Nissen, Sofie; Nguyen, Lan Anh; Thamsborg, Stig Milan
to have the highest intensity of infection and contribute the most to the contamination of the environment with FZT eggs in the Nam Dinh province - a highly endemic area for FZTs. Given the free roaming and fish-eating behaviour of many dogs in rural Vietnam controlling the infection in dogs represents......Fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are highly prevalent in Southeast Asia. Recent studies on domestic animal’s role in the transmission of FZT in Northern Vietnam found that the most prevalent FZT was Haplorchis pumilio. The importance of dogs, cats and pigs was assessed, and dogs were found...... a major challenge. In particular knowledge is needed on the importance of the dog as reservoir to make evidence-based recommendations for control of FZT. On this background, we conducted an experimental infection in dogs with H. pumilio to elucidate population dynamics and host reactions. Eight household...
Nissen, Sofie; Nguyen, Lan Anh Thi; Dalsgaard, Anders
Fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are highly prevalent in Southeast Asia. Recent studies on the role of domestic animals in the transmission of FZT in Northern Vietnam found that dogs, mainly infected with Haplorchis pumilio, contributed widely to the transmission of FZT. On this background, we...... conducted an experimental infection with H. pumilio to elucidate population dynamics and host reactions in dogs. Eight household-reared dogs (3-6 months old), were each orally infected with 500 H. pumilio metacercariae obtained by artificial digestion of naturally infected fish. Another eight dogs were...... included as uninfected controls. Faecal examination for eggs was performed twice weekly using a sieving and sedimentation technique. Body temperature and weight of the dogs were measured as was total white blood cells, blood eosinophils and packed cell volume. Subsets of dogs were examined post...
Full Text Available The ultrastructure of the male reproductive system of Didymocystis wedli was studied for the first time, demonstrating spermiogenesis and spermatogenesis at different cell stages. The spermatozoa morphology was compared with that of other Digenea species. It was observed that the different cells of the spermatogenesis process follow the classic pattern reported for the majority of the parasitic platyhelminthes. During spermiogenesis, rootlet fibers, electrondense bodies and median cytoplasmic process were not observed. The mature spermatozoa of D. wedli were filiform, presenting nucleus, mitochondrion and two 9+1 axonemes, with a biflagellate distal extremity.
Luz Elena Velásquez
Full Text Available Centrocestus formosanus (Digenea:Heterophyidae se registra por primera vez para Colombia en caracoles y peces del lago del Jardín Botánico Joaquín Antonio Uribe, de la ciudad de Medellín. Las redias y cercarias se obtuvieron del gastrópodo Melanoides tuberculata morfo MAD. Las metacercarias se obtuvieron de las branquias de peces de las familias Cichlidae y Poeciliidae y los adultos del intestino de aves infectadas experimentalmente. La prevalencia del parásito en los caracoles adultos fue de 74%. Se observó que los caracoles parasitados eran estériles.Centrocestusformosanus (Digenea:Heterophyidae is reported for the first time in Colombia, parasitizing snails and fish from the lake of the Joaquín Antonio Uribe botanical garden, Medellín City. Rediae and cercariae were obtained from MAD morphs of the snail Melanoides tuberculata. Metacercariae were found encysted on gills of fish of the families Cichlidae and Poeciliidae while adults were recovered from experimentally infected chicks. Prevalence in adult snails was 74%. Parasitized snails were found to be sterile.
Bakhoum Abdoulaye Jacque
Full Text Available The spermatological characteristics of Collyricloides massanae (Digenea: Collyriclidae, a parasite of Apodemus sylvaticus caught in France, were studied by means of transmission electron microscopy. The mature sperm of C. massanae presents two axonemes of different lengths with the 9 + “1” pattern of the Trepaxonemata, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, spine-like bodies, one mitochondrion, a nucleus and granules of glycogen. An analysis of spermatological organisation emphasised some differences between the mature spermatozoon of C. massanae and those reported in the Gorgoderoidea species studied to date, specially belonging to the families Dicrocoeliidae, Paragonimidae and Troglotrematidae. The ultrastructural criteria described in C. massanae such as the morphology of both anterior and posterior spermatozoon extremities, the association “external ornamentation + cortical microtubules”, the type 2 of external ornamentation and the spine-like bodies would allow us to bring closer the Collyriclidae to Microphalloidea. However, further ultrastructural and molecular studies are needed particularly in the unexplored taxa in order to fully resolve the phylogenetic position of the Collyriclidae.
The spermiogenesis process and spermatozoon organization of A. (A. aswaninesis match the general pattern found in the digenea, but certain peculiarities are characteristic and differentiate the sperm of this fluke from that of other digenetic trematodes.
Manuel Tantaleán V
Full Text Available In this paper, Copiatestes filiferus (Leukart, in Sars, 1885 Gibson and Bray, 1977 (Digenea and Gorgorhynchus sp. (Acanthocephala parasites of Hemilutjanus macrophthalmos (Teleostei, both parasites are new records from Peru and the fish is a new host.
Fernandes, Berenice M M; Arci, Anderson D N; Cohen, Simone C
Fifty four specimens of marine fish belonging to seven species collected from the coast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were examined for helminths, and results relating to Monogenea and Digenea are presented...
Orfanidis, S; Breeman, AM
Geographic variation in temperature responses (survival and growth) was investigated in two red algae: Digenea simplex (Wulfen) C. Agardh and Champia parvula (C. Agardh) Harvey. D. simplex has a tropical to warm temperate distribution; C. parvula extends from the tropics into the cold temperate
André Carrara Morandini
Full Text Available Metacercaria specimens of the genus Opechona (Trematoda: Digenea: Lepocreadiidae are described parasitizing "coelenterates" (scyphomedusae and ctenophores from Southeastern Brazil (São Paulo state. The worms are compared to other Opechona species occurring on the Brazilian coast, but no association has been made because only adult forms of these species have been described. Suppositions as to the possible transference of the parasites are made.Exemplares de metacercárias do gênero Opechona (Trematoda: Digenea: Lepocreadiidae são descritos parasitando "celenterados" (cifomedusas e ctenóforos no sudeste do Brasil (estado de São Paulo. Os vermes foram comparados a outras espécies de Opechona ocorrentes no litoral brasileiro, porém nenhuma associação foi realizada devido às demais espécies terem sido descritas a partir de exemplares adultos. São apresentadas suposições sobre as possíveis formas de transferência dos parasitas.
New data on some species of Monogenea and Digenea parasites of marine fish from the coast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Novos dados sobre algumas especies de Monogenea e Digenea parasitas de peixes marinhos da costa do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
Berenice M. M. Fernandes; Anderson D. N. Arci; Simone C. Cohen
Fifty four specimens of marine fish belonging to seven species collected from the coast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were examined for helminths, and results relating to Monogenea and Digenea are presented...
Ditrich, O; Nasincová, V; Scholz, T; Giboda, M
The cercariae of five flukes, which are potential human parasites, Opisthorchis viverrini (family Opisthorchiidae), Haplorchis taichui (Heterophyidae), Schistosoma spindale (Schistosomatidae), Fasciolopsis buski, and Fasciola gigantica (Fasciolidae) were found in freshwater snails from Laos. The cercariae of the above species, recorded in Laos for the first time, are illustrated and their morphology is briefly described. The snail Helicorbis umbilicalis represents a new intermediate host of F. buski. The occurrence of medically important snails in the Vientiane province will also be discussed.
JESSIKA LÓPEZ MARTÍNEZ
Full Text Available Entre los Paramphistomidae (Trematoda: Digenea hay especies que parasitan el sistema digestivo de rumiantes disminuyendo su producción láctea y cárnica. En Colombia se ha registrado la paramphistomosis bovina en: 1 la región lechera altoandina de Antioquia donde se describe a Cotylophoron cotylophorum como el agente causal; y 2 en bovinos de producción cárnica de las Sabanas en el cálido piedemonte llanero y en los Llanos Orientales nacionales, donde se señala a varias especies de paramfistómidos, de los cuales falta la descripción que respalde el estatus taxonómico específico asignado en las publicaciones. Por lo tanto, el hallazgo de digeneos en bovinos sacrificados en el beneficiadero de Guamal, Meta, (Colombia constituyó una oportunidad para iniciar con la descripción de los Paramphistomidae de esta región del país. Entre 2006 y 2008 se extrajeron 715 trematodos adultos del rumen de 32 bovinos provenientes de los departamentos del Meta y del Guaviare. El análisis morfológico muestra las siguientes características de la familia Paramphistomidae: el canal de Laurer atraviesa la vesícula excretora y se abre debajo del poro excretor; acetábulo pequeño del tipo Cotylophoron, la faringe tipo Calicophoron; ventosa genital sin esfínter; ausencia de bulbo esofágico y las vitelarias laterales y dorsales confluyendo en el extremo posterior del cuerpo, debajo del acetábulo, como en Cotylophoron panamensis. Con este estudio se ratifica la paramfistomosis bovina en el departamento del Meta y se registra por primera vez a Cotylophoron panamensis en bovinos del departamento del Guaviare, ampliando su rango de distribución geográfica en Colombia.Some species of Paramphistomidae (Trematoda: Digenea that parasitize the digestive system of ruminants can cause decreases in milk and meat production. In Colombia, paramphistomosis cattle have been recorded from 1 dairy farms at high altitudes in the mountains of Antioquia (northwestern
Dreckmann, Kurt M.; Sentíes G, Abel
The alga Digenea simplex (Wulfen) C. Agardh has been reported in forty seven Mexican localities. A detailed description of reproductive and morphological features is given hete for the first time. Its presence in Bahía Banderas, Nayarit (Pacific of Mexico) is a first record. The lack of sexual structures suggests that Mexican populations are monophasic. The only morphological difference observed in distant populations (Nayarit, Tamaulipas and Quintana Roo) is the size of individual plants (no...
Full Text Available Ultrastructural observations of spermatogenesis and sperm development of Saccocoelioides godoyi, an intestinal parasite of Leporinus friderici (Bloch, 1794 are described. The irregular-shaped spermatogonia form a peripheral layer, and show a prominent nucleus. Spermatocytes are larger than spermatogonia, and in the early stage present synaptonemal complex. Spermatids show nuclei smaller than the spermatocytes. Spermiogenesis is characterized by outgrowth of the zone of differentiation, presenting basal bodies, separated by an intercentriolar body. At the end of this process, the spermatozoa are released into the residual cytoplasmic mass. The spermatozoa of S. godoyi are elongate, similar to the pattern described for other Digenea, showing nuclei, mitochondria and two axonemes with the 9+1 configuration. The peripheral cortical microtubules on the dorsal and ventral faces are laterally interrupted.
Jeżewski, Witold; Zdzitowiecki, Krzysztof; Laskowski, Zdzisław
Fish of five species of Notothenioidei (104 specimens), Cottoperca trigloides, Patagonotothen brevicauda, P. longipes, P. tessellata and Champsocephalus esox, caught in the Beagle Channel (Magellanic sub-region, sub-Antarctica) were infected with Digenea of nine species (1130 specimens). Faunistic data on the occurrence of all nine parasites are provided. The most abundant digenean species was Macvicaria magellanica found in the intestine of three host species of the genus Patagonotothen. The second most abundant digenean species was Elytrophalloides oatesi found in the stomach of four host species, with exception of P. brevicauda. Three digenean species: Stenakron kerguelense, Whitegonimus ozoufae and Genolinea bowersi, were more abundant in fish caught at the harbor of Ushuaia (depth 7-9 m), remaining six species: M. magellanica, Neolepidapedoides subantarcticus, Postmonorchis variabilis, Derogenes varicus, E. oatesi and Lecithaster macrocotyle, in the eastern mouth of the Beagle Channel (depth 30 m).
Southgate, V R; Jourdane, J; Tchuenté, L A
The members of the family Schistosomatidae, dioecious Digenea, are discussed with regard to their distribution, intermediate and definitive host-parasite relationships. The biological species concept is considered together with the difficulties of its application to Schistosoma spp. and the Digenea. The correlation between pairing of adult schistosomes, physical and sexual development and the maintenance of reproductive potential is emphasised. Development of the female reproductive system does not depend upon species-specific pairing. In some combinations, e.g., Schistosoma haematobium/Schistosoma intercalatum and Schistosoma bovis/Schistosoma curassoni, a specific mate choice system apparently does not exist, whereas it does in other combinations, e.g., Schistosoma mansoni/Schistosoma intercalatum. In mixed infections change of mate may occur and when the opportunity arises heterospecific pairs of worms will change partners to conspecific pairs. Interspecific pairing in adult schistosomes will lead to either hybridisation or parthenogenesis. Yet the majority of schistosomes that inhabit the same definitive host maintain their genetic identity: specific mate recognition, site selection within the host and heterologous immunity have been suggested as isolating mechanisms. Experimental intraspecific crosses have enabled evaluation of the degree to which some populations separated and became reproductively isolated through pre-mating isolating mechanisms, indicative of incipient speciation, e.g., the Lower Guinea and Zaire strains of S. intercalatum. The occurrence and significance of parthenogenesis in schistosomes and other species of Digenea are discussed. The consequences of interspecific mating interactions in schistosomes with regard to parasite epidemiology, interspecific competition and genetic heterogeneity are debated. Geographical isolation and host specificity represent important pre-zygotic isolating mechanisms. It is suggested that site selection within
Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Vitt, Laurie J
Allopharynx daileyi n. sp. (Digenea: Plagiorchiidae) from the small intestine of the tropidurid lizard Uranoscodon superciliosus from Amazonian Brazil is described and illustrated. Of the 11 currently recognized species of Allopharynx, we consider Allopharynx megorchis Simha, 1961 a synonym of Allopharynx mehrai (Gogate, 1935) Price 1938 and Allopharynx puertoricensis Acholonu, 1976 a synonym of Allopharynx riopedrensis Garcia-Diaz; thus, A. daileyi becomes the 10th species assigned to the genus. The trematode species Mesocoelium monas and 2 species of Nematoda, Africana chabaudi and Cosmocerca vrcibradici, were also present.
Gomes, Tássia F F; Melo, Francisco T V; Giese, Elane G; Furtado, Adriano P; Gonçalves, Evonnildo C; Santos, Jeannie N
Mesocoelium lanfrediae sp. nov. (Digenea: Mesocoeliidae) inhabits the small intestine of Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae) and is described here, with illustrations provided by light, scanning electron microscopy and molecular approachs. M. lanfrediae sp. nov. presents the typical characteristics of the genus, but is morphometrically and morphologically different from the species described previously. The main diagnostic characteristics of M. lanfrediae sp. nov. are (i) seven pairs of regularly-distributed spherical papillae on the oral sucker, (ii) ventral sucker outlined by four pairs of papillae distributed in a uniform pattern and interspersed with numerous spines, which are larger at the posterior margin and (iii) small, rounded tegumentary papillae around the opening of the oral sucker, which are morphologically different from those of the oral sucker itself, some of which are randomly disposed in the ventrolateral tegumentary region of the anterior third of the body. Addionally, based on SSU rDNA, a phylogenetic analysis including Brachycoeliidae and Mesocoeliidae taxa available on GenBank established the close relationship between M. lanfrediae sp. nov. and Mesocoelium sp.
Pankrác, Jan; Novobilský, Adam; Rondelaud, Daniel; Leontovyč, Roman; Syrovátka, Vít; Rajský, Dušan; Horák, Petr; Kašný, Martin
Infection with Fascioloides magna (Digenea) causes serious damage to liver tissue in definitive hosts represented by ruminants, especially cervids. The distribution of F. magna includes the indigenous areas in North America, and the areas to which F. magna was introduced-Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and Italy. The North American intermediate host of F. magna, the freshwater snail Pseudosuccinea columella (Lymnaeidae), is an invasive species recorded in South America, the Caribbean, Africa, Australia, and west and Southeast Europe. In Europe, Galba truncatula is the snail serving for transmission, but P. columella has potential to become here a new intermediate host of F. magna. Little is known about interactions between F. magna and P. columella. In this study, the susceptibility of P. columella (Oregon, USA) to the infection by a single miracidium of the Czech strain of F. magna and the influence of F. magna on snail fecundity, shell height, and survival were evaluated. The data show that the Oregon strain of P. columella is a highly suitable host for the Czech strain of F. magna, with the infection rate of 74 %. In addition, a negative effect on survival rate of infected snails was recorded only in the late phase of infection. The infection was accompanied by a major reduction in egg mass production and by a decrease in the number of eggs per egg mass. The shell height of infected snails did not significantly differ from that in unexposed controls.
Gomes, Tássia FF; Melo, Francisco TV; Giese, Elane G; Furtado, Adriano P; Gonçalves, Evonnildo C; Santos, Jeannie N
Mesocoelium lanfrediaesp. nov. (Digenea: Mesocoeliidae) inhabits the small intestine of Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae) and is described here, with illustrations provided by light, scanning electron microscopy and molecular approachs. M. lanfrediae sp. nov. presents the typical characteristics of the genus, but is morphometrically and morphologically different from the species described previously. The main diagnostic characteristics of M. lanfrediae sp. nov. are (i) seven pairs of regularly-distributed spherical papillae on the oral sucker, (ii) ventral sucker outlined by four pairs of papillae distributed in a uniform pattern and interspersed with numerous spines, which are larger at the posterior margin and (iii) small, rounded tegumentary papillae around the opening of the oral sucker, which are morphologically different from those of the oral sucker itself, some of which are randomly disposed in the ventrolateral tegumentary region of the anterior third of the body. Addionally, based on SSU rDNA, a phylogenetic analysis including Brachycoeliidae and Mesocoeliidae taxa available on GenBank established the close relationship between M. lanfrediae sp. nov. and Mesocoelium sp. PMID:23579798
Full Text Available We determined the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequence of a fluke, Paramphistomum cervi (Digenea: Paramphistomidae. This genome (14,014 bp is slightly larger than that of Clonorchis sinensis (13,875 bp, but smaller than those of other digenean species. The mt genome of P. cervi contains 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 2 non-coding regions (NCRs, a complement consistent with those of other digeneans. The arrangement of protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes in the P. cervi mitochondrial genome is identical to that of other digeneans except for a group of Schistosoma species that exhibit a derived arrangement. The positions of some transfer RNA genes differ. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses, based on concatenated nucleotide sequences and amino-acid sequences of the 12 protein-coding genes, placed P. cervi within the Order Plagiorchiida, but relationships depicted within that order were not quite as expected from previous studies. The complete mtDNA sequence of P. cervi provides important genetic markers for diagnostics, ecological and evolutionary studies of digeneans.
Paradiznik, V; Radujković, B
The author presents an overview of isolated trematodes along their morphological description, isolated from the hosts that are for the first time reported in the North Adriatic Sea. The endohelminth parasites invasion of Northern Adriatic fish was studied during a 10-year research program. A total of 63 marine fish species of pelagic and bentic fish of the classes Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes were analysed. Twenty-two fish species were found to host Digenean trematodes (33.33% prevalence), and 12 new host fish were reported for this class. During this endohelminths parasitofauna research work 63 species of sea-fish from Northern Adriatic (total of 2659 fish) were examined and 25.16% found invaded by some of endohelminths. The presence of 22 different species of flukes (Trematoda, Digenea) was found. Flukes were present in 33.33% of invaded fish. Furthermore 12 new fish hosts for Trematodes were found and this is the object of the present paper. The names of the investigated species of Trematodes together with those of their new hosts are listed in Table 1. The data referring to each parasite are given in the specific part of this study.
Abdoulaye J.S. Bakhoum
Full Text Available The mature spermatozoa of Stephanostomum murielae and Stephanostomoides tenuis are described by transmission electron microscopy. They present several ultrastructural features previously reported in other digeneans. Their spermatozoa possess two axonemes of different length showing the 9 + ‘1’ trepaxonematan pattern, four attachment zones, two mitochondria (with an anterior moniliform one in S. murielae, a nucleus, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation of the plasma membrane, spine-like bodies and granules of glycogen. The main differences between the mature spermatozoon of S. murielae and S. tenuis are the maximum number of cortical microtubules, the morphology of the anterior spermatozoon extremity and the anterior mitochondrion. This study is the first concerning members of the family Acanthocolpidae. The main ultrastructural characteristics discussed are the morphology of the anterior and posterior spermatozoon extremities, antero-lateral electron dense material, external ornamentations, spine-like bodies and number and morphology of mitochondria. In addition, the phylogenetic significance of all these ultrastructural features is discussed and compared to molecular results in order to highlight the complex relationships in the Digenea.
Balan Doralice de Souza Luro
Full Text Available Estudou-se o comportamento de amebócitos de Biomphalaria tenagophila infectadas por Schistosoma mansoni, por outros Digenea e a resistência à superinfecção, presente em infecções mistas. Foi verificada a atividade fagocitária dos amebócitos, o número destas células circulantes, a reação amebocitária nos tecidos, o perfil eletroforético da hemolinfa, além da reação de imunodifusão. Concluiu-se que moluscos infectados por outros Digenea apresentam resistência à superinfecção por S. mansoni, sendo que os amebócitos parecem não ter participação direta na destruição dos esporocistos de S. mansoni nesta eventualidade. Nos moluscos infectados observou-se maior número de amebócitos circulantes e aumento de capacidade fagocitária destas células.
VELÁSQUEZ LUZ ELENA
Full Text Available
Se describen las larvas de digeneos que se obtuvieron en Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropoda: Thiaridae, molusco dulceacuícola del que se colectaron 125 especímenes en el lago del Jardín Botánico Joaquín Antonio Uribe de Medellín. En el laboratorio se individualizaron y se estimuló la emisión cercariana con una fuente luminosa. El 9,6 % de los caracoles emitió cercarias. Los moluscos emisores se sacrificaron para obtener los demás estadios larvarios. Las larvas se montaron al microscopio, se midieron y luego se dibujaron. Los caracteres morfológicos permitieron establecer la presencia de Centrocestus formosanus (Heterophyidae y de dos Philophthalmidae. Uno de estos es primer registro para Colombia. Se confirma la sensibilidad de M. tuberculata a infecciones por digeneos, así como la especificidad de los filoftálmidos por moluscos hospedadores de la superfamilia Cerithioidea.
Palabras claves: cercarias, digenea, Melanoides tuberculata, Philophthalmidae, Redias.
The larvae of two trematodes found in the freshwater mollusk Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropoda: Thiaridae are described. 125 snails from the Medellinâ€™s Botanical Garden Joaquín Antonio Uribe were collected. In the laboratory, each individual was placed alone and stimulated with light in order to have cercaria emission. 9.6% of the snails released cercariae. These were separated in three morphologies. From each one, 15 individuals were measured and drawn. Photographs were taken. Based on their morphological characteritics the
Sarabeev & Balbuena (2003) considered Dicrogaster perpusilla Looss, 1902 and D. contracta Looss, 1902 (Digenea: Haploporidae) synonymous. They designated a neotype for the type-species, D. perpusilla, from a sample of specimens ex Chelon labrosus off West Thurrock, UK. The morphology of the material (three specimen lots) studied by these authors was re-examined in detail and compared with their data. The material labelled 'D. perpusilla' from off West Thurrock, from which the neotype specimen was selected, consists of 14 specimens; of these one might belong to Haploporus Looss, 1902 and one to Haplosplanchnus Looss 1902. A well-developed genital atrium was observed in 11 of the 12 remaining specimens, and they all possess large saccular caeca and a vitellarium consisting of two groups of loosely coalesced follicles rather than two compact masses. These features suggest that the 12 specimens of this lot may belong to Saccocoelium Looss, 1902, but the state of the material does not permit its reliable identification. The specimen designated by Sarabeev & Balbuena (2003) as the neotype of D. perpusilla represents a neogravid dorso-laterally mounted specimen and is unrecognisable. Although five of the six voucher specimens of these authors may represent Dicrogaster spp., the poor state of this material does not allow its accurate identification. The metrical data obtained from this voucher material indicate that juvenile and laterally mounted specimens have been used in the comparisons upon which the synonymy of D. perpusilla and D. contracta was suggested. The overall conclusion of the study is that the synonymy of D. contracta and D. perpusilla proposed by Sarabeev & Balbuena (2003) is based on questionable material. Since the neotype of D. perpusilla is unrecognisable, and a number of qualifying conditions of the ICZN in its designation were not met, the usage of the original conception of the type-species of Dicrogaster given by Looss (1902) is recommended.
JESSIKA LÓPEZ MARTÍNEZ
Full Text Available Entre los Paramphistomidae (Trematoda: Digenea hay especies que parasitan el sis- tema digestivo de rumiantes disminuyendo su producción láctea y cárnica. En Colombia se ha registrado la paramphistomosis bovina en: 1 la región lechera altoandina de An- tioquia donde se describe a Cotylophoron cotylophorum como el agente causal; y 2 en bovinos de producción cárnica de las Sabanas en el cálido piedemonte llanero y en los Llanos Orientales nacionales, donde se señala a varias especies de paramfistómidos, de los cuales falta la descripción que respalde el estatus taxonómico específico asignado en las publicaciones. Por lo tanto, el hallazgo de digeneos en bovinos sacrificados en el beneficiadero de Guamal, Meta, (Colombia constituyó una oportunidad para iniciar con la descripción de los Paramphistomidae de esta región del paíEntre 2006 y 2008 se extrajeron 715 trematodos adultos del rumen de 32 bovinos provenientes de los de- partamentos del Meta y del Guaviare. El análisis morfológico muestra las siguientes características de la familia Paramphistomidae: el canal de Laurer atraviesa la vesícula excretora y se abre debajo del poro excretor; acetábulo pequeño del tipo Cotylophoron, la faringe tipo Calicophoron; ventosa genital sin esfínter; ausencia de bulbo esofágico y las vitelarias laterales y dorsales confluyendo en el extremo posterior del cuerpo, debajo del acetábulo, como en Cotylophoron panamensis. Con este estudio se ratifica la paramfis- tomosis bovina en el departamento del Meta y se registra por primera vez a Cotylophoron panamensis en bovinos del departamento del Guaviare, ampliando su rango de distri- bución geográfica en Colombia.
Fernandes, Berenice M M; Arci, Anderson D N; Cohen, Simone C
Fifty four specimens of marine fish belonging to seven species collected from the coast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were examined for helminths, and results relating to Monogenea and Digenea are presented. The monogeneans Metamicrocotyla macracantha, Microcotyle pomatomi and Gotocotyla acanthura are reported in new hosts. The digeneans Parahemiurus merus, Lecithochirium microstomum, Gonocercella pacifica, Aponurus laguncula, Gonocerca trematomi and Lampritrema miescheri are reported in new hosts, and the latter two species are also reported for the first time in Brazil.
Fernandes,Berenice M. M.; Arci,Anderson D. N.; Cohen,Simone C.
Fifty four specimens of marine fish belonging to seven species collected from the coast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were examined for helminths, and results relating to Monogenea and Digenea are presented. The monogeneans Metamicrocotyla macracantha, Microcotyle pomatomi and Gotocotyla acanthura are reported in new hosts. The digeneans Parahemiurus merus, Lecithochirium microstomum, Gonocercella pacifica, Aponurus laguncula, Gonocerca trematomi and Lampritrema miescheri are reporte...
Fernandes,Berenice M. M.; Arci,Anderson D. N.; Cohen,Simone C.
Fifty four specimens of marine fish belonging to seven species collected from the coast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were examined for helminths, and results relating to Monogenea and Digenea are presented. The monogeneans Metamicrocotyla macracantha, Microcotyle pomatomi and Gotocotyla acanthura are reported in new hosts. The digeneans Parahemiurus merus, Lecithochirium microstomum, Gonocercella pacifica, Aponurus laguncula, Gonocerca trematomi and Lampritrema miescheri are reporte...
Platt, Thomas R
We know little about the founders of our discipline apart from their scientific contributions and brief biographical sketches, most frequently in published obituaries. A number of years ago, Ralph Lichtenfels, then Director of the National Parasite Collection, sent me photocopies of letters between Henry Baldwin Ward, Horace W. Stunkard, George A. MacCallum, and William G. MacCallum dating from the early years of the 20th century that hinted at a series of conflicts centered on the proposal of Spirorchis MacCallum, 1918 (Digenea: Schistosomatoidea). The description of a fluke that matured in the blood of a tetrapod and that was morphologically similar to the schistosomes of humans was in its time a transformative discovery; and the scientist who published it would have garnered some scholarly recognition. Herein, I provide an historical account of the issues and the motives of each individual and the eventual resolution of these matters.
Luz Elena Velásquez; Mónica Uruburu; Mabel Granada
Introducción. La paragonimosis, o distomatosis pulmonar, es una enfermedad con sintomatología similar a la observada en la tuberculosis. Es causada por parásitos del género Paragonimus (Digenea: Troglotrematidae). Las personas se infectan al consumir cangrejos crudos o mal cocidos, con metacercarias del parásito. El primer foco de paragonimosis humana en Colombia se registró durante 1995 en Urrao, Antioquia, donde se hallaron dos especies de cangrejos que hospedaban el parásito. En el 2005 se...
Bakhoum Abdoulaye J. S.
Full Text Available The ultrastructural organization of the mature spermatozoon of the digenean Atractotrema sigani (from Siganus lineatus off New Caledonia was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The male gamete of A. sigani exhibits the general morphology described in digeneans with the presence of two axonemes of different lengths showing the 9 + “1” pattern of the Trepaxonemata, a nucleus, two mitochondria, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, external ornamentation, spine-like bodies and granules of glycogen. However, the mature spermatozoon of A. sigani has some specific characters such as the morphology of its anterior region and the submembranous electron-dense material. Although similar structures have been reported in some digenean species, the presence of a submembranous electron-dense material describing a complete ring is reported here for the first time in the mature spermatozoon of A. sigani. In addition, sperm characteristics are compared between the Haploporoidea and their supposed close superfamilies, and possible phylogenetic implications of these findings for the Digenea are discussed.
Diaz, Pablo E; Cutmore, Scott C; Cribb, Thomas H
Examination of three species of batfishes (Teleostei: Epphippidae) from off Lizard and Heron Islands on the Great Barrier Reef led to the discovery of specimens of the trematode genus Paradiscogaster Yamaguti, 1934 (Digenea: Faustulidae). Morphological analysis demonstrated that the new specimens represented four morphotypes which we interpret to be new species: Paradiscogaster martini n. sp., P. vichovae n. sp. and P. brayi n. sp. from Platax orbicularis (Forsskål) and P. pinnatus (Linnaeus) off Lizard Island, and P. nitschkei n. sp. from P. teira (Forsskål) off Heron Island. Published material was re-examined and the specimens identified as P. chaetodontis okinawensis Yamaguti, 1971 from P. pinnatus from Okinawa, Japan, actually represent the new species P. brayi n. sp., demonstrating that some species of Paradiscogaster have wide geographical distributions. ITS2 rDNA data for the four morphotypes differ by 4-39 base pairs confirming the delineation of the four species proposed. A feature of this study is the recognition of Platax spp. as an important host group for Paradiscogaster, with the new species placing them as the second richest host group for these parasites after the Chaetodontidae.
Velásquez Trujillo Luz Elena
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La familia Paramphistomidae (Trematoda: Digenea está compuesta por varias especies que parasitan el rúmen y causan un cuadro de enteritis severa con disminución en la producción láctea y cárnica de los rumiantes. La paramphistomosis bovina se ha registrado en los llanos orientales nacionales en cuatro oportunidades durante las dos últimas décadas, sin embargo en estos documentos no se ha divulgado la descripción de los parásitos para sustentar el estatus taxonómico específico asignado. El hallazgo de digeneos durante el 2006, 2007 y 2008 en el rúmen de bovinos sacrificados en el beneficiadero de Guamal, Meta, constituyó una oportunidad para describir y determinar la especie. Para ello se extrajeron 715 trematodos adultos del rúmen de 32 bovinos provenientes de los departamentos Meta y Guaviare. Los digeneos se procesaron individualmente y según las características morfológicas fueron determinados como Cotylophoron panamensis. El adulto reúne las siguientes características: de la familia Paramphistomidae, el canal de Laurer que atraviesa la vesícula excretora para abrirse paso debajo del poro excretor; del género Cotylophoron el acetábulo pequeño y una ventosa genital; de C. panamensis la faringe tipo Calicophoron, acetábulo tipo Cotylophoron, ausencia de bulbo esofágico, ventosa genital tipo Cotylophoron sin esfínter, vitelarias laterales y dorsales que confluyen en su extremo posterior y los testículos usualmente yuxtapuestos. Con este estudio se ratifica la presencia de la paramfistomosis en el departamento del Meta y se registra por primera vez la presencia del trematodo en el departamento
Full Text Available Mortality of Juvenile So-iuy Mullet, Liza haematocheilus (Teleostei, Mugilidae, in the Sea of Azov Associated with Metacercariae (Digenea. Sarabeev, V. - Age-dependent patterns, including yearly variations of digenean metacercariae infestations of the introduced species, Liza haematocheilus (Temminck & Schlegel, 1845, were studied. We evaluated the impacts of three metacercaria species, Timoniella imbutiforme (Molin, 1859 Brooks, 1980, Diplostomum spp. and Ascocotyle (Phagicola longa Ransom, 1920, on juvenile fish in age from one month to 2+ years old from the Molochny Estuary and neighboring waters of the Sea of Azov by applying Croft on’s negative binomial truncation technique, epidemiologic and aggregation indices. Parasite surveys executed in 1997-2014 revealed significant yearly differences in the infection dynamics of studied metacercariae in juvenile fish of L. haematocheilus. Metacercariae were absent or fish harboured several times less parasites in 2005-2013 than in 1997-1999. T. imbutiforme infection exhibits a convex that was observed in a decline of the parasite load aft er an initial increase. The infection load of Diplostomum spp. increased asymptotically with the fish age reaching maximum value in two years old juveniles. Both the abundance and the prevalence of A. (P. longa were low in juveniles of two month and two years old but relatively high and more or less constant during the rest of the juvenile period. Results of the present study suggest that metacercariae, especially, T. imbutiforme, are associated with mortality of juvenile Liza haematocheilus.
Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong
Stellantchasmus falcatus (Digenea: Heterophyidae) is first reported from Cambodia through recovery of the metacercariae from mullet fish and adult flukes from an experimentally infected hamster. We purchased 7 mullets, Chelon macrolepis, in a local market of Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and each of them was examined by the artificial digestion method on May 2010. The metacercariae of S. falcatus were detected in all mullets (100%) examined, and their average density was 177 per fish. They were elliptical, 220×168 μm in average size. They were orally infected to an hamster to obtain adult flukes. Adults recovered at day 10 post infection were observed with a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). They were small, 450×237 μm in average size, had a small oral sucker (41×50 μm), subglobular pharynx (29×21 μm), slender esophagus (57 μm), long and thick-walled expulsor (119×32 μm), spherical ovary (58×69 μm), and 2 ovoid testes (right: 117×74 μm; left: 114×63 μm). Eggs were small, yellow, and 23×12 μm in average size. In SEM observations, tegumental spines were densely distributed on the whole tegument, and single small type I sensory papillae were distributed around the lip of oral sucker. The small ventral sucker was dextrally located and had 8 type I sensory papillae on the left margin. It has been first confirmed in the present study that the mullet, C. macrolepis, is playing the role of a second intermediate host of S. falcatus in Cambodia.
New data on some species of Monogenea and Digenea parasites of marine fish from the coast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Novos dados sobre algumas especies de Monogenea e Digenea parasitas de peixes marinhos da costa do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
Berenice M. M. Fernandes
Full Text Available Fifty four specimens of marine fish belonging to seven species collected from the coast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were examined for helminths, and results relating to Monogenea and Digenea are presented. The monogeneans Metamicrocotyla macracantha, Microcotyle pomatomi and Gotocotyla acanthura are reported in new hosts. The digeneans Parahemiurus merus, Lecithochirium microstomum, Gonocercella pacifica, Aponurus laguncula, Gonocerca trematomi and Lampritrema miescheri are reported in new hosts, and the latter two species are also reported for the first time in Brazil.Cinquenta e quatro espécimens de peixes marinhos pertencentes a sete espécies coletados do litoral do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil foram examinados para helmintos, os resultados referentes a Monogenea e Digenea são apresentados. Os monogenéticos Metamicrocotyla macracantha, Microcotyle pomatomi e Gotocotyla acanthura são apresentados em novos hospedeiros. Os digenéticos Parahemiurus merus, Lecithochirium microstomum, Gonocercella pacifica, Aponurus laguncula, Gonocerca trematomi e Lampritrema miescheri são registrados em novos hospedeiros, as duas últimas espécies são também registradas pela primeira vez no Brasil.
Pavanelli, G. C.
Full Text Available The present paper represents the first study on the endoparasitic fauna of Potamotrygon falkneri and P.motoro in the upper Paraná River floodplain. Fishes were collected by fishing rod and gillnetting in different stations ofthe floodplain, from March, 2005 to September, 2006. Parasites were sampled, fixed and preserved according tospecialized literature. About half of the analyzed fish were parasitized by at least one of the following species ofendoparasites: Clinostomum complanatum, Genarchella sp. and Tylodelphys sp. (metacercaria (Digenea;Acanthobothrium regoi, Rhinebothrium paratrygoni, Paroncomegas araya and Potamotrygonocestus travassosi(Cestoidea; Brevimulticaecum sp. (larva, Cucullanus sp., Echinocephalus sp. and Spinitectus sp. (Nematoda; andQuadrigyrus machadoi (Acanthocephala. Some species were already registered in Chondrichthyes and others werepreviously recorded in Osteichthyes from the study area. The study listed ten new records of parasites in the host P.falkneri, one new record in the host P. motoro and five new records in the locality upper Paraná River.
Luis A. Gomez-Puerta
Full Text Available Se registra por primera vez para Perú a Cricocephalus albus (Digenea: Pronocephalidae en la tortuga verde del Pacífico oriental (Chelonia mydas agassizii. Los parásitos fueron colectados durante la necropsia de una tortuga verde varada en el estuario de Virrilá localizado en la provincia de Sechura, Departamento de Piura, Perú. El presente trabajo realiza una breve descripción de C. albus, así como la discusión de sus hospederos y distribución geográfica.
Souza, Joyce G R; Garcia, Juberlan S; Gomes, Ana Paula N; Machado-Silva, José Roberto; Maldonado, Arnaldo
Echinostoma paraensei (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) lives in the duodenum and bile duct of rodents and is reported as a useful model for studies on the biology of flatworms. Here, we compared the growth and development of pre and post ovigerous worms collected 3, 7, 14 and 21 days post infection from experimentally infected hamster (permissive host) and Wistar rat (less permissive hosts). Linear measurements and ratios were examined by light (morphology and morphometry) and confocal laser scanning microscopy. At day 3, either worm from hamsters or rats were small with poorly developed gonads. At seven day, worms increased in size and morphometric differences between hosts are statistically significant after this time. In addition, adult worms (14 and 21 days of age) harvested from hamster showed developed gonads and vitelline glands laterally distributed on the body, whereas worms from rat showed atrophied reproductive system characterized by underdeveloped vitelline glands and stunted ovary. The worm rate recovery in rat decreased from 29.3% (day 7) to 20.6% (day 14) and 8% (day 21), whilst it remained around 37% in hamster. In conclusion, this is the first appointment demonstrating that low permissiveness influences the reproductive system of echinostome since the immature stages of development. The phenotypic analysis evidenced that hamster provides a more favorable microenvironment for gonads development than rat, confirming golden hamster as a permissive host, whereas Wistar rat is less permissive host. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aksenova, Olga V; Bespalaya, Yulia V; Bolotov, Ivan N; Kondakov, Alexander V; Sokolova, Svetlana E
The strigeid digenean species Australapatemon burti (Miller, 1923) (Trematoda: Digenea: Strigeidae) was originally described from North America, but recorded in the Neotropical region (Drago et al. 2007; Hernández-Mena et al. 2014; Blasco-Costa et al. 2016) and in Central Europe (Faltýnková et al. 2007). In Europe, this species is rare, and there is not much information about its range (Faltýnková et al. 2007; Soldánová et al. 2012). Australapatemon burti has a complex life cycle with three larval stages, two of which (sporocyst and cercaria) use several species of freshwater snails, and the third stage (metacercaria) use non-specific host hirudineans (Dubois 1968; Davies & Ostrowski de Núñez 2012; Blasco-Costa et al. 2016). Adult flukes are parasitic in the intenstines of various waterfowl species, such as ducks and swans (Drago et al. 2007; Hernández-Mena et al. 2014). Currently, the molecular data on this parasite species includes only nucleotide sequences of four adult specimens from Mexico (Hernández-Mena et al. 2014). Their hosts were Mexican duck, Anas diazi Ridgway, American Wigeon, Anas americana Gmelin, Cinnamon Teal, Anas cyanoptera Vieillot, and Ruddy Duck, Oxyura jamaicensis (Gmelin) (Anserformes: Anatidae).
Liolope copulans (Trematoda: Digenea: Liolopidae) parasitic in Andrias japonicus (Amphibia: Caudata: Cryptobranchidae) in Japan: Life cycle and systematic position inferred from morphological and molecular evidence.
Baba, Takashi; Hosoi, Masatomi; Urabe, Misako; Shimazu, Takeshi; Tochimoto, Takeyoshi; Hasegawa, Hideo
The life cycle of Liolope copulans Cohn, 1902 (Trematoda: Digenea: Liolopidae), an intestinal parasite of the Japanese giant salamander Andrias japonicus (Temminck) (Amphibia: Caudata: Cryptobranchidae), was studied in the field and laboratory in Japan. This is the first description of mother sporocyst, daughter sporocyst and cercariae of a liolopid species. Non-oculate longifurcate pharyngeate cercariae were formed in lanceolate-cylindrical daughter sporocysts in Semisulcospira libertina (Gould) (Gastropoda: Sorbeoconcha: Pleuroceridae). They successfully developed to encapsulated metacercariae in cyprinid fishes, Nipponocypris sieboldii (Temminck and Schlegel) and Rhynchocypris lagowskii (Dybowski), by experimental infection. Cercariae had a V-shaped excretory vesicle with two looped arms, as in metacercariae and adults. Developmental stages from mother sporocyst to adult are described and illustrated. DNA sequencing was conducted for 28S and 18S rDNA of mother and daughter sporocysts, cercariae, and an adult. The result of molecular phylogenetic analysis suggests that L. copulans may be one of the basal taxa of the order Diplostomida Olson, Cribb, Tkach, Bray, and Littlewood, 2003, but its systematic position is still unclear because of the topological inconsistence between the 28S and 18S trees. Therefore, we tentatively place the family Liolopidae in the superfamily Diplostomoidea, mainly based on the morphology of sporocysts and cercariae. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gilardoni, C; Carballo, M C; Cremonte, F
The life cycle of Proctotrema bartolii Carballo, Laurenti & Cremonte 2011 (Digenea: Monorchiidae) at Fracasso Beach (the type locality) (42°25'S, 64°07'W), Península Valdés, Argentina, was investigated. This digenean uses the clam Darina solenoides (Mactridae) as both the first and second intermediate hosts in the natural environment. The metacercariae were located mainly at the tip of the incurrent siphon, with an infection prevalence of 100%. Experimental infections in other macroinvertebrates, such as the clam Tellina petitiana and the polychaete Glycera americana, were successful, but these and other invertebrates are not naturally infected. Silversides Odontesthes smitti and Odontesthes nigricans (Pisces: Atherinopsidae) and the mullet Eleginops maclovinus (Eleginopidae) act as the definitive hosts of both experimentally and naturally obtained adults. Fish acquire infection by eating either the siphon or the entire clam. Proctotrema bartolii seems to be endemic to the Magellan Region and is distributed where its intermediate clam host is present, from the San José Gulf in Península Valdés to the southern tip of South America.
Ndiaye Papa Ibnou
Full Text Available This study provides the first ultrastructural data of spermatozoa in the genus Lecithochirium. The spermatozoa of L. microstomum (from Trichiurus lepturus in Senegal and L. musculus (from Anguilla anguilla in Corsica exhibit the general pattern described in the great majority of the Digenea, namely two axonemes with the 9 + “1” pattern typical of the Trepaxonemata, one mitochondrion, a nucleus, parallel cortical microtubules and external ornamentation of the plasma membrane. Spermatozoa of L. microstomum and L. musculus have some specific features such as the presence of a reduced number of cortical microtubules arranged on only one side of the spermatozoon, the lack of spine-like bodies and expansion of the plasma membrane. The external ornamentation of the plasma membrane entirely covers the anterior extremity of the spermatozoa. The ultrastructure of the posterior extremity of the spermatozoa corresponds to the pattern previously described in the Hemiuridae, characterized by only singlets of the second axoneme. A particularity of these spermatozoa is the organization of the microtubule doublets of the second axoneme around the nucleus in the posterior part of the spermatozoon.
Truong, Triet Nhat; Bullard, Stephen A
Nomasanguinicola canthoensis gen. et sp. n. infects the branchial vessels of bighead catfish, Clarias macrocephalus Günther (Siluriformes: Clariidae), in the Mekong River near Can Tho, southern Vietnam. Nomasanguinicola differs from all other genera of fish blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) by the combination of lacking body spines and by having an anterior sucker with two flanking columns of large denticles, an intestine comprising several short papilla-like caeca, an inverse U-shaped uterus, and an ootype located near the separate genital pores. The new species has an ootype that is posterior to the level of the female genital pore. That feature most easily differentiates it from the only other putative aporocotylid species having an anterior sucker with two flanking columns of large denticles, Plehniella dentata Paperna, 1964 and Sanguinicola clarias Imam, Marzouk, Hassan et Itman, 1984, which have an ootype that is lateral (P. dentata) or anterior (S. clarias) to the level of the female genital pore. These two species apparently lack extant type materials, infect North African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), and herein are considered incertae sedis, but likely comprise species of Nomasanguinicola. An updated list of hosts, sites of infection and geographic localities for the six species and three genera of blood flukes that mature in catfishes is provided. The new species is the first fish blood fluke recorded from Vietnam and only the third reported from a walking catfish (Clariidae).
Full Text Available A survey of cercariae and metacercariae (Trematoda, Digenea from the great pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis in Central Europe (Austria, Czech Republic, South-East Germany, Poland and Slovak Republic is presented, based on a study of 3,628 snails examined from 1998 to 2005. A total of 953 (26.3% L. stagnalis were infected with 24 trematode species comprising 19 species of cercariae and 11 species of metacercariae (six species occurred both as cercarie and metacercarie of eight families. The dominant cercariae were those of Opisthioglyphe ranae (159 hosts infected, Plagiorchis elegans (141 (both family Plagiorchiidae and Echinoparyphium aconiatum (153 (Echinostomatidae; 14 double infections were found. The most frequent metacercariae were those of Neoglyphe locellus (71 (Omphalometridae, E. aconiatum (66, Echinostoma sp. (59 and Moliniella anceps (48 (Echinostomatidae. In the previous studies carried out in Central Europe, a very similar spectrum of nine trematode families of 22 cercariae determined to species level and 43 types of cercariae reported under generic or provisional names, which can be in many cases conspecific with the previous taxa, were found. A simple key to identification of cercariae and metacercariae, together with their illustrations, is provided.
Metacercárias de Ascocotyle (Phagicola longa Ransom, 1920 (Digenea: Heterophyidae, em Mugil platanus, no estuário de Cananéia, SP, Brasil Ascocotyle (Phagicola longa Ransom, 1920 (Digenea: Heterophylidae metacercariae, in Mugil platanus in estuarin of Cananéia, SP, Brazil
Sandra Aparecida de Oliveira
Full Text Available Estudou-se no estuário de Cananéia, litoral do estado de São Paulo, Brasil, a presença de Ascocotyle (Phagicola longa Ransom, 1920 (Digenea: Heterophylidae, trematódeo, em tainha (Mugil platanus, Günther, 1880. Foram realizadas amostragens a fresco e cortes histológicos em tecidos provenientes de 61 exemplares. A presença de metacercárias foi comprovada em 100% dos peixes examinados, com a seguinte distribuição: coração (21,6%, fígado (19,7% e rins (58,6%. As alterações histológicas no tecido cardíaco foram caracterizadas pela presença de um granuloma parasitário formado por uma cápsula de tecido conjuntivo ao redor do parasita, levando a um edema generalizado. Para determinar a infecção em alevinos de tainha da espécie M. platanus, foram capturados 100 exemplares nas entradas de córregos da região estuarino-lagunar. Esses peixes foram eviscerados para a pesquisa de metacercárias pelo exame a fresco, verificando-se que 100% dos alevinos não estavam infectados.The present research was carried out the coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil, when it was studied the presence of Ascocotyle (Phagicola longa Ransom, 1920 (Digenea: Heterophylidae, trematode, in mullet (Mugil platanus, Günther, 1880. Fresh samples and histological tissues sections from 61 animals were obtained. The results showed presence of metacercariae of A. (P. longa in 100% of the fish examined, with the following distribution: heart (21.6%, liver (19.7% and kidneys (58.6%. Histological alterations in cardiac tissues were characterized by the presence of a parasitic granuloma formed by a connective tissue capsule around the parasite, leading to generalized edema. To determine the infection in juvenile grey mullets of the M. platanus species, 100 of them were captured in the stream entrances of the estuary region, each fish was individually sacrificed and fresh mounts were prepared to determine the presence of metacercariae, demonstrating that 100% of
Morphometric and molecular characterisation of specimens of Lepidapedon Stafford, 1904 (Digenea: Lepidapedidae) from the deep-sea fish Mora moro (Risso) (Teleostei: Moridae) in the western Mediterranean.
Dallarés, Sara; Georgieva, Simona; Kostadinova, Aneta; Carrassón, Maite; Gibson, David I; Pérez-del-Olmo, Ana
In a study of the parasites of the deep-sea fish Mora moro (Risso) (Gadiformes: Moridae) off the Mediterranean coasts of Catalonia and the Balearic Islands (Spain), we were able to distinguish two morphs of specimens belonging to Lepidapedon Stafford, 1904 (Digenea: Lepidapedidae). This material is herein described and illustrated. Comparative sequence analyses using partial mitochondrial nad1 sequences revealed that the material assigned to one of these morphs can be considered conspecific with the material identified as Lepidapedon desclersae Bray & Gibson, 1995 from the same host. However, the published nad1 sequence for L. desclersae was generated from a specimen ex M. moro from the North East Atlantic. Examination of the voucher specimens associated with this sequence revealed that both the North East Atlantic and the Mediterranean specimens ex M. moro differ from L. desclersae as described from its type-host, Lepidion eques (Günther), in the anterior extent of the vitelline fields which is further posterior, reaching only to the posterior margin of the external seminal vesicle in L. desclersae, versus being at the mid-level of this organ and reaching the posterior margin of the ventral sucker. Therefore, we have tentatively assigned the material characterised here, both morphologically and molecularly as Lepidapedon sp. Acquisition of additional sequences for both nad1 mitochondrial and 28S rRNA genes of L. desclersae from material ex Lepidion spp. is required in order to determine whether the observed morphometric variation reflects host-related or inter-specific differences. The second morph of Lepidapedon from M. moro is described and distinguished on morphometric grounds, such as the position of the most anterior vitelline follicles, which reach to the anterior margin of the ventral sucker. Its identity is commented upon, but, in view of the fact that there were few specimens and no molecular data available, it is not named.
Luz Elena Velásquez
Full Text Available Introducción. La paragonimosis, o distomatosis pulmonar, es una enfermedad con sintomatología similar a la observada en la tuberculosis. Es causada por parásitos del género Paragonimus (Digenea: Troglotrematidae. Las personas se infectan al consumir cangrejos crudos o mal cocidos, con metacercarias del parásito. El primer foco de paragonimosis humana en Colombia se registró durante 1995 en Urrao, Antioquia, donde se hallaron dos especies de cangrejos que hospedaban el parásito. En el 2005 se capturaron cangrejos con metacercarias de Paragonimus en Medellín, lo que motivó la búsqueda del parásito en otras localidades, mediante su presencia en estos crustáceos. Objetivo. Establecer la distribución de Paragonimus en Antioquia, evaluando la presencia de metacercarias en macrocrustáceos braquiuros, dulciacuícolas. Materiales y métodos. Desde 2005 hasta 2007 se capturaron cangrejos en 13 municipios antioqueños. Se relajaron y sacrificaron para la búsqueda del digeneo y la identificación taxonómica. Resultados. En nueve municipios se capturaron 52 cangrejos, 42 (80,76% con metacercarias de Paragonimus. Todos los crustáceos se determinaron como Pseudothelphusidae, de los géneros Hypolobocera y Strengeriana, y se asignaron a cuatro especies. Tres se registran por primera vez como huéspedes del parásito. Conclusión. Se inicia la construcción de un mapa con la distribución de Paragonimus en Antioquia que incluye por primera vez zonas urbanizadas. Se ratifican el consumo y la manipulación de los cangrejos crudos y mal cocidos como factores de riesgo para la infección humana. Se propone a los cangrejos como agentes focalizadores de paragonimosis por ser asequibles y de fácil diagnóstico.
Metacercarias del tipo Paramonilicaecum (Digenea: Didymozoidae, parásitos accidentales de elasmobranquios (Elasmobranchii del golfo de México e identificación de metacercarias (Didymozoidae de la Colección Nacional de Helmintos Metacercariae of the type Paramonilicaecum (Digenea: Didymozoidae, accidental parasites in elasmobranchs (Elasmobranchii from the Mexican Gulf of Mexico and identification of metacercarias (Didymozoidae of the Colección Nacional de Helmintos
Full Text Available Como parte de un estudio sobre los helmintos parásitos de rayas (Elasmobranchii, se colectaron 12 ejemplares en 3 localidades del estado de Veracruz, México: Laguna de Tamiahua, Laguna de Tampamachoco y un arrecife de la costa del golfo de México. Se encontraron metacercarias identificadas como parásitos accidentales del tipo Paramonilicaecum (Digenea: Didymozoidae en la válvula espiral de Dasyatis say (raya látigo chata, Gymnura micrura (raya cola de rata y Rhinobatus lentiginosus (guitarra diablito. De manera complementaria, se actualizó la identificación de material perteneciente a Didymozoidae depositado en la Colección Nacional de Helmintos en el Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Éste es el primer registro para México de metacercarias del tipo Paramonilicaecum en rayas.During an ongoing study of the helminths of stingrays (Elasmobranchii, 12 stingrays were collected from 3 localities in the state of Veracruz, Mexico: Laguna de Tamiahua, Laguna de Tampamachoco, and a costal reef in the Gulf of Mexico. Metacercarias were collected from the spiral valves of Dasyatis say (bluntnose stingray, Gymnura micrura (lesser butterfly ray, and Rhinobatus lentiginosus (Atlantic guitarfish. The metacercarias, accidental parasites, were assigned to type Paramonilicaecum (Digenea: Didymozoidae. Material (Didymozoidae previously deposited in the Colección Nacional de Helmintos, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, was re-identified. This is the first report of a species in larval phase of the "Type" Paramonilicaecum from the Gulf of Mexico, Veracruz, and the first report from a Mexican stingray.
Selfcoelum lamothei n. sp. (Digenea: Cyclocoelidae: Cyclocoelinae from the air sacs of the long-billed curlew, Numenius americanus (Scolopacidae, from the Galveston, Texas area, USA Selfcoelum lamothei, n. sp. (Digenea: Cyclocoelidae: Cyclocoelinae de los sacos aéreos del playero de pico largo, Numenius americanus (Scolopacidae, del área del condado de Galveston, Texas, EUA
Charles K. Blend
Full Text Available Fourteen specimens of a new species of cyclocoelid, Selfcoelum lamothei n. sp. (Digenea: Cyclocoelidae: Cyclocoelinae, from the air sacs of a long-billed curlew, Numenius americanus Bechstein (Scolopacidae, collected from the Galveston area, Galveston County, Texas, USA, were examined. The new species has an intertesticular ovary that forms a triangle with the testes, placing it in Cyclocoelinae Stossich, 1902. The new species is most similar to Selfcoelum capellum (Khan, 1935 n. comb., but differs from this species by lacking an oral sucker and by having a somewhat larger ovary, larger testes, a smaller posttesticular space, a larger cirrus sac, larger eggs, and the vitelline follicles of S. lamothei n. sp. are more bulky making the vitelline fields more laterally extensive, and more anteriorly distributed (reaching anteriorly to the level of the pharynx compared to the level of the cecal bifurcation than those of S. capellum. The new species can be distinguished from the 2 species currently assigned to Selfcoelum Dronen, Gardner and Jiménez, 2006, S. brasilianum (Stossich, 1902 and S. limnodromi Dronen, Gardner and Jiménez, 2006, by having an intercecal uterus rather than having uterine loops that overreach the ceca laterally. The genus Selfcoelum should be emended to include those species where the uterus is either intercecal or where the uterine loops overreach the ceca laterally and those species with or without an oral sucker.Se examinaron 14 ejemplares de una nueva especie de ciclocélido, Selfcoelum lamothei n. sp. (Digenea: Cyclocoelidae: Cyclocoelinae que es parásito de los sacos aéreos del playero de pico largo, Numenius americanus Bechstein (Scolopacidae, recolectados en el condado de Galveston, Texas, EUA. La especie nueva se caracteriza por presentar el ovario en posición intertesticular, formando un triángulo con relación a los testículos. Este rasgo sitúa a la nueva especie entre los Cyclocoelinae Stossich, 1902
Metacercárias de Diplostomum (Austrodiplostomum compactum Lutz, 1928 (Digenea, Diplostomidae em peixes do rio Paraná, Brasil. Prevalência, sazonalidade e intensidade de infecção Metacercariae of Diplostomum (Austrodiplostomum compactum Lutz, 1928 (Digenea, Diplostomatidae in fishes of Paraná River, Brazil. Prevalence, seasoning and intensity of infection
Haroldo Kazuyuki Takahashi
Full Text Available Avaliou-se a ocorrência de Diplostomum (Austrodiplostomum compactum (Digenea: Diplostomidae no globo ocular de Plagioscion squamosissimus (corvina e Cichla ocellaris (tucunaré, capturados mensalmente, no rio Paraná, Presidente Epitácio, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. De 61 corvinas analisadas, 56 estavam parasitadas (92% com intensidade média de 42,0 parasitos por hospedeiro. De 81 tucunarés, 45 estavam parasitados (55% com intensidade média de 9,3 parasitos. A corvina apresentou prevalências de 71 a 100% e as maiores intensidades médias (103,3 e 106,9 nos meses de fevereiro e março/2001. Comparativamente, o tucunaré apresentou as mais altas prevalências nos meses de novembro/2000 (90% e fevereiro/2001 (80%. As mais altas intensidades médias no tucunaré ocorreram em setembro/2000 (12,7, dezembro/2000 (12,2 e fevereiro/2001 (16,1. As metacercárias apresentam o corpo côncavo ventralmente e na região posterior existe uma sinuosa protuberância cônica. A ventosa oral menor do que o acetábulo. Acetábulo simples situado na região pré-equatorial do helminto. Pré-faringe curta seguida de faringe musculosa. Poro genital situado próximo da altura do acetábulo. As metacercárias da corvina apresentam 1.434,0 µm (880 a 1.840 de comprimento por 611,2±93,4 µm (400 a 792 de largura e as do tucunaré 1.462,4 µm (960 a 2.480 por 710,8 µm (560 a 960. Os autores confirmaram a maior susceptibilidade da corvina ao Diplostomum e a relação do parasitismo com os parâmetros aquáticos e climáticos.This paper aims at evaluating the occurrence of Diplostomum (Austrodiplostomum compactum (Digenea: Diplostomatidae in the eyeball of Plagioscion squamosissimus (corvina and Cichla ocellaris (tucunaré, monthly captured in Paraná river, Presidente Epitácio, state of São Paulo, Brazil. From 61 corvinas under analysis, 56 of them contained parasites (92 % with intensity rate of 42.0 host parasites. From an amount of 81 tucunarés, 45 contained
Full Text Available Larval stages of trematodes obtained from the freshwater snail Melanoides tuberculata (Cerithioidea, Thiaridae as intermediate host were studied by using cercarial emergence and crushing snails. Between December 2004 and September 2009 snails from one hundred twenty locations in Thailand were collected every two months for one year at each sampling site. Counts per unit of time method was used in this study, and the samples of snails were collected every 10 minutes per sampling by five collectors. The cercarial stages were examined using shedding and crushing methods. The infection rate was found to be 18.79%, i.e. 6,019 animals infected in a total of 32,026. Nine different types in eighteen species of cercariae were categorized, viz. are (1 Parapleurophocercous cercariae: Haplorchis pumilio, Haplorchis taichui, and Stictodora tridactyla; (2 Pleurophocercous cercariae: Centrocestus formosanus; (3 Xiphidiocercariae: Acanthatrium hitaense, Loxogenoides bicolor, and Haematoloechus similis; (4 Megalurous cercariae: Cloacitrema philippinum and Philophthalmus sp.; (5 Furcocercous cercariae: Cardicola alseae, Alaria mustelae, Transversotrema laruei, Apatemon gracilis, and Mesostephanus appendiculatus; (6 Echinostome cercariae: Echinochasmus pelecani; (7 Amphistome cercariae: Gastrothylax crumenifer; (8 Renicolid cercariae: Cercaria caribbea LXVIII; and, (9 Cotylomicrocercous cercariae: Podocotyle (Podocotyle lepomis.
Lía I Lunaschi
Full Text Available Se redescribe el trematodo Topsiturvitrema verticalia Vélez y Thatcher 1990 con base en dos paratipos y material nuevo del intestino delgado del murciélago Myotis levis (Geoffroy, de Bahía Samborombón, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Esta especie es caracterizada por la presencia de un "rhynchus" u órgano de fijación anterior parecido a una ventosa terminal, la boca abierta en la superficie ventral (rodeada por la ventosa ventral, dos ciegos cortos, dos falsas bolsas del cirro localizadas anteriormente y detrás del órgano de fijación anterior, un poro genital sobre el margen anterior del cuerpo y el poro excretorio en posición dorsal. T. verticalia fue descrito como un miembro de la familia Lecithodendriidae (Lühe 1901; sin embargo, la presencia de "rhynchus" y la posición de la boca abierta en la ventosa ventral constituyen características morfológicas que imposibilitan su inclusión en esta familia. El género Topsiturvitrema Vélez y Thatcher 1990 se incluye en una familia nueva, Topsiturvitrematidae fam. nov., se amplía el ámbito geográfico de Colombia a Argentina y se agrega M. levis a la lista de hospederos de la especie.Redescription and systematic reclassification of the trematode Topsiturvitrema verticalia (Trematoda: Digenea in a new family. The trematode species Topsiturvitrema verticalia Vélez and Thatcher 1990 is redescribed based on two paratype samples and new material from the small intestine of the bat Myotis levis (Geoffroy, from Bahía Samborombón, Buenos Aires province, Argentina. This species is characterized by the presence of a "rhynchus", that is, an anterior sucker-like attachment organ, by the position of the mouth on the ventral surface (surrounded by the ventral sucker, by two blind digestive structures, by the presence of two false saccular caeca located anteriorly and behind the anterior attachment organ, by the presence of the genital pore in the marginal anterior position of the body, and by the mid
El rol de Cyrtograpsus angulatus (Crustacea; Brachyura en los ciclos de vida de Microphallus szidati (Digenea; Microphallidae y Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi (Acanthocephala; Filicollidae: algunos aspectos de su ecologia parasitaria The role of Cytograpsus angulatus (Crustacea; Brachyura in the life cycles of Microphallus szidati (Digenea; Microphallidae and Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi (Acanthocephala; Filicollidae: some aspects of their ecological parasitology
Sergio R. Martorelli
Full Text Available Basándose en el estudio de los helmintos larvales parásitos del cangrejo Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851 (Microphallus szidati Martorelli, 1986 (Digenea; Microphallidae y Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector et al., 1977 (Acathocephala; Fillicollidae conjuntamente con el análisis de sus ciclos biológicos y el estudio de la prevalencia, intensidad y de los índices de asociación (comparados entre los hospedadores intermediarios y definitivos se pudo concluir que: a C. angulatus parece ser un excelente hospedador intermediario en los ciclos de vida de los helmintos estudiados; b el tamaño de los cangrejos y la ocurrencia de amputaciones naturales en las hembras de mayor tamaño Spivak & Politis (en prensa aparecen correlacionadas con la prevalencia; c en los cangrejos estudiados la prevalencia para F. chasmagnathi fue mayor en los machos que en las hembras; d la intensidad no apareció correlacionada con el tamño y el sexo de los hospedadores intermediarios; e M. szidati y F. chasmagnathi estan fuertemente asociados en el hospedador intermediario; f C. angulatus e Himantopus melanurus Vieilot, 1817 (Aves; Recurvirostridae son citados como nuevos hospedadores, intermediario y denitivo respectivamente, para F. chasmagnathi; g Chasmagnathus granulata Dana, 1851 es citado como un nuevo hospedador intermediario para M. szidati.Based on a study of the larvae from two helminth species parasitizing the crab Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851 (Microphallus szidati Martorelli, 1986 and Falsifilicollis chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector et al., 1977, from Mar chiquita lagoom (Argentina together with the analyses of their life cycles and rates of prevalence, intensity and association coefficient (compared in definitive and intermediate host the following conclusions have been reached: a C. angulatus suns to be an excelent intermediate host in the life-cycles of the studied helminths; b the size of the crabs and the occurence of natural amputations
Pseudopecoelus mccauleyi n. sp. and Podocotyle sp. (Digenea: Opecoelidae) from the deep waters off Oregon and British Columbia with an updated key to the species of Pseudopecoelus von Wicklen, 1946 and checklist of parasites from Lycodes cortezianus (Perciformes: Zoarcidae).
Blend, Charles K; Dronen, Norman O; Racz, Gabor R; Gardner, Scott L
Pseudopecoelus mccauleyi n. sp. (Opecoelidae: Opecoelinae) is described from the intestine of the bigfin eelpout, Lycodes cortezianus (Gilbert, 1890) (Perciformes: Zoarcidae), collected at 200-800 m depths in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean off Oregon and Vancouver Island, British Columbia. The new species is distinguished by possessing a unique combination of the following diagnostic characters: vitelline fields that extend to the posterior margin of the ventral sucker; a slender, tubular and sinuous seminal vesicle that extends some distance into the hindbody; an unspecialized, protuberant ventral sucker; a genital pore at pharynx level; lobed to deeply multilobed testes; a lobed ovary; and an egg size of 68-80 μm × 30-46 μm. A single specimen of Podocotyle Dujardin, 1845 (Digenea: Plagioporinae) is also described from the intestine of an individual Coryphaenoides sp. (Gadiformes: Macrouridae) collected at 2,800 m depth off Oregon. A listing of parasites from the bigfin eelpout as well as observations of parasite diversity within relevant hosts are offered, new host and locality records are noted, and a brief discussion of Pseudopecoelus von Wicklen, 1946 in the deep sea is presented taking note of the low level of host specificity recorded (i.e. spp. of Pseudopecoelus are now known to parasitize deep-water fish from at least 20 piscine families). A new dichotomous key to the 39 recognized species of Pseudopecoelus is introduced.
Renato Ribeiro Nogueira Ferraz
Full Text Available The demand and consumption of fish and their derivatives has increased considerably in recent years. However, fish are ideal hosts of numerous parasites, highlighting the need to develop new research methodologies for its detection. The aim of present study was to compare the efficacy of Ascocotyle metacercariae (Trematoda: Digenea extraction from visceral tissues of Mugil liza Valenciennes, 1836 (Teleostei: Mugilidae by two methods: homogenization by blender or mixer. Twentysix samples of M. liza were collected, being 16 liver samples and 10 samples of muscle tissue. Approximately 5g of each sample were processed by blender and mixer techniques homogenization for metacercariae extraction. In liver samples, up to 46 metacercariae were found in samples homogenized in blender. The lowest amount found was 2 metacercariae for blender and mixer techniques. In samples of muscle tissue, 4 metacercariae were observed in the mixer extraction. The lowest amount was found to be 2 parasites to blender and mixer. The mean metacercariae found and extracted from muscle tissue were 0.2 (+0.357 and 1.2 (+0.963 for blender and mixer, respectively. The averages of metacercariae found and extracted from fish liver, in blender and mixer, were 24 (+15.145 and 18 (+8.246, respectively. The homogenization techniques for blender and mixer were effective for the extraction of metacercariae of mullet fish tissues, suggesting that they may be directly applicable in the field of study, especially due to the ease of testing.
A new genus and species of Brachycoeliidae (Digenea) from Chiropterotriton sp. (Caudata: Plethodontidae) in Mexico and its phylogenetic position within the Plagiorchiida based on partial sequences of the 28S ribosomal RNA gene.
de León, G Pérez-Ponce; Mendoza-Garfias, B; Razo-Mendivil, U; Parra-Olea, G
Parabrachycoelium longicaecum n. gen., n. sp. (Digenea: Brachycoeliidae) is described from the intestine of a plethodontid salamander Chiropterotriton sp. Hosts were collected in bromeliads at the cloud forest of Tlaquilpa, Veracruz, Mexico. Members of the Brachycoeliidae Looss, 1899 (sensu Yamaguti, 1971) are characterized by having a spined tegument; ceca usually short, not passing level of gonads, but longer in some species; gonads posterior to, or in region of, acetabulum, with ovary anterior to testes; a well developed cirrus pouch containing a bipartite seminal vesicle; and uterus occupying entire hind-body posterior to testes. However, this combination of morphological traits prevents the inclusion of the new taxon in any of the genera in that family; a new genus was, therefore, erected to accommodate the new species. The new taxon is readily distinguished from members belonging to Brachycoelium Dujardin, 1845, Mesocoelium Odhner, 1910, and Tremiorchis Mehra and Negi, 1925, by having long ceca extending into the posterior third of the body, slightly surpassing the testes, and vitellaria extending along the body. The new species morphologically resembles Caudouterina rhyacotritoni Martin, 1966, a digenean parasitizing a plethodontid salamander; however, the latter species lacks spines in the tegument and is actually placed within the Allocreadiidae. To demonstrate further the phylogenetic position of the new taxon, we sequenced the D1-D3 regions of 28S rRNA gene and conducted a phylogenetic analysis of available sequences for the order to which brachycoeliids belong (Plagiorchiida). Sequence divergence of the partial 28S rRNA gene confirms its distinction from the aforementioned brachycoeliids, and the phylogenetic position within the Plagiorchiida places the new species as closely related to a clade formed by Brachycoelium + Mesocoelium. Divergence levels and phylogenetic position within the Plagiorchiida verifies the validity of the new genus and its
Filling the gaps in the classification of the Digenea Carus, 1863: systematic position of the Proterodiplostomidae Dubois, 1936 within the superfamily Diplostomoidea Poirier, 1886, inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences.
Hernández-Mena, David Iván; García-Varela, Martín; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo
The Diplostomida Olson, Cribb, Tkach, Bray & Littlewood, 2003 is the less diverse order of the two orders within the subclass Digenea Carus, 1863 and is currently classified into three superfamilies, i.e. Brachylaimoidea Joyeux & Foley, 1930, Diplostomoidea Poirier, 1886, and Schistosomatoidea Stiles & Hassall, 1898. Although the suprageneric-level relationships have been elucidated with the use of molecular markers, the lack of representation of some groups obscure the phylogenetic relationships among families, rendering the classification unstable. Here, we tested the phylogenetic position of the family Proterodiplostomidae Dubois, 1936 based on partial 28S rDNA and complete 18S rDNA sequences for Crocodilicola pseudostoma (Willemoes-Suhm, 1870), a crocodile parasite that has been found as a progenetic metacercaria parasitising the pale catfish Rhamdia guatemalensis (Günther) in Mexico and in other siluruforms in the Neotropics. We augmented the representation of the species, genera and families within the Diplostomida, including mostly representatives of the superfamily Diplostomoidea, and assembled a dataset that contains 49 species for the 28S rRNA gene, and 45 species for the 18S rRNA gene. Additionally, we explored the phylogenetic signal of the mitochondrial gene cox1 in reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships of selected members of the superfamily. Our analyses showed that the family Proterodiplostomidae is the sister taxon to the paraphyletic Diplostomidae Poirier, 1886 and Strigeidae Railliet, 1919, with Cyathocotylidae Mühling, 1898 + Brauninidae Wolf, 1903 as their sister group. Analysis of concatenated 18S + 28S sequences revealed the Liolopidae Odhner, 1912 as the basal group of the superfamily Diplostomoidea, although analyses of independent datasets showed that the position of this family remains uncertain. Analysis based on cox1 unequivocally resolved the Proterodiplostomidae as the sister taxon to the Diplostomidae and Strigeidae
Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the prevalence of trematode infections in the snails intermediate host Tarebia granifera and Melanoides tuberculata collected from Ratchaburi Province by a molecular approach in order to construct a dendrogram to identify species at the cercarial stage. Methods: Specimens were collected from nine districts located in Ratchaburi Province using the stratified sampling method. The samples were examined for cercarial infection using the crushing method. All specimens were amplified by region of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 based on the PCR technique, and the sequence data were aligned in order to construct the dendrogram by maximum likelihood with 10 000 bootstrap replicates. Results: Five cercarial types were observed comprising parapleurolophocercous cercaria, xiphidiocercaria, megarulous cercaria, furcocercous cercaria and transversotrema cercaria. The overall prevalence of cercarial infection was found to be 7.92% (63 / 795. The parapleurolophocercous cercaria was found in the highest level of prevalence followed by xiphidiocercaria, megarulous cercaria, furcocercous cercaria and transversotrema cercaria, respectively. The parapleurolophocercous cercaria samples were identified and separated into Haplorchis taichui and Haplorchis pumilio, while xiphidiocercaria were identified as Lecithodendriidae and megarulous cercaria were identified as Philophthalmus. The dendrogram separated the cercariae into five groups, which were comprised of parapleurolophocercous cercaria, xiphidiocercaria, megarulous cercaria, furcocercous cercaria and transversotrema cercaria using the sequence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis as an out-group. Conclusions: This is the first study to report on the prevalence of cercarial infection in Ratchaburi Province, Thailand. The high prevalence of cercariae was revealed by the infection in Tarebia granifera and Melanoides tuberculata. Thus, the sequence data of ITS2 can be used to investigate the
Cardicola beveridgei n. sp. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) from the mangrove jack, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae), and C. bullardi n. sp. from the Australian spotted mackerel, Scomberomorus munroi (Perciformes: Scombridae), from the northern Great Barrier Reef.
Nolan, Matthew J; Miller, Terrence L; Cutmore, Scott C; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Cribb, Thomas H
Cardicola Short, 1953 is a genus of the Aporocotylidae Odhner, 1912 (Digenea), with 25 currently recognised species described from 32 species of Perciformes and Mugiliformes fishes around the world, including eight species from the Great Barrier Reef. Here, we describe two new species from this region, namely Cardicola beveridgei n. sp. from the ventricle and atrium of the mangrove jack, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskål) (Perciformes: Lutjanidae), and Cardicola bullardi n. sp. from the ventricle of the Australian spotted mackerel, Scomberomorus munroi Collette & Russo (Perciformes: Scombridae), from off Lizard Island, Queensland, Australia. These two new species are most easily distinguished from the 25 current members of Cardicola in having the combination of i) a spinous oral sucker, ii) an anteriorly intercaecal ovary, iii) a uterus that extends anteriorly from the oötype, iv) the number of spines per ventrolateral transverse row, and in v) body size and the length/width ratio, vi) the oesophagus and caecal length(s) relative to body total length, vii) the length of the posterior caeca relative to the anterior pair, viii) the testis length/width ratio and its total size relative to that of the body, ix) the postovarian field as a percentage of body length, and x) egg size. In addition, C. beveridgei n. sp. is further differentiated by possessing a female genital pore that opens anterodextral to the male pore while C. bullardi n. sp. differs further in possessing a testis that is almost entirely intercaecal and does not extend anteriorly to the level of the intestinal bifurcation. Employing genetic analysis of ITS2 rDNA sequence data, representing these species and a further 13 recognised and three putative species of Cardicola, we were able to unequivocally confirm these specimens as distinct (9-22% different over 420 nucleotide positions). Distance analysis of ITS2 showed that i) species of Cardicola from the Siganidae formed a monophyletic clade, to the
Khalil, Mokhtar Ibrahim; El-Shahawy, Ismail Saad; Abdelkader, Hussein Saad
The present study was the first attempt to survey the diversity of fish zoonotic parasites in the southern region of Saudi Arabia, particularly the Najran area, from October 2012 to October 2013. Approximately 163 fish representing seven species (two of freshwater fish and five of marine fish) were examined for fish-borne trematode metacercariae using the compression technique, and for zoonotic nematode larvae. Adult flukes were obtained from cats experimentally infected with the metacercariae on day 25 post-infection The prevalence of each parasite species was recorded. The parasites found belonged to two taxa: Digenea (Heterophyes heterophyes and Haplorchis pumilio) in muscle tissue; and nematodes (larvae of Capillaria sp.) in the digestive tract. The morphological characteristics of the fish-borne trematode metacercariae and their experimentally obtained adults were described. This is the first report of these parasites in fish in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, Myripristis murdjan presented higher prevalence of Capillaria sp. infection (22.7%), while Haplorchis pumilio was the dominant metacercarial species (7.9%). Although the number of documented cases continues to increase, the overall risk of human infection is slight. The increasing exploitation of the marine environment by humans and the tendency to reduce cooking times when preparing seafood products both increase the chances of becoming infected with these parasites. Furthermore, our results indicate that certain fish production systems are at risk of presenting fish zoonotic parasites, and that control approaches will benefit from understanding these risk factors.
Mokhtar Ibrahim Khalil
Full Text Available The present study was the first attempt to survey the diversity of fish zoonotic parasites in the southern region of Saudi Arabia, particularly the Najran area, from October 2012 to October 2013. Approximately 163 fish representing seven species (two of freshwater fish and five of marine fish were examined for fish-borne trematode metacercariae using the compression technique, and for zoonotic nematode larvae. Adult flukes were obtained from cats experimentally infected with the metacercariae on day 25 post-infection The prevalence of each parasite species was recorded. The parasites found belonged to two taxa: Digenea (Heterophyes heterophyes and Haplorchis pumilio in muscle tissue; and nematodes (larvae of Capillaria sp. in the digestive tract. The morphological characteristics of the fish-borne trematode metacercariae and their experimentally obtained adults were described. This is the first report of these parasites in fish in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, Myripristis murdjan presented higher prevalence of Capillaria sp. infection (22.7%, while Haplorchis pumilio was the dominant metacercarial species (7.9%. Although the number of documented cases continues to increase, the overall risk of human infection is slight. The increasing exploitation of the marine environment by humans and the tendency to reduce cooking times when preparing seafood products both increase the chances of becoming infected with these parasites. Furthermore, our results indicate that certain fish production systems are at risk of presenting fish zoonotic parasites, and that control approaches will benefit from understanding these risk factors.
Despite the fact that Tylodelphys mashonense, parasites of the cranial cavity of the catfish Clarias gariepinus, are ubiquitous in freshwater systems, little is known on their spread. As such, we examined a total of 152 piscivorous birds, belonging to 6 species; 43 great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo, 33 grey heron Ardea ...
Rebecca J Traub
Full Text Available Differentiation of the fish-borne trematodes belonging to the Opisthorchiidae, Heterophyidae and Lecithodendriidae is important from a clinical and epidemiological perspective, yet it is impossible to do using conventional coprological techniques, as the eggs are morphologically similar. Epidemiological investigation therefore currently relies on morphological examination of adult worms following expulsion chemotherapy. A PCR test capable of amplifying a segment of the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA for the opisthorchiid and heterophyid flukes eggs taken directly from faeces was developed and evaluated in a rural community in central Thailand. The lowest quantity of DNA that could be amplified from individual adults of Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis and Haplorchis taichui was estimated at 0.6 pg, 0.8 pg and 3 pg, respectively. The PCR was capable of detecting mixed infection with the aforementioned species of flukes under experimental conditions. A total of 11.6% of individuals in rural communities in Sanamchaikaet district, central Thailand, were positive for 'Opisthorchis-like' eggs in their faeces using conventional parasitological detection techniques. In comparison to microscopy, the PCR yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 71.0% and 76.7%, respectively. Analysis of the microscopy-positive PCR products revealed 64% and 23% of individuals to be infected with O. viverrini and C. sinensis, respectively. The remaining 13% (three individuals were identified as eggs of Didymozoidae, presumably being passed mechanically in the faeces following the ingestion of infected fishes. An immediate finding of this study is the identification and first report of a C. sinensis-endemic community in central Thailand. This extends the known range of this liver fluke in Southeast Asia. The PCR developed herein provides an important tool for the specific identification of liver and intestinal fluke species for future
Webster, Bonnie L; Littlewood, D Timothy J
In the flatworm genus Schistosoma, species of which include parasites of biomedical and veterinary importance, mitochondrial gene order is radically different in some species. A PCR-based survey of 19 schistosomatid spp. established which of 14 Schistosoma spp. have the ancestral (plesiomorphic) or derived gene order condition. A phylogeny for Schistosoma was estimated and used to infer the origin of the gene order change which is present in all members of a clade containing Schistosoma incognitum and members of the traditionally recognised Schistosoma indicum, Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosomahaematobium spp. groups. Schistosoma turkestanicum, with the plesiomorphic gene order state, is sister to this clade. Common interval analysis suggests change in gene order, from ancestral to derived, consisted of two sequential transposition events: (a) nad1_nad3 to nad3_nad1 and (b) [atp6,nad2]_[nad3,-nad1,cox1,rrnL,rrnS,cox2,nad6] to [nad3,nad1,cox1,rrnL,rrnS,cox2,nad6]_[atp6,nad2], where gene order offragments within square brackets remain unchanged. Gene order change is rare in parasitic flatworms and is a robust synapomorphy for schistosome spp. that exhibit it. The schistosomatid phylogeny casts some doubt on the origin of Schistosoma (Asian or African), highlights the propensity for species to hosts witch amongst mammalian (definitive) hosts, and indicates the likely importance of snail (intermediate)hosts in determining and defining patterns of schistosome radiation and continental invasion. Mitogenomic sampling of Schistosoma dattai and Schistosoma harinasutai to determine gene order, and within key species, especially S. turkestanicum and S. incognitum, to determine ancestral ranges, may help discover the geographic origins of gene order change in the genus. Samples of S. incognitum from India and Thailand suggest this taxon may include cryptic species. Crown Copyright 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. on behalf of Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Allrights reserved.
Yoshida, Reiko; Urabe, Misako
The life cycle of Coitocoecum plagiorchis Ozaki, 1926 (Coitocaecum is an incorrect subsequent spelling) was studied in the field and laboratory. The study was conducted at the Futatsu River and the Chikugo River, Kyushu, Japan. Adults of C. plagiorchis were obtained from fishes Coreoperca kawamebari, Rhinogobius spp. and Odontobutis obscura. Cotylomicrocercous cercariae with a two-point stylet (=Cercaria distyloides Faust, 1924) were detected in pleurocerid snails (Semisulcospira spp.). Metacercariae with a cyclocoel were obtained from shrimp (Neocaridina denticulata). The cercariae were experimentally exposed to the shrimp, and subsequently metacercariae with a cyclocoel were recovered from the shrimp within 24 days after exposure. These metacercariae were identified as C. plagiorchis. The sporocysts, cercariae, metacercariae and adults are briefly described.
The complex life cycles of most trematode parasites include three hosts. The first intermediate host is a snail, the second is normally a teleost fish and a piscivorous bird serves as the definitive host. Lymnaeid snails are most likely to be responsible for cercarial shedding, which infect exposed fish and in turn are eaten by ...
Pinto, Hudson Alves; De Melo, Alan Lane
A checklist of digenetic trematodes found in molluscs from Brazil is presented based on 127 scientific articles published after a century of studies. To date 23 families, 35 genera and 46 species of trematodes were identified infecting 25 species of molluscs in the country. Another 36 species described in the collective-group Cercaria were found in 15 species of molluscs and have not yet been associated with the respective adult parasites. Larvae found in 20 species of molluscs and grouped into 10 cercarian types are also listed.
But high mean intensity was suggestive of heavy parasite burden; C. complanatum (4.8), C. tilapiae (2.8), and E. heterostomum (5.1). Morphometrics of the parasites ... host location, and larger body size. Consequently, this resulted in a trade-off between larger morphometric parts and population size among the parasites ...
Y. P. Zhytova
Full Text Available Parthenitae and larvae of Prosthogonimus cuneatus Rudolphi, 1809 in the fresh water mollusk Bithynia tentaculata s were firstly found in the eastern Polissya (the Psel river bend, Sumy oblast. The paper presents the morphological characteristics of the P. cuneatus cercariae. Comparative analysis of the dimensional data of P. cuneatus sporocysts and larvae with their parthenitae and larvae described by T. A. Krasnolobova (1961, L. F. Filimonova and V. I. Shalyapina (1980, and E. Arystanov (1986 from B. tentaculata, B. inflata and B.caerulans mollusks was made.
Susana Balmant Emerique Simões
Full Text Available The life history of the trematode Pygidiopsis macrostomum Travassos, 1928 is described for the first time. Rediae and cercariae were obtained from naturally infected snails Heleobia australis (d´Orbigny, a new first intermediate host. Metacercariae were found encysted in the mesenteries of three naturally infected guppies, Phalloptychus januarius (Hensel, Jenynsia multidentata (Jenyns (new host records and Poecilia vivipara Bloch and Schneider. Experimental infections were successfully completed in the intermediate hosts H. australis and Poe. vivipara reared in the laboratory and hamsters Mesocricetus auratus Waterhouse were utilised as a definitive host.
Vesna PARADIŽNIK; Branko RADUJKOVIĆ
The paper gives an overview of trematodes that have been isolated from the north Adriatic Sea , during a 10-year research program. A total of 63 marine fish species of pelagic and benthic of the classes Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes were analyzed. We found that 21 fish species ted digenean trematodes (33.33% prevalence), and 12 fish species are reported as hosts for the t time. During our research, 63 species of fish (total of 2659 fish) were examined and 25.16 % e found invaded by endohelm...
Lía I. Lunaschi
Full Text Available Se redescribe e ilustra a Neodiplostomum travassosi Dubois, 1937 (Diplostomidae: Diplostominae con base en ejemplares recolectados del intestino de Polyborus plancus (Miller (Falconidae y Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Gmelin (Phalacrocoracidae, capturados en la provincia de Formosa, Argentina. La descripción original de esta especie está basada en ejemplares recolectados de Strigiformes y Piciformes de Brasil. La morfología y dimensiones de los ejemplares estudiados en este trabajo concuerdan con la descripción original. Este hallazgo permite acrecentar la lista de hospederos y efectuar un nuevo registro geográfico para esta especie.Neodiplostomum travassosi Dubois, 1937 (Diplostomidae, Diplostominae is redescribed and ilustrated based on the study of specimens collected from the intestine of Polyborus plancus (Miller (Falconidae and Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Gmelin (Phalacrocoracidae, captured in Formosa province, Argentina. The original description of this species was based on specimens collected from Strigiformes and Piciformes in Brazil. Morphology and dimensions of specimens described in this paper agree with the original description. These represent two new host records and a new geographical record.
Full Text Available e-lysine Digenea simplex Same as: E00161 Rhodomelaceae Digenea simplex algae Major component: Kainic acid [C...elmintic drugs D06792 Digenea Crude drugs [BR:br08305] Algae Red algae D06792 Digenea PubChem: 47208443 ...
Metacercárias livres (Digenea: Diplostomidae em Rhinella fernandezae (Anura: Bufonidae no Sul do Brasil Free metacercariae (Digenea, Diplostomidae in Rhinella fernandezae (Anura: Bufonidae in southern Brazil
Viviane Gularte Tavares dos Santos
Full Text Available Metacercárias livres de uma espécie não determinada de trematódeo digenético (Diplostomidae foram encontradas nos rins de anuros da espécie Rhinella fernandezae coletados no Município de Imbé, Litoral Norte do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Em uma amostra de 90 anuros, as metacercárias apresentaram prevalência de 3,3% e intensidade de infecção de 8,7 helmintos/hospedeiro. Este é o primeiro registro de metacercárias livres de diplostomídeos em anuros da região Sul do Brasil e do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul.Free metacercariae of an undetermined species of digenetic (Diplostomidae were found over in the kidneys of anurans of the species Rhinella fernandezae collected in the in the municipality of Imbé, on the northern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, in southern Brazil. In a sample of 90 anurans, the prevalence of free metacercariae was 3,3, and the mean intensity of infection was 8,7 helminths/host. This is the first record of free metacercariae in anurans from Southern Brazil and from the State of Rio Grande do Sul.
Stephen S. Curran
Full Text Available Two new digenean species belonging in Creptotrema Travassos, Artigas and Pereira, 1928 are described from specimens stored in the invertebrate collection at the Museum of Natural History, Geneva, Switzerland. Creptotrema lamothei n. sp. is described from Ageneiosus brevifilis Valenciennes in Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1840 (Siluriformes: Ageneiosidae, Auchenipterus nuchalis (Spix and Agassiz, 1829 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae, and Bryconops melanurus (Bloch, 1794 (Characiformes: Characidae in the Paraguay River, Paraguay. Creptotrema sucumbiosa n. sp. is described from Tetragonopterus argenteus Cuvier, 1816 (Characiformes: Characidae in Río Aquarico, Ecuador. Creptotrema lamothei differs from its congeners by having testes with irregular rather than entire outlines. Creptotrema sucumbiosa differs from its congeners by having a bilobed rather than entire ovary. Both C. lamothei and C. sucumbiosa differ from their other congeners by having relatively longer posttesticular spaces in their bodies, representing 25-30% and 24-28% of body length respectively, compared with approximately 6-19% in other species.Dos especies nuevas de digéneos pertenecientes a Creptotrema Travassos, Artigas y Pereira, 1928 fueron descritas de ejemplares depositados en la colección de invertebrados del Museo de Historia Natural de Ginebra, Suiza. Creptotrema lamothei n. sp. fue descrita en Ageneiosus brevifilis Valenciennes in Cuvier y Valenciennes, 1840 (Siluriformes: Ageneiosidae, Auchenipterus nuchalis (Spix y Agassiz, 1829 (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae, y Bryconops melanurus (Bloch, 1794 (Characiformes: Characidae en el río Paraguay, Paraguay. Creptotrema sucumbiosa n. sp. fue descrita de Tetragonopterus argenteus, Cuvier 1816 (Characiformes: Characidae en el río Aquarico, Ecuador. Creptotrema lamothei difiere de sus congéneres por tener testículos con contornos irregulares en contraste con los que presentan contornos enteros. Creptotrema sucumbiosa difiere de sus congéneres por tener un ovario bilobulado en contraste con los que presentan ovarios enteros. Ambas especies difieren de sus congéneres por tener espacios post-testiculares relativamente más largos, representando 25-30% y 24-28% del largo del cuerpo, respectivamente, comparado con aproximadamente 6-19% en otras especies.
Full Text Available Se describen las larvas de digeneos que se obtuvieron en Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropoda: Thiaridae, molusco dulceacuícola del que se colectaron 125 especímenes en el lago del Jardín Botánico Joaquín Antonio Uribe de Medellín. En el laboratorio se individualizaron y se estimuló la emisión cercariana con una fuente luminosa. El 9,6 % de los caracoles emitió cercarias. Los moluscos emisores se sacrificaron para obtener los demás estadios larvarios. Las larvas se montaron al microscopio, se midieron y luego se dibujaron. Los caracteres morfológicos permitieron establecer la presencia de Centrocestus formosanus (Heterophyidae y de dos Philophthalmidae. Uno de estos es primer registro para Colombia. Se confirma la sensibilidad de M. tuberculata a infecciones por digeneos, así como la especificidad de los filoftálmidos por moluscos hospedadores de la superfamilia Cerithioidea.The larvae of two trematodes found in the freshwater mollusk Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropoda: Thiaridae are described. 125 snails from the Medellin’s Botanical Garden Joaquín Antonio Uribe were collected. In the laboratory, each individual was placed alone and stimulated with light in order to have cercaria emission. 9.6% of the snails released cercariae. These were separated in three morphologies. From each one, 15 individuals were measured and drawn. Photographs were taken. Based on their morphological characteritics the presence of Centrocestus formosanus (Heterophyidae was determined. The other two morphologies were classified in the family Philophthalmidae. One of them constitutes the first register for Colombia. The sensibility of M. tuberculata to infections by digeneans, and the specificity of the family Philophthalmidae to mollusk hosts of the superfamily Cerithioidea are confirmed
Larson, O R; Uglem, G L
Metacercariae of Clinostomum marginatum obtained from naturally infected Perca flavescens were cultured by 5 methods. In vitro cultivation at 37 C in twice daily changes of Tyrode's, Na-poor Tyrode's, and Eagle's media failed to produce ovigerous adults after 4-5 days. Metacercariae placed on the chorioallantois of week-old chick embryos at 37 C migrated to the albumen. Only 8 of 123 worms recovered were ovigerous after 4-7 days in ovo. Best success occurred with metacercariae injected in groups of 4 or 6 into the abdominal cavities of male A/J mice. Despite liver lesions and strong inflammatory responses in the host, all 174 worms recovered were ovigerous after 4-8 days. None of 41 mice died prematurely from the procedure or the parasites.
Esmey B.E. Moema
Full Text Available The metacercarial (larval stages of diplostomid digeneans are known to inhabit freshwater fish, causing tissue damage in the process. Due to their widespread diversity, little is known about their life cycle. The classification of these parasitic stages to the species level using only the morphology is very challenging due to the lack of genitalia; they are regarded to be the most important structures in the identification of these organisms. In this study, additional morphological information through light and scanning electron microscopy is given for two different diplostomids found in the cranial cavity of Clarias gariepinus and the vitreous chambers of Tilapia sparrmanii and Pseudocrenilabrus philander. The diplostomid metacercaria inhabiting the cranial cavity of Clarias gariepinus was morphologically identified as Diplostomulum (Tylodelphys mashonenseand an unknown metacercaria of the genus Diplostomumwas found in the vitreous chambers of Pseudocrenilabrus philander and Tilapia sparrmanii. Both parasitic species’ 28S recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid genomic regions were successfully amplified using Dig 125/1500R primer pairs. The assay yielded a product of approximately 1300 base pairs as seen on the gel images. There were 14 nucleotide differences over the entire analysed sequences resulting in a 1.1% (14/1273 nucleotide difference. In line with the morphological characteristics of these parasites, there seemed to be a slight difference in their genetic makeup. The application of molecular techniques on digenetic trematodes seems very promising and may yield great potential in future descriptions of morphologically similar parasitic species.
Zhao, Y Y; Yang, X; Chen, H M; Wang, L X; Feng, H L; Zhao, P F; Tan, L; Lei, W Q; Ao, Y; Hu, M; Fang, R
Orthocoelium streptocoelium is a common paramphistome species parasitizing the rumen and/or reticulum of small ruminants, leading to significant losses. This study first determined the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of O. streptocoelium. The complete mt genome of O. streptocoelium was amplified, sequenced, assembled, analysed and then compared with those of other digeneans. The entire mt genome of O. streptocoelium is 13,800 bp in length, which is smaller than those of other digeneans except for Opisthorchis viverrini. This mt genome contains 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and two non-coding regions. The arrangement of the O. streptocoelium mt genome is the same as those of other digeneans except for Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma spindale. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated amino acid sequences of the 12 protein-coding genes representing 16 digeneans were conducted to assess the relationship of O. streptocoelium with other digeneans. The result indicated that O. streptocoelium is closely related to Paramphistomum cervi and Fischoederius elongates, which is in accordance with their relationships by taxonomy. This complete mt genome of O. streptocoelium enriched the mitochondrial genome data of paramphistomes and provided important molecular markers for diagnostics and studies of population variation, epidemiology, ecology and evolution of O. streptocoelium and other digeneans.
