these resistant parasites in the absence of drug pressure. Despite the decrease in the frequency of mutant alleles, higher percentages of mutation remain prevalent in the study area in 2007/08 in both Pfdhfr and Pfdhps genes. Therefore, further multi-centered studies in different parts of the country will be required to assess the re-emergence of sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine sensitive parasites and to monitor and prevent the establishment of multi drug resistant parasites in this region.

  14. Historical ecology meets conservation and evolutionary genetics: a secondary contact zone between Carabus violaceus (Coleoptera, Carabidae populations inhabiting ancient and recent woodlands in north-western Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Matern

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Only very few cases have documented that an increase in connectivity after a period of fragmentation in ecological time has had an effect on the distribution, genetic structure and morphology of stenotopic species. In this study we present an example of clinal variability in a woodland ground beetle as a result of changes in the connectivity of a landscape during the last two centuries. The study area hosts both the nominate form C. violaceus s. str. and the subspecies C. v. purpurascens, which is ranked as a distinct species by some authors. We studied 12 Carabus violaceus populations from a 30 km transect of ancient and recent forests in north-western Germany. We analyzed three polymorphic enzyme loci, classified the elytron sculpture and measured the shape of the aedeagus tip of the specimens. C. violaceus showed secondary gradients both in allozyme markers and morphometric characters in our study area. A genetic differentiation of 16% between the populations is high but lies within the range of intraspecific variability in habitat specialists of the genus Carabus. Populations had no significant deficit of heterozygotes. We found many hybrid populations in terms of morphological properties. This study highlights the conservation value of ancient woodland and the consequences of landscape connectivity and defragmentation on the genetic setting of a ground beetle. Moreover, it shows that differences in the external shape of male genitalia do not prevent gene flow within the genus Carabus. Thus, the establishment of species status should not exclusively be based on this property.

  15. Condom acceptability for prevention of HIV infection amongst male inmates in a convict prison in north western Nigeria: A Qualitative Research Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audu Onyemocho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a general recognition of homosexuality being responsible for the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS among inmates in Nigerian prisons. However, the use of condoms which is an evidenced-based preventive measure is critical in the prison setting because of socio-cultural reasons. Due to the dynamic nature of the prison population, interventions targeting the prisons will have a significant effect on the general population. This study assessed condom acceptability for the prevention of HIV infection among male inmates in a convict prison in north-western, Nigeria in order to provide supplementary information that will corroborate some findings from quantitative methods. A qualitative study was conducted in Zaria prison between 18th December, 2012 and 8th January, 2013. Purposive sampling identified 48 inmates who had Focused Group Discussions (FGDs and In-depth Interviews (IDIs. Common trends and variations in the responses were identified and reflected as appropriate and presented as narratives with relevant quotations. Majority of the respondents agreed that homosexuality exists among the inmates, but all the inmates scowled at the distribution of condoms to inmates in prison. Majority were of the opinion that condom distribution will promote homosexuality which is prohibited by Nigerian laws and controlling HIV transmissions in Nigeria prisons can be effectively done through behavioral modifications that are geared towards total abstinence.

  16. Roman and early-medieval routes in north-western Europe: modelling national and international frequent-travel zones in the Netherlands using a multi-proxy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lanen, Rowin J.; Jansma, Esther

    2016-04-01

    The end of the Roman period in many parts of north-western Europe coincided with severe population decline and collapsing trade routes. To what extent the long-distance transport routes changed from Roman to early-medieval periods and what their exact nature was, is generally unknown. Only few historical sources are available for this period, and archaeological records complex. Traditionally, research on the long-distance exchange of goods therefore generally has focussed on the spatial analyses of archaeologically recognizable goods (e.g. jewellery, religious artefacts). Although these endeavours greatly increase our understanding of long-distance trade networks, they probably in itself do not represent the full spectrum of common exchange networks and transport routes. By using a dendroarchaeological approach we were able to analyse long-distance transport routes of imported timber in the Roman and early-medieval Netherlands. By combining the provenance of exogenous timbers with data on modelled Roman and early-medieval route networks, we were able to reconstruct: (a) Roman and early-medieval trade networks in structural timbers, (b) changing transport routes in structural timbers and (c) model spatially shifting frequent-travel zones in the research area.

  17. Investigation of Fc Receptor-Like 3 (FCRL-3) Gene Polymorphism (rs7528684) with Susceptibility to Allergic Asthma in Iranian North-Western Azeri Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanian-Kalkhoran, Lida; Elieh-Ali-Komi, Daniel; Sadeghi-Shabestari, Mahnaz; Shanebandi, Dariush; Babaloo, Zohreh; Razavi, Alireza; Sadigh-Eteghad, Saeed; Kazemi, Tohid

    2017-07-01

    Asthma is a clinical setting in which multiple cellular and molecular mechanisms are involved. Additionally, increasing genetic studies have provided evidence that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in asthma relevant genes confer susceptibility to the disease. Fc receptor-like (FCRL) 3, a transmembrane molecule basically involved in B-cell signaling, mediates immune-disorders including allergy. Aim of study was to investigate the possible association of rs7528684 SNP in FCRL3 gene with a predisposition to allergic asthma in Iranian North-western Azeri population. The frequency of genotypes and alleles of rs7528684 SNP in the FCRL3 gene was determined using the TaqMan genotyping method in 191 asthmatic patients and 186 healthy controls. The most frequent genotype in patients and control groups were CT (n = 81, 42.4%) and TT (n = 76, 40.9%), respectively. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference in genotype frequency (p = 0.81) and also in frequency of C and T alleles (p = 0.52) between two groups. Our results revealed no association between the rs7528684 SNP with susceptibility to allergic asthma in the included population. More studies in different ethnic groups will result in more valid conclusions.

  18. A Mesoscale Model-Based Climatography of Nocturnal Boundary-Layer Characteristics over the Complex Terrain of North-Western Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Stefano; De Wekker, Stephan F J; Knievel, Jason C

    Nocturnal boundary-layer phenomena in regions of complex topography are extremely diverse and respond to a multiplicity of forcing factors, acting primarily at the mesoscale and microscale. The interaction between different physical processes, e.g., drainage promoted by near-surface cooling and ambient flow over topography in a statically stable environment, may give rise to special flow patterns, uncommon over flat terrain. Here we present a climatography of boundary-layer flows, based on a 2-year archive of simulations from a high-resolution operational mesoscale weather modelling system, 4DWX. The geographical context is Dugway Proving Ground, in north-western Utah, USA, target area of the field campaigns of the MATERHORN (Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations Program) project. The comparison between model fields and available observations in 2012-2014 shows that the 4DWX model system provides a realistic representation of wind speed and direction in the area, at least in an average sense. Regions displaying strong spatial gradients in the field variables, thought to be responsible for enhanced nocturnal mixing, are typically located in transition areas from mountain sidewalls to adjacent plains. A key dynamical process in this respect is the separation of dynamically accelerated downslope flows from the surface.

  19. Probiotic attributes of indigenous Lactobacillus spp. isolated from traditional fermented foods and beverages of north-western Himalayas using in vitro screening and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Anila; Angmo, Kunzes; Monika; Bhalla, Tek Chand

    2016-05-01

    The present research was designed to explore indigenous probiotic Lactic acid bacteria from traditional fermented foods and beverages of North-western Himalayas for their probiotic potential. It was achieved through a step-by step approach focused on the technological characterization, evaluation of the probiotic traits and adherence ability. Fifty one LAB isolates from traditional fermented foods and beverages were initially screened for their technological properties and among them twenty isolates were selected. These isolates were further characterized and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Lactobacillus brevis (7 isolates), Lactobacillus casei (5), Lactobacillus paracasei (2), Lactobacillus buchneri (1), Lactobacillus plantarum (1) and Lactobacillus sp. (3). Identified isolates were evaluated by in vitro methods including survival in gastrointestinal tract, antibiotic susceptibility, antimicrobial activity, cell surface characteristics, exopolysacharride production and haemolytic activity. The results of these experiments were used as input data for Principal Component Analysis; thus, to select the most promising probiotic isolates. Three isolates (L. brevis PLA2, L. paracasei PLA8 and L. brevis PLA16) were found to be most technological relevant and promising probiotic candidates in comparison to commercial probiotic strains. L. brevis PLA2 was selected as best isolate with probiotic potential by in vitro adherence to the human intestinal HT-29 cell line.

  20. Serological survey of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Coxiella burnetii in rodents in north-western African islands (Canary Islands and Cape Verde).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, Pilar; Plata-Luis, Josué; Del Castillo-Figueruelo, Borja; Fernández-Álvarez, Ángela; Martín-Alonso, Aarón; Feliu, Carlos; Cabral, Marilena D; Valladares, Basilio

    2015-05-29

    Coxiella burnetii and Toxoplasma gondii are intracellular parasites that cause important reproductive disorders in animals and humans worldwide, resulting in high economic losses. The aim of the present study was to analyse the possible role of peridomestic small mammals in the maintenance and transmission of C. burnetii and T. gondii in the north-western African archipelagos of the Canary Islands and Cape Verde, where these species are commonly found affecting humans and farm animals. Between 2009 and 2013, 108 black rats (Rattus rattus) and 77 mice (Mus musculus) were analysed for the presence of Coxiella and Toxoplasma antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence (IFA), respectively. Our results showed a wide distribution of C. burnetii and T. gondii, except for T. gondii in Cape Verde, in both rodent species. The overall seroprevalence of C. burnetii antibodies was 12.4%; 21.1% for Cape Verde and 10.2% for the Canary Islands. With respect to T. gondii, seropositive rodents were only observed in the Canary Islands, with an overall seroprevalence of 15%. Considering the fact that both pathogens can infect a large range of hosts, including livestock and humans, the results are of public health and veterinary importance and could be used by governmental entities to manage risk factors and to prevent future cases of Q fever and toxoplasmosis.

  1. Marine sediment contamination and dynamics at the mouth of a contaminated torrent: The case of the Gromolo Torrent (Sestri Levante, north-western Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capello, M; Cutroneo, L; Consani, S; Dinelli, E; Vagge, G; Carbone, C

    2016-08-15

    In this study we have examined the currents and hydrological characteristics of the water column off the mouth of the Gromolo Torrent (north-western Italy) in relation to the grain-size, mineralogical characteristics and metal distribution in the marine sediment sampled. Our purpose was to quantify and map the contamination that was carried out to sea from the abandoned Libiola Fe-Cu sulphide mine that has heavily impacted the torrent. Our results show high concentrations of Cu and Zn, and relatively high concentrations of Cd and Ni inside the bay into which the Gromolo Torrent flows. However, high concentrations of As, Cr, Hg, Mn, Pb, and V found in the northern and/or eastern parts of the study area originated from other sources. The subdivision of study stations in terms of metal and mineral contents in the bottom sediments highlighted the clear influence of the currents on their dispersion and distribution in the area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Epidemiological and Clinical Characteristics of Traumatic Hand and Finger Amputations in North Western Iran; A Single Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehri, Nasrin; Sadeghi-Bazergani, Homayoun; Safaiean, Abdolrasoul

    2017-01-01

    To determine the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of hand and finger amputations in patients referring to a single center in northern Iran. This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 200 traumatic hand amputees hospitalized in Shohada Hospital in Tabriz, Northwestern Iran during a 1-year period in 2014. Data were collected through prospective interviews for variables such as demographic characteristics, accident time; exact anatomical site of amputation; reasons for amputation; amputation mechanism; and having attention deficit symptoms as well as activities causing attention deficit prior to the accident. The vast majority of cases were men and women accounted for only 7.5% of injured cases. In 60.5% of cases, the accident occurred on the fingers of their active hand and fingers accounted for almost 95% of accidents. 85.8% of accidents occurred at work . 63.7% of accidents occurred in the evening. 63.67% of accidents occurred in the evening. Among hazardous occupations, agricultural occupations ranked the first followed by sugar cut and pressing jobs. It was found that 10% of the victims were injured while responding a mobile phone call and 3% of the victims reported that they were listening to music through headphones before the accident.  Five percent of the participants reported a quarrel with a colleague and 11.5 % of them reported a quarrel with their employer prior to the accident. Amputations are of much importance in men working in given jobs such as agricultural and pressing. Distraction caused by mobiles, music and personal relations with others is considered of importance to be prevented during job. Risk levels for potential risk indicators need to be assessed through controlled studies.

  3. Microseismic activity analysis for the study of the rupture mechanisms in unstable rock masses (Matterhorn, North-western Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitrano, D.; Arattano, M.; Chiarle, M.; Mortara, G.; Occhiena, C.; Pirulli, M.; Scavia, C.

    2009-04-01

    Rockfalls are very frequent events in alpine areas and can endanger human lifes and activities. Since high mountains have been affected by an increasing number of these phenomena in the last years, a possible correlation with the effects of climate changes can be hypothesized. The permafrost degradation, causing the thaw of the ice that fills the rock discontinuities, is then investigated among possible causes of rockfalls. Therefore the monitoring of potential rock instabilities in high mountain in relation with permafrost degradation has been carried out in the frame of the Interreg IIIA ALCOTRA "PERMAdataROC" project. Within the project, a monitoring network has been installed in 2007 on the Italian side of the Matterhorn peak, close to the J. A. Carrel refuge (3829 m a.s.l.). This site is an important destination for climbers going to the Matterhorn peak and is frequently affected by rockfall events. The monitoring network consists of a set of 5 triaxial geophones, to record the existing microseismic activity, and one thermometer, to analyze the temperature trend. A preliminary data processing has concerned the classification of the recorded signals, the identification of the most important microseismic events and the analysis of their distribution in time. As far as this last aspect is concerned, first interpretations have evidenced a possible correlation between the temperature trend and the event concentrations, during particular thermal sequences. The research is still in progress and it is expected that a longer recording period of seismic events and temperatures will help to understand if the microseismic activity is mainly concentrated in some periods of the year, in some parts of the slope and if it is produced by superficial or deep events. A concentration of superficial events in some parts of the slope, together with a structural analysis of those portions, could help to focus on the areas that can be more unstable. While, their correlation with

  4. Sustainable management of river oases along the Tarim River in North-Western China under conditions of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaur, C.; Thevs, N.; Disse, M.; Ahlheim, M.; Brieden, A.; Cyffka, B.; Doluschitz, R.; Duethmann, D.; Feike, T.; Frör, O.; Gärtner, P.; Halik, Ü.; Hill, J.; Hinnenthal, M.; Keilholz, P.; Kleinschmit, B.; Krysanova, V.; Kuba, M.; Mader, S.; Menz, C.; Othmanli, H.; Pelz, S.; Schroeder, M.; Siew, T. F.; Stender, V.; Stahr, K.; Thomas, F. M.; Welp, M.; Wortmann, M.; Zhao, X.; Chen, X.; Jiang, T.; Zhao, C.; Zhang, X.; Luo, J.; Yimit, H.; Yu, R.

    2014-10-01

    The Tarim River Basin, located in Xinjiang, NW China, is the largest endorheic river basin of China and one of the largest in whole Central Asia. Due to the extremely arid climate with an annual precipitation of less than 100 mm, the water supply along the Aksu and Tarim River solely depends on river water. This applies for anthropogenic activities (e.g. agriculture) as well as for the natural ecosystems so that both compete for water. The on-going increase of water consumption by agriculture and other human activities in this region has been enhancing the competition for water between human needs and nature. Against this background, 11 German and 6 Chinese universities and research institutes formed the consortium SuMaRiO (www.sumario.de), which aims at gaining a holistic picture of the availability of water resources in the Tarim River Basin and the impacts on anthropogenic activities and natural ecosystems caused by the water distribution within the Tarim River Basin. The discharge of the Aksu River, which is the major tributary to the Tarim, has been increasing over the past 6 decades due to enhanced glacier melt. Alone from 1989 to 2011, the area under agriculture more than doubled. Thereby, cotton became the major crop and there was a shift from small-scale farming to large-scale intensive farming. The major natural ecosystems along the Aksu and Tarim River are riparian ecosystems: Riparian (Tugai) forests, shrub vegetation, reed beds, and other grassland. Within the SuMaRiO Cluster the focus was laid on the Tugai forests, with Populus euphratica as dominant tree, because the most productive and species-rich natural ecosystems can be found among those forests. On sites with groundwater distance of less than 7.5 m the annual increments correlated with river runoffs of the previous year. But, the further downstream along the Tarim River, the more the natural river dynamics ceased, which impacts on the recruitment of Populus euphratica. Household surveys

  5. Space-Time Evolution of Seismicity in North-Western Geysers Geothermal Field and its Connection to Stimulation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptokaropoulos, Konstantinos; Staszek, Monika; Lasocki, Stanislaw; Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Martinez-Garzon, Patricia

    2017-04-01

    The rising needs for energy along with the recent requirements for more efficient usage and exploitation of the deep underground have resulted to a growing scientific and public concern on related environmental impacts. Hydraulic fracturing that has been carried out during the last decades is occasionally connected with triggered and induced seismicity worldwide. Data from geothermal fields can be used as a proxy for shale gas exploitation associated seismicity since they are both tightly connected to hydraulic fracturing. For that reason we utilize 'The Geysers' data from the compiled SHEER (Shale Gas Exploration and Exploitation Induced Risks) database. The Geysers (California, USA) is the largest producing geothermal field in the world and has been sufficiently monitored and studied since the last decades. Seismic and technological data gathered during the past 40 years indicate a connection of seismic activity with the fluctuations of the injected fluid volume. In this study we verify and quantify this correlation by analyzing the data associated with 2 injection wells (Prati-9 and Prati-29) which covers a time period of approximately 7 years (from November 2007 to August 2014). The correlation between spatio-temporal seismicity evolution and variation of the injection data is performed by elaboration of original and smoothed time-series through specified statistical tools (cross correlation, binomial test to investigate significant rate changes, b-value variation). Our analysis indicate a short time delay of seismicity occurrence at distances larger than 200m from the injection well, whereas no evidence of significant correlation between injection rates and b-values was discovered. The obtained results are expected to contribute to a better comprehension of the role of hydraulic fracturing and the physical processes controlling seismogenesis in fluid injection sites. Acknowledgements: This work was supported within SHEER: "Shale Gas Exploration and

  6. Environmental Health assessment 200 Days after Earthquake-Affected Region in East Azerbaijan Earthquake, North-Western of Iran, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alihossein Zeinalzadeh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating of health status and explore the challenges of health problems that threaten human life following disasters and major earthquakes providing windows of opportunities for health care providers in future planning of disasters. The main purpose of this report was to survey the environmental sanitation statues after 200 days of the affected populations in earthquakes of East Azerbaijan, northwestern of Iran, 2012. The survey was carried out in earthquake zones 200 days after the occurrence of the earthquake. A single stage cluster sampling from among 95 villages damaged in the earthquake of 2012 East Azerbaijan of three towns Ahar, Varzeghan and Heris were selected. The data were collected with questionnaire, site visits and evaluation of water and sanitation. In a twin Earthquake, East Azerbaijan province that 399 villages of Ahar, Varzeghan, Heris, Tabriz and Kaleibar cities were affected and 356 (89.2 % villages were destroyed between 30-100%.  Evaluation of water and sanitation infrastructure after 200 days, shown that only half of these villages consumed healthy water with high coverage and adequate. Half of the villages in 200 days after the earthquake were covered safe drinking water (treated drinking water. The bacteriological quality of drinking-water supply of the affected area was assessed in randomly collected 146 samples from this region and ten (6.8% reported as unsuitable. Solid waste management facilities in residents have not been acceptable that affect public health. Solid waste disposal was done by district residents (cooperation rural residents 68.4%, 36.8% and 76.3% in Ahar, Varzeghan and Heris, respectively. Overall, the impact of infectious and communicable diseases after Earthquake was reported 42.1% (16 villages in the Varzeghan. The lack of geographical view with a focus in mountainous and rural areas, partial support and dispersion of earthquake-stricken people in affected villages and lack of participatory need

  7. Water quality effects of harbour activities assessed with integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    moes2

    such as the intensity of the crafts traffic, the nature of the transported materials, as well as those materials used ... set of bio-chemical parameters were studied in Cochin harbour region so as to find out their reliability and ..... water, washing water, lubricant oil and other residues in machinery space comes under this category.

  8. Shoreline stability in the vicinity of Cochin Harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Vethamony, P.

    A small stretch of barrier beach on either side of Cochin harbour along the west coast of India has been investigated for its stability through systematic surveys. The observed erosion of the beaches during the southwest monsoon is due to an order...

  9. Water quality effects of harbour activities assessed with integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecological tools were developed to study the water quality in Cochin harbour, a complex aquatic ecosystems, through the integration of microbiological monitoring (faecal coliforms and Pseudomonas species) and heavy metal contamination (lead, cadmium and mercury). One way ANOVA indicates statistically significant ...

  10. Plastic ingestion by harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bravo Rebolledo, E.; Franeker, van J.A.; Jansen, O.E.; Brasseur, S.M.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Abundance of ingested debris by seals has been mentioned as a potential indicator of marine litter in the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). A sample of 107 stomachs, 100 intestines and 125 scats of harbour seals from the Netherlands was analysed for the presence of plastics.

  11. Aspects of Water Quality of Freshwater Systems Harbouring Snail ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of some aspects of water quality of freshwater systems harbouring snail vectors of schistosome parasites was conducted in Jos, Nigeria. Calcium ion concentration of the water bodies was a mean value of 31 mg.l-1. The range of temperature was 15 - 30OC. The occurrence of Biomphalaria pferifferi was attributed to ...

  12. Status of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina in Atlantic Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike O Hammill

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Harbour seals are associated with small islets, reefs and rocks exposed at low tide and estuarine habitats throughout eastern Canada. Evidence of harvesting by indigenous people has been found in pre-European contact archaeological excavations. A bounty harvest as well as subsistence and commercial hunting probably lead to a decline in the population from 1949 to the early 1970s. The bounty was removed in 1976, and harbour seals, in the southern parts of their range have been protected since then. There is little information available on total abundance and current population trend. Mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA research has shown separation between Northeast and Northwest Atlantic harbour seals. Within Canada, the subspecies Phoca vitulina concolor shows some population sub-structure with three distinct units that could be separated into Hudson Bay, Gulf of St. Lawrence and Sable Island. Urban development resulting in habitat degradation is probably the most important factor affecting harbour seal populations in AtlanticCanada, although other factors such as incidental catches in commercial fisheries and competition with grey seals may also be important.

  13. Predicting recurrent PDV epizootics in European harbour seals (Phoca vitulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tero Härkönen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV caused mass mortality in European harbour seals (Phoca vitulina in 1988 and in 2002. Both epizootics likely originated from refugia in Arctic seals, where data indicate PDV hops among populations and species. The metapopulation structure of host populations is suggested to be the reason why PDV is preserved among Arctic seals, since the high rate of spread of PDV would require much larger panmictic populations to maintain an infection. The pattern of sudden outbreaks of PDVis also seen in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus, the only to date identified species that could act as a vector between Arctic and North Sea seal populations. Harbour seal populations along mainland Europe were below critical herd immunity levels by 3-5 years after the events, and thus vulnerable for new outbreaks, but historical data and the 14 years between the 2 epizootics suggest that harbour seals in the North Sea area are only rarely exposed to the infective agent. The risk for new outbreaks of the seal plague in North Sea harbour seals is likely linked to the dynamics of the disease in Arctic seal species as well asvector species.

  14. Epizootics in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina: clinical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Siebert

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Epizootic diseases causing considerable mortality in harbour seal populations have mainly been reported from the waters of the United States and Europe. Such die-offs were largely attributable to viral infections. Several hundred individuals died from respiratory infections caused by Influenza A viruses at the coast of New England, USA, in 1979, 1980 and 1982. More than 53,000 harbour seals were killed in European waters by Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV, a morbillivirus,in two outbreaks in 1988 and 2002. For several other epizootics of smaller scale in the waters of the Atlantic and Pacific coast of the USA and, most recently, in Danish and Swedish waters in 2007 the causes remain unclear, although characteristic respiratory symptoms and interstitial pneumonia suspicious of viral etiology were detected as well as occasionally bacterial infections caused by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Mass mortalities caused by biotoxins, direct human interactions or changes in oceanographic conditions have so far not been described for harbour seals. However, high organochlorine loads detected in European harbour seal populations and suspected to impede immune functions, were considered an aggravating factor in the 1988 morbillivirus epizootic. Establishing supranational stranding networks is a key prerequisite for the detection of future unusual die-offs in marine mammals. Detailed post-mortem investigations of all organ systems are essential for targeted etiological studies towards the causes of mass mortalities in seals.

  15. The status of the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A Cronin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The status of Ireland’s harbour seal population and its relationship with that of Britain and Western Europe are poorly understood. Prior to 2003, limited research efforts and poor co-ordination of survey methods fell short at providing an accurate assessment of overall distribution and population size on a regional or national scale. However, in August 2003, the Republic of Ireland’s harbour seal population was assessed by means of a geographically extensive survey conducted during the annual moult, providing an up-to-date minimum population estimate and a reliable baseline for future surveys. Trends on a national scale could not be assessed due to absence of a reliable historic population estimate; however there is some evidence of local decreases and increases in harbour seal numbers in Northern Ireland and southwest Ireland respectively. Research effort to date on aspects of the ecology of the harbour seal in the Republic of Ireland is reviewed and current research and management priorities highlighted.

  16. Declines of seagrasses in a tropical harbour, North Queensland ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A recent paper inferred that all seagrass in Cairns Harbour, tropical north-eastern Australia, had undergone 'complete and catastrophic loss' as a result of tropical cyclone Yasi in 2011. While we agree with the concern expressed, we would like to correct the suggestion that the declines were the result of a single climatic ...

  17. Pollution studies on harbours and jetties in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-14

    Mar 14, 2011 ... of the bacteria which is of public health importance in the harbours/jetties, indicates pollution. ... people live along side serious pollution sources and not ..... beach-clean and survey report. Marine Conservation. Society, Rosson-Wye. Mombershora C, Ajauyi SO, Osibainjo O (1981). Pollution studies on.

  18. of Sediment Deposition into the Dar es Salaam Harbour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sediment traps, a wave-gauge and a current-meter were deployed in the entrance channel during .... rivers namely Yombo, Mbagala and Mzinga drain into the ..... Harbour Transportation, Fishing Ports, Sediment. Transport, Geomorphology, Inlets, and Dredging. Gulf Publishing Company, Book Division,. Houston, Texas.

  19. Seabed surveys of Mormugao Harbour, Central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.; Gujar, A.R.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Mislankar, P.G.

    with natural and man-made features. The depth in the area ranged from 2-16 m and in the navigational channel from 7-15 m. The seabed in the inner harbour and towards the offshore end was marked by even topography, whereas in the northern and northwestern part...

  20. Phytoplankton dynamic responses to oil spill in Mumbai Harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    JiyalalRam, M.J.; Ram, A; Rokade, M.A; Karangutkar, S.H.; Yengal, B.; Dalvi, S.; Acharya, D.; Sharma, S.; Gajbhiye, S.N.

    The oil spill caused by collision of MSC-Chitra with MV-Khalijia on August 7, 2010 in Mumbai Harbour and surrounding area contaminated the shore and resulted in augmented level of PHc (6692.4-16902.2 mew g/l), though it was seen in low concentration...

  1. Numerical simulation of ship motion in offshore and harbour areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Jensen, Bjarne; Mortensen, Simon Brandi

    2008-01-01

    A method for simulating the motions and mooring forces of a moored ship subject to wave forcing has been further developed and validated for both the open water case and inside harbour areas. The method was originally developed and reported in Bingham (2000). The simulation tool is named WAMSIM...

  2. The Development and Characteristics of Ancient Harbours-Applying the PADM Chart to the Case Studies of Ostia and Portus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreol Salomon

    Full Text Available Over the last 20 years, the geoarchaeology of ancient harbours has been a very active area of research around the Mediterranean basin, generating much palaeoenvironmental data from many sites, including estimations of sedimentation rates, the height of the ancient sea-level at different dates and palaeo-geographical reconstructions. Combining this information has proved a major challenge. This article proposes a new chart called the Palaeoenvironmental Age-Depth Model (PADM chart, that allows the researchers to combine all relevant indicators in order to estimate harbour potential of a given ancient port, and to generate comparable data between harbours in terms of degree of closure and water depth available against a synchronised chronology. This new approach, developed in the context of the ERC-funded RoMP Portuslimen project, takes into account estimations of water depths relating to differing Roman ship draughts at different periods. It is tested against the palaeoenvironmental evidence published over 10 years from two Roman harbours located at the mouth of the river Tiber: Ostia and Portus. This reveals that: (1 there has been an underestimate of the real sedimentation rates due to the margins of error of the radiocarbon dates; (2 there was effective control of the water column by dredging; (3 there were different periods of control of the sedimentation. We suggest that the navigability of the Ostia harbour by ships with shallower draughts was maintained until sometime between the 2nd c. BC and 1st c. AD, while at Portus it was retained until the 6th-7th c. AD.

  3. Telemetry-Determined Habitat Use Informs Multi-Species Habitat Management in an Urban Harbour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rous, Andrew M.; Midwood, Jonathon D.; Gutowsky, Lee F. G.; Lapointe, Nicolas W. R.; Portiss, Rick; Sciscione, Thomas; Wells, Mathew G.; Doka, Susan E.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2017-01-01

    Widespread human development has led to impairment of freshwater coastal wetlands and embayments, which provide critical and unique habitat for many freshwater fish species. This is particularly evident in the Laurentian Great Lakes, where such habitats have been severely altered over the last century as a result of industrial activities, urbanization, dredging and infilling. In Toronto Harbour, extensive restoration efforts have been directed towards improving the amount and quality of aquatic habitat, especially for fishes. To evaluate the effectiveness of this restoration work, use of the restored area by both target species and the fish community as a whole must be assessed. Individuals from four species (Common Carp, Largemouth Bass, Northern Pike and Yellow Perch) were tagged and tracked continuously for 1 year using an acoustic telemetry array in Toronto Harbour area of Lake Ontario. Daily site fidelity was estimated using a mixed-effects logistic regression model. Daily site fidelity was influenced by habitat restoration and its interactions with species and body size, as well as season and its interactions with species and body size. Daily site fidelity was higher in restored sites compared to non-restored sites for Yellow Perch and Northern Pike, but lower for Largemouth Bass and Common Carp. For all species, daily site fidelity estimates were highest during the summer and lowest during autumn. The approach used here has merit for evaluating restoration success and informing future habitat management activities. Creating diverse habitats that serve multiple functions and species are more desirable than single-function-oriented or single-species-oriented designs.

  4. A systematic study of wave conditions and sediment transport near Mormugao harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reddy, M.P.M.

    Wave conditions and the nature of sediment transport in the Mormugao Harbour area have been evaluated in view of the proposed development project of this harbour It has been found from this study that generally high waves will be experienced...

  5. Suspended sediment transport and shoaling in the Munambam fishery harbour, Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Revichandran, C.; Abraham, P.; Josanto, V.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    phenomena in the harbour region. Based on various physical and geomorphological data available on the harbour and near shore region, remedial measures are suggested to prevent the siltation and shoaling at the entrance channel and the sandbar formation...

  6. Third Indian National Conference on Harbour and Ocean Engineering (INCHOE - 2004). Proceedings

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, S.; SanilKumar, V.; Jayakumar, S.

    The two volumes contain 103 scientific papers in the field of harbour and ocean engineering, presented at the Third Indian National Conference on Harbour and Ocean Engineering (INCHOE - 2004), held at National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Dona...

  7. A comparative study of macrobenthic community from harbours along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Sivadas, S.; Nanajkar, M.; Sautya, S.; Nag, A.

    compared the macrobenthic community between different Indian harbours. The present study was therefore conducted in three important harbour (Ratnagiri, Goa, Karwar) along the central west coast of India. The paper discusses the health status of the three...

  8. Geodetic Infrastructure in the Ibiza and Barcelona Harbours for Sea Level Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Benjamin, J. J.; Gili, J.; Lopez, R.; Tapia, A.; Perez, B.; Pros, F.

