WorldWideScience

Sample records for hap-containing vapors displaced

  1. Displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosonen, Risto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Mundt, Elisabeth

    The aim of this Guidebook is to give the state-of-the art knowledge of the displacement ventilation technology, and to simplify and improve the practical design procedure. The Guidebook discusses methods of total volume ventilation by mixing ventilation and displacement ventilation and it gives...... insights of the performance of the displacement ventilation. It also shows practical case studies in some typical applications and the latest research findings to create good local micro-climatic conditions....

  2. Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    Displacement ventilation is an interesting new type of air distribution principle which should be considered in connection with design of comfort ventilation in both smal1 and large spaces. Research activities on displacement ventilation are large all over the world and new knowledge of design...... methods appears continuously. This book gives an easy introduction to the basis of displacement ventilation and the chapters are written in the order which is used in a design procedure. The main text is extended by five appendices which show some of the new research activities taking place at Aalborg...

  3. Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Mattsson, Magnus; Sandberg, Mats

    Full-scale experiments were made in a displacement ventilated room with two breathing thermal manikins to study the effect of movements and breathing on the vertical contaminant distribution, and on the personal exposure of occupants. Concentrations were measured with tracer gas equipment...

  4. Displacing use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Janet; Matthews, Ben

    2014-01-01

    -centred design process. We identified alternative design-relevant relationships between people and devices that are not specifically tied to the functions/uses of the devices, e.g. relationships between the healthcare professional and the device, between doctors and patients, and between patients and their own......This paper critically discusses the concept of use in design, suggesting that relevant relationships other than use are sometimes obscured by the usercentredness of design processes. We present a design case from the medical device domain that displaced the concept of use from the centre of a human...

  5. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    We use a detailed employer-employee data set matched with detailed crime information (timing of crime, fines, convictions, crime type) to estimate the impact of job loss on an individual's probability to commit crime. We focus on job losses due to displacement, i.e. job losses in firms losing...... a substantial share of their workers, for workers with at least three years of tenure. Displaced workers are more likely to commit offenses leading to conviction (probation, prison terms) for property crimes and for alcohol-related traffic violations in the two years following displacement. We find no evidence...... that displaced workers' propensity to commit crime is higher than non-displaced workers before the displacement event; but it is significantly higher afterwards. Displacement impacts crime over and above what is explained by earnings losses and weeks of unemployment following displacement....

  6. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    theory of crime. Marital dissolution is more likely post-displacement, and we find small intra-family externalities of adult displacement on younger family members’ crime. The impact of displacement on crime is stronger in municipalities with higher capital and labor income inequalities....

  7. Mobile vapor recovery and vapor scavenging unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, C.A.; Steppe, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a mobile anti- pollution apparatus, for the recovery of hydrocarbon emissions. It comprises a mobile platform upon which is mounted a vapor recovery unit for recovering vapors including light hydrocarbons, the vapor recovery unit having an inlet and an outlet end, the inlet end adapted for coupling to an external source of hydrocarbon vapor emissions to recover a portion of the vapors including light hydrocarbons emitted therefrom, and the outlet end adapted for connection to a means for conveying unrecovered vapors to a vapor scavenging unit, the vapor scavenging unit comprising an internal combustion engine adapted for utilizing light hydrocarbon in the unrecovered vapors exiting from the vapor recovery unit as supplemental fuel

  8. Displacement data assimilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, W. Steven [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Venkataramani, Shankar [Department of Mathematics and Program in Applied Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Mariano, Arthur J. [Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33149 (United States); Restrepo, Juan M., E-mail: restrepo@math.oregonstate.edu [Department of Mathematics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We show that modifying a Bayesian data assimilation scheme by incorporating kinematically-consistent displacement corrections produces a scheme that is demonstrably better at estimating partially observed state vectors in a setting where feature information is important. While the displacement transformation is generic, here we implement it within an ensemble Kalman Filter framework and demonstrate its effectiveness in tracking stochastically perturbed vortices.

  9. Petroleum Vapor Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    One type of vapor intrusion is PVI, in which vapors from petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel enter a building. Intrusion of contaminant vapors into indoor spaces is of concern.