Volonterio, Odile; Baletta, Silvana; Meneghel, Melitta
During a study on the helminth fauna of Liophis anomalus specimens deposited in the Reptile Collection of the Secci6n Zoología Vertebrados, Facultad de Ciencias, Uruguay, a new genus of Opisthogoniminae was found. Paracotyletrema n. gen. is described from the buccal cavity and esophagus of specimens from Departamento de Flores, Uruguay. This new genus differs from the other 2 Opisthogoniminae, Opisthogonimus and Westella, by having much smaller body size; maximum width at level of posterior end of oral sucker; oral sucker length more than one-fourth of body length; oral sucker and acetabulum separated by a distance of about the diameter of pharynx; cirrus pouch length more than half of body length; and testes in completely coincident zones. The type and only species, Paracotyletrema poncedeleoni n. gen., n. sp., is defined by the following diagnostic characters: mean oral sucker length one-third to one-half of body length; cirrus pouch of about body length, contorted, mainly acetabular; large, round testes in nearly adjacent fields, and an ovary nearly adjacent to right testis. Besides the type locality, Paracotyletrema poncedeleoni has been found in L. anomalus specimens from the Departamentos of Artigas and Treinta y Tres; therefore, it has a widespread distribution in Uruguay.
Galván-Borja, Dilia; Olivero-Verbel, Jesús; Barrios-García, Lía
Fishborne metacercariae have not been reported in Colombia. During an 8-month period, 250 mullet/lisa (Mugil incilis) were examined for trematode metacercariae in the liver. Average prevalence and intensity were 93.4+/-2.5% and 8476+/-1238 cysts per gram of liver, respectively. Monthly prevalence of the trematode, identified as Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa Ransom (1920), was always high (>79%) and there was no difference between sampling periods (P>0.05). Trematode intensity in lisa had a significant negative effect on host size (R=-0.325, P<0.001), condition factor (R=-0.352, P<0.001), and liver-somatic index (R=-0.372, P<0.001); in contrast, a positive relationship was found with gill-somatic index (R=0.446, P<0.001). Histopathological analysis indicated the presence of abundant cysts together with inflammatory reactions involving macrophage aggregates and necrosis. These results suggest that trematodes infecting the liver of M. incilis affect the growth and well-being of these fish, and their consumption could represent a major risk for human infection.
Hassanine, R M El-Said; Al-Zahrani, D A; Touliabah, H El-S; Youssef, E M
The microscaphidiid Hexangium sigani Goto & Ozaki, 1929 was found in the intestine of Siganus rivulatus, a siganid fish permanently resident in a lagoon within the mangrove swamps on the Egyptian coast of the Gulf of Aqaba. Intra-molluscan stages of this trematode (mother sporocysts, rediae and cercariae) were found in the gonads and digestive gland of Nassarius pullus (Gastropoda: Nassariidae), a common snail in the same lagoon. Consequently, the life cycle of H. sigani was elucidated under natural conditions: eggs are directly ingested by the snail; mother sporocysts and rediae reach maturity 5-7 and 16-17 weeks post-infection; rediae contain 18-26 developing cercariae; fully developed cercariae are monostome, without penetration glands, emerge from the snail during the night 18-19 weeks post-infection and rapidly encyst on aquatic vegetation (there is no second intermediate host); encysted metacercariae are not progenetic; 2-day-old metacercariae encysted on filamentous algae fed to S. rivulatus developed into fully mature worms 5-6 weeks post-infection. The cycle was completed in about 24 weeks. The intra-molluscan stages are very similar to those of Dictyangium chelydrae Stunkard, 1943, the only described intra-molluscan stages of any microscaphidiid. However, they are also similar to those of the family Mesometridae. The present study of H. sigani describes the first complete microscaphidiid life cycle, and implicitly supports the phylogenetic relationship of this family with the Mesometridae inferred from molecular phylogenetic studies.
Reda, Enayat S; El-Shabasy, Eman A; Said, Ashraf E; Mansour, Mohamed F A; Saleh, Mai A
A comparison has been made for the first time between the cholinergic components of the nervous system of important human digeneans namely Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium from infected hamster (Cricentus auratus) in Egypt. In each parasite, the central nervous system consists of two cerebral ganglia and three pairs of nerve cords (ventral, lateral, and dorsal) linked together by some transverse connectives and numerous ring commissures. Peripheral cholinergic innervation was detected in oral and ventral suckers and in some parts of female reproductive system in both species, but there were some differences. The possible functions of some of these nervous components are discussed.
Presswell, B.; Blasco-Costa, I.; Kostadinova, Aneta
Roč. 133, č. 5 (2014), s. 1641-1656 ISSN 0932-0113 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Maritrema * Microphallidae * taxonomy * phylogeny * New Zealand Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 2.098, year: 2014
Moravec, František; Justine, J.-L.
Roč. 100, č. 5 (2007), s. 1047-1051 ISSN 0932-0113 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Stegodexamene * Anguilla * New Caledonia Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.512, year: 2007
Tarcísio Macedo Silva
Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to provide the first report on a new host for the digenean Paratanaisia bragai in the caninde macaw Ara ararauna along with the pathological aspects of the infection in the new host. The microscopic findings revealed the presence of granulomatous interstitial nephritis. This study contributes towards knowledge of parasitism by P. bragai in A. ararauna, and emphasizes the need to use best practices in wildlife conservation parks.
Tkach, Vasyl V; Kudlai, Olena; Kostadinova, Aneta
The Echinostomatoidea is a large, cosmopolitan group of digeneans currently including nine families and 105 genera, the vast majority parasitic, as adults, in birds with relatively few taxa parasitising mammals, reptiles and, exceptionally, fish. Despite the complex structure, diverse content and substantial species richness of the group, almost no attempt has been made to elucidate its phylogenetic relationships at the suprageneric level based on molecules due to the lack of data. Herein, we evaluate the consistency of the present morphology-based classification system of the Echinostomatoidea with the phylogenetic relationships of its members based on partial sequences of the nuclear lsrRNA gene for a broad diversity of taxa (80 species, representing eight families and 40 genera), including representatives of five subfamilies of the Echinostomatidae, which currently exhibits the most complex taxonomic structure within the superfamily. This first comprehensive phylogeny for the Echinostomatoidea challenged the current systematic framework based on comparative morphology. A morphology-based evaluation of this new molecular framework resulted in a number of systematic and nomenclatural changes consistent with the phylogenetic estimates of the generic and suprageneric boundaries and a new phylogeny-based classification of the Echinostomatoidea. In the current systematic treatment: (i) the rank of two family level lineages, the former Himasthlinae and Echinochasminae, is elevated to full family status; (ii) Caballerotrema is distinguished at the family level; (iii) the content and diagnosis of the Echinostomatidae (sensu stricto) (s. str.) are revised to reflect its phylogeny, resulting in the abolition of the Nephrostominae and Chaunocephalinae as synonyms of the Echinostomatidae (s. str.); (iv) Artyfechinostomum, Cathaemasia, Rhopalias and Ribeiroia are re-allocated within the Echinostomatidae (s. str.), resulting in the abolition of the Cathaemasiidae, Rhopaliidae and Ribeiroiinae, which become synonyms of the Echinostomatidae (s. str.); and (v) refinements of the generic boundaries within the Echinostomatidae (s. str.), Psilostomidae and Fasciolidae are made. Copyright © 2015 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mariculture is a rapidly developing industrial sector. Generally, fish are maintained in net cages with high density. Cage culture systems allow uncontrolled flow of sea water containing potentially infectious stages of fish parasites. In such culture conditions, prevention of such parasitic infections is difficult for parasites with life cycles that complete within culture sites, among which monogeneans and blood flukes are the most important platyhelminthes. Intense monogenean infections induce respiratory and osmo-regulatory dysfunctions. A variety of control measures have been developed, including freshwater bath treatment and chemotherapy. The potential to control monogenean infections through selective breeding, modified culture techniques to avoid infection, and general fish health management are discussed. It should be noted that mariculture conditions have provided some host-specific monogeneans with a chance to expand their host ranges. Blood flukes sometimes induce mass mortality among farmed fish. In-feed administration of praziquantel is the best solution to treat infected fish. Some cases are described that show how international trade in marine fish has resulted in the spread of hitherto unknown parasites into indigenous farmed and wild fish.
Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a widely distributed disease in livestock in South America but knowledge about the epidemiology and the intermediate hosts is relatively scarce in Ecuador. For three months, lymnaeid snails were sampled (n = 1482 in Pichincha Province at two sites located in a highly endemic area. Snails were identified (based on morphology and ITS-2 sequences and the infection status was established through microscopic dissection and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based technique. Techniques based on morphology were not useful to accurately name the collected snail species. Comparison with available DNA sequences showed that a single snail species was collected, Galba schirazensis. Live rediae were observed in 1.75% (26/1482 and Fasciola sp. DNA was detected in 6% (89/1482 of collected snails. The COX-1 region permitted identification of the parasite as Fasciola hepatica. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the microscope study, compared to PCR results, were 25.84% and 99.78%, respectively. The mean size of the snails recorded positive for F. hepatica through crushing and microscopy was significantly higher than the mean size of negative snails, but there was no such difference in PCR-positive snails. The role of G. schirazensis as an intermediate host of F. hepatica in Ecuador is discussed and the hypothesis of an adaptation of the parasite to this invasive snail is proposed. For the first time, an epidemiological survey based on molecular biology-based techniques assessed the possible role of lymnaeid snails in the epidemiology of fasciolosis in Ecuador.
Gomes, Tássia Fernanda Furo; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Furtado, Adriano Penha; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento dos
Abstract The trematodes are parasites of the several vertebrates including amphibians, however the knowledge about of the taxonomy these parasites is still confuse. The trematode Choledocystus elegans was found in the small intestine of the Leptodactylus paraensis in eastern Amazon and presents the following characteristics: several pointed tegumentary spines, papillae on the outer and inner edges of the oral and ventral suckers, a round, well-developed cirrus sac, a well-developed cirrus, ob...
Fernádez, María Virginia; Hamann, Monika Inés; Kehr, Arturo Ignacio
In Argentina, no ecological studies have been reported on the infection parameters of Kalipharynx sp. metacercariae in planorbid snails. To this end, the aims of this study were: (i) to provide information on the population biology of Kalipharynx sp. metacercariae in the planorbid snails Biomphalaria tenagophila and B. occidentalis through the study of prevalence and intensity of larval infection during a seasonal cycle; (ii) to evaluate the effects of host shell size on prevalence and infection intensity, (iii) to evaluate the effect of infection intensity on cyst size. Samples were taken between June 2010 and April 2011 (encompassing all seasons) from a subtropical permanent pond in Corrientes City, Corrientes, Argentina. A total of 362 metacercariae (n=262 and n=100; from B. tenagophila and B. occidentalis respectively) were collected from 616 snails (n=466 and n=150 from B. tenagophila and B. occidentalis respectively). The metacercarial cysts were found in the digestive gland, mantle cavity, intestine and ovotestis. B. tenagophila showed a range of infection from 1 to 60 cysts per snail (mean = 4.5 +/- SD=9.9), and cyst diameter ranging between 255 and 705 microm (466.4 +/- 119); while, B. occidentalis showed a range of infection from 1 to 23 (5.5 +/- 5.6), and cyst diameter ranging between 310 to 900 microm (554.5 +/- 150). Results obtained indicated that, although absent in autumn, metacercariae of Kalipharynx sp. were present most of the year in both species of Biomphalaria, showing high values in both warm-season. Furthermore, both the infection intensity and host shell size varied significantly between seasons, although no seasonal variation was observed with respect to metacercarial cyst size, suggesting the possibility of more than one peak of cercariae emergence during the year. The prevalence of infection was significantly and positively correlated with snail size in both host species (p 0.05). The results of this study show a significant influence of host size on prevalence and infection intensity, and a tendency towards density-dependent reductions in the growth of cysts. This is the first study in Argentina analyzing the population biology of Kalipharynx sp. metacercariae.
Caffara, M; Bruni, G; Paoletti, C; Gustinelli, A; Fioravanti, M L
Adults of Clinostomum spp. are digenetic trematodes found in fish-eating birds, reptiles and occasionally mammals, including humans. Freshwater snails serve as first intermediate hosts and many fish species and amphibians as second intermediate hosts. To date, amphibian hosts of Clinostomum metacercariae include members of urodele and anuran families in North America, but no data are available on infections of European amphibians, including newts. In this study, we characterize infections of Clinostomum complanatum metacercariae in four smooth (Lissotriton vulgaris) and 18 Italian crested newts (Triturus carnifex) from an artificial pond located in a protected area in Tuscany, Italy. Parasites were surgically removed from the infected newts and identified both morphologically and using sequences of a mitochondrial gene, cytochrome c oxidase I, and the ribosomal markers, internal transcribed spacers. This is the first record of C. complanatum in European newts and, more generally, in amphibians in Europe.
Werneck, M.R.; Gallo, B.M.G.; Silva, R.J.
The occurrence of Amphiorchis caborojoensis Fischthal & Acholonu 1976 and Carettacola stunkardi Martin & Bamberger 1952 in a young specimen of Hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata Linnaeus 1758 in Brazil was reported. Five A. caborojoensis trematodes were found in the small intestine (n=2) and liver (n=3), and two adult C. stunkardi specimens were collected from body wash. This is the first report of parasites of E. imbricata in Brazilian waters and Southwestern Atlantic Ocean and the ...
Werneck,M.R.; Gallo,B.M.G.; Silva,R.J.
The occurrence of Amphiorchis caborojoensis Fischthal & Acholonu 1976 and Carettacola stunkardi Martin & Bamberger 1952 in a young specimen of Hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata Linnaeus 1758 in Brazil was reported. Five A. caborojoensis trematodes were found in the small intestine (n=2) and liver (n=3), and two adult C. stunkardi specimens were collected from body wash. This is the first report of parasites of E. imbricata in Brazilian waters and Southwestern Atlantic Ocean ...
Fernandes, Berenice Maria Musco; Justo, Marcia Cristina Nascimento; Anjos, Camila Saraiva Dos; Malta, José Celso de Oliveira; Dumbo, José Chissiua
This study presents the helminthofauna of digenean parasites of Acestrorhynchus falcirostris in the state of Amazonas (Brazil). Eight species belonging to four families were recovered: Metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum (Diplostomidae) and Clinostomum marginatum (Clinostomidae) and mature specimens of Bellumcorpus majus, Prosorhynchoides carvajali, Rhipidocotyle santanaensis (Bucephalidae); Prosthenhystera obesa (Callodistomidae); Genarchella genarchella (Derogenidae) and Phyllodistomum spatula (Gorgoderidae). Examining specimens belonging to the genus Bellumcorpus collected from A. falcirostris, were observed a great variation in the size and shape of testes, which also could be observed in the type specimens of Bellumcorpus majus and B. schubarti. Considering the similar morphology and morphometric characteristics of both species, in this paper B. schubarti is considered synonym of B. majus. Acestrorhynchus falcirostris is a new host records for all these species of digenean, except to A. compactum and C. marginatum. Prosorhynchoides carvajali is referred for the first time in Brazil.
Ma, Jin-You; Yu, Yan; Peng, Wen-Feng
A new species of Mesotretes (Trematoda: Mesotretidae) parasitizing the small intestine of Rhinolophus ferrumequinum was obtained by the examination of 48 bats collected from 4 localities in Henan Province, China, from August 2003 to January 2005. This species, Mesotretes jiyuanensis n. sp., is similar to Mesotretes orientalis and Mesotretes hangzhouensis, but mainly differs from them in the ratio of the oral sucker and the ventral sucker, and the distance of the intestinal bifurcation from anterior edge of acetabulum, as well as from the former in the extension of the vitellarium. Mesotretes jiyuanensis n. sp. differs from Mesotretes peregrinus chiefly in the shape of the testes and the distribution of cuticular spines. The ratio of the oral sucker and the ventral sucker in this species also differs from that of M. peregrinus.
Gürelli, Gözde; Göçmen, Bayram
In this study, the prevalence of larval stages of Dicrocoeliidae in the garden snail Helix aspersa Müller, 1774 commonly found in the vicinity of Izmir, Turkey was investigated and some of its histological and morphological features were determined. The molluscs were collected during the spring of 2005. As the result of the investigation, a land snail species, H. aspersa, was found to be an intermediate host in the life cycle of Dicrocoeliidae and it had a prevalence of 0.97 % in the study area. In the present study, H. aspersa has been reported for the first time as an intermediate host of Dicrocoeliid species. The prevalence of infection was highest in March.
Presswell, Bronwen; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Kostadinova, Aneta
Two new species of the microphallid genus Maritrema (Maritrema) Nicoll, 1907 are described from freshwaters in the South Island of New Zealand. Maritrema deblocki n. sp. occurs as an adult in the mallard Anas platyrhynchos (L.); Maritrema poulini n. sp. is found as sporocysts/cercariae in Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray) and as metacercariae in two species of amphipod and two species of isopod. We use morphological and molecular characterisation to distinguish between the two species, and compare them to their four morphologically closest congeners. M. deblocki n. sp. and M. poulini n. sp. are distinguished from each other by the relative sucker size, the positions of the genital pore and ovary, the convergence of the vitelline ribbons, and overall size. With the aid of molecular data, we matched life cycle stages of M. poulini n. sp. and assessed its use of multiple second intermediate hosts. Phylogenetic analyses included sequences for the two new species and the available microphallid sequences for the large ribosomal subunit and the internal transcribed spacer 1 of the ribosomal RNA gene. Closer to each other than to any other species, the sister species together with Maritrema novaezealandense Martorelli, Fredensborg, Mouritsen & Poulin, 2004, Maritrema heardi (Kinsella & Deblock, 1994), Maritrema eroliae Yamaguti, 1939 and Maritrema oocysta (Lebour, 1907) formed a well-supported clade. In addition, we clarify the taxonomic identity of several unidentified Microphallus spp. in the recent ecological literature from New Zealand and propose corrected spellings for a number of Maritrema species epithets.
Vázquez, A A; Lounnas, M; Sánchez, J; Alba, A; Milesi, A; Hurtrez-Boussès, S
In this study we present the first approach to exploration of the genetic diversity of Cuban Fasciola hepatica populations using microsatellite markers, coupled with observed prevalence in slaughterhouses. Nine populations of flukes recovered from cows and buffalos were studied in the central-western region of Cuba. The observed infection rates of definitive hosts (bovines) were 70-100% in most cases. An important amount of polymorphism was found in the four loci explored. However, no apparent genetic differences were found between populations from different provinces or bovine species. The absence of deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium suggests a high rate of cross-fertilization between F. hepatica individuals. This result was confirmed when all multilocus genotypes were tested for clonal reproduction and only four individuals differed statistically (P sexCuba. Our findings should be taken into consideration by veterinary authorities to help mitigate fasciolosis transmission.
Full Text Available Se describen las larvas de digeneos que se obtuvieron en Melanoides tuberculata (Gastropoda: Thiaridae, molusco dulceacuícola del que se colectaron 125 especíme- nes en el lago del Jardín Botánico Joaquín Antonio Uribe de Medellín. En el laboratorio se individualizaron y se estimuló la emisión cercariana con una fuente luminosa. El 9,6 % de los caracoles emitió cercarias. Los moluscos emisores se sacrificaron para obtener los demás estadios larvarios. Las larvas se montaron al microscopio, se midieron y luego se dibujaron. Los caracteres morfológicos permitieron establecer la presencia de Centrocestus formosanus (Heterophyidae y de dos Philophthalmidae. Uno de estos es pri- mer registro para Colombia. Se confirma la sensibilidad de M. tuberculata a infecciones por digeneos, así como la especificidad de los filoftálmidos por moluscos hospedadores de la superfamilia Cerithioidea
Bray, Rodney A; Justine, Jean-Lou
A new species of Hamacreadium Linton, 1910, H. cribbi n. sp. is described from Lethrinus miniatus (Forster) from the waters off New Caledonia. It is compared with the other species of Hamacreadium reported from lethrinids and is characterised by the size of its eggs which tend to be larger [72-93 (84) vs 54-81 (56) µm long] than those of other species. Other characteristics, such as body size and shape and internal ratios, differentiate H. cribbi from other species; these differences are discussed in detail.
Lamothe-Argumedo, Rafael; Falcón-Ordaz, Jorge; García-Prieto, Luis; Fernández-Fernández, Jesús
Caballerolecythus ibunami n. gen., n. sp. is described from the intestine of 2 species of rodents (Liomys irroratus [Gray, 1868] and Peromyscus difficilis [Allen, 1891]) from Piñonal, El Carmen Tequexquitla, Tlaxcala state, Mexico. These specimens represent a new genus and a new species of Dicrocoeliinae by possession of an extremely short ceca (ending at equatorial level of ovary); vitelline follicles that begin posterior to these structures, without overlapping; and a body that is long and slender (length/width ratio 1:17-21). To the best of our knowledge, this combination of characters has not been reported in other genera of this subfamily (Athesmia Looss, 1899; Unilaterilecithum Oshmarin in Skrjabin and Evranova, 1952; and Pseudathesmia Travassos, 1942).
Full Text Available Fasciola spp. were collected from naturally infected cattle at a local abattoir of Khanh Hoa province, Vietnam, for morphological and genetic investigations. Microscopic examination detected no sperm cells in the seminal vesicles, suggesting a parthenogenetic reproduction of the flukes. Analyses of sequences from the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2 of the ribosomal RNA revealed that 13 out of 16 isolates were of Fasciola gigantica type, whereas three isolates presented a hybrid sequence from F. gigantica and Fasciola hepatica. Interestingly, all the mitochondrial sequences (partial COI and NDI were of F. gigantica type, suggesting that the maternal lineage of the hybrid form is from F. gigantica. No intra-sequence variation was detected.
Rogério Tubino Vianna
Full Text Available The density of Clinostomum complanatum metacercariae by the body regions and among the size classes of Rhamdia quelen was compared. The host size classes were defined by cluster analysis, using weight and total length as attributes. These values were related with environmental characteristics and host biological data. In all the host size classes H and PeF, CF and PF, and P and AF regions pairs, showed similar density (tested by X² test. The hosts with 30-36 cm showed largest parasite density in all the regions, except in CAV. Fishes smaller than 11 cm did not show significant differences of parasite density in all body regions. In the other classes, H was the most infected region, followed by PeF. The results suggested that the environmental conditions had little importance on the host colonization by metacercariae.A densidade de metacercárias de Clinostomum complanatum por regiões do corpo entre classes de comprimento de Rhamdia quelen foram comparadas. As classes de comprimento do hospedeiro foram definidas por analises de agrupamentos usando peso e comprimento total como atributos. Estes valores foram relacionados com características do ambiente e dados biológicos disponíveis sobre o hospedeiro. O dendrograma com sete agrupamentos foi o escolhido. O corpo do hospedeiro foi dividido em nove regiões para as necropsias: Cabeça (H; Nadadeiras, Peitoral (PeF; Dorsal (DF; Adiposa (AdF; Caudal (CF; Anal (AF e Pélvica (PF; Pedúnculo caudal (P; Cavidade Abdominal (CAV. Em todas as classes de comprimento do hospedeiro os pares de regiões H e PeF, CF e PF e P e AF mostraram densidades similares (teste do X². Hospedeiros com 30-36 cm mostram maior densidade de parasitas em todas as regiões exceto na CAV. Peixes com menos de 11 cm não mostram diferenças significativas na densidade de parasitas nas regiões do corpo. Nas demais classes, H é a região mais infectada, seguida por PeF. Os resultados sugerem que as variáveis ambientais têm pouca importância sobre o processo de colonização por metacercárias.
Kim, Young-Gill; Yu, Ji-Eun; Chung, Ee-Yung; Chung, Pyung-Rim
Cercaria yamagutii Ito, 1957, was found in the marine mesogastropods Lunatia fortuni and Glossaulax didyma from the tidelands of Simpo located at the estuary of the Mankyoung River, which runs to the western coast of Korea. Metacercariae were found in a marine bivalve Mactra veneriformis after being infected with C. yamagutii experimentally. When a sea gull, Larus crassiostris, was fed with the metacercariae collected from the infected M. veneriformis, adult worms were recovered 10 days later. It was confirmed that the parasites collected from L. crassiostris were Acanthoparyphium tyosenense Yamaguti, 1939. From the results of this life cycle study, it was determined that the first intermediate hosts of A. tyosenense are L. fortuni and G. didyma. The second intermediate and final hosts are M. veneriformis and L. crassiostris, respectively. Mactra veneriformis was experimentally infected with C. yamagutii isolated from L. fortuni and G. didyma by maintaining them in a water tank for 30 min at about 20 C. The cercariae entered M. veneriformis through their incurrent siphons. Five hours after infection, the cercariae tails began to separate from the bodies, and the cercariae formed cysts. Mature cysts were formed 340 hr (14 days) after infection and identified as the metacercariae of A. tyosenense. The prevalence of A. tyosenense metacercariae was 99.5% in naturally infected M. veneriformis. This is the first report of C. yamagutii as the cercaria of A. tyosenense, and the complete life cycle of A. tyosenense was established in Korea.
Lunaschi, L. I.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to increase the knowledge on the diversity of digenean parasites in ophidians andanurans from northeastern Argentina. Specimens of the snakes Eunectes notaeus, Hydrodynastes gigas, Micrurus corallinus,Philodryas sp. and Sibynomorphus sp., and the anurans Rhinella schneideri, Phyllomedusa azurea and Leptodactylus latranswere examined. Twelve digenean species were identified: Catadiscus corderoi Mañé-Garzón, 1958, Catadiscus dolichocotyle(Cohn, 1903, Catadiscus uruguayensis Freitas & Lent, 1939, Choledocystus elegans (Travassos, 1926, Gorgoderina parvicavaTravassos, 1922, Haplometroides buccicola Odhner, 1911, Heterodiplostomum lanceolatum Dubois, 1936, Infidum similisTravassos, 1916, Mesocoelium monas (Rudolphi, 1819, Plagiorchis luehei (Travassos, 1927, Telorchis clava (Diesing, 1850and Travtrema stenocotyle (Cohn, 1902. New host species and/or new locality records from Argentina are presented.
Abidi, S M A; Khan, P; Saifullah, M K
Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) (EC 22.214.171.124) is a ubiquitous enzyme, which is present at the protein and carbohydrate metabolism crossroads. The enzyme activity was investigated in biliary and rumen amphistomes, Gigantocotyle explanatum and Gastrothylax crumenifer, respectively, infecting the Indian water buffalo Bubalus bubalis. The enzyme activity was consistently higher in G. explanatum as compared to G. crumenifer, where NAD(H) was utilized as coenzyme and the pH optima was recorded at 8. The K(m) and V(max) values for α-ketoglutarate were 2.1 mM and 9.09 units in G. explanatum, whereas 3.03 mM and 1.90 units in G. crumenifer, respectively. Among the allosteric modulator nucleotides, AMP, ADP, ATP, GMP, CMP and UMP, only AMP enhanced GLDH activity in G. crumenifer while ADP was stimulatory in G. explanatum. The amino acid leucine stimulated the GLDH activity in both the amphistomes while alanine was stimulatory only in G. crumenifer. Pronounced interspecific differences in response to different metabolic inhibitors like diethyldithiocarbamate, semicarbazide hydrochloride and mercurial ions were also observed. The osmotic stress alters the enzyme activity, particularly in hypertonic saline the GLDH activity increased significantly (p < 0.01) in G. explanatum, while insignificant effects were observed in rumen dwelling G. crumenifer. Histoenzymology revealed region/tissue specific distribution of GLDH with prominent staining in tissues like vitellaria, lymph system and tegument/subtegument, thus showing specific distribution of GLDH indicating differential metabolic state. Such intergeneric differences in GLDH activity could also be a consequence of occupying different microenvironments within the same host.
Abidi, S. M. A.; Khan, P.; Saifullah, M. K.
Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) (EC 126.96.36.199) is a ubiquitous enzyme, which is present at the protein and carbohydrate metabolism crossroads. The enzyme activity was investigated in biliary and rumen amphistomes, Gigantocotyle explanatum and Gastrothylax crumenifer, respectively, infecting the Indian water buffalo Bubalus bubalis. The enzyme activity was consistently higher in G. explanatum as compared to G. crumenifer, where NAD(H) was utilized as coenzyme and the pH optima was recorded at 8. ...
Juan Carlos Casanova
Full Text Available Prospections on helminth fauna of rodents were carried out in the Cedrino river (Eastern of Sardinia island. Twelve Rattus rattus (L., 1758 and eight Mus domesticus (Schwarz & Schwarz, 1943 were captured by Sherman traps. Parasitological study revealed in R. rattus the presence of an intestinal helminth belonging to the genus Maritrema (family Microphallidae. The transmission of this Digenetic Trematode among vertebrates involves the participation of aquatic invertebrate organisms, molluscs and crustacea, acting as intermediate hosts. Dissection of 117 individuals of the Amphipod Crustacea Gammarus italicus, collected in the same biotope, allowed the detection of encysted metacercariae. These larvae constitute the infesting stage of the parasite for vertebrates, acting these as definitive hosts ingesting parasitized crustacea as preys. Adults of Maritrema sp. were also obtained experimentally in the laboratory mice (Mus domesticus CD1 strain. These were infested by inoculating them, using gastric probe, metacercarial cysts isolated from G. italicus. Post-infection mice dissection was performed at different intervals of time getting adults in various maturity stages. Experimental facts confirm that Maritrema sp., as it occurs in other trematodes, do not present strict specificity to the definitive host, being able to develop as well in Mus. In nature, the presence or absence of this digenean in mammals species will be dependent of host ethological factors, mainly related to feeding habitats. This study was partially supported by the ?Comissionat per Recerca i Universitats de la Generalitat de Catalunya? 2001SGR00088.
Full Text Available oline-lysine ... Digenea simplex ... Same as: E00161 Therapeutic category: 5100 ... Rhodomelaceae Digenea simplex algae Major component: Kainic acid [CPD:C12819] ... PubChem: 47208443 ...
Full Text Available E00161 Digenea (JP16) Crude drug alfa-Kainic acid [CPD:C12819], alpha-Allokainic ac...-lysine Digenea simplex Same as: D06792 Rhodomelaceae Digenea simplex algae Major component: Kainic acid [CPD:C12819] ...
Patagifer lamothei n. sp. (Digenea: Echinostomatidae: Nephrostominae from the white ibis Eudocimus albus (Threskiornithidae from Texas, USA Patagifer lamothei n. sp. (Digenea: Echinostomatidae: Nephrostominae del ibis blanco Eudocimus albus (Threkiornithidae de Texas, EUA
Norman O. Dronen
Full Text Available During a study of the endohelminths of wading birds from the Texas Gulf coast, 12 specimens of an undescribed species of Patagifer Dietz, 1909 (Echinostomatidae: Nephrostominae were collected from 2 of 8 white ibis, Eudocimus albus (Linnaeus (Threskiornithidae, from the Galveston and Brazos County areas of Texas, USA. Patagifer lamothei n. sp. can be distinguished from P. bilobus (Rudolphi, 1819, P. brygooi Richard, 1964, P. consimilis Dietz, 1909, and P. fraternus Johnston, 1917, where the testes are close together (contiguous to nearly contiguous, the ovary is close to the anterior testis (a distance that is less than the length of the ovary, and the posttesticular space is less extensive, by having the testes separated from each other by a distance approximately equal to or greater than the length of the ovary, the ovary positioned about the length or longer of the ovary from the anterior testis, and by having a more extensive posttesticular space. In addition, the ovary of the new species is located just ahead of midbody rather than being at midbody, as is seen in P. bilobus, P. fraternus, and P. vioscai Lumsden, 1962, or below midbody, as is the case in P. brygooi and P. consimilis. The new species is most like P. simarai Nigam, 1944 in the similar distance between testes, position of the ovary, and the posttesticular space (30-36% of the body length. The new species differs from P. simarai by having a smaller body size, a smaller oral sucker and pharynx, a smaller acetabulum, ovary, testes, cirrus sac, and smaller spines on the margin of the collar, but larger corner spines, and the ovary of the new species is located immediately anterior to the midbody, while in P. simarai it is located well ahead of the midbody.En un estudio de endohelmintos de aves de los humedales de la costa de Texas, se recolectaron 12 ejemplares de una especie no descrita de Patagifer Dietz, 1909 (Echinostomatidae: Nephrostominae en 2 ibis blancos de 8 examinados Eudocimus albus (Linnaeus (Threskiornithidae procedentes de los condados de Galveston y Brazos, Texas, EUA. Patagifer lamothei n. sp. se puede distinguir de P. bilobus (Rudolphi, 1819, P. brygooi Richard, 1964, P. consimilis Dietz, 1909, y P. fraternus Johnston, 1917, por la posición de los testículos, contiguos o casi, por la distancia entre el ovario y el testículo anterior que es menor que la longitud del ovario, y el espacio postesticular que es menos extenso, por tener el espacio intertesticular aproximadamente igual o mayor que la longitud del ovario, por el ovario ubicado a una distancia del testículo anterior igual o mayor que la longitud del ovario, y por tener un espacio postesticular más extenso. Además, el ovario de la especie nueva se localiza justamente delante de la mitad corporal, a diferencia de P. bilobus, P. fraternus y P. vioscai Lumsden, 1962, en los cuales se encuentra en la mitad del cuerpo y de P. brygooi y P. consimilis, donde se ubica en la mitad posterior. La especie nueva se asemeja a P. simarai Nigam, 1944 por la distancia entre los testículos, la posición del ovario y el espacio postesticular (30 y 36% de la longitud corporal. Sin embargo, difiere de P. simarai por el cuerpo de menor tamaño, por poseer faringe, ventosa oral y ventral, ovario, testículos y bolsa del cirro, todos ellos de menor tamaño y por presentar espinas pequeñas en el margen del collar y espinas de mayor tamaño en los ángulos del mismo. Adicionalmente, el ovario de la especie nueva se localiza inmediatamente anterior al punto medio corporal, mientras que en P. simarai, se localiza bastante adelante de dicho punto.
Spirorchiids (Digenea: Spirorchiidae infecting a Hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus 1758 from Brazil Spirorchiids (Digenea: Spirorchiidae infectando uma tartaruga marinha de pente Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus 1758 no Brasil
Full Text Available The occurrence of Amphiorchis caborojoensis Fischthal & Acholonu 1976 and Carettacola stunkardi Martin & Bamberger 1952 in a young specimen of Hawksbill sea turtle Eretmochelys imbricata Linnaeus 1758 in Brazil was reported. Five A. caborojoensis trematodes were found in the small intestine (n=2 and liver (n=3, and two adult C. stunkardi specimens were collected from body wash. This is the first report of parasites of E. imbricata in Brazilian waters and Southwestern Atlantic Ocean and the second report of members of the Spirorchiidae family in that region. In addition, E. imbricata is a new host recorded for C. stunkardi.Relata-se a ocorrência de Amphiorchis caborojoensis Fischthal & Acholonu 1976 e Carettacola stunkardi Martin e Bamberger 1952, em um exemplar juvenil de tartaruga marinha de pente Eretmochelys imbricata Linnaeus 1758 no Brasil. Foram coletados cinco trematódeos da espécie A. caborojoensis, dois no intestino delgado e três no fígado e dois exemplares adultos de C. stunkardi no lavado corporal. Destes apenas a espécie A. caborojoensis já tinha sido relatada como parasita dessa espécie de quelônio marinho. Esta é a primeira descrição de parasitas em E. imbricata em águas brasileiras e na área do Atlântico Sul Ocidental, e o segundo relato de membros da família Spirorchiidae na mesma região.
Prosthogonimus ovatus (Rudolphi (Digenea, Prosthogonimidae em três espécies de aves aquáticas da Região Sul do Brasil Prosthogonimus ovatus (Digenea, Prosthogonimidae in three species of aquatic birds of southern Brazil
Cassandra M. Monteiro
Full Text Available Três espécies de aves, dois anatídeos, Dendrocygna bicolor (Vieillot, 1816 (marreca-caneleira e Netta peposaca (Vieillot, 1816 (marrecão e um phalacrocoracídeo, Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Gmelin, 1789 (biguá foram coletados em vários locais na Província da Planície Costeira e no Lago Guaíba, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O número de aves examinadas de cada espécie de hospedeiro, assim como os valores de prevalência e intensidade média de infecção foram: 33 D. bicolor, 3%, 1 helminto/hospedeiro; 20 N. peposaca 15%, 4,3 helmintos/hospedeiro e 47 P. brasilianus 2,1%, 1 helminto/hospedeiro. O espécime coletado no biguá e um dos espécimes, entre aqueles, coletados nos marrecões estavam na cloaca. Os outros espécimes coletados nos marrecões e o único espécime coletado nas marrecas-caneleiras, respectivamente, estavam na bolsa de Fabricius. Este é o primeiro registro de P. ovatus em biguás e em marrecões. A distribuição geográfica conhecida de P. ovatus é estendida para o sul do Brasil e para o Estado do Rio Grande do Sul.Three species of birds, two anatids, Dendrocygna bicolor (Vieillot, 1816 (Fulvous Whistling Duck and Netta peposaca (Vieillot, 1816 (Rosy-billed Pochard, and one phalacrocoracid, Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Gmelin, 1789 (Neotropical Cormorant were collected from several localities in the Coastal Plain Province and in Lago Guaíba, State of Rio Grande do Sul. The number of birds examined of each host species with the respective values of prevalence and mean intensity of infection of P. ovatus were: 33 D. bicolor, 3%, 1 helminth/host; 20 N. peposaca 15%, 4.3 helminths/host, and 47 P. brasilianus 2.1%, 1 helminth/host. The single specimen collected from the Neotropical cormorants and one of the specimens collected from the rosy-billed pochards, were in the cloaca. The remaining specimens from the rosy-billed pochards and the single specimen from the fulvous whistling ducks were in the bursa of Fabricius. This is the first record of P. ovatus in Neotropical cormorants and rosy-billed pochards. The known geographical distribution of P. ovatus is extended to the southernmost State of Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul.
Desenvolvimento de Eurytrema coelomaticum (Giard & Billet (Digenea, Dicrocoeliidae em Bradybaena similaris (Férussac (Gastropoda, Xanthonychidae Development of Eurytrema coelomaticum (Giard & Billet (Digenea, Dicrocoeliidae in Bradybaena similaris (Férussac (Gastropoda, Xanthonychidae
Solange Viana Paschoal Blanco Brandolini
Full Text Available To follow the larval developmenl of Eurytrema coelomaticum (Giard & Billet, 1892 in Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1821 snails were separated in three classes using the shell diameter: Class A (14.5-10.2 mm, Class B (10.1-6.9 mm and Class C (6.8-2.6 mm. Only snails belonging to classes A and B acquired the infection. Specimens of E. coelomaticum removed from the pancreatic ducts were exposed to three physiological solutions: Earle, Locke and saline 0.85%, to obtain eggs for the experimental infections, The Locke solution induced the best egg release. The route of migration the intramolluscan development of E. coelomaticum was studied with the aid of histology. The minimal period of intramolluscan developmenl, ending at the expelling of daughter sporocysts, was 107 days for the snails infected in March, and 79 days for the snails infected in November. The Student "t" test and the Chi-square test showed a significant difference (α = 5% between the two periods, although the mean temperature registered during the experiments did not significantly differed (α = 5%. The elimination of daughter sporocysts occurred through the snail's pneumostome, and always at night. Most sporocysts were eliminated at intervals that varied between one to three days, without regularity. The time of elimination of the daughter sporocysts was different for the two infection period studied: 12 weeks for the snails infected in March, and three weeks for those infected in November. Positive correlation between the number of sporocysts expelled by the snail host and higher temperatures registered in the laboratory was observed. This correlation was more evident in November infection.
Georgieva, Simona; Kostadinova, Aneta; Skirnisson, K.
Roč. 82, č. 3 (2012), s. 177-183 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1562; GA ČR GD206/09/H026 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : TREMATODA * GENES * DNA Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.260, year: 2012 http://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs11230-012-9354-y
Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Faltýnková, Anna; Georgieva, Simona; Skírnisson, Karl; Scholz, Tomáš; Kostadinova, Aneta
Host-parasite systems at high latitudes are promising model systems for detecting and predicting the impact of accelerated environmental change. A major challenge is the lack of baselines for the diversity and distribution of parasites in Arctic wildlife, especially in the freshwater environment. Here we present the first known estimates of the species diversity and host associations of Diplostomum spp. in sub-Arctic freshwater ecosystems of the Palaearctic. Our analyses integrating different analytical approaches, phylogenies based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, estimates of genetic divergence, character-based barcoding, morphological examination, precise detection of microhabitat specialisation and host use, led to the discovery of one described and five putative new species that complete their life-cycles within a fairly narrow geographic area in Iceland. This increases the species richness of Diplostomum in Iceland by 200% and raises the number of molecularly characterised species from the Palaearctic to 17 species. Our results suggest that the diversity of Diplostomum spp. is underestimated globally in the high latitude ecosystems and call for a cautionary approach to pathogen identification in developing the much needed baselines of pathogen diversity that may help detect effects of climate change in the freshwater environment of the sub-Arctic. Copyright © 2014 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Georgieva, Simona; Selbach, C.; Faltýnková, Anna; Soldánová, Miroslava; Sures, B.; Skirnisson, K.; Kostadinova, Aneta
Roč. 6, č. 64 (2013) ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1562 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Radix auricularia * Radix peregra * Stagnicola palustris * Echinostoma * Cryptic species * Europe Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.251, year: 2013
Blasco-Costa, Maria Isabel; Faltýnková, Anna; Georgieva, Simona; Skirnisson, K.; Scholz, Tomáš; Kostadinova, Aneta
Roč. 44, č. 10 (2014), s. 703-715 ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/1562; GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Integrative taxonomy * Fish pathogens * Diplostomum * coxl * ITS * Sub-Arctic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.872, year: 2014
Full Text Available Nine morphologically distinct species of Macvicaria Gibson & Bray, 1982 were recovered from six families, ten genera and twelve species of marine fishes in the waters off the coast of Queensland, Western Australia and South Australia: M. shotteri n. sp. in Apogon fasciatus (type-host, Sillaginodes punctatus and Sillago bassensis from Moreton Bay (type-locality, off southern Western Australia and off Kangaroo Island, South Australia; M. mekistomorphe n. sp. in Sillago maculata from Moreton Bay; M. mutovitellina n. sp. in Dactylophora nigricans from off southern Western Australia; M. flexuomeatus n. sp. in Goniistius gibbosus (type-host and Cheilodactylus rubrolabiatus from southern Western Australia; M. vitellocopiosa n. sp. in Sillaginodes punctatus from off Kangaroo Island, South Australia; M. dextrocaula n. sp. in Notolabrus parilus (type-host and N. fucicola (Richardson (Labridae from off southern Western Australia (type-locality and Kangaroo Island, South Australia; M. heronensis Bray & Cribb, 1989 in Trachinotus coppingeri off Stradbroke Island, Queensland; M. adomeae n. sp. in Sillaginodes punctatus off Kangaroo Island, South Australia; M. kingscotensis n. sp. in Neoodax balteatus (type-host and Haletta semifasciata off Kangaroo Island, South Australia. We have used the following characters to distinguish between the species of Macvicaria: general body form; length/width ratio; size of cirrussac; length of forebody; post-testicular extent of caeca; egg size; and the position of the genital pore. Most of the species of Macvicaria showed interspecific differences in all of the characters enumerated, the most dramatic being in the position of the genital pore in one species. All 11 specimens recovered from 2 species of Notolabrus were found to have a dextral genital pore. This is the second report of amphitypy in the Opecoelidae. All of the host species, apart from Apogon fasciatus, are endemic to Australian or Australian and New Zealand waters. New combinations formed are: M. dactylopagri (Manter, 1954; M. deeghaensis (Gupta & Gupta, 1988; M. eleuthoronemae (Wang, Wang & Zhang, 1992; M. gerridis (Fischthal & Thomas 1970; M. hunghuaensis (Qiu & Li in Shen & Qiu, 1995; M. longicirrata (Manter, 1963; M. oligolecithosus (Wang, Wang & Zhang, 1992; M. synagris (Yamaguti, 1952.
Diaz, Pablo E; Bray, Rodney A; Cutmore, Scott C; Ward, Selina; Cribb, Thomas H
A total of 1523 individuals of 34 species of chaetodontids from the Great Barrier Reef were examined for faustulid trematodes. Specimens resembling Paradiscogaster glebulae Bray, Cribb & Barker, 1994 were found in nine chaetodontid species at three localities. These specimens are shown, on the basis of combined morphological and molecular analyses, to comprise a complex of morphologically similar and partly cryptic species. The complex may comprise as many as six distinct species of which three are resolved here. The true P. glebulae is identified in Chaetodon ornatissimus Cuvier, 1831, Chaetodon aureofasciatus Macleay, 1878, Chaetodon plebeius Cuvier, 1831, Chaetodon rainfordi McCulloch, 1923 and Chaetodon speculum Cuvier, 1831. Two new species are described, Paradiscogaster munozae n. sp. from Heniochus varius (Cuvier, 1829), Heniochus chrysostomus Cuvier, 1831 and Chaetodon citrinellus Cuvier, 1831 and Paradiscogaster melendezi n. sp. from Chaetodon kleinii Bloch, 1790. In terms of morphology the three species differ most clearly in the development of the appendages on the ventral sucker. The three species differ at 3-6consistent bp of ITS2 rDNA. The host-specificity of the three species differs strikingly. P. melendezi n. sp. infects just one fish species, P. glebulae infects species of only one clade of Chaetodon, and P. munozae n. sp. infects quite unrelated species. The basis of this unusual pattern of host-specificity requires further exploration. Two of the species recognised here, P. glebulae and P. munozae n. sp., showed apparent intra-individual variation in the ITS2 rDNA sequences as demonstrated by clear, replicated double peaks in the electropherograms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
McNamara, M K A; Cribb, T H
Five new and five previously described species of Hurleytrematoides are reported from 19 of 34 chaetodontid species examined from the Great Barrier Reef; new species are H. faliexae n. sp., H. galzini n. sp., H. loi n. sp., H. morandi n. sp., and H. sasali n. sp. Previously described species are H. coronatum, H. fijiensis, H. prevoti, H. bartolii, and H. zebrasomae. The genus is rediagnosed in the light of morphological variation of the new species; the degree of spination and shape of the terminal genitalia distinguish individual species. Species of Hurleytrematoides infect almost every clade of the family Chaetodontidae found on the Great Barrier Reef, but obligate corallivores are not infected. All ten species were found at Heron Island on the southern Great Barrier Reef, but only six at Lizard Island on the northern Great Barrier Reef. For three of the four species not present at Lizard Island, the absence appears to be statistically significant. Although all species are apparently restricted to chaetodontids on the GBR, specificity within the family varies from oioxenous to euryxenous; a core/satellite host paradigm explains the distribution of several species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Huston, D C; Cutmore, S C; Cribb, T H
We describe Isorchis cannoni n. sp. from the rabbitfishes Siganus fuscescens (Houttuyn) and Siganus lineatus (Valenciennes) (Siganidae) collected off Heron Island, southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia and, using molecular data, demonstrate that 'Cercariae queenslandae II' of Cannon (1978) from the gastropod Clypeomorus batillariaeformis Habe & Kosuge (Cerithiidae) is the larval form of this new species. The cercariae of I. cannoni n. sp. develop in rediae, encyst in the environment after emergence, and are inferred to then be consumed by grazing rabbitfish. Additionally, we provide a new report of Isorchis currani Andres, Pulis & Overstreet, 2016 from the type host, Selenotoca multifasciata (Richardson) (Scatophagidae) collected in Moreton Bay, south-east Queensland, Australia, greatly expanding the known geographical range of this species. Molecular sequence data (ITS1, ITS2 and 28S rDNA) generated for I. cannoni n. sp. and the new specimens of I. currani, confirm the identification of I. currani and demonstrate a distinct genotype for I. cannoni n. sp. relative to other species of Isorchis Durio & Manter, 1969, for which molecular data are available. Isorchis cannoni n. sp. is morphologically distinct from all other species in the genus, and is further distinguished by utilizing species of Siganidae as definitive hosts, rather than species of Chanidae or Scatophagidae. Because haploporid and atractotrematid cercariae have well-developed reproductive organs, we find cercariae of these closely related families morphologically distinguishable in the same way as adult trematodes: atractotrematids have two symmetrical testes and haploporids have a single testis or, rarely, two tandem or oblique testes.
Locke, Sean A; Lapierre, Angela Rose; Byers, Kaylee; Proctor, Heather; McLaughlin, J Daniel; Marcogliese, David J
Species of Urogonimus Monticelli, 1888 (Leucochloridiidae Poche, 1907) are difficult to distinguish using adult morphology, and their taxonomy has been repeatedly subjected to revision. Some Nearctic species have been regarded as synonymous with the Palearctic type species Urogonimus macrostomus (Rudolphi, 1803) Monticelli, 1888. This implies that U. macrostomus is present in the Nearctic, but there is no additional evidence for this putative distribution. We collected trematodes morphologically indistinguishable from U. macrostomus from a house sparrow (Passer domesticus) in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Sequences 2958 bp in total length from the small and large subunits of ribosomal DNA from 2 specimens were 99.8-100% identical to those of U. macrostomus in the Ukraine and Japan. In light of the lack of morphological differences and small degree of genetic variation, we consider the specimens we collected to be conspecific with U. macrostomus in the Palearctic, and the Holarctic range of the species is thus supported. Sequences from a more rapidly evolving gene, cytochrome c oxidase 1, were obtained to aid future study of this and related species.
Attwood, S W; Fatih, F A; Mondal, M M H; Alim, M A; Fadjar, S; Rajapakse, R P V J; Rollinson, D
Partial (DNA) sequences were collected for 2 mitochondrial loci (Srrna and Lrrna, the rrnS and rrnL rRNA genes respectively) for Schistosoma indicum group species from 4 Southeast Asian countries. The samples included 7 populations, 4 of which were previously unstudied. In 11 cases the combination of locus and population was new. The aim of the study was to provide a phylogeny based on new independent data and multiple populations (earlier studies had mostly used a common set of field samples or laboratory lines) and to examine interrelationships and phylogeography within this species group. Paraphyly of the S. indicum group was confirmed, as was the basal position of Schistosoma incognitum in the Schistosoma phylogeny. Southeast Asian Schistosoma spindale and S. incognitum populations were shown to fall into their respective con-specific cohesive groupings. Estimated divergence times for these taxa were shown to be related to Pleistocene changes in sea level and the radiation of definitive host groups. A revised phylogeographical model is proposed in the light of these findings.
Mateu, P; Raga, J A; Aznar, F J
We investigated patterns of specificity of liver flukes (fam. Brachycladiidae) in a community of cetaceans from the western Mediterranean. The liver and pancreas of 103 striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba, 18 Risso's dolphins, Grampus griseus, 14 bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, 8 common dolphins, Delphinus delphis, and 5 long-finned pilot whales, Globicephala melas, were analysed for brachycladiid species. Two species were found: Oschmarinella rochebruni in striped dolphins (prevalence (P): 61.2%; mean intensity (MI) (95% CI): 34.2 (25.7-45.6)), and Brachycladium atlanticum in striped dolphins (P: 39.8%; MI: 7.1 (4.8-13.1)) and a single individual of common dolphin (P: 12.5%; intensity: 19), which represents a new host record. A molecular analysis using the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of the rDNA gene confirmed that specimens of B. atlanticum were conspecific regardless of host species. Available dietary data suggest that Risso's dolphins, bottlenose dolphins and long-finned pilot whales would contact rarely, if at all, the infective stages of O. rochebruni and B. atlanticum. Neither the prevalence nor the mean abundance of B. atlanticum differed significantly between striped and common dolphins, but a principal component analysis using seven morphometric variables indicated that specimens collected from the common dolphin were stunted. These worms also had fewer eggs compared with specimens typically found in striped dolphins, although the size of the eggs was similar in both host species. Dwarfism and low fecundity have typically been found in helminths infecting unusual host species, and might reflect the lower compatibility of B. atlanticum for common dolphins. In summary, both O. rochebruni and B. atlanticum appear to exhibit a narrow specificity for striped dolphins in the western Mediterranean.
Lisa K. Belden; William E. Peterman; Stephen A. Smith; Lauren R. Brooks; E.F. Benfield; Wesley P. Black; Zhaomin Yang; Jeremy M. Wojdak
Metagonimoides oregonensis (Heterophyidae) is a little-known digenetic trematode that uses raccoons and possibly mink as definitive hosts, and stream snails and amphibians as intermediate hosts. Some variation in the life cycle and adult morphology in western and eastern populations has been previously noted. In the southern Appalachians, Pleurocera snails and stream...
Caron, Yannick; Martens, Koen; Lempereur, Laetitia; Saegerman, Claude; Losson, Bertrand
The present study aims to assess the epidemiological role of different lymnaeid snails as intermediate hosts of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica in Belgium and Luxembourg. During summer 2008, 7103 lymnaeid snails were collected from 125 ponds distributed in 5 clusters each including 25 ponds. Each cluster was located in a different biogeographic area of Belgium and Luxembourg. In addition, snails were also collected in sixteen other biotopes considered as temporary wet areas. These snails were identified as Galba truncatula (n = 2474) (the main intermediate host of F. hepatica in Europe) and Radix sp. (n = 4629). Moreover, several biological and non-biological variables were also recorded from the different biotopes. DNA was extracted from each snail collected using Chelex® technique. DNA samples were screened through a multiplex PCR that amplifies lymnaeid internal transcribed spacer 2 gene sequences (500-600 bp) (acting as an internal control) and a 124 bp fragment of repetitive DNA from Fasciola sp. Lymnaeid snails were found in 75 biotopes (53.2%). Thirty individuals of G. truncatula (1.31%) and 7 of Radix sp. (0.16%) were found to be positive for Fasciola sp. The seven positive Radix sp. snails all belonged to the species R. balthica (Linnaeus, 1758). Classification and regression tree analysis were performed in order to better understand links and relative importance of the different recorded factors. One of the best explanatory variables for the presence/absence of the different snail species seems to be the geographic location, whereas for the infection status of the snails no obvious relationship was linked to the presence of cattle. Epidemiological implications of these findings and particularly the role of R. balthica as an alternative intermediate host in Belgium and Luxembourg were discussed.
Alba, Annia; Hernández, Hilda M; Marcet, Ricardo; Vázquez, Antonio A; Figueredo, Mabel; Sánchez, Jorge; Otero, Oscar; Sarracent, Jorge
Fasciolosis is a globally distributed snail-borne disease which requires economic consideration due to its enormous impact on veterinary medicine. During recent decades, this parasitosis has also shown increasing prevalence in human populations worldwide. The dissemination and successful transmission of fasciolosis ultimately depends on the existence of susceptible snails that act as intermediate hosts. Therefore, to accomplish effective control of this disease, surveillance and detection of the infected intermediate host would be essential. The screening of trematodes within snails using classical parasitological examination of the larvae can be unreliable (sensitivity and specificity vary depending on the time of infection and the experience of the observer) and relatively costly when using molecular biological methods during large-scale monitoring. Here we propose a novel monoclonal antibody-based immunoenzymatic assay to detect ongoing Fasciola hepatica infection in lymnaeid snails. Anti-F. hepatica rediae mouse monoclonal antibodies were generated and used to develop a double monoclonal antibody-based ELISA for parasite detection. Fasciola hepatica-infected and uninfected laboratory-reared Galba cubensis and Pseudosuccinea columella were used for assessment of the developed ELISA. Experimentally infected snails were dissected and examined for parasite larvae as the "gold standard" method. Sensitivity results were 100% for both snail species, while specificity was 98% for G. cubensis and 100% for P. columella. No cross-reactivity was detected in lymnaeids infected with Trichobilharzia sp. or Cotylophoron sp. The ELISA enabled detection of the infection from day 8 p.i. in G. cubensis while in P. columella it was noted as early as day 4. To our knowledge no previous immunoassays have been reported to detect helminth-infected snails and the developed sandwich ELISA method is therefore suggested for infection status validation in natural populations of lymnaeid snails. Copyright © 2014 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shareef P. A. Ahammed
Full Text Available A survey on the occurrence and epidemiology of the encysted progenetic metacercariae of Euclinostomum heterostomum infection in Channa punctata in the Aligarh region of North India revealed a mean prevalence, intensity, and abundance of 18.61, 1.52, and 0.38%, respectively, during the period from April 2011 to March 2012. Liver, kidney, peritoneum, muscle, and ovary were found to be infected with this parasite, and the later three are reported for the first time in this fish species. The histopathology of the infected tissues indicated the following at the host-parasite interface: tissue damage, infiltration of immune cells into the cyst wall, chronic inflammatory responses, and granulomatous lesions. The infected liver showed degeneration of hepatocytes, cytoplasmic vacuolation, nuclear alterations, mallory body formation, fibrosis, and necrosis. The pathology of the infected kidney included distortion and dilation of renal tubules, vacuolar degeneration, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of tubular epithelial cells, occlusion of tubules, fibrosis, hemorrhage, and congestion of glomeruli. The infected muscle demonstrated comparatively fewer pathological changes confined only to the circumference of the cyst wall. The ovary displayed the least changes. The conclusions drawn from the study are that the large metacercarial cysts formed by E. heterostomum in the vital organs of the economically important fish C. punctata could result in the impairment of fish physiology and health, thereby affecting their productivity and quality for human consumption.
McKindsey, C W; McLaughlin, J D
The transmission of Cyclocoelum mutabile to snails was examined under natural conditions by sampling the snail communities of 4 natural ponds that had been exposed experimentally to infection by laboratory-infected coots (Fulica americana). Five of 6 snail species in the ponds, Physa jennessi, Promenetus exacuous, Armiger crista, Gyraulus parvus, and Stagnicola elodes, became infected. No natural infections were found in the few Helisoma trivolvis examined. The second most abundant species Promenetus exacuous was infected most often, whereas Physa jennessi, the most abundant species present, was rarely infected. The temporal pattern of infections in the snail community suggests the transmission window of this parasite in southern Manitoba is limited by both the 14 C hatching threshold of the fluke eggs and the seasonality of ovigerous infections in the coot host. No naturally overwintering infections were found in snails from these ponds, which were examined the following spring. None of the 1,120 laboratory-infected snails placed in cages and held overwinter in the ponds survived, whereas 14 of the 1,120 uninfected control snails kept in the same cages survived. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that C. mutabile must be reestablished in northern waterfowl breeding areas each spring.
Segade, P; Crespo, C; García, N; García-Estévez, J M; Arias, C; Iglesias, R
The life cycle of Brachylaima aspersae n. sp. (Trematoda: Brachylaimidae) in heliciculture farms is elucidated in light of field and experimental studies. Embryonated asymmetrical eggs (33.3 μm × 20.2 μm) are passed in the faeces of the definitive host, the domestic mouse (Mus musculus), and are ingested by its unique first intermediate host, the helicid snail Helix aspersa aspersa. After hatching, the miracidium develops into a highly branched sporocyst in the connective tissues of the digestive gland. Microcaudate cercariae emerging from this gastropod migrate up the ureter of the second intermediate host, the snails H. a. aspersa and H. a. maxima, and develop into non-encysted metacercariae in the kidney. Following predation of infected snails, the metacercariae develop into adults preferentially in the proximal portion of the duodenum of the definitive host. The strict oioxenic character for the first intermediate host, as well as the cercarial chaetotaxy (3 C(I)V+1 C(I)D, 10 C(II), 5 C(III)V, 14 C(III)L, 2 C(III)D, 16 H, 6 S(I), 6 S(II), 6 S(III), 2 A(I)L+1 A(I)V, 1 A(II)L, 3 ML, 1 P(I)L and 3 P(III)L), the distinct pars prostatica, the variable appearance of testes (rounded to irregular, with smooth or slightly to moderately lobulated margins), the size of eggs, the position of acetabulum (located somewhat posterior to the anterior third of body), and the microhabitat of the adult in the final host allow differentiation of B. aspersae from other well-known species in the genus. Massive infections with sporocysts or metacercariae of this brachylaimid may induce extensive pathological changes in the organs affected. Our results confirm that control of rodents in heliciculture farms is essential to minimize the potential health risks and morbimortality associated with this newly described species. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Angelika Anna Linowska
Full Text Available Paracoenogonimus ovatus is the parasite that infest wide definitive host range (predator birds and at least two intermediate hosts: molluscs (Viviparus viviparus, V. fasciatus and freshwater fish from eastern and central Europe. The larvae of the parasite (metacercariae go to the muscle and connective tissue, and at high intensity of infection to the internal organs and brain of fish. A total of 128 fishes were caught in autumn 2009 and 2014, by fishing boats operating in Lake Dąbie, which is one of the largest lakes in Poland. The species selected reflect the species structure of commercial and recreational catches. They were roach, bream, silver bream, crucian carp (Cyprinidae, ruffe, perch, zander (Percidae and pike (Esocidae. The fish were filleted, and the skinned muscle was compressed under a trichinoscope, what allowed to see and count metacercariae in the tissues. To facilitate parasite isolation from the cysts, the muscle tissues were subjected to a 0.1 % solution of activated pepsin and 5 % citric acid at a temperature of 20ºC. The free larvae were measured and identified under an Olympus BX 50 microscope coupled with a camera running AxioVs40 V 188.8.131.52 software. Metacercariae are grouped primarily at depths ranging from just beneath the skin to about 50% of fillet thickness. The infection prevalence of P. ovatus metacercariae in the fish analyzed was 78,5%. The density of infection per gram of muscle tissue mass in the fish infected was 8.85 (from 1 to 84 metacercariae. The highest density was noted in roach, bream and white bream (17.09, 11.14 and 9.58, respectively. Metacercariae occurred singly in pike, parasites were not found in the muscles of crucian carp, ruffe, and perch examined. The reason for such differences in infection is the availability and composition of food, as well as the behavior of the fish examined.
Medeiros, Camilla; Scholte, Ronaldo Guilherme Carvalho; D'ávila, Sthefane; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos
Snails of the family Lymnaeidae act as intermediate hosts in the biological cycle of Fasciola hepatica, which is a biological agent of fasciolosis, a parasitic disease of medical importance for humans and animals. The present work aimed to update and map the spatial distribution of the intermediate host snails of F. hepatica in Brazil. Data on the distribution of lymnaeids species were compiled from the Collection of Medical Malacology (Fiocruz-CMM, CPqRR), Collection of Malacology (MZUSP), “SpeciesLink” (CRIA) network and through systematic surveys in the literature. Our maps of the distribution of lymnaeids show that Pseudosuccinea columella is the most common species and it is widespread in the South and Southeast with few records in the Midwest, North and Northeast regions. The distribution of the Galba viatrix, G. cubensis and G. truncatula showed a few records in the South and Southeast regions, they were not reported for the Midwest, North and Northeast. In addition, in the South region there are a few records for G. viatrix and one occurrence of Lymnaea rupestris. Our findings resulted in the first map of the spatial distribution of Lymnaeidae species in Brazil which might be useful to better understand the fasciolosis distribution and delineate priority areas for control interventions. PMID:24879003
Background The present study aims to assess the epidemiological role of different lymnaeid snails as intermediate hosts of the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica in Belgium and Luxembourg. Methods During summer 2008, 7103 lymnaeid snails were collected from 125 ponds distributed in 5 clusters each including 25 ponds. Each cluster was located in a different biogeographic area of Belgium and Luxembourg. In addition, snails were also collected in sixteen other biotopes considered as temporary wet areas. These snails were identified as Galba truncatula (n = 2474) (the main intermediate host of F. hepatica in Europe) and Radix sp. (n = 4629). Moreover, several biological and non-biological variables were also recorded from the different biotopes. DNA was extracted from each snail collected using Chelex® technique. DNA samples were screened through a multiplex PCR that amplifies lymnaeid internal transcribed spacer 2 gene sequences (500–600 bp) (acting as an internal control) and a 124 bp fragment of repetitive DNA from Fasciola sp. Results Lymnaeid snails were found in 75 biotopes (53.2%). Thirty individuals of G. truncatula (1.31%) and 7 of Radix sp. (0.16%) were found to be positive for Fasciola sp. The seven positive Radix sp. snails all belonged to the species R. balthica (Linnaeus, 1758). Classification and regression tree analysis were performed in order to better understand links and relative importance of the different recorded factors. One of the best explanatory variables for the presence/absence of the different snail species seems to be the geographic location, whereas for the infection status of the snails no obvious relationship was linked to the presence of cattle. Conclusions Epidemiological implications of these findings and particularly the role of R. balthica as an alternative intermediate host in Belgium and Luxembourg were discussed. PMID:24524623
Hechinger, Ryan F; Miura, Osamu
This manuscript describes the daughter parthenitae (sporocysts) and cercariae of two species of renicolid xiphidiocercaria that infect the California horn snail, Cerithidea californica, which serves as first intermediate host for a diverse and ecologically important guild of digenean trematode parasitic castrators. The two species described here have previously been considered to be a single morphospecies in ecological and evolutionary research. We provide provisional species names to respect that digenean alpha taxonomy is currently focused on sexual (adult) stages, while simultaneously respecting the spirit and utility of formal nomenclature in providing unambiguously unique, species-level names that also clarify to the extent possible species' taxonomic affiliations. The first species, Renicola sp. "polychaetophila" is most readily distinguishable from previously described renicolid xiphidiocercariae by a combination of (1) having a penetration gland duct arrangement of 2[(1+3+1)+1], (2) having one pair of penetration glands positioned anteriorly to the main gland cluster, (3) lacking tegmental spines, and (4) infecting Cerithidea californica. The second species, Renicola sp. "martini", is most readily distinguishable from other renicolid xiphidiocercariae that also have tegmental spines by a combination of (1) having a simple, bullet-shaped oral stylet sclerotized for 50-80% of its length, (2) having a cystogenous-gland field with an anterior-most extent about half way between the oral and ventral suckers, and (3) in infecting Cerithidea californica. Phylogenetic analyses using DNA (COI and ITS1) sequence data support that these two trematodes represent distinct species of Renicola. We also (1) provide an emended diagnosis for renicolid cercariae, (2) highlight a few morphological characters that may be useful for future taxonomic work involving renicolid xiphidiocercariae, and (3) suggest that future descriptive work involving trematode parthenitae include more information pertaining to the group of parthenitae as a whole.
Xavier, Vanessa Barreto; Oliveira-Menezes, Aleksandra; dos Santos, Marcos Antônio José; Amato, Suzana Bencke; Torres, Eduardo José Lopes; Pinheiro, Jairo; Brandolini, Solange Viana Paschoal Blanco
Paratanaisia bragai is a trematode parasite that reaches sexual maturity in the kidney collecting ducts of domesticated and wild fowl and whose intermediate hosts are the snails Subulina octona and Leptinaria unilamellata. There are some discrepancies in descriptions of the pathology of this parasite in bird kidneys. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the kidneys of rock pigeons (Columba livia) naturally infected and of chickens (Gallus gallus) experimentally infected with Paratanaisia bragai, by means of macroscopic observation and by light and scanning electron microscopy. Both bird species showed significantly dilated collecting ducts. In addition, lymphocyte infiltration was observed in the kidneys of C. livia and metaplasia in the epithelial lining of the kidney collecting ducts of G. gallus.
Bonett, Ronald M; Steffen, Michael A; Trujano-Alvarez, Ana L; Martin, Samuel D; Bursey, Charles R; McAllister, Chris T
Land-use alterations can have profound influences on faunal distributions, including host-parasite relationships. Yellow grub trematodes ( Clinostomum spp.) have complex life cycles involving 3 hosts: a snail, a fish or amphibian, and a bird. Here, we analyze the distribution, prevalence, intensity, abundance, and genetic diversity of encysting metacercariae of Clinostomum spp. in salamanders and fishes throughout an aquatic system that includes a natural Ozark stream and man-made ponds. We found Clinostomum sp. infecting permanently aquatic Oklahoma salamanders ( Eurycea tynerensis ; 56% prevalence) and larval grotto salamanders ( Eurycea spelaea ) immediately downstream from a man-made pond. However, Clinostomum sp. did not infect any salamanders in the spring that supplies this pond, or in sections farther downstream (~0.5 and 2 km). Metacercariae of Clinostomum sp. were present in ~90% of introduced largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoides ) in the man-made pond adjunct to the stream. Morphological examination and phylogenetic analyses based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase 1 ( Co1 ) and the nuclear ribosomal gene 18S show that fishes and salamanders at this site are primarily infected with Clinostomum marginatum . There is a relatively high degree of mitochondrial haplotype diversity in C. marginatum at this site but no consistent genetic difference between parasites in largemouth bass from the man-made pond and those in salamanders from the stream. Based on the microgeographic distribution and relationships of metacercariae of C. marginatum at this site, we hypothesize that the adjunct man-made pond has created an ecological situation that brings the cercariae of this parasite into contact with novel stream salamander hosts.
Shylla, Jollin A; Ghatani, Sudeep; Tandon, Veena
Among the digenetic trematodes, paramphistomes are known to be the causative agent of "amphistomiasis" or the stomach fluke disease of domestic and wild animals, mainly ruminants. The use of 28S (divergent domains) and 18S rRNA for phylogenetic inference is significantly warranted for these flukes since it is as yet limited to merely the exploration of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region. The present study intended to explore the divergent domains (D1-D3) of 28S rRNA and simultaneously equate the phylogenetic information with 18S rRNA in paramphistomes. Divergence of the 28S rRNA domains was evident amongst the divergent (D) domains, where D1 domain emerged as the most variable and D2, the most robust domain, since the latter could provide a higher resolution of the species. D2 was the only domain that comprised compensatory mutations in the helices of its structural constraints; this domain is thus well suited for species distinction and may be considered a potential DNA barcode complementary to mitochondrial DNA. 28S (D1 + D2 + D3) rRNA provided a significant resolution of the taxa corroborating with the taxonomy of these flukes and thus proved to be more robust as a phylogenetic marker for lower levels than 18S rRNA. Phylogenetic inferences of paramphitomes are still scarcely explored; additional data from other taxa belonging to this family may estimate better the biodiversity of these flukes.
Full Text Available Pleurogenoides medians, a digenean lecithodendriid trematode, parasitize numerous aquatic vertebrate species including frogs, freshwater fish, urodeles and anurans. In the present study, a total of 190 out of 300 (63.33% marsh frogs Rana Ridibunda were found to be infected with this digenean parasite. The highest percentage of infection was recorded in winter reaching 93.33%, and the lowest value was recorded to be 6.66% during summer. Prevalence and intensity of infection were positively correlated with the host size. Host sex showed no effect in this respect. Morphological studies based on light and scanning electron microscopy revealed that the adult worms characterized by small body size measured 1.980–2.430 (2.205 ± 0.1 mm long and 0.870–1.20 (9.87 ± 0.01 mm wide with spines of similar size distributed all over the body surface; oral sucker is sub-terminal and measured 0.180–0.230 (0.203 ± 0.01 mm long and 0.120–0.180 (0.150 ± 0.01 mm wide; ventral sucker is smaller than the oral sucker, post-ovarian located at 1/3 level from the anterior end and measured 0.080–0.102 (0.090 ± 0.001 mm long and 0.100–0140 (0.120 ± 0.001 mm wide; two symmetrical testes were located near the cecal termination on both sides of the ventral sucker, measured 0.153–0.193 (0.176 ± 0.01 mm long and 0.160–0.192 (0.175 ± 0.01 mm wide; pre-acetabular ovary was present and measured 0.130–0.150 (0.140 ± 0.01 mm long and 0.100–0.130 (0.120 ± 0.01 mm wide; vitellaria are extra-caecal and extended from the level of the pharynx to a level slightly beyond the ovary. By comparing the recovered parasite with different species of the same genus from different hosts having different localities, it was found that the present species morphometrically more or less different from the comparable species and the only similar species was P. medians described previously from the common toad Bufo bufo by having all similar characteristic features. In addition, the present study was considered as the first report for the occurrence of this lecithodendriid species infecting the marsh frog in Egypt.
Hernández-Orts, Jesús S; Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos D; García-Varela, Martín; Kostadinova, Aneta
M aritrema corai n. sp. is described based on material from the intestine of the white ibis Eudocimus albus (L.) (Threskiornithidae) in Mexico. The new species can be distinguished morphologically from all congeners by the unique combination of the following morphological features: a very long cirrus sac attenuated distally [cirrus sac to body length ratio 1:0.90-1.29 (mean 1:1.07)]; a large, elongate-oval seminal receptacle, located dorsally between the cirrus sac and ovary; and long, filiform, unarmed, evaginable cirrus. Phylogenetic analyses of 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences for the new species and for Maritrema spp. and Microphallus spp. depicted strong support for the two genera (excluding Microphallus fusiformis) and revealed close relationships between Ma. corai n. sp. and the clade formed by Maritrema novaezealandense Martorelli, Fredensborg, Mouritsen & Poulin, 2004, Maritrema heardi (Kinsella & Deblock, 1994) and Maritrema cf. eroliae.
Ebert, Mariana B; Mülller, Maria I; Marigo, Juliana; Valente, Ana L S; Cremer, Marta J; da Silva, Reinaldo J
A new species of Synthesium from the bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus in South Brazilian waters is described. Morphological and molecular identification was performed, and phylogenetic analyses were carried out using the ribosomal small subunit and internal transcribed spacer 1 and the mitochondrial NDH dehydrogenase subunit 3 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 genes. The main characteristics of the new species are the subterminal round-shaped oral sucker, the anterior distribution of vitellaria reaching the level of the ovary and the oval-shaped testes. The results obtained with the molecular markers supported the inclusion of the specimens into the genus Synthesium. The nucleotide divergence detected for the mitochondrial genes among the new species and others of the same genus supported the erection of a new species. This is the ninth species assigned to the genus and the third Synthesium species recorded in the South Atlantic Ocean.
Full Text Available We report the first evidence of natural infection of Lymnaea columella with Fasciola hepatica in Argentina. A sample of 601 snails was collected in May 2003 in northeastern Corrientes, a province bounded on the north by Paraguay, on the east by Brazil and on the southeast by Uruguay. Among 500 examined snails, 44 (8.8% were exclusively infected with F. hepatica. Parasite identification was based on morphological features of cercariae from snails, and of eggs and adult flukes from Wistar rats. We discuss the events suggesting that an enzootic transmission cycle of F. hepatica has been recently established in northeastern Corrientes.
Bray, Rodney A; Palm, Harry W; Cutmore, Scott C; Cribb, Thomas H
Three species of Opisthomonorcheides Parukhin, 1966 are reported for the first time from Indonesian waters: O. pampi (Wang, 1982) Liu, Peng, Gao, Fu, Wu, Lu, Gao & Xiao, 2010 and O. ovacutus (Mamaev, 1970) Machida, 2011 from Parastromateus niger (Bloch), and O. decapteri Parukhin, 1966 from Atule mate (Cuvier). Both O. pampi and O. ovacutus can now be considered widespread in the Indo-Pacific region, with earlier records of these species being from Fujian Province, China and Penang, Malaysia, respectively. We redescribe O. decapteri from one of its original hosts, Atule mate, off New Caledonia, and report this species from Jakarta Bay, Indonesia, extending its range throughout the Indian Ocean into the south-western Pacific. All three species possess a genital atrium that is long, sometimes very long, and a genital pore that is located in the forebody. This validates the interpretation that the original description was erroneous in reporting the genital pore in the hindbody, well posterior to the ventral sucker. These observations verify the synonymy of Retractomonorchis Madhavi, 1977 with Opisthomonorcheides. A major discrepancy between the species of Opisthomonorcheides is that some are described with the uterus entering the terminal organ laterally and some with it entering terminally; this feature needs further analysis. Based on the length of the genital atrium and the posterior extent of the vitellarium, the 27 species of Opisthomonorcheides considered valid can be divided into four groups. Among the 53 host records analysed, the families Carangidae (53% of records), Stromateidae (17%) and Serranidae (5.7%) are the most common; the reports are overwhelmingly from members of the Perciformes (91%), with further records in the Clupeiformes (5.7%), Gadiformes (1.9%) and Pleuronectiformes (1.9%). Two fish genera (Parastromateus Bleeker and Pampus Bonaparte) dominate the recorded hosts, with the black pomfret Parastromateus niger harbouring six species, the silver pomfret Pampus argenteus (Euphrasen) harbouring six, and the Chinese silver pomfret P. chinensis (Euphrasen) two. A host-parasite checklist is presented. We discuss the host-specificity of members of the genus, questioning some records such as that of O. decapteri in a deep-sea macrourid. We also comment on the morphological similarity, but phylogenetic distance, between the various Pomfret species, advancing the possibility that a series of host misidentifications has occurred. Sequences of the ITS2 rDNA gene generated for O. pampi and O. ovacutus are briefly discussed and molecular data are lodged in the GenBank database.
Hildebrand, Joanna; Adamczyk, Maja; Laskowski, Zdzisław; Zaleśny, Grzegorz
Background Echinostomes are cosmopolitan digenean parasites which infect many different warm-blooded hosts. Their classification is extremely confused; the host spectrum is wide, and morphological similarities often result in misidentification. During our long-term studies on the helminth fauna of rodents and carnivores we have collected 27 collar-spined echinostomes which differ in morphology to an extent that suggests the presence of more than one species. Here, we describe this material, a...
Hildebrand, Joanna; Adamczyk, Maja; Laskowski, Zdzisław; Zaleśny, Grzegorz
Echinostomes are cosmopolitan digenean parasites which infect many different warm-blooded hosts. Their classification is extremely confused; the host spectrum is wide, and morphological similarities often result in misidentification. During our long-term studies on the helminth fauna of rodents and carnivores we have collected 27 collar-spined echinostomes which differ in morphology to an extent that suggests the presence of more than one species. Here, we describe this material, and the extent of host-related variation in this parasite. Specimens of Isthmiophora isolated from four host species (badger, American mink, hedgehog, striped field mouse) were subject to morphological and molecular examination; the data were statistically analysed. Our results show that genetically all the Isthmiophora specimens obtained from all the examined hosts are conspecific and represent I. melis. On the other hand, the individuals isolated from Apodemus agrarius are morphologically distinct and, based on this criterion alone, should be described as a new species. The morphological traits of Isthmiophora melis are much variable and host-dependent; without molecular analysis they would suggest a necessity to describe a new species or even genus. Such a high level of intraspecific variability may be affected by the host's longevity.
Flores, Verónica Roxana; Brugni, N.
El conocimiento sobre los parásitos metazoos de mustélidos sudamericanos está centrado principalmente en las especies de los géneros Lontra y Galictis, con registros de digeneos, nematodes y acantocéfalos. Se examinaron 7 especimenes de mustélidos: 2 Galictis cuja (hurón menor), 1 Lyncodon patagonicus (huroncito) y 4 Neovison vison (visón americano) colectados en el Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi (PNNH). Todos los especimenes de N. vison analizados, presentaron infestaciones con digeneos perten...
Laffargue, Pascal; Baudouin, Grégory; Sasal, Pierre; Arnaud, Christophe; Anras, Marie-Laure Begout; Lagardère, Françoise
Cysts of metacercariae were obtained on 2 dates from juvenile sole Solea solea sea-sampled in an area of mussel cultivation (Pertuis Charentais, Bay of Biscay, France). An initial assessment of parasite genus and infestation level was based on 192 cysts extracted from 2 fish samples, taken in August (n = 20) and December 2000 (n = 14). Our results confirmed the sole as second intermediate host of bucephalid trematodes of the genus Prosorhynchus, which has not previously been noticed in Atlantic stocks. Prevalence, ca. 65% on both dates, indicated an substantial infestation of these small fish, with a mean abundance of parasites increasing from August (3.3 +/- 1.1) to December (8.1 +/- 3.4). Cysts were localised in all body parts of the host, and positioning varied depending on sampling date. However, the cephalic area was always the most infested (72.7 and 49.1% in August and December, respectively). Parasite measurements suggested a protracted infestation process, which may be initiated in spring during sole settlement. Most of the largest metacercariae had the rhynchus characteristics of P. crucibulum, though the possibility of them being other species (P. squamatus, P. aculeatus) could not be excluded. As Mytilus edulis is the first intermediate host of Prosorhynchus spp., possible relationships between mussel culture and sole parasitosis are discussed.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphology of the species Sticholecitha serpentis Prudhoe, 1949 by means of histological procedures. Helminths were previously fixed in Railliet & Henry solution, uncompressed and were included in 2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate. Longitudinal and transverse serial sections with a 4-mum thickness were performed in a microtome (Leica RM 2165, stained with haematoxylin-eosin and then analyzed in a computerized image analysis system (Qwin Lite 2.5, Leica. Structures of systematic value, such as oral sucker, acetabulum, prepharynx, pharynx, esophagus, intestinal caeca, vitelline glands, ovary, uterus, cirrus pouch and testicles were described. Structures that were poorly visible in total preparations were also observed and described, such as efferent ducts, ejaculatory duct, prostate, seminal vesicle, seminal receptacle, Laurer’s channel, Mehlis’ gland, vitelline ducts, metraterm, genital atrium, digestive glands and excretory vesicle. We demonstrated that histological analysis can supply important data regarding the morphological characterization of S. serpentis and will be able to contribute to systematic studies of trematodes.
Santoro, Mario; Tkach, Vasyl V; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Kinsella, John M; Nascetti, Giuseppe
Over the past decades, as a result of various human activities involving intentional or unintentional movement of animals, many helminth species have been introduced to new regions with several ecological and epidemiological implications for the native species. A high prevalence of infection with an introduced digenean Renifer aniarum, previously known only from North America, was found in the grass snake Natrix natrix in the Calabria region, southern Italy. Morphological and molecular comparison with North American R. aniarum has confirmed the identity of the Italian specimens. A total of 41 grass snakes were studied for R. aniarum infection. Of 24 snakes sampled between 2009 and 2010, 22 were positive for this parasite. In contrast, all 17 snakes sampled from museum collections between 1983 and 1994 were negative. Our results support the hypothesis that R. aniarum was perhaps introduced into this area during the 1990s by the translocation of the American bullfrog Lithobates (Rana) catesbeianus, a normal second intermediate host of the digenean in its native range in North America. Although the life cycle of R. aniarum is complex and includes 3 host stages, this parasite has found suitable first and second intermediate hosts as well as definitive hosts in Italy. Renifer aniarum was second only to the very common grass snake tapeworm Ophiotaenia europaea in both prevalence and abundance among 9 species of helminths recovered in our study.
Full Text Available Helicometrina nimia (Opecoelidae is a digenean with wide distribution. Fish families most commonly used as hosts for H. nimia are Serranidae, Pomodasydae, Scorpaenidae and Clinidae. In the present study, a new host and a new host locality are presented for the species. A description of the studied specimens, besides comments concerning its taxonomic status and biometrically compared tables of H. nimia reports are given. The taxonomic status of members of Helicometrina has been questionable. The greatest controversy for the genus seems to be related to the validity of diagnostic features, especially in regard to the number of testes. In the present study, all studied specimens presented a permanent and steady number of testes (n=9 and therefore its use as a diagnostic character is supported by the present authors. Epinephelus marginatus is considered a new host for Helicometrina nimia, and São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil, a new locality for the species.
Roumbedakis, K; Marchiori, N C; Garcia, P; Pereira Junior, J; Castro, L A S; Martins, M L
Helicometrina nimia (Opecoelidae) is a digenean with wide distribution. Fish families most commonly used as hosts for H. nimia are Serranidae, Pomodasydae, Scorpaenidae and Clinidae. In the present study, a new host and a new host locality are presented for the species. A description of the studied specimens, besides comments concerning its taxonomic status and biometrically compared tables of H. nimia reports are given. The taxonomic status of members of Helicometrina has been questionable. The greatest controversy for the genus seems to be related to the validity of diagnostic features, especially in regard to the number of testes. In the present study, all studied specimens presented a permanent and steady number of testes (n=9) and therefore its use as a diagnostic character is supported by the present authors. Epinephelus marginatus is considered a new host for Helicometrina nimia, and São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil, a new locality for the species.
Abidi, S M; Nizami, W A
The amphistomes Gigantocotyle explanatum and Gastrothylax crumenifer utilize leucine, alanine, proline and methionine during in vitro incubations. Autoradiography on sections of these flukes reveal a time-dependent differential incorporation of tritium-labelled amino acids in various tissues. The tegument appears to be the primary surface through which amino acids are absorbed. Following absorption, the reappearance of [3H]-leucine and [3H]-alanine on the tegumental surface during late chase periods indicates their possible involvement in tegumental secretion. A combination of diffusion and carrier-mediated uptake, possibly involving gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, is indicated. The transport loci show differences in carrier-affinity (Kt) and maximum uptake velocities (Vmax) for amino acids under study, which suggest multiple transport molecules. Metabolic studies reveal that aspartate, alanine, ornithine, proline, leucine and methionine undergo transamination through 2-oxoglutarate-linked transaminases, distributed in the cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions of G. explanatum and G. crumenifer. With the exception of alanine transaminase, the enzyme levels in the cytosolic fraction were higher than the mitochondrial fraction of the two amphistomes. Predominantly cytosolic glutamate dehydrogenase which was comparatively higher in G. explanatum, catalyse amination of alpha-ketoglutarate. A high level of cytosolic arginase alone does not indicate a functional urea cycle. A tentative pathway of amino acid metabolism in these amphistomes is proposed.
Tandon, V; Maitra, S C
The critical-point-dried specimens of Gastrothylax crumenifer (Creplin, 1847) Poirier, 1883 and Paramphistomum epiclitum Fischoeder, 1904, both recovered from the rumen of sheep, were studied by scanning electron microscopy at magnifications ranging from 10 to 10,000x to reveal the structural differences of the tegument between the two species. In G. crumenifer, both dorsal and ventral surfaces have tubercle-like tegumental elevations, devoid of spines. A row of prominent, regularly arranged, button-like protuberances encircle the rim of mouth. It is suggested that these are sensory in nature. The lining of the buccal tube also bears papillae, some of which appear balloon-like. The tegument near the outer acetabular rim is thrown into prominent ridges bearing groups of six to eight small papilla-like elevations. Towards the interior of the acetabular cavity this pattern merges into one with stout, finger-like projections with groups of papillae at their blunt tips. From their structure, these projections appear to aid strong anchorage to the host's surface and the papillae to be secretory. P. epiclitum has a similar tuberculated pattern on the dorsal and ventral surfaces. In the oral region, the tegument has some irregular, patch-like elevated areas. The acetabular surface is thrown into a pattern of deep folds and craters.
Full Text Available Aim: Aim of the present study was to carry out the partial purification and biochemical characterization of glutathione S-transferase (GST from the somatic tissue of ruminal amphistome parasite, Gastrothylax crumenifer (Gc infecting Indian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis. Materials and Methods: The crude somatic homogenate of Gc was subjected to progressive ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by size exclusion chromatography in a Sephacryl S 100-HR column. The partially purified GST was assayed spectrophotometrically, and the corresponding enzyme activity was also recorded in polyacrylamide gel. GST isolated from the amphistome parasite was also exposed to variable changes in temperature and the pH gradient of the assay mixture. Results: The precipitated amphistome GST molecules showed maximum activity in the sixth elution fraction. The GST subunit appeared as a single band in the reducing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with an apparent molecular weight of 26 kDa. The GST proteins were found to be fairly stable up to 37°C, beyond this the activity got heavily impaired. Further, the GST obtained showed a pH optima of 7.5. Conclusion: Present findings showed that GST from Gc could be conveniently purified using gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzyme showed maximum stability and activity at 4°C.
Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja; Park, Mi-Yeoun; Lee, Soon-Won; Choi, Seung-Bong; Huh, Beom-Nyung; Seok, Won-Seok
To know the infection status of zoonotic trematode metacercariae in brackish water fish, we surveyed mullets collected from 18 coastal areas in the Republic of Korea. The metacercariae of Pygidiopsis summa were detected in 236 (68.2%) out of 346 mullets examined. They were found in mullets from 15 areas except for those from Boseong-gun (Jeollanam-do), Pohang-si, and Uljin-gun (Gyeongsangbuk-do). Especially in mullets from Taean-gun (Chungcheongnam-do) and Geoje-si (Gyeongsangnam-do), their prevalences were 100% and 95.5%, and the average metacercarial density was more than 1,000 per fish. They were also detected in mullets from 3 coastal lakes, Gyeongpoho, Songjiho, and Hwajinpoho, in Gangwon-do, and their average densities were 419, 147, and 672 per infected fish, respectively. The metacercariae of 5 other heterophyid species, including Heterophyes nocens, Heterophyopsis continua, Metagonimus sp., Stictodora fuscata, and Stictodora lari, were found in the mullets examined. The metacercariae of H. nocens were detected in 66.7, 100, 28.6, 81.6, 3.9, 61.5, and 27.3% of mullets from Muan-gun, Shinan-gun, Haenam-gun, Gangjin-gun, and Boseong-gun (Jeollanam-do), Hadong-gun, and Geoje-si (Gyeongsangnam-do), and their metacercarial intensities were 64, 84, 119, 99, 1, 24, and 24 per fish infected, respectively. From the above results, it has been confirmed that P. summa metacercariae are heavily infected in mullets from coastal areas of Korea. It is suggested that residents who frequently consume raw mullet dish can be easily infected with heterophyid flukes.
In vitro encystment of Himasthla elongata cercariae (Digenea, Echinostomatidae) in the haemolymph of blue mussels Mytilus edulis as a tool for assessing cercarial infectivity and molluscan susceptibility.
Levakin, I A; Losev, E A; Nikolaev, K E; Galaktionov, K V
Infectivity of Himasthla elongata cercariae to mussels, their second intermediate hosts, and resistance by these hosts to infection were assessed on the basis of the cercariae's ability to encyst in mussel haemolymph in vitro. A series of experimental in vivo infections of mussels with batches of cercariae, each batch released from a different single infected mollusc and referred to as a clone (due to their shared genotype), demonstrated that the results of the in vitro tests corresponded to the actual indices of infectivity/susceptibility of the parasites and their hosts. Most cercarial clones had high infectivity, with a few clones having very high or, at the other extreme, very low infectivity. A similar pattern was revealed in mussel resistance to cercarial infection. Most of the molluscs tested were moderately susceptible to cercarial infection, but at each extreme a small fraction (less than 10%) displayed very high or very low susceptibility. It was shown that there were no totally compatible or totally incompatible 'cercaria clone/mussel' combinations. Results obtained are compared with the data on intra-population variability using the characters parasite infectivity/host compatibility for trematode/mollusc-first intermediate host associations. Results are made relevant to actual infection levels in mussel settlements at the White Sea.
Full Text Available Rhipidocotyle gibsoni n.sp. is described from Acestrorhynchus lacustris from Paraná River, brazil. It is most closely related to r. froesi n. sp. and to R. eckmanni in the shape of the cephalic hood, differing in the extent of the uterus, in the position of the vitelline follicles and in that the host is a freshwater fish. Rhipidocotyle froesi n. sp. is proposed for the marine specimens described by Eckmann (1932 as R. baculum (Linton, 1905.
Faltýnková, Anna; Georgieva, Simona; Kostadinova, Aneta; Blasco-Costa, Maria Isabel; Scholz, Tomáš; Skirnisson, K.
Roč. 89, č. 3 (2014), s. 195-213 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : life cycle * cryptic diversity * molecular data * fish * DNA * Trematoda * Strigeida * snails Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.336, year: 2014
Jouet, D; Kolářová, L; Patrelle, C; Ferté, H; Skírnisson, K
Parasitological investigations carried out on birds in Iceland and France highlight the presence of four species of avian schistosomes from greylag geese (Anser anser L.): the european nasal species Trichobilharzia regenti and three visceral species, among which an unknown species isolated from blood vessels of the large intestine and liver. Morphological and molecular analyzes of different parasite stages (eggs, adults) revealed new species of Trichobilharzia genus – Trichobilharzia anseri sp. nov. Studies on host-parasite relationship under natural conditions, showed that the life-cycle includes the snail Radix balthica (syn. R. peregra) as intermediate host. The cercariae, already isolated in Iceland from two ponds of the Reykjavik capital area – the Family park and Tjörnin Lake – are the same as those isolated in 1999 by Kolářová et al. during the first study on Icelandic parasitic agents of cercarial dermatitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Martell-Hernández, Luis Felipe; Ocaña-Luna, Alberto; Sánchez-Ramírez, Marina
Seasonal occurrence of Opechona pyriforme metacercariae in the Eirene tenuis population from Laguna Madre, Mexico was analyzed in zooplankton samples collected in October 1997 and January, May, and July 1998. Eirene tenuis medusae were present in May, July, and October, although parasites were found only in October and July samples. Host population density was positively correlated with both surface water temperature and salinity. Total sample prevalence was 3.74%, mean abundance of the parasite was 0.06, and intensity of infection ranged between 1 and 59 metacercariae/host. Prevalence differed significantly among seasons, while intensity of infection did not. Parasite distribution was found to be highly aggregated. Although O. pyriforme infected hydromedusae of all sizes, prevalence was higher in sizes above 2.11 mm umbrella diameter. Additionally, a tendency towards increasing intensity of infection values with increasing umbrella diameter of medusae was observed. This is the first record of E. tenuis as a second intermediate host of O. pyriforme, as well as the first record of this helminth in the Gulf of Mexico.
Ricardo Berteaux Robaldo
Full Text Available Acanthocollaritrema umbilicatum Travassos, Freitas and Bührnheim, 1965, is the only species of Acanthocollaritrematidae described up to the moment. The systematic position of this species and the validity of the family has been questioned by the possible presence of a gonotyl and a genital atrium associated to the acetabulum. In this paper, specimens of this trematode, collected from Centropomus undecimalis cultivated at Itamaracá, State of Pernambuco, northeast Brazil, were studied under optical and scanning electron microscopy, and compared with available sintypes. Gonotyl and genital atrium were not observed and both family and species are considered valid taxonomic entities. A. umbilicatum is redescribed with the adition of new morphological information.
Aznar, F J; Fognani, P; Balbuena, J A; Pietrobelli, M; Raga, J A
We compared the distribution of the digenean Pholeter gastrophilus in the stomach of 27 harbour porpoises, Phocoena phocoena, 27 striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba, 18 bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, and 100 long-finned pilot whales, Globicephala melas. The stomach of these species is composed of 4 chambers of different size, structure and function. In all species, P. gastrophilus was largely restricted to the glandular region of the stomach, but the parasite tended to favour the fundic chamber in bottlenose dolphins and harbour porpoises, the pyloric chamber in pilot whales, and none in striped dolphins. However, predictability at infrapopulation level was generally low, suggesting a weak preference of P. gastrophilus for any of the chambers. Three hypotheses were tested to investigate a common cause for the distribution of P. gastrophilus in all host species, namely, colonization of chambers was (1) sequential, (2) dependent on chamber size, or (3) dependent on the passage time of food through the whole stomach. The latter hypothesis was indirectly tested by assuming, based on previous evidence from other vertebrates, that the greater the size of the stomach and/or the energy content of prey, the greater the delay of food passage. We found no compelling evidence that chamber colonization was sequential, or related to chamber size in any species. However, the distribution of P. gastrophilus was significantly more anteriad when the host species had larger stomachs and, particularly, when hosts fed on prey with higher caloric content. Accordingly, the stomach distribution of P. gastrophilus at this scale seems to be passively driven by features of the diet and digestive physiology of each host species. This study provides a general framework to formulate null hypotheses in future studies on microhabitat choice by parasites.