    2013-12-01

    The presentation is directed to the description of the actual situation and relevant information of the geodetic infrastructure of Ibiza and Barcelona sites for sea level determination and contribution to regional sea level rise. Time series are being analysed for mean sea level variations www.puertos.es. .In the framework of a Spanish Space Project, the instrumentation of sea level measurements has been improved by providing the Barcelona site with a radar tide gauge Datamar 2000C from Geonica s.l. near an acoustic tide gauge. Puertos del Estado installed in 2007 a MIROS radar tide gauge and the Barcelona Harbour Authority a GPS referente station in the roof of the new Control Tower situated in the Energy Pier. The radar sensor is over the water surface, on a L-shaped structure which elevates it a few meters above the quay shelf. 1-min data are transmitted to the ENAGAS Control Center by cable and then sent each 1 min to Puertos del Estado by e-mail. There is a GPS station Leica Geosystems GRX1200 GG Pro and antenna 1202. Precision levelling has been made several times in the last two years because the tower is founded in reclaimed land. The measured settlement rate is about 1cm/year that may be could mask the values registered by the tide gauge. A description of the actual infrastructure at Ibiza harbour at Marina de Botafoch, is presented and its applications to sea level monitoring and altimeter calibration in support of the main CGPS at Ibiza harbour. It is described the geometrical precision levelling made in June 2013 between the radar tide gauge and the GPS station. In particular, the CGPS located at Ibiza harbour is essential for its application to the marine campaign Baleares 2013, near Ibiza island. The main objective is to determine the altimeter bias for Jason-2, about 9:09 UTC September 15, 2013, and Saral/AltiKa, about 05:30 UTC September 16, UTC. These activities has been received funding of the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion under Spanish

  9. Echoes from the past: Regional variations in recovery within a harbour seal population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie M J M Brasseur

    Full Text Available Terrestrial and marine wildlife populations have been severely reduced by hunting, fishing and habitat destruction, especially in the last centuries. Although management regulations have led to the recovery of some populations, the underlying processes are not always well understood. This study uses a 40-year time series of counts of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina in the Wadden Sea to study these processes, and demonstrates the influence of historical regional differences in management regimes on the recovery of this population. While the Wadden Sea is considered one ecologically coupled zone, with a distinct harbour seal population, the area is divided into four geo-political regions i.e. the Netherlands, Lower Saxony including Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Denmark. Gradually, seal hunting was banned between 1962 and 1977 in the different regions. Counts of moulting harbour seals and pup counts, obtained during aerial surveys between 1974 and 2014, show a population growth from approximately 4500 to 39,000 individuals. Population growth models were developed to assess if population growth differed between regions, taking into account two Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV epizootics, in 1988 and 2002 which seriously affected the population. After a slow start prior to the first epizootic, the overall population grew exponentially at rates close to assumed maximum rates of increase in a harbour seal population. Recently, growth slowed down, potentially indicative of approaching carrying capacity. Regional differences in growth rates were demonstrated, with the highest recovery in Netherlands after the first PDV epizootic (i.e. 17.9%, suggesting that growth was fuelled by migration from the other regions, where growth remained at or below the intrinsic growth rate (13%. The seals' distribution changed, and although the proportion of seals counted in the German regions declined, they remained by far the most important pupping region, with approximately

  10. Vuosaari Harbour Road Tunnel Traffic Management and Incident Detection System Design Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caj Holm

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Helsinki is constructing in Vuosaari a new modem and effectivecargo harbour. All cargo harbour activities will be concentratedthere. The total project includes the harbour, a logisticsarea, traffic connections (road, railway and fairway and aBusiness Park. The road connection goes through the Porvarinlahtiroad tunnel. The harbour will commence operatingin 2008. This paper gives an oveTView of the tunnel design phasefunctional studies and risk analysis tunnel incident detectionsystem design issues and some specific environmental featuresof the tunnel.

  11. Vuosaari Harbour Road Tunnel Traffic Management and Incident Detection System Design Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Caj Holm; Ronald Westermark; Mario Anžek

    2006-01-01

    Helsinki is constructing in Vuosaari a new modem and effectivecargo harbour. All cargo harbour activities will be concentratedthere. The total project includes the harbour, a logisticsarea, traffic connections (road, railway and fairway) and aBusiness Park. The road connection goes through the Porvarinlahtiroad tunnel. The harbour will commence operatingin 2008. This paper gives an oveTView of the tunnel design phasefunctional studies and risk analysis tunnel incident detectionsystem design i...

  12. Biological and management aspects of a Caribbean mangal: West Harbour, Jamaica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chow, Barbara A.

    1997-01-01

    CHOW, Barbara A., 1997. Biological and management aspects of a Caribbean mangal: West Harbour, Jamaica. Studies Nat. Hist. Caribbean Region 73, Amsterdam, 1997: 1-22. Observations are given for the first time of West Harbour, a pristine south-coast Jamaican mangal. West Harbour is shown to be a

  13. Analysis of vegetation and land cover dynamics in north-western Morocco during the last decade using MODIS NDVI time series data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Höpfner

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation phenology as well as the current variability and dynamics of vegetation and land cover, including its climatic and human drivers, are examined in a region in north-western Morocco that is nearly 22 700 km2 big. A gapless time series of Normalized Differenced Vegetation Index (NDVI composite raster data from 29 September 2000 to 29 September 2009 is utilised. The data have a spatial resolution of 250 m and were acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensor.

    The presented approach allows to compose and to analyse yearly land cover maps in a widely unknown region with scarce validated ground truth data by deriving phenological parameters. Results show that the high temporal resolution of 16 d is sufficient for (a determining local land cover better than global land cover classifications of Plant Functional Types (PFT and Global Land Cover 2000 (GLC2000 and (b for drawing conclusions on vegetation dynamics and its drivers. Areas of stably classified land cover types (i.e. areas that did not change their land cover type show climatically driven inter- and intra-annual variability with indicated influence of droughts. The presented approach to determine human-driven influence on vegetation dynamics caused by agriculture results in a more than ten times larger area compared with stably classified areas. Change detection based on yearly land cover maps shows a gain of high-productive vegetation (cropland of about 259.3 km2. Statistically significant inter-annual trends in vegetation dynamics during the last decade could however not be discovered. A sequence of correlations was respectively carried out to extract the most important periods of rainfall responsible for the production of green biomass and for the extent of land cover types. Results show that mean daily precipitation from 1 October to 15 December has high correlation results (max. r2=0.85 on an intra

  14. Effect of a traditional processing method on the chemical composition of local white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) seed in North-Western Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeheyis, Likawent; Kijora, Claudia; Wink, Michael; Peters, Kurt J

    2011-01-01

    The effect of a traditional Ethiopian lupin processing method on the chemical composition of lupin seed samples was studied. Two sampling districts, namely Mecha and Sekela, representing the mid- and high-altitude areas of north-western Ethiopia, respectively, were randomly selected. Different types of traditionally processed and marketed lupin seed samples (raw, roasted, and finished) were collected in six replications from each district. Raw samples are unprocessed, and roasted samples are roasted using firewood. Finished samples are those ready for human consumption as snack. Thousand seed weight for raw and roasted samples within a study district was similar (P > 0.05), but it was lower (P 0.05). The crude protein and crude fat contents of finished samples within a study district were higher (P < 0.01) than those of raw and roasted samples, respectively. Roasting had no effect on the crude protein content of lupin seed samples. The crude ash content of raw and roasted lupin samples within a study district was higher (P < 0.01) than that of finished lupin samples of the respective study districts. The content of quinolizidine alkaloids of finished lupin samples was lower than that of raw and roasted samples. There was also an interaction effect between location and lupin sample type. The traditional processing method of lupin seeds in Ethiopia has a positive contribution improving the crude protein and crude fat content, and lowering the alkaloid content of the finished product. The study showed the possibility of adopting the traditional processing method to process bitter white lupin for the use as protein supplement in livestock feed in Ethiopia, but further work has to be done on the processing method and animal evaluation.

  15. Diversity of the bacterial and fungal microflora from the midgut and cuticle of phlebotomine sand flies collected in North-Western Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Akhoundi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phlebotomine sand flies are the vectors of the leishmaniases, parasitic diseases caused by Leishmania spp. Little is known about the prevalence and diversity of sand fly microflora colonizing the midgut or the cuticle. Particularly, there is little information on the fungal diversity. This information is important for development of vector control strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: FIVE SAND FLY SPECIES: Phlebotomus papatasi, P. sergenti, P. kandelakii, P. perfiliewi and P. halepensis were caught in Bileh Savar and Kaleybar in North-Western Iran that are located in endemic foci of visceral leishmaniasis. A total of 35 specimens were processed. Bacterial and fungal strains were identified by routine microbiological methods. We characterized 39 fungal isolates from the cuticle and/or the midgut. They belong to six different genera including Penicillium (17 isolates, Aspergillus (14, Acremonium (5, Fusarium (1, Geotrichum (1 and Candida (1. We identified 33 Gram-negative bacteria: Serratia marcescens (9 isolates, Enterobacter cloacae (6, Pseudomonas fluorescens (6, Klebsiella ozaenae (4, Acinetobacter sp. (3, Escherichia coli (3, Asaia sp. (1 and Pantoea sp. (1 as well as Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis (5 and Micrococcus luteus (5 in 10 isolates. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides new data on the microbiotic diversity of field-collected sand flies and for the first time, evidence of the presence of Asaia sp. in sand flies. We have also found a link between physiological stages (unfed, fresh fed, semi gravid and gravid of sand flies and number of bacteria that they carry. Interestingly Pantoea sp. and Klebsiella ozaenae have been isolated in Old World sand fly species. The presence of latter species on sand fly cuticle and in the female midgut suggests a role for this arthropod in dissemination of these pathogenic bacteria in endemic areas. Further experiments are required to clearly delineate the vectorial

  16. Profile of particulate-bound organic compounds in ambient environment of Srinagar: a high-altitude urban location in the North-Western Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huma, Behjat; Yadav, Shweta; Attri, Arun K

    2016-04-01

    Twenty-four hourly samples of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) were collected once a week over 17 months in the ambient environment of Srinagar (altitude 1524 m), an urban montane location in the North-Western Himalayas. The samples were analyzed to identify and quantify the presence of diverse organic compounds (OCs) using thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (TD-GCMS). Non-polar organic compounds-n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and molecular tracers (retene and nicotine), were detected in the TSPM samples. Molecular diagnostic ratios, derived from the quantified n-alkanes and PAHs in TSPM, assisted in characterization of the contributing sources. Significant variation in the planetary boundary layer height (meters) with change in season (summer to winter) in this region, also, affected the observed variation in the temporal profile of TSPM-bound OCs. TSPM-bound OCs were predominantly contributed from petroleum and biomass combustion; to a lesser extent from biogenic sources. High concentrations of retene and nicotine, known molecular tracers for coniferous wood combustion and tobacco smoke, respectively, were detected in the winter samples. Seasonal variation in TSPM-bound retene corresponded with the periodicity of biomass burning activity in the region. The benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (BAPE) concentrations, a measure for the carcinogenicity of TSPM-bound PAHs was calculated and the value exceeded the prescribed international standards in winter. This finding poses a major health concern for the inhabitants of this region. High BAPE concentration of PAHs during winter was linked to fossil fuel and biomass combustion, where the prevalent meteorology and topography played a synergistic role.

  17. Sensitivity of growth and biomass allocation patterns to increasing nitrogen: a comparison between ephemerals and annuals in the Gurbantunggut Desert, north-western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaobing; Zhang, Yuanming; Niklas, Karl J

    2014-02-01

    Biomass accumulation and allocation patterns are critical to quantifying ecosystem dynamics. However, these patterns differ among species, and they can change in response to nutrient availability even among genetically related individuals. In order to understand this complexity further, this study examined three ephemeral species (with very short vegetative growth periods) and three annual species (with significantly longer vegetative growth periods) in the Gurbantunggut Desert, north-western China, to determine their responses to different nitrogen (N) supplements under natural conditions. Nitrogen was added to the soil at rates of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0 and 24.0 g N m(-2) year(-1). Plants were sampled at various intervals to measure relative growth rate and shoot and root dry mass. Compared with annuals, ephemerals grew more rapidly, increased shoot and root biomass with increasing N application rates and significantly decreased root/shoot ratios. Nevertheless, changes in the biomass allocation of some species (i.e. Erodium oxyrrhynchum) in response to the N treatment were largely a consequence of changes in overall plant size, which was inconsistent with an optimal partitioning model. An isometric log shoot vs. log root scaling relationship for the final biomass harvest was observed for each species and all annuals, while pooled data of three ephemerals showed an allometric scaling relationship. These results indicate that ephemerals and annuals differ observably in their biomass allocation patterns in response to soil N supplements, although an isometric log shoot vs. log root scaling relationship was maintained across all species. These findings highlight that different life history strategies behave differently in response to N application even when interspecific scaling relationships remain nearly isometric.

  18. Prevalence and risk factors associated with malaria infection among pregnant women in a semi-urban community of north-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fana, Sani Abdullahi; Bunza, Mohammed Danladi Abubakar; Anka, Sule Aliyu; Imam, Asiya Umar; Nataala, Shehu Usman

    2015-01-01

    Malaria during pregnancy remains a serious public health problem, with substantial risks for the mother, her foetus and the newborn. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of malaria and possible risk factors for malaria infection among pregnant women in a semi-urban area in north-western Nigeria. Pregnant women are among the most susceptible to malaria infection. Knowledge of their malaria infection status is an important yardstick to measure the effectiveness of any malaria control programme. We conducted a cross sectional study in the semi-urban area of Argungu, Kebbi State Nigeria. Two hundred and fifty five pregnant women were included in the study after informed verbal consent was obtained. For each participant, the socio-demographic profile, stage of pregnancy and attitude to the use of insecticide- treated nets (ITNs) were investigated using a questionnaire. Peripheral blood samples were collected and thick blood smears were prepared and stained with Giemsa stains to check for malaria parasitaemia. The associations between age, education level and use of ITNs with occurrence of malaria infection during pregnancy were analysed using the chi-square test. One hundred and six (41.6%) out of 255 pregnant women were infected with malaria parasites, with a mean parasite density of 800 parasitesμl(-1). It was found that prevalence and parasite density decreased as age increased. The chi-square test indicated that a lack of education and non-usage of ITNs were significantly associated with malaria infection. Malaria is still a major public health issue among pregnant women mainly due to illiteracy and non -compliance to using ITNs. Increasing awareness about malaria preventive measures and early attendance of antenatal care services will help to reduce malaria and, consequently, its associated morbidities and mortalities.

  19. Dense water formation in the north-western Mediterranean area during HyMeX-SOP2 in 1/36° ocean simulations: Sensitivity to initial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, Fabien; Lebeaupin Brossier, Cindy; Giordani, Hervé; Arsouze, Thomas; Beuvier, Jonathan; Bouin, Marie-Noëlle; Bresson, Émilie; Ducrocq, Véronique; Fourrié, Nadia; Nuret, Mathieu

    2016-08-01

    The north-western Mediterranean Sea is a key location where intense air-sea exchanges occur in autumn and winter. The succession of strong mistral and tramontane situations, leading to significant evaporation and ocean heat loss, is well known as the controlling factor in the dense water formation (DWF) with deep convection episodes. During HyMeX-SOP2 (1 February to 15 March 2013), several platforms sampled the area in order to document DWF and air-sea exchanges. This study investigates the ability of the NEMO-WMED36 ocean model (1/36°-resolution), driven in surface by the hourly air-sea fluxes from the AROME-WMED forecasts (2.5 km resolution), to represent DWF during HyMeX-SOP2 and focuses on the sensitivity to initial conditions. After a short evaluation of the atmospheric forcing, the high-resolution oceanic simulations using three different data sets as initial and boundary conditions are compared to observations collected during the field campaign. It evidences that using regional model outputs may lead to unrealistic thermohaline characteristics for the intermediate and deep waters, which degrade the simulated new dense water formed. Using ocean analyses built from observations, permits to obtain more realistic characteristics of the Western Mediterranean dense water. However, a low stratification favors an overestimation of the convective area and of the DWF rate. The DWF chronology is also impacted. Nevertheless, in every run, SOP2 is characterized by the production of water denser than 29.11 kg m-3 with a peak during the strong mistral event of 23-25 February followed by a period of restratification, before a last event of bottom convection on 13-15 March.

  20. Effect of early detection and treatment on malaria related maternal mortality on the north-western border of Thailand 1986-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose McGready

    Full Text Available Maternal mortality is high in developing countries, but there are few data in high-risk groups such as migrants and refugees in malaria-endemic areas. Trends in maternal mortality were followed over 25 years in antenatal clinics prospectively established in an area with low seasonal transmission on the north-western border of Thailand.All medical records from women who attended the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit antenatal clinics from 12(th May 1986 to 31(st December 2010 were reviewed, and maternal death records were analyzed for causality. There were 71 pregnancy-related deaths recorded amongst 50,981 women who attended antenatal care at least once. Three were suicide and excluded from the analysis as incidental deaths. The estimated maternal mortality ratio (MMR overall was 184 (95%CI 150-230 per 100,000 live births. In camps for displaced persons there has been a six-fold decline in the MMR from 499 (95%CI 200-780 in 1986-90 to 79 (40-170 in 2006-10, p<0.05. In migrants from adjacent Myanmar the decline in MMR was less significant: 588 (100-3260 to 252 (150-430 from 1996-2000 to 2006-2010. Mortality from P. falciparum malaria in pregnancy dropped sharply with the introduction of systematic screening and treatment and continued to decline with the reduction in the incidence of malaria in the communities. P. vivax was not a cause of maternal death in this population. Infection (non-puerperal sepsis and P. falciparum malaria accounted for 39.7 (27/68 % of all deaths.Frequent antenatal clinic screening allows early detection and treatment of falciparum malaria and substantially reduces maternal mortality from P. falciparum malaria. No significant decline has been observed in deaths from sepsis or other causes in refugee and migrant women on the Thai-Myanmar border.

  1. Morphometrical and ecological analysis of nematodes of the family Capillariidae (Neveu-Lemaire, 1936) in wild ducks (Anatinae) from the north-western Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapf, Agata N; Kavetska, Katarzyna M; Ptak, Piotr P; Rzad, Izabella

    2013-01-01

    West Pomerania is located on the migratory route of many species of birds. Among them are many representatives of wild duck species (subfamily Anatinae), which are often the primary hosts of many helminths due to the fact of living in two different environments: terrestrial and aquatic. However, until the end of the 90s, research conducted in Poland on the helminth fauna of wild birds, including nematodes of the family Capillariidae, did not include the north-western region of the country. These first studies performed in 1999, aimed at the identification of the nematodes of wild ducks from the West Pomerania region, revealed the presence of three species belonging to family Capillariidae, i.e. Capillaria anatis (Schrank, 1790) Travassos, 1915, Eucoleus contortus (Creplin, 1839) Gagarin, 1951 and Pseudocapillaria mergi (Madsen, 1945). The purpose of the current study was to perform a comprehensive ecological analysis of C. anatis, E. contortus and P. mergi, including such factors as intensity, prevalence, relative density, index of fidelity and dominance index. The experimental material comprised 811 nematodes isolated from the gastrointestinal tracts of 953 ducks. These 9 species of ducks belong to three different tribes of the Anatinae subfamily: Anatini (Anas clypeata, A. crecca, A. platyrhynchos), Aythyini (Aythya fuligula, A. marila) and Mergini (Bucephala clangula, Clangula hyemalis, Mergus merganseri, Somateria mollissima) and diverse in terms of their biology and ecology. The morphometric and morphological analyses fail to identify any significant differences in the body structures of nematodes of the species C. anatis, E. contortus and P. mergi of the West Pomerania region in comparison with those found in other regions of Poland and Europe. The ecological analysis of the Capillariidae family in the West Pomerania region revealed that ducks of the tribe Anatini (mainly A. platyrhynchos) are the most common hosts of E. contortus species, C. anatis is most

  2. Secondary dentine as a sole parameter for age estimation: Comparison and reliability of qualitative and quantitative methods among North Western adult Indians

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    Jasbir Arora

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The indestructible nature of teeth against most of the environmental abuses makes its use in disaster victim identification (DVI. The present study has been undertaken to examine the reliability of Gustafson’s qualitative method and Kedici’s quantitative method of measuring secondary dentine for age estimation among North Western adult Indians. 196 (M = 85; F = 111 single rooted teeth were collected from the Department of Oral Health Sciences, PGIMER, Chandigarh. Ground sections were prepared and the amount of secondary dentine formed was scored qualitatively according to Gustafson’s (0–3 scoring system (method 1 and quantitatively following Kedici’s micrometric measurement method (method 2. Out of 196 teeth 180 samples (M = 80; F = 100 were found to be suitable for measuring secondary dentine following Kedici’s method. Absolute mean error of age was calculated by both methodologies. Results clearly showed that in pooled data, method 1 gave an error of ±10.4 years whereas method 2 exhibited an error of approximately ±13 years. A statistically significant difference was noted in absolute mean error of age between two methods of measuring secondary dentine for age estimation. Further, it was also revealed that teeth extracted for periodontal reasons severely decreased the accuracy of Kedici’s method however, the disease had no effect while estimating age by Gustafson’s method. No significant gender differences were noted in the absolute mean error of age by both methods which suggest that there is no need to separate data on the basis of gender.

  3. Physical and Biogeochemical Controls of the Phytoplankton Blooms in North Western Mediterranean Sea: A Multiplatform Approach Over a Complete Annual Cycle (2012-2013 DEWEX Experiment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayot, Nicolas; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Taillandier, Vincent; Prieur, Louis; de Fommervault, Orens Pasqueron; Claustre, Hervé; Bosse, Anthony; Testor, Pierre; Conan, Pascal

    2017-12-01

    The North Western Mediterranean Sea exhibits recurrent and significant autumnal and spring phytoplankton blooms. The existence of these two blooms coincides with typical temperate dynamics. To determine the potential control of physical and biogeochemical factors on these phytoplankton blooms, data from a multiplatform approach (combining ships, Argo and BGC-Argo floats, and bio-optical gliders) were analyzed in association with satellite observations in 2012-2013. The satellite framework allowed a simultaneous analysis over the whole annual cycle of in situ observations of mixed layer depth, photosynthetical available radiation, particle backscattering, nutrients (nitrate and silicate), and chlorophyll-a concentrations. During the year 2012-2013, satellite ocean color observations, confirmed by in situ data, have revealed the existence of two areas (or bioregions) with comparable autumnal blooms but contrasting spring blooms. In both bioregions, the ratio of the euphotic zone (defined as the isolume 0.415 mol photons m-2 d-1, Z0.415) and the MLD identified the initiation of the autumnal bloom, as well as the maximal annual increase in [Chl-a] in spring. In fact, the autumnal phytoplankton bloom might be initiated by mixing of the summer shallowing deep chlorophyll maximum, while the spring restratification (when Z0.415/MLD ratio became >1) might induce surface phytoplankton production that largely overcomes the losses. Finally, winter deep convection events that took place in one of the bioregions induced higher net accumulation rate of phytoplankton in spring associated with a diatom-dominated phytoplankton community principally. We suggest that very deep winter MLD lead to an increase in surface silicates availability, which favored the development of diatoms.

  4. Domestic violence and its predictors among married women in reproductive age in Fagitalekoma Woreda, Awi zone, Amhara regional state, North Western Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semahegn, Agumasie; Belachew, Tefera; Abdulahi, Misra

    2013-12-05

    Violence against women is one of the most systematic and prevalent human rights abuses in the world. It is a form of discrimination and deeply rooted in power imbalances and structural inequality between women and men. Documenting the extent of the problem and associated factors is essential to develop public health interventions to tackle violence against women. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine magnitude of domestic violence and identify its predictors among married women in the reproductive age in north western Ethiopia. Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 15 to March 15, 2011 among 682 married women and 46 key informants. Systematic sampling technique was used to select respondents for the quantitative method. Purposive sampling was used to select in-depth interview key informants for and focus group discussants. Data were analyzed using SPSS window version 16.0. Binary logistic regression and multivariable logistic regression analysis were carried out to determine the prevalence and identify independent predictors of domestic violence against women. Statistical association was measured by adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Statistical significance was declared at P domestic violence was 78.0%. About 73.3%, 58.4% and 49.1% of women reported different forms of psychological, physical and sexual violence, respectively. Alcohol consumption by husband (AOR = 1.9, 95%CI = 1.3, 2.8), being pregnant (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.4, 3.4), decision making power (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.5, 3.4) and annual income (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1, 3.3) were predictors of domestic violence. The prevalence of domestic violence was very high as compared to other studies. Women's husband alcohol consumption, decision making power annual household income and being pregnant are some of the predictors of domestic violence against women.

  5. Fluorescencein situhybridization analysis of theALKgene in 2,045 non-small cell lung cancer patients from North-Western Spain (Galicia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ares, María; Cameselle-Teijeiro, José M; Vázquez-Estévez, Sergio; Lázaro-Quintela, Martín; Vázquez-Boquete, Ángel; Afonso-Afonso, Francisco J; Casal-Rubio, Joaquín; González-Piñeiro, Ana L; Rico-Rodríguez, Yolanda; Fírvida-Pérez, José L; Ruíz-Bañobre, Juan; Couso, Elena; Santomé, Lucía; Pérez-Becerra, Raquel; García-Campelo, Rosario; Amenedo, Margarita; Azpitarte-Raposeiras, Cristina; Antúnez, José; Abdulkader, Ihab

    2016-08-01

    Identification of anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase ( ALK ) gene rearrangements is a standard diagnostic test in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The current study describes the experience of ALK rearrangement detection of a referral center in the public health care system of Galicia in North-Western Spain. The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) patterns of the ALK gene and the clinical and pathological features of these patients are reported. This study is also of interest for comparative purposes due to the relative geographical isolation of the area, which could have contributed to particular genetic features. A total of 2,045 tissue samples from NSCLC patients were collected between October 2010 and July 2015 and tested for ALK rearrangements by FISH. Examination of 1,686 paraffin-embedded tissue specimens and 395 cytological samples (306 cell block preparations and 53 cytological smears) was conducted, and any associations between the FISH results and clinicopathological features were assessed. The rate of successful evaluation was marginally higher in tissue samples than in cytological samples (92.9% vs. 84.1%); this difference was not significant. ALK rearrangements were identified in 82 patients(4%): 65 (79.3%) in tissue specimens, 15 (18.3%) in cell block samples and 2 (2.4%) in cytological smears. This genetic translocation appeared to be associated with a non-smoking history, younger age, female gender, stage IV and adenocarcinoma histological type. The findings demonstrate that ALK evaluation by FISH is feasible in tissue and cytological samples. The clinical and pathological features of the ALK -positive series of patients are similar to those previously reported in the literature.

  6. Domestic violence and its predictors among married women in reproductive age in Fagitalekoma Woreda, Awi zone, Amhara regional state, North Western Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Violence against women is one of the most systematic and prevalent human rights abuses in the world. It is a form of discrimination and deeply rooted in power imbalances and structural inequality between women and men. Documenting the extent of the problem and associated factors is essential to develop public health interventions to tackle violence against women. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine magnitude of domestic violence and identify its predictors among married women in the reproductive age in north western Ethiopia. Methods Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 15 to March 15, 2011 among 682 married women and 46 key informants. Systematic sampling technique was used to select respondents for the quantitative method. Purposive sampling was used to select in-depth interview key informants for and focus group discussants. Data were analyzed using SPSS window version 16.0. Binary logistic regression and multivariable logistic regression analysis were carried out to determine the prevalence and identify independent predictors of domestic violence against women. Statistical association was measured by adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Statistical significance was declared at P women reported different forms of psychological, physical and sexual violence, respectively. Alcohol consumption by husband (AOR = 1.9, 95%CI = 1.3, 2.8), being pregnant (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.4, 3.4), decision making power (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.5, 3.4) and annual income (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1, 3.3) were predictors of domestic violence. Conclusion The prevalence of domestic violence was very high as compared to other studies. Women’s husband alcohol consumption, decision making power annual household income and being pregnant are some of the predictors of domestic violence against women. PMID:24308763

  7. Echolocation by the harbour porpoise: Life in coastal waters

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    Lee Anton Miller

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The harbour porpoise is one of the smallest and most widely spread of all toothed whales. They are found abundantly in coastal waters all around the northern hemisphere. They are among the 11 species known to use high frequency sonar of relative narrow bandwidth. Their narrow biosonar beam helps isolate echoes from prey among those from unwanted items and noise. Obtaining echoes from small objects like net mesh, net floats and small prey is facilitated by the very high peak frequency around 130 kHz with a wavelength of about 12 mm. We argue that such echolocation signals and narrow band auditory filters give the harbour porpoise a selective advantage in a coastal environment. Predation by killer whales and a minimum noise region in the ocean around 130 kHz may have provided selection pressures for using this frequency band for biosonar signals.

  8. Don't forget the porpoise: acoustic monitoring reveals fine scale temporal variation between bottlenose dolphin and harbour porpoise in Cardigan Bay SAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuuttila, Hanna K; Courtene-Jones, Winnie; Baulch, Sarah; Simon, Malene; Evans, Peter G H

    2017-01-01

    Populations of bottlenose dolphin and harbour porpoise inhabit Cardigan Bay, which was designated a Special Area of Conservation (SAC), with bottlenose dolphin listed as a primary feature for its conservation status. Understanding the abundance, distribution and habitat use of species is fundamental for conservation and the implementation of management. Bottlenose dolphin and harbour porpoise usage of feeding sites within Cardigan Bay SAC was examined using passive acoustic monitoring. Acoustic detections recorded with calibrated T-PODs (acoustic data loggers) indicated harbour porpoise to be present year round and in greater relative abundance than bottlenose dolphin. Fine-scale temporal partitioning between the species occurred at three levels: (1) seasonal differences, consistent between years, with porpoise detections peaking in winter months and dolphin detections in summer months; (2) diel variation, consistent across sites, seasons and years, with porpoise detections highest at night and dolphin detections highest shortly after sunrise; and (3) tidal variation was observed with peak dolphin detections occurring during ebb at the middle of the tidal cycle and before low tide, whereas harbour porpoise detections were highest at slack water, during and after high water with a secondary peak recorded during and after low water. General Additive Models (GAMs) were applied to better understand the effects of each covariate. The reported abundance and distribution of the two species, along with the temporal variation observed, have implications for the design and management of protected areas. Currently, in the UK, no SACs have been formally designated for harbour porpoise while three exist for bottlenose dolphins. Here, we demonstrate a need for increased protection and species-specific mitigation measures for harbour porpoise.

  9. Integrative sediment assessment at Atlantic Spanish harbours by means of chemical and ecotoxicological tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, N; Belzunce-Segarra, M J; Menchaca, I; Garmendia, J M; Franco, J; Nieto, O; Etxebarria, N

    2013-02-01

    This study refers to the integrative assessment of sediment quality in three harbour areas at the Spanish Atlantic Coast: Vigo (Northwestern Spain), Bilbao and Pasajes (Northern Spain). At each site, two lines of evidence have been considered: chemical analyses (metal, PAH and PCB concentrations in sediments and ammonia concentration in bioassays) and toxicity tests (Microtox®, Corophium sp. marine amphipod and Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin larvae). Chemical and ecotoxicological results have been integrated by means of a tabular matrix and a multivariate factorial analysis (FA). Highly toxic samples have been characterised in Vigo and Pasajes harbours while Bilbao samples present toxicity levels ranging from non-toxic to moderately toxic. High toxicity is associated with high levels of contaminants whereas confounding factors (ammonia, organic matter and mud) have been identified to be the main cause of low to moderate toxicity. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that deriving potential toxicity of sediments based on comparison with Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) is in agreement to toxicity results in areas presenting high levels of contaminants. However, at lower levels of toxicity (low to moderate), the mismatch between the potential toxicity (SQG approach) and the toxicity measured by bioassays is greater, as the former only accounts for chemical concentrations, without considering the interaction between contaminants and the effect of confounding factors. Contrarily, the multivariate analysis seems to be a robust tool for the integration and interpretation of different lines of evidence in areas affected by different sources of contamination.

  10. A modelling framework to optimize timing of haulout counts for estimating harbour seal (Phoca vitulina abundance

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    Michelle Cronin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The time of year and day, the state of the tide and prevailing environmental conditions significantly influence seal haulout behaviour. Understanding these effects is fundamentally important in deriving accurate estimates of harbour seal abundance from haulout data. We present a modelling approach to assess the influence of these variables on seals’ haulout behaviour and, by identifying the combination of covariates during which seal abundance is highest, predict the optimal time and conditions for future surveys. Count data of harbour seals at haulouts in southwest Ireland collected during 2003-2005 were included in mixed additive models together with environmental covariates, including season, time of day and weather conditions. The models show maximum abundance at haulout sites occurred during midday periods during August and in late afternoon/early evening during September. Accurate national and local population estimates are essential for the effective monitoring of the conservation status of the species and for the identification, management and monitoring of Special Areas of Conservation (SAC in accordance with the EU Habitats Directive. Our model based approach provides a useful tool for optimising the timing of harbourseal surveys in Ireland and the modelling framework is useful for predicting optimal survey periods for other protected, endangered or significant species worldwide.

  11. Temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, nitrite, pH, alkalinity, bottom depth, and meteorology data collected from Arctic Seas and North Western Pacific by various Soviet Union institutions from 1925-11-16 to 1989-05-18 (NODC Accession 0075099)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, nitrite, pH, alkalinity, bottom depth, and meteorology data collected from Arctic Seas and North Western Pacific...

  12. Harbour Infrastructure Inventory Development with 3D Laser Scanning Method

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    Świerczyński Sławomir

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Polish law harbour infrastructure is one of key elements to determine the various cargo types, available means of transport and, ultimately, the significance of any sea port. The structures, devices and installations situated within a port’s boundaries, dedicated to the swift operation of the port, are all designed for tasks that involve the best use of this infrastructure.

  13. Salinity and survival of Martesia striata (Linn) in Cochin harbour

    OpenAIRE

    Cheriyan, P.V.; Cherian, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of salinity variations on the survival of Martesia striata from Cochin harbour are presented. It is observed that at least a few of the animals survive the low saline conditions during monsoon. Laboratory experiments showed the lethal salinity as 6‰ when animals acclimatised in 34‰ were subjected to abrupt changes in salinity. But acclimatisation to 17‰ salinity showed a downward shift in the lethal salinity to 4‰. The present observations indicate that M. striata is euryhaline ar...

  14. Status and biology of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina in Svalbard

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    Christian Lydersen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Harbour seals in Svalbard are the northernmost population of this species. This small population is comprised of ca. 1,000 individuals, most of which reside along the west coast of Prins Karls Forland (78°20’N. Satellite tracking studies have shown that adults are resident. Birthing occurs in the latter half of June. Newborns weigh about 11 kg and gain an average of 0.7 kg/d during the nursing period. Haulout patterns in Svalbard harbour seals are influenced by date (season, time of day, tidal cycle and temperature. Moulting takes place in early fall, first among juveniles, then in adult females and finally in adult males. Feeding studies show that polar cod (Boreogadus saida is the dominant prey in terms of numbers, while Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua is the dominant prey based on biomass, at least during the early autumn. Growth curves display significant sexual dimorphism with asymptotic values for standard length and body mass being greater formales. Testosterone levels inmales showed an abrupt increase at 6 years of age, while estradiol levels in females increased abruptly from age 4 years. The reproductive rate for adult females was 0.93. Longevity of Svalbard harbour seals is very short compared with populations from other areas.

  15. On harbour siltation in the fresh-salt water mixing region

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nijs, Michel A. J.; Winterwerp, Johan C.; Pietrzak, Julie D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a novel series of field measurements are presented, which are the first to elucidate the processes influencing siltation in Botlek Harbour. Botlek Harbour is situated at the limit of saline water intrusion in the Rotterdam Waterway. Normally, after the ebb tide fresher river waters are found in the Rotterdam Waterway at the location of Botlek Harbour. On the flooding tide, the tip of the salt wedge is advected along the Rotterdam Waterway towards the mouth of Botlek Harbour. Hence on flood, a lock-exchange mechanism operates between Botlek Harbour and the Rotterdam Waterway. On the flood tide, when there is a supply of suspended particulate matter (SPM) associated with the presence of the estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) at the mouth of the harbour, the survey data show exchange of SPM into the harbour. This lock-exchange process is found to be the dominant cause for SPM transport into the harbour. This is further substantiated by an analysis of the mass transport mechanisms. In this analysis, the vertical profiles of the instantaneous velocity, salinity and SPM concentration fields, recorded during the surveys, were decomposed into advective and dispersive transport components. The results of this analysis indicate that the correlation between the lock-exchange mechanism on the flood tide with the availability of SPM for exchange and efficient trapping, dominate the total exchange of SPM (97%). Hence, the increase in measured near-bed SPM concentration within the harbour is ascribed to tidal advection of saline water and the ETM along the Rotterdam Waterway. Tidal advection controls the density difference between the estuary and harbour, as well as the availability of SPM for exchange at the entrance to Botlek Harbour. The location of the ETM at the tip of the salt wedge is a key factor in supplying SPM to Botlek Harbour. Consequently the timing of the availability of SPM at the mouth of the harbour needs to be considered in siltation studies. The

  16. Knowledge, attitudes and practices about malaria among communities: Comparing epidemic and non-epidemic prone communities of Muleba district, North-western Tanzania

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    Kishamawe Coleman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muleba district in North-western Tanzania has experienced malaria epidemics in recent years. Community knowledge, attitudes and practices are important in enhancing disease control interventions. This study investigated determinants of malaria epidemics in the study area in relation to household knowledge, attitudes and practice on malaria. Methods A community based cross-sectional survey involving 504 study participants was conducted between April and June 2007 using a structured questionnaire focusing on knowledge, attitudes and practices of community members in epidemic and non-epidemic villages about malaria transmission, signs and symptoms, treatment, prevention and control. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess determinants of malaria epidemics. Results A total of 504 respondents (males = 36.9% were interviewed. Overall, 453 (90.1% mentioned malaria as the most important disease in the area. Four hundred and sixty four respondents (92.1% knew that malaria is transmitted through mosquito bite. A total of 436 (86.7%, 306 (60.8% and 162 (32.1% mentioned fever, vomiting and loss of appetite as major symptoms/signs of malaria, respectively. Of those interviewed 328 (65.1% remembered the recent outbreak of 2006. Of the 504 respondents interviewed, 296 (58.7% reported that their households owned at least one mosquito net. Three hundred and ninety seven respondents (78.8% knew insecticides used to impregnate bed nets. About two thirds (63.3% of the respondents had at least a household member who suffered from malaria during the recent epidemic. During the 2006 outbreak, 278 people (87.2% sought treatment from health facilities while 27 (8.5% obtained drugs from drug shops and 10 (3.1% used local herbs. Logistic regression analysis showed that household location and level of knowledge of cause of malaria were significant predictors of a household being affected by epidemic. Conclusions Residents of Muleba

  17. An application of luminiscence dating to building archaeology: The study of ceramic building materials in early medieval churches in north-western France and south-eastern England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blain, Sophie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The research reported in this thesis concerns the re-evaluation of an archaeological assumption surrounding the origin of Ceramic Building Materials (CBM used from the 9th to the 11th century in religious buildings of north-western France and south-eastern England. Are the bricks used in the masonry structures Roman spolia or a novo productions? Amongst the dating methods that can contribute to building archaeology, it is the technique of stimulated luminescence applied to CBM that is the focus of this study. Results from thermoluminescence (TL and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL dating performed on 52 CBM samples from 11 churches showed that the practice of reusing Roman brick was commonplace in small parish churches, but also that brick-making was not a totally unknown skill of the early medieval craftsmen as it has long been supposed. Most importantly, by identifying that the building material is contemporary to the church, a defined chronology emerges resulting in a new and extremely useful reference point in the history of early medieval architecture.La investigación presentada en esta tesis se ocupa de la reevaluación de un supuesto arqueológico entorno al origen del material cerámico constructivo (CBM empleado entre los siglos IX y XI en los edificios religiosos del Noroeste de Francia y el Sudeste de Inglaterra. ¿Son los ladrillos empleados en las estructuras de fábrica spolia romana o producciones a novo? Entre los métodos de datación que pueden contribuir a la arqueología del edificio, la técnica de luminiscencia estimulada aplicada al CBM es el centro de este estudio. Los resultados de la termoluminiscencia (TL y de la luminiscencia estimulada ópticamente (OSL, aplicadas en 52 muestras de CBM tomadas en 11 iglesias, evidencian que la práctica de reutilizar ladrillos romanos era común en pequeñas iglesias parroquiales, pero que también la técnica de elaboración de ladrillos no era totalmente desconocida para los

  18. Parental control and monitoring of young people's sexual behaviour in rural North-Western Tanzania: Implications for sexual and reproductive health interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urassa Mark

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parenting through control and monitoring has been found to have an effect on young people's sexual behaviour. There is a dearth of literature from sub-Saharan Africa on this subject. This paper examines parental control and monitoring and the implications of this on young people's sexual decision making in a rural setting in North-Western Tanzania. Methods This study employed an ethnographic research design. Data collection involved 17 focus group discussions and 46 in-depth interviews conducted with young people aged 14-24 years and parents/carers of young people within this age-group. Thematic analysis was conducted with the aid of NVIVO 7 software. Results Parents were motivated to control and monitor their children's behaviour for reasons such as social respectability and protecting them from undesirable sexual and reproductive health (SRH outcomes. Parental control and monitoring varied by family structure, gender, schooling status, a young person's contribution to the economic running of the family and previous experience of a SRH outcome such as unplanned pregnancy. Children from single parent families reported that they received less control compared to those from both parent families. While a father's presence in the family seemed important in controlling the activities of young people, a mother's did not have a similar effect. Girls especially those still schooling received more supervision compared to boys. Young women who had already had unplanned pregnancy were not supervised as closely as those who hadn't. Parents employed various techniques to control and monitor their children's sexual activities. Conclusions Despite parents making efforts to control and monitor their young people's sexual behaviour, they are faced with several challenges (e.g. little time spent with their children which make it difficult for them to effectively monitor them. There is a need for interventions such as parenting skills building

  19. [Long-Term Different Fertilizations Changed the Chemical and Spectrum Characteristics of DOM of the Irrigation-Desert Soil in North-Western China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Dan-na; Cao, Wei-dong; Bag, Xing-guo; Bai, Jin-shun; Zhang, Jiu-dong; Lu, Bing-lin; Gao, Song-juan; Zeng, Nao-hua; Wang, Xue-cui; Katsuyoshi, Shimizu

    2016-01-01

    By using Ultraviolet-visible Spectrometry, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer and Elemental Analyzer, spectrum and chemical characteristics of soil DOM affected by long-term different fertilizations were investigated in irrigation-desert soil in North-western China based on an experiment started from 1988. Four different fertilization treatments were included, i. e., organic fertilizer (OF), green manure (GM), chemical fertilizer (CF) and a control of no fertilization (CK). The results showed that fertilization could increase the contents of DOM. Compared to CK, the treatments of OF, GM, CF increased the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by 37%, 29%, 16%; increased the dissolved nitrogen (DON) by 334%, 257%, 182%; increased the total carbohydrate (TCs) by 90%, 25%, 2%; and increased the total organic acids (TOAs) by 195%, 116%, 58%; respectively. Furthermore, DOC, DON, TCs, and TOAs in the OF treatment were significantly higher than those in CK, they were also significantly higher in the GM and CF treatments except for TCs. The ultraviolet-visible analysis showed that fertilizations enhanced the SUVA(254), SUVA(260), SUVA(272) and SUVA(280) of DOM, indicating that fertilizations increased the aromatic and hydrophobic percentage, humification degree, and average molecular weight, and thus resulting in more stability of DOM. Same trends were showed for all the 4 ultraviolet spectrum absorption values in different fertilizations, i. e., the strongest effect was found in the OF treatment, and then was the GM treatment and CF treatment successively. From the results by the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry, the characteristic peak of aromatic in the OF treatment was observed shifting from 1 625 to 1 649 cm(-1), which was close to the characteristic peak of humin, suggesting that the aromaticity of DOM in the OF treatment was higher than the other treatments. The characteristic peaks of C-O at 1 260-1 000 cm(-1) belonging to sugar, alcohol, and carboxylic acid

  20. Swiss ethnoveterinary knowledge on medicinal plants - a within-country comparison of Italian speaking regions with north-western German speaking regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Maria; Zbinden, Mirjam; Vogl, Christan R; Ivemeyer, Silvia; Meier, Beat; Amorena, Michele; Maeschli, Ariane; Hamburger, Matthias; Walkenhorst, Michael

    2017-01-03

    Ethnoveterinary knowledge in Europe may play an important role as a basis for sustainable treatment options for livestock. Aims of our study were (a) to compare the ethnoveterinary practices of two culturally and sociodemographically different regions of Switzerland, (b) to compare results with earlier ethnoveterinary studies conducted in Switzerland and in adjacent Italian regions and, (c) to evaluate possible reasons for regional differences in European ethnoveterinary medicine. 25 interviews were conducted in 2014 in all Italian speaking regions (ItR) of Switzerland, and 31 interviews were held in five north-western German speaking Cantons (GeC). Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect detailed information regarding plant species, mode of preparation, dosage, route of administration, category of use, origin of knowledge, frequency of use, and satisfaction with outcomes of the treatments. A total of 162 homemade remedies in ItR and 219 in GeC were reported, out of which 125 and 145, respectively, were reported to contain only one plant species (homemade single species herbal remedy report, HSHR). 44 ItR and 43 GeC plant species were reported to treat livestock, of which only a half were used in both regions. For each HSHR, we classified the treatment intention of all use reports (UR), leading to a total of 205 and 219 UR in ItR and GeC respectively. While cattle were the most often treated livestock species in both study regions, in ItR 40% of UR were administered to small ruminants. Main indications in both regions were gastrointestinal diseases and skin afflictions, but in ItR a high number of URs were reported as antiparasitics. URs were mainly handed down from the past generation, but in GeC the source of knowledge for 20% of URs were from courses. Regarding the used plant species, ItR showed a higher concordance with Swiss than Italian studies, but with some differences to all regions. A total of 22 (14 ItR; 8 GeC) plant species in this study

  1. Early warning of West Nile virus mosquito vector: climate and land use models successfully explain phenology and abundance of Culex pipiens mosquitoes in north-western Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosà, Roberto; Marini, Giovanni; Bolzoni, Luca; Neteler, Markus; Metz, Markus; Delucchi, Luca; Chadwick, Elizabeth A; Balbo, Luca; Mosca, Andrea; Giacobini, Mario; Bertolotti, Luigi; Rizzoli, Annapaola

    2014-06-12

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is an emerging global health threat. Transmission risk is strongly related to the abundance of mosquito vectors, typically Culex pipiens in Europe. Early-warning predictors of mosquito population dynamics would therefore help guide entomological surveillance and thereby facilitate early warnings of transmission risk. We analysed an 11-year time series (2001 to 2011) of Cx. pipiens mosquito captures from the Piedmont region of north-western Italy to determine the principal drivers of mosquito population dynamics. Linear mixed models were implemented to examine the relationship between Cx. pipiens population dynamics and environmental predictors including temperature, precipitation, Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the proximity of mosquito traps to urban areas and rice fields. Warm temperatures early in the year were associated with an earlier start to the mosquito season and increased season length, and later in the year, with decreased abundance. Early precipitation delayed the start and shortened the length of the mosquito season, but increased total abundance. Conversely, precipitation later in the year was associated with a longer season. Finally, higher NDWI early in the year was associated with an earlier start to the season and increased season length, but was not associated with abundance. Proximity to rice fields predicted higher total abundance when included in some models, but was not a significant predictor of phenology. Proximity to urban areas was not a significant predictor in any of our models. Predicted variations in start of the season and season length ranged from one to three weeks, across the measured range of variables. Predicted mosquito abundance was highly variable, with numbers in excess of 1000 per trap per year when late season temperatures were low (average 21°C) to only 150 when late season temperatures were high (average 30°C). Climate data collected early in the year, in conjunction with local land

  2. Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women in North Western Zone of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebre, Abel; Mulugeta, Afework

    2015-01-01

    Background. Anemia affects the lives of more than 2 billion people globally, accounting for over 30% of the world's population. Anemia is a global public health problem occurring at all stages of the life cycle but the burden of the problem is higher in pregnant women particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in north western zone of Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Methods. A facility based cross-sectional study was employed. A systematic random sampling procedure was employed to select 714 pregnant women who were attending antenatal clinics in health facilities found in the study area from April to May 2014. The data was entered and analyzed using Epi-info version 3.5.1 and SPSS version 20.0 statistical software, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with anemia among the study participants. All tests were two-sided and p value pregnant women was 36.1% (95% CI = 32.7%–39.7%) of which 58.5% were mildly, 35.7% moderately, and 5.8% severely anemic. In pregnant women, rural residence (AOR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.01–3.04), no education/being illiterate (AOR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.03–2.37), absence of iron supplementation during pregnancy (AOR = 2.76, 95% CI = 1.92–5.37), and meal frequency of less than two times per day (AOR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.06–4.91) were the independent predictors for increased anemia among the pregnant women. Conclusions. Anemia was found to be moderate public health problem in the study area. Residence, educational status, iron supplementation during pregnancy, and meal frequency per day were statistically associated with anemia among the pregnant women. Awareness creation and nutrition education on the importance of taking iron supplementation and nutritional counseling on consumption of extra meal and iron-rich foods during pregnancy are recommended to prevent anemia in the

  3. Food habits of the stone marten Martes foina in "La Mandria" Regional Park (Piedmont Region, North-Western Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Bertolino

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of the stone marten (Martes foina was studied by the analysis of 215 scats gathered during 1990 and 1991 in "La Mandria" Regional Park (north-western Italy. The results were expressed as percentage frequency of occurrence [F% = (number of occurrences of each food/number of scats x 100] and relative percentage of frequency [Fr% = (number of occurrences of each food/total number of prey items x 100]. Mammals were the predominant food category in each season (annual mean in Fr% = 60.5 and were mainly represented by rodents (Fr% = 44.8 and lagomorphs (Fr% = 15.4. Myoxus glis was the most preyed species (Fr% = 15.7 and its use was higher in autumn than in other seasons. Vegetables, mainly Rosaceae and Vitis vinifera fruits, were an important food resource in summer (Fr% = 41.1 and in autumn (Fr% = 17.2. Birds integrated the stone marten's diet mainly in winter (Fr% = 22.6, while insects were scarcely consumed throughout the year (Fr% = 4.3. Riassunto Alimentazione della faina Martes foina nel Parco regionale "La Mandria" (Torino - La dieta della faina (Martes foina è stata studiata analizzando 215 feci raccolte negli anni 1990-91 nel Parco Regionale "La Mandria" (Italia nord occidentale. I risultati ottenuti sono stati espressi come frequenza percentuale [F% = (numero di presenze di una componente alimentare/numero delle feci esaminate x 100] e frequenza relativa percentuale [Fr% = (numero di presenze di una componente alimentare/numero totale di componenti alimentari rinvenute x 100]. I mammiferi, rappresentati soprattutto da roditori (Fr% = 44,8 e lagomorfi (Fr% = 15,4, sono risultati la categoria alimentare più importante in ogni stagione (media annuale della Fr% = 60,5. Myoxus glis è risultata la specie più predata con un consumo più elevato in autunno rispetto alle altre stagioni. I vegetali, rappresentati soprattutto

  4. Polychaete assemblages and sediment pollution in a harbour with two opposing entrances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-García, José M.; García-Gómez, José C.

    2004-10-01

    The harbour at Ceuta is one of the most important harbours in the Strait of Gibraltar. The sediments are moderately polluted with organic matter and heavy metals but the harbour has two opposing entrances and a connecting channel which increases water renewal and dissolved oxygen across the harbour. For these special conditions, the value of the soft bottom polychaete community as a bioindicator, and possible advantages of the presence of two harbour entrances on biotic assemblages, were studied. Twenty-one stations were selected, and 27 variables were measured in the sediment of each station. The polychaete species richness and Shannon diversity values were similar inside and outside the harbour. Nevertheless, the Pielou evenness index was significantly higher in the external stations due to high densities of some species of polychaetes such as Pseudomalacoceros tridentata and Capitella capitata inside the harbour. The multivariate approach based on polychaete species composition was much more sensitive than univariate analyses at discriminating between internal and external stations. The pollution gradient and granulometric parameters were the main factors affecting polychaete distribution. Polychaete species richness and diversity in sediments inside Ceuta harbour were higher than in conventional harbours due to the positive effects of increased water renewal. These results should be taken into consideration in design, construction and remodelling of future harbours.

  5. Siltation Rate and Mechanism in the North Harbour of Incheon, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. T.; Lee, G. H.; Ryu, W.; Shin, H. J.; Lee, S.; Kim, K.; Dellapenna, T.; Williams, J. R.; Ha, H.

    2014-12-01

    The development of North Harbour was initiated at a macro-tidal flat within the Harbour Complex of Incheon, Korea in 1997. To maintain the design depth of -14 m below ALLW (Approximately Lowest Low Water) from the tidal flat of 2 m above LLW, dredging operation has been repeated over the last 13 years within the unbalanced (disequilibrium) North Harbour. In efforts to reduce the siltation within the harbour, this paper deals with the estimation of siltation rate and the determination of the mechanism for the siltation within the North Harbour. The siltation rate was estimated and then confirmed by the following three independent methods: comparison of available hydrographic survey data (smooth sheet), radioisotope analysis of gravity cores and altimeter measurement of bed level. The sedimentation rate varied from 20 cm/yr in the far end of the harbour to about 70 cm/yr at the entrance. In order to determine dominant mechanisms for siltation, two ADCPs and two CTDs were deployed at the entrance and the far end of the harbour over a month, and examined flow mechanisms for a harbour basin. The preliminary results suggest that the mechanisms include Suspended Particulate Material (SPM) exchange by horizontal entrainment through the harbour mouth and trapping of SPM in the harbour basin.

  6. Wave simulation for the design of an innovative quay wall: the case of Vlorë Harbour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Alessandro; Archetti, Renata; Lamberti, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Sea states and environmental conditions are basic data for the design of marine structures. Hindcasted wave data have been applied here with the aim of identifying the proper design conditions for an innovative quay wall concept. In this paper, the results of a computational fluid dynamics model are used to optimise the new absorbing quay wall of Vlorë Harbour (Republic of Albania) and define the design loads under extreme wave conditions. The design wave states at the harbour entrance have been estimated analysing 31 years of hindcasted wave data simulated through the application of WaveWatch III. Due to the particular geography and topography of the Bay of Vlorë, wave conditions generated from the north-west are transferred to the harbour entrance with the application of a 2-D spectral wave module, whereas southern wave states, which are also the most critical for the port structures, are defined by means of a wave generation model, according to the available wind measurements. Finally, the identified extreme events have been used, through the NewWave approach, as boundary conditions for the numerical analysis of the interaction between the quay wall and the extreme events. The results show that the proposed method, based on numerical modelling at different scales from macro to meso and to micro, allows for the identification of the best site-specific solutions, also for a location devoid of any wave measurement. In this light, the objectives of the paper are two-fold. First, they show the application of sea condition estimations through the use of wave hindcasted data in order to properly define the design wave conditions for a new harbour structure. Second, they present a new approach for investigating an innovative absorbing quay wall based on CFD modelling and the NewWave theory.

  7. Passive acoustic methods for fine-scale tracking of harbour porpoises in tidal rapids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macaulay, Jamie; Gordon, Jonathan; Gillespie, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    The growing interest in generating electrical power from tidal currents using tidal turbine generators raises a number of environmental concerns, including the risk that marine mammals might be injured or killed through collision with rotating turbine blades. To understand this risk, information...... on how marine mammals use tidal rapid habitats and in particular, their underwater movements and dive behaviour is required. Porpoises, which are the most abundant small cetacean at most European tidal sites, are difficult animals to tag, and the limited size of tidal habitats means that any telemetered...... animal would be likely to spend only a small proportion of time within them. Here, an alternative approach is explored, whereby passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) is used to obtain fine scale geo-referenced tracks of harbour porpoises in tidal rapid areas. Large aperture hydrophone arrays are required...

  8. Climate and Energy Roadmaps towards 2050 in north-western Europe. A concise overview of long-term climate and energy policies in Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notenboom, J.; Boot, P.; Koelemeijer, R.; Ros, J.

    2013-10-15

    Many European countries are developing plans for a transition towards a low-carbon economy in 2050. These plans are often named climate and energy roadmaps. Although roadmaps are also developed and discussed at EU level, this paper expressly follows a bottom-up approach by looking at developments in six north-western European countries. These countries' roadmaps are in various stages of development and cannot be compared in detail. Main differences, common approaches and possible needs for closer cooperation are therefore explored in a stylised way.

  9. Petrogenesis and tectonic association of rift-related basic Panjal dykes from the northern Indian plate, North-Western Pakistan: evidence of high-Ti basalts analogous to dykes from Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad; Andersen, Jens; Arif, Mohammad

    2017-10-01

    Rift related magmatism during Permian time in the northern margin of Indian plate is represented by basic dykes in several Himalayan terranes including north western Pakistan. The field relations, mineralogy and whole rock geochemistry of these basic dykes reveal significant textural, mineralogical and chemical variation between two major types (a) dolerite and (b) amphibolite. Intra-plate tectonic settings for both rock types have been interpreted on the basis of low Zr/Nb ratios (tectonic restoration of Gondwana indicate the coeval origin for both dykes from distinct mantle source during continental rifting related to formation of the Neotethys Ocean.

  10. WATER RESOURCES STATUS AND AVAILABILITY ASSESSMENT IN CURRENT AND FUTURE CLIMATE CHANGE SCENARIOS FOR BEAS RIVER BASIN OF NORTH WESTERN HIMALAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Aggarwal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The water resources status and availability of any river basin is of primary importance for overall and sustainable development of any river basin. This study has been done in Beas river basin which is located in North Western Himalaya for assessing the status of water resources in present and future climate change scenarios. In this study hydrological modelling approach has been used for quantifying the water balance components of Beas river basin upto Pandoh. The variable infiltration capacity (VIC model has been used in energy balance mode for Beas river basin at 1km grid scale. The VIC model has been run with snow elevation zones files to simulate the snow module of VIC. The model was run with National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP forcing data (Tmax, Tmin, Rainfall and wind speed at 0.5degree resolution from 1 Jan. 1999 to 31 Dec 2006 for calibration purpose. The additional component of glacier melt was added into overall river runoff using semi-empirical approach utilizing air temperature and glacier type and extent data. The ground water component is computed from overall recharge of ground water by water balance approach. The overall water balance approach is validated with river discharge data provided by Bhakra Beas Management Board (BBMB from 1994-2014. VIC routing module was used to assess pixel wise flow availability at daily, monthly and annual time scales. The mean monthly flow at Pandoh during study period varied from 19 - 1581 m3/s from VIC and 50 to 1556 m3/sec from observation data, with minimum water flow occurring in month of January and maximum flow in month of August with annual R2 of 0.68. The future climate change data is taken from CORDEX database. The climate model of NOAA-GFDL-ESM2M for IPCC RCP scenario 4.5 and 8.5 were used for South Asia at 0.44 deg. grid from year 2006 to 2100. The climate forcing data for VIC model was prepared using daily maximum and minimum near surface air temperature, daily

  11. Observational evidence of mesoscale variability of the Northern Current (North-Western Mediterranean Sea): a combined study via gliders, HF RADAR, surface drifters, and vessel data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomo, Lucio; Berta, Maristella; Pietro Gasparini, Gian; Griffa, Annalisa; Gatimu Magaldi, Marcello; Marmain, Julien; Molcard, Anne; Vetrano, Anna; Béguery, Laurent; Borghini, Mireno

    2013-04-01

    Results from a combined observational effort put forth in December 2011 are here presented. The focus is on the mesoscale variability of the Northern Current (NC), the branch of the general North-Western Mediterranean cyclonic circulation extending from the Ligurian to the Catalan Sea (Albérola et al., Oceanologica Acta, vol. 18, n. 2, 1995). The study area, located between the Ligurian Sea and the Gulf of Lions, includes the part of French coast between Nice and Toulon, where only a few hydrographic data have been collected in the past. Dynamic instabilities of the NC, observed and reported in literature (Picco et al., Ocean Science, vol. 6, 2010), make this region particularly important, with consequences in the recirculation of the Ligurian Gyre and in the NC intrusions in the Gulf of Lions (Millot and Wald, Oceanologica Acta, vol. 3, n. 4, 1980). This works aims at providing experimental evidence of the effects that mesoscale exerts on the NC dynamics via an innovative and complementary data set. Two Slocum Gliders (a Shallow and a Deep one), both equipped with CTD and dissolved oxygen sensors, sampled the area within 70 km from the coast for about 20 days. The shallow one (200 m) realized six transects describing a "W"-shaped pattern from Nice to Toulon, whereas the deep one (1000 m) performed repeated cross-current sections off Toulon. Concurrent observations were obtained via: a) CTD and both Lowered and Vessel-Mounted ADCP transects obtained during a 5-day oceanographic cruise on board of the Research Vessel Urania; b) repeated deployments of surface drifters; c) a continuously-recording High Frequency (HF) RADAR which measures surface currents off Toulon in a 40 × 25 km2 region with high resolution both in space (2 km) and in time (1 hour). The combined use of data from the shallow glider and the ship-based ADCP measurements reveals the presence of an instability of the offshore front of the NC. Its location is confirmed by high-resolution satellite

  12. Monitoring large-scale landslides and their induced hazard with COSMO-SkyMed Intermittent SBAS (ISBAS): a case study in north-western Sicily, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novellino, Alessandro; Cigna, Francesca; Jordan, Colm; Sowter, Andrew; Calcaterra, Domenico

    2014-05-01

    Landslides detection and mapping are fundamental requirements for every hazard and risk evaluation. Due to their inevitable shortcomings, geomorphological field surveys and airphoto interpretation do not document all the gravitational events. Indeed some unstable slopes are inaccessible to field surveyors, while some landslides are too slow to be detected with the naked eye or interpretation of aerial photographs. In this work, we integrate geomorphological surveys with ground motion data derived by employing COSMO-SkyMed satellite imagery and the Intermittent Small BAseline Subset (ISBAS; Sowter et al., 2013), a new Advanced Differential Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar (ADInSAR) technique which has been developed recently at the Nottingham University in the UK. The main advantage of ISBAS with respect to other InSAR and SBAS techniques, is the possibility to detect good radar reflectors even in non-urbanized terrain, where ground targets usually look intermittently coherent, meaning they have high coherence only in some interferograms but not in others. ISBAS has proven capable of increasing results over natural, woodland and agricultural terrains and, as a result, it makes it possible to improve the detection of landslide boundaries and the assessment of the state of activity where other InSAR approaches fail. We used COSMO-SkyMed StripMap data covering the period between November 2008 and October 2011, with 3m ground range resolution, 40° look angle and minimum revisiting time of 8 days. The data consist of 38 ascending images (track 133, frame 380) with ground track angle at scene centre of 169.5° from the north-south direction. These have been obtained thanks to an agreement between the Italian Ministry for the Environment, Land and Sea and the University of Naples 'Federico II'. We tested ISBAS in north-western Sicily (southern Italy), over a 1,530 km2 area where 1,473 landslides have been identified based on optical imagery and field surveys by the

  13. WRF-Chem model predictions of the regional impacts of N2O5 heterogeneous processes on night-time chemistry over north-western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, D.; Archer-Nicholls, S.; Morgan, W.; Allan, J.; Utembe, S.; Ouyang, B.; Aruffo, E.; Le Breton, M.; Zaveri, R. A.; Di Carlo, P.; Percival, C.; Coe, H.; Jones, R.; McFiggans, G.

    2015-02-01

    Chemical modelling studies have been conducted over north-western Europe in summer conditions, showing that night-time dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) heterogeneous reactive uptake is important regionally in modulating particulate nitrate and has a~modest influence on oxidative chemistry. Results from Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model simulations, run with a detailed volatile organic compound (VOC) gas-phase chemistry scheme and the Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry (MOSAIC) sectional aerosol scheme, were compared with a series of airborne gas and particulate measurements made over the UK in July 2010. Modelled mixing ratios of key gas-phase species were reasonably accurate (correlations with measurements of 0.7-0.9 for NO2 and O3). However modelled loadings of particulate species were less accurate (correlation with measurements for particulate sulfate and ammonium were between 0.0 and 0.6). Sulfate mass loadings were particularly low (modelled means of 0.5-0.7 μg kg-1air, compared with measurements of 1.0-1.5 μg kg-1air). Two flights from the campaign were used as test cases - one with low relative humidity (RH) (60-70%), the other with high RH (80-90%). N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry was found to not be important in the low-RH test case; but in the high-RH test case it had a strong effect and significantly improved the agreement between modelled and measured NO3 and N2O5. When the model failed to capture atmospheric RH correctly, the modelled NO3 and N2O5 mixing ratios for these flights differed significantly from the measurements. This demonstrates that, for regional modelling which involves heterogeneous processes, it is essential to capture the ambient temperature and water vapour profiles. The night-time NO3 oxidation of VOCs across the whole region was found to be 100-300 times slower than the daytime OH oxidation of these compounds. The difference in contribution was less for alkenes (× 80) and

  14. WRF-Chem model predictions of the regional impacts of N2O5 heterogeneous processes on night-time chemistry over north-western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Lowe

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemical modelling studies have been conducted over north-western Europe in summer conditions, showing that night-time dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5 heterogeneous reactive uptake is important regionally in modulating particulate nitrate and has a~modest influence on oxidative chemistry. Results from Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem model simulations, run with a detailed volatile organic compound (VOC gas-phase chemistry scheme and the Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry (MOSAIC sectional aerosol scheme, were compared with a series of airborne gas and particulate measurements made over the UK in July 2010. Modelled mixing ratios of key gas-phase species were reasonably accurate (correlations with measurements of 0.7–0.9 for NO2 and O3. However modelled loadings of particulate species were less accurate (correlation with measurements for particulate sulfate and ammonium were between 0.0 and 0.6. Sulfate mass loadings were particularly low (modelled means of 0.5–0.7 μg kg−1air, compared with measurements of 1.0–1.5 μg kg−1air. Two flights from the campaign were used as test cases – one with low relative humidity (RH (60–70%, the other with high RH (80–90%. N2O5 heterogeneous chemistry was found to not be important in the low-RH test case; but in the high-RH test case it had a strong effect and significantly improved the agreement between modelled and measured NO3 and N2O5. When the model failed to capture atmospheric RH correctly, the modelled NO3 and N2O5 mixing ratios for these flights differed significantly from the measurements. This demonstrates that, for regional modelling which involves heterogeneous processes, it is essential to capture the ambient temperature and water vapour profiles. The night-time NO3 oxidation of VOCs across the whole region was found to be 100–300 times slower than the daytime OH oxidation of these compounds. The difference in contribution was less

  15. Maternal and fetal outcomes following cesarean deliveries: A cross-sectional study in a tertiary health institution in North-Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D C Nnadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cesarean section (CS is employed when vaginal delivery is not feasible or hazardous to the mother and/or her baby. The procedure, however, is not without risk. We determined the maternal and early neonatal outcomes of CS in a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a 2-year cross-sectional study of all CS deliveries performed at the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria, from July 01, 2009, to June 30, 2011. All patients who had CS at any time within the 24 h period were noted and followed up until discharge. The sociodemographic data, types of CS, anesthesia, indications, cadre of a surgeon, and feto-maternal outcomes were documented in a proforma. Statistical analysis was carried out using the EPI INFO 3.5.1 (CDC Atlanta Georgia, USA. Results: There were 4462 deliveries out of which 504 (11.3% were by CS. The age range of the subjects was between 15 and 50 years, and the mean age was 28.7 (3.05 years. Most of the subjects 75.2% (379/504 were multigravida while the primigravida constituted 3.1% (16/504. CS was performed for emergency reasons in 57.1% (288/504 while elective CS constituted 42.9% (216/504 of cases. The most frequent indication for emergency CS was obstructed labor 25.7% (30/288 and previous CS 39.8% (86/216 for elective CS. There were 514 babies delivered during the study of which 98.1% (504/514 were singletons while 1.9% (10/514 was multiple gestations. The maternal complication rate was 13.3% (67/504, and the main complication was hemorrhage 59.7% (40/67. Complications were more frequent with emergency CS compared to elective surgery (Chi-square test [χ2 ] =6.633, df = 1, P < 0.01 and with junior compared to senior residents (χ2 = 15.9, df = 1, P < 0.001. There was also a significant relationship between the fetal Apgar scores and the type of CS. The low 1 st and 5 th min Apgar scores were more frequent with emergency cases compared to elective CS (χ2

  16. Assessing pollution levels in sediments of a harbour with two opposing entrances: environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-García, José M; García-Gómez, J Carlos

    2005-10-01

    The harbour of Ceuta, North Africa, differs substantially from conventional harbours with only one entrance since it has two opposing entrances and a channel which increases water renewal and local currents, with implications for sedimentary processes, levels of pollution and oxygen concentration. The distribution of heavy metals, nutrients and total hydrocarbons was investigated in sediment samples from this particular harbour. The grain size effect, a normalization technique using Fe concentrations and different sediment quality guidelines are discussed, and the data from the harbour of Ceuta are compared with other harbours worldwide. In spite of the water renewal, sediments inside the harbour of Ceuta were characterised by moderate levels of pollution, mainly hydrocarbons (496--6972 microg/g), P (282--1350 microg/g), N (100--2600 microg/g) and heavy metals Cu (5--865 microg/g), Pb (10--516 microg/g), Zn (296--695 microg/g), Cr (13--381 microg/g) and Ni (8--671 microg/g). Taking into account that there is no industrial activity around the harbour of Ceuta, the major sources of contamination are the sewage effluents of urban influence, anti-fouling paints and accidental oil spills during loading and dumping involved in shipping operations. The design of Ceuta harbour should be taken into consideration in the design, construction and management of future harbours.

  17. The National Trust and the Heritage of Sydney Harbour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Logan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Campaigns to preserve the legacy of the past in Australian cities have been particularly focused on the protection of natural landscapes and public open space. From campaigns to protect Perth’s Kings Park and the Green Bans of the Builders Labourers Federation in New South Wales to contemporary controversies such as the Perth waterfront redevelopment, Melbourne’s East West Link, and new development at Middle Harbour in Sydney’s Mosman, heritage activists have viewed the protection and restoration of ‘natural’ vistas, open spaces and ‘scenic landscapes’ as a vital part of the effort to preserve the historic identity of urban places. The protection of such landscapes has been a vital aspect of establishing a positive conception of the environment as a source of both urban and national identity. Drawing predominantly on the records of the National Trust of Australia (NSW, this paper examines the formation and early history of the Australian National Trust, in particular its efforts to preserve and restore the landscapes of Sydney Harbour. It then uses that history as a basis for examining the debate surrounding the landscape reconstruction project that forms part of Sydney’s highly contested Barangaroo development.

  18. The numismatic evidence on the Roman harbour of Patrai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charikleia Papageorgiadou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Patrai, where Augustus founded a roman colony held a favorable position for the control not only of the northern Peloponnesian coastline but also the routes in the Aetolia and Locris.Although a maritime trade station, the references to its harbour is very scanty, while its ancient remains are almost totally destroyed by the modern city’s expansion. However, the installations of an important harbour can be attested in the numismatic evidence, offered by two issues dated to the reign of Commodus and Geta, which coincide with the archaeological one supporting the idea of a project to restore, enlarge or reconstruct the port during the reign of Commodus. This is perhaps the cause for the more realistic and more detailed rendering of the monuments depicted. The issues struck under Geta, in a more elliptic artistic rendering, might have been commemorative, to honour his predecessor’s benefaction to the colony.It is worth noticing that some of the buildings and statues which are shown can be identified to similar types depicted on other issues of the city, not only dated to the reigns of Commodus and Geta, but to other periods as well .Few Greek cities depict their harbours on their coins, most of them located in the region of the Peloponnese and dated to the Antonine and the Severi period. Their harbours underwent extensive reconstructions during Roman times and were transformed into major centres in the naval and commercial network of the period.In fact, it seems that the flourishing of a net of cities in the northern Peloponnesian coast as commercial centres was the trigger for the issuing of these coins promoting their predominance in the sea routes and commemorating actual construction works in their ports. The scarcity of the coins depicting harbours and the limited numbersofissues could confirm that these pieces were meant to celebrate or commemorate a construction program referring to

  19. Eutrophication problems in the Western Harbour of Alexandria, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Okbah

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Eutrophication-related problems in the Western Harbour of Alexandria were studied monthly from April 1999 to March 2000. Variation in salinity appeared to be the key to all changes in water quality and plankton abundance in the harbour. Both at the surface and near the bottom the salinity was lower (annual average: 35.1 and 38.3 PSU respectively than in the open sea (39 PSU. Dissolved oxygen levels indicated poor aeration conditions along the water column (2.3-3.98 mg l-1. Average pH values were approximately similar in the two layers (8.1 and 8 respectively but exhibited different ranges of variations. Nutrient salts varied widely, often occurring in high concentrations, with ranges of 0.12-5.7 and 0.06-2.6 µM at the surface and the bottom respectively for phosphate, 0.21-20.46 and 0.25-18.12 µM for nitrate, 0.29-3.3 and 0.23-1.66 µM for nitrite, 0.56-57.46 and 2.32-43.73 µM for ammonia and 0.3-36.3 and 0.48-38.4 µM for silicate. As a result of nutrient enrichment, phytoplankton growth was very intensive, reflected by an abnormally high concentration of chlorophyll a (annual average: 33.82 µg l-1. At the same time the death of large numbers of phytoplankton cells could be inferred from the relatively large amount of phaeopigment (annual average: 10.39 µg l-1. The high levels of nutrient salts and phytoplankton biomass together serve as a good indicator of high eutrophication levels in the Western Harbour throughout the year. These conditions clearly affected the zooplankton stock, which varied between 5.8-93.6 × 103 indiv. m-3, although for most of the time values remained at a low level (annual average: 26 728 indiv. m-3.

  20. Sedimentation and Flood assessment for the expansion of Kingston Harbour, Jamaica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerssens, P.; Verreijken, K.; Vermerris, P.; Wijs, J.

    2012-01-01

    Student project report, in cooperation with Smith-Warner International Ltd. (SWIL), Kingston, Jamaica. At this moment the shipping channels in Kingston Harbour, Jamaica, slowly accrete. When the harbour is expanded, the local and global sediment transport is likely to change. During this project it

  1. Measurements of boat motion in waves at Durban harbour for qualitative validation of motion model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mosikare, OR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Response Amplitude Operator (RAO) theory was used to develop a mathematical model of boat angular motion. Measurements were made on a harbour patrol boat on sea runs off Durban Harbour. Measurements were first calibrated for axis alignment...

  2. Correlation between the seasonal distribution of harbour porpoises and their prey in the Sound, Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveegaard, Signe; Andreasen, Heidi; Mouritsen, Kim N.

    2012-01-01

    Low densities of harbour porpoises in winter (November–March) and high densities in summer (April–October) were found in the Sound, connecting the Baltic Sea and Kattegat. Due to their high energy requirements, it is hypothesized that the density of harbour porpoises is related to local prey...

  3. Telemetry studies in harbour porpoises - An overview of the technical and practical state of the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucke, K.

    2013-01-01

    Information on the life functions and ecology of harbour porpoises is still scarce. Only a limited number of animals are available for research in controlled situations. Satellite tracking allows to gather information on individual movements of harbour porpoises, hence providing direct insight into

  4. Design and construction of an export harbour in Persian Gulf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimzadegan, K. [Horizon Engineering Inc., North Vancover, BC (Canada); Raissi, H. [Tehran Berkeley Engineers, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Design and construction of the Pars Sulphur Export Harbour near the city of Beshar, in southern Iran on the Persian Gulf, to accommodate 15,000 DWT (deadweight) general cargo vessels is described. Although the steep drop of the ground near the shore was ideal for ship-berthing facilities, the construction of the associated breakwater in very deep waters required a significant amount of land reclamation (102,000 sq m, with a depth of backfilling up to eight metres and volume of about 550,000 cu m). The paper provides design details for filling the reclamation area in an economical way. It also describes the construction management and control issues that had to be dealt with to allow for the successful completion of the project within the approved budget. 5 tabs., 5 figs.

  5. The effect of dock length on harbour siltation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Maren, Dirk Sebastiaan; Winterwerp, Johan C.; Sas, Marc; Vanlede, Joris

    2009-06-01

    Density-driven exchange flows between estuaries and harbour docks are influenced by the length of the dock. As a result, increasing dock size through its lengthening, not necessarily results in an increase in sedimentation rates. The propagation of a low-salinity surface patch into the dock is blocked at the head of a relatively short dock, resulting in a reversal of density-driven flows, and a reduction of the hydrostatic pressure gradients in the entrance of the dock. A reduced hydrostatic pressure in the dock, in turn, promotes near-bed inflow. When this increased near-bed inflow coincides with a high sediment supply on the adjacent river, the sediment transport into the dock increases. This has been tested with an extensively validated high-resolution numerical model developed for the Deurganckdok in the Port of Antwerp. In the Deurganckdok, siltation rates are expected to decrease when the dock is fully excavated compared to the present half-opened dock. Whether exchange flows between estuaries and harbour docks are influenced by the length of the dock, depends on the tidal variation in salinity. For small tidal density variations (around 0.5 kg/m 3), the dock length is expected to influence exchange flows in a short dock (approximately 1 km), whereas the dock should be much longer (4 km) when the tidal density variation is higher (around 5 kg/m 3). Whether these changing exchange flow result in a lowering or increase of sediment import, depends on the phase difference between sediment concentration peaks on the adjacent river/estuary and the salinity variation, and on the vertical distribution of sediment.

  6. A note on the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina in the Faroe Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarni Mikkelsen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The harbour seal was exterminated as a breeding species in the Faroe Islands in the mid-19th Century. Historical sources document that the harbour seal used to be a common inhabitant of the sheltered fjords where breeding occurred. It was reported to be more common than the grey seal, the other pinniped specie resident around the Faroes. But the number of harbour seals seemingly decreased as human settlements and other anthropogenic activities increased. Seal hunting was apparently already introduced by the Norse that arrived on the islands in the 7th century, a hunt that finally lead to the extermination of the harbour seal. For the last 40 years the harbour seal has only been positively identified twice in the Faroe Islands, in 2001 and 2005.

  7. Role of commercial harbours and recreational marinas in the spread of non-indigenous fouling species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Jasmine; Caronni, Sarah; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna; Marchini, Agnese

    2017-09-01

    The role of commercial harbours as sink and source habitats for non-indigenous species (NIS) and the role of recreational boating for their secondary spread were investigated by analysing the fouling community of five Italian harbours and five marinas in the western Mediterranean Sea. It was first hypothesised that NIS assemblages in the recreational marinas were subsets of those occurring in commercial harbours. However, the data did not consistently support this hypothesis: the NIS pools of some marinas significantly diverged from harbours even belonging to the same coastal stretches, including NIS occurring only in marinas. This study confirms harbours as hotspots for marine NIS, but also reveals that numbers of NIS in some marinas is higher than expected, suggesting that recreational vessels effectively facilitate NIS spread. It is recommended that this vector of NIS introduction is taken into account in the future planning of sustainable development of maritime tourism in Europe.

  8. The impact of harbour sludge disposal on benthic macrofauna communities in the Weser estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Jan; Schroeder, Alexander; Knust, Rainer; Arntz, Wolf E.

    2004-04-01

    During an open-water disposal of about 710,000 m3 of harbour sludge in the polyhaline zone of the Weser estuary, Germany, a monitoring programme was carried out to investigate the impact on benthic invertebrates. The macrofaunal communities of four sites within the disposal area and five sites in a reference area were compared after discharge. The location and extent of the potentially affected area were inferred from a morphodynamic computer model (TIMOR 3; Zanke 1998). Disposal effects were analysed by comparing species numbers, densities, diversity and faunal similarity using multivariate methods. A loss of diversity and a decline in the abundance of several species in the disposal area were measured. The species number was reduced up to 50% and important habitat structures were absent from the disposal area. Several benthic species were affected by the disposal. The importance of species such as Mytilus edulis (Mollusca) and Lanice conchilega (Polychaeta) for the diversity of the community, and the sensitivity of these species to sediment discharge are analysed. The difficulties of separating dumping effects from natural variation in a dynamic estuarine channel system are discussed.

  9. Numerical study of the effects of mangrove areas and tidal flats on tides: A case study of Darwin Harbour, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Wang, Xiao Hua; Williams, David; Sidhu, Harvinder; Song, Dehai

    2012-06-01

    The tidal dynamics of Darwin Harbour, Australia, are simulated using a finite volume coastal ocean model. The calibrated model agreed well with the observed sea surface elevation and current velocity. Results indicate that the harbor's hydrodynamics are driven mainly by the tides, with wind and river inputs playing only small roles. The M2 tide is dominant, with amplitude 1.7 m and peak current speed 3.0 m s-1. Sensitivity tests using the model indicate that the mangrove areas and tidal flats play crucial roles in modulating tidal amplitudes and phases in the embayments, especially for the shallow water tides such as M4. Removal of the mangrove areas and tidal flats from Darwin Harbour would dampen the M2 amplitude due to decreased shoaling effects but generate a 75.0% greater M4 amplitude in parts of the harbor. Mangrove areas and tidal flats also affect tidal asymmetry through the changing amplitudes and phases of mainly the M2 and M4 tides. In Darwin Harbour, tidal asymmetry, measured by elevation and current skewness, would increase by up to 100% if the mangrove areas were removed. If the tidal flats were removed as well, the increase would be 120%. Therefore, reclamation of the mangrove areas and tidal flats may cause sediment siltation as a result of increased flood dominance. Although this study is site-specific, the model and our findings have a wider applicability to the effects of mangrove areas and tidal flats on tides and sediment transport in harbors and estuaries.

  10. The 1430s: a cold period of extraordinary internal climate variability during the early Spörer Minimum with social and economic impacts in north-western and central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenisch, Chantal; Keller, Kathrin M.; Salvisberg, Melanie; Amann, Benjamin; Bauch, Martin; Blumer, Sandro; Brázdil, Rudolf; Brönnimann, Stefan; Büntgen, Ulf; Campbell, Bruce M. S.; Fernández-Donado, Laura; Fleitmann, Dominik; Glaser, Rüdiger; González-Rouco, Fidel; Grosjean, Martin; Hoffmann, Richard C.; Huhtamaa, Heli; Joos, Fortunat; Kiss, Andrea; Kotyza, Oldřich; Lehner, Flavio; Luterbacher, Jürg; Maughan, Nicolas; Neukom, Raphael; Novy, Theresa; Pribyl, Kathleen; Raible, Christoph C.; Riemann, Dirk; Schuh, Maximilian; Slavin, Philip; Werner, Johannes P.; Wetter, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    Changes in climate affected human societies throughout the last millennium. While European cold periods in the 17th and 18th century have been assessed in detail, earlier cold periods received much less attention due to sparse information available. New evidence from proxy archives, historical documentary sources and climate model simulations permit us to provide an interdisciplinary, systematic assessment of an exceptionally cold period in the 15th century. Our assessment includes the role of internal, unforced climate variability and external forcing in shaping extreme climatic conditions and the impacts on and responses of the medieval society in north-western and central Europe.Climate reconstructions from a multitude of natural and anthropogenic archives indicate that the 1430s were the coldest decade in north-western and central Europe in the 15th century. This decade is characterised by cold winters and average to warm summers resulting in a strong seasonal cycle in temperature. Results from comprehensive climate models indicate consistently that these conditions occurred by chance due to the partly chaotic internal variability within the climate system. External forcing like volcanic eruptions tends to reduce simulated temperature seasonality and cannot explain the reconstructions. The strong seasonal cycle in temperature reduced food production and led to increasing food prices, a subsistence crisis and a famine in parts of Europe. Societies were not prepared to cope with failing markets and interrupted trade routes. In response to the crisis, authorities implemented numerous measures of supply policy and adaptation such as the installation of grain storage capacities to be prepared for future food production shortfalls.

  11. Influence on surfers wind conditions east of the new Hanstholm harbour/wind turbine project

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Torben J.; Astrup, Poul

    2012-01-01

    In this report a consequence study regarding the surfers wind conditions east of the planned new harbour area of Hanstholm. At this harbour area, 10 new 150m tall 3MW wind turbines are planned.Both the harbour constructions as well as the wind turbines could potentially alter the wind conditions on the lee side, which is an important area for wind and kite surfers. In this study, both changes in mean wind velocities as well as the turbulence level are investigated for the surf area between a ...

  12. Soft bottom mollusc assemblages and pollution in a harbour with two opposing entrances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-García, José M.; Carlos García-Gómez, J.

    2004-06-01

    Conventional harbours, provided with only one entrance and devoid of channels, are enclosed areas with low water renewal, high sedimentation rate and high concentrations of pollutants in sediments; the soft bottom communities are characterised by low species richness and low values of the diversity and evenness indexes. The harbour of Ceuta, North Africa, presents an unusual structure since it is provided with two opposing entrances and a channel, which increase the water renewal across the middle of the harbour. These unusual characteristics turn the harbour of Ceuta into an adequate locality to test its environmental implications on macrofaunal assemblages. In the present study, the spatial distribution of mollusc community associated with soft bottoms was studied in relation to the influence of environmental factors on the harbour of Ceuta and nearby areas, North Africa. Twenty-one stations (15 inside and six outside the harbour) were sampled and 26 variables were measured in the sediment of each station: depth, %sand, organic matter, lipids, P, N, Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, S, Sr, Zn. The special configuration of Ceuta harbour created a great variability in sediment characteristics and environmental measures depending on the stations and, due to this heterogeneity, the mollusc species richness in the sediments inside the harbour (45 species) was higher than in conventional harbours. The multivariate approach based on MDS analysis was much more sensitive than univariate techniques to detect differences between internal and external stations of the harbour of Ceuta. The percentage of sand was the main factor to affect the distribution of the mollusc assemblages according to the BIO-ENV procedure and the CCA. SIMPER showed that the bivalves Parvicardium exiguum, Ervilia castanea, Spisula subtruncata and Digitaria digitata were the species that most contributed to the dissimilarity between internal and external stations; P

  13. Assessment of heavy metal and petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in the Sultanate of Oman with emphasis on harbours, marinas, terminals and ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupp, Barry P; Fowler, Scott W; Dobretsov, Sergey; van der Wiele, Henk; Al-Ghafri, Ahmed

    2017-08-15

    The assessment here includes data on levels of contaminants (petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals) in sediments and biomonitor organisms, including the eulittoral rock oyster Saccostrea cucullata and subtidal biomonitors, the barnacle Balanus trigonus and the antipatharian coral Antipathes sp., at harbours, marinas, terminals and large ports along the coastline of Oman. TBT levels in harbour and port sediments up to a maximum of 100ppb TBT dry weight are highlighted. Oysters contained concentrations up to 367ppm mg TPH/kg dry weight. The maximum levels of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were found in the subtidal sediments and barnacles at the oil tanker loading Single Buoy Mooring stations in Mina Al Fahal. In general, the levels of most of the contaminants analysed are at low to moderate concentrations compared to those in highly contaminated sites such as shipyards and dry docks, but continued monitoring is recommended especially during any dredging campaigns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Multispecies reactive transport modelling of electrokinetic remediation of harbour sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Matteo; Ceccarini, Alessio; Iannelli, Renato

    2017-03-15

    We implemented a numerical model to simulate transport of multiple species and geochemical reactions occurring during electrokinetic remediation of metal-contaminated porous media. The main phenomena described by the model were: (1) species transport by diffusion, electromigration and electroosmosis, (2) pH-dependent buffering of H + , (3) adsorption of metals onto particle surfaces, (4) aqueous speciation, (5) formation and dissolution of solid precipitates. The model was applied to simulate the electrokinetic extraction of heavy metals (Pb, Zn and Ni) from marine harbour sediments, characterized by a heterogeneous solid matrix, high buffering capacity and aged pollution. A good agreement was found between simulations of pH, electroosmotic flow and experimental results. The predicted residual metal concentrations in the sediment were also close to experimental profiles for all of the investigated metals. Some removal overestimation was observed in the regions close to the anode, possibly due to the significant metal content bound to residual fraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Insect symbiotic bacteria harbour viral pathogens for transovarial transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dongsheng; Mao, Qianzhuo; Chen, Yong; Liu, Yuyan; Chen, Qian; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Hongyan; Li, Yi; Wei, Taiyun

    2017-03-06

    Many insects, including mosquitoes, planthoppers, aphids and leafhoppers, are the hosts of bacterial symbionts and the vectors for transmitting viral pathogens1-3. In general, symbiotic bacteria can indirectly affect viral transmission by enhancing immunity and resistance to viruses in insects3-5. Whether symbiotic bacteria can directly interact with the virus and mediate its transmission has been unknown. Here, we show that an insect symbiotic bacterium directly harbours a viral pathogen and mediates its transovarial transmission to offspring. We observe rice dwarf virus (a plant reovirus) binding to the envelopes of the bacterium Sulcia, a common obligate symbiont of leafhoppers6-8, allowing the virus to exploit the ancient oocyte entry path of Sulcia in rice leafhopper vectors. Such virus-bacterium binding is mediated by the specific interaction of the viral capsid protein and the Sulcia outer membrane protein. Treatment with antibiotics or antibodies against Sulcia outer membrane protein interferes with this interaction and strongly prevents viral transmission to insect offspring. This newly discovered virus-bacterium interaction represents the first evidence that a viral pathogen can directly exploit a symbiotic bacterium for its transmission. We believe that such a model of virus-bacterium communication is a common phenomenon in nature.

  16. Preimplantation death of xenomitochondrial mouse embryo harbouring bovine mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Manabu; Koyama, Shiori; Iimura, Satomi; Yamazaki, Wataru; Tanaka, Aiko; Kohri, Nanami; Sasaki, Keisuke; Takahashi, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria, cellular organelles playing essential roles in eukaryotic cell metabolism, are thought to have evolved from bacteria. The organization of mtDNA is remarkably uniform across species, reflecting its vital and conserved role in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Our objectives were to evaluate the compatibility of xenogeneic mitochondria in the development of preimplantation embryos in mammals. Mouse embryos harbouring bovine mitochondria (mtB-M embryos) were prepared by the cell-fusion technique employing the haemagglutinating virus of Japan (HVJ). The mtB-M embryos showed developmental delay at embryonic days (E) 3.5 after insemination. Furthermore, none of the mtB-M embryos could implant into the maternal uterus after embryo transfer, whereas control mouse embryos into which mitochondria from another mouse had been transferred developed as well as did non-manipulated embryos. When we performed quantitative PCR (qPCR) of mouse and bovine ND5, we found that the mtB-M embryos contained 8.3% of bovine mitochondria at the blastocyst stage. Thus, contamination with mitochondria from another species induces embryonic lethality prior to implantation into the maternal uterus. The heteroplasmic state of these xenogeneic mitochondria could have detrimental effects on preimplantation development, leading to preservation of species-specific mitochondrial integrity in mammals. PMID:26416548

  17. OPINIONS REGARDING THE TOURISTIC POTENTIAL OF THE DANUBIAN HARBOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena MATEI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of European integration, the creation of transnational tourism products represents the brand of an inter-state collaboration, which, based on a common strategy, implies objectives that aim at achieving the global development of a destination, making thus possible an efficient and effective allocation of resources, in order to achieve a sustainable development, both from a touristic point of view and from an economic, social, cultural, technological, etc. one. The route of the Danube could represent one of the most important European destinations, appertaining to more than one country; therefore, in order to develop and sustain its touristic potential, a common strategy is necessary, with an integrated marketing image, associated to a consistent tourism product, inspiring common values, regardless of the territory of the country it is located in. In this direction, a quantitative marketing research, conducted on 992 respondents, aged 18-24, in order to determine the opinions concerning the touristic potential of the Danubian harbours – as a fundamental element, precursory to the market analysis.

  18. Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) can steer by the stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauck, Björn; Gläser, Nele; Schlosser, Wolfhard; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2008-10-01

    Offshore orientation in marine mammals is still a mystery. For visual orientation during night-time foraging and travelling in the open seas, seals cannot rely on distant terrestrial landmarks, and thus might use celestial cues as repeatedly shown for nocturnally migrating birds. Although seals detect enough stars to probably allow for astronavigation, it was unclear whether they can orient by the night sky. The widely accepted cognitive mechanism for bird night-time orientation by celestial cues is a time-independent star compass with learned geometrical star configurations used to pinpoint north as the rotational centre of the starry sky while there is no conclusive evidence for a time-compensated star compass or true star navigation. Here, we present results for two harbour seals orienting in a custom made swimming planetarium. Both seals learned to highly accurately identify a lodestar out of a pseudo-randomly oriented, realistic projection of the northern hemisphere night sky. Providing the first evidence for star orientation capability in a marine mammal, our seals' outstanding directional precision would allow them to steer by following lodestars of learned star courses, a celestial orientation mechanism that has been known to be used by Polynesian navigators but has not been considered for animals yet.

  19. Numerical modelling of circulation and dispersion processes in Boulogne-sur-Mer harbour (Eastern English Channel): sensitivity to physical forcing and harbour design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouanneau, Nicolas; Sentchev, Alexei; Dumas, Franck

    2013-12-01

    The MARS-3D model in conjunction with the particle tracking module Ichthyop is used to study circulation and tracer dynamics under a variety of forcing conditions in the eastern English Channel, and in the Boulogne-sur-Mer harbour (referred to hereafter as BLH). Results of hydrodynamic modelling are validated against the tidal gauge data, VHF radar surface velocities and ADCP measurements. Lagrangian tracking experiments are performed with passive particles to study tracer dispersal along the northern French coast, with special emphasis on the BLH. Simulations revealed an anticyclonic eddy generated in the harbour at rising tide. Tracers, released during flood tide at the Liane river mouth, move northward with powerful clockwise rotating current. After the high water, the current direction changes to westward, and tracers leave the harbour through the open boundary. During ebb tide, currents convergence along the western open boundary but no eddy is formed, surface currents inside the harbour are much weaker and the tracer excursion length is small. After the current reversal at low water, particles are advected shoreward resulting in a significant increase of the residence time of tracers released during ebb tide. The effect of wind on particle dispersion was found to be particularly strong. Under strong SW wind, the residence time of particles released during flood tide increases from 1.5 to 6 days. For release during ebb tide, SW wind weakens the southward tidally induced drift and thus the residence time decreases. Similar effects are observed when the freshwater inflow to the harbour is increased from 2 to 10 m3/s during the ebb tide flow. For flood tide conditions, the effect of freshwater inflow is less significant. We also demonstrate an example of innovative coastal management targeted at the reduction of the residence time of the pathogenic material accidentally released in the harbour.

  20. An ancient harbour at Dwarka: Study based on the recent underwater explorations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    Dwarka, Gujarat, India, an ancient harbour and an important religious centre of the Hindus, has played an important role in the history of maritime activities of Okhamandal region since the early historical period. Gomati creek, located...

  1. Determination of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediment samples from Bombay harbour, Dharamtar creek and Amba river estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, S.A.; Dhaktode, S.S.; Kadam, A.N.

    The surface sediment samples were collected by van Veen grab sampler during premonsoon, monsoon and postmonsoon seasons from Bombay harbour, Dharamtar creek and Amba river estuary Moisture content of the samples ranges from 36 to 67.5...

  2. A new species of Acartia (Copepoda, Calanoida) from Cochin Harbour, India, and adjacent areas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Abraham, S.

    During the course of a study of the family Acartiidae of Cochin harbour and its neighbourhood, a species of Acartia different from all other known species of Acartia, was found. Its characteristics, habitat and seasonal distribution form the theme...

  3. Extractable organics in surface sediments from Thana creek and Bombay harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rokade, M.A.; Bhosle, N.B.; Kadam, A.N.

    Considerable variations in hydrocarbon and fatty acid levels in surface sediments from Thana creek and Bombay harbour were observed Sediments from the westernside nearshore locations yielded higher values The residues were characterised by infrared...

  4. Petrology of offshore basalts of Bombay harbour area, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karisiddaiah, S.M.

    Recent marine geological and geophysical surveys indicate that the Deccan Traps extend to the offshore area of Bombay. Cores from bore holes in Deccan Traps collected from Bombay Harbour have been classified as basalts, olivine basalts, spilitic...

  5. Mixing in Visakhapatnam harbour and nutrient inputs to nearshore waters, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RamaRaju, V.S.; Sarma, V.V.; Raju, G.R.K.; Rao, V.S.

    The flushing time (t) and replacement time CD are computed for different seasons to understand mixing in Visakhapatnam harbour. Replacement times are higher than the flushing times indicating that the transverse mixing in the tidal flow...

  6. Investigations on oil patches around 'M.T.Lajpatrai' Bombay harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kadam, A.N.; Zingde, M.D.

    Samples from three oil patches observed around the burning tanker 'M. T. Lajpatrai' at Bombay Harbour were characterised using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (PMR). Two of them were found to be from used lubricating oils. As indicated by gas...

  7. Macrobenthic assemblage in the soft sediment of Marmugao Harbour, Goa (central west coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Sreepada, R.A.; Kanti, A.; Gracias, E.S.

    Survey of the macroinvertebrate fauna in soft sediment of 18 stations in the Marmugao Harbour revealed spatial heterogeneity based on environmental parameters and benthic assemblage. Based on the presence/absence of the families five associations...

  8. Comparison of tropical nematode communities from three harbours, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nanajkar, M.; Ingole, B.S

    community, our main objective was to investigate and inter-compare the nematode communities within these harbours and with other similar habitats worldwide. A total of 50 nematode species was encountered in the study area, wherein highest (34 species) were...

  9. Generation of mice harbouring a conditional loss-of-function allele of Gata6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Stephen A

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The zinc finger transcription factor GATA6 is believed to have important roles in the development of several organs including the liver, gastrointestinal tract and heart. However, analyses of the contribution of GATA6 toward organogenesis have been hampered because Gata6-/- mice fail to develop beyond gastrulation due to defects in extraembryonic endoderm function. We have therefore generated a mouse line harbouring a conditional loss-of-function allele of Gata6 using Cre/loxP technology. LoxP elements were introduced into introns flanking exon 2 of the Gata6 gene by homologous recombination in ES cells. Mice containing this altered allele were bred to homozygosity and were found to be viable and fertile. To assess the functional integrity of the loxP sites and to confirm that we had generated a Gata6 loss-of-function allele, we bred Gata6 'floxed' mice to EIIa-Cre mice in which Cre is ubiquitously expressed, and to Villin-Cre mice that express Cre in the epithelial cells of the intestine. We conclude that we have generated a line of mice in which GATA6 activity can be ablated in a cell type specific manner by expression of Cre recombinase. This line of mice can be used to establish the role of GATA6 in regulating embryonic development and various aspects of mammalian physiology.

  10. Passive acoustic methods for fine-scale tracking of harbour porpoises in tidal rapids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaulay, Jamie; Gordon, Jonathan; Gillespie, Douglas; Malinka, Chloë; Northridge, Simon

    2017-02-01

    The growing interest in generating electrical power from tidal currents using tidal turbine generators raises a number of environmental concerns, including the risk that marine mammals might be injured or killed through collision with rotating turbine blades. To understand this risk, information on how marine mammals use tidal rapid habitats and in particular, their underwater movements and dive behaviour is required. Porpoises, which are the most abundant small cetacean at most European tidal sites, are difficult animals to tag, and the limited size of tidal habitats means that any telemetered animal would be likely to spend only a small proportion of time within them. Here, an alternative approach is explored, whereby passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) is used to obtain fine scale geo-referenced tracks of harbour porpoises in tidal rapid areas. Large aperture hydrophone arrays are required to obtain accurate locations of animals from PAM data and automated algorithms are necessary to process the large quantities of acoustic data collected on such systems during a typical survey. Methods to automate localisation, including a method to match porpoise detections on different hydrophones and separate different vocalising animals, and an assessment of the localisation accuracy of the large aperture hydrophone array are presented.

  11. Diversity of Polychaeta (Annelida) and other worm taxa in mangrove habitats of Darwin Harbour, northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, K. N.; Glasby, C. J.

    2008-02-01

    In this paper data on the diversity, distribution and abundance of polychaetes and other worm taxa in the mangroves of Darwin Harbour, northern Australia, are presented and compared with those of other tropical mangrove areas. Aspects of the feeding guild ecology and the effects of disturbance on mangrove worms are also examined. Data were collected over a period of four years, across four mangrove assemblages. Samples were obtained using three sampling techniques: 1 m × 1 m quadrat searches, epifauna searches and a new infaunal sampling technique, the anoxic mat. A total of 76 species (68 polychaetes, 1 oligochaete, 1 echiuran, 3 sipunculans, 2 nemerteans, 1 turbellarian) were recorded from the four main mangrove assemblages. Of these, 30 species are widespread, occurring in mangrove and non-mangrove habitats throughout the Indo-west Pacific. Only seven species (all polychaetes) appear to be restricted to the mangroves of Darwin Harbour and northern Australia. Polychaetes are predominant, comprising 80-96% of all worms sampled, with three families—Nereididae, Capitellidae and Spionidae—accounting for 46% of all species. The highest diversity and abundance was recorded in the soft, unconsolidated substrates of the seaward assemblage, with diversity and abundance decreasing progressively in the landward assemblages. Most of the worm fauna was infaunal (70%), but the intensive sampling regime revealed a hitherto unknown significant percentage of epifaunal species (18%) and species occurring as both infauna and epifauna (12%). Univariate analyses showed annual and seasonal differences in worm species richness and abundance—presumably associated with the intensity of the monsoon and recruitment success. The worm fauna differed between mangrove assemblages but the proportion of species in each feeding guild was relatively consistent across the four assemblages studied. Herbivores were the most species-rich and abundant, followed by carnivores and sub

  12. Harbour sediment toxicity: An italian case study; Valutazione della tossicita` di sedimenti portuali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrini, M. [ICRAM, Istituto Centrale per la -ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica Applicata al Mare, Rome (Italy); Bigongiari, N.; Mellera, F.; Giuliani, S. [CIBM, Centro Interuniversitario di Biologia Marina, Livorno (Italy); De Poorter, L. R. M. [AquaSense Consultants, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1998-01-01

    Harbour sediments usually contain a complex mixture of compounds originating from industrial and shipping activities. An important tool for the recognition of potential toxic effects of sediments is the use of bioassays. In order to estimate harbour sediment toxicity a specific study was carried out measuring reduction of microbial luminescence (Vibrio fischeri), oyster larvae development impairment (Crassostrea gigas) and amphipod mortality (Corophium volutator). Bioassay results are correlated with data on chemical contaminants (heavy metals, PAHs and PCBs).

  13. Understanding coastal processes to assist with coastal erosion management in Darwin Harbour, Northern Territory, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonyes, S. G.; Wasson, R. J.; Munksgaard, N. C.; Evans, K. G.; Brinkman, R.; Williams, D. K.

    2017-02-01

    Sand transport pathways in Darwin Harbour, Northern Territory, Australia, are being investigated to assist with coastal management. Coastal erosion, which threatens public and private infrastructure, is one of the major problems along the harbour beaches. A study of sediment transport is essential to identify the challenges encountered by the stakeholders in coastal management. Darwin Harbour, located in the tropical, cyclone prone area of Australia, was, until recently, considered a near pristine estuary. A semi-diurnal macro-tidal embayment, the tidal variation in the harbour reaches up to 8 m with a mean tidal range of 3.7 m. The beach morphology consists of sandy pocket beaches between coastal cliffs, sandbars, rocky shore platforms, tidal flats and mangrove fringes. A two-dimensional depth averaged finite-element hydrodynamic model (RMA-2), coupled with a sediment transport model (RMA-11) from Resource Modelling Associates, has been used to infer the sources and the depositional areas of sand in the harbour. Grain size distributions and geochemical analysis are also used to characterize the sand and its source(s). Initial results show that the beach sand is mostly of offshore origin with small sand input from the rivers. Potential supplementary sand sources are the eroded materials from the shore platforms and the rocky cliffs. Due to the rapid development in Darwin Harbour, this study is fundamental in understanding coastal processes to support decision making in coastal management, particularly in a macro-tidal, tropical estuary.

  14. Characterization of the novel In1059 harbouring VIM gene cassette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongguo Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background VIM-type enzyme encodes the most widely acquired metallo-β-lactamases in Gram- negative bacteria. To obtain current epidemiological data for integrons from enterobacteriae in hospital, the study characterizes the genetic structure in In1059 by comparison with In846 integrons harbouring VIM gene and other class 1 integrons including In37, In62, In843 and In1021 with the aim of identifying the putative mechanisms involved integron mobilization and infer evolution of relevant integrons. Methods Six of 69 recombinant plasmids from clinical strains were found to be class 1 integrons by digestion with BamHI, drug susceptibility testing, conjugation experiments, PCR amplification, integron cloning and sequencing, genome comparison, and detection of carbapenemase activity. Results The sequences of the six recombinant plasmids encoding In1021, In843, In846, In37, In62, and the novel In1059 integron had approximate lengths of ~4.8-, 4.1-, 5.1-, 5.3-, 5.3- and 6.6- kb, respectively. The genetic structures of these integrons were mapped and characterized, and the carbapenemase activities of their parental strains were assessed. Conclusions Our results suggest that the six variable integron structures and regular variations that exist in the gene cassettes provide a putative mechanism for the integron changes. Our study has also shown that the genetic features in the integrons named above fall within a scheme involving the stepwise and parallel evolution of class 1 integron variation likely under antibiotic selection pressure in clinical settings.

  15. Histopatological alterations and oxidative stress in liver and kidney of Leuciscus cephalus following exposure to heavy metals in the Tur River, North Western Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermenean, Anca; Damache, Georgiana; Albu, Paul; Ardelean, Aurel; Ardelean, Gavril; Puiu Ardelean, Doru; Horge, Monica; Nagy, Tibor; Braun, Mihály; Zsuga, Miklós; Kéki, Sándor; Costache, Marieta; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2015-09-01

    Pollution of the aquatic environment by heavy metals is a great concern worldwide. Freshwater fish ingests various metals through gills, skin or diet. Our aim was to investigate the oxidative stress and histopathological injuries induced by Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd in the liver and kidney of Leuciscus cephalus. Fish samples were collected from two sites in the Tur River, NW Romania, in upstream and downstream of a pollution source. Metals were differently distributed in the liver and kidney of fish. The highest concentrations of Fe, Cu and Pb were found in liver, whereas Zn and Cd concentrations were the highest in kidney in specimens collected from the downstream site. The histopathological changes were associated with metal bioaccumulation, being more severe in kidney than liver. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) increased significantly in the liver and kidney of fish from downstream site compared to upstream one, whereas reduced glutathione (GSH) decreased. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) increased significantly in livers, whereas SOD increased in kidney. Our study revealed that liver has a higher capacity and adaptability to counteract ROS compared to kidney. The more pronounced increase of hepatic SOD, CAT and GST activities is related milder structural changes observed in liver compared to kidney, where lesions were not reduced by antioxidant defense system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Modelling the Danube-influenced North-western Continental Shelf of the Black Sea. II: Ecosystem Response to Changes in Nutrient Delivery by the Danube River after its Damming in 1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancelot, C.; Staneva, J.; van Eeckhout, D.; Beckers, J.-M.; Stanev, E.

    2002-03-01

    The ecological model BIOGEN, describing the carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon cycling throughout aggregated chemical and biological compartments of the planktonic and benthic marine systems, has been implemented in the north-western Black Sea to assess the response of this coastal ecosystem to eutrophication by the Danube River. The trophic resolution of BIOGEN was chosen to simulate the major ecological changes reported in this coastal area since the 1960s. Particular attention was paid to establishing the link between quantitative and qualitative changes in nutrients, phytoplankton composition and food-web structures. The BIOGEN numerical code structure includes 34 state variables assembled in five interactive modules describing the dynamics of (1) phytoplankton composed of three distinct groups, each with a different trophic fate (diatoms, nanophytoflagellates, non-silicified opportunistic species); (2) meso- and microzooplankton; (3) trophic dead-end gelatinous organisms composed of three distinct groups (the omnivorous Noctiluca and the carnivores Aurelia and the alien Mnemiopsis ), and organic matter degradation and associated nutrient regeneration processes by (4) planktonic and (5) benthic bacteria. The capability of the BIOGEN model to simulate the recent ecosystem changes reported for the Black Sea was demonstrated by running the model for the period 1985-1995. The BIOGEN code was implemented in an aggregated and simplified representation of the north-western Black Sea hydrodynamics. The numerical frame consisted of coupling a 0-D BIOGEN box model subjected to the Danube with a 1-D BIOGEN representing the open-sea boundary conditions. Model results clearly showed that the eutrophication-related problems of the north-western Black Sea were not only driven by the quantity of nutrients discharged by the Danube, but that the balance between them was also important. BIOGEN simulations clearly demonstrated that phosphate, rather than silicate, was the

  17. An assessment of acute biomarker responses in the demersal catfish Cathorops spixii after the Vicuña oil spill in a harbour estuarine area in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumiti, A; Domingos, F X Valdez; Azevedo, M; da Silva, M D; Damian, R C; Almeida, M I M; de Assis, H C Silva; Cestari, M M; Randi, M A F; Ribeiro, C A Oliveira; Freire, C A

    2009-05-01

    The Vicuña oil tanker exploded in Paranaguá Bay (South of Brazil), during methanol unloading operations in front of Paranaguá Harbour, on November 15th, 2004, releasing a large amount of bunker oil and methanol. Two weeks after the accident, the acute effects of the Vicuña Oil Spill (VOS) were evaluated in the demersal catfish Cathorops spixii, comparing a contaminated (at the spill site) and a reference site inside the Bay. Data were compared to previous measurements, taken before the accident, in the same species, from the same sites. The physiological biomarkers were the ones that best reflected acute effects of the spill: plasma osmolality, chloride, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Morphological (liver and gill histopathology) and genetic (piscine micronucleus and DNA strand breaks) biomarkers revealed that damage was already present in fishes from both reference and contaminated sites inside the Bay. Thus, the reference site is not devoid of contamination, as water circulation tends to spread the contaminants released into other areas of the Bay. Acute field surveys of oil spill effects in harbour areas with a long history of contamination should thus be viewed with caution, and whenever possible previous evaluations should be considered for proper appraisal of biomarker sensitivity, especially in mobile bioindicators such as fish.

  18. Coral colonisation of an artificial reef in a turbid nearshore environment, Dampier Harbour, western Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Blakeway

    Full Text Available A 0.6 hectare artificial reef of local rock and recycled concrete sleepers was constructed in December 2006 at Parker Point in the industrial port of Dampier, western Australia, with the aim of providing an environmental offset for a nearshore coral community lost to land reclamation. Corals successfully colonised the artificial reef, despite the relatively harsh environmental conditions at the site (annual water temperature range 18-32°C, intermittent high turbidity, frequent cyclones, frequent nearby ship movements. Coral settlement to the artificial reef was examined by terracotta tile deployments, and later stages of coral community development were examined by in-situ visual surveys within fixed 25 x 25 cm quadrats on the rock and concrete substrates. Mean coral density on the tiles varied from 113 ± 17 SE to 909 ± 85 SE per m(2 over five deployments, whereas mean coral density in the quadrats was only 6.0 ± 1.0 SE per m(2 at eight months post construction, increasing to 24.0 ± 2.1 SE per m(2 at 62 months post construction. Coral taxa colonising the artificial reef were a subset of those on the surrounding natural reef, but occurred in different proportions--Pseudosiderastrea tayami, Mycedium elephantotus and Leptastrea purpurea being disproportionately abundant on the artificial reef. Coral cover increased rapidly in the later stages of the study, reaching 2.3 ± 0.7 SE % at 62 months post construction. This study indicates that simple materials of opportunity can provide a suitable substrate for coral recruitment in Dampier Harbour, and that natural colonisation at the study site remains sufficient to initiate a coral community on artificial substrate despite ongoing natural and anthropogenic perturbations.

  19. Expedition surveys of the sea water and atmospheric air radioactive contamination in the Russian Far Eastern coastal areas and in the North Western Pacific in connection with accident at the "Fukushima-1" NPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, Aleksandr; Shershakov, Vjacheslav

    2013-04-01

    In accordance with decision of the Russian Federation Federal Service on Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring (Roshydromet) on assessment of the sea water and atmospheric air radioactive contamination in the Sea of Japan and in Kurile-Kamchatka region of the Pacific ocean, in connection with accident at the "Fukushima-1" NPP, two expedition surveys were conducted in the Sea of Japan and in the North-Western Pacific (in the area adjacent to Kurile Islands and in the Kuroshio current selected area (coordinates 36°00'-39°33' n., 146°33'-150°00' e.): first survey April - May 2011, second survey August-September 2012. Both surveys were conducted under the Russian Geographical Society patronage. The results of measurements of Cs-137, Cs-134, Sr-90, Pu-239,240 and H-3 concentrations in the sea water samples and I-131, Cs-137 and Cs-134 concentrations in atmospheric aerosol samples are presented and discussed. The data received allowed to conclude that the levels of contamination by products of accidental releases and discharges at "Fukushima-1" NPP observed in investigated water areas near the Russian Federation coast of the Sea of Japan and of the Kurile- Kamchatka region of the Pacific ocean have no hazard. However, these expedition surveys revealed large-scale contamination by Cs-137 and Cs-134 of water areas of the North-Western Pacific in the investigated region of the Kuroshio current. The Cs-137 concentration in sea water at a distance about 400 km from accidental NPP in April-May, 2011 reached 30 Bq/m3, which approximately 20 times exceed preaccidental level, and it was found that water mass till more than 100 m below the surface was contaminated. For correct estimation of current and potential consequences of the "Fukushima-1" accident for the Far-Eastern water areas a special study is reasonable to perform of transport with marine currents of products of accidental releases and discharges at "Fukushima-1" NPP.

  20. First data on three bivalve species exposed to an intra-harbour polymetallic contamination (La Rochelle, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitwieser, Marine; Viricel, Amélia; Churlaud, Carine; Guillot, Benoit; Martin, Elie; Stenger, Pierre-Louis; Huet, Valérie; Fontanaud, Angélique; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène

    2017-09-01

    Evaluating diffuse sediment contamination in the environment is a major concern with the aim of reaching a good chemical and ecological state of the littoral zone. In this study the risks of chronic chemical contamination and consequences in the bivalves Crassostrea gigas, Mytilus sp. and Mimachlamys varia were evaluated in coastal environments. The objective here was to understand the anthropological phenomena that affect the functioning of the marina of La Rochelle (semi-closed environment). Harbours seeking ecomanagement accreditations (such as the international reference ISO 14001) constitute zones of interest to implement biomonitoring studies. The biological effects of chemical pollution in the Marina of La Rochelle were studied to develop a multi-biomarker biomonitoring approach on specific marine species of this site. Moreover, a genetic (DNA barcoding) approach was applied to validate the species identity of collected bivalves. Of the three species tested the scallop, M. varia, was the most sensitive to metal exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Archaeological excavations at Viltina - a viking age harbour site and meeting place / Marika Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Marika, 1968-

    2007-01-01

    2006 jätkusid kaevamised Viltina viikingiaegsel sadamakohal, millega oli alustatud juba 2004. aastal. Kaevati läbi 327,25 m2. Suuremas osas kaevandites paljandunud kiht on vaieldamatult asulakiht. Viltina asulakihiga aladel leidus tavapärasest asulakihist tunduvalt rohkem metall-leide. Leidudest. Tõenäoliselt oli sadamakoht kasutusajal piiratud taraga

  2. Changes in water quality at Cochin harbour dredging site, south west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, T.; Balachandran, K.K.; Nair, M.; Venugopal, P.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    The water quality in the vicinity of the dredging did not show any appreciable change. All dissolved nutrients recorded sharp changes in the water column. After 20 minutes and 2 hours, the conditions at the dredging were much different from the pre...

  3. Coverage and factors associated with influenza vaccination among kindergarten children 2-7 years old in a low-income city of north-western China (2014-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lili; Qin, Ying; Yang, Juan; Han, Wei; Lei, Youju; Feng, Huaxiang; Zhu, Xiaoyun; Li, Yanming; Yu, Hongjie; Feng, Luzhao; Shi, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Influenza vaccination has been shown to be the most effective preventive measure to reduce influenza virus infection and its related morbidity and mortality. Young children aged 6-59 months are recommended as one of the priority groups for seasonal influenza vaccination in China. Our study was conducted to evaluate the level of influenza vaccination coverage during 2014-15 and 2015-16 influenza seasons among kindergarten children aged 2-7 years in Xining, a low-income city of north-western China, and to explore potential factors for noncompliance associated with influenza vaccination. The coverage rate of influenza vaccination was 12.2% (95 CI: 10.6-14.2%) in 2014-15 and 12.8% (95 CI: 11.1-14.7%) in 2015-16. The low coverage rate was found to be primarily associated with the lack of knowledge about influenza vaccine in children's parents. The most common reason for vaccine declination was the concern about adverse reactions of vaccine. Therefore tailored information should be provided by clinician and public health doctors for targeted groups through effective methods to improve public understanding of vaccination.

  4. A new record and redescription of Schizopera (Schizopera knabeni (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Miraciidae from north-western Mexico Un registro nuevo y redescripción completa de Schizopera (Schizopera knabeni (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Miraciidae del noroeste de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Gómez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of Schizopera Sars, 1905 were found during sampling in 2 brackish systems in central and southern Sinaloa (north-western Mexico. The specimens turned out to belong to Schizopera (Schizopera knabeni Lang, 1965 which was originally described from Monterey Bay (the type locality and is known from Cocodrie (Louisiana. Amendments to Lang's (1965 original description and Fiers and Rutledge's (1990 partial redescription are given.Durante una serie de muestreos se hallaron ejemplares del género Schizopera Sars, 1905 en 2 sistemas salobres en el centro y sur de Sinaloa (México. El material recolectado resultó ser Schizopera (Schizopera knabeni Lang, 1965, una especie de copépodo harpacticoide originalmente descrita de material recolectado en la Bahía de Monterey (localidad tipo y hallada también en Cocodrie (Louisiana, EUA. Se proporcionan enmiendas a la descripción original de Lang (1965 y a la redescripción parcial de Fiers y Rutledge (1990.

  5. Integrated hazard, risk and impact assessment of tropical marine sediments from Tema Harbour (Ghana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botwe, Benjamin O; De Schamphelaere, Kristine; Schipper, Cor A; Teuchies, Johannes; Blust, Ronny; Nyarko, Elvis; Lens, Piet N L

    2017-06-01

    The potential ecological hazard, risk and impact of tropical marine sediments from the Tema Harbour (Greater Accra, Ghana) was investigated by integrating Corophium volutator and Hediste diversicolor whole-sediment toxicity bioassays with data on the metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and As) concentrations of the sediments. The whole-sediment toxicity bioassay results showed that sediments of the Tema Harbour are potentially hazardous to marine benthic invertebrates. C. volutator exhibited a higher vulnerability to the sediment toxicity than H. diversicolor, although the latter showed higher biota-sediment accumulation factors for the investigated metals. Statistically significant correlations were observed between C. volutator mortality and sediment Cd concentration (r = 0.84, p < 0.05; n = 6) and between H. diversicolor mortality and sediment Cu concentration (r = 0.94, p < 0.05; n = 5). Comparison of metal concentrations with international action levels for contaminated sediment disposal indicates that the Tema Harbour sediments contain potentially hazardous concentrations of Cu and Zn. This study shows that sediments from the Tema Harbour are not suitable for disposal at sea without remediation. There is, therefore, a need to improve environmental management and regulate the disposal of dredged material originating from the Tema Harbour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ARCHAEOBOTANICAL INVESTIGATIONS AND HUMAN IMPACT AT THE IMPERIAL HARBOUR OF ROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Giardini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Remnants of the ancient harbour of Rome are located in the Tiber delta area 3.5 km away from the present coastline. It was the main Rome maritime port from the middle of the first century to Late Antiquity. In 42 AD, emperor Claudius started the excavation of the harbour. Then, the Emperor Trajan added to the former construction, which had gradually silted up, a hexagonal basin in an inner position. The objective of this multidisciplinary study was to reconstruct the plant cultural landscape in the harbour applying detailed pollen, microcharcoal, and plant macroremains recovered from two cores (PTS5 and PTS13 drilled in the area of the Claudius harbour. The chronological framing of the records is based on stratigraphical criteria, radiocarbon dates, archaeological and historical data. The two cores record different periods of time. One core shows the first phases of the harbour activities, with a plant landscape typical of a coastal environment. The other one records a stronger human impact related to the presence of Portus town and of medieval settlements. Anthropogenic pollen indicators (sensu Behre and Jacomet 1991 as well as strong fire use/occurrence were increasing in the first centuries AD. These results will be completed with new core data from the extant Trajan lake, granting the possibility to study a record spanning the last two millennia.

  7. Detection of Saharan dust and biomass burning events using near-real-time intensive aerosol optical properties in the north-western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ealo, Marina; Alastuey, Andrés; Ripoll, Anna; Pérez, Noemí; Cruz Minguillón, María; Querol, Xavier; Pandolfi, Marco

    2016-10-01

    The study of Saharan dust events (SDEs) and biomass burning (BB) emissions are both topics of great scientific interest since they are frequent and important polluting scenarios affecting air quality and climate. The main aim of this work is evaluating the feasibility of using near-real-time in situ aerosol optical measurements for the detection of these atmospheric events in the western Mediterranean Basin (WMB). With this aim, intensive aerosol optical properties (SAE: scattering Ångström exponent, AAE: absorption Ångström exponent, SSAAE: single scattering albedo Ångström exponent and g: asymmetry parameter) were derived from multi-wavelength aerosol light scattering, hemispheric backscattering and absorption measurements performed at regional (Montseny; MSY, 720 m a.s.l.) and continental (Montsec; MSA, 1570 m a.s.l.) background sites in the WMB. A sensitivity study aiming at calibrating the measured intensive optical properties for SDEs and BB detection is presented and discussed. The detection of SDEs by means of the SSAAE parameter and Ångström matrix (made up by SAE and AAE) depended on the altitude of the measurement station and on SDE intensity. At MSA (mountain-top site) SSAAE detected around 85 % of SDEs compared with 50 % at the MSY station, where pollution episodes dominated by fine anthropogenic particles frequently masked the effect of mineral dust on optical properties during less intense SDEs. Furthermore, an interesting feature of SSAAE was its capability to detect the presence of mineral dust after the end of SDEs. Thus, resuspension processes driven by summer regional atmospheric circulations and dry conditions after SDEs favoured the accumulation of mineral dust at regional level having important consequences for air quality. On average, SAE, AAE and g ranged between -0.7 and 1, 1.3 and 2.5 and 0.5 and 0.75 respectively during SDEs. Based on the aethalometer model, BB contribution to equivalent black carbon (BC) accounted for 36 and 40

  8. Detection of Saharan dust and biomass burning events using near-real-time intensive aerosol optical properties in the north-western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ealo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study of Saharan dust events (SDEs and biomass burning (BB emissions are both topics of great scientific interest since they are frequent and important polluting scenarios affecting air quality and climate. The main aim of this work is evaluating the feasibility of using near-real-time in situ aerosol optical measurements for the detection of these atmospheric events in the western Mediterranean Basin (WMB. With this aim, intensive aerosol optical properties (SAE: scattering Ångström exponent, AAE: absorption Ångström exponent, SSAAE: single scattering albedo Ångström exponent and g: asymmetry parameter were derived from multi-wavelength aerosol light scattering, hemispheric backscattering and absorption measurements performed at regional (Montseny; MSY, 720 m a.s.l. and continental (Montsec; MSA, 1570 m a.s.l. background sites in the WMB. A sensitivity study aiming at calibrating the measured intensive optical properties for SDEs and BB detection is presented and discussed. The detection of SDEs by means of the SSAAE parameter and Ångström matrix (made up by SAE and AAE depended on the altitude of the measurement station and on SDE intensity. At MSA (mountain-top site SSAAE detected around 85 % of SDEs compared with 50 % at the MSY station, where pollution episodes dominated by fine anthropogenic particles frequently masked the effect of mineral dust on optical properties during less intense SDEs. Furthermore, an interesting feature of SSAAE was its capability to detect the presence of mineral dust after the end of SDEs. Thus, resuspension processes driven by summer regional atmospheric circulations and dry conditions after SDEs favoured the accumulation of mineral dust at regional level having important consequences for air quality. On average, SAE, AAE and g ranged between −0.7 and 1, 1.3 and 2.5 and 0.5 and 0.75 respectively during SDEs. Based on the aethalometer model, BB contribution to equivalent black carbon (BC

  9. Ecological assessment of water quality in relation to hydrogeology in a shallow urban aquifer: Somesul Mic River aquifer (North-Western, Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iepure, Sanda; Marin, Constantin; Fekete, Alexandru; Rajka, Geza; Brad, Traian; Samsudean, Cristian

    2014-05-01

    The River Basin Management Plan is the main instrument for the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/CE), one of its main requirements being the evaluation and quantification of human impacts on aquatic environments including the groundwater or groundwater dependent ecosystems. The Someş-Tisa basin is the largest hydrographical basin in NW Romania (22,380 km2), containing 15 Quaternary detrital groundwater bodies prone to intensive agricultural and urban industrial use. So far, no studies have addressed the groundwater fauna assemblages and their ecological response to human disturbances and aquifer contamination. Here we investigate a Quaternary shallow detrital aquifer (nitrates. We conducted a survey in seven monitoring boreholes (1-8 m beneath the surface) through the Quaternary porrous aquifer of the Somesul Mic River on a 10 km long longitudinal transect. Hydrologic and geologic variables (rainfall amount, drainage network density, aquifer and drainage elevation, transmisivity and aquifer porosity) were extracted from previous works and Pearson correlations were calculated for paired variables. Water and faunal sampling was performed on a seasonal basis at one pristine and six impacted sites during 2013. Invertebrates were sampled with a submersible pump by extracting a volume of 50-100 l of water and filtering through a 63 microns planktonic net. Subsequently, 2 l of water was extracted after pumping for compositional analyses of major constituents, trace elements (by ICP-MS) and nutrients. The results of water geochemical analyses indicate a significant pollutant charge of groundwater with Mn (max. 29.26 μg/l), Ni (16.55 μg/l), Fe (509.74 μg/l), As (3.87 μg/l), Se (5.07 μg/l), sulphates (549.9 μg/l) and nitrates (95.4 mg/l) downstream from industrial and agricultural lands. Only seven taxa, dominated by crustaceans, were found within the stygofaunal communities. Copepod stygoxene species (i.e., Megacyclops viridis Jurine, 1820

  10. Codes of Practice related to Harbour and Coastal Engineering in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.

    2000-01-01

    structures (1941). The codes were based on the principle of allowable stresses. However, already in 1948 a Danish consulting engineer used a partial safety factor concept for a power station design in order to secure satisfactory safety. The concept was in fact old as it was used by Gerber in his design......Codes of practice for building and civil engineering works have been produced since 1893 by the "Danish Society of Engineers". Among the early codes are: Reinforces concrete structures (1908, 1943), calculation of reinforced concrete structures in harbour works (1926), Harbour Works (1927), Steel...

  11. Screening of variable importance for optimizing electrodialytic remediation of heavy metals from polluted harbour sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine B.; Lejon, Tore; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Using multivariate design and modelling, the optimal conditions for electrodialytic remediation (EDR) of heavy metals were determined for polluted harbour sediments from Hammerfest harbour located in the geographic Arctic region of Norway. The comparative importance of the variables, current...... density, remediation time, light/no light, the liquid-solid ratio and stirring rate of the sediment suspension, was determined in 15 laboratory-scale EDR experiments by projection to latent structures (PLS). The relation between the X matrix (experimental variables) and the Y matrix (removal efficiencies...

  12. Acoustic tags on wild harbour porpoises reveal context-specific reactions to ship noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Jonas; Wisniewska, Danuta Maria; Johnson, Mark

    on harbour porpoises is primarily based on presence-absence studies before-during-after industrial activities. Little is known about the noise free-ranging animals are exposed to and how individuals react to specific noise sources. We deployed archival multi-sensor DTag3 tags on six wild harbour porpoises......Pa m-weighted rms sound pressure level. At 125 kHz, received third-octave rms levels reached 121 dB re 1μPa, which suggests potential for masking porpoise echolocation and communication. The animals showed context-dependent reactions to noise including cessation of foraging and echolocation, logging...

  13. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato prevalence and diversity in ticks and small mammals in a Lyme borreliosis endemic Nature Reserve in North-Western Spain. Incidence in surrounding human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espí, Alberto; Del Cerro, Ana; Somoano, Aitor; García, Verónica; M Prieto, José; Barandika, José F; García-Pérez, Ana L

    2017-11-01

    To determine the prevalence and diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) in an endemic Nature Reserve (Sierra del Sueve) in North-Western Spain, and the risk of human exposure to infected ticks in Asturias, 1013 questing ticks and 70 small mammals were collected between 2012 and 2014. A retrospective descriptive analysis was also carried out on human Lyme borreliosis (LB) cases reported to the local hospital (Cabueñes). Samples were screened for B. burgdorferi s.l. presence by a nested PCR assay, and genospecies were confirmed by sequencing. B. burgdorferi s.l. was detected in 1.4% (12/845) of I. ricinus questing nymphs, 9.1% (2/33) of questing adults, and 12.9% (9/70) of small mammals, as well as in the other tick species. PCR positive samples of 17 questing tick and 6 small mammals were sequenced. Four genospecies were identified: B. afzelii, B. garinii, B. lusitaniae, and B. valaisiana. Phylogenetic analyses based on the flaB gene showed the heterogeneity of B. afzelii in this area. The detection of B. burgdorferi s.l. among questing ticks and small mammals in the study area, as well as the abundance of ticks and of large wild and domestic mammals, indicate a high risk of infection by B. burgdorferi s.l. in the area. Reporting of LB cases to the local hospital support this, and shows the need of thorough monitoring of B. burgdorferi infection in ticks and hosts in the area. More investigations are needed to assess the role of different wildlife species and the risk of transmission to humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  14. Test of experimental set-ups for electrodialytic removal of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd from different contaminated harbour sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nystrøm, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2005-01-01

    Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from different harbour sediments was investigated. Electrodialytic remediation experiments in laboratory scale were made with calcareous and non-calcareous harbour sediments. Two different experimental set-ups were used for the study, one with stirring of t...

  15. Estimation of Wave Conditions Along a New Breakwater for the Hanstholm Harbour, Using the Numerical Model MILDwave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stratigaki, Vasiliki; Troch, Peter; Margheritini, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    Extension of the Hanstholm harbour (Denmark) is being planned, including the construction of a new breakwater. Within the general frame of the development plan of the harbour, numerical modelling has been carried out using the ild-slope model MILDwave developed at Ghent University, for estimating...... with analytical (Goda’ method) and numerical results (SWAN-1D)....

  16. Fishing for food : feeding ecology of harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena and white-beaked dolphins Lagenorhynchus albirostris in Dutch waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, O.E.

    2013-01-01

    Harbour porpoises and white-beaked dolphins are the most common small cetaceans in the North Sea and Dutch coastal waters. The distribution and relative abundance of harbour porpoises and white-beaked dolphins from the Dutch coastal waters has changed significantly over the past decades. This thesis

  17. Unidentified atmospheric absorption structure observed by DOAS near Hamburg harbour, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Stefan; Weigelt, Andreas; Mathieu-Üffing, Barbara; Seyler, André; Wittrock, Folkard; Lampel, Johannes; Pöhler, Denis; Platt, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    Within a six week campaign in July and August 2016, Long Path (LP)-DOAS measurements were performed near the harbour of Hamburg to monitor ship emissions of NO2 and SO2. LP-DOAS instruments retrieve information about the composition of ambient air using active spectroscopy. Therefore, an absorption light path was set up between the northern and the southern riverside of the river Elbe with a total length of ca. 5.7 km. The light of a laser driven Xenon arc lamp was sent to a retro reflector mounted on a light house on the opposite riverside. By comparing the spectrum of the Xenon lamp before and after being sent through the atmosphere, spectral absorption structures of several molecules can be identified and their mixing ratios can be quantified. Besides the well-known trace gas species such as NO2, SO2, O3 and HCHO, a so far unidentified, strong absorption structure could be observed regularly throughout the measurement period. The structure is similar to other known absorption structures in the UV-vis range and can be most likely associated with a molecular absorption cross section. The absorber features a progression of absorption bands in the range of 280 nm to 330 nm with an average band distance of 3 nm to 4 nm. These bands were observed with optical densities of up to 2 per cent along the absorption path. The absorber predominantly occurs during daylight indicating that photolytic processes are most likely to play an important role. Further, direct emission from ships could be excluded by the comparison with NO2 peaks, which serve as a proxy for ship plumes. The respective LP-DOAS instrument was deployed at multiple other measurement sites at the past including rural, urban and remote areas. However, the discussed absorption structure has never been detected before and instrumental errors can be excluded. Currently, MAX-DOAS measurements performed at the same site are evaluated. We will present the spectral features of the putative absorber as well as an

  18. Malaria in Sokoto, North Western Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... A total of 1,297 blood samples were collected by simple random sampling, from patients attending the .... sought after to take and use their blood samples. ... 7103. Table 1. Malaria prevalence in Sokoto Metropolis between the months of. March, 2005 and February, 2006. Month of the year. No of samples.

  19. Childhood urolithiasis in North-Western Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ben Halim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study reviews causes of urolithiasis and its manifestations in North-West (NW Libya. Libyan childhood urolithiasis accounted for 3.6% of nephrology out-patient work load. There were 59 children with urolithiasis, including 34 boys and 25 girls with a mean age of 2.8 ± 2.42 years. Urolithiasis was more common among younger age groups (P = 0.001 and in boys with primary oxaluria and infective etiology. The causes of urolithiasis included metabolic stones in 64%, infective in 26%, and it was idiopathic in 10%. Overall, family history of renal stone disease was elicited in 59%; it was 92% in patients with primary oxaluria. The main presenting features were abdominal pain (27%, gross hematuria (22%, associated urinary tract infection (UTI; 24%, and stone release in 19%. Stone location was bilateral in 64%, multiple in 68%, and in the upper tract in 93% (P = 0.05. Important complications encountered included chronic renal failure (13%, hydronephrosis (34%, systemic hypertension (8%, and rickets in 17%. Calcium oxalate was the most prominent constituent, seen in 41% of the calculi, followed by struvite (21%, uric acid (10%, carbapatite (7%, and cystine (3.5%. Diagnostically helpful findings were family history, age at presentation, UTI by urease producing organisms, rickets, imaging and chemical analysis of calculi. Early detection and prompt treatment helps in preventing long-term sequelae in patients with urolithiasis.

  20. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT) in Barcelona harbour sediments and their impact on benthic communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Llado, Xavier [Environmental Technology Area, CTM-UPC, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Manresa (Spain); Gibert, Oriol [Environmental Technology Area, CTM-UPC, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Manresa (Spain); Marti, Vicens [Environmental Technology Area, CTM-UPC, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Manresa (Spain)]. E-mail: vicens.marti@upc.edu; Diez, Sergi [Environmental Chemistry Department, IIQAB-CSIC, c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Environmental Geology Department, ICTJA-CSIC, Lluis Sole i Sabaris, s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Romo, Javier [Environmental Service of Barcelona Harbour Authority, Carretera de la Circumval.lacio, s/n, Tram VI, Sector 6, Barcelona (Spain); Bayona, Josep Maria [Environmental Chemistry Department, IIQAB-CSIC, c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Pablo, Joan de [Environmental Technology Area, CTM-UPC, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1, 08240 Manresa (Spain)

    2007-09-15

    Sediments have long been recognised as a sink for many contaminants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and tributyltin (TBT), which by virtue of their nature can strongly adsorb onto sediments affecting the benthic community inhabiting them. Using geographical information systems, this study reports and combines the results of several already existing studies along Barcelona harbour in order to assess the potential ecological impacts of these contaminants on the benthos of the harbour ecosystem. Chemical analysis indicated low to moderate contents of PAHs and high contents of TBT in sediments in Barcelona harbour. Comparison against existing sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) indicated that acutely toxic effects would not be expected for PAHs but for TBT, which represents a serious environmental threat for the benthic community. Benthos surveys revealed a deterioration of the benthic community throughout the harbour, especially in the inner port. - A possible correlation exists between TBT concentration in sediments and ecological effects on benthos in Barcelona harbour.

  1. Chemometric Analysis for Pollution Source Assessment of Harbour Sediments in Arctic Locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine B.; Lejon, Tore; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2015-01-01

    found adjacent to the former shipyards. Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) ratios and PCA plots revealed that the predominant source in both harbours was pyrogenic related to coal/biomass combustion. Comparison of commercial polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) mixtures with PCB compositions in the sediments...

  2. Echolocation signals of wild harbour porpoises, Phocoena phocoena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsgaard, A.; Wahlberg, Magnus; Tougaard, J.

    2007-01-01

    level was more than 30 dB above what has been measured from captive animals, while the spectral and temporal properties were comparable. Calculations based on the sonar equation indicate that harbour porpoises, using these high click intensities, should be capable of detecting fish and nets and should...

  3. No serological evidence that harbour porpoises are additional hosts of influenza B viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogier Bodewes

    Full Text Available Influenza A and B viruses circulate among humans causing epidemics almost annually. While various hosts for influenza A viruses exist, influenza B viruses have been detected only in humans and seals. However, recurrent infections of seals in Dutch coastal waters with influenza B viruses that are antigenetically distinct from influenza B viruses circulating among humans suggest that influenza B viruses have been introduced into this seal population by another, non-human, host. Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena are sympatric with seals in these waters and are also occasionally in close contact with humans after stranding and subsequent rehabilitation. In addition, virus attachment studies demonstrated that influenza B viruses can bind to cells of the respiratory tract of these animals. Therefore, we hypothesized that harbour porpoises might be a reservoir of influenza B viruses. In the present study, an unique set of serum samples from 79 harbour porpoises, stranded alive on the Dutch coast between 2003 and 2013, was tested for the presence of antibodies against influenza B viruses by use of the hemagglutination inhibition test and for antibodies against influenza A viruses by use of a competitive influenza A nucleoprotein ELISA. No antibodies were detected against either virus, suggesting that influenza A and B virus infections of harbour porpoises in Dutch coastal waters are not common, which was supported by statistical analysis of the dataset.

  4. A visual and acoustic survey for harbour porpoises off North-West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena in southern Europe and along the Atlantic African coast is poorly understood, with tentative assessments suggesting a discrete West African population with a northern limit around the Straits of Gibraltar. This study describes visual and acoustic surveys for porpoises ...

  5. Identification and typing of Brucella spp. in stranded harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) on the Dutch coast.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maio, E.; Begeman, L.; Bisselink, Y.J.W.M.; Tulden, van P.W.; Wiersma, L.; Hiemstra, S.; Ruuls, R.; Gröne, A.; Roest, H.I.J.; Willemsen, P.T.J.; Giessen, van der J.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of Brucella (B.) spp. in harbour porpoises stranded between 2008 and 2011 along the Dutch coast was studied. A selection of 265 tissue samples from 112 animals was analysed using conventional and molecular methods. In total, 4.5% (5/112) of the animals corresponding with 2.3% (6/265)

  6. Identification and typing of Brucella spp. in stranded harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) on the Dutch coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maio, Elisa; Begeman, Lineke; Bisselink, Yvette; van Tulden, Peter; Wiersma, Lidewij; Hiemstra, Sjoukje; Ruuls, Robin; Gröne, Andrea; Roest, Hendrik-Ido-Jan; Willemsen, Peter; van der Giessen, Joke

    2014-01-01

    The presence of Brucella (B.) spp. in harbour porpoises stranded between 2008 and 2011 along the Dutch coast was studied. A selection of 265 tissue samples from 112 animals was analysed using conventional and molecular methods. In total, 4.5% (5/112) of the animals corresponding with 2.3% (6/265)

  7. Prevalence of skull pathologies in European harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) during 1981-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertoldi, Cino; Jensen, Lasse Fast; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen

    2017-01-01

    Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) inhabit the seas surrounding Denmark and are an important top predator in the marine food chain. This trophic position exposes them to environmental contaminants with disease epidemics and hunting being additional threats to this population. It is therefore important...

  8. Establishment of gravity stations and inference of crustal thickness around Mormugao Harbour and NIO

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subbaraju, L.V.; Krishna, K.S.

    Complete descriptions and basic facts of nine gravity stations of Marmugao Harbour, Goa, India are presented. They exhibit a maximum Bouguer difference of 2.12 mGal in an overall distance of about 2 km. Keeping in view the limited amount of data...

  9. A review of the 1988 and 2002 phocine distemper virus epidemics in European harbour seals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Härkönen, L.; Dietz, R.; Reijnders, P.J.H.; Teilmann, J.; Harding, K.; Hall, A.; Brasseur, S.M.J.M.; Siebert, U.; Goodman, S.J.; Jepson, P.D.; Rasmussen, T.D.; Thompson, P.

    2006-01-01

    We present new and revised data for the phocine distemper virus (PDV) epidemics that resulted in the deaths of more than 23 000 harbour seals Phoca vitulina in 1988 and 30 000 in 2002. On both occasions the epidemics started at the Danish island of Anholt in central Kattegat, and subsequently spread

  10. Genetic variation in Phoca vitulina (the harbour seal) revealed by DNA fingerprinting and RAPDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappe, A.L.; van de Zande, L.; Vedder, E.J.; Bijlsma, R.; van Delden, Wilke

    Genetic variation in two harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) populations from the Dutch Wadden Sea and Scotland was examined by RAPD analysis and DNA fingerprinting. For comparison a population of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) was studied. The RAPD method revealed a very low number of polymorphic bands.

  11. Exposing the grey seal as a major predator of harbour porpoises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leopold, M.F.; Begeman, L.; Bleijswijk, van J.; IJsseldijk, L.; Witte, H.J.; Grone, A.

    2015-01-01

    Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) stranding in large numbers around the southern North Sea with fatal, sharp-edged mutilations have spurred controversy among scientists, the fishing industry and conservationists, whose views about the likely cause differ. The recent detection of grey seal

  12. Identification of a novel gammaherpesvirus associated with (muco)cutaneous lesions in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beurden, Steven J; IJsseldijk, Lonneke L; Ordonez Alvarez, Soledad; Förster, Christine; de Vrieze, Geert; Gröne, Andrea; Verheije, M Hélène; Kik, Marja

    2015-01-01

    Herpesviruses infect a wide range of vertebrates, including toothed whales of the order Cetacea. One of the smallest toothed whales is the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena), which is widespread in the coastal waters of the northern hemisphere, including the North Sea. Here, we describe the

  13. Before harbour construction, Richards Bay on the Kwa- Zulu-Natal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    The Mhlathuze (Richards Bay) Estuary on the KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, was substantially altered ... Berm. E. Harbour. Current estuary. Vegetated islands and mangroves. Mhlathuze River. 1 km. N. CAPE. TOWN. SOUTH AFRICA. Richards Bay. Port Elizabeth. Fig. .... ment of Water Affairs and Forestry, unpublished.

  14. Planning a census of the Harbour Seal (Phoca vitulina L.) on the coasts of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmel, van A.C.V.

    1956-01-01

    Scientific research into the occurrence and population density of the Harbour Seal ( Phoca vitulina L.) in the coastal regions of the Netherlands, necessary for any efficacious nature conservancy programme, was started in September 1953 by the author. A reliable calculation of the total number of

  15. Variation in European harbour seal immune response genes and susceptibility to phocine distemper virus (PDV)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCarthy, A.J.; Shaw, M.; Jepson, P.D.; Brasseur, S.M.J.M.; Reijnders, P.J.H.; Goodman, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Phocine distemper virus (PDV) has caused two mass mortalities of European harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in recent decades. Levels of mortality varied considerably among European populations in both the 1988 and 2002 epidemics, with higher mortality in continental European populations in comparison

  16. Modelling the tsunami threat to Sydney Harbour, Australia, with comparisons to historical events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, O.; Power, H.

    2016-12-01

    Sydney Harbour is an iconic location with a dense population and low-lying development. On the east coast of Australia, facing the Pacific Ocean it is exposed to several tsunamigenic trenches. To date, this is the most detailed assessment of the potential for earthquake-generated tsunami impact on Sydney Harbour. The tsunami wave trains modelled include tsunami modelled from earthquakes of magnitude 7.5, 8.0, 8.5 and 9.0 MW from the Puysegur and New Hebrides trenches. Historical events from Chile in 1960 and Japan in 2011 are also modelled for comparison. Using the hydrodynamic model ANUGA, results show that the events modelled have the potential to cause high current speeds, hazardous waves and rapid changes in water level. These effects are most dramatic at pinch points such as Spit Bridge and Anzac Bridge, particularly with regard to current speeds. Large waves are shown to be a particular threat at the mouth of the harbour, where the bathymetry causes the tsunami wave train to shoal. Inundation is less of a hazard for the tsunami events modlled, although some inundation is evident at several low-lying embayments in the south of the harbour. These results will provide an evidence base for tsunami threat emergency management.

  17. Coastal Changes due to the Construction of Artificial Harbour Entrances and Practical Solutions, including Beach Replenishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijker, E.W.; Van der Leijé, J.P.; Pilon, J.J.; Svasek, J.N.; In 't Veld, J.K.; Verhagen, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    When longshore sediment transport is interrupted by a construction along a coast, e.g harbour moles or a dredged approach channel, the equilibrium of the coastline may be disturbed. When the disruption is caused by breakwaters, the longshore transport that is held back will cause accretion updrift

  18. The first case of conjoined twin harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena (Mammalia, Cetacea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kompanje, Erwin J.O.; Camphuysen, K.C.J.; Leopold, M.F.

    2017-01-01

    The harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) is the smallest and most abundant cetacean in NW European continental shelf waters. Their global abundance numbers at least ~700,000 individuals. Within the North Sea, total abundance has recently been estimated at approximately 345,000 animals. The species

  19. Distribution and density of harbour popoises in Dutch North Sea waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheidat, M.; Verdaat, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Aerial surveys were conducted to investigate harbour porpoise density and distribution in Dutch waters. Surveys were conducted following standard line transect distance sampling methodology on tracklines providing a representative coverage of the study area which ranged from the Dutch coast to about

  20. TORONTO HARBOUR COMMISSIONERS (THC) SOIL RECYCLE TREATMENT TRAIN - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Toronto Harbour Commissioners (THC) have developed a soil treatment train designed to treat inorganic and organic contaminants in soils. THC has conducted a large-scale demonstration of these technologies in an attempt to establish that contaminated soils at the Toronto Port ...

  1. Detection of grey seal Halichoerus grypus DNA in attack wounds on stranded harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Blijswijk, Judith; Begeman, Lineke; Witte, H.; IJsseldijk, Lonneke; Brasseur, Sophie; Gröne, Andrea; Leopold, Mardik F

    2014-01-01

    DNA was analysed from external wounds on 3 dead harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena that were stranded in the Netherlands. Puncture wounds as well as the edges of large open wounds were sampled with sterile cotton swabs. With specific primers that target the mtDNA control region of grey seal

  2. Fossil Crustacea of the Late Pleistocene Port Morant Formation, west Port Morant Harbour, southeastern Jamaica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, J.S.H.; Donovan, S.K.; Stemann, T.A.

    2009-01-01

    The Late Pleistocene Port Morant Formation of southeast Jamaica is particularly rich in fossil marine crustaceans. A new locality on the west side of Port Morant Harbour, parish of St. Thomas, has yielded decapods including the callianassids Lepidophthalmus jamaicense? (Schmitt ), Neocallichirus

  3. Why do seals have cones? Behavioural evidence for colour-blindness in harbour seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtyssek, Christine; Kelber, Almut; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2015-03-01

    All seals and cetaceans have lost at least one of two ancestral cone classes and should therefore be colour-blind. Nevertheless, earlier studies showed that these marine mammals can discriminate colours and a colour vision mechanism has been proposed which contrasts signals from cones and rods. However, these earlier studies underestimated the brightness discrimination abilities of these animals, so that they could have discriminated colours using brightness only. Using a psychophysical discrimination experiment, we showed that a harbour seal can solve a colour discrimination task by means of brightness discrimination alone. Performing a series of experiments in which two harbour seals had to discriminate the brightness of colours, we also found strong evidence for purely scotopic (rod-based) vision at light levels that lead to mesopic (rod-cone-based) vision in other mammals. This finding speaks against rod-cone-based colour vision in harbour seals. To test for colour-blindness, we used a cognitive approach involving a harbour seal trained to use a concept of same and different. We tested this seal with pairs of isoluminant stimuli that were either same or different in colour. If the seal had perceived colour, it would have responded to colour differences between stimuli. However, the seal responded with "same", providing strong evidence for colour-blindness.

  4. The Westward Movement of Chinese Export Harbour Views : Significant Paintings with a Social Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der R.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Article (Chapter) in proceedings of the First Rombouts Graduate Conference Globalization and Glocalization in China, at Leiden University, held in Leiden on 6 and 7 September 2011. This article offers a closer examination of Chinese export harbour views and, in doing so, reveals that waterfronts and

  5. Monitoring effects of offshore windfarms on harbour porpoises using PODs (porpoise detectors)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teilmann, J.; Damsgaard Henriksen, O. [National Environmental Res. Inst., Dept. of Arctic Enviroment, Roskilde (Denmark); Carstensen, Jacob [National Environmental Res. Lab., Dept. of Marine Ecology, Roskilde (Denmark); Skov, H. [Ornis Consult A/S, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2002-02-15

    The areas designated for offshore windfarms in Denmark, are all known habitats for harbour porpoises. It is possible that some of the activities involved in erection and operation of offshore windfarms will have a negative impact on the harbour porpoises in and around the windfarms. The most significant sources of these effects are thought to be the physical presence and the noise from ships and construction work as well as temporary and even permanent loss of suitable habitats near the windfarms. The noise from existing offshore windturbines has been measured and a detection distance of 20 m was calculated in the EIA study regarding the Roedsand windfarm. In order to study possible effects from the erection and operation of windfarms on harbour porpoises a number of studies were suggested as part of the EIA background study on harbour porpoises. Among these suggestions was the use of acoustic dataloggers (PODs). The POD is recording click sounds of short duration. It is programmable and can be set to specifically record the echolocation signals that harbour porpoises uses for orientation and foraging. This method will potentially give data on harbour porpoise activity in a specific area on a diurnal and year-round basis. The construction work will take place over several months and since there is no available information on the seasonal sensitivity of porpoises to disturbance, the data necessary to detect and evaluate the effect of the windfarm would need to cover all seasons. No other method is feasible to provide data on the presence of harbour porpoises year round in a particular area. However, this method has its limitations in that only porpoises echolocating are recorded. No data exists on the seasonal, diurnal and area specific use of echolocation but since echolocation is believed to be the primary sense for porpoises we expect that porpoises used their echolocation most of the time and that it is correlated to the density of porpoises. However, the actual

  6. Dietary overlap and niche partitioning of sympatric harbour porpoises and Dall's porpoises in the Salish Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, Linda M.; Hall, Anna M.; Ellis, Graeme M.; Stredulinsky, Eva; Boogaards, Melissa; Ford, John K. B.

    2013-08-01

    Ecological theory regarding the coexistence of similar species predicts resource partitioning will arise through competition and lead to different ecological niches. The diets of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and Dall's porpoises (Phocoenoides dalli) in the Salish Sea were investigated for evidence of resource partitioning between these ecologically similar species. Stomach contents of 36 harbour porpoises and 11 Dall's porpoises were analysed and ten and six fish taxa were identified in each, respectively. Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) was important in the diet of both porpoise species and walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) was second in importance in the Dall's porpoises. Pacific herring was estimated to contribute 60% to the total caloric intake of harbour porpoises. In addition to herring, Pacific hake (Merluccius productus), walleye pollock and a species of Pyschrolutidae were present in the diet of both porpoise species. Pianka's Index of niche overlap indicated substantial dietary overlap between the porpoise species based on measures of prey frequency of occurrence and prey percent numerical abundance. These results seem contrary to predictions from ecological theory. However, habitat and activity pattern differences between the two porpoise species exist and represent other dimensions of niche that likely contribute to resource partitioning in ways that were not strongly evident in stomach contents. Dall's porpoises, which prefer deeper water habitat in the Salish Sea than harbour porpoises, may feed more on walleye pollock which spawn in deep water. Dall's porpoises are also known to feed at night when lipid-rich mesopelagic prey such as Myctophidae and Bathylagidae, both present in the Dall's porpoise samples, migrate upwards from depths in excess of 200 m. In contrast shiner perch, present only in harbour porpoise samples, is a species associated with shallow nearshore habitats. Resource partitioning is also likely to occur in accordance

  7. Short-term effects of the construction of wind turbines on harbour porpoises at Horns Reef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougaard, J. [Hedeselskabet, Miljoe og Energi A/S, Viborg(Denmark); Carstensen, Jakob [National Environmental Res. Inst., Dept. of Marine Ecology, Roskidle (Denmark); Damsgaard Henriksen, O.; Teilmann, J. [National Environmental Res. Inst., Dept. of Arctic Biology, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2003-04-15

    In 2002 the Worlds largest offshore wind farm, consisting of 80 2MW wind turbines, was constructed on Horns Reef in the Danish North Sea. Ship based visual surveys and long-term deployment of acoustic dataloggers (PODs) were used to assess short term effects of construction on behaviour and abundance of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). Most focus was put on mounting of steel monopile foundations for the turbines, as they were rammed into the seabed. This type of operation is known to generate very loud underwater sound levels. Combined evidence from animal densities obtained from visual surveys, behavioural observations during surveys and acoustic activity data in and outside the construction area demonstrated effects on the behaviour and abundance of animals on both short-term (hours) and long term (entire construction period) scales. Acoustic activity by the porpoises decreased dramatically on the entire Horns Reef at the onset of ramming operations and returned to higher levels a few hours after each ramming operation was completed. A reduction in abundance close to ramming operations was anticipated, as deterring devices (pingers and seal scarers) were deployed prior to each ramming operation to deter marine mammals from the area and thus protect them from exposure to the loud sound levels generated by the ramming procedure. The changes in abundance and behaviour over large distances are unlikely to be explained by the deterring sounds, which have comparably lower intensities than the ramming sounds and these effects must be attributed to the ramming. A general effect on the behaviour of animals was seen during the construction period and at distances of up to 10-15 kilometers from the construction site. Compared to observations before and after construction there was a decrease in non-directional swimming, a behaviour assumed to correlate with feeding activity. Animal density estimates indicates that there were fewer animals present on the entire Horns

  8. Observation of Mesoscale Instabilities of the Northern Current in the North Western Mediterranean Sea : a Combined Study Using Gliders, Surface Drifters, Moving Vessel Profiler and Vessel Data in the Ligurian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairaud, I. L.; Garreau, P.; Le Berre, D.; Fernandez Bruyère, D.; Bellomo, L.; Garnier, V.

    2014-12-01

    The Northern Current (NC) is a branch of the general North-Western Mediterranean cyclonic circulation extending from the Ligurian to the Catalan Sea (Millot, Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans, vol. 15, 1991). In winter and early spring, instabilities of this slope current are intense and can generate eddies, meanders and filaments. The study of mesoscale structures is crucial in the coastal area because of their physical and biogeochemical impact on ecosystems. They play a role in water, chemicals and nutrients transport, vertical mixing and possible trapping of biological materials. Results from a combined observational effort put forth in March 2012 during the IMEDIA cruise dedicated to eddy tracking are presented. This work aims at providing experimental evidence of the effects that mesoscale exerts on the NC dynamics via an innovative and complementary data set. A Slocum Glider equipped with a CTD was deployed along the French coast from Nice to Toulon for one month and performed cross-current sections down to 600m depth. Drifters were deployed before the cruise in the Corsica Channel and close to Italy. Concurrent observations were obtained along the vessel track by a thermosalinograph and a fluorometer (subsurface measurements), and using a CTD and a Vessel-Mounted ADCP during the 11-day oceanographic cruise on board of the Research Vessel Tethys II. Additional water profiling was performed using a Moving Vessel Profiler (MVP) equipped with a CTD and capable of profiling down to 400m depth at a speed of 4 knots. The combined use of data from the MVP and the ship-based ADCP measurements reveals the presence of an instability of the NC north of the Corsica Island. The main branch of the current is moved westward and forms a meander. It is characterized by a density decrease down to 350m of the water column, associated with a salinity decrease of 0.4-0.6 psu (see Figure). Its location is confirmed by high-resolution satellite images as the associated water

  9. Plutonium distribution and remobilization in sediments of the Rhone River mouth (North-Western Mediterranean); Distribution et remobilisation du plutonium dans les sediments du prodelta du Rhone (Mediterranee nord-occidentale)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansard, B

    2004-06-15

    plutonium budget determined for the study area indicates that at least 85 % of the Pu discharged over the 40 past years by the Marcoule reprocessing plant, are currently trapped in the sediments off the Rhone River mouth. Plutonium remobilization is potentially an important process but dispersion of contaminated sediments appeared to be limited in space. These results suggest a low exportation of particulate matter introduced by the Rhone River towards the continental shelf of the Gulf of Lions and the North-Western Mediterranean basin. (author)

  10. Cooperative evaluation of crop and weed species of hardwoods, growth responses to site quality and stand spacing in the Green River area of northwestern New Brunswick: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, T.; Tardif, R.

    1994-12-31

    Describes a study conducted to collect data on free-growing hardwood crop and weed species found on different sites to determine their growth rates. The study area is located in north-western New Brunswick and contains eleven study sites selected to satisfy certain conditions. Includes a description of the site selection and field sampling methodology; a table indicating the location, stand type, maturity class, and species sampled for each site; and a listing of stand and plot identifications, and data recorded in each plot.

  11. Age determination methods in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina with a review of methods applicable to carnivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Lockyer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of age determination methods in marine mammals is reviewed with particular reference to the use of teeth Growth Layer Groups (GLGs formed in the dentine and cement of carnivores. Using this background, practices for sampling, tooth extraction and collection, storage and different methods of preparation of teeth as well as reading and counting GLGs are discussed and evaluated for the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina. The paper includes comments on best practices for counting GLGs with new examples from known-age seals, and also a detailed examination of confounding factors in interpreting GLGs such as mineralization anomalies and the phenomena of accessory lines, “false annuli” and “paired laminae” which have not been discussed previously. The paper concludes with recommendations for undertaking age estimation in harbour seals from sampling through final GLG interpretation with special emphasis on standardization of methods with other researchers.

  12. Management of fisheries in harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) marine protected areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindt-Larsen, Lotte

    , Member States are obliged to nominate candidate protected areas in their waters to the EU Commission and within six years establish legislation to implement them as special areas of conservation and prepare management plans. Up to this point in time, however, no such management plans exist. This Ph......The harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) is the focus of a range of conservation efforts and policies aiming at reducing bycatch of the species in gillnet fisheries. In European waters, the harbour porpoise is protected within the Habitats Directive (Annexes II and IV), implying that the population...... has to be maintained at a favourable conservation status and the deliberate actions of killing and disturbance and habitat deterioration shall be prohibited in accordance with the directive’s aims. A spatial network, Natura2000, will further protect all Annex II species. According to Natura2000...

  13. Likely effects of construction of Scroby Sands offshore wind farm on a mixed population of harbour Phoca vitulina and grey Halichoerus grypus seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeate, Eleanor R; Perrow, Martin R; Gilroy, James J

    2012-04-01

    Scroby Sands offshore wind farm was built close to a haul-out and breeding site for harbour seal, a species of conservation concern. An aerial survey programme conducted during a five-year period spanning wind farm construction, revealed a significant post-construction decline in haul-out counts. Multivariate model selection suggested that the decline was not related to the environmental factors considered, nor did it mirror wider population trends. Although cause and effect could not be unequivocally established, the theoretical basis of hearing in pinnipeds and previous studies suggested that extreme noise (to 257 dB re 1 μ Pa(pp) @ 1m) generated by pile-driving of turbine bases led to displacement of seals. A lack of full recovery of harbour seal during the study was also linked to their sensitivity to vessel activity and/or rapid colonisation of competing grey seal. Any impact of offshore wind farm development upon pinnipeds would be much reduced without pile-driving. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Spatial and temporal impacts of the Skjervøy harbour diesel spill on native population of blue mussels: A sub-Arctic case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitwieser, Marine; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène; Huet, Valérie; Sagerup, Kjetil; Geraudie, Perrine

    2018-02-07

    This work was designed to investigate biological impacts on blue mussels (Mytilus edulis spp) after being exposed to diesel spill. On December 2013, an 180,000-litre accidental acute diesel spill was reported in a small harbour of northern Norway (Skjervøy). In order to assess the biological effects on the wild population of blue mussels, bivalves were collected at three different locations: at the oil-spill spot, at the other side of the harbour (opposite the oil-spill area), and in an uncontaminated site. Body burden and seawater samples were collected from a few days up to five months after the diesel spill. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and immunological effects were assessed in the blue mussels digestive glands. Our findings reported significant modulation of GST (detoxification), SOD (antioxidant response) and MDA (lipid peroxidation) in bivalves exposed to diesel with a similar response at two and five months after the spill. Laccase-type enzyme also highlighted an important aspect in terms of biomarker response of the immune function. Overall, our study demonstrated that some biomarkers returned to basal levels a few months after the diesel spill. Consequently, it highlighted the usefulness of normalised tools and guidelines for biomonitoring strategies after a diesel spill. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Patterns of Occurrence of Sharks in Sydney Harbour, a Large Urbanised Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoothey, Amy F; Gray, Charles A; Kennelly, Steve J; Masens, Oliver J; Peddemors, Victor M; Robinson, Wayne A

    2016-01-01

    Information about spatial and temporal variability in the distribution and abundance of shark-populations are required for their conservation, management and to update measures designed to mitigate human-shark interactions. However, because some species of sharks are mobile, migratory and occur in relatively small numbers, estimating their patterns of distribution and abundance can be very difficult. In this study, we used a hierarchical sampling design to examine differences in the composition of species, size- and sex-structures of sharks sampled with bottom-set longlines in three different areas with increasing distance from the entrance of Sydney Harbour, a large urbanised estuary. During two years of sampling, we obtained data for four species of sharks (Port Jackson, Heterodontus portusjacksoni; wobbegong, Orectolobus maculatus; dusky whaler, Carcharhinus obscurus and bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas). Only a few O. maculatus and C. obscurus were caught, all in the area closest to the entrance of the Harbour. O. maculatus were caught in all seasons, except summer, while C. obscurus was only caught in summer. Heterodontus portusjacksoni were the most abundant species, caught in the entrance location mostly between July to November, when water temperature was below 21.5°C. This pattern was consistent across both years. C. leucas, the second most abundant species, were captured in all areas of Sydney Harbour but only in summer and autumn when water temperatures were above 23°C. This study quantified, for this first time, how different species utilise different areas of Sydney Harbour, at different times of the year. This information has implications for the management of human-shark interactions, by enabling creation of education programs to modify human behaviour in times of increased risk of potentially dangerous sharks.

  16. Patterns of Occurrence of Sharks in Sydney Harbour, a Large Urbanised Estuary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy F Smoothey

    Full Text Available Information about spatial and temporal variability in the distribution and abundance of shark-populations are required for their conservation, management and to update measures designed to mitigate human-shark interactions. However, because some species of sharks are mobile, migratory and occur in relatively small numbers, estimating their patterns of distribution and abundance can be very difficult. In this study, we used a hierarchical sampling design to examine differences in the composition of species, size- and sex-structures of sharks sampled with bottom-set longlines in three different areas with increasing distance from the entrance of Sydney Harbour, a large urbanised estuary. During two years of sampling, we obtained data for four species of sharks (Port Jackson, Heterodontus portusjacksoni; wobbegong, Orectolobus maculatus; dusky whaler, Carcharhinus obscurus and bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas. Only a few O. maculatus and C. obscurus were caught, all in the area closest to the entrance of the Harbour. O. maculatus were caught in all seasons, except summer, while C. obscurus was only caught in summer. Heterodontus portusjacksoni were the most abundant species, caught in the entrance location mostly between July to November, when water temperature was below 21.5°C. This pattern was consistent across both years. C. leucas, the second most abundant species, were captured in all areas of Sydney Harbour but only in summer and autumn when water temperatures were above 23°C. This study quantified, for this first time, how different species utilise different areas of Sydney Harbour, at different times of the year. This information has implications for the management of human-shark interactions, by enabling creation of education programs to modify human behaviour in times of increased risk of potentially dangerous sharks.

  17. The newtonian approach in the meteorological tide waves forecasting: preliminary observations in the East Ligurian harbours

    OpenAIRE

    G. Piangiamore; Nardone, G.; P. Lusiani; Canepa, G.; R. Bozzano; Bianco, G.; N. Bencivenga; Arena, G.; Faggioni, O.; Soldani, M.

    2006-01-01

    Sea level oscillations are the superposition of many contributions, among which the main are astronomic and meteorological low-frequency tides. In Ligurian Sea meteo-tide components, being most ample than astronomic fluctuations, drive water exchange in harbours. The present note shows first results about port of Genoa concerning a coherency study between atmospheric variation and corresponding sea level adjustment (meteorological tide). The newtonian forecasting method of meteorological tide...

  18. Review on utilization and research on harbour seal (Phoca vitulina in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlingur Hauksson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina have been harvested in Iceland since the first settlers arrived in the 9th century. Pups were generally netted, clubbed and harpooned until 1875 when general use of guns for hunting began. Seal-hunting has been traditional amongst the farms legal rights. Seal hunting was an important supplement to other economic resources. Harbour seal skins, salted ordried, were exported and large dataset of catch statistics is available from trading logbooks since the late 19th century. In the early 20th century catch was about 6,000. In the ‘bounty’ period 1982 – 1989, maximum catches were of 4,000 animals with about 350 hunters participated; in 2006 catches were only about 100 animals with 18 hunters. After 1989 the population continued to decline even though catches decreased markedly. Unreported by-catch in fishing gear, hunt for local consumption and shooting of seals swimming in salmon rivers estuaries may have kept the total removal from the stock above sustainable levels. A considerable Icelandic knowledge base had been compiled about the biology of the harbour seal since the late 16th century, with the first written reference in 1588-1589. In the last decades, research on various aspects of its biology and monitoring have been intensified, with focus on abundance, distribution, diet and nematode infestation. The main results show that the Icelandic harbour seal population - has declined annually about 5% in the period 1980-2006, - was most abundant on the NW-coast, - feeds mainly on sand-eels and gadoids, - and was less infected with anisakid nematodes than grey seals. Seal watching, as a low-consumptive indirect utilization, may represent a new economical opportunity if properly regulated.

  19. Late Ordovician deep-water brachiopod fauna from Raheen, Waterford Harbour, Ireland.

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, David A.T.; Parkes, Matthew A.; Ren-Bin, Zhan

    2017-01-01

    The Raheen Formation at Newtown Head in Waterford Harbour is a small isolated section of Ordovician rocks, dominated by volcanics of the Duncannon Group, but with interbedded fossiliferous shales. Although a brachiopod and trilobite dominated fauna has been known since the mid-nineteenth century, only the trilobites and cystoids have been assessed in modern terms. This paper describes the brachiopod fauna for the first time. The assemblage from Raheen is overwhelmingly dominated by the dalman...

  20. New insights into Wellington Harbours' tectonic settings from marine geophysical and sedimentological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelz, Susi; Nodder, Scott; Barnes, Philip; Orpin, Alan

    2015-04-01

    After the experience of several damaging coastal earthquakes in New Zealand in the last three years, the importance of locating and characterising the earthquake potential of active faults close to urban areas has become more obvious, especially when cities lie in complex tectonic settings as it is the case for Wellington. To assess the earthquake and tsunami potential and the associated hazard posed by such faults, it is necessary to characterise fault geometry, slip rate, earthquake history and earthquake potential. In the marine environment, we have the advantage that faults can be assessed cross-sectionally through the application of high-resolution geophysical data without having to excavate trenches across the active fault trace. We present new marine data from Wellington Harbour that helps to characterise three faults; the Wellington Fault at Kaiwharawhara, the Evans Bay Fault, and a newly discovered fault off Oriental Bay, informally referred to as the Mount Victoria Fault. New marine geophysical data has better delineated the location and characteristics of these faults. High-resolution multi-beam bathymetric data (50 cm grid-cell size), covering the entire Wellington Harbour, were also used to determine the occurrence of seafloor scarps associated with surface ruptures on the faults. Sediment cores from either side of the Wellington Fault off Kaiwharawhara Stream, in about 17.5 m water depth, provide insight into the late Quaternary-Holocene stratigraphy and age of sediments that have been deformed by activity on the faults delineated in Wellington Harbour. The stratigraphy reveals details of the post-glacial marine flooding of the harbour that occurred about 10,000 years ago.

  1. Protection against flooding of the harbour of Ostend (Belgium) by the construction of storm walls

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, P; Trouw, K.; Bolle, A.; Van Doorslaer, K.; Troch, P.; Verwaest, T.; Ballieu, D.

    2012-01-01

    The city of Ostend is threatened by floodings due to wave overtopping over the quays of the harbour of Ostend. For this reason storm return walls have to protect the city. This paper describes the design of these storm return walls, starting from the determination of the hydrodynamic boundary conditions, the calculation of wave overtopping discharges and wave forces and the final geotechnical and structural design of the storm return walls.

  2. Influence on surfers wind conditions east of the new Hanstholm harbour/wind turbine project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben J.; Astrup, Poul

    /s mainly from west, measured in 10m height. Results are extracted in several downstream locations specified by Grontmij covering the area used for surfing. It is expected that surfing mainly occurs for wind speeds above 10m/s (10m height) and the important parameters both level of mean wind speeds as well......In this report a consequence study regarding the surfers wind conditions east of the planned new harbour area of Hanstholm. At this harbour area, 10 new 150m tall 3MW wind turbines are planned. Both the harbour constructions as well as the wind turbines could potentially alter the wind conditions...... on the lee side, which is an important area for wind and kite surfers. In this study, both changes in mean wind velocities as well as the turbulence level are investigated for the surf area between a location called ”Fish Factory” to the location called ”Hamburg”. The interesting wind speed interval is 8-16m...

  3. The newtonian approach in the meteorological tide waves forecasting: preliminary observations in the East Ligurian harbours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Piangiamore

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Sea level oscillations are the superposition of many contributions, among which the main are astronomic and meteorological low-frequency tides. In Ligurian Sea meteo-tide components, being most ample than astronomic fluctuations, drive water exchange in harbours. The present note shows first results about port of Genoa concerning a coherency study between atmospheric variation and corresponding sea level adjustment (meteorological tide. The newtonian forecasting method of meteorological tides is based on measurements of time elapsing between barometric sea level unbalance (?g and its meteorological tide compensation (inverse barometer component. Meteorological tide component is independent on the Earth-Moon-Sun gravitational relationships, moreover parameters related to the shifted water mass are too many to describe the phenomenon analytically (basin topography, barometric strength position and time, chemical water quality, off-shore sea circulation, etc.; then, meteorological tide can’t be accurately foreseen by atmospheric pressure measurements only. A gravimeter can detect the geodetic unbalance starting time and a tide-gauge can detect the newtonian compensation (tide wave coming time. The difference between these two times is the meteorological tide delay. An opportune statistic of this delay provides an experimental law typical for each harbour to forecast the meteo-tide compensation wave delay. This paper describes the methodological procedure adopted and first evidences of the phenomenon in Genoa harbour.

  4. Effects of wind farms on harbour porpoise behaviour and population dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Tougaard, Jakob; Teilmann, Jonas

    We developed an individual-based simulation model in order to study the cumulative impacts of wind farms and ship traffic on the long-term survival and population dynamics of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in Kattegat and the Belt Seas. The model is based on knowl- edge of the porpoises...... at distances >1 km. Our simulations suggest that operating wind farms and wind farms under construction do not affect the size or dynamics of the harbour porpoise population in Kattegat. Ship traffic may, in contrast, cause the population size to decrease.......We developed an individual-based simulation model in order to study the cumulative impacts of wind farms and ship traffic on the long-term survival and population dynamics of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in Kattegat and the Belt Seas. The model is based on knowl- edge of the porpoises......’ fine-scale foraging behaviour, dispersal between areas where porpoises are commonly observed in nature and their reproductive patterns. It assumes that individual porpoises turn away more steeply from objects the more noisy they are, and that they react to the noise emitted from large ships...

  5. Impact of a harbour construction on the benthic community of two shallow marine caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepote, Ettore; Bianchi, Carlo Nike; Morri, Carla; Ferrari, Marco; Montefalcone, Monica

    2017-01-15

    Marine caves are unique and vulnerable habitats, threatened by multiple global and local disturbances. Whilst the effects of climate change on marine caves have already been investigated, no information exists about the effects of local human impacts, such as coastal development, on these habitats. This study investigated the impact of the construction of a touristic harbour on two shallow underwater marine caves in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean). As a standard methodology for monitoring marine caves does not exist yet, changes over time on the benthic community were assessed adopting two different non-taxonomic descriptors: trophic guilds and growth forms. Harbour construction caused an increase of sediment load within the caves, with a consequent decline of filter feeder organisms. Abundance of small organisms, such as encrusting and flattened sponges, was greatly reduced in comparison to organisms with larger and erect growth forms, such as domed mounds and pedunculated sponges. Our study indicated that growth forms and trophic guilds are effective descriptors for evaluating changes over time in marine caves, and could be easily standardised and applied in monitoring plans. In addition, as the harbour construction impacted differently according to the cave topography, the use of a systematic sampling in different zones of an underwater cave is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Population abundance and species composition of chaetognaths in the Bombay harbour-Thana and Bassein creek estuarine complex

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, Neelam; Nair, V.R.

    Detailed study on the abundance, distribution and species composition of chaetognaths from the Bombay harbour-Thana and Bassein creek estuarine complex was carried out from October 1985 to September 1986. Percentage contribution of chaetognaths...

  7. Integrating genetic data and population viability analyses for the identification of harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) populations and management units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Morten Tange; Andersen, Liselotte Wesley; Dietz, Rune

    2014-01-01

    present a novel approach, integrating genetic, life-history and demographic data to identify populations and management units in southern Scandinavian harbour seals. First, 15 microsatellite markers and model- and distance-based genetic clustering methods were used to determine the population genetic...... structure in harbour seals. Second, we used harbour seal demographic and life-history data to conduct population viability analyses (PVAs) in the VORTEX simulation model in order to determine whether the inferred genetic units could be classified as management units according to Lowe and Allendorf's (2010......) "population viability criterion" for demographic independence. The genetic analyses revealed fine-scale population structuring in southern Scandinavian harbour seals and pointed to the existence of six genetic units. The PVAs indicated that the census population size of each of these genetic units...

  8. A compact self-recording pressure based sea level gauge suitable for deployments at harbour and offshore environments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desa, E.; Peshwe, V.B.; Joseph, A.; Mehra, P.; Naik, G.P.; Kumar, V.; Desa, E.S.; Desai, R.G.P.; Nagvekar, S.; Desai, S.P.

    A compact and lightweight self-recording pressure based sea level gauge has been designed to suit deployments from harbour and offshore environments. A novel hydraulic coupling device designed in-house was used to transfer the seawater pressure...

  9. Sporadic diffuse segmental interstitial cell of Cajal hyperplasia harbouring two gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST mimicking hereditary GIST syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafalda Costa Neves

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: We describe a diffuse form of sporadic ICC hyperplasia harbouring multifocal GISTs, mimicking diffuse ICC hyperplasia in hereditary GIST syndromes. Detection of somatic c-KIT exon 11 mutation ruled out a hereditary disorder.

  10. Dinoflagellate cyst assemblages in recent sediments of Visakhapatnam harbour, east coast of India: Influence of environmental characteristics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSilva, M.S.; Anil, A.C.; Sawant, S.S.

    . The cyst abundance varied from 11 to 1218 cysts g sup(-1) dry sediment. Changes in the cyst assemblages from phototrophic to heterotrophic forms were observed from inner to outer harbour stations, and related to changes in environmental characteristics...

  11. Haulout behaviour of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina during breeding and moult in Vesterålen, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne-Grethe Mogren

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Haulout behaviour of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina in Vesterålen, Norway, was investigated from1 July to 23 August 2003 using a combination of high- and low-tide counts performed from boat and elevated land positions, and hourly counts from the land positions through 12- or 24-h cycles at specific haulout sites. There were obvious contrasts in haulout patterns of the seals throughout the period. The number of seals hauled-out was considerably higher in the area in July (the pupping period than during August when the moulting period started. Contrasting July, when numbers of seals hauled-out at low tide was clearly higher than at high tide, there were virtually no systematic differences in haulout numbers between high and low tides in August. Circadian patterns were weaker in August than in July as well. Low temperatures had significant adverse effects on haulout numbers both in July and August, whereas increased cloud cover resulted in fewer seals hauled-out in July, but more seals in August.

  12. Bearing the burden of boat harbours: heavy contaminant and fouling loads in a native habitat-forming alga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, E L; Marzinelli, E M; Wood, C A; Speranza, D; Bishop, J D D

    2011-10-01

    Boat harbours are an increasingly common form of artificial habitat. This paper presents a comparative study of contaminants and foulers of a habitat-forming native kelp (Saccharina latissima) in four marinas and four reference locations along the south-west coast of the UK. Fouling of algal laminae was light (boat harbours creates habitats that are high risk source localities for pollution-tolerant fouling organisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Stress level in wild harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) during satellite tagging measured by respiration, heart rate and cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskesen, Ida Grønborg; Teilmann, J.; Geertsen, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    During satellite tagging of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), heart rate, respiration rate and cortisol value were measured to evaluate stress effects during handling and tagging. Respiration rates were obtained using video recordings, heart rates were recorded and serum cortisol levels were...... and lowering it into the water seem to stabilize a stressed animal. Therefore, general precaution and individual judgement based on experience is essential when handling wild harbour porpoises....

  14. Sustainable management of harbours : a numerical approach for the assessment of waters quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamano, Simone; Madonia, Alice; Piazzolla, Daniele; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Piermattei, Viviana; Scanu, Sergio; Melchiorri, Cristiano; Marcelli, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Within the Water Framework Directive (WFD), harbours must reach or maintain the good ecological potential, being classified as heavily modified water bodies. To fulfill this task and to comply the Marine Spatial Planning (MSP) principles, port managers have to monitor the water quality that can be compromised by the numerous activities including the realization of new infrastructures. The port of Civitavecchia, located on the central west coast of Italy, is undergoing to major structural changes to become one of the first ports of the Mediterranean in terms of passenger traffic and goods, thus requiring the development of management tools for the predictive assessment of harbour water quality. This study focused on the evaluation of water degradation within Civitavecchia port trough the calculation of Flushing time (FT) and the development of the new Flushing Efficiency Index (FEI). FT was calculated through the use of a numerical model under different scenarios selected combining different weather conditions with the new port configurations. FT values was then used to estimate the FEI for the evaluation of the improvement (positive values) or the deterioration (negative values) of water quality in the different zones of the port. The increase in the harbour basin size due to the embankment extension results in high values of FT, particularly in the inner part of the port, in accordance with the highest values of the Enrichment Factor (EF) of the trace metals found in the sediment. The correlation between FT and EF confirms that renewal time can be used as a proxy to evaluate the water quality conditions in the harbour basin, as also stated by the WFD guidelines. Also the results of FEI calculation indicate the potential occurrence of water degradation due to the embankment extension. Otherwise, the realization of a second entrance in the southern part of Civitavecchia port produces FEI positive values, highlighting a drastic improvement in harbour water renewal

  15. The ancient harbour system of Terracina (Latium, Italy) obtained by gravity survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Nezza, M.; di Filippo, M.

    2009-04-01

    Historical research has shown that Terracina (Latina, Latium) played a fundamental role in the maritime and land traffic since before the foundation of the colony. The settlement was established where the organized system of maritime, land, coastal, and fluvial transport had the most ideal conditions to constitute an important commercial crossroads, apparently since the beginning of recorded history. In order to reconstruction the buried archaeological structures attributed to the ancient Roman port, traditionally attributed to Traiano, in the current area of the harbour of Terracina, it was carried out a gravity survey, more than 380 gravity stations. This method enables to recognize the cavity and the structures of the buildings underground through the results of variations density in the subsoil. In the residual gravity anomaly map a series of positive anomalies are visible which confirm the round structures and the pier of the buried foundations of the Imperial harbour. Unfortunately, little remains of the functioning facilities of the harbour's activities. The modern construction of the harbour, in fact, has to be developed around the new inhabitable commercial area, know today as Terracina Bassa or Borgo alla Marina. It had to be developed with a modern infrastructure of a harbor area, as in the construction of the rooms for storage of goods, warehouses, as well as for the thermal baths, hotels and amphitheatre. Furthermore, there are always the positive anomalies that characterize the area to the north-east of "Montone" hill where archaeological remains are easily visible near Via Lungolinea Pio VI. A large negative anomaly is situated in correspondence with "Montone". Gravity information shows an average density of the hill approximately 1.10 g/cm3, notably less than the recorded data relative to dry sand, approximately 1.6 g/cm3. The low value founds hits at the possibility of an "emptiness" in the subsoil of "Montone" hill, attribuiting to the possible

  16. Environmental quality assessment of Grand Harbour (Valletta, Maltese Islands): a case study of a busy harbour in the Central Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Teresa; D'Alessandro, Michela; Esposito, Valentina; Scotti, Gianfranco; Berto, Daniela; Formalewicz, Malgorzata; Noventa, Seta; Giuliani, Silvia; Macchia, Simona; Sartori, Davide; Mazzola, Angelo; Andaloro, Franco; Giacobbe, Salvatore; Deidun, Alan; Renzi, Monia

    2015-12-01

    Contamination levels by plastic debris, trace elements and persistent organic pollutants were assessed and related to macrobenthic diversity within soft bottoms of Grand Harbour (Malta, Central Mediterranean). Sediment toxicity was evaluated by ecotoxicological method, deploying Bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), Echinodermata (Paracentrotus lividus) and Crustacea (Corophium orientale). Univariate analysis (Pearson's test) was used to test relationships between biodiversity indices, pollutants and grain size. A multivariate approach (PERMANOVA) was applied to investigate for any significant differences among sampling stations concerning plastic abundances and to test the relationship between infaunal abundances and pollutant concentrations (the BIOENV test). Significant differences in the plastic abundances were found between sampling stations. The lowest value for Shannon-Wiener biodiversity index was associated to the highest sediment pollution level. Multivariate analyses suggest that MBT and TBT were factors that most influenced macrozoobenthic abundance and biodiversity. The bivalve Corbula gibba and the introduced polychaete Monticellina dorsobranchialis were the most abundant found species.

  17. Ground-living spiders (Araneae at polluted sites in the Subarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koponen, Seppo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spiders were studied around the Pechenganikel smelter combine, Kola Peninsula, north-western Russia. The average spider density was 6-fold greater and the density of Linyphiidae specimens 11.5-fold higher at slightly polluted sites, compared with heavily polluted sites. Altogether, 18 species from 10 families were found at heavily polluted sites, the theridiid Robertus scoticus clearly dominating (23.3 % of identifiable specimens, also Neon reticulatus (9.6 %, Thanatus formicinus (9.6 % and Xysticus audax (8.2 % were abundant. The most numerous among 58 species found at slightly polluted sites were Tapinocyba pallens (18.5 %, Robertus scoticus (13.7 %, Maso sundevalli (9.5 % and Alopecosa aculeata (8.2 %. The family Linyphiidae dominated at slightly polluted sites, 64 % of species and 60 % of individuals; compared with heavily polluted sites, 23 % and 38 % respectively.

  18. Mobilité littorale de quelques sites portuaires antiques de Méditerranée
    Marseille, Pouzzoles, Cumes, Kition et Sidon

    OpenAIRE

    Morhange, Christophe

    2001-01-01

    Hdr visible sur le site du CEREGE http://modbib.free.fr/internet/theses_cerege/theses/hdr_morhange2001.pdf; Although much has been written on the subject of ancient Mediterranean harbours, the relatively new area of harbour geoarchaeology remains dispersed in the geoscience and archaeological literature. Over a decade of research has amassed rich and varied datasets of anthropogenically forced coastal evolution, with a remarkable number of between-site analogies. This new research field also ...

  19. Probabilistic Description of a Clay Site using CPTU tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sarah; Lauridsen, Kristoffer; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl

    2012-01-01

    A clay site at the harbour of Aarhus, where numerous cone penetration tests have been conducted, is assessed. The upper part of the soil deposit is disregarded, and only the clay sections are investigated. The thickness of the clay deposit varies from 5 to 6 meters, and is sliced into sections of 1...

  20. Bosaso Harbour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Toschi, P.B; Turrio, E.

    1991-01-01

    The paper deals with some design and construction aspects related to the new port at Bosaso, which is the terminal of the newly completed road system which connects northern Somalia with Mogadishu in the south. The port and the road project was financed by The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Funding...... Agency for Developing Contries, Italy. The basic design and supervision of the work were performed by TECHINT, Milano, with the supervision of CESEN, Genoa. The construction of the port was performed by SACES, Rome, with COSMEZZ Costruzioni, Rome, as subcontractor....

  1. Diffusion in coastal and harbour zones, effects of Waves,Wind and Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, M.; Redondo, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    As there are multiple processes at different scales that produce turbulent mixing in the ocean, thus giving a large variation of horizontal eddy diffusivities, we use a direct method to evaluate the influence of different ambient parameters such as wave height and wind on coastal dispersion. Measurements of the diffusivity are made by digital processing of images taken from from video recordings of the sea surface near the coast. The use of image analysis allows to estimate both spatial and temporal characteristics of wave fields, surface circulation and mixing in the surf zone, near Wave breakers and inside Harbours. The study of near-shore dispersion [1], with the added complexity of the interaction between wave fields, longshore currents, turbulence and beach morphology, needs detailed measurements of simple mixing processes to compare the respective influences of forcings at different scales. The measurements include simultaneous time series of waves, currents, wind velocities from the studied area. Cuantitative information from the video images is accomplished using the DigImage video processing system [3], and a frame grabber. The video may be controlled by the computer, allowing, remote control of the processing. Spectral analysis on the images has also used n order to estimate dominant wave periods as well as the dispersion relations of dominant instabilities. The measurements presented here consist mostly on the comarison of difussion coeficients measured by evaluating the spread of blobs of dye (milk) as well as by measuring the separation between different buoys released at the same time. We have used a techniques, developed by Bahia(1997), Diez(1998) and Bezerra(2000)[1-3] to study turbulent diffusion by means of digital processing of images taken from remote sensing and video recordings of the sea surface. The use of image analysis allows to measure variations of several decades in horizontal diffusivity values, the comparison of the diffusivities

  2. Contaminant accumulation and biomarker responses in caged mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, to evaluate bioavailability and toxicological effects of remobilized chemicals during dredging and disposal operations in harbour areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocchetti, Raffaella; Fattorini, Daniele; Pisanelli, Barbara [Istituto di Biologia e Genetica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Ranieri Monte d' Ago, 60100 Ancona (Italy); Macchia, Simona; Oliviero, Lisa; Pilato, Fabiano; Pellegrini, David [Istituto Centrale per la Ricerca Scientifica e Tecnologica Applicata al Mare (ICRAM), Viale Nazario Sauro 4, 57128 Livorno (Italy); Regoli, Francesco [Istituto di Biologia e Genetica, Universita Politecnica delle Marche, Via Ranieri Monte d' Ago, 60100 Ancona (Italy)], E-mail: f.regoli@univpm.it

    2008-09-29

    Remobilization of chemicals from contaminated sediments is a major risk associated with dredging and disposal operations in harbour areas. In this work caged mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, were chosen as bioindicator organisms to reveal the impact and recovery of organisms from these activities in the harbour of Piombino (Tuscany, Italy) where approximately 100,000 m{sup 3} of sediments were removed and disposed in a local confined disposal facility (CDF). Organisms were deployed before, during and after the end of operations, selecting sites differently impacted by these activities. Temporal changes in environmental bioavailability and biological effects of pollutants were assessed by integrating analyses of trace metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) accumulated in tissues of caged mussels with a wide array of biomarkers reflecting exposure to specific classes of pollutants and different levels of cellular unbalance or toxicity. Such biological responses included levels of metallothioneins, activity of acyl CoA oxidase (AOX) as a marker of peroxisome proliferation, oxidative stress biomarkers (content of glutathione, enzymatic activities of catalase, glutathione S-transferases, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidases), total oxyradical scavenging capacity (TOSC) toward peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals, lysosomal membrane stability and genotoxic effects measured as DNA strand breaks and frequency of micronuclei. Obtained results indicated that a general disturbance was already present in the whole harbour area and especially in the inner site before the beginning of operations, when caged mussels exhibited a significant accumulation of PAHs and Pb, lower TOSC values and higher levels of both lysosomal and genotoxic damages. Bioavailability of trace metals and PAHs markedly increased during dredging activities with values up to 40 {mu}g/g for Pb and up to 2200 ng/g for PAHs in tissues of caged mussels, a significant inhibition of antioxidant

  3. Le site d'Okala, Province de l'Estuaire, Gabon, et son importance pour la compréhension du passage à la sédentarisation en Afrique centrale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clist, Bernard

    1997-07-01

    The Okala archaeological site with its large surface excavated and its series of 16 radiocarbon dates is the best studied site in Gabon. It is the reference site for the main Late Neolithic tradition in the country. called the Okala Group. Data from this site enables one to consider the environmental exploitation and land use between 760 BC and AD 200 in the north-western pan of Gabon. A synthesis is given of our present knowledge of the Neolithic in this country and relationships with other regions of Gabon where similar communities were established from 3 700 BC onwards are suggested.

  4. Characterization of the temporomandibular joint of the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, M; Vapniarsky-Arzi, N; Verstraete, F J M; Staszyk, C; Leale, D M; Woolard, K D; Arzi, B

    2015-04-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in cetaceans is largely uncharacterized. This study aims to describe the macroscopic, microscopic, biochemical and biomechanical features of the TMJ of two species of the suborder Odontoceti: the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus). Furthermore, we aim to elucidate the structure-function relationship of their TMJs and their possible role in echolocation. The TMJs from fresh cadaver heads of harbour porpoise (n=4) and Risso's dolphin (n=2) acquired from stranding were examined. Following macroscopical evaluation, the TMJs were investigated for their histological, mechanical and biochemical properties. The TMJs of the studied odontocetes were found to be fundamentally different from other mammals. Macroscopically, the TMJ lacks the typical joint cavity found in most mammals and is essentially a syndesmosis. Histological and microstructural analysis revealed that the TMJ discs were composed of haphazardly intersecting fibrous-connective tissue bundles separated by adipose tissue globules and various calibre blood vessels and nerve fibres. The collagen fibre composition was primarily collagen type I with lesser amounts of collagen type II. Sulphated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content was lower compared to other studied mammals. Finally, mechanical testing demonstrated the disc was stronger and stiffer in the dorsoventral direction than in the mediolateral direction. The spatial position of the TMJ, the absence of an articulating synovial joint, and the properties of the TMJ discs all reflect the unique suction-feeding mechanism adopted by the harbour porpoise and Risso's dolphin for underwater foraging. In addition, the presence of unique adipose globules, blood vessels and nerves throughout the discs may indicate a functional need beyond food apprehension. Instead, the disc may play a role in neurological sensory functions such as echolocation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hydrodynamic detection and localization of artificial flatfish breathing currents by harbour seals (Phoca vitulina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesterok, Benedikt; Krüger, Yvonne; Wieskotten, Sven; Dehnhardt, Guido; Hanke, Wolf

    2017-01-15

    Harbour seals are known to be opportunistic feeders, whose diet consists mainly of pelagic and benthic fish, such as flatfish. As flatfish are often cryptic and do not produce noise, we hypothesized that harbour seals are able to detect and localize flatfish using their hydrodynamic sensory system (vibrissae), as fish emit water currents through their gill openings (breathing currents). To test this hypothesis, we created an experimental platform where an artificial breathing current was emitted through one of eight different openings. Three seals were trained to search for the active opening and station there for 5 s. Half of the trials were conducted with the seal blindfolded with an eye mask. In blindfolded and non-blindfolded trials, all seals performed significantly better than chance. The seals crossed the artificial breathing current (being emitted into the water column at an angle of 45 deg to the ground) from different directions. There was no difference in performance when the seals approached from in front, from behind or from the side. All seals responded to the artificial breathing currents by directly moving their snout towards the opening from which the hydrodynamic stimulus was emitted. Thus, they were also able to extract directional information from the hydrodynamic stimulus. Hydrodynamic background noise and the swimming speed of the seals were also considered in this study as these are aggravating factors that seals in the wild have to face during foraging. By creating near-natural conditions, we show that harbour seals have the ability to detect a so-far overlooked type of stimulus. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Investigations of Cu, Pb and Zn partitioning by sequential extraction in harbour sediments after electrodialytic remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2010-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation was used to remove Cu, Zn and Pb from three different contaminated harbour sediments. Electrodialytic experiments lasting 2 and 4 weeks were performed and 48-86% Cu, 74-90% Zn and 62-88% Pb were removed from the different sediments and the removal increased with longer....... Zn and Pb were found in the exchangeable and reducible phases before remediation. Zn was still found in the exchangeable and reducible phases after remediation, whereas most Pb was removed from these phases during electrodialytic remediation....

  7. Analysis of Wave Reflection from Wave Energy Converters Installed as Breakwaters in Harbour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanuttigh, B.; Margheritini, Lucia; Gambles, L.

    2009-01-01

    loads on the structure, i.e. better survivability. Nevertheless these devices must comply with the requirements of harbour protection structures and thus cope with problems due to reflection of incoming waves, i.e. dangerous sea states close to harbors entrances and intensified sediment scour, which can...... lead to structure destabilization. The present paper aims to analyse wave reflection from OWC and Sea Slot-cone Generator (SSG) converters, based on experimental results obtained in 2D and 3D facilities. The applicability of formulae available in the literature and derived from costal structures...

  8. Gas exchange and heart rate in the harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reed, J.Z.; Chambers, C.; Hunter, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    The respiratory physiology, heart rates and metabolic rates of two captive juvenile male harbour porpoises (both 28 kg) were measured using a rapid-response respiratory gas analysis system in the laboratory. Breath-hold durations in the laboratory (12 +/- 0.3 s, mean +/- SEM) were shorter than...... a comparatively high minute rate of gas exchange. Oxygen consumption under these experimental conditions (247 +/- 13.8 ml O-2. min(-1)) was 1.9- fold higher than predicted by standard scaling relations. These data together with an estimate of the total oxygen stores predicted an aerobic dive limit of 5.4 min...

  9. Wave-induced nearshore flow patterns in the vicinity of Cochin harbour, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Vethamony, P.; Murty, C.S.

    , C. S. Murty Refraction function Wave length Wave period Wave orbital velocity 1 INTRODUCTION The dynamics of sediment movement in the littoral zone is governed primarily by wave-induced currents. Specific knowledge of these currents...) _\\] (2) The wave orbital velocities (Umax) at the lower boundary of the fluid Nearshore flow patterns in the vicinity of Cochin Harbour 115 75 ° &5' 7,6" 76~ 15' -- 10 ° i 15' 300 ec N I -10° :hin leltana ~ntnak~ ;Ranaz 30 Fig. 2. A typical...

  10. Toxic effects of tributyltin and its metabolites on harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) immune cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frouin, Heloise [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique - Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, Quebec H7V 1B7 (Canada); Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Maurice Lamontagne Institute, Mont-Joli, Quebec G5H 3Z4 (Canada)], E-mail: heloise.frouin@iaf.inrs.ca; Lebeuf, Michel [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Maurice Lamontagne Institute, Mont-Joli, Quebec G5H 3Z4 (Canada); Saint-Louis, Richard [Institut des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski (ISMER), Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, Rimouski, Quebec G5L 3A1 (Canada); Hammill, Mike [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Maurice Lamontagne Institute, Mont-Joli, Quebec G5H 3Z4 (Canada); Pelletier, Emilien [Institut des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski (ISMER), Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, Rimouski, Quebec G5L 3A1 (Canada); Fournier, Michel [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique - Institut Armand-Frappier, Laval, Quebec H7V 1B7 (Canada)

    2008-11-21

    The widespread environmental contamination, bioaccumulation and endocrine disruptor effects of butyltins (BTs) to wildlife are well documented. Although suspected, potential effects of BTs exposure on the immune system of marine mammals have been little investigated. In this study, we assessed the effects of tributyltin (TBT) and its dealkylated metabolites dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT) on the immune responses of harbour seals. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from pup and adult harbour seals were exposed in vitro to varying concentrations of BTs. DBT resulted in a significant decrease at 100 and 200 nM of phagocytotic activity and reduced significantly phagocytic efficiency at 200 nM in adult seals. There was no effect in phagocytosis with TBT and MBT. In pups, the highest concentration (200 nM) of DBT inhibited phagocytic efficiency. A reduction of tumor-killing capacity of adult natural killer (NK) cells occurred when leukocytes were incubated in vitro with 50 nM DBT and 200 nM TBT for 24 h. In adult seals, T-lymphocyte proliferation was significantly suppressed when the cells were exposed to 200 nM TBT and 100 nM DBT. In pups, the proliferative response increased after an exposure to 100 nM TBT and 50 nM DBT, but decreased with 200 nM TBT and 100 nM DBT. The immune functions were more affected by BTs exposure in adults than in pups, suggesting that other unsuspected mechanisms could trigger immune parameters in pups. The toxic potential of BTs followed the order of DBT > TBT > MBT. BT concentrations of harbour seal pups from the St. Lawrence Estuary (Bic National Park) ranged between 0.1-0.4 ng Sn/g wet weight (ww) and 1.2-13.4 ng Sn/g ww in blood and blubber, respectively. For these animals, DBT concentrations were consistently below the quantification limit of 0.04 ng Sn/g ww in blood and 0.2 ng Sn/g ww in blubber. Results suggest that concentrations measured in pups are considered too low to induce toxic effects to their immune system

  11. Enzymatic activity in the surface microlayer and subsurface water in the harbour channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perliński, Piotr; Mudryk, Zbigniew J.; Antonowicz, Józef

    2017-09-01

    Hydrolytic activity of eight extracellular enzymes was determined spectrofluorimetric method in the surface microlayer and subsurface water in the harbour channel in Ustka. The ranking order of the potential enzyme activity rates in the studied water layers was as follows: lipase > phosphatase > aminopeptidase > β-glucosidase > α-glucosidase > xylanase > cellulase > chitinase. The level of activity of all studied hydrolases was higher in the surface microlayer than subsurface water. No clear gradients in the level of enzymatic activity were determined along the horizontal profile of the studied channel. Activity of extracellular enzymes was strongly influenced by the season.

  12. Shear wave reflection seismic surveying in the Trondheim harbour area - imaging of land slide processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polom, U.; Hansen, L.; L'Heureux, S.; Longva, O.; Lecomte, I.; Krawczyk, C. M.

    2008-12-01

    The harbour area of Trondheim, Norway, was build on man-made land fillings at the coast of the Trondheim Fjord in several expansions since the last 80 years. The whole area is located on the deltaic sediments of the river Nidelven, which are overlying marine sediments that reach the bed rock in nearly 150 m depth. Some submarine land slides at the border of the sediment body nearby the harbour area were reported during the last decades. Therefore, many geological and geophysical investigations were carried out in recent years to explore the structure of the sediment body and its stability onshore and offshore in detail. Whereas high-resolution marine seismic methods archieved excellent results in the offshore area, common seismic investigations for the mostly paved harbour area itself were a difficult challenge. Therefore, SH polarized shear wave reflection seismics using a land streamer combined with a newly developed shear wave vibrator buggy of 30 kN peak force was applied, because this method is advantageous for paved surfaces. Overall 4.2 km 2.5D profiling was carried out in the harbour area along roads and parking places after optimizing of the field procedure. The whole operation was done at night in time slots from midnight to 5 am by road closures due to savety reasons and to minimize the noise from surrounding heavy traffic of trains, trucks and other heavy equipment. The field measurements achieved high resolution results of the sediment body structure, clear detection of the bedrock, and probably deeper structures within the bedrock. Due to the clear and continuous reflection events, also the shear wave velocity could be calculated at least down to the bedrock to indicate the stiffness of the sediment layers. The results of these onshore seismic profiles will be integrated in a combined onshore-offshore seismic profile grid for structural interpretation. Furthermore, the derived shear wave velocities will be combined with cone penetrometer testings and

  13. Succession of Scyphozoa-Ctenophora in the Harbour of Çanakkale

    OpenAIRE

    Alpaslan, Mustafa

    2001-01-01

    Abstract This study was carried on the basic of physico-chemical parameters, Scyphozoa and. Ctenophora succession in the Harbour of Çanakkale (40° 09' 07" N, 26° 24' 09" B) between January 2000 and December 2000 sampling intervals. According to the results of chemical analysis; nitrate nitrogen ranged within 0.80-1.630 mglt 1, total inorganic phosphate 0.016-0.044 mglt 1, silica 0.180- 0.300 mglt 1, potassium 190-220 mglt', zinc 0.030-0.1.4 mglt 1, temperature 7...

  14. INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS FOR SMALL SCALE VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINES USED IN HARBOURS AND SHORE AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IONESCU Raluca Dora

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to analyse the wind turbine solutions implemented in harbours and on shore areas. Also a thorough study of the blade design solutions for small power Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs has been conducted, with their advantages and disadvantages, in order to find the best solution that minimises the loads and helps with the self-starting capabilities of the wind turbine. First are presented all the solutions, next are discussed several research results for each solution and, in the end, a combination of solutions is chosen for our new small power VAWT with a pre-dimensioning analysis.

  15. Do syntopic host species harbour similar symbiotic communities? The case of Chaetopterus spp. (Annelida: Chaetopteridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temir A. Britayev

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To assess whether closely related host species harbour similar symbiotic communities, we studied two polychaetes, Chaetopterus sp. (n = 11 and Chaetopterus cf. appendiculatus (n = 83 living in soft sediments of Nhatrang Bay (South China Sea, Vietnam. The former harboured the porcellanid crabs Polyonyx cf. heok and Polyonyx sp., the pinnotherid crab Tetrias sp. and the tergipedid nudibranch Phestilla sp. The latter harboured the polynoid polychaete Ophthalmonoe pettiboneae, the carapid fish Onuxodon fowleri and the porcellanid crab Eulenaios cometes, all of which, except O. fowleri, seemed to be specialized symbionts. The species richness and mean intensity of the symbionts were higher in Chaetopterus sp. than in C. cf. appendiculatus (1.8 and 1.02 species and 3.0 and 1.05 individuals per host respectively. We suggest that the lower density of Chaetopterus sp. may explain the higher number of associated symbionts observed, as well as the 100% prevalence (69.5% in C. cf. appenciculatus. Most Chaetopterus sp. harboured two symbiotic species, which was extremely rare in C. cf. appendiculatus, suggesting lower interspecific interactions in the former. The crab and nudibranch symbionts of Chaetopterus sp. often shared a host and lived in pairs, thus partitioning resources. This led to the species coexisting in the tubes of Chaetopterus sp., establishing a tightly packed community, indicating high species richness and mean intensity, together with a low species dominance. In contrast, the aggressive, strictly territorial species associated with C. cf. appendiculatus established a symbiotic community strongly dominated by single species and, thus, low species richness and mean intensity. Therefore, we suggest that interspecific interactions are determining species richness, intensity and dominance, while intraspecific interactions are influencing only intensity and abundance. It is possible that species composition may have influenced the

  16. Development in Harbour Construction, Infrastructure and Topography on the Eve of the Early Modern Age in the Baltic (1450-1600)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springmann, Maik Jens O R

    2016-01-01

    Ships are no Flying Dutchmen! They need a harbour. Therefore, the development of ship construction is pretty much connected with that of harbour construction, and beyond this, they influence the topography and infrastructure of a harbour. The transition between the Medieval period and the Early...... Modern Age is a period of great change in the development of larger ships, even in the Baltic. Furthermore, the internationalisation of Baltic trade took place. In Medieval times, ship construction followed conditions in the harbours. In the Early Modern Age, it was the other way round. Now, harbour...... construction, topography and infrastructure follow the development of ship construction. The paper focuses on the deep impact that larger multi-mast sailing ships had on the development of Baltic harbours...

  17. Recolonization of macrofauna in unpolluted sands placed in a polluted yachting harbour: A field approach using experimental trays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-García, J. M.; García-Gómez, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    A field experiment using trays was conducted at Ceuta's yachting harbour, North Africa, to study the effect in recolonization of placing trays with unpolluted defaunate sediments (fine and gross sands with low contents of organic matter) inside an enclosed yachting harbour characterized by high percentages of silt and clay and high concentrations of organic matter. Sediment recolonization in the trays was mainly undertaken by the species living naturally at the yachting harbour, which recolonized both uncontaminated gross and fine sand trays (such as the crustaceans Corophium runcicorne, Corophium sextonae and Nebalia bipes, the mollusc Parvicardium exiguum and the polychaete Pseudomalacoceros tridentata). However, other species like the polychaetes Cirriformia tentaculata and Platynereis dumerilii, although also abundant in the yachting harbour, were unable to colonize the trays through transport of larvae and/or adults in the water column. The recolonization was very quick, and after the first month, the values of abundance, species richness, diversity and evenness were similar in the experimental trays and in the reference area (yachting harbour). Although the multivariate analysis showed that the species composition differed between the trays and the reference area, there were no significant differences in recolonization of gross and fine sands, indicating that other factors different from the granulometry are modulating the recolonization patterns.

  18. Numerical simulations of tsunami waves impacts on Ulee Lheue Harbour in Banda Aceh-Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachrurrazi; Syamsidik; Al'ala, M.; Mahardi, W.

    2017-02-01

    This paper reports the effects of 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami onto the Ulee Lheue harbour facility, Banda Aceh - Indonesia. The breakwater that had damaged after tsunami were rebuilt into its original design once more due to UNDP funding source. As the existing construction knowing how much the chance it stands againts the tsunami in various terms would be decent for further improvement. This research aim is to measure the capabilities of the breakwater againts the various tsunami scenario. performing the numerical simulation to analyze the hydrodynamics we used both COMCOT and Delft3D-flow for tsunami propagation in line with the hydrodynamics. Several observation points were deployed representing each part of the breakwater. The process revealed that the breakwater only able to hold 8.0 Mw induced wave from overtopping. uniquely when 8.2 Mw tsunami wave strikes the breakwater till overtopped but not giving enough energy to move the boulder aside. Potential movement of the boulder occurred when the 8.4 Mw tsunami wave come through the breakwater produced 77.12 m (5.88 %) damaged structure. The 8.6 Mw single fault highest magnitude gave 209.32 m long (15.97%) destruction upon this Ulee Lheue Harbour breakwater.

  19. Tsunami impact and vulnerability in the harbour area of Tangier, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Benchekroun

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we assess tsunami impact and building vulnerability in the harbour area of Tangier – Morocco. Tsunami impact is evaluated through performing high-resolution inundation modelling. To assess buildings tsunami vulnerability, we use a geographic information system (GIS multi-criteria approach based upon weight and classification factors. The methodology includes various steps: (i identification of the most hazardous earthquake tsunamigenic sources, (ii computation of high-resolution digital elevation model, (iii simulation of inundation, (iv field survey to classify buildings and defence structures and (v application of the GIS-based model to produce final vulnerability map. Results show the potential tsunami impact and vulnerability that Tangier coast might face due to the occurrence of a large tsunami event in the region. Inundation map indicates that a coastal area of over 4.5 km2 is prone to tsunami flood with flow depths ranging from 0.5 to more than 6 m. Vulnerability map highlights different levels of expected buildings vulnerability to tsunami impact, which vary from “very high” for single-storey structures, located in the city harbour and along the sandy beach, to “low” for multi-storeys RC structures. Both inundation and vulnerability maps have important implications for decision makers and land use planning aiming to mitigate tsunami hazard in the North East Atlantic region.

  20. An X-Band Radar System for Bathymetry and Wave Field Analysis in a Harbour Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Ludeno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine X-band radar based systems are well tested to provide information about sea state and bathymetry. It is also well known that complex geometries and non-uniform bathymetries provide a much bigger challenge than offshore scenarios. In order to tackle this issue a retrieval method is proposed, based on spatial partitioning of the data and the application of the Normalized Scalar Product (NSP, which is an innovative procedure for the joint estimation of bathymetry and surface currents. The strategy is then applied to radar data acquired around a harbour entrance, and results show that the reconstructed bathymetry compares well with ground truth data obtained by an echo-sounder campaign, thus proving the reliability of the whole procedure. The spectrum thus retrieved is then analysed to show the evidence of reflected waves from the harbour jetties, as confirmed by chain of hydrodynamic models of the sea wave field. The possibility of using a land based radar to reveal sea wave reflection is entirely new and may open up new operational applications of the system.

  1. Respiratory transmission of an avian H3N8 influenza virus isolated from a harbour seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Erik A.; Ip, Hon S.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Yoon, Sun W.; Johnson, Jordan; Beck, Melinda A.; Webby, Richard J.; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing human H7N9 influenza infections highlight the threat of emerging avian influenza viruses. In 2011, an avian H3N8 influenza virus isolated from moribund New England harbour seals was shown to have naturally acquired mutations known to increase the transmissibility of highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses. To elucidate the potential human health threat, here we evaluate a panel of avian H3N8 viruses and find that the harbour seal virus displays increased affinity for mammalian receptors, transmits via respiratory droplets in ferrets and replicates in human lung cells. Analysis of a panel of human sera for H3N8 neutralizing antibodies suggests that there is no population-wide immunity to these viruses. The prevalence of H3N8 viruses in birds and multiple mammalian species including recent isolations from pigs and evidence that it was a past human pandemic virus make the need for surveillance and risk analysis of these viruses of public health importance.

  2. Diversity and antimicrobial activities of surface-attached marine bacteria from Sydney Harbour, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, George S; Raftos, David A; Corrigan, Shannon L; Nair, Sham V

    2010-05-30

    Marine bacteria are a rich source of potentially useful antimicrobial molecules. However, much of the microbial diversity in marine ecosystems with its potential for uncovering new antimicrobial compounds remains to be discovered. This is particularly true for surface-attached marine bacteria, which comprise microbial communities that are generally unique to a host surface and geographic location. The current study characterises culturable microbial communities on marine surfaces from Sydney Harbour, Australia, and tests their antimicrobial activities. A high proportion (47%) of the 104 marine isolates from Sydney Harbour could not be classified to a known genus based on 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Assays of antimicrobial activity from the 104 isolates showed that antimicrobial production is not widespread throughout the phylogeny of isolates with 8 of the 10 antimicrobial producers clustering into a distinct phylogenetic clade. These 8 closely related antibacterial isolates had potent activity in antibacterial cross-dilution assays, with no growth of target bacteria at supernatant concentrations of less than 6.6% v/v. To gain an insight into the types of molecules responsible for this potent activity, differential polarity extractions were carried out on antibacterial culture supernatants from these 8 isolates. All of the activity fractionated into the most polar phase, suggesting that the antibacterial molecules are highly polar. Proteolytic digestion inhibited activity, indicating that the antibacterial molecules were proteins. This study is the first to link the phylogeny of numerous surface-attached marine bacteria with antimicrobial production. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification and typing of Brucella spp. in stranded harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) on the Dutch coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maio, Elisa; Begeman, Lineke; Bisselink, Yvette; van Tulden, Peter; Wiersma, Lidewij; Hiemstra, Sjoukje; Ruuls, Robin; Gröne, Andrea; Roest, Hendrik-Ido-Jan; Willemsen, Peter; van der Giessen, Joke

    2014-09-17

    The presence of Brucella (B.) spp. in harbour porpoises stranded between 2008 and 2011 along the Dutch coast was studied. A selection of 265 tissue samples from 112 animals was analysed using conventional and molecular methods. In total, 4.5% (5/112) of the animals corresponding with 2.3% (6/265) Brucella positive tissue samples were Brucella positive by culture and these were all confirmed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) based on the insertion element 711 (IS711). In addition, two more Brucella-positive tissue samples from two animals collected in 2011 were identified using real-time PCR resulting in an overall Brucella prevalence of 6.3% (7/112 animals). Brucella spp. were obtained from lungs (n=3), pulmonary lymph node (n=3) and lungworms (n=2). Multi Locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) Analysis (MLVA) typing based on the MLVA-16 showed that the Brucella isolates were B. ceti. Additional in silico Multi Locus Sequence typing (MLST) after whole genome sequencing of the 6 Brucella isolates confirmed B. ceti ST 23. According to the Brucella 2010 MLVA database, the isolated Brucella strains encountered were of five genotypes, in two distinct subclusters divided in two different time periods of harbour porpoises collection. This study is the first population based analyses for Brucella spp. infections in cetaceans stranded along the Dutch coast. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Harbour porpoises on Horns Reef - Effects of the Horns Reef wind farm. Annual status report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougaard, J.; Carstensen, J.; Henriksen, Oluf. D.; Teilmann, J. [National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark); Rye Hansen, J. [DDH Consulting A/S, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2004-06-15

    Occurrence and distribution of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in and around the off-shore wind farm on Horns Reef, Denmark, was investigated. This report describes data collected in 2003 as part of an ongoing monitoring program, covering a period before construction of the wind farm (baseline), the construction period in 2002 and one year following construction of the wind farm. Data from acoustic dataloggers (T-PODs) and visual surveys conducted from ships confirmed the presence of harbour porpoises inside the wind farm area during all periods investigated. Comparison with baseline data from 1999-2001 and with control areas outside the wind farm did not show a statistical significant change in sighting rates inside the wind farm area in the first year following construction relative to baseline. T-POD data showed a pronounced effect of the construction of the wind farm on the indicators 'encounter duration' (measure of how long porpoises remain close to the POD) and 'waiting time' (measure of time interval between porpoise encounters). Both parameters seem to indicate higher levels of porpoise activity during construction (encounter duration went up, waiting time went down) compared to baseline. A partial return to baseline levels was seen for these two indicators in 2003. (au)

  5. Saccadic movement strategy in a semiaquatic species - the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurten, Bart R H; Niesterok, Benedikt; Dehnhardt, Guido; Hanke, Frederike D

    2017-04-15

    Moving animals can estimate the distance of visual objects from image shift on their retina (optic flow) created during translational, but not rotational movements. To facilitate this distance estimation, many terrestrial and flying animals perform saccadic movements, thereby temporally separating translational and rotational movements, keeping rotation times short. In this study, we analysed whether a semiaquatic mammal, the harbour seal, also adopts a saccadic movement strategy. We recorded the seals' normal swimming pattern with video cameras and analysed head and body movements. The swimming seals indeed minimized rotation times by saccadic head and body turns, with top rotation speeds exceeding 350 deg s(-1) which leads to an increase of translational movements. Saccades occurred during both types of locomotion of the seals' intermittent swimming mode: active propulsion and gliding. In conclusion, harbour seals share the saccadic movement strategy of terrestrial animals. Whether this movement strategy is adopted to facilitate distance estimation from optic flow or serves a different function will be a topic of future research. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. In vitro and in vivo pathogenicity studies of Pasteurella multocida strains harbouring different ompA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoch, Shailja; Sharma, Mandeep; Patil, R D; Kumar, Sandeep; Verma, Subhash

    2014-09-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a pathogenic, Gram-negative bacterium that is commonly found as normal flora in nasopharynx of variety of wild and domestic animals. Numerous virulence factors have been described for P. multocida isolates which include adherence and colonization factors, iron-regulated and acquisition proteins, extracellular enzymes such as neuraminidase, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), capsule and a variety of outer membrane proteins (Omp). OmpA has a significant role in stabilizing the cell envelope structure by providing physical linkage between the outer membrane & peptidoglycan. It has been shown to mediate P. multocida -host cells interaction via heparin and/or fibronectin binding and therefore act as an important invasive molecule which could determine the final outcome of initial infection. Comparative nucleotide sequence analysis of ompA gene of P. multocida has revealed that despite extensive genetic diversity in ompA of P. multocida, most sequences could be classified into two major allele classes namely ompA allele (I) and allele (II). The P. multocida recovered from nasal cavity of bovine and belonging to two ompA classes were tested for their differential virulence. In vitro pathogenicity studies on Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cell line employing adhesion and invasion assays indicated that P. multocida strain with ompA (I) is more invasive than P. multocida strain with ompA (II). In vivo studies in mice further reiterated that the isolates harbouring ompA(I) were comparatively more virulent to isolates harbouring ompA (II).

  7. Developing a Social, Cultural and Economic Report Card for a Regional Industrial Harbour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Pascoe

    Full Text Available Report cards are increasingly used to provide ongoing snap-shots of progress towards specific ecosystem health goals, particularly in coastal regions where planners need to balance competing demands for coastal resources from a range of industries. While most previous report cards focus on the biophysical components of the system, there is a growing interest in including the social and economic implications of ecosystem management to provide a greater social-ecological system understanding. Such a report card was requested on the Gladstone Harbour area in central Queensland, Australia. Gladstone Harbour adjoins the southern Great Barrier Reef, and is also a major industrial and shipping port. Balancing social, economic and environmental interests is therefore of great concern to the regional managers. While environmental benchmarking procedures are well established within Australia (and elsewhere, a method for assessing social and economic performance of coastal management is generally lacking. The key aim of this study was to develop and pilot a system for the development of a report card relating to appropriate cultural, social and economic objectives. The approach developed uses a range of multicriteria decision analysis methods to assess and combine different qualitative and quantitative measures, including the use of Bayesian Belief Networks to combine the different measures and provide an overall quantitative score for each of the key management objectives. The approach developed is readily transferable for purposes of similar assessments in other regions.

  8. An X-Band Radar System for Bathymetry and Wave Field Analysis in a Harbour Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludeno, Giovanni; Reale, Ferdinando; Dentale, Fabio; Carratelli, Eugenio Pugliese; Natale, Antonio; Soldovieri, Francesco; Serafino, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Marine X-band radar based systems are well tested to provide information about sea state and bathymetry. It is also well known that complex geometries and non-uniform bathymetries provide a much bigger challenge than offshore scenarios. In order to tackle this issue a retrieval method is proposed, based on spatial partitioning of the data and the application of the Normalized Scalar Product (NSP), which is an innovative procedure for the joint estimation of bathymetry and surface currents. The strategy is then applied to radar data acquired around a harbour entrance, and results show that the reconstructed bathymetry compares well with ground truth data obtained by an echo-sounder campaign, thus proving the reliability of the whole procedure. The spectrum thus retrieved is then analysed to show the evidence of reflected waves from the harbour jetties, as confirmed by chain of hydrodynamic models of the sea wave field. The possibility of using a land based radar to reveal sea wave reflection is entirely new and may open up new operational applications of the system. PMID:25594601

  9. Recent changes in estuarine benthic and suprabenthic communities resulting from the development of harbour infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvin, J C; Desroy, N; Janson, A L; Vallet, C; Duhamel, S

    2006-01-01

    Using a Before/During/After sampling protocol, the effects of the Le Havre harbour extension, which was started at the end of 2001, on the macrobenthic and suprabenthic communities in the eastern Bay of Seine (English Channel) were examined. As the construction phase has not yet been completed, the results presented here reflect only the data collected before and during the operations (September 2000 and 2002 for benthos sampling and March 2001, September 2001, October 2002 and March 2003 for suprabenthos sampling). Although bio-sedimentary changes did occur at the mouth of the Seine river, an analysis of benthic assemblages reveals that the dredging and construction operations do not seem to have influenced assemblage structure or the spatial distribution of organisms. Comparisons of the suprabenthic assemblages at each sampling date indicate that seasonal dynamics was mainly responsible for determining species distribution. We conclude that, 1 year into the harbour management plan, the observed changes in benthic and suprabenthic assemblage abundance do not exceed the range of spatial variability that exists naturally in the Seine estuary. Despite this compensatory actions designed to protect the aquatic habitats and to preserve a sustainable and healthy ecosystem have been added to the infrastructure development plan.

  10. Comparison of Sterol Biomarkers for Sewage with other Measures in Victoria Harbour, B.C., Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, S. M.; Lintern, D. Gwyn

    1999-01-01

    A lipid biomarker survey was conducted in Victoria Harbour, Canada, to compare the distribution of sewage-derived organic matter with existing results from bacterial studies. Previous surveys [Miller (1993) Report prepared by Capital Regional District Engineering Department, Victoria, B.C. Canada and Miller et al. (1995) Report prepared by CRD Environmental Services Group and Aquatic Science Consultants Ltd., B.C., Canada] of sewage contamination in the harbour were based principally on infrequent faecal coliform counts. The use of lipid biomarkers to determine time-averaged concentrations of sewage components in sediments may be a more appropriate method for defining areas where sewage is causing environmental or human health risks. 5β-Coprostanol was measured together with other sterols, fatty acids and fatty alcohols. Generally, sewage contamination shown by these lipid biomarkers was coincident with high faecal coliform counts from previous studies. However, this survey suggests, contrary to faecal coliform counts, that Portage Inlet was a region where sewage had accumulated in the sediments, possibly due to nearby overflow facilities or tidal pumping. Although the bacterial counts were low, sewage-derived organic matter was accumulating in the slack areas. In sediments of the Gorge and West Bay there were low faecal biomarker concentrations; this was probably due to the strong tidal currents which do not allow faecal matter to settle in sediments. Faecal coliform counts, however, indicated poor water quality in these same regions but this probably reflects fresh discharges passing through this area without leading to settlement.

  11. Developing a Social, Cultural and Economic Report Card for a Regional Industrial Harbour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Sean; Tobin, Renae; Windle, Jill; Cannard, Toni; Marshall, Nadine; Kabir, Zobaidul; Flint, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Report cards are increasingly used to provide ongoing snap-shots of progress towards specific ecosystem health goals, particularly in coastal regions where planners need to balance competing demands for coastal resources from a range of industries. While most previous report cards focus on the biophysical components of the system, there is a growing interest in including the social and economic implications of ecosystem management to provide a greater social-ecological system understanding. Such a report card was requested on the Gladstone Harbour area in central Queensland, Australia. Gladstone Harbour adjoins the southern Great Barrier Reef, and is also a major industrial and shipping port. Balancing social, economic and environmental interests is therefore of great concern to the regional managers. While environmental benchmarking procedures are well established within Australia (and elsewhere), a method for assessing social and economic performance of coastal management is generally lacking. The key aim of this study was to develop and pilot a system for the development of a report card relating to appropriate cultural, social and economic objectives. The approach developed uses a range of multicriteria decision analysis methods to assess and combine different qualitative and quantitative measures, including the use of Bayesian Belief Networks to combine the different measures and provide an overall quantitative score for each of the key management objectives. The approach developed is readily transferable for purposes of similar assessments in other regions.

  12. Sensor and Video Monitoring of Water Quality at Bristol Floating Harbour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiheng; Han, Dawei

    2017-04-01

    Water system is an essential component in a smart city for its sustainability and resilience. The harbourside is a focal area of​ ​Bristol with new buildings and features redeveloped in the last ten years, attracting numerous visitors by the diversity of attractions and beautiful views. There is a strong​ ​relationship between the satisfactory of the visitors and local people with the water quality in the Harbour. The freshness and beauty of the water body would please people as well as benefit the aquatic ecosystems. As we are entering a data-rich era, this pilot project aims to explore the concept of using​ ​ video cameras and smart sensors to collect and monitor water quality condition at the Bristol harbourside. The video cameras and smart sensors are connected to the Bristol Is Open network, an open programmable city platform. This will be the​ first​ attempt to collect water quality data in real time in the​ ​Bristol urban area with the wireless network. The videos and images of the water body collected by the cameras will be correlated with the in-situ water quality parameters for research​ ​purposes. The successful implementation of the sensors can attract more academic researchers and industrial partners to expand the sensor network to multiple locations​ ​around the city covering the other parts of the Harbour and River Avon, leading to a new generation of urban system infrastructure model.

  13. Endoparasitic helminths of the harbour seal, Phoca vitulina, in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgsteede, F. H. M.; Bus, H. G. J.; Verplanke, J. A. W.; van Burg, W. P. J.

    The endoparasitic helminth fauna of harbour seals which had died during the epidemic of the phocine distemper virus in 1988 was studied. Lungs, heart and gastrointestinal tracts of 94 animals collected along the Dutch coast were available for investigation. The following parasites and infection percentages were found: Nematoda: Dipetalonema spirocauda (24.5%), Otostrongylus circumlitus (6.4%), Parafilaroides gymnurus (24.5%), Ascaridoidea spec. (58.5%); Trematoda: Phagicola septentrionalis (66.0%), Cryptocotyle lingua (74.5%); Cestoda: Diphyllobothrium spec. (8.5%); Acanthocephala: Corynosoma strumosum (70.2%). The presence of worm species was not evenly distributed over the age classes. Seals younger than one year harboured fewer parasites. The highest percentages were found in 1 to 2 year old seals. The number of worms per seal varied greatly. The highest burden for ascarids was 253, for P. septentrionalis 123 000, for C. lingua 112 000 and for C. strumosum 251. A comparison of the present results with those described in the literature shows that in Dutch seals the same species were present and that numbers of worms were not higher than before the 1988 mass mortality. It is therefore concluded that helminth parasites did not cause the mass mortality.

  14. The ancient harbour system of Terracina (Latium, Italy) obtained by gravity and seismic surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Nezza, Maria; di Filippo, Michele

    2010-05-01

    Historical research has shown that Terracina (Latina, Latium) played a fundamental role in the maritime and land traffic since before the foundation of the colony. The settlement was established where the organized system of maritime, land, coastal, and fluvial transport had the most ideal conditions to constitute an important commercial crossroads, apparently since the beginning of recorded history. In order to reconstruction the buried archaeological structures attributed to the ancient Roman port, traditionally attributed to Traiano, in the current area of the harbour of Terracina, it was carried out a gravity survey, more than 380 gravity stations. The gravity method enables to recognize the cavity and the structures of the buildings underground through the results of variations density in the subsoil. Seismic tomography treats the problem of identifying a buried structure as a wave propagation process by inverting the linearized wave equation to compute the spatial distribution of the slowness of the velocity. The purpose of our tomographic study is to further test the method and to guide archaeologists in their future excavations by locating and identifying buried structures. In the residual gravity anomaly map a series of positive anomalies are visible which confirm the round structures and the pier of the buried foundations of the Imperial harbour. Unfortunately, little remains of the functioning facilities of the harbour's activities. The modern construction of the harbour, in fact, has to be developed around the new inhabitable commercial area, know today as Terracina Bassa or Borgo alla Marina. It had to be developed with a modern infrastructure of a harbor area, as in the construction of the rooms for storage of goods, warehouses, as well as for the thermal baths, hotels and amphitheatre. Furthermore, there are always the positive anomalies that characterize the area to the north-east of "Montone" hill where archaeological remains are easily visible

  15. Stochasticity in space, persistence in time: genetic heterogeneity in harbour populations of the introduced ascidian Styela plicata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari-Carmen Pineda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatio-temporal changes in genetic structure among populations provide crucial information on the dynamics of secondary spread for introduced marine species. However, temporal components have rarely been taken into consideration when studying the population genetics of non-indigenous species. This study analysed the genetic structure of Styela plicata, a solitary ascidian introduced in harbours and marinas of tropical and temperate waters, across spatial and temporal scales. A fragment of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (COI was sequenced from 395 individuals collected at 9 harbours along the NW Mediterranean coast and adjacent Atlantic waters (> 1,200 km range at two time points 5 years apart (2009 and 2014. The levels of gene diversity were relatively low for all 9 locations in both years. Analyses of genetic differentiation and distribution of molecular variance revealed strong genetic structure, with significant differences among many populations, but no significant differences among years. A weak and marginally significant correlation between geographic distance and gene differentiation was found. Our results revealed spatial structure and temporal genetic homogeneity in S. plicata, suggesting a limited role of recurrent, vessel-mediated transport of organisms among small to medium-size harbours. Our study area is representative of many highly urbanized coasts with dense harbours. In these environments, the episodic chance arrival of colonisers appears to determine the genetic structure of harbour populations and the genetic composition of these early colonising individuals persists in the respective harbours, at least over moderate time frames (five years that encompass ca. 20 generations of S. plicata.

  16. Stochasticity in space, persistence in time: genetic heterogeneity in harbour populations of the introduced ascidian Styela plicata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Mari-Carmen; Lorente, Beatriz; López-Legentil, Susanna; Palacín, Creu; Turon, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Spatio-temporal changes in genetic structure among populations provide crucial information on the dynamics of secondary spread for introduced marine species. However, temporal components have rarely been taken into consideration when studying the population genetics of non-indigenous species. This study analysed the genetic structure of Styela plicata, a solitary ascidian introduced in harbours and marinas of tropical and temperate waters, across spatial and temporal scales. A fragment of the mitochondrial gene Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (COI) was sequenced from 395 individuals collected at 9 harbours along the NW Mediterranean coast and adjacent Atlantic waters (> 1,200 km range) at two time points 5 years apart (2009 and 2014). The levels of gene diversity were relatively low for all 9 locations in both years. Analyses of genetic differentiation and distribution of molecular variance revealed strong genetic structure, with significant differences among many populations, but no significant differences among years. A weak and marginally significant correlation between geographic distance and gene differentiation was found. Our results revealed spatial structure and temporal genetic homogeneity in S. plicata, suggesting a limited role of recurrent, vessel-mediated transport of organisms among small to medium-size harbours. Our study area is representative of many highly urbanized coasts with dense harbours. In these environments, the episodic chance arrival of colonisers appears to determine the genetic structure of harbour populations and the genetic composition of these early colonising individuals persists in the respective harbours, at least over moderate time frames (five years) that encompass ca. 20 generations of S. plicata.

  17. Comparison of the iPCoD and DEPONS models for modelling population consequences of noise on harbour porpoises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Harwood, John

    Two different frameworks have been developed to assess the potential effects of noise associated with offshore renewable energy developments on harbour porpoise populations: The Interim Population Consequences of Disturbance (iPCoD) and Disturbance Effects of Noise on the Harbour Porpoise...... Population in the North Sea (DEPONS). Although both models simulate population dynamics based on the birth and survival rates of individual animals, they model survival in a different way. iPCoD uses average survival rates derived from data from North Sea animals. In the DEPONS model, survival emerges from...

  18. Distribution and abundance of benthic macroorganisms in and around Visakhapatnam Harbour on the east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Musale, A.S.; Desai, D.V.; Sawant, S.S.; Venkat, K.; Anil, A.C.

    during the monsoon, and port related activities such as dredging, oil spill, petroleum effluents, out-fall of variety of cargo handled by the port etc. all of which disturb the port environment. Visakhapatnam is a major harbour in the North East... berths in the IH and OH area with two moorings respectively, indicating the amount of cargo handled in the inner harbour will be more. The climate in Visakhapatnam is governed by its location in the tropics which is mainly affected by seasonal monsoon...

  19. Canine distemper virus ISCOMS induce protection in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) against phocid distemper but still allow subsequent infection with phocid distemper virus-1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.K.G. Visser (Ilona); E.J. Vedder (Lies); C. Örvell; T. Barrett (Thomas); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); M.W.G. van de Bildt (Marco)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractA candidate canine distemper virus (CDV) ISCOM vaccine has been shown to be effective in protecting harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) from phocid distemper in 1988. However, of the 35 harbour seals receiving this vaccine upon admission to a seal rehabilitation and research centre

  20. Abundance and recruitment data for Undaria pinnatifida in Brest harbour, France: Model versus field results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T. Murphy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “A modelling approach to explore the critical environmental parameters influencing the growth and establishment of the invasive seaweed Undaria pinnatifida in Europe” [1]. This article describes raw simulation data output from a novel individual-based model of the invasive kelp species Undaria pinnatifida. It also includes field data of monthly abundance and recruitment values for a population of invasive U. pinnatifida (in Brest harbour, France that were used to validate the model. The raw model output and field data are made publicly available in order to enable critical analysis of the model predictions and to inform future modelling efforts of the study species.