  10. Displacer Diameter Effect in Displacer Pulse Tube Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shaowei

    2017-12-01

    Gas driving displacer pulse tube refrigerators are one of the work recovery type of pulse tube refrigerators whose theoretical efficiency is the same as Stirling refrigerators'. Its cooling power is from the displacement of the displacer. Displace diameter, rod diameter and pressure drop of the regenerator influence the displacement, which are investigated by numerical simulation. It is shown that the displacement ratio of the displacer over the piston is almost not affected by the displacer diameter at the same rod diameter ratio, or displacer with different diameters almost has the same performance.

  11. Water displacement mercury pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1984-04-20

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  12. Internal Displacement: Livelihood saving responses

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Hines

    2001-01-01

    Deborah Hines explores how to assist the internally displaced and those prone to displacement. She considers the major causes of internal displacement, making the case for a more comprehensive set of policy and operational actions in response to situations of internal displacement. Development (2001) 44, 34–39. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1110289

  13. Displacement compressors - acceptance tests

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    ISO 1217:2009 specifies methods for acceptance tests regarding volume rate of flow and power requirements of displacement compressors. It also specifies methods for testing liquid-ring type compressors and the operating and testing conditions which apply when a full performance test is specified.

  14. Piezoelectric displacement in ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.; Cain, M.; Gee, M.

    1999-01-01

    This Good Practice Guide is intended to aid a user to perform displacement measurements on piezoelectric ceramic materials such as PZT (lead zirconium titanate) in either monolithic or multilayer form. The various measurement issues that the user must consider are addressed, and good measurement practise is described for the four most suitable methods. (author)

  15. Recovery of metal chlorides from their complexes by molten salt displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Stoltz, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a process for recovering zirconium or hafnium chloride from a complex of zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride and phosphorus oxychloride. The process comprising: introducing liquid complex of zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride and phosphorus oxychloride into an upper portion of a feed column containing zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride vapor and phosphorus oxychloride vapor. The liquid complex absorbing zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride vapor and producing a bottoms liquid and also producing a phosphorus oxychloride vapor stripped of zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride; introducing the bottoms liquid into a molten salt containing displacement reactor, the reactor containing molten salt comprising at least 30 mole percent lithium chloride and at least 30 mole percent of at least one other alkali metal chloride, the reactor being heated to 30-450 0 C to displace phosphorus oxychloride from the complex and product zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride vapor and phosphorus oxychloride vapor and zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride-containing molten salt; introducing the zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride vapor and the phosphorus oxychloride vapor into the feed column below the point of introduction of the liquid stream; introducing the zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride containing-molten salt into a recovery vessel where zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride is removed from the molten salt to produce zirconium or hafnium tetrachloride product and zirconium or hafnium chloride-depleted molten salt; and recycling the zirconium or hafnium tetachloride-depleted molten salt to the displacement reactor

  16. Fuel vapor pressure (FVAPRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.E.

    1979-04-01

    A subcode (FVAPRS) is described which calculates fuel vapor pressure. This subcode was developed as part of the fuel rod behavior modeling task performed at EG and G Idaho, Inc. The fuel vapor pressure subcode (FVAPRS), is presented and a discussion of literature data, steady state and transient fuel vapor pressure equations and estimates of the standard error of estimate to be expected with the FVAPRS subcode are included

  17. Control rod displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazato, S.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor including a core, cylindrical control rods, a single support means supporting the control rods from their upper ends in spaced apart positions and movable for displacing the control rods in their longitudinal direction between a first end position in which the control rods are fully inserted into the core and a second end position in which the control rods are retracted from the core, and guide means contacting discrete regions of the outer surface of each control rod at least when the control rods are in the vicinity of the second end position. The control rods are supported by the support means for longitudinal movement without rotation into and out of the core relative to the guide means to thereby cause the outer surface of the control rods to experience wear as a result of sliding contact with the guide means. The support means are so arranged with respect to the core and the guide means that it is incapable of rotation relative to the guide means. The improvement comprises displacement means being operatively coupled to a respective one of the control rods for periodically rotating the control rod in a single angular direction through an angle selected to change the locations on the outer surfaces of the control rods at which the control rods are contacted by the guide means during subsequent longitudinal movement of the control rods

  18. Interaction of water vapor with erbium and erbium dideuteride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, D.M.; Swartz, W.E. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The reaction of water vapor with erbium and erbium dideuteride thin films was studied by x-ray diffraction, mass spectrometry and Auger electron spectroscopy. The data indicate that significant reactions take place above 573 K forming both the hydride and the oxide. The data also indicate that isotopic displacement occurs. These are important considerations in hydrogen storage applications

  19. Displaced Sense: Displacement, Religion and Sense-making

    OpenAIRE

    Naidu, Maheshvari

    2016-01-01

    Whether formally categorized as refugees or not, displaced migrants experience varying degrees of vulnerability in relation to where they find themselves displaced. The internally displaced furthermore squat invisibly and outside the boundaries of the legal framework and incentive structures accorded to those classified as 'refugee'. They are thus arguably, by and large, left to source sustaining solutions for themselves. This article works through the theoretical prism of sense-making theory...

  20. Displacing the Patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard

    as an affective care recipient, as a citizen with rights and as an individual need-oriented user on the one hand. On the other hand, the goal of patient satisfaction also deploys market perceptions of patients as homogeneous target groups to which information can be standardised. In the latter (market orientation......), the patient is also a resource for organizational development and a customer with consumer behavior. Overall, the strategy presents an information-pursuing patient figure making it possible to streamline the organization's care orientation on market conditions. In contrast to Annemarie Mol’s dichotomy of care......The analysis is based on an empirical study of a hospital’s communication strategy entitled: 'The Perspective of the Patient'. The paper asks how the strategy organizes communication work as situated displacements of the patient. Based on methodological elements from situational analysis (Clarke...

  1. Feature displacement interpolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Andresen, Per Rønsholt

    1998-01-01

    Given a sparse set of feature matches, we want to compute an interpolated dense displacement map. The application may be stereo disparity computation, flow computation, or non-rigid medical registration. Also estimation of missing image data, may be phrased in this framework. Since the features...... often are very sparse, the interpolation model becomes crucial. We show that a maximum likelihood estimation based on the covariance properties (Kriging) show properties more expedient than methods such as Gaussian interpolation or Tikhonov regularizations, also including scale......-selection. The computational complexities are identical. We apply the maximum likelihood interpolation to growth analysis of the mandibular bone. Here, the features used are the crest-lines of the object surface....

  2. Strategies for displacing oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Vikram; Gupta, Raghubir

    2015-03-01

    Oil currently holds a monopoly on transportation fuels. Until recently biofuels were seen as the means to break this stranglehold. They will still have a part to play, but the lead role has been handed to natural gas, almost solely due to the increased availability of shale gas. The spread between oil and gas prices, unprecedented in its scale and duration, will cause a secular shift away from oil as a raw material. In the transport fuel sector, natural gas will gain traction first in the displacement of diesel fuel. Substantial innovation is occurring in the methods of producing liquid fuel from shale gas at the well site, in particular in the development of small scale distributed processes. In some cases, the financing of such small-scale plants may require new business models.

  3. Displacement Parameter Inversion for a Novel Electromagnetic Underground Displacement Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanying Shentu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA. Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named “EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method”. Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0–100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications.

  4. Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    Large scale disasters can cause devastating impacts in terms of population displacement. Between 2008 and 2013, on average 27 million people were displaced annually by disasters (Yonetani 2014). After large events such as hurricane Katrina or the Port-au-Prince earthquake, images of inadequate public shelter and concerns about large scale and often inequitable migration have been broadcast around the world. Population displacement can often be one of the most devastating and visible impacts of a natural disaster. Despite the importance of population displacement in disaster events, measures to understand the socio-economic vulnerability of a community often use broad metrics to estimate the total socio-economic risk of an event rather than focusing on the specific impacts that a community faces in a disaster. Population displacement is complex and multi-causal with the physical impact of a disaster interacting with vulnerability arising from the response, environmental issues (e.g., weather), cultural concerns (e.g., expectations of adequate shelter), and many individual factors (e.g., mobility, risk perception). In addition to the complexity of the causes, population displacement is difficult to measure because of the wide variety of different terms and definitions and its multi-dimensional nature. When we speak of severe population displacement, we may refer to a large number of displaced people, an extended length of displacement or associated difficulties such as poor shelter quality, risk of violence and crime in shelter communities, discrimination in aid, a lack of access to employment or other difficulties that can be associated with large scale population displacement. We have completed a thorough review of the literature on disaster population displacement. Research has been conducted on historic events to understand the types of negative impacts associated with population displacement and also the vulnerability of different groups to these impacts. We

  5. Physical model for vaporization

    OpenAIRE

    Garai, Jozsef

    2006-01-01

    Based on two assumptions, the surface layer is flexible, and the internal energy of the latent heat of vaporization is completely utilized by the atoms for overcoming on the surface resistance of the liquid, the enthalpy of vaporization was calculated for 45 elements. The theoretical values were tested against experiments with positive result.

  6. Petroleum Vapor - Field Technical

    Science.gov (United States)

    The screening approach being developed by EPA OUST to evaluate petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) requires information that has not be routinely collected in the past at vapor intrusion sites. What is the best way to collect this data? What are the relevant data quality issues and ...

  7. MRI of displaced meniscal fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunoski, Brian; Zbojniewicz, Andrew M.; Laor, Tal

    2012-01-01

    A torn meniscus frequently requires surgical fixation or debridement as definitive treatment. Meniscal tears with associated fragment displacement, such as bucket handle and flap tears, can be difficult to recognize and accurately describe on MRI, and displaced fragments can be challenging to identify at surgery. A displaced meniscal fragment can be obscured by synovium or be in a location not usually evaluated at arthroscopy. We present a pictorial essay of meniscal tears with displaced fragments in patients referred to a pediatric hospital in order to increase recognition and accurate interpretation by the radiologist, who in turn can help assist the surgeon in planning appropriate therapy. (orig.)

  8. MRI of displaced meniscal fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunoski, Brian [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Detroit, MI (United States); Zbojniewicz, Andrew M.; Laor, Tal [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2012-01-15

    A torn meniscus frequently requires surgical fixation or debridement as definitive treatment. Meniscal tears with associated fragment displacement, such as bucket handle and flap tears, can be difficult to recognize and accurately describe on MRI, and displaced fragments can be challenging to identify at surgery. A displaced meniscal fragment can be obscured by synovium or be in a location not usually evaluated at arthroscopy. We present a pictorial essay of meniscal tears with displaced fragments in patients referred to a pediatric hospital in order to increase recognition and accurate interpretation by the radiologist, who in turn can help assist the surgeon in planning appropriate therapy. (orig.)

  9. Piezoelectric trace vapor calibrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkouteren, R. Michael; Gillen, Greg; Taylor, David W.

    2006-01-01

    The design and performance of a vapor generator for calibration and testing of trace chemical sensors are described. The device utilizes piezoelectric ink-jet nozzles to dispense and vaporize precisely known amounts of analyte solutions as monodisperse droplets onto a hot ceramic surface, where the generated vapors are mixed with air before exiting the device. Injected droplets are monitored by microscope with strobed illumination, and the reproducibility of droplet volumes is optimized by adjustment of piezoelectric wave form parameters. Complete vaporization of the droplets occurs only across a 10 deg. C window within the transition boiling regime of the solvent, and the minimum and maximum rates of trace analyte that may be injected and evaporated are determined by thermodynamic principles and empirical observations of droplet formation and stability. By varying solution concentrations, droplet injection rates, air flow, and the number of active nozzles, the system is designed to deliver--on demand--continuous vapor concentrations across more than six orders of magnitude (nominally 290 fg/l to 1.05 μg/l). Vapor pulses containing femtogram to microgram quantities of analyte may also be generated. Calibrated ranges of three explosive vapors at ng/l levels were generated by the device and directly measured by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). These data demonstrate expected linear trends within the limited working range of the IMS detector and also exhibit subtle nonlinear behavior from the IMS measurement process

  10. Improvements to vapor generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Arthur; Monroe, Neil.

    1976-01-01

    A supporting system is proposed for vapor generators of the 'supported' type. Said supporting system is intended to compensate the disparities of thermal expansion due to the differences in the vertical dimensions of the tubes in the walls of the combustion chamber and their collectors compared to that of the balloon tanks and the connecting tube clusters of vaporization, the first one being longer than the second ones. Said system makes it possible to build said combustion chamber higher than the balloon tanks and the tube clusters of vaporization. The capacity of steam production is thus enhanced [fr

  11. Displacement cascades in diatomic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkin, D.M.; Coulter, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    A new function, the specified-projectile displacement function p/sub ijk/ (E), is introduced to describe displacement cascades in polyatomic materials. This function describes the specific collision events that produce displacements and hence adds new information not previously available. Calculations of p/sub ijk/ (E) for MgO, Al 2 O 3 and TaO are presented and discussed. Results show that the parameters that have the largest effect on displacement collision events are the PKA energy and the mass ratio of the atom types in the material. It is further shown that the microscopic nature of the displacement events changes over the entire recoil energy range relevant to fusion neutron spectra and that these changes are different in materials whose mass ratio is near one than in those where it is far from one

  12. Gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA regulates the vapor pressure of gasoline sold at retail stations during the summer ozone season to reduce evaporative emissions from gasoline that contribute to ground-level ozone and diminish the effects of ozone-related health problems.

  13. R-22 vapor explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.P.; Armstrong, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    Previous experimental and theoretical studies of R-22 vapor explosions are reviewed. Results from two experimental investigations of vapor explosions in a medium scale R-22/water system are reported. Measurements following the drop of an unrestrained mass of R-22 into a water tank demonstrated the existence of two types of interaction behavior. Release of a constrained mass of R-22 beneath the surface of a water tank improved the visual resolution of the system thus allowing identification of two interaction mechansims: at low water temperatures, R-22/water contact would produce immediate violent boiling; at high water temperatures a vapor film formed around its R-22 as it was released, explosions were generated by a surface wave which initiated at a single location and propagated along the vapor film as a shock wave. A new vapor explosion model is proposed, it suggests explosions are the result of a sequence of three independent steps: an initial mixing phase, a trigger and growth phase, and a mature phase where a propagating shock wave accelerates the two liquids into a collapsing vapor layer causing a high velocity impact which finely fragments and intermixes the two liquids

  14. Displacement sensing system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    VunKannon, Jr., Robert S

    2006-08-08

    A displacement sensing system and method addresses demanding requirements for high precision sensing of displacement of a shaft, for use typically in a linear electro-dynamic machine, having low failure rates over multi-year unattended operation in hostile environments. Applications include outer space travel by spacecraft having high-temperature, sealed environments without opportunity for servicing over many years of operation. The displacement sensing system uses a three coil sensor configuration, including a reference and sense coils, to provide a pair of ratio-metric signals, which are inputted into a synchronous comparison circuit, which is synchronously processed for a resultant displacement determination. The pair of ratio-metric signals are similarly affected by environmental conditions so that the comparison circuit is able to subtract or nullify environmental conditions that would otherwise cause changes in accuracy to occur.

  15. Displacement functions for diatomic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panrkin, D.M.; Coulter, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    An extension of the methods of Lindhard et at. was used to calculate the total displacement function n/sub ij/(E) for a number of diatomic materials, where n/sub ij/(E) is defined to be the average number of atoms of type j which are displaced from their sites in a displacement cascade initiated by a PKA of type i and energy E. From the n/sub ij/(E) one can calculate the fraction n/sub ij/(E) of the displacements produced by a type i PKA with energy E which are of type j. Values of the n/sub ij/ for MgO, CaO, Al 2 O 3 , and TaO are presented. It is shown that for diatomic materials with mass ratios reasonably near one (e.g., MgO, Al 2 O 3 ) and equal displacement thresholds for the two species the n/sub ij/ become independent of the PKA type i at energies only a few times threshold. However, for larger mass ratios the n/sub ij/ do not become independent of i until much larger, energies are reached - e.g. > 10 5 eV for TaO. In addition, it is found that the n/sub ij/ depend sensitively on the displacement thresholds, with very dramatic charges occuring when the two thresholds become significantly different from one another

  16. Vapor pressures and enthalpies of vaporization of azides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verevkin, Sergey P.; Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N.; Algarra, Manuel; Manuel Lopez-Romero, J.; Aguiar, Fabio; Enrique Rodriguez-Borges, J.; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We prepared and measured vapor pressures and vaporization enthalpies of 7 azides. → We examined consistency of new and available in the literature data. → Data for geminal azides and azido-alkanes selected for thermochemical calculations. - Abstract: Vapor pressures of some azides have been determined by the transpiration method. The molar enthalpies of vaporization Δ l g H m of these compounds were derived from the temperature dependencies of vapor pressures. The measured data sets were successfully checked for internal consistency by comparison with vaporization enthalpies of similarly structured compounds.

  17. Vaporization of irradiated droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, R.L.; O'Rourke, P.J.; Zardecki, A.

    1986-01-01

    The vaporization of a spherically symmetric liquid droplet subject to a high-intensity laser flux is investigated on the basis of a hydrodