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Sample records for haplosporidium nelsoni msx

  1. Transmission of the haplosporidian parasite MSX Haplosporidium nelsoni to the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica in an upweller system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunila, I; Karolus, J; Lang, E P; Mroczka, M E; Volk, J

    2000-08-31

    The haplosporidian oyster parasite MSX (Multinucleated Sphere X) Haplosporidium nelsoni was transmitted to eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica. Hatchery-raised, MSX-free juvenile oysters were placed in upweller tanks. Water to the tanks was filtered through a screen with 1 mm2 openings and originated from the water column overlaying naturally infected oysters beds (MSX prevalence 17 to 57%). MSX was diagnosed by histopathological analysis. MSX-disease (57% prevalence) with increased mortality (19%) was observed 11 wk after the beginning of the exposure and mortality of 80% after 16 wk. The study demonstrates transmission of MSX via water-borne infectious agents capable of passing through a 1 mm filter.

  2. Widespread survey finds no evidence of Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX) in Gulf of Mexico oysters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Susan E; Paterno, Jenny; Scarpa, Emily; Stokes, Nancy A; Kim, Yungkul; Powell, Eric N; Bushek, David

    2011-02-22

    The advent of molecular detection assays has provided a set of very sensitive tools for the detection of pathogens in marine organisms, but it has also raised problems of how to interpret positive signals that are not accompanied by visual confirmation. PCR-positive results have recently been reported for Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX), a pathogen of the oyster Crassostrea virginica in 31 of 40 oysters from 6 sites in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. Histological confirmation of the PCR results was not undertaken, and no haplosporidian has been reported from the numerous histological studies and surveys of oysters in the region. To further investigate the possibility that H. nelsoni is present in this region, we sampled 210 oysters from 40 sites around the Gulf of Mexico and Puerto Rico using PCR and 180 of these using tissue-section histology also. None of the oysters showed evidence of H. nelsoni by PCR or of any haplosporidian by histology. We cannot, therefore, confirm that H. nelsoni is present and widespread in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. Our results do not prove that H. nelsoni is absent from the region, but taken together with results from previous histological surveys, they suggest that for the purposes of controlling oyster importation, the region should continue to be considered free of the parasite.

  3. A 1-year investigation of the parasite Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX) in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas from Dayaowan Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongwei; Lu, Xin; Liang, Yubo

    2010-06-01

    The infection prevalence of the protozoan parasite Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX) in Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas), collected from Dayaowan Bay on the north coast of the Yellow Sea, China, was investigated in 2007. The traditional histological method of diagnosing H. nelsoni infection in oysters was compared to that of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Histology and the first PCR analysis detected infection in 21 (a total of 240 oysters) (8.75%) oysters, and the second PCR revealed infection in 26 oysters (10.83%). Only local or epithelial infections were found; no systemic infections were detected. Infection by H. nelsoni mostly occurred from April through October, and the monthly prevalence ranged from 5% to 25%, with a peak in August. These results suggest that the prevalence of the parasite is low in Dayaowan Bay. The prevalence of H. nelsoni is thought to be controlled in some way by temperature and salinity.

  4. Use of Competitive PCR to Detect and Quantify Haplosporidium nelsoni Infection (MSX disease) in the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, J Michael; Franklin, Dean E.; Brown, Bonnie L.

    2000-09-01

    This study was undertaken to develop a quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay that would improve the utility of PCR for detecting Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX), a serious parasite of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica. A competitive PCR sequence was generated from the H. nelsoni small subunit ribosomal DNA fragment, originally described by Stokes and colleagues, that was amplified by the same PCR primers and had similar amplification performance. Assays performed using competitor dilutions ranging from 0.05 to 500 pg/µl DNA were used to test oyster samples designated using histological techniques as having "light" or "heavy" MSX infections. Visual diagnoses were confirmed equally well with three methods: densitometry of ethidium-bromide-stained agarose, densitometry of SYBRGreen-stained polyacrylamide gels, and analysis by GeneScan 3.0 of fluorescent products detected in ultrathin gels. Oysters diagnosed as negative for MSX tested as negative or light by PCR. Oysters with light MSX infections generally had less than 5 pg/µl infectious DNA. Oysters with heavy infections generally corresponded to 5 pg/µl or greater competitor dilutions.

  5. Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX) in Japanese scallops Patinopecten yessoensis (Jay, 1857) from Dalian along the northern coast of the Yellow Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongwei; Lu, Xin; Liang, Yubo

    2012-04-01

    The protozoan parasite Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX) was identified in Japanese scallops Patinopecten yessoensis (Jay, 1857) from Dalian along the northern coast of the Yellow Sea, China by histopathologic examination, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, and in situ hybridization (ISH) assay. H. nelsoni plasmodia-like structures were identified in the digestive glands of scallops by histologic examination, but no parasite spores were observed. PCR using the Hap-F2, R2 primer pair produced a sequence with 100% homology with the corresponding small subunit rDNA region of H. nelsoni. An ISH assay using the oligonucleotide probe MSX1347 produced a positive reaction with the Japanese scallop parasite. This is the first report of H. nelsoni in P. yessoensis in China.

  6. Prevalence of Perkinsus marinus (dermo), Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX), and QPX in bivalves of Delaware's inland bays and quantitative, high-throughput diagnosis of dermo by QPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Paul N; Ewart, John W; Marsh, Adam G

    2007-01-01

    Restoration of oyster reef habitat in the Inland Bays of Delaware was accompanied by an effort to detect and determine relative abundance of the bivalve pathogens Perkinsus marinus, Haplosporidium nelsoni, and QPX. Both the oyster Crassostrea virginica and the clam Mercenaria mercenaria were sampled from the bays. In addition, oysters were deployed at eight sites around the bays as sentinels for the three parasites. Perkinsus marinus prevalence was measured with a real-time, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodology that enabled high-throughput detection of as few as 31 copies of the ribosomal non-transcribed spacer region in 500 ng oyster DNA. The other pathogens were assayed using PCR with species-specific primers. Perkinsus marinus was identified in Indian River Bay at moderate prevalence ( approximately 40%) in both an artificial reef and a wild oyster population whereas sentinel oysters were PCR-negative after 3-months exposure during summer and early fall. Haplosporidium nelsoni was restricted to one oyster deployed in Little Assawoman Bay. QPX and P. marinus were not detected among wild clams. While oysters in these bays have historically been under the greatest threat by MSX, it is apparent that P. marinus currently poses a greater threat to recovery of oyster aquaculture in Delaware's Inland Bays.

  7. Quantitative PCR assay to determine prevalence and intensity of MSX (Haplosporidium nelsoni) in North Carolina and Rhode Island oysters Crassostrea virginica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, Ami E; Ford, Susan E; Gauthier, Julie D; Gomez-Chiarri, Marta

    2012-12-27

    The continuing challenges to the management of both wild and cultured eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica populations resulting from protozoan parasites has stimulated interest in the development of molecular assays for their detection and quantification. For Haplosporidium nelsoni, the causative agent of multinucleated sphere unknown (MSX) disease, diagnostic evaluations depend extensively on traditional but laborious histological approaches and more recently on rapid and sensitive (but not quantitative) end-point polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Here, we describe the development and application of a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for H. nelsoni using an Applied Biosystems TaqMan® assay designed with minor groove binder (MGB) probes. The assay was highly sensitive, detecting as few as 20 copies of cloned target DNA. Histologically evaluated parasite density was significantly correlated with the quantification cycle (Cq), regardless of whether quantification was categorical (r2 = 0.696, p < 0.0001) or quantitative (r2 = 0.797, p < 0.0001). Application in field studies conducted in North Carolina, USA (7 locations), revealed widespread occurrence of the parasite with moderate to high intensities noted in some locations. In Rhode Island, USA, application of the assay on oysters from 2 locations resulted in no positives.

  8. PROGRESSION OF DISEASES CAUSED BY THE OYSTER PARASITES, PERKINSUS MARINUS AND HAPLOSPORIDIUM NELSONI, IN CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA ON CONSTRUCTED INTERTIDAL REEFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The progression of diseases caused by the oyster parasites, Perkinsus marinus and Haplosporidium nelsoni, were evaluated by periodic sampling (May 1994-Dec. 1995) of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, that set on an artificial reef located in the Piankatank River, Virginia, in Augus...

  9. The occurrence of haplosporidian parasites, Haplosporidium nelsoni and Haplosporidium sp., in oysters in Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lynch, S.A.; Villalba, A.; Abollo, E.; Engelsma, M.Y.; Stokes, N.; Culloty, S.C.

    2013-01-01

    The phylum Haplosporidia is a group of obligate protozoan parasites that infect a number of freshwater and marine invertebrates. Haplosporidian parasites have caused significant mortalities in commercially important shellfish species worldwide. In this study, haplosporidia were detected in Pacific

  10. Evaluation of vaginal implant transmitters in elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce K. Johnson; Terrance McCoy; Christopher O. Kochanny; Rachel C. Cook

    2006-01-01

    The effects of vaginal implant transmitters for tissue damage after 11 wk in 13 captive adult elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and subsequent reproductive performance in 38 free-ranging elk were evaluated. Vaginal implant transmitters are designed to be shed at parturition and are used to locate birth sites of wild ungulates; however, potential adverse...

  11. Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    activities will occur. Krypton and xenon flash lamps in the CE will contain a small amount of low-level Ni63 radioactive element. The Ni63 will serve as...Radiation emitted from Ni63 is small enough (80 microcuries 0*Ci)) to exempt it from Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing and Department of...MSX mission, and only the small quantity of radioactive material ( Ni63 ) will be aboard and deorbit (PRA, 1992). 2.1.8 Spacecraft Control and Data

  12. Haplosporidium raabei n. sp. (Haplosporidia): a parasite of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas, 1771).

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    Molloy, D P; Giambérini, L; Stokes, N A; Burreson, E M; Ovcharenko, M A

    2012-04-01

    Extensive connective tissue lysis is a common outcome of haplosporidian infection. Although such infections in marine invertebrates are well documented, they are relatively rarely observed in freshwater invertebrates. Herein, we report a field study using a comprehensive series of methodologies (histology, dissection, electron microscopy, gene sequence analysis, and molecular phylogenetics) to investigate the morphology, taxonomy, systematics, geographical distribution, pathogenicity, and seasonal and annual prevalence of a haplosporidian observed in zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha. Based on its genetic sequence, morphology, and host, we describe Haplosporidium raabei n. sp. from D. polymorpha - the first haplosporidian species from a freshwater bivalve. Haplosporidium raabei is rare as we observed it in histological sections in only 0·7% of the zebra mussels collected from 43 water bodies across 11 European countries and in none that were collected from 10 water bodies in the United States. In contrast to its low prevalences, disease intensities were quite high with 79·5% of infections advanced to sporogenesis.

  13. Msx-1 and Msx-2 in mammary gland development.

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    Satoh, Kennichi; Ginsburg, Erika; Vonderhaar, Barbara K

    2004-04-01

    Homeobox genes do not generally function alone to determine cell fate and morphogenesis. Rather it is the distinct combination of various members of the homeobox family of genes and their spatiotemporal patterns of expression that determine cell identity and function. Functional redundancy often makes it difficult to clearly discern the role of any one given homeobox gene. The roles that Msx1 and Msx2 play in branching morphogenesis of the mammary gland are only now becoming more evident. Many signaling pathways and transcription factors are implicated in how these homeobox genes correctly determine the morphological development of the gland. Overexpression of Msx1 and Msx2 may also be involved in tumorigenesis. Additional studies are needed to elucidate the roles of these genes in both breast development and cancer.

  14. Msx homeobox gene family and craniofacial development.

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    Alappat, Sylvia; Zhang, Zun Yi; Chen, Yi Ping

    2003-12-01

    Vertebrate Msx genes are unlinked, homeobox-containing genes that bear homology to the Drosophila muscle segment homeobox gene. These genes are expressed at multiple sites of tissue-tissue interactions during vertebrate embryonic development. Inductive interactions mediated by the Msx genes are essential for normal craniofacial, limb and ectodermal organ morphogenesis, and are also essential to survival in mice, as manifested by the phenotypic abnormalities shown in knockout mice and in humans. This review summarizes studies on the expression, regulation, and functional analysis of Msx genes that bear relevance to craniofacial development in humans and mice. Key words: Msx genes, craniofacial, tooth, cleft palate, suture, development, transcription factor, signaling molecule.

  15. Homeobox genes Msx-1 and Msx-2 are associated with induction and growth of skin appendages.

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    Noveen, A; Jiang, T X; Ting-Berreth, S A; Chuong, C M

    1995-05-01

    The mechanism involved in the morphogenesis of skin appendages is a fundamental issue underlying the development and healing of skin. To identify molecules involved in the induction and growth of skin appendages, we studied the expression of two homeobox genes, Msx-1 and Msx-2, during embryonic chicken skin development. We found that i) both Msx-1 and Msx-2 are early markers of epithelial placodes for skin appendages; ii) both Msx-1 and Msx-2 are expressed in the growing feather bud epithelia but not in the interbud epithelia; iii) although mostly overlapping, there are differences between the expression of the two Msx genes, Msx-1 being expressed more toward the anterior whereas Msx-2 is expressed more toward the distal feather bud; iv) there is no body-position-specific expression pattern as was observed for members of the Hox A-D clusters; v) in the feather follicle, Msx-1 and 2 are expressed in the collar and barb ridge epithelia, both regions of continuous cell proliferation; vi) when feather-bud growth was inhibited by forskolin, an activator of adenylyl cyclase, the expression of both genes was reduced. These results showed that Msx genes are specifically expressed in epithelial domains destined to become skin appendages. Its function in skin-appendage morphogenesis may be twofold, first in making epithelial cells competent to become skin appendages and, second, in making epithelial cells maintain their potential for continuous growth.

  16. TEMPERATURE SELECTION BY HATCHLING AND YEARLING FLORIDA RED-BELLIED TURTLES (PSEUDEMYS NELSONI) IN THERMAL GRADIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We tested hatchling and yearling Florida red-bellied turtles (Pseudemys nelsoni) in laboratory thermal gradient chambers to determine if they would prefer particular temperatures. Most 1995 hatchlings selected the highest temperature zone of 27degrees C (Test 1) and 30 degrees ...

  17. Relationships among msx gene structure and function in zebrafish and other vertebrates.

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    Ekker, M; Akimenko, M A; Allende, M L; Smith, R; Drouin, G; Langille, R M; Weinberg, E S; Westerfield, M

    1997-10-01

    The zebrafish genome contains at least five msx homeobox genes, msxA, msxB, msxC, msxD, and the newly isolated msxE. Although these genes share structural features common to all Msx genes, phylogenetic analyses of protein sequences indicate that the msx genes from zebrafish are not orthologous to the Msx1 and Msx2 genes of mammals, birds, and amphibians. The zebrafish msxB and msxC are more closely related to each other and to the mouse Msx3. Similarly, although the combinatorial expression of the zebrafish msx genes in the embryonic dorsal neuroectoderm, visceral arches, fins, and sensory organs suggests functional similarities with the Msx genes of other vertebrates, differences in the expression patterns preclude precise assignment of orthological relationships. Distinct duplication events may have given rise to the msx genes of modern fish and other vertebrate lineages whereas many aspects of msx gene functions during embryonic development have been preserved.

  18. Msx2 promotes cardiovascular calcification by activating paracrine Wnt signals

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Jian-Su; Cheng, Su-Li; Pingsterhaus, Joyce M.; Charlton-Kachigian, Nichole; Loewy, Arleen P.; Towler, Dwight A.

    2005-01-01

    In diabetic LDLR–/– mice, an ectopic BMP2-Msx2 gene regulatory program is upregulated in association with vascular calcification. We verified the procalcific actions of aortic Msx2 expression in vivo. CMV-Msx2 transgenic (CMV-Msx2Tg+) mice expressed 3-fold higher levels of aortic Msx2 than nontransgenic littermates. On high-fat diets, CMV-Msx2Tg+ mice exhibited marked cardiovascular calcification involving aortic and coronary tunica media. This corresponded to regions of Msx2 immunoreactivity...

  19. Differential expression of homeobox-containing genes Msx-1 and Msx-2 and homeoprotein Msx-2 expression during chick craniofacial development.

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    Nishikawa, K; Nakanishi, T; Aoki, C; Hattori, T; Takahashi, K; Taniguchi, S

    1994-03-01

    The expression pattern of chick Msx-1 and Msx-2 homeobox genes in craniofacial primordia was examined by in situ hybridization using cRNA probes. Both genes were expressed in the distal region of the facial primordia, where the distribution of Msx-2 expression was restricted distally within the Msx-1 expression domain. On the contrary, Msx-2 expression in the lateral choroid plexus and cranial skull was broader and more intensive than Msx-1 expression. Our findings suggest that these two genes cooperate to play differential roles in craniofacial development. Msx-2 protein was detected immunohistochemically, and its localization essentially corresponded to the mRNA expression pattern, substantiating the involvement of Msx-2 protein as a transcriptional regulator in developing limb and face.

  20. Analysis of Msx1; Msx2 double mutants reveals multiple roles for Msx genes in limb development.

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    Lallemand, Yvan; Nicola, Marie-Anne; Ramos, Casto; Bach, Antoine; Cloment, Cécile Saint; Robert, Benoît

    2005-07-01

    The homeobox-containing genes Msx1 and Msx2 are highly expressed in the limb field from the earliest stages of limb formation and, subsequently, in both the apical ectodermal ridge and underlying mesenchyme. However, mice homozygous for a null mutation in either Msx1 or Msx2 do not display abnormalities in limb development. By contrast, Msx1; Msx2 double mutants exhibit a severe limb phenotype. Our analysis indicates that these genes play a role in crucial processes during limb morphogenesis along all three axes. Double mutant limbs are shorter and lack anterior skeletal elements (radius/tibia, thumb/hallux). Gene expression analysis confirms that there is no formation of regions with anterior identity. This correlates with the absence of dorsoventral boundary specification in the anterior ectoderm, which precludes apical ectodermal ridge formation anteriorly. As a result, anterior mesenchyme is not maintained, leading to oligodactyly. Paradoxically, polydactyly is also frequent and appears to be associated with extended Fgf activity in the apical ectodermal ridge, which is maintained up to 14.5 dpc. This results in a major outgrowth of the mesenchyme anteriorly, which nevertheless maintains a posterior identity, and leads to formation of extra digits. These defects are interpreted in the context of an impairment of Bmp signalling.

  1. Msx1 and Msx2 are expressed in sub-populations of vascular smooth muscle cells.

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    Goupille, Olivier; Saint Cloment, Cécile; Lopes, Miguel; Montarras, Didier; Robert, Benoît

    2008-08-01

    Using an nlacZ reporter gene inserted at the Msx1 and Msx2 loci, we could analyze the expression of these homeogenes in the adult mouse. We observed that Msx genes are prominently expressed in a subset of blood vessels. The Msx2nlacZ allele is mainly expressed in a restricted population of mural cells in peripheral arteries and veins. Msx1nlacZ is expressed to a lesser extent by vascular smooth muscle cells of peripheral arteries, but is highly expressed in arterioles and capillaries, making Msx1 a novel marker for a subpopulation of pericytes. Expression is set up early in developing vessels and maintained throughout life. In addition, expression of both genes is observed in a few endothelial cells of the aorta at fetal stages, and only Msx2 continues to be expressed in this layer at the adult stage. These results suggest major functions for Msx genes in vascular mural cell formation and remodeling. Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Zebrafish msxB, msxC and msxE function together to refine the neural-nonneural border and regulate cranial placodes and neural crest development.

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    Phillips, Bryan T; Kwon, Hye-Joo; Melton, Colt; Houghtaling, Paul; Fritz, Andreas; Riley, Bruce B

    2006-06-15

    The zebrafish muscle segment homeobox genes msxB, msxC and msxE are expressed in partially overlapping domains in the neural crest and preplacodal ectoderm. We examined the roles of these msx genes in early development. Disrupting individual msx genes causes modest variable defects, whereas disrupting all three produces a reproducible severe phenotype, suggesting functional redundancy. Neural crest differentiation is blocked at an early stage. Preplacodal development begins normally, but placodes arising from the msx expression domain later show elevated apoptosis and are reduced in size. Cell proliferation is normal in these tissues. Unexpectedly, Msx-deficient embryos become ventralized by late gastrulation whereas misexpression of msxB dorsalizes the embryo. These effects appear to involve Distal-less (Dlx) protein activity, as loss of dlx3b and dlx4b suppresses ventralization in Msx-depleted embryos. At the same time, Msx-depletion restores normal preplacodal gene expression to dlx3b-dlx4b mutants. These data suggest that mutual antagonism between Msx and Dlx proteins achieves a balance of function required for normal preplacodal differentiation and placement of the neural-nonneural border.

  3. Msx2 Stimulates Chondrocyte Maturation by Controlling Ihh Expression*

    OpenAIRE

    Amano, Katsuhiko; Ichida, Fumitaka; Sugita, Atsushi; Hata, Kenji; Wada, Masahiro; Takigawa, Yoko; Nakanishi, Masako; Kogo, Mikihiko; Nishimura, Riko; Yoneda, Toshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    Several studies indicated that a homeobox gene, Msx2, is implicated in regulation of skeletal development by controlling enchondral ossification as well as membranous ossification. However, the molecular basis by which Msx2 conducts chondrogenesis is currently unclear. In this study, we examined the role of Msx2 in chondrocyte differentiation using mouse primary chondrocytes and embryonic metatarsal explants. Treatment with BMP2 up-regulated the expression of Msx2 mRNA...

  4. MSX2 stimulates chondrocyte maturation by controlling Ihh expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Katsuhiko; Ichida, Fumitaka; Sugita, Atsushi; Hata, Kenji; Wada, Masahiro; Takigawa, Yoko; Nakanishi, Masako; Kogo, Mikihiko; Nishimura, Riko; Yoneda, Toshiyuki

    2008-10-24

    Several studies indicated that a homeobox gene, Msx2, is implicated in regulation of skeletal development by controlling enchondral ossification as well as membranous ossification. However, the molecular basis by which Msx2 conducts chondrogenesis is currently unclear. In this study, we examined the role of Msx2 in chondrocyte differentiation using mouse primary chondrocytes and embryonic metatarsal explants. Treatment with BMP2 up-regulated the expression of Msx2 mRNA along with chondrocyte differentiation in murine primary chondrocytes. Overexpression of wild-type Msx2 stimulated calcification of primary chondrocytes in the presence of BMP2. We also found that constitutively active Msx2 (caMsx2) enhanced BMP2-dependent calcification more efficiently than wild-type Msx2. Consistently, caMsx2 overexpression up-regulated the expression of alkaline phosphatase and collagen type X induced by BMP2. Furthermore, organ culture experiments using mouse embryonic metatarsals indicated that caMsx2 clearly stimulated the maturation of chondrocytes into the prehypertrophic and hypertrophic stages in the presence of BMP2. In contrast, knockdown of Msx2 inhibited maturation of primary chondrocytes. The stimulatory effect of Msx2 on chondrocyte maturation was enhanced by overexpression of Smad1 and Smad4 but inhibited by Smad6, an inhibitory Smad for BMP2 signaling. These data suggest that Msx2 requires BMP2/Smad signaling for its chondrogenic action. In addition, caMsx2 overexpression induced Ihh (Indian hedgehog) expression in mouse primary chondrocytes. Importantly, treatment with cyclopamine, a specific inhibitor for hedgehogs, blocked Msx2-induced chondrogenesis. Collectively, our results indicated that Msx2 promotes the maturation of chondrocytes, at least in part, through up-regulating Ihh expression.

  5. Regulation of Msx-1, Msx-2, Bmp-2 and Bmp-4 during foetal and postnatal mammary gland development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phippard, D J; Weber-Hall, S J; Sharpe, P T; Naylor, M S; Jayatalake, H; Maas, R; Woo, I; Roberts-Clark, D; Francis-West, P H; Liu, Y H; Maxson, R; Hill, R E; Dale, T C

    1996-09-01

    Expression of the Msx-1 and Msx-2 homeobox genes have been shown to be coordinately regulated with the Bmp-2 and Bmp-4 ligands in a variety of developing tissues. Here we report that transcripts from all four genes are developmentally regulated during both foetal and postnatal mammary gland development. The location and time-course of the Bmp and Msx expression point to a role for Msx and Bmp gene products in the control of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Expression of Msx-2, but not Msx-1, Bmp-2 or Bmp-4 was decreased following ovariectomy, while expression of the human Msx-2 homologue was regulated by 17beta-oestradiol in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. The regulation of Msx-2 expression by oestrogen raises the possibility that hormonal regulation of mammary development is mediated through the control of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions.

  6. BMP-Mediated Functional Cooperation between Dlx5;Dlx6 and Msx1;Msx2 during Mammalian Limb Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieux-Rochas, Maxence; Bouhali, Kamal; Mantero, Stefano; Garaffo, Giulia; Provero, Paolo; Astigiano, Simonetta; Barbieri, Ottavia; Caratozzolo, Mariano F.; Tullo, Apollonia; Guerrini, Luisa; Lallemand, Yvan; Robert, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    The Dlx and Msx homeodomain transcription factors play important roles in the control of limb development. The combined disruption of Msx1 and Msx2, as well as that of Dlx5 and Dlx6, lead to limb patterning defects with anomalies in digit number and shape. Msx1;Msx2 double mutants are characterized by the loss of derivatives of the anterior limb mesoderm which is not observed in either of the simple mutants. Dlx5;Dlx6 double mutants exhibit hindlimb ectrodactyly. While the morphogenetic action of Msx genes seems to involve the BMP molecules, the mode of action of Dlx genes still remains elusive. Here, examining the limb phenotypes of combined Dlx and Msx mutants we reveal a new Dlx-Msx regulatory loop directly involving BMPs. In Msx1;Dlx5;Dlx6 triple mutant mice (TKO), beside the expected ectrodactyly, we also observe the hallmark morphological anomalies of Msx1;Msx2 double mutants suggesting an epistatic role of Dlx5 and Dlx6 over Msx2. In Msx2;Dlx5;Dlx6 TKO mice we only observe an aggravation of the ectrodactyly defect without changes in the number of the individual components of the limb. Using a combination of qPCR, ChIP and bioinformatic analyses, we identify two Dlx/Msx regulatory pathways: 1) in the anterior limb mesoderm a non-cell autonomous Msx-Dlx regulatory loop involves BMP molecules through the AER and 2) in AER cells and, at later stages, in the limb mesoderm the regulation of Msx2 by Dlx5 and Dlx6 occurs also cell autonomously. These data bring new elements to decipher the complex AER-mesoderm dialogue that takes place during limb development and provide clues to understanding the etiology of congenital limb malformations. PMID:23382810

  7. BMP-mediated functional cooperation between Dlx5;Dlx6 and Msx1;Msx2 during mammalian limb development.

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    Maxence Vieux-Rochas

    Full Text Available The Dlx and Msx homeodomain transcription factors play important roles in the control of limb development. The combined disruption of Msx1 and Msx2, as well as that of Dlx5 and Dlx6, lead to limb patterning defects with anomalies in digit number and shape. Msx1;Msx2 double mutants are characterized by the loss of derivatives of the anterior limb mesoderm which is not observed in either of the simple mutants. Dlx5;Dlx6 double mutants exhibit hindlimb ectrodactyly. While the morphogenetic action of Msx genes seems to involve the BMP molecules, the mode of action of Dlx genes still remains elusive. Here, examining the limb phenotypes of combined Dlx and Msx mutants we reveal a new Dlx-Msx regulatory loop directly involving BMPs. In Msx1;Dlx5;Dlx6 triple mutant mice (TKO, beside the expected ectrodactyly, we also observe the hallmark morphological anomalies of Msx1;Msx2 double mutants suggesting an epistatic role of Dlx5 and Dlx6 over Msx2. In Msx2;Dlx5;Dlx6 TKO mice we only observe an aggravation of the ectrodactyly defect without changes in the number of the individual components of the limb. Using a combination of qPCR, ChIP and bioinformatic analyses, we identify two Dlx/Msx regulatory pathways: 1 in the anterior limb mesoderm a non-cell autonomous Msx-Dlx regulatory loop involves BMP molecules through the AER and 2 in AER cells and, at later stages, in the limb mesoderm the regulation of Msx2 by Dlx5 and Dlx6 occurs also cell autonomously. These data bring new elements to decipher the complex AER-mesoderm dialogue that takes place during limb development and provide clues to understanding the etiology of congenital limb malformations.

  8. BMP-mediated functional cooperation between Dlx5;Dlx6 and Msx1;Msx2 during mammalian limb development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieux-Rochas, Maxence; Bouhali, Kamal; Mantero, Stefano; Garaffo, Giulia; Provero, Paolo; Astigiano, Simonetta; Barbieri, Ottavia; Caratozzolo, Mariano F; Tullo, Apollonia; Guerrini, Luisa; Lallemand, Yvan; Robert, Benoît; Levi, Giovanni; Merlo, Giorgio R

    2013-01-01

    The Dlx and Msx homeodomain transcription factors play important roles in the control of limb development. The combined disruption of Msx1 and Msx2, as well as that of Dlx5 and Dlx6, lead to limb patterning defects with anomalies in digit number and shape. Msx1;Msx2 double mutants are characterized by the loss of derivatives of the anterior limb mesoderm which is not observed in either of the simple mutants. Dlx5;Dlx6 double mutants exhibit hindlimb ectrodactyly. While the morphogenetic action of Msx genes seems to involve the BMP molecules, the mode of action of Dlx genes still remains elusive. Here, examining the limb phenotypes of combined Dlx and Msx mutants we reveal a new Dlx-Msx regulatory loop directly involving BMPs. In Msx1;Dlx5;Dlx6 triple mutant mice (TKO), beside the expected ectrodactyly, we also observe the hallmark morphological anomalies of Msx1;Msx2 double mutants suggesting an epistatic role of Dlx5 and Dlx6 over Msx2. In Msx2;Dlx5;Dlx6 TKO mice we only observe an aggravation of the ectrodactyly defect without changes in the number of the individual components of the limb. Using a combination of qPCR, ChIP and bioinformatic analyses, we identify two Dlx/Msx regulatory pathways: 1) in the anterior limb mesoderm a non-cell autonomous Msx-Dlx regulatory loop involves BMP molecules through the AER and 2) in AER cells and, at later stages, in the limb mesoderm the regulation of Msx2 by Dlx5 and Dlx6 occurs also cell autonomously. These data bring new elements to decipher the complex AER-mesoderm dialogue that takes place during limb development and provide clues to understanding the etiology of congenital limb malformations.

  9. Heterodimerization of Msx and Dlx homeoproteins results in functional antagonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Hu, G; Wang, H; Sciavolino, P; Iler, N; Shen, M M; Abate-Shen, C

    1997-05-01

    Protein-protein interactions are known to be essential for specifying the transcriptional activities of homeoproteins. Here we show that representative members of the Msx and Dlx homeoprotein families form homo- and heterodimeric complexes. We demonstrate that dimerization by Msx and Dlx proteins is mediated through their homeodomains and that the residues required for this interaction correspond to those necessary for DNA binding. Unlike most other known examples of homeoprotein interactions, association of Msx and Dlx proteins does not promote cooperative DNA binding; instead, dimerization and DNA binding are mutually exclusive activities. In particular, we show that Msx and Dlx proteins interact independently and noncooperatively with homeodomain DNA binding sites and that dimerization is specifically blocked by the presence of such DNA sites. We further demonstrate that the transcriptional properties of Msx and Dlx proteins display reciprocal inhibition. Specifically, Msx proteins act as transcriptional repressors and Dlx proteins act as activators, while in combination, Msx and Dlx proteins counteract each other's transcriptional activities. Finally, we show that the expression patterns of representative Msx and Dlx genes (Msx1, Msx2, Dlx2, and Dlx5) overlap in mouse embryogenesis during limb bud and craniofacial development, consistent with the potential for their protein products to interact in vivo. Based on these observations, we propose that functional antagonism through heterodimer formation provides a mechanism for regulating the transcriptional actions of Msx and Dlx homeoproteins in vivo.

  10. Targeted reduction of vascular Msx1 and Msx2 mitigates arteriosclerotic calcification and aortic stiffness in LDLR-deficient mice fed diabetogenic diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Su-Li; Behrmann, Abraham; Shao, Jian-Su; Ramachandran, Bindu; Krchma, Karen; Bello Arredondo, Yoanna; Kovacs, Attila; Mead, Megan; Maxson, Robert; Towler, Dwight A

    2014-12-01

    When fed high-fat diets, male LDLR(-/-) mice develop obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and arteriosclerotic calcification. An osteogenic Msx-Wnt regulatory program is concomitantly upregulated in the vasculature. To better understand the mechanisms of diabetic arteriosclerosis, we generated SM22-Cre;Msx1(fl/fl);Msx2(fl/fl);LDLR(-/-) mice, assessing the impact of Msx1+Msx2 gene deletion in vascular myofibroblast and smooth muscle cells. Aortic Msx2 and Msx1 were decreased by 95% and 34% in SM22-Cre;Msx1(fl/fl);Msx2(fl/fl);LDLR(-/-) animals versus Msx1(fl/fl);Msx2(fl/fl);LDLR(-/-) controls, respectively. Aortic calcium was reduced by 31%, and pulse wave velocity, an index of stiffness, was decreased in SM22-Cre;Msx1(fl/fl);Msx2(fl/fl);LDLR(-/-) mice vs. controls. Fasting blood glucose and lipids did not differ, yet SM22-Cre;Msx1(fl/fl);Msx2(fl/fl);LDLR(-/-) siblings became more obese. Aortic adventitial myofibroblasts from SM22-Cre;Msx1(fl/fl);Msx2(fl/fl);LDLR(-/-) mice exhibited reduced osteogenic gene expression and mineralizing potential with concomitant reduction in multiple Wnt genes. Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and Sca1, markers of aortic osteogenic progenitors, were also reduced, paralleling a 78% reduction in alkaline phosphatase (TNAP)-positive adventitial myofibroblasts. RNA interference revealed that although Msx1+Msx2 supports TNAP and Wnt7b expression, Msx1 selectively maintains Shh and Msx2 sustains Wnt2, Wnt5a, and Sca1 expression in aortic adventitial myofibroblast cultures. Thus, Msx1 and Msx2 support vascular mineralization by directing the osteogenic programming of aortic progenitors in diabetic arteriosclerosis. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  11. MSX2 Induces Trophoblast Invasion in Human Placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Liang

    Full Text Available Normal implantation depends on appropriate trophoblast growth and invasion. Inadequate trophoblast invasion results in pregnancy-related disorders, such as early miscarriage and pre-eclampsia, which are dangerous to both the mother and fetus. Msh Homeobox 2 (MSX2, a member of the MSX family of homeobox proteins, plays a significant role in the proliferation and differentiation of various cells and tissues, including ectodermal organs, teeth, and chondrocytes. Recently, MSX2 was found to play important roles in the invasion of cancer cells into adjacent tissues via the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. However, the role of MSX2 in trophoblastic invasion during placental development has yet to be explored. In the present study, we detected MSX2 expression in cytotrophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast, and extravillous cytotrophoblast cells of first or third trimester human placentas via immunohistochemistry analysis. Furthermore, we found that the in vitro invasive ability of HTR8/SVneo cells was enhanced by exogenous overexpression of MSX2, and that this effect was accompanied by increased protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2, vimentin, and β-catenin. Conversely, treatment of HTR8/SVneo cells with MSX2-specific siRNAs resulted in decreased protein expression of MMP-2, vimentin, and β-catenin, and reduced invasion levels in a Matrigel invasion test. Notably, however, treatment with the MSX2 overexpression plasmid and the MSX2 siRNAs had no effect on the mRNA expression levels of β-catenin. Meanwhile, overexpression of MSX2 and treatment with the MSX2-specific siRNA resulted in decreased and increased E-cadherin expression, respectively, in JEG-3 cells. Lastly, the protein expression levels of MSX2 were significantly lower in human pre-eclamptic placental villi than in the matched control placentas. Collectively, our results suggest that MSX2 may induce human trophoblast cell invasion, and dysregulation of MSX2 expression may

  12. Bioinformatic analysis of Msx1 and Msx2 involved in craniofacial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Jiewen; Mou, Zhifang; Shen, Shunyao; Dong, Yuefu; Yang, Tong; Shen, Steve Guofang

    2014-01-01

    Msx1 and Msx2 were revealed to be candidate genes for some craniofacial deformities, such as cleft lip with/without cleft palate (CL/P) and craniosynostosis. Many other genes were demonstrated to have a cross-talk with MSX genes in causing these defects. However, there is no systematic evaluation for these MSX gene-related factors. In this study, we performed systematic bioinformatic analysis for MSX genes by combining using GeneDecks, DAVID, and STRING database, and the results showed that there were numerous genes related to MSX genes, such as Irf6, TP63, Dlx2, Dlx5, Pax3, Pax9, Bmp4, Tgf-beta2, and Tgf-beta3 that have been demonstrated to be involved in CL/P, and Fgfr2, Fgfr1, Fgfr3, and Twist1 that were involved in craniosynostosis. Many of these genes could be enriched into different gene groups involved in different signaling ways, different craniofacial deformities, and different biological process. These findings could make us analyze the function of MSX gens in a gene network. In addition, our findings showed that Sumo, a novel gene whose polymorphisms were demonstrated to be associated with nonsyndromic CL/P by genome-wide association study, has protein-protein interaction with MSX1, which may offer us an alternative method to perform bioinformatic analysis for genes found by genome-wide association study and can make us predict the disrupted protein function due to the mutation in a gene DNA sequence. These findings may guide us to perform further functional studies in the future.

  13. EGF does not induce Msx-1 and Msx-2 in dental mesenchyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y H; Kollar, E J; Upholt, W B; Mina, M

    1998-01-01

    Previous heterospecific tissue recombinations indicate that mandibular epithelium exerts the first known inductive signal for odontogenesis in mouse embryos. BMP-4 and EGF are two growth factors implicated as signaling molecules mediating the initial inductive epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during odontogenesis. The purpose of the present study was to examine and compare the effects of these growth factors and mouse mandibular epithelium on expression of Msx-1 and Msx-2 genes in molar-forming mesenchyme. Agarose beads soaked in growth factors or pieces of mouse mandibular epithelium (E11) were placed in contact with E11 molar-forming mesenchyme and cultured for 24 h. Whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis revealed that, in contrast to mouse mandibular epithelium and BMP-4-releasing beads, EGF-releasing beads did not induce the expression of Msx-1 and Msx-2 in E11 molar-forming mesenchyme. These observations suggest that whereas BMP-4 may be involved in activation of Msx-1 and Msx-2 in the underlying mesenchyme, EGF may regulate events involved in the formation of dental lamina.

  14. [Expression of homeobox gene Msx-1, Msx-2 and Dlx-2 during murine mandibular first molar development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Chen, Zhi; Song, Guang-tai; Fan, Ming-wen; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Zhi-feng

    2003-11-01

    To observe the expression of homeobox gene Msx-1, Msx-2 and Dlx-2 during murine mandibular first molar development. The murine heads or mandibles on embryonic days 11-18 (E11-18) and postnatal day 1-3 (P1-3) were removed, fixed and embedded, 5 micro m serial sections were cut in the coronal plane. Msx-1, Msx-2 and Dlx-2 RNA probes were synthesized by in vitro transcription and labeled with digoxigenin. Msx-1, Msx-2 and Dlx-2 mRNA expression was observed after in situ hybridization. During molar development Msx-1 transcripts appeared only in mesenchymal cells, not in epithelial cells. Msx-2 and Dlx-2 both expressed in the epithelial and mesenchymal cells. At the initiation stage of the molar development Msx-2 and Dlx-2 had similar expression. At the bud stage (E13-14) Msx-2 mRNA signaling was intensive in the enamel organ and slight in the dental mesenchyme; Dlx-2 signaling was stronger in the dental papilla. At cap stage (E15-16) Msx-2 showed prominent mRNA signaling in enamel knot and Dlx-2 was maximal in the dental papilla. At the late bell stage (P2-3) Msx-2 transcripts were observed in odontoblasts but not labeled in ameloblasts, and Dlx-2 transcripts appeared in ameloblasts but no labeling was seen in odontoblasts. Msx-1, Msx-2 and Dlx-2 are expressed in various patterns during murine mandibular first molar development, suggesting they possibly play a role in the interaction between the epithelium and mesenchyme during the molar development.

  15. Targeted Reduction of Vascular Msx1 and Msx2 Mitigates Arteriosclerotic Calcification and Aortic Stiffness in LDLR-Deficient Mice Fed Diabetogenic Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Su-Li; Behrmann, Abraham; Shao, Jian-Su; Ramachandran, Bindu; Krchma, Karen; Bello Arredondo, Yoanna; Kovacs, Attila; Mead, Megan; Maxson, Robert; Towler, Dwight A.

    2014-01-01

    When fed high-fat diets, male LDLR?/? mice develop obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and arteriosclerotic calcification. An osteogenic Msx-Wnt regulatory program is concomitantly upregulated in the vasculature. To better understand the mechanisms of diabetic arteriosclerosis, we generated SM22-Cre;Msx1(fl/fl);Msx2(fl/fl);LDLR?/? mice, assessing the impact of Msx1+Msx2 gene deletion in vascular myofibroblast and smooth muscle cells. Aortic Msx2 and Msx1 were decreased by 95% and 34% in S...

  16. msh/Msx gene family in neural development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Casto; Robert, Benoît

    2005-11-01

    The involvement of Msx homeobox genes in skull and tooth formation has received a great deal of attention. Recent studies also indicate a role for the msh/Msx gene family in development of the nervous system. In this article, we discuss the functions of these transcription factors in neural-tissue organogenesis. We will deal mainly with the interactions of the Drosophila muscle segment homeobox (msh) gene with other homeobox genes and the repressive cascade that leads to neuroectoderm patterning; the role of Msx genes in neural-crest induction, focusing especially on the differences between lower and higher vertebrates; their implication in patterning of the vertebrate neural tube, particularly in diencephalon midline formation. Finally, we will examine the distinct activities of Msx1, Msx2 and Msx3 genes during neurogenesis, taking into account their relationships with signalling molecules such as BMP.

  17. Videoprocessing with the MSX-computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliet, G.J. van.

    1988-01-01

    This report deals with the processing of video images with a Philips MSX-2 computer and is directed specifically onto the processing of the videosignals of the beamviewers. The final purpose is to create an extra control function which may be used for intuning the beam. This control function is established by mixing the video signals with a reference image from the computer. 7 figs

  18. Regulated expression of homeobox genes Msx-1 and Msx-2 in mouse mammary gland development suggests a role in hormone action and epithelial-stromal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Y; Daniel, C W

    1996-07-10

    The murine homeobox genes Msx-1 and Msx-2 are related to the Drosophila msh gene and are expressed in a variety of tissues during mouse embryogenesis. We now report the developmentally regulated expression of Msx-1 and Msx-2 in the mouse mammary gland and show that their expression patterns point toward significant functional roles. Msx-1 and Msx-2 transcripts were present in glands of virgin mice and in glands of mice in early pregnancy, but transcripts decreased dramatically during late pregnancy. Low levels of Msx-1 transcripts were detected in glands from lactating animals and during the first days of involution, whereas Msx-2 expression was not detected during lactation or early involution. Expression of both genes increased gradually as involution progressed. Msx-2 but not Msx-1 expression was decreased following ovariectomy or following exposure to anti-estrogen implanted directly into the gland. Hormonal regulation of Msx-2 expression was confirmed when transcripts returned to normal levels after estrogen was administered to ovariectomized animals. In situ molecular hybridization for Msx-1 showed transcripts localized to the mammary epithelium, whereas Msx-2 expression was confined to the periductal stroma. Mammary stroma from which mammary epithelium had been removed did not transcribe detectable amounts of Msx-2, showing that expression is regulated by contiguous mammary epithelium, and indicating a role for these homeobox genes in mesenchymal-epithelial interactions during mammary development.

  19. The evolution of Msx gene function: expression and regulation of a sea urchin Msx class homeobox gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobias, S L; Ma, L; Wu, H; Bell, J R; Maxson, R

    1997-01-01

    Msx- class homeobox genes, characterized by a distinct and highly conserved homeodomain, have been identified in a wide variety of metazoans from vertebrates to coelenterates. Although there is evidence that they participate in inductive tissue interactions that underlie vertebrate organogenesis, including those that pattern the neural crest, there is little information about their function in simple deuterostomes. Both to learn more about the ancient function of Msx genes, and to shed light on the evolution of developmental mechanisms within the lineage that gave rise to vertebrates, we have isolated and characterized Msx genes from ascidians and echinoderms. Here we describe the sequence and expression of a sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpouratus) Msx gene whose homeodomain is very similar to that of vertebrate Msx2. This gene, designated SpMsx, is first expressed in blastula stage embryos, apparently in a non-localized manner. Subsequently, during the early phases of gastrulation, SpMsx transcripts are expressed intensely in the invaginating archenteron and secondary mesenchyme, and at reduced levels in the ectoderm. In the latter part of gastrulation, SpMsx transcripts are concentrated in the oral ectoderm and gut, and continue to be expressed at those sites through the remainder of embryonic development. That vertebrate Msx genes are regulated by inductive tissue interactions and growth factors suggested to us that the restriction of SpMsx gene expression to the oral ectoderm and derivatives of the vegetal plate might similarly be regulated by the series of signaling events that pattern these embryonic territories. As a first test of this hypothesis, we examined the influence of exogastrulation and cell-dissociation on SpMsx gene expression. In experimentally-induced exogastrulae, SpMsx transcripts were distributed normally in the oral ectoderm, evaginated gut, and secondary mesenchyme. However, when embryos were dissociated into their component cells, SpMsx

  20. Time maintenance system for the BMDO MSX spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Martin J.

    1994-01-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) is responsible for designing and implementing a clock maintenance system for the Ballistic Missile Defense Organizations (BMDO) Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) spacecraft. The MSX spacecraft has an on-board clock that will be used to control execution of time-dependent commands and to time tag all science and housekeeping data received from the spacecraft. MSX mission objectives have dictated that this spacecraft time, UTC(MSX), maintain a required accuracy with respect to UTC(USNO) of +/- 10 ms with a +/- 1 ms desired accuracy. APL's atomic time standards and the downlinked spacecraft time were used to develop a time maintenance system that will estimate the current MSX clock time offset during an APL pass and make estimates of the clock's drift and aging using the offset estimates from many passes. Using this information, the clock's accuracy will be maintained by uplinking periodic clock correction commands. The resulting time maintenance system is a combination of offset measurement, command/telemetry, and mission planning hardware and computing assets. All assets provide necessary inputs for deciding when corrections to the MSX spacecraft clock must be made to maintain its required accuracy without inhibiting other mission objectives. The MSX time maintenance system is described as a whole and the clock offset measurement subsystem, a unique combination of precision time maintenance and measurement hardware controlled by a Macintosh computer, is detailed. Simulations show that the system estimates the MSX clock offset to less than+/- 33 microseconds.

  1. MSX-1 gene expression and regulation in embryonic palatal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, P; Greene, R M

    1998-01-01

    The palatal cleft seen in Msx-1 knock-out mice suggests a role for this gene in normal palate development. The cleft is presumed secondary to tooth and jaw malformations, since in situ hybridization suggests that Msx-1 mRNA is not highly expressed in developing palatal tissue. In this study we demonstrate, by Northern blot analysis, the expression of Msx-1, but not Msx-2, in the developing palate and in primary cultures of murine embryonic palate mesenchymal cells. Furthermore, we propose a role for Msx-1 in retinoic acid-induced cleft palate, since retinoic acid inhibits Msx-1 mRNA expression in palate mesenchymal cells. We also demonstrate that transforming growth factor beta inhibits Msx-1 mRNA expression in palate mesenchymal cells, with retinoic acid and transforming growth factor beta acting synergistically when added simultaneously to these cells. These data suggest a mechanistic interaction between retinoic acid, transforming growth factor beta, and Msx-1 in the etiology of retinoic acid-induced cleft palate.

  2. Bone morphogenetic protein-induced MSX1 and MSX2 inhibit myocardin-dependent smooth muscle gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ken'ichiro; Nakamura, Seiji; Nishida, Wataru; Sobue, Kenji

    2006-12-01

    During the onset and progression of atherosclerosis, the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype changes from differentiated to dedifferentiated, and in some cases, this change is accompanied by osteogenic transition, resulting in vascular calcification. One characteristic of dedifferentiated VSMCs is the down-regulation of smooth muscle cell (SMC) marker gene expression. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which are involved in the induction of osteogenic gene expression, are detected in calcified vasculature. In this study, we found that the BMP2-, BMP4-, and BMP6-induced expression of Msx transcription factors (Msx1 and Msx2) preceded the down-regulation of SMC marker expression in cultured differentiated VSMCs. Either Msx1 or Msx2 markedly reduced the myocardin-dependent promoter activities of SMC marker genes (SM22alpha and caldesmon). We further investigated interactions between Msx1 and myocardin/serum response factor (SRF)/CArG-box motif (cis element for SRF) using coimmunoprecipitation, gel-shift, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Our results showed that Msx1 or Msx2 formed a ternary complex with SRF and myocardin and inhibited the binding of SRF or SRF/myocardin to the CArG-box motif, resulting in inhibition of their transcription.

  3. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-Induced Msx1 and Msx2 Inhibit Myocardin-Dependent Smooth Muscle Gene Transcription▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ken'ichiro; Nakamura, Seiji; Nishida, Wataru; Sobue, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    During the onset and progression of atherosclerosis, the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype changes from differentiated to dedifferentiated, and in some cases, this change is accompanied by osteogenic transition, resulting in vascular calcification. One characteristic of dedifferentiated VSMCs is the down-regulation of smooth muscle cell (SMC) marker gene expression. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which are involved in the induction of osteogenic gene expression, are detected in calcified vasculature. In this study, we found that the BMP2-, BMP4-, and BMP6-induced expression of Msx transcription factors (Msx1 and Msx2) preceded the down-regulation of SMC marker expression in cultured differentiated VSMCs. Either Msx1 or Msx2 markedly reduced the myocardin-dependent promoter activities of SMC marker genes (SM22α and caldesmon). We further investigated interactions between Msx1 and myocardin/serum response factor (SRF)/CArG-box motif (cis element for SRF) using coimmunoprecipitation, gel-shift, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Our results showed that Msx1 or Msx2 formed a ternary complex with SRF and myocardin and inhibited the binding of SRF or SRF/myocardin to the CArG-box motif, resulting in inhibition of their transcription. PMID:17030628

  4. Msx and dlx homeogene expression in epithelial odontogenic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhin-Poncet, Blandine; Ghoul-Mazgar, Sonia; Hotton, Dominique; Capron, Frédérique; Jaafoura, Mohamed Habib; Goubin, Gérard; Berdal, Ariane

    2009-01-01

    Epithelial odontogenic tumors are rare jaw pathologies that raise clinical diagnosis and prognosis dilemmas notably between ameloblastomas and clear cell odontogenic carcinomas (CCOCs). In line with previous studies, the molecular determinants of tooth development-amelogenin, Msx1, Msx2, Dlx2, Dlx3, Bmp2, and Bmp4-were analyzed by RT-PCR, ISH, and immunolabeling in 12 recurrent ameloblastomas and in one case of CCOC. Although Msx1 expression imitates normal cell differentiation in these tumors, other genes showed a distinct pattern depending on the type of tumor and the tissue involved. In benign ameloblastomas, ISH localized Dlx3 transcripts and inconstantly detected Msx2 transcripts in epithelial cells. In the CCOC, ISH established a lack of both Dlx3 and Msx2 transcripts but allowed identification of the antisense transcript of Msx1, which imitates the same scheme of distribution between mesenchyme and epithelium as in the cup stage of tooth development. Furthermore, while exploring the expression pattern of signal molecules by RT-PCR, Bmp2 was shown to be completely inactivated in the CCOC and irregularly noticeable in ameloblastomas. Bmp4 was always expressed in all the tumors. Based on the established roles of Msx and Dlx transcription factors in dental cell fates, these data suggest that their altered expression is a proposed trail to explain the genesis and/or the progression of odontogenic tumors.

  5. Msh homeobox 1 (Msx1)- and Msx2-overexpressing bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells resemble blastema cells and enhance regeneration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghiyar, Leila; Hesaraki, Mahdi; Sayahpour, Forough Azam; Satarian, Leila; Hosseini, Samaneh; Aghdami, Naser; Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza

    2017-06-23

    Amputation of the proximal region in mammals is not followed by regeneration because blastema cells (BCs) and expression of regenerative genes, such as Msh homeobox ( Msx ) genes, are absent in this animal group. The lack of BCs and positional information in other cells is therefore the main obstacle to therapeutic approaches for limb regeneration. Hence, this study aimed to create blastema-like cells (BlCs) by overexpressing Msx1 and Msx2 genes in mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (mBMSCs) to regenerate a proximally amputated digit tip. We transduced mBMSCs with Msx1 and Msx2 genes and compared osteogenic activity and expression levels of several Msx -regulated genes ( Bmp4 , Fgf8 , and keratin 14 ( K14 )) in BlC groups, including MSX1, MSX2, and MSX1/2 (in a 1:1 ratio) with those in mBMSCs and BCs in vitro and in vivo following injection into the amputation site. We found that Msx gene overexpression increased expression of specific blastemal markers and enhanced the proliferation rate and osteogenesis of BlCs compared with mBMSCs and BCs via activation of Fgf8 and Bmp4 Histological analyses indicated full regrowth of digit tips in the Msx -overexpressing groups, particularly in MSX1/2, through endochondral ossification 6 weeks post-injection. In contrast, mBMSCs and BCs formed abnormal bone and nail. Full digit tip was regenerated only in the MSX1/2 group and was related to boosted Bmp4, Fgf8 , and K14 gene expression and to limb-patterning properties resulting from Msx1 and Msx2 overexpression. We propose that Msx -transduced cells that can regenerate epithelial and mesenchymal tissues may potentially be utilized in limb regeneration. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. The zebrafish genome: a review and msx gene case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postlethwait, J H

    2006-01-01

    Zebrafish is one of several important teleost models for understanding principles of vertebrate developmental, molecular, organismal, genetic, evolutionary, and genomic biology. Efficient investigation of the molecular genetic basis of induced mutations depends on knowledge of the zebrafish genome. Principles of zebrafish genomic analysis, including gene mapping, ortholog identification, conservation of syntenies, genome duplication, and evolution of duplicate gene function are discussed here using as a case study the zebrafish msxa, msxb, msxc, msxd, and msxe genes, which together constitute zebrafish orthologs of tetrapod Msx1, Msx2, and Msx3. Genomic analysis suggests orthologs for this difficult to understand group of paralogs.

  7. Reduction procedures for accurate analysis of MSX surveillance experiment data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaposchkin, E. Mike; Lane, Mark T.; Abbot, Rick I.

    1994-01-01

    Technical challenges of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) science instruments require careful characterization and calibration of these sensors for analysis of surveillance experiment data. Procedures for reduction of Resident Space Object (RSO) detections will be presented which include refinement and calibration of the metric and radiometric (and photometric) data and calculation of a precise MSX ephemeris. Examples will be given which support the reduction, and these are taken from ground-test data similar in characteristics to the MSX sensors and from the IRAS satellite RSO detections. Examples to demonstrate the calculation of a precise ephemeris will be provided from satellites in similar orbits which are equipped with S-band transponders.

  8. Disruption of Msx-1 and Msx-2 reveals roles for these genes in craniofacial, eye, and axial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerst-Potts, L; Sadler, T W

    1997-05-01

    In mouse embryos, the muscle segment homeobox genes, Msx-1 and Msx-2 are expressed during critical stages of neural tube, neural crest, and craniofacial development, suggesting that these genes play important roles in organogenesis and cell differentiation. Although the patterns of expression are intriguing, little is known about the function of these genes in vertebrate embryonic development. Therefore, the expression of both genes, separately and together, was disrupted using antisense oligodeoxynucleotides and whole embryo culture techniques. Antisense attenuation of Msx-1 during early stages of neurulation produced hypoplasia of the maxillary, mandibular, and frontonasal prominences, eye anomalies, and somite and neural tube abnormalities. Eye defects consisted of enlarged optic vesicles, which may ultimately result in micropthalmia similar to that observed in Small eye mice homozygous for mutations in the Pax-6 gene. Histological sections and SEM analysis revealed a thinning of the neuroepithelium in the diencephalon and optic vesicle and mesenchymal deficiencies in the craniofacial region. Injections of Msx-2 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides produced similar malformations as those targeting Msx-1, with the exception that there was an increase in number and severity of neural tube and somite defects. Embryos injected with the combination of Msx-1 + Msx-2 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides showed no novel abnormalities, suggesting that the genes do not operate in a redundant manner.

  9. Msx1 and Msx2 are functional interacting partners of T-box factors in the regulation of Connexin43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogerd, Kees-Jan; Wong, L Y Elaine; Christoffels, Vincent M; Klarenbeek, Meinke; Ruijter, Jan M; Moorman, Antoon F M; Barnett, Phil

    2008-06-01

    T-box factors Tbx2 and Tbx3 play key roles in the development of the cardiac conduction system, atrioventricular canal, and outflow tract of the heart. They regulate the gap-junction-encoding gene Connexin43 (Cx43) and other genes critical for heart development and function. Discovering protein partners of Tbx2 and Tbx3 will shed light on the mechanisms by which these factors regulate these gene programs. Employing an yeast 2-hybrid screen and subsequent in vitro pull-down experiments we demonstrate that muscle segment homeobox genes Msx1 and Msx2 are able to bind the cardiac T-box proteins Tbx2, Tbx3, and Tbx5. This interaction, as that of the related Nkx2.5 protein, is supported by the T-box and homeodomain alone. Overlapping spatiotemporal expression patterns of Msx1 and Msx2 together with the T-box genes during cardiac development in mouse and chicken underscore the biological significance of this interaction. We demonstrate that Msx proteins together with Tbx2 and Tbx3 suppress Cx43 promoter activity and down regulate Cx43 gene activity in a rat heart-derived cell line. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis we demonstrate that Msx1 can bind the Cx43 promoter at a conserved binding site located in close proximity to a previously defined T-box binding site, and that the activity of Msx proteins on this promoter appears dependent in the presence of Tbx3. Msx1 and Msx2 can function in concert with the T-box proteins to suppress Cx43 and other working myocardial genes.

  10. Roles for Msx and Dlx homeoproteins in vertebrate development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendall, A J; Abate-Shen, C

    2000-04-18

    This review provides a comparative analysis of the expression patterns, functions, and biochemical properties of Msx and Dlx homeobox genes. These comprise multi-gene families that are closely related with respect to sequence features as well as expression patterns during vertebrate development. Thus, members of the Msx and Dlx families are expressed in overlapping, but distinct, patterns and display complementary or antagonistic functions, depending upon the context. A common theme shared among Msx and Dlx genes is that they are required during early, middle, and late phases of development where their differential expression mediates patterning, morphogenesis, and histogenesis of tissues in which they are expressed. With respect to their biochemical properties, Msx proteins function as transcriptional repressors, while Dlx proteins are transcriptional activators. Moreover, their ability to oppose each other's transcriptional actions implies a mechanism underlying their complementary or antagonistic functions during development.

  11. Conservation and diversification of Msx protein in metazoan evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hirokazu; Kamiya, Akiko; Ishiguro, Akira; Suzuki, Atsushi C; Saitou, Naruya; Toyoda, Atsushi; Aruga, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Msx (/msh) family genes encode homeodomain (HD) proteins that control ontogeny in many animal species. We compared the structures of Msx genes from a wide range of Metazoa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Nematoda, Arthropoda, Tardigrada, Platyhelminthes, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Annelida, Echiura, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, and Chordata) to gain an understanding of the role of these genes in phylogeny. Exon-intron boundary analysis suggested that the position of the intron located N-terminally to the HDs was widely conserved in all the genes examined, including those of cnidarians. Amino acid (aa) sequence comparison revealed 3 new evolutionarily conserved domains, as well as very strong conservation of the HDs. Two of the three domains were associated with Groucho-like protein binding in both a vertebrate and a cnidarian Msx homolog, suggesting that the interaction between Groucho-like proteins and Msx proteins was established in eumetazoan ancestors. Pairwise comparison among the collected HDs and their C-flanking aa sequences revealed that the degree of sequence conservation varied depending on the animal taxa from which the sequences were derived. Highly conserved Msx genes were identified in the Vertebrata, Cephalochordata, Hemichordata, Echinodermata, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, and Anthozoa. The wide distribution of the conserved sequences in the animal phylogenetic tree suggested that metazoan ancestors had already acquired a set of conserved domains of the current Msx family genes. Interestingly, although strongly conserved sequences were recovered from the Vertebrata, Cephalochordata, and Anthozoa, the sequences from the Urochordata and Hydrozoa showed weak conservation. Because the Vertebrata-Cephalochordata-Urochordata and Anthozoa-Hydrozoa represent sister groups in the Chordata and Cnidaria, respectively, Msx sequence diversification may have occurred differentially in the course of evolution. We speculate that selective loss of the conserved domains in Msx family

  12. MSX1 gene in the etiology orofacial deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Paradowska-Stolarz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The muscle segment homeobox (MSX1 gene plays a crucial role in epithelial-mesenchymal tissue interactions in craniofacial development. It plays a regulative role in cellular proliferation, differentiation and cell death. The human MSX1 domain was also found in cow (Bt 302906, mouse (Mm 123311, rat (Rn13592001, chicken (Gg 170873 and clawed toad (XI 547690. Cleft lip and palate is the most common anomaly of the facial part of the skull. The etiology is not fully understood, but it is believed that the key role is played by the genetic factor activated by environmental factors. Among the candidate genes whose mutations could lead to formation of the cleft, the MSX1 homeobox gene is mentioned. Mutations in the gene MSX1 can lead to isolated cleft deformities, but also cause other dismorphic changes. Among the most frequently mentioned is loss of permanent tooth buds (mostly of less than 4 teeth – hypodontia, including second premolars. Mutations of MSX1 are observed in the Pierre- Robin sequence, which may be one of the features of congenital defects or is observed as an isolated defect. Mutation of the gene can lead to the occurrence of a rare congenital defect Wiktop (dental-nail syndrome. Deletion of a fragment MSX1 (4p16.3 located in the WHS critical region, may be a cause of some symptoms of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome.

  13. Domain duplication, divergence, and loss events in vertebrate Msx paralogs reveal phylogenomically informed disease markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, John R; Mazza, Maureen E; Jezewski, Peter A

    2009-01-20

    Msx originated early in animal evolution and is implicated in human genetic disorders. To reconstruct the functional evolution of Msx and inform the study of human mutations, we analyzed the phylogeny and synteny of 46 metazoan Msx proteins and tracked the duplication, diversification and loss of conserved motifs. Vertebrate Msx sequences sort into distinct Msx1, Msx2 and Msx3 clades. The sister-group relationship between MSX1 and MSX2 reflects their derivation from the 4p/5q chromosomal paralogon, a derivative of the original "MetaHox" cluster. We demonstrate physical linkage between Msx and other MetaHox genes (Hmx, NK1, Emx) in a cnidarian. Seven conserved domains, including two Groucho repression domains (N- and C-terminal), were present in the ancestral Msx. In cnidarians, the Groucho domains are highly similar. In vertebrate Msx1, the N-terminal Groucho domain is conserved, while the C-terminal domain diverged substantially, implying a novel function. In vertebrate Msx2 and Msx3, the C-terminal domain was lost. MSX1 mutations associated with ectodermal dysplasia or orofacial clefting disorders map to conserved domains in a non-random fashion. Msx originated from a MetaHox ancestor that also gave rise to Tlx, Demox, NK, and possibly EHGbox, Hox and ParaHox genes. Duplication, divergence or loss of domains played a central role in the functional evolution of Msx. Duplicated domains allow pleiotropically expressed proteins to evolve new functions without disrupting existing interaction networks. Human missense sequence variants reside within evolutionarily conserved domains, likely disrupting protein function. This phylogenomic evaluation of candidate disease markers will inform clinical and functional studies.

  14. Domain duplication, divergence, and loss events in vertebrate Msx paralogs reveal phylogenomically informed disease markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finnerty John R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Msx originated early in animal evolution and is implicated in human genetic disorders. To reconstruct the functional evolution of Msx and inform the study of human mutations, we analyzed the phylogeny and synteny of 46 metazoan Msx proteins and tracked the duplication, diversification and loss of conserved motifs. Results Vertebrate Msx sequences sort into distinct Msx1, Msx2 and Msx3 clades. The sister-group relationship between MSX1 and MSX2 reflects their derivation from the 4p/5q chromosomal paralogon, a derivative of the original "MetaHox" cluster. We demonstrate physical linkage between Msx and other MetaHox genes (Hmx, NK1, Emx in a cnidarian. Seven conserved domains, including two Groucho repression domains (N- and C-terminal, were present in the ancestral Msx. In cnidarians, the Groucho domains are highly similar. In vertebrate Msx1, the N-terminal Groucho domain is conserved, while the C-terminal domain diverged substantially, implying a novel function. In vertebrate Msx2 and Msx3, the C-terminal domain was lost. MSX1 mutations associated with ectodermal dysplasia or orofacial clefting disorders map to conserved domains in a non-random fashion. Conclusion Msx originated from a MetaHox ancestor that also gave rise to Tlx, Demox, NK, and possibly EHGbox, Hox and ParaHox genes. Duplication, divergence or loss of domains played a central role in the functional evolution of Msx. Duplicated domains allow pleiotropically expressed proteins to evolve new functions without disrupting existing interaction networks. Human missense sequence variants reside within evolutionarily conserved domains, likely disrupting protein function. This phylogenomic evaluation of candidate disease markers will inform clinical and functional studies.

  15. Expression of Msx genes in regenerating and developing limbs of axolotl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshiba, K; Kuroiwa, A; Yamamoto, H; Tamura, K; Ide, H

    1998-12-15

    Msx genes, homeobox-containing genes, have been isolated as homologues of the Drosophila msh gene and are thought to play important roles in the development of chick or mouse limb buds. We isolated two Msx genes, Msx1 and Msx2, from regenerating blastemas of axolotl limbs and examined their expression patterns using Northern blot and whole mount in situ hybridization during regeneration and development. Northern blot analysis revealed that the expression level of both Msx genes increased during limb regeneration. The Msx2 expression level increased in the blastema at the early bud stage, and Msx1 expression level increased at the late bud stage. Whole mount in situ hybridization revealed that Msx2 was expressed in the distal mesenchyme and Msx1 in the entire mesenchyme of the blastema at the late bud stage. In the developing limb bud, Msx1 was expressed in the entire mesenchyme, while Msx2 was expressed in the distal and peripheral mesenchyme. The expression patterns of Msx genes in the blastemas and limb buds of the axolotl were different from those reported for chick or mouse limb buds. These expression patterns of axolotl Msx genes are discussed in relation to the blastema or limb bud morphology and their possible roles in limb patterning.

  16. Isolation, characterization, and expression of Le-msx, a maternally expressed member of the msx gene family from the glossiphoniid leech, Helobdella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, V A; Kourakis, M J; Martindale, M Q

    1996-12-01

    The msx gene family is one of the most highly conserved of the nonclustered homeobox-containing genes. We have isolated an msx homolog (Le-msx) from the glossiphoniid leech, Helobdella robusta, and characterized its pattern of expression by whole mount in situ hybridization. In situ expression and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) data results show that Le-msx is a maternal transcript initially uniformly distributed in the cortex of immature oocytes that becomes asymmetrically localized to the polar regions of the uncleaved zygote. This is the earliest reported expression for the msx gene family and the first maternally expressed homeodomain-containing transcription factor reported in annelids. During embryonic development, Le-msx is expressed in all 10 embryonic stem cells and their segmental founder cell descendants. At midembryonic stages, Le-msx is expressed in the expanding germinal plate. Le-msx is confined to the central nervous system and nephridia at late (stage 9) stages and subsequently disappears from nephridia. In addition, we present a phylogenetic hypothesis for the evolution of the msx gene family, including the identification of a putative C. elegans msx homolog and the realignment of the sponge msx homolog to the NK class of homeodomain genes.

  17. [Molecular cloning, expression of rat Msx-1 and Msx-2 during early embryo genesis and roles for mandibular chondrogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, S

    1999-03-01

    Quail-chick chimera experiments have shown a contribution of carnial neural crest cells to the craniofacial skeletal elements. Moreover, tissue interactions between epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during early facial process development are required for both skeletal differentiation and morphogenesis. In this study, it was observed that Msx homeobox containing genes expressed in the facial process were important molecules of cartilage morphogenesis. Rat cDNAs were isolated and encoded by Msx-1 and -2, and then the expression patterns using in situ hybridization were investigated during early rat face development. These genes were correlatively expressed in the cranial neural crest forming area (E 9.5 dpc) and the facial process (E 12.5 dpc). Antisence inhibition of Msx genes in the E 12.5 mandibular process exhibited the alteration of their gene expression and cartilage patterns. Antisence inhibition of Msx-1 induced lack of the medial portion of cartilage, and antisence inhibition of Msx-2 enhanced chondrogenesis of mandibular process under the organ culture condition. Thus it was concluded that expression of Msx genes during mandibular process development comprises important signals of chondrogenesis.

  18. Msx2 Plays a central Role in Regulating Branching Morphogenesis During Mammary Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Yi-Hsin

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the role of a transcriptional factor, Msx2, in regulating branching events in the development of the mouse mammary gland To define the function of Msx2 gene...

  19. Differential induction of four msx homeobox genes during fin development and regeneration in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimenko, M A; Johnson, S L; Westerfield, M; Ekker, M

    1995-02-01

    To study the genetic regulation of growth control and pattern formation during fin development and regeneration, we have analysed the expression of four homeobox genes, msxA, msxB, msxC and msxD in zebrafish fins. The median fin fold, which gives rise to the unpaired fins, expresses these four msx genes during development. Transcripts of the genes are also present in cells of the presumptive pectoral fin buds. The most distal cells, the apical ectodermal ridge of the paired fins and the cleft and flanking cells of the median fin fold express all these msx genes with the exception of msxC. Mesenchymal cells underlying the most distal cells express all four genes. Expression of the msx genes in the fin fold and fin buds is transient and, by 3 days after fertilization, msx expression in the median fin fold falls below levels detectable by in situ hybridization. Although the fins of adult zebrafish normally have levels of msx transcripts undetectable by in situ hybridization, expression of all four genes is strongly reinduced during regeneration of both paired and unpaired fins. Induction of msx gene expression in regenerating caudal fins occurs as early as 30 hours postamputation. As the blastema forms, the levels of expression increase and reach a maximum between the third and fifth days. Then, msx expression progressively declines and disappears by day 12 when the caudal fin has grown back to its normal size. In the regenerating fin, the blastema cells that develop at the tip of each fin ray express msxB and msxC. Cells of the overlying epithelium express msxA and msxD, but do not express msxB or msxC. Amputations at various levels along the proximodistal axis of the fin suggest that msxB expression depends upon the position of the blastema, with cells of the rapidly proliferating proximal blastema expressing higher levels than the cells of the less rapidly proliferating distal blastema. Expression of msxC and msxD is independent of the position of the blastema cell

  20. Possible involvement of MSX-2 homeoprotein in v-ras-induced transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, C; Akiyama, N; Kitayama, H; Takai, S; Noda, M

    1997-04-01

    A truncated MSX-2 homeoprotein was found to induce flat reversion when expressed in v-Ki-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells. Although the expression of endogenous MSX-2 gene is low in most of the normal adult tissues examined, it is frequently activated in carcinoma-derived cell lines. Likewise, the gene is inactive in untransformed cells but is transcriptionally activated after transformation by v-Ki-ras oncogene, suggesting that the intact MSX-2 may play a positive, rather than suppressive, role in cell transformation. To test this possibility, we isolated a full-length human MSX-2 cDNA and tested its activities in two cell systems: fibroblast and myoblast. In NIH3T3 fibroblasts, although the gene by itself failed to confer a transformed phenotype, antisense MSX-2 cDNA as well as truncated MSX-2 cDNA interfered with the transforming activities of both v-Ki-ras and v-raf oncogene. In C2C12 myoblasts, MSX-2 was found to suppress MyoD gene expression, as do activated ras oncogenes, under certain culture conditions, and truncated MSX-2 cDNA was found to inhibit the activities of both MSX-2 and ras in this system as well. Our findings not only suggest that the truncated version MSX-2 may act as a dominant suppressor of intact MSX-2 but also raise the possibility that MSX-2 gene may be an important downstream target for the Ras signaling pathways.

  1. The murine homeobox gene Msx-3 shows highly restricted expression in the developing neural tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimeld, S M; McKay, I J; Sharpe, P T

    1996-04-01

    The mouse homeobox-genes Msx-1 and Msx-2 are expressed in several areas of the developing embryo, including the neural tube, neural crest, facial processes and limb buds. Here we report the characterisation of a third mouse Msx gene, which we designate Msx-3. The embryonic expression of Msx-3 was found to differ from that of Msx-1 and -2 in that it was confined to the dorsal neural tube. In embryos with 5-8 somites a segmental pattern of expression was observed in the hindbrain, with rhombomeres 3 and 5 lacking Msx-3 while other rhombomeres expressed Msx-3. This pattern was transient, however, such that in embryos with 18 or more somites expression was continuous throughout the dorsal hindbrain and anterior dorsal spinal cord. Differentiation of dorsal cell types in the neural tube can be induced by addition of members of the Tgf-beta family. Additionally, Msx-1 and -2 have been shown to be activated by addition of the Tgf-beta family member Bmp-4. To determine if Bmp-4 could activate Msx-3, we incubated embryonic hindbrain explants with exogenous Bmp-4. The dorsal expression of Msx-3 was seen to expand into more ventral regions of the neurectoderm in Bmp-4-treated cultures, implying that Bmp-4 may be able to mimic an in vivo signal that induces Msx-3.

  2. Efficacy of antemortem rectal biopsies to diagnose and estimate prevalence of chronic wasting disease in free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is the naturally occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) of captive and free ranging cervid ruminants. Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) are a free-ranging species of large cervid with a habitat that includes large US national parks. Minimally ...

  3. Use of acepromazine and medetomidine in combination for sedation and handling of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Lisa L; Johnson, Heather E; Fisher, Mark C; Sirochman, Michael A; Kraft, Benjamin; Miller, Michael W

    2014-10-01

    We opportunistically evaluated a combination of acepromazine maleate and medetomidine HCl for use in sedating Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and black bears (Ursus americanus) as an alternative to scheduled drug combinations. This combination was safe and effective with limitations inherent in its sedative rather than anesthetic properties.

  4. Analysis of Msx1 and Msx2 transactivation function in the context of the heat shock 70 (Hspa1b) gene promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Fengfeng; Nguyen, Manuel P; Shuler, Charles; Liu, Yi-Hsin

    2009-04-03

    Previous studies have shown that Msx proteins control gene transcription predominantly through repression mechanisms. However, gene expression studies using either the gain-of-function or the loss-of-function mutants revealed many gene targets whose expression require functional Msx proteins. To date, investigations into the mechanisms of Msx-dependent transactivation have been hindered by the lack of a responsive promoter. Here, we demonstrated the usefulness of the mouse Hspa1b promoter in probing Msx-dependent mechanisms of gene activation. We showed that Msx protein activates Hspa1b promoter via its C-terminal domain. The activation absolutely depends on the HSEs and physical interactions between Msx proteins and heat shock factors may play a contributing role.