Werneck M. R.
Full Text Available This paper describes the occurrence of Enodiotrema megachondrus (Looss, 1899 Looss, 1901 in a juvenile green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas Linnaeus, 1758 found on the coast of Brazil. This parasite has been described in Caretta caretta from Egypt, France, the Mediterranean Sea, the Madeira Archipelago, the Adriatic Sea and the USA, in C. mydas from Egypt and the USA, in Eretmochelys imbricata from Cuba, in Lepidochelys olivacea from Mexico and Costa Rica and in Lepidochelys kempii from USA. This note represents the first report of E. megachondus in a green sea turtle in the South-West Atlantic Ocean.
Born-Torrijos, Ana; Holzer, Astrid S.; Raga, J. A.; van Beest, G. S.; Yoneva, Aneta
Roč. 278, č. 8 (2017), s. 1137-1148 ISSN 0362-2525 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : developmental stages * embryogenesis * functional * parasite strategies * tem * trematode egg Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.655, year: 2016
Luciano Antunes Barros
Full Text Available The first case of a natural avian infection caused by the digenetic trematode Ascocotyle (Phagicola longa Ransom, 1920 in Brazil, is reported from the ardeid bird Ardea cocoi Linnaeus, 1766. This represents a new host record and data on clinical and pathological findings are also reported.
Podvyaznaya, Irina M; Galaktionov, Kirill V
The germinal mass in Himasthla elongata rediae was studied in detail using transmission electron microscopy. It was shown to be a specialized reproductive organ consisting of germinal cells at various maturation stages, supporting cells and stem cells. The germinal mass also contains early cercarial embryos emerging as a result of cleavage division of mature germinal cells. The stem cells that give rise to germinal cells have heterochromatin-rich nuclei with distinct nucleoli and scarce cytoplasm containing mainly free ribosomes and few mitochondria. The differentiating germinal cells undergo a growth, which is accompanied by an emergence of annulate lamellae and the nuage in their cytoplasm, a noticeable development of RER and Golgi apparatus and an increase in the number of mitochondria. The mitochondria form a large group at one of the cell poles. During differentiation, the nucleus and nucleolus of the germinal cell enlarge while the chromatin becomes gradually less condensed. The supporting tissue of the germinal mass is made up of cells connected by septate junctions. These supporting cells are distinctly different in cellular shape and nuclear ultrastructure. Their outgrowths form a tight meshwork housing stem cells, germinal cells and early cercarial embryos. The cytoplasm of the supporting cells in the mesh area is separated into fine parallel layers by labyrinthine narrow cavities communicating with the intercellular space. The supporting tissue contains differentiating and degenerating cells which indicates its renewal. The results of this ultrastructural study lend support to the hypothesis that the germinal cells of digeneans are germ line cells.
An investigation into the potential effects of infrapopulation structure and other sources of sampling error, on population genetic studies of the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum (Trematoda: Digenea).
Huo, Guan-Nan; Liu, Liang; He, Hong-Bin; Attwood, Stephen W
Schistosoma japonicum remains a major challenge to human and animal health. Earlier microsatellite-based studies reported possible definitive-host-specific private alleles within S. japonicum, opening the possibility that different definitive hosts might harbour different parasite strains. Previous investigations have also detected near-identical multilocus genotypes in populations of adult worms - possibly the result of mutations occurring during the asexual (intramolluscan) phase of clonal expansion. Research has also revealed extensive deviations from Hardy-Weinberg Proportions (HWP) and conflicting results among studies. The present study was performed to examine some of the potential effects of infrapopulation structure on microsatellite-based studies of the transmission ecology of S. japonicum. Potential sources of bias considered included organotropic distribution of worms, non-random mating and corrections for clonal expansion. Stool samples from naturally infected hosts were used to infect snails in the laboratory and thereby expose mice. 274 individual worms were typed at seven microsatellite loci. Removal of individuals bearing duplicate MLGs (as a correction for presumed clonal expansion) had an impact on both HWP and organotropic genetic differentiation. The study found no evidence that heterozygote deficiencies were caused by a Wahlund effect. Female-male pairings appeared to be random and there was no evidence for mate choice by heterozygosity. There was some indication that excess heterozygosity, induced by clonal expansion, can offset heterozygote deficiencies caused by small population size or populations fragmented by parasite control efforts. The view is supported that miracidia are preferable to adult worms in investigations into host-specific parasite lineages. Where adults must be used, extreme care should be taken with regard to sampling if infrapopulations of small animals are compared with those of larger animals; this is because of organotropic patterns in genetic variation and the tendency to sample from different organs in differently sized hosts. As corrections for clones may accentuate signals of population subdivision, corrections should only be made if tests for clonal expansion prove positive. Finally, evidence for heterozygote deficiency caused by small sample size, calls for carefully designed random and comprehensive sampling strategies for S. japonicum in China, where control efforts have greatly fragmented parasite populations.
Hanelt, B; Brant, S V; Steinauer, M L; Maina, G M; Kinuthia, J M; Agola, L E; Mwangi, I N; Mungai, B N; Mutuku, M W; Mkoji, G M; Loker, E S
Schistosoma kisumuensis n. sp. is described based on 6 adult males and 2 adult females collected from the circulatory system of 3 murid rodent species, Pelomys isseli, Mastomys natalensis, and Dasymys incomtus. Specimens were collected from a single location, Nyabera Swamp, in Kisumu, Kenya in the Lake Victoria Basin. This new species is morphologically similar to members of the S. haematobium group, currently represented by 8 species parasitizing artiodactyls and primates, including humans. Schistosoma kisumuensis differs from these species by producing relatively small Schistosoma intercalatum-like eggs (135.2 x 52.9 microm) with a relatively small length to width ratio (2.55). Comparison of approximately 3000-base-pair sequences of nuclear rDNA (partial 28S) and mtDNA (partial cox1, nad6, 12S) strongly supports the status of S. kisumuensis as a new species and as a sister species of S. intercalatum. The cox1 genetic distance between these two species (6.3%) is comparable to other pairwise comparisons within the S. haematobium group. Separation of the Congo River and Lake Victoria drainage basins is discussed as a possible factor favoring the origin of this species.
Georgieva, Simona; Blasco-Costa, Maria Isabel; Kostadinova, Aneta
Roč. 94, č. 4 (2017), s. 477-497 ISSN 0165-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : phylogenetic-relationships * maximum-likelihood * morphological data * miyagawai ishii * nuclear rdna * trematoda * platyhelminthes * systematics * genes * diversity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.181, year: 2016
Hernández-Orts, J.S.; Alama-Bermejo, G.; Carrillo, J.M.; García, N.A.; Crespo, E.A.; Raga, J.A.; Montero, F.E.
Aporocotyle mariachristinae n. sp. and A. ymakara Villalba & Fernández, 1986 were collected from the bulbus arteriosus and ventral aorta of pink cusk-eels, Genypterus blacodes (Forster, 1801) from Patagonia, Argentina. A. mariachristinae n. sp. can be distinguished from all the species of Aporocotyle by the asymmetrical extension of posterior caeca (right posterior caecum longer, terminating at the area between mid-level of ovary and posterior body end; left posterior caecum shorter, terminating at the area between mid-level of cirrus sac and posterior to reproductive organs), the distribution of spines along the ventro-lateral body margins and the number of testes. The new species clearly differs from A. ymakara, from the same host species, in the esophagus / body length ratio, the absence of distal loops at caeca, the anterior caeca / posterior caeca length ratio, and the number of testes. Additionally, in A. ymakara the left posterior caecum may be longer than right posterior caecum, while in the new species left posterior caecum is always shorter. The specimen of A. ymakara collected from Argentina is also described. We also provide observations of the distribution of spines in different species of Aporocotyle, including new specimens of A. argentinensis Smith, 1969 from Merluccius hubbsi Marini, 1933. Molecular sequence data obtained from partial 18S and 28S rDNA regions were compared between the new species and other two species of Aporocotyle (A. argentinensis and A. spinosicanalis Williams, 1958). This is a new locality record for A. ymakara, extending the known geographical distribution for this species from Chile to Argentina, and the first report of two species of Aporocotyle in the same host species and locality. PMID:23193516
Molecular characterization and new geographical record of Lecithochirium priacanthi (Digenea: Hemiuridae) infecting the moontail bullseye fish Priacanthus hamrur (Perciformes: Priacanthidae) from the Red Sea, Egypt.
Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Abdel-Gaber, Rewaida; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Morsy, Kareem; Al Quraishy, Saleh; Saleh, Rehab; Mehlhorn, Heinz
Sixty specimens of the moontail bullseye Priacanthus hamrur were collected at Coasts of Suez Gulf, Red Sea (Egypt) during the four different seasons of the whole year 2014 and necropsied to study the infection with metazoan parasites. Twenty-one out of 60 examined fish specimens (infection rate of 33.33 %) were found to be naturally infected by the hemiurid digenean parasite Lecithochirium priacanthi. The large-sized fish reaching 15-30 (23.5 ± 4.8) cm were more intensively infected than the smaller ones. A definite seasonal effect was observed as winter was found to be the season of severe parasitic infections, while midsummer was the lowest one. The morphological and morphometric characterization of this parasite were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. The adult worms had an elongated body measuring 1.93-2.54 (2.11 ± 0.20) mm in length and 0.61-0.72 (0.67 ± 0.02) mm in width. The body was characterized by the presence of a sub-terminal oral sucker with diameters reaching 0.12-0.16 (0.14 ± 0.02) mm. The ventral sucker measured 0.32-0.45 (0.38 ± 0.02) mm in diameter. The body was supplied by a short retracted portion with a blunt end that measured 0.48-0.61 (0.56 ± 0.02) mm in length and 0.28-0.35 (0.32 ± 0.02) mm in width. Morphological results of the present parasite were compared with other related species described previously from Perciformes. Molecular characterization based on small subunit ribosomal DNA was done to confirm the obtained morphological and morphometric results. A preliminary genetic comparison between SSU rDNA of this parasite and other species of Hemiuridae places the present specimen as a putative sister taxon to Lecithochirium grandiporum and Lecithochirium caesionis. The finding of L. priacanthi in Egyptian marine water fish represents a new geographical record for this parasite.
Nahed El-Sayed Abdou; Norman O. Dronen; Charles K. Blend
...), collected from the Red Sea off the coast of Hurghada, Egypt. Karyakartia egyptensis n. sp. differs from K. pambanense in that the former species possesses larger spiniform structures around the perimeter of the mouth...
Kudlai, Olena; Cribb, Thomas H; Cutmore, Scott C
A new species of microphallid, Longiductotrema tethepae n. sp., is reported from a muraenid eel Gymnothorax pseudothyrsoideus (Bleeker) on the northern Great Barrier Reef. The new species is described based on adults from Gy. pseudothyrsoideus and metacercariae from a grapsid crab, Grapsus albolineatus Latreille in Milbert, collected from off Lizard Island, Queensland, Australia. The new species is assigned to Longiductotrema Deblock & Heard, 1969 based on morphological characters (presence of a cirrus-sac; a long metraterm, intensively ensheathed by gland-cells; an entirely postcaecal uterus; vitellarium composed of two lateral clusters each of about ten follicles, situated in the testicular and post-testicular areas). Longiductotrema tethepae n. sp. is the third species assigned to the genus, differing from its congeners in having a distinctly larger body dimensions, a smaller pharynx in relation to oral sucker, the anterior limits of the vitelline fields at the level of the testes (vs at the level of the ovary) and in its parasitism of a muraenid fish (vs birds). Additionally, the new species differs from L. floridense Deblock & Heard, 1969 in having a shorter metraterm and from L. scandolensis Deblock & Bartoli, 1988 in having a less elongate forebody in relation to body length, shorter caeca and prepharynx, and slightly larger eggs. Phylogenetic analyses, based on partial 28S rRNA gene sequences, showed that the present species is sister to all other microphallids for which sequence data are available. This is the fourth report of a microphallid from a marine eel, the first from the Muraenidae Rafinesque and the first from a marine fish in the Indo-west Pacific. A summary of all species of the Microphallidae parasitising fish is provided.
Jerdy, H; Baldassin, P; Werneck, M R; Bianchi, M; Ribeiro, R B; Carvalho, E C Q
This paper presents the first report of parasites from the genus Renicola sp. in the kidneys of Magellanic penguins. The histological analysis revealed inflammatory infiltrate (eonsinophils, lymphocytes, and plasmocytes), together with fibroplasia and compression of the adjacent ducts.
Saoud, Mohamed Fathy A. [محمد فتحي عبد الفتاح سعود; Ramadan, M. M.; Al Kawari, K. S. R.
Allacanthochasmus lutjani n.sp. is described from Lutjanus fulviflamma caught from Qatari waters in the Arabian Gulf. It differs from other species of the genus, mainly by the shape and position of the ovary, presence of oesophagus as well as two distinct processes on the gonotyle. Metadena leilae Nagaty, 1957 is reported for the first time outside its type locality, the Red Sea. It is redescribed from the same species of fish and its distinctive specific characters are discussed. يصف المؤ...
DISCORDANT GENETIC DIVERSITY AND GEOGRAPHIC PATTERNS BETWEEN CRASSICUTIS CICHLASOMAE (DIGENEA: APOCREADIIDAE) AND ITS CICHLID HOST, "CICHLASOMA" UROPHTHALMUS (OSTEICHTHYES: CICHLIDAE), IN MIDDLE-AMERICA
Ulises Razo-Mendivil; Ella Vázquez-Domínguez; Gerardo Pérez-Ponce de León
...–parasite associations. We evaluated the genetic structure of the digenean Crassicutis cichlasomae and its most common host, the Mayan cichlid "Cichlasoma" urophthalmus, encompassing most of their geographical range in Middle-America...
Razo-Mendivil, Ulises; Rosas-Valdez, Rogelio; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo
Oligogonotylus mayae n.sp. is described from the intestine of the Mayan cichlid Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Günther) in Ría Lagartos, Ría Celestún, and Estero Progreso, Yucatán State. This is the second species described for Oligogonotylus Watson, 1976, the other being O.manteri Watson, 1976. The new species is readily distinguished from O. manteri by the anterior extension of the vitelline follicles. In O. Manteri, Vitelline follicles are found entirely in the hindbody, extending posteriorly to mid-testicular level. Vitelline follicles in the new species extend from teh anterior margin of posterior testis to the region between the bentral sucker and the pharynx. comparison of approximately 1,850 bases of ribosomal DNA (ITS1, ITS2, 5.8S, and 28S), and 400 bases of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) strongly supports the status of O. mayae as a new species, as compared to O. manteri collected from cichlids in other localities of Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala.
Jiménez-García, M I; Vidal-Martínez, V M
We studied the infection dynamics and maturation cycle of Oligogonotylus manteri in wild and caged 'Cichlasoma' urophthalmus, and determined the potential role of different sources of infection in its transmission in a quarry (MITZA). Metacercariae, and nongravid and gravid stages of O. manteri were present throughout 1 annual cycle. Prevalence, mean intensity, and/or aggregation values peaked around April and June in both wild and caged fish. This period of time includes the start of the rainy season, in which the water temperature reaches its maximum annual values. Because temperature is a major factor triggering 'C.' urophthalmus activity (food intake, growth, and reproduction), and O. manteri metacercariae and adults are trophically transmitted, temperature may be playing an important role in the recruitment of worms to the fish. We also determined that cercariae infect caged fish through a mechanism other than trophic transmission whereby fish consume infected snails, which has been described as the most common mode of transmission to 'C.' urophthalmus.
Discordant genetic diversity and geographic patterns between Crassicutis cichlasomae (Digenea: Apocreadiidae) and its cichlid host, "Cichlasoma" urophthalmus (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae), in Middle-America.
Razo-Mendivil, Ulises; Vázquez-Domínguez, Ella; de León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce
Genetic analyses of hosts and their parasites are key to understand the evolutionary patterns and processes that have shaped host-parasite associations. We evaluated the genetic structure of the digenean Crassicutis cichlasomae and its most common host, the Mayan cichlid "Cichlasoma" urophthalmus, encompassing most of their geographical range in Middle-America (river basins in southeastern Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala together with the Yucatan Peninsula). Genetic diversity and structure analyses were done based on 167 cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequences (330 bp) for C. cichlasomae from 21 populations and 161 cytochrome b sequences (599 bp) for "C." urophthalmus from 26 populations. Analyses performed included phylogenetic tree estimation under Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analysis, genetic diversity, distance and structure estimates, haplotype networks, and demographic evaluations. Crassicutis cichlasomae showed high genetic diversity values and genetic structuring, corresponding with 4 groups clearly differentiated and highly divergent. Conversely, "C." urophthalmus showed low levels of genetic diversity and genetic differentiation, defined as 2 groups with low divergence and with no correspondence with geographical distribution. Our results show that species of cichlids parasitized by C. cichlasomae other than "C." urophthalmus, along with multiple colonization events and subsequent isolation in different basins, are likely factors that shaped the genetic structure of the parasite. Meanwhile, historical long-distance dispersal and drought periods during the Holocene, with significant population size reductions and fragmentations, are factors that could have shaped the genetic structure of the Mayan cichlid.
Sanguinicola platyrhynchi n. sp. (Digenea: Sanguinicolidae parasite of visceral cavity of Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Valenciennes, 1840 (Pisces: Pimelodidae from the floodplain of the upper Paraná River, Brazil
GUIDELLI G. M.
Full Text Available A new species is of the genus Sanguinicola Plehn, 1905 described, Sanguinicola platyrhynchi n. sp., digenetic parasite of visceral cavity of Hemisorubim platyrhynchos (Valenciennes, 1840 from the floodplain of the upper Paraná River, Brazil. The species has been thus included because of the presence of separate dorsal genital pores, while differing from other species of the same genus mainly in digestive apparatus features, genital pore position, and infection site. Emendation of generic diagnosis is included.
Palacios-Abella, José F; Georgieva, Simona; Mele, Salvatore; Raga, Juan Antonio; Isbert, Wolf; Kostadinova, Aneta; Montero, Francisco E
A new aporocotylid, Skoulekia erythrini n. sp., is described from the heart, cephalic kidney and gill blood vessels of the common pandora Pagellus erythrinus (L.) collected from several localities of the western Mediterranean off Spain. The new species differs from the type- and only species of the genus, S. meningialis Alama-Bermejo, Montero, Raga & Holzer, 2011 in possessing a symmetrical body (vs laterally curved), short tegumental spines (3-4 vs 7-10 µm) without hooked ends, diffuse (vs conspicuous) oesophageal gland-cells, a relatively longer oesophagus, a testis that is shorter in relation to body length and a much smaller seminal vesicle (17-34 × 10-26 vs 33-101 × 27-97 μm). Elongated ellipsoidal eggs of S. erythrini n. sp. were found trapped in gill vessels in histological sections. Phylogenetic analyses based on partial 28S rDNA and ITS2 sequences supported the placement of the new species within Skoulekia and the close relationships of this genus with Psettarium Goto & Ozaki, 1929 and Pearsonellum Overstreet & Køie, 1986. Skoulekia meningialis is described from a new sparid host, Diplodus puntazzo (Walbaum), collected off Santa Pola, Spain. The new morphological data for the two Skoulekia spp. and a re-examination of three paratypes of S. meningialis pinpointed features amending both the description of S. meningialis and the generic diagnosis of Skoulekia.
Bray, Rodney A; Justine, Jean-Lou
Opegaster ouemoensis sp. n. is described from Periophthalmus argentilineatus Valenciennes (Gobiidae). Distinctive features included the weak or undetectable papillae of the ventral sucker and the small, but distinct cirrus-sac. The new species is compared with 25 marine species of Opegaster for which a table of measurements and ratios is presented. The new combination Opegaster queenslandicus (Aken'Ova, 2007) (originally in Opecoelus) is formed. Fifteen mudskippers were intensively examined for parasites; larval anisakid nematodes and acanthocephalans were found, but no monogeneans, cestodes, copepods, isopods, hirudineans or adult nematodes. A brief summary of the helminth parasites of mudskippers is included.
Razo-Mendivil, Ulises; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo; Rubio-Godoy, Miguel
Phyllodistomum inecoli n. sp. is described from the twospot livebearer, Heterandria bimaculata (Teleostei: Poeciliidae), collected in the Río La Antigua basin, Veracruz, Mexico. The new species is described and characterised by using a combination of morphology, scanning electron microscopy, and sequences of nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Diagnostic characters of the new species of Phyllodistomum include a genital pore opening at the level of the caecal bifurcation; oval vitellarium, situated just posterior to the ventral sucker and not extended laterally and anterior extracaecal uterine loops variable in extension (reaching the anterior, median or posterior margin of the ventral sucker). P. inecoli n. sp. most closely resembles P. brevicecum, a species described as a parasite of the central mudminnow, Umbra limi, in other parts of North America; however, the genital pore in P. brevicecum is situated between the caecal bifurcation and the ventral sucker, the ovary is larger, the vitellarium is lobed and extended laterally and the anterior portion of the uterus extends to the posterior margin of the ventral sucker. Comparison of about 1,500–2,200 nucleotides of cox1 and 28S rDNA and ITS1 strongly supports the status of P. inecoli as a new species. Bayesian inference analysis of combined datasets of 28S rDNA and cox1 sequences showed that P. inecoli n. sp. and the other species found in freshwater fishes of Mexico, including the species complex of P. lacustri, are not sister species. Phylogenetic analysis based on 28S rDNA sequences of several gorgoderid taxa revealed the close relationship of P. inecoli n. sp. with several species of Phyllodistomum, Gorgodera and Gorgoderina with cystocercous cercariae developing in sphaeriid bivalves. Dot-plot analysis of ITS1 sequences of P. inecoli n. sp. revealed the presence of eight repetitive elements with different length, which together represent almost half the length of ITS1.
A new species of Auriculostoma (Digenea: Allocreadiidae) in the Mexican tetra Astyanax mexicanus (Actinopterygii: Characidae) from Central Veracruz, Mexico, described with the use of morphological and molecular data.
Razo-Mendivil, Ulises; Mendoza-Garfias, Berenit; de León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce; Rubio-Godoy, Miguel
Auriculostoma totonacapanensis n. sp. is described from the Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus (Actinopterygii, Characidae) collected in a tributary creek of the Bobos River in Filipinas, Veracruz, Mexico. The new species is set apart from all congeners by the combination of some morphological characters such as the testes position (oblique in most specimens), the ventral to oral sucker ratio (1:1.2 × 1:1.1), the cirrus sac originating at the ovarian region, and by having vitelline follicles not confluent in the posttesticular region. Auriculostoma totonacapanensis n. sp. closely resembles Auriculostoma platense (Szidat, 1954) Scholz, Aguirre-Macedo, and Choudhury, 2004 and Auriculostoma diagonale Curran, Tkach and Overstreet, 2011 by possessing oblique testes; however, it differs from both species by possessing a genital pore located at level of the cecal bifurcation and by having vitelline follicles extending anteriorly up to the cecal bifurcation level, instead of a genital pore located between the anterior margin of the ventral sucker and cecal bifurcation, and vitelline follicles extending anteriorly to the mid level of the esophagus as in A. platense or to the pharynx level as in A. diagonale. Additionally, the new species differs from A. diagonale by having vitelline follicles not confluent or scarcely confluent in the posttesticular region rather than extensively confluent. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs of the new species demonstrated the presence of a single pair of muscular lobes on either side of the oral sucker, with a broad base, stretching from the ventrolateral to the dorsolateral side. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses of the 28S rRNA gene sequences placed A. totonacapanensis as sister species of Auriculostoma astyanace Scholz, Aguirre-Macedo, and Choudhury, 2004 . Nucleotide variation between A. totonacapanensis and A. astyanace was 2.0% and 3.6% for the 28S rRNA gene and ITS2 sequences, respectively. Sequence variation for the 28S rRNA gene between Auriculostoma spp. and 7 other genera of Allocreadiidae ranged from 2.4 to 6.3%.
Adams, A M; Hoberg, E P; McAlpine, D F; Clayden, S L
New host records for Campula oblonga Cobbold, 1858 from the common dolphin, Delphinus delphis L., and from the thresher shark, Alopias vulpinus (Bonnaterre), are reported herein. Campulids have not been reported previously from a host that was not a marine mammal. The excellent condition and small size of the gravid specimen and the diet and natural history of the thresher shark lead us to conclude that the digene was acquired from the consumption of infected fish. Specimens of C. oblonga from these 2 hosts and from harbor porpoises, Phocoena phocoena (L.), and from Dall's porpoises, Phocoenoides dalli (True), are compared, and a wide variation in ranges and values for characters is noted. The synonymy of Campula folium Ozaki, 1935 with C. oblonga is further supported by the apparent effect of the host on the size of the trematodes. Due to the degree of variation in measurements and the numerous factors that may impact these values, we recommend the use of qualitative morphologic characters for the identification of C. oblonga.
Morfologia externa de espécimes adultos de Paratanaisia bragai (Santos, 1934 (Digenea: Eucotylidae External morphology of the adults specimens of Paratanaisia bragai (Santos, 1934(Diginea; Eucotylidae
Solange V.P.B. Brandolini
Full Text Available Espécimes adultos de Paratanaisia bragai foram coletados de ductos renais de Columba livia infectados naturalmente, fixados em glutaraldeído 2,5% e processados para microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Foram identificados dois tipos distintos de escamas, escamas bífidas e simples, dispostas em fileiras transversais no tegumento das faces dorsal e ventral do corpo. Também mostrando em detalhes a ventosa oral subterminal, bem desenvolvida e acetábulo de tamanho reduzido, localizado no terço médio do corpo, circundado por pequenas protuberâncias e quatro papilas dispostas regularmente na sua margem.Adult specimens of Paratanaisia bragai collected from renal ducts of Columba livia naturally infected, were fixed in glutaraldehyde 2.5% and processed for scanning electron microscopy. Two distinct types of scales had been identified, bifid and simple scales, disposed in transversal rows, on the tegument of dorsal and ventral face of the body. Also show in details the oral sucker subterminal, well developed and acetabulum of size reduced, located in third medium of the body, surrounded for small protuberance and four papillae on its edge.
Gerardo Pérez-Ponce de León
Full Text Available A new species of Theletrum is described from the intestine of two palenose morays, Echidna nocturna, collected in Cuajiniquil, Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica. The new species differs from the type species, T. fustiforme Linton, 1910 by having a subspherical pars prostatica, a subspherical seminal vesicle extending anteriorly to the anterior border of the acetabulum, by the presence of a poorly developed hermaphroditic sac, and by having a larger body size. We also report eight additional species of digeneans parasitizing marine fishes in several localities along the Atlantic and Pacific coast of Costa Rica: Bianium simonei, Didymozoinae (metacercariae, Ectenurus virgulus, Hypocreadium myohelicatum, Lecithochirium microstomum, Pseudolecithaster sp., Stephanostomum casum, and Tergestia laticollis. In addition, we present an updated list of helminth parasites of marine fish from Costa Rica and discuss the importance of including parasites as an integral part of biodiversity inventories.Se describe una especie nueva de digéneo del género Theletrum, parásito del intestino de una "morena pecosa", Echidna nocturna, recolectada en Playa Cuajiniquil, Provincia de Guanacaste, Costa Rica. La nueva especie es diferente de T. fustiforme Linton, 1910, la especie tipo, por presentar una pars prostatica subesférica, una vesícula seminal subesférica que se extiende hasta el borde anterior del acetábulo, por la presencia de un saco hermafrodita y por una mayor longitud del cuerpo. También se registran ocho especies adicionales de digéneos parásitos de peces marinos en varias localidades de las costas del Atlántico y del Pacífico de Costa Rica. Por último, presentamos una lista actualizada de los helmintos parásitos de peces marinos y dulceacuícolas de Costa Rica y discutimos la importancia de incluir a los parásitos como una parte integral de las investigaciones sobre biodiversidad.
Multilocus phylogenetic analysis and morphological data reveal a new species composition of the genus Drepanocephalus Dietz, 1909 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae), parasites of fish-eating birds in the Americas.
Hernández-Cruz, E; Hernández-Orts, J S; Sereno-Uribe, A L; Pérez-Ponce de León, G; García-Varela, M
Members of the genus Drepanocephalus are endoparasites of fish-eating birds of the families Phalacrocoracidae and Sulidae distributed across the Americas. Currently, Drepanocephalus contains three species, i.e. D. spathans (type species), D. olivaceus and D. auritus. Two additional species, D. parvicephalus and D. mexicanus were transferred to the genus Petasiger. In the current study, available DNA sequences of D. spathans, D. auritus and Drepanocephalus sp., were aligned with newly generated sequences of D. spathans and Petasiger mexicanus. Phylogenetic analyses inferred with three nuclear (LSU, SSU and ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2) and two mitochondrial (cox1, nad1) molecular markers showed that the sequences of D. spathans and D. auritus are nested together in a single clade with very low genetic divergence, with Petasiger mexicanus as its sister species. Additionally, P. mexicanus was not a close relative of other members of the genus Petasiger, showing that P. mexicanus actually belongs to the genus Drepanocephalus, suggesting the need to re-allocate Petasiger mexicanus back into the genus Drepanocephalus, as D. mexicanus. Morphological observations of the newly sampled individuals of D. spathans showed that the position of the testes is variable and testes might be contiguous or widely separated, which is one of the main diagnostic traits for D. auritus. Our results suggest that D. auritus might be considered a synonym of D. spathans and, as a result, the latter represents a species with a wide geographic range across the Americas, parasitizing both the Neotropical and the double-crested cormorant in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Venezuela, Colombia, Mexico, USA and Canada.
Lee, Hye Jung; Chai, Jong-Yil; Lee, Jin-Woo; Jin, Ho; Min, Kwan-Hong; Cho, Yong-Jun
To figure out the geographical distribution of Gynaecotyla squatarolae and Microphallus koreana metacercariae in Korea, shore crabs of southwestern coastal areas were examined. Eight coastal areas in Inchon-si (A), Gyeonggi-do (B), Chungcheongnam-do (C, D, and E), Jeollabuk-do (F), and Jeollanam-do (G and H) were selected, and 2 kinds of crabs, Macrophthalmus dilatatus and/or Macrophthalmus japonicus, were caught. After transportation to the laboratory, 15 crabs per each group were grouped and ground in a mortar and pestle, and examined for microphallid metacercariae. In M. dilatatus, G. squatarolae metacercariae were recovered from 3 (C, E, and H) out of 6 regions, but M. koreana metacercariae were not recovered. In the case of M. japonicus, G. squatarolae metacercariae were recovered from 6 (B, D, E, F, G, and H) of 7 areas surveyed, and M. koreana matacercariae were detected from 5 regions (A, B, D, F, and H). These results indicate that the life cycle of G. squatarolae is maintained in the western coastal areas using M. dilatatus and M. japonicus as intermediate hosts, while that of M. koreana is maintained only using M. japonicus. PMID:20333292
G. C. PAVANELLI; Takemoto,R.M.; LACERDA, A. C. F.
The present paper represents the first study on the endoparasitic fauna of Potamotrygon falkneri and P. motoro in the upper Paraná River floodplain. Fishes were collected by fishing rod and gillnetting in different stations of the floodplain, from March, 2005 to September, 2006. Parasites were sampled, fixed and preserved according to specialized literature. About half of the analyzed fish were parasitized by at least one of the following species of endoparasites: Clinostomum complanatum, Gen...
Proterodiplostome Parasites (Digenea, Proterodiplostomidae of the Caiman, Caiman crocodilus yacare (Reptilia, Crocodylia in the Pantanal mato-Grossense, Brazil, with the description of two new species
João B. Catto
Full Text Available Two new species are described from the caiman. Caiman crocodilus yacare. Proterodiplostomum breve n. sp. differs from all other species in the genus by the following chacacteristics: (1 the paraprostate gland is shorter and club-shaped; (2 the genital cone is, in average, eight times longer than that of P. medusae; (3 the genital atrium is larger and without pseudosuckers; (4 the oral sucker and pharynx are longer; and (5 there are larger numbers of papillae surrounding the tribocytic organ (40 against 20 in P. longum, 16 in p. tumidilum, 8 in P. ophidum, and 16-18 in P. medusae. Proterodiplostomum globulare n. sp. differs from all the other species in the fenus by the following characteristics: (1 from P. tumidilum, P. lomgum, P. medusae, and P. breve n. sp. for the absense of pseudosuckers or muscular bunches in the inferior wall of the genital atrium; (2 the shape of the paraprostate gland, which is globular and not cylindrical as in P. longum, P. tumidilum, P. medusae, and P. ophidum; (3 the size of the tribocytic organ 201-407 long, 183-495 wide, while is 138-270 long, 102-292 wide in P. medusae, and 138-270 long, 255 wide in P. ophidum; (4 the number of papillae in the tribocytic organ (18-20 in P. globulare and 16-18 in P. medusae, and 8 in P. ophidum. Specimens belonging to six other species of proterodiplostomes are recorded for the first time infecting the caiman, C. c. yacare in the Pantanal Mato-grossense, Brazil, namely: Proterodiplostomum medusae, P. tumidilum, Cystodiplostomum hollyi, Prolecithodiplostomum constrictum, Paradiplostomum abbreviatum, and Herpetodiplostomum caimancola.
Molecular and morphological characterization of Isthmiophora melis (Schrank, 1788 Luhe, 1909 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae from American mink (Neovison vison and European polecat (Mustela putorius in Lithuania
Full Text Available The specimens collected from American mink (Neovison vison and European polecat (Mustela putorius in Lithuania were morphologically identified as Isthmiophora melis (Schrank, 1788 Lühe, 1909 and were molecularly characterized through sequencing of partial 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, ITS1- 5.8S-ITS2 region, and ND1. Relations of I. melis to other species of the genus Isthmiophora Lühe 1909 were discussed. According to ITS1 and ND1 sequences the closest species to I. melis is Isthmiophora hortensis (Asada, 1926.
Rodney A. Bray
Full Text Available New and published reports of zoogonid digeneans from New Caledonian waters are recorded, including a description of Overstreetia cribbi n. sp. from Atherinomorus lacunosus. This species differs from its congeners in the detail of its circum-oral spination and some metrical features. Other new records are of: Diphterostomum plectorhynchi Machida, Kamegai & Kuramochi, 2006 in Diagramma pictum; Parvipyrum acanthuri (Pritchard, 1963 in Acanthurus dussumieri; Zoogonoides viviparus (Olsson, 1868 in Lagocephalus sceleratus; Deretrema ? combesorum (Bray & Justine, 2008a; Bray & Justine, 2008b early ovigerous forms in Parupeneus pleurostigma; D? acutum (Pritchard, 1963 in P. barberinus; and an unidentified immature zoogonid in P. multifasciatus. The newly reported specimens are illustrated and measurements given. The distribution of New Caledonian zoogonids is listed.
Seasonal maturation of Glypthelmins vitellinophilum (Trematoda: Digenea in Lysapsus limellus (Anura: Pseudidae from an Argentinian subtropical permanent pond Maturação sazonal de Glypthelmins vitellinophilum (Trematoda: Digenea em Lysapsus limellus (Anura: Pseudidae em uma lagoa permanente subtropical da Argentina
M. I. Hamann
Full Text Available From December 1995 to November 2000, the seasonal maturation of Glypthelmins vitellinophilum Dobbin, 1958, in its definitive host, the frog Lysapsus limellus Cope, 1862, was studied in a subtropical permanent pond in northeastern Argentina. The objectives of this study were: 1 to determine the infrapopulation dynamics of the parasite, analyzing the seasonal maturation cycle throughout the years; and 2 to examine the relationship between the intensity of trematode infection in different developmental stages (recruitment, growth and maturation and the host's body length. Of a total of 1,400 frogs examined over 60 months (5 years, 38% were found to be infected with G. vitellinophilum, and the intensity of infection was 1-15 trematodes per frog. Specimens of G. vitellinophilum were present in L. limellus throughout the years, but did not show a pronounced seasonal maturation cycle. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed with reference to climatic fluctuations and biotic factors. The infective period of the parasite (stage I occurred in summer, autumn and spring, coinciding with the time each frog cohort appeared. These infections were found principally in small body sizes (classes 1 and 2 of L. limellus. Juvenile and nongravid specimens of worms (stage II and III were found in frogs of different body sizes throughout the period of investigation. Gravid specimens of the parasite (stage IV were generally recorded in autumn, winter and spring, mainly in the bodies of larger frogs. The body length of Trematodes in stages I and IV was significantly and positively correlated with that of the frogs.De dezembro de 1995 a novembro de 2000, a maturação sazonal de Glypthelmins vitellinophilum Dobbin, 1958, em seu hospedeiro definitivo, a rã Lysapsus limellus Cope, 1862, foi estudada em uma lagoa permanente subtropical no nordeste da Argentina. Os objetivos deste estudo foram: 1 determinar a dinâmica de infrapopulação do parasita, analisando o ciclo de maturação sazonal ao longo dos anos; e 2 examinar a relação entre intensidade de infecção do trematódeo em diferentes estádios do desenvolvimento (recrutamento, crescimento e maturação e o comprimento de corpo da rã. De 1.400 espécimens de rãs em 60 meses (5 anos, foram achados 38% infetados com G. vitellinophilum, e a intensidade de infecção era 1-15 trematódeos por rã. Espécimes de G. vitellinophilum estavam presentes em L. limellus ao longo dos anos, mas não mostraram um ciclo sazonal pronunciado de maturação. São discutidas possíveis razões para estes resultados com referência a flutuações climáticas e fatores bióticos. O período infectante do parasita (estádio I aconteceu no verão, outono e primavera, coincidentemente com o tempo de aparecimento de cada corte das rãs. Estas infecções eram principalmente registradas em tamanhos de corpo pequenos (classes 1 e 2 de L. limellus. Espécimes de parasitas juvenis e não grávidas (estádios II e III eram encontradas em diferentes tamanhos de rãs ao longo do período de investigação. Espécimes de parasitas grávidas (estádio IV eram geralmente registradas no outono, inverno e primavera, principalmente nos tamanhos de corpo maiores de rãs. O comprimento de corpo do trematódeo dos estádios I e IV eram significativa e positivamente correlatos com o comprimento de corpo da rã.
Systematic and pathologic study of Paratanaisia bragai (Santos, 1934 Freitas, 1959 (Digenea, Eucotylidae infestation in ruddy ground dove Columbina talpacoti (Temminck, 1811 Estudo da sistemática e da patologia de Paratanaisia bragai (Santos, 1934 Freitas, 1959 (Digenea, Eucotylidae em rolinha-caldo-de-feijão, Columbina talpacoti (Temminck, 1811
Full Text Available This is the first report of the digenetic trematode Paratanaisia bragai infestation in a ruddy ground dove Columbina talpacoti, captured in a suburban area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Although with a low prevalence (10%, the intensity of infection was high, considering that 116 worms were recovered from one of the kidneys. Gross lesions were not observed and histopathological analysis showed very dilated renal collecting ducts with destruction and flattening of the lining epithelial cells, without inflammatory reaction. The pathological findings were compared to those previously reported for P. bragai in other hosts, since the proposal of the species in 1934.O trematódeo digenético Paratanaisia bragai é referido pela primeira vez parasitando a rolinha-caldo-de-feijão, Columbina talpacoti, proveniente de área suburbana do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Embora com baixa prevalência (10%, a intensidade de infecção foi alta, considerando que 116 exemplares do parasito foram obtidos de um dos rins. Não foram observadas lesões macroscópicas. A análise histopatológica demonstrou grande dilatação dos dutos coletores renais, com destruição e achatamento das células epiteliais de revestimento, sem reação inflamatória. Os achados patológicos foram comparados aos anteriormente relatados para P. bragai em outros hospedeiros, desde a proposição da espécie em 1934.
Metacercárias de Diplostomidae (Digenea: Diplostomoidea em Geophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae do rio Guandu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i2.5957 Diplostomidae metacercariae (Digenea: Diplostomoidea in Geophagus brasiliensis (Perciformes: Cichlidae from Guandu river, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i2.5957
José Luis Fernando Luque
Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo qualitativo e quantitativo das metacercárias de diplostomídeos em Geophagus brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 do rio Guandu, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Entre abril de 2006 e março de 2007, foram coletados e necropsiados 200 espécimes de G. brasiliensis, sendo obtidos cinco morfotipos de metacercárias de diplostomídeos: Austrodiplostomum compactum, Diplostomum sp., Posthodiplostomum sp. 1, Posthodiplostomum sp. 2 e Neascus tipo 1. No presente trabalho, foram descritas as metacercárias de Diplostomum sp., Posthodiplostomum sp. 1 e Posthodiplostomum sp. 2, além de registrar novo sítio de infecção de A. compactum e aumentar o conhecimento da distribuição geográfica de Neascus tipo 1, causadora da doença dos pontos pretos. O presente trabalho aponta para a importância de G. brasiliensis como hospedeiro intermediário de trematódeos diplostomídeos e sobre a diversidade dessas larvas no rio Guandu.The qualitative and quantitative analyses of diplostomid metacercariae in Geophagus brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 of the Guandu river, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are provided. Between April 2006 and March 2007, 200 specimens of G. brasiliensis were collected and necropsied. Further, five morphotypes of diplostomid metacercariae were obtained, namely, Austrodiplostomum compactum, Diplostomum sp., Posthodiplostomum sp. 1, Posthodiplostomum sp. 2 and Neascus type 1. Whereas the metacercariae of Diplostomum sp., Posthodiplostomum sp. 1 and Posthodiplostomum sp. 2 were described, a new site of infection of A. compactum was registered and a new geographical report for Neascus type 1, responsible for the black-spot disease, has been added. Current investigation enhances the importance of G. brasiliensis as an intermediate host of diplostomid trematodes and the diversity of these larvae in the Guandu river.
Stephanostomum spp. (Digenea: Acanthocolpidae from scombrids and carangids (Perciformes from the Great Barrier Reef, with the description of two new species Stephanostomum spp. (Digenea: Acanthocolpidae de escómbridos y carángidos (Perciformes del arrecife de la Gran Barrera, con descripción de dos especies nuevas
Rodney A. Bray
Full Text Available Two new species and 4 Stephanostomum spp. as new host and/or locality records from Percifomes from the Great Barrier Reef are described: Stephanostomum lamothei n. sp. from Grammatorcynus bilineatus (type-host and G. bicarinatus, Lizard Island and Swain Reefs, is characterised by its 50-55 circum-oral spines and >than 20% of the hindbody length lacking vitelline follicles; Stephanostomum Tupatupa n. sp. from Caranx papuensis, Lizard Island, is characterised by its 34-36 circum-oral spines and Se describen 2 especies nuevas del género Stephanostomum y se redescriben 4 más parásitas de perciformes del arrecife de la Gran Barrera australiana. Stephanostomum lamothei n. sp., parásito de Grammatorcynus bilineatus (hospedero-tipo y de G. bicarinatus, de la isla Lizard y de los arrecifes Swain, se caracteriza por sus 50-55 espinas circumorales y por carecer de folículos vitelinos en más del 20% de la longitud del cuerpo; Stephanostomum Tupatupa n. sp. de Caranx papuensis de la isla Lizard, exhibe como rasgos diagnósticos 34-36 espinas circumorales y folículos vitelinos en menos del 8% de la longitud del cuerpo; Stephanostomum ditrematis (Yamaguti, 1939 se registra en Gnathanodon speciosus de las islas Heron y Lizard; Stephanostomum hawaiiense Yamaguti, 1970 y Stephanostomum carangi Liu, 1998 se recolectaron en Carangoides fulvoguttatus y finalmente, Stephanostomum nyoomwa Bray and Cribb, 2003 se encontró parasitando a Caranx sexfasciatus, ambos peces de la isla Lizard.
New species of Haematoloechus (Digenea: Plagiorchidae in the lung of the foothill yellow-legged frog Rana boylii (Anura, from Humboldt County, California, USA Especie nueva de Haematoloechus (Digenea: Plagiorchidae del pulmón de la rana de patas amarillas Rana boylii (Anura, de Humboldt County, California, Estados Unidos de América
Full Text Available A new species of Haematoloechus is described from the lungs of Rana boylii from Humboldt County, California. The new species is similar to Haematoloechus buttensis, Haematoloechus kernensis, and Haematoloechus complexus in general course of the uterus and gonad shape. It is similar to H. buttensis by having a cirrus sac terminating midway between the posterior margin of the pharynx and the anterior margin of the ovary, and having a smaller oral/ventral sucker ratio; to H. complexus by having the genital pore ventral to the pharynx, and it is similar to H. kernensis by having a larger oral sucker to pharynx width ratio. The new species is unique by lacking an extra-cecal longitudinal uterine loop from the hind-body. Molecularly, the new species differs 1.04-1.15% in partial 28S sequence with respect to H. complexus, and a monophyletic grouping of these specimens in a phylogenetic analysis of all available sequence data consistent with the species-specific status proposed herein. Evidence is also presented to suggest that specimens identified as H. buttensis in Rana pretiosa from British Columbia, Canada represents a new, but still undescribed species. The importance of conducting biological inventories of helminths, along with continued monitoring of populations, and collections based taxonomy are related.Una especie nueva de Haematoloechus es descrita de los pulmones de Rana boylii de Humboldt County, California. La especie nueva guarda semejanza con Haematoloechus buttensis, Haematoloechus kernensis, y Haematoloechus complexus en la disposición general del útero y en la forma de las gónadas. Es similar a H. buttensis en que la bolsa del cirro finaliza entre el margen posterior de la faringe y el margen anterior del ovario, y en presentar una relación menor entre la ventosa oral y el acetábulo; a H. complexus por tener el poro genital ventral a la faringe, y a H. kernensis por tener una relación mayor del ancho de la ventosa oral contra la faringe. La especie nueva es única por carecer de asas uterinas extracecales longitudinales. Molecularmente, la especie nueva muestra 1.04-1.15% de diferencia en secuencias parciales de 28S con respecto H. complexus; esta información complementa las diferencias morfológicas. También se presenta evidencia para sugerir que ejemplares identificados como H. buttensis de Rana pretiosa en British Columbia, Canadá probablemente representan una especie nueva aún no descrita. Se aborda la importancia de la realización de inventarios biológicos de helmintos, el monitoreo continuo de las poblaciones y las colecciones basadas en la taxonomía.
Hust, J; Frydenberg, J; Sauriau, P-G; Le Gall, P; Mouritsen, K N; Jensen, K Thomas
Digenean trematodes encompass several species with little morphological differentiation in the larval stages and, as a result, uncertainty prevails regarding species identification. The microphallid trematode Maritrema subdolum occurs widespread geographically in mud snail and crustacean hosts in European marine shallow-water ecosystems. Larval stages of this and other congeneric species are, however, difficult to separate morphologically. To verify the species status and to secure identification of two co-occurring microphallids, M. subdolum and microphallid sp. no. 15 (Deblock, 1980), we examined the nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1, ITS2). From fragments consisting of both ITS regions and the 5.8S gene (nearly 1,200 bp), a sequence divergence of 2.9% between the two types was recorded. In accordance with the morphological traits of the cercariae (stylet shape, length), the results support the view that the two types actually represent different species. Species-specific primers were prepared for each species. They proved to be efficient diagnostic tools for identifying single larval-stage individuals. Using these primers, infections in host organisms were also verified without performing a dissection of the host individuals. Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag
Proterometra epholkos sp. n. (Digenea: Azygiidae) from Terrapin Creek, Alabama, USA: molecular characterization of life cycle, redescription of Proterometra albacauda, and updated lists of host and geographic locality records for Proterometra spp. in North America.
Womble, Matthew R; Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Bullard, Stephen A
Proterometra epholkos sp. n. asexually reproduces in the stream dwelling prosobranch, Elimia cf. modesta (Cerithioidea: Pleuroceridae) and infects the buccal cavity epithelium of spotted bass, Micropterus punctulatus (Perciformes: Centrarchidae) in the Coosa River (Terrapin Creek; N33°51'36.56″, W85°31'28.15″; Cleburne County, Alabama, USA). We characterize cercariae and adults of the new species using morphology and molecular sequence data and redescribe its morphologically similar congener Proterometra albacauda based on the holotype and paratype (USNPC Nos. 61229-30). The new species can be distinguished most easily from P. albacauda by the combination of having cercariae with long mamillae (>100μm) that encircle the tail stem anteriorly, that are restricted to 1 lateral column per body margin at midbody, and that are absent from the medial surface of the tail stem as well as by having adults with a partly extracecal uterus, a transverse metraterm occupying the space between the oral sucker and prostatic sac, and a vitellarium that is longer than the ceca and extends anteriad to the level of or beyond the posterior margin of the oral sucker. Sequence data from the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2; 251bp) did not reject the notion that the cercariae and adults we collected simultaneously from those infected, sympatric, individual snails and fish in Terrapin Creek were conspecific. Also provided herein for species of Proterometra are (i) taxonomic keys for cercariae and adults based on morphological and behavioral characteristics sourced from the published literature, (ii) updated lists of host records (prosobranchs and fishes) and geographic locality records for Proterometra spp., and (iii) synopses and assessments of the morphological features previously used to differentiate them. Proterometra macrostoma (type species), Proterometra melanophora, and Proterometra hodgesiana are species inquirendae; requiring new collections from type localities and hosts concomitant with neotype designations. P. macrostoma seems a repository for conspicuous, furcocystocercous cercariae shed from freshwater prosobranchs in eastern North American rivers and streams. The specific epithet "pinguis" associated with specimens purportedly infecting Esox lucius and deposited by JF Mueller is a nomen nudum. Proterometra guangzhouensis, Proterometra sillagae, Proterometra brachyuran, and Proterometra lamellorchis are incertae sedis. Significant barriers to characterizing biodiversity and distributions (host range and geographic distribution) of Proterometra spp. comprise a paucity of data on adult morphology, dubious species-level identification or a lack of information regarding prosobranch hosts, lack of molecular data for putative comparisons among fluke 'strains' and species as well as between cercariae and adults, lack of consistency in terminology, and indeterminate homology for key morphological features. Uncertainty about the providence and identity of, or absence of, accessioned museum materials of P. macrostoma, Proterometra catenaria, and P. hodgesiana together represent another fundamental problem. The present study comprises the first description of a new species of Proterometra in nearly 20years, first report of a species of the genus from the Coosa River (Mobile-Tensaw River Basin) and from these host species, and first use of molecular sequence data to elucidate a life cycle for a species of Proterometra. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Experimental evidence and ecological perspectives for the adaptation of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 (Digenea: Schistosomatidae to a wild host, the water-rat, Nectomys squamipes Brants, 1827 (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae
Paulo Sérgio D'Andrea
Full Text Available Due to the semi aquatic habits and the overlap of the geographical distribution of the water-rat, Nectomys spp., with schistosomiasis endemic areas, these wild rodents are very likely to acquire Schistosoma mansoni infection in their daily activities. The role of the water-rat in the S. mansoni cycle would be substantiated if one could prove that these rodents acquire the parasite during their own activity time, a completely independent time schedule of human activities. To pursue this goal, we performed two field experiments in the municipality of Sumidouro, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a schistosomiasis endemic area where N. squamipes is found naturally infected. One experiment was devised as a series of observations of activity time of the water-rat. The other experiment was a test of the occurrence of late transmission of S. mansoni to the water-rat. The daily activity pattern showed that the water-rat is active chiefly just after sunset. At both diurnal and late exposition essays the water-rat sentinels got infected by S. mansoni. These findings clarify ecological and behavioral components necessary to the adaptation of S. mansoni to the water-rat as a non human definitive host and the existence of a transmission cycle involving this animals as a reservoir.
Morphological and molecular data for three species of the Microphallidae (Trematoda: Digenea) in Australia, including the first descriptions of the cercariae of Maritrema brevisacciferum Shimazu et Pearson, 1991 and Microphallus minutus Johnston, 1948.
Kudlai, Olena; Cutmore, Scott C; Cribb, Thomas H
Cercariae and metacercariae of three species of the Microphallidae Travassos, 1920 were found in snails and crustaceans from tributaries of the Brisbane River, Queensland, Australia. Specimens of Maritrema brevisacciferum Shimazu et Pearson, 1991 and Microphallus minutus Johnston, 1948, which have previously been reported in Queensland, were found as cercariae in the tateid gastropod Posticobia brazieri (Smith) and as metacercariae of M. brevisacciferum in the atyid shrimp Caridina indistincta Calman and of M. minutus in the parastacid crayfish Cherax dispar Reik. Combined analysis of morphological and molecular data, based on newly generated ITS2 and partial 28S rDNA data, linked cercariae and metacercariae for both species. This is the first report of the first intermediate hosts of M. brevisacciferum and M. minutus. Infections of another unidentified microphallid metacercariae, Microphallidae gen. sp., were found in P. brazieri and C. indistincta. The sequences of metacercarial isolates from both hosts were identical. The data on the Microphallidae from Australia and species that develop in freshwater invertebrates were examined in detail.
Description of a new species of Podocotyle Dujardin, 1845 (Digenea: Opecoelidae: Plagioporinae) from the cusk-eel, Luciobrotula corethromycter Cohen, 1964 (Ophidiiformes: Ophidiidae), from the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea.
Blend, Charles K; Dronen, Norman O
Podocotyle bathyhelminthos n. sp. (Opecoelidae: Plagioporinae) is described from the cusk-eel, Luciobrotula corethromycter Cohen, 1964 (Ophidiiformes: Ophidiidae), collected at depths of 622-1,280 m in the northern Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea off Colombia. The new species is distinguished by possessing a combination of the following features: an elongate oval body shape, a sucker width ratio of 1:1.4-1.9, deeply lobed and irregularly-shaped testes, a cirrus-sac that extends just in to the hindbody, a trilobed ovary and vitellarium that extend to the ventral sucker level. Several unique features in P. bathyhelminthos n. sp. were not present in all, or almost all, recognized species of Podocotyle including a conspicuous deep cleft at the posterior end of the worm, a small transverse ridge on the ventral surface immediately anterior to the ventral sucker, uterine loops extending ventral to the caeca and, at times, lateral to the caeca, a thick-walled metraterm extending 1/3 to 1/2 the length of the cirrus-sac and P. bathyhelminthos n. sp. parasitizes a deep water piscine host. Podocotyle etheostomae Aliff, 1973 is declared a nomen nudum. A brief discussion of Podocotyle Dujardin, 1845 in deep waters is presented, and a gastropod, caridean shrimp and cusk-eel are hypothesized as hosts in the life cycle of P. bathyhelminthos n. sp. in the deep sea.
Blood flukes (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) infecting body cavity of South American catfishes (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae): two new species from rivers in Bolivia, Guyana and Peru with a re-assessment of Plehniella Szidat, 1951.
Orelis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Bullard, Stephen A
Plehniella Szidat, 1951 is emended based on new collections from South American long-whiskered catfishes. It is clearly differentiated from Sanguinicola Plehn, 1905 by lacking lateral tegumental body spines and by having 6 asymmetrical caeca. Plehniella sabajperezi sp. n. infects body cavity of Pimelodus albofasciatus (Mees) from the Demerara and Rupununi Rivers (Guyana) and Pimelodus blochii (Valenciennes) from Lake Tumi Chucua (Bolivia) and Napo River (Peru). It differs from Plehniella coelomicola Szidat, 1951 (type species) by having a thin-walled vas deferens that greatly exceeds the length of cirrus-sac and that joins the cirrus-sac at level of ovovitelline duct and ootype, an internal seminal vesicle that is absent or diminutive, and a cirrus-sac that is spheroid, nearly marginal, and envelops the laterally-directed distal portion of the male genitalia. Plehniella armbrusteri sp. n. infects body cavity of P. blochii from Lake Tumi Chucua (Bolivia). It differs from P. coelomicola and P. sabajperezi by having a relatively ovoid body, a massive intestine comprising caeca that are deeply-lobed to diverticulate and terminate in the posterior half of the body, a testis that flanks the distal tips of the posteriorly-directed caeca, and a proximal portion of the vas deferens that loops ventral to the testis. Small adults (Plehniella sp.) collected from body cavity of Pimelodus grosskopfii (Steindachner) from Cienega de Jobo and Canal del Dique (Colombia) differ from congeners by having a posteriorly-constricted body region, an anterior sucker with concentric rows of minute spines, an elongate anterior oesophageal swelling, short and wide caeca, and a male genital pore that opens proportionally more anteriad. This study nearly doubles the number of aporocotylids documented from South America Rivers and comprises the first record of a fish blood fluke from P. blochii, P. albofasciatus and P. grosskopfii as well as from Bolivia, Colombia, Guyana or Peru.
Re-evaluation of the species composition of Bashkirovitrema Skrjabin, 1944 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae), with the description of two new species of this genus and the proposal of Kostadinovatrema novaeguiniense n. g., n. sp.
Dronen, Norman O
A comparison of specimens previously identified as Bashkirovitrema incrassatum (Diesing, 1850) from the African or cape clawless otter Aonyx capensis, and the speckle-throated or spotted-throated otter Hydrictis maculicollis from the Old World with specimens and descriptions of B. incrassatum from the New World showed that those from Africa (Bashkirovitrema africanum n. sp.) had a more extensive distribution of the vitelline fields than either B. canadense n. sp. from the northern river otter Lontra canadensis and the American mink Neovison vison (North America) and B. incrassatum from the Neotropical river otter Lontra longicaudis (South America). B. africanum n. sp. further differs from B. canadense n. sp. by having a smaller body, shorter forebody, smaller oral sucker, longer cirrus, shorter intertesticular space, shorter post-testicular space and longer eggs. B. canadense n. sp. can be distinguished from B. incrassatum by having a longer body, longer forebody, smaller sucker ratio, smaller testes, greater distance between the ventral sucker and the ovary, shorter cirrus-sac, longer post-testicular space and narrower eggs. B. africanum n. sp. differs from B. incrassatum by having a smaller ventral sucker, larger ovary, shorter cirrus-sac, smaller intertesticular space, larger post-testicular space and longer eggs that are not as wide. Kostadinovatrema n. g., as represented by K. novaeguiniense n. sp., can be separated from species of Bashkirovitrema Skrjabin, 1944 by having a wider body width to length profile, a head collar that is narrower than the forebody and armed with 33 rather than 27 collar spines, an ovary that is further removed anteriorly from the testes, and a dorso-ventrally flattened hindbody that is nearly as broad as the forebody. The new genus differs from Hypoderaeum Dietz, 1909 and Moliniella Hübner, 1939 by having 33 head collar spines.
Juan Carlos Casanova
Full Text Available Un?indagine parassitologica è stata condotta su esemplari di Sorex cfr. antinorii Bonaparte, 1840 (Insectivora, Soricidae catturati in Sila Grande (Valle Capra; 16.29.30; 39.21.40. Uno degli esemplari è stato trovato parassitato da Trematodi digenei rinvenuti nell?esofago e nello stomaco. I parassiti isolati sono stati fissati con liquido di Bouin, colorati con carminio acetico di Semichon, fissati in una serie di alcooli, chiarificati in xilolo e montati con Balsamo del Canada. I parassiti sono stati identificati come membri della Famiglia Brachylaimidae Joyeux & Foley (1930 appartenenti al genere Brachylaima Dujardin (1843. La morfologia generale ed i caratteri metrici hanno permesso di identificarli come B. fulvus Dujardin, 1843 (lunghezza corpo: 2.39-2.46; larghezza corpo: 0.72-0.78; diametro trasversale ventosa orale: 212.48- 238.08x240.64-266.24; ventosa ventrale: 250.88-258.56x250.88-266.24; faringe 120.32-168.96; testicoli: 151.04-189.44x168.96-189.44; ovario: 122.88x171.52; uova: 26-30x2-17. Il range dei dati morfometrici coincide con quelli riscontrati da diversi autori negli esemplari di B. fulvus in Europa centrale e occidentale (Jourdane, 1971; Lewis, 1969; Zarnowski,1960; Mas-Coma & Gallego, 1975. Dopo la descrizione originale, la sistematica di B. fulvus Blanchard, 1847 non è stata mai confutata, sebbene varie specie dei generi Harmostomum Braun, 1899 e Panopistus Sinitzin, 1931 siano state proposte come sinonimi di B. fulvus da diversi autori. Zarnowski (1960 considera aperta la questione di identità di H. (H. dujardini Baer, 1928 e propone la sinonimia di B. oesophagei Shaldibin, 1953 e B. fulvus. Lewis (1969, al contrario, ha riconvalidato B. oesophagei come specie, utilizzando criteri che, però, Jourdane (1971 ritiene, non idonei a differenziare le due specie. Mas-Coma & Gallego (1975, considerano B. oesophagei sinonimo di B. fulvus. È questa la prima segnalazione di B. fulvus in Italia e in S. antinorii.
Phyllodistomum spinopapillatum sp. nov. (Digenea: Gorgoderidae), from the Oaxaca killifish Profundulus balsanus (Osteichthyes: Profundulidae) in Mexico, with new host and locality records of P. inecoli: Morphology, ultrastructure and molecular evidence.
Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo; Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos D; Mendoza-Garfias, Berenit; García-Varela, Martin
Phyllodistomum spinopapillatum sp. nov. is described from the urinary bladder of the Oaxaca killifish, Profundulus balsanus Ahl (Profundulidae) in Rio Pueblo Viejo and Rio Santa Cruz, Oaxaca, southwestern Mexico. The new species is described based on evidence gathered from morphology, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and partial sequences of the 28S rRNA gene. Diagnostic characters of the new species of Phyllodistomum Braun 1899 are the presence of spines on the entire body surface and having a ventral sucker almost half the size of oral sucker. The new species possess a large number of dome-like papillae on the body surface with scattered distribution along the hindbody, and these papillae are characteristically spinulated. Phyllodistomum spinopapillatum sp. nov. most closely resembles P. inecoli Razo-Mendivil, Perez-Ponce de Leon and Rubio- Godoy, 2013, a parasite of the twospot livebearer Pseudoxiphophorus bimaculatus (Heckel) from Veracruz, in the Atlantic slope of Mexico. In addition to the new species, specimens of P. inecoli were also found parasitising the urinary bladder of cyprinodontiforms such as the Mexican molly Poecilia sphenops Valencienes in a pond at Santa Maria Coyotepec, and in Profundulus sp. in Rio Templo, both in Oaxaca, and in the Porthole livebearer Poeciliopsis gracilis (Heckel) in Rio San Juan, as well as in Profundulus punctatus (Gunter) from Rio Nueva Francia, both in Chiapas. The distribution and host range of P. inecoli is extended to freshwaters of the Pacific slope of Mexico, and to other cyprynodontiforms.
Studies on the ultrastructure and histochemistry of the lymph system in three species of amphistome (Trematoda: Digenea) Gigantocotyle explanatum, Gastrothylax crumenifer and Srivastavaia indica from the Indian water buffalo Bubalus bubalis.
Dunn, T S; Nizami, W A; Hanna, R E
The lymph system of three amphistome parasites from buffaloes, Gigantocotyle explanatum, Gastrothylax crumenifer and Srivastavaia indica was studied using light microscope histochemistry and electron microscopy. In each case the system comprised a single pair of main longitudinal vessels which gave rise to numerous sub-dividing lateral branches. Although the finer lymph channels associated with most internal systems, they did not penetrate the basement membrane of any organ. The lymph vessels were delimited by a unit membrane and separated from adjacent cells by interstitial material. The lymph fluid consisted of an amorphous proteinaceous, lipid-rich matrix, containing naked nuclei and granules of various sizes. Complexes of endoplasmic reticulum were frequently associated with the nuclei. No distinct Golgi bodies or mitochondria were evident. The granules noted throughout the lymph morphologically resembled autophagosomes and lysosomes. Autophagy within the lymph system presumably mobilizes amino acids for subsequent transport to tissues undergoing active protein synthesis. The lymph channels displayed an intimate relationship with the general parenchyma. In particular, numerous protrusions of lymph occurred into the cytoplasm of certain specialized parenchymal cells surrounding the pharynx. Within these 'juxtapharyngeal' cells autophagic degradation of sequestered lymph cytoplasm apparently occurred. In the three species of amphistome studied, the lymph system appears to function in storage and mobilization of amino acids and possibly lipids. It may also serve to distribute other small molecules throughout the body. The detection of haemoglobin in the lymph system of G. crumenifer and S. indica, but not in Gigantocotyle explanatum, suggests a further role in oxygen storage and transport.
An annotated list of fish parasites (Isopoda, Copepoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda) collected from Snappers and Bream (Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae, Caesionidae) in New Caledonia confirms high parasite biodiversity on coral reef fish
Background Coral reefs are areas of maximum biodiversity, but the parasites of coral reef fishes, and especially their species richness, are not well known. Over an 8-year period, parasites were collected from 24 species of Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae and Caesionidae off New Caledonia, South Pacific. Results Host-parasite and parasite-host lists are provided, with a total of 207 host-parasite combinations and 58 parasite species identified at the species level, with 27 new host records. Results are presented for isopods, copepods, monogeneans, digeneans, cestodes and nematodes. When results are restricted to well-sampled reef fish species (sample size > 30), the number of host-parasite combinations is 20–25 per fish species, and the number of parasites identified at the species level is 9–13 per fish species. Lutjanids include reef-associated fish and deeper sea fish from the outer slopes of the coral reef: fish from both milieus were compared. Surprisingly, parasite biodiversity was higher in deeper sea fish than in reef fish (host-parasite combinations: 12.50 vs 10.13, number of species per fish 3.75 vs 3.00); however, we identified four biases which diminish the validity of this comparison. Finally, these results and previously published results allow us to propose a generalization of parasite biodiversity for four major families of reef-associated fishes (Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae, Serranidae and Lethrinidae): well-sampled fish have a mean of 20 host-parasite combinations per fish species, and the number of parasites identified at the species level is 10 per fish species. Conclusions Since all precautions have been taken to minimize taxon numbers, it is safe to affirm than the number of fish parasites is at least ten times the number of fish species in coral reefs, for species of similar size or larger than the species in the four families studied; this is a major improvement to our estimate of biodiversity in coral reefs. Our results suggest that extinction of a coral reef fish species would eventually result in the coextinction of at least ten species of parasites. PMID:22947621
Eurytrema coelomaticum (Giard & Billet (Digenea, Dicrocoeliidae em Bradybaena similaris (Férussac (Gastropoda, Xanthonychidae: alterações nos depósitos de cálcio e na função reprodutiva do primeiro hospedeiro intermediário Eurytrema coelomaticum (Giard & Billet (Digenea, Dicrocoeliidae em Bradybaena similaris (Férussac (Gastropoda, Xanthonychidae: alterations in calcium deposits and in the reproductive function of its first intermediate host
Solange V. Paschoal
Full Text Available The influence of the parasitism by the digenetic trematode Eurytrema coelomaticum (Giard & Billet, 1892 over the calcium mobilization and the reproductive function of its first intermediate host, the snail Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1821 was experimentally studied in infected and uninfected snails maintained in laboratory under controlled conditions of nutrition, humidity and temperature. The calcium of the shells of infected and uninfected snails was quantified by using a technique of volumetric complexation. The amount of calcium present in the tissue was evaluated by using the histochemistry techniques of Dahl and von Kossa. The alteration in the reproductive function was evaluated through the egg production, and by histological follow up of the snails gametogenesis, in the infected and uninfected snails. The Student's test "t" showed that there was no significant difference in relation to size, weight and calcium concentration in the shells of infected and uninfected snails. The analysis of nonlinear regression, polynomial of 4th order, showed an highly positive relation to weight and size of shell to infected and uninfected snails, and an weakly significant relation to calcium concentration in the shells and shells size of infected snails. The histochemistry techniques demonstrated a large calcium deposition in the cells of the digestive glands of the infected snails when compared to the uninfected ones. The histological study of the ovotestis of the infected snails demonstrated that the gametogenesis of these snails was abnormal. The ovulogenesis was the most alterated and at 45 days post-infection the histological sections showed no ovocytes present in the ovotestis.
Derbel, H; Châari, M; Neifar, L
This study is the first attempt to survey the diversity of fish digeneans in the Gulf of Gabes (southern coast of Tunisia). A total of 779 fishes belonging to 32 species were sampled. 53 species of Digenea belonging to 15 families were recorded. Among these species, 24 are reported for the first time from the coast of Tunisia. We report one new host record, Lecithochirium sp. from Sardinella aurita. The Hemiuridae is the dominant family. A host-parasite list is presented with the information on the prevalence, abundance and mean intensity of each species collected. The diversity of Digenea is compared with other localities in the Mediterranean Sea and the northern east of Tunisia. The Gulf of Gabes shows the lowest diversity linked to the anthropogenic activities and impact of exotic species. The use of Digenea as indicators of the state of the ecosystem is discussed.
Full Text Available This study is the first attempt to survey the diversity of fish digeneans in the Gulf of Gabes (southern coast of Tunisia. A total of 779 fishes belonging to 32 species were sampled. 53 species of Digenea belonging to 15 families were recorded. Among these species, 24 are reported for the first time from the coast of Tunisia. We report one new host record, Lecithochirium sp. from Sardinella aurita. The Hemiuridae is the dominant family. A host-parasite list is presented with the information on the prevalence, abundance and mean intensity of each species collected. The diversity of Digenea is compared with other localities in the Mediterranean Sea and the northern east of Tunisia. The Gulf of Gabes shows the lowest diversity linked to the anthropogenic activities and impact of exotic species. The use of Digenea as indicators of the state of the ecosystem is discussed.
Luís C. Muniz-Pereira
Full Text Available Three species of whale Balaenoptera borealis Lesson, 1828, B. physalus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Physeter catodon Linnaeus, 1758 captured in the Brazilian coast were necropsied for helminths. Balaenoptera borealis and B. physalus were infected by Crassicauda crassicauda (Nematoda, Tetrameridae and Ogmogaster antarcticus (Digenea: Notocotylidae, which are referred for the first time in Brazil. Balaenoptera borealis was also infected by Lecithodesmus goliath (Digenea, Campulidae and Bolbosoma turbinella (Acanthocephala, Polymorphidae. Physeter catodon was infected by Anisakis physeteris (Nematoda, Anisakidae, which is a new record to this host in Brazilian waters.
Chibwana, Fred. Vol 42, No 1 (2016) - Articles Spread of Tylodelphys mashonense (digenea: diplostomidae) by grey heron Ardea cinerea and great white egret a. Alba in Lake Victoria, Tanzania Abstract PDF. ISSN: 2507-7961. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...
Spread of Tylodelphys mashonense (digenea: diplostomidae) by grey heron Ardea cinerea and great white egret a. Alba in Lake Victoria, Tanzania Abstract PDF · Vol 43, No 1 (2017) - Articles A faunistic survey of digenean larvae infecting freshwater snails Biomphalaria, Radix and Bulinus species in the Lake Victoria and ...
Scholz, Tomáš; Choudhury, A.
Roč. 100, č. 1 (2014), s. 26-45 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Trematode * North America * Cestoda * Acanthocephala * Digenea Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.227, year: 2014
Liu, Sheng-fa; Peng, Wen-feng; Gao, Peng; Fu, Ming-jun; Wu, Han-zhou; Lu, Ming-ke; Gao, Ji-qing; Xiao, Jun
In the literature, 630 species of Digenea (Trematoda) have been reported from Chinese marine fishes. These belong to 209 genera and 35 families. The names of these species, along with their hosts, geographical distribution and records, are listed in this paper.
Seventeen species of parasites were recovered from 1071 Clarias gariepinus examined from the Mwanza Gulf of Lake Victoria. The parasite fauna comprised of four ectoparasites, a Monogenea, Hirudinea, crustacean and a Digenea; and fourteen endoparasites, five nematodes, five trematodes and three cestodes. Twelve ...
Keywords: Prevalence, Bovine, Fasciolosis, Abattoirs, Adamawa state. INTRODUCTION. Fasciolosis a parasitic disease of cattle, buffaloes, sheep, goats horses and human of all ages caused by liver flukes (Armour, 1975; Ramajo et al., 2001). Fasciola a trematode belonging to the sub- class. Digenea, which is commonly ...
Zdzisław Laskowski; Witold Jeżewski; Krzysztof Zdzitowiecki
Macvicaria magellanica n. sp. (Digenea: Opecoelidae) is the third representative of this genus occurring in fish in the Magellanic sub-region of sub-Antarctica and the first one found in sub-coastal waters in this area (the Beagle Channel...
ABSTRACT. Seventeen species of parasites were recovered from 107 I Clarias gariepinus examined ﬂom the. Mwanza Gulf of Lake Victoria. The parasite fauna comprised of four ectoparasites, a. Monogenea, Hirudinea, crustacean and a Digenea,' and fourteen endoparasites, ﬁve nematodes,. ﬁve trematodes and three ...
The parasites recorded were Monogenea: Dactylogyrus sp, Crustacea: Argulus sp, Nematoda: Anguillicola sp and Digenea: Clinostomum sp. Most of the parasites were recovered from the gills, skin and swim bladder. Larger and older fish were significantly more infected than smaller and younger ones (p<0.05).
Chai, Jong-Yil; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S.; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Socheat, Duong
A survey was performed to investigate the infection status of freshwater fish with zoonotic trematode metacercariae in Phnom Penh and Pursat Province, Cambodia. All collected fish with ice were transferred to our laboratory and examined using the artificial digestion method. In fish from Phnom Penh, 2 kinds of metacercariae (Opisthorchis viverrini and Haplorchis yokogawai) were detected. O. viverrini metacercariae were positive in 37 (50.0%) of 74 fish in 11 species (average no. metacercariae/fish, 18.6). H. yokogawai metacercariae were detected in 23 (57.5%) of 40 fish in 5 species (average no. metacercariae/fish, 21.0). In fish from Pursat Province, 5 kinds of metacercariae (O. viverrini, H. yokogawai, Haplorchis pumilio, Centrocestus formosanus, and Procerovum sp.) were detected; O. viverrini metacercariae (n=3) in 2 fish species (Henicorhynchus lineatus and Puntioplites falcifer), H. yokogawai metacercariae (n=51) in 1 species (P. falcifer), H. pumilio metacercariae (n=476) in 2 species (H. lineatus and Pristolepis fasciata), C. formosanus metacercariae (n=1) in 1 species (H. lineatus), and Procerovum sp. metacercariae (n=63) in 1 species (Anabas testudineus). From the above results, it has been confirmed that various freshwater fish play the role of a second intermediate host for zoonotic trematodes (O. viverrini, H. yokogawai, H. pumilio, C. formosanus, and Procerovum sp.) in Cambodia. PMID:24623879
Simbiontes associados com Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Veneridae na Ilha de Santa Catarina e região continental adjacente, Santa Catarina, Brasil Symbionts associated with Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Veneridae on Santa Catarina Island and adjacent continental region, Santa Catarina, Brazil
Full Text Available Berbigões, Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791, de bancos naturais da Ilha de Santa Catarina e região continental adjacente (SC, Brasil, foram examinados quanto a presença de simbiontes. Holothuriophilus tomentosus (Ortmann, 1894 (Brachyura, Sphenia antillensis Dall & Simpson, 1901 (Bivalvia e poliquetos espionídeos (Polychaeta foram observados macroscopicamente. A análise das secções histológicas evidenciou esporocistos de trematódeos (Digenea, um metacestóide (Cestoda e dois ciliados (Ciliophora.Pointed venus, Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791, from natural beds of Santa Catarina Island and adjacent continental region (SE Brazil were examined in respect of symbiotic associations. Holothuriophilus tomentosus (Ortmann, 1894 (Brachyura, Sphenia antillensis Dall & Simpson, 1901 (Bivalvia, and polychaete worms (Polychaeta were found by macroscopic diagnosis. By analysis of histological sections, it was noted trematode sporocysts (Digenea, a metacestode (Cestoda and two ciliates (Ciliophora.
Azevedo, R. K.
Full Text Available Using information from all published reports and data collected during several parasitological surveys betweenApril 2003 and September 2009, a checklist of the parasites of fishes from Guandu River, southeastern of Brazil wasgenerated. A total of 85 parasite species, 54 named species (1 Acanthocephala, 1 Cestoda, 2 Crustacea, 13 Digenea, 11Nematoda, 23 Monogenea and 3 Myxozoa and 31 undetermined species (3 Acanthocephala, 2 Cestoda, 1 Crustacea, 8Digenea, 8 Nematoda, 4 Hirudinea, 3 Monogenea and 2 Myxozoa in 21 fish host species from Guandu River, were listed inthe current study, including 36 new locality records and 36 new host records. Also, a host-parasite list is included herein.
Full Text Available In the years 2010 and 2014, fifty-four samples of Phoenicolacerta laevis from eight localities in Adana (n=6 and Hatay (n=48 were collected and examined for helminth parasites. New host and locality records were recorded. As a results of present study, three species of Digenea, Sonsinotrema tacapense, Prosthodendrium chilostomum, Brachylaima sp. (metacercaria; two species of Cestoda, Oochoristica tuberculata and Mesocestoides sp. and four species of Nematoda, Skrjabinodon medinae, Spauligodon sp., Thubunaea sp. and a larva of the Ascaridiidae Ascarididae gen. sp. were reported for lizard samples. We document new host records for all of helminth species reported here. Sonsionotrema tacapense (Digenea, and Thubunaea sp. (Nematoda are recorded for the first time from Turkey. There are, to our knowledge, no reports of helminths for P. laevis in Turkey and also from its range.
Hanelt, Ben; Lun, Cheng Man; Adema, Coen M.
The snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, Mollusca) is an important intermediate host for the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni (Digenea, Trematoda). Anti-pathogen responses of B. glabrata were studied towards a better understanding of snail immunity and host-parasite compatibility. Open reading frame ESTs (ORESTES) were sampled from different transcriptomes of M line strain B. glabrata, 12 hours post challenge with Escherichia coli (Gram-negative), Micrococcus luteus (Gram-positive) bact...
Wagner Vicentin; Kelly Regina Ibarrola Vieira; Fábio Edir dos Santos Costa; Ricardo Massato Takemoto; Luiz Eduardo Roland Tavares; Fernando Paiva
Com o objetivo de inventariar os metazoários endoparasitos em Serrasalmus marginatus, no Rio Negro, Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil, foram examinados 91 espécimes capturados no período de outubro de 2007 a agosto de 2008. Foram registrados seis táxons parasitos: Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus) inopinatus, Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda), metacercária do tipo Diplostomulum (Digenea); Brevimulticaecum sp. (Nematoda); e Sebekia oxycephala, Subtriquetra sp. 1 e Subtriquetra sp. 2 (Pentastomida)....
Forcep Rio Indaryanto
Full Text Available The short mackerel is the most commercially important small pelagic fish in Indonesia. Parasitism plays a central role in fish biology. Parasitism is a ubiquitous phenomenon in the marine environment and it is probable that all marine fishes are infected with parasites. Helminth parasitic of Rastrelliger spp. are Lechitocladium angustonum (Digenea: Hemiuridae, Lecitochirium sp. (Digenea: Hemiuridae, Prodistomum orientalis (Digenea: Lepocreadiidae and Anisakis typica (Nematodes: Anisakidae, with 90.12% of prevalence. They are not significant different of helminth parasitic abundance from R. kanagurta and R. brachysoma, but significant in helminth species richness. This different of helminth species richness was because of L. angustonum dominances. The different location wasn’t have significant different of helminth parasitic abundance because Indonesian in the tropical zone. Anisakis species in Java sea have a same genetic with Anisakis typical and not zoonotic parasite kategories. The fish digestion was a microhabitat for helminth parasitik because they have much food stuff. The fish growth have significant different in helminth parasitic abundance and intencity. This situation was because the fish immunity development and the food habit of fish.
Forcep Rio Indaryanto
Full Text Available The monitoring of health and disease in a fish is important as parasitism plays a central role in fishbiology. Parasitism is a ubiquitous phenomenon in the marine environment and it is probable that allmarine fishes are infected with parasites. The aims of the research were to inventory the helminth parasitesof Rastrelliger sp. from Banten Bay and Pelabuhan Ratu Bay. As many as 25–30 of fish samples werecollected using gill net and examined for helminth parasites. The helminth parasitic calculated intensityand prevalence. The helminth parasites of Rastrelliger sp. were found Lechitocladium angustiovum (digenea:Hemiuridae, Lecitochirium sp. (digenea: Hemiuridae, Prodistomum orientalis (digenea: Lepocreadiidaeand Anisakis typica (nematodes: Anisakidae, with 90.12% of prevalence. L. angustonum was dominancehelminth parasites found in fish. There was no difference on parasites found in R. kanagurta and R.brachysoma wich were of Restrellinger genus. The location not appear have no significant after on helminthparasitic infection as they have a same genetic stock. Anisakis species in Java sea have a same genetipewith Anisakis typical and was not zoonotic parasite categories.
A. Arandas Rêgo
Full Text Available Os autores identificaram as seguintes espécies de helmintos, coletados de 50 cavalas, Scomber japonicus, no Rio de Janeiro: Kuhnia scombri (Kuhn, 1829 e Grubea cochlear (Diesing, 1858 (Monogenea; Opechona orientalis (Layman, 1930, Lecithocladium harpodontis Srivastava, 1942 e Nematobothrium scombri (Taschenberg, 1879 (Digenea; plerocercos de Trypanorhyncha Scolex pleuronectis Müller, 1788 e Rhinebothrium sp. (Cestoda; Bolbosoma sp. (Acanghocephala e Anisakidae larvares (Nematoda, identificados aos tipos larvares Raphidascaris, Phocanema, Contracaecum e Anisakis tipo 1. Os digenéticos foram os de maior incidência, 84% dos peixes mostraram-se parasitados por uma ou mais espécies. Quanto às espécies, a de maior incidência foi Nematobothrium scombri (Digenea, Didymozoidae, em 46% dos peixes. São pela primeria vez assinalados Scomber japonicus larvas de Phillobothiidae, possivelmente Rhinebothrium, além de larvas de Anisakis do tipo 1. São pela primeira vez assinaladas no Brasil as espécies, Grubea cochlear, Kuhnia scombri, Nematobothrium scombri e Opechona orientalis.There were identified twelve species of helminths from fifty "Spanish Mackerel", Scomber japonicus Houtt, in Rio de Janeiro; Kuhnia scombri (Kuhn, 1829, and Grubea cochlear (Diesing, 1859 (Monogenea; Opechona orientalis (Layman, 1930, Lecithocladium harpodontis Srivastava, 1942 e Nematobothrium scombri (Taschengerg, 1879 (Digenea; plerocercus of Trypanorhyncha, Scolex pleuronectis Müller, 1788 and Rhinebothrium sp. (Cestoda; Bolbosoma sp. (Acanthocephala and larval Anisakidae (Nematoda, types Raphidascaris, Phocanema, Contracaecum and Anisakis I. Larval Phillobothriid, following species are referred in Brazil for the first time: Grubea cochlear, Kuhnia scombri, Nematobothrium scombri and Opechona orientalis.
Lidia Sánchez; Patricia Salízar; Maria Morales
A total of 227 specimens of young adults of Postharmostomum sp., Witenberg, 1923 (Trematoda: Digenea) were collected from pericardial cavity of two indiviudals of the land snail Megalobulimus maximus from distrito of Juanjuí, San Martín. Parasits were deposited on Coleccion Helmintológica y de Invertebrados Relacionados, of the Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (MUSM), Lima, Peru. Se colectaron 227 parásitos en estadío juvenil correspondientes al género Po...
2 UNCLASSIFIED DAMDi7-95-C-5209 F/ G 6/15 UL 11 j j . 11_. W-I - - % (*J~f ~ HP OlIC FILE COPY *AD "Testing of Compounds for Efficacy Against...Liang, Y.S., 1974. Cultivation of Bulinus (5hy Q pis) g2.kous (Morelet) and BiQmphalaria pfeiffri pfeifferi (Krauss), snail hosts of schistosomiasis...Digenea). flacQ1. g " 11:225:280. 10. Sandt, D.G., Bruce, H.I. and Radke, M.G., 1965. A system for mass producing the snail Ausatra1Qbjiz Lbi.atus and
Full Text Available D02546 Drug Kainic acid hydrate (JP16); Digenin (TN) C10H15NO4. H2O 231.1107 231.24...57 D02546.gif Digenea simplex Anthelmintic kainate receptor agonist [HSA:2897 2898 2899 2900 2901] [KO:K0520...n of drugs [BR:br08310] Ion channels Glutamate-gated cation channels Glutamate (ionotropic), non-NMDA kainat...e receptor [HSA:2897 2898 2899 2900 2901] [KO:K05201 K05202 K05203 K05204 K05205] Kainic acid D02546 Kainic
Full Text Available In this study the following parasites were selected as biological tags for the identification of blackspot seabream (Pagellus bogaraveo stocks in the northeast Atlantic: Diphterostomum vividum (Digenea: Zoogonidae, Anisakis simplex s.l., A. physeteris, Anisakis sp. PB-2010 (Nematoda: Anisakidae, and Bolbosoma sp. (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae. These parasite species point to the existence of three blackspot seabream stocks in the northeast Atlantic: one in the Azores region (ICES Area X, one in continental Portuguese shelf/slope waters (ICES Area IXa, and one in the waters around Madeira (sub-area 1.2 of FAO 34, central-eastern Atlantic.
Goldberg, S.R.; Bursey, C.R.; Fisher, R.N.
As part of an ongoing study of the biogeography of helminth parasites of lizards from Oceania, 53 specimens of Emoia (11 species) were examined, as follows: E. atrocostata, E. boettgeri, E. caerulocauda, E. cyanogaster, E. cyanura, E. impar, E. nigra, E. nigromarginata, E. ponapea, E. sanfordi, E. trossula. One species of Digenea, Paradistomoides gregarium, and six species of Nematoda, Hedruris hanleyae, Maxvachonia chabaudi, Parapharyngodon maplestoni, Physalopteroides arnoensis, Spauligodon gehyrae, and Moaciria sp. indet., were found. These helminths have been reported previously from other lizard species. Seventeen new host records and eight new locality records are reported. ?? 2005 by University of Hawai'i Press All rights reserved.
Bullard, S A; Barse, A M; Curran, S S; Morris, J A
Adults of Lecithochirium floridense (Digenea: Hemiuridae) parasitized the stomach in each of 22 necropsied lionfish, Pterois cf. volitans (Scorpaeniformes: Scorpaenidae) (prevalence = 100%, mean intensity = 11), captured in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean off Beaufort, North Carolina (34°14.83'N, 76°35.25'W). This is the first report of a digenean from the invasive lionfish and that of L. floridense from a species of Pterois. The leech specimen previously identified as Myzobdella lugubris from P. volitans in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean is re-identified as Trachelobdella lubrica based on a study of the original voucher specimen.
Full Text Available Examination of western tubenose goby (Proterorhinus semilunaris from the River Dyje (Czech Republic, Danube basin for metazoan parasites revealed the presence of metacercariae of Cyathocotyle prussica Mühling, 1896 (Digenea: Cyathocotylidae in both muscle tissue and the peritoneal cavity. This is the first time that tubenose gobies have been reported as an intermediate host for C. prussica, and the first time that C. prussica metacercariae have been registered parasitising fish hosts in the Czech Republic. Here, we describe the morphology of metacercariae and five-day preadults, cultivated in vitro, and discuss the importance of recently established, non-native species as suitable hosts for this parasite.
Cerioni, S; Mariniello, L
The striped dolphin represents the most common species of cetacean stranded along the Italian coasts. A parasitological survey on 17 specimens of Stenella coerulecaiba stranded along coasts of Latium from 1985 to 1991, has been carried out. The morphological study enabled the identification of the following parasites. The sites are reported in brackets. DIGENEA: Campula rochebruni (liver), Campula palliata (liver), Pholeter gastrophilus (pyloric stomach). CESTODA: Tetrabothrium forsteri (intestine), Strobilocephalus triangularis (intestine), Monorygma grimaldii, larvae (abdominal cavity, mesentery, testes), Phyliobothrium delphini, larvae (subcutaneous fat). NEMATODA: Skrjabinalius sp. (lungs). COPEPODA: Pennella sp. (skin). ISOPODA: Ceratothoa parallela (mouth, stomach). AMPHIPODA: Syncyamus aequus (blowhole).
Helmintos parasitos do pirarucu, Arapaima gigas (Schinz, 1822 (Osteoglossiformes: Arapaimidae, no rio Araguaia, estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil Helminth parasites of pirarucu, Arapaima gigas (Schinz, 1822 (Osteoglossiformes: Arapaimidae from Araguaia River, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil
Sonia M. C. dos Santos
Full Text Available Foram examinados 65 exemplares de pirarucu em agosto de 2004, provenientes do rio Araguaia, Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil para o estudo dos seus helmintos parasitos. Cinco espécies foram registradas parasitando Arapaima gigas: Dawestrema cycloancistrium (Monogenea nas brânquias, Nilonema senticosum e Goezia spinulosa (Nematoda na vesícula gasosa e no estômago respectivamente; Caballerotrema brasiliense (Digenea e Polyacanthorhynchus rhopalorhynchus (Acanthocephala no intestino. Os valores mais altos de prevalência foram observados para D. cycloancistrium (100% and P. rhopalorhynchus (96,9%. Os maiores valores de intensidade e abundância média foram calculados para C. brasiliense e N. senticosum (61 e 46,9, respectivamente. Todas estas espécies são registradas pela primeira vez na Bacia do Rio Araguaia.Sixty-five specimens of pirarucu collected in August 2004 from Araguaia River, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, were examined to study their helminth parasites. Five species were recorded parasitic Arapaima gigas: Dawestrema cycloancistrium (Monogenea in gills, Nilonema senticosum and Goezia spinulosa (Nematoda in the swimbladder and stomach, respectively; Caballerotrema brasiliense (Digenea and Polyacanthorhynchus rhopalorhynchus (Acanthocephala in the intestine. Highest prevalence values were detected for D. cycloancistrium (100% and P. rhopalorhynchus (96.9%. Highest values of mean intensity and mean abundance were detected for C. brasiliense and N. senticosum (61 and 46.9, respectively. All these species are recorded by the first time in the Araguaia River basin.
Santoro, Mario; Kinsella, John M; Galiero, Giorgio; degli Uberti, Barbara; Aznar, Francisco Javier
We compared helminth communities in 6 species of birds of prey from the Calabria region of southern Italy. In total, 31 helminth taxa, including 17 nematodes, 9 digeneans, 3 acanthocephalans, and 2 cestodes, were found. All helminth species were observed in the gastrointestinal tract, except for 3 spirurid nematodes. Most of the parasite species were detected in at least 2 hosts, but 13 helminth species were found in only 1 host. At the infracommunity level, the overall species richness and Brillouin's index of diversity varied by host, with the highest values in a generalist feeder, the Eurasian buzzard (Buteo buteo), and the lowest in a specialist, the western honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus). Species richness was gender dependent only in the sparrow hawk (Accipiter nisus). The helminth communities were characterized by different dominant species, namely, Centrorhynchus spp. (Acanthocephala) in the Eurasian buzzard and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), Parastrigea intermedia (Digenea) in the marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus), Physaloptera alata (Nematoda) in the sparrow hawk, Serratospiculum tendo (Nematoda) in the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), and Strigea falconis (Digenea) in the western honey buzzard. Statistical analyses confirmed a highly significant difference of helminth infracommunity structure among host species. We conclude that in the Calabria region of southern Italy, each of the raptor species studied is distinct in terms of its helminth communities, and more diverse feeding habits of the host correspond with richer helminth communities.
Márcia Cristina Nascimento-Justo
Full Text Available Four species of Scombridae from the coast of Rio de Janeiro, southwest Atlantic Ocean were found to be parasitized with species of Didymozoidae (Digenea: Thunnus atlanticus (Lesson a new host record for Nephrodidymotrema ahi Yamaguti, 1970, Didymocystis neothunni (Yamaguti, 1970, and Didymozoon longicolle (Yamaguti, 1970; Thunnus obesus (Lowe parasitized by Didymozoon longicolle and reported as a new host for Nephrodidymotrema ahi; Thunnus albacares (Bonaterre parasitized by Nephrodidymotrema ahi, and Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus by Didymozoon longicolle. Measurements, figures, and parameters of infection are presented.Cuatro especies de Scombridae de la costa de Río de Janeiro, suroeste del océano Atlántico, se reportan parasitados con diferentes especies de Didymozoidae (Digenea: Thunnus atlanticus (Lesson un registro de nuevo huésped para Nephrodidymotrema ahi Yamaguti, 1970, Didymocystis neothunni (Yamaguti, 1970 y para Didymozoon longicolle (Yamaguti, 1970; Thunnus obesus (Lowe parasitado por Didymozoon longicolle, se indica como nuevo huésped para Nephrodidymotrema ahi; Thunnus albacares (Bonaterre parasitados por Nephrodidymotrema ahi y Katsuwonus pelamis (Linnaeus por Didymozoon longicolle. Se presentan las mediciones, las figuras y los parámetros de la infección.
Khaled Mohamed El-Dakhly
Full Text Available Stray cats play a crucial role in the epidemiology of endoparasites, particularly helminths, due to predating a wide range of both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts, often of veterinary and zoonotic importance. Therefore, a total of 62 stray cats were necropsied in Beni-Suef province, Egypt and examined for helminth parasites. The overall prevalence of infection was 87.0%. The recovered helminths consisted of 10 species of trematodes (Heterophyes heterophyes, Pygidiopsis summa, H. nocens, Echinochasmus liliputanus, Alaria sp., Procerovum varium, Ascocotyle sp., Haplorchis sp., Prohemistomum vivax, Euparadistomum herpestesi, five cestodes (Dipylidium caninum, Diplopylidium acanthoterta, D. nolleri, Joyeuxiella sp. and Taenia taeniaeformis, and two nematodes (Toxascaris leonina and larvae of Anisakis simplex. The most prevalent helminths were Dipylidium caninum (62.9%, Toxascaris leonina (33.8%, Diplopylidium nolleri (22.5% and Echinochasmus liliputanus (6.45%. Thirty (48.39% cats were co-infected by one species, 22 (35.48% by two and three (4.84% by more than two species. It has been found that cats aged more than 3 years were the most infected. Both male and female cats were parasitized. The infection was the most prevalent in both summer and autumn. In conclusion, veterinarians must highlight more attention towards both stray and domestic cats, as they are considered reservoir hosts for a wide host range of parasites, particularly helminths, and the zoonotic importance of such parasites should be taken on consideration.
Chontananarth, Thapana; Wongsawad, Chalobol
To investigate the epidemiological situation of cercarial trematodes infection in freshwater snails from different water resources in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. The snail specimens were collected from 13 districts of Chiang Mai province during April 2008 to February 2012. The prevalence of cercarial infection in snails was investigated using the crushing method. The drawing was done with the help of a camera lucida for the morphological study. A total of 2 479 snail individuals were collected and classified into 7 families, 11 genera, and 14 species, Among them, 8 snails species were found to be infected with an overall prevalence of 17.27% (428/2 479), which infected with nine groups of cercariae; gymnocephalous cercaria, strigea cercaria, megalurous cercaria, monostome cercaria, parapleurolophocercous cercaria (Haplorchis cercaria), pleurolophocercous cercaria, furcocercous cercaria (Transversotrema cercaria), xiphidiocercaria, and virgulate cercaria. The parapleurolophocercous cercaria was found to be the dominant type among the cercarial infection in the snails (64.25%). The various species of snails found in the research location act as the intermediate hosts for the high prevalence of parasitic infection of many species of mammals. This work will provide new information on both the distribution and first intermediate host of trematodes.
Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kim, Hyeong-Jin; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S.; Jeong, Hoo-Gn; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Kang, A-Reum; Kim, Mok-Ryun; Park, Jung-Mi; Ji, Soo-Hyeon; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong
Fecal examinations using the Kato Katz technique were performed on a total of 1,287 villagers (945 students and 342 general inhabitants) of Oddar Meanchey Province, Cambodia in May 2007 and November 2009. The overall intestinal helminth egg positive rate was 23.9%, and the most prevalent helminth species was hookworms (21.6%). Other helminth eggs detected included echinostomes (1.0%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.8%), small trematode eggs (0.7%), which may include Opisthorchis viverrini and Haplorchis spp., and Hymenolepis nana (0.4%). In order to recover adult echinostomes, we treated 2 patients with 10-15 mg/kg praziquantel and purged. Total 14 adult echinostomes, 1 and 13 worms from each patient, were collected. The echinostomes characteristically had 49-51 collar spines and 2 round or slightly lobated testes. They were identified as Echinostoma ilocanum (Garrison, 1908) Odhner, 1911. So far as literature are concerned, this is the first record on the discovery of human E. ilocanum infection in Cambodia. PMID:21738278
Van Thi Phan
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Northern Vietnam is an endemic region for fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT, including liver and intestinal flukes. Humans acquire the FZT infection by eating raw or inadequately cooked fish. The production of FZT-free fish in aquaculture is a key component in establishing a sustainable program to prevent and control the FZT transmission to humans. Interventions in aquaculture should be based on knowledge of the main risk factors associated with FZT transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A longitudinal study was carried out from June 2006 to May 2007 in Nam Dinh province, Red River Delta to investigate the development and risk factors of FZT infections in freshwater cultured fish. A total of 3820 fish were sampled six times at two-month intervals from 96 fish farms. Logistic analysis with repeated measurements was used to evaluate potential risk factors based on information collected through questionnaire interviews with 61 fish farm owners. The results showed that the FZT infections significantly increased from first sampling in June to July 2006 (65% to sixth sampling in April to May, 2007 (76%. The liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis and different zoonotic intestinal flukes including Haplochis pumilio, H. taichui, H. yokogawai, Centrocestus formosanus and Procerovum varium were found in sampled fish. Duration of fish cultured (sampling times, mebendazole drug self-medication of household members, presence of snails in the pond, and feeding fish with green vegetation collected outside fish farms all had a significant effect on the development of FZT prevalence in the fish. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The FZT prevalence in fish increased by 11 percentage points during a one-year culture period and the risk factors for the development of infection were identified. Results also highlight that the young fish are already highly infected when stocked into the grow-out systems. This knowledge should be incorporated into control
Oliva Marcelo E
Full Text Available Parasitological analysis of 237 Menticirrhus ophicephalus, 124 Paralonchurus peruanus, 249 Sciaena deliciosa, 50 Sciaena fasciata and 308 Stellifer minor from Callao (Perú yielded 37 species of metazoan parasites (14 Monogenea, 11 Copepoda, 4 Nematoda, 3 Acanthocephala, 1 Digenea, 1 Aspidobothrea, 1 Eucestoda, 1 Isopoda and 1 Hirudinea. Only one species, the copepoda Bomolochus peruensis, was common to all five hosts. The majority of the components of the infracommunities analyzed are ectoparasites. The Brillouin index (H and evenness (J´ were applied to the fully sampled metazoan parasite infracommunities. High values of prevalence and mean abundance of infection are associated to the polyonchoinean monogeneans; the low values of J' reinforce the strong dominance of this group in the studied communities. The paucity of the endoparasite fauna may be a consequence of the unstable environment due to an upwelling system, aperiodically affected by the El Niño Southern Oscillation phenomena.
Wang, C R; Chen, J; Zhao, J P; Chen, A H; Zhai, Y Q; Li, L; Zhu, X Q
Parasites of the genus Orientobilharzia belong to Platyhelminthes, Trematoda, Digenea, Schistosomatidae, and the type species is Orientobilharzia turkestanicum. O. turkestanicum was first described by Skrjabin from cattle in Russian Turkestan in 1913. Adult worms of Orientobilharzia species live in the portal veins or intestinal veins of cattle, sheep and other mammals, and often cause orientobilharziasis in China, India, Mongolia, Pakistan, Iraq, Iran in Asia, and Russia and Turkey in Europe. More importantly, the cercariae of Orientobilharzia species can infect humans and often cause cercarial dermatitis. Though Orientobilharzia species have been confirmed as zoonotic agents, they have been largely neglected, compared with other pathogens causing cercarial dermatitis, such as Trichobilharzia spp., Schistosoma spindale and Bilharziella sp., which have attracted considerable attention. Here we review the current status of knowledge on the taxonomy of Orientobilharzia spp., human and animal infections with Orientobilharzia spp., and address some considerations for further work on the systematics and pathogenesis of these organisms.
Martorelli, S R; Lino, A; Marcotegui, P; Montes, M M; Alda, P; Panei, C J
This is the first report of Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa Ransom, 1920 (Digenea: Heterophyidae) in Argentina confirmed by morphological and molecular studies. The metacercaria was found encysted in myotomal musculature, heart and mesentery of the mullet Mugil liza (Pisces: Mugilidae) from Samborombon bay. We provide a morphological description of the metacercaria which we identified using species-specific primers for A. (Phagicola) longa and nucleotid sequence. This worldwide parasite has been reported as one of the causative agents of heterophyiosis, an emerging fish-borne disease of humans, contracted by the consumption of raw mullet. The discovery of A. (Phagicola) longa in Argentina represents a warning of the potentially great impact of this parasite on public health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jeżewski, Witold; Zdzitowiecki, Krzysztof; Laskowski, Zdzisław
Whitegonimus ozoufae n. gen., n. sp. (Digenea: Zoogonidae) is reported from the stomach of Patagonotothen tessellata in the harbor of Ushuaia in the Beagle Channel (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina) at a depth of 7–9 m. The female genital system structure indicates the new taxon belongs in the subfamily Lepidophyllinae (Zoogonidae). None of the genera previously described is similar to the new genus. The most important taxonomic features are the spined tegument, lack of enlarged circumoral spines, gonads arranged in tandem, long caeca, vitelline follicles extending from the level of the ventral sucker to the posterior end of anterior testis, and a Y-shaped excretory vesicle. Only 3 genera, Overstreetia, Anarhichotrema, and Pseudopalaeorchis, have testes arranged in tandem, but they differ from the new genus in possessing enlarged circumoral spines, oral sucker size, esophagus length, length of caeca, vitellaria restricted to hindbody, the form of the ovary, and an I-shaped excretory vesicle.
Libert, Cédric; Jouet, Damien; Ferté, Hubert; Lemberger, Karin; Keck, Nicolas
Postmortem examination of a 4-mo-old captive-born blue-crowned motmot (Momotus momota) at the Montpellier Zoo in France revealed the presence of air sac flukes. Circumvitellatrema momota (Digenea: Cyclocoelidae) was suspected and confirmed by molecular genetic analysis. Digenean metacercariae were extracted from an invasive species of terrestrial snail, the conical periwinkle, Subulina striatella. Molecular genetic analysis determined that these metacercariae were also C. momota, confirming that all the stages of this parasite's life cycle were present and that birds were likely becoming infected by eating these infected snails. It is likely that this trematode was imported into the greenhouse with a wild-caught motmot. The conical periwinkle snail appears to have been imported into the zoo with the plants in 2007 when the greenhouse was built. Treatments, which have been disappointing, are discussed, as well as preventive measures to avoid dissemination of the parasite into other bird collections in Europe.
Rajabpour, M; Malek, M; MacKenzie, K; Aghlmandi, F
A total of 182 specimens of two sturgeon species, stellate sturgeon Acipenser stellatus (N=112) and Persian sturgeon Acipenser persicus (N=70), from three coastal stations in the South-East Caspian Sea were examined for endohelminth parasites. Four helminth species were recorded: Cucullanus sphaerocephala (Nematoda: Cucullanidae) and Skrjabinopsolus semiarmatus (Digenea: Acanthocolpidae), found in both host species, and Leptorhynchoides plagicephalus (Acanthocephala: Rhadinorhynchidae) and Amphilina foliacea (Cestodaria: Amphilinidae), found only in A. stellatus. The most abundant parasites were C. sphaerocephala and S. semiarmatus in A. persicus and A. stellatus, respectively. Canonical discriminant analysis was applied for separating host species using parasite numbers data, Brillouin index of diversity, and species richness. By this means, 83% of the hosts were assigned to their correct a priori groups. The different feeding habits and habitat preferences of the two hosts are probably the major factors accounting for the difference in their parasite burdens.
Hystological confirmation of Opisthorchis felineus in two stray cats on ‘Isola Maggiore’ (Trasimeno Lake, Perugia, Italy: the epidemiological chain of human opisthorchiasis is almost complete in this middle Italy lake
Full Text Available Over the past five years have been described, in Umbria, the first human cases of infestation with Opistorchis felineus, as well as detect the presence of this fluke eggs in the feces of Digenea stray seeds or stray cats on the island of Maggiore Lake Trasimeno (Umbria in central Italy. Previous research metacercariae in fish caught in this lake and the recovery of the shellfish B. leach into the lake area have been rather insignificant.This work confirms the presence of eggs of O. felineus in 33.3% of cat litter and, most importantly, it shows active infestation in two cats found dead on that island, anatomical lesions - histopathological opisthorchiasi and consistent with the observation of the presence of adult worm with eggs is in intrahepatic bile home that when pancreatic O. felineus.
A total of 2398 fish specimens (1091 Percidae and 1307 Cyprinidae) belonging to 16 species (3 Percidae and 13 Cyprinidae), caught in the Polish part of the Vistula Lagoon were examined within December 1994-March 1997. The parasites found were identified as belonging to 63 taxa (61 species as well as Diplostomum spp. flukes and glochidia Unionidae gen. sp. which could not be identified to species) of the Microsporea (1), Protozoa (1), Myxozoa (2), Monogenea (10), Digenea (15), Cestoda (11), Nematoda (11), Acanthocephala (5), Hirudinea (1), Mollusca (1), Copepoda (4), and Branchiura (1). The percids and cyprinids were found to support 37 and 40 parasitic taxa, respectively, the taxon-richest parasite fauna occurring in zander, Sander lucioperca (26 taxa), followed by carp bream, Abramis brama (24), European perch, Perca fluviatilis (24), roach, Rutilus rutilus (19), ruffe, Gymnocephalus cernuus (15), and Prussian carp, Carassius gibelio (11). The remaining fish species hosted less than 10 parasitic species each. Metacercariae of the genus Diplostomumn, found in about 37% of the fish examined, and Tylodelphys clavata, recorded in about 24% of the fish, proved the commonest parasites. The study showed the Vistula Lagoon cyprinid and percid parasite fauna to be dominated by freshwater species, frequencies of their occurrence in the brackishwater lagoon being lower than those in freshwater reservoirs. Frequencies of the 6 marine parasitic species found in the lagoon were, too, lower than those in the sea. It is suggested that some of the parasites (Ancyrocephalus paradoxus, Diplozoon paradoxum of the Monogenea, Diplostomum spp., Tylodelphys clavata of the Digenea, and Achtheres percarum of the Copepoda) prefer brackishwater habitats.
A. Arandas Rêgo
Full Text Available Dos primerios 80 espécimens da sarda examinados (de janeiro a maio de 1982, apenas seis (7,5% estavam livres de helmintos, apresentando os demais as espécies de parasitos seguintes, por ordem de freqüência dentro de cada grupo taxonômico: Kuhnia scombri (Kuhn, 1829 e Grubea cochlear (Diesing, 1858 (classe Monogenea; Lecithocladium excisum (Rudolph, 1819 e Opechona basillaris (Molin, 1859(classe Digenea; pelrocercoides de Lacistrorhynchus tenuis (Beneden, 1858 de Scolex pleuronectis (Muller, 1788 e de Echeneibothrium sp. (classe Cestoda; Rhadinorhynchus tenuicornis (Linton, 1891 (filo Acanthocephala; formas dos tipos larvares Anisakis e Contracaecum e ainda, larvas de Goezia sp. (classe Nematoda. São referidas, pela primeira vez, neste hospedeiro, formas larvares do cestóide Echeneibothrium sp. e do nematóide Goezia sp.Among fishes of importance in the Portuguese diet is the mackerel with a large geographical distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. The authors plan to recover the helminths of this host during the year, for taxonomic, zoogeographic and seasonal variation elements studies of potential importance to Public Health. Only six (7.5% of the first 80 hosts examined (from January to May 1982 were not parasitized. In this paper we report the presence, by order of their frequency in each taxonomic group, of the following helminths: Kuhnia scombri (Kuhn, 1829 and Grubea cochlear (Diesing, 1858 (class Monogenea; Lecithocladium excisum (Rudolphi, 1819 and Opechona bacillaris (Molin, 1859 (class Digenea; plerocercoids of Lacistorhynchus tenuis (Beneden, 1858, of Scolex pleuronectis (Muller, 1788 and of Echeneibothrium sp. (class Cestoda; Rhadinorhynchus tenuicornis (Linton, 1891 (phylum Acanthocephala; larval forms of Anisakis and Contracaecum as well as larvae of Goezia sp. (class Nematoda.Larval forms of the cestode Echeneibothrium sp. and the nematode Goezia sp. are reported in this host, for the first time.
Full Text Available This study was aimed to identify fauna parasite of juvenile tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus on the two locations of floating net at Floating Net Sea Farming Center, Pulau Seribu Jakarta. A total of five tiger grouper fry from each location, checked every two weeks during the nursery period in August-September 2008 and June-August 2009. Parasites of young tiger grouper found were protozoa (Trichodina and myxosporea, monogenea Diplectanum, metaserkaria digenea, and isopods Alitropus. Diplectanum infestation was dominant with prevalence reached 100% and the average intensity of 2,87-72,8. Fish nursed in the Perairan Pulau Semak Daun was more susceptible compared to the fish nursed in Pulau Karang Congkak. Keywords: tiger grouper, parasite, infestation, Seribu Island. ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi penyakit yang menyerang benih kerapu macan pada masa pendederan dalam karamba jaring apung di dua lokasi Karamba Jaring Apung Balai Sea Farming, Kepulauan Seribu, yaitu di Perairan Pulau Semak Daun dan Perairan Pulau Karang Congkak. Sebanyak 5 ekor benih kerapu macan dari masing-masing lokasi, diperiksa setiap minggu selama dua periode pendederan pada bulan Agustus-September 2008 dan bulan Juni-Agustus 2009. Fauna parasit benih kerapu macan pada masa pendederan dalam jaring apung tersebut meliputi protozoa (Trichodina dan myxosporea, monogenea Diplectanum, metaserkaria digenea, dan isopoda Alitropus. Diplectanum merupakan parasit yang mendominasi dengan prevalensi mencapai 100% dan intensitas rerata 2.87–72,8. Pada Perairan Pulau Semak Daun lebih banyak ditemukan jenis parasit dengan prevalensi dan intensitas yang cukup tinggi dibandingkan dengan Perairan Pulau Karang Congkak.Kata kunci: ikan kerapu macan, parasit, infestasi, Pulau Seribu.
Beevi, M Razia; Radhakrishnan, S
The prevalence and mean intensity of metazoan parasite infection, the community characteristics (richness index, dominance index, evenness index and Shannon index of diversity) and the qualitative similarity of the metazoan parasite fauna among the species and families of the fishes were determined of 13 fish species of freshwater fishes of Kerala belonging to seven families. The metazoan parasite fauna of this geographical area is very diverse; it consisted of 33 species of parasites belonging to seven major taxa: ten species of Monogenea, nine Digenea, two Cestoda, six Nematoda, three Acanthocephala, two Copepoda and one Isopoda. Prevalence of infection ranged from 32.9% (Puntius vittatus) to 87.1% (Mystus oculatus) and mean intensity from 3.8 (Puntius vittatus) to 27.6 (Aplocheilus lineatus). The infra- and component communities of parasites were somewhat characteristic. The dominance pattern of the major taxa was in the order Digenea > Nematoda > Monogenea = Acanthocephala > Cestoda = Copepoda > Isopoda. Macropodus cupanus harboured the richest fauna and Puntius vittatus had the least rich fauna. The parasite fauna of A. lineatus was the most heterogeneous and that of M. cavasius, the most homogeneous. The diversity of the parasite fauna was the greatest in M. cavasius and the least in A. lineatus. The parasite faunas of A. lineatus and M. cupanus and of M. cavasius and M. oculatus were similar. However, in spite of the taxonomic nearness and the similarity of the habits and habitats of the four species of cyprinids (P. amphibius, P. filamentosus, P. sarana and P. vittatus), their parasite fauna were qualitatively very dissimilar-of the seven species of parasites encountered in them only one was shared by the four host species. The cyprinid, Rasbora daniconius, had its own characteristic component community of parasites consisting of six species none of which was shared by the other four cyprinids. The richest parasite fauna was that of the family
Full Text Available European eel parasites, in particular invasive species, are suspected to have a strong influence on the population dynamics of their host. The aim of this work was to study the relationship between parasitic fauna of yellow eels caught at Salses-Leucate lagoon and the fluctuating asymmetry (FA of some functional bilateral traits: pectoral fins, eyes and otoliths. Epidemiological distance matrices and FA distance matrices were calculated on the basis of the Euclidian distances between each pair of eel and were then compared with a Mantel test in order to establish if there was a relationship between parasitism and FA. Our results revealed different morphological characteristics between eels caught at different dates; only otoliths were found asymmetric. The parasite richness was of 10 species, 1 Nematoda, 1 Acanthocephala, 1 Monogenea and 7 Digenea. We failed to find a significant relationship between asymmetry and parasitism, except for parasites found in the stomach. We discussed the results in the light of the eel life cycle, the specificity of parasite - eel systems and the impact of parasites on the host physiology.
María Ornela, Beltrame; Eleonor, Tietze; Alberto Enrique, Pérez; Norma Haydeé, Sardella
Eggs representative of a digenean species were found in coprolites belonged to an endemic deer from Patagonia. Samples were collected from the archaeological site named "Cueva Parque Diana". This site is a cave located at the Lanín National Park, Neuquén Province, Argentina. The coprolites were dated from 2370±70 to 580±60 years B.P. The eggs were ellipsoidal, operculated, yellowish and thin-shelled. Measurements (n=65) ranged from 120.0 to 142.5 (133.2±6.53) μm long and 62.5 to 87.5 (72.6±6.15) μm wide. Eggs were well-preserved and were identified as belonged to Class Trematoda, Subclass Digenea, similar to those of Fasciola hepatica or with another species not identified at present from Patagonia. This is the first report of digenean eggs from ancient deer worldwide. The present study confirms the presence of representatives of digenean species in endemic deer from Patagonia in ancient times and the presence of a trematode disease prior to the arrival of European cattle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Greiman, Stephen E; Rikihisa, Yasuko; Cain, Jacob; Vaughan, Jefferson A; Tkach, Vasyl V
Neorickettsia spp. are bacterial endosymbionts of parasitic flukes (Digenea) that also have the potential to infect and cause disease (e.g., Sennetsu fever) in the vertebrate hosts of the fluke. One of the largest gaps in our knowledge of Neorickettsia biology is the very limited information available regarding the localization of the bacterial endosymbiont within its digenean host. In this study, we used indirect immunofluorescence microscopy to visualize Neorickettsia sp. within several life cycle stages of the digenean Plagiorchis elegans Individual sporocysts, cercariae, metacercariae, and adults of P. elegans naturally infected with Neorickettsia sp. were obtained from our laboratory-maintained life cycle, embedded, sectioned, and prepared for indirect immunofluorescence microscopy using anti-Neorickettsia risticiihorse serum as the primary antibody. Neorickettsiasp. was found within the tegument of sporocysts, throughout cercarial embryos (germ balls) and fully formed cercariae (within the sporocysts), throughout metacercariae, and within the tegument, parenchyma, vitellaria, uteri, testes, cirrus sacs, and eggs of adults. Interestingly, Neorickettsia sp. was not found within the ovarian tissue. This suggests that vertical transmission of Neorickettsia within adult digeneans occurs via the incorporation of infected vitelline cells into the egg rather than direct infection of the ooplasm of the oocyte, as has been described for other bacterial endosymbionts of invertebrates (e.g.,Rickettsia and Wolbachia). Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Luana Silva Bittencourt
Full Text Available This study provides the first investigation on acquisition of parasites in invasive O. niloticus by parasite species of native Cichlidae from the Igarapé Fortaleza basin, Northern Brazil. There were examined 576 specimens of 16 species of native cichlids and invasive O. niloticus collected in the main channel and the floodplain area of this tributary of Amazon River. The invasive O. niloticus was poorly parasitized having only Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina centrostrigeata, Paratrichodina africana, Trichodina nobilis (Protozoa and Cichlidogyrus tilapiae (Monogenoidea, and this host has not acquired any parasite species common to the native ichthyofauna region. In contrast, species of native cichlids showed rich fauna of parasites with predominance of Monogenoidea species, larvae and adults of Nematoda, Digenea, Cestoidea and Acanthocephala, besides four species of Protozoa and four Crustacea. However, only T. nobilis was acquired by native fish, the Aequidens tetramerus, which is a new host for this exotic Trichodinidae. In O. niloticus, well established in the region, the small number of helminth species may be associated with its rusticity, good adaptation in the new environment and also the presence of native parasites with relative specificity, but without ability to complete its life cycle in this invasive host of this ecosystem.
Full Text Available A total of 648 dolphinfishes were examined for internal and external parasites in western Mediterranean (Balearic Islands and central-eastern Atlantic (Canary Islands waters in order to make a comparative study between the two areas. The specimens studied from the Mediterranean Sea was Coryphaena hippurus, with 62 large individuals captured from May to September and 497 juveniles captured from August to December. The specimens studied from the central-eastern Atlantic were 39 adult C. hippurus and 49 adult Coryphaena equiselis. Parasites were found in 70% of the fish examined, and represented a total of nine endoparasitic taxa: six digeneans (Class Trematoda, Subclass Digenea; Dinurus tornatus, Dinurus breviductus, Dinurus longisinus, Lecithocladium excisum, Bathycotyle branchialis and Hirudinella sp., two nematodes (Class Nematoda, Order Spirurida; Philometroides sp. and Metabronema magna and one acanthocephalan (Phyllum Acanthocephala; Rhadinorhynchus pristis. Seven crustacean copepod ectoparasites were identified: Caligus quadratus, Caligus productus, Caligus bonito, Caligus coryphaenae (Family Caligidae and Euryphorus nymphae (Family Euriphoridae were found in gill mucus masses or on the inner surface of the operculum, the lernaeopodid Neobrachiella coryphaenae (Family Lernaeopodidae was attached to gill filaments and the pennellid Pennella filosa (Family Pennellidae was anchored to fins and rays or, deeply, to muscular tissue and abdominal cavity. The relationships between feeding habits, parasite recruitment and parasite transmission were analysed, some ecological aspects of all the parasitic species are discussed, and some comments are made on parasite-host relationships.
Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying and quantifying the parasites of wild and cultured dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus. During a year and thereby all four seasons, 20 wild and 20 cultured groupers were examined for the presence of parasites, except in the last season, in which 19 wild and 20 cultured fish were examined, totalling 159 groupers analysed from Ubatuba, southeastern Brazil. Prevalence, mean intensity of infection, mean abundance and mean relative dominance were calculated. Five species of parasites were identified in fish from both origins: Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae (Monogenea, Neobenedenia melleni (Monogenea, Pseudempleurosoma sp. (Monogenea, Helicometrina nimia (Digenea and larvae of Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda. The prevalence of ectoparasites, in most cases, was higher than endoparasites. The most abundant parasite was the monogenea Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae in both wild and cultured fish, along all seasons. Neobenedenia melleni was observed in wild and cultured fish in all seasons, with a gradual increase in the number of parasites from the coldest to the hottest seasons, with the highest prevalence and mean intensity in the summer. Helicometrina nimia was found in all seasons in both wild and cultured fish, except for summer, where its presence was detected only in wild fish. Pseudempleurosoma sp. and larvae of Contracaecum sp. showed low prevalence occurring in wild and cultured fish in the autumn and spring, respectively. This study revealed high intensities of potentially pathogenic parasites that could favour disease outbreaks in culture conditions.
Marino, John A; Holland, Manja P; Werner, Earl E
Parasites can influence host population dynamics, community composition and evolution. Prediction of these effects, however, requires an understanding of the influence of ecological context on parasite distributions and the consequences of infection for host fitness. We address these issues with an amphibian - trematode (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) host-parasite system. We initially performed a field survey of trematode infection in first (snail) and second (larval green frog, Rana clamitans) intermediate hosts over 5 years across a landscape of 23 ponds in southeastern Michigan. We then combined this study with a tadpole enclosure experiment in eight ponds. We found echinostomes in all ponds during the survey, although infection levels in both snails and amphibians differed across ponds and years. Echinostome prevalence (proportion of hosts infected) in snails also changed seasonally depending on host species, and abundance (parasites per host) in tadpoles depended on host size and prevalence in snails. The enclosure experiment demonstrated that infection varied at sites within ponds, and tadpole survival was lower in enclosures with higher echinostome abundance. The observed effects enhance our ability to predict when and where host-parasite interactions will occur and the potential fitness consequences of infection, with implications for population and community dynamics, evolution and conservation.
Neil D Young
Full Text Available Fasciola gigantica (Digenea is an important foodborne trematode that causes liver fluke disease (fascioliasis in mammals, including ungulates and humans, mainly in tropical climatic zones of the world. Despite its socioeconomic impact, almost nothing is known about the molecular biology of this parasite, its interplay with its hosts, and the pathogenesis of fascioliasis. Modern genomic technologies now provide unique opportunities to rapidly tackle these exciting areas. The present study reports the first transcriptome representing the adult stage of F. gigantica (of bovid origin, defined using a massively parallel sequencing-coupled bioinformatic approach. From >20 million raw sequence reads, >30,000 contiguous sequences were assembled, of which most were novel. Relative levels of transcription were determined for individual molecules, which were also characterized (at the inferred amino acid level based on homology, gene ontology, and/or pathway mapping. Comparisons of the transcriptome of F. gigantica with those of other trematodes, including F. hepatica, revealed similarities in transcription for molecules inferred to have key roles in parasite-host interactions. Overall, the present dataset should provide a solid foundation for future fundamental genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic explorations of F. gigantica, as well as a basis for applied outcomes such as the development of novel methods of intervention against this neglected parasite.
Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Hossein; Tabarestani, Amir Hossein Alizadeh; Ardeshir, Hadi Alijani; Jafarzade, Farshid; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi
To determine the helminth parasites of Anas crecca (A. crecca) in one of proper refuges of Iran, Fereydunkenar. A total number of one hundred thirty-six gastrointestinal tracts of green-winged teal (A. crecca) were collected from Fereydunkenar, Mazandaran province during September and October 2011. The gastrointestinal tracts were examined for helminth infection. The total infection rate was 70.50% (96) that 68.96% (40) of males and 71.79% (56) of females shown helminthes infection. The examined A. crecca harbored one species of Nematoda, Cestoda and two species of Digenea which were as following: Contracaecum larvae (from stomach wall), Diorchis stefanskii (D. stefanskii) (from small intestine), Hypoderaeum conoideum (from small intestine) and Notocotylus attenuatus (N. attenuatus) (from caecum), respectively. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of infection between examined males and females ducks in Hypoderaeum conoideum, D. stefanskii and N. attenuatus (P>0.05) whereas a significant relationship was observed between males and females in Contracaecum larvae (P<0.05). Based on the results of the present study, we conclude that A. crecca plays a prominent role in transmission of mentioned parasites. In addition, this is the first report of Contracaecum larvae, D. stefanskii and N. attenuatus from A. crecca in Iran.
Greiman, Stephen E.; Tkach, Maksym; Vaughan, Jefferson A.; Tkach, Vasyl V.
The Digenea (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda) are a diverse and complex group of internal metazoan parasites. These parasites can serve as hosts to obligate intracellular bacteria belonging to the genus Neorickettsia (Family: Anaplasmataceae). Neorickettsiae persist within all stages of the fluke life cycle and thus are maintained through vertical transmission. However, the low prevalence of Neorickettsia in nature limits study of their transmission biology at different steps of digenean life cycles. To resolve this dilemma, we have developed for the first time a laboratory model allowing to maintain Neorickettsia sp. through the whole life cycle of a digenean, Plagiorchis elegans. The laboratory life cycle of P. elegans consists of a snail first intermediate host, Lymnaea stagnalis, an aquatic arthropod second intermediate host, Culex pipiens (mosquito larva), and a vertebrate definitive host, Mesocricetus auratus (Syrian hamster). This paper focuses on the development of the laboratory life cycle, as well as outlines its potential uses in studying the transmission biology of Neorickettsia and its evolutionary relationship within its digenean host. PMID:26160679
Hernández-Mena, David Iván; García-Prieto, Luís; García-Varela, Martín
Parastrigea plataleae n. sp. (Digenea: Strigeidae) is described from the intestine of the roseate spoonbill Platalea ajaja (Threskiornithidae) from four localities on the Pacific coast of Mexico. The new species is mainly distinguished from the other 18 described species of Parastrigea based on the ratio of its hindbody length to forebody length. A principal component analysis (PCA) of 16 morphometric traits for 15 specimens of P. plataleae n. sp., five of Parastrigea cincta and 11 of Parastrigea diovadena previously recorded in Mexico, clearly shows three clusters, which correspond to the three species. DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITSs) of ribosomal DNA and the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox 1) were used to corroborate this morphological distinction. The genetic divergence estimated among P. plataleae n. sp., P. cincta and P. diovadena ranged from 0.5 to 1.48% for ITSs and from 9.31 to 11.47% for cox 1. Maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) analyses were performed on the combined datasets (ITSs+cox 1) and on each dataset alone. All of the phylogenetic analyses indicated that the specimens from the roseate spoonbill represent a clade with strong bootstrap support. The morphological evidence and the genetic divergence in combination with the reciprocal monophyly in all of the phylogenetic trees support the hypothesis that the digeneans found in the intestines of roseate spoonbills represent a new species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bombarová, Marta; Špakulová, Marta; Kello, Martin; Nguyen, Petr; Bazsalovicsová, Eva; Králová-Hromadová, Ivica
A detailed cytogenetic analysis of the aspidogastrean fluke Aspidogaster limacoides revealed a karyotype consisting of six medium-sized chromosome pairs. The first and the last pairs were two-armed while four remaining were one-armed; 2n = 12, n = 1 m + 1 m - sm + 4a. Fluorescence in situ hybridization with 18S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) probe detected a single cluster of ribosomal genes (NOR) located in pericentromeric regions of the long arms of the third chromosome pair in a site of secondary constriction apparent in meiotic prophase, especially in diplotene. The silver nitrate staining showed only a single active NOR site on one of homologous chromosomes in the majority of spermatogonia and spermatocyte divisions. A course of meiosis corresponded to standard schemes. The nucleolus was apparent in early meiotic spermatocytes and disintegrated by the end of pachytene. For the first time in Aspidogastrea, the genome size was determined. The flow cytometry showed 1.21 pg DNA per haploid nucleus in A. limacoides which is in accordance with relatively low genome sizes of other flukes and tapeworms (Neodermata). A comparison of cytogenetic data available to date in the fluke sister groups Aspidogastrea and Digenea suggests that the lower chromosome number of Aspidogastrea might represent an ancestral condition and their split might have been accompanied by an increase in chromosome number via either chromosome fissions or paleopolyploidy.
Wee, Nicholas Q-X; Cutmore, Scott C; Yong, Russell Q-Y; Cribb, Thomas H
Combined morphological and molecular analyses are employed to characterise three species of Tergestia Stossich, 1899 (Digenea: Fellodistomidae) from fishes of Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Tergestia clonacantha Manter, 1963 is reported here for the first time from the halfbeak (Beloniformes: Hemiramphidae) species Arrhamphus sclerolepis krefftii (Steindachner), Hyporhamphus australis (Steindachner), H. quoyi (Valenciennes) and H. regularis ardelio (Whitley). Two new species, both infecting trevally (Perciformes: Carangidae) species, are described: T. maryae n. sp. from Alepes apercna Grant and T. henryi n. sp. from Pantolabus radiatus (MacLeay). Complete ITS2 and partial 28S ribosomal DNA data were generated for each of the new taxa. The three species differ from each other by 47-58 base pairs (bp) in the ITS2 rDNA region. Phylogenetic analysis of 28S rDNA supports Tergestia as a reliable generic concept, with our analyses showing that some species of the genus form a well-supported clade to the exclusion of all other fellodistomids for which sequence data are available.
López-García, Ashley Samara; García-Prieto, Luis
Species of Mesocoelium Odhner, 1901 (Digenea) are generally similar and are often difficult to distinguish. Currently there are 42 specimens of this genus held in the Colección Nacional de Helmintos (CNHE) of the Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, which previously have been assigned to three species: M. monas Rudolphi, 1819, M. travassosi Pereira & Cuocolo, 1940 and M. leiperi Bhalerao, 1936. Upon reevaluation of these specimens it was determined that 27, could not be assigned to species level and 15 could only be assigned to body type (carli and leiperi) because of the poor conditions of preservation of the material. The remaining 15 specimens were of sufficient quality to be identified to species and were found to represent M. americanum Harwood, 1932, M. danforthi Hoffman, 1935, M. meggitti Bhalerao, 1927, M. cf. americanum Harwood, 1932, and M. cf. danforthi Hoffman, 1935. Neither M. monas nor M. travassosi could be confirmed among these specimens; however, Mesocoelium meggitti (syn. M. travassosi) was confirmed. Mesocoelium danforthi is recorded for the first time in the Mexican collection. The presence of M. cf. gonocephali Singh, 1967 and M. cf. microon Nicoll, 1914 also among the 15 specimens of sufficient quality to be identified to species, needs to be confirmed through collects of new material. Finally, in future studies, we propose to improve the quality of specimens by fixing them considering the modifications to this process proposed herein, and compliment these morphological studies with molecular studies.
Maria Danielle Figueiredo Guimarães Hoshino
Full Text Available The present study provides the first investigation on the ecological aspects of the parasites M. lippincottianusfrom the Amazonian basin, as well as the parasite-host relationship. 76 out of the examined fish (98.7% were parasitized by at least one species of parasites. A total of 8,774 parasites were collected, being Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Anacanthorus jegui, Dadayius pacupeva, Digenea gen. sp. (metacercariae, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus inopinatus, Procamallanus (Spirocamallanus sp., Spinoxyuris oxydoras, Contracaecum sp. larvae, Dolops longicauda and Hirudinea gen. sp. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis was the dominant species, followed by A. jegui. Among the endoparasites, S. oxydoras and D. pacupeva were predominant. The mean diversity of parasites was HB = 0.96 ± 0.32 and there was aggregate distribution pattern. A positive correlation of body weight with the abundance of I. multifiliis and S. Oxydoras was observed, whereas a negative correlation of body weight with abundance of the Contracaecum sp. larvae was found. The relative condition factor (Kn was not negatively affected by parasites, and a positive correlation between Kn and abundance of I. multifiliis, S. oxydoras and D. pacupeva was found. This study is the first one to record I. multifiliis, D. longicauda and A. jegui parasitizing M. lippincottianus, as well as the first record of D. pacupeva and S. oxydoras in the Amazonas river system.
Laskowski, Zdzisław; Jeżewski, Witold; Zdzitowiecki, Krzysztof
Macvicaria magellanica n. sp. (Digenea: Opecoelidae) is the third representative of this genus occurring in fish in the Magellanic sub-region of sub-Antarctica and the first one found in sub-coastal waters in this area (the Beagle Channel). Its main taxonomic features include an elongate body, oral:ventral sucker ratio based on widths of 1.0:1.52-1.98, cirrus sac reaching to level of posterior half of the ventral sucker, testes arranged in tandem, numerous vitelline follicles divided into 2 groups separated by a gap parallel to the ventral sucker, vitelline follicles dorsally not confluent at the uterus and gonads, and egg dimensions of 40-51 × 25-32 μm. The most similar species is Macvicaria antarctica, but it differs from the newly described species in having vitelline follicles dorsally confluent at the level of the uterus and by occurring in fish associated with the Falkland-Patagonian shelf at greater depths (at the North Scotia Ridge, 300-500 m). A key to 9 Antarctic and sub-Antarctic species of Macvicaria is included.
Marcos Sidney Brito Oliveira
Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the component community of parasite metazoans of Piaractus brachypomus in the lower Amazon River, northern Brazil. From 34 necropsied fish, 27,384 metazoan parasites were collected, such as Anacanthorus spathulatus, Mymarothecium viatorum and Notozothecium janauachensis (Monogenoidea; Spectatus spectatus and Contracaecum sp (Nematoda; Clinostomum marginatum and Dadaytrema oxycephala (Digenea; and Argulus carteri and Ergasilus sp. (Crustacea. The dominant species was S. spectatus followed by monogenoidean species, and there was aggregated dispersion of parasites, except for D. oxycephala and Contracaecum sp., which presented random dispersion. Positive correlation among the abundance of the three monogenoideans species were found, thus indicating that there was no competition between the species of these parasites on the gills of hosts. The abundances of some parasite species showed positive correlations with the size of the hosts, but the condition factor of the fish was not affected by the parasitism levels. It showed that this host had a metazoan community characterized by high species richness of metazoans, low evenness and high diversity of parasites, with prevalence of endoparasites, including larval stages. This was the first record of C. marginatum, A. carteri, Ergasilus sp. and Contracaecum sp. for P. brachypomus.
Klimpel, Sven; Förster, Maike; Schmahl, Günter
In the present study, two abundant sympatric rodent species (27 Apodemus flavicollis and 33 A. sylvaticus) were studied for their endo- and ectoparasite fauna. The rodents were trapped in Dormagen, a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. A total of 20 different parasites species were identified, 13 endoparasite (2 Digenea, 5 Cestoda and 7 Nematoda) and 7 ectoparasite (5 Insecta and 2 Arachnida) species. Thirteen parasite species were found inhabiting both rodent species. The predominant endoparasite species in both rodents was the nematode Pelodera strongyloides, followed by the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus and a Syphacia species. The flea Ctenophthalmus agyrtes was the dominant ectoparasite in both rodent species. A. flavicollis usually carried 1-7 ecto-/endoparasite species (mean 4.0), whereas A. sylvaticus were mostly infested with 1-9 (mean 4.4). The parasite diversity of A. flavicollis (H' = 0.268, J = 0.097) was marginal lower in comparison to A. sylvaticus (H' = 0.319, J = 0.110). The two rodent species examined show remarkable similarities in the composition of their endo- and ectoparasite fauna being directly related to their similar pattern of living in the investigated area.
Elíca Amara Cecília Guedes
Full Text Available This study investigated the biological activities of five benthic marine algae collected from Northeastern Region of Brazil. The tested activities included larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, and toxicity against Artemia salina. Extracts of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta, Padina gymnospora, Sargassum vulgare (Phaeophyta, Hypnea musciformis, and Digenea simplex (Rhodophyta were prepared using different solvents of increasing polarity, including dichloromethane, methanol, ethanol, and water. Of the extracts screened, the dichloromethane extracts of H. musciformis and P. gymnospora exhibited the highest activities and were subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation in hexane and chloroform. The chloroform fractions of the P. gymnospora and H. musciformis extracts showed molluscicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (11.1460 μg·mL−1 and 25.8689 μg·mL−1, resp., and the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora showed larvicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (29.018 μg·mL−1 and 17.230 μg·mL−1, resp.. The crude extracts were not toxic to A. salina, whereas the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora (788.277 μg·mL−1 and 706.990 μg·mL−1 showed moderate toxicity, indicating that the toxic compounds present in these algae are nonpolar.
Marcos Sidney Brito de Oliveira
Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the gills parasites in Satanoperca jurupari from the Jari River, state of Amapá, in eastern Amazon (Brazil. The gills of 100% of the hosts were parasitized by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Protozoa, Sciadicleithrum juruparii (Monogenoidea Genarchella genarchella, Posthodiplostomum sp. (Digenea Ergasilus coatiarus and Argulus multicolor (Crustacea, and a total of 27,043 parasites were collected. However, the dominance was of I. multifiliis and there was aggregated dispersion of parasites with greater discrepancy for S. juruparii and A. multicolor. Low species richness of parasites (3.1 ± 1.1, low Brillouin diversity index (0.27 ± 0.23, low evenness (0.16 ± 0.13 and high dominance of Berger-Parker (0.88 ± 0.15 were found. The community of parasites in S. jurupari was characterized by low species richness, low diversity and low evenness, with high prevalence and low abundance. The size of host did not have any influence on the parasites community, but the host behavior and availability of infective stages of the parasites were factors structuring the community of ectoparasites found here.
Maria Danielle Figueiredo Guimarães Hoshino
Full Text Available This study was the first investigation of communities and infracommunities of parasites of Hemibrycon surinamensis. All the fish collected in a tributary of the Amazon river were parasitized by one or more parasite species. The Brillouin diversity index (HB was 0.46 ± 0.28 and the mean species richness was 3.5 ± 1.2 parasites per host. A total of 14,734 parasites were collected, including Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Piscinoodinium pillulare (Protozoa; Jainus hexops and Tereancistrum sp. (Monogenoidea; Ergasilus turucuyus and Argulus sp. (Crustacea; metacercariae of Derogenidae gen. sp.; metacercariae and adults of Genarchella genarchella (Digenea; and Cucullanus larvae and Contracaecum larvae (Nematoda. The dominant parasite was I. multifiliis, followed by P. pillulare. The parasites showed aggregated dispersion, except for E. turucuyus, which had random dispersion. The condition factor (Kn indicated that the parasitism levels had not affected host body condition. The high levels of infection observed were due to host behavior, and this was discussed. This was the first report of I. multifiliis, P. pillulare, Argulus sp., E. turucuyus, G. genarchella, J. hexops and Tereancistrum sp. in H. surinamensis, and it expanded the occurrence of E. turucuyus and G. genarchella to the eastern Amazon region.
Full Text Available Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region, and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Helminths parasitic in animals represent a large assemblage of worms, representing three phyla, with more than 200 families and almost 4,000 species of parasites from all major vertebrate and many invertebrate groups. A general introduction is given for each of the major groups of parasitic worms, i.e. the Acanthocephala, Monogenea, Trematoda (Aspidogastrea and Digenea, Cestoda and Nematoda. Basic information for each group includes its size, host-range, distribution, morphological features, life-cycle, classification, identification and recent key-works. Tabulations include a complete list of families dealt with, the number of species in each and the name of the specialist responsible for data acquisition, a list of additional specialists who helped with particular groups, and a list of higher taxa dealt with down to the family level. A compilation of useful references is appended.
Gibson, David I; Bray, Rodney A; Hunt, David; Georgiev, Boyko B; Scholz, Tomaš; Harris, Philip D; Bakke, Tor A; Pojmanska, Teresa; Niewiadomska, Katarzyna; Kostadinova, Aneta; Tkach, Vasyl; Bain, Odile; Durette-Desset, Marie-Claude; Gibbons, Lynda; Moravec, František; Petter, Annie; Dimitrova, Zlatka M; Buchmann, Kurt; Valtonen, E Tellervo; de Jong, Yde
Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Helminths parasitic in animals represent a large assemblage of worms, representing three phyla, with more than 200 families and almost 4,000 species of parasites from all major vertebrate and many invertebrate groups. A general introduction is given for each of the major groups of parasitic worms, i.e. the Acanthocephala, Monogenea, Trematoda (Aspidogastrea and Digenea), Cestoda and Nematoda. Basic information for each group includes its size, host-range, distribution, morphological features, life-cycle, classification, identification and recent key-works. Tabulations include a complete list of families dealt with, the number of species in each and the name of the specialist responsible for data acquisition, a list of additional specialists who helped with particular groups, and a list of higher taxa dealt with down to the family level. A compilation of useful references is appended.
Greiman, Stephen E; Tkach, Maksym; Vaughan, Jefferson A; Tkach, Vasyl V
The Digenea (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda) are a diverse and complex group of internal metazoan parasites. These parasites can serve as hosts to obligate intracellular bacteria belonging to the genus Neorickettsia (Family: Anaplasmataceae). Neorickettsiae persist within all stages of the fluke life cycle and thus are maintained through vertical transmission. However, the low prevalence of Neorickettsia in nature limits study of their transmission biology at different steps of digenean life cycles. To resolve this dilemma, we have developed for the first time a laboratory model allowing to maintain Neorickettsia sp. through the whole life cycle of a digenean, Plagiorchis elegans. The laboratory life cycle of P. elegans consists of a snail first intermediate host, Lymnaea stagnalis, an aquatic arthropod second intermediate host, Culex pipiens (mosquito larva), and a vertebrate definitive host, Mesocricetus auratus (Syrian hamster). This paper focuses on the development of the laboratory life cycle, as well as outlines its potential uses in studying the transmission biology of Neorickettsia and its evolutionary relationship within its digenean host. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Brooks, D.R.; McLennan, D.A. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))
Studies of adaptive radiations require robust phylogenies, estimates of species numbers for monophyletic groups within clades, assessments of the adaptive value of putative key innovations, and estimates of the frequency of speciation modes. Four criteria are necessary to identify an adaptive radiation within the parasitic platyhelminths: (1) a group contains significantly more species than its sister group, (2) species richness is apomorphic, (3) apomorphic traits enhance the potential for adaptively driven modes of speciation (sympatric speciation and speciation by peripheral isolation via host switching), and (4) the frequency of adaptively driven speciation modes is high within the group when compared with data from free-living groups. Only the species-rich Monogenea fulfill all four criteria. The Digenea and Eucestoda also are more species rich than their sister groups, their species richness is derived, and they possess unique characters that increase the potential for host switching to occur. However, because there is not enough information to determine whether the frequency of adaptive modes of speciation is high for those groups, we cannot yet assert that their radiations have been adaptive. 102 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
Rodrigo Junio da Graça
Full Text Available Studies with molecular markers are currently more common for all groups of living organisms. Molecular techniques used in Platyhelminthes parasites of fishes do not merely reveal complex life cycles, but are important for species distinction and the elucidation of the phylogenetic hypothesis. Current research verified which molecular markers were mainly used phylogenetic studies on Platyhelminthes parasites of fish so that subsidies for further phylogenetic studies in Icthyoparasitology could be provided. Data base of CAPES Journals platform was employed for bibliometric analysis comprising the keywords “fish” and “phylogeny” associated with “Cestoda”, “Digenea” or “Monogenea”. Information retrieved was quantified and tabulated. Most studies were on Monogenea (43%, followed by Digenea (37% and Cestoda (18%. Ribosomal molecular markers were the most used in the phylogenetic studies for fish parasites. Due to the advance of molecular biology techniques and of bioinformatics, with more robust phylogenetic analysis, the use of these techniques in other areas such as Ichytioparasitology is on the increase. In fact, molecular phylogenetics and morphological structures analysis have efficiently contributed towards the understanding of phylogenetic relationships among the groups.
Le, Thanh H; Van De, Nguyen; Blair, David; McManus, Donald P; Kino, Hideto; Agatsuma, Takeshi
Paragonimus heterotremus Chen and Hsia (1964), and paragonimiasis caused by this species is a newly detected disease in Vietnam. Twelve samples of Paragonimus (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda: Digenea: Paragonimidae) from different life-stages (eggs, miracidia, metacercariae, adults from natural and experimental hosts) and host species (crab, dog, cat and human) were collected in different geographical locations in Vietnam. DNA sequences were obtained from each for partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) (387 bp) and the entire second ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) (361 bp). The ITS-2 sequences were identical among all specimens, including those previously reported in GenBank. For cox1, there were sequence differences between specimens from Vietnam (four provinces, different locations) and those from Guangxi (China) and Saraburi (Thailand). Phylogenetic trees inferred from cox1 and ITS-2 sequences using sequence data for 15 P. heterotremus and for other Paragonimus spp. revealed that all P. heterotremus originating from Vietnam, Thailand and China form a distinct group. This information also confirms the identity of the Vietnamese specimens as P. heterotremus.
Borges, J N; Costa, V S; Mantovani, C; Barros, E; Santos, E G N; Mafra, C L; Santos, C P
Pygidiopsis macrostomum and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) pindoramensis (Digenea: Heterophyidae) parasitize guppies as intermediate hosts and, respectively, fish-eating mammals or birds as definitive hosts. Heterophyids have zoonotic potential, and molecular studies associated with morphological and ecological aspects have helped to clarify their taxonomy and phylogeny. Poecilia vivipara naturally parasitized by metacercariae of both species (100% prevalence) exhibit no external signs of parasitism. In this work, four new sequences of P. macrostomum (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA and ITS2 rDNA) and one new sequence of A. (P.) pindoramensis (mtDNA cox-1) are presented. Phylogeny reconstructions linked P. macrostomum to other heterophyids, but the separation of the Heterophyidae and Opisthorchiidae remains unclear. Additionally, we used indirect immunocytochemistry and the phalloidin-fluorescence techniques allied with confocal laser scanning microscopy to describe muscular and neuronal structures of P. macrostomum. A complex arrangement of muscular fibres is associated with the tegument, suckers, gut and reproductive system. Radial fibres around the ventral sucker are thick, branched and extend to the body wall. High-resolution confocal imaging revealed a typical digenean muscular arrangement and important heterophyid morphological traits. These data will support future control measures to reduce the parasitism in guppies reared in fish farming systems, especially for aquarium and experimental purposes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mohammad Reza Yossefi
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the helminth parasites of Natrix natrix Linnaeus, 1758 (N. natrix and Natrix tessellata Laurenti, 1768 (N. tessellate in north of Iran. Methods: Eighteen snakes including nine N. natrix and nine N. tessellata from Mazandaran Province, north of Iran were collected and examined during March 2011 to October 2011 for helminth parasites. The collected specimens were fixed and preserved in 70% ethanol. Results: All of the examined snakes (100% were infected with parasitic helminth. The list of extracted helminths both in N. natrix and N. tessellata includes one Nematode: Rhabdias fuscovenosa (larva, one Digenea: Telorchis assula and one Cestoda: Ophiotaenia europaea. The infection rate of Ophiotaenia europaea, Telorchis assula and Rhabdias fuscovenosa (larva from collected snakes were 100%, 83.3% and 61.1%, respectively. Moreover, in the current investigation the morphological characteristics of the collected helminths were described elaborately. Conclusions: This is the first survey on helminth parasites from N. tessellata in Iran and the helminthes are reported for the first time from this host in Iran.
Hoberg, Eric P.; Henny, Charles J.; Hedstrom, O.R.; Grove, Robert A.
The intestinal helminth fauna of river otters, Lutra canadensis, from the Pacific Northwest was characterized by low species richness and intensity of infection. River otters from the lower Columbia River (n = 23) were infected with 9 species of helminths (83% prevalence); those from a relatively undisturbed reference area near the headwaters of the Trask and Wilson rivers on the Oregon coast (n = 6) were infected by 5 species of helminths (100% prevalence). Single species of Eucestoda (Schistocephalus solidus), Digenea (Euparyphium inerme), Acanthocephala (Corynosoma strumosum), and 8 species of Nematoda (Strongyloides lutrae; larvae of Eustrongylides sp., Anisakis sp., and Contracaecum sp.; 3 of Cystidicolidae, and Hedruris sp.) were collected. Most species are typical of piscine definitive hosts and were present as incidental parasites of river otters. Notably, specimens of Euparyphium inerme are reported for the first time in river otters from North America; occurrence of other helminths constitutes new host or geographic records for parasites in river otters in Oregon and Washington. Parasites with marine life cycles were acquired by river otters in freshwater habitats at a great distance from the ocean. The helminth fauna of river otters in the Pacific Northwest was influenced primarily by ecological factors and was indicative of eclectic food habits and the relatively extensive home ranges occupied by these mustelids.
Żbikowska, Elżbieta; Żbikowski, Janusz
Parasite-induced changes in host's thermal preferences not only can be interpreted as a physiological defense response of the host but also can represent a pathological manifestation of the parasite. Both may become established in host-parasite relationships if they are beneficial for at least one of the counterparts. This study investigates parasite-induced changes in the thermoregulatory behavior of first intermediate hosts of Digenea (i.e. Lymnaea stagnalis and Planorbarius corneus), infected with Notocotylidae or Echinostomatidae larvae. The investigated parasite species developed different transmission strategies outside the body of a snail, which may imply a different effect on the behavior of their hosts. Notocotylus attenuatus in L. stagnalis and Notocotylus ephemera in P. corneus produce symptoms of anapyrexia, prolonging the lifespan of their hosts. By contrast, Echinoparyphium aconiatum in L. stagnalis and Echinostoma spiniferum in P. corneus interfere with defensive thermoregulatory behavior of host snails, causing their accelerated death. The results of laboratory research indicate that thermal preferences of the snails infected with all investigated trematodes facilitate the transmission of the parasites in environment.
Roumbedakis, K; Marchiori, N C; Paseto, Á; Gonçalves, E L T; Luque, J L; Cepeda, P B; Sanches, E G; Martins, M L
This study aimed at identifying and quantifying the parasites of wild and cultured dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus. During a year and thereby all four seasons, 20 wild and 20 cultured groupers were examined for the presence of parasites, except in the last season, in which 19 wild and 20 cultured fish were examined, totalling 159 groupers analysed from Ubatuba, southeastern Brazil. Prevalence, mean intensity of infection, mean abundance and mean relative dominance were calculated. Five species of parasites were identified in fish from both origins: Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae (Monogenea), Neobenedenia melleni (Monogenea), Pseudempleurosoma sp. (Monogenea), Helicometrina nimia (Digenea) and larvae of Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda). The prevalence of ectoparasites, in most cases, was higher than endoparasites. The most abundant parasite was the monogenea Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae in both wild and cultured fish, along all seasons. Neobenedenia melleni was observed in wild and cultured fish in all seasons, with a gradual increase in the number of parasites from the coldest to the hottest seasons, with the highest prevalence and mean intensity in the summer. Helicometrina nimia was found in all seasons in both wild and cultured fish, except for summer, where its presence was detected only in wild fish. Pseudempleurosoma sp. and larvae of Contracaecum sp. showed low prevalence occurring in wild and cultured fish in the autumn and spring, respectively. This study revealed high intensities of potentially pathogenic parasites that could favour disease outbreaks in culture conditions.
Saifullah, M K; Ahmad, G; Nizami, W A
The excretory/secretory (ES) metabolic products released by Gastrothylax crumenifer (Trematoda: Digenea) during in vitro incubations and the somatic extract of the adult parasite were analysed using polyacrylamide gel electro-phoresis (PAGE). Immunogenicity of ES and somatic extracts were evaluated by immunoblotting and ELISA using sera raised against ES and somatic antigens in rabbits. The electropherograms of ES and somatic extracts have been resolved into 38 and 41 polypeptides, respectively. The apparent molecular weights of these polypeptides range from 205 kDa. A total of 14 polypeptides were found to be common to both of the samples. The analysis of immunoblot results revealed 22 and 27 antigenic polypeptides in ES and somatic extracts respectively. Only 11 and 13 antigenic polypeptides were found specific to ES and tissue extract respectively. The molecular weights of these specific polypeptides were calculated to be 205 kDa for metabolic products and 205 kDa for the tissue extracts, respectively. Analysis of ELISA results revealed that a dilution of up to 1:3200 of the test sera could react with the ES product. Further, when the ES antigens were allowed to react with antisomatic extracts in hyperimmune sera the titre of IgG increased up to a dilution of 1:12800. The potential importance of these antigens in the immunodiagnosis of amphistomiasis is discussed.
Agung Cahyo Setyawan
Full Text Available Status kesehatan ikan sidat (Anguilla sp. telah dianalisis untuk menunjukkan terjadinya penurunan stok karena infeksi patogen dan penangkapan benih berlebihan untuk budidaya. Di Indonesia, ketiadaan standar penangkapan, pemeliharaan dan budidaya menyebabkan terjadinya penurunan kualitas dan kuantitas produksi ikan sidat. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi status kesehatan ikan sidat di perairan Indonesia dengan sampel dari Kabupaten Banyumas dan Cilacap, Jawa Tengah. Sampling dilakukan pada awal musim penghujan, yaitu bulan September hingga November 2012. Sebanyak 113 ekor ikan sidat ditangkap dan dianalisis dalam penelitian ini, dengan perincian 57 ekor diamati langsung setelah ditangkap dan 56 ekor diamati setelah dipelihara selama 10 hari oleh pengepul. Pengamatan dilakukan dengan metode observasi langsung menggunakan mikroskop untuk parasit, kit API 20NE (Biomeureux® untuk bakteri dan pewarnaan standar haematoxylin-eosin untuk histopatologi. Terdapat empat jenis parasit (Nematoda: Camallanidae dan Anguillicoloides; Platyhelminthes: Monogenea dan Digenea dan lima bakteri (Aeromonas hydrophylla, Pseudomonas luteola, Vibrio fluvialis, Aeromonas sobria, dan Aeromonas caviae dari sampel ikan sidat dalam penelitian ini. Tidak terdapat perbedaan dalam komposisi patogen, namun terjadi perubahan dalam kondisi histopatologi sehingga pemeliharaan sementara oleh pengepul sebelum ikan sidat dibudidayakan memiliki potensi menurunkan kualitas benih untuk budidaya.
Helminths of introduced house sparrows (Passer domesticus in Brazil: does population age affect parasite richness? Helmintos de pardais (Passer domesticus introduzidos no Brasil: a idade da população afeta a riqueza de parasitos?
Full Text Available Species introductions have altered host and parasite diversity throughout the world. In the case of introduced hosts, population age appears to be a good predictor of parasite richness. Habitat alteration is another variable that may impact host-parasite interactions by affecting the availability of intermediate hosts. The house sparrow (Passer domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758 is a good model to test these predictions. It was introduced in several parts of the world and can be found across rural-urban gradients. A total of 160 house sparrows from Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were necropsied. Thirty house sparrows (19 % were parasitized with at least one out of five helminth species (Digenea: Tamerlania inopina Freitas, 1951 and Eumegacetes sp.; Eucestoda: Choanotaenia passerina (Fuhrmann, 1907 Fuhrmann, 1932; Nematoda: Dispharynx nasuta (Rudolphi, 1819 Stiles & Hassall, 1920 and Cardiofilaria pavlovskyi Strom, 1937. Overall, there was no difference in prevalence and intensity of infection of any parasite species, parasite richness and community diversity between adult males and females and adults and juveniles. The number of infected sparrows among seasons, the richness of helminths and the abundance of species were also similar between rural and urban landscapes. Only the prevalence of C. passerina varied seasonally (p=0.0007. A decrease in the number of parasite species from the original range of P. domesticus (13 to its port of entrance in Brazil, the city of Rio de Janeiro (nine, to Porto Alegre (five is compatible with the hypothesis that host population age is a good predictor of parasite richness.A introdução de espécies tem alterado a diversidade dos parasitos e seus hospedeiros em todo o mundo. No caso dos hospedeiros introduzidos, a idade da população parece ser um bom preditor da riqueza parasitária. A alteração do habitat é outra variável que pode ter impacto sobre as interações parasito-hospedeiro, pois
Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a disease of great medical and veterinary importance in tropical and subtropical regions, caused by parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma (subclass Digenea. Following major water development schemes in the 1980s, schistosomiasis has become an important parasitic disease of children living in the Senegal River Basin (SRB. During molecular parasitological surveys, nuclear and mitochondrial markers revealed unexpected natural interactions between a bovine and human Schistosoma species: S. bovis and S. haematobium, respectively. Hybrid schistosomes recovered from the urine and faeces of children and the intermediate snail hosts of both parental species, Bulinus truncatus and B. globosus, presented a nuclear ITS rRNA sequence identical to S. haematobium, while the partial mitochondrial cox1 sequence was identified as S. bovis. Molecular data suggest that the hybrids are not 1st generation and are a result of parental and/or hybrid backcrosses, indicating a stable hybrid zone. Larval stages with the reverse genetic profile were also found and are suggested to be F1 progeny. The data provide indisputable evidence for the occurrence of bidirectional introgressive hybridization between a bovine and a human Schistosoma species. Hybrid species have been found infecting B. truncatus, a snail species that is now very abundant throughout the SRB. The recent increase in urinary schistosomiasis in the villages along the SRB could therefore be a direct effect of the increased transmission through B. truncatus. Hybridization between schistosomes under laboratory conditions has been shown to result in heterosis (higher fecundity, faster maturation time, wider intermediate host spectrum, having important implications on disease prevalence, pathology and treatment. If this new hybrid exhibits the same hybrid vigour, it could develop into an emerging pathogen, necessitating further control strategies in zones where both parental species
Complete mitochondrial genomes and nuclear ribosomal RNA operons of two species of Diplostomum (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda): a molecular resource for taxonomy and molecular epidemiology of important fish pathogens.
Brabec, Jan; Kostadinova, Aneta; Scholz, Tomáš; Littlewood, D Timothy J
The genus Diplostomum (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda: Diplostomidae) is a diverse group of freshwater parasites with complex life-cycles and global distribution. The larval stages are important pathogens causing eye fluke disease implicated in substantial impacts on natural fish populations and losses in aquaculture. However, the problematic species delimitation and difficulties in the identification of larval stages hamper the assessment of the distributional and host ranges of Diplostomum spp. and their transmission ecology. Total genomic DNA was isolated from adult worms and shotgun sequenced using Illumina MiSeq technology. Mitochondrial (mt) genomes and nuclear ribosomal RNA (rRNA) operons were assembled using established bioinformatic tools and fully annotated. Mt protein-coding genes and nuclear rRNA genes were subjected to phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood and the resulting topologies compared. We characterised novel complete mt genomes and nuclear rRNA operons of two closely related species, Diplostomum spathaceum and D. pseudospathaceum. Comparative mt genome assessment revealed that the cox1 gene and its 'barcode' region used for molecular identification are the most conserved regions; instead, nad4 and nad5 genes were identified as most promising molecular diagnostic markers. Using the novel data, we provide the first genome wide estimation of the phylogenetic relationships of the order Diplostomida, one of the two fundamental lineages of the Digenea. Analyses of the mitogenomic data invariably recovered the Diplostomidae as a sister lineage of the order Plagiorchiida rather than as a basal lineage of the Diplostomida as inferred in rDNA phylogenies; this was concordant with the mt gene order of Diplostomum spp. exhibiting closer match to the conserved gene order of the Plagiorchiida. Complete sequences of the mt genome and rRNA operon of two species of Diplostomum provide a valuable resource for novel genetic markers for species delineation and
Arnott, Stephen A; Dyková, Iva; Roumillat, William A; de Buron, Isaure
Six types of pathogenic endoparasites in an economically important fish, spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus, were studied in order to test whether prevalence of infection and assemblage richness varied with season, host sex, host size, or host age. Fish were collected from South Carolina estuaries, USA, over 12 months (n = 216; total lengths 15-663 mm). They were screened histologically for presence of Henneguya cynoscioni (Myxozoa) and Cardicola spp. (Digenea) in the heart, Kudoa inornata (Myxozoa) in the skeletal muscle, Sinuolinea dimorpha (Myxozoa) in the urinary system, Ichthyophonus sp. (Mesomycetozoea) in the kidney, and an unidentified microsporidian in the liver. Prevalence of infection was 29.8, 38.6, 47.2, 41.2, 13.6, and 2.8%, respectively. All factors had significant, but varying effects on the parasites. Parasite infections were more prevalent in winter than other seasons for Cardicola spp. and H. cynoscioni, more prevalent in winter and spring for Ichthyophonus sp., and more prevalent in male fish than female fish for K. inornata, S. dimorpha, and Ichthyophonus. Prevalence of infection by the three myxosporeans and Cardicola spp. increased with fish length, whereas prevalence of Ichthyophonus increased with length among young fish, but decreased with length among older fish. None of the factors affected the liver microsporidian, although statistical power was low due to its rareness. Assemblage richness varied between 0 and 5, was greater during winter and in male fish, and increased with fish length and fish age. Our results demonstrate that spotted seatrout are commonly co-infected by multiple pathogenic endoparasites, suggesting these parasites likely play an import role in controlling fish population numbers.
Carballo, María Cecilia; Laurenti, Sonia; Cremonte, Florencia
Proctotrema bartolii n. sp. (Digenea: Monorchiidae) is described based on naturally and experimental obtained adults from the marine fishes Odontesthes smitti (Lahille), O. nigricans (Richardson) (Atherinopsidae) and Eleginops maclovinus (Cuvier) (Eleginopidae) off Patagonia, Argentina, in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean. Its generic identification is based on the presence of a unipartite terminal organ with the metraterm uniting with its distal region, an unarmed genital atrium, a single testis, a vitellarium follicular lateral to the ovary and ventral sucker, and uterine coils occupying most of hindbody. The new species differs from P. bacilliovatum Odhner, 1911, P. amphitruncatum Fischthal & Thomas, 1969 and P. guptai Ahmad & Dhar, 1987 in having a smaller body (305-650 vs 1,600-3,080, 1,500-1,800 and 2,150-2,670 μm, respectively), a round vs funnel-shaped oral sucker, a smooth vs lobed ovary, a saccular rather than tubular excretory vesicle, the number of vitelline follicles (12-16 vs 8-9, 9 and 6-8, respectively), and wider eggs (25-31 × 15-20 vs 28-37 × 9-12, 24-28 × 7-10, and 24-30 × 8-10 μm, respectively). Moreover, the new species differs from P. bacilliovatum and P. amphitruncatum in having a saccular rather than a coiled seminal vesicle, and from P. bacilliovatum and P. guptai in having its tegument completely vs partly spined. Proctotrema Odhner, 1911 is considered to be restricted to these four species. This is the first report of a species of this genus from South American waters.
Ghatani, S; Shylla, J A; Tandon, V; Chatterjee, A; Roy, B
Members of the family Gastrothylacidae (Trematoda: Digenea: Paramphistomata) are parasitic in ruminants throughout Africa and Asia. In north-east India, five species of pouched amphistomes, namely Fischoederius cobboldi, F. elongatus, Gastrothylax crumenifer, Carmyerius spatiosus and Velasquezotrema tripurensis, belonging to this family have been reported so far. In the present study, the molecular phylogeny of these five gastrothylacid species is derived using the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) sequence and secondary structure analyses. ITS2 sequence analysis was carried out to see the occurrence of interspecific variations among the species. Phylogenetic analyses were performed for primary sequence data alone as well as the combined sequence-structure information using neighbour-joining and Bayesian approaches. The sequence analysis revealed that there exist considerable interspecific variations among the various gastrothylacid fluke species. In contrast, the inferred secondary structures for the five species using minimum free energy modelling showed structural identities, in conformity with the core four-helix domain structure that has been recently identified as common to almost all eukaryotic taxa. The phylogenetic tree reconstructed using combined sequence-structure data showed a better resolution, as compared to the one using sequence data alone, with the gastrothylacid species forming a monophyletic group that is well separated from members of the other family, Paramphistomidae, of the amphistomid flukes group. The study provides the molecular characterization based on primary sequence data of the rDNA ITS2 region of the gastrothylacid amphistome flukes. Results also demonstrate the phylogenetic utility of the ITS2 sequence-secondary structure data for inferences at higher taxonomic levels.
Young, Neil D; Hall, Ross S; Jex, Aaron R; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Gasser, Robin B
Liver flukes of animals are parasitic flatworms (Platyhelminthes: Digenea) of major socioeconomic importance in many countries. Key representatives, such as Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica, cause "liver fluke disease" (= fascioliasis), which is of major animal health significance worldwide. In particular, F. hepatica is a leading cause of production losses to the livestock (mainly sheep and cattle) and meat industries due to clinical disease, reduced weight gain and milk production, and deaths. This parasite is also a major food-borne pathogen of humans throughout parts of the Middle East, Asia and South America. Currently, there is a significant focus on the development of new approaches for the prevention and control of fascioliasis in livestock. Recent technological advances in genomics and bioinformatics provide unique opportunities for the identification and prevalidation of drug targets and vaccines through a better understanding of the biology of F. hepatica and related species as well as their relationship with their hosts at the molecular level. Surprisingly, despite the widespread socioeconomic impact of fascioliasis, genomic datasets for F. hepatica are scant, limiting the molecular biological research of this parasite. The present article explores specifically the transcriptome of the adult stage of F. hepatica using an integrated genomic-bioinformatic platform. The analysis of the current data reveals numerous molecules of biological relevance, some of which are inferred to be involved in key biological processes or pathways that could serve as targets for new trematocidal drugs or vaccines. Improved insights into the transcriptome of F. hepatica should pave the way for future, comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of other developmental stages of this and related parasites, such as F. gigantica, cancer-causing flatworms (Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini) and blood flukes (Schistosoma mansoni and S. japonicum). Prediction of the
Fauna parasitária de cachara Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Siluriforme: Pimelodidae do rio Aquidauana, Pantanal Sul Mato-grossense, Brasil = Parasitic fauna of cachara Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Siluriforme: Pimelodidae from the Aquidauana river, in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil
Cristiane Meldau de Campos
Full Text Available Neste trabalho, são apresentados dados de abundância média, prevalência e intensidade média de parasitismo, em 34 espécimes de Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, popularmente conhecidos como cacharas, capturados nos meses de março, setembro e novembro de 2003, outubro de 2004 e outubro de 2005, com tarrafas e redes de espera, norio Aquidauana. Todos os indivíduos amostrados encontravam-se parasitados. Dezenove espécies de parasitos foram identificadas, sendo sete cestodas proteocefalídeos, três monogêneas, um digenea, três nematodas, um acantocéfalo, um crustáceo, um pentastomídeo e duas espécies de mixosporídeos. As espécies de cestóides, Harriscolexkaparari e Megathylacus travassosi são registradas pela primeira vez para P. fasciatum, capturados no rio Aquidauana. Os monogêneas foram os helmintos que apresentaram maior prevalência (100%, seguidos pelos cestodas (91,18% e nematodas (58,82%.In this work are presented data for mean abundance, prevalence and mean intensity of infection in 34 specimens of Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, commonly called cacharas. Fish were captured using nets in the Aquidauana river during March, September and November 2003, October 2004 and October 2005. All analyzed fish were infected.Nineteen species of parasites were collected – seven of them were proteocephalid cestodes, three monogeneans, one species of digeneans, three nematodes, one acanthocephalan, one crustacean, one pentastomid and two species of myxosporeans. The first records of Harriscolex kaparari and Megathylacus travassosi in P. fasciatum in the Aquidauana river were observed. Monogeneans featured the highest prevalence (100%, followed by cestodes (91.18% and nematodes (58.82%.
Fauna parasitária de cachara Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Siluriforme: Pimelodidae do rio Aquidauana, Pantanal Sul Mato-grossense, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i1.1469 Parasitic fauna of cachara Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Siluriforme: Pimelodidae from the Aquidauana River, in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i1.1469
Flávio Ruas de Moraes
Full Text Available Neste trabalho, são apresentados dados de abundância média, prevalência e intensidade média de parasitismo, em 34 espécimes de Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, popularmente conhecidos como cacharas, capturados nos meses de março, setembro e novembro de 2003, outubro de 2004 e outubro de 2005, com tarrafas e redes de espera, no rio Aquidauana. Todos os indivíduos amostrados encontravam-se parasitados. Dezenove espécies de parasitos foram identificadas, sendo sete cestodas proteocefalídeos, três monogêneas, um digenea, três nematodas, um acantocéfalo, um crustáceo, um pentastomídeo e duas espécies de mixosporídeos. As espécies de cestóides, Harriscolex kaparari e Megathylacus travassosi são registradas pela primeira vez para P. fasciatum, capturados no rio Aquidauana. Os monogêneas foram os helmintos que apresentaram maior prevalência (100%, seguidos pelos cestodas (91,18% e nematodas (58,82%In this work are presented data for mean abundance, prevalence and mean intensity of infection in 34 specimens of Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, commonly called cacharas. Fish were captured using nets in the Aquidauana River during March, September and November 2003, October 2004 and October 2005. All analyzed fish were infected. Nineteen species of parasites were collected – seven of them were proteocephalid cestodes, three monogeneans, one species of digeneans, three nematodes, one acanthocephalan, one crustacean, one pentastomid and two species of myxosporeans. The first records of Harriscolex kaparari and Megathylacus travassosi in P. fasciatum in the Aquidauana River were observed. Monogeneans featured the highest prevalence (100%, followed by cestodes (91.18% and nematodes (58.82%
Full Text Available A quantitative research of parasites of 67 endemic frog Telmatobius jelskii (Peters, 1863 collected from Laguna Tucto (76°46'11"W, 10°39'11"S where Pativilca River is originated was conducted, and was located in the Province of Oyon, high Andean area from the Department of Lima, Peru during September-October 2000. Of the frogs collected, 23 were females and 44 males. Male showed a length between 5.2 ± 0.5 cm (range = 4.0-6.4 cm and female between 5.5 ± 1 cm (range = 3.9-7.6 cm and were not found differences between both sexes. 86 specimens of parasite and three species in total during all the survey were collected. 28 hosts were infected (41.8%. twenty-five hosts (37.3% showed infection with one parasite species, and three (4.5% had two parasite species. Three parasite species were found: Gorgoderina parvicava Travassos, 1922 (Digenea: Gorgoderidae (Prevalence = 40.3%; mean Intensity = 3.1; mean abundance = 1.2, Cylindrotaenia americana Jewell, 1916 (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae (Prevalence = 3%; mean Intensity = 1; mean abundance = 0.02 and Aplectana hylambatis (Baylis, 1927 (Nematoda: Cosmocercidae (Prevalence = 3%; mean Intensity = 1; mean abundance = 0.02. G. parvicava had an overdispersed distribution and was the dominant species. An effect of sex and length with prevalence and mean abundance of infection of G. parvicava was not found. The relationship of helminthes parasites with T. jelskii is discussed. G. parvicava and C. americana are new records for T. jelskii.
Huyse, Tine; Webster, Bonnie L; Geldof, Sarah; Stothard, J Russell; Diaw, Oumar T; Polman, Katja; Rollinson, David
Schistosomiasis is a disease of great medical and veterinary importance in tropical and subtropical regions, caused by parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma (subclass Digenea). Following major water development schemes in the 1980s, schistosomiasis has become an important parasitic disease of children living in the Senegal River Basin (SRB). During molecular parasitological surveys, nuclear and mitochondrial markers revealed unexpected natural interactions between a bovine and human Schistosoma species: S. bovis and S. haematobium, respectively. Hybrid schistosomes recovered from the urine and faeces of children and the intermediate snail hosts of both parental species, Bulinus truncatus and B. globosus, presented a nuclear ITS rRNA sequence identical to S. haematobium, while the partial mitochondrial cox1 sequence was identified as S. bovis. Molecular data suggest that the hybrids are not 1st generation and are a result of parental and/or hybrid backcrosses, indicating a stable hybrid zone. Larval stages with the reverse genetic profile were also found and are suggested to be F1 progeny. The data provide indisputable evidence for the occurrence of bidirectional introgressive hybridization between a bovine and a human Schistosoma species. Hybrid species have been found infecting B. truncatus, a snail species that is now very abundant throughout the SRB. The recent increase in urinary schistosomiasis in the villages along the SRB could therefore be a direct effect of the increased transmission through B. truncatus. Hybridization between schistosomes under laboratory conditions has been shown to result in heterosis (higher fecundity, faster maturation time, wider intermediate host spectrum), having important implications on disease prevalence, pathology and treatment. If this new hybrid exhibits the same hybrid vigour, it could develop into an emerging pathogen, necessitating further control strategies in zones where both parental species overlap.
Élica A. C. Guedes
Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation on the cytotoxic activity in human tumor cell from dichloromethane, chloroform, methanol, ethanol, water extracts, and hexane and chloroform fractions from green, brown and red algae collected at Riacho Doce Beach, north coast of Alagoas, Brazil, against the cancer cells K562 (chronic myelocytic leukemia, HEp-2 (laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma and NCI-H292 (human lung mucoepidermoid carcinoma through the MTT colorimetric method. The dichloromethane extract and chloroform fraction of Hypnea musciformis showed the best cytotoxic activity against K562 (3.8±0.2 µg.mL-1 and 6.4±0.4 µg.mL-1, respectively. Dichloromethane extracts of Dictyota dichotoma (16.3±0.3 µg.mL-1 and the chloroform fraction of H. musciformis (6.0±0.03 µg.mL-1 and chloroform fraction of P. gymnospora (8.2±0.4 were more active against HEp-2 as well as ethanol extracts of P. gymnospora (15.9±2.8 µg.mL-1 and chloroform fraction of H. musciformis (15.0±1.3 µg.mL-1 against the cell NCI-H292. The constituents with higher anticancer action are present in the extracts of dichloromethane and chloroform and in the chloroform fraction of H. musciformis, Digenea simplex, P. gymnospora, and D.dichotoma. In the case of the seaweed S. vulgare, the anticancer constituents are present in the aqueous extract.
Full Text Available European eel parasites, in particular invasive species, are suspected to play a role in the decline in the populations of their host. The aims of this work were to describe the parasitic fauna of eels in French Mediterranean lagoons and to study the epidemiological trends of the invasive helminth species, the nematode Anguillicola crassus and the monogenean Pseudodactylogyrus spp., in regard to spatio-temporal dynamics, host biological characteristics and parasite community. A total of 418 eels was sampled in eight lagoons between March 2003 and June 2005. Our results revealed a total macroparasite richness of 23 species: 1 Monogenea, 13 Digenea, 2 Cestoda, 3 Nematoda, 2 Acantocephala and 2 Crustacea. We found no variation in A. crassus abundance in Salses-Leucate lagoon in the same month across years. However, the nematode abundance was higher in eels caught in summer than in those caught in winter. Pseudodactylogyrus sp. was not found in Salses-Leucate lagoon, except in July 2004. Comparisons between the lagoons on the same date showed that they could be separated into two groups for both species' abundance: Grau-du-Roi, Mauguio, Palavas and Vaccarès lagoons, where abundance was rather high, against Bages-Sigean, Pierre-Blanche, Salses-Leucate and Thau lagoons, where abundance was rather low or nil. We found significant negative relationships between A. crassus abundance and the length and age of eels. We also found a significant positive relationship between A. crassus and Pseudodactylogyrus sp. abundance. Finally, our results showed significant positive relationships between both A. crassus and Pseudodactylogyrus sp. abundance and the abundance of the digeneans Prosorhynchus aculeatus and Lecithochirium gravidum. We discuss the results in regard to the dynamics of invasions, the characteristics of the parasite life cycles and the ecology of eels.
Full Text Available We investigated the helminth fauna of small mammals (Rodentia and Insectivora in the mediterranean island of Elba (Italy. We first performed a survey of the parasitic helminths of Rattus rattus (L., 1758, Mus domesticus (Schwarz & Schwarz, 1943 (Rodentia, Murinae, Crocidura suaveolens (Pallas, 1811 (Insectivora, Soricidae and Erinaceus europaeus L., 1758 (Insectivora, Erinaceidae. An expedition was undertaken in January 2002 making an helminth faunistic study of: 14 R. rattus; 11 M. domesticus; 2 C. suaveolens and 1 E. europaeus. A total of 28 animals were trapped at seven stations and nine helminth species were detected: Corrigia vitta Dujardin, 1845 (Dicrocoelidae, Brachylaima erinacei Blanchard, 1847 (Brachylaimidae [Digenea]; Hymenolepis diminuta (Rudolphi, 1819; H. tiara (Dujardin, 1845 (Cestoda, Hymenolepididae; Aonchotheca erinacei Rudolphi, 1819; Capillaria hepatica Bancroft, 1893 (Trichuridae; Mastophorus muris (Gmelin, 1790 (Spirocercidae; Paracrenosoma kontrimavinchusi Guenov, 1978 (Metastrongylidae; Syphacia muris (Yamaguti, 1935 (Oxyuridae [Nematoda]. The house mice were not infected by helminths. In the black rat, five species were detected: C. vitta, H. diminuta, C. hepaticum, M. muris and S. muris. Insectivores hosts were parasitised by B. erinacei, A. erinacei (E. europaeus, H. tiara and P. kontrimavinchusi (C. suaveolens. All species were identified by morphological characteristics and in the cases of H. diminuta and M. muris isozyme electrophoresis were used to compare with continental and insular samples. Helminths found in these hosts in Elba Island (apart of P. kontrimavinchusi are the best colonisers of mediterranean islands. These species were
Longo, G. O.; Morais, R. A.; Martins, C. D. L.; Mendes, T. C.; Aued, A. W.; Cândido, D. V.; de Oliveira, J. C.; Nunes, L. T.; Fontoura, L.; Sissini, M. N.; Teschima, M. M.; Silva, M. B.; Ramlov, F.; Gouvea, L. P.; Ferreira, C. E. L.; Segal, B.; Horta, P. A.; Floeter, S. R.
The Southwestern Atlantic harbors unique and relatively understudied reef systems, including the only atoll in South Atlantic: Rocas atoll. Located 230 km off the NE Brazilian coast, Rocas is formed by coralline red algae and vermetid mollusks, and is potentially one of the most “pristine” areas in Southwestern Atlantic. We provide the first comprehensive and integrative description of the fish and benthic communities inhabiting different shallow reef habitats of Rocas. We studied two contrasting tide pool habitats: open pools, which communicate with the open ocean even during low tides, thus more exposed to wave action; and closed pools, which remain isolated during low tide and are comparatively less exposed. Reef fish assemblages, benthic cover, algal turfs and fish feeding pressure on the benthos remarkably varied between open and closed pools. The planktivore Thalassoma noronhanum was the most abundant fish species in both habitats. In terms of biomass, the lemon shark Negaprion brevirostris and the omnivore Melichtys niger were dominant in open pools, while herbivorous fishes (mainly Acanthurus spp.) prevailed in closed pools. Overall benthic cover was dominated by algal turfs, composed of articulated calcareous algae in open pools and non-calcified algae in closed pools. Feeding pressure was dominated by acanthurids and was 10-fold lower in open pools than in closed pools. Besides different wave exposure conditions, such pattern could also be related to the presence of sharks in open pools, prompting herbivorous fish to feed more in closed pools. This might indirectly affect the structure of reef fish assemblages and benthic communities. The macroalgae Digenea simplex, which is uncommon in closed pools and abundant in the reef flat, was highly preferred in herbivory assays, indicating that herbivory by fishes might be shaping this distribution pattern. The variations in benthic and reef fish communities, and feeding pressure on the benthos between open
G O Longo
Full Text Available The Southwestern Atlantic harbors unique and relatively understudied reef systems, including the only atoll in South Atlantic: Rocas atoll. Located 230 km off the NE Brazilian coast, Rocas is formed by coralline red algae and vermetid mollusks, and is potentially one of the most "pristine" areas in Southwestern Atlantic. We provide the first comprehensive and integrative description of the fish and benthic communities inhabiting different shallow reef habitats of Rocas. We studied two contrasting tide pool habitats: open pools, which communicate with the open ocean even during low tides, thus more exposed to wave action; and closed pools, which remain isolated during low tide and are comparatively less exposed. Reef fish assemblages, benthic cover, algal turfs and fish feeding pressure on the benthos remarkably varied between open and closed pools. The planktivore Thalassoma noronhanum was the most abundant fish species in both habitats. In terms of biomass, the lemon shark Negaprion brevirostris and the omnivore Melichtys niger were dominant in open pools, while herbivorous fishes (mainly Acanthurus spp. prevailed in closed pools. Overall benthic cover was dominated by algal turfs, composed of articulated calcareous algae in open pools and non-calcified algae in closed pools. Feeding pressure was dominated by acanthurids and was 10-fold lower in open pools than in closed pools. Besides different wave exposure conditions, such pattern could also be related to the presence of sharks in open pools, prompting herbivorous fish to feed more in closed pools. This might indirectly affect the structure of reef fish assemblages and benthic communities. The macroalgae Digenea simplex, which is uncommon in closed pools and abundant in the reef flat, was highly preferred in herbivory assays, indicating that herbivory by fishes might be shaping this distribution pattern. The variations in benthic and reef fish communities, and feeding pressure on the benthos
Longo, G O; Morais, R A; Martins, C D L; Mendes, T C; Aued, A W; Cândido, D V; de Oliveira, J C; Nunes, L T; Fontoura, L; Sissini, M N; Teschima, M M; Silva, M B; Ramlov, F; Gouvea, L P; Ferreira, C E L; Segal, B; Horta, P A; Floeter, S R
The Southwestern Atlantic harbors unique and relatively understudied reef systems, including the only atoll in South Atlantic: Rocas atoll. Located 230 km off the NE Brazilian coast, Rocas is formed by coralline red algae and vermetid mollusks, and is potentially one of the most "pristine" areas in Southwestern Atlantic. We provide the first comprehensive and integrative description of the fish and benthic communities inhabiting different shallow reef habitats of Rocas. We studied two contrasting tide pool habitats: open pools, which communicate with the open ocean even during low tides, thus more exposed to wave action; and closed pools, which remain isolated during low tide and are comparatively less exposed. Reef fish assemblages, benthic cover, algal turfs and fish feeding pressure on the benthos remarkably varied between open and closed pools. The planktivore Thalassoma noronhanum was the most abundant fish species in both habitats. In terms of biomass, the lemon shark Negaprion brevirostris and the omnivore Melichtys niger were dominant in open pools, while herbivorous fishes (mainly Acanthurus spp.) prevailed in closed pools. Overall benthic cover was dominated by algal turfs, composed of articulated calcareous algae in open pools and non-calcified algae in closed pools. Feeding pressure was dominated by acanthurids and was 10-fold lower in open pools than in closed pools. Besides different wave exposure conditions, such pattern could also be related to the presence of sharks in open pools, prompting herbivorous fish to feed more in closed pools. This might indirectly affect the structure of reef fish assemblages and benthic communities. The macroalgae Digenea simplex, which is uncommon in closed pools and abundant in the reef flat, was highly preferred in herbivory assays, indicating that herbivory by fishes might be shaping this distribution pattern. The variations in benthic and reef fish communities, and feeding pressure on the benthos between open and
Münster, Julian; Kochmann, Judith; Klimpel, Sven; Klapper, Regina; Kuhn, Thomas
The extreme, isolated environment within the Antarctic Convergence has fuelled the evolution of a highly endemic fauna with unique adaptations. One species known from this area is the Whitson's grenadier Macrourus whitsoni (Regan, 1913). While closely related species occurring in the Northern Hemisphere were targets of a variety of studies, knowledge on M. whitsoni is scarce, including not only its ecology but also its parasite fauna. Parasites, an often overlooked but important component of every ecosystem, can provide important insights into host ecology, including feeding habits, food web interactions and distribution patterns. The aim of our study was to increase the currently limited knowledge on the ecology of M. whitsoni and its parasite life-cycles. In this study, parasite fauna and stomach content of 50 specimens of M. whitsoni were sampled off Elephant and King George Islands. Fish samples were morphological, food ecological and parasitological examined and parasites morphological and partly molecular identified. To evaluate the findings, results were compared with other macrourid species. The parasite fauna of M. whitsoni revealed 9 genera and 17 species. Stomach content analysis indicated Amphipoda and Mysida as the primary food source. Considering the parasites of M. whitsoni, the highest diversity was found within the Digenea, while prevalence was highest for the Acanthocephala and Nematoda. The diverse parasite fauna of M. whitsoni together with the stomach content analysis, suggests a benthopelagic mode of life. Furthermore, an extensive evaluation of the parasite fauna of species of the Macrourinae was conducted, which is probably the most thorough one yet, to compare the findings with closely related host fish species. A similarity analysis revealed a strong connection between the parasite fauna composition and geographical distribution, with a clear separation between the parasite faunas in fishes sampled in the Pacific and the Atlantic Oceans
Zander, C. D.; Strohbach, U.; Groenewold, S.
The parasite fauna of five goby species (Gobiidae, Teleostei) was investigated in the Baltic Sea during the period 1987 to 1990. 13 parasite species were found in samples from the Lübeck Bight: Bothriocephalus scorpii, Schistocephalus sp. (Cestoda); Cryptocotyle concavum, Cryptocotyle lingua, Podocotyle atomon, Derogenes varicus (Digenea); Hysterothylacium sp. (cf. auctum), Contracaecum sp., Anisakis simplex (Nematoda); Corynosoma sp., Echinorhynchus gadi, Neoechinorhynchus rutili, Pomphorhynchus laevis (Acanthocephala). The number of parasite species were: 10 in the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus, 8 in the black goby Gobius niger, 7 in the two-spotted goby Gobiusculus flavescens, 6 in the common goby Pomatoschistus microps, and 5 in the painted goby Pomatoschistus pictus. Neoechinorhynchus rutili occurred only in P. minutus, and Corynosoma sp. only in G. niger. The extent to which the gobies were parasitized clearly depended on the respective ways of life and, moreover, on the kind of prey ingested by the hosts. Additionally, the age of the hosts might be important. The highest rate of parasitism, more than 60%, was reached by Hysterothylacium sp. in G. niger and by Cryptocotyle concavum in P. microps. Infestation incidence lay mostly below 40% which means a satellite species status (Holmes, 1991). The number of parasite species was highest in summer; the highest intensities of single parasites occurred in spring ( Podocotyle atomon) or autumn ( Crytocotyle concavum). Bothriocephalus scorpii, Hysterothylacium sp. and Podocotyle infested their juvenile hosts very early, but only Hysterothylacium was accumulated by G. niger during its whole life span, whereas Bothriocephalus persisted also in older gobies in low intensities. The cercariae of Cryptocotyle spp. penetrate actively into their hosts; all the other parasites named were transmitted in larval form by prey organisms which consisted mainly of planktonic and benthic crustaceans. The gobies were final hosts
Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Elango, Gandhi; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Marimuthu, Sampath; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram
The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane, and methanol dried leaf, flower, and seed extracts of Cassia auriculata L., Rhinacanthus nasutus KURZ., Solanum torvum Swartz, Terminalia chebula Retz., and Vitex negundo Linn. were tested against larvae of cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae), adult of Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann, 1897 (Acarina: Ixodidae), hematophagous fly Hippobosca maculata Leach (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), nymph of goat-lice Damalinia caprae Gurlt (Trichodectidae), and adult sheep parasite Paramphistomum cervi Zeder, 1790 (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plant extracts showed moderate parasitic effects after 24 h of exposure at 3,000 ppm; however, the highest parasite mortality was found in leaf ethyl acetate, flower methanol of C. auriculata, leaf and seed methanol of S. torvum, seed acetone of T. chebula, and leaf hexane extracts of V. negundo against the larvae of R. microplus (LC(50) = 335.48, 309.21, 297.43, 414.99, 167.20, and 611.67 ppm; LC(90) = 1571.58, 1111.82, 950.98, 1243.64, 595.31, and 1875.50 ppm), the leaf and flower methanol of R. nasutus, leaf and seed methanol of S. torvum, and seed methanol extracts of T. chebula against the nymph of D. caprae (LC(50) = 119.26,143.10,164.93,140.47, and 155.98 ppm; LC(90) = 356.77, 224.08, 546.20, 479.72, and 496.06 ppm), the leaf methanol of R. nasutus, leaf and seed methanol of S.torvum, and seed acetone of T. chebula against the adult of H. bispinosa (LC(50) = 333.15, 328.98, 312.28, and 186.46 ppm; LC(90) = 1056.07, 955.39, 946.63, and 590.76 ppm), the leaf methanol of C. auriculata, the leaf and flower methanol of R. nasutus, the leaf ethyl acetate of S. torvum against the H. maculata (LC(50) = 303.36, 177.21, 204.58, and 211.41 ppm; LC(90) = 939.90, 539.39, 599.43, and 651.90 ppm), and the leaf acetone of C. auriculata, the flower methanol
Ostrovsky, Andrew N; Lidgard, Scott; Gordon, Dennis P; Schwaha, Thomas; Genikhovich, Grigory; Ereskovsky, Alexander V
Matrotrophy, the continuous extra-vitelline supply of nutrients from the parent to the progeny during gestation, is one of the masterpieces of nature, contributing to offspring fitness and often correlated with evolutionary diversification. The most elaborate form of matrotrophy-placentotrophy-is well known for its broad occurrence among vertebrates, but the comparative distribution and structural diversity of matrotrophic expression among invertebrates is wanting. In the first comprehensive analysis of matrotrophy across the animal kingdom, we report that regardless of the degree of expression, it is established or inferred in at least 21 of 34 animal phyla, significantly exceeding previous accounts and changing the old paradigm that these phenomena are infrequent among invertebrates. In 10 phyla, matrotrophy is represented by only one or a few species, whereas in 11 it is either not uncommon or widespread and even pervasive. Among invertebrate phyla, Platyhelminthes, Arthropoda and Bryozoa dominate, with 162, 83 and 53 partly or wholly matrotrophic families, respectively. In comparison, Chordata has more than 220 families that include or consist entirely of matrotrophic species. We analysed the distribution of reproductive patterns among and within invertebrate phyla using recently published molecular phylogenies: matrotrophy has seemingly evolved at least 140 times in all major superclades: Parazoa and Eumetazoa, Radiata and Bilateria, Protostomia and Deuterostomia, Lophotrochozoa and Ecdysozoa. In Cycliophora and some Digenea, it may have evolved twice in the same life cycle. The provisioning of developing young is associated with almost all known types of incubation chambers, with matrotrophic viviparity more widespread (20 phyla) than brooding (10 phyla). In nine phyla, both matrotrophic incubation types are present. Matrotrophy is expressed in five nutritive modes, of which histotrophy and placentotrophy are most prevalent. Oophagy, embryophagy and
Full Text Available Bu araştırmada, karagöz istavrit balığının, Trachurus trachurus (L., 1758 digenea parazitleri Türkiye’nin Karadeniz kıyısıında ilk kez araştırıldı. Balıklar 1 yıl boyunca Sinop’taki yerel balıkçılardan temin edildi. Toplam 256 adet istavrit balığının boyları ve ağırlıkları ölçüldü, ardından dijital kamera (DP50 ile donatılmış Olympus (BX53 marka bir mikroskop altında rutin parazitolojik metotlar kullanılarak parazitleri tanımlandı. Solungaç, yutak, vücut boşluğu ve iç organlar (mide, bağırsak, karaciğer, yüzme kesesi ve gonadlar incelendi. Bulunan parazitler yaygın olarak uygulanan yöntemler kullanılarak fikse edildi ve saklandı. Ergin Prodistomum polonii (Molin 1879 Bray ve Gibson 1990, Ectenurus lepidus Looss, 1907, Monascus filiformis (Rudolphi, 1819 Looss, 1907, Lasiotocus typicus (Nicoll, 1912 ve metaserker Stephanostomum cesticillum (Molin, 1858 Looss, 1899 olmak üzere toplam beş tür tespit edildi. Her bir parazit türü sayıldı ve onların enfeksiyon oranı (% ile enfekte balık başına ortalama parazit sayısı Bush ve ark. (1997 göre belirlendi. İki boy sınıfındaki parazit yükü arasındaki fark MannWhitney U testi ile test edildi. Tüm istatistiksel testler %5 önem seviyesine göre değerlendirildi. İncelenen balıkların tamamındaki enfeksiyon oranı %48.8 ve enfekte balık başına ortalama parazit sayısı ise 3.78±0.34 olarak hesaplandı. Bu veriler Türkiye’nin Karadeniz kıyısından yakalanan karagöz istavrit balığı için bir ilktir. Lasiotocus typicus ve Stephanostomum cesticillum türleri Türkiye parazit faunası için yeni kayıttırlar