  5. Anyalysis of Msx1 and Msx2 Transactivation Function in the Context of the Heat Shock 70 (Hspa1b) Gene Promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Fengfeng; Nguyen, Manuel P.; Shuler, Charles; Liu, Yi-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that Msx proteins control gene transcription predominantly through repression mechanisms. However, gene expression studies using either the gain-of-function or the loss-of-function mutants revealed many gene targets whose expression require functional Msx proteins. To date, investigations into the mechanisms of Msx-dependent trans-activation have been hindered by the lack of a responsive promoter. Here, we demonstrated the usefulness of the mouse Hspa1b promoter in probing Msx-dependent mechanisms of gene activation. We showed that Msx protein activates Hspa1b promoter via its C-terminal domain. The activation absolutely depends on the HSEs and physical interactions between Msx proteins and Heat shock factors may play a contributing role. PMID:19338779

  6. Crystal structure of the Msx-1 homeodomain/DNA complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovde, S; Abate-Shen, C; Geiger, J H

    2001-10-09

    The Msx-1 homeodomain protein plays a crucial role in craniofacial, limb, and nervous system development. Homeodomain DNA-binding domains are comprised of 60 amino acids that show a high degree of evolutionary conservation. We have determined the structure of the Msx-1 homeodomain complexed to DNA at 2.2 A resolution. The structure has an unusually well-ordered N-terminal arm with a unique trajectory across the minor groove of the DNA. DNA specificity conferred by bases flanking the core TAAT sequence is explained by well ordered water-mediated interactions at Q50. Most interactions seen at the TAAT sequence are typical of the interactions seen in other homeodomain structures. Comparison of the Msx-1-HD structure to all other high resolution HD-DNA complex structures indicate a remarkably well-conserved sphere of hydration between the DNA and protein in these complexes.

  7. [Construction and functional identification of eukaryotic expression vector carrying Sprague-Dawley rat MSX-2 gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xian-Xian; Zhang, Mei; Yan, Zhao-Wen; Zhang, Ru-Hong; Mu, Xiong-Zheng

    2008-01-01

    To construct a high effective eukaryotic expressing plasmid PcDNA 3.1-MSX-2 encoding Sprague-Dawley rat MSX-2 gene for the further study of MSX-2 gene function. The full length SD rat MSX-2 gene was amplified by PCR, and the full length DNA was inserted in the PMD1 8-T vector. It was isolated by restriction enzyme digest with BamHI and Xhol, then ligated into the cloning site of the PcDNA3.1 expression plasmid. The positive recombinant was identified by PCR analysis, restriction endonudease analysis and sequence analysis. Expression of RNA and protein was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis in PcDNA3.1-MSX-2 transfected HEK293 cells. Sequence analysis and restriction endonudease analysis of PcDNA3.1-MSX-2 demonstrated that the position and size of MSX-2 cDNA insertion were consistent with the design. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis showed specific expression of mRNA and protein of MSX-2 in the transfected HEK293 cells. The high effective eukaryotic expression plasmid PcDNA3.1-MSX-2 encoding Sprague-Dawley Rat MSX-2 gene which is related to craniofacial development can be successfully reconstructed. It may serve as the basis for the further study of MSX-2 gene function.

  8. Anyalysis of Msx1 and Msx2 Transactivation Function in the Context of the Heat Shock 70 (Hspa1b) Gene Promoter

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuang, Fengfeng; Nguyen, Manuel P.; Shuler, Charles; Liu, Yi-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that Msx proteins control gene transcription predominantly through repression mechanisms. However, gene expression studies using either the gain-of-function or the loss-of-function mutants revealed many gene targets whose expression require functional Msx proteins. To date, investigations into the mechanisms of Msx-dependent trans-activation have been hindered by the lack of a responsive promoter. Here, we demonstrated the usefulness of the mouse Hspa1b promoter in...

  9. The human homeobox genes MSX-1, MSX-2, and MOX-1 are differentially expressed in the dermis and epidermis in fetal and adult skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelnicki, E J; Kömüves, L G; Holmes, D; Clavin, W; Harrison, M R; Adzick, N S; Largman, C

    1997-10-01

    In order to identify homeobox genes which may regulate skin development and possibly mediate scarless fetal wound healing we have screened amplified human fetal skin cDNAs by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using degenerate oligonucleotide primers designed against highly conserved regions within the homeobox. We identified three non-HOX homeobox genes, MSX-1, MSX-2, and MOX-1, which were differentially expressed in fetal and adult human skin. MSX-1 and MSX-2 were detected in the epidermis, hair follicles, and fibroblasts of the developing fetal skin by in situ hybridization. In contrast, MSX-1 and MSX-2 expression in adult skin was confined to epithelially derived structures. Immunohistochemical analysis of these two genes suggested that their respective homeoproteins may be differentially regulated. While Msx-1 was detected in the cell nucleus of both fetal and adult skin; Msx-2 was detected as a diffuse cytoplasmic signal in fetal epidermis and portions of the hair follicle and dermis, but was localized to the nucleus in adult epidermis. MOX-1 was expressed in a pattern similar to MSX early in gestation but then was restricted exclusively to follicular cells in the innermost layer of the outer root sheath by 21 weeks of development. Furthermore, MOX-1 expression was completely absent in adult cutaneous tissue. These data imply that each of these homeobox genes plays a specific role in skin development.

  10. Msx1 is expressed in retina endothelial cells at artery branching sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lopes

    2012-02-01

    Msx1 and Msx2 encode homeodomain transcription factors that play a role in several embryonic developmental processes. Previously, we have shown that in the adult mouse, Msx1lacZ is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs and pericytes, and that Msx2lacZ is also expressed in VSMCs as well as in a few endothelial cells (ECs. The mouse retina and choroid are two highly vascularized tissues. Vessel alterations in the retina are associated with several human diseases and the retina has been intensely used for angiogenesis studies, whereas the choroid has been much less investigated. Using the Msx1lacZ and Msx2lacZ reporter alleles, we observed that Msx2 is not expressed in the eye vascular tree in contrast to Msx1, for which we establish the spatial and temporal expression pattern in these tissues. In the retina, expression of Msx1 takes place from P3, and by P10, it becomes confined to a subpopulation of ECs at branching points of superficial arterioles. These branching sites are characterized by a subpopulation of mural cells that also show specific expression programs. Specific Msx gene inactivation in the endothelium, using Msx1 and Msx2 conditional mutant alleles together with a Tie2-Cre transgene, did not lead to conspicuous structural defects in the retinal vascular network. Expression of Msx1 at branching sites might therefore be linked to vessel physiology. The retinal blood flow is autonomously regulated and perfusion of capillaries has been proposed to depend on arteriolar precapillary structures that might be the sites for Msx1 expression. On the other hand, branching sites are subject to shear stress that might induce Msx1 expression. In the choroid vascular layer Msx1lacZ is expressed more broadly and dynamically. At birth Msx1lacZ expression takes place in the endothelium but at P21 its expression has shifted towards the mural layer. We discuss the possible functions of Msx1 in the eye vasculature.

  11. Msx1 is expressed in retina endothelial cells at artery branching sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Miguel; Goupille, Olivier; Saint Cloment, Cécile; Robert, Benoît

    2012-04-15

    Msx1 and Msx2 encode homeodomain transcription factors that play a role in several embryonic developmental processes. Previously, we have shown that in the adult mouse, Msx1(lacZ) is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and pericytes, and that Msx2(lacZ) is also expressed in VSMCs as well as in a few endothelial cells (ECs). The mouse retina and choroid are two highly vascularized tissues. Vessel alterations in the retina are associated with several human diseases and the retina has been intensely used for angiogenesis studies, whereas the choroid has been much less investigated. Using the Msx1(lacZ) and Msx2(lacZ) reporter alleles, we observed that Msx2 is not expressed in the eye vascular tree in contrast to Msx1, for which we establish the spatial and temporal expression pattern in these tissues. In the retina, expression of Msx1 takes place from P3, and by P10, it becomes confined to a subpopulation of ECs at branching points of superficial arterioles. These branching sites are characterized by a subpopulation of mural cells that also show specific expression programs. Specific Msx gene inactivation in the endothelium, using Msx1 and Msx2 conditional mutant alleles together with a Tie2-Cre transgene, did not lead to conspicuous structural defects in the retinal vascular network. Expression of Msx1 at branching sites might therefore be linked to vessel physiology. The retinal blood flow is autonomously regulated and perfusion of capillaries has been proposed to depend on arteriolar precapillary structures that might be the sites for Msx1 expression. On the other hand, branching sites are subject to shear stress that might induce Msx1 expression. In the choroid vascular layer Msx1(lacZ) is expressed more broadly and dynamically. At birth Msx1(lacZ) expression takes place in the endothelium but at P21 its expression has shifted towards the mural layer. We discuss the possible functions of Msx1 in the eye vasculature.

  12. MSX-Basis program for analyzing of gamma radiation spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, E.; Hernandez, M.; Soto Moran, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    A MSX-Basic language program, called ESPEC-1, which provides a very flexible data reduction facility during gamma spectrum analysis applications, is described. The program provides the performance needed for demonstrative uses, and ease of operation for the laboratory classroom

  13. MSX-Basis program for analyzing of gamma radiation spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto Moran, R.L.; Marin, E.; Hernandez, M.

    1992-01-01

    A MSX-Basic language program, called ESPEC-2, which carries out the analytical evaluation of gamma spectrum and involves an smoothing routine, a zero area rectangular transform to locate peaks, and a Gaussian fitting technique for the peaks, is described. The program provides the performance needed for demonstrative uses, and ease of operation for the laboratory classroom

  14. [Comparative study of expression of homeobox gene Msx-1, Msx-2 mRNA during the hard tissue formation of mouse tooth development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Wang, J; Gao, Y

    2001-07-01

    To observe and compare the expression pattern of Msx-1, Msx-2 mRNA during the different stages of hard tissue formation in the first mandibular molar of mouse and investigate the relationship between the two genes. First mandibular molar germs from 1, 3, 7 and 14-days old mouse were separated and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed on the total RNA of them using Msx-1, Msx-2 specific primers separately. Expression of both genes were detected during the different stages of hard tissue formation in the mouse first mandibular molars, but there was some interesting differences in the quantitiy between the two genes. Msx-1 transcripts appeared at the 1 day postnatally, and increase through 3 day, 7 day, then maximally expressed at 14 days postnatally; while Msx-2 mRNA was seen and expressed maximally at the 3 days postnatally, then there was a gradual reduction at 7 days, and 14 days postnatally. The homeobox gene Msx-1, Msx-2 may play a role in the events of the hard tissue formation. The complementary expression pattern of them during the specific stage of hard tissue formation indicates that there may be some functional redundancy between them during the biomineralization.

  15. Msx2 alters the timing of retinal ganglion cells fate commitment and differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Shao-Yun, E-mail: jiangshaoyun@yahoo.com [School of Dentistry, Tianjin Medical University, 12 Qi Xiang Tai Street, Tianjin 300070 (China); Wang, Jian-Tao, E-mail: wangjiantao65@hotmail.com [Eye Center, Tianjin Medical University, 64 Tongan Road, Tianjin 300070 (China); Dohney Eye Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 1355 San Pablo Street, DOH 314, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States)

    2010-05-14

    Timing of cell fate commitment determines distinct retinal cell types, which is believed to be controlled by a tightly coordinated regulatory program of proliferation, cell cycle exit and differentiation. Although homeobox protein Msx2 could induce apoptosis of optic vesicle, it is unclear whether Msx2 regulates differentiation and cell fate commitment of retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). In this study, we show that overexpression of Msx2 transiently suppressed the expression of Cyclin D1 and blocked cell proliferation. Meanwhile, overexpression of Msx2 delayed the expression of RGC-specific differentiation markers (Math5 and Brn3b), which showed that Msx2 could affect the timing of RGCs fate commitment and differentiation by delaying the timing of cell cycle exit of retinal progenitors. These results indicate Msx2 possesses dual regulatory functions in controlling cell cycle progression of retinal RPCs and timing of RGCs differentiation.

  16. Uterine inactivation of muscle segment homeobox (Msx) genes alters epithelial cell junction proteins during embryo implantation

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Xiaofei; Park, Craig B.; Deng, Wenbo; Potter, S. Steven; Dey, Sudhansu K.

    2015-01-01

    Embryo implantation requires that the uterus differentiate into the receptive state. Failure to attain uterine receptivity will impede blastocyst attachment and result in a compromised pregnancy. The molecular mechanism by which the uterus transitions from the prereceptive to the receptive stage is complex, involving an intricate interplay of various molecules. We recently found that mice with uterine deletion of Msx genes (Msx1d/d/Msx2d/d) are infertile because of implantation failure associ...

  17. Uterine inactivation of muscle segment homeobox (Msx) genes alters epithelial cell junction proteins during embryo implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaofei; Park, Craig B; Deng, Wenbo; Potter, S Steven; Dey, Sudhansu K

    2016-04-01

    Embryo implantation requires that the uterus differentiate into the receptive state. Failure to attain uterine receptivity will impede blastocyst attachment and result in a compromised pregnancy. The molecular mechanism by which the uterus transitions from the prereceptive to the receptive stage is complex, involving an intricate interplay of various molecules. We recently found that mice with uterine deletion ofMsxgenes (Msx1(d/d)/Msx2(d/d)) are infertile because of implantation failure associated with heightened apicobasal polarity of luminal epithelial cells during the receptive period. However, information on Msx's roles in regulating epithelial polarity remains limited. To gain further insight, we analyzed cell-type-specific gene expression by RNA sequencing of separated luminal epithelial and stromal cells by laser capture microdissection fromMsx1(d/d)/Msx2(d/d)and floxed mouse uteri on d 4 of pseudopregnancy. We found that claudin-1, a tight junction protein, and small proline-rich (Sprr2) protein, a major component of cornified envelopes in keratinized epidermis, were substantially up-regulated inMsx1(d/d)/Msx2(d/d)uterine epithelia. These factors also exhibited unique epithelial expression patterns at the implantation chamber (crypt) inMsx1(f/f)/Msx2(f/f)females; the patterns were lost inMsx1(d/d)/Msx2(d/d)epithelia on d 5, suggesting important roles during implantation. The results suggest thatMsxgenes play important roles during uterine receptivity including modulation of epithelial junctional activity.-Sun, X., Park, C. B., Deng, W., Potter, S. S., Dey, S. K. Uterine inactivation of muscle segment homeobox (Msx) genes alters epithelial cell junction proteins during embryo implantation. © FASEB.

  18. Msx genes define a population of mural cell precursors required for head blood vessel maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Miguel; Goupille, Olivier; Saint Cloment, Cécile; Lallemand, Yvan; Cumano, Ana; Robert, Benoît

    2011-07-01

    Vessels are primarily formed from an inner endothelial layer that is secondarily covered by mural cells, namely vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in arteries and veins and pericytes in capillaries and veinules. We previously showed that, in the mouse embryo, Msx1(lacZ) and Msx2(lacZ) are expressed in mural cells and in a few endothelial cells. To unravel the role of Msx genes in vascular development, we have inactivated the two Msx genes specifically in mural cells by combining the Msx1(lacZ), Msx2(lox) and Sm22α-Cre alleles. Optical projection tomography demonstrated abnormal branching of the cephalic vessels in E11.5 mutant embryos. The carotid and vertebral arteries showed an increase in caliber that was related to reduced vascular smooth muscle coverage. Taking advantage of a newly constructed Msx1(CreERT2) allele, we demonstrated by lineage tracing that the primary defect lies in a population of VSMC precursors. The abnormal phenotype that ensues is a consequence of impaired BMP signaling in the VSMC precursors that leads to downregulation of the metalloprotease 2 (Mmp2) and Mmp9 genes, which are essential for cell migration and integration into the mural layer. Improper coverage by VSMCs secondarily leads to incomplete maturation of the endothelial layer. Our results demonstrate that both Msx1 and Msx2 are required for the recruitment of a population of neural crest-derived VSMCs.

  19. Msx1 is expressed in retina endothelial cells at artery branching sites

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Lopes; Olivier Goupille; Cécile Saint Cloment; Benoît Robert

    2012-01-01

    Summary Msx1 and Msx2 encode homeodomain transcription factors that play a role in several embryonic developmental processes. Previously, we have shown that in the adult mouse, Msx1lacZ is expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and pericytes, and that Msx2lacZ is also expressed in VSMCs as well as in a few endothelial cells (ECs). The mouse retina and choroid are two highly vascularized tissues. Vessel alterations in the retina are associated with several human diseases and the ret...

  20. Expression of an Msx homeobox gene in ascidians: insights into the archetypal chordate expression pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, L; Swalla, B J; Zhou, J; Dobias, S L; Bell, J R; Chen, J; Maxson, R E; Jeffery, W R

    1996-03-01

    The Msx homeobox genes are expressed in complex patterns during vertebrate development in conjunction with inductive tissue interactions. As a means of understanding the archetypal role of Msx genes in chordates, we have isolated and characterized an Msx gene in ascidians, protochordates with a relatively simple body plan. The Mocu Msx-a and McMsx-a genes, isolated from the ascidians Molgula oculata and Molgula citrina, respectively, have homeodomains that place them in the msh-like subclass of Msx genes. Therefore, the Molgula Msx-a genes are most closely related to the msh genes previously identified in a number of invertebrates. Southern blot analysis suggests that there are one or two copies of the Msx-a gene in the Molgula genome. Northern blot and RNase protection analysis indicate that Msx-a transcripts are restricted to the developmental stages of the life cycle. In situ hybridization showed that Msx-a mRNA first appears just before gastrulation in the mesoderm (presumptive notochord and muscle) and ectoderm (neural plate) cells. Transcript levels decline in mesoderm cells after the completion of gastrulation, but are enhanced in the folding neural plate during neurulation. Later, Msx-a mRNA is also expressed in the posterior ectoderm and in a subset of the tail muscle cells. The ectoderm and mesoderm cells that express Msx-a are undergoing morphogenetic movements during gastrulation, neurulation, and tail formation. Msx-a expression ceases after these cells stop migrating. The ascidian M. citrina, in which adult tissues and organs begin to develop precociously in the larva, was used to study Msx-a expression during adult development. Msx-a transcripts are expressed in the heart primordium and the rudiments of the ampullae, epidermal protrusions with diverse functions in the juvenile. The heart and ampullae develop in regions where mesenchyme cells interact with endodermal or epidermal epithelia. A comparison of the expression patterns of the Molgula genes

  1. Ectopic expression of Msx2 in mammalian myotubes recapitulates aspects of amphibian muscle dedifferentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilgan Yilmaz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to urodele amphibians and teleost fish, mammals lack the regenerative responses to replace large body parts. Amphibian and fish regeneration uses dedifferentiation, i.e., reversal of differentiated state, as a means to produce progenitor cells to eventually replace damaged tissues. Therefore, induced activation of dedifferentiation responses in mammalian tissues holds an immense promise for regenerative medicine. Here we demonstrate that ectopic expression of Msx2 in cultured mouse myotubes recapitulates several aspects of amphibian muscle dedifferentiation. We found that MSX2, but not MSX1, leads to cellularization of myotubes and downregulates the expression of myotube markers, such as MHC, MRF4 and myogenin. RNA sequencing of myotubes ectopically expressing Msx2 showed downregulation of over 500 myotube-enriched transcripts and upregulation of over 300 myoblast-enriched transcripts. MSX2 selectively downregulated expression of Ptgs2 and Ptger4, two members of the prostaglandin pathway with important roles in myoblast fusion during muscle differentiation. Ectopic expression of Msx2, as well as Msx1, induced partial cell cycle re-entry of myotubes by upregulating CyclinD1 expression but failed to initiate S-phase. Finally, MSX2-induced dedifferentiation in mouse myotubes could be recapitulated by a pharmacological treatment with trichostatin A (TSA, bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4 and fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1. Together, these observations indicate that MSX2 is a major driver of dedifferentiation in mammalian muscle cells.

  2. The function and evolution of Msx genes: pointers and paradoxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, D

    1995-10-01

    The Msx genes of vertebrates comprise a small family of chromosomally unlinked homeobox-containing genes related to the Drosophila gene muscle-segment homeobox (msh). Despite their ancient pedigree, the Msx genes are expressed in a range of vertebrate-specific tissues, including neural crest, cranial sensory placodes, bone and teeth. They are active in numerous systems, which have been used as models to study pattern formation and tissue interaction, and are, therefore, attracting a growing interest among developmental biologists. But beyond their presumed role as transcription factors, we do not know what their functions are in the cell or the embryo. Here, I review recent evidence that is beginning to address this problem and might eventually increase our understanding of how the vertebrate embryo has evolved.

  3. Joint operations planning for space surveillance missions on the MSX satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Grant; Good, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    The Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite, sponsored by BMDO, is intended to gather broad-band phenomenology data on missiles, plumes, naturally occurring earthlimb backgrounds and deep space backgrounds. In addition the MSX will be used to conduct functional demonstrations of space-based space surveillance. The JHU/Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), located in Laurel, MD, is the integrator and operator of the MSX satellite. APL will conduct all operations related to the MSX and is charged with the detailed operations planning required to implement all of the experiments run on the MSX except the space surveillance experiments. The non-surveillance operations are generally amenable to being defined months ahead of time and being scheduled on a monthly basis. Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (LL), located in Lexington, MA, is the provider of one of the principle MSX instruments, the Space-Based Visible (SBV) sensor, and the agency charged with implementing the space surveillance demonstrations on the MSX. The planning timelines for the space surveillance demonstrations are fundamentally different from those for the other experiments. They are generally amenable to being scheduled on a monthly basis, but the specific experiment sequence and pointing must be refined shortly before execution. This allocation of responsibilities to different organizations implies the need for a joint mission planning system for conducting space surveillance demonstrations. This paper details the iterative, joint planning system, based on passing responsibility for generating MSX commands for surveillance operations from APL to LL for specific scheduled operations. The joint planning system, including the generation of a budget for spacecraft resources to be used for surveillance events, has been successfully demonstrated during ground testing of the MSX and is being validated for MSX launch within the year. The planning system developed for the MSX forms a

  4. NKL homeobox gene MSX1 acts like a tumor suppressor in NK-cell leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Stefan; Pommerenke, Claudia; Meyer, Corinna; Kaufmann, Maren; MacLeod, Roderick A F; Drexler, Hans G

    2017-09-15

    NKL homeobox gene MSX1 is physiologically expressed in lymphoid progenitors and subsequently downregulated in developing T- and B-cells. In contrast, elevated expression levels of MSX1 persist in mature natural killer (NK)-cells, indicating a functional role in this compartment. While T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) subsets exhibit aberrant overexpression of MSX1, we show here that in malignant NK-cells the level of MSX1 transcripts is aberrantly downregulated. Chromosomal deletions at 4p16 hosting the MSX1 locus have been described in NK-cell leukemia patients. However, NK-cell lines analyzed here showed normal MSX1 gene configurations, indicating that this aberration might be uncommon. To identify alternative MSX1 regulatory mechanisms we compared expression profiling data of primary normal NK-cells and malignant NK-cell lines. This procedure revealed several deregulated genes including overexpressed IRF4, MIR155HG and MIR17HG and downregulated AUTS2, EP300, GATA3 and HHEX. As shown recently, chromatin-modulator AUTS2 is overexpressed in T-ALL subsets where it mediates aberrant transcriptional activation of MSX1. Here, our data demonstrate that in malignant NK-cell lines AUTS2 performed MSX1 activation as well, but in accordance with downregulated MSX1 transcription therein we detected reduced AUTS2 expression, a small genomic deletion at 7q11 removing exons 3 and 4, and truncating mutations in exon 1. Moreover, genomic profiling and chromosomal analyses of NK-cell lines demonstrated amplification of IRF4 at 6p25 and deletion of PRDM1 at 6q21, highlighting their potential oncogenic impact. Functional analyses performed via knockdown or forced expression of these genes revealed regulatory network disturbances effecting downregulation of MSX1 which may underlie malignant development in NK-cells.

  5. Msx homeobox genes critically regulate embryo implantation by controlling paracrine signaling between uterine stroma and epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugasundaram Nallasamy

    Full Text Available The mammalian Msx homeobox genes, Msx1 and Msx2, encode transcription factors that control organogenesis and tissue interactions during embryonic development. We observed overlapping expression of these factors in uterine epithelial and stromal compartments of pregnant mice prior to embryo implantation. Conditional ablation of both Msx1 and Msx2 in the uterus resulted in female infertility due to a failure in implantation. In these mutant mice (Msx1/2(d/d, the uterine epithelium exhibited persistent proliferative activity and failed to attach to the embryos. Gene expression profiling of uterine epithelium and stroma of Msx1/2(d/d mice revealed an elevated expression of several members of the Wnt gene family in the preimplantation uterus. Increased canonical Wnt signaling in the stromal cells activated β-catenin, stimulating the production of a subset of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs in these cells. The secreted FGFs acted in a paracrine manner via the FGF receptors in the epithelium to promote epithelial proliferation, thereby preventing differentiation of this tissue and creating a non-receptive uterus refractory to implantation. Collectively, these findings delineate a unique signaling network, involving Msx1/2, Wnts, and FGFs, which operate in the uterus at the time of implantation to control the mesenchymal-epithelial dialogue critical for successful establishment of pregnancy.

  6. Msx homeobox genes critically regulate embryo implantation by controlling paracrine signaling between uterine stroma and epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallasamy, Shanmugasundaram; Li, Quanxi; Bagchi, Milan K; Bagchi, Indrani C

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian Msx homeobox genes, Msx1 and Msx2, encode transcription factors that control organogenesis and tissue interactions during embryonic development. We observed overlapping expression of these factors in uterine epithelial and stromal compartments of pregnant mice prior to embryo implantation. Conditional ablation of both Msx1 and Msx2 in the uterus resulted in female infertility due to a failure in implantation. In these mutant mice (Msx1/2(d/d)), the uterine epithelium exhibited persistent proliferative activity and failed to attach to the embryos. Gene expression profiling of uterine epithelium and stroma of Msx1/2(d/d) mice revealed an elevated expression of several members of the Wnt gene family in the preimplantation uterus. Increased canonical Wnt signaling in the stromal cells activated β-catenin, stimulating the production of a subset of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) in these cells. The secreted FGFs acted in a paracrine manner via the FGF receptors in the epithelium to promote epithelial proliferation, thereby preventing differentiation of this tissue and creating a non-receptive uterus refractory to implantation. Collectively, these findings delineate a unique signaling network, involving Msx1/2, Wnts, and FGFs, which operate in the uterus at the time of implantation to control the mesenchymal-epithelial dialogue critical for successful establishment of pregnancy.

  7. Enamel protein regulation and dental and periodontal physiopathology in MSX2 mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Muriel; Descroix, Vianney; Aïoub, Muhanad; Simon, Stéphane; Castañeda, Beatriz; Hotton, Dominique; Bolaños, Alba; Simon, Yohann; Lezot, Frédéric; Goubin, Gérard; Berdal, Ariane

    2010-11-01

    Signaling pathways that underlie postnatal dental and periodontal physiopathology are less studied than those of early tooth development. Members of the muscle segment homeobox gene (Msx) family encode homeoproteins that show functional redundancy during development and are known to be involved in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions that lead to crown morphogenesis and ameloblast cell differentiation. This study analyzed the MSX2 protein during mouse postnatal growth as well as in the adult. The analysis focused on enamel and periodontal defects and enamel proteins in Msx2-null mutant mice. In the epithelial lifecycle, the levels of MSX2 expression and enamel protein secretion were inversely related. Msx2+/- mice showed increased amelogenin expression, enamel thickness, and rod size. Msx2-/- mice displayed compound phenotypic characteristics of enamel defects, related to both enamel-specific gene mutations (amelogenin and enamelin) in isolated amelogenesis imperfecta, and cell-cell junction elements (laminin 5 and cytokeratin 5) in other syndromes. These effects were also related to ameloblast disappearance, which differed between incisors and molars. In Msx2-/- roots, Malassez cells formed giant islands that overexpressed amelogenin and ameloblastin that grew over months. Aberrant expression of enamel proteins is proposed to underlie the regional osteopetrosis and hyperproduction of cellular cementum. These enamel and periodontal phenotypes of Msx2 mutants constitute the first case report of structural and signaling defects associated with enamel protein overexpression in a postnatal context.

  8. The homeobox gene Msx in development and transdifferentiation of jellyfish striated muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, Sabina; Yanze, Nathalie; Seipel, Katja

    2005-01-01

    Bilaterian Msx homeobox genes are generally expressed in areas of cell proliferation and in association with multipotent progenitor cells. Likewise, jellyfish Msx is expressed in progenitor cells of the developing entocodon, a cell layer giving rise to the striated and smooth muscles of the medusa. However, in contrast to the bilaterian homologs, Msx gene expression is maintained at high levels in the differentiated striated muscle of the medusa in vivo and in vitro. This tissue exhibits reprogramming competence. Upon induction, the Msx gene is immediately switched off in the isolated striated muscle undergoing transdifferentiation, to be upregulated again in the emerging smooth muscle cells which, in a stem cell like manner, undergo quantal cell divisions producing two cell types, a proliferating smooth muscle cell and a differentiating nerve cell. This study indicates that the Msx protein may be a key component of the reprogramming machinery responsible for the extraordinary transdifferentation and regeneration potential of striated muscle in the hydrozoan jellyfish.

  9. Expression of Msx-2 during development, regeneration, and wound healing in axolotl limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, M R; Bryant, S V; Gardiner, D M

    1998-12-15

    Msx genes are transcription factors that are expressed during embryogenesis of developing appendages in regions of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Various lines of evidence indicate that these genes function to maintain embryonic tissues in an undifferentiated, proliferative state. We have identified the axolotl homolog of Msx-2, and investigated its expression during limb development, limb regeneration, and wound healing. As in limb buds of higher vertebrates, axolotl Msx-2 is expressed in the apical epidermis and mesenchyme; however, its expression domain is more extensive, reflecting the broader region of the apical epidermal cap in amphibians. Msx-2 expression is downregulated at late stages of limb development, but is reexpressed within one hour after limb amputation. Msx-2 is also reexpressed during wound healing, and may be essential in the early stages of initiation of the limb regeneration cascade.

  10. MSX1 cooperates with histone H1b for inhibition of transcription and myogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hansol; Habas, Raymond; Abate-Shen, Cory

    2004-06-11

    During embryogenesis, differentiation of skeletal muscle is regulated by transcription factors that include members of the Msx homeoprotein family. By investigating Msx1 function in repression of myogenic gene expression, we identified a physical interaction between Msx1 and H1b, a specific isoform of mouse histone H1. We found that Msx1 and H1b bind to a key regulatory element of MyoD, a central regulator of skeletal muscle differentiation, where they induce repressed chromatin. Moreover, Msx1 and H1b cooperate to inhibit muscle differentiation in cell culture and in Xenopus animal caps. Our findings define a previously unknown function for "linker" histones in gene-specific transcriptional regulation.

  11. Endogenous Msx1 antisense transcript: In vivo and in vitro evidences, structure, and potential involvement in skeleton development in mammals

    OpenAIRE

    Blin-Wakkach, C.; Lezot, F.; Ghoul-Mazgar, S.; Hotton, D.; Monteiro, S.; Teillaud, C.; Pibouin, L.; Orestes-Cardoso, S.; Papagerakis, P.; Macdougall, M.; Robert, B.; Berdal, A.

    2001-01-01

    Msx1 is a key factor for the development of tooth and craniofacial skeleton and has been proposed to play a pivotal role in terminal cell differentiation. In this paper, we demonstrated the presence of an endogenous Msx1 antisense RNA (Msx1-AS RNA) in mice, rats, and humans. In situ analysis revealed that this RNA is expressed only in differentiated dental and bone cells with an inverse correlation with Msx1 protein. These in vivo data and overexpression of Msx1 sense and AS RNA in an odontob...

  12. Vocal fold elasticity of the Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) – producing high fundamental frequency vocalization with a very long vocal fold

    OpenAIRE

    Riede, Tobias; Titze, Ingo R.

    2008-01-01

    The vocal folds of male Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) are about 3 cm long. If fundamental frequency were to be predicted by a simple vibrating string formula, as is often done for the human larynx, such long vocal folds would bear enormous stress to produce the species-specific mating call with an average fundamental frequency of 1 kHz. Predictions would be closer to 50 Hz. Vocal fold histology revealed the presence of a large vocal ligament between the vocal fold epithelium and...

  13. MSX1 Mutation in Witkop Syndrome; A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Ghaderi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Witkop syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the absence of several teeth and abnormalities of the nails. This is the first report of a rare genetic tooth and nail syndrome diagnosed in a 2.5-year-old boy with early exfoliation of the primary canine, absence of the primary incisors, and nail dysplasia. A homozygous mutation was identified in 3’-UTR of MSX1 gene in the proband. The parents of the patient had no dental and nail anomalies.

  14. Cross-talk between Msx/Dlx homeobox genes and vitamin D during tooth mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lézot, F; Descroix, V; Mesbah, M; Hotton, D; Blin, C; Papagerakis, P; Mauro, N; Kato, S; MacDougall, M; Sharpe, P; Berdal, A

    2002-01-01

    Rickets is associated with site-specific disorders of enamel and dentin formation, which may reflect the impact of vitamin D on a morphogenetic pathway. This study is devoted to potential cross-talk between vitamin D and Msx/Dlx transcription factors. We raised the question of a potential link between tooth defects seen in mice with rickets and Msx2 gene misexpression, using mutant mice lacking the nuclear vitamin D receptor as an animal model. Our data showed a modulation of Msx2 expression. In order to search for a functional impact of this Msx2 misexpression secondary to rickets, we focused our attention on osteocalcin as a target gene for both vitamin D and Msx2. Combining Msx2 overexpression and vitamin D addition in vitro, we showed an inhibitory effect on osteocalcin expression in immortalized MO6-G3 odontoblasts. Finally, in the same cells, such combinations appeared to modulate VDR expression outlining the existence of complex cross-regulations between vitamin D and Msx/Dix pathways.

  15. Expression of bone morphogenetic proteins and Msx genes during root formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashiro, T; Tummers, M; Thesleff, I

    2003-03-01

    Like crown development, root formation is also regulated by interactions between epithelial and mesenchymml tissues. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), together with the transcription factors Msx1 and Msx2, play important roles in these interactions during early tooth morphogenesis. To investigate the involvement of this signaling pathway in root development, we analyzed the expression patterns of Bmp2, Bmp3, Bmp4, and Bmp7 as well as Msx1 and Msx2 in the roots of mouse molars. Bmp4 was expressed in the apical mesenchyme and Msx2 in the root sheath. However, Bmps were not detected in the root sheath epithelium, and Msx transcripts were absent from the underlying mesenchyme. These findings indicate that this Bmp signaling pathway, required for tooth initiation, does not regulate root development, but we suggest that root shape may be regulated by a mechanism similar to that regulating crown shape in cap-stage tooth germs. Msx2 expression continued in the epithelial cell rests of Malassez, and the nearby cementoblasts intensely expressed Bmp3, which may regulate some functions of the fragmented epithelium.

  16. Msx homeobox genes inhibit differentiation through upregulation of cyclin D1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, G; Lee, H; Price, S M; Shen, M M; Abate-Shen, C

    2001-06-01

    During development, patterning and morphogenesis of tissues are intimately coordinated through control of cellular proliferation and differentiation. We describe a mechanism by which vertebrate Msx homeobox genes inhibit cellular differentiation by regulation of the cell cycle. We show that misexpression of Msx1 via retroviral gene transfer inhibits differentiation of multiple mesenchymal and epithelial progenitor cell types in culture. This activity of Msx1 is associated with its ability to upregulate cyclin D1 expression and Cdk4 activity, while Msx1 has minimal effects on cellular proliferation. Transgenic mice that express Msx1 under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat (MMTV LTR) display impaired differentiation of the mammary epithelium during pregnancy, which is accompanied by elevated levels of cyclin D1 expression. We propose that Msx1 gene expression maintains cyclin D1 expression and prevents exit from the cell cycle, thereby inhibiting terminal differentiation of progenitor cells. Our model provides a framework for reconciling the mutant phenotypes of Msx and other homeobox genes with their functions as regulators of cellular proliferation and differentiation during embryogenesis.

  17. Msx-2 expression and glucocorticoid-induced overexpression in embryonic mouse submandibular glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskoll, T; Luo, W; Snead, M L

    1998-01-01

    It is well known that the process of branching morphogenesis requires epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. One outstanding model for the study of tissue interactions during branching morphogenesis is the embryonic mouse submandibular gland (SMG). Although it has been clearly demonstrated that the branching pattern is dependent on interactions between the epithelium and the surrounding mesenchyme, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying the branching process. One group of transcription factors that likely participates in the control of epithelial-mesenchymal inductive interactions are the Msx-class of homeodomain-containing proteins. In this paper, we focus on Msx-2 because its developmental expression is correlated with inductive interactions, suggesting that Msx-2 may play a functional role during cell-cell interactions. We demonstrate the expression of Msx-2 mRNA and protein to be primarily in the branching epithelia with progressive embryonic (E13 to E15) SMG development and, to a lesser extent, in the mesenchyme. We also show that Msx-2 is expressed by embryonic SMG primordia cultured under defined conditions. In addition, to begin to delineate a functional role for Msx-2, we employed an experimental strategy by using exogenous glucocorticoid (CORT) treatment of embryonic SMGs in vitro and in vivo to significantly enhance branching morphogenesis and evaluate the effect of CORT treatment on embryonic SMG Msx-2 expression. A marked increase in Msx-2 transcripts and protein is detected with in vitro and in vivo CORT treatment. Our studies indicate that one mechanism of CORT regulation of salivary gland morphogenesis is likely through the modulation of Msx-2 gene expression.

  18. Regulation of Calbindin-D28k Expression by Msx2 in the Dental Epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Bolaños, Alba; Hotton, Dominique; Ferbus, Didier; Loiodice, Sophia; Berdal, Ariane; Babajko, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Amelogenesis involves the coordinated expression of a set of molecules that includes enamel matrix proteins and calcium-binding proteins. Msx2 is a member of the divergent homeobox gene family and is instrumental in dental morphogenesis and biomineralization. This study focused on an EF-hand calcium-binding protein, calbindin-D28k, which is highly expressed in dental epithelium. In vivo data showed that calbindin-D28k levels were higher in ameloblasts from Msx2+/− mice than Msx2+/+ mice. Cons...

  19. Optical diagnostics on the Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguski, J. C.; Weber, T. E.; Intrator, T. P.; Smith, R. J.; Dunn, J. P.; Hutchinson, T. M.; Gao, K. W.

    2013-10-01

    The Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX) at Los Alamos National Laboratory was built to investigate the physics of high Alfvén Mach number, supercritical, magnetized shocks through the acceleration and subsequent stagnation of a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmoid against a magnetic mirror and/or plasma target. A suite of optical diagnostics has recently been fielded on MSX to characterize plasma conditions during the formation, acceleration, and stagnation phases of the experiment. CCD-backed streak and framing cameras, and a fiber-based visible light array, provide information regarding FRC shape, velocity, and instability growth. Time-resolved narrow and broadband spectroscopy provides information on pre-shock plasma temperature, impurity levels, shock location, and non-thermal ion distributions within the shock region. Details of the diagnostic design, configuration, and characterization will be presented along with initial results. This work is supported by the Center for Magnetic Self Organization, DoE OFES and NNSA under LANS contract DE-AC52-06NA25369. Approved for public release: LA-UR- 13-25190.

  20. A homeodomain transcription factor gene, PfMSX, activates expression of Pif gene in the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Zhao

    Full Text Available We reported pearl oyster Pinctada fucata cDNA and genomic characterization of a new homeobox-containing protein, PfMSX. The PfMSX gene encodes a transcription factor that was localized to the nucleus. Analyses of PfMSX mRNA in tissues and developmental stages showed high expressions in mantle or D-shaped larvae. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs PfMSX binded to MSX consensus binding sites in the 5' flanking region of the Pif promoter. In co-transfection experiment PfMSX transactivated reporter constructs containing Pif promoter sequences, and mutation of the MSX-binding sites attenuated transactivation. A knockdown experiment using PfMSX dsRNA showed decreased Pif mRNA and unregular crystallization of the nacreous layer using scanning electron microscopy. Our results suggested that PfMSX was a conserved homeodomain transcription factor gene, which can activate Pif gene expression through MSX binding site, and was then involved in the mineralization process in pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. Our data provided important clues about mechanisms regulating biomineralization in pearl oyster.

  1. A Homeodomain Transcription Factor Gene, PfMSX, Activates Expression of Pif Gene in the Pearl Oyster Pinctada fucata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mi; He, Maoxian; Huang, Xiande; Wang, Qi

    2014-01-01

    We reported pearl oyster Pinctada fucata cDNA and genomic characterization of a new homeobox-containing protein, PfMSX. The PfMSX gene encodes a transcription factor that was localized to the nucleus. Analyses of PfMSX mRNA in tissues and developmental stages showed high expressions in mantle or D-shaped larvae. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) PfMSX binded to MSX consensus binding sites in the 5′ flanking region of the Pif promoter. In co-transfection experiment PfMSX transactivated reporter constructs containing Pif promoter sequences, and mutation of the MSX-binding sites attenuated transactivation. A knockdown experiment using PfMSX dsRNA showed decreased Pif mRNA and unregular crystallization of the nacreous layer using scanning electron microscopy. Our results suggested that PfMSX was a conserved homeodomain transcription factor gene, which can activate Pif gene expression through MSX binding site, and was then involved in the mineralization process in pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. Our data provided important clues about mechanisms regulating biomineralization in pearl oyster. PMID:25099698

  2. A homeodomain transcription factor gene, PfMSX, activates expression of Pif gene in the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mi; He, Maoxian; Huang, Xiande; Wang, Qi

    2014-01-01

    We reported pearl oyster Pinctada fucata cDNA and genomic characterization of a new homeobox-containing protein, PfMSX. The PfMSX gene encodes a transcription factor that was localized to the nucleus. Analyses of PfMSX mRNA in tissues and developmental stages showed high expressions in mantle or D-shaped larvae. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) PfMSX binded to MSX consensus binding sites in the 5' flanking region of the Pif promoter. In co-transfection experiment PfMSX transactivated reporter constructs containing Pif promoter sequences, and mutation of the MSX-binding sites attenuated transactivation. A knockdown experiment using PfMSX dsRNA showed decreased Pif mRNA and unregular crystallization of the nacreous layer using scanning electron microscopy. Our results suggested that PfMSX was a conserved homeodomain transcription factor gene, which can activate Pif gene expression through MSX binding site, and was then involved in the mineralization process in pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. Our data provided important clues about mechanisms regulating biomineralization in pearl oyster.

  3. Regulation of Msx genes by a Bmp gradient is essential for neural crest specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribulo, Celeste; Aybar, Manuel J; Nguyen, Vu H; Mullins, Mary C; Mayor, Roberto

    2003-12-01

    There is evidence in Xenopus and zebrafish embryos that the neural crest/neural folds are specified at the border of the neural plate by a precise threshold concentration of a Bmp gradient. In order to understand the molecular mechanism by which a gradient of Bmp is able to specify the neural crest, we analyzed how the expression of Bmp targets, the Msx genes, is regulated and the role that Msx genes has in neural crest specification. As Msx genes are directly downstream of Bmp, we analyzed Msx gene expression after experimental modification in the level of Bmp activity by grafting a bead soaked with noggin into Xenopus embryos, by expressing in the ectoderm a dominant-negative Bmp4 or Bmp receptor in Xenopus and zebrafish embryos, and also through Bmp pathway component mutants in the zebrafish. All the results show that a reduction in the level of Bmp activity leads to an increase in the expression of Msx genes in the neural plate border. Interestingly, by reaching different levels of Bmp activity in animal cap ectoderm, we show that a specific concentration of Bmp induces msx1 expression to a level similar to that required to induce neural crest. Our results indicate that an intermediate level of Bmp activity specifies the expression of Msx genes in the neural fold region. In addition, we have analyzed the role that msx1 plays on neural crest specification. As msx1 has a role in dorsoventral pattering, we have carried out conditional gain- and loss-of-function experiments using different msx1 constructs fused to a glucocorticoid receptor element to avoid an early effect of this factor. We show that msx1 expression is able to induce all other early neural crest markers tested (snail, slug, foxd3) at the time of neural crest specification. Furthermore, the expression of a dominant negative of Msx genes leads to the inhibition of all the neural crest markers analyzed. It has been previously shown that snail is one of the earliest genes acting in the neural crest

  4. Reduced homeobox protein MSX1 in human endometrial tissue is linked to infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolnick, Alan D; Bolnick, Jay M; Kilburn, Brian A; Stewart, Tamika; Oakes, Jonathan; Rodriguez-Kovacs, Javier; Kohan-Ghadr, Hamid-Reza; Dai, Jing; Diamond, Michael P; Hirota, Yasushi; Drewlo, Sascha; Dey, Sudhansu K; Armant, D Randall

    2016-09-01

    Is protein expression of the muscle segment homeobox gene family member MSX1 altered in the human secretory endometrium by cell type, developmental stage or fertility? MSX1 protein levels, normally elevated in the secretory phase endometrium, were significantly reduced in endometrial biopsies obtained from women of infertile couples. Molecular changes in the endometrium are important for fertility in both animals and humans. Msx1 is expressed in the preimplantation mouse uterus and regulates uterine receptivity for implantation. The MSX protein persists a short time, after its message has been down-regulated. Microarray analysis of the human endometrium reveals a similar pattern of MSX1 mRNA expression that peaks before the receptive period, with depressed expression at implantation. Targeted deletion of uterine Msx1 and Msx2 in mice prevents the loss of epithelial cell polarity during implantation and causes infertility. MSX1 mRNA and cell type-specific levels of MSX1 protein were quantified from two retrospective cohorts during the human endometrial cycle. MSX1 protein expression patterns were compared between fertile and infertile couples. Selected samples were dual-labeled by immunofluorescence microscopy to localize E-cadherin and β-catenin in epithelial cells. MSX1 mRNA was quantified by PCR in endometrium from hysterectomies (n = 14) determined by endometrial dating to be in the late-proliferative (cycle days 10-13), early-secretory (cycle days 14-19) or mid-secretory (cycle days 20-24) phase. MSX1 protein was localized using high-throughput, semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry with sectioned endometrial biopsy tissues from fertile (n = 89) and infertile (n = 89) couples. Image analysis measured stain intensity specifically within the luminal epithelium, glands and stroma during the early-, mid- and late- (cycle days 25-28) secretory phases. MSX1 transcript increased 5-fold (P MSX1 protein displayed strong nuclear localization in the luminal epithelium

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Red MSX Source Survey: massive protostars (Lumsden+, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, S. L.; Hoare, M. G.; Urquhart, J. S.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Davies, B.; Mottram, J. C.; Cooper, H. D. B.; Moore, T. J. T.

    2013-10-01

    The Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite mission included an astronomy experiment (SPIRIT III) designed to acquire mid-infrared photometry of sources in the Galactic plane (bMSX had a raw resolution of 18.3", a beam size 50 times smaller than that of IRAS at 12 and 25um. MSX observed six bands between 4 and 21um, of which the four between 8 and 21um are sensitive to astronomical sources. We used v2.3 of the MSX PSC (Egan et al. 2003, Cat. V/114) as our basic input, restricting ourselves to the main Galactic plane catalog, which excludes sources seen in only a single observing pass and those seen in multiple passes but with low significance. We restricted our catalog to 10

  6. Characterization of a Smad motif similar to Drosophila mad in the mouse Msx 1 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Martinez, Cristina E; Binato, Renata; Gonzalez, Sayonara; Pereira, Monica; Robert, Benoit; Abdelhay, Eliana

    2002-03-01

    Mouse Msx 1 gene, orthologous of the Drosophila msh, is involved in several developmental processes. BMP family members are major proteins in the regulation of Msx 1 expression. BMP signaling activates Smad 1/5/8 proteins, which associate to Smad 4 before translocating to the nucleus. Analysis of Msx 1 promoter revealed the presence of three elements similar to the consensus established for Mad, the Smad 1 Drosophila counterpart. Notably, such an element was identified in an enhancer important for Msx 1 regulation. Gel shift analysis demonstrated that proteins from 13.5 dpc embryo associate to this enhancer. Remarkably, supershift assays showed that Smad proteins are present in the complex. Purified Smad 1 and 4 also bind to this fragment. We demonstrate that functional binding sites in this enhancer are confined to the Mad motif and flanking region. Our data suggest that this Mad motif may be functional in response to BMP signaling. ©2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  7. An amphioxus Msx gene expressed predominantly in the dorsal neural tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, A C; Shimeld, S M; Holland, P W

    1999-04-01

    Genomic and cDNA clones of an Msx class homeobox gene were isolated from amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae). The gene, AmphiMsx, is expressed in the neural plate from late gastrulation; in later embryos it is expressed in dorsal cells of the neural tube, excluding anterior and posterior regions, in an irregular reiterated pattern. There is transient expression in dorsal cells within somites, reminiscent of migrating neural crest cells of vertebrates. In larvae, mRNA is detected in two patches of anterior ectoderm proposed to be placodes. Evolutionary analyses show there is little phylogenetic information in Msx protein sequences; however, it is likely that duplication of Msx genes occurred in the vertebrate lineage.

  8. Msx genes are important apoptosis effectors downstream of the Shh/Gli3 pathway in the limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallemand, Yvan; Bensoussan, Vardina; Cloment, Cécile Saint; Robert, Benoît

    2009-07-15

    In tetrapods, the anteroposterior (AP) patterning of the limb is under the control of the antagonistic activities of the secreted factor Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and Gli3R, the truncated repressor form of the transcription factor Gli3. In this report, we show that Msx1 and Msx2 are targets and downstream effectors of Gli3R. Consequently, in Shh null mutants, Msx genes are overexpressed and, furthermore, partially responsible for the limb phenotype. This is exemplified by the fact that reducing Msx activity in Shh mutants partially restores a normal limb development. Finally, we show that the main action of the Msx genes, in both normal and Shh(-/-) limb development, is to control cell death in the mesenchyme. We propose that, in the limb, Msx genes act downstream of the Shh/Gli3 pathway by transducing BMP signaling and that, in the absence of Shh signaling, their deregulation contributes to the extensive apoptosis that impairs limb development.

  9. Mirror-image duplication of the primary axis and heart in Xenopus embryos by the overexpression of Msx-1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Solursh, M

    1995-10-01

    The Msx-1 gene (formerly known as Hox-7) is a member of a discrete subclass of homeobox-containing genes. Examination of the expression pattern of Msx-1 in murine and avian embryos suggests that this gene may be involved in the regionalization of the medio-lateral axis during earlier development. We have examined the possible functions of Xenopus Msx-1 during early Xenopus embryonic development by overexpression of the Msx-1 gene. Overexpression of Msx-1 causes a left-right mirror-image duplication of primary axial structures, including notochord, neural tube, somites, suckers, and foregut. The embryonic developing heart is also mirror-image duplicated, including looping directions and polarity. These results indicate that Msx-1 may be involved in the mesoderm formation as well as left-right patterning in the early Xenopus embryonic development.

  10. Observations of the orbital debris complex by the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas, Faith; Anz-Meador, Phillip; Talent, Dave

    1997-01-01

    The midcourse space experiment (MSX) provides the opportunity to observe debris at multiple, simultaneous wavelengths, or in conjunction with other sensors and prior data sets. The instruments onboard MSX include an infrared telescope, an infrared interferometer, a visible telescope, an ultraviolet telescope and a spectroscopic imager. The spacecraft carries calibration spheres for instrument calibration and atmospheric drag studies. The experimental program, the implementation aspects, the data reduction techniques and the preliminary results are described.

  11. Homeodomain Transcription Factor Msx-2 Regulates Uterine Progenitor Cell Response to Diethylstilbestrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yan; Lin, Congxing; Zhang, Ivy; Fisher, Alexander V; Dhandha, Maulik; Ma, Liang

    The fate of mouse uterine epithelial progenitor cells is determined between postnatal days 5 to 7. Around this critical time window, exposure to an endocrine disruptor, diethylstilbestrol (DES), can profoundly alter uterine cytodifferentiation. We have shown previously that a homeo domain transcription factor MSX-2 plays an important role in DES-responsiveness in the female reproductive tract (FRT). Mutant FRTs exhibited a much more severe phenotype when treated with DES, accompanied by gene expression changes that are dependent on Msx2 . To better understand the role that MSX-2 plays in uterine response to DES, we performed global gene expression profiling experiment in mice lacking Msx2 By comparing this result to our previously published microarray data performed on wild-type mice, we extracted common and differentially regulated genes in the two genotypes. In so doing, we identified potential downstream targets of MSX-2, as well as genes whose regulation by DES is modulated through MSX-2. Discovery of these genes will lead to a better understanding of how DES, and possibly other endocrine disruptors, affects reproductive organ development.

  12. NF-kappaB mediates FGF signal regulation of msx-1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushdid, P B; Chen, C L; Brantley, D M; Yull, F; Raghow, R; Kerr, L D; Barnett, J V

    2001-09-01

    The nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) family of transcription factors is involved in proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in a stage- and cell-dependent manner. Recent evidence has shown that NF-kappaB activity is necessary for both chicken and mouse limb development. We report here that the NF-kappaB family member c-rel and the homeodomain gene msx-1 have partially overlapping expression patterns in the developing chick limb. In addition, inhibition of NF-kappaB activity resulted in a decrease in msx-1 mRNA expression. Sequence analysis of the msx-1 promoter revealed three potential kappaB-binding sites similar to the interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) kappaB-binding site. These sites bound to c-Rel, as shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Furthermore, inhibition of NF-kappaB activity significantly reduced transactivation of the msx-1 promoter in response to FGF-2/-4, known stimulators of msx-1 expression. These results suggest that NF-kappaB mediates the FGF-2/-4 signal regulation of msx-1 gene expression. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  13. Conditional deletion of Msx homeobox genes in the uterus inhibits blastocyst implantation by altering uterine receptivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daikoku, Takiko; Cha, Jeeyeon; Sun, Xiaofei; Tranguch, Susanne; Xie, Huirong; Fujita, Tomoko; Hirota, Yasushi; Lydon, John; DeMayo, Francesco; Maxson, Robert; Dey, Sudhansu K

    2011-12-13

    An effective bidirectional communication between an implantation-competent blastocyst and the receptive uterus is a prerequisite for mammalian reproduction. The blastocyst will implant only when this molecular cross-talk is established. Here we show that the muscle segment homeobox gene (Msh) family members Msx1 and Msx2, which are two highly conserved genes critical for epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during development, also play crucial roles in embryo implantation. Loss of Msx1/Msx2 expression correlates with altered uterine luminal epithelial cell polarity and affects E-cadherin/β-catenin complex formation through the control of Wnt5a expression. Application of Wnt5a in vitro compromised blastocyst invasion and trophoblast outgrowth on cultured uterine epithelial cells. The finding that Msx1/Msx2 genes are critical for conferring uterine receptivity and readiness to implantation could have clinical significance, because compromised uterine receptivity is a major cause of pregnancy failure in IVF programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Chicken homeobox gene Msx-1: structure, expression in limb buds and effect of retinoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokouchi, Y; Ohsugi, K; Sasaki, H; Kuroiwa, A

    1991-10-01

    A chicken gene carrying a homeobox highly homologous to the Drosophila muscle segment homeobox (msh) gene was isolated and designated as Msx-1. Conceptual translation from the longest ORF gave a protein of 259 amino acids lacking the conserved hexapeptide. Northern analysis detected a single 2.6 kb transcript. As early as day 2 of incubation, the transcript was detected but was not found in adult tissue. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that Msx-1 expression is closely related to a particular mesenchymal cell lineage during limb bud formation. In early stage embryos, Msx-1 was expressed in the somatopleure. When primordial mesenchyme cells for limb bud were generated from the Wolffian ridge of the somatopleure, Msx-1 expression began to diminish in the posterior half of the limb bud then in the presumptive cartilage-forming mesenchyme. In developing limb buds, remarkable expression was seen in the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), which is responsible for the sustained outgrowth and development of the limb. The Msx-1 transcripts were found in the limb mesenchymal cells in the region covering the necrotic zone and ectodermal cells overlying such mesenchymal cells. Both ectodermal and mesenchymal expression in limb bud were rapidly suppressed by local treatment of retinoic acid which can generate mirror-image duplication of digits. This indicates that retinoic acid alters the marginal presumptive non-cartilage forming mesenchyme cell lineage through suppression of Msx-1 expression.

  15. Msx genes are expressed in the carapacial ridge of turtle shell: a study of the European pond turtle, Emys orbicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Christine; Bontoux, Martine; Le Douarin, Nicole M; Pieau, Claude; Monsoro-Burq, Anne-Hélène

    2003-09-01

    The turtle shell forms by extensive ossification of dermis ventrally and dorsally. The carapacial ridge (CR) controls early dorsal shell formation and is thought to play a similar role in shell growth as the apical ectodermal ridge during limb development. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying carapace development are still unknown. Msx genes are involved in the development of limb mesenchyme and of various skeletal structures. In particular, precocious Msx expression is recorded in skeletal precursors that develop close to the ectoderm, such as vertebral spinous processes or skull. Here, we have studied the embryonic expression of Msx genes in the European pond turtle, Emys orbicularis. The overall Msx expression in head, limb, and trunk is similar to what is observed in other vertebrates. We have focused on the CR area and pre-skeletal shell condensations. The CR expresses Msx genes transiently, in a pattern similar to that of fgf10. In the future carapace domain, the dermis located dorsal to the spinal cord expresses Msx genes, as in other vertebrates, but we did not see expansion of this expression in the dermis located more laterally, on top of the dermomyotomes. In the ventral plastron, although the dermal osseous condensations form in the embryonic Msx-positive somatopleura, we did not observe enhanced Msx expression around these elements. These observations may indicate that common mechanisms participate in limb bud and CR early development, but that pre-differentiation steps differ between shell and other skeletal structures and involve other gene activities than that of Msx genes.

  16. Msx1-modulated muscle satellite cells retain a primitive state and exhibit an enhanced capacity for osteogenic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Ke; Liu, Wen-ying; Zeng, Qiang; Hou, Fang; Xu, Jian-zhong; Yang, Zhong

    2017-01-01

    Multipotent muscle satellite cells (MuSCs) have been identified as potential seed cells for bone tissue engineering. However, MuSCs exhibit a rapid loss of stemness after in vitro culturing, thereby compromising their therapeutic efficiency. Muscle segment homeobox gene 1 (msx1) has been found to induce the dedifferentiation of committed progenitor cells, as well as terminally differentiated myotubes. In this study, a Tet-off retroviral gene delivery system was used to modulate msx1 expression. After ten passages, MuSCs that did not express msx-1 (e.g., the non-msx1 group) were compared with MuSCs with induced msx-1 expression (e.g., the msx1 group). The latter group exhibited a more juvenile morphology, it contained a significantly lower percentage of senescent cells characterized by positive β-galactosidase staining, and it exhibited increased proliferation and a higher proliferation index. Immunocytochemical stainings further detected a more primitive gene expression profile for the msx1 group, while osteogenic differentiation assays and ectopic bone formation assays demonstrated an improved capacity for the msx1 group to undergo osteogenic differentiation. These results suggest that transient expression of msx1 in MuSCs can retain a primitive state, thereby enhancing their capacity for osteogenic differentiation and restoring the potential for MuSCs to serve as seed cells for bone tissue engineering.

  17. Msx1-modulated muscle satellite cells retain a primitive state and exhibit an enhanced capacity for osteogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ke; Liu, Wen-Ying; Zeng, Qiang; Hou, Fang; Xu, Jian-Zhong; Yang, Zhong

    2017-03-01

    Multipotent muscle satellite cells (MuSCs) have been identified as potential seed cells for bone tissue engineering. However, MuSCs exhibit a rapid loss of stemness after in vitro culturing, thereby compromising their therapeutic efficiency. Muscle segment homeobox gene 1 (msx1) has been found to induce the dedifferentiation of committed progenitor cells, as well as terminally differentiated myotubes. In this study, a Tet-off retroviral gene delivery system was used to modulate msx1 expression. After ten passages, MuSCs that did not express msx-1 (e.g., the non-msx1 group) were compared with MuSCs with induced msx-1 expression (e.g., the msx1 group). The latter group exhibited a more juvenile morphology, it contained a significantly lower percentage of senescent cells characterized by positive β-galactosidase staining, and it exhibited increased proliferation and a higher proliferation index. Immunocytochemical stainings further detected a more primitive gene expression profile for the msx1 group, while osteogenic differentiation assays and ectopic bone formation assays demonstrated an improved capacity for the msx1 group to undergo osteogenic differentiation. These results suggest that transient expression of msx1 in MuSCs can retain a primitive state, thereby enhancing their capacity for osteogenic differentiation and restoring the potential for MuSCs to serve as seed cells for bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Msx1-modulated muscle satellite cells retain a primitive state and exhibit an enhanced capacity for osteogenic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Ke, E-mail: dingke@med.uestc.edu.cn [Department of Pediatric Surgery, School of medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610072 (China); Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People' s Hospital, Chengdu 610072 (China); Department of Orthopaedics, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Liu, Wen-ying; Zeng, Qiang; Hou, Fang [Department of Pediatric Surgery, School of medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610072 (China); Sichuan Academy of Medical Sciences & Sichuan Provincial People' s Hospital, Chengdu 610072 (China); Xu, Jian-zhong, E-mail: xjzspine@163.com [Department of Orthopaedics, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Yang, Zhong, E-mail: zyang1999@163.com [Department of Clinical Hematology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2017-03-01

    Multipotent muscle satellite cells (MuSCs) have been identified as potential seed cells for bone tissue engineering. However, MuSCs exhibit a rapid loss of stemness after in vitro culturing, thereby compromising their therapeutic efficiency. Muscle segment homeobox gene 1 (msx1) has been found to induce the dedifferentiation of committed progenitor cells, as well as terminally differentiated myotubes. In this study, a Tet-off retroviral gene delivery system was used to modulate msx1 expression. After ten passages, MuSCs that did not express msx-1 (e.g., the non-msx1 group) were compared with MuSCs with induced msx-1 expression (e.g., the msx1 group). The latter group exhibited a more juvenile morphology, it contained a significantly lower percentage of senescent cells characterized by positive β-galactosidase staining, and it exhibited increased proliferation and a higher proliferation index. Immunocytochemical stainings further detected a more primitive gene expression profile for the msx1 group, while osteogenic differentiation assays and ectopic bone formation assays demonstrated an improved capacity for the msx1 group to undergo osteogenic differentiation. These results suggest that transient expression of msx1 in MuSCs can retain a primitive state, thereby enhancing their capacity for osteogenic differentiation and restoring the potential for MuSCs to serve as seed cells for bone tissue engineering.

  19. Pulsed polarimetry progress on the LANL MSX magnetized shock experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. J.; Intrator, T. P.; Weber, T. E.; Hutchinson, T. M.; Boguski, J. C.

    2013-10-01

    The UW pulsed polarimeter is a Lidar Thomson scattering diagnostic that can also provide measurements of the internal distribution of B| | as well as ne and Te for Magnetized High Energy Density targets with cm resolution. Scattering has now been observed in MSX and mirror issues that interrupted the last campaign have been corrected. Subsidiary diagnostics are being developed along side to aid in calibration. Fiber optic pulsed polarimetry is also being explored as both measurements can be performed simultaneously with the one instrument. The fiber sensing would allow measurements of modest fields using an internal cladded fiber. Progress in these directions will be presented. This work is supported by DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences.

  20. Environmental monitors in the Midcourse Space Experiments (MSX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uy, O. M.

    1993-01-01

    The Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) is an SDIO sponsored space based sensor experiment with a full complement of optical sensors. Because of the possible deleterious effect of both molecular and particulate contamination on these sensors, a suite of environmental monitoring instruments are also being flown with the spacecraft. These instruments are the Total Pressure Sensor based on the cold-cathode gauge, a quadrupole mass spectrometer, a Bennett-type ion mass spectrometer, a cryogenic quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), four temperature-controlled QCM's, and a Xenon and Krypton Flash Lamp Experiment. These instruments have been fully space-qualified, are compact and low cost, and are possible candidate sensors for near-term planetary and atmospheric monitoring. The philosophy adopted during design and fabrication, calibration and ground testing, and modeling will be discussed .

  1. Overview and recent progress of the Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, T. E.; Intrator, T. P.; Smith, R. J.; Hutchinson, T. M.; Boguski, J. C.; Sears, J. A.; Swan, H. O.; Gao, K. W.; Chapdelaine, L. J.; Winske, D.; Dunn, J. P.

    2013-10-01

    The Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX) has been constructed to study the physics of super-Alfvènic, supercritical, magnetized shocks. Exhibiting transitional length and time scales much smaller than can be produced through collisional processes, these shocks are observed to create non-thermal distributions, amplify magnetic fields, and accelerate particles to relativistic velocities. Shocks are produced through the acceleration and subsequent stagnation of Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmoids against a high-flux magnetic mirror with a conducting boundary or a plasma target with embedded field. Adjustable shock velocity, density, and magnetic geometry (B parallel, perpendicular, or oblique to k) provide unique access to a wide range of dimensionless parameters relevant to astrophysical shocks. Information regarding the experimental configuration, diagnostics suite, recent simulations, experimental results, and physics goals will be presented. This work is supported by DOE OFES and NNSA under LANS contract DE-AC52-06NA25369 Approved for Public Release: LA-UR-13-24859.

  2. Interactions between Bmp-4 and Msx-1 act to restrict gene expression to odontogenic mesenchyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, A S; Al Khamis, A; Sharpe, P T

    1998-08-01

    Tooth development is regulated by a reciprocal series of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Bmp4 has been identified as a candidate signalling molecule in these interactions, initially as an epithelial signal and then later at the bud stage as a mesenchymal signal (Vainio et al. [1993] Cell 75:45-58). A target gene for Bmp4 signalling is the homeobox gene Msx-1, identified by the ability of recombinant Bmp4 protein to induce expression in mesenchyme. There is, however, no evidence that Bmp4 is the endogenous inducer of Msx-1 expression. Msx-1 and Bmp-4 show dynamic, interactive patterns of expression in oral epithelium and ectomesenchyme during the early stages of tooth development. In this study, we compare the temporal and spatial expression of these two genes to determine whether the changing expression patterns of these genes are consistent with interactions between the two molecules. We show that changes in Bmp-4 expression precede changes in Msx-1 expression. At embryonic day (E)10.5-E11.0, expression patterns are consistent with BMP4 from the epithelium, inducing or maintaining Msx-1 in underlying mesenchyme. At E11.5, Bmp-4 expression shifts from epithelium to mesenchyme and is rapidly followed by localised up-regulation of Msx-1 expression at the sites of Bmp-4 expression. Using cultured explants of developing mandibles, we confirm that exogenous BMP4 is capable of replacing the endogenous source in epithelium and inducing Msx-1 gene expression in mesenchyme. By using noggin, a BMP inhibitor, we show that endogenous Msx-1 expression can be inhibited at E10.5 and E11.5, providing the first evidence that endogenous Bmp-4 from the epithelium is responsible for regulating the early spatial expression of Msx-1. We also show that the mesenchymal shift in Bmp-4 is responsible for up-regulating Msx-1 specifically at the sites of future tooth formation. Thus, we establish that a reciprocal series of interactions act to restrict expression of both genes to future

  3. Homeobox transcription factor muscle segment homeobox 2 (Msx2) correlates with good prognosis in breast cancer patients and induces apoptosis in vitro.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lanigan, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    The homeobox-containing transcription factor muscle segment homeobox 2 (Msx2) plays an important role in mammary gland development. However, the clinical implications of Msx2 expression in breast cancer are unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate the potential clinical value of Msx2 as a breast cancer biomarker and to clarify its functional role in vitro.

  4. Comparative study of MSX-2, DLX-5, and DLX-7 gene expression during early human tooth development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davideau, J L; Demri, P; Hotton, D; Gu, T T; MacDougall, M; Sharpe, P; Forest, N; Berdal, A

    1999-12-01

    Msx and Dlx family transcription factors are key elements of craniofacial development and act in specific combinations with growth factors to control the position and shape of various skeletal structures in mice. In humans, the mutations of MSX and DLX genes are associated with specific syndromes, such as tooth agenesis, craniosynostosis, and tricho-dento-osseous syndrome. To establish some relationships between those reported human syndromes, previous experimental data in mice, and the expression patterns of MSX and DLX homeogenes in the human dentition, we investigated MSX-2, DLX-5, and DLX-7 expression patterns and compared them in orofacial tissues of 7.5- to 9-wk-old human embryos by using in situ hybridization. Our data showed that MSX-2 was strongly expressed in the progenitor cells of human orofacial skeletal structures, including mandible and maxilla bones, Meckel's cartilage, and tooth germs, as shown for DLX-5. DLX-7 expression was restricted to the vestibular lamina and, later on, to the vestibular part of dental epithelium. The comparison of MSX-2, DLX-5, and DLX-7 expression patterns during the early stages of development of different human tooth types showed the existence of spatially ordered sequences of homeogene expression along the vestibular/lingual axis of dental epithelium. The expression of MSX-2 in enamel knot, as well as the coincident expression of MSX-2, DLX-5, and DLX-7 in a restricted vestibular area of dental epithelium, suggests the existence of various organizing centers involved in the control of human tooth morphogenesis.

  5. Synthesis and properties of a new water-soluble prodrug of the adenosine A 2A receptor antagonist MSX-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmann, Karl; Qurishi, Ramatullah; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E

    2008-02-12

    The compound L-valine-3-{8-[(E)-2-[3-methoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-7-methyl-1-propargylxanthine-3-yl}propyl ester hydrochloride (MSX-4) was synthesized as an amino acid ester prodrug of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-2. It was found to be stable in artificial gastric acid, but readily cleaved by pig liver esterase.

  6. Synthesis and Properties of a New Water-Soluble Prodrug of the Adenosine A2A Receptor Antagonist MSX-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa E. Müller

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The compound L-valine-3-{8-[(E-2-[3-methoxyphenylethenyl]-7-methyl-1-propargylxanthine-3-yl}propyl ester hydrochloride (MSX-4 was synthesized as an aminoacid ester prodrug of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-2. It was found to bestable in artificial gastric acid, but readily cleaved by pig liver esterase.

  7. The MSX1 homeoprotein recruits G9a methyltransferase to repressed target genes in myoblast cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqiang Wang

    Full Text Available Although the significance of lysine modifications of core histones for regulating gene expression is widely appreciated, the mechanisms by which these modifications are incorporated at specific regulatory elements during cellular differentiation remains largely unknown. In our previous studies, we have shown that in developing myoblasts the Msx1 homeoprotein represses gene expression by influencing the modification status of chromatin at its target genes. We now show that genomic binding by Msx1 promotes enrichment of the H3K9me2 mark on repressed target genes via recruitment of G9a histone methyltransferase, the enzyme responsible for catalyzing this histone mark. Interaction of Msx1 with G9a is mediated via the homeodomain and is required for transcriptional repression and regulation of cellular differentiation, as well as enrichment of the H3K9me2 mark in proximity to Msx1 binding sites on repressed target genes in myoblast cells as well as the developing limb. We propose that regulation of chromatin status by Msx1 recruitment of G9a and other histone modifying enzymes to regulatory regions of target genes represents an important means of regulating the gene expression during development.

  8. Growth factors FGF8 and FGF2 and their receptor FGFR1, transcriptional factors Msx-1 and MSX-2, and apoptotic factors p19 and RIP5 participate in the early human limb development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becic, Tina; Kero, Darko; Vukojevic, Katarina; Mardesic, Snjezana; Saraga-Babic, Mirna

    2018-04-01

    The expression pattern of fibroblast growth factors FGF8 and FGF2 and their receptor FGFR1, transcription factors MSX-1 and MSX-2, as well as cell proliferation (Ki-67) and cell death associated caspase-3, p19 and RIP5 factors were analyzed in histological sections of eight 4th-9th-weeks developing human limbs by immunohistochemistry and semi-thin sectioning. Increasing expression of all analyzed factors (except FGF8) characterized both the multilayered human apical ectodermal ridge (AER), sub-ridge mesenchyme (progress zone) and chondrocytes in developing human limbs. While cytoplasmic co-expression of MSX-1 and MSX-2 was observed in both limb epithelium and mesenchyme, p19 displayed strong cytoplasmic expression in non-proliferating cells. Nuclear expression of Ki-67 proliferating cells, and partly of MSX-1 and MSX-2 was detected in the whole limb primordium. Strong expression of factors p19 and RIP5, both in the AER and mesenchyme of human developing limbs indicates their possible involvement in control of cell senescence and cell death. In contrast to animal studies, expression of FGFR1 in the surface ectoderm and p19 in the whole limb primordium might reflect interspecies differences in limb morphology. Expression of FGF2 and downstream RIP5 gene, and transcription factors Msx-1 and MSX-2 did not show human-specific changes in expression pattern. Based on their spatio-temporal expression during human limb development, our study indicates role of FGFs and Msx genes in stimulation of cell proliferation, limb outgrowth, digit elongation and separation, and additionally MSX-2 in control of vasculogenesis. The cascade of orchestrated gene expressions, including the analyzed developmental factors, jointly contribute to the complex human limb development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Magnetic Diagnostics on the Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, T. M.; Weber, T. E.; Boguski, J. C.; Intrator, T. P.; Smith, R. J.; Dunn, J. P.

    2013-10-01

    The Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX) at Los Alamos National Laboratory was built to investigate the physics of high-Alfvénic, supercritical, magnetized shocks through the acceleration and subsequent stagnation of a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmoid against a magnetic mirror and/or plasma target. An array of high-bandwidth, multi-axis, robust, internal magnetic probes has been constructed to characterize flux compression ratios, instability formation, and turbulent macro-scale features of the post-shock plasma. The mirror magnet is mounted on a linear translation stage, providing a capability to axially move the shock layer through the probe field of view. An independent, external probe array also provides conventional information on the FRC shape, velocity, and total pressure during the formation and acceleration phases. Probe design, characterization, configuration, and initial results are presented. This work is supported by the DOE OFES and NNSA under LANS contract DE-AC52-06NA25369. LA-UR-13-25189.

  10. First results of transcritical magnetized collisionless shock studies on MSX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, T. E.; Smith, R. J.; Hutchinson, T. M.; Taylor, S. F.; Hsu, S. C.

    2014-10-01

    Magnetized collisionless shocks exhibit transitional length and time scales much shorter than can be created through collisional processes. They are common throughout the cosmos, but have historically proven difficult to create in the laboratory. The Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX) at LANL produces super-Alfvénic shocks through the acceleration and subsequent stagnation of Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmoids against a strong magnetic mirror and flux-conserving vacuum boundary. Plasma flows have been produced with sonic and Alfvén Mach numbers up to ~10 over a wide range of plasma beta with embedded perpendicular, oblique, and parallel magnetic field. Macroscopic ion skin-depth and long ion-gyroperiod enable diagnostic access to relevant shock physics using common methods. Variable plasmoid velocity, density, temperature, and magnetic field provide access to a wide range of shock conditions, and a campaign to study the physics of transcritical and supercritical shocks within the FRC plasmoid is currently underway. An overview of the experimental design, diagnostics suite, physics objectives, and recent results will be presented. Supported by DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences under DOE Contract DE-AC52-06NA25369.

  11. Overview and recent results of the Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, T. E.; Smith, R. J.; Hsu, S. C.; Omelchenko, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Recent machine and diagnostics upgrades to the Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX) at LANL have enabled unprecedented access to the physical processes arising from stagnating magnetized (β ~ 1), collisionless, highly supersonic (M ,MA ~ 10) flows, similar in dimensionless parameters to those found in both space and astrophysical shocks. Hot (100s of eV during translation), dense (1022 - 1023 m-3) Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmoids are accelerated to high velocities (100s of km/s) and subsequently impact against a static target such as a strong parallel or anti-parallel (reconnection-wise) magnetic mirror, a solid obstacle, or neutral gas cloud to recreate the physics of interest with characteristic length and time scales that are both large enough to observe yet small enough to fit within the experiment. Long-lived (>50 μs) stagnated plasmas with density enhancement much greater than predicted by fluid theory (>4x) are observed, accompanied by discontinuous plasma structures indicating shocks and jetting (visible emission and interferometry) and copious >1 keV x-ray emission. An overview of the experimental program will be presented, including machine design and capabilities, diagnostics, and an examination of the physical processes that occur during stagnation against a variety of targets. Supported by the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences under contract DE-AC52-06NA25369.

  12. Epidermal dysplasia and abnormal hair follicles in transgenic mice overexpressing homeobox gene MSX-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, T X; Liu, Y H; Widelitz, R B; Kundu, R K; Maxson, R E; Chuong, C M

    1999-08-01

    The homeobox gene Msx-2 is expressed specifically in sites of skin appendage formation. To explore its part in skin morphogenesis, we produced transgenic mice expressing Msx-2 under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter. The skin of these transgenic mice was flaky, exhibiting desquamation and shorter hairs. Histologic analysis showed thickened epidermis with hyperproliferation, which was restricted to the basal layer. Hyperkeratosis was also evident. A wide zone of suprabasal cells were misaligned and coexpressed keratins 14 and 10. There was reduced expression of integrin beta 1 and DCC in the basal layer. Hair follicles were misaligned with a shrunken matrix region. The dermis showed increased cellularity and empty vacuoles. We suggest that Msx-2 is involved in the growth control of skin and skin appendages.

  13. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF RED MSX SOURCES IN THE SOUTHERN SKY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Naiping; Xu, Jinlong

    2016-01-01

    Red Midcourse Space Experiment ( MSX ) Sources (RMSs) are regarded as excellent candidates of massive star-forming regions. In order to characterize the chemical properties of massive star formation, we made a systematic study of 87 RMSs in the southern sky, using archival data taken from the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy (ATLASGAL), the Australia Telescope Compact Array, and the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team Survey at 90 GHz (MALT90). According to previous multiwavelength observations, our sample could be divided into two groups: massive young stellar objects and H ii regions. Combined with the MALT90 data, we calculated the column densities of N 2 H + , C 2 H, HC 3 N, and HNC and found that they are not much different from previous studies made in other massive star-forming regions. However, their abundances are relatively low compared to infrared dark clouds (IRDCs). The abundances of N 2 H + and HNC in our sample are at least 1 mag lower than those found in IRDCs, indicating chemical depletions in the relatively hot gas. Besides, the fractional abundances of N 2 H + , C 2 H, and HC 3 N seem to decrease as a function of their Lyman continuum fluxes (N L ), indicating that these molecules could be destroyed by UV photons when H ii regions have formed inside. We also find that the C 2 H abundance decreases faster than HC 3 N with respect to N L . The abundance of HNC has a tight correlation with that of N 2 H + , indicating that it may be also preferentially formed in cold gas. We regard our RMSs as being in a relatively late evolutionary stage of massive star formation.

  14. Chemical Evolution of Red MSX Sources in the Southern Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Naiping; Xu, Jinlong

    2016-12-01

    Red Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) Sources (RMSs) are regarded as excellent candidates of massive star-forming regions. In order to characterize the chemical properties of massive star formation, we made a systematic study of 87 RMSs in the southern sky, using archival data taken from the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy (ATLASGAL), the Australia Telescope Compact Array, and the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team Survey at 90 GHz (MALT90). According to previous multiwavelength observations, our sample could be divided into two groups: massive young stellar objects and H II regions. Combined with the MALT90 data, we calculated the column densities of N2H+, C2H, HC3N, and HNC and found that they are not much different from previous studies made in other massive star-forming regions. However, their abundances are relatively low compared to infrared dark clouds (IRDCs). The abundances of N2H+ and HNC in our sample are at least 1 mag lower than those found in IRDCs, indicating chemical depletions in the relatively hot gas. Besides, the fractional abundances of N2H+, C2H, and HC3N seem to decrease as a function of their Lyman continuum fluxes (N L ), indicating that these molecules could be destroyed by UV photons when H II regions have formed inside. We also find that the C2H abundance decreases faster than HC3N with respect to N L . The abundance of HNC has a tight correlation with that of N2H+, indicating that it may be also preferentially formed in cold gas. We regard our RMSs as being in a relatively late evolutionary stage of massive star formation.

  15. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF RED MSX SOURCES IN THE SOUTHERN SKY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Naiping; Xu, Jinlong [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2016-12-20

    Red Midcourse Space Experiment ( MSX ) Sources (RMSs) are regarded as excellent candidates of massive star-forming regions. In order to characterize the chemical properties of massive star formation, we made a systematic study of 87 RMSs in the southern sky, using archival data taken from the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy (ATLASGAL), the Australia Telescope Compact Array, and the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team Survey at 90 GHz (MALT90). According to previous multiwavelength observations, our sample could be divided into two groups: massive young stellar objects and H ii regions. Combined with the MALT90 data, we calculated the column densities of N{sub 2}H{sup +}, C{sub 2}H, HC{sub 3}N, and HNC and found that they are not much different from previous studies made in other massive star-forming regions. However, their abundances are relatively low compared to infrared dark clouds (IRDCs). The abundances of N{sub 2}H{sup +} and HNC in our sample are at least 1 mag lower than those found in IRDCs, indicating chemical depletions in the relatively hot gas. Besides, the fractional abundances of N{sub 2}H{sup +}, C{sub 2}H, and HC{sub 3}N seem to decrease as a function of their Lyman continuum fluxes (N {sub L}), indicating that these molecules could be destroyed by UV photons when H ii regions have formed inside. We also find that the C{sub 2}H abundance decreases faster than HC{sub 3}N with respect to N{sub L}. The abundance of HNC has a tight correlation with that of N{sub 2}H{sup +}, indicating that it may be also preferentially formed in cold gas. We regard our RMSs as being in a relatively late evolutionary stage of massive star formation.

  16. Structural and functional analysis of mouse Msx1 gene promoter: sequence conservation with human MSX1 promoter points at potential regulatory elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, S M; Ferland, L H; Robert, B; Abdelhay, E

    1998-06-01

    Vertebrate Msx genes are related to one of the most divergent homeobox genes of Drosophila, the muscle segment homeobox (msh) gene, and are expressed in a well-defined pattern at sites of tissue interactions. This pattern of expression is conserved in vertebrates as diverse as quail, zebrafish, and mouse in a range of sites including neural crest, appendages, and craniofacial structures. In the present work, we performed structural and functional analyses in order to identify potential cis-acting elements that may be regulating Msx1 gene expression. To this end, a 4.9-kb segment of the 5'-flanking region was sequenced and analyzed for transcription-factor binding sites. Four regions showing a high concentration of these sites were identified. Transfection assays with fragments of regulatory sequences driving the expression of the bacterial lacZ reporter gene showed that a region of 4 kb upstream of the transcription start site contains positive and negative elements responsible for controlling gene expression. Interestingly, a fragment of 130 bp seems to contain the minimal elements necessary for gene expression, as its removal completely abolishes gene expression in cultured cells. These results are reinforced by comparison of this region with the human Msx1 gene promoter, which shows extensive conservation, including many consensus binding sites, suggesting a regulatory role for them.

  17. Msx1 Homeodomain Protein Represses the αGSU and GnRH Receptor Genes During Gonadotrope Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huimin; Cherrington, Brian D.; Meadows, Jason D.; Witham, Emily A.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple homeodomain transcription factors are crucial for pituitary organogenesis and cellular differentiation. A homeodomain repressor, Msx1, is expressed from the ventral aspect of the developing anterior pituitary and implicated in gonadotrope differentiation. Here, we find that Msx1 represses transcription of lineage-specific pituitary genes such as the common α-glycoprotein subunit (αGSU) and GnRH receptor (GnRHR) promoters in the mouse gonadotrope-derived cell lines, αT3-1 and LβT2. Repression of the mouse GnRHR promoter by Msx1 is mediated through a consensus-binding motif in the downstream activin regulatory element (DARE). Truncation and mutation analyses of the human αGSU promoter map Msx1 repression to a site at −114, located at the junctional regulatory element (JRE). Dlx activators are closely related to the Msx repressors, acting through the same elements, and Dlx3 and Dlx2 act as transcriptional activators for GnRHR and αGSU, respectively. Small interfering RNA knockdown of Msx1 in αT3-1 cells increases endogenous αGSU and GnRHR mRNA expression. Msx1 gene expression reaches its maximal expression at the rostral edge at e13.5. The subsequent decline in Msx1 expression specifically coincides with the onset of expression of both αGSU and GnRHR. The expression levels of both αGSU and GnRHR in Msx1-null mice at e18.5 are higher compared with wild type, further confirming a role for Msx1 in the repression of αGSU and GnRHR. In summary, Msx1 functions as a negative regulator early in pituitary development by repressing the gonadotrope-specific αGSU and GnRHR genes, but a temporal decline in Msx1 expression alleviates this repression allowing induction of GnRHR and αGSU, thus serving to time the onset of gonadotrope-specific gene program. PMID:23371388

  18. Msx1 homeodomain protein represses the αGSU and GnRH receptor genes during gonadotrope development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huimin; Cherrington, Brian D; Meadows, Jason D; Witham, Emily A; Mellon, Pamela L

    2013-03-01

    Multiple homeodomain transcription factors are crucial for pituitary organogenesis and cellular differentiation. A homeodomain repressor, Msx1, is expressed from the ventral aspect of the developing anterior pituitary and implicated in gonadotrope differentiation. Here, we find that Msx1 represses transcription of lineage-specific pituitary genes such as the common α-glycoprotein subunit (αGSU) and GnRH receptor (GnRHR) promoters in the mouse gonadotrope-derived cell lines, αT3-1 and LβT2. Repression of the mouse GnRHR promoter by Msx1 is mediated through a consensus-binding motif in the downstream activin regulatory element (DARE). Truncation and mutation analyses of the human αGSU promoter map Msx1 repression to a site at -114, located at the junctional regulatory element (JRE). Dlx activators are closely related to the Msx repressors, acting through the same elements, and Dlx3 and Dlx2 act as transcriptional activators for GnRHR and αGSU, respectively. Small interfering RNA knockdown of Msx1 in αT3-1 cells increases endogenous αGSU and GnRHR mRNA expression. Msx1 gene expression reaches its maximal expression at the rostral edge at e13.5. The subsequent decline in Msx1 expression specifically coincides with the onset of expression of both αGSU and GnRHR. The expression levels of both αGSU and GnRHR in Msx1-null mice at e18.5 are higher compared with wild type, further confirming a role for Msx1 in the repression of αGSU and GnRHR. In summary, Msx1 functions as a negative regulator early in pituitary development by repressing the gonadotrope-specific αGSU and GnRHR genes, but a temporal decline in Msx1 expression alleviates this repression allowing induction of GnRHR and αGSU, thus serving to time the onset of gonadotrope-specific gene program.

  19. Three-dimensional analysis of tooth dimensions in the MSX1-missense mutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creton, M.; Boogaard, M.J. van den; Maal, T.J.; Verhamme, L.M.; Fennis, W.M.M.; Carels, C.E.L.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Cune, M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A novel, 3D technique to measure the differences in tooth crown morphology between the MSX1 cases and non-affected controls was designed to get a better understanding of dental phenotype-genotype associations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight Dutch subjects from a single family with tooth

  20. Three-dimensional analysis of tooth dimensions in the MSX1-missense mutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creton, Marijn; van den Boogaard, Marie-Jose; Maal, Thomas; Verhamme, Luc; Fennis, Willem; Carels, Carine; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Cune, Marco

    A novel, 3D technique to measure the differences in tooth crown morphology between the MSX1 cases and non-affected controls was designed to get a better understanding of dental phenotype-genotype associations. Eight Dutch subjects from a single family with tooth agenesis, all with an established

  1. MSX1 gene variant - its presence in tooth absence - a case control genetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Naveen Admala; Adusumilli, Gopinath; Devanna, Raghu; Pichai, Saravanan; Rohra, Mayur Gobindram; Arjunan, Sharmila

    2013-10-01

    Non Syndromic tooth agenesis is a congenital anomaly with significant medical, psychological and social ramifications. There is sufficient evidence to hypothesize that locus for this condition can be identified by candidate genes. The aim of this study was to test whether MSX1 671 T>C gene variant was involved in etiology of Non Syndromic tooth agenesis in Raichur Patients. Blood samples were collected with informed consent from 50 subjects having Non Syndromic tooth agenesis and 50 controls. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood samples, Polymerase Chain Reaction was performed (PCR) and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) was performed for digestion products that were evaluated. The RESULTS showed positive correlation between MSX1671 T>C gene variant and Non Syndromic tooth agenesis in Raichur Patients. MSX1 671 T>C gene variant may be a good screening marker for Non Syndromic tooth agenesis in Raichur Patients . How to cite this article:Reddy NA, Adusumilli G, Devanna R, Pichai S, Rohra MG, Arjunan S. Msx1 Gene Variant - Its Presence in Tooth Absence - A Case Control Genetic Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(5):20-6.

  2. The role of Msx1 and Pax9 in pathogenetic mechanisms of tooth agenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yani Corvianindya Rahayu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tooth agenesis is one of the most common developmental anomalies in human, which one or a few teeth are absent because they have never formed, may cause cosmetic or occlusal harm, while severe agenesis which are relatively rare require clinical attention to support and maintain the dental function. Molecular studies have demonstrated that tooth development is under strict genetic control. Purpose: This article want to review the genetic regulating that are responsible for tooth agenesis especially the role of Msx1 and Pax9 in pathogenetic mechanisms of tooth agenesis. Review: Tooth agenesis is a consequence of a qualitatively or quantitatively impaired function of genetic networks, which regulate tooth development. Mutations in Msx1 and Pax9 genes are dominant for tooth agenesis in humans. The Pax9 gene, which codes for a paired domain-containing transcription factor that plays an essential role in the development of mammal dentition, has been associated with selective tooth agenesis in humans and mice. Conclusion: Reduced amount of functional Msx1 or Pax9 protein in the tooth forming cells is able to cause severe and selective tooth agenesis. There are differences in the frequency of agenesis of specific teeth associated with the defects in Msx1 and defects in Pax9.

  3. Transcriptional autorepression of Msx1 gene is mediated by interactions of Msx1 protein with a multi-protein transcriptional complex containing TATA-binding protein, Sp1 and cAMP-response-element-binding protein-binding protein (CBP/p300).

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty, S; Takahashi, T; Matsui, H; Ayengar, R; Raghow, R

    1999-01-01

    The TATA-less murine Msx1 promoter contains two Msx1-binding motifs, located at -568 to -573 and +25 to +30, and is subject to potent autorepression [Takahashi, Guron, Shetty, Matsui and Raghow (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 22667-22678]. To investigate the molecular mechanism by which Msx1 represses the activity of its own promoter, we transfected C2C12 myoblasts with Msx1-promoter-luciferase constructs and assessed reporter gene activity, with and without the exogenous expression of Msx1. We de...

  4. Murine homeobox-containing gene, Msx-1: analysis of genomic organization, promoter structure, and potential autoregulatory cis-acting elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzuoka, M; Takahashi, T; Guron, C; Raghow, R

    1994-05-01

    Detailed molecular organization of the coding and upstream regulatory regions of the murine homeodomain-containing gene, Msx-1, is reported. The protein-encoding portion of the gene is contained in two exons, 590 and 1214 bp in length, separated by a 2107-bp intron; the homeodomain is located in the second exon. The two-exon organization of the murine Msx-1 gene resembles a number of other homeodomain-containing genes. The 5'-(GTAAGT) and 3'-(CCCTAG) splicing junctions and the mRNA polyadenylation signal (UAUAA) of the murine Msx-1 gene are also characteristic of other vertebrate genes. By nuclease protection and primer extension assays, the start of transcription of the Msx-1 gene was located 256 bp upstream of the first AUG. Computer analysis of the promoter proximal 1280-bp sequence revealed a number of potentially important cis-regulatory sequences; these include the recognition elements for Ap-1, Ap-2, Ap-3, Sp-1, a possible binding site for RAR:RXR, and a number of TCF-1 consensus motifs. Importantly, a perfect reverse complement of (C/G)TTAATTG, which was recently shown to be an optimal binding sequence for the homeodomain of Msx-1 protein (K.M. Catron, N. Iler, and C. Abate (1993) Mol. Cell. Biol. 13:2354-2365), was also located in the murine Msx-1 promoter. Binding of bacterially expressed Msx-1 homeodomain polypeptide to Msx-1-specific oligonucleotide was experimentally demonstrated, raising a distinct possibility of autoregulation of this developmentally regulated gene.

  5. Msx-1 is suppressed in bisphosphonate-exposed jaw bone analysis of bone turnover-related cell signalling after bisphosphonate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrhan, F; Hyckel, P; Amann, K; Ries, J; Stockmann, P; Schlegel, Ka; Neukam, Fw; Nkenke, E

    2011-05-01

    Bone-destructive disease treatments include bisphosphonates and antibodies against receptor activator for nuclear factor κB ligand (aRANKL). Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a side-effect. Aetiopathology models failed to explain their restriction to the jaw. The osteoproliferative transcription factor Msx-1 is expressed constitutively only in mature jaw bone. Msx-1 expression might be impaired in bisphosphonate-related ONJ. This study compared the expression of Msx-1, Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP)-2 and RANKL, in ONJ-affected and healthy jaw bone. An automated immunohistochemistry-based alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase method was used on ONJ-affected and healthy jaw bone samples (n = 20 each): cell-number ratio (labelling index, Bonferroni adjustment). Real-time RT-PCR was performed to quantitatively compare Msx-1, BMP-2, RANKL and GAPDH mRNA levels. Labelling indices were significantly lower for Msx-1 (P Msx-1, 22-fold lower (P Msx-1, RANKL suppression and BMP-2 induction were consistent with the bisphosphonate-associated osteopetrosis and impaired bone remodelling in BP- and aRANKL-induced ONJ. Msx-1 suppression suggested a possible explanation of the exclusivity of ONJ in jaw bone. Functional analyses of Msx-1- RANKL interaction during bone remodelling should be performed in the future. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. An opportunity analysis system for space surveillance experiments with the MSX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Ramaswamy; Duff, Gary; Hayes, Tony; Wiseman, Andy

    1994-01-01

    The Mid-Course Space Experiment consists of a set of payloads on a satellite being designed and built under the sponsorship of Ballistic Missile Defense Office. The MSX satellite will conduct a series of measurements of phenomenology of backgrounds, missile targets, plumes and resident space objects (RSO's); and will engage in functional demonstrations in support of detection, acquisition and tracking for ballistic missile defense and space-based space surveillance missions. A complex satellite like the MSX has several constraints imposed on its operation by the sensors, the supporting instrumentation, power resources, data recording capability, communications and the environment in which all these operate. This paper describes the implementation of an opportunity and feasibility analysis system, developed at Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, specifically to support the experiments of the Principal Investigator for space-based surveillance.

  7. Ameloblastin inhibits cranial suture closure by modulating MSX2 expression and proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phimon Atsawasuwan

    Full Text Available Deformities of cranial sutures such as craniosynostosis and enlarged parietal foramina greatly impact human development and quality of life. Here we have examined the role of the extracellular matrix protein ameloblastin (Ambn, a recent addition to the family of non-collagenous extracellular bone matrix proteins, in craniofacial bone development and suture formation. Using RT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry, Ambn was localized in mouse calvarial bone and adjacent condensed mesenchyme. Five-fold Ambn overexpression in a K14-driven transgenic mouse model resulted in delayed posterior frontal suture fusion and incomplete suture closure. Moreover, Ambn overexpressor skulls weighed 13.2% less, their interfrontal bones were 35.3% thinner, and the width between frontal bones plus interfrontal suture was 14.3% wider. Ambn overexpressing mice also featured reduced cell proliferation in suture blastemas and in mesenchymal cells from posterior frontal sutures. There was a more than 2-fold reduction of Msx2 in Ambn overexpressing calvariae and suture mesenchymal cells, and this effect was inversely proportionate to the level of Ambn overexpression in different cell lines. The reduction of Msx2 expression as a result of Ambn overexpression was further enhanced in the presence of the MEK/ERK pathway inhibitor O126. Finally, Ambn overexpression significantly reduced Msx2 down-stream target gene expression levels, including osteogenic transcription factors Runx2 and Osx, the bone matrix proteins Ibsp, ColI, Ocn and Opn, and the cell cycle-related gene CcnD1. Together, these data suggest that Ambn plays a crucial role in the regulation of cranial bone growth and suture closure via Msx 2 suppression and proliferation inhibition.

  8. New tests of the common calibration context for ISO, IRTS, and MSX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Martin

    1997-01-01

    The work carried out in order to test, verify and validate the accuracy of the calibration spectra provided to the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), to the Infrared Telescope in Space (IRTS) and to the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) for external calibration support of instruments, is reviewed. The techniques, used to vindicate the accuracy of the absolute spectra, are discussed. The work planned for comparing far infrared spectra of Mars and some of the bright stellar calibrators with long wavelength spectrometer data are summarized.

  9. The novel adenosine A(2A) antagonist prodrug MSX-4 is effective in animal models related to motivational and motor functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santerre, Jessica L; Nunes, Eric J; Kovner, Rotem; Leser, Chelsea E; Randall, Patrick A; Collins-Praino, Lyndsey E; Lopez Cruz, Laura; Correa, Merce; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D

    2012-10-01

    Adenosine A(2A) and dopamine D2 receptors interact to regulate diverse aspects of ventral and dorsal striatal functions related to motivational and motor processes, and it has been suggested that adenosine A(2A) antagonists could be useful for the treatment of depression, parkinsonism and other disorders. The present experiments were performed to characterize the effects of MSX-4, which is an amino acid ester prodrug of the potent and selective adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-2, by assessing its ability to reverse pharmacologically induced motivational and motor impairments. In the first group of studies, MSX-4 reversed the effects of the D2 antagonist eticlopride on a concurrent lever pressing/chow feeding task that is used as a measure of effort-related choice behavior. MSX-4 was less potent after intraperitoneal administration than the comparison compound, MSX-3, though both were equally efficacious. With this task, MSX-4 was orally active in the same dose range as MSX-3. MSX-4 also reversed the locomotor suppression induced by eticlopride in the open field, but did not induce anxiogenic effects as measured by the relative amount of interior activity. Behaviorally active doses of MSX-4 also attenuated the increase in c-Fos and pDARPP-32(Thr34) expression in nucleus accumbens core that was induced by injections of eticlopride. In addition, MSX-4 suppressed the oral tremor induced by the anticholinesterase galantamine, which is consistent with an antiparkinsonian profile. These actions of MSX-4 indicate that this compound could have potential utility as a treatment for parkinsonism, as well as some of the motivational symptoms of depression and other disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. MSX ₁ gene variant and non-syndromic clefting: association or rejection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Naveen Admala; Gopinath, Adusumilli; Reddy, Jayaprakash Thirumala; Devanna, Raghu; Saravanan, Pichai; Rohra, Mayur G

    2014-01-01

    Non-syndromic cleft lip/palate (NSCL/P) is a congenital anomaly with significant medical, psychological and social ramifications. There is sufficient evidence to hypothesize that locus for this condition can be identified by candidate genes. The aim of this study is to amplify the chosen region (799 G >T) of MSX 1 gene, investigate the degree of association and perform a mutation research from Raichur cleft lip and palate patient sample. Case history and clinical examination of the patient were recorded to rule. Written consent was obtained from patients and controls for in vivo study. STUDY WAS DESIGNED IN FOUR STEPS AS FOLLOWS: a. Collection of a blood sample; b. Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction; c. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR); d. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Blood samples were collected from 50 subjects having NSCL/P and 50 controls. Genomic DNA was extracted, PCR and RFLP was performed for digestion products that were evaluated. Chi-square test with P value at 95% confidence intervals. The results showed a positive correlation between MSX 1 799 G >T gene variant and NSCL/P patients in Raichur patients. From a genetically diverse etiology MSX 1 799 G >T gene variant may be a good screening marker for NSCL/P in Raichur patients.

  11. MSX1 gene and nonsyndromic oral clefts in a Southern Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. Souza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nonsyndromic oral clefts (NSOC are the most common craniofacial birth defects in humans. The etiology of NSOC is complex, involving both genetic and environmental factors. Several genes that play a role in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis have been associated with clefting. For example, variations in the homeobox gene family member MSX1, including a CA repeat located within its single intron, may play a role in clefting. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MSX1 CA repeat polymorphism and NSOC in a Southern Brazilian population using a case-parent triad design. We studied 182 nuclear families with NSOC recruited from the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre in Southern Brazil. The polymorphic region was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by using an automated sequencer. Among the 182 families studied, four different alleles were observed, at frequencies of 0.057 (175 bp, 0.169 (173 bp, 0.096 (171 bp and 0.67 (169 bp. A transmission disequilibrium test with a family-based association test (FBAT software program was used for analysis. FBAT analysis showed overtransmission of the 169 bp allele in NSOC (P=0.0005. These results suggest that the CA repeat polymorphism of the MSX1 gene may play a role in risk of NSOC in populations from Southern Brazil.

  12. MSX1 gene and nonsyndromic oral clefts in a Southern Brazilian population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, L.T. [Laboratório de Medicina Genômica, Centro de Pesquisa Experimental, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduaçãoo em Saúde da Criança e do Adolescente, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Kowalski, T.W. [Laboratório de Medicina Genômica, Centro de Pesquisa Experimental, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Collares, M.V.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Departamento de Cirurgia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Departamento de Cirurgia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Félix, T.M. [Laboratório de Medicina Genômica, Centro de Pesquisa Experimental, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduaçãoo em Saúde da Criança e do Adolescente, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Serviço de Genética Médica, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Serviço de Genética Médica, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-08-10

    Nonsyndromic oral clefts (NSOC) are the most common craniofacial birth defects in humans. The etiology of NSOC is complex, involving both genetic and environmental factors. Several genes that play a role in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis have been associated with clefting. For example, variations in the homeobox gene family member MSX1, including a CA repeat located within its single intron, may play a role in clefting. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MSX1 CA repeat polymorphism and NSOC in a Southern Brazilian population using a case-parent triad design. We studied 182 nuclear families with NSOC recruited from the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre in Southern Brazil. The polymorphic region was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by using an automated sequencer. Among the 182 families studied, four different alleles were observed, at frequencies of 0.057 (175 bp), 0.169 (173 bp), 0.096 (171 bp) and 0.67 (169 bp). A transmission disequilibrium test with a family-based association test (FBAT) software program was used for analysis. FBAT analysis showed overtransmission of the 169 bp allele in NSOC (P=0.0005). These results suggest that the CA repeat polymorphism of the MSX1 gene may play a role in risk of NSOC in populations from Southern Brazil.

  13. MSX1 gene and nonsyndromic oral clefts in a Southern Brazilian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, L.T.; Kowalski, T.W.; Collares, M.V.M.; Félix, T.M.

    2013-01-01

    Nonsyndromic oral clefts (NSOC) are the most common craniofacial birth defects in humans. The etiology of NSOC is complex, involving both genetic and environmental factors. Several genes that play a role in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis have been associated with clefting. For example, variations in the homeobox gene family member MSX1, including a CA repeat located within its single intron, may play a role in clefting. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MSX1 CA repeat polymorphism and NSOC in a Southern Brazilian population using a case-parent triad design. We studied 182 nuclear families with NSOC recruited from the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre in Southern Brazil. The polymorphic region was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by using an automated sequencer. Among the 182 families studied, four different alleles were observed, at frequencies of 0.057 (175 bp), 0.169 (173 bp), 0.096 (171 bp) and 0.67 (169 bp). A transmission disequilibrium test with a family-based association test (FBAT) software program was used for analysis. FBAT analysis showed overtransmission of the 169 bp allele in NSOC (P=0.0005). These results suggest that the CA repeat polymorphism of the MSX1 gene may play a role in risk of NSOC in populations from Southern Brazil

  14. Morphological diversity of the avian foot is related with the pattern of msx gene expression in the developing autopod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gañan, Y; Macias, D; Basco, R D; Merino, R; Hurle, J M

    1998-04-01

    The formation of the digits in amniota embryos is accompanied by apoptotic cell death of the interdigital mesoderm triggered through BMP signaling. Differences in the intensity of this apoptotic process account for the establishment of the different morphological types of feet observed in amniota (i.e., free-digits, webbed digits, lobulated digits). The molecular basis accounting for the differential pattern of interdigital cell death remains uncertain since the reduction of cell death in species with webbed digits is not accompanied by a parallel reduction in the pattern of expression of bmp genes in the interdigital regions. In this study we show that the duck interdigital web mesoderm exhibits an attenuated response to both BMP-induced apoptosis and TGFbeta-induced chondrogenesis in comparison with species with free digits. The attenuated response to these signals is accompanied by a reduced pattern of expression of msx-1 and msx-2 genes. Local application of FGF in the duck interdigit expands the domain of msx-2 expression but not the domain of msx-1 expression. This change in the expression of msx-2 is followed by a parallel increase in spontaneous and exogenous BMP-induced interdigital cell death, while the chondrogenic response to TGFbetas is unchanged. The regression of AER, as deduced by the pattern of extinction of fgf-8 expression, takes place in a similar fashion in the chick and duck regardless of the differences in interdigital cell death and msx gene expression. Implantation of BMP-beads in the distal limb mesoderm induces AER regression in both the chick and duck. This finding suggests an additional role for BMPs in the physiological regression of the AER. It is proposed that the formation of webbed vs free-digit feet in amniota results from a premature differentiation of the interdigital mesoderm into connective tissue caused by a reduced expression of msx genes in the developing autopod. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  15. Expression of Dlx-5 and Msx-1 in Craniofacial Skeletons and Ilia of Rats Treated With Zoledronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Bin; Yang, Pan; Wu, Shichao; Li, Lin; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Wenyi

    2017-05-01

    Because of the different embryologic origins of the craniofacial skeleton and ilium, differences in gene expression patterns have been observed between the jaw bones and ilium. Distal-less homeobox (Dlx) genes and Msh homeobox genes, particularly Dlx-5 and Msx-1, play major roles in cell differentiation and osteogenesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of zoledronate (ZOL) on the craniofacial skeleton and ilium by detecting changes in Dlx-5 and Msx-1 expression at both the protein and messenger RNA levels. A total of 24 female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: ZOL group (n = 12), in which the rats were injected intraperitoneally with zoledronic acid for 12 weeks, and control group (n = 12), in which the rats were injected with saline solution for 12 weeks. By use of immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, the expression levels of Dlx-5 and Msx-1 in the craniofacial skeleton (including the maxilla, mandible, and parietal bone) and ilium were examined. Dlx-5 expression in the maxilla and mandible was increased at the protein and messenger RNA levels in the ZOL group compared with the control group (P Msx-1 expression in the maxilla and mandible was decreased in the ZOL group (P Msx-1 expression in the ilium was decreased in the ZOL group (P Msx-1 expression in the parietal bone was observed between the 2 groups (P > .05). Site-specific differences in the effects of ZOL on the craniofacial skeleton and ilium could be explained by differently altered tendencies in Dlx-5 and Msx-1 expression. The jaw bones were more susceptible to the effects of ZOL than the parietal bone and ilium. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Multiplexed data independent acquisition (MSX-DIA) applied by high resolution mass spectrometry improves quantification quality for the analysis of histone peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidoli, Simone; Fujiwara, Rina; Garcia, Benjamin A

    2016-08-01

    We present the MS-based application of the innovative, although scarcely exploited, multiplexed data-independent acquisition (MSX-DIA) for the analysis of histone PTMs. Histones are golden standard for complexity in MS based proteomics, due to their large number of combinatorial modifications, leading to isobaric peptides after proteolytic digestion. DIA has, thus, gained popularity for the purpose as it allows for MS/MS-based quantification without upfront assay development. In this work, we evaluated the performance of traditional DIA versus MSX-DIA in terms of MS/MS spectra quality, instrument scan rate and quantification precision using histones from HeLa cells. We used an MS/MS isolation window of 10 and 6 m/z for DIA and MSX-DIA, respectively. Four MS/MS scans were multiplexed for MSX-DIA. Despite MSX-DIA was programmed to perform two-fold more MS/MS events than traditional DIA, it acquired on average ∼5% more full MS scans, indicating even faster scan rate. Results highlighted an overall decrease of background ion signals using MSX-DIA, and we illustrated specific examples where peptides of different precursor masses were co-fragmented by DIA but not MSX-DIA. Taken together, MSX-DIA proved thus to be a more favorable method for histone analysis in data independent mode. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. A common transport system for methionine, L-methionine-DL-sulfoximine (MSX), and phosphinothricin (PPT) in the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arvind Kumar; Syiem, Mayashree B; Singh, Rajkumar S; Adhikari, Samrat; Rai, Amar Nath

    2008-05-01

    We present evidence, for the first time, of the occurrence of a transport system common for amino acid methionine, and methionine/glutamate analogues L-methionine-DL-sulfoximine (MSX) and phosphinothricin (PPT) in cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum. Methionine, which is toxic to cyanobacterium, enhanced its nitrogenase activity at lower concentrations. The cyanobacterium showed a biphasic pattern of methionine uptake activity that was competitively inhibited by the amino acids alanine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, proline, valine, glutamine, and asparagine. The methionine/glutamate analogue-resistant N. muscorum strains (MSX-R and PPT-R strains) also showed methionine-resistant phenotype accompanied by a drastic decrease in 35S methionine uptake activity. Treatment of protein extracts from these mutant strains with MSX and PPT reduced biosynthetic glutamine synthetase (GS) activity only in vitro and not in vivo. This finding implicated that MSX- and PPT-R phenotypes may have arisen due to a defect in their MSX and PPT transport activity. The simultaneous decrease in methionine uptake activity and in vitro sensitivity toward MSX and PPT of GS protein in MSX- and PPT-R strains indicated that methionine, MSX, and PPT have a common transport system that is shared by other amino acids as well in N. muscorum. Such information can become useful for isolation of methionine-producing cyanobacterial strains.

  18. Developmental Regulation of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Gene Expression by the MSX and DLX Homeodomain Protein Families*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Marjory L.; Rave-Harel, Naama; Goonewardena, Vinodha D.; Kurotani, Reiko; Berdy, Sara E.; Swan, Christo H.; Rubenstein, John L. R.; Robert, Benoit; Mellon, Pamela L.

    2010-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the central regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, controlling sexual maturation and fertility in diverse species from fish to humans. GnRH gene expression is limited to a discrete population of neurons that migrate through the nasal region into the hypothalamus during embryonic development. The GnRH regulatory region contains four conserved homeodomain binding sites (ATTA) that are essential for basal promoter activity and cell-specific expression of the GnRH gene. MSX and DLX are members of the Antennapedia class of non-Hox homeodomain transcription factors that regulate gene expression and influence development of the craniofacial structures and anterior forebrain. Here, we report that expression patterns of the Msx and Dlx families of homeodomain transcription factors largely coincide with the migratory route of GnRH neurons and co-express with GnRH in neurons during embryonic development. In addition, MSX and DLX family members bind directly to the ATTA consensus sequences and regulate transcriptional activity of the GnRH promoter. Finally, mice lacking MSX1 or DLX1 and 2 show altered numbers of GnRH-expressing cells in regions where these factors likely function. These findings strongly support a role for MSX and DLX in contributing to spatiotemporal regulation of GnRH transcription during development. PMID:15743757

  19. Supplementation of Nucleosides During Selection can Reduce Sequence Variant Levels in CHO Cells Using GS/MSX Selection System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Danming; Lam, Cynthia; Louie, Salina; Hoi, Kam Hon; Shaw, David; Yim, Mandy; Snedecor, Brad; Misaghi, Shahram

    2018-01-01

    In the process of generating stable monoclonal antibody (mAb) producing cell lines, reagents such as methotrexate (MTX) or methionine sulfoximine (MSX) are often used. However, using such selection reagent(s) increases the possibility of having higher occurrence of sequence variants in the expressed antibody molecules due to the effects of MTX or MSX on de novo nucleotide synthesis. Since MSX inhibits glutamine synthase (GS) and results in both amino acid and nucleoside starvation, it is questioned whether supplementing nucleosides into the media could lower sequence variant levels without affecting titer. The results show that the supplementation of nucleosides to the media during MSX selection decreased genomic DNA mutagenesis rates in the selected cells, probably by reducing nucleotide mis-incorporation into the DNA. Furthermore, addition of nucleosides enhance clone recovery post selection and does not affect antibody expression. It is further observed that nucleoside supplements lowered DNA mutagenesis rates only at the initial stage of the clone selection and do not have any effect on DNA mutagenesis rates after stable cell lines are established. Therefore, the data suggests that addition of nucleosides during early stages of MSX selection can lower sequence variant levels without affecting titer or clone stability in antibody expression. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Developmental regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene expression by the MSX and DLX homeodomain protein families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, Marjory L; Rave-Harel, Naama; Goonewardena, Vinodha D; Kurotani, Reiko; Berdy, Sara E; Swan, Christo H; Rubenstein, John L R; Robert, Benoit; Mellon, Pamela L

    2005-05-13

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the central regulator of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, controlling sexual maturation and fertility in diverse species from fish to humans. GnRH gene expression is limited to a discrete population of neurons that migrate through the nasal region into the hypothalamus during embryonic development. The GnRH regulatory region contains four conserved homeodomain binding sites (ATTA) that are essential for basal promoter activity and cell-specific expression of the GnRH gene. MSX and DLX are members of the Antennapedia class of non-Hox homeodomain transcription factors that regulate gene expression and influence development of the craniofacial structures and anterior forebrain. Here, we report that expression patterns of the Msx and Dlx families of homeodomain transcription factors largely coincide with the migratory route of GnRH neurons and co-express with GnRH in neurons during embryonic development. In addition, MSX and DLX family members bind directly to the ATTA consensus sequences and regulate transcriptional activity of the GnRH promoter. Finally, mice lacking MSX1 or DLX1 and 2 show altered numbers of GnRH-expressing cells in regions where these factors likely function. These findings strongly support a role for MSX and DLX in contributing to spatiotemporal regulation of GnRH transcription during development.

  1. Regulation of proliferation in developing human tooth germs by MSX homeodomain proteins and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p19INK4d.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kero, Darko; Vukojevic, Katarina; Stazic, Petra; Sundov, Danijela; Mardesic Brakus, Snjezana; Saraga-Babic, Mirna

    2017-10-02

    Before the secretion of hard dental tissues, tooth germs undergo several distinctive stages of development (dental lamina, bud, cap and bell). Every stage is characterized by specific proliferation patterns, which is regulated by various morphogens, growth factors and homeodomain proteins. The role of MSX homeodomain proteins in odontogenesis is rather complex. Expression domains of genes encoding for murine Msx1/2 during development are observed in tissues containing highly proliferative progenitor cells. Arrest of tooth development in Msx knockout mice can be attributed to impaired proliferation of progenitor cells. In Msx1 knockout mice, these progenitor cells start to differentiate prematurely as they strongly express cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p19 INK4d . p19 INK4d induces terminal differentiation of cells by blocking the cell cycle in mitogen-responsive G1 phase. Direct suppression of p19 INK4d by Msx1 protein is, therefore, important for maintaining proliferation of progenitor cells at levels required for the normal progression of tooth development. In this study, we examined the expression patterns of MSX1, MSX2 and p19 INK4d in human incisor tooth germs during the bud, cap and early bell stages of development. The distribution of expression domains of p19 INK4d throughout the investigated period indicates that p19 INK4d plays active role during human tooth development. Furthermore, comparison of expression domains of p19 INK4d with those of MSX1, MSX2 and proliferation markers Ki67, Cyclin A2 and pRb, indicates that MSX-mediated regulation of proliferation in human tooth germs might not be executed by the mechanism similar to one described in developing tooth germs of wild-type mouse.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: IR-bright MSX sources in the SMC with Spitzer/IRS (Kraemer+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, K. E.; Sloan, G. C.; Wood, P. R.; Jones, O. C.; Egan, M. P.

    2017-07-01

    Our original set of infrared spectra of MSX SMC sources was obtained in Spitzer Cycle 1 (Program ID 3277, P.I. M. Egan). This program included 35 targets from the MSX SMC catalog. 24 targets were discussed in previous papers; this paper examines the remaining 11 sources in the sample. We also selected 4 objects in the MSX SMC catalog with similar photometric characteristics in an effort to uncover additional sources with crystalline dust. We observed these targets in Spitzer Cycle 3 (Program ID 30355, P.I. J. Houck). See tables 1 and 2 for observation data and basic properties of the targets. Table 3 lists 20 additional MSX SMC sources that were observed by other Spitzer IRS programs. Overall, 59 MSX SMC sources were observed with the IRS. The spectra were observed using the low-resolution modules of the IRS, Short-Low (SL) and Long-Low (LL), which provided spectra in the 5-14 and 14-37um ranges, respectively, at a resolution between ~60 and 120. For 10 evolved stars with oxygen-rich dust in our Cycle 1 program, we obtained spectra from 0.45 to 1.03um with the Double-Beam Spectrograph at the 2.3m telescope of the Australian National University at Siding Spring Observatory. A 0.45-0.89um spectrum for one of the stars in program 30355 was also observed. These spectra have a resolution of 10Å. Tables 5-7: catalog based on the 243 sources detected in the MSX survey of the SMC, updated with positions and photometry from more recent space-based missions and ground-based surveys. See the Appendix section for more details. The SMC catalog from MSX consists of the 243 sources in the main MSX catalog (Egan+ 2003, see V/114) that lie within the region 7°

  3. BMPs regulate msx gene expression in the dorsal neuroectoderm of Drosophila and vertebrates by distinct mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Francisco F; Springhorn, Alexander; Kague, Erika; Taylor, Erika; Pyrowolakis, George; Fisher, Shannon; Bier, Ethan

    2014-09-01

    In a broad variety of bilaterian species the trunk central nervous system (CNS) derives from three primary rows of neuroblasts. The fates of these neural progenitor cells are determined in part by three conserved transcription factors: vnd/nkx2.2, ind/gsh and msh/msx in Drosophila melanogaster/vertebrates, which are expressed in corresponding non-overlapping patterns along the dorsal-ventral axis. While this conserved suite of "neural identity" gene expression strongly suggests a common ancestral origin for the patterning systems, it is unclear whether the original regulatory mechanisms establishing these patterns have been similarly conserved during evolution. In Drosophila, genetic evidence suggests that Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs) act in a dosage-dependent fashion to repress expression of neural identity genes. BMPs also play a dose-dependent role in patterning the dorsal and lateral regions of the vertebrate CNS, however, the mechanism by which they achieve such patterning has not yet been clearly established. In this report, we examine the mechanisms by which BMPs act on cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) that control localized expression of the Drosophila msh and zebrafish (Danio rerio) msxB in the dorsal central nervous system (CNS). Our analysis suggests that BMPs act differently in these organisms to regulate similar patterns of gene expression in the neuroectoderm: repressing msh expression in Drosophila, while activating msxB expression in the zebrafish. These findings suggest that the mechanisms by which the BMP gradient patterns the dorsal neuroectoderm have reversed since the divergence of these two ancient lineages.

  4. BMPs regulate msx gene expression in the dorsal neuroectoderm of Drosophila and vertebrates by distinct mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco F Esteves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In a broad variety of bilaterian species the trunk central nervous system (CNS derives from three primary rows of neuroblasts. The fates of these neural progenitor cells are determined in part by three conserved transcription factors: vnd/nkx2.2, ind/gsh and msh/msx in Drosophila melanogaster/vertebrates, which are expressed in corresponding non-overlapping patterns along the dorsal-ventral axis. While this conserved suite of "neural identity" gene expression strongly suggests a common ancestral origin for the patterning systems, it is unclear whether the original regulatory mechanisms establishing these patterns have been similarly conserved during evolution. In Drosophila, genetic evidence suggests that Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs act in a dosage-dependent fashion to repress expression of neural identity genes. BMPs also play a dose-dependent role in patterning the dorsal and lateral regions of the vertebrate CNS, however, the mechanism by which they achieve such patterning has not yet been clearly established. In this report, we examine the mechanisms by which BMPs act on cis-regulatory modules (CRMs that control localized expression of the Drosophila msh and zebrafish (Danio rerio msxB in the dorsal central nervous system (CNS. Our analysis suggests that BMPs act differently in these organisms to regulate similar patterns of gene expression in the neuroectoderm: repressing msh expression in Drosophila, while activating msxB expression in the zebrafish. These findings suggest that the mechanisms by which the BMP gradient patterns the dorsal neuroectoderm have reversed since the divergence of these two ancient lineages.

  5. MSX-3D: a tool to validate 3D protein models using mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, Michaël; Paramelle, David; Subra, Gilles; Forest, Eric; Martinez, Jean; Geourjon, Christophe; Deléage, Gilbert

    2008-12-01

    The technique of chemical cross-linking followed by mass spectrometry has proven to bring valuable information about the protein structure and interactions between proteic subunits. It is an effective and efficient way to experimentally investigate some aspects of a protein structure when NMR and X-ray crystallography data are lacking. We introduce MSX-3D, a tool specifically geared to validate protein models using mass spectrometry. In addition to classical peptides identifications, it allows an interactive 3D visualization of the distance constraints derived from a cross-linking experiment. Freely available at http://proteomics-pbil.ibcp.fr

  6. Characterization of a human MSX-2 cDNA and its fragment isolated as a transformation suppressor gene against v-Ki-ras oncogene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, C; Akiyama, N; Matsuzaki, T; Takai, S; Kitayama, H; Noda, M

    1996-05-16

    A cDNA (termed CT124) encoding a carboxyl-terminal fragment of the human homeobox protein MSX-2 was found to induce flat reversion when expressed in v-Ki-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells. Although the expression of endogenous MSX-2 gene is low in most of the normal adult tissues examined, it is frequently activated in carcinoma-derived cell lines. Likewise, the gene is inactive in NIH3T3 cells but is transcriptionally activated after transformation by v-Ki-ras oncogene, suggesting that the intact MSX-2 may play a positive, rather than suppressive, role in cell transformation. To test this possibility, we isolated a near full-length human MSX-2 cDNA and tested its activities in two cell systems, i.e. fibroblast and myoblast. In NIH3T3 fibroblasts, although the gene by itself failed to confer a transformed phenotype, antisense MSX-2 cDNA as well as truncated CT124 cDNA interfered with the transforming activities of v-Ki-ras oncogene. In C2C12 myoblasts, MSX-2 was found to suppress MyoD gene expression, as do activated ras oncogenes, under certain culture conditions, and CT124 was found to inhibit the activities of both MSX-2 and ras in this system as well. Our findings not only suggest that CT124 may act as a dominant suppressor of MSX-2 but also raise the possibility that MSX-2 gene may be an important downstream target for the Ras signaling pathways.

  7. A minimal murine Msx-1 gene promoter. Organization of its cis-regulatory motifs and their role in transcriptional activation in cells in culture and in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Guron, C; Shetty, S; Matsui, H; Raghow, R

    1997-09-05

    To dissect the cis-regulatory elements of the murine Msx-1 promoter, which lacks a conventional TATA element, a putative Msx-1 promoter DNA fragment (from -1282 to +106 base pairs (bp)) or its congeners containing site-specific alterations were fused to luciferase reporter and introduced into NIH3T3 and C2C12 cells, and the expression of luciferase was assessed in transient expression assays. The functional consequences of the sequential 5' deletions of the promotor revealed that multiple positive and negative regulatory elements participate in regulating transcription of the Msx-1 gene. Surprisingly, however, the optimal expression of Msx-1 promoter in either NIH3T3 or C2C12 cells required only 165 bp of the upstream sequence to warrant detailed examination of its structure. Therefore, the functional consequences of site-specific deletions and point mutations of the cis-acting elements of the minimal Msx-1 promoter were systematically examined. Concomitantly, potential transcriptional factor(s) interacting with the cis-acting elements of the minimal promoter were also studied by gel electrophoretic mobility shift assays and DNase I footprinting. Combined analyses of the minimal promoter by DNase I footprinting, electrophoretic mobility shift assays, and super shift assays with specific antibodies revealed that 5'-flanking regions from -161 to -154 and from -26 to -13 of the Msx-1 promoter contains an authentic E box (proximal E box), capable of binding a protein immunologically related to the upstream stimulating factor 1 (USF-1) and a GC-rich sequence motif which can bind to Sp1 (proximal Sp1), respectively. Additionally, we observed that the promoter activation was seriously hampered if the proximal E box was removed or mutated, and the promoter activity was eliminated completely if the proximal Sp1 site was similarly altered. Absolute dependence of the Msx-1 minimal promoter on Sp1 could be demonstrated by transient expression assays in the Sp1-deficient

  8. Mission planning for space based satellite surveillance experiments with the MSX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, R.; Fishman, T.; Robinson, E.; Viggh, H.; Wiseman, A.

    1994-01-01

    The Midcourse Space Experiment is a BMDO-sponsored scientific satellite set for launch within the year. The satellite will collect phenomenology data on missile targets, plumes, earth limb backgrounds and deep space backgrounds in the LWIR, visible and ultra-violet spectral bands. It will also conduct functional demonstrations for space-based space surveillance. The Space-Based Visible sensor, built by Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is the primary sensor on board the MSX for demonstration of space surveillance. The SBV Processing, Operations and Control Center (SPOCC) is the mission planning and commanding center for all space surveillance experiments using the SBV and other MSX instruments. The guiding principle in the SPOCC Mission Planning System was that all routine functions be automated. Manual analyst input should be minimal. Major concepts are: (I) A high level language, called SLED, for user interface to the system; (2) A group of independent software processes which would generally be run in a pipe-line mode for experiment commanding but can be run independently for analyst assessment; (3) An integrated experiment cost computation function that permits assessment of the feasibility of the experiment. This paper will report on the design, implementation and testing of the Mission Planning System.

  9. The evolution of hydrocarbons past the asymptotic giant branch: the case of MSX SMC 029

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Tyler; Sloan, Gregory C.; Kraemer, Kathleen E.; Bernard-Salas, Jeronimo; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Goes, Christopher; Barry, Donald

    2015-01-01

    We present an optimally extracted high-resolution spectrum of MSX SMC 029 obtained by the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. MSX SMC 029 is a carbon-rich object in the Small Magellanic Cloud that has evolved past the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). The spectrum reveals a cool carbon-rich dust continuum with emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and absorption from simpler hydrocarbons, both aliphatic and aromatic, including acetylene and benzene. The spectrum shows many similarities to the carbon-rich post-AGB objects SMP LMC 011 in the Large Magellanic Cloud and AFGL 618 in the Galaxy. Both of these objects also show infrared absorption features from simple hydrocarbons. All three spectra lack strong atomic emission lines in the infrared, indicating that we are observing the evolution of carbon-rich dust and free hydrocarbons in objects between the AGB and planetary nebulae. These three objects give us a unique view of the elusive phase when hydrocarbons exist both as relatively simple molecules and the much more complex and ubiquitous PAHs. We may be witnessing the assembly of amorphous carbon into PAHs.

  10. Pulsed Polarimetry and magnetic sensing on the Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. J.; Hutchinson, T. M.; Weber, T. E.; Taylor, S. F.; Hsu, S. C.

    2014-10-01

    MSX is uniquely positioned to generate the conditions for collision-less magnetized supercritical shocks with Alvenic Mach numbers (MA) of the order 10 and higher. Significant operational strides have been made in forming plasmas over wide parameter ranges: (Te + Ti) of 10-200 eV, average neof 5-60×10+21 m-3, speeds up to 150 km/s and fields up to 1T with a highest plasma flow MA of 5 to date. The MSX plasma is unique in regards to large plasma size of 10 cm and average β higher than 0.8 making the FRC and the magnetized shock structure candidates for the application of Pulsed Polarimetry, a polarization sensitive Lidar technique. The shock dynamics are presently being investigated using internal probes, interferometry and imaging. Internal probe results and an assessment of the shock parameters will dictate the use of the UW pulsed polarimeter system in which internal ne, Teand B are to be measured. Recent results will be presented. Supported by DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Funding DE-FOA-0000755.

  11. The Galactic Distribution of Massive Star Formation from the Red MSX Source Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figura, Charles C.; Urquhart, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Massive stars inject enormous amounts of energy into their environments in the form of UV radiation and molecular outflows, creating HII regions and enriching local chemistry. These effects provide feedback mechanisms that aid in regulating star formation in the region, and may trigger the formation of subsequent generations of stars. Understanding the mechanics of massive star formation presents an important key to understanding this process and its role in shaping the dynamics of galactic structure. The Red MSX Source (RMS) survey is a multi-wavelength investigation of ~1200 massive young stellar objects (MYSO) and ultra-compact HII (UCHII) regions identified from a sample of colour-selected sources from the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) point source catalog and Two Micron All Sky Survey. We present a study of over 900 MYSO and UCHII regions investigated by the RMS survey. We review the methods used to determine distances, and investigate the radial galactocentric distribution of these sources in context with the observed structure of the galaxy. The distribution of MYSO and UCHII regions is found to be spatially correlated with the spiral arms and galactic bar. We examine the radial distribution of MYSOs and UCHII regions and find variations in the star formation rate between the inner and outer Galaxy and discuss the implications for star formation throughout the galactic disc.

  12. Murine craniofacial development requires Hdac3-mediated repression of Msx gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nikhil; Gupta, Mudit; Trivedi, Chinmay M; Singh, Manvendra K; Li, Li; Epstein, Jonathan A

    2013-05-15

    Craniofacial development is characterized by reciprocal interactions between neural crest cells and neighboring cell populations of ectodermal, endodermal and mesodermal origin. Various genetic pathways play critical roles in coordinating the development of cranial structures by modulating the growth, survival and differentiation of neural crest cells. However, the regulation of these pathways, particularly at the epigenomic level, remains poorly understood. Using murine genetics, we show that neural crest cells exhibit a requirement for the class I histone deacetylase Hdac3 during craniofacial development. Mice in which Hdac3 has been conditionally deleted in neural crest demonstrate fully penetrant craniofacial abnormalities, including microcephaly, cleft secondary palate and dental hypoplasia. Consistent with these abnormalities, we observe dysregulation of cell cycle genes and increased apoptosis in neural crest structures in mutant embryos. Known regulators of cell cycle progression and apoptosis in neural crest, including Msx1, Msx2 and Bmp4, are upregulated in Hdac3-deficient cranial mesenchyme. These results suggest that Hdac3 serves as a critical regulator of craniofacial morphogenesis, in part by repressing core apoptotic pathways in cranial neural crest cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Transcriptional control of the tissue-specific, developmentally regulated osteocalcin gene requires a binding motif for the Msx family of homeodomain proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, H M; Catron, K M; van Wijnen, A J; McCabe, L R; Lian, J B; Stein, G S; Stein, J L

    1994-12-20

    The OC box of the rat osteocalcin promoter (nt -99 to -76) is the principal proximal regulatory element contributing to both tissue-specific and developmental control of osteocalcin gene expression. The central motif of the OC box includes a perfect consensus DNA binding site for certain homeodomain proteins. Homeodomain proteins are transcription factors that direct proper development by regulating specific temporal and spatial patterns of gene expression. We therefore addressed the role of the homeodomain binding motif in the activity of the OC promoter. In this study, by the combined application of mutagenesis and site-specific protein recognition analysis, we examined interactions of ROS 17/2.8 osteosarcoma cell nuclear proteins and purified Msx-1 homeodomain protein with the OC box. We detected a series of related specific protein-DNA interactions, a subset of which were inhibited by antibodies directed against the Msx-1 homeodomain but which also recognize the Msx-2 homeodomain. Our results show that the sequence requirements for binding the Msx-1 or Msx-2 homeodomain closely parallel those necessary for osteocalcin gene promoter activity in vivo. This functional relationship was demonstrated by transient expression in ROS 17/2.8 osteosarcoma cells of a series of osteocalcin promoter (nt -1097 to +24)-reporter gene constructs containing mutations within and flanking the homeodomain binding site of the OC box. Northern blot analysis of several bone-related cell types showed that all of the cells expressed msx-1, whereas msx-2 expression was restricted to cells transcribing osteocalcin. Taken together, our results suggest a role for Msx-1 and -2 or related homeodomain proteins in transcription of the osteocalcin gene.

  14. Prediction and characterisation of a highly conserved, remote and cAMP responsive enhancer that regulates Msx1 gene expression in cardiac neural crest and outflow tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kerry Ann; Davidson, Scott; Liaros, Angela; Barrow, John; Lear, Marissa; Heine, Danielle; Hoppler, Stefan; MacKenzie, Alasdair

    2008-05-15

    Double knockouts of the Msx1 and Msx2 genes in the mouse result in severe cardiac outflow tract malformations similar to those frequently found in newborn infants. Despite the known role of the Msx genes in cardiac formation little is known of the regulatory systems (ligand receptor, signal transduction and protein-DNA interactions) that regulate the tissue-specific expression of the Msx genes in mammals during the formation of the outflow tract. In the present study we have used a combination of multi-species comparative genomics, mouse transgenic analysis and in-situ hybridisation to predict and validate the existence of a remote ultra-conserved enhancer that supports the expression of the Msx1 gene in migrating mouse cardiac neural crest and the outflow tract primordia. Furthermore, culturing of embryonic explants derived from transgenic lines with agonists of the PKC and PKA signal transduction systems demonstrates that this remote enhancer is influenced by PKA but not PKC dependent gene regulatory systems. These studies demonstrate the efficacy of combining comparative genomics and transgenic analyses and provide a platform for the study of the possible roles of Msx gene mis-regulation in the aetiology of congenital heart malformation.

  15. YB1/p32, a nuclear Y-box binding protein 1, is a novel regulator of myoblast differentiation that interacts with Msx1 homeoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Young Joon [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Science, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-Gu, Incheon, Korea, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hansol, E-mail: hlee@inha.ac.kr [Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Science, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-dong, Nam-Gu, Incheon, Korea, 402-751 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Precisely controlled cellular differentiation is essential for the proper development of vertebrate embryo and deregulated differentiation is a major cause of many human congenital diseases as well as cancer. Msx1 is a member of the homeoprotein family implicated in these processes, which inhibits the differentiation of skeletal muscle and other cell types, presumably by regulating transcription of target genes through interaction with other cellular factors. We presently show that YB1/p32, a nuclear Y-box binding protein 1, interacts with Msx1 homeoprotein and functions as a regulator of C2C12 myoblast differentiation. We demonstrate that YB1/p32 functionally interacts with Msx1 through its N-terminal region and colocalizes with Msx1 at the nuclear periphery. Moreover, we find that YB1/p32 is competent for inhibition of C2C12 myoblast differentiation, which is correlated with its activity as a negative regulator of MyoD gene expression and binding to the MyoD core enhancer region (CER). Furthermore, YB1/p32 cooperates with Msx1 in transcriptional repression and knocking down the expression of endogenous YB1 attenuates the effects of Msx1. Taken together, our study has uncovered a new function of YB1/p32, a regulator of skeletal muscle differentiation.

  16. YB1/p32, a nuclear Y-box binding protein 1, is a novel regulator of myoblast differentiation that interacts with Msx1 homeoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Young Joon; Lee, Hansol

    2010-01-01

    Precisely controlled cellular differentiation is essential for the proper development of vertebrate embryo and deregulated differentiation is a major cause of many human congenital diseases as well as cancer. Msx1 is a member of the homeoprotein family implicated in these processes, which inhibits the differentiation of skeletal muscle and other cell types, presumably by regulating transcription of target genes through interaction with other cellular factors. We presently show that YB1/p32, a nuclear Y-box binding protein 1, interacts with Msx1 homeoprotein and functions as a regulator of C2C12 myoblast differentiation. We demonstrate that YB1/p32 functionally interacts with Msx1 through its N-terminal region and colocalizes with Msx1 at the nuclear periphery. Moreover, we find that YB1/p32 is competent for inhibition of C2C12 myoblast differentiation, which is correlated with its activity as a negative regulator of MyoD gene expression and binding to the MyoD core enhancer region (CER). Furthermore, YB1/p32 cooperates with Msx1 in transcriptional repression and knocking down the expression of endogenous YB1 attenuates the effects of Msx1. Taken together, our study has uncovered a new function of YB1/p32, a regulator of skeletal muscle differentiation.

  17. The MSX1 homeobox transcription factor is a downstream target of PHOX2B and activates the Delta-Notch pathway in neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revet, Ingrid; Huizenga, Gerda; Chan, Alvin; Koster, Jan; Volckmann, Richard; Sluis, Peter van; Ora, Ingrid; Versteeg, Rogier; Geerts, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is an embryonal tumour of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system (SNS). One of the master regulator genes for peripheral SNS differentiation, the homeobox transcription factor PHOX2B, is mutated in familiar and sporadic neuroblastomas. Here we report that inducible expression of PHOX2B in the neuroblastoma cell line SJNB-8 down-regulates MSX1, a homeobox gene important for embryonic neural crest development. Inducible expression of MSX1 in SJNB-8 caused inhibition of both cell proliferation and colony formation in soft agar. Affymetrix micro-array and Northern blot analysis demonstrated that MSX1 strongly up-regulated the Delta-Notch pathway genes DLK1, NOTCH3, and HEY1. In addition, the proneural gene NEUROD1 was down-regulated. Western blot analysis showed that MSX1 induction caused cleavage of the NOTCH3 protein to its activated form, further confirming activation of the Delta-Notch pathway. These experiments describe for the first time regulation of the Delta-Notch pathway by MSX1, and connect these genes to the PHOX2B oncogene, indicative of a role in neuroblastoma biology. Affymetrix micro-array analysis of a neuroblastic tumour series consisting of neuroblastomas and the more benign ganglioneuromas showed that MSX1, NOTCH3 and HEY1 are more highly expressed in ganglioneuromas. This suggests a block in differentiation of these tumours at distinct developmental stages or lineages

  18. Homeobox protein MSX-1 inhibits expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2, bone morphogenetic protein 4, and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 via Wnt/β-catenin signaling to prevent differentiation of dental mesenchymal cells during the late bell stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiao-Yu; Wu, Xiao-Shan; Wang, Jin-Song; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Song-Lin

    2018-02-01

    Homeobox protein MSX-1 (hereafter referred to as MSX-1) is essential for early tooth-germ development. Tooth-germ development is arrested at bud stage in Msx1 knockout mice, which prompted us to study the functions of MSX-1 beyond this stage. Here, we investigated the roles of MSX-1 during late bell stage. Mesenchymal cells of the mandibular first molar were isolated from mice at embryonic day (E)17.5 and cultured in vitro. We determined the expression levels of β-catenin, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2), Bmp4, and lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (Lef1) after knockdown or overexpression of Msx1. Our findings suggest that knockdown of Msx1 promoted expression of Bmp2, Bmp4, and Lef1, resulting in elevated differentiation of odontoblasts, which was rescued by blocking the expression of these genes. In contrast, overexpression of Msx1 decreased the expression of Bmp2, Bmp4, and Lef1, leading to a reduction in odontoblast differentiation. The regulation of Bmp2, Bmp4, and Lef1 by Msx1 was mediated by the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Additionally, knockdown of Msx1 impaired cell proliferation and slowed S-phase progression, while overexpression of Msx1 also impaired cell proliferation and prolonged G1-phase progression. We therefore conclude that MSX-1 maintains cell proliferation by regulating transition of cells from G1-phase to S-phase and prevents odontoblast differentiation by inhibiting expression of Bmp2, Bmp4, and Lef1 at the late bell stage via the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. © 2017 Eur J Oral Sci.

  19. The Red MSX Source Survey: The Massive Young Stellar Population of Our Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, S. L.; Hoare, M. G.; Urquhart, J. S.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Davies, B.; Mottram, J. C.; Cooper, H. D. B.; Moore, T. J. T.

    2013-09-01

    We present the Red MSX Source survey, the largest statistically selected catalog of young massive protostars and H II regions to date. We outline the construction of the catalog using mid- and near-infrared color selection. We also discuss the detailed follow up work at other wavelengths, including higher spatial resolution data in the infrared. We show that within the adopted selection bounds we are more than 90% complete for the massive protostellar population, with a positional accuracy of the exciting source of better than 2 arcsec. We briefly summarize some of the results that can be obtained from studying the properties of the objects in the catalog as a whole; we find evidence that the most massive stars form: (1) preferentially nearer the Galactic center than the anti-center; (2) in the most heavily reddened environments, suggestive of high accretion rates; and (3) from the most massive cloud cores.

  20. THE RED MSX SOURCE SURVEY: THE MASSIVE YOUNG STELLAR POPULATION OF OUR GALAXY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumsden, S. L.; Hoare, M. G.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Cooper, H. D. B.; Urquhart, J. S.; Davies, B.; Moore, T. J. T.; Mottram, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    We present the Red MSX Source survey, the largest statistically selected catalog of young massive protostars and H II regions to date. We outline the construction of the catalog using mid- and near-infrared color selection. We also discuss the detailed follow up work at other wavelengths, including higher spatial resolution data in the infrared. We show that within the adopted selection bounds we are more than 90% complete for the massive protostellar population, with a positional accuracy of the exciting source of better than 2 arcsec. We briefly summarize some of the results that can be obtained from studying the properties of the objects in the catalog as a whole; we find evidence that the most massive stars form: (1) preferentially nearer the Galactic center than the anti-center; (2) in the most heavily reddened environments, suggestive of high accretion rates; and (3) from the most massive cloud cores

  1. THE RED MSX SOURCE SURVEY: THE MASSIVE YOUNG STELLAR POPULATION OF OUR GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumsden, S. L.; Hoare, M. G.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Cooper, H. D. B. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Urquhart, J. S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, Bonn (Germany); Davies, B.; Moore, T. J. T. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Mottram, J. C. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    We present the Red MSX Source survey, the largest statistically selected catalog of young massive protostars and H II regions to date. We outline the construction of the catalog using mid- and near-infrared color selection. We also discuss the detailed follow up work at other wavelengths, including higher spatial resolution data in the infrared. We show that within the adopted selection bounds we are more than 90% complete for the massive protostellar population, with a positional accuracy of the exciting source of better than 2 arcsec. We briefly summarize some of the results that can be obtained from studying the properties of the objects in the catalog as a whole; we find evidence that the most massive stars form: (1) preferentially nearer the Galactic center than the anti-center; (2) in the most heavily reddened environments, suggestive of high accretion rates; and (3) from the most massive cloud cores.

  2. Structure of massive star forming clumps from the Red MSX Source Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figura, Charles C.; Urquhart, J. S.; Morgan, L.

    2014-01-01

    We present ammonia (1,1) and (2,2) emission maps of 61 high-mass star forming regions drawn from the Red MSX Source (RMS) Survey and observed with the Green Bank Telescope's K-Band Focal Plane Array. We use these observations to investigate the spatial distribution of the environmental conditions associated with this sample of embedded massive young stellar objects (MYSOs). Ammonia is an excellent high-density tracer of star-forming regions as its hyperfine structure allows relatively simple characterisation of the molecular environment. These maps are used to measure the column density, kinetic gas temperature distributions and velocity structure across these regions. We compare the distribution of these properties to that of the associated dust and mid-infrared emission traced by the ATLASGAL 870 micron emission maps and the Spitzer GLIMPSE IRAC images. We present a summary of these results and highlight some of more interesting finds.

  3. Cytotoxic xanthone-anthraquinone heterodimers from an unidentified fungus of the order Hypocreales (MSX 17022).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Sloan; Graf, Tyler N; Adcock, Audrey F; Kroll, David J; Shen, Qi; Swanson, Steven M; Matthew, Susan; Carcache de Blanco, Esperanza J; Wani, Mansukh C; Darveaux, Blaise A; Pearce, Cedric J; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2012-01-01

    Two new xanthone-anthraquinone heterodimers, acremoxanthone C (5) and acremoxanthone D (2), have been isolated from an extract of an unidentified fungus of the order Hypocreales (MSX 17022) by bioactivity-directed fractionation as part of a search for anticancer leads from filamentous fungi. Two known related compounds, acremonidin A (4) and acremonidin C (3) were also isolated, as was a known benzophenone, moniliphenone (1). The structures of these isolates were determined via extensive use of spectroscopic and spectrometric tools in conjunction with comparisons to the literature. All compounds (1-5) were evaluated against a suite of biological assays, including those for cytotoxicity, inhibition of the 20S proteasome, mitochondrial transmembrane potential and nuclear factor-κB.

  4. Ectopic expression of Msx-2 in posterior limb bud mesoderm impairs limb morphogenesis while inducing BMP-4 expression, inhibiting cell proliferation, and promoting apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, D; Lichtler, A C; Pan, Z Z; Dealy, C N; Upholt, W B; Kosher, R A

    1998-05-01

    During early stages of chick limb development, the homeobox-containing gene Msx-2 is expressed in the mesoderm at the anterior margin of the limb bud and in a discrete group of mesodermal cells at the midproximal posterior margin. These domains of Msx-2 expression roughly demarcate the anterior and posterior boundaries of the progress zone, the highly proliferating posterior mesodermal cells underneath the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) that give rise to the skeletal elements of the limb and associated structures. Later in development as the AER loses its activity, Msx-2 expression expands into the distal mesoderm and subsequently into the interdigital mesenchyme which demarcates the developing digits. The domains of Msx-2 expression exhibit considerably less proliferation than the cells of the progress zone and also encompass several regions of programmed cell death including the anterior and posterior necrotic zones and interdigital mesenchyme. We have thus suggested that Msx-2 may be in a regulatory network that delimits the progress zone by suppressing the morphogenesis of the regions of the limb mesoderm in which it is highly expressed. In the present study we show that ectopic expression of Msx-2 via a retroviral expression vector in the posterior mesoderm of the progress zone from the time of initial formation of the limb bud severely impairs limb morphogenesis. Msx-2-infected limbs are typically very narrow along the anteroposterior axis, are occasionally truncated, and exhibit alterations in the pattern of formation of skeletal elements, indicating that as a consequence of ectopic Msx-2 expression the morphogenesis of large portions of the posterior mesoderm has been suppressed. We further show that Msx-2 impairs limb morphogenesis by reducing cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis in the regions of the posterior mesoderm in which it is ectopically expressed. The domains of ectopic Msx-2 expression in the posterior mesoderm also exhibit ectopic

  5. Obionin B: An o-pyranonaphthoquinone decaketide from an unidentified fungus (MSX 63619) from the Order Pleosporales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Sloan; Graf, Tyler N; Adcock, Audrey F; Kroll, David J; Shen, Qi; Swanson, Steven M; Wani, Mansukh C; Darveaux, Blaise A; Pearce, Cedric J; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2011-10-05

    A fungal extract (MSX 63619), from the Mycosynthetix library of over 50,000 fungi, displayed promising cytotoxicity against a human tumor cell panel. Bioactivity-directed fractionation led to the isolation of an o-pyranonaphthoquinone decaketide, which we termed obionin B (1). The structure of 1 was deduced via spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques. The IC(50) value of 1 was moderate, ranging from 3 to 13 μM, depending on the cell line tested.

  6. Identification of a spatially specific enhancer element in the chicken Msx-2 gene that regulates its expression in the apical ectodermal ridge of the developing limb buds of transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumoy, L; Wang, C K; Lichtler, A C; Pierro, L J; Kosher, R A; Upholt, W B

    1995-07-01

    Msx-2 is a member of the Msx family of homeobox-containing genes expressed in a variety of embryonic tissues involved in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and pattern formation. In the developing chick limb bud, Msx-2 is expressed in the apical ectodermal ridge, which plays a crucial role in directing the growth and patterning of limb mesoderm. In addition, Msx-2 is expressed in the anterior nonskeletal-forming mesoderm of the limb bud, in the posterior necrotic zone, and in the interdigital mesenchyme. Studies of the altered expression patterns of Msx-2 in amelic and polydactylous mutant chick limbs have suggested that the apical ectodermal ridge and mesodermal domains of Msx-2 expression are independently regulated and that there might be separate cis-regulatory elements in the Msx-2 gene controlling its spatially distinct domains of expression. To test this hypothesis, we have isolated the chicken Msx-2 gene and have tested the ability of various regions of the gene to target expression of LacZ reporter gene to specific regions of the limbs of transgenic mice. A variety of these constructs are consistently expressed only in the apical ectodermal ridge and the ectoderm of the genital tubercle and are not expressed in the mesoderm of the limb bud or in other regions of the embryo where the endogenous Msx-2 gene is expressed. These results suggest the presence of spatially specific cis-regulatory elements in the Msx-2 gene. We identified a 348-bp region in the 5' flanking region of the Msx-2 gene which can act as an apical ectodermal ridge enhancer element when placed in reverse orientation in front of the reporter gene with transcription initiation directed by the minimal hsp68 promoter.

  7. On the Nature of Bright Infrared Sources in the Small Magellanic Cloud: Interpreting MSX through the Lens of Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Kathleen E.; Sloan, G. C.

    2015-01-01

    We compare infrared observations of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) by the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) and the Spitzer Space Telescope to better understand what components of a metal-poor galaxy dominate radiative processes in the infrared. The SMC, at a distance of ~60 kpc and with a metallicity of ~0.1-0.2 solar, can serve as a nearby proxy for metal-poor galaxies at high redshift. The MSX Point Source Catalog contains 243 objects in the SMC that were detected at 8.3 microns, the most sensitive MSX band. Multi-epoch, multi-band mapping with Spitzer, supplemented with observations from the Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), provides variability information, and, together with spectra from Spitzer for ~15% of the sample, enables us to determine what these luminous sources are. How many remain simple point sources? What fraction break up into multiple stars? Which are star forming regions, with both bright diffuse emission and point sources? How do evolved stars and stellar remnants contribute at these wavelengths? What role do young stellar objects and HII regions play? Answering these questions sets the stage for understanding what we will see with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST).

  8. Possible linkage of non-syndromic cleft lip and palate to the MSX1 homebox gene on chromosome 4p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.; Walczak, C.; Erickson, R.P.

    1994-09-01

    The MSX1 (HOX7) gene has been shown recently to cause cleft palate in a mouse model deficient for its product. Several features of this mouse model make the human homolog of this gene an excellent candidate for non-syndromic cleft palate. We tested this hypothesis by linkage studies in two large multiplex human families using a microsatellite marker in the human MSX1 gene. A LOD score of 1.7 was obtained maximizing at a recombination fraction of 0.09. Computer simulation power calculations using the program SIMLINK indicated that a LOD score this large is expected to occur only about 1/200 times by chance alone for a marker locus with comparable informativeness if unlinked to the disease gene. This suggestive finding is being followed up by attempts to recruit and study additional families and by DNA sequence analyses of the MSX1 gene in these families and other cleft lip and/or cleft palate subjects and these further results will also be reported.

  9. Differential regulation of msx genes in the development of the gonopodium, an intromittent organ, and of the "sword," a sexually selected trait of swordtail fishes (Xiphophorus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauner, Hans; Begemann, Gerrit; Marí-Beffa, Manuel; Meyer, Axel

    2003-01-01

    The possession of a conspicuous extension of colored ventral rays of the caudal fin in male fish of swordtails (genus Xiphophorus) is a prominent example for a trait that evolved by sexual selection. To understand the evolutionary history of this so-called sword molecularly, it is of interest to unravel the developmental pathways responsible for extended growth of sword rays during development of swordtail males. We isolated two msx genes and showed that they are differentially regulated during sword outgrowth. During sword growth in juvenile males, as well as during testosterone-induced sword development and fin ray regeneration in the sword after amputation, expression of msxC is markedly up-regulated in the sword forming fin rays. In contrast, msxE/1 is not differentially expressed in ventral and dorsal male fin rays, suggesting a link between the development of male secondary sexual characters in fins and up-regulation of msxC expression. In addition, we showed that msx gene expression patterns differ significantly between Xiphophorus and zebrafish. We also included in our study the gonopodium, a testosterone-dependent anal fin modification that serves as a fertilization organ in males of live-bearing fishes. Our finding that increased levels of msxC expression are associated with the testosterone-induced outgrowth of the gonopodium might suggest either that at least parts of the signaling pathways that pattern the evolutionary older gonopodium have been coopted to evolve a sexually selected innovation such as the sword or that increased msxC expression may be inherent to the growth process of long fin rays in general.

  10. Expression of Msx-1 is suppressed in bisphosphonate associated osteonecrosis related jaw tissue-etiopathology considerations respecting jaw developmental biology-related unique features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrhan, Falk; Hyckel, Peter; Ries, Jutta; Stockmann, Phillip; Nkenke, Emeka; Schlegel, Karl A; Neukam, Friedrich W; Amann, Kerstin

    2010-10-13

    Bone-destructive disease treatments include bisphosphonates and antibodies against the osteoclast differentiator, RANKL (aRANKL); however, osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a frequent side-effect. Current models fail to explain the restriction of bisphosphonate (BP)-related and denosumab (anti-RANKL antibody)-related ONJ to jaws. Msx-1 is exclusively expressed in craniofacial structures and pivotal to cranial neural crest (CNC)-derived periodontal tissue remodeling. We hypothesised that Msx-1 expression might be impaired in bisphosphonate-related ONJ. The study aim was to elucidate Msx-1 and RANKL-associated signal transduction (BMP-2/4, RANKL) in ONJ-altered and healthy periodontal tissue. Twenty ONJ and twenty non-BP exposed periodontal samples were processed for RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. An automated staining-based alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase method was used to measure the stained cells:total cell-number ratio (labelling index, Bonferroni adjustment). Real-time RT-PCR was performed on ONJ-affected and healthy jaw periodontal samples (n = 20 each) to quantitatively compare Msx-1, BMP-2, RANKL, and GAPDH mRNA levels. Semi-quantitative assessment of the ratio of stained cells showed decreased Msx-1 and RANKL and increased BMP-2/4 (all p Msx-1 (p Msx-1 suppression in ONJ-adjacent periodontal tissue suggested a bisphosphonate-related impairment in cellular differentiation that occurred exclusively jaw remodelling. Further research on developmental biology-related unique features of jaw bone structures will help to elucidate pathologies restricted to maxillofacial tissue.

  11. Biomineralization, life-time of odontogenic cells and differential expression of the two homeobox genes MSX-1 and DLX-2 in transgenic mice.

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    Lézot, F; Thomas, B; Hotton, D; Forest, N; Orestes-Cardoso, S; Robert, B; Sharpe, P; Berdal, A

    2000-03-01

    Msx and Dlx homeobox genes encode for transcription factors that control early morphogenesis. More specifically, Msx-1, Msx-2, and Dlx-2 homeobox genes contribute to the initial patterning of the dentition. The present study is devoted to the potential role of those homeobox genes during the late formation of mineralized tissues, using the rodent incisor as an experimental system. The continuously erupting mandibular incisor allows (1) the coinvestigation of the whole sequences of amelogenesis and dentinogenesis, aligned along the main dental axis in a single sample in situ and (2) the differential characterization of transcripts generated by epithelial and ectomesenchymal odontogenic cells. Northern blot experiments on microdissected cells showed the continuing expression of Msx-2 and Dlx-2 in the later stages of dental biomineralization, differentially in epithelial and ectomesenchymal compartments. Transgenic mice produced with LacZ reporter constructs for Dlx-2 and Msx-1 were used to detect different components of the gene expression patterns with the sensitive beta-galactosidase histoenzymology. The results show a prominent epithelial involvement of Dlx-2, with stage-specific variations in the cells involved in enamel formation. Quantitative analyses identified specific modulations of Dlx-2 expression in ameloblasts depending on the anatomical sites of the incisor, showing more specifically an inverse linear relationship between the Dlx-2 promoter activity level and enamel thickness. This investigation extends the role of homeoproteins to postmitotic stages, which would control secretory cell activity, in a site-specific manner as shown here for Dlx-2.

  12. Novel human mutation and CRISPR/Cas genome-edited mice reveal the importance of C-terminal domain of MSX1 in tooth and palate development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Silvia Naomi; Yasue, Akihiro; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Naruto, Takuya; Minegishi, Yoshiyuki; Oyadomari, Seiichi; Noji, Sumihare; Imoto, Issei; Tanaka, Eiji

    2016-12-05

    Several mutations, located mainly in the MSX1 homeodomain, have been identified in non-syndromic tooth agenesis predominantly affecting premolars and third molars. We identified a novel frameshift mutation of the highly conserved C-terminal domain of MSX1, known as Msx homology domain 6 (MH6), in a Japanese family with non-syndromic tooth agenesis. To investigate the importance of MH6 in tooth development, Msx1 was targeted in mice with CRISPR/Cas system. Although heterozygous MH6 disruption did not alter craniofacial development, homozygous mice exhibited agenesis of lower incisors with or without cleft palate at E16.5. In addition, agenesis of the upper third molars and the lower second and third molars were observed in 4-week-old mutant mice. Although the upper second molars were present, they were abnormally small. These results suggest that the C-terminal domain of MSX1 is important for tooth and palate development, and demonstrate that that CRISPR/Cas system can be used as a tool to assess causality of human disorders in vivo and to study the importance of conserved domains in genes.

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: MSX high-contrast IRDCs with NH3 (Chira+,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chira, R.-A.; Beuther, H.; Linz, H.; Walmsley, C. M.; Menten, K. M.; Bonfman, L.

    2013-02-01

    Based on MSX data, a catalogue of more than 10,000 candidate IRDCs was compiled. From this catalogue we selected a complete sample of northern hemisphere high-contrast IRDCs with Galactic longitudes >=19.27° (and nine exceptions with Galactic longitudes <19°). The sample was observed in ammonia (1,1) and (2,2) inversion transitions with the Effelsberg 100-m telescope. NH3 parameters are derived for 109 sample sources. For each source galactic coordinates, brightness temperatures, line width FWHMs and optical depths of (1,1) and (2,2) inversion lines and LSR velocity of (1,1) inversion line are given. Furthermore, we derived the rotation and kinetic temperatures, ammonia column densities, kinematic distances and virial masses using the NH3 data. In addition, notes about whether the sources being associated with Spitzer sources or not are given. Using ATLASGAL data, the 870 micron flux densities gas masses, virial parameters, H2 column densities and NH3 abundances are given. In addition, we listed the sample sources where no ammonia which did not fulfil our selection criteria. (4 data files).

  14. Peptaibols, tetramic acid derivatives, isocoumarins, and sesquiterpenes from a Bionectria sp. (MSX 47401).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Mario; Raja, Huzefa; Falkinham, Joseph O; Adcock, Audrey F; Kroll, David J; Wani, Mansukh C; Pearce, Cedric J; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2013-06-28

    An extract of the filamentous fungus Bionectria sp. (MSX 47401) showed both promising cytotoxic activity (>90% inhibition of H460 cell growth at 20 μg/mL) and antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A bioactivity-directed fractionation study yielded one new peptaibol (1) and one new tetramic acid derivative (2), and the fungus biosynthesized diverse secondary metabolites with mannose-derived units. Five known compounds were also isolated: clonostachin (3), virgineone (4), virgineone aglycone (5), AGI-7 (6), and 5,6-dihydroxybisabolol (7). Compounds 5 and 7 have not been described previously from natural sources. Compound 1 represents the second member of the peptaibol structural class that contains an ester-linked sugar alcohol (mannitol) instead of an amide-linked amino alcohol, and peptaibols and tetramic acid derivatives have not been isolated previously from the same fungus. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated primarily by high-field NMR (950 and 700 MHz), HRESIMS/MS, and chemical degradations (Marfey's analysis). All compounds (except 6) were examined for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Compounds 2, 4, and 5 showed antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and several MRSA isolates.

  15. Molecular line study of massive star-forming regions from the Red MSX Source survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Naiping; Wang, Jun-Jie

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we have selected a sample of massive star-forming regions from the Red MSX Source survey, in order to study star formation activities (mainly outflow and inflow signatures). We have focused on three molecular lines from the Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team Survey at 90 GHz: HCO+(1-0), H13CO+(1-0) and SiO(2-1). According to previous observations, our sources can be divided into two groups: nine massive young stellar object candidates (radio-quiet) and 10 H II regions (which have spherical or unresolved radio emissions). Outflow activities have been found in 11 sources, while only three show inflow signatures in all. The high outflow detection rate means that outflows are common in massive star-forming regions. The inflow detection rate was relatively low. We suggest that this was because of the beam dilution of the telescope. All three inflow candidates have outflow(s). The outward radiation and thermal pressure from the central massive star(s) do not seem to be strong enough to halt accretion in G345.0034-00.2240. Our simple model of G318.9480-00.1969 shows that it has an infall velocity of about 1.8 km s-1. The spectral energy distribution analysis agrees our sources are massive and intermediate-massive star formation regions.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Chemical properties of red MSX sources (RMSs) (Yu+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, N.; Xu, J.

    2017-05-01

    Our molecular line data come from the Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team Survey at 90GHz (MALT90) (e.g., Foster+ 2011, J/ApJS/197/25; Jackson+ 2013PASA...30...57J). This project is performed with Mopra, a 22m single-dish radio telescope located near Coonabarabran in New South Wales, Australia. The angular resolution of Mopra is 38", with a beam efficiency between 0.49 at 86GHz and 0.42 at 115GHz. The pointing accuracy of the main MALT90 maps is about 8", and the absolute flux uncertainty is in the range of 10%-17% depending on the transition in question. The target clumps of this survey are selected from the 870um Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy (ATLASGAL; Schuller+ 2009A&A...504..415S; Contreras+ 2013, J/A+A/549/A45; superseded by J/A+A/568/A41). Using Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA), Urquhart+ (2007, J/A+A/461/11) observed radio emissions of 826 Red Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) Sources (RMSs) in the southern sky. We also have checked our sources with the data taken from the Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey (SUMSS) carried out at 843MHz with the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope (MOST; Mauch+ 2003, VIII/81). See section 2 for further explanations. (5 data files).

  17. Simultaneous Occurence of an Autosomal Dominant Inherited MSX1 Mutation and an X-linked Recessive Inherited EDA Mutation in One Chinese Family with Non-syndromic Oligodontia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao Xia; Wong, Sing Wai; Han, Dong; Feng, Hai Lan

    2015-01-01

    To describe the simultaneous occurence of an autosomal dominant inherited MSX1 mutation and an X-linked recessive inherited EDA mutation in one Chinese family with nonsyndromic oligodontia. Clinical data of characteristics of tooth agenesis were collected. MSX1 and EDA gene mutations were detected in a Chinese family of non-syndromic oligodontia. Mild hypodontia in the parents and severe oligodontia in the son was recorded. A novel missense heterozygous mutation c.517C>A (p.Arg173Ser) was detected in the MSX1 gene in the boy and the father. A homozygous missense mutation c.1001G>A (p.Arg334His) was detected in the EDA gene in the boy and the same mutant occurred heterozygously in the mother. Simultaneous occurence of two different gene mutations with different inheritence patterns, which both caused oligodontia, which occurred in one subject and in one family, was reported.

  18. Overlapping and differential localization of Bmp-2, Bmp-4, Msx-2 and apoptosis in the endocardial cushion and adjacent tissues of the developing mouse heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwahid, E; Rice, D; Pelliniemi, L J; Jokinen, E

    2001-07-01

    The bone morphogenetic proteins BMP-2 and BMP-4 and the homeobox gene MSX-2 are required for normal development of many embryonic tissues. To elucidate their possible roles during the remodeling of the tubular heart into a fully septated four-chambered heart, we have localized the mRNA of Bmp-2, Bmp-4, Msx-2 and apoptotic cells in the developing mouse heart from embryonic day (E)11 to E17. mRNA was localized by in situ hybridization, and apoptotic cells by TUNEL (TDT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling) as well as by transmission electron microscopy. By analyzing adjacent serial sections, we demonstrated that the expression of Msx-2 and Bmp-2 strikingly overlapped in the atrioventricular canal myocardium, in the atrioventricular junctional myocardium, and in the maturing myocardium of the atrioventricular valves. Bmp-4 was expressed in the outflow tract myocardium and in the endocardial cushion of the outflow tract ridges from E12 to E14. Msx-2 appeared in the mesenchyme of the atrioventricular endocardial cushion from E11 to E14, while Bmp-2 and Bmp-4 were detected between E11 and E14. Apoptotic cells were also detected in the mesenchyme of the endocardial cushion between E12 and E14. Our results suggest that BMP-2 and MSX-2 are tightly linked to the formation of the atrioventricular junction and valves and that BMP-4 is involved in the development of the outflow tract myocardium and of the endocardial cushion. In addition, BMP-2, BMP-4 and MSX-2 and apoptosis seem to be associated with differentiation of the endocardial cushion.

  19. Expression of Msx-1 is suppressed in bisphosphonate associated osteonecrosis related jaw tissue-etiopathology considerations respecting jaw developmental biology-related unique features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlegel Karl A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone-destructive disease treatments include bisphosphonates and antibodies against the osteoclast differentiator, RANKL (aRANKL; however, osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ is a frequent side-effect. Current models fail to explain the restriction of bisphosphonate (BP-related and denosumab (anti-RANKL antibody-related ONJ to jaws. Msx-1 is exclusively expressed in craniofacial structures and pivotal to cranial neural crest (CNC-derived periodontal tissue remodeling. We hypothesised that Msx-1 expression might be impaired in bisphosphonate-related ONJ. The study aim was to elucidate Msx-1 and RANKL-associated signal transduction (BMP-2/4, RANKL in ONJ-altered and healthy periodontal tissue. Methods Twenty ONJ and twenty non-BP exposed periodontal samples were processed for RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. An automated staining-based alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase method was used to measure the stained cells:total cell-number ratio (labelling index, Bonferroni adjustment. Real-time RT-PCR was performed on ONJ-affected and healthy jaw periodontal samples (n = 20 each to quantitatively compare Msx-1, BMP-2, RANKL, and GAPDH mRNA levels. Results Semi-quantitative assessment of the ratio of stained cells showed decreased Msx-1 and RANKL and increased BMP-2/4 (all p Conclusions These results explain the sclerotic and osteopetrotic changes of periodontal tissue following BP application and substantiate clinical findings of BP-related impaired remodeling specific to periodontal tissue. RANKL suppression substantiated the clinical finding of impaired bone remodelling in BP- and aRANKL-induced ONJ-affected bone structures. Msx-1 suppression in ONJ-adjacent periodontal tissue suggested a bisphosphonate-related impairment in cellular differentiation that occurred exclusively jaw remodelling. Further research on developmental biology-related unique features of jaw bone structures will help to elucidate pathologies restricted to

  20. Progesterone receptor activates Msx2 expression by downregulating TNAP/Akp2 and activating the Bmp pathway in EpH4 mouse mammary epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie M Fleming

    Full Text Available Previously we demonstrated that EpH4 mouse mammary epithelial cells induced the homeobox transcription factor Msx2 either when transfected with the progesterone receptor (PR or when treated with Bmp2/4. Msx2 upregulation was unaffected by Wnt inhibitors s-FRP or Dkk1, but was inhibited by the Bmp antagonist Noggin. We therefore hypothesized that PR signaling to Msx2 acts through the Bmp receptor pathway. Herein, we confirm that transcripts for Alk2/ActR1A, a non-canonical BmpR Type I, are upregulated in mammary epithelial cells overexpressing PR (EpH4-PR. Increased phosphorylation of Smads 1,5, 8, known substrates for Alk2 and other BmpR Type I proteins, was observed as was their translocation to the nucleus in EpH4-PR cells. Analysis also showed that Tissue Non-Specific Alkaline Phosphatase (TNAP/Akp2 was also found to be downregulated in EpH4-PR cells. When an Akp2 promoter-reporter construct containing a ½PRE site was transfected into EpH4-PR cells, its expression was downregulated. Moreover, siRNA mediated knockdown of Akp2 increased both Alk2 and Msx2 expression. Collectively these data suggest that PR inhibition of Akp2 results in increased Alk2 activity, increased phosphorylation of Smads 1,5,8, and ultimately upregulation of Msx2. These studies imply that re-activation of the Akp2 gene could be helpful in downregulating aberrant Msx2 expression in PR+ breast cancers.

  1. Thielavin B methyl ester: a cytotoxic benzoate trimer from an unidentified fungus (MSX 55526) from the Order Sordariales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Sloan; Ehrmann, Brandie M; Adcock, Audrey F; Kroll, David J; Wani, Mansukh C; Pearce, Cedric J; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2011-11-02

    As part of our ongoing investigation of filamentous fungi for anticancer leads, an active fungal extract was identified from the Mycosynthetix library (MSX 55526; from the Order Sordariales). Bioactivity-directed fractionation yielded the known ergosterol peroxide (2) and 5α,8α-epidioxyergosta-6,9(11),22-trien-3β-ol(3), and a new benzoate trimer, termed thielavin B methyl ester (1). The structure elucidation of 1 was facilitated by the use of HRMS coupled to an APPI (atmospheric pressure photoionization) source. Compound 1 proved to be moderately active against a panel of three cancer cell lines.

  2. The adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 reverses the effort-related effects of dopamine blockade: differential interaction with D1 and D2 family antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Lila T; Shahriari, Mona; Farrar, Andrew M; Sink, Kelly S; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D

    2009-04-01

    Brain dopamine (DA) participates in the modulation of instrumental behavior, including aspects of behavioral activation and effort-related choice behavior. Rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their behavior away from food-seeking behaviors that have high response requirements, and instead select less effortful alternatives. Although accumbens DA is considered a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating effort-related choice behavior, emerging evidence demonstrates a role for adenosine A(2A) receptors. Adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonism has been shown to reverse the effects of DA antagonism. The present experiments were conducted to determine if this effect was dependent upon the subtype of DA receptor that was antagonized to produce the changes in effort-related choice. The adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3 (0.5-2.0 mg/kg IP) was assessed for its ability to reverse the effects of the D1 family antagonist SCH39166 (ecopipam; 0.2 mg/kg IP) and the D2 family antagonist eticlopride (0.08 mg/kg IP), using a concurrent lever pressing/chow feeding procedure. MSX-3 produced a substantial dose-related reversal of the effects of eticlopride on lever pressing and chow intake. At the highest dose of MSX-3, there was a complete reversal of the effects of eticlopride on lever pressing. In contrast, MSX-3 produced only a minimal attenuation of the effects of SCH39166, as measured by regression and effect size analyses. The greater ability of MSX-3 to reverse the effects of D2 vs. D1 blockade may be related to the colocalization of D2 and adenosine A(2A) receptors on the same population of striatal neurons.

  3. Differential binding of Lef1 and Msx1/2 transcription factors to Dkk1 CNEs correlates with reporter gene expression in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Lieven

    Full Text Available Besides the active Wnt signalling itself, the extracellular inhibition by Dkk1 is important for various embryonic developmental processes, such as optic vesicle differentiation and facial outgrowth. Although a feedback crosstalk of the active Wnt/β-catenin signaling and Dkk1 regulation has been suggested, the control of Dkk1 transcription by the Tcf/Lef1 mediated Wnt signalling and its connection to additional signalling factors has not been elucidated in vivo. Here, we used a combination of transgenic mouse approaches and biochemical analyses to unravel the direct Dkk1 transcriptional regulation via Tcf/Lefs. By using site directed mutagenesis, we tested several conserved Tcf/Lef1 binding sites within Dkk1 conserved non-coding elements (CNEs and found that these are required for tissue specific reporter expression. In addition a conserved Msx1/2 binding site is required for retinal reporter expression and Msx2 but not Msx1 binds its conserved binding site within CNE195 in the optic cups. Within craniofacial expression domains, Lef1 interferes with Dkk1 directly via two conserved Tcf/Lef1 binding sites in the craniofacial enhancer CNE114, both of which are required for the general craniofacial Dkk1 reporter activation. Furthermore, these Tcf/Lef1 sites are commonly bound in the whisker hair bud mesenchyme but specifically Tcf/Lef1 (no. 2 is required for mandibular activation and repression of maxillar Dkk1 activation. Lastly, we tested the Tcf/Lef1 binding capacities of the Dkk1 promoter and found that although Lef1 binds the Dkk1 promoter, these sites are not sufficient for tissue specific Dkk1 activation. Together, we here present the importance of conserved Tcf/Lef1 and Msx1/2 sites that are required for differential Dkk1 transcriptional reporter activation in vivo. This requirement directly correlates with Lef1 and Msx1/2 interaction with these genomic loci.

  4. Benzoquinones and terphenyl compounds as phosphodiesterase-4B inhibitors from a fungus of the order Chaetothyriales (MSX 47445).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Elimat, Tamam; Figueroa, Mario; Raja, Huzefa A; Graf, Tyler N; Adcock, Audrey F; Kroll, David J; Day, Cynthia S; Wani, Mansukh C; Pearce, Cedric J; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2013-03-22

    Three bioactive compounds were isolated from an organic extract of an ascomycete fungus of the order Chaetothyriales (MSX 47445) using bioactivity-directed fractionation as part of a search for anticancer leads from filamentous fungi. Of these, two were benzoquinones [betulinan A (1) and betulinan C (3)], and the third was a terphenyl compound, BTH-II0204-207:A (2). The structures were elucidated using a set of spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques; the structure of the new compound (3) was confirmed via single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1-3 were evaluated for cytotoxicity against a human cancer cell panel, for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, and for phosphodiesterase (PDE4B2) inhibitory activities. The putative binding mode of 1-3 with PDE4B2 was examined using a validated docking protocol, and the binding and enzyme inhibitory activities were correlated.

  5. Differential expression of myogenic regulatory genes and Msx-1 during dedifferentiation and redifferentiation of regenerating amphibian limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, H G; Nelson, C; Goff, D; Laufer, E; Morgan, B A; Tabin, C

    1995-01-01

    An amputated limb of an adult urodele amphibian is capable of undergoing regeneration. The new structures form from an undifferentiated mass of cells called the regenerative blastema. The cells of the blastema are believed to derive from differentiated tissues of the adult limb. However, the exact source of these cells and the process by which they undergo dedifferentiation are poorly understood. In order to elucidate the molecular and cellular basis for dedifferentiation we isolated a number of genes which are potential regulators of the process. These include Msx-1, which is believed to support the undifferentiated and proliferative state of cells in the embryonic limb bud; and two members of the myogenic regulatory gene family, MRF-4 and Myf-5, which are expressed in differentiated muscle and regulate muscle-specific gene activity. As anticipated, we find that Msx-1 is strongly up-regulated during the initiation of regeneration. It remains expressed throughout regeneration but is not found in the fully regenerated limb. The myogenic gene MRF-4 has the reverse expression pattern. It is expressed in adult limb muscle, is rapidly shut off in early regenerative blastemas, and is only reexpressed at the completion of regeneration. These kinetics are paralleled by those of a muscle-specific Myosin gene. In contrast Myf-5, a second member of the myogenic gene family, continues to be expressed throughout the regenerative process. Thus, MRF-4 and Myf-5 are likely to play distinct roles during regeneration. MRF-4 may directly regulate muscle phenotype and as such its repression may be a key event in dedifferentiation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Injections of the selective adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 into the nucleus accumbens core attenuate the locomotor suppression induced by haloperidol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwari, Keita; Madson, Lisa J; Farrar, Andrew M; Mingote, Susana M; Valenta, John P; DiGianvittorio, Michael D; Frank, Lauren E; Correa, Merce; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa; Salamone, John D

    2007-03-28

    There is considerable evidence of interactions between adenosine A2A receptors and dopamine D2 receptors in striatal areas, and antagonists of the A2A receptor have been shown to reverse the motor effects of DA antagonists in animal models. The D2 antagonist haloperidol produces parkinsonism in humans, and also induces motor effects in rats, such as suppression of locomotion. The present experiments were conducted to study the ability of the adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 to reverse the locomotor effects of acute or subchronic administration of haloperidol in rats. Systemic (i.p.) injections of MSX-3 (2.5-10.0 mg/kg) were capable of attenuating the suppression of locomotion induced by either acute or repeated (i.e., 14 day) administration of 0.5 mg/kg haloperidol. Bilateral infusions of MSX-3 directly into the nucleus accumbens core (2.5 microg or 5.0 microg in 0.5 microl per side) produced a dose-related increase in locomotor activity in rats treated with 0.5 mg/kg haloperidol either acutely or repeatedly. There were no overall significant effects of MSX-3 infused directly into the dorsomedial nucleus accumbens shell or the ventrolateral neostriatum. These results indicate that antagonism of adenosine A2A receptors can attenuate the locomotor suppression produced by DA antagonism, and that this effect may be at least partially mediated by A2A receptors in the nucleus accumbens core. These studies suggest that adenosine and dopamine systems interact to modulate the locomotor and behavioral activation functions of nucleus accumbens core.

  7. The yeast two hybrid system in a screen for proteins interacting with axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) Msx1 during early limb regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuqarn, Mehtap; Allmeling, Christina; Amshoff, Inga; Menger, Bjoern; Nasser, Inas; Vogt, Peter M; Reimers, Kerstin

    2011-07-01

    Urodele amphibians are exceptional in their ability to regenerate complex body structures such as limbs. Limb regeneration depends on a process called dedifferentiation. Under an inductive wound epidermis terminally differentiated cells transform to pluripotent progenitor cells that coordinately proliferate and eventually redifferentiate to form the new appendage. Recent studies have developed molecular models integrating a set of genes that might have important functions in the control of regenerative cellular plasticity. Among them is Msx1, which induced dedifferentiation in mammalian myotubes in vitro. Herein, we screened for interaction partners of axolotl Msx1 using a yeast two hybrid system. A two hybrid cDNA library of 5-day-old wound epidermis and underlying tissue containing more than 2×10⁶ cDNAs was constructed and used in the screen. 34 resulting cDNA clones were isolated and sequenced. We then compared sequences of the isolated clones to annotated EST contigs of the Salamander EST database (BLASTn) to identify presumptive orthologs. We subsequently searched all no-hit clone sequences against non redundant NCBI sequence databases using BLASTx. It is the first time, that the yeast two hybrid system was adapted to the axolotl animal model and successfully used in a screen for proteins interacting with Msx1 in the context of amphibian limb regeneration. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Gene-gene interaction between MSX1 and TP63 in Asian case-parent trios with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongjing; Schwender, Holger; Wang, Mengying; Wang, Hong; Wang, Ping; Zhu, Hongping; Zhou, Zhibo; Li, Jing; Wu, Tao; Beaty, Terri H

    2018-03-01

    Small ubiquitin-like modification, also known as sumoylation, is a crucial post-translational regulatory mechanisms involved in development of the lip and palate. Recent studies reported two sumoylation target genes, MSX1 and TP63, to have achieved genome-wide level significance in tests of association with nonsyndromic clefts. Here, we performed a candidate gene analysis considering gene-gene and gene-environment interaction for SUMO1, MSX1, and TP63 to further explore the etiology of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P). A total of 130 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near SUMO1, MSX1, and TP63 was analyzed among 1,038 Asian NSCL/P trios ascertained through an international consortium. Conditional logistic regression models were used to explore gene-gene (G × G) and gene-environment (G × E) interaction involving maternal environmental tobacco smoke and multivitamin supplementation. Bonferroni correction was used for G × E analysis and permutation tests were used for G × G analysis. While transmission disequilibrium tests and gene-environment interaction analysis showed no significant results, we did find signals of gene-gene interaction between SNPs near MSX1 and TP63. Three pairwise interactions yielded significant p values in permutation tests (rs884690 and rs9290890 with p = 9.34 × 10 -5 and empirical p = 1.00 × 10 -4 , rs1022136 and rs4687098 with p = 2.41 × 10 -4 and empirical p = 2.95 × 10 -4 , rs6819546 and rs9681004 with p = 5.15 × 10 -4 and empirical p = 3.02 × 10 -4 ). Gene-gene interaction between MSX1 and TP63 may influence the risk of NSCL/P in Asian populations. Our study provided additional understanding of the genetic etiology of NSCL/P and underlined the importance of considering gene-gene interaction in the etiology of this common craniofacial malformation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [Development and application of a multi-species water quality model for water distribution systems with EPANET-MSX].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fu; Chen, Ji-ning; Zeng, Si-yu

    2008-12-01

    A conceptual multi-species water quality model for water distribution systems was developed on the basis of the toolkit of the EPANET-MSX software. The model divided the pipe segment into four compartments including pipe wall, biofilm, boundary layer and bulk liquid. The involved processes were substrate utilization and microbial growth, decay and inactivation of microorganisms, mass transfer of soluble components through the boundary layer, adsorption and desorption of particular components between bulk liquid and biofilm, oxidation and halogenation of organic matter by residual chlorine, and chlorine consumption by pipe wall. The fifteen simulated variables included the seven common variables both in the biofilm and in the bulk liquid, i.e. soluble organic matter, particular organic matter, ammonia nitrogen, residual chlorine, heterotrophic bacteria, autotrophic bacteria and inert solids, as well as biofilm thickness on the pipe wall. The model was validated against the data from a series of pilot experiments, and the simulation accuracy for residual chlorine and turbidity were 0.1 mg/L and 0.3 NTU respectively. A case study showed that the model could reasonably reflect the dynamic variation of residual chlorine and turbidity in the studied water distribution system, while Monte Carlo simulation, taking into account both the variability of finished water from the waterworks and the uncertainties of model parameters, could be performed to assess the violation risk of water quality in the water distribution system.

  10. Binding of [3H]MSX-2 (3-(3-hydroxypropyl)-7-methyl-8-(m-methoxystyryl)-1-propargylxanthine) to rat striatal membranes--a new, selective antagonist radioligand for A(2A) adenosine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, C E; Maurinsh, J; Sauer, R

    2000-01-01

    The present study describes the preparation and binding properties of a new, potent, and selective A(2A) adenosine receptor (AR) antagonist radioligand, [3H]3-(3-hydroxypropyl)-7-methyl-8-(m-methoxystyryl)-1-propargy lxanth ine ([3H]MSX-2). [3H]MSX-2 binding to rat striatal membranes was saturable and reversible. Saturation experiments showed that [3H]MSX-2 labeled a single class of binding sites with high affinity (K(d)=8.0 nM) and limited capacity (B(max)=1.16 fmol.mg(-1) of protein). The presence of 100 microM GTP, or 10 mM magnesium chloride, respectively, had no effect on [3H]MSX-2 binding. AR agonists competed with the binding of 1 nM [3H]MSX-2 with the following order of potency: 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA)>2-[4-(carboxyethyl)phenylethylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxami doaden osine (CGS-21680)>2-chloroadenosine (2-CADO)>N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA). AR antagonists showed the following order of potency: 8-(m-bromostyryl)-3, 7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (BS-DMPX)>1, 3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX)>(R)-5, 6-dimethyl-7-(1-phenylethyl)-2-(4-pyridyl)-7H-pyrrolo[2, 3-d]pyrimidine-4-amine (SH-128)>3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (DMPX)>caffeine. The K(i) values for antagonists were in accordance with data from binding studies with the agonist radioligand [3H]CGS21680, while agonist affinities were 3-7-fold lower. [3H]MSX-2 is a highly selective A(2A) AR antagonist radioligand exhibiting a selectivity of at least two orders of magnitude versus all other AR subtypes. The new radioligand shows high specific radioactivity (85 Ci/mmol, 3150 GBq/mmol) and acceptable nonspecific binding at rat striatal membranes of 20-30%, at 1 nM.

  11. Effect of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 on motivational disruptions of maternal behavior induced by dopamine antagonism in the early postpartum rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mariana; Farrar, Andrew M; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D; Morrell, Joan I

    2011-01-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA), particularly in the nucleus accumbens, importantly regulates activational aspects of maternal responsiveness. DA antagonism and accumbens DA depletions interfere with early postpartum maternal motivation by selectively affecting most forms of active maternal behaviors, while leaving nursing behavior relatively intact. Considerable evidence indicates that there is a functional interaction between DA D2 and adenosine A(2A) receptors in striatal areas, including the nucleus accumbens. This study was conducted to determine if adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonism could reverse the effects of DA receptor antagonism on early postpartum maternal behavior. The adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3 (0.25-2.0 mg/kg, IP) was investigated for its ability to reverse the effects of the DA D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg, IP) on the maternal behavior of early postpartum female rats. Haloperidol severely impaired the expression of active maternal components, including retrieval and grouping the pups at the nest site, pup licking, and nest building. Co-administration of MSX-3 (0.25-2.0 mg/kg, IP) with haloperidol produced a dose-related attenuation of the haloperidol-induced behavioral deficits in early postpartum females. Doses of MSX-3 that effectively reversed the effects of haloperidol (0.5, 1.0 mg/kg), when administered in the absence of haloperidol, did not affect maternal responding or locomotor activity. Adenosine and DA systems interact to regulate early postpartum maternal responsiveness. This research may potentially contribute to the development of strategies for treatments of psychiatric disorders during the postpartum period, with particular emphasis in maintaining or restoring the mother-infant relationship.

  12. Gene expression of runx2, Osterix, c-fos, DLX-3, DLX-5, and MSX-2 in dental follicle cells during osteogenic differentiation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsczeck, C

    2006-02-01

    Recently, osteogenic precursor cells were isolated from human dental follicles, which differentiate into cementoblast- or osteoblast- like cells under in vitro conditions. However, mechanisms for osteogenic differentiation are not known in detail. Dental follicle cell long-term cultures supplemented with dexamethasone or with insulin resulted in mineralized nodules, whereas no mineralization or alkaline phosphatase activity was detected in the control culture without an osteogenic stimulus. A real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was developed to investigate gene expression during osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Expression of the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) gene was detected during differentiation in the control culture and was similar to that in cultures with dexamethasone and insulin. DLX-3, DLX-5, runx2, and MSX-2 are differentially expressed during osteogenic differentiation in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In dental follicle cells, gene expression of runx2, DLX-5, and MSX-2 was unaffected during osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Osteogenic differentiation appeared to be independent of MSX-2 expression; the same was true of runx2 and DLX-5, which were protagonists of osteogenic differentiation and osteocalcin promoter activity in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Like in bone marrow-derived stem cells, DLX-3 gene expression was increased in dental follicle cells during osteogenic differentiation but similar to control cultures. However, gene expression of osterix was not detected in dental follicle cells during osteogenic differentiation; this gene is expressed during osteogenic differentiation in bone marrow stem cells. These real-time PCR results display molecular mechanisms in dental follicle precursor cells during osteogenic differentiation that are different from those in bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

  13. Easy, Fast, and Reproducible Quantification of Cholesterol and Other Lipids in Human Plasma by Combined High Resolution MSX and FTMS Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Sandra F.; Højlund, Kurt; Ejsing, Christer S.

    2018-01-01

    Reliable, cost-effective, and gold-standard absolute quantification of non-esterified cholesterol in human plasma is of paramount importance in clinical lipidomics and for the monitoring of metabolic health. Here, we compared the performance of three mass spectrometric approaches available for direct detection and quantification of cholesterol in extracts of human plasma. These approaches are high resolution full scan Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) analysis, parallel reaction monitoring (PRM), and novel multiplexed MS/MS (MSX) technology, where fragments from selected precursor ions are detected simultaneously. Evaluating the performance of these approaches in terms of dynamic quantification range, linearity, and analytical precision showed that the MSX-based approach is superior to that of the FTMS and PRM-based approaches. To further show the efficacy of this approach, we devised a simple routine for extensive plasma lipidome characterization using only 8 μL of plasma, using a new commercially available ready-to-spike-in mixture with 14 synthetic lipid standards, and executing a single 6 min sample injection with combined MSX analysis for cholesterol quantification and FTMS analysis for quantification of sterol esters, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, and sphingolipids. Using this simple routine afforded reproducible and absolute quantification of 200 lipid species encompassing 13 lipid classes in human plasma samples. Notably, the analysis time of this procedure can be shortened for high throughput-oriented clinical lipidomics studies or extended with more advanced MSALL technology (Almeida R. et al., J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 26, 133-148 [1]) to support in-depth structural elucidation of lipid molecules. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Major regulatory factors in the evolution of development: the roles of goosecoid and Msx in the evolution of the direct-developing sea urchin Heliocidaris erythrogramma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Keen A; Andrews, Mary E; Rudolf Turner, F; Raff, Rudolf A

    2005-01-01

    The transcription factors Gsc and Msx are expressed in the oral ectoderm of the indirect-developing sea urchin Heliocidaris tuberculata. Their patterns of expression are highly modified in the direct developer Heliocidaris erythrogramma, which lacks an oral ectoderm. We here test the hypothesis that they are large effect genes responsible for the loss of the oral ectoderm module in the direct-developing larva of H. erythrogramma as well as for the restoration of an overt oral ectoderm in H.e. xH.t. hybrids. We undertook misexpression/overexpression and knockdown assays in the two species and in hybrids by mRNA injection. The results indicate that dramatic changes of function of these transcription factors has occurred. One of these genes, Gsc, has the ability when misexpressed to partially restore oral ectoderm in H. erythrogramma. On the other hand, Msx has lost any oral function and instead has a role in mesoderm proliferation and patterning. In addition, we found that the H. tuberculataGsc is up regulated in H.e. xH.t. hybrids, showing a preferential use of the indirect developing parental gene in the development of the hybrid. We suggest that Gsc qualifies as a gene of large evolutionary effect and is partially responsible for the evolution of direct development of H. erythrogramma. We discuss these results in light of modularity and genetic networks in development, as well as in their implications for the rapid evolution of large morphological changes in development.

  15. Discovering a misaligned CO outflow related to the red MSX source G034.5964-01.0292

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paron, S.; Ortega, M. E.; Petriella, A.; Rubio, M.

    2014-07-01

    Aims: The red MSX source G034.5964-01.0292 (MSXG34), catalogued as a massive young stellar object, was observed in molecular lines with the aim of discovering and studying molecular outflows. Methods: We mapped a region of 3'× 3' centred at MSXG34 using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment in the 12CO J = 3-2 and HCO+J = 4-3 lines with an angular and spectral resolution of 22'' and 0.11 km s-1. Additionally, public 13CO J = 1-0 and near-IR UKIDSS data obtained from the Galactic Ring Survey and the WFCAM Sciencie Archive were analysed. Results: We found that the 12CO spectra towards the YSO present a self-absorption dip, as is common in star-forming regions, and spectral wings that indicate outflow activity. The HCO+ was detected only towards the MSXG34 position at vLSR ~ 14.2 km s-1, in coincidence with the 12CO absorption dip and approximately with the velocity of previous ammonia observations. HCO+ and NH3 are known to be enhanced in molecular outflows. When we analysed the spectral wings of the 12CO line, we discovered misaligned red- and blue-shifted molecular outflows associated with MSXG34. The near-IR emission shows a cone-like nebulosity composed of two arc-like features related to the YSO, which might be due to a cavity cleared in the circumstellar material by a precessing jet. This can explain the misalignment in the molecular outflows. From the analysis of the 13CO J = 1-0 data we suggest that the YSO is very likely related to a molecular clump ranging between 10 and 14 km s-1. This suggests that MSXG34, with an associated central velocity of about 14 km s-1, may be located in the background of this clump. Thus, the blue-shifted outflow is probably deflected by the interaction with dense gas along the line of sight. From a spectral energy distribution analysis of MSXG34 we found that its central object probably is an intermediate-mass protostar.

  16. Oral tremor induced by the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine is suppressed by the adenosine A2A antagonists MSX-3 and SCH58261, but not the adenosine A1 antagonist DPCPX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Lyndsey E; Galtieri, Daniel J; Brennum, Lise T; Sager, Thomas N; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E; Hinman, James R; Chrobak, James J; Salamone, John D

    2010-02-01

    Tremulous jaw movements in rats, which can be induced by dopamine (DA) antagonists, DA depletion, and cholinomimetics, have served as a useful model for studies of tremor. Although adenosine A(2A) antagonists can reduce the tremulous jaw movements induced by DA antagonists and DA depletion, there are conflicting reports about the interaction between adenosine antagonists and cholinomimetic drugs. The present studies investigated the ability of adenosine antagonists to reverse the tremorogenic effect of the muscarinic agonist pilocarpine. While the adenosine A(2A) antagonist MSX-3 was incapable of reversing the tremulous jaw movements induced by the 4.0mg/kg dose of pilocarpine, both MSX-3 and the adenosine A(2A) antagonist SCH58261 reversed the tremulous jaw movements elicited by 0.5mg/kg pilocarpine. Systemic administration of the adenosine A(1) antagonist DPCPX failed to reverse the tremulous jaw movements induced by either an acute 0.5mg/kg dose of the cholinomimetic pilocarpine or the DA D2 antagonist pimozide, indicating that the tremorolytic effects of adenosine antagonists may be receptor subtype specific. Behaviorally active doses of MSX-3 and SCH 58261 showed substantial in vivo occupancy of A(2A) receptors, but DPCPX did not. The results of these studies support the use of adenosine A(2A) antagonists for the treatment of tremor. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Uterine Msx-1 and Wnt4 signaling becomes aberrant in mice with the loss of leukemia inhibitory factor or Hoxa-10: evidence for a novel cytokine-homeobox-Wnt signaling in implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daikoku, Takiko; Song, Haengseok; Guo, Yong; Riesewijk, Anne; Mosselman, Sietse; Das, Sanjoy K; Dey, Sudhansu K

    2004-05-01

    Successful implantation absolutely depends on the reciprocal interaction between the implantation-competent blastocyst and the receptive uterus. Expression and gene targeting studies have shown that leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a cytokine of the IL-6 family, and Hoxa-10, an abdominalB-like homeobox gene, are crucial to implantation and decidualization in mice. Using these mutant mice, we sought to determine the importance of Msx-1 (another homeobox gene formerly known as Hox-7.1) and of Wnt4 (a ligand of the Wnt family) signaling in implantation because of their reported functions during development. We observed that Msx-1, Wnt4, and a Wnt antagonist sFRP4 are differentially expressed in the mouse uterus during the periimplantation period, suggesting their role in implantation. In addition, we observed an aberrant uterine expression of Msx-1 and sFRP4 in Lif mutant mice, and of Wnt4 and sFRP4 in Hoxa-10 mutant mice, further reinforcing the importance of these signaling pathways in implantation. Collectively, the present results provide evidence for a novel cytokine-homeotic-Wnt signaling network in implantation.

  18. [A novel chemo-resistant gene MSX2 discovered by establishment of two pancreatic cancer drug resistant cell lines JF305/CDDP and PANC-1/GEM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W; Sui, C G; Ma, X; Ma, J

    2018-05-23

    Objective: To explore new multidrug resistant genes of pancreatic cancer by establishment and characterization of chemo-resistant cell lines. Methods: The cisplatin-resistant cell line JF305/CDDP and the gemcitabine-resistant cell line PANC-1/GEM were induced by high-dose intermittent treatment. CCK-8 assay was used to detect the 50% inhibiting concentration (IC(50)), drug resistance index (R), cross-resistance, and growth difference of different cells. The changes of cell cycle and migration ability of drug-resistant cells were determined by flow cytometry and transwell assay, respectively. And then real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR was used to detect the expression of multidrug resistance-related genes. Results: The drug resistance indexes of JF305/CDDP and PANC-1/GEM were 15.3 and 27.31, respectively, and there was cross-resistance. Compared with the parental cells, the proliferation rate of JF305/CDDP was decreased by 40% on the fourth day ( P PANC-1 cells upregulated MRP2 level ( P PANC-1/GEM, were successfully established. MSX2 might be a new drug resistance related gene in pancreatic cancer cells by up-regulation of MRP2 expression.

  19. Role of DNA conformation & energetic insights in Msx-1-DNA recognition as revealed by molecular dynamics studies on specific and nonspecific complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachhap, Sangita; Singh, Balvinder

    2015-01-01

    In most of homeodomain-DNA complexes, glutamine or lysine is present at 50th position and interacts with 5th and 6th nucleotide of core recognition region. Molecular dynamics simulations of Msx-1-DNA complex (Q50-TG) and its variant complexes, that is specific (Q50K-CC), nonspecific (Q50-CC) having mutation in DNA and (Q50K-TG) in protein, have been carried out. Analysis of protein-DNA interactions and structure of DNA in specific and nonspecific complexes show that amino acid residues use sequence-dependent shape of DNA to interact. The binding free energies of all four complexes were analysed to define role of amino acid residue at 50th position in terms of binding strength considering the variation in DNA on stability of protein-DNA complexes. The order of stability of protein-DNA complexes shows that specific complexes are more stable than nonspecific ones. Decomposition analysis shows that N-terminal amino acid residues have been found to contribute maximally in binding free energy of protein-DNA complexes. Among specific protein-DNA complexes, K50 contributes more as compared to Q50 towards binding free energy in respective complexes. The sequence dependence of local conformation of DNA enables Q50/Q50K to make hydrogen bond with nucleotide(s) of DNA. The changes in amino acid sequence of protein are accommodated and stabilized around TAAT core region of DNA having variation in nucleotides.

  20. Analysis of the presence of cell proliferation-related molecules in the Tgf-β3 null mutant mouse palate reveals misexpression of EGF and Msx-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Río, A; Barrio, M C; Murillo, J; Maldonado, E; López-Gordillo, Y; Martínez-Sanz, E; Martínez, M L; Martínez-Álvarez, C

    2011-01-01

    The Tgf-β(3) null mutant mouse palate presents several cellular anomalies that lead to the appearance of cleft palate. One of them concerns the cell proliferation of both the palatal medial edge epithelium and mesenchyme. In this work, our aim was to determine whether there was any variation in the presence/distribution of several cell proliferation-related molecules that could be responsible for the cell proliferation defects observed in these palates. Our results showed no difference in the presence of EGF-R, PDGF-A, TGF-β(2), Bmp-2, and Bmp-4, and differences were minimal for FGF-10 and Shh. However, the expression of EGF and Msx-1 changed substantially. The shift of the EGF protein expression was the one that most correlated with that of cell proliferation. This molecule is regulated by TGF-β(3), and experiments blocking its activity in culture suggest that EGF misexpression in the Tgf-β(3) null mutant mouse palate plays a role in the cell proliferation defect observed. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. TESTING THE GLOBAL STAR FORMATION RELATION: AN HCO+ (3-2) MAPPING STUDY OF RED MSX SOURCES IN THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenck, David E.; Shirley, Yancy L.; Reiter, Megan; Juneau, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the relation between the star formation rate (SFR) and mass of dense gas in Galactic clumps and nearby galaxies. Using the bolometric luminosity as a measure of SFR and the molecular line luminosity of HCO + (3-2) as a measure of dense gas mass, we find that the relation between SFR and M dense is approximately linear. This is similar to published results derived using HCN (1-0) as a dense gas tracer. HCO + (3-2) and HCN (1-0) have similar conditions for excitation. Our work includes 16 Galactic clumps that are in both the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey and the Red MSX Source Survey, 27 water maser sources from the literature, and the aforementioned HCN (1-0) data. Our results agree qualitatively with predictions of recent theoretical models which state that the nature of the relation should depend on how the critical density of the tracer compares with the mean density of the gas.

  2. Two msh/msx-related genes, Djmsh1 and Djmsh2, contribute to the early blastema growth during planarian head regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannini, Linda; Deri, Paolo; Gremigni, Vittorio; Rossi, Leonardo; Salvetti, Alessandra; Batistoni, Renata

    2008-01-01

    Regeneration in planarians is an intriguing phenomenon, based on the presence of pluripotent stem cells, known as neoblasts. Following amputation, these cells activate mitotic divisions, migrate distally and undergo differentiation, giving rise to the regeneration blastema. We have identified two msh/msx-related genes, Djmsh1 and Djmsh2, which are expressed in distinct cell populations of the planarian Dugesia japonica and activated, with different patterns, during head regeneration. We demonstrate that RNA interference of Djmsh1 or Djmsh2 generates a delay in the growth of cephalic blastema, interfering with the dynamics of mitoses during its initial formation. Our data also reveal that the activity of the two planarian msh genes is required to regulate Djbmp expression during head regeneration. This study identifies, for the first time, a functional association between muscle segment homeobox (MSH) homeoproteins and BMP signaling during stem cell-based regeneration of the planarian head and provides a functional analysis of how msh genes may regulate in vivo the regenerative response of planarian stem cells.

  3. The adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 reverses the effects of the dopamine antagonist haloperidol on effort-related decision making in a T-maze cost/benefit procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, Allison M; Nunes, Eric J; Collins, Lyndsey E; Port, Russell G; Sink, Kelly S; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D

    2009-05-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) is a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Research involving choice tasks has shown that rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response requirements and instead select less effortful food-seeking behaviors. Previous work showed that adenosine A(2A) antagonism can reverse the effects of the DA antagonist haloperidol in an operant task that assesses effort-related choice. The present work used a T-maze choice procedure to assess the effects of adenosine A(2A) and A(1) antagonism. With this task, the two arms of the maze have different reinforcement densities (four vs. two food pellets), and a vertical 44 cm barrier is positioned in the arm with the higher density, presenting the animal with an effort-related challenge. Untreated rats strongly prefer the arm with the high density of food reward and climb the barrier in order to obtain the food. Haloperidol produced a dose-related (0.05-0.15 mg/kg i.p.) reduction in the number of trials in which the rats chose the high-barrier arm. Co-administration of the adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3 (0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 mg/kg i.p.), but not the A(1) antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (0.75, 1.5, and 3.0 mg/kg i.p.), reversed the effects of haloperidol on effort-related choice and latency. Adenosine A(2A) and D2 receptors interact to regulate effort-related decision making, which may have implications for the treatment of psychiatric symptoms such as psychomotor slowing or anergia that can be observed in depression, parkinsonism, and other disorders.

  4. The VMAT-2 inhibitor tetrabenazine alters effort-related decision making as measured by the T-maze barrier choice task: reversal with the adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 and the catecholamine uptake blocker bupropion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohn, Samantha E; Thompson, Christian; Randall, Patrick A; Lee, Christie A; Müller, Christa E; Baqi, Younis; Correa, Mercè; Salamone, John D

    2015-04-01

    Depressed people show effort-related motivational symptoms, such as anergia, retardation, lassitude, and fatigue. Animal tests can model these motivational symptoms, and the present studies characterized the effort-related effects of the vesicular monoamine transport (VMAT-2) inhibitor tetrabenazine. Tetrabenazine produces depressive symptoms in humans and, at low doses, preferentially depletes dopamine. The current studies investigated the effects of tetrabenazine on effort-based decision making using the T-maze barrier task. Rats were tested in a T-maze in which the choice arms of the maze contain different reinforcement densities, and under some conditions, a vertical barrier was placed in the high-density arm to provide an effort-related challenge. The first experiment assessed the effects of tetrabenazine under different maze conditions: a barrier in the arm with 4 food pellets and 2 pellets in the no barrier arm (4-2 barrier), 4 pellets in one arm and 2 pellets in the other with no barrier in either arm (no barrier), and 4 pellets in the barrier arm with no pellets in the other (4-0 barrier). Tetrabenazine (0.25-0.75 mg/kg IP) decreased selection of the high cost/high reward arm when the barrier was present, but had no effect on choice under the no barrier and 4-0 barrier conditions. The effects of tetrabenazine on barrier climbing in the 4-2 condition were reversed by the adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 and the catecholamine uptake inhibitor and antidepressant bupropion. These studies have implications for the development of animal models of the motivational symptoms of depression and other disorders.

  5. Mid Course Space Experiment (MSX) Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-06

    8217____ a ~~ACTrv=T _ _ _ _ _ _I wTLL USU/SDL =H/APL OSFC VAPE ITP Fabrication -SBV -SPIRIT ft1 -Satellites -Reference -UVISI ___________ Objects...Vandenberg Air Force Base ( VAPE ) Jobit Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratoty MM/UAPL) Kausi Tea Facility (KIT 3 Satellite trussn assucttue, OSDP

  6. Nelson's big horn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) trample Agassiz's desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) burrow at a California wind energy facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Mickey; Delaney, David F.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Price, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Research on interactions between Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) and ungulates has focused exclusively on the effects of livestock grazing on tortoises and their habitat (Oldemeyer, 1994). For example, during a 1980 study in San Bernardino County, California, 164 desert tortoise burrows were assessed for vulnerability to trampling by domestic sheep (Ovis aries). Herds of grazing sheep damaged 10% and destroyed 4% of the burrows (Nicholson and Humphreys 1981). In addition, a juvenile desert tortoise was trapped and an adult male was blocked from entering a burrow due to trampling by domestic sheep. Another study found that domestic cattle (Bos taurus) trampled active desert tortoise burrows and vegetation surrounding burrows (Avery and Neibergs 1997). Trampling also has negative impacts on diversity of vegetation and intershrub soil crusts in the desert southwest (Webb and Stielstra 1979). Trampling of important food plants and overgrazing has the potential to create competition between desert tortoises and domestic livestock (Berry 1978; Coombs 1979; Webb and Stielstra 1979).

  7. Ion beam alignment in the MSX-4 mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busygin, A.I.; Nevzorov, A.A.; Ul'masbaev, B.Sh.

    1977-01-01

    A method for electrically adjusting an ion beam in an MSKh-4 mass-spectrometer has been developed. The adjusting system consists of two deflecting plates fastened to the frame of the ion source. By adjusting the potential difference at the plates in the range 0-150 v, one can increase the intensity of the mass-spectrum by a factor of 3 to 5

  8. Msx1 and Msx2 are functional interacting partners of T-box factors in the regulation of Connexin43

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogerd, Kees-Jan; Wong, L. Y. Elaine; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Klarenbeek, Meinke; Ruijter, Jan M.; Moorman, Antoon F. M.; Barnett, Phil

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: T-box factors Tbx2 and Tbx3 play key roles in the development of the cardiac conduction system, atrioventricular canal, and outflow tract of the heart. They regulate the gap-junction-encoding gene Connexin43 (Cx43) and other genes critical for heart development and function. Discovering

  9. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-Induced Msx1 and Msx2 Inhibit Myocardin-Dependent Smooth Muscle Gene Transcription▿

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Ken'ichiro; Nakamura, Seiji; Nishida, Wataru; Sobue, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    During the onset and progression of atherosclerosis, the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype changes from differentiated to dedifferentiated, and in some cases, this change is accompanied by osteogenic transition, resulting in vascular calcification. One characteristic of dedifferentiated VSMCs is the down-regulation of smooth muscle cell (SMC) marker gene expression. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which are involved in the induction of osteogenic gene ex...

  10. Cyclodepsipeptides, sesquiterpenoids, and other cytotoxic metabolites from the filamentous fungus Trichothecium sp. (MSX 51320).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy-Cordero, Arlene A; Graf, Tyler N; Adcock, Audrey F; Kroll, David J; Shen, Qi; Swanson, Steven M; Wani, Mansukh C; Pearce, Cedric J; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2011-10-28

    Two new cyclodepsipeptides (1 and 2), two new sesquiterpenoids (3 and 4), and the known compounds guangomide A (5), roseotoxin S, and three simple trichothecenes were isolated from the cytotoxic organic extract of a terrestrial filamentous fungus, Trichothecium sp. The structures were determined using NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Absolute configurations of the cyclodepsipeptides were established by employing chiral HPLC, while the relative configurations of 3 and 4 were determined via NOESY data. The isolation of guangomide A was of particular interest, since it was reported previously from a marine-derived fungus.

  11. RECTIFIED ASTEROID ALBEDOS AND DIAMETERS FROM IRAS AND MSX PHOTOMETRY CATALOGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, Erin Lee; Woodward, Charles E.

    2010-01-01

    Rectified diameters and albedo estimates of 1517 main-belt asteroids selected from IRAS and the Mid-Course Space Experiment asteroid photometry catalogs are derived from updated infrared thermal models, the Standard Thermal Model and the Near-Earth Asteroid Thermal Model (NEATM), and Monte Carlo simulations, using new Minor Planet Center compilations of absolute magnitudes (H values) constrained by occultation- and radar-derived parameters. The NEATM approach produces a more robust estimate of albedos and diameters, yielding albedos of p v (NEATM mean) =0.081 ± 0.064. The asteroid beaming parameter (η) for the selected asteroids has a mean value of 1.07 ± 0.27, and the smooth distribution of η suggests that this parameter is independent of asteroid properties such as composition. No trends in η due to size-dependent rotation rates are evident. Comparison of derived values of η as a function of taxonomic type indicates that the beaming parameter values for S- and C-type asteroids are identical within the standard deviation of the population of beaming parameters.

  12. Physical and chemical properties of Red MSX Sources in the southern sky: H II regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Naiping; Wang, Jun-Jie; Li, Nan

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the physical and chemical properties of 18 southern Red Midcourse Space Experiment Sources (RMSs), using archival data taken from the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy, the Australia Telescope Compact Array, and the Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team Survey at 90 GHz. Most of our sources have simple cometary/unresolved radio emissions at 4.8 and/or 8.6GHz. The large number of Lyman continuum fluxes (NL) indicates they are probably massive O- or early B-type star formation regions. Archival IRAS infrared data are used to estimate the dust temperature, which is about 30 K of our sources. Then, the H2 column densities and the volume-averaged H2 number densities are estimated using the 870 μm dust emissions. Large-scale infall and ionized accretions may be occurring in G345.4881+00.3148. We also attempt to characterize the chemical properties of these RMSs through molecular line (N2H+ (1-0) and HCO+ (1-0)) observations. Most of the detected N2H+ and HCO+ emissions match well with the dust emission, implying a close link to their chemical evolution in the RMSs. We found that the abundance of N2H+ is one order of magnitude lower than that in other surveys of infrared dark clouds, and a positive correlation between the abundances of N2H+ and HCO+. The fractional abundance of N2H+ with respect to H2 seems to decrease as a function of NL. These observed trends could be interpreted as an indication of enhanced destruction of N2H+, either by CO or through dissociative recombination with electrons produced by central UV photons.

  13. Xenopus msx-1 regulates dorso-ventral axis formation by suppressing the expression of organizer genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, M; Saito, Y; Sekine, R; Onitsuka, I; Maeda, R; Maéno, M

    2000-06-01

    We demonstrated previously that Xmsx-1 is involved in mesoderm patterning along the dorso-ventral axis, under the regulation of BMP-4 signaling. When Xmsx-1 RNA was injected into the dorsal blastomeres, a mass of muscle tissue formed instead of notochord. This activity was similar to that of Xwnt-8 reported previously. In this study, we investigated whether the activity of Xmsx-1 is related to the ventralizing signal and myogenesis promoting factor, Xwnt-8. Whole-mount in situ hybridization showed that Xmsx-1, Xwnt-8, and XmyoD were expressed in overlapping areas, including the ventro-lateral marginal zone at mid-gastrula stage. The expression of XmyoD was induced by the ectopic expression of either Xmsx-1 or Xwnt-8 in dorsal blastomeres, and Xwnt-8 was induced by the ectopic expression of Xmsx-1. On the other hand, the expression of Xmsx-1 was not affected by the loading of pCSKA-Xwnt-8 or dominant-negative Xwnt-8 (DN-Xwnt-8) RNA. In addition, Xmsx-1 RNA did not abrogate the formation of notochord if coinjected with DN-Xwnt-8 RNA. These results suggest that Xmsx-1 functions upstream of the Xwnt-8 signal. Furthermore, the antagonistic function of Xmsx-1 to the expression of organizer genes, such as Xlim-1 and goosecoid, was shown by in situ hybridization analysis and luciferase reporter assay using the goosecoid promoter construct. Finally if Xmsx-1/VP-16 fusion RNA, which was expected to function as a dominant-negative Xmsx-1, was injected into ventral blastomeres, a partial secondary axis formed in a significant number of embryos. In such embryos, the activity of luciferase, under the control of goosecoid promoter sequence, was significantly elevated at gastrula stage. These results led us to conclude that Xmsx-1 plays a central role in establishing dorso-ventral axis in gastrulating embryo, by suppressing the expression of organizer genes.

  14. MSX1 in relation to clefting. hypodontia and hydrocephaly in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Boogaard, M.J.H. van den

    2013-01-01

    Orofacial clefting and hypodontia are both common congenital disorders with a complex etiology in which genetic and environmental factors might play a role. In the Netherlands, approximately 300 children are born annually with a cleft lip and/or palate. The occurrence of hypodontia is approximately 5,5 % in the general population. The general aim of this thesis is to expand the knowledge on the genetic basis of clefting and hypodontia and in this way to improve diagnostics and genetic counsel...

  15. MSX1 in relation to clefting. hypodontia and hydrocephaly in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, M.J.H. van den

    2013-01-01

    Orofacial clefting and hypodontia are both common congenital disorders with a complex etiology in which genetic and environmental factors might play a role. In the Netherlands, approximately 300 children are born annually with a cleft lip and/or palate. The occurrence of hypodontia is approximately

  16. Eliminating Space Debris: Applied Technology and Policy Prescriptions, Fall 2007 - Project 07-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Selfish maximization of the profit from property rights will lead to a socially efficient outcome. The negative externalities will be eliminated.52...Experiment (MSX)” MSX Celestial Backgrounds. 27 Dec. 2007 <http://www.ipac.caltech.edu/ipac/msx/msx.html> 155 Heyler, Gene “MSX Midcourse Space Experiment

  17. Ante-mortem detection of chronic wasting disease in recto-anal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues from elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) using real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay: A blinded collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sireesha; Kondru, Naveen; Nichols, Tracy; Lehmkuhl, Aaron; Thomsen, Bruce; Main, Rodger; Halbur, Patrick; Dutta, Somak; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G

    2017-11-02

    Prion diseases are transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) characterized by fatal, progressive neurologic diseases with prolonged incubation periods and an accumulation of infectious misfolded prion proteins. Antemortem diagnosis is often difficult due to a long asymptomatic incubation period, differences in the pathogenesis of different prions, and the presence of very low levels of infectious prion in easily accessible samples. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a TSE affecting both wild and captive populations of cervids, including mule deer, white-tailed deer, elk, moose, muntjac, and most recently, wild reindeer. This study represents a well-controlled evaluation of a newly developed real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay as a potential CWD diagnostic screening test using rectal biopsy sections from a depopulated elk herd. We evaluated 69 blinded samples of recto-anal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) obtained from USDA Veterinary Services. The results were later un-blinded and statistically compared to immunohistochemical (IHC) results from the USDA National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) for RAMALT, obex, and medial retropharyngeal lymph node (MRPLN). Comparison of RAMALT RT-QuIC assay results with the IHC results of RAMALT revealed 92% relative sensitivity (95% confidence limits: 61.52-99.8%) and 95% relative specificity (95% confidence limits: 85.13-99%). Collectively, our results show a potential utility of the RT-QuIC assay to advance the development of a rapid, sensitive, and specific prion diagnostic assay for CWD prions.

  18. 75 FR 11917 - Chrysler LLC, Technology Center, Including On-Site Leased Workers from Aerotek, Ajilon, Altair...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... Services, Magnasteyr, Meda Technical Services, Modern Professional Services, MSX International, Optimal, Q..., Meda Technical Services, Modern Professional Services, MSX International, Optical Q Quest Corp... Consultants, Kelly Services, Meda Technical Services, Modern Professional Services, MSX International, O/E...

  19. Connecting the small scale to the large scale: young massive stars and their environments from the Red MSX Source Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figura, Charles C.; Urquhart, James S.; Morgan, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    We have conducted a detailed multi-wavelength investigation of a variety of massive star forming regions in order to characterise the impact of the interactions between the substructure of the dense protostellar clumps and their local environment, including feedback from the embedded proto-cluster.A selection of 70 MYSOs and HII regions identified by the RMS survey have been followed up with observations of the ammonia (1,1) and (2,2) inversion transitions made with the KFPA on the GBT. These maps have been combined with archival CO data to investigate the thermal and kinematic structure of the extended envelopes down to the dense clumps. We complement this larger-scale picture with high resolution near- and mid-infrared images to probe the properties of the embedded objects themselves.We present an overview of several sources from this sample that illustrate some of the the interactions that we observe. We find that high molecular column densities and kinetic temperatures are coincident with embedded sources and with shocks and outflows as exhibited in gas kinematics.

  20. Germline variant in MSX1 identified in a Dutch family with clustering of Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M.J. van Nistelrooij (Annemarie); R. van Marion (Ronald); W.F.J. van IJcken (Wilfred); A. de Klein (Annelies); A. Wagner (Anja); K. Biermann (Katharina); M.C.W. Spaander (Manon); J.J.B. van Lanschot (Jan); W.N.M. Dinjens (Winand); B.P.L. Wijnhoven (Bas)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe vast majority of esophageal adenocarcinoma cases are sporadic and caused by somatic mutations. However, over the last decades several families have been identified with clustering of Barrett’s esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. This observation suggests that one or more

  1. AcEST: DK961001 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rome b OS=Chaetodipus rudinoris GN=MT-... 30 3.8 sp|Q508L3|CYB_CHANE Cytochrome b OS=Chaetodipus nelsoni GN=...ytochrome b OS=Chaetodipus nelsoni GN=MT-CYB PE=3 SV=1 Length = 379 Score = 30.0

  2. "Surmaeelsed kogemused" võivad olla vaid uni / Alo Lõhmus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lõhmus, Alo

    2006-01-01

    Surmasuust tagasi pöördunud inimeste kogetud valgusaistingud ja kehast lahkumise illusioonid võivad olle põhjustatud unelaadsest seisundist. Lexingtoni Kentucky ülikooli neuropsühholoogi Kevin Nelsoni uuringutest

  3. Mercury on national wildlife refuges as a threat to long-term viability of saltmarsh and Nelson’s sparrows in the face of climate induced sea level rise

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Nelson’s and saltmarsh sparrows (Ammodramus nelsoni and A. caudacutus) have recently been recognized as separate species, and because of their limited distributions...

  4. Differential binding of Lef1 and Msx1/2 transcription factors to Dkk1 CNEs correlates with reporter gene expression in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dr Lieven, Oliver Wilm; Dronka, Julia; Burmühl, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Besides the active Wnt signalling itself, the extracellular inhibition by Dkk1 is important for various embryonic developmental processes, such as optic vesicle differentiation and facial outgrowth. Although a feedback crosstalk of the active Wnt/β-catenin signaling and Dkk1 regulation has been...... Dkk1 reporter activation. Furthermore, these Tcf/Lef1 sites are commonly bound in the whisker hair bud mesenchyme but specifically Tcf/Lef1 (no. 2) is required for mandibular activation and repression of maxillar Dkk1 activation. Lastly, we tested the Tcf/Lef1 binding capacities of the Dkk1 promoter...

  5. Easy, Fast, and Reproducible Quantification of Cholesterol and Other Lipids in Human Plasma by Combined High Resolution MSX and FTMS Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallego, Sandra F; Højlund, Kurt; Ejsing, Christer S

    2018-01-01

    Reliable, cost-effective, and gold-standard absolute quantification of non-esterified cholesterol in human plasma is of paramount importance in clinical lipidomics and for the monitoring of metabolic health. Here, we compared the performance of three mass spectrometric approaches available for di...... can be shortened for high throughput-oriented clinical lipidomics studies or extended with more advanced MS(ALL) technology (Almeida R. et al., J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 26, 133-148 [1]) to support in-depth structural elucidation of lipid molecules. Graphical Abstract ᅟ....

  6. Muscle segment homeobox genes direct embryonic diapause by limiting inflammation in the uterus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jeeyeon; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Bartos, Amanda; Li, Yingju; Baker, Erin Shammel; Tilton, Susan C.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Jegga, Anil; Murata, Shigeo; Hirota, Yasushi; Dey, Sudhansu K.

    2015-06-11

    Embryonic diapause (delayed implantation) is a reproductive strategy widespread in the animal kingdom. Under this condition, embryos at the blastocyst stage become dormant simultaneously with uterine quiescence until environmental or physiological conditions are favorable for the survival of the mother and newborn. Under favorable conditions, activation of the blastocyst and uterus ensues with implantation and progression of pregnancy. Although endocrine factors are known to participate in this process, the underlying molecular mechanism coordinating this phenomenon is not clearly understood. We recently found that uterine muscle segment homeobox (Msx) transcription factors are critical for the initiation and maintenance of delayed implantation in mice. To better understand why Msx genes are critical for delayed implantation, we compared uterine proteomics profiles between littermate floxed (Msx1/Msx2f/f) mice and mice with uterine deletion of Msx genes (Msx1/Msx2d/d) under delayed conditions. In Msx1/Msx2d/d uteri, pathways including protein translation, ubiquitin-proteasome system, inflammation, chaperone-mediated protein folding, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were enriched, and computational modeling showed intersection of these pathways on inflammatory responses. Indeed, increases in the ubiquitin-proteasome system and inflammation conformed to proteotoxic and ER stress in Msx1/Msx2d/d uteri under delayed conditions. Interestingly, treatment with a proteasome inhibitor bortezomib further exacerbated ER stress in Msx1/Msx2d/d uteri with aggravated inflammatory response, deteriorating rate of blastocyst recovery and failure to sustain delayed implantation. This study highlights a previously unrecognized role for Msx in preventing proteotoxic stress and inflammatory responses to coordinate embryo dormancy and uterine quiescence during embryonic diapause.

  7. Metabolic syndrome: a common problem among office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, S S; Makarem, J; Mehrdad, R; Abbasi, M

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MSx) is associated with several health problems. Workers are an important part of any organization. To determine the prevalence of MSx and related variables among office workers. This cross-sectional study evaluated 1488 office workers in Qom province, Central Iran, by using a multi-stage cluster sampling. Diagnosis of MSx was based on blood HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, and fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels and waist circumference, and blood pressure. The overall prevalence of MSx was 35.9% (95% CI 33.5% to 38.3%), higher in men (37.2%) than in women (20.6%), and increased with age. The most common laboratory findings of MSx were hypertriglyceridemia (45.9%) and low HDL-cholesterol level (45.5%). Office workers with MSx had a significantly (pMSx. Lack of regular leisure time physical activity (p=0.003), and low intake of fruits (p=0.02) were associated with MSx. The prevalence of MSx was very high among office workers. Workplace health improvement programs through identifying and preventing MSx are necessary for improvement of staff's health.

  8. Metabolic Syndrome: A Common Problem among Office Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SS Alavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome (MSx is associated with several health problems. Workers are an important part of any organization. Objective: To determine the prevalence of MSx and related variables among office workers. Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated 1488 office workers in Qom province, Central Iran, by using a multi-stage cluster sampling. Diagnosis of MSx was based on blood HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, and fasting blood sugar (FBS levels and waist circumference, and blood pressure. Results: The overall prevalence of MSx was 35.9% (95% CI 33.5% to 38.3%, higher in men (37.2% than in women (20.6%, and increased with age. The most common laboratory findings of MSx were hypertriglyceridemia (45.9% and low HDL-cholesterol level (45.5%. Office workers with MSx had a significantly (p<0.001 higher body mass index than those without MSx. Lack of regular leisure time physical activity (p=0.003, and low intake of fruits (p=0.02 were associated with MSx. Conclusion: The prevalence of MSx was very high among office workers. Workplace health improvement programs through identifying and preventing MSx are necessary for improvement of staff's health.

  9. A new role for muscle segment homeobox genes in mammalian embryonic diapause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jeeyeon; Sun, Xiaofei; Bartos, Amanda; Fenelon, Jane; Lefèvre, Pavine; Daikoku, Takiko; Shaw, Geoff; Maxson, Robert; Murphy, Bruce D.; Renfree, Marilyn B.; Dey, Sudhansu K.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian embryonic diapause is a phenomenon defined by the temporary arrest in blastocyst growth and metabolic activity within the uterus which synchronously becomes quiescent to blastocyst activation and implantation. This reproductive strategy temporally uncouples conception from parturition until environmental or maternal conditions are favourable for the survival of the mother and newborn. The underlying molecular mechanism by which the uterus and embryo temporarily achieve quiescence, maintain blastocyst survival and then resume blastocyst activation with subsequent implantation remains unknown. Here, we show that uterine expression of Msx1 or Msx2, members of an ancient, highly conserved homeobox gene family, persists in three unrelated mammalian species during diapause, followed by rapid downregulation with blastocyst activation and implantation. Mice with uterine inactivation of Msx1 and Msx2 fail to achieve diapause and reactivation. Remarkably, the North American mink and Australian tammar wallaby share similar expression patterns of MSX1 or MSX2 as in mice—it persists during diapause and is rapidly downregulated upon blastocyst activation and implantation. Evidence from mouse studies suggests that the effects of Msx genes in diapause are mediated through Wnt5a, a known transcriptional target of uterine Msx. These studies provide strong evidence that the Msx gene family constitutes a common conserved molecular mediator in the uterus during embryonic diapause to improve female reproductive fitness. PMID:23615030

  10. A new role for muscle segment homeobox genes in mammalian embryonic diapause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jeeyeon; Sun, Xiaofei; Bartos, Amanda; Fenelon, Jane; Lefèvre, Pavine; Daikoku, Takiko; Shaw, Geoff; Maxson, Robert; Murphy, Bruce D; Renfree, Marilyn B; Dey, Sudhansu K

    2013-04-24

    Mammalian embryonic diapause is a phenomenon defined by the temporary arrest in blastocyst growth and metabolic activity within the uterus which synchronously becomes quiescent to blastocyst activation and implantation. This reproductive strategy temporally uncouples conception from parturition until environmental or maternal conditions are favourable for the survival of the mother and newborn. The underlying molecular mechanism by which the uterus and embryo temporarily achieve quiescence, maintain blastocyst survival and then resume blastocyst activation with subsequent implantation remains unknown. Here, we show that uterine expression of Msx1 or Msx2, members of an ancient, highly conserved homeobox gene family, persists in three unrelated mammalian species during diapause, followed by rapid downregulation with blastocyst activation and implantation. Mice with uterine inactivation of Msx1 and Msx2 fail to achieve diapause and reactivation. Remarkably, the North American mink and Australian tammar wallaby share similar expression patterns of MSX1 or MSX2 as in mice-it persists during diapause and is rapidly downregulated upon blastocyst activation and implantation. Evidence from mouse studies suggests that the effects of Msx genes in diapause are mediated through Wnt5a, a known transcriptional target of uterine Msx. These studies provide strong evidence that the Msx gene family constitutes a common conserved molecular mediator in the uterus during embryonic diapause to improve female reproductive fitness.

  11. The Milky Way Project: A Census of Small Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Kim; Wolf-Chase, G. A.; Way Project, Milky

    2013-01-01

    The first data release (DR1) from the Milky Way Project (MWP) contains 1362 visually identified small bubbles drawn by users. These small infrared bubbles typically have diameters MSX6C point source catalog; >90% of all small bubbles are MSX point sources.

  12. [Association of muscle segment homeobox gene 1 polymorphisms with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Tang, Jun-Ling; Liang, Shang-Zheng

    2008-06-01

    Muscle segment homeobox gene (MSX)1 has been proposed as a gene in which mutations may contribute to nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P). To study MSX1 polymorphisms in NSCL/ P by means of polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP), and investigate the association of MSX1 exons 1 polymorphisms with NSCL/P. DNA were extracted from blood samples from NSCL/P and unrelated normal subjects. Genome DNA from peripheral leukocyte with these blood samples were extracted, which was used as template to amplify desired gene fragment of MSX1 exons 1 by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The PCR products were examined by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). The MSX1 exons 1 polymorphisms were examined by sequencing if mutations were found. MSX1 genes of exon 1 mutation was not been found in the NSCL/P and unrelated normal subjects by SSCP. No correlation between MSX1 exon 1 and NSCL/P was found. MSX1 exon 1 may not be a key gene (susceptibility gene) in NSCL/P.

  13. 75 FR 70690 - Visteon Corporation Springfield Plant Formerly Known as VC Regional Assembly & Manufacturing, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... From MSX International, Adecco, and Manpower, Springfield, OH; Amended Certification Regarding... Corporation, Springfield Plant, including on-site leased workers from MSX International, Adecco, and Manpower... subject firm had their wages reported under a separate unemployment insurance (UI) tax account under the...

  14. Survival time and stability properties of disease-associated prion protein in chronic wasting disease of elk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) prion protein gene exhibits amino acid polymorphism at codon 132, with 132L (leucine) and 132M (methionine) allelic variants present in the population. We have previously shown that following experimental oral challenge with chronic wasting...

  15. Uudised

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Giuseppe Verdi ooperi "Maskiball" uuslavastusest Malmös. Kantrilaulja Willie Nelsoni heliplaadist "Cowboys are Frequently Secretly". Helilooja Gustav Mahleri lapselaps Marina Mahler nõuab Austria Galeriilt tagasi Edvard Munchi maali "Suveöö rannas". Jamaical Kingstonis asuvast reggae-laulja Bob Marley sünnimajast, kus asuvad helistuudio ja muuseum

  16. The Starkey habitat database for ungulate research: construction, documentation, and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary M. Rowland; Priscilla K. Coe; Rosemary J. Stussy; [and others].

    1998-01-01

    The Starkey Project, a large-scale, multidisciplinary research venture, began in 1987 in the Starkey Experimental Forest and Range in northeast Oregon. Researchers are studying effects of forest management on interactions and habitat use of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), and cattle. A...

  17. MIDCOURSE SPACE EXPERIMENT VERSUS IRAS TWO-COLOR DIAGRAMS AND THE CIRCUMSTELLAR ENVELOPE-SEQUENCE OF OXYGEN-RICH LATE-TYPE STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjouwerman, Lorant O.; Capen, Stephanie M.; Claussen, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    We present Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) two-color diagrams that can be used to characterize circumstellar environments of sources with good quality MSX colors in terms of IRAS color regions for oxygen-rich stars. With these diagrams, we aim to provide a new tool that can be used to study circumstellar environments and to improve detection rates for targeted surveys for circumstellar maser emission similar to the IRAS two-color diagram. This new tool is especially useful for regions in the sky where IRAS was confused, in particular in the Galactic plane and bulge region. Unfortunately, using MSX colors alone does not allow one to distinguish between carbon-rich and oxygen-rich objects. An application of this tool on 86 GHz SiO masers shows that for this type of masers an instantaneous detection rate of 60% to 80% can be achieved if target sources are selected according to MSX color (region). Our investigations may have revealed an error in the MSX point source catalog version 2.3. That is, the photometry of the 21.3 μm (MSX E filter) band for most weak 8.28 μm (or MSX A filter) band sources seems off by about a factor 2 (0.5-1 mag too bright).

  18. Electronic states in ReP regular systems (Re = Ce, Pr, Nd)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onopko, D.E.; Sizova, G.A.; Solov'ev, V.F.; Starostin, N.V.

    1989-01-01

    To study the electronic structure of CeP crystal (and its two analogs) a cluster approach, realized within the framework of the scattered waves X α (MSX α ) with a local exchange operator and MT-approximation for density and potential, is used. Due to additions, introduced into the calculation program according to the MSX α , ions charges have been correlated depending on their values, obtained as a result of the MSX α procedure. The reasonable parameter values of crystal fields of the fourth and sixth orders are determined

  19. Comprehensive characterization of glutamine synthetase-mediated selection for the establishment of recombinant CHO cells producing monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noh, Soo Min; Shin, Seunghyeon; Min Lee, Gyun

    2018-01-01

    To characterize a glutamine synthetase (GS)-based selection system, monoclonal antibody (mAb) producing recombinant CHO cell clones were generated by a single round of selection at various methionine sulfoximine (MSX) concentrations (0, 25, and 50 μM) using two different host cell lines (CHO-K1...... and GS-knockout CHO). Regardless of the host cell lines used, the clones selected at 50 μM MSX had the lowest average specific growth rate and the highest average specific production rates of toxic metabolic wastes, lactate and ammonia. Unlike CHO-K1, high producing clones could be generated...... in the absence of MSX using GS-knockout CHO with an improved selection stringency. Regardless of the host cell lines used, the clones selected at various MSX concentrations showed no significant difference in the GS, heavy chain, and light chain gene copies (P > 0.05). Furthermore, there was no correlation...

  20. Internal Magnetic Field, Temperature and Density Measurements on Magnetized HED plasmas using Pulsed Polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Roger J.

    2016-01-01

    The goals were to collaborate with the MSX project and make the MSX platform reliable with a performance where pulsed polarimetry would be capable of adding a useful measurement and then to achieve a first measurement using pulsed polarimetry. The MSX platform (outside of laser blow off plasmas adjacent to magnetic fields which are low beta) is the only device that can generate high-beta magnetized collisionless supercritical shocks, and with a large spatial size of ~10 cm. Creating shocks at high Mach numbers and investigating the dynamics of the shocks was the main goal of the project. The MSX shocks scale to astrophysical magnetized shocks and potentially throw light on the generation of highly energetic particles via a mechanism like the Fermi process.

  1. Early gene regulation of osteogenesis in embryonic stem cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kirkham, Glen R.; Lovrics, Anna; Byrne, Helen M.; Jensen, Oliver E.; King, John R.; Shakesheff, Kevin M.; Buttery, Lee D. K.

    2012-01-01

    The early gene regulatory networks (GRNs) that mediate stem cell differentiation are complex, and the underlying regulatory associations can be difficult to map accurately. In this study, the expression profiles of the genes Dlx5, Msx2 and Runx2

  2. Internal Magnetic Field, Temperature and Density Measurements on Magnetized HED plasmas using Pulsed Polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Roger J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-10-20

    The goals were to collaborate with the MSX project and make the MSX platform reliable with a performance where pulsed polarimetry would be capable of adding a useful measurement and then to achieve a first measurement using pulsed polarimetry. The MSX platform (outside of laser blow off plasmas adjacent to magnetic fields which are low beta) is the only device that can generate high-beta magnetized collisionless supercritical shocks, and with a large spatial size of ~10 cm. Creating shocks at high Mach numbers and investigating the dynamics of the shocks was the main goal of the project. The MSX shocks scale to astrophysical magnetized shocks and potentially throw light on the generation of highly energetic particles via a mechanism like the Fermi process.

  3. Evaluation of two putative susceptibility loci for oral clefts in the Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, L E; Murray, J C; O'Brien, S

    2001-01-01

    . The present study evaluated potential associations between CL+/-P and CP and two putative clefting susceptibility loci, MSX1 and TGFB3, using data from a nationwide case-control study conducted in Denmark from 1991 to 1994. The potential effects of interactions between these genes and two common environmental......-environment interactions involving MSX1 or TGFB3 and either first trimester exposure to maternal cigarette smoke or alcohol consumption....

  4. Comparison of bare and amino modified mesoporous silica@poly(ethyleneimine)s xerogel as indomethacin carrier: Superiority of amino modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Xu, Lu; Wang, Hongyu; Yang, Baixue; Liu, Hongzhuo; Pan, Weisan; Li, Sanming

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to facilely develop amino modified mesoporous silica xerogel synthesized using biomimetic method (B-AMSX) and to investigate its potential ability to be a drug carrier for loading poorly water-soluble drug indomethacin (IMC). For comparison, mesoporous silica xerogel without amino modification (B-MSX) was also synthesized using the same method. The changes of characteristics before and after IMC loading were systemically studied using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis. The results showed that B-MSX and B-AMSX were spherical nanoparticles with mesoporous structure. Compared with B-MSX, IMC loading capacity of B-AMSX was higher because more drug molecules can be loaded through stronger hydrogen bonding force. DSC and SAXS analysis confirmed the amorphous state of IMC after being loaded into B-MSX and B-AMSX. The in vitro drug release study revealed that B-MSX and B-AMSX improved IMC release significantly, and B-AMSX released IMC a little faster than B-MSX because of larger pore diameter of IMC-AMSX. B-MSX and B-AMSX degraded gradually in dissolution medium evidenced by color reaction and absorbance value, and B-AMSX degraded slower than B-MSX due to amino modification. In conclusion, B-AMSX with superiority of higher loading capacity and enhanced dissolution release can be considered to be a good candidate as drug carrier for IMC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa) extract induces ovulation in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a possible monotherapy and a combination therapy after failure with first-line clomiphene citrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jui-Tung; Tominaga, Kunihiko; Sato, Yoshiaki; Anzai, Hideo; Matsuoka, Ryo

    2010-12-01

    Insulin resistance is a prominent feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and insulin-sensitizing drugs are used to induce ovulation. Recently, it was reported that an extract from Maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa) improves insulin resistance. The objective was to explore the effects of Maitake extract (SX-fraction: MSX) to induce ovulation in patients with PCOS in comparison with and in combination with clomiphene citrate (CC). We conducted an open trial with 80 patients with PCOS at three clinics in Japan. Seventy-two (72) new patients were randomly assigned to receive MSX or CC monotherapy for up to 12 weeks. Eighteen (18) patients who did not respond to MSX or CC were subjected to combination therapy of MSX and CC for up to 16 weeks. Eight (8) patients with documented history of failure to CC received combination therapy from the beginning. Ovulation was assessed by ultrasonography. Twenty-six (26) patients in the MSX group and 31 in the CC group were evaluated for ovulation. The ovulation rates for MSX and CC were as follows: 76.9% (20/26) and 93.5% (29/31), respectively by the patients (NS), and 41.7% (30/72) and 69.9% (58/83), respectively, by the cycles (p = 0.0006). In the combination therapy, 7 of 7 patients who failed in MSX monotherapy and 6 of 8 patients who failed in CC monotherapy showed ovulation. The present study suggests that MSX alone may induce ovulation in PCOS patients and may be useful as an adjunct therapy for patients who failed first-line CC treatment.

  6. Pumas affect elk dynamics in absence of other large carnivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick P. Lehman; Christopher T. Rota; Jarod D. Raithel; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2017-01-01

    We investigated survival, reproduction, and population growth (λ) for a declining elk (Cervus canadensis nelsoni) population in South Dakota, USA, 2011-2015. We obtained survival data from 125 calves and 34 yearlings. We determined survival and pregnancy rates for 42 adults (2-8 years old) and 39 old adults (≥8 years old). We combined population vital rates into a...

  7. Comprehensive characterization of glutamine synthetase-mediated selection for the establishment of recombinant CHO cells producing monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Soo Min; Shin, Seunghyeon; Lee, Gyun Min

    2018-03-29

    To characterize a glutamine synthetase (GS)-based selection system, monoclonal antibody (mAb) producing recombinant CHO cell clones were generated by a single round of selection at various methionine sulfoximine (MSX) concentrations (0, 25, and 50 μM) using two different host cell lines (CHO-K1 and GS-knockout CHO). Regardless of the host cell lines used, the clones selected at 50 μM MSX had the lowest average specific growth rate and the highest average specific production rates of toxic metabolic wastes, lactate and ammonia. Unlike CHO-K1, high producing clones could be generated in the absence of MSX using GS-knockout CHO with an improved selection stringency. Regardless of the host cell lines used, the clones selected at various MSX concentrations showed no significant difference in the GS, heavy chain, and light chain gene copies (P > 0.05). Furthermore, there was no correlation between the specific mAb productivity and these three gene copies (R 2  ≤ 0.012). Taken together, GS-mediated gene amplification does not occur in a single round of selection at a MSX concentration up to 50 μM. The use of the GS-knockout CHO host cell line facilitates the rapid generation of high producing clones with reduced production of lactate and ammonia in the absence of MSX.

  8. Chemical Compositional, Biological, and Safety Studies of a Novel Maple Syrup Derived Extract for Nutraceutical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Maple syrup has nutraceutical potential given the macronutrients (carbohydrates, primarily sucrose), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins), and phytochemicals (primarily phenolics) found in this natural sweetener. We conducted compositional (ash, fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, phytochemicals), in vitro biological, and in vivo safety (animal toxicity) studies on maple syrup extracts (MSX-1 and MSX-2) derived from two declassified maple syrup samples. Along with macronutrient and micronutrient quantification, thirty-three phytochemicals were identified (by HPLC-DAD), and nine phytochemicals, including two new compounds, were isolated and identified (by NMR) from MSX. At doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day, MSX was well tolerated with no signs of overt toxicity in rats. MSX showed antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and anti-inflammatory (in RAW 264.7 macrophages) effects and inhibited glucose consumption (by HepG2 cells) in vitro. Thus, MSX should be further investigated for potential nutraceutical applications given its similarity in chemical composition to pure maple syrup. PMID:24983789

  9. Limitations to the development of recombinant human embryonic kidney 293E cells using glutamine synthetase-mediated gene amplification: Methionine sulfoximine resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Da Young; Noh, Soo Min; Lee, Gyun Min

    2016-08-10

    To investigate the feasibility of glutamine synthetase (GS)-mediated gene amplification in HEK293 cells for the high-level stable production of therapeutic proteins, HEK293E cells were transfected by the GS expression vector containing antibody genes and were selected at various methionine sulfoximine (MSX) concentrations in 96-well plates. For a comparison, CHOK1 cells were transfected by the same GS expression vector and selected at various MSX concentrations. Unlike CHOK1 cells, HEK293E cells producing high levels of antibodies were not selected at all. For HEK293E cells, the number of wells with the cell pool did not decrease with an increase in the concentration of MSX up to 500μM MSX. A q-RT-PCR analysis confirmed that the antibody genes in the HEK293E cells, unlike the CHOK1 cells, were not amplified after increasing the MSX concentration. It was found that the GS activity in HEK293E cells was much higher than that in CHOK1 cells (PMSX and therefore hampers GS-mediated gene amplification by MSX. Thus, in order to apply the GS-mediated gene amplification system to HEK293 cells, the endogenous GS expression level in HEK293 cells needs to be minimized by knock-out or down-regulation methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ectopic application of recombinant BMP-2 and BMP-4 can change patterning of developing chick facial primordia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, A J; Francis-West, P H

    1997-01-01

    The facial primordia initially consist of buds of undifferentiated mesenchyme, which give rise to a variety of tissues including cartilage, muscle and nerve. These must be arranged in a precise spatial order for correct function. The signals that control facial outgrowth and patterning are largely unknown. The bone morphogenetic proteins Bmp-2 and Bmp-4 are expressed in discrete regions at the distal tips of the early facial primordia suggesting possible roles for BMP-2 and BMP-4 during chick facial development. We show that expression of Bmp-4 and Bmp-2 is correlated with the expression of Msx-1 and Msx-2 and that ectopic application of BMP-2 and BMP-4 can activate Msx-1 and Msx-2 gene expression in the developing facial primordia. We correlate this activation of gene expression with changes in skeletal development. For example, activation of Msx-1 gene expression across the distal tip of the mandibular primordium is associated with an extension of Fgf-4 expression in the epithelium and bifurcation of Meckel's cartilage. In the maxillary primordium, extension of the normal domain of Msx-1 gene expression is correlated with extended epithelial expression of shh and bifurcation of the palatine bone. We also show that application of BMP-2 can increase cell proliferation of the mandibular primordia. Our data suggest that BMP-2 and BMP-4 are part of a signalling cascade that controls outgrowth and patterning of the facial primordia.

  11. Chemical compositional, biological, and safety studies of a novel maple syrup derived extract for nutraceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Tao; Li, Liya; Nahar, Pragati; Slitt, Angela; Seeram, Navindra P

    2014-07-16

    Maple syrup has nutraceutical potential given the macronutrients (carbohydrates, primarily sucrose), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins), and phytochemicals (primarily phenolics) found in this natural sweetener. We conducted compositional (ash, fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, phytochemicals), in vitro biological, and in vivo safety (animal toxicity) studies on maple syrup extracts (MSX-1 and MSX-2) derived from two declassified maple syrup samples. Along with macronutrient and micronutrient quantification, thirty-three phytochemicals were identified (by HPLC-DAD), and nine phytochemicals, including two new compounds, were isolated and identified (by NMR) from MSX. At doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day, MSX was well tolerated with no signs of overt toxicity in rats. MSX showed antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and anti-inflammatory (in RAW 264.7 macrophages) effects and inhibited glucose consumption (by HepG2 cells) in vitro. Thus, MSX should be further investigated for potential nutraceutical applications given its similarity in chemical composition to pure maple syrup.

  12. NK-like homeodomain proteins activate NOTCH3-signaling in leukemic T-cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, Stefan; Scherr, Michaela; MacLeod, Roderick AF; Venturini, Letizia; Przybylski, Grzegorz K; Grabarczyk, Piotr; Meyer, Corinna; Kaufmann, Maren; Battmer, Karin; Schmidt, Christian A; Drexler, Hans G

    2009-01-01

    Homeodomain proteins control fundamental cellular processes in development and in cancer if deregulated. Three members of the NK-like subfamily of homeobox genes (NKLs), TLX1, TLX3 and NKX2-5, are implicated in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). They are activated by particular chromosomal aberrations. However, their precise function in leukemogenesis is still unclear. Here we screened further NKLs in 24 T-ALL cell lines and identified the common expression of MSX2. The subsequent aim of this study was to analyze the role of MSX2 in T-cell differentiation which may be disturbed by oncogenic NKLs. Specific gene activity was examined by quantitative real-time PCR, and globally by expression profiling. Proteins were analyzed by western blot, immuno-cytology and immuno-precipitation. For overexpression studies cell lines were transduced by lentiviruses. Quantification of MSX2 mRNA in primary hematopoietic cells demonstrated higher levels in CD34+ stem cells as compared to peripheral blood cells and mature CD3+ T-cells. Furthermore, analysis of MSX2 expression levels in T-cell lines after treatment with core thymic factors confirmed their involvement in regulation. These results indicated that MSX2 represents an hematopoietic NKL family member which is downregulated during T-cell development and may functionally substituted by oncogenic NKLs. For functional analysis JURKAT cells were lentivirally transduced, overexpressing either MSX2 or oncogenic TLX1 and NKX2-5, respectively. These cells displayed transcriptional activation of NOTCH3-signaling, including NOTCH3 and HEY1 as analyzed by gene expression profiling and quantitative RT-PCR, and consistently attenuated sensitivity to gamma-secretase inhibitor as analyzed by MTT-assays. Furthermore, in addition to MSX2, both TLX1 and NKX2-5 proteins interacted with NOTCH-pathway repressors, SPEN/MINT/SHARP and TLE1/GRG1, representing a potential mechanism for (de)regulation. Finally, elevated expression of NOTCH3

  13. Reinforcing and neurochemical effects of cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonists, but not cocaine, are altered by an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justinová, Zuzana; Ferré, Sergi; Redhi, Godfrey H; Mascia, Paola; Stroik, Jessica; Quarta, Davide; Yasar, Sevil; Müller, Christa E; Franco, Rafael; Goldberg, Steven R

    2011-07-01

    Several recent studies suggest functional and molecular interactions between striatal adenosine A(2A) and cannabinoid CB(1) receptors. Here, we demonstrate that A(2A) receptors selectively modulate reinforcing effects of cannabinoids. We studied effects of A(2A) receptor blockade on the reinforcing effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the endogenous CB(1) receptor ligand anandamide under a fixed-ratio schedule of intravenous drug injection in squirrel monkeys. A low dose of the selective adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3 (1 mg/kg) caused downward shifts of THC and anandamide dose-response curves. In contrast, a higher dose of MSX-3 (3 mg/kg) shifted THC and anandamide dose-response curves to the left. MSX-3 did not modify cocaine or food pellet self-administration. Also, MSX-3 neither promoted reinstatement of extinguished drug-seeking behavior nor altered reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior by non-contingent priming injections of THC. Finally, using in vivo microdialysis in freely-moving rats, a behaviorally active dose of MSX-3 significantly counteracted THC-induced, but not cocaine-induced, increases in extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens shell. The significant and selective results obtained with the lower dose of MSX-3 suggest that adenosine A(2A) antagonists acting preferentially at presynaptic A(2A) receptors might selectively reduce reinforcing effects of cannabinoids that lead to their abuse. However, the appearance of potentiating rather than suppressing effects on cannabinoid reinforcement at the higher dose of MSX-3 would likely preclude the use of such a compound as a medication for cannabis abuse. Adenosine A(2A) antagonists with more selectivity for presynaptic versus postsynaptic receptors could be potential medications for treatment of cannabis abuse. Addiction Biology © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction. No claim to original US government works.

  14. A SURVEY OF MOLECULAR LINES TOWARD MASSIVE CLUMPS IN EARLY EVOLUTIONARY STAGES OF HIGH-MASS STAR FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takeshi; Sakai, Nami; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Hirota, Tomoya

    2010-01-01

    We have observed the CH 3 OH J = 2-1, SiO J = 2-1, C 34 S J = 2-1, H 13 CO + J = 1-0, HN 13 C J = 1-0, CCH N = 1-0, OCS J = 8-7, and SO J N = 2 2 -1 1 lines toward 20 massive clumps, including Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) 8 μm dark sources (infrared dark clouds) and MSX 8 μm sources, by using the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope. We have found that the velocity widths of the CH 3 OH and C 34 S lines are broader than those of the H 13 CO + line in the MSX dark sources. On the other hand, they are comparable to the velocity width of the H 13 CO + line in the MSX sources. In addition, the [SiO]/[H 13 CO + ] abundance ratio is found to be enhanced in the MSX dark sources in comparison with the MSX sources. These results suggest that shocks caused by interaction between an outflow and an ambient dense gas would have substantial impact on the chemical composition of the MSX dark sources. The velocity widths of the CH 3 OH and C 34 S lines relative to that of the H 13 CO + line as well as the [SiO]/[H 13 CO + ] abundance ratio could be used as good tools for investigating evolutionary stages of massive clumps. On the basis of the results, we discuss the chemical and physical evolution of massive clumps.

  15. In Salmonella enterica, the Gcn5-Related Acetyltransferase MddA (Formerly YncA) Acetylates Methionine Sulfoximine and Methionine Sulfone, Blocking Their Toxic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentchel, Kristy L.

    2014-01-01

    Protein and small-molecule acylation reactions are widespread in nature. Many of the enzymes catalyzing acylation reactions belong to the Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT; PF00583) family, named after the yeast Gcn5 protein. The genome of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 encodes 26 GNATs, 11 of which have no known physiological role. Here, we provide in vivo and in vitro evidence for the role of the MddA (methionine derivative detoxifier; formerly YncA) GNAT in the detoxification of oxidized forms of methionine, including methionine sulfoximine (MSX) and methionine sulfone (MSO). MSX and MSO inhibited the growth of an S. enterica ΔmddA strain unless glutamine or methionine was present in the medium. We used an in vitro spectrophotometric assay and mass spectrometry to show that MddA acetylated MSX and MSO. An mddA+ strain displayed biphasic growth kinetics in the presence of MSX and glutamine. Deletion of two amino acid transporters (GlnHPQ and MetNIQ) in a ΔmddA strain restored growth in the presence of MSX. Notably, MSO was transported by GlnHPQ but not by MetNIQ. In summary, MddA is the mechanism used by S. enterica to respond to oxidized forms of methionine, which MddA detoxifies by acetyl coenzyme A-dependent acetylation. PMID:25368301

  16. Conserved gene regulatory module specifies lateral neural borders across bilaterians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongbin; Zhao, Di; Horie, Takeo; Chen, Geng; Bao, Hongcun; Chen, Siyu; Liu, Weihong; Horie, Ryoko; Liang, Tao; Dong, Biyu; Feng, Qianqian; Tao, Qinghua; Liu, Xiao

    2017-08-01

    The lateral neural plate border (NPB), the neural part of the vertebrate neural border, is composed of central nervous system (CNS) progenitors and peripheral nervous system (PNS) progenitors. In invertebrates, PNS progenitors are also juxtaposed to the lateral boundary of the CNS. Whether there are conserved molecular mechanisms determining vertebrate and invertebrate lateral neural borders remains unclear. Using single-cell-resolution gene-expression profiling and genetic analysis, we present evidence that orthologs of the NPB specification module specify the invertebrate lateral neural border, which is composed of CNS and PNS progenitors. First, like in vertebrates, the conserved neuroectoderm lateral border specifier Msx/vab-15 specifies lateral neuroblasts in Caenorhabditis elegans Second, orthologs of the vertebrate NPB specification module ( Msx/vab-15 , Pax3/7/pax-3 , and Zic/ref-2 ) are significantly enriched in worm lateral neuroblasts. In addition, like in other bilaterians, the expression domain of Msx/vab-15 is more lateral than those of Pax3/7/pax-3 and Zic/ref- 2 in C. elegans Third, we show that Msx/vab-15 regulates the development of mechanosensory neurons derived from lateral neural progenitors in multiple invertebrate species, including C. elegans , Drosophila melanogaster , and Ciona intestinalis We also identify a novel lateral neural border specifier, ZNF703/tlp-1 , which functions synergistically with Msx/vab- 15 in both C. elegans and Xenopus laevis These data suggest a common origin of the molecular mechanism specifying lateral neural borders across bilaterians.

  17. Nitrogen-responsive Regulation of GATA Protein Family Activators Gln3 and Gat1 Occurs by Two Distinct Pathways, One Inhibited by Rapamycin and the Other by Methionine Sulfoximine*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georis, Isabelle; Tate, Jennifer J.; Cooper, Terrance G.; Dubois, Evelyne

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen availability regulates the transcription of genes required to degrade non-preferentially utilized nitrogen sources by governing the localization and function of transcription activators, Gln3 and Gat1. TorC1 inhibitor, rapamycin (Rap), and glutamine synthetase inhibitor, methionine sulfoximine (Msx), elicit responses grossly similar to those of limiting nitrogen, implicating both glutamine synthesis and TorC1 in the regulation of Gln3 and Gat1. To better understand this regulation, we compared Msx- versus Rap-elicited Gln3 and Gat1 localization, their DNA binding, nitrogen catabolite repression-sensitive gene expression, and the TorC1 pathway phosphatase requirements for these responses. Using this information we queried whether Rap and Msx inhibit sequential steps in a single, linear cascade connecting glutamine availability to Gln3 and Gat1 control as currently accepted or alternatively inhibit steps in two distinct parallel pathways. We find that Rap most strongly elicits nuclear Gat1 localization and expression of genes whose transcription is most Gat1-dependent. Msx, on the other hand, elicits nuclear Gln3 but not Gat1 localization and expression of genes that are most Gln3-dependent. Importantly, Rap-elicited nuclear Gln3 localization is absolutely Sit4-dependent, but that elicited by Msx is not. PP2A, although not always required for nuclear GATA factor localization, is highly required for GATA factor binding to nitrogen-responsive promoters and subsequent transcription irrespective of the gene GATA factor specificities. Collectively, our data support the existence of two different nitrogen-responsive regulatory pathways, one inhibited by Msx and the other by rapamycin. PMID:22039046

  18. Anthropogenic impacts on an oyster metapopulation: Pathogen introduction, climate change and responses to natural selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bushek

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Humans rely on marine ecosystems for a variety of services but often impact these ecosystems directly or indirectly limiting their capacity to provide such services. One growing impact is the emergence of marine disease. We present results from a unique case study examining how oysters, a dominant organism in many coastal bays and estuaries that is often harvested for food, have responded to pathogens influenced by human activities, namely the introduction of novel pathogens. Climate change has enabled a northward spread and establishment of Dermo disease in oysters along the eastern seaboard of North America and human activities inadvertently introduced MSX disease along this same coast. Oysters in Delaware Bay have responded differently to each pathogen, and uniquely to MSX disease by developing a highly resistant baywide population not documented in any other bay. Offspring were produced using parents collected from low or high disease (MSX and Dermo regions of Delaware Bay and exposed in a common garden experiment along with a naïve population from Maine. Results indicated widespread resistance to MSX disease, but not to Dermo disease, across Delaware Bay. One striking result was the demonstration of resilience in the population through its capacity to spread, presumably through larval transport, resistance to MSX disease into portions of the population that have experienced little to no MSX disease pressure themselves. Related studies indicated that larval transport mechanisms allowed widespread dispersal such that the entire metapopulation could acquire a high level of resistance over time if disease resistance is sufficiently heritable. The findings have implications for restoration, management and recovery of diseased populations. Namely, that if left to their own devices, natural selection may find a solution that enables populations to recover from introduced pathogens.

  19. Nitrogen-responsive regulation of GATA protein family activators Gln3 and Gat1 occurs by two distinct pathways, one inhibited by rapamycin and the other by methionine sulfoximine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georis, Isabelle; Tate, Jennifer J; Cooper, Terrance G; Dubois, Evelyne

    2011-12-30

    Nitrogen availability regulates the transcription of genes required to degrade non-preferentially utilized nitrogen sources by governing the localization and function of transcription activators, Gln3 and Gat1. TorC1 inhibitor, rapamycin (Rap), and glutamine synthetase inhibitor, methionine sulfoximine (Msx), elicit responses grossly similar to those of limiting nitrogen, implicating both glutamine synthesis and TorC1 in the regulation of Gln3 and Gat1. To better understand this regulation, we compared Msx- versus Rap-elicited Gln3 and Gat1 localization, their DNA binding, nitrogen catabolite repression-sensitive gene expression, and the TorC1 pathway phosphatase requirements for these responses. Using this information we queried whether Rap and Msx inhibit sequential steps in a single, linear cascade connecting glutamine availability to Gln3 and Gat1 control as currently accepted or alternatively inhibit steps in two distinct parallel pathways. We find that Rap most strongly elicits nuclear Gat1 localization and expression of genes whose transcription is most Gat1-dependent. Msx, on the other hand, elicits nuclear Gln3 but not Gat1 localization and expression of genes that are most Gln3-dependent. Importantly, Rap-elicited nuclear Gln3 localization is absolutely Sit4-dependent, but that elicited by Msx is not. PP2A, although not always required for nuclear GATA factor localization, is highly required for GATA factor binding to nitrogen-responsive promoters and subsequent transcription irrespective of the gene GATA factor specificities. Collectively, our data support the existence of two different nitrogen-responsive regulatory pathways, one inhibited by Msx and the other by rapamycin.

  20. Differential effects of BMP-2 and TGF-beta1 on chondrogenic differentiation of adipose derived stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlhorn, A T; Niemeyer, P; Kaschte, K

    2007-01-01

    transcriptional regulation of Dlx-5, Msx-2 and Runx-2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Encapsulated ASC were cultured for 14 days in medium containing TGF-beta1 and/or BMP-2. mRNA expression of the extracellular matrix molecules col2a1, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, col10a1, alkaline phosphatase (AP......) and transcription factors Msx-2, Dlx-5 and Runx-2 was analysed. Release of glycosaminoglycans, collagen types II and X into the extracellular matrix was demonstrated. RESULTS: BMP-2 and TGF-beta1 induced a chondrogenic phenotype in ASC. Combined growth factor treatment had a synergistic effect on col10a1...

  1. Galactic Bulge Giants: Probing Stellar and Galactic Evolution. 1. Catalogue of Spitzer IRAC and MIPS Sources (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    1997), the 2 Micron All Sky Survey ( 2MASS ; Skrutskie et al. 2006), the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) catalogue, and the Infra- Red Astronomical...made for these sources with a search radius of 3.′′0 with DENIS and 2MASS , and 30.′′0 for identification with an MSX or IRAS counterpart. The... 2MASS and DENIS counterpart (depending on the field, between 3.1% and 6.7% of the sources), or (ii) a DENIS and 2MASS counterpart at a distance

  2. Sensitive diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in a farmed cervid herd with use of an MPB70 protein fluorescence polarization assay

    OpenAIRE

    Surujballi, Om; Lutze-Wallace, Cyril; Turcotte, Claude; Savic, Mirjana; Stevenson, Dan; Romanowska, Anna; Monagle, Wendy; Berlie-Surujballi, Gloria; Tangorra, Erin

    2009-01-01

    After histopathological examination of a lesion found in a herd member returned a diagnosis of mycobacteriosis, a farmed herd (n = 47) of elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and red deer (C. elaphus elaphus) was investigated for bovine tuberculosis with a battery of antemortem and postmortem diagnostic tests. Every animal was tested with the mid-cervical tuberculin skin test; all 47 had negative results. All of the 16 adult animals and 15 of the 31 calves (approximately 2-years-old) were blood-teste...

  3. Fifty years after Welles and Welles: Distribution and genetic structure of Desert Bighorn Sheep in Death Valley National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Clinton W.; Wehausen, John D.; Sloan, William B.; Holt, Stacy; Creech, Tyler G.; Crowhurst, Rachel S.; Jaeger, Jef R.; Longshore, Kathleen M.; Monello, Ryan J.

    2013-01-01

    The status of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) populations in the mountains around Death Valley was first evaluated in 1938, shortly after designation of Death Valley National Monument. However, the most comprehensive evaluation of bighorn sheep in the region was conducted by Ralph and Florence Welles during 1955-1961. They documented patterns of use at water sources and other focal areas around Death Valley and roughly estimated numbers of bighorn sheep from observational data. Data collection on bighorn sheep in the area since that time has

  4. Optical/Infrared Signatures for Space-Based Remote Sensing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Picard, R. H; Dewan, E. M; Winick, J. R; O'Neil, R. R

    2007-01-01

    ... (mesosphere and thermosphere) in terms of the structure of the underlying medium. Advances in non-LTE radiative transfer and atmospheric waves and localized excitations are detailed, as well as analysis and modeling of the databases resulting from two groundbreaking space infrared experiments, DoD MSX/SPIRIT III and NASA TIMED/SABER.

  5. Design and characterization of an interface for acquiring gamma radiation spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin, E.; Hernandez, M.; Soto Moran, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    An interfaces for TOSHIBA personal computer is described. The evaluation of its characteristic shows the possibility of using it as analog-digital converter in spectrometer systems for educational purposes. It is also presented a MSX-Basic program which provides a very flexible data acquisition facility during gamma spectrum analysis applications

  6. Monte Carlo code for neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milczarek, Jacek J.; Trzcinski, Andrzej; El-Ghany El Abd, Abd; Czachor, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    The concise Monte Carlo code, MSX, for simulation of neutron radiography images of non-uniform objects is presented. The possibility of modeling the images of objects with continuous spatial distribution of specific isotopes is included. The code can be used for assessment of the scattered neutron component in neutron radiograms

  7. Performance of selected eastern oyster lines across northeastern US estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern oyster production derived from aquaculture has expanded, but growth potential is constrained by losses to disease. Breeding programs supporting industry in the Northeast have targeted resistance to three diseases: MSX, Dermo, and ROD. Selected lines should possess some level of resistance a...

  8. Monte Carlo code for neutron radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milczarek, Jacek J. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Swierk, 05-400 Otwock (Poland)]. E-mail: jjmilcz@cyf.gov.pl; Trzcinski, Andrzej [Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk, 05-400 Otwock (Poland); El-Ghany El Abd, Abd [Institute of Atomic Energy, Swierk, 05-400 Otwock (Poland); Nuclear Research Center, PC 13759, Cairo (Egypt); Czachor, Andrzej [Institute of Atomic Energy, Swierk, 05-400 Otwock (Poland)

    2005-04-21

    The concise Monte Carlo code, MSX, for simulation of neutron radiography images of non-uniform objects is presented. The possibility of modeling the images of objects with continuous spatial distribution of specific isotopes is included. The code can be used for assessment of the scattered neutron component in neutron radiograms.

  9. Markers associated with disease resistance in Eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern oyster, Crassostrea viginica, is an economically important aquaculture species in the USA, but production has been impacted by diseases such as dermo and MSX. Efforts have been put into the development of disease-resistant oyster lines using selective breeding techniques. However, these met...

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: RMS survey: NIR spectroscopy of massive YSOs (Cooper+, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, H. D. B.; Lumsden, S. L.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Hoare, M. G.; Clarke, A. J.; Urquhart, J. S.; Mottram, J. C.; Moore, T. J. T.; Davies, B.

    2014-04-01

    Spectroscopic observations of the YSO candidates were made using the UIST instrument at the United Kingdom Infra-Red Telescope (UKIRT) observatory from 2002 to 2008. 247 objects were successfully observed over 84 nights. Sources were selected from the ~2000 candidate MYSOs found using the MSX catalogue in the preceding stages of the RMS survey. (6 data files).

  11. Evaluating the performance of selective-bred lines of eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica, at different locations along the east coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Populations of the economically important eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica have been severely affected in the last few decades by diseases such as Dermo, MSX, SSO, and ROD. As the demand for a fast-growing, disease-resistant oyster increases, so has the need for effective breeding programs that...

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Infrared excesses of Hipparcos stars (McDonald+, 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Boyer, M. L.

    2013-08-01

    The new Hipparcos (Hp)/Tycho (BT, VT) reduction (van Leeuwen 2007. Cat. I/311) was used as the primary astrometric and photometric catalogue, to which the other catalogues were matched. Additional data were sourced from SDSS DR8, DENIS, 2MASS, MSX, AKARI, IRAS and Wide surveys. (1 data file).

  13. Necdin, a Prader-Willi syndrome candidate gene, regulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nichol L G; Wevrick, Rachel; Mellon, Pamela L

    2009-01-15

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex genetic disorder characterized by hyperphagia, obesity and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, all highly suggestive of hypothalamic dysfunction. The NDN gene, encoding the MAGE family protein, necdin, maps to the PWS chromosome region and is highly expressed in mature hypothalamic neurons. Adult mice lacking necdin have reduced numbers of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, but the mechanism for this reduction is unknown. Herein, we show that, although necdin is not expressed in an immature, migratory GnRH neuronal cell line (GN11), high levels are present in a mature GnRH neuronal cell line (GT1-7). Furthermore, overexpression of necdin activates GnRH transcription through cis elements bound by the homeodomain repressor Msx that are located in the enhancer and promoter of the GnRH gene, and knock-down of necdin expression reduces GnRH gene expression. In fact, overexpression of Necdin relieves Msx repression of GnRH transcription through these elements and necdin co-immunoprecipitates with Msx from GnRH neuronal cells, indicating that necdin may activate GnRH gene expression by preventing repression of GnRH gene expression by Msx. Finally, necdin is necessary for generation of the full complement of GnRH neurons during mouse development and extension of GnRH axons to the median eminence. Together, these results indicate that lack of necdin during development likely contributes to the hypogonadotrophic hypogonadal phenotype in individuals with PWS.

  14. Necdin, a Prader–Willi syndrome candidate gene, regulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons during development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nichol L.G.; Wevrick, Rachel; Mellon, Pamela L.

    2009-01-01

    Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex genetic disorder characterized by hyperphagia, obesity and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, all highly suggestive of hypothalamic dysfunction. The NDN gene, encoding the MAGE family protein, necdin, maps to the PWS chromosome region and is highly expressed in mature hypothalamic neurons. Adult mice lacking necdin have reduced numbers of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, but the mechanism for this reduction is unknown. Herein, we show that, although necdin is not expressed in an immature, migratory GnRH neuronal cell line (GN11), high levels are present in a mature GnRH neuronal cell line (GT1-7). Furthermore, overexpression of necdin activates GnRH transcription through cis elements bound by the homeodomain repressor Msx that are located in the enhancer and promoter of the GnRH gene, and knock-down of necdin expression reduces GnRH gene expression. In fact, overexpression of Necdin relieves Msx repression of GnRH transcription through these elements and necdin co-immunoprecipitates with Msx from GnRH neuronal cells, indicating that necdin may activate GnRH gene expression by preventing repression of GnRH gene expression by Msx. Finally, necdin is necessary for generation of the full complement of GnRH neurons during mouse development and extension of GnRH axons to the median eminence. Together, these results indicate that lack of necdin during development likely contributes to the hypogonadotrophic hypogonadal phenotype in individuals with PWS. PMID:18930956

  15. Goldmining, dispossessing the commons and multi-scalar responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoltenborg, Didi; Boelens, Rutgerd

    2017-01-01

    In 1996, Minera San Xavier (MSX), a Mexican tributary of the Canadian mining company Newgold Inc., announced it wanted to start a large open-pit gold and silver mine in the municipality of Cerro de San Pedro, in the state of San Luis Potosí. The mining site occupies 373 hectares of ejido 2

  16. 76 FR 13664 - Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance Visteon Corporation; Visteon Headquarters... Holdings, LLC (ACH), a Subsidiary of Ford Motor Company, and Including On-Site Leased Workers from MSX... Assistance on July 28, 2009, applicable to workers of Visteon Corporation, Visteon Headquarters, including...

  17. Protective effect of zinc against cadmium toxicity on pregnant rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ZINO

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... fetuses were used to isolate a total RNA for quantification of Msx1, Cx43, Bcl2 and Bax genes. The results show the toxic effect ... caspase-mitochondria pathways (Li et al., 2000), indicating that apoptosis could .... RNA isolation and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Total RNA was ...

  18. 76 FR 27669 - Automotive Components Holdings, LLC, a Subsidiary of Ford Motor Company, Saline Plant Division...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... Holdings, LLC, a Subsidiary of Ford Motor Company, Saline Plant Division, Including Workers Whose Wages Were Reported Under Ford Company, Visteon, MSX International, W.J. O'Neil Company, and Unibar, Saline... workers of Automotive Components Holdings, LLC, a Subsidiary of Ford Motor Company, Saline Plant Division...

  19. Effects of a Standardized Phenolic-Enriched Maple Syrup Extract on β-Amyloid Aggregation, Neuroinflammation in Microglial and Neuronal Cells, and β-Amyloid Induced Neurotoxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hang; DaSilva, Nicholas A; Liu, Weixi; Nahar, Pragati P; Wei, Zhengxi; Liu, Yongqiang; Pham, Priscilla T; Crews, Rebecca; Vattem, Dhiraj A; Slitt, Angela L; Shaikh, Zahir A; Seeram, Navindra P

    2016-11-01

    Published data supports the neuroprotective effects of several phenolic-containing natural products, including certain fruit, berries, spices, nuts, green tea, and olive oil. However, limited data are available for phenolic-containing plant-derived natural sweeteners including maple syrup. Herein, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of a chemically standardized phenolic-enriched maple syrup extract (MSX) using a combination of biophysical, in vitro, and in vivo studies. Based on biophysical data (Thioflavin T assay, transmission electron microscopy, circular dichroism, dynamic light scattering, and zeta potential), MSX reduced amyloid β 1-42 peptide (Aβ 1-42 ) fibrillation in a concentration-dependent manner (50-500 μg/mL) with similar effects as the neuroprotective polyphenol, resveratrol, at its highest test concentration (63.5 % at 500 μg/mL vs. 77.3 % at 50 μg/mL, respectively). MSX (100 μg/mL) decreased H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress (16.1 % decrease in ROS levels compared to control), and down-regulated the production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated inflammatory markers (22.1, 19.9, 74.8, and 87.6 % decrease in NOS, IL-6, PGE 2 , and TNFα levels, respectively, compared to control) in murine BV-2 microglial cells. Moreover, in a non-contact co-culture cell model, differentiated human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells were exposed to conditioned media from BV-2 cells treated with MSX (100 μg/mL) and LPS or LPS alone. MSX-BV-2 media increased SH-SY5Y cell viability by 13.8 % compared to media collected from LPS-BV-2 treated cells. Also, MSX (10 μg/mL) showed protective effects against Aβ 1-42 induced neurotoxicity and paralysis in Caenorhabditis elegans in vivo. These data support the potential neuroprotective effects of MSX warranting further studies on this natural product.

  20. CHARACTERIZING THE POPULATION OF BRIGHT INFRARED SOURCES IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, K. E.; Sloan, G. C.; Wood, P. R.; Jones, O. C.; Egan, M. P.

    2017-01-01

    We have used the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope to observe stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) selected from the Point Source Catalog of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX). We concentrate on the dust properties of the oxygen-rich evolved stars. The dust composition has smaller contributions from alumina compared to the Galaxy. This difference may arise from the lower metallicity in the SMC, but it could be a selection effect, as the SMC sample includes more stars that are brighter and thus more massive. The distribution of the SMC stars along the silicate sequence looks more like the Galactic sample of red supergiants than asymptotic giant branch stars (AGBs). While many of the SMC stars are definitively on the AGB, several also show evidence of hot bottom burning. Three of the supergiants show PAH emission at 11.3 μ m. Two other sources show mixed chemistry, with both carbon-rich and oxygen-rich spectral features. One, MSX SMC 134, may be the first confirmed silicate/carbon star in the SMC. The other, MSX SMC 049, is a candidate post-AGB star. MSX SMC 145, previously considered a candidate OH/IR star, is actually an AGB star with a background galaxy at z  = 0.16 along the same line of sight. We consider the overall characteristics of all the MSX sources, the most infrared-bright objects in the SMC, in light of the higher sensitivity and resolution of Spitzer , and compare them with the object types expected from the original selection criteria. This population represents what will be seen in more distant galaxies by the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope ( JWST ). Color–color diagrams generated from the IRS spectra and the mid-infrared filters on JWST show how one can separate evolved stars from young stellar objects (YSOs) and distinguish among different classes of YSOs.

  1. Glutamine synthetase gene knockout-human embryonic kidney 293E cells for stable production of monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Da Young; Lee, Sang Yoon; Lee, Gyun Min

    2018-05-01

    Previously, it was inferred that a high glutamine synthetase (GS) activity in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293E cells results in elevated resistance to methionine sulfoximine (MSX) and consequently hampers GS-mediated gene amplification and selection by MSX. To overcome this MSX resistance in HEK293E cells, a GS-knockout HEK293E cell line was generated using the CRISPR/Cas9 system to target the endogenous human GS gene. The GS-knockout in the HEK293E cell line (RK8) was confirmed by Western blot analysis of GS and by observation of glutamine-dependent growth. Unlike the wild type HEK293E cells, the RK8 cells were successfully used as host cells to generate a recombinant HEK293E cell line (rHEK293E) producing a monoclonal antibody (mAb). When the RK8 cells were transfected with the GS expression vector containing the mAb gene, rHEK293E cells producing the mAb could be selected in the absence as well as in the presence of MSX. The gene copies and mRNA expression levels of the mAb in rHEK293E cells were also quantified using qRT-PCR. Taken together, the GS-knockout HEK293E cell line can be used as host cells to generate stable rHEK293E cells producing a mAb through GS-mediated gene selection in the absence as well as in the presence of MSX. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. CHARACTERIZING THE POPULATION OF BRIGHT INFRARED SOURCES IN THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, K. E. [Institute for Scientific Research, Boston College, 140 Commonwealth Avenue, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States); Sloan, G. C. [Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Wood, P. R. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek ACT 2611 (Australia); Jones, O. C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Egan, M. P., E-mail: kathleen.kraemer@bc.edu, E-mail: sloan@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: wood@mso.anu.edu.au, E-mail: michael.p.egan@nga.mil [National Geospatial Intelligence Agency, 7500 GEOINT Drive, Springfield, VA 22150 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We have used the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope to observe stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) selected from the Point Source Catalog of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX). We concentrate on the dust properties of the oxygen-rich evolved stars. The dust composition has smaller contributions from alumina compared to the Galaxy. This difference may arise from the lower metallicity in the SMC, but it could be a selection effect, as the SMC sample includes more stars that are brighter and thus more massive. The distribution of the SMC stars along the silicate sequence looks more like the Galactic sample of red supergiants than asymptotic giant branch stars (AGBs). While many of the SMC stars are definitively on the AGB, several also show evidence of hot bottom burning. Three of the supergiants show PAH emission at 11.3 μ m. Two other sources show mixed chemistry, with both carbon-rich and oxygen-rich spectral features. One, MSX SMC 134, may be the first confirmed silicate/carbon star in the SMC. The other, MSX SMC 049, is a candidate post-AGB star. MSX SMC 145, previously considered a candidate OH/IR star, is actually an AGB star with a background galaxy at z  = 0.16 along the same line of sight. We consider the overall characteristics of all the MSX sources, the most infrared-bright objects in the SMC, in light of the higher sensitivity and resolution of Spitzer , and compare them with the object types expected from the original selection criteria. This population represents what will be seen in more distant galaxies by the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope ( JWST ). Color–color diagrams generated from the IRS spectra and the mid-infrared filters on JWST show how one can separate evolved stars from young stellar objects (YSOs) and distinguish among different classes of YSOs.

  3. Evidence for a modifier of onset age in Huntington disease linked to the HD gene in 4p16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoussé, Luc; Knowlton, Beth; Hayden, Michael R.; Almqvist, Elisabeth W.; Brinkman, Ryan R.; Ross, Christopher A.; Margolis, Russel L.; Rosenblatt, Adam; Durr, Alexandra; Dode, Catherine; Morrison, Patrick J.; Novelletto, Andrea; Frontali, Marina; Trent, Ronald J. A.; McCusker, Elizabeth; Gómez-Tortosa, Estrella; Mayo Cabrero, David; Jones, Randi; Zanko, Andrea; Nance, Martha; Abramson, Ruth K.; Suchowersky, Oksana; Paulsen, Jane S.; Harrison, Madaline B.; Yang, Qiong; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Mysore, Jayalakshmi; Gusella, James F.; MacDonald, Marcy E.

    2007-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the abnormal expansion of CAG repeats in the HD gene on chromosome 4p16.3. A recent genome scan for genetic modifiers of age at onset of motor symptoms (AO) in HD suggests that one modifier may reside in the region close to the HD gene itself. We used data from 535 HD participants of the New England Huntington cohort and the HD MAPS cohort to assess whether AO was influenced by any of the three markers in the 4p16 region: MSX1 (Drosophila homeo box homologue 1, formerly known as homeo box 7, HOX7), Δ2642 (within the HD coding sequence), and BJ56 (D4S127). Suggestive evidence for an association was seen between MSX1 alleles and AO, after adjustment for normal CAG repeat, expanded repeat, and their product term (model P value 0.079). Of the variance of AO that was not accounted for by HD and normal CAG repeats, 0.8% could be attributed to the MSX1 genotype. Individuals with MSX1 genotype 3/3 tended to have younger AO. No association was found between Δ2642 (P=0.44) and BJ56 (P=0.73) and AO. This study supports previous studies suggesting that there may be a significant genetic modifier for AO in HD in the 4p16 region. Furthermore, the modifier may be present on both HD and normal chromosomes bearing the 3 allele of the MSX1 marker. PMID:15029481

  4. Methionine sulfoximine supplementation enhances productivity in GS-CHOK1SV cell lines through glutathione biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, Marc; Racher, Andrew J; Young, Robert J; Smales, C Mark

    2017-01-01

    In Lonza Biologics' GS Gene Expression System™, recombinant protein-producing GS-CHOK1SV cell lines are generated by transfection with an expression vector encoding both GS and the protein product genes followed by selection in MSX and glutamine-free medium. MSX is required to inhibit endogenous CHOK1SV GS, and in effect create a glutamine auxotrophy in the host that can be complemented by the expression vector encoded GS in selected cell lines. However, MSX is not a specific inhibitor of GS as it also inhibits the activity of GCL (a key enzyme in the glutathione biosynthesis pathway) to a similar extent. Glutathione species (GSH and GSSG) have been shown to provide both oxidizing and reducing equivalents to ER-resident oxidoreductases, raising the possibility that selection for transfectants with increased GCL expression could result in the isolation of GS-CHOKISV cell lines with improved capacity for recombinant protein production. In this study we have begun to address the relationship between MSX supplementation, the amount of intracellular GCL subunit and mAb production from a panel of GS-CHOK1SV cell lines. We then evaluated the influence of reduced GCL activity on batch culture of an industrially relevant mAb-producing GS-CHOK1SV cell line. To the best of our knowledge, this paper describes for the first time the change in expression of GCL subunits and recombinant mAb production in these cell lines with the degree of MSX supplementation in routine subculture. Our data also shows that partial inhibition of GCL activity in medium containing 75 µM MSX increases mAb productivity, and its more specific inhibitor BSO used at a concentration of 80 µM in medium increases the specific rate of mAb production eight-fold and the concentration in harvest medium by two-fold. These findings support a link between the inhibition of glutathione biosynthesis and recombinant protein production in industrially relevant systems and provide a process-driven method for

  5. Mercury in Nelson's Sparrow subspecies at breeding sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia L Winder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mercury is a persistent, biomagnifying contaminant that can cause negative effects on ecosystems. Marshes are often areas of relatively high mercury methylation and bioaccumulation. Nelson's Sparrows (Ammodramus nelsoni use marsh habitats year-round and have been documented to exhibit tissue mercury concentrations that exceed negative effects thresholds. We sought to further characterize the potential risk of Nelson's Sparrows to mercury exposure by sampling individuals from sites within the range of each of its subspecies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From 2009 to 2011, we captured adult Nelson's Sparrows at sites within the breeding range of each subspecies (A. n. nelsoni: Grand Forks and Upham, North Dakota; A. n. alterus: Moosonee, Ontario; and A. n. subvirgatus: Grand Manan Island, New Brunswick and sampled breast feathers, the first primary feather (P1, and blood for total mercury analysis. Mean blood mercury in nelsoni individuals captured near Grand Forks ranged from 0.84 ± 0.37 to 1.65 ± 1.02 SD ppm among years, between 2.0 and 4.9 times as high as concentrations at the other sites (P<0.01. Breast feather mercury did not vary among sites within a given sampling year (site means ranged from 0.98 ± 0.69 to 2.71 ± 2.93 ppm. Mean P1 mercury in alterus (2.96 ± 1.84 ppm fw was significantly lower than in any other sampled population (5.25 ± 2.24-6.77 ± 3.51 ppm; P ≤ 0.03. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study further characterized mercury in Nelson's Sparrows near Grand Forks; we documented localized and potentially harmful mercury concentrations, indicating that this area may represent a biological mercury hotspot. This finding warrants further research to determine if wildlife populations of conservation or recreational interest in this area may be experiencing negative effects due to mercury exposure. We present preliminary conclusions about the risk of each sampled population to mercury exposure.

  6. Mercury in Nelson's Sparrow Subspecies at Breeding Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Virginia L.; Emslie, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Mercury is a persistent, biomagnifying contaminant that can cause negative effects on ecosystems. Marshes are often areas of relatively high mercury methylation and bioaccumulation. Nelson's Sparrows (Ammodramus nelsoni) use marsh habitats year-round and have been documented to exhibit tissue mercury concentrations that exceed negative effects thresholds. We sought to further characterize the potential risk of Nelson's Sparrows to mercury exposure by sampling individuals from sites within the range of each of its subspecies. Methodology/Principal Findings From 2009 to 2011, we captured adult Nelson's Sparrows at sites within the breeding range of each subspecies (A. n. nelsoni: Grand Forks and Upham, North Dakota; A. n. alterus: Moosonee, Ontario; and A. n. subvirgatus: Grand Manan Island, New Brunswick) and sampled breast feathers, the first primary feather (P1), and blood for total mercury analysis. Mean blood mercury in nelsoni individuals captured near Grand Forks ranged from 0.84±0.37 to 1.65±1.02 SD ppm among years, between 2.0 and 4.9 times as high as concentrations at the other sites (Pmercury did not vary among sites within a given sampling year (site means ranged from 0.98±0.69 to 2.71±2.93 ppm). Mean P1 mercury in alterus (2.96±1.84 ppm fw) was significantly lower than in any other sampled population (5.25±2.24–6.77±3.51 ppm; P≤0.03). Conclusions/Significance Our study further characterized mercury in Nelson's Sparrows near Grand Forks; we documented localized and potentially harmful mercury concentrations, indicating that this area may represent a biological mercury hotspot. This finding warrants further research to determine if wildlife populations of conservation or recreational interest in this area may be experiencing negative effects due to mercury exposure. We present preliminary conclusions about the risk of each sampled population to mercury exposure. PMID:22384194

  7. Ammonium assmilation in spruce ectomycorrhizas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalot, M.; Brun, A.; Botton, B.; Stewart, G.

    1990-01-01

    Assimilation of labelled NH 4 + into amino acids has been followed in ectomycorrhizal roots of spruce. Over an 18 h period of NH 4 + feeding, Gln, Glu and Ala became the most abundant amino acids. Gln was also the most highly labelled amino acid during the experiment, followed by Glu and Ala. This result indicates that Gln synthesis is an important ammonium utilization reaction in spruce mycorrhizas. Addition of MSX to NH 4 + fed mycorrhizas caused an inhibition of Gln accumulation with a corresponding increase in Glu, Ala and Asn levels. The supply of MSX induced a sharp diminution of 15 N enrichment in both amino and amido groups of glutamine. In contrast, the 15 N incorporation into Glu and derivatives (Ala and Asp) remained very high. This study demonstrates that the fungal glutamate dehydrogenase is quite operative in spruce ectomycorrhizas since it is able to sustain ammonium assimilation when glutamine synthetase is inhibited

  8. Liberation of ammonia by cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Photoheterotrophic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria release ammonia when treated with methionine sulfoximine (MSX) to inhibit nitrogen incorporation into protein. This released ammonia can be derived from recently fixed nitrogen (nitrogen atmosphere) or endogenous reserves (argon atmosphere). Anaerobic ammonia release requires light and is stimulated by the photosystem II herbicides DCMU and Atrazine, regardless of the source of ammonia. As much as one quarter of the total cellular nitrogen can be released as ammonia by cyanbacteria treated with MSX and DCMU under argon in light. Chromatography of cell extracts indicates that virtually all cellular proteins are degraded. DCMU and Atrazine, at very low concentration, inhibit sustained uptake of the ammonia analog 14 C methylamine. These data indicate that the herbicides interrupt ammonia uptake and retention by the cells, and support a role for photosystem II in ammonia metabolism

  9. Infrared radiation scene generation of stars and planets in celestial background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Hong, Yaohui; Xu, Xiaojian

    2014-10-01

    An infrared (IR) radiation generation model of stars and planets in celestial background is proposed in this paper. Cohen's spectral template1 is modified for high spectral resolution and accuracy. Based on the improved spectral template for stars and the blackbody assumption for planets, an IR radiation model is developed which is able to generate the celestial IR background for stars and planets appearing in sensor's field of view (FOV) for specified observing date and time, location, viewpoint and spectral band over 1.2μm ~ 35μm. In the current model, the initial locations of stars are calculated based on midcourse space experiment (MSX) IR astronomical catalogue (MSX-IRAC) 2 , while the initial locations of planets are calculated using secular variations of the planetary orbits (VSOP) theory. Simulation results show that the new IR radiation model has higher resolution and accuracy than common model.

  10. New therapeutic options for the metabolic syndrome: what's next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flordellis, Christodoulos S; Ilias, Ioannis; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G

    2005-08-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MSX), characterized by obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension, increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It has recently been hypothesized that MSX and type 2 diabetes are caused by triglyceride and long-chain fatty acid accumulation in liver, muscle, pancreatic islets and selected brain areas. This lipocentric approach is integrated with analysis of inflammation associated with end-organ damage, including the vascular wall. Genes and proteins contributing to insulin resistance, beta cell dysfunction and vascular wall damage have been identified. Transcription factors and coactivators, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) coactivator-1 are crucial in mediating insulin resistance and accelerating vascular wall inflammation, and represent promising therapeutic targets. New pharmacological strategies include dual PPARalpha/gamma agonists, drugs with pleiotropic effects or combination therapies.

  11. Liberation of ammonia by cyanobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, J.W.

    1986-04-01

    Photoheterotrophic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria release ammonia when treated with methionine sulfoximine (MSX) to inhibit nitrogen incorporation into protein. This released ammonia can be derived from recently fixed nitrogen (nitrogen atmosphere) or endogenous reserves (argon atmosphere). Anaerobic ammonia release requires light and is stimulated by the photosystem II herbicides DCMU and Atrazine, regardless of the source of ammonia. As much as one quarter of the total cellular nitrogen can be released as ammonia by cyanbacteria treated with MSX and DCMU under argon in light. Chromatography of cell extracts indicates that virtually all cellular proteins are degraded. DCMU and Atrazine, at very low concentration, inhibit sustained uptake of the ammonia analog /sup 14/C methylamine. These data indicate that the herbicides interrupt ammonia uptake and retention by the cells, and support a role for photosystem II in ammonia metabolism.

  12. Tupinambis merianae as nest predators of crocodilians and turtles in Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotti, Frank J.; McEachern, Michelle A.; Rochford, Michael; Reed, Robert; Ketterlin Eckles, Jennifer; Vinci, Joy; Edwards, Jake; Wasilewki, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Tupinambis merianae, is a large, omnivorous tegu lizard native to South America. Two populations of tegus are established in the state of Florida, USA, but impacts to native species are poorly documented. During summer 2013, we placed automated cameras overlooking one American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) nest, which also contained a clutch of Florida red-bellied cooter (Pseudemys nelsoni) eggs, and one American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) nest at a site in southeastern Florida where tegus are established. We documented tegu activity and predation on alligator and turtle eggs at the alligator nest, and tegu activity at the crocodile nest. Our finding that one of the first two crocodilian nests to be monitored was depredated by tegus suggests that tegus should be further evaluated as a threat to nesting reptiles in Florida.

  13. Serologic survey for brucellosis in feral swine, wild ruminants, and black bear of California, 1977 to 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, M L; Jessup, D A; Burr, A A; Franti, C E

    1992-07-01

    A retrospective analysis of brucellosis serologic testing results in eight wildlife species in California from 1977 to 1989 was done. Samples were collected from 5,398 live-captured or hunter-killed animals and tested by combinations of up to six serologic tests for antibodies to Brucella spp. Twenty-three of 611 (3.8%) feral swine (Sus scrofa), one of 180 (0.6%) black bear (Ursus americanus), one of 355 (0.3%) California mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus californicus), and one of 1,613 (0.06%) blacktail deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) samples were considered reactors. Suspect serologic reactions occurred in three of 619 (0.5%) desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) and one of 355 (0.3%) California mule deer samples. Brucellosis is not considered an important wildlife health problem in California except in feral swine.

  14. Comparative baseline levels of mercury, Hsp 70 and Hsp 60 in subsistence fish from the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta region of Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, L K; Scofield, E; Rodgers, T; Patton, M; Bowyer, R T

    1999-10-01

    In subsistence fish; northern pike (Esox lucius), burbot (Lota lota), whitefish (Coregonus nelsoni), grayling (Thymallus arcticus) and sheefish (Stenodus lencichthys), we determined the Hsp 60 and Hsp 70 levels in 31 samples from adult fish gills. A dot-blot analysis using antibodies to either Hsp 70 or Hsp 60 showed the average Hsp 70 concentration was 9.1 microg/mg protein, while the average Hsp 60 concentration was 147.4 microg/mg protein. Mercury levels in muscle tissue in these fish averaged 0.382 ppm. Using a subset of samples (n = 24), we determined that the major component in the muscle of Alaskan subsistence fish was methyl mercury. No correlation was observed between Hsp 60 or Hsp 70 expression in gill tissue and mercury concentrations in muscle tissue. Hsp 60 and Hsp 70 protein levels in the gills were correlated.

  15. Postural reactions of girls and boys aged 12–15 years evaluated using the Romberg test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Wilczyński

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The complex system controlling human posture includes a gaze stabilisation system, which comprises the control of direction and visual acuity during head and body movements, and a posture stabilisation system, keeping the body in balance at rest and in movement. Aim of the research: To analyse the postural reaction of SOX and SOY using the Romberg test with eyes open (EO and closed (CE in girls and boys aged 12–15 years. Material and methods : The study included 503 students of Primary School No. 13 and School No. 4 in Starachowice. Postural reactions were tested on a Cosmogamma platform by Emildue R50300. Postural reactions were analysed, and mean sway X (MSX and mean sway Y (MSY were calculated. Results: Analysis of variance showed significant differences of MSX only between girls and boys (p < 0.036. MSX was significantly lower in girls in both tests with EO and CE. Although there was no apparent significant difference of MSX between the Romberg test with EO and CE, a slight progression was observed in the test with CE. Analysis of variance of MSY with a single classification showed a significant effect of study options (p < 0.048, a significant interaction of gender and options of the study (p < 0.048, and a significant interaction of age and options of the study (p < 0.026. Analysis of variance of MSY showed a significant progression of MSY in the test with CE. Conclusions : Our research showed that balance with CE does not worsen, so it can be assumed that children have limited skills of using vision to maintain balance because there is a lack of appropriate coordination between vision and motor abilities, which in children are in development.

  16. Development of a Unique Small Molecule Modulator of CXCR4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Younghyoun; Lin, Songbai; Sasaki, Maiko; Klapproth, Jan-Michael A.; Yang, Hua; Grossniklaus, Hans E.; Xu, Jianguo; Rojas, Mauricio; Voll, Ronald J.; Goodman, Mark M.; Arrendale, Richard F.; Liu, Jin; Yun, C. Chris; Snyder, James P.; Liotta, Dennis C.; Shim, Hyunsuk

    2012-01-01

    Background Metastasis, the spread and growth of tumor cells to distant organ sites, represents the most devastating attribute and plays a major role in the morbidity and mortality of cancer. Inflammation is crucial for malignant tumor transformation and survival. Thus, blocking inflammation is expected to serve as an effective cancer treatment. Among anti-inflammation therapies, chemokine modulation is now beginning to emerge from the pipeline. CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4) and its ligand stromal cell-derived factor-1 (CXCL12) interaction and the resulting cell signaling cascade have emerged as highly relevant targets since they play pleiotropic roles in metastatic progression. The unique function of CXCR4 is to promote the homing of tumor cells to their microenvironment at the distant organ sites. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe the actions of N,N′-(1,4-phenylenebis(methylene))dipyrimidin-2-amine (designated MSX-122), a novel small molecule and partial CXCR4 antagonist with properties quite unlike that of any other reported CXCR4 antagonists, which was prepared in a single chemical step using a reductive amination reaction. Its specificity toward CXCR4 was tested in a binding affinity assay and a ligand competition assay using 18F-labeled MSX-122. The potency of the compound was determined in two functional assays, Matrigel invasion assay and cAMP modulation. The therapeutic potential of MSX-122 was evaluated in three different murine models for inflammation including an experimental colitis, carrageenan induced paw edema, and bleomycin induced lung fibrosis and three different animal models for metastasis including breast cancer micrometastasis in lung, head and neck cancer metastasis in lung, and uveal melanoma micrometastasis in liver in which CXCR4 was reported to play crucial roles. Conclusions/Significance We developed a novel small molecule, MSX-122, that is a partial CXCR4 antagonist without mobilizing stem cells, which can be safer for

  17. Development of a unique small molecule modulator of CXCR4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongxing Liang

    Full Text Available Metastasis, the spread and growth of tumor cells to distant organ sites, represents the most devastating attribute and plays a major role in the morbidity and mortality of cancer. Inflammation is crucial for malignant tumor transformation and survival. Thus, blocking inflammation is expected to serve as an effective cancer treatment. Among anti-inflammation therapies, chemokine modulation is now beginning to emerge from the pipeline. CXC chemokine receptor-4 (CXCR4 and its ligand stromal cell-derived factor-1 (CXCL12 interaction and the resulting cell signaling cascade have emerged as highly relevant targets since they play pleiotropic roles in metastatic progression. The unique function of CXCR4 is to promote the homing of tumor cells to their microenvironment at the distant organ sites.We describe the actions of N,N'-(1,4-phenylenebis(methylenedipyrimidin-2-amine (designated MSX-122, a novel small molecule and partial CXCR4 antagonist with properties quite unlike that of any other reported CXCR4 antagonists, which was prepared in a single chemical step using a reductive amination reaction. Its specificity toward CXCR4 was tested in a binding affinity assay and a ligand competition assay using (18F-labeled MSX-122. The potency of the compound was determined in two functional assays, Matrigel invasion assay and cAMP modulation. The therapeutic potential of MSX-122 was evaluated in three different murine models for inflammation including an experimental colitis, carrageenan induced paw edema, and bleomycin induced lung fibrosis and three different animal models for metastasis including breast cancer micrometastasis in lung, head and neck cancer metastasis in lung, and uveal melanoma micrometastasis in liver in which CXCR4 was reported to play crucial roles.We developed a novel small molecule, MSX-122, that is a partial CXCR4 antagonist without mobilizing stem cells, which can be safer for long-term blockade of metastasis than other reported CXCR4

  18. Observations of star-forming regions with the Midcourse Space Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraemer, KE; Shipman, RF; Price, SD; Mizuno, DR; Kuchar, T; Carey, SJ

    We have imaged seven nearby star-forming regions, the Rosette Nebula, the Orion Nebula, W3, the Pleiades, G300.2-16.8, S263, and G159.6-18.5, with the Spatial Infrared Imaging Telescope on the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite at 1800 resolution at 8.3, 12.1, 14.7, and 21.3 mum. The large

  19. A Monte-Carlo code for neutron efficiency calculations for large volume Gd-loaded liquid scintillation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trzcinski, A.; Zwieglinski, B. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); Lynen, U. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Pochodzalla, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    1998-10-01

    This paper reports on a Monte-Carlo program, MSX, developed to evaluate the performance of large-volume, Gd-loaded liquid scintillation detectors used in neutron multiplicity measurements. The results of simulations are presented for the detector intended to count neutrons emitted by the excited target residue in coincidence with the charged products of the projectile fragmentation following relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The latter products could be detected with the ALADIN magnetic spectrometer at GSI-Darmstadt. (orig.) 61 refs.

  20. Variable terrestrial GPS telemetry detection rates: Addressing the probability of successful acquisitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ironside, Kirsten E.; Mattson, David J.; Choate, David; Stoner, David; Arundel, Terry; Hansen, Jered R.; Theimer, Tad; Holton, Brandon; Jansen, Brian; Sexton, Joseph O.; Longshore, Kathleen M.; Edwards, Thomas C.; Peters, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Studies using global positioning system (GPS) telemetry rarely result in 100% fix success rates (FSR), which may bias datasets because data loss is systematic rather than a random process. Previous spatially explicit models developed to correct for sampling bias have been limited to small study areas, a small range of data loss, or were study-area specific. We modeled environmental effects on FSR from desert to alpine biomes, investigated the full range of potential data loss (0–100% FSR), and evaluated whether animal body position can contribute to lower FSR because of changes in antenna orientation based on GPS detection rates for 4 focal species: cougars (Puma concolor), desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). Terrain exposure and height of over story vegetation were the most influential factors affecting FSR. Model evaluation showed a strong correlation (0.88) between observed and predicted FSR and no significant differences between predicted and observed FSRs using 2 independent validation datasets. We found that cougars and canyon-dwelling bighorn sheep may select for environmental features that influence their detectability by GPS technology, mule deer may select against these features, and elk appear to be nonselective. We observed temporal patterns in missed fixes only for cougars. We provide a model for cougars, predicting fix success by time of day that is likely due to circadian changes in collar orientation and selection of daybed sites. We also provide a model predicting the probability of GPS fix acquisitions given environmental conditions, which had a strong relationship (r 2 = 0.82) with deployed collar FSRs across species.

  1. Development and evolution of the mammalian limb: adaptive diversification of nails, hooves, and claws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamrick, M W

    2001-01-01

    Paleontological evidence indicates that the evolutionary diversification of mammals early in the Cenozoic era was characterized by an adaptive radiation of distal limb structures. Likewise, neontological data show that morphological variation in distal limb integumentary appendages (e.g., nails, hooves, and claws) can be observed not only among distantly related mammalian taxa but also among closely related species within the same clade. Comparative analysis of nail, claw, and hoof morphogenesis reveals relatively subtle differences in mesenchymal and epithelial patterning underlying these adult differences in distal limb appendage morphology. Furthermore, studies of regulatory gene expression during vertebrate claw development demonstrate that many of the signaling molecules involved in patterning ectodermal derivatives such as teeth, hair, and feathers are also involved in organizing mammalian distal limb appendages. For example, Bmp4 signaling plays an important role during the recruitment of mesenchymal cells into the condensations forming the terminal phalanges, whereas Msx2 affects the length of nails and claws by suppressing proliferation of germinal epidermal cells. Evolutionary changes in the form of distal integumentary appendages may therefore result from changes in gene expression during formation of mesenchymal condensations (Bmp4, posterior Hox genes), induction of the claw fold and germinal matrix (shh), and/or proliferation of epidermal cells in the claw matrix (Msx1, Msx2). The prevalence of convergences and parallelisms in nail and claw structure among mammals underscores the existence of multiple morphogenetic pathways for evolutionary change in distal limb appendages.

  2. Optimización global eficiente y efectiva en la inversión de datos de campos potenciales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro G. Junco-Bernázar

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Los problemas inversos de campos potenciales son difíciles de resolver utilizando métodos automáticos, sobre todo por la incapacidad de los procedimientos tradicionales de localizar globalmente el conjunto óptimo de los parámetros. Este artículo establece la naturaleza de los múltiples óptimos locales en la inversión de datos de campos potenciales en un modelo de seis parámetros y analiza la consistencia de tres métodos de optimización global: un método de multicomienzo con el algoritmo Simplex (MSX, un algoritmo genético combinado con el Simplex (GSX y el método de Evolución y Mezcla de Complejos (SCE. Todos los algoritmos fueron capaces de encontrar el conjunto de parámetros óptimos durante el proceso de inversión de campo potencial para un modelo de seis parámetros. En 100 pruebas independientes de cada algoritmo, el procedimiento del SCE se comporta tres veces más eficiente que el procedimiento MSX y dos veces más eficiente que el procedimiento GSX. El método GSX es dos veces más eficiente que el procedimiento MSX.

  3. Ta penetration into template-type porous low-k material during atomic layer deposition of TaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Akira; Ohtsuka, Nobuyuki; Misawa, Kaori; Shimada, Miyoko; Ogawa, Shinichi

    2005-01-01

    Ta penetration into a planar template-type porous low-k film during atomic layer deposition of TaN has been investigated by evaluating relations between Ta penetration and number of deposition cycles, exposure time of Ta precursor per deposition cycle, substrate temperature, and porosity of the porous low-k. The precursors were pentakisdimethylaminotantalum [PDMAT:Ta(N(CH 3 ) 2 ) 5 ] and NH 3 . The porous low-k was a methylsiloxane (MSX) whose pore size in the maximum distribution and porosity of the porous low-k were 0-1.9 nm and 0%-47%. Depth profile of the Ta penetration was measured by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The amount of penetrated and the penetration depth depended on the porosity. It was found that the precursors penetrate into the MSX film dominantly by gas phase diffusion through pores connecting from the surface to the inside. Increased surface area of the MSX film due to the pores results in a depletion of precursor at the wafer edge, and that this depletion causes the penetration characteristics at the edge of wafer differ from those at the center of the wafer. Moreover, the thickness required for the pore sealing by additive liner deposition is discussed

  4. Muscle Segment Homeobox Genes Direct Embryonic Diapause by Limiting Inflammation in the Uterus*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jeeyeon; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Bartos, Amanda; Li, Yingju; Baker, Erin S.; Tilton, Susan C.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Jegga, Anil G.; Murata, Shigeo; Hirota, Yasushi; Dey, Sudhansu K.

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic diapause is a reproductive strategy widespread in the animal kingdom. This phenomenon is defined by a temporary arrest in blastocyst growth and metabolic activity within a quiescent uterus without implantation until the environmental and maternal milieu become favorable for pregnancy to progress. We found that uterine Msx expression persists during diapause across species; their inactivation in the mouse uterus results in termination of diapause with the development of implantation-like responses (“pseudoimplantation”) that ultimately succumbed to resorption. To understand the cause of this failure, we compared proteome profiles between floxed and Msx-deleted uteri. In deleted uteri, several functional networks, including transcription/translation, ubiquitin-proteasome, inflammation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress, were dysregulated. Computational modeling predicted intersection of these pathways on an enhanced inflammatory signature. Further studies showed that this signature was reflected in increased phosphorylated IκB levels and nuclear NFκB in deleted uteri. This was associated with enhanced proteasome activity and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Interestingly, treatment with anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid (dexamethasone) reduced the inflammatory signature with improvement of the diapause phenotype. These findings highlight an unexpected role of uterine Msx in limiting aberrant inflammatory responses to maintain embryonic diapause. PMID:25931120

  5. Nitrogen assimilation in soybean nodules, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, Takuji; Kumazawa, Kikuo

    1980-01-01

    In order to elucidate the pathways to assimilate the ammonia produced by N 2 -fixation in soybean nodules, 15 N-labeled compounds were administered to intact nodules or nodule slices pretreated with various inhibitors of nitrogen assimilation. After exposure to 15 N 2 , 15 N-incorporation into various nitrogenous compounds was investigated in attached nodules injected with methionine sulfoximine (MSX) or azaserine (AS). MSX treatment increased the 15 N content of ammonia more than 6 times, however, depressed 15 N content of most of amides and amino acids. AS treatment enhanced 15 N content of amido-N of glutamine as well as ammonia, but decreased amino-N of glutamine and most of amino acids. Experiments with nodule slices pretreated with MSX or AS solution and then fed with 15 N-labeled ammonia or amido- 15 N of glutamine showed the same trends. Aminooxyacetate inhibited nitrogen flow from glutamic acid to other amino acids. These results strongly indicate that the ammonia produced by N 2 -fixation is assimilated by GS/GOGAT system to glutamic acid and then transaminated to various amino acids in situ. 15 N-incorporation patterns in nodule slices fed with 15 N-labeled ammonia, hydroxylamine, nitrite were similar, but nitrate seemed to be reduced in a definite compartment and assimilated similarly as in intact nodules fed with 15 N 2 (author)

  6. Characteristics of infrared point sources associated with OH masers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu Jimang; Esimbek, Jarken; Zhou Jianjun; Zhang Haijuan

    2010-01-01

    We collect 3249 OH maser sources from the literature published up to April 2007, and compile a new catalog of OH masers. We look for the exciting sources of these masers and their infrared properties from IRAS and MSX data, and make a statistical study. MSX sources associated with stellar 1612 MHz OH masers are located mainly above the blackbody line; this is caused by the dust absorption of stellar envelopes, especially in the MSX A band. The mid-IR sources associated with stellar OH masers are concentrated in a small region in an [A]-[D] vs. [A]-[E] diagram with a small fraction of contamination; this gives us a new criterion to search for new stellar OH masers and distinguish stellar masers from unknown types of OH masers. IR sources associated with 1612 MHz stellar OH masers show an expected result: the average flux of sources with F60 > F25 increases with increasing wavelength, while those with F60 F25.

  7. The kilometer-sized Main Belt asteroid population revealed by Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, E. L.; Mizuno, D. R.; Shenoy, S. S.; Woodward, C. E.; Carey, S. J.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Kraemer, K. E.; Price, S. D.

    2015-06-01

    Aims: Multi-epoch Spitzer Space Telescope 24 μm data is utilized from the MIPSGAL and Taurus Legacy surveys to detect asteroids based on their relative motion. Methods: Infrared detections are matched to known asteroids and average diameters and albedos are derived using the near Earth asteroid thermal model (NEATM) for 1865 asteroids ranging in size from 0.2 to 169 km. A small subsample of these objects was also detected by IRAS or MSX and the single wavelength albedo and diameter fits derived from these data are within the uncertainties of the IRAS and/or MSX derived albedos and diameters and available occultation diameters, which demonstrates the robustness of our technique. Results: The mean geometric albedo of the small Main Belt asteroids in this sample is pV = 0.134 with a sample standard deviation of 0.106. The albedo distribution of this sample is far more diverse than the IRAS or MSX samples. The cumulative size-frequency distribution of asteroids in the Main Belt at small diameters is directly derived and a 3σ deviation from the fitted size-frequency distribution slope is found near 8 km. Completeness limits of the optical and infrared surveys are discussed. Tables 1-3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/578/A42

  8. Muscle Segment Homeobox Genes Direct Embryonic Diapause by Limiting Inflammation in the Uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jeeyeon; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E; Bartos, Amanda; Li, Yingju; Baker, Erin S; Tilton, Susan C; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M; Piehowski, Paul D; Monroe, Matthew E; Jegga, Anil G; Murata, Shigeo; Hirota, Yasushi; Dey, Sudhansu K

    2015-06-12

    Embryonic diapause is a reproductive strategy widespread in the animal kingdom. This phenomenon is defined by a temporary arrest in blastocyst growth and metabolic activity within a quiescent uterus without implantation until the environmental and maternal milieu become favorable for pregnancy to progress. We found that uterine Msx expression persists during diapause across species; their inactivation in the mouse uterus results in termination of diapause with the development of implantation-like responses ("pseudoimplantation") that ultimately succumbed to resorption. To understand the cause of this failure, we compared proteome profiles between floxed and Msx-deleted uteri. In deleted uteri, several functional networks, including transcription/translation, ubiquitin-proteasome, inflammation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress, were dysregulated. Computational modeling predicted intersection of these pathways on an enhanced inflammatory signature. Further studies showed that this signature was reflected in increased phosphorylated IκB levels and nuclear NFκB in deleted uteri. This was associated with enhanced proteasome activity and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Interestingly, treatment with anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid (dexamethasone) reduced the inflammatory signature with improvement of the diapause phenotype. These findings highlight an unexpected role of uterine Msx in limiting aberrant inflammatory responses to maintain embryonic diapause. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Mononuclear Cells from Dedifferentiation of Mouse Myotubes display Remarkable Regenerative Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong; Liu, Qiang; Mannix, Robert J.; Xu, Xiaoyin; Li, Hongli; Ma, Zhiyuan; Ingber, Donald E.; Allen, Paul D.; Wang, Yaming

    2015-01-01

    Certain lower organisms achieve organ regeneration by reverting differentiated cells into tissue-specific progenitors that re-enter embryonic programs. During muscle regeneration in the urodele amphibian, post-mitotic multinucleated skeletal myofibers transform into mononucleated proliferating cells upon injury, and a transcription factor-msx1 plays a role in their reprograming. Whether this powerful regeneration strategy can be leveraged in mammals remains unknown, as it has not been demonstrated that the dedifferentiated progenitor cells arising from muscle cells overexpressing Msx1 are lineage-specific and possess the same potent regenerative capability as their amphibian counterparts. Here we show that ectopic expression of Msx1 reprograms post-mitotic, multinucleated, primary mouse myotubes to become proliferating mononuclear cells. These dedifferentiated cells reactivate genes expressed by embryonic muscle progenitor cells and generate only muscle tissue in vivo both in an ectopic location and inside existing muscle. More importantly, distinct from adult muscle satellite cells, these cells appear both to fuse with existing fibers and to regenerate myofibers in a robust and time-dependent manner. Upon transplantation into a degenerating muscle, these dedifferentiated cells generated a large number of myofibers that increased over time and replenished almost half of the cross-sectional area of the muscle in only 12 weeks. Our study demonstrates that mammals can harness a muscle regeneration strategy used by lower organisms when the same molecular pathway is activated. PMID:24916688

  10. Selective Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Permanent Magnet Scraps with Membrane Solvent Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daejin; Powell, Lawrence E; Delmau, Lætitia H; Peterson, Eric S; Herchenroeder, Jim; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2015-08-18

    The rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, praseodymium, and dysprosium were successfully recovered from commercial NdFeB magnets and industrial scrap magnets via membrane assisted solvent extraction (MSX). A hollow fiber membrane system was evaluated to extract REEs in a single step with the feed and strip solutions circulating continuously through the MSX system. The effects of several experimental variables on REE extraction such as flow rate, concentration of REEs in the feed solution, membrane configuration, and composition of acids were investigated with the MSX system. A multimembrane module configuration with REEs dissolved in aqueous nitric acid solutions showed high selectivity for REE extraction with no coextraction of non-REEs, whereas the use of aqueous hydrochloric acid solution resulted in coextraction of non-REEs due to the formation of chloroanions of non-REEs. The REE oxides were recovered from the strip solution through precipitation, drying, and annealing steps. The resulting REE oxides were characterized with XRD, SEM-EDX, and ICP-OES, demonstrating that the membrane assisted solvent extraction is capable of selectively recovering pure REEs from the industrial scrap magnets.

  11. Epigenetic analysis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunwell, Thomas L; Hesson, Luke B; Pavlova, Tatiana; Zabarovska, Veronika; Kashuba, Vladimir; Catchpoole, Daniel; Chiaramonte, Raffaella; Brini, Anna T; Griffiths, Mike; Maher, Eamonn R; Zabarovsky, Eugene; Latif, Farida

    2009-04-01

    We used a chromosome 3 wide NotI microarray for identification of epigenetically inactivated genes in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Three novel genes demonstrated frequent methylation in childhood ALL. PPP2R3A (protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B", alpha) was frequently methylated in T (69%) and B (82%)-ALL. Whilst FBLN2 (fibulin 2) and THRB (thyroid hormone receptor, beta) showed frequent methylation in B-ALL (58%; 56% respectively), but were less frequently methylated in T-ALL (17% for both genes). Recently it was demonstrated that BNC1 (Basonuclin 1) and MSX1 (msh homeobox 1) were frequently methylated across common epithelial cancers. In our series of childhood ALL BNC1 was frequently methylated in both T (77%) and B-ALL (79%), whilst MSX1 showed T-ALL (25%) specific methylation. The methylation of the above five genes was cancer specific and expression of the genes could be restored in methylated leukemia cell lines treated with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. This is the first report demonstrating frequent epigenetic inactivation of PPP2R3A, FBLN2, THRB, BNC1 and MSX1 in leukemia. The identification of frequently methylated genes showing cancer specific methylation will be useful in developing early cancer detection screens and for targeted epigenetic therapies.

  12. Different regulation of limb development by p63 transcript variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Kawata

    Full Text Available The apical ectodermal ridge (AER, located at the distal end of each limb bud, is a key signaling center which controls outgrowth and patterning of the proximal-distal axis of the limb through secretion of various molecules. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs, particularly Fgf8 and Fgf4, are representative molecules produced by AER cells, and essential to maintain the AER and cell proliferation in the underlying mesenchyme, meanwhile Jag2-Notch pathway negatively regulates the AER and limb development. p63, a transcription factor of the p53 family, is expressed in the AER and indispensable for limb formation. However, the underlying mechanisms and specific roles of p63 variants are unknown. Here, we quantified the expression of p63 variants in mouse limbs from embryonic day (E 10.5 to E12.5, and found that ΔNp63γ was strongly expressed in limbs at all stages, while TAp63γ expression was rapidly increased in the later stages. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of limb bud cells from reporter mouse embryos at E11.5 revealed that all variants were abundantly expressed in AER cells, and their expression was very low in mesenchymal cells. We then generated AER-specific p63 knockout mice by mating mice with a null and a flox allele of p63, and Msx2-Cre mice (Msx2-Cre;p63Δ/fl. Msx2-Cre;p63Δ/fl neonates showed limb malformation that was more obvious in distal elements. Expression of various AER-related genes was decreased in Msx2-Cre;p63Δ/fl limb buds and embryoid bodies formed by p63-knockdown induced pluripotent stem cells. Promoter analyses and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated Fgf8 and Fgf4 as transcriptional targets of ΔNp63γ, and Jag2 as that of TAp63γ. Furthermore, TAp63γ overexpression exacerbated the phenotype of Msx2-Cre;p63Δ/fl mice. These data indicate that ΔNp63 and TAp63 control limb development through transcriptional regulation of different target molecules with different roles in the AER. Our findings

  13. Ecological response of Cedrus atlantica to climate variability in the Massif of Guetiane (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Slimani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The study analyzes the long-term response of Atlas cedar, Cedrus atlantica (Manneti, to climate variability. Area of study: Atlas cedar forest of Guetiane (Batna, Algeria.Material and methods: The dendrochronological approach was adopted. An Atlas cedar tree-ring chronology was established from twenty trees. The response of the species to climate variability was assessed through the pointer years (PYs, the common climate signal among the individual chronologies, expressed by the first component (PC1, the mean sensitivity (msx, and response function and correlations analysis involving the tree-ring index and climate data (monthly mean temperature and total precipitation.Results: The highest growth variability was registered from the second half of the 20th century. The lower than the mean PYs, the PC1, and the msx increased markedly during the studied period. Dramatic increases in the PC1 and msx were detected at the end of the 1970s, reflecting a shift towards drier conditions enhancing an increasing trend towards more synchronous response of trees to climate conditions. The response function and correlations analysis showed that tree growth was mainly influenced by precipitation variability.Research highlights: Our findings provide baseline knowledge concerning the ecological response of Atlas cedar to climate variability in in its southern distribution limit, where a high level of tree mortality has been observed during recent decades, coinciding with the driest period Algeria has ever experienced. This information is vital to support ongoing ecosystem management efforts in the region. Keywords: Atlas cedar; annual growth variability; dieback; dendrochronology. 

  14. Five Conditions Commonly Used to Down-regulate Tor Complex 1 Generate Different Physiological Situations Exhibiting Distinct Requirements and Outcomes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Jennifer J.; Cooper, Terrance G.

    2013-01-01

    Five different physiological conditions have been used interchangeably to establish the sequence of molecular events needed to achieve nitrogen-responsive down-regulation of TorC1 and its subsequent regulation of downstream reporters: nitrogen starvation, methionine sulfoximine (Msx) addition, nitrogen limitation, rapamycin addition, and leucine starvation. Therefore, we tested a specific underlying assumption upon which the interpretation of data generated by these five experimental perturbations is premised. It is that they generate physiologically equivalent outcomes with respect to TorC1, i.e. its down-regulation as reflected by TorC1 reporter responses. We tested this assumption by performing head-to-head comparisons of the requirements for each condition to achieve a common outcome for a downstream proxy of TorC1 inactivation, nuclear Gln3 localization. We demonstrate that the five conditions for down-regulating TorC1 do not elicit physiologically equivalent outcomes. Four of the methods exhibit hierarchical Sit4 and PP2A phosphatase requirements to elicit nuclear Gln3-Myc13 localization. Rapamycin treatment required Sit4 and PP2A. Nitrogen limitation and short-term nitrogen starvation required only Sit4. G1 arrest-correlated, long-term nitrogen starvation and Msx treatment required neither PP2A nor Sit4. Starving cells of leucine or treating them with leucyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitors did not elicit nuclear Gln3-Myc13 localization. These data indicate that the five commonly used nitrogen-related conditions of down-regulating TorC1 are not physiologically equivalent and minimally involve partially differing regulatory mechanisms. Further, identical requirements for Msx treatment and long-term nitrogen starvation raise the possibility that their effects are achieved through a common regulatory pathway with glutamine, a glutamate or glutamine metabolite level as the sensed metabolic signal. PMID:23935103

  15. Phosphinothricin Acetyltransferases Identified Using In Vivo, In Vitro, and Bioinformatic Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDrisse, Chelsey M.; Hentchel, Kristy L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acetylation of small molecules is widespread in nature, and in some cases, cells use this process to detoxify harmful chemicals. Streptomyces species utilize a Gcn5 N-acetyltransferase (GNAT), known as Bar, to acetylate and detoxify a self-produced toxin, phosphinothricin (PPT), a glutamate analogue. Bar homologues, such as MddA from Salmonella enterica, acetylate methionine analogues such as methionine sulfoximine (MSX) and methionine sulfone (MSO), but not PPT, even though Bar homologues are annotated as PPT acetyltransferases. S. enterica was used as a heterologous host to determine whether or not putative PPT acetyltransferases from various sources could acetylate PPT, MSX, and MSO. In vitro and in vivo analyses identified substrates acetylated by putative PPT acetyltransferases from Deinococcus radiodurans (DR_1057 and DR_1182) and Geobacillus kaustophilus (GK0593 and GK2920). In vivo, synthesis of DR_1182, GK0593, and GK2920 blocked the inhibitory effects of PPT, MSX, and MSO. In contrast, DR_1057 did not detoxify any of the above substrates. Results of in vitro studies were consistent with the in vivo results. In addition, phylogenetic analyses were used to predict the functionality of annotated PPT acetyltransferases in Burkholderia xenovorans, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baylyi, and Escherichia coli. IMPORTANCE The work reported here provides an example of the use of a heterologous system for the identification of enzyme function. Many members of this superfamily of proteins do not have a known function, or it has been annotated solely on the basis of sequence homology to previously characterized enzymes. The critical role of Gcn5 N-acetyltransferases (GNATs) in the modulation of central metabolic processes, and in controlling metabolic stress, necessitates approaches that can reveal their physiological role. The combination of in vivo, in vitro, and bioinformatics approaches reported here identified GNATs that can

  16. Expression and Function of Xmsx-2B in Dorso-Ventral Axis Formation in Gastrula Embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onitsuka, I; Takeda, M; Maéno, M

    2000-11-01

    Msx is a homeodomain-containing transcriptional factor that plays an essential role in pattern formation in vertebrata and invertebrata embryos. In Xenopus laevis, two msx genes have been identified (Xmsx-1 and Xmsx-2). In the present study, we attempted to elucidate the expression and function of Xmsx-2B (formerly designated as Xhox7.1') in early embryogenesis. Whole mount in situ hybridization analyses showed that the expression pattern of Xmsx-2B at gastrula and neurula stages was very similar to that of Xmsx-1: the transcript of Xmsx-2B was observed in ventral and lateral sides of the embryo. At the tailbud stage, however, the expression pattern of Xmsx-2B in neural tissues was distinct from that of Xmsx-1. An RNA injection experiment revealed that, like BMP-4, Xmsx-2B has a strong ventralizing activity. In the Xmsx-2B -injected embryos, differentiation of axial structures such as the notochord, muscle, and neural tissue was completely suppressed, whereas alpha-globin mRNA, a blood cell marker, was highly expressed. Simultaneous injection of Xmsx-1 and Xmsx-2B RNAs showed that they function in an additive manner. It was also shown that coinjection of Xmsx-2B with a dominant-negative BMP-4 receptor (tBR), which can induce formation of secondary axis when injected alone in ventral blastomeres, suppressed secondary axis formation. Furthermore, Xmsx-2B also suppressed secondary axis formation, which was induced by a dominant-negative form of Xmsx-1 (VP16/msx-1). Therefore, like Xmsx-1, Xmsx-2B is a downstream nuclear factor of the BMP-4-derived ventralizing signal, and these two factors probably share the same target molecules. In conclusion, Xmsx-1 and Xmsx-2B function in dorso-ventral axis formation in early Xenopus laevis development.

  17. BMP signaling in the human fetal ovary is developmentally regulated and promotes primordial germ cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Andrew J; Kinnell, Hazel L; Collins, Craig S; Hogg, Kirsten; Bayne, Rosemary A L; Green, Samira J; McNeilly, Alan S; Anderson, Richard A

    2010-08-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the embryonic precursors of gametes in the adult organism, and their development, differentiation, and survival are regulated by a combination of growth factors collectively known as the germ cell niche. Although many candidate niche components have been identified through studies on mouse PGCs, the growth factor composition of the human PGC niche has not been studied extensively. Here we report a detailed analysis of the expression of components of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling apparatus in the human fetal ovary, from postmigratory PGC proliferation to the onset of primordial follicle formation. We find developmentally regulated and reciprocal patterns of expression of BMP2 and BMP4 and identify germ cells to be the exclusive targets of ovarian BMP signaling. By establishing long-term cultures of human fetal ovaries in which PGCs are retained within their physiological niche, we find that BMP4 negatively regulates postmigratory PGC numbers in the human fetal ovary by promoting PGC apoptosis. Finally, we report expression of both muscle segment homeobox (MSX)1 and MSX2 in the human fetal ovary and reveal a selective upregulation of MSX2 expression in human fetal ovary in response to BMP4, suggesting this gene may act as a downstream effector of BMP-induced apoptosis in the ovary, as in other systems. These data reveal for the first time growth factor regulation of human PGC development in a physiologically relevant context and have significant implications for the development of cultures systems for the in vitro maturation of germ cells, and their derivation from pluripotent stem cells.

  18. Expression analysis of some genes regulated by retinoic acid in controls and triadimefon-exposed embryos: is the amphibian Xenopus laevis a suitable model for gene-based comparative teratology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Renzo, Francesca; Rossi, Federica; Bacchetta, Renato; Prati, Mariangela; Giavini, Erminio; Menegola, Elena

    2011-06-01

    The use of nonmammal models in teratological studies is a matter of debate and seems to be justified if the embryotoxic mechanism involves conserved processes. Published data on mammals and Xenopus laevis suggest that azoles are teratogenic by altering the endogenous concentration of retinoic acid (RA). The expression of some genes (Shh, Ptch-1, Gsc, and Msx2) controlled by retinoic acid is downregulated in rat embryos exposed at the phylotypic stage to the triazole triadimefon (FON). In order to propose X. laevis as a model for gene-based comparative teratology, this work evaluates the expression of Shh, Ptch-1, Gsc, and Msx2 in FON-exposed X. laevis embryos. Embryos, exposed to a high concentration level (500 µM) of FON from stage 13 till 17, were examined at stages 17, 27, and 47. Stage 17 and 27 embryos were processed to perform quantitative RT-PCR. The developmental rate was never affected by FON at any considered stage. FON-exposed stage 47 larvae showed the typical craniofacial malformations. A significant downregulation of Gsc was observed in FON-exposed stage 17 embryos. Shh, Ptch-1, Msx2 showed a high fluctuation of expression both in control and in FON-exposed samples both at stages 17 and 27. The downregulation of Gsc mimics the effects of FON on rat embryos, showing for this gene a common effect of FON in the two vertebrate classes. The high fluctuation observed in the gene expression of the other genes, however, suggests that X. laevis at this stage has limited utility for gene-based comparative teratology. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Palmitic Acid Induces Osteoblastic Differentiation in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells through ACSL3 and NF-κB, Novel Targets of Eicosapentaenoic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Aiko; Matsui, Hiroki; Ohta, Masahiko; Sambuichi, Keisuke; Kawano, Hiroyuki; Notsu, Tatsuto; Imada, Kazunori; Yokoyama, Tomoyuki; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs), elevated in metabolic syndrome and diabetes, play a crucial role in the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) counteracts many aspects of FFA-induced vascular pathology. Although vascular calcification is invariably associated with atherosclerosis, the mechanisms involved are not completely elucidated. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that EPA prevents the osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) induced by palmitic acid (PA), the most abundant long-chain saturated fatty acid in plasma. PA increased and EPA abolished the expression of the genes for bone-related proteins, including bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, Msx2 and osteopontin in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC). Among the long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL) subfamily, ACSL3 expression was predominant in HASMC, and PA robustly increased and EPA efficiently inhibited ACSL3 expression. Importantly, PA-induced osteoblastic differentiation was mediated, at least in part, by ACSL3 activation because acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) inhibitor or siRNA targeted to ACSL3 completely prevented the PA induction of both BMP-2 and Msx2. Conversely, adenovirus-mediated ACSL3 overexpression enhanced PA-induced BMP-2 and Msx2 expression. In addition, EPA, ACSL3 siRNA and ACS inhibitor attenuated calcium deposition and caspase activation induced by PA. Notably, PA induced activation of NF-κB, and NF-κB inhibitor prevented PA-induction of osteoblastic gene expression and calcium deposition. Immunohistochemistry revealed the prominent expression of ACSL3 in VSMC and macrophages in human non-calcifying and calcifying atherosclerotic plaques from the carotid arteries. These results identify ACSL3 and NF-κB as mediators of PA-induced osteoblastic differentiation and calcium deposition in VSMC and suggest that EPA prevents vascular calcification by inhibiting such a new molecular pathway elicited

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galactic CHaMP. II. Dense gas clumps. (Ma+, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, B.; Tan, J. C.; Barnes, P. J.

    2015-04-01

    A total of 303 dense gas clumps have been detected using the HCO+(1-0) line in the CHaMP survey (Paper I, Barnes et al. 2011, J/ApJS/196/12). In this article we have derived the SED for these clumps using Spitzer, MSX, and IRAS data. The Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) was launched in 1996 April. It conducted a Galactic plane survey (0MSX band wavelengths are centered at 8.28, 12.13, 14.65, and 21.3um. The best image resolution is ~18" in the 8.28um band, with positional accuracy of about 2". Calibrated images of the Galactic plane were obtained from the online MSX image server at the IPAC website. The IRAS performed an all-sky survey at 12, 25, 60, and 100um. The nominal resolution is about 4' at 60um. High Resolution Image Restoration (HIRES) uses the maximum correlation method to produce higher resolution images, better than 1' at 60um. Sources chosen for processing with HIRES were processed at all four IRAS bands with 20 iterations. The Spitzer InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) is a four-channel camera that provides simultaneous 5.2"x5.2" images at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8um with an angular resolution of about 2" at 8um. We searched the Spitzer archive at IPAC. Most of these data are from two large survey programs: PID 189 (Churchwell, E., "The SIRTF Galactic Plane Survey") and PID 40791 (Majewski, S., "Galactic Structure and Star Formation in Vela-Carina"). Hill et al. (2005, J/MNRAS/363/405) carried out a 1.2mm continuum emission survey toward 131 star-forming complexes using the Swedish ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST) IMaging Bolometer Array (SIMBA). Hill et al. list the 1.2mm flux for 404 sources, 15 of which are in our sample. (2 data files).

  1. Inhibition of the CXCL12/CXCR4-axis as preventive therapy for radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Kuo G Shu

    Full Text Available A devastating late injury caused by radiation is pulmonary fibrosis. This risk may limit the volume of irradiation and compromise potentially curative therapy. Therefore, development of a therapy to prevent this toxicity can be of great benefit for this patient population. Activation of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 by its ligand stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1/CXCL12 may be important in the development of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we tested whether MSX-122, a novel small molecule and partial CXCR4 antagonist, can block development of this fibrotic process.The radiation-induced lung fibrosis model used was C57BL/6 mice irradiated to the entire thorax or right hemithorax to 20 Gy. Our parabiotic model involved joining a transgenic C57BL/6 mouse expressing GFP with a wild-type mouse that was subsequently irradiated to assess for migration of GFP+ bone marrow-derived progenitor cells to the irradiated lung. CXCL12 levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum after irradiation were determined by ELISA. CXCR4 and CXCL12 mRNA in the irradiated lung was determined by RNase protection assay. Irradiated mice were treated daily with AMD3100, an established CXCR4 antagonist; MSX-122; and their corresponding vehicles to determine impact of drug treatment on fibrosis development. Fibrosis was assessed by serial CTs and histology. After irradiation, CXCL12 levels increased in BALF and serum with a corresponding rise in CXCR4 mRNA within irradiated lungs consistent with recruitment of a CXCR4+ cell population. Using our parabiotic model, we demonstrated recruitment of CXCR4+ bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, identified based on marker expression, to irradiated lungs. Finally, irradiated mice that received MSX-122 had significant reductions in development of pulmonary fibrosis while AMD3100 did not significantly suppress this fibrotic process.CXCR4 inhibition by drugs such as MSX-122 may alleviate potential

  2. Multiwavelength Imaging Of YSOs With Disk In South Pillars Of Eta Carina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, J. A.; Porras, B. A.

    2013-04-01

    We present multiwavelength imaginery and spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 15 Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) with disk components lying on the South Pillars region close to Eta Carina (η Car). The SEDs include IR fluxes from 2MASS, IRAC, MSX, AKARI, and MIPS-24 μm, and 1.1 mm flux from AzTEC camera at the ASTE antenna. Millimeter fluxes help to constrain the number of fitted models, which provide the list of physical parameters for the star, the disk and the envelope. We then compare the parameters of the YSOs and their spatial location within the star forming region.

  3. Inhibition of the CXCL12/CXCR4-axis as preventive therapy for radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Hui-Kuo G; Yoon, Younghyoun; Hong, Samuel; Xu, Kaiming; Gao, Huiying; Hao, Chunhai; Torres-Gonzalez, Edilson; Nayra, Cardenes; Rojas, Mauricio; Shim, Hyunsuk

    2013-01-01

    A devastating late injury caused by radiation is pulmonary fibrosis. This risk may limit the volume of irradiation and compromise potentially curative therapy. Therefore, development of a therapy to prevent this toxicity can be of great benefit for this patient population. Activation of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 by its ligand stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1/CXCL12) may be important in the development of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Here, we tested whether MSX-122, a novel small molecule and partial CXCR4 antagonist, can block development of this fibrotic process. The radiation-induced lung fibrosis model used was C57BL/6 mice irradiated to the entire thorax or right hemithorax to 20 Gy. Our parabiotic model involved joining a transgenic C57BL/6 mouse expressing GFP with a wild-type mouse that was subsequently irradiated to assess for migration of GFP+ bone marrow-derived progenitor cells to the irradiated lung. CXCL12 levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum after irradiation were determined by ELISA. CXCR4 and CXCL12 mRNA in the irradiated lung was determined by RNase protection assay. Irradiated mice were treated daily with AMD3100, an established CXCR4 antagonist; MSX-122; and their corresponding vehicles to determine impact of drug treatment on fibrosis development. Fibrosis was assessed by serial CTs and histology. After irradiation, CXCL12 levels increased in BALF and serum with a corresponding rise in CXCR4 mRNA within irradiated lungs consistent with recruitment of a CXCR4+ cell population. Using our parabiotic model, we demonstrated recruitment of CXCR4+ bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, identified based on marker expression, to irradiated lungs. Finally, irradiated mice that received MSX-122 had significant reductions in development of pulmonary fibrosis while AMD3100 did not significantly suppress this fibrotic process. CXCR4 inhibition by drugs such as MSX-122 may alleviate potential radiation-induced lung

  4. Selective isolation and differentiation of a stromal population of human embryonic stem cells with osteogenic potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harkness, Linda M; Mahmood, Amer; Ditzel, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    cultured in osteogenic differentiation media, up regulation of osteoblastic lineage markers (DLX5, MSX2, RUNX2, SPARC, ALP, COL1a1, BGLAP, IBSP, DCN, LOX-L4) and production of in vitro mineralized matrix was detected. hESC-stromal cells loaded on a carrier and implanted either subcutaneously...... or in a critical size calvarial defect in immune deficient mice for 10weeks, resulted in new bone formation and partial repair of the calvarial defect. In conclusion, hESC-stromal can be isolated from hESC cultures and represent a good source for obtaining cells with osteogenic differentiation potential suitable...

  5. INFRARED COLOR-COLOR DIAGRAMS FOR AGB STARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Won Suh

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We present infrared color-color diagrams of AGB stars from the observations at near and mid infrared bands. We compile the observations for hundreds of OH/IR stars and carbon stars using the data from the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX, the two micron sky survey (2MASS, and the IRAS point source catalog (PSC. We compare the observations with the theoretical evolutionary tracks of AGB stars. From the new observational data base and the theoretical evolution tracks, we discuss the meaning of the infrared color-color diagrams at different wavelengths.

  6. Circumstellar Structure Around Evolved Stars in the Cygnus-X Star Formation Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Dataset (NOMAD; Zacharias et al. 2004), JHK data are from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey ( 2MASS ; Cutri et al. 2003), and mid-infrared data are from our...2%; Hora et al. 2008a) and MIPS (4%; Engelbracht et al. 2007). Those for 2MASS are from Cutri et al. (2003; see also Skrutskie et al. 2006); the... 2MASS (Cutri et al. 2003), and Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX; Egan et al. 2003) point-source catalogs. However, no references discussing its

  7. Discovery and Analysis of 21 micrometer Feature Sources in the Magellanic Clouds (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-10

    except for IRAS F06111−7023, for which the 2MASS catalog position is used due to the relatively low accuracy of the IRAS position. Clayton 1996). They...IRAC; Fazio et al. 2004) position. For the one object outside the SAGE survey area, IRAS F06111−7023, the Two Micron All Sky Survey ( 2MASS ; Skrutskie...et al. 2006) position of the counterpart is given as the source position. This 2MASS position is about 2′′ from the MSX (Mill et al. 1994) position for

  8. Large-Scale Structure of the Carina Nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith; Egan; Carey; Price; Morse; Price

    2000-04-01

    Observations obtained with the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) satellite reveal for the first time the complex mid-infrared morphology of the entire Carina Nebula (NGC 3372). On the largest size scale of approximately 100 pc, the thermal infrared emission from the giant H ii region delineates one coherent structure: a (somewhat distorted) bipolar nebula with the major axis perpendicular to the Galactic plane. The Carina Nebula is usually described as an evolved H ii region that is no longer actively forming stars, clearing away the last vestiges of its natal molecular cloud. However, the MSX observations presented here reveal numerous embedded infrared sources that are good candidates for sites of current star formation. Several compact infrared sources are located at the heads of dust pillars or in dark globules behind ionization fronts. Because their morphology suggests a strong interaction with the peculiar collection of massive stars in the nebula, we speculate that these new infrared sources may be sites of triggered star formation in NGC 3372.

  9. Laboratory studies of magnetized collisionless flows and shocks using accelerated plasmoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, T. E.; Smith, R. J.; Hsu, S. C.

    2015-11-01

    Magnetized collisionless shocks are thought to play a dominant role in the overall partition of energy throughout the universe, but have historically proven difficult to create in the laboratory. The Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX) at LANL creates conditions similar to those found in both space and astrophysical shocks by accelerating hot (100s of eV during translation) dense (1022 - 1023 m-3) Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) plasmoids to high velocities (100s of km/s); resulting in β ~ 1, collisionless plasma flows with sonic and Alfvén Mach numbers of ~10. The FRC subsequently impacts a static target such as a strong parallel or anti-parallel (reconnection-wise) magnetic mirror, a solid obstacle, or neutral gas cloud to create shocks with characteristic length and time scales that are both large enough to observe yet small enough to fit within the experiment. This enables study of the complex interplay of kinetic and fluid processes that mediate cosmic shocks and can generate non-thermal distributions, produce density and magnetic field enhancements much greater than predicted by fluid theory, and accelerate particles. An overview of the experimental capabilities of MSX will be presented, including diagnostics, selected recent results, and future directions. Supported by the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences under contract DE-AC52-06NA25369.

  10. Development of an Improved Mammalian Overexpression Method for Human CD62L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Haley A.; Roth, Gwynne; Holzapfel, Genevieve; Shen, Sarek; Rahbari, Kate; Ireland, Joanna; Zou, Zhongcheng; Sun, Peter D.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously developed a glutamine synthetase (GS)-based mammalian recombinant protein expression system that is capable of producing 5 to 30 mg/L recombinant proteins. The over expression is based on multiple rounds of target gene amplification driven by methionine sulfoximine (MSX), an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase. However, like other stable mammalian over expression systems, a major shortcoming of the GS-based expression system is its lengthy turn-around time, typically taking 4–6 months to produce. To shorten the construction time, we replaced the muti-round target gene amplifications with single-round in situ amplifications, thereby shortening the cell line construction to 2 months. The single-round in situ amplification method resulted in highest recombinant CD62L expressing CHO cell lines producing ~5mg/L soluble CD62L, similar to those derived from the multi-round amplification and selection method. In addition, we developed a MSX resistance assay as an alternative to utilizing ELISA for evaluating the expression level of stable recombinant CHO cell lines. PMID:25286402

  11. Nitrogen Starvation Acclimation in Synechococcus elongatus: Redox-Control and the Role of Nitrate Reduction as an Electron Sink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Klotz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen starvation acclimation in non-diazotrophic cyanobacteria is characterized by a process termed chlorosis, where the light harvesting pigments are degraded and the cells gradually tune down photosynthetic and metabolic activities. The chlorosis response is governed by a complex and poorly understood regulatory network, which converges at the expression of the nblA gene, the triggering factor for phycobiliprotein degradation. This study established a method that allows uncoupling metabolic and redox-signals involved in nitrogen-starvation acclimation. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase (GS by a precise dosage of l-methionine-sulfoximine (MSX mimics the metabolic situation of nitrogen starvation. Addition of nitrate to such MSX-inhibited cells eliminates the associated redox-stress by enabling electron flow towards nitrate/nitrite reduction and thereby, prevents the induction of nblA expression and the associated chlorosis response. This study demonstrates that nitrogen starvation is perceived not only through metabolic signals, but requires a redox signal indicating over-reduction of PSI-reduced electron acceptors. It further establishes a cryptic role of nitrate/nitrite reductases as electron sinks to balance conditions of over-reduction.

  12. Nitrogen Starvation Acclimation in Synechococcus elongatus: Redox-Control and the Role of Nitrate Reduction as an Electron Sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Alexander; Reinhold, Edgar; Doello, Sofía; Forchhammer, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen starvation acclimation in non-diazotrophic cyanobacteria is characterized by a process termed chlorosis, where the light harvesting pigments are degraded and the cells gradually tune down photosynthetic and metabolic activities. The chlorosis response is governed by a complex and poorly understood regulatory network, which converges at the expression of the nblA gene, the triggering factor for phycobiliprotein degradation. This study established a method that allows uncoupling metabolic and redox-signals involved in nitrogen-starvation acclimation. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase (GS) by a precise dosage of l-methionine-sulfoximine (MSX) mimics the metabolic situation of nitrogen starvation. Addition of nitrate to such MSX-inhibited cells eliminates the associated redox-stress by enabling electron flow towards nitrate/nitrite reduction and thereby, prevents the induction of nblA expression and the associated chlorosis response. This study demonstrates that nitrogen starvation is perceived not only through metabolic signals, but requires a redox signal indicating over-reduction of PSI-reduced electron acceptors. It further establishes a cryptic role of nitrate/nitrite reductases as electron sinks to balance conditions of over-reduction. PMID:25780959

  13. Multi-wavelength study of two possible cloud-cloud collision regions: IRAS 02459+6029 and IRAS 22528+5936

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Nan; Wang Junjie

    2012-01-01

    Based on observations of 12 CO (J=2–1), we select targets from archived Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) data of IRAS 02459+6029 and IRAS 22528+5936 as samples of cloud-cloud collision, according to the criteria given by Vallee. Then we use the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) A band (8.28 μm) images and the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) (1.4 GHz) continuum images to investigate the association between molecular clouds traced by the CO contour maps. The distribution of dust and ionized hydrogen shows an obvious association with the CO contour maps toward IRAS 02459+6029. However, in the possible collision region of IRAS 22528+5936, NVSS continuum radiation is not detected and the MSX sources are merely associated with the central star. The velocity fields of the two regions indicate the direction of the pressure and interaction. In addition, we have identified candidates of young stellar objects (YSOs) by using data from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) in JHK bands expressed in a color-color diagram. The distribution of YSOs shows that the possible collision region is denser than other regions. All the evidence suggests that IRAS 02459+6029 could be an example of cloud-cloud collision, and that IRAS 22528+5936 could be two separate non-colliding clouds. (research papers)

  14. Rapid protein production from stable CHO cell pools using plasmid vector and the cumate gene-switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, Adeline; Perret, Sylvie; Malenfant, Félix; Mullick, Alaka; Massie, Bernard; Durocher, Yves

    2017-08-10

    To rapidly produce large amounts of recombinant proteins, the generation of stable Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell pools represents a useful alternative to large-scale transient gene expression (TGE). We have developed a cell line (CHO BRI/rcTA ) allowing the inducible expression of recombinant proteins, based on the cumate gene switch. After the identification of optimal plasmid DNA topology (supercoiled vs linearized plasmid) for PEIpro™ mediated transfection and of optimal conditions for methionine sulfoximine (MSX) selection, we were able to generate CHO BRI/rcTA pools producing high levels of recombinant proteins. Volumetric productivities of up to 900mg/L were reproducibly achieved for a Fc fusion protein and up to 350mg/L for an antibody after 14days post-induction in non-optimized fed-batch cultures. In addition, we show that CHO pool volumetric productivities are not affected by a freeze-thaw cycle or following maintenance in culture for over one month in the presence of MSX. Finally, we demonstrate that volumetric protein production with the CR5 cumate-inducible promoter is three- to four-fold higher than with the human CMV or hybrid EF1α-HTLV constitutive promoters. These results suggest that the cumate-inducible CHO BRI/rcTA stable pool platform is a powerful and robust system for the rapid production of gram amounts of recombinant proteins. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dlx homeobox gene family expression in osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lézot, F; Thomas, B L; Blin-Wakkach, C; Castaneda, B; Bolanos, A; Hotton, D; Sharpe, P T; Heymann, D; Carles, G F; Grigoriadis, A E; Berdal, A

    2010-06-01

    Skeletal growth and homeostasis require the finely orchestrated secretion of mineralized tissue matrices by highly specialized cells, balanced with their degradation by osteoclasts. Time- and site-specific expression of Dlx and Msx homeobox genes in the cells secreting these matrices have been identified as important elements in the regulation of skeletal morphology. Such specific expression patterns have also been reported in osteoclasts for Msx genes. The aim of the present study was to establish the expression patterns of Dlx genes in osteoclasts and identify their function in regulating skeletal morphology. The expression patterns of all Dlx genes were examined during the whole osteoclastogenesis using different in vitro models. The results revealed that Dlx1 and Dlx2 are the only Dlx family members with a possible function in osteoclastogenesis as well as in mature osteoclasts. Dlx5 and Dlx6 were detected in the cultures but appear to be markers of monocytes and their derivatives. In vivo, Dlx2 expression in osteoclasts was examined using a Dlx2/LacZ transgenic mouse. Dlx2 is expressed in a subpopulation of osteoclasts in association with tooth, brain, nerve, and bone marrow volumetric growths. Altogether the present data suggest a role for Dlx2 in regulation of skeletal morphogenesis via functions within osteoclasts. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Complementary striped expression patterns of NK homeobox genes during segment formation in the annelid Platynereis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saudemont, Alexandra; Dray, Nicolas; Hudry, Bruno; Le Gouar, Martine; Vervoort, Michel; Balavoine, Guillaume

    2008-05-15

    NK genes are related pan-metazoan homeobox genes. In the fruitfly, NK genes are clustered and involved in patterning various mesodermal derivatives during embryogenesis. It was therefore suggested that the NK cluster emerged in evolution as an ancestral mesodermal patterning cluster. To test this hypothesis, we cloned and analysed the expression patterns of the homologues of NK cluster genes Msx, NK4, NK3, Lbx, Tlx, NK1 and NK5 in the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii, a representative of trochozoans, the third great branch of bilaterian animals alongside deuterostomes and ecdysozoans. We found that most of these genes are involved, as they are in the fly, in the specification of distinct mesodermal derivatives, notably subsets of muscle precursors. The expression of the homologue of NK4/tinman in the pulsatile dorsal vessel of Platynereis strongly supports the hypothesis that the vertebrate heart derived from a dorsal vessel relocated to a ventral position by D/V axis inversion in a chordate ancestor. Additionally and more surprisingly, NK4, Lbx, Msx, Tlx and NK1 orthologues are expressed in complementary sets of stripes in the ectoderm and/or mesoderm of forming segments, suggesting an involvement in the segment formation process. A potentially ancient role of the NK cluster genes in segment formation, unsuspected from vertebrate and fruitfly studies so far, now deserves to be investigated in other bilaterian species, especially non-insect arthropods and onychophorans.

  17. Dual odontogenic origins develop at the early stage of rat maxillary incisor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriangkrai, Rungarun; Iseki, Sachiko; Eto, Kazuhiro; Chareonvit, Suconta

    2006-03-01

    Developmental process of rat maxillary incisor has been studied through histological analysis and investigation of tooth-related gene expression patterns at initial tooth development. The tooth-related genes studied here are fibroblast growth factor-8 (Fgf-8), pituitary homeobox gene-2 (Pitx-2), sonic hedgehog (Shh), muscle segment homeobox-1 (Msx-1), paired box-9 (Pax-9) and bone morphogenetic protein-4 (Bmp-4). The genes are expressed in oral epithelium and/or ectomesenchyme at the stage of epithelial thickening to the early bud stage of tooth development. Both the histological observation and tooth-related gene expression patterns during early stage of maxillary incisor development demonstrate that dual odontogenic origins aligned medio-laterally in the medial nasal process develop, subsequently only single functional maxillary incisor dental placode forms. The cascade of tooth-related gene expression patterns in rat maxillary incisor studied here is quite similar to those of the previous studies in mouse mandibular molar, even though the origins of oral epithelium and ectomesenchyme involved in development of maxillary incisor and mandibular molar are different. Thus, we conclude that maxillary incisor and mandibular molar share a similar signaling control of Fgf-8, Pitx-2, Shh, Msx-1, Pax-9 and Bmp-4 genes at the stage of oral epithelial thickening to the early bud stage of tooth development.

  18. Candidate gene association studies in syndromic and non-syndromic cleft lip and palate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daack-Hirsch, S.; Basart, A.; Frischmeyer, P. [Univ. of Iowa, IA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Using ongoing case ascertainment through a birth defects registry, we have collected 219 nuclear families with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate and 111 families with a collection of syndromic forms. Syndromic cases include 24 with recognized forms and 72 with unrecognized syndromes. Candidate gene studies as well as genome-wide searches for evidence of microdeletions and isodisomy are currently being carried out. Candidate gene association studies, to date, have made use of PCR-based polymorphisms for TGFA, MSX1, CLPG13 (a CA repeat associated with a human homologue of a locus that results in craniofacial dysmorphogenesis in the mouse) and an STRP found in a Van der Woude syndrome microdeletion. Control tetranucleotide repeats, which insure that population-based differences are not responsible for any observed associations, are also tested. Studies of the syndromic cases have included the same list of candidate genes searching for evidence of microdeletions and a genome-wide search using tri- and tetranucleotide polymorphic markers to search for isodisomy or structural rearrangements. Significant associations have previously been identified for TGFA, and, in this report, identified for MSX1 and nonsyndromic cleft palate only (p = 0.04, uncorrected). Preliminary results of the genome-wide scan for isodisomy has returned no true positives and there has been no evidence for microdeletion cases.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Vatican Emission-line stars (Coyne+ 1974-1983)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, G. V.; Lee, T. A.; de Graeve, E.; Wisniewski, W.; Corbally, C.; Otten, L. B.; MacConnell, D. J.

    2009-10-01

    The survey represents a search for Hα emission-line stars, and was conducted with a 12{deg} objective prism on the Vatican Schmidt telescope. The Vatican Emission Stars (VES) survey covers the galactic plane (|b|II/246), IRAS point source catalog (II/125), MSX6C (V/114), CMC14 (I/304), GSC-2.3 (I/305), UCAC2 (I/289). Cross-identifications are also supplied with HD/BD/GCVS names, and with Dearborn catalog of red stars (II/68). Many of the stars in the first four papers are not early-type emission-line stars, but instead M giants, where the sharp TiO bandhead at 6544{AA} was mistaken for H-{alpha} emission on the objective-prism plates. Based on the revision of paper V and a later list prepared by Jack MacConnell, a column identifies the "non H-alpha" stars explicitly. The links with the Dearborn, IRAS, and MSX catalogues help identify the red stars. These and other identifications and comments are given in the remarks at the end of each line, or in longer notes in a separate file, indicated by an asterisk (*) next to the star number. (3 data files).

  20. Rapid plant evolution in the presence of an introduced species alters community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David Solance; Lau, Matthew K; Jacobs, Ryan; Monroy, Jenna A; Shuster, Stephen M; Whitham, Thomas G

    2015-10-01

    Because introduced species may strongly interact with native species and thus affect their fitness, it is important to examine how these interactions can cascade to have ecological and evolutionary consequences for whole communities. Here, we examine the interactions among introduced Rocky Mountain elk, Cervus canadensis nelsoni, a common native plant, Solidago velutina, and the diverse plant-associated community of arthropods. While introduced species are recognized as one of the biggest threats to native ecosystems, relatively few studies have investigated an evolutionary mechanism by which introduced species alter native communities. Here, we use a common garden design that addresses and supports two hypotheses. First, native S. velutina has rapidly evolved in the presence of introduced elk. We found that plants originating from sites with introduced elk flowered nearly 3 weeks before plants originating from sites without elk. Second, evolution of S. velutina results in a change to the plant-associated arthropod community. We found that plants originating from sites with introduced elk supported an arthropod community that had ~35 % fewer total individuals and a different species composition. Our results show that the impacts of introduced species can have both ecological and evolutionary consequences for strongly interacting species that subsequently cascade to affect a much larger community. Such evolutionary consequences are likely to be long-term and difficult to remediate.

  1. Relationships between nutritional condition of adult females and relative carrying capacity for rocky mountain Elk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecke, J.R.; Bender, L.C.

    2009-01-01

    Lactation can have significant costs to individual and population-level productivity because of the high energetic demands it places on dams. Because the difference in condition between lactating and dry Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) cows tends to disappear as nutritional quality rises, the magnitude of that difference could be used to relate condition to habitat quality or the capability of habitats to support elk. We therefore compared nutritional condition of ???2.5-yr-old lactating and dry cows from six free-ranging RockyMountain elk populations throughout the United States.Our goal was to quantify differential accrual of body fat (BF) reserves to determine whether the condition of dry and lactating cows could be used to define relevant management thresholds of habitat quality (i.e., relative carrying capacity) and consequently potential performance of elk populations. Levels of BF that lactating cows were able to accrue in autumn and the proportional difference in BF between dry and lactating cows in autumn were related (F 1-2,10???16.2, Plogistic model to predict relative proximity to ecological carrying capacity (ECC), our population-years ranged from3-97%ofECCand proportion of the population lactating (an index of calf survival) was negatively related to proportion of ECC. Results indicate that the proportional difference in accrual of BF between lactating and dry cows can provide a sensitive index to where elk populations reside relative to the quality of their range.

  2. Development of pneumonia in desert bighorn sheep after exposure to a flock of exotic wild and domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, R J; Bunch, T D; Workman, G W; Mock, R E

    1991-03-15

    From 1986 to 1989, 5 desert bighorn sheep (3 Ovis canadensis mexicana and 2 O c nelsoni), ranging in age from 2 to 3 years, were exposed to a flock of exotic wild and domestic sheep to potentially achieve naturally acquired pneumonia. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from nasal samples from 4 of 6 sheep randomly sampled from the flock. Bighorn sheep were exposed individually and each exposure period was a trial. Treatment before and after exposure varied and included combinations of alpha interferon, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, and vaccines. Treatments were chosen on the basis of recommendations of others for treating pneumonia in desert bighorn sheep as well as our own experience in sheep and cattle. Regardless of treatment used, bighorn sheep in trials 1 to 4 developed signs of pneumonia within 10 to 14 days of exposure. Bighorn sheep in trials 1 to 3 died within 11 to 17 days of initial exposure. In trial 4, the bighorn sheep was isolated from the carrier sheep for treatment of pneumonia on day 14 and died on day 30. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from lung tissue in 3 of the 4 bighorn sheep. On the basis of results of trials 1 to 4, a more in depth clinical study was conducted in trial 5. Nasal and blood specimens were collected prior to and during trial 5 for bacteriologic culturing and serologic testing for bovine viral diarrhea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3 virus, and respiratory syncytial virus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Prevalence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in desert bighorn sheep in Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice-Allen, Anne E.; Luedtke, Clint J.; Overstreet, Matthew; Cain, James W.; Stephenson, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the potential for an epizootic of pneumonia to result from either natural immigration or translocation, we compared the seroprevalence to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in several populations of desert bighorn sheep in Arizona. We collected blood samples and nasal or oropharyngeal swabs from 124 desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) from 6 populations in Arizona in 2009 and 2010. M. ovipneumoniae organisms were detected by PCR in 22%, whereas antibodies to M. ovipneumoniae were detected in 47% of tested bighorn sheep. Mycoplasma antibodies were not found in 2 of 6 populations, indicating some bighorn sheep populations in Arizona are naïve to this bacterium. In contrast, others had seroprevalence rates up to 80%. We were able to compare seroprevalence rates and titers over time in 9 individuals (7 individuals included in the 124 bighorn sheep sampled in 2009 and 2010, and 2 individuals originally captured in 2006). Antibody titers persisted for 12 months in individuals from the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge (n = 7) while antibody titers appeared to decline in the Kanab Creek population (n = 2). M. ovipneumoniae is present or has been present in several, but not all, populations of bighorn sheep in Arizona. The results demonstrate the importance of routine health testing for future translocation efforts to reduce disease risk for naive populations.

  4. Prion Amplification and Hierarchical Bayesian Modeling Refine Detection of Prion Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyckoff, A. Christy; Galloway, Nathan; Meyerett-Reid, Crystal; Powers, Jenny; Spraker, Terry; Monello, Ryan J.; Pulford, Bruce; Wild, Margaret; Antolin, Michael; Vercauteren, Kurt; Zabel, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Prions are unique infectious agents that replicate without a genome and cause neurodegenerative diseases that include chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is currently considered the gold standard for diagnosis of a prion infection but may be insensitive to early or sub-clinical CWD that are important to understanding CWD transmission and ecology. We assessed the potential of serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) to improve detection of CWD prior to the onset of clinical signs. We analyzed tissue samples from free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and used hierarchical Bayesian analysis to estimate the specificity and sensitivity of IHC and sPMCA conditional on simultaneously estimated disease states. Sensitivity estimates were higher for sPMCA (99.51%, credible interval (CI) 97.15-100%) than IHC of obex (brain stem, 76.56%, CI 57.00-91.46%) or retropharyngeal lymph node (90.06%, CI 74.13-98.70%) tissues, or both (98.99%, CI 90.01-100%). Our hierarchical Bayesian model predicts the prevalence of prion infection in this elk population to be 18.90% (CI 15.50-32.72%), compared to previous estimates of 12.90%. Our data reveal a previously unidentified sub-clinical prion-positive portion of the elk population that could represent silent carriers capable of significantly impacting CWD ecology.

  5. Food habits and radionuclide tissue concentrations of Nevada desert bighorn sheep, 1972--1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.W.; Smith, D.D.; Bernhardt, D.E.; Giles, K.R.; Helvie, J.B.

    1976-06-01

    The botanical composition of the diet and radionuclide content of selected tissues of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) collected during the 1972 and 1973 hunting seasons were determined by analyzing rumen contents, and lung, liver, kidney, and bone tissues. Botanical examination of the rumen contents showed that grass exceeded 50 percent of the diet of 10 to 14 animals collected in 1972 and 12 of 18 animals collected in 1973. Desert needlegrass (Stipa speciosa), Indian rice grass (Oryzopsis hymenoides), and squirrel tail (Sitanion hystrix) were the major grasses utilized. The dominant shrub species consumed included the joint firs (Ephedra viridis) and (Ephedra nevadensis), Mohave yucca (Yucca schidigera), and cliff rose (Cowania mexicana). With the exception of potassium-40, gamma-emitting radionuclides were not detected in desert bighorn sheep tissue. The tritium levels reported were within environmental levels. Strontium-90 levels averaged 4.9 and 4.1 pCi/gram of bone ash for 1972 and 1973, respectively, continuing the downward trend observed in recent years. Uranium levels were similar to those reported from cattle grazing the same general geographic areas. The daily consumption for one year of 500 grams of liver containing the highest levels of plutonium and uranium would result in a dose to the human bone, the tissue expected to receive the highest dose, of approximately 1 mrem/year. This is less than 1% of the radiation protection guides for the general population

  6. Endemic chronic wasting disease causes mule deer population decline in Wyoming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melia T DeVivo

    Full Text Available Chronic wasting disease (CWD is a fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus, mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus, Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni, and moose (Alces alces shirasi in North America. In southeastern Wyoming average annual CWD prevalence in mule deer exceeds 20% and appears to contribute to regional population declines. We determined the effect of CWD on mule deer demography using age-specific, female-only, CWD transition matrix models to estimate the population growth rate (λ. Mule deer were captured from 2010-2014 in southern Converse County Wyoming, USA. Captured adult (≥ 1.5 years old deer were tested ante-mortem for CWD using tonsil biopsies and monitored using radio telemetry. Mean annual survival rates of CWD-negative and CWD-positive deer were 0.76 and 0.32, respectively. Pregnancy and fawn recruitment were not observed to be influenced by CWD. We estimated λ = 0.79, indicating an annual population decline of 21% under current CWD prevalence levels. A model derived from the demography of only CWD-negative individuals yielded; λ = 1.00, indicating a stable population if CWD were absent. These findings support CWD as a significant contributor to mule deer population decline. Chronic wasting disease is difficult or impossible to eradicate with current tools, given significant environmental contamination, and at present our best recommendation for control of this disease is to minimize spread to new areas and naïve cervid populations.

  7. Prion amplification and hierarchical Bayesian modeling refine detection of prion infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyckoff, A Christy; Galloway, Nathan; Meyerett-Reid, Crystal; Powers, Jenny; Spraker, Terry; Monello, Ryan J; Pulford, Bruce; Wild, Margaret; Antolin, Michael; VerCauteren, Kurt; Zabel, Mark

    2015-02-10

    Prions are unique infectious agents that replicate without a genome and cause neurodegenerative diseases that include chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is currently considered the gold standard for diagnosis of a prion infection but may be insensitive to early or sub-clinical CWD that are important to understanding CWD transmission and ecology. We assessed the potential of serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA) to improve detection of CWD prior to the onset of clinical signs. We analyzed tissue samples from free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and used hierarchical Bayesian analysis to estimate the specificity and sensitivity of IHC and sPMCA conditional on simultaneously estimated disease states. Sensitivity estimates were higher for sPMCA (99.51%, credible interval (CI) 97.15-100%) than IHC of obex (brain stem, 76.56%, CI 57.00-91.46%) or retropharyngeal lymph node (90.06%, CI 74.13-98.70%) tissues, or both (98.99%, CI 90.01-100%). Our hierarchical Bayesian model predicts the prevalence of prion infection in this elk population to be 18.90% (CI 15.50-32.72%), compared to previous estimates of 12.90%. Our data reveal a previously unidentified sub-clinical prion-positive portion of the elk population that could represent silent carriers capable of significantly impacting CWD ecology.

  8. Determination of locational error associated with global positioning system (GPS) radio collars in relation to vegetation and topography in north-central New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, K.; Biggs, J.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1997-02-01

    In 1996, a study was initiated to assess seasonal habitat use and movement patterns of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) using global positioning system (GPS) radio collars. As part of this study, the authors attempted to assess the accuracies of GPS (non-differentially corrected) positions under various vegetation canopies and terrain conditions with the use of a GPS ``test`` collar. The test collar was activated every twenty minutes to obtain a position location and continuously uplinked to Argos satellites to transfer position data files. They used a Telonics, Inc. uplink receiver to intercept the transmission and view the results of the collar in real time. They placed the collar on a stand equivalent to the neck height of an adult elk and then placed the stand within three different treatment categories: (1) topographical influence (canyon and mesa tops), (2) canopy influence (open and closed canopy), and (3) vegetation type influence (ponderosa pine and pinion pine-juniper). The collar was kept at each location for one hour (usually obtaining three fixes). In addition, the authors used a hand-held GPS to obtain a position of the test collar at the same time and location.

  9. The expanding universe of prion diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Prions cause fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative disease. These etiological infectious agents are formed in greater part from a misfolded cell-surface protein called PrP(C. Several mammalian species are affected by the diseases, and in the case of "mad cow disease" (BSE the agent has a tropism for humans, with negative consequences for agribusiness and public health. Unfortunately, the known universe of prion diseases is expanding. At least four novel prion diseases-including human diseases variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD and sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI, bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE, and Nor98 of sheep-have been identified in the last ten years, and chronic wasting disease (CWD of North American deer (Odocoileus Specis and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni is undergoing a dramatic spread across North America. While amplification (BSE and dissemination (CWD, commercial sourcing of cervids from the wild and movement of farmed elk can be attributed to human activity, the origins of emergent prion diseases cannot always be laid at the door of humankind. Instead, the continued appearance of new outbreaks in the form of "sporadic" disease may be an inevitable outcome in a situation where the replicating pathogen is host-encoded.

  10. The expanding universe of prion diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel C Watts

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Prions cause fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative disease. These etiological infectious agents are formed in greater part from a misfolded cell-surface protein called PrP(C. Several mammalian species are affected by the diseases, and in the case of "mad cow disease" (BSE the agent has a tropism for humans, with negative consequences for agribusiness and public health. Unfortunately, the known universe of prion diseases is expanding. At least four novel prion diseases--including human diseases variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD and sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI, bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE, and Nor98 of sheep--have been identified in the last ten years, and chronic wasting disease (CWD of North American deer (Odocoileus Specis and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni is undergoing a dramatic spread across North America. While amplification (BSE and dissemination (CWD, commercial sourcing of cervids from the wild and movement of farmed elk can be attributed to human activity, the origins of emergent prion diseases cannot always be laid at the door of humankind. Instead, the continued appearance of new outbreaks in the form of "sporadic" disease may be an inevitable outcome in a situation where the replicating pathogen is host-encoded.

  11. The expanding universe of prion diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Joel C; Balachandran, Aru; Westaway, David

    2006-03-01

    Prions cause fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative disease. These etiological infectious agents are formed in greater part from a misfolded cell-surface protein called PrP(C). Several mammalian species are affected by the diseases, and in the case of "mad cow disease" (BSE) the agent has a tropism for humans, with negative consequences for agribusiness and public health. Unfortunately, the known universe of prion diseases is expanding. At least four novel prion diseases--including human diseases variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI), bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE), and Nor98 of sheep--have been identified in the last ten years, and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of North American deer (Odocoileus Specis) and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) is undergoing a dramatic spread across North America. While amplification (BSE) and dissemination (CWD, commercial sourcing of cervids from the wild and movement of farmed elk) can be attributed to human activity, the origins of emergent prion diseases cannot always be laid at the door of humankind. Instead, the continued appearance of new outbreaks in the form of "sporadic" disease may be an inevitable outcome in a situation where the replicating pathogen is host-encoded.

  12. Field evaluation of the efficacy of fenbendazole in captive wild ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, E; Dorny, P; Vercammen, F; Vercruysse, J

    2005-11-05

    The efficacy of in-feed fenbendazole at a dose rate of 7.5 mg/kg bodyweight for three consecutive days was assessed in five Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx), six scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), 14 slender-horned gazelles (Gazella leptoceros), eight Soay sheep (Ovis aries aries soay), 13 alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex), six red deer (Cervus elaphus hippelaphus) and 11 Nelson's elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) kept in five herds in a zoo. The efficacy was assessed by means of repeated faecal egg count reduction (fecr) tests and in vitro egg hatch assays. Fenbendazole was highly effective against nematodes in five of the seven species, consistently reducing egg shedding by more than 90 per cent. In the egg hatch assays of the five herds, 50 per cent inhibition of hatching (ld50) was observed at a concentration of thiabendazole below 0.1 microg/ml. In the Arabian oryx and alpine ibex the efficacy of fenbendazole was less than 90 per cent, and the ld50 in the egg hatch assays was between 0.1 and 0.2 microg/ml thiabendazole.

  13. Rapid evolution of Beta-keratin genes contribute to phenotypic differences that distinguish turtles and birds from other reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang I; Kong, Lesheng; Ponting, Chris P; Haerty, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    Sequencing of vertebrate genomes permits changes in distinct protein families, including gene gains and losses, to be ascribed to lineage-specific phenotypes. A prominent example of this is the large-scale duplication of beta-keratin genes in the ancestors of birds, which was crucial to the subsequent evolution of their beaks, claws, and feathers. Evidence suggests that the shell of Pseudomys nelsoni contains at least 16 beta-keratins proteins, but it is unknown whether this is a complete set and whether their corresponding genes are orthologous to avian beak, claw, or feather beta-keratin genes. To address these issues and to better understand the evolution of the turtle shell at a molecular level, we surveyed the diversity of beta-keratin genes from the genome assemblies of three turtles, Chrysemys picta, Pelodiscus sinensis, and Chelonia mydas, which together represent over 160 Myr of chelonian evolution. For these three turtles, we found 200 beta-keratins, which indicate that, as for birds, a large expansion of beta-keratin genes in turtles occurred concomitantly with the evolution of a unique phenotype, namely, their plastron and carapace. Phylogenetic reconstruction of beta-keratin gene evolution suggests that separate waves of gene duplication within a single genomic location gave rise to scales, claws, and feathers in birds, and independently the scutes of the shell in turtles.

  14. Brucellosis Transmission between Wildlife and Livestock in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: Inferences from DNA Genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Michael P; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Anderson, Neil; Ceballos, Ruben M; Edwards, William H; Harris, Beth; Wallen, Rick L; Costa, Vânia

    2017-04-01

    The wildlife of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem carries brucellosis, which was first introduced to the area by cattle in the 19th century. Brucellosis transmission between wildlife and livestock has been difficult to study due to challenges in culturing the causative agent, Brucella abortus . We examined B. abortus transmission between American bison ( Bison bison ), Rocky Mountain elk ( Cervus elaphus nelsoni), and cattle ( Bos taurus ) using variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) markers on DNA from 98 B. abortus isolates recovered from populations in Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming, US. Our analyses reveal interspecies transmission. Two outbreaks (2007, 2008) in Montana cattle had B. abortus genotypes similar to isolates from both bison and elk. Nevertheless, similarity in elk and cattle isolates from the 2008 outbreak suggest that elk are the likely source of brucellosis transmission to cattle in Montana and Wyoming. Brucella abortus isolates from sampling in Montana appear to be divided in two clusters: one found in local Montana elk, cattle, and bison; and another found mainly in elk and a bison from Wyoming, which is consistent with brucellosis having entered Montana via migration of infected elk from Wyoming. Our findings illustrate complex patterns of brucellosis transmission among elk, bison, and cattle as well as the utility of VNTRs to infer the wildlife species of origin for disease outbreaks in livestock.

  15. Detecting short-term responses to weekend recreation activity: desert bighorn sheep avoidance of hiking trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longshore, Kathleen M.; Lowrey, Chris; Thompson, Daniel B.

    2013-01-01

    To study potential effects of recreation activity on habitat use of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni), we placed Global Positioning System collars on 10 female bighorn sheep within the Wonderland of Rocks–Queen Mountain region of Joshua Tree National Park (JOTR), California, USA, from 2002 to 2004. Recreation use was highest from March to April and during weekends throughout the year. Daily use of recreation trails was highest during midday. By comparing habitat use (slope, ruggedness, distance to water, and distance to recreation trails) of female bighorn sheep on weekdays versus weekends, we were able to detect short-term shifts in behavior in response to recreation. In a logistic regression of bighorn sheep locations versus random locations for March and April, female locations at midday (1200 hours) were significantly more distant from recreation trails on weekends compared with weekdays. Our results indicate that within this region of JOTR, moderate to high levels of human recreation activity may temporarily exclude bighorn females from their preferred habitat. However, the relative proximity of females to recreation trails during the weekdays before and after such habitat shifts indicates that these anthropogenic impacts were short-lived. Our results have implications for management of wildlife on public lands where the co-existence of wildlife and recreational use is a major goal.

  16. Adenosine A2A receptors in the nucleus accumbens bi-directionally alter cocaine seeking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Casey E; LeTendre, McKenzie L; Bachtell, Ryan K

    2012-04-01

    Repeated cocaine administration enhances dopamine D(2) receptor sensitivity in the mesolimbic dopamine system, which contributes to drug relapse. Adenosine A(2A) receptors are colocalized with D(2) receptors on nucleus accumbens (NAc) medium spiny neurons where they antagonize D(2) receptor activity. Thus, A(2A) receptors represent a target for reducing enhanced D(2) receptor sensitivity that contributes to cocaine relapse. The aim of these studies were to determine the effects of adenosine A(2A) receptor modulation in the NAc on cocaine seeking in rats that were trained to lever press for cocaine. Following at least 15 daily self-administration sessions and 1 week of abstinence, lever pressing was extinguished in daily extinction sessions. We subsequently assessed the effects of intra-NAc core microinjections of the A(2A) receptor agonist, CGS 21680 (4-[2-[[6-amino-9-(N-ethyl-b-D-ribofuranuronamidosyl)-9H-purin-2-yl]amino]ethyl]benzenepropanoic acid hydrochloride), and the A(2A) receptor antagonist, MSX-3 (3,7-dihydro-8-[(1E)-2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-7-methyl-3-[3-(phosphonooxy)propyl-1-(2-propynyl)-1H-purine-2,6-dione disodium salt hydrate), in modulating cocaine- and quinpirole-induced reinstatement to cocaine seeking. Intra-NAc pretreatment of CGS 21680 reduced both cocaine- and quinpirole-induced reinstatement. These effects were specific to cocaine reinstatement as intra-NAc CGS 21680 had no effect on sucrose seeking in rats trained to self-administer sucrose pellets. Intra-NAc treatment with MSX-3 modestly reinstated cocaine seeking when given alone, and exacerbated both cocaine- and quinpirole-induced reinstatement. Interestingly, the exacerbation of cocaine seeking produced by MSX-3 was only observed at sub-threshold doses of cocaine and quinpirole, suggesting that removing tonic A(2A) receptor activity enables behaviors mediated by dopamine receptors. Taken together, these findings suggest that A(2A) receptor stimulation reduces, while A(2A) blockade

  17. Ammonium assimilation in rice based on the occurrence of 15N and inhibition of glutamine synthetase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, J. R.; Huber, D. M.; Lee, T. C.; Tsai, C. Y.

    1995-07-01

    Assimilation of ammonium (NH4) into free amino acids and total reduced nitrogen (N) was monitored in both roots and shoots of two-week old rice seedlings supplied with 5 mM 99% (15NH4)2SO4 in aerated hydroponic culture with or without a 2 h preincubation with 1 mM methionine sulfoximine (MSX) an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS) activity. 15NH4 was not assimilated into amino acids when the GS/GOGAT (glutamate synthase) cycle was inhibited by MSX. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase (GS) activity in roots with MSX increased both the amount of NH4 and the abundance of 15N labeled NH4. In contrast, the amount of Gln and Glu, and their proportions as 15N, decreased in roots when GS activity was inhibited. This research confirms the importance of GS/GOGAT in NH4 assimilation in rice roots. 15N-labeled studies indicate that NH4 ions incorporated by roots of rice are transformed primarily into glutamine (Gin) and glutamic acid (Glu) before being converted to other amino acids through transamination. The formation of amino acids such as aspartic acid (Asp) and alanine (Ala) directly from free NH4 in roots also has been reported. Translocation of free NH4 to plant shoots, based on the concentration of free NH4 in xylem exudate, has been reported in tomato, although NH4 in shoots primarily originates from nitrate reduction in the shoot. Photorespiration also can contribute to the accumulation of NH4 in leaves. The GS/GOGAT cycle appears to be primarily responsible for the assimilation of exogenously supplied NH4 and NH4 derived from nitrate reduction in leaves, as well as NH4 derived from photorespiration. Genetic evidence cited to support this conclusion includes the lethal effect of photorespiratory conditions on plant mutants deficient in chloroplast-localized GS and GOGAT activities, and the rapid accumulation of free NH4 in GS-deficient mutants under photorespiratory conditions. The present study was initiated to quantify the in vivo amino acid synthesis in rice

  18. Adenosine A2A Receptors in the Nucleus Accumbens Bi-Directionally Alter Cocaine Seeking in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Casey E; LeTendre, Mckenzie L; Bachtell, Ryan K

    2012-01-01

    Repeated cocaine administration enhances dopamine D2 receptor sensitivity in the mesolimbic dopamine system, which contributes to drug relapse. Adenosine A2A receptors are colocalized with D2 receptors on nucleus accumbens (NAc) medium spiny neurons where they antagonize D2 receptor activity. Thus, A2A receptors represent a target for reducing enhanced D2 receptor sensitivity that contributes to cocaine relapse. The aim of these studies were to determine the effects of adenosine A2A receptor modulation in the NAc on cocaine seeking in rats that were trained to lever press for cocaine. Following at least 15 daily self-administration sessions and 1 week of abstinence, lever pressing was extinguished in daily extinction sessions. We subsequently assessed the effects of intra-NAc core microinjections of the A2A receptor agonist, CGS 21680 (4-[2-[[6-amino-9-(N-ethyl-b--ribofuranuronamidosyl)-9H-purin-2-yl]amino]ethyl]benzenepropanoic acid hydrochloride), and the A2A receptor antagonist, MSX-3 (3,7-dihydro-8-[(1E)-2-(3-methoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-7-methyl-3-[3-(phosphonooxy)propyl-1-(2-propynyl)-1H-purine-2,6-dione disodium salt hydrate), in modulating cocaine- and quinpirole-induced reinstatement to cocaine seeking. Intra-NAc pretreatment of CGS 21680 reduced both cocaine- and quinpirole-induced reinstatement. These effects were specific to cocaine reinstatement as intra-NAc CGS 21680 had no effect on sucrose seeking in rats trained to self-administer sucrose pellets. Intra-NAc treatment with MSX-3 modestly reinstated cocaine seeking when given alone, and exacerbated both cocaine- and quinpirole-induced reinstatement. Interestingly, the exacerbation of cocaine seeking produced by MSX-3 was only observed at sub-threshold doses of cocaine and quinpirole, suggesting that removing tonic A2A receptor activity enables behaviors mediated by dopamine receptors. Taken together, these findings suggest that A2A receptor stimulation reduces, while A2A blockade amplifies, D2 receptor

  19. MILKY WAY STAR-FORMING COMPLEXES AND THE TURBULENT MOTION OF THE GALAXY'S MOLECULAR GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eve J.; Rahman, Mubdi; Murray, Norman

    2012-01-01

    We analyze Spitzer GLIMPSE, Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX), and Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) images of the Milky Way to identify 8 μm and free-free sources in the Galaxy. Seventy-two of the 88 WMAP sources have coverage in the GLIMPSE and MSX surveys suitable for identifying massive star-forming complexes (SFCs). We measure the ionizing luminosity functions of the SFCs and study their role in the turbulent motion of the Galaxy's molecular gas. We find a total Galactic free-free flux f ν = 46,177.6 Jy; the 72 WMAP sources with full 8 μm coverage account for 34,263.5 Jy (∼75%), with both measurements made at ν = 94 GHz (W band). We find a total of 280 SFCs, of which 168 have unique kinematic distances and free-free luminosities. We use a simple model for the radial distribution of star formation to estimate the free-free and ionizing luminosity for the sources lacking distance determinations. The total dust-corrected ionizing luminosity is Q = (2.9 ± 0.5) × 10 53 photons s –1 , which implies a Galactic star formation rate of M-dot * = 1.2±0.2 M ☉ yr -1 . We present the (ionizing) luminosity function of the SFCs and show that 24 sources emit half the ionizing luminosity of the Galaxy. The SFCs appear as bubbles in GLIMPSE or MSX images; the radial velocities associated with the bubble walls allow us to infer the expansion velocity of the bubbles. We calculate the kinetic luminosity of the bubble expansion and compare it to the turbulent luminosity of the inner molecular disk. SFCs emitting 80% of the total Galactic free-free luminosity produce a kinetic luminosity equal to 65% of the turbulent luminosity in the inner molecular disk. This suggests that the expansion of the bubbles is a major driver of the turbulent motion of the inner Milky Way molecular gas.

  20. MILKY WAY STAR-FORMING COMPLEXES AND THE TURBULENT MOTION OF THE GALAXY'S MOLECULAR GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eve J.; Rahman, Mubdi [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Murray, Norman, E-mail: elee@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: rahman@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: elee@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: murray@cita.utoronto.ca [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2012-06-20

    We analyze Spitzer GLIMPSE, Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX), and Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) images of the Milky Way to identify 8 {mu}m and free-free sources in the Galaxy. Seventy-two of the 88 WMAP sources have coverage in the GLIMPSE and MSX surveys suitable for identifying massive star-forming complexes (SFCs). We measure the ionizing luminosity functions of the SFCs and study their role in the turbulent motion of the Galaxy's molecular gas. We find a total Galactic free-free flux f{sub {nu}} = 46,177.6 Jy; the 72 WMAP sources with full 8 {mu}m coverage account for 34,263.5 Jy ({approx}75%), with both measurements made at {nu} = 94 GHz (W band). We find a total of 280 SFCs, of which 168 have unique kinematic distances and free-free luminosities. We use a simple model for the radial distribution of star formation to estimate the free-free and ionizing luminosity for the sources lacking distance determinations. The total dust-corrected ionizing luminosity is Q = (2.9 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 53} photons s{sup -1}, which implies a Galactic star formation rate of M-dot{sub *}= 1.2{+-}0.2 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. We present the (ionizing) luminosity function of the SFCs and show that 24 sources emit half the ionizing luminosity of the Galaxy. The SFCs appear as bubbles in GLIMPSE or MSX images; the radial velocities associated with the bubble walls allow us to infer the expansion velocity of the bubbles. We calculate the kinetic luminosity of the bubble expansion and compare it to the turbulent luminosity of the inner molecular disk. SFCs emitting 80% of the total Galactic free-free luminosity produce a kinetic luminosity equal to 65% of the turbulent luminosity in the inner molecular disk. This suggests that the expansion of the bubbles is a major driver of the turbulent motion of the inner Milky Way molecular gas.

  1. Ethanol and Caffeine effects on social interaction and recognition in mice: Involvement of adenosine A2A and A1 receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura López-Cruz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol and caffeine are frequently consumed in combination and have opposite effects on the adenosine system: ethanol metabolism leads to an increase in adenosine levels, while caffeine is a non-selective adenosine A1/A2A receptor antagonist. These receptors are highly expressed in striatum and olfactory tubercle, brain areas involved in exploration and social interaction in rodents. Ethanol modulates social interaction processes, but the role of adenosine in social behavior is still poorly understood. The present work was undertaken to study the impact of ethanol, caffeine and their combination on social behavior, and to explore the involvement of A1 and A2A receptors on those actions. Male CD1 mice were evaluated in a social interaction three-chamber paradigm, for preference of conspecific vs. object, and also for long-term recognition memory of familiar vs. novel conspecific. Ethanol showed a biphasic effect, with low doses (0.25 g/kg increasing social contact and higher doses (1.0-1.5 g/kg reducing social interaction. However, no dose changed social preference; mice always spent more time sniffing the conspecific than the object, independently of the ethanol dose. Ethanol, even at doses that did not change social exploration, produced amnestic effects on social recognition the following day. Caffeine reduced social contact (15.0-60.0 mg/kg, and even blocked social preference at higher doses (30.0-60.0 mg/kg. The A1 antagonist CPT (3-9 mg/kg did not modify social contact or preference on its own, and the A2A antagonist MSX-3 (1.5-6 mg/kg increased social interaction at all doses. Ethanol at intermediate doses (0.5-1.0 g/kg was able to reverse the reduction in social exploration induced by caffeine (15.0-30.0 mg/kg. Although there was no interaction between ethanol and CPT or MSX-3 on social exploration in the first day, MSX-3 blocked the amnestic effects of ethanol observed on the following day. Thus, ethanol impairs the formation of social

  2. Improving the efficiency of CHO cell line generation using glutamine synthetase gene knockout cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lianchun; Kadura, Ibrahim; Krebs, Lara E; Hatfield, Christopher C; Shaw, Margaret M; Frye, Christopher C

    2012-04-01

    Although Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, with their unique characteristics, have become a major workhorse for the manufacture of therapeutic recombinant proteins, one of the major challenges in CHO cell line generation (CLG) is how to efficiently identify those rare, high-producing clones among a large population of low- and non-productive clones. It is not unusual that several hundred individual clones need to be screened for the identification of a commercial clonal cell line with acceptable productivity and growth profile making the cell line appropriate for commercial application. This inefficiency makes the process of CLG both time consuming and laborious. Currently, there are two main CHO expression systems, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR)-based methotrexate (MTX) selection and glutamine synthetase (GS)-based methionine sulfoximine (MSX) selection, that have been in wide industrial use. Since selection of recombinant cell lines in the GS-CHO system is based on the balance between the expression of the GS gene introduced by the expression plasmid and the addition of the GS inhibitor, L-MSX, the expression of GS from the endogenous GS gene in parental CHOK1SV cells will likely interfere with the selection process. To study endogenous GS expression's potential impact on selection efficiency, GS-knockout CHOK1SV cell lines were generated using the zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) technology designed to specifically target the endogenous CHO GS gene. The high efficiency (∼2%) of bi-allelic modification on the CHO GS gene supports the unique advantages of the ZFN technology, especially in CHO cells. GS enzyme function disruption was confirmed by the observation of glutamine-dependent growth of all GS-knockout cell lines. Full evaluation of the GS-knockout cell lines in a standard industrial cell culture process was performed. Bulk culture productivity improved two- to three-fold through the use of GS-knockout cells as parent cells. The selection stringency was

  3. Ethanol and Caffeine Effects on Social Interaction and Recognition in Mice: Involvement of Adenosine A2A and A1 Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Cruz, Laura; San-Miguel, Noemí; Bayarri, Pilar; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D; Correa, Mercé

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol and caffeine are frequently consumed in combination and have opposite effects on the adenosine system: ethanol metabolism leads to an increase in adenosine levels, while caffeine is a non-selective adenosine A 1 /A 2A receptor antagonist. These receptors are highly expressed in striatum and olfactory tubercle, brain areas involved in exploration and social interaction in rodents. Ethanol modulates social interaction processes, but the role of adenosine in social behavior is still poorly understood. The present work was undertaken to study the impact of ethanol, caffeine and their combination on social behavior, and to explore the involvement of A 1 and A 2A receptors on those actions. Male CD1 mice were evaluated in a social interaction three-chamber paradigm, for preference of conspecific vs. object, and also for long-term recognition memory of familiar vs. novel conspecific. Ethanol showed a biphasic effect, with low doses (0.25 g/kg) increasing social contact and higher doses (1.0-1.5 g/kg) reducing social interaction. However, no dose changed social preference; mice always spent more time sniffing the conspecific than the object, independently of the ethanol dose. Ethanol, even at doses that did not change social exploration, produced amnestic effects on social recognition the following day. Caffeine reduced social contact (15.0-60.0 mg/kg), and even blocked social preference at higher doses (30.0-60.0 mg/kg). The A 1 antagonist Cyclopentyltheophylline (CPT; 3-9 mg/kg) did not modify social contact or preference on its own, and the A 2A antagonist MSX-3 (1.5-6 mg/kg) increased social interaction at all doses. Ethanol at intermediate doses (0.5-1.0 g/kg) was able to reverse the reduction in social exploration induced by caffeine (15.0-30.0 mg/kg). Although there was no interaction between ethanol and CPT or MSX-3 on social exploration in the first day, MSX-3 blocked the amnestic effects of ethanol observed on the following day. Thus, ethanol impairs the

  4. Targeted scan of fifteen regions for nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate in Filipino families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, R E; Cooper, M E; Daack-Hirsch, S; Shi, M; Nepomucena, B; Graf, K A; O'Brien, E K; O'Brien, S E; Marazita, M L; Murray, J C

    2004-02-15

    Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is a congenital anomaly with variable birth prevalence based on geographic origins, with the highest rates commonly found in Asian populations. About 70% of cases are nonsyndromic (NS), in which the affected individual has no other abnormalities. NS CL/P is a complex disorder with genetic and environmental effects and no specific genetic loci yet confirmed. Fifteen candidate regions were examined for linkage to NS CL/P. Regions were chosen based on previous suggestive linkage and/or association in human families, or suggestive animal model data. Polymorphic markers in these regions were genotyped for analysis on 36 Filipino families comprised of 126 affected and 218 unaffected individuals. An additional 70 families with 149 affecteds were used for replication of suggestive results. Parametric (LOD score) and nonparametric (SIMIBD) linkage analyses were performed as well as transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) analysis. Five markers yielded suggestive results from the 36 families. The parametric LOD scores for the MSX1-CA and D4S1629 were >1.0 and the SIMIBD P values for D6S1029 and RFC1 are suggestive (value of 0.01 for TGFA was significant. Since the Msx1 mouse knockout has cleft palate and MSX1 mutations have been found in rare cases of syndromic CL/P, this locus is especially plausible for linkage. Previous studies have also found linkage of NS CL/P to 4q31 and 6p23. These regions contain several candidate genes, including AP2 at 6p23 and FGF2, BMPR1B, and MADH1 at 4q31. TGFA has both linkage and linkage disequilibrium data supporting it as a candidate gene for NS CL/P. While no region was definitively confirmed for linkage to NS CL/P, the data do support further investigation using larger sample sizes and candidate gene studies at 2p13.2, 4p16.2, 4q31, 6p23, and 16q22-24. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Ammonium assimilation in rice based on the occurrence of 15N and inhibition of glutamine synthetase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, J.R.; Huber, D.M.; Lee, T.C.; Tsai, C.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Assimilation of ammonium (NH4) into free amino acids and total reduced nitrogen (N) was monitored in both roots and shoots of two-week old rice seedlings supplied with 5 mM 99% (15NH4)2SO4 in aerated hydroponic culture with or without a 2 h preincubation with 1 mM methionine sulfoximine (MSX) an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS) activity. 15NH4 was not assimilated into amino acids when the GS/GOGAT (glutamate synthase) cycle was inhibited by MSX. Inhibition of glutamine synthetase (GS) activity in roots with MSX increased both the amount of NH4 and the abundance of 15N labeled NH4. In contrast, the amount of Gln and Glu, and their proportions as 15N, decreased in roots when GS activity was inhibited. This research confirms the importance of GS/GOGAT in NH4 assimilation in rice roots. 15N-labeled studies indicate that NH4 ions incorporated by roots of rice are transformed primarily into glutamine (Gin) and glutamic acid (Glu) before being converted to other amino acids through transamination. The formation of amino acids such as aspartic acid (Asp) and alanine (Ala) directly from free NH4 in roots also has been reported. Translocation of free NH4 to plant shoots, based on the concentration of free NH4 in xylem exudate, has been reported in tomato, although NH4 in shoots primarily originates from nitrate reduction in the shoot. Photorespiration also can contribute to the accumulation of NH4 in leaves. The GS/GOGAT cycle appears to be primarily responsible for the assimilation of exogenously supplied NH4 and NH4 derived from nitrate reduction in leaves, as well as NH4 derived from photorespiration. Genetic evidence cited to support this conclusion includes the lethal effect of photorespiratory conditions on plant mutants deficient in chloroplast-localized GS and GOGAT activities, and the rapid accumulation of free NH4 in GS-deficient mutants under photorespiratory conditions. The present study was initiated to quantify the in vivo amino acid synthesis in rice

  6. Valence shell photoionization energies and cross-sections of NF sub 3 and PF sub 3

    CERN Document Server

    Jürgensen, A

    2003-01-01

    Relative outer valence shell ionization potentials and cross-sections were determined for the isostructural, Group 15, trifluorides NF sub 3 and PF sub 3 in the gas phase using synchrotron radiation. Excitation photon energies ranged from 70 to 160 eV. The experimental spectra were assigned and cross-sections analyzed with the aid of both MS-X alpha and ab initio calculations. Spectral differences in peak energies and relative intensities are related to structural and electronic differences between these two fluoride molecules. Valence shell ionization potentials were compared to calculated values obtained by several different methods. The partial photoionization cross-sections for each orbital were obtained as a function of excitation energy and compared to theoretical results obtained with the X alpha method.

  7. Photovoltaic System Modeling with Fuzzy Logic Based Maximum Power Point Tracking Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mahamudul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents a novel modeling technique of PV module with a fuzzy logic based MPPT algorithm and boost converter in Simulink environment. The prime contributions of this work are simplification of PV modeling technique and implementation of fuzzy based MPPT system to track maximum power efficiently. The main highlighted points of this paper are to demonstrate the precise control of the duty cycle with respect to various atmospheric conditions, illustration of PV characteristic curves, and operation analysis of the converter. The proposed system has been applied for three different PV modules SOLKAR 36 W, BP MSX 60 W, and KC85T 87 W. Finally the resultant data has been compared with the theoretical prediction and company specified value to ensure the validity of the system.

  8. Role of insulin resistance and hypothyroidism in pathogenesis of obesity in adolescents born of parents exposed to ionizing radiation after the ChNPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopilova, O.V.; Stepanenko, O.A.; Myishchenko, L.P.; Tal'ko, V.V.

    2017-01-01

    The survey findings have shown that examination of 186 children aged from 12 to 17 who were born of parents evacuated out of 30km exclusion zone, citizens of the administered area, makes it possible to reveal increased risk of benign endocrine pathology (thyroid, impaired carbohydrates metabolism, obesity, hypothalamic syndrome) in adolescence with the signs of latent hormone dysfunction. In every other adolescent there is an interaction between impaired function of the thyroid gland (hypothyroidism) and present insulinemia and insulin resistance resulting in disturbance of fat metabolism. Progressing of overweight in adolescence is accompanied by significant metabolic disorders which can be a trigger in development of MSX. Resistance to insulin as well as peripheral resistance to thyroid hormones lead to metabolic disorders, one of which is obesity. Hormone disfunction, which result in impaired of carbohydrate and fat metabolism, can be a predictive criterion of development of diabetes mellitus of type II in future.

  9. Advancing Absolute Calibration for JWST and Other Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, George; Bohlin, Ralph; Boyajian, Tabetha; Carey, Sean; Casagrande, Luca; Deustua, Susana; Gordon, Karl; Kraemer, Kathleen; Marengo, Massimo; Schlawin, Everett; Su, Kate; Sloan, Greg; Volk, Kevin

    2017-10-01

    We propose to exploit the unique optical stability of the Spitzer telescope, along with that of IRAC, to (1) transfer the accurate absolute calibration obtained with MSX on very bright stars directly to two reference stars within the dynamic range of the JWST imagers (and of other modern instrumentation); (2) establish a second accurate absolute calibration based on the absolutely calibrated spectrum of the sun, transferred onto the astronomical system via alpha Cen A; and (3) provide accurate infrared measurements for the 11 (of 15) highest priority stars with no such data but with accurate interferometrically measured diameters, allowing us to optimize determinations of effective temperatures using the infrared flux method and thus to extend the accurate absolute calibration spectrally. This program is integral to plans for an accurate absolute calibration of JWST and will also provide a valuable Spitzer legacy.

  10. Stellar Content of the Young Supershell GSH 305+01-24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltcheva, N.; Golev, V.

    2013-06-01

    We combine several multi-wavelength surveys (Wisconsin Halpha Mapper Northern Sky Survey, MSX Mid-IR Galactic Plane Survey, WISE All-Sky Data Release, CO survey of the Milky Way, and the Southern Galactic Plane HI Survey) with intermediate-band uvby photometry to investigate the correlation between the young stars and various interstellar components related to the GSH 305+01-24 supershell seen toward Centaurus. The region shows striking similarities between the stellar distribution and Hα and HI emission morphologies. We identity 161 O-B9 stars at an average distance modulus 11.09 ± 0.71 (s.d.) mag located within the supershell and study their interaction with the surrounding interstellar material.

  11. H{sub 2} - photoproduction by a non-heterocystous cyanobacterium Plectonema boryanum : a model tool for biotechnological exploitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, S.; Sarkar, S.; Kashyap, A.K.; Pandey, K.D. [Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India). Dept. of Botany

    2001-07-01

    A parallel increase in nitrogenase activity and H{sub 2} evolution in Plectonema boryanum under microaerobic (Ar/N{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}: 72/24/4; v/v) phototrophic condition indicated that later process was nitrogenase mediated. Enhanced H{sub 2} photoproduction was observed in presence of reducing substances and metabolic inhibitors (DCMU and MSX). N{sub 2}-fixed during the process was simultaneously released in the medium as NH{sub 4}{sup +}. Further enhancement and sustainability in both the processes was achieved by immobilization in alginate or sponge. A comparison with heterocystous cyanobacteria suggested that Plectonema was efficient H{sub 2} producing organism. (orig.)

  12. Morfogenesis dan Diferensiasi Sel dalam Perkembangan Gigi (Tinjauan Molekuler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yani Corvianindya

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tooth development provides a dynamic process that has recently been studied at molecular level. There has been much progress toward the understanding of epithelial-mesenchymal cell signaling in tooth germ formation, morphogenesis and cell differentiation. The epithelial-mesenchym interaction is suggested to be the most important mechanism in organogenesis that stimulate mitosis and prevent apoptosis adjacent to the tissue surface. Moreover it affects cell formation and cell differentiation. Enamel knot is assumed to act as a signaling center in the tooth germ epithelial in organizing the tooth pattern as well as controlling the tooth growth. The genes involved in this mechanism are p21, Fgf-4, Shh, Bmp-2, bmp-4, Msx-1 and Lef-1 which are expressed in the enamel knot during the bud stage and cap stage. At the further step of differentiation, epithelial ameloblast and mesenchymal odontoblast will deposit organic matrix in enamel and dentin. This article reviews the molecular morphogenesis of tooth development.

  13. SED Modeling of 20 Massive Young Stellar Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanti, Kamal Kumar

    In this paper, we present the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) modeling of twenty massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) and subsequently estimated different physical and structural/geometrical parameters for each of the twenty central YSO outflow candidates, along with their associated circumstellar disks and infalling envelopes. The SEDs for each of the MYSOs been reconstructed by using 2MASS, MSX, IRAS, IRAC & MIPS, SCUBA, WISE, SPIRE and IRAM data, with the help of a SED Fitting Tool, that uses a grid of 2D radiative transfer models. Using the detailed analysis of SEDs and subsequent estimation of physical and geometrical parameters for the central YSO sources along with its circumstellar disks and envelopes, the cumulative distribution of the stellar, disk and envelope parameters can be analyzed. This leads to a better understanding of massive star formation processes in their respective star forming regions in different molecular clouds.

  14. Study of the molecular and ionized gas in a possible precursor of an ultra-compact H II region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, M. E.; Paron, S.; Giacani, E.; Celis Peña, M.; Rubio, M.; Petriella, A.

    2017-10-01

    Aims: We aim to study the molecular and the ionized gas in a possible precursor of an ultra-compact H II region to contribute to the understanding of how high-mass stars build-up their masses once they have reached the zero-age main sequence. Methods: We carried out molecular observations toward the position of the Red MSX source G052.9221-00.4892, using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE; Chile) in the 12CO J = 3-2, 13CO J = 3-2, C18O J = 3-2, and HCO+J = 4-3 lines with an angular resolution of about 22''. We also present radio continuum observations at 6 GHz carried out with the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA; USA) interferometer with a synthesized beam of 4.8 arcsec × 4.1 arcsec. The molecular data were used to study the distribution and kinematics of the molecular gas, while the radio continuum data were used to characterize the ionized gas in the region. Combining these observations with public infrared data allowed us to inquire about the nature of the source. Results: The analysis of the molecular observations reveals the presence of a kinetic temperature and H2 column density gradients across the molecular clump in which the Red MSX source G052.9221-00.4892 is embedded, with the hotter and less dense gas in the inner region. The 12CO J = 3-2 emission shows evidence of misaligned massive molecular outflows, with the blue lobe in positional coincidence with a jet-like feature seen at 8 μm. The radio continuum emission shows a slightly elongated compact radio source, with a flux density of about 0.9 mJy, in positional coincidence with the Red MSX source. The polar-like morphology of this compact radio source perfectly matches the hourglass-like morphology exhibited by the source in the Ks band. Moreover, the axes of symmetry of the radio source and the near-infrared nebula are perfectly aligned. Thus, based on the presence of molecular outflows, the slightly elongated morphology of the compact radio source matching the hourglass

  15. Desempenho de um sistema de bombeamento fotovoltaico na região oeste do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Airton A. dos Santos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Os sistemas convencionais de fornecimento de energia elétrica nem sempre constituem a melhor opção para satisfazer as demandas do setor rural, por isso existe uma constante necessidade de se pesquisar sobre a utilização de fontes alternativas de energia. Dentre estas fontes pode-se considerar a energia solar. Atendendo a essa necessidade, o trabalho aqui desenvolvido estabelece como objetivo analisar o desempenho de um sistema de bombeamento de água acionado por energia solar, realizado na cidade de Medianeira - PR. O sistema de bombeamento, por acoplamento direto, é composto por um gerador fotovoltaico, Solarex MSX-56, um motor de corrente contínua e uma bomba de diafragma SolarJack SDS-D-228.

  16. HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION OBSERVATIONS OF FOUR CANDIDATE BLAST HIGH-MASS STARLESS CORES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmi, Luca; Poventud, Carlos M.; Araya, Esteban D.; Chapin, Edward L.; Gibb, Andrew; Hofner, Peter; Martin, Peter G.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss high angular resolution observations of ammonia toward four candidate high-mass starless cores (HMSCs). The cores were identified by the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST) during its 2005 survey of the Vulpecula region where 60 compact sources were detected simultaneously at 250, 350, and 500 μm. Four of these cores, with no IRAS-PSC or MSX counterparts, were mapped with the NRAO Very Large Array and observed with the Effelsberg 100 m telescope in the NH 3 (1,1) and (2,2) spectral lines. Our observations indicate that the four cores are cold (T k -1 . The four BLAST cores appear to be colder and more quiescent than other previously observed HMSC candidates, suggesting an earlier stage of evolution.

  17. Witkop′s tooth and nail syndrome: A multifaceted approach to dental management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam P

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Witkop′s tooth and nail syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of ectodermal dysplasia characterized by hypodontia and nail dysplasia. Mutations in MSX-1 have been shown to be associated with this syndrome. There is failure of development and eruption of the dentition. Tooth shape may vary; the most common forms are conical and narrow crowns. The nails may be spoon shaped and slow growing and affect both finger and toe nails. The nail involvement is more severe in childhood. The present case describes a 14-year-old boy who showed the characteristic features of Witkop′s syndrome. A multifaceted approach to the dental management of the patient is discussed.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Herschel FIR observations of NGC3603 (Di Cecco+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Cecco, A.; Faustini, F.; Paresce, F.; Correnti, M.; Calzoletti, L.

    2015-06-01

    The cloud complex surrounding NGC 3603 YC was observed by Herschel SPIRE/PACS during the Hi-GAL Survey (Molinari et al. 2010A&A...518L.100M, 2010PASP..122..314M), a Key Programme that mapped the Galactic plane in five photometric bands (70, 160, 250, 350, and 500um). The MSX (Egan et al. 2003AAS...203.5708E) images were taken at (wavelengths) 8.3, 12.1, 14.7, and 21.3um using the scan observing mode, and the WISE (Wright et al. 2010AJ....140.1868W) images were acquired in freeze-frame scan mode at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22um. (2 data files).

  19. A Fiber Interferometer for the Magnetized Shock Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX) at Los Alamos National Laboratory requires remote diagnostics of plasma density. Laser interferometry can be used to determine the line-integrated density of the plasma. A multi-chord heterodyne fiber optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer is being assembled and integrated into the experiment. The advantage of the fiber coupling is that many different view chords can be easily obtained by simply moving transmit and receive fiber couplers. Several such fiber sets will be implemented to provide a time history of line-averaged density for several chords at once. The multiple chord data can then be Abel inverted to provide radially resolved spatial profiles of density. We describe the design and execution of this multiple fiber interferometer.

  20. Genetic pathways for differentiation of the peripheral nervous system in ascidians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waki, Kana; Imai, Kaoru S.; Satou, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Ascidians belong to tunicates, the sister group of vertebrates. Peripheral nervous systems (PNSs) including epidermal sensory neurons (ESNs) in the trunk and dorsal tail regions of ascidian larvae are derived from cells adjacent to the neural plate, as in vertebrates. On the other hand, peripheral ESNs in the ventral tail region are derived from the ventral ectoderm under the control of BMP signalling, reminiscent of sensory neurons of amphioxus and protostomes. In this study, we show that two distinct mechanisms activate a common gene circuit consisting of Msx, Ascl.b, Tox, Delta.b and Pou4 in the dorsal and ventral regions to differentiate ESNs. Our results suggest that ventral ESNs of the ascidian larva are not directly homologous to vertebrate PNSs. The dorsal ESNs might have arisen via co-option of the original PNS gene circuit to the neural plate border in an ancestral chordate. PMID:26515371

  1. Evaluation of Electrocardiographic T-Peak to T-End Interval in Patients with Cardiac Syndrome X

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    Ozgur Kaplan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The relationship between metabolic syndrome X (MSX and atrial arrhythmia such as atrial fibrillation (AF has been shown in previous studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate ventricular repolarization by using Tp-e interval and Tp-e/QT ratio in patients with cardiac syndrome X (CSX.Material and Method: A total of 65 consecutive subjects were included in the present study. Diagnostic coronary angiography was performed on patients who had a positive stress test and suspected myocardial scintigraphy or coronary artery disease (CAD. 35 patients who were diagnosed as having CSX (Group I and 30 patients with normal coronary angiograms (Group II were included in this study. QT parameters, Tp-e intervals, and Tp-e/QT ratio were measured from the 12-lead electrocardiogram. Results: The Tp-e interval (83.4 ± 6 vs. 75 ± 5, p

  2. IR photometry results and dust envelope model for symbiotic Mira star candidate V 335 Vul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, M. B.; Taranova, O. G.; Shenavrin, V. I.

    2017-10-01

    We present the results of JHKLM-photometry for the symbiotic Mira star candidate V 335 Vul. Based on the average flux data, supplemented by IRAS, MSX, AKARI, and WISE mid-IR observations, we calculated a model of a spherically symmetric dust envelope of the star, made up of amorphous carbon and silicon carbide particles. The optical depth of the envelope in the visible range with a dust temperature at the inner boundary of T 1 = 1300 K is τ V = 0.58. For an envelope expansion velocity of 26.5 km s-1, the estimated mass loss rate is equal to 5.7 × 10-7 M ⊙ yr-1.

  3. EPANET Multi-Species Extension Software and User's Manual ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Software and User's Manual EPANET is used in homeland security research to model contamination threats to water systems. Historically, EPANET has been limited to tracking the dynamics of a single chemical transported through a network of pipes and storage tanks, such as a fluoride used in a tracer study or free chlorine used in a disinfection decay study. Recently, the NHSRC released a new extension to EPANET called EPANET-MSX (Multi-Species eXtension) that allows for the consideration of multiple interacting species in the bulk flow and on the pipe walls. This capability has been incorporated into both a stand-alone executable program as well as a toolkit library of functions that programmers can use to build customized applications.

  4. Craniosynostosis-Revisited

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    Sunanda Bhatnagar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We all take special care when holding a tiny baby. This is partly because we know that "babies" head is particularly vulnerable, as it is still ′soft′ and the protective skull is yet forming. Skull growth continues until late adolescence and its proper functioning is crucial. Craniosynostosis, an inherited genetic condition, is characterized by the premature closure of sutures of the skull with effects that are wide - ranging and potentially devastating. Normally sutures and fontanelles allow the bones of the cranial vault to overlap during birth thus acting as an expansion joint, enabling the bone to enlarge evenly as the brain grows resulting in a symmetrically shaped skull. However, craniosynostosis occurs due to mutation in Homeobox gene - MSX2 and ALX4 or Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR 1,2,3 gene, thus explaining for its association with Apert, Crouzon, Chotzen, Pteiffers and carpenter syndromes.

  5. Genome-wide association study of multiple congenital heart disease phenotypes identifies a susceptibility locus for atrial septal defect at chromosome 4p16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordell, Heather J.; Bentham, Jamie; Topf, Ana; Zelenika, Diana; Heath, Simon; Mamasoula, Chrysovalanto; Cosgrove, Catherine; Blue, Gillian; Granados-Riveron, Javier; Setchfield, Kerry; Thornborough, Chris; Breckpot, Jeroen; Soemedi, Rachel; Martin, Ruairidh; Rahman, Thahira J.; Hall, Darroch; van Engelen, Klaartje; Moorman, Antoon F.M.; Zwinderman, Aelko H; Barnett, Phil; Koopmann, Tamara T.; Adriaens, Michiel E.; Varro, Andras; George, Alfred L.; dos Remedios, Christobal; Bishopric, Nanette H.; Bezzina, Connie R.; O’Sullivan, John; Gewillig, Marc; Bu’Lock, Frances A.; Winlaw, David; Bhattacharya, Shoumo; Devriendt, Koen; Brook, J. David; Mulder, Barbara J.M.; Mital, Seema; Postma, Alex V.; Lathrop, G. Mark; Farrall, Martin; Goodship, Judith A.; Keavney, Bernard D.

    2013-01-01

    We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of congenital heart disease (CHD). Our discovery cohort comprised 1,995 CHD cases and 5,159 controls, and included patients from each of the three major clinical CHD categories (septal, obstructive and cyanotic defects). When all CHD phenotypes were considered together, no regions achieved genome-wide significant association. However, a region on chromosome 4p16, adjacent to the MSX1 and STX18 genes, was associated (P=9.5×10−7) with the risk of ostium secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) in the discovery cohort (N=340 cases), and this was replicated in a further 417 ASD cases and 2520 controls (replication P=5.0×10−5; OR in replication cohort 1.40 [95% CI 1.19-1.65]; combined P=2.6×10−10). Genotype accounted for ~9% of the population attributable risk of ASD. PMID:23708191

  6. Differential effects of presynaptic versus postsynaptic adenosine A2A receptor blockade on Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) self-administration in squirrel monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justinová, Zuzana; Redhi, Godfrey H; Goldberg, Steven R; Ferré, Sergi

    2014-05-07

    Different doses of an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 [3,7-dihydro-8-[(1E)-2-(3-ethoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-7 methyl-3-[3-(phosphooxy)propyl-1-(2 propynil)-1H-purine-2,6-dione] were found previously to either decrease or increase self-administration of cannabinoids delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or anandamide in squirrel monkeys. It was hypothesized that the decrease observed with a relatively low dose of MSX-3 was related to blockade of striatal presynaptic A2A receptors that modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission, whereas the increase observed with a higher dose was related to blockade of postsynaptic A2A receptors localized in striatopallidal neurons. This hypothesis was confirmed in the present study by testing the effects of the preferential presynaptic and postsynaptic A2A receptor antagonists SCH-442416 [2-(2-furanyl)-7-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propyl]-7H-pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-amine] and KW-6002 [(E)-1, 3-diethyl-8-(3,4-dimethoxystyryl)-7-methyl-3,7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione], respectively, in squirrel monkeys trained to intravenously self-administer THC. SCH-442416 produced a significant shift to the right of the THC self-administration dose-response curves, consistent with antagonism of the reinforcing effects of THC. Conversely, KW-6002 produced a significant shift to the left, consistent with potentiation of the reinforcing effects of THC. These results show that selectively blocking presynaptic A2A receptors could provide a new pharmacological approach to the treatment of marijuana dependence and underscore corticostriatal glutamatergic neurotransmission as a possible main mechanism involved in the rewarding effects of THC.

  7. Transcriptional activation of prostate specific homeobox gene NKX3-1 in subsets of T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Nagel

    Full Text Available Homeobox genes encode transcription factors impacting key developmental processes including embryogenesis, organogenesis, and cell differentiation. Reflecting their tight transcriptional control, homeobox genes are often embedded in large non-coding, cis-regulatory regions, containing tissue specific elements. In T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL homeobox genes are frequently deregulated by chromosomal aberrations, notably translocations adding T-cell specific activatory elements. NKX3-1 is a prostate specific homeobox gene activated in T-ALL patients expressing oncogenic TAL1 or displaying immature T-cell characteristics. After investigating regulation of NKX3-1 in primary cells and cell lines, we report its ectopic expression in T-ALL cells independent of chromosomal rearrangements. Using siRNAs and expression profiling, we exploited NKX3-1 positive T-ALL cell lines as tools to investigate aberrant activatory mechanisms. Our data confirmed NKX3-1 activation by TAL1/GATA3/LMO and identified LYL1 as an alternative activator in immature T-ALL cells devoid of GATA3. Moreover, we showed that NKX3-1 is directly activated by early T-cell homeodomain factor MSX2. These activators were regulated by MLL and/or by IL7-, BMP4- and IGF2-signalling. Finally, we demonstrated homeobox gene SIX6 as a direct leukemic target of NKX3-1 in T-ALL. In conclusion, we identified three major mechanisms of NKX3-1 regulation in T-ALL cell lines which are represented by activators TAL1, LYL1 and MSX2, corresponding to particular T-ALL subtypes described in patients. These results may contribute to the understanding of leukemic transcriptional networks underlying disturbed T-cell differentiation in T-ALL.

  8. The canonical Wnt signaling activator, R-spondin2, regulates craniofacial patterning and morphogenesis within the branchial arch through ectodermal-mesenchymal interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yong-Ri; Turcotte, Taryn J.; Crocker, Alison L.; Han, Xiang Hua; Yoon, Jeong Kyo

    2011-01-01

    R-spondins are a recently characterized family of secreted proteins that activate Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Herein, we determine R-spondin2 (Rspo2) function in craniofacial development in mice. Mice lacking a functional Rspo2 gene exhibit craniofacial abnormalities such as mandibular hypoplasia, maxillary and mandibular skeletal deformation, and cleft palate. We found that loss of the mouse Rspo2 gene significantly disrupted Wnt/β-catenin signaling and gene expression within the first branchial arch (BA1). Rspo2, which is normally expressed in BA1 mesenchymal cells, regulates gene expression through a unique ectoderm-mesenchyme interaction loop. The Rspo2 protein, potentially in combination with ectoderm-derived Wnt ligands, up-regulates Msx1 and Msx2 expression within mesenchymal cells. In contrast, Rspo2 regulates expression of the Dlx5, Dlx6, and Hand2 genes in mesenchymal cells via inducing expression of their upstream activator, Endothelin1 (Edn1), within ectodermal cells. Loss of Rspo2 also causes increased cell apoptosis, especially within the aboral (or caudal) domain of the BA1, resulting in hypoplasia of the BA1. Severely reduced expression of Fgf8, a survival factor for mesenchymal cells, in the ectoderm of Rspo2−/− embryos is likely responsible for increased cell apoptosis. Additionally, we found that cleft palate in Rspo2−/− mice is not associated with defects intrinsic to the palatal shelves. A possible cause of cleft palate is a delay of proper palatal shelf elevation that may result from the small mandible and a failure of lowering the tongue. Thus, our study identifies Rspo2 as a mesenchyme-derived factor that plays critical roles in regulating BA1 patterning and morphogenesis through ectodermal-mesenchymal interaction and a novel genetic factor for cleft palate. PMID:21237142

  9. Stimulant effects of adenosine antagonists on operant behavior: differential actions of selective A2A and A1 antagonists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Patrick A.; Nunes, Eric J.; Janniere, Simone L.; Stopper, Colin M.; Farrar, Andrew M.; Sager, Thomas N.; Baqi, Younis; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Adenosine A2A antagonists can reverse many of the behavioral effects of dopamine antagonists, including actions on instrumental behavior. However, little is known about the effects of selective adenosine antagonists on operant behavior when these drugs are administered alone. Objective The present studies were undertaken to investigate the potential for rate-dependent stimulant effects of both selective and nonselective adenosine antagonists. Methods Six drugs were tested: two nonselective adenosine antagonists (caffeine and theophylline), two adenosine A1 antagonists (DPCPX and CPT), and two adenosine A2A antagonists (istradefylline (KW6002) and MSX-3). Two schedules of reinforcement were employed; a fixed interval 240-s (FI-240 sec) schedule was used to generate low baseline rates of responding and a fixed ratio 20 (FR20) schedule generated high rates. Results Caffeine and theophylline produced rate-dependent effects on lever pressing, increasing responding on the FI-240 sec schedule but decreasing responding on the FR20 schedule. The A2A antagonists MSX-3 and istradefylline increased FI-240 sec lever pressing but did not suppress FR20 lever pressing in the dose range tested. In fact, there was a tendency for istradefylline to increase FR20 responding at a moderate dose. A1 antagonists failed to increase lever pressing rate, but DPCPX decreased FR20 responding at higher doses. Conclusions These results suggest that adenosine A2A antagonists enhance operant response rates, but A1 antagonists do not. The involvement of adenosine A2A receptors in regulating aspects of instrumental response output and behavioral activation may have implications for the treatment of effort-related psychiatric dysfunctions, such as psychomotor slowing and anergia in depression. PMID:21347642

  10. Severe acute intermittent hypoxia elicits phrenic long-term facilitation by a novel adenosine-dependent mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Nicole L.; Dale, Erica A.

    2012-01-01

    Acute intermittent hypoxia [AIH; 3, 5-min episodes; 35–45 mmHg arterial Po2 (PaO2)] elicits serotonin-dependent phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF), a form of phrenic motor facilitation (pMF) initiated by Gq protein-coupled metabotropic 5-HT2 receptors. An alternate pathway to pMF is induced by Gs protein-coupled metabotropic receptors, including adenosine A2A receptors. AIH-induced pLTF is dominated by the serotonin-dependent pathway and is actually restrained via inhibition from the adenosine-dependent pathway. Here, we hypothesized that severe AIH shifts pLTF from a serotonin-dependent to an adenosine-dependent form of pMF. pLTF induced by severe (25–30 mmHg PaO2) and moderate (45–55 mmHg PaO2) AIH were compared in anesthetized rats, with and without intrathecal (C4) spinal A2A (MSX-3, 130 ng/kg, 12 μl) or 5-HT receptor antagonist (methysergide, 300 μg/kg, 15 μl) injections. During severe, but not moderate AIH, progressive augmentation of the phrenic response during hypoxic episodes was observed. Severe AIH (78% ± 8% 90 min post-AIH, n = 6) elicited greater pLTF vs. moderate AIH (41% ± 12%, n = 8; P MSX-3 (28% ± 6%; n = 6; P 0.05). Thus severe AIH shifts pLTF from a serotonin-dependent to an adenosine-dependent mechanism; the adenosinergic pathway inhibits the serotonergic pathway following moderate AIH. Here we demonstrate a novel adenosine-dependent pathway to pLTF following severe AIH. Shifts in the mechanisms of respiratory plasticity provide the ventilatory control system greater flexibility as challenges that differ in severity are confronted. PMID:22403346

  11. Inner-shell photoelectron angular distributions from fixed-in-space OCS molecules: comparison between experiment and theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovin, A V [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Institute of Physics, St Petersburg State University, 198504 St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Adachi, J [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Motoki, S [Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, (Japan); Takahashi, M [Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Yagishita, A [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2005-10-28

    Photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) for O 1s, C 1s and S 2p{sub 1/2}, 2p{sub 3/2} ionization of OCS molecules have been measured in shape resonance regions. These PAD results are compared with the results for O 1s and C 1s ionization of CO molecules, and multi-scattering X{alpha} (MSX{alpha}) calculations. The mechanism of the PAD formation both for parallel and perpendicular transitions differs very significantly in these molecules and a step from a two-centre potential (CO) to a three-centre potential (OCS) plays a principal role in electron scattering and the formation of the resulting PAD. For parallel transitions, it is found that for the S 2p and O 1s ionization the photoelectrons are emitted preferentially in a hemisphere directed to the ionized S and O atom, respectively. In OCS O 1s ionization, the S-C fragment plays the role of a strong 'scatterer' for photoelectrons, and in the shape resonance region most intensities of the PADs are concentrated on the region directed to the O atom. The MSX{alpha} calculations for perpendicular transitions reproduce the experimental data, but not so well as in the case of parallel transitions. The results of PAD, calculated with different l{sub max} on different atomic centres, reveal the important role of the d (l = 2) partial wave for the S atom in the partial wave decompositions of photoelectron wavefunctions.

  12. Systems approach identifies an organic nitrogen-responsive gene network that is regulated by the master clock control gene CCA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A; Stokes, Trevor L; Thum, Karen; Xu, Xiaodong; Obertello, Mariana; Katari, Manpreet S; Tanurdzic, Milos; Dean, Alexis; Nero, Damion C; McClung, C Robertson; Coruzzi, Gloria M

    2008-03-25

    Understanding how nutrients affect gene expression will help us to understand the mechanisms controlling plant growth and development as a function of nutrient availability. Nitrate has been shown to serve as a signal for the control of gene expression in Arabidopsis. There is also evidence, on a gene-by-gene basis, that downstream products of nitrogen (N) assimilation such as glutamate (Glu) or glutamine (Gln) might serve as signals of organic N status that in turn regulate gene expression. To identify genome-wide responses to such organic N signals, Arabidopsis seedlings were transiently treated with ammonium nitrate in the presence or absence of MSX, an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase, resulting in a block of Glu/Gln synthesis. Genes that responded to organic N were identified as those whose response to ammonium nitrate treatment was blocked in the presence of MSX. We showed that some genes previously identified to be regulated by nitrate are under the control of an organic N-metabolite. Using an integrated network model of molecular interactions, we uncovered a subnetwork regulated by organic N that included CCA1 and target genes involved in N-assimilation. We validated some of the predicted interactions and showed that regulation of the master clock control gene CCA1 by Glu or a Glu-derived metabolite in turn regulates the expression of key N-assimilatory genes. Phase response curve analysis shows that distinct N-metabolites can advance or delay the CCA1 phase. Regulation of CCA1 by organic N signals may represent a novel input mechanism for N-nutrients to affect plant circadian clock function.

  13. Activity of the rat osteocalcin basal promoter in osteoblastic cells is dependent upon homeodomain and CP1 binding motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towler, D A; Bennett, C D; Rodan, G A

    1994-05-01

    A detailed analysis of the transcriptional machinery responsible for osteoblast-specific gene expression should provide tools useful for understanding osteoblast commitment and differentiation. We have defined three cis-elements important for basal activity of the rat osteocalcin (OC) promoter, located at about -200 to -180, -170 to -138, and -121 to -64 relative to the transcription initiation site. A motif (TCTGATTGTGT) present in the region between -200 and -170 that binds a multisubunit CP1/NFY/CBF-like CAAT factor complex contributes significantly to high level basal activity and presumably functions as the CAAT box for the rat OC promoter. We show that the region -121 to 32 is sufficient to confer osteoblastic cell type specificity in transient transfection assays of cultured cell lines using luciferase as a reporter. The basal promoter is active in rodent osteoblastic cell lines, but not in rodent fibroblastic or muscle cell lines. Although the rat OC box (-100 to -74) contains a CAAT motif, we could not detect CP1-like CAAT factor binding to this region. In fact, we demonstrate that a Msx-1 (Hox 7.1) homeodomain binding motif (ACTAATTG; bottom strand) in the 3'-end of the rat OC box is necessary for high level activity of the rat OC basal promoter in osteoblastic cells. A nuclear factor that recognizes this motif appears to be present in osteoblastic ROS 17/2.8 cells, which produce OC, but not in fibroblastic ROS 25/1 cells, which fail to express OC. This ROS 17/2.8 nuclear factor also recognizes the A/T-rich DNA cognates of the homeodomain-containing POU family of transcription factors. Taken together, these data suggest that a ubiquitous CP1-like CAAT factor and a cell type-restricted homeodomain containing (Msx or POU family) transcription factor interact with the proximal rat OC promoter to direct appropriate basal OC transcription in osteoblastic cells.

  14. Fine-tuning the onset of myogenesis by homeobox proteins that interact with the Myf5 limb enhancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubas, Philippe; Duval, Nathalie; Bajard, Lola; Langa Vives, Francina; Robert, Benoît; Mankoo, Baljinder S.; Buckingham, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Skeletal myogenesis in vertebrates is initiated at different sites of skeletal muscle formation during development, by activation of specific control elements of the myogenic regulatory genes. In the mouse embryo, Myf5 is the first myogenic determination gene to be expressed and its spatiotemporal regulation requires multiple enhancer sequences, extending over 120 kb upstream of the Mrf4-Myf5 locus. An enhancer, located at −57/−58 kb from Myf5, is responsible for its activation in myogenic cells derived from the hypaxial domain of the somite, that will form limb muscles. Pax3 and Six1/4 transcription factors are essential activators of this enhancer, acting on a 145-bp core element. Myogenic progenitor cells that will form the future muscle masses of the limbs express the factors necessary for Myf5 activation when they delaminate from the hypaxial dermomyotome and migrate into the forelimb bud, however they do not activate Myf5 and the myogenic programme until they have populated the prospective muscle masses. We show that Msx1 and Meox2 homeodomain-containing transcription factors bind in vitro and in vivo to specific sites in the 145-bp element, and are implicated in fine-tuning activation of Myf5 in the forelimb. Msx1, when bound between Pax and Six sites, prevents the binding of these key activators, thus inhibiting transcription of Myf5 and consequent premature myogenic differentiation. Meox2 is required for Myf5 activation at the onset of myogenesis via direct binding to other homeodomain sites in this sequence. Thus, these homeodomain factors, acting in addition to Pax3 and Six1/4, fine-tune the entry of progenitor cells into myogenesis at early stages of forelimb development. PMID:26538636

  15. Alkaline phosphatase and OCT-3/4 as useful markers for predicting susceptibility of human deciduous teeth-derived dental pulp cells to reprogramming factor-induced iPS cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Emi; Saitoh, Issei; Kubota, Naoko; Soda, Miki; Matsueda, Kazunari; Murakami, Tomoya; Sawami, Tadashi; Kagoshima, Akiko; Yamasaki, Youichi; Sato, Masahiro

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to prove that primary cells enriched with stem cells are more easily reprogrammed to generate induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells than those with scarce numbers of stem cells. We surveyed the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in five primarily-isolated human deciduous teeth-derived dental pulp cells (HDDPC) with cytochemical staining to examine the possible presence of stem cells. Next, the expression of stemness-specific factors, such as OCT(Octumer-binding transcription factor)3/4, NANOG, SOX2(SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2), CD90, muscle segment homeodomain homeobox (MSX) 1, and MSX2, was assessed with a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method. Finally, these isolated HDDPC were transfected with plasmids carrying genes coding Yamanaka factors to determine whether these cells could be reprogrammed to generate iPS cells. Of the five primarily-isolated HDDPC, two (HDDPC-1 and -5) exhibited higher degrees of ALP activity. OCT-3/4 expression was also prominent in those two lines. Furthermore, these two lines proliferated faster than the other three lines. The transfection of HDDPC with Yamanaka factors resulted in the generation of iPS cells from HDDPC-1 and -5. The number of cells with the stemness property of HDDPC differs among individuals, which suggests that HDDPC showing an increased expression of both ALP and OCT-3/4 can be more easily reprogrammed to generate iPS cells after the forced expression of reprogramming factors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Dominant Drop mutants are gain-of-function alleles of the muscle segment homeobox gene (msh) whose overexpression leads to the arrest of eye development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozer, B A

    2001-05-15

    Dominant Drop (Dr) mutations are nearly eyeless and have additional recessive phenotypes including lethality and patterning defects in eye and sensory bristles due to cis-regulatory lesions in the cell cycle regulator string (stg). Genetic analysis demonstrates that the dominant small eye phenotype is the result of separate gain-of-function mutations in the closely linked muscle segment homeobox (msh) gene, encoding a homeodomain transcription factor required for patterning of muscle and nervous system. Reversion of the Dr(Mio) allele was coincident with the generation of lethal loss-of-function mutations in msh in cis, suggesting that the dominant eye phenotype is the result of ectopic expression. Molecular genetic analysis revealed that two dominant Dr alleles contain lesions upstream of the msh transcription start site. In the Dr(Mio) mutant, a 3S18 retrotransposon insertion is the target of second-site mutations (P-element insertions or deletions) which suppress the dominant eye phenotype following reversion. The pattern of 3S18 expression and the absence of msh in eye imaginal discs suggest that transcriptional activation of the msh promoter accounts for ectopic expression. Dr dominant mutations arrest eye development by blocking the progression of the morphogenetic furrow leading to photoreceptor cell loss via apoptosis. Gal4-mediated ubiquitous expression of msh in third-instar larvae was sufficient to arrest the morphogenetic furrow in the eye imaginal disc and resulted in lethality prior to eclosion. Dominant mutations in the human msx2 gene, one of the vertebrate homologs of msh, are associated with craniosynostosis, a disease affecting cranial development. The Dr mutations are the first example of gain-of-function mutations in the msh/msx gene family identified in a genetically tractible model organism and may serve as a useful tool to identify additional genes that regulate this class of homeodomain proteins. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  17. Fighting for territories: time-lapse analysis of dental pulp and dental follicle stem cells in co-culture reveals specific migratory capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Schiraldi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell migration is a critical step during the repair of damaged tissues. In order to achieve appropriate cell-based therapies for tooth and periodontal ligament repair it is necessary first to understand the dynamics of tissue-specific stem cell populations such as dental pulp stem cells (DPSC and dental follicle stem cells (DFSC. Using time-lapse imaging, we analysed migratory and proliferative capabilities of these two human stem cell lines in vitro. When cultured alone, both DPSC and DFSC exhibited low and irregular migration profiles. In co-cultures, DFSC, but not DPSC, spectacularly increased their migration activity and velocity. DFSC rapidly surrounded the DPSC, thus resembling the in vivo developmental process, where follicle cells encircle both dental epithelium and pulp. Cell morphology was dependent on the culture conditions (mono-culture or co-culture and changed over time. Regulatory genes involved in dental cell migration and differentiation such as TWIST1, MSX1, RUNX2, SFRP1 and ADAM28, were also evaluated in co-cultures. MSX1 up-regulation indicates that DPSC and DFSC retain their odontogenic potential. However, DPSC lose their capacity to differentiate into odontoblasts in the presence of DFSC, as suggested by RUNX2 up-regulation and TWIST1 down-regulation. In contrast, the unchanged levels of SFRP1 expression suggest that DFSC retain their potential to form periodontal tissues even in the presence of DPSC. These findings demonstrate that stem cells behave differently according to their environment, retain their genetic memory, and compete with each other to acquire the appropriate territory. Understanding the mechanisms involved in stem cell migration may lead to new therapeutic approaches for tooth repair.

  18. Bioinformatic detection of E47, E2F1 and SREBP1 transcription factors as potential regulators of genes associated to acquisition of endometrial receptivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croxatto Horacio B

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The endometrium is a dynamic tissue whose changes are driven by the ovarian steroidal hormones. Its main function is to provide an adequate substrate for embryo implantation. Using microarray technology, several reports have provided the gene expression patterns of human endometrial tissue during the window of implantation. However it is required that biological connections be made across these genomic datasets to take full advantage of them. The objective of this work was to perform a research synthesis of available gene expression profiles related to acquisition of endometrial receptivity for embryo implantation, in order to gain insights into its molecular basis and regulation. Methods Gene expression datasets were intersected to determine a consensus endometrial receptivity transcript list (CERTL. For this cluster of genes we determined their functional annotations using available web-based databases. In addition, promoter sequences were analyzed to identify putative transcription factor binding sites using bioinformatics tools and determined over-represented features. Results We found 40 up- and 21 down-regulated transcripts in the CERTL. Those more consistently increased were C4BPA, SPP1, APOD, CD55, CFD, CLDN4, DKK1, ID4, IL15 and MAP3K5 whereas the more consistently decreased were OLFM1, CCNB1, CRABP2, EDN3, FGFR1, MSX1 and MSX2. Functional annotation of CERTL showed it was enriched with transcripts related to the immune response, complement activation and cell cycle regulation. Promoter sequence analysis of genes revealed that DNA binding sites for E47, E2F1 and SREBP1 transcription factors were the most consistently over-represented and in both up- and down-regulated genes during the window of implantation. Conclusions Our research synthesis allowed organizing and mining high throughput data to explore endometrial receptivity and focus future research efforts on specific genes and pathways. The discovery of possible

  19. SPITZER IRS SPECTRA OF LUMINOUS 8 μm SOURCES IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD: TESTING COLOR-BASED CLASSIFICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, Catherine L.; Kastner, Joel H.; Hrivnak, Bruce J.; Sahai, Raghvendra

    2009-01-01

    We present archival Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) spectra of 19 luminous 8 μm selected sources in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). The object classes derived from these spectra and from an additional 24 spectra in the literature are compared with classifications based on Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS)/MSX (J, H, K, and 8 μm) colors in order to test the 'JHK8' (Kastner et al.) classification scheme. The IRS spectra confirm the classifications of 22 of the 31 sources that can be classified under the JHK8 system. The spectroscopic classification of 12 objects that were unclassifiable in the JHK8 scheme allow us to characterize regions of the color-color diagrams that previously lacked spectroscopic verification, enabling refinements to the JHK8 classification system. The results of these new classifications are consistent with previous results concerning the identification of the most infrared-luminous objects in the LMC. In particular, while the IRS spectra reveal several new examples of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars with O-rich envelopes, such objects are still far outnumbered by carbon stars (C-rich AGB stars). We show that Spitzer IRAC/MIPS color-color diagrams provide improved discrimination between red supergiants and oxygen-rich and carbon-rich AGB stars relative to those based on 2MASS/MSX colors. These diagrams will enable the most luminous IR sources in Local Group galaxies to be classified with high confidence based on their Spitzer colors. Such characterizations of stellar populations will continue to be possible during Spitzer's warm mission through the use of IRAC [3.6]-[4.5] and 2MASS colors.

  20. Importance of Sox2 in maintenance of cell proliferation and multipotency of mesenchymal stem cells in low-density culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, D S; Kim, Y H; Jung, H S; Paik, S; Lee, J W

    2011-10-01

    This study has aimed to repopulate 'primitive' cells from late-passage mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) of poor multipotentiality and low cell proliferation rate, by simply altering plating density. Effects of low density culture compared t high density culture on late-passage bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs and pluripotency markers of multipotentiality were investigated. Cell proliferation, gene expression, RNA interference and differentiation potential were assayed. We repopulated 'primitive' cells by replating late-passage MSCs at low density (17 cells/cm(2) ) regardless of donor age. Repopulated MSCs from low-density culture were smaller cells with spindle shaped morphology compared to MSCs from high-density culture. The latter had enhanced colony-forming ability, proliferation rate, and adipogenic and chondrogenic potential. Strong expression of osteogenic-related genes (Cbfa1, Dlx5, alkaline phosphatase and type Ι collagen) in late-passage MSCs was reduced by replating at low density, whereas expression of three pluripotency markers (Sox2, Nanog and Oct-4), Osterix and Msx2 reverted to levels of early-passage MSCs. Knockdown of Sox2 and Msx2 but not Nanog, using RNA interference, showed significant decrease in colony-forming ability. Specifically, knockdown of Sox2 significantly inhibited multipotentiality and cell proliferation. Our data suggest that plating density should be considered to be a critical factor for enrichment of 'primitive' cells from heterogeneous BM and that replicative senescence and multipotentiality of MSCs during in vitro expansion may be predominantly regulated through Sox2. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Fine-tuning the onset of myogenesis by homeobox proteins that interact with the Myf5 limb enhancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Daubas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal myogenesis in vertebrates is initiated at different sites of skeletal muscle formation during development, by activation of specific control elements of the myogenic regulatory genes. In the mouse embryo, Myf5 is the first myogenic determination gene to be expressed and its spatiotemporal regulation requires multiple enhancer sequences, extending over 120 kb upstream of the Mrf4-Myf5 locus. An enhancer, located at −57/−58 kb from Myf5, is responsible for its activation in myogenic cells derived from the hypaxial domain of the somite, that will form limb muscles. Pax3 and Six1/4 transcription factors are essential activators of this enhancer, acting on a 145-bp core element. Myogenic progenitor cells that will form the future muscle masses of the limbs express the factors necessary for Myf5 activation when they delaminate from the hypaxial dermomyotome and migrate into the forelimb bud, however they do not activate Myf5 and the myogenic programme until they have populated the prospective muscle masses. We show that Msx1 and Meox2 homeodomain-containing transcription factors bind in vitro and in vivo to specific sites in the 145-bp element, and are implicated in fine-tuning activation of Myf5 in the forelimb. Msx1, when bound between Pax and Six sites, prevents the binding of these key activators, thus inhibiting transcription of Myf5 and consequent premature myogenic differentiation. Meox2 is required for Myf5 activation at the onset of myogenesis via direct binding to other homeodomain sites in this sequence. Thus, these homeodomain factors, acting in addition to Pax3 and Six1/4, fine-tune the entry of progenitor cells into myogenesis at early stages of forelimb development.

  2. Improved postural control after dynamic balance training in older overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellafiore, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Farina, Felicia; Palma, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have reported a greater frequency of falls among older women than men in conditions which stress balance. Previously, we found an improvement in static balance in older women with an increased support surface area and equal load redistribution on both feet, in response to a dynamic balance training protocol. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the same training program and body composition would have effects on the postural control of older overweight women. Ten healthy women (68.67 ± 5.50 yrs; 28.17 ± 3.35 BMI) participated in a five-week physical activity program. This included dynamic balance exercises, such as heel-to-toe walking in different directions, putting their hands on their hips, eyes open (EO) or closed (EC), with a tablet on their heads, going up and down one step, and walking on a mat. Postural stability was assessed before and after training with an optoelectronic platform and a uni-pedal balance performance test. Body composition of the trunk, upper limbs and lower limbs was measured by bio-impedance analysis. The mean speed (MS), medial-lateral MS (MS-x), anterior-posterior MS (MS-y), sway path (SP) and ellipse surface area (ESA) of the pressure center was reduced after training in older women. However, only MS, MS-x, MS-y and SP significantly decreased in bipodalic conditions with EO and MS-y also with EC (punipedal static balance. Our dynamic balance training protocol appears to be feasible, safe and repeatable for older overweight women and to have positive effects in improving their lateral and anterior-posterior postural control, mainly acting on the visual and skeletal muscle components of the balance control system.

  3. A cervid vocal fold model suggests greater glottal efficiency in calling at high frequencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo R Titze

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Male Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni produce loud and high fundamental frequency bugles during the mating season, in contrast to the male European Red Deer (Cervus elaphus scoticus who produces loud and low fundamental frequency roaring calls. A critical step in understanding vocal communication is to relate sound complexity to anatomy and physiology in a causal manner. Experimentation at the sound source, often difficult in vivo in mammals, is simulated here by a finite element model of the larynx and a wave propagation model of the vocal tract, both based on the morphology and biomechanics of the elk. The model can produce a wide range of fundamental frequencies. Low fundamental frequencies require low vocal fold strain, but large lung pressure and large glottal flow if sound intensity level is to exceed 70 dB at 10 m distance. A high-frequency bugle requires both large muscular effort (to strain the vocal ligament and high lung pressure (to overcome phonation threshold pressure, but at least 10 dB more intensity level can be achieved. Glottal efficiency, the ration of radiated sound power to aerodynamic power at the glottis, is higher in elk, suggesting an advantage of high-pitched signaling. This advantage is based on two aspects; first, the lower airflow required for aerodynamic power and, second, an acoustic radiation advantage at higher frequencies. Both signal types are used by the respective males during the mating season and probably serve as honest signals. The two signal types relate differently to physical qualities of the sender. The low-frequency sound (Red Deer call relates to overall body size via a strong relationship between acoustic parameters and the size of vocal organs and body size. The high-frequency bugle may signal muscular strength and endurance, via a 'vocalizing at the edge' mechanism, for which efficiency is critical.

  4. Potential Foraging Decisions by a Desert Ungulate to Balance Water and Nutrient Intake in a Water-Stressed Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedir, Jay V; Cain, James W; Krausman, Paul R; Allen, Jamison D; Duff, Glenn C; Morgart, John R

    2016-01-01

    Arid climates have unpredictable precipitation patterns, and wildlife managers often provide supplemental water to help desert ungulates endure the hottest, driest periods. When surface water is unavailable, the only source of water for ungulates comes from the forage they consume, and they must make resourceful foraging decisions to meet their requirements. We compared two desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) populations in Arizona, USA: a treatment population with supplemental water removed during treatment, and a control population. We examined whether sheep altered their seasonal diets without supplemental water. We calculated water and nutrient intake and metabolic water production from dry matter intake and forage moisture and nitrogen content, to determine whether sheep could meet their seasonal daily water and nutrient requirements solely from forage. Diets of sheep were higher in protein (all seasons) and moisture (autumn and winter) during treatment compared to pretreatment. During treatment, sheep diet composition was similar between the treatment and control populations, which suggests, under the climatic conditions of this study, water removal did not influence sheep diets. We estimated that under drought conditions, without any surface water available (although small ephemeral potholes would contain water after rains), female and male sheep would be unable to meet their daily water requirements in all seasons, except winter, when reproductive females had a nitrogen deficit. We determined that sheep could achieve water and nutrient balances in all seasons by shifting their total diet proportions by 8-55% from lower to higher moisture and nitrogen forage species. We elucidate how seasonal forage quality and foraging decisions by desert ungulates allow them to cope with their xeric and uncertain environment, and suggest that, with the forage conditions observed in our study area during this study period, providing supplemental water during

  5. Sensitive diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in a farmed cervid herd with use of an MPB70 protein fluorescence polarization assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surujballi, Om; Lutze-Wallace, Cyril; Turcotte, Claude; Savic, Mirjana; Stevenson, Dan; Romanowska, Anna; Monagle, Wendy; Berlie-Surujballi, Gloria; Tangorra, Erin

    2009-07-01

    After histopathological examination of a lesion found in a herd member returned a diagnosis of mycobacteriosis, a farmed herd (n = 47) of elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and red deer (C. elaphus elaphus) was investigated for bovine tuberculosis with a battery of antemortem and postmortem diagnostic tests. Every animal was tested with the mid-cervical tuberculin skin test; all 47 had negative results. All of the 16 adult animals and 15 of the 31 calves (approximately 2-years-old) were blood-tested with a lymphocyte stimulation test (LST) and a fluorescence polarization assay (FPA), which detects antibody to the MPB70 protein antigen. At necropsy of the 31 blood-tested animals, tissues were harvested for histopathological examination and culture of mycobacteria. Mycobacterium bovis was isolated from 16 of the 31 animals, and a scotochromogen was also isolated from 1 of the 16 whose tissues yielded M. bovis. Each of these 16 animals, 15 of which were calves, also received a histopathological diagnosis of mycobacteriosis. Other species of mycobacteria, including those belonging to the M. avium and M. terrae complexes, were isolated from an additional 7 animals. The FPA was scored "positive" or "suspect" for 16 animals, 13 (81%) of which were culture-positive for M. bovis. The other 3 animals that were culture-positive for M. bovis had negative FPA results. Of the 3 FPA-positive or FPA-suspect animals that were culture-negative, 2 were suspected to have mycobacteriosis on the basis of the histopathological examination. The 7 animals from which Mycobacterium species other than M. bovis were cultured were all FPA-negative. The only animal with positive LST results was also FPA-positive and culture-positive for M. bovis. The M. bovis isolates had an identical spoligotype pattern, with an octal code of 664073777777600. This is the first report of the isolation and identification of this strain type in Canada.

  6. Seeded amplification of chronic wasting disease prions in nasal brushings and recto-anal mucosal associated lymphoid tissues from elk by real time quaking-induced conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Nicholas J.; Siepker, Chris; Hoon-Hanks , Laura L.; Mitchell, Gordon; Walter, W. David; Manca, Matteo; Monello, Ryan J.; Powers, Jenny G.; Wild, Margaret A.; Hoover, Edward A.; Caughey, Byron; Richt, Jürgen a.; Fenwick, B.W.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was first documented nearly 50 years ago in Colorado and Wyoming and has since been detected across North America and the Republic of Korea. The expansion of this disease makes the development of sensitive diagnostic assays and antemortem sampling techniques crucial for the mitigation of its spread; this is especially true in cases of relocation/reintroduction or prevalence studies of large or protected herds, where depopulation may be contraindicated. This study evaluated the sensitivity of the real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay of recto-anal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) biopsy specimens and nasal brushings collected antemortem. These findings were compared to results of immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis of ante- and postmortem samples. RAMALT samples were collected from populations of farmed and free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni; n = 323), and nasal brush samples were collected from a subpopulation of these animals (n = 205). We hypothesized that the sensitivity of RT-QuIC would be comparable to that of IHC analysis of RAMALT and would correspond to that of IHC analysis of postmortem tissues. We found RAMALT sensitivity (77.3%) to be highly correlative between RT-QuIC and IHC analysis. Sensitivity was lower when testing nasal brushings (34%), though both RAMALT and nasal brush test sensitivities were dependent on both the PRNP genotype and disease progression determined by the obex score. These data suggest that RT-QuIC, like IHC analysis, is a relatively sensitive assay for detection of CWD prions in RAMALT biopsy specimens and, with further investigation, has potential for large-scale and rapid automated testing of antemortem samples for CWD.

  7. Potential Foraging Decisions by a Desert Ungulate to Balance Water and Nutrient Intake in a Water-Stressed Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay V Gedir

    Full Text Available Arid climates have unpredictable precipitation patterns, and wildlife managers often provide supplemental water to help desert ungulates endure the hottest, driest periods. When surface water is unavailable, the only source of water for ungulates comes from the forage they consume, and they must make resourceful foraging decisions to meet their requirements. We compared two desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni populations in Arizona, USA: a treatment population with supplemental water removed during treatment, and a control population. We examined whether sheep altered their seasonal diets without supplemental water. We calculated water and nutrient intake and metabolic water production from dry matter intake and forage moisture and nitrogen content, to determine whether sheep could meet their seasonal daily water and nutrient requirements solely from forage. Diets of sheep were higher in protein (all seasons and moisture (autumn and winter during treatment compared to pretreatment. During treatment, sheep diet composition was similar between the treatment and control populations, which suggests, under the climatic conditions of this study, water removal did not influence sheep diets. We estimated that under drought conditions, without any surface water available (although small ephemeral potholes would contain water after rains, female and male sheep would be unable to meet their daily water requirements in all seasons, except winter, when reproductive females had a nitrogen deficit. We determined that sheep could achieve water and nutrient balances in all seasons by shifting their total diet proportions by 8-55% from lower to higher moisture and nitrogen forage species. We elucidate how seasonal forage quality and foraging decisions by desert ungulates allow them to cope with their xeric and uncertain environment, and suggest that, with the forage conditions observed in our study area during this study period, providing supplemental

  8. An ecologic study comparing distribution of Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica between Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep, White Mountain bighorn sheep, and domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassini, Letizia; Gonzales, Ben; Weiser, Glen C; Sischo, William

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence and phenotypic variability of Pasteurella and Mannheimia isolates from Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae), White Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni), and domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from California, USA, were compared. The White Mountain bighorn sheep population had a recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality, whereas the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep population had no recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality. The domestic sheep flocks were pastured in areas geographically near both populations but were not known to have direct contact with either bighorn sheep population. Oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from healthy domestic and bighorn sheep and cultured to characterize bacterial species, hemolysis, biogroups, and biovariants. Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica were detected in all of the study populations, but the relative proportion of each bacterial species differed among sheep populations. Pasteurella trehalosi was more common than M. haemolytica in the bighorn sheep populations, whereas the opposite was true in domestic sheep. Mannheimia haemolytica was separated into 11 biogroups, and P. trehalosi was characterized into two biogroups. Biogroup distributions for M. haemolytica and P. trehalosi differed among the three populations; however, no difference was detected for the distribution of P. trehalosi biogroups between the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. The prevalence odds ratios (pOR) for the distribution of M. haemolytica biogroups suggested little difference between White Mountain bighorn sheep and domestic sheep compared with Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep, although these comparisons had relatively large confidence intervals for the point estimates. Hemolytic activity of the isolates was not different among the sheep populations for M. haemolytica but was different for P. trehalosi. No clear evidence of association was found in the

  9. Endemic chronic wasting disease causes mule deer population decline in Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVivo, Melia T.; Edmunds, David R.; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Schumaker, Brant A.; Binfet, Justin; Kreeger, Terry J.; Richards, Bryan J.; Schatzl, Hermann M.; Cornish, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), and moose (Alces alces shirasi) in North America. In southeastern Wyoming average annual CWD prevalence in mule deer exceeds 20% and appears to contribute to regional population declines. We determined the effect of CWD on mule deer demography using age-specific, female-only, CWD transition matrix models to estimate the population growth rate (λ). Mule deer were captured from 2010–2014 in southern Converse County Wyoming, USA. Captured adult (≥ 1.5 years old) deer were tested ante-mortem for CWD using tonsil biopsies and monitored using radio telemetry. Mean annual survival rates of CWD-negative and CWD-positive deer were 0.76 and 0.32, respectively. Pregnancy and fawn recruitment were not observed to be influenced by CWD. We estimated λ= 0.79, indicating an annual population decline of 21% under current CWD prevalence levels. A model derived from the demography of only CWD-negative individuals yielded; λ = 1.00, indicating a stable population if CWD were absent. These findings support CWD as a significant contributor to mule deer population decline. Chronic wasting disease is difficult or impossible to eradicate with current tools, given significant environmental contamination, and at present our best recommendation for control of this disease is to minimize spread to new areas and naïve cervid populations.

  10. Association analysis of PRNP gene region with chronic wasting disease in Rocky Mountain elk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spraker Terry R

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic wasting disease (CWD is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE of cervids including white-tailed (Odocoileus virginianus and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus, Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni, and moose (Alces alces. A leucine variant at position 132 (132L in prion protein of Rocky Mountain elk confers a long incubation time with CWD, but not complete resistance. However, variants in regulatory regions outside the open reading frame of PRNP have been associated with varying degrees of susceptibility to prion disease in other species, and some variants have been observed in similar regions of Rocky Mountain elk PRNP. Thus, additional genetic variants might provide increased protection, either alone or in combination with 132L. Findings This study provided genomic sequence of all exons for PRNP of Rocky Mountain elk. Many functional sites in and around the PRNP gene region were sequenced, and this report approximately doubled (to 75 the number of known variants in this region. A haplotype-tagging approach was used to reduce the number of genetic variants required to survey this variation in the PRNP gene region of 559 Rocky Mountain elk. Eight haplotypes were observed with frequencies over 1.0%, and one haplotype was present at 71.2% frequency, reflecting limited genetic diversity in the PRNP gene region. Conclusions The presence of 132L cut odds of CWD by more than half (Odds Ratio = 0.43; P = 0.0031, which was similar to a previous report. However after accounting for 132L, no association with CWD was found for any additional variants in the PRNP region (P > 0.05.

  11. Characterization of mercury and its risk in Nelson's, Saltmarsh, and Seaside Sparrows.

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    Virginia L Winder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nelson's, Saltmarsh, and Seaside Sparrows (Ammodramus nelsoni, A. caudacutus, and A. maritimus, respectively depend on marsh and wetland habitats--ecosystems in which mercury (Hg bioavailability is notoriously high. The purpose of the present study was to address the potential impact of Hg on these species using first primary and breast feathers as non-destructive biomonitoring tools. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Feathers were sampled from wintering sparrows in North Carolina salt marshes (2006-2010. Feather Hg data were used in three risk analysis components (1 Threshold Component--examined feather Hg with regard to published negative effects thresholds; (2 Hg Dynamics Component--examined Hg in sparrows captured multiple times; and (3 Capture Frequency and Survival Component--tested for links between Hg and return frequency and survival. Threshold Component analyses indicated that Hg concentrations in 42-77% of sampled individuals (breast feather n = 879; first primary feather n = 663 were within the range associated with decreased reproduction in other avian species. Hg Dynamics Component analyses demonstrated that Hg increased between first and second captures for Nelson's (n = 9 and Seaside Sparrows (n = 23. Capture Frequency and Survival Component analyses detected a negative relationship between Hg and capture frequency in Nelson's Sparrows (n = 315. However, MARK models detected no effect of Hg on apparent survival in any species. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: This study indicates that current Hg exposure places a considerable proportion of each population at risk. In particular, 52% of all sampled Saltmarsh Sparrows exhibited first primary feather Hg concentrations exceeding those associated with a >60% reduction in reproductive success in other species. This study reports evidence for net annual bioaccumulation, indicating an increased risk in older individuals. These data can be used to inform future population

  12. Characterization of mercury and its risk in Nelson's, Saltmarsh, and Seaside Sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Virginia L

    2012-01-01

    Nelson's, Saltmarsh, and Seaside Sparrows (Ammodramus nelsoni, A. caudacutus, and A. maritimus, respectively) depend on marsh and wetland habitats--ecosystems in which mercury (Hg) bioavailability is notoriously high. The purpose of the present study was to address the potential impact of Hg on these species using first primary and breast feathers as non-destructive biomonitoring tools. Feathers were sampled from wintering sparrows in North Carolina salt marshes (2006-2010). Feather Hg data were used in three risk analysis components (1) Threshold Component--examined feather Hg with regard to published negative effects thresholds; (2) Hg Dynamics Component--examined Hg in sparrows captured multiple times; and (3) Capture Frequency and Survival Component--tested for links between Hg and return frequency and survival. Threshold Component analyses indicated that Hg concentrations in 42-77% of sampled individuals (breast feather n = 879; first primary feather n = 663) were within the range associated with decreased reproduction in other avian species. Hg Dynamics Component analyses demonstrated that Hg increased between first and second captures for Nelson's (n = 9) and Seaside Sparrows (n = 23). Capture Frequency and Survival Component analyses detected a negative relationship between Hg and capture frequency in Nelson's Sparrows (n = 315). However, MARK models detected no effect of Hg on apparent survival in any species. This study indicates that current Hg exposure places a considerable proportion of each population at risk. In particular, 52% of all sampled Saltmarsh Sparrows exhibited first primary feather Hg concentrations exceeding those associated with a >60% reduction in reproductive success in other species. This study reports evidence for net annual bioaccumulation, indicating an increased risk in older individuals. These data can be used to inform future population assessments and management for these species.

  13. Potential foraging decisions by a desert ungulate to balance water and nutrient intake in a water-stressed environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedir, Jay V.; Cain, James W.; Krausman, Paul R.; Allen, Jamison D.; Duff, Glenn C.; Morgart, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Arid climates have unpredictable precipitation patterns, and wildlife managers often provide supplemental water to help desert ungulates endure the hottest, driest periods. When surface water is unavailable, the only source of water for ungulates comes from the forage they consume, and they must make resourceful foraging decisions to meet their requirements. We compared two desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) populations in Arizona, USA: a treatment population with supplemental water removed during treatment, and a control population. We examined whether sheep altered their seasonal diets without supplemental water. We calculated water and nutrient intake and metabolic water production from dry matter intake and forage moisture and nitrogen content, to determine whether sheep could meet their seasonal daily water and nutrient requirements solely from forage. Diets of sheep were higher in protein (all seasons) and moisture (autumn and winter) during treatment compared to pretreatment. During treatment, sheep diet composition was similar between the treatment and control populations, which suggests, under the climatic conditions of this study, water removal did not influence sheep diets. We estimated that under drought conditions, without any surface water available (although small ephemeral potholes would contain water after rains), female and male sheep would be unable to meet their daily water requirements in all seasons, except winter, when reproductive females had a nitrogen deficit. We determined that sheep could achieve water and nutrient balances in all seasons by shifting their total diet proportions by 8–55% from lower to higher moisture and nitrogen forage species. We elucidate how seasonal forage quality and foraging decisions by desert ungulates allow them to cope with their xeric and uncertain environment, and suggest that, with the forage conditions observed in our study area during this study period, providing supplemental water during

  14. Seeded Amplification of Chronic Wasting Disease Prions in Nasal Brushings and Recto-anal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissues from Elk by Real-Time Quaking-Induced Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Nicholas J; Siepker, Chris; Hoon-Hanks, Laura L; Mitchell, Gordon; Walter, W David; Manca, Matteo; Monello, Ryan J; Powers, Jenny G; Wild, Margaret A; Hoover, Edward A; Caughey, Byron; Richt, Jürgen A

    2016-04-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was first documented nearly 50 years ago in Colorado and Wyoming and has since been detected across North America and the Republic of Korea. The expansion of this disease makes the development of sensitive diagnostic assays and antemortem sampling techniques crucial for the mitigation of its spread; this is especially true in cases of relocation/reintroduction or prevalence studies of large or protected herds, where depopulation may be contraindicated. This study evaluated the sensitivity of the real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay of recto-anal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (RAMALT) biopsy specimens and nasal brushings collected antemortem. These findings were compared to results of immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis of ante- and postmortem samples. RAMALT samples were collected from populations of farmed and free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni;n= 323), and nasal brush samples were collected from a subpopulation of these animals (n= 205). We hypothesized that the sensitivity of RT-QuIC would be comparable to that of IHC analysis of RAMALT and would correspond to that of IHC analysis of postmortem tissues. We found RAMALT sensitivity (77.3%) to be highly correlative between RT-QuIC and IHC analysis. Sensitivity was lower when testing nasal brushings (34%), though both RAMALT and nasal brush test sensitivities were dependent on both thePRNPgenotype and disease progression determined by the obex score. These data suggest that RT-QuIC, like IHC analysis, is a relatively sensitive assay for detection of CWD prions in RAMALT biopsy specimens and, with further investigation, has potential for large-scale and rapid automated testing of antemortem samples for CWD. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Triggered massive star formation associated with the bubble Hii region Sh2-39 (N5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duronea, N. U.; Cappa, C. E.; Bronfman, L.; Borissova, J.; Gromadzki, M.; Kuhn, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    Aims: We perform a multiwavelength analysis of the bubble Hii region Sh2-39 (N5) and its environs with the aim of studying the physical properties of Galactic IR bubbles and exploring their impact in triggering massive star formation. Methods: To analyze the molecular gas, we used CO(3-2) and HCO+(4-3) line data obtained with the on-the-fly technique from the ASTE telescope. To study the distribution and physical characteristics of the dust, we made use of archival data from ATLASGAL, Herschel, and MSX, while the ionized gas was studied making use of an NVSS image. We used public WISE, Spitzer, and MSX point source catalogs to search for infrared candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) in the region. To investigate the stellar cluster [BDS2003]6 we used IR spectroscopic data obtained with the ARCoIRIS spectrograph, mounted on Blanco 4 m Telescope at CTIO, and new available IR Ks band observations from the VVVeXtended ESO Public Survey (VVVX). Results: The new ASTE observations allowed the molecular gas component in the velocity range from 30 km s-1 to 46 km s-1, associated with Sh2-39, to be studied in detail. The morphology of the molecular gas suggests that the ionized gas is expanding against its parental cloud. We identified four molecular clumps, which were likely formed by the expansion of the ionization front, and determined some of their physical and dynamical properties. Clumps with HCO+ and 870 μm counterparts show evidence of gravitational collapse. We identified several candidate YSOs across the molecular component. Their spatial distribution and the fragmentation time derived for the collected layers of the molecular gas suggest that massive star formation might have been triggered by the expansion of the nebula via the collect and collapse mechanism. The spectroscopical distance obtained for the stellar cluster [BDS2003]6, placed over one of the collapsing clumps in the border of the Hii region, reveals that this cluster is physically associated with

  16. Nitrogen Starvation and TorC1 Inhibition Differentially Affect Nuclear Localization of the Gln3 and Gat1 Transcription Factors Through the Rare Glutamine tRNACUG in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Jennifer J.; Rai, Rajendra; Cooper, Terrance G.

    2015-01-01

    A leucine, leucyl-tRNA synthetase–dependent pathway activates TorC1 kinase and its downstream stimulation of protein synthesis, a major nitrogen consumer. We previously demonstrated, however, that control of Gln3, a transcription activator of catabolic genes whose products generate the nitrogenous precursors for protein synthesis, is not subject to leucine-dependent TorC1 activation. This led us to conclude that excess nitrogen-dependent down-regulation of Gln3 occurs via a second mechanism that is independent of leucine-dependent TorC1 activation. A major site of Gln3 and Gat1 (another GATA-binding transcription activator) control occurs at their access to the nucleus. In excess nitrogen, Gln3 and Gat1 are sequestered in the cytoplasm in a Ure2-dependent manner. They become nuclear and activate transcription when nitrogen becomes limiting. Long-term nitrogen starvation and treatment of cells with the glutamine synthetase inhibitor methionine sulfoximine (Msx) also elicit nuclear Gln3 localization. The sensitivity of Gln3 localization to glutamine and inhibition of glutamine synthesis prompted us to investigate the effects of a glutamine tRNA mutation (sup70-65) on nitrogen-responsive control of Gln3 and Gat1. We found that nuclear Gln3 localization elicited by short- and long-term nitrogen starvation; growth in a poor, derepressive medium; Msx or rapamycin treatment; or ure2Δ mutation is abolished in a sup70-65 mutant. However, nuclear Gat1 localization, which also exhibits a glutamine tRNACUG requirement for its response to short-term nitrogen starvation or growth in proline medium or a ure2Δ mutation, does not require tRNACUG for its response to rapamycin. Also, in contrast with Gln3, Gat1 localization does not respond to long-term nitrogen starvation. These observations demonstrate the existence of a specific nitrogen-responsive component participating in the control of Gln3 and Gat1 localization and their downstream production of nitrogenous precursors

  17. Differentiation of Odontoblast-Like Cells From Mouse Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by Pax9 and Bmp4 Transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Daisuke; Takeshita, Nobuo; Oyanagi, Toshihito; Sasaki, Shutaro; Takano, Ikuko; Hasegawa, Masakazu; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

    2015-09-01

    The field of tooth regeneration has progressed in recent years, and human tooth regeneration could become viable in the future. Because induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can differentiate into odontogenic cells given appropriate conditions, iPS cells are a potential cell source for tooth regeneration. However, a definitive method to induce iPS cell-derived odontogenic cells has not been established. We describe a novel method of odontoblast differentiation from iPS cells using gene transfection. We generated mouse iPS cell-derived neural crest-like cells (iNCLCs), which exhibited neural crest markers. Next, we differentiated iNCLCs into odontoblast-like cells by transfection of Pax9 and Bmp4 expression plasmids. Exogenous Pax9 upregulated expression of Msx1 and dentin matrix protein 1 (Dmp1) in iNCLCs but not bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) or dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp). Exogenous Bmp4 upregulated expression of Msx1, Dmp1, and Dspp in iNCLCs, but not Pax9. Moreover, cotransfection of Pax9 and Bmp4 plasmids in iNCLCs revealed a higher expression of Pax9 than when Pax9 plasmid was used alone. In contrast, exogenous Pax9 downregulated Bmp4 overexpression. Cotransfection of Pax9 and Bmp4 synergistically upregulated Dmp1 expression; however, Pax9 overexpression downregulated exogenous Bmp4-induced Dspp expression. Together, these findings suggest that an interaction between exogenous Pax9- and Bmp4-induced signaling modulated Dmp1 and Dspp expression. In conclusion, transfection of Pax9 and Bmp4 expression plasmids in iNCLCs induced gene expression associated with odontoblast differentiation, suggesting that iNCLCs differentiated into odontoblast-like cells. The iPS cell-derived odontoblast-like cells could be a useful cell source for tooth regeneration. It has been reported that induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells differentiate into odontogenic cells by administration of recombinant growth factors and coculture with odontogenic cells. Therefore, they can

  18. Striatal pre- and postsynaptic profile of adenosine A(2A receptor antagonists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Orru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Striatal adenosine A(2A receptors (A(2ARs are highly expressed in medium spiny neurons (MSNs of the indirect efferent pathway, where they heteromerize with dopamine D(2 receptors (D(2Rs. A(2ARs are also localized presynaptically in cortico-striatal glutamatergic terminals contacting MSNs of the direct efferent pathway, where they heteromerize with adenosine A(1 receptors (A(1Rs. It has been hypothesized that postsynaptic A(2AR antagonists should be useful in Parkinson's disease, while presynaptic A(2AR antagonists could be beneficial in dyskinetic disorders, such as Huntington's disease, obsessive-compulsive disorders and drug addiction. The aim or this work was to determine whether selective A(2AR antagonists may be subdivided according to a preferential pre- versus postsynaptic mechanism of action. The potency at blocking the motor output and striatal glutamate release induced by cortical electrical stimulation and the potency at inducing locomotor activation were used as in vivo measures of pre- and postsynaptic activities, respectively. SCH-442416 and KW-6002 showed a significant preferential pre- and postsynaptic profile, respectively, while the other tested compounds (MSX-2, SCH-420814, ZM-241385 and SCH-58261 showed no clear preference. Radioligand-binding experiments were performed in cells expressing A(2AR-D(2R and A(1R-A(2AR heteromers to determine possible differences in the affinity of these compounds for different A(2AR heteromers. Heteromerization played a key role in the presynaptic profile of SCH-442416, since it bound with much less affinity to A(2AR when co-expressed with D(2R than with A(1R. KW-6002 showed the best relative affinity for A(2AR co-expressed with D(2R than co-expressed with A(1R, which can at least partially explain the postsynaptic profile of this compound. Also, the in vitro pharmacological profile of MSX-2, SCH-420814, ZM-241385 and SCH-58261 was is in accordance with their mixed pre- and postsynaptic profile

  19. Revisions of rump fat and body scoring indices for deer, elk, and moose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Rachel C.; Cook, John G.; Stephenson, Thomas R.; Myers, Woodrow L.; Mccorquodale, Scott M.; Vales, David J.; Irwin, Larry L.; Hall, P. Briggs; Spencer, Rocky D.; Murphie, Shannon L.; Schoenecker, Kathryn A.; Miller, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Because they do not require sacrificing animals, body condition scores (BCS), thickness of rump fat (MAXFAT), and other similar predictors of body fat have advanced estimating nutritional condition of ungulates and their use has proliferated in North America in the last decade. However, initial testing of these predictors was too limited to assess their reliability among diverse habitats, ecotypes, subspecies, and populations across the continent. With data collected from mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), elk (Cervus elaphus), and moose (Alces alces) during initial model development and data collected subsequently from free-ranging mule deer and elk herds across much of the western United States, we evaluated reliability across a broader range of conditions than were initially available. First, to more rigorously test reliability of the MAXFAT index, we evaluated its robustness across the 3 species, using an allometric scaling function to adjust for differences in animal size. We then evaluated MAXFAT, rump body condition score (rBCS), rLIVINDEX (an arithmetic combination of MAXFAT and rBCS), and our new allometrically scaled rump-fat thickness index using data from 815 free-ranging female Roosevelt and Rocky Mountain elk (C. e. roosevelti and C. e. nelsoni) from 19 populations encompassing 4 geographic regions and 250 free-ranging female mule deer from 7 populations and 2 regions. We tested for effects of subspecies, geographic region, and captive versus free-ranging existence. Rump-fat thickness, when scaled allometrically with body mass, was related to ingesta-free body fat over a 38–522-kg range of body mass (r2 = 0.87; P 12% body fat. This bias translated into a difference between subspecies, because Rocky Mountain elk tended to be fatter than Roosevelt elk in our sample. Effects of observer error with the rBCS also existed for mule deer with moderate to high levels of body fat, and deer body size significantly affected accuracy of the MAXFAT predictor

  20. Estimating abundance of an open population with an N-mixture model using auxiliary data on animal movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketz, Alison C; Johnson, Therese L; Monello, Ryan J; Mack, John A; George, Janet L; Kraft, Benjamin R; Wild, Margaret A; Hooten, Mevin B; Hobbs, N Thompson

    2018-04-01

    Accurate assessment of abundance forms a central challenge in population ecology and wildlife management. Many statistical techniques have been developed to estimate population sizes because populations change over time and space and to correct for the bias resulting from animals that are present in a study area but not observed. The mobility of individuals makes it difficult to design sampling procedures that account for movement into and out of areas with fixed jurisdictional boundaries. Aerial surveys are the gold standard used to obtain data of large mobile species in geographic regions with harsh terrain, but these surveys can be prohibitively expensive and dangerous. Estimating abundance with ground-based census methods have practical advantages, but it can be difficult to simultaneously account for temporary emigration and observer error to avoid biased results. Contemporary research in population ecology increasingly relies on telemetry observations of the states and locations of individuals to gain insight on vital rates, animal movements, and population abundance. Analytical models that use observations of movements to improve estimates of abundance have not been developed. Here we build upon existing multi-state mark-recapture methods using a hierarchical N-mixture model with multiple sources of data, including telemetry data on locations of individuals, to improve estimates of population sizes. We used a state-space approach to model animal movements to approximate the number of marked animals present within the study area at any observation period, thereby accounting for a frequently changing number of marked individuals. We illustrate the approach using data on a population of elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) in Northern Colorado, USA. We demonstrate substantial improvement compared to existing abundance estimation methods and corroborate our results from the ground based surveys with estimates from aerial surveys during the same seasons. We develop a

  1. Multiple sample setup for testing the hydrothermal stability of adsorbents in thermal energy storage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Fabian; Laevemann, Eberhard

    2015-01-01

    Thermal energy storage based on adsorption and desorption of water on an adsorbent can achieve high energy storage densities. Many adsorbents lose adsorption capacity when operated under unfavourable hydrothermal conditions during adsorption and desorption. The stability of an adsorbent against stressing hydrothermal conditions is a key issue for its usability in adsorption thermal energy storage. We built an experimental setup that simultaneously controls the hydrothermal conditions of 16 samples arranged in a matrix of four temperatures and four water vapour pressures. This setup allows the testing of potential adsorbents between temperatures of 50 °C and 350 °C and water vapour pressures of up to 32 kPa. A measurement procedure that allows the detection of the hydrothermal stability of an adsorbent after defined time spans has been designed. We verified the functionality of the multiple sample measurements with a microporous adsorbent, a zeolite NaMSX. The hydrothermal stability of this zeolite is tested by water uptake measurements. A standard deviation lower than 1% of the 16 samples for detecting the hydrothermal stability enables setting different conditions in each sample cell. Further, we compared the water uptake measurements by measuring their adsorption isotherms with the volumetric device BELSORP Aqua 3 from Bel Japan. (paper)

  2. Sprouty2 controls proliferation of palate mesenchymal cells via fibroblast growth factor signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Kaori [Section of Oral and Maxillofacial Oncology, Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Sciences, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Taketomi, Takaharu, E-mail: taketomi@dent.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Section of Oral and Maxillofacial Oncology, Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Sciences, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Yoshizaki, Keigo [Section of Orthodontics, Division of Oral Health, Growth and Development, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Arai, Shinsaku [Section of Oral and Maxillofacial Oncology, Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Sciences, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Sanui, Terukazu [Section of Periodontology, Division of Oral Rehabilitation, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Yoshiga, Daigo [Section of Oral and Maxillofacial Oncology, Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Sciences, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Yoshimura, Akihiko [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), CREST, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Nakamura, Seiji [Section of Oral and Maxillofacial Oncology, Division of Maxillofacial Diagnostic and Surgical Sciences, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2011-01-28

    Research highlights: {yields} Sprouty2-deficient mice exhibit cleft palate as a result of failure of palatal shelf elevation. {yields} We examined palate cell proliferation in Sprouty2-deficient mice. {yields} Palate mesenchymal cell proliferation was increased in Sprouty2 KO mice. {yields} Sprouty2 plays roles in murine palatogenesis by regulating cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Cleft palate is one of the most common craniofacial deformities. The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) plays a central role in reciprocal interactions between adjacent tissues during palatal development, and the FGF signaling pathway has been shown to be inhibited by members of the Sprouty protein family. In this study, we report the incidence of cleft palate, possibly caused by failure of palatal shelf elevation, in Sprouty2-deficient (KO) mice. Sprouty2-deficient palates fused completely in palatal organ culture. However, palate mesenchymal cell proliferation estimated by Ki-67 staining was increased in Sprouty2 KO mice compared with WT mice. Sprouty2-null palates expressed higher levels of FGF target genes, such as Msx1, Etv5, and Ptx1 than WT controls. Furthermore, proliferation and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) activation in response to FGF was enhanced in palate mesenchymal cells transfected with Sprouty2 small interfering RNA. These results suggest that Sprouty2 regulates palate mesenchymal cell proliferation via FGF signaling and is involved in palatal shelf elevation.

  3. Sprouty2 controls proliferation of palate mesenchymal cells via fibroblast growth factor signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Kaori; Taketomi, Takaharu; Yoshizaki, Keigo; Arai, Shinsaku; Sanui, Terukazu; Yoshiga, Daigo; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Nakamura, Seiji

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Sprouty2-deficient mice exhibit cleft palate as a result of failure of palatal shelf elevation. → We examined palate cell proliferation in Sprouty2-deficient mice. → Palate mesenchymal cell proliferation was increased in Sprouty2 KO mice. → Sprouty2 plays roles in murine palatogenesis by regulating cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Cleft palate is one of the most common craniofacial deformities. The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) plays a central role in reciprocal interactions between adjacent tissues during palatal development, and the FGF signaling pathway has been shown to be inhibited by members of the Sprouty protein family. In this study, we report the incidence of cleft palate, possibly caused by failure of palatal shelf elevation, in Sprouty2-deficient (KO) mice. Sprouty2-deficient palates fused completely in palatal organ culture. However, palate mesenchymal cell proliferation estimated by Ki-67 staining was increased in Sprouty2 KO mice compared with WT mice. Sprouty2-null palates expressed higher levels of FGF target genes, such as Msx1, Etv5, and Ptx1 than WT controls. Furthermore, proliferation and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) activation in response to FGF was enhanced in palate mesenchymal cells transfected with Sprouty2 small interfering RNA. These results suggest that Sprouty2 regulates palate mesenchymal cell proliferation via FGF signaling and is involved in palatal shelf elevation.

  4. Early gene regulation of osteogenesis in embryonic stem cells

    KAUST Repository

    Kirkham, Glen R.

    2012-01-01

    The early gene regulatory networks (GRNs) that mediate stem cell differentiation are complex, and the underlying regulatory associations can be difficult to map accurately. In this study, the expression profiles of the genes Dlx5, Msx2 and Runx2 in mouse embryonic stem cells were monitored over a 48 hour period after exposure to the growth factors BMP2 and TGFβ1. Candidate GRNs of early osteogenesis were constructed based on published experimental findings and simulation results of Boolean and ordinary differential equation models were compared with our experimental data in order to test the validity of these models. Three gene regulatory networks were found to be consistent with the data, one of these networks exhibited sustained oscillation, a behaviour which is consistent with the general view of embryonic stem cell plasticity. The work cycle presented in this paper illustrates how mathematical modelling can be used to elucidate from gene expression profiles GRNs that are consistent with experimental data. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  5. Disruption of Smad4 in neural crest cells leads to mid-gestation death with pharyngeal arch, craniofacial and cardiac defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xuguang; Deng, Chu-xia; Wang, Qin; Jiao, Kai

    2008-01-01

    TGFβ/BMP signaling pathways are essential for normal development of neural crest cells (NCCs). Smad4 encodes the only common Smad protein in mammals, which is a critical nuclear mediator of TGFβ/BMP signaling. In this work, we sought to investigate the roles of Smad4 for development of NCCs. To overcome the early embryonic lethality of Smad4 null mice, we specifically disrupted Smad4 in NCCs using a Cre/loxP system. The mutant mice died at mid-gestation with defects in facial primordia, pharyngeal arches, outflow tract and cardiac ventricles. Further examination revealed that mutant embryos displayed severe molecular defects starting from E9.5. Expression of multiple genes, including Msx1, 2, Ap-2α, Pax3, and Sox9, which play critical roles for NCC development, was downregulated by NCC disruption of Smad4. Moreover, increased cell death was observed in pharyngeal arches from E10.5. However, the cell proliferation rate in these areas was not substantially altered. Taken together, these findings provide compelling genetic evidence that Smad4-mediated activities of TGFβ/BMP signals are essential for appropriate NCC development. PMID:18334251

  6. Analysis of the possibility of use of a pump powered by solar energy supply of water in micro sprinklers; Analise da possibilidade de utilizacao de uma motobomba acionada por energia solar na alimentacao de agua em micro aspersores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Paulo Takashi; Schutz, Fabiana Costa de Araujo; Jousseph, Carlos Alberto C.; Grosbelli, Andressa; Gnoatto, Estor; Kavanagh, Edward [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Paran (UTFPR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: paulooyama@gmail.com

    2011-07-01

    Due to the high cost of connecting electricity in distant places of conventional networks, solar photovoltaic energy is widely used in street lighting, water pumping, health clinics, etc.. To contribute to a better use of such energy, the project aimed to analyze the water-flow, power and electric current of a motor powered by two Solarex solar module manufacturer, model MSX 56, standard voltage of 12V, the current standard of 3.35A and 56W of potency using a pump, Shurflo Ltd manufacturer, model 2088-732, a pressure transducer model HUBA-510, a flow transducer for pumping water. The analysis for the height of 18.2 mca, corresponding height to 178.554 kPa, showed a flow rate of 365.308 L/h. Based on the results obtained in the laboratory, it was concluded that: the emitter Rain Bird QN-14, showed FVC nearly of 0.7%, ranking it as good, the emitter flow rates were in line with those presented in the catalog manufacturer, in the pressure range from 100 to 200 kPa, its effective radius was limited between 1.00 and 3.00 m away from the emitter, the profile of three-dimensional distribution of precipitation and isohyetal were quite irregular, which makes it possible the use of irrigation equipment in small areas. (author)

  7. The environment and star formation of H II region Sh2-163: a multi-wavelength study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Naiping; Wang, Jun-Jie; Li, Nan

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the environment of H II region Sh2-163 and search for evidence of triggered star formation in this region, we performed a multi-wavelength study of this H II region. Most of our data were taken from large-scale surveys: 2MASS, CGPS, MSX and SCUBA. We also made CO molecular line observations, using the 13.7-m telescope. The ionized region of Sh2-163 is detected by both the optical and radio continuum observations. Sh2-163 is partially bordered by an arc-like photodissociation region (PDR), which is coincident with the strongest optical and radio emissions, indicating interactions between the H II region and the surrounding interstellar medium. Two molecular clouds were discovered on the border of the PDR. The morphology of these two clouds suggests they are compressed by the expansion of Sh2-163. In cloud A, we found two molecular clumps. And it seems star formation in clump A2 is much more active than in clump A1. In cloud B, we found new outflow activities and massive star(s) are forming inside. Using 2MASS photometry, we tried to search for embedded young stellar object (YSO) candidates in this region. The very good agreement between CO emission, infrared shell and YSOs suggest that it is probably a star formation region triggered by the expansion of Sh2-163. We also found the most likely massive protostar related to IRAS 23314+6033.

  8. DNA methylation abnormalities in congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Juhé, Clara; Cuscó, Ivon; Homs, Aïda; Flores, Raquel; Torán, Núria; Pérez-Jurado, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    Congenital heart defects represent the most common malformation at birth, occurring also in ∼50% of individuals with Down syndrome. Congenital heart defects are thought to have multifactorial etiology, but the main causes are largely unknown. We have explored the global methylation profile of fetal heart DNA in comparison to blood DNA from control subjects: an absolute correlation with the type of tissue was detected. Pathway analysis revealed a significant enrichment of differential methylation at genes related to muscle contraction and cardiomyopathies in the developing heart DNA. We have also searched for abnormal methylation profiles on developing heart-tissue DNA of syndromic and non-syndromic congenital heart defects. On average, 3 regions with aberrant methylation were detected per sample and 18 regions were found differentially methylated between groups. Several epimutations were detected in candidate genes involved in growth regulation, apoptosis and folate pathway. A likely pathogenic hypermethylation of several intragenic sites at the MSX1 gene, involved in outflow tract morphogenesis, was found in a fetus with isolated heart malformation. In addition, hypermethylation of the GATA4 gene was present in fetuses with Down syndrome with or without congenital heart defects, as well as in fetuses with isolated heart malformations. Expression deregulation of the abnormally methylated genes was detected. Our data indicate that epigenetic alterations of relevant genes are present in developing heart DNA in fetuses with both isolated and syndromic heart malformations. These epimutations likely contribute to the pathogenesis of the malformation by cis-acting effects on gene expression.

  9. AP-2α and AP-2β cooperatively orchestrate homeobox gene expression during branchial arch patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Otterloo, Eric; Li, Hong; Jones, Kenneth L; Williams, Trevor

    2018-01-25

    The evolution of a hinged moveable jaw with variable morphology is considered a major factor behind the successful expansion of the vertebrates. DLX homeobox transcription factors are crucial for establishing the positional code that patterns the mandible, maxilla and intervening hinge domain, but how the genes encoding these proteins are regulated remains unclear. Herein, we demonstrate that the concerted action of the AP-2α and AP-2β transcription factors within the mouse neural crest is essential for jaw patterning. In the absence of these two proteins, the hinge domain is lost and there are alterations in the size and patterning of the jaws correlating with dysregulation of homeobox gene expression, with reduced levels of Emx, Msx and Dlx paralogs accompanied by an expansion of Six1 expression. Moreover, detailed analysis of morphological features and gene expression changes indicate significant overlap with various compound Dlx gene mutants. Together, these findings reveal that the AP-2 genes have a major function in mammalian neural crest development, influencing patterning of the craniofacial skeleton via the DLX code, an effect that has implications for vertebrate facial evolution, as well as for human craniofacial disorders. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Traf2 interacts with Smad4 and regulates BMP signaling pathway in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Koichi; Ikeda, Kyoko; Ito, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) play important roles in osteoblast differentiation and maturation. In mammals, the BMP-induced receptor-regulated Smads form complexes with Smad4. These complexes translocate and accumulate in the nucleus, where they regulate the transcription of various target genes. However, the function of Smad4 remains unclear. We performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using Smad4 as bait and a cDNA library derived from bone marrow, to indentify the proteins interacting with Smad4. cDNA clones for Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 2 (Traf2) were identified, and the interaction between the endogenous proteins was confirmed in the mouse osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1. To investigate the function of Traf2, we silenced it with siRNA. The level of BMP-2 protein in the medium, the expression levels of the Bmp2 gene and BMP-induced transcription factor genes, including Runx2, Dlx5, Msx2, and Sp7, and the phosphorylated-Smad1 protein level were increased in cells transfected with Traf2 siRNA. The nuclear accumulation of Smad1 increased with TNF-α stimulation for 30 min at Traf2 silencing. These results suggest that the TNF-α-stimulated nuclear accumulation of Smad1 may be dependent on Traf2. Thus, the interaction between Traf2 and Smad4 may play a role in the cross-talk between TNF-α and BMP signaling pathways.

  11. Equivalency of Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) Embryonic Stem Cells Derived From Fertilized, Parthenogenetic, and Hand-Made Cloned Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Musharifa; Selokar, Naresh L.; Singh, Karn P.; Zandi, Mohammad; Singh, Manoj K.; Shah, Riaz A.; Chauhan, Manmohan S.; Singla, Suresh K.; Palta, Prabhat

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study was aimed at establishing buffalo embryonic stem cells (ESCs) from in vitro fertilized (IVF), parthenogenetic, and hand-made cloned (HMC) embryos and to check their equivalency in terms of stem cell marker expression, longevity, proliferation, and differentiation pattern. ESCs derived from all three sources were found by immunofluorescence to express the pluripotency markers SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, OCT4, and SOX2 and were able to form embryoid bodies containing cells expressing genes specific to endoderm (AFP, HNF4, and GATA4), mesoderm (MSX1, BMP4, and ASA), and ectoderm (cytokeratin 8 and NF68). Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) showed cells from all sources to be positive for pluripotency markers OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, STAT3, REX1, FOXD3, NUCLEOSTEMIN, and TELOMERASE. Pluripotency markers OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, and c-MYC were also analyzed by real-time PCR. No significant differences were observed among ESCs from all three sources for all these genes except NANOG, whose expression was higher (pcells (1.603±0.315 and 1±0, respectively). Pluripotent, stable buffalo ESC lines derived from IVF, parthenogenesis, and HMC embryos may be genetically manipulated to provide a powerful tool for studies involving embryonic development, genomic imprinting, gene targeting, cloning, chimera formation, and transgenic animal production. PMID:22582863

  12. Physiological regulation of isocitrate dehydrogenase and the role of 2-oxoglutarate in Prochlorococcus sp. strain PCC 9511.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Agustina Domínguez-Martín

    Full Text Available The enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH; EC 1.1.1.42 catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate, to produce 2-oxoglutarate. The incompleteness of the tricarboxylic acids cycle in marine cyanobacteria confers a special importance to isocitrate dehydrogenase in the C/N balance, since 2-oxoglutarate can only be metabolized through the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase pathway. The physiological regulation of isocitrate dehydrogenase was studied in cultures of Prochlorococcus sp. strain PCC 9511, by measuring enzyme activity and concentration using the NADPH production assay and Western blotting, respectively. The enzyme activity showed little changes under nitrogen or phosphorus starvation, or upon addition of the inhibitors DCMU, DBMIB and MSX. Azaserine, an inhibitor of glutamate synthase, induced clear increases in the isocitrate dehydrogenase activity and icd gene expression after 24 h, and also in the 2-oxoglutarate concentration. Iron starvation had the most significant effect, inducing a complete loss of isocitrate dehydrogenase activity, possibly mediated by a process of oxidative inactivation, while its concentration was unaffected. Our results suggest that isocitrate dehydrogenase responds to changes in the intracellular concentration of 2-oxoglutarate and to the redox status of the cells in Prochlorococcus.

  13. THE MILKY WAY PROJECT: A STATISTICAL STUDY OF MASSIVE STAR FORMATION ASSOCIATED WITH INFRARED BUBBLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendrew, S.; Robitaille, T. P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Simpson, R.; Lintott, C. J. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Bressert, E. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Povich, M. S. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Sherman, R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Schawinski, K. [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208121, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Wolf-Chase, G., E-mail: kendrew@mpia.de [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium, 1300 S. Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States)

    2012-08-10

    The Milky Way Project citizen science initiative recently increased the number of known infrared bubbles in the inner Galactic plane by an order of magnitude compared to previous studies. We present a detailed statistical analysis of this data set with the Red MSX Source (RMS) catalog of massive young stellar sources to investigate the association of these bubbles with massive star formation. We particularly address the question of massive triggered star formation near infrared bubbles. We find a strong positional correlation of massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) and H II regions with Milky Way Project bubbles at separations of <2 bubble radii. As bubble sizes increase, a statistically significant overdensity of massive young sources emerges in the region of the bubble rims, possibly indicating the occurrence of triggered star formation. Based on numbers of bubble-associated RMS sources, we find that 67% {+-} 3% of MYSOs and (ultra-)compact H II regions appear to be associated with a bubble. We estimate that approximately 22% {+-} 2% of massive young stars may have formed as a result of feedback from expanding H II regions. Using MYSO-bubble correlations, we serendipitously recovered the location of the recently discovered massive cluster Mercer 81, suggesting the potential of such analyses for discovery of heavily extincted distant clusters.

  14. EVIDENCE FOR DELAYED MASSIVE STAR FORMATION IN THE M17 PROTO-OB ASSOCIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povich, Matthew S.; Whitney, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    Through analysis of archival images and photometry from the Spitzer GLIMPSE and MIPSGAL surveys combined with Two Micron All Sky Survey and MSX data, we have identified 488 candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) in the giant molecular cloud M17 SWex, which extends ∼50 pc southwest from the prominent Galactic H II region M17. Our sample includes >200 YSOs with masses >3 M sun that will become B-type stars on the main sequence. Extrapolating over the stellar initial mass function (IMF), we find that M17 SWex contains >1.3 x 10 4 young stars, representing a proto-OB association. The YSO mass function is significantly steeper than the Salpeter IMF, and early O stars are conspicuously absent from M17 SWex. Assuming M17 SWex will form an OB association with a Salpeter IMF, these results reveal the combined effects of (1) more rapid circumstellar disk evolution in more massive YSOs and (2) delayed onset of massive star formation.

  15. Angle resolved photoelectron distribution of the 1{pi} resonance of CO/Pt(111)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haarlammert, Thorben; Wegner, Sebastian; Tsilimis, Grigorius; Zacharias, Helmut [Physikalisches Institut, Westfaelische Wilhelms Universitaet, Muenster (Germany); Golovin, Alexander [Institute of Physics, St. Petersburg State University (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    The CO 1{pi} level of a c(4 x 2)-2CO/Pt(111) reconstruction shows a significant resonance when varying the photon energy between h{nu}=23 eV and h{nu}=48 e V. This resonance has not been observed in gas phase measurements or on the Pt(1 10) surface. To investigate the photoelectron distribution of the 1{pi} level high harmonic radiaton has been used. By conversion in rare gases like argon, neon, or helium photon energies of up to 100 eV have been generated at repetition r ates of up to 10 kHz. The single harmonics have been separated and focused by a toroidal grating and directed to the sample surface. A time-of-flight detector with multiple anodes registers the kinetic energies of the emitted photoelectrons and enables the simultaneous detection of multiple emission angles. The angular distributions of photoelectrons emitted from the CO 1{pi} level have been measured for a variety of initial photon energies. Further the angular distributions of the CO 1{pi} level photoelectrons emitted from a CO-Pt{sub 7} cluster have been calculated using the MSX{alpha}-Method which shows good agreement with the ex perimental data.

  16. Characterization of Proliferating Neural Progenitors after Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhra Prakash Hui

    Full Text Available Zebrafish can repair their injured brain and spinal cord after injury unlike adult mammalian central nervous system. Any injury to zebrafish spinal cord would lead to increased proliferation and neurogenesis. There are presences of proliferating progenitors from which both neuronal and glial loss can be reversed by appropriately generating new neurons and glia. We have demonstrated the presence of multiple progenitors, which are different types of proliferating populations like Sox2+ neural progenitor, A2B5+ astrocyte/ glial progenitor, NG2+ oligodendrocyte progenitor, radial glia and Schwann cell like progenitor. We analyzed the expression levels of two common markers of dedifferentiation like msx-b and vimentin during regeneration along with some of the pluripotency associated factors to explore the possible role of these two processes. Among the several key factors related to pluripotency, pou5f1 and sox2 are upregulated during regeneration and associated with activation of neural progenitor cells. Uncovering the molecular mechanism for endogenous regeneration of adult zebrafish spinal cord would give us more clues on important targets for future therapeutic approach in mammalian spinal cord repair and regeneration.

  17. 'Miniskirt' counter array at CDF II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artikov, A.; Artikov, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Muon detection is fundamental for the most of the interesting analyses at CDF. At the course of Run II, the collaboration expects to collect hundreds of t t-bar decays yielding a muon as well as several million B-hadron events involving J/ψ → μ + μ - decays. Muon detection is also of fundamental importance in the study of W-boson properties and in the search for Higgs production associated with W or Z bosons. Considerable effort therefore went into extending the muon detector coverage for Run II, which started in March 2001. The CDF II muon detector system consists of multiple layers of drift chambers and scintillation counters, which span the pseudorapidity (|η|) range between 0 and 1.5. Detectors spanning different ranges have different geometries, and the muon scintillation counter system includes subsystems in the regions that have come to be known as the 'central' (0 pe for WLS fiber readout is smaller than for conventional readout, we can also expect an increase in the statistical contribution to the overall uncertainty. Our first concern, before adopting this solution, was therefore to ascertain that the mean timing resolution obtained under these conditions was adequate. The modifications, testing and installation of these counters within the CDF Upgrade Project are described in detail. The timing characteristics of MSX' counters are also investigated using cosmic muons. The measurements show that the time resolution does not exceed 2.2 ns. (author)

  18. THE MILKY WAY PROJECT: WHAT ARE YELLOWBALLS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerton, C. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, 12 Physics Hall, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Wolf-Chase, G. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium, 1300 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Arvidsson, K. [Trull School of Science and Mathematics, Schreiner University, 2100 Memorial Boulevard, Kerrville, TX 78028 (United States); Lintott, C. J.; Simpson, R. J., E-mail: kerton@iastate.edu, E-mail: gwolfchase@adlerplanetarium.org, E-mail: KDArvidsson@schreiner.edu, E-mail: cjl@astro.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: robert.simpson@astro.ox.ac.uk [Oxford Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-01

    Yellowballs are a collection of approximately 900 compact, infrared sources identified and named by volunteers participating in the Milky Way Project (MWP), a citizen science project that uses GLIMPSE/MIPSGAL images from Spitzer to explore topics related to Galactic star formation. In this paper, through a combination of catalog cross-matching and infrared color analysis, we show that yellowballs are a mix of compact star-forming regions, including ultra-compact and compact H II regions, as well as analogous regions for less massive B-type stars. The resulting MWP yellowball catalog provides a useful complement to the Red MSX Source survey. It similarly highlights regions of massive star formation, but the selection of objects purely on the basis of their infrared morphology and color in Spitzer images identifies a signature of compact star-forming regions shared across a broad range of luminosities and, by inference, masses. We discuss the origin of their striking mid-infrared appearance and suggest that future studies of the yellowball sample will improve our understanding of how massive and intermediate-mass star-forming regions transition from compact to more extended bubble-like structures.

  19. THE LESSER ROLE OF SHEAR IN GALACTIC STAR FORMATION: INSIGHT FROM THE GALACTIC RING SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dib, Sami; Dariush, Ali [Astrophysics Group, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Helou, George [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Moore, Toby J. T. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Wharf, Birkenhead CH41 1LD (United Kingdom); Urquhart, James S., E-mail: s.dib@imperial.ac.uk [Max-Planck Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2012-10-20

    We analyze the role played by shear in regulating star formation in the Galaxy on the scale of individual molecular clouds. The clouds are selected from the {sup 13}CO J = 1-0 line of the Galactic Ring Survey. For each cloud, we estimate the shear parameter which describes the ability of density perturbations to grow within the cloud. We find that for almost all molecular clouds considered, there is no evidence that shear is playing a significant role in opposing the effects of self-gravity. We also find that the shear parameter of the clouds does not depend on their position in the Galaxy. Furthermore, we find no correlations between the shear parameter of the clouds with several indicators of their star formation activity. No significant correlation is found between the shear parameter and the star formation efficiency of the clouds which is measured using the ratio of the massive young stellar objects luminosities, measured in the Red MSX survey, to the cloud mass. There are also no significant correlations between the shear parameter and the fraction of their mass that is found in denser clumps which is a proxy for their clump formation efficiency, nor with their level of fragmentation expressed in the number of clumps per unit mass. Our results strongly suggest that shear is playing only a minor role in affecting the rates and efficiencies at which molecular clouds convert their gas into dense cores and thereafter into stars.

  20. Massive stellar content of some Galactic supershells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltcheva, Nadejda; Golev, Valeri

    2015-08-01

    The giant Galactic H II regions provide a unique opportunity to study the OB-star influence on the surrounding interstellar matter. In this contribution, several multi-wavelength surveys (Wisconsin H-α Mapper Northern Sky Survey, Southern H-α Sky Survey Atlas, MSX Mid-IR Galactic Plane Survey, WISE All-Sky Data Release, CO survey of the Milky Way, and the Southern Galactic Plane HI Survey) are combined with available intermediate-band uvbyβ photometry to attempt a precise spatial correlation between the OB-stars and the neutral and ionized material. Our study is focused on the H I supershell GSH 305+01-24 in Centaurus, the Car OB2 supershell, the Cygnus star-forming complex and the GSH 224-01+24 shell toward the GMN 39/Seagull nebula region. We refine the massive stellar content of these star-forming fields and study the energetics of its interaction with the shells’ material.

  1. THE MILKY WAY PROJECT: WHAT ARE YELLOWBALLS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerton, C. R.; Wolf-Chase, G.; Arvidsson, K.; Lintott, C. J.; Simpson, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Yellowballs are a collection of approximately 900 compact, infrared sources identified and named by volunteers participating in the Milky Way Project (MWP), a citizen science project that uses GLIMPSE/MIPSGAL images from Spitzer to explore topics related to Galactic star formation. In this paper, through a combination of catalog cross-matching and infrared color analysis, we show that yellowballs are a mix of compact star-forming regions, including ultra-compact and compact H II regions, as well as analogous regions for less massive B-type stars. The resulting MWP yellowball catalog provides a useful complement to the Red MSX Source survey. It similarly highlights regions of massive star formation, but the selection of objects purely on the basis of their infrared morphology and color in Spitzer images identifies a signature of compact star-forming regions shared across a broad range of luminosities and, by inference, masses. We discuss the origin of their striking mid-infrared appearance and suggest that future studies of the yellowball sample will improve our understanding of how massive and intermediate-mass star-forming regions transition from compact to more extended bubble-like structures

  2. Progress towards experimental realization of extreme-velocity flow-dominated magnetized plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, T. E.; Adams, C. S.; Welch, D. R.; Kagan, G.; Bean, I. A.; Henderson, B. R.; Klim, A. J.

    2017-10-01

    Interactions of flow-dominated plasmas with other plasmas, neutral gases, magnetic fields, solids etc., take place with sufficient velocity that kinetic energy dominates the dynamics of the interaction (as opposed to magnetic or thermal energy, which dominates in most laboratory plasma experiments). Building upon progress made by the Magnetized Shock Experiment (MSX) at LANL, we are developing the experimental and modeling capability to increase our ultimate attainable plasma velocities well in excess of 1000 km/s. Ongoing work includes designing new pulsed power switches, triggering, and inductive adder topologies; development of novel high-speed optical diagnostics; and exploration of new numerical techniques to specifically model the unique physics of translating/stagnating flow-dominated plasmas. Furthering our understanding of the physical mechanisms of energy conversion from kinetic to other forms, such as thermal energy, non-thermal tails/accelerated populations, enhanced magnetic fields, and radiation (both continuum and line), has wide-ranging significance in basic plasma science, astrophysics, and plasma technology applications such as inertial confinement fusion and intense radiation sources. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration. LA-UR-17-25786.

  3. Development of modular scalable pulsed power systems for high power magnetized plasma experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, I. A.; Weber, T. E.; Adams, C. S.; Henderson, B. R.; Klim, A. J.

    2017-10-01

    New pulsed power switches and trigger drivers are being developed in order to explore higher energy regimes in the Magnetic Shock Experiment (MSX) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. To achieve the required plasma velocities, high-power (approx. 100 kV, 100s of kA), high charge transfer (approx. 1 C), low-jitter (few ns) gas switches are needed. A study has been conducted on the effects of various electrode geometries and materials, dielectric media, and triggering strategies; resulting in the design of a low-inductance annular field-distortion switch, optimized for use with dry air at 90 psig, and triggered by a low-jitter, rapid rise-time solid-state Linear Transformer Driver. The switch geometry and electrical characteristics are designed to be compatible with Syllac style capacitors, and are intended to be deployed in modular configurations. The scalable nature of this approach will enable the rapid design and implementation of a wide variety of high-power magnetized plasma experiments. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration. Approved for unlimited release, LA-UR-17-2578.

  4. Yield from photovoltaic modules under real working situations in west Paraná - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Nabeyama Michels

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the external factors that influence the yield obtained from photovoltaic modules (Solarex® - MSX 56, as solar irradiance, temperature, placement angle and dust deposition on the photovoltaic modules  installed at the facilities of the Medianeira campus of the UTFPR, working under real conditions. To obtain the data it was used a datalogger from Campbell Scientific, Inc, model CR23X. It was observed that under solar irradiance below 550 W m-2 the panel did not convert maximum power, and above this value the panel reached saturation levels. Temperature increase led to reduced voltage, and consequently lower module output power, decreasing the efficiency value by nearly 6% at temperatures 15oC above the Standard Test Conditions (STC temperature. These panels are usually placed at different angles according to local latitude, remaining fixed in that position. In comparison with a horizontally-placed panel, it was obtained a 4-hour increase in yield when the panel reached saturation value. Dust levels reduced electricity production levels by approximately 16%. These factors must be taken into account for placement and maintenance of photovoltaic systems, so they can function efficiently.

  5. Development of a revolving drum reactor for open-sorption heat storage processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zettl, Bernhard; Englmair, Gerald; Steinmaurer, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the potential of an open sorption storage process using molecular sieves to provide thermal energy for space heating and hot water, an experimental study of adsorption heat generation in a rotating reactor is presented. Dehydrated zeolite of the type 4A and MSX were used in form of spherical grains and humidified room air was blown through the rotating bed. Zeolite batches of about 50 kg were able to generate an adsorption heat up to 12 kWh and temperature shifts of the process air up to 36 K depending on the inlet air water content and the state of dehydration of the storage materials. A detailed study of the heat transfer effects, the generated adsorption heat, and the evolving temperatures show the applicability of the reactor and storage concept. - Highlights: • Use of an open adsorption concept for domestic heat supply was proved. • A rotating heat drum reactor concept was successfully applied. • Zeolite batches of 50 kg generated up to 12 kWh adsorption heat (580 kJ/kg). • Temperature shift in the rotating material bed was up to 60 K during adsorption

  6. Fermi bubbles: the explosive nuclear activity of the Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland-Hawthorn, Joss

    2015-08-01

    The Galaxy's supermassive black hole (Sgr A*) is a hundred times closer than any other massive singularity. It is surrounded by a highly unstable gas disk so why is the black hole so peaceful at the present time? This mystery has led to a flurry of models in order to explain why Sgr A* is radiating far below (1 part in 10^8) the Eddington accretion limit. But has this always been so? Evidence is gathering that Sgr A* has been far more active in the recent past, on timescales of thousands of years and longer. The bipolar wind discovered by MSX, the gamma-ray bubbles discovered by Fermi-LAT, the WMAP haze, the positronium flash confirmed by INTEGRAL, are suggestive of something truly spectacular in the recent past. We present exciting new evidence that the Galactic Centre was a full blown "active galaxy" just two million years ago. The echo of this incredible event can be seen today imprinted across the Galaxy.

  7. Infectious diseases of marine molluscs and host responses as revealed by genomic tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    More and more infectious diseases affect marine molluscs. Some diseases have impacted commercial species including MSX and Dermo of the eastern oyster, QPX of hard clams, withering syndrome of abalone and ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) infections of many molluscs. Although the exact transmission mechanisms are not well understood, human activities and associated environmental changes often correlate with increased disease prevalence. For instance, hatcheries and large-scale aquaculture create high host densities, which, along with increasing ocean temperature, might have contributed to OsHV-1 epizootics in scallops and oysters. A key to understanding linkages between the environment and disease is to understand how the environment affects the host immune system. Although we might be tempted to downplay the role of immunity in invertebrates, recent advances in genomics have provided insights into host and parasite genomes and revealed surprisingly sophisticated innate immune systems in molluscs. All major innate immune pathways are found in molluscs with many immune receptors, regulators and effectors expanded. The expanded gene families provide great diversity and complexity in innate immune response, which may be key to mollusc's defence against diverse pathogens in the absence of adaptive immunity. Further advances in host and parasite genomics should improve our understanding of genetic variation in parasite virulence and host disease resistance. PMID:26880838

  8. Requirement of Xmsx-1 in the BMP-triggered ventralization of Xenopus embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T S; Takagi, C; Ueno, N

    2000-03-01

    Signaling triggered by polypeptide growth factors leads to the activation of their target genes. Several homeobox genes are known to be induced in response to polypeptide growth factors in early Xenopus development. In particular, Xmsx-1, an amphibian homologue of vertebrate Msx-1, is well characterized as a target gene of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). Here, using a dominant-negative form of Xmsx-1 (VP-Xmsx-1), which is a fusion protein made with the virus-derived VP16 activation domain, we have examined whether Xmsx-1 activity is required in the endogenous ventralizing pathway. VP-Xmsx-1 induced a secondary body axis, complete with muscle and neural tissues, when overexpressed in ventral blastomeres, suggesting that Xmsx-1 activity is necessary for both mesoderm and ectoderm to be ventralized. We have also examined the epistatic relationship between Xmsx-1 and another ventralizing homeobox protein, Xvent-1, and show that Xmsx-1 is likely to be acting upstream of Xvent-1. We propose that Xmsx-1 is required in the BMP-stimulated ventralization pathway that involves the downstream activation of Xvent-1.

  9. Knockdown of connexin43-mediated regulation of the zone of polarizing activity in the developing chick limb leads to digit truncation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Lee Yong; Lin, Jun Sheng; Becker, David L; Green, Colin R

    2002-12-01

    In the developing chick wing, the use of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to transiently knock down the expression of the gap junction protein, connexin43 (Cx43), results in limb patterning defects, including deletion of the anterior digits. To understand more about how such defects arise, the effects of transient Cx43 knockdown on the expression patterns of several genes known to play pivotal roles in limb formation were examined. Sonic hedgehog (Shh), which is normally expressed in the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA) and is required to maintain both the ZPA and the apical ectodermal ridge (AER), was found to be downregulated in treated limbs within 30 h. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (Bmp-2), a gene downstream of Shh, was similarly downregulated. Fibroblast growth factor-8 expression, however, was unaltered 30 h after treatment but was greatly reduced at 48 h post-treatment, when the AER begins to regress. Expressions of Bmp-4 and Muscle segment homeobox-like gene (Msx-1) were not affected at any of the time points examined. Cx43 expression is therefore involved in some, but not all patterning cascades, and appears to play a role in the regulation of ZPA activity.

  10. Noggin inactivation affects the number and differentiation potential of muscle progenitor cells in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costamagna, Domiziana; Mommaerts, Hendrik; Sampaolesi, Maurilio; Tylzanowski, Przemko

    2016-01-01

    Inactivation of Noggin, a secreted antagonist of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs), in mice leads, among others, to severe malformations of the appendicular skeleton and defective skeletal muscle fibers. To determine the molecular basis of the phenotype, we carried out a histomorphological and molecular analysis of developing muscles Noggin−/− mice. We show that in 18.5 dpc embryos there is a marked reduction in muscle fiber size and a failure of nuclei migration towards the cell membrane. Molecularly, the absence of Noggin results in an increased BMP signaling in muscle tissue as shown by the increase in SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation, concomitant with the induction of BMP target genes such as Id1, 2, 3 as well as Msx1. Finally, upon removal of Noggin, the number of mesenchymal Pax7+ muscle precursor cells is reduced and they are more prone to differentiate into adipocytes in vitro. Thus, our results highlight the importance of Noggin/BMP balance for myogenic commitment of early fetal progenitor cells. PMID:27573479

  11. Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) - literature review on the features of the syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowska-Stolarz, Anna M

    2014-01-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a congenital disorder associated with 4 chromosome microdeletion. The patients suffer from various deformities. Among them, mental and growth retardation, even in the fetus, are observed. Most of the characteristics concern facial features. The "Greek warrior helmet appearance" is the most characteristic feature and refers to the facial view with prominent glabella, high arched eyebrow, broad nasal bridge and hypertelorism. Another characteristic feature is microcephalia with micrognathia. The features are more pronounced in infants. Clefts of lip and/or palate are observed in almost half of the cases. The characteristic thing is that the more genetic material is missing, the more pronounced are the dimorphic features of the syndrome. Mostly, the dental status does not differ much from that of the healthy individuals. It had been proven though that WHS-patients are more prone to anomalies in dental structures. Cone-shaped and taurodontic teeth were observed. Multiple tooth agenesis (mainly at premolars and molars) with over-retained deciduous dentition might be associated with MSX1-gene impairment.

  12. THE LESSER ROLE OF SHEAR IN GALACTIC STAR FORMATION: INSIGHT FROM THE GALACTIC RING SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dib, Sami; Dariush, Ali; Helou, George; Moore, Toby J. T.; Urquhart, James S.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the role played by shear in regulating star formation in the Galaxy on the scale of individual molecular clouds. The clouds are selected from the 13 CO J = 1-0 line of the Galactic Ring Survey. For each cloud, we estimate the shear parameter which describes the ability of density perturbations to grow within the cloud. We find that for almost all molecular clouds considered, there is no evidence that shear is playing a significant role in opposing the effects of self-gravity. We also find that the shear parameter of the clouds does not depend on their position in the Galaxy. Furthermore, we find no correlations between the shear parameter of the clouds with several indicators of their star formation activity. No significant correlation is found between the shear parameter and the star formation efficiency of the clouds which is measured using the ratio of the massive young stellar objects luminosities, measured in the Red MSX survey, to the cloud mass. There are also no significant correlations between the shear parameter and the fraction of their mass that is found in denser clumps which is a proxy for their clump formation efficiency, nor with their level of fragmentation expressed in the number of clumps per unit mass. Our results strongly suggest that shear is playing only a minor role in affecting the rates and efficiencies at which molecular clouds convert their gas into dense cores and thereafter into stars.

  13. Highly conserved non-coding elements on either side of SOX9 associated with Pierre Robin sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benko, Sabina; Fantes, Judy A; Amiel, Jeanne; Kleinjan, Dirk-Jan; Thomas, Sophie; Ramsay, Jacqueline; Jamshidi, Negar; Essafi, Abdelkader; Heaney, Simon; Gordon, Christopher T; McBride, David; Golzio, Christelle; Fisher, Malcolm; Perry, Paul; Abadie, Véronique; Ayuso, Carmen; Holder-Espinasse, Muriel; Kilpatrick, Nicky; Lees, Melissa M; Picard, Arnaud; Temple, I Karen; Thomas, Paul; Vazquez, Marie-Paule; Vekemans, Michel; Roest Crollius, Hugues; Hastie, Nicholas D; Munnich, Arnold; Etchevers, Heather C; Pelet, Anna; Farlie, Peter G; Fitzpatrick, David R; Lyonnet, Stanislas

    2009-03-01

    Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) is an important subgroup of cleft palate. We report several lines of evidence for the existence of a 17q24 locus underlying PRS, including linkage analysis results, a clustering of translocation breakpoints 1.06-1.23 Mb upstream of SOX9, and microdeletions both approximately 1.5 Mb centromeric and approximately 1.5 Mb telomeric of SOX9. We have also identified a heterozygous point mutation in an evolutionarily conserved region of DNA with in vitro and in vivo features of a developmental enhancer. This enhancer is centromeric to the breakpoint cluster and maps within one of the microdeletion regions. The mutation abrogates the in vitro enhancer function and alters binding of the transcription factor MSX1 as compared to the wild-type sequence. In the developing mouse mandible, the 3-Mb region bounded by the microdeletions shows a regionally specific chromatin decompaction in cells expressing Sox9. Some cases of PRS may thus result from developmental misexpression of SOX9 due to disruption of very-long-range cis-regulatory elements.

  14. THE MILKY WAY PROJECT: A STATISTICAL STUDY OF MASSIVE STAR FORMATION ASSOCIATED WITH INFRARED BUBBLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendrew, S.; Robitaille, T. P.; Simpson, R.; Lintott, C. J.; Bressert, E.; Povich, M. S.; Sherman, R.; Schawinski, K.; Wolf-Chase, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Milky Way Project citizen science initiative recently increased the number of known infrared bubbles in the inner Galactic plane by an order of magnitude compared to previous studies. We present a detailed statistical analysis of this data set with the Red MSX Source (RMS) catalog of massive young stellar sources to investigate the association of these bubbles with massive star formation. We particularly address the question of massive triggered star formation near infrared bubbles. We find a strong positional correlation of massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) and H II regions with Milky Way Project bubbles at separations of <2 bubble radii. As bubble sizes increase, a statistically significant overdensity of massive young sources emerges in the region of the bubble rims, possibly indicating the occurrence of triggered star formation. Based on numbers of bubble-associated RMS sources, we find that 67% ± 3% of MYSOs and (ultra-)compact H II regions appear to be associated with a bubble. We estimate that approximately 22% ± 2% of massive young stars may have formed as a result of feedback from expanding H II regions. Using MYSO-bubble correlations, we serendipitously recovered the location of the recently discovered massive cluster Mercer 81, suggesting the potential of such analyses for discovery of heavily extincted distant clusters.

  15. [Vascular Calcification - Pathological Mechanism and Clinical Application - . Role of vascular smooth muscle cells in vascular calcification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2015-05-01

    Vascular calcification is commonly seen with aging, chronic kidney disese (CKD), diabetes, and atherosclerosis, and is closely associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Vascular calcification has long been regarded as the final stage of degeneration and necrosis of arterial wall and a passive, unregulated process. However, it is now known to be an active and tightly regulated process involved with phenotypic transition of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) that resembles bone mineralization. Briefly, calcium deposits of atherosclerotic plaque consist of hydroxyapatite and may appear identical to fully formed lamellar bone. By using a genetic fate mapping strategy, VSMC of the vascular media give rise to the majority of the osteochondrogenic precursor- and chondrocyte-like cells observed in the calcified arterial media of MGP (- / -) mice. Osteogenic differentiation of VSMC is characterized by the expression of bone-related molecules including bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) -2, Msx2 and osteopontin, which are produced by osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Our recent findings are that (i) Runx2 and Notch1 induce osteogenic differentiation, and (ii) advanced glycation end-product (AGE) /receptor for AGE (RAGE) and palmitic acid promote osteogenic differentiation of VSMC. To understand of the molecular mechanisms of vascular calcification is now under intensive research area.

  16. Regulation of differentiation flux by Notch signalling influences the number of dopaminergic neurons in the adult brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niurka Trujillo-Paredes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Notch signalling is a well-established pathway that regulates neurogenesis. However, little is known about the role of Notch signalling in specific neuronal differentiation. Using Dll1 null mice, we found that Notch signalling has no function in the specification of mesencephalic dopaminergic neural precursor cells (NPCs, but plays an important role in regulating their expansion and differentiation into neurons. Premature neuronal differentiation was observed in mesencephalons of Dll1-deficient mice or after treatment with a Notch signalling inhibitor. Coupling between neurogenesis and dopaminergic differentiation was indicated from the coincident emergence of neuronal and dopaminergic markers. Early in differentiation, decreasing Notch signalling caused a reduction in NPCs and an increase in dopaminergic neurons in association with dynamic changes in the proportion of sequentially-linked dopaminergic NPCs (Msx1/2+, Ngn2+, Nurr1+. These effects in differentiation caused a significant reduction in the number of dopaminergic neurons produced. Accordingly, Dll1 haploinsufficient adult mice, in comparison with their wild-type littermates, have a consistent reduction in neuronal density that was particularly evident in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Our results are in agreement with a mathematical model based on a Dll1-mediated regulatory feedback loop between early progenitors and their dividing precursors that controls the emergence and number of dopaminergic neurons.

  17. Imidacloprid Exposure Suppresses Neural Crest Cells Generation during Early Chick Embryo Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Jie; Wang, Guang; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Meng; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; He, Xiao-Song; Lu, Da-Xiang; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-06-15

    Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid pesticide that is widely used in the control pests found on crops and fleas on pets. However, it is still unclear whether imidacloprid exposure could affect early embryo development-despite some studies having been conducted on the gametes. In this study, we demonstrated that imidacloprid exposure could lead to abnormal craniofacial osteogenesis in the developing chick embryo. Cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) are the progenitor cells of the chick cranial skull. We found that the imidacloprid exposure retards the development of gastrulating chick embryos. HNK-1, PAX7, and Ap-2α immunohistological stainings indicated that cranial NCCs generation was inhibited after imidacloprid exposure. Double immunofluorescent staining (Ap-2α and PHIS3 or PAX7 and c-Caspase3) revealed that imidacloprid exposure inhibited both NCC proliferation and apoptosis. In addition, it inhibited NCCs production by repressing Msx1 and BMP4 expression in the developing neural tube and by altering expression of EMT-related adhesion molecules (Cad6B, E-Cadherin, and N-cadherin) in the developing neural crests. We also determined that imidacloprid exposure suppressed cranial NCCs migration and their ability to differentiate. In sum, we have provided experimental evidence that imidacloprid exposure during embryogenesis disrupts NCCs development, which in turn causes defective cranial bone development.

  18. Cooperación y conflicto entre empresas, comunidades, nuevos movimientos sociales y el papel del gobierno. El caso de cerro de San Pedro (México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Vargas-Hernández

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar las relaciones de cooperación y conflicto entre la Compañía Minera (MSX y las comunidades de San Pedro, Soledad y San Luis Potosí, los Nuevos Movimientos Sociales y los tres niveles de gobierno involucrados. La compañía Minera inició operaciones en una mina a cielo abierto de oro y plata con el apoyo de oficiales de los gobiernos locales, estatales y federal. Los habitantes de estas comunidades apoyados por grupos ambientalistas y Organizaciones No Gubernamentales argumentan que el proyecto contamina las fuentes de agua fresca, además de perturbar el medio ambiente y la ecología de la región. En tal sentido el artículo analiza el impacto, la interacción social y de conflicto entre los distintos actores desde una perspectiva local y socio-ambiental, previa contextualización histórica de subregión y el desarrollo de la industria minera.

  19. Potential sources of stem cells as a regenerative therapy for Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir Oueida El-Sadik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abir Oueida El-SadikDepartment of Anatomy and Embryology, Scientific Research Unit, Female Health Science College, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: Stem cells are believed to hold enormous promise as potential replacement therapy in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD. Stem cells were investigated to be the alternative therapeutic source capable of differentiating into dopamine (DA neurons. Multiple important signaling factors were recorded for the induction of DA neuronal traits from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs such as fibroblast growth factor 8, sonic hedgehog, and Wnt 1. Recent protocols were described for the differentiation of human ESCs into DA neurons, achieving high efficiency of DA neuronal derivation. Despite that, the use of human ESCs is still ethically controversial. The transcription factors necessary for DA neuron development from adult neural stem cells (NSCs, such as Pitx3, Nurr1, En-1, En-2, Lmx1a, Lmx1b, Msx1, and Ngn2, were investigated. In addition to replacement of lost DA neurons, adult NSCs were recorded to provide neuroprotective and neurogenic factors for the mesencephalon. In addition, induced pluripotent stem cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells represent reliable stem cell sources of DA neurons. Future studies are recommended to provide further insight into the regenerative capacity of stem cells needed for the treatment of PD.Keywords: dopamine, embryonic stem cells, neural stem cells, Parkinson's disease, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells

  20. Biphasic effects of FGF2 on odontoblast differentiation involve changes in the BMP and Wnt signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagomonyants, Karen; Mina, Mina

    2014-08-01

    Odontoblast differentiation during physiological and reparative dentinogenesis is dependent upon multiple signaling molecules, including fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and Wingless/Integrated (Wnt) ligands. Recent studies in our laboratory showed that continuous exposure of primary dental pulp cultures to FGF2 exerted biphasic effects on the expression of markers of dentinogenesis. In the present study, we examined the possible involvement of the BMP and Wnt signaling pathways in mediating the effects of FGF2 on dental pulp cells. Our results showed that stimulatory effects of FGF2 on dentinogenesis during the proliferation phase of growth were associated with increased expression of the components of the BMP (Bmp2, Dlx5, Msx2, Osx) and Wnt (Wnt10a, Wisp2) pathways, and decreased expression of an inhibitor of the Wnt signaling, Nkd2. Further addition of FGF2 during the differentiation/mineralization phase of growth resulted in decreased expression of components of the BMP signaling (Bmp2, Runx2, Osx) and increased expression of inhibitors of the Wnt signaling (Nkd2, Dkk3). This suggests that both BMP and Wnt pathways may be involved in mediating the effects of FGF2 on dental pulp cells.

  1. Analysis of water flow, power and electrical current of a motor pump powered by photovoltaic panels; Analise da vazao, potencia e corrente em uma motobomba acionada por paines fotovoltaicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Paulo Takashi; Santos, Jose Airton Azevedo dos; Michels, Roger Nabeyama [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR-MD), Medianeira, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: airton@utfpr.edu.br; Ricieri, Reinaldo Prandini [Universidade do Oeste Paulista (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: ricieri@unioeste.br; Halmeman, Maria Cristina Rodrigues [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR-CM), Campo Mourao, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Because of the high cost of electricity connection to distant places, far away from conventional nets, photovoltaic solar energy is widely used in public illumination, water pumping, medical care centers, etc. With the purpose to contribute to a better utilization in this type of energy, the object of the project is to analyze the water flow, power and electrical current of a motor pump to be used for water lift, driven by photovoltaic panels, the data will be collected at every 2 meters in height from 2.2 to 18.2 meters. The analyses show the outflow linear dependence in relation to the height of the water lift, a second order dependence of the electrical power provided by the photovoltaic panels in relation to the solar irradiance on the panels and a linear dependence of the electrical current in relation to the solar irradiance. This study is a part of a project developed at the 'Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana' (UTFPR) - Campus Medianeira - PR. Two photovoltaic panels were used from Solarex Brand, model MSX 56, a motor pump made by Shurflo Ltd, model 2088-732, two pyranometers from KIPP and ZONEN CM3, a type K thermocouple, a pressure transducer model HUBA-510 and a water flow transducer. (author)

  2. Expression pattern of pluripotent markers in different embryonic developmental stages of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) embryos and putative embryonic stem cells generated by parthenogenetic activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Karn P; Kaushik, Ramakant; Garg, Veena; Sharma, Ruchi; George, Aman; Singh, Manoj K; Manik, Radhey S; Palta, Prabhat; Singla, Suresh K; Chauhan, Manmohan S

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we describe the production of buffalo parthenogenetic blastocysts and subsequent isolation of parthenogenetic embryonic stem cell (PGESC)-like cells. PGESC colonies exhibited dome-shaped morphology and were clearly distinguishable from the feeder layer cells. Different stages of development of parthenogenetic embryos and derived embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like cells expressed key ESC-specific markers, including OCT-4, NANOG, SOX-2, FOXD3, REX-1, STAT-3, TELOMERASE, NUCLEOSTEMIN, and cMYC. Immunofluorescence-based studies revealed that the PGESCs were positive for surface-based pluripotent markers, viz., SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA 1-80, TRA 1-60, CD-9, and CD-90 and exhibited high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. PGEC cell-like cells formed embryoid body (EB)-like structures in hanging drop cultures and when cultured for extended period of time spontaneously differentiated into derivatives of three embryonic germ layers as confirmed by RT-PCR for ectodermal (CYTOKERATIN8, NF-68), mesodermal (MSX1, BMP-4, ASA), and endodermal markers (AFP, HNF-4, GATA-4). Differentiation of PGESCs toward the neuronal lineage was successfully directed by supplementation of serum-containing media with retinoic acid. Our results indicate that the isolated ESC-like cells from parthenogenetic blastocyst hold properties of ESCs and express markers of pluripotency. The pluripotency markers were also expressed by early cleavage-stage of buffalo embryos.

  3. Young Stars in the Camelopardalis Dust and Molecular Clouds. VI. YSOs Verified by Spitzer and Akari Infrared Photometry

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    Straižys V.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Using photometric data of infrared surveys, young stellar object (YSO status is verified for 141 objects selected in our previous papers in the Cassiopeia and Camelopardalis segment of the Milky Way bounded by Galactic coordinates (l, b = (132-158°, ±12°. The area includes the known star- forming regions in the emission nebulae W3, W4 and W5 and the massive YSO AFGL490. Spectral energy distribution (SED curves between 700 nm and 160 μm, constructed from the GSC 2, 2MASS, IRAS, MSX, Spitzer and AKARI data, are used to estimate the evolutionary stages of these stars. We confirm the YSO status for most of the objects. If all of the investigated objects were YSOs, 45% of them should belong to Class I, 41% to class II and 14% to Class III. However, SEDs of some of these objects can be affected by nearby extended infrared sources, like compact H II regions, infrared clusters or dusty galaxies.

  4. A nitrogen response pathway regulates virulence in plant pathogenic fungi: role of TOR and the bZIP protein MeaB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Berges, Manuel S; Rispail, Nicolas; Prados-Rosales, Rafael C; Di Pietro, Antonio

    2010-12-01

    Virulence in plant pathogenic fungi is controlled through a variety of cellular pathways in response to the host environment. Nitrogen limitation has been proposed to act as a key signal to trigger the in planta expression of virulence genes. Moreover, a conserved Pathogenicity mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is strictly required for plant infection in a wide range of pathogens. We investigated the relationship between nitrogen signaling and the Pathogenicity MAPK cascade in controlling infectious growth of the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Several MAPK-activated virulence functions such as invasive growth, vegetative hyphal fusion and host adhesion were strongly repressed in the presence of the preferred nitrogen source ammonium. Repression of these functions by ammonium was abolished by L-Methionine sulfoximine (MSX) or rapamycin, two specific inhibitors of Gln synthetase and the protein kinase TOR (Target Of Rapamycin), respectively, and was dependent on the bZIP protein MeaB. Supplying tomato plants with ammonium rather than nitrate resulted in a significant delay of vascular wilt symptoms caused by the F. oxysporum wild type strain, but not by the ΔmeaB mutant. Ammonium also repressed invasive growth in two other pathogens, the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae and the wheat head blight pathogen Fusarium graminearum. Our results suggest the presence of a conserved nitrogen-responsive pathway that operates via TOR and MeaB to control infectious growth in plant pathogenic fungi.

  5. A MID-INFRARED CENSUS OF STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY IN BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunham, Miranda K.; Robitaille, Thomas P.; Evans, Neal J. II; Schlingman, Wayne M.; Cyganowski, Claudia J.; Urquhart, James

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a search for mid-infrared signs of star formation activity in the 1.1 mm sources in the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS). We have correlated the BGPS catalog with available mid-IR Galactic plane catalogs based on the Spitzer Space Telescope GLIMPSE legacy survey and the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) Galactic plane survey. We find that 44% (3712 of 8358) of the BGPS sources contain at least one mid-IR source, including 2457 of 5067 (49%) within the area where all surveys overlap (10 deg. s tarlessBGPS sources which were not matched to any mid-IR sources. The mean 1.1 mm flux of each group increases with increasing probability of active star formation. We also find that the 'starless' BGPS sources are the most compact, while the sources with the highest probability of star formation activity are on average more extended with large skirts of emission. A subsample of 280 BGPS sources with known distances demonstrates that mass and mean H 2 column density also increase with probability of star formation activity.

  6. Interactions between BMP-7 and USAG-1 (uterine sensitization-associated gene-1 regulate supernumerary organ formations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honoka Kiso

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are highly conserved signaling molecules that are part of the transforming growth factor (TGF-beta superfamily, and function in the patterning and morphogenesis of many organs including development of the dentition. The functions of the BMPs are controlled by certain classes of molecules that are recognized as BMP antagonists that inhibit BMP binding to their cognate receptors. In this study we tested the hypothesis that USAG-1 (uterine sensitization-associated gene-1 suppresses deciduous incisors by inhibition of BMP-7 function. We learned that USAG-1 and BMP-7 were expressed within odontogenic epithelium as well as mesenchyme during the late bud and early cap stages of tooth development. USAG-1 is a BMP antagonist, and also modulates Wnt signaling. USAG-1 abrogation rescued apoptotic elimination of odontogenic mesenchymal cells. BMP signaling in the rudimentary maxillary incisor, assessed by expressions of Msx1 and Dlx2 and the phosphorylation of Smad protein, was significantly enhanced. Using explant culture and subsequent subrenal capsule transplantation of E15 USAG-1 mutant maxillary incisor tooth primordia supplemented with BMP-7 demonstrated in USAG-1+/- as well as USAG-1-/- rescue and supernumerary tooth development. Based upon these results, we conclude that USAG-1 functions as an antagonist of BMP-7 in this model system. These results further suggest that the phenotypes of USAG-1 and BMP-7 mutant mice reported provide opportunities for regenerative medicine and dentistry.

  7. The effect of globin scaffold on osteoblast adhesion and phenotype expression in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Ahmad A; Loty, Sabine; Isaac, Juliane; Tayot, Jean-Louis; Bouchard, Philippe; Khraisat, Ameen; Bedral, Ariane; Sautier, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    Different synthetic and natural biomaterials have been used in bone tissue regeneration. However, several limitations are associated with the use of synthetic as well as allogenous or xenogenous natural materials. This study evaluated, in an in vitro model, the behavior of rat osteoblastic cells cultured on a human globin scaffold. Rat osteoblastic cells were isolated from the calvaria of 21-day-old fetal Sprague-Dawley rats. They were then grown in the presence of globin. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to study the expression of cyclin D1, integrin Β1, Msx2, Dlx5, Runx2, and osteocalcin on days 1, 5, and 9. Moreover, alkaline phosphatase activity was measured on days 1, 3, 5, and 7. Alizarin red staining was performed on day 9 to observe calcium deposition. Cells were able to adhere, proliferate, and differentiate on globin scaffolds. Moreover, RT-PCR showed that globin may stimulate some key genes of osteoblastic differentiation (Runx2, osteocalcin, Dlx5). Globin had an inhibitory effect on alkaline phosphatase activity. Calcium deposits were seen after 9 days of culture. These results indicate that purified human globin might be a suitable scaffold for bone tissue regeneration.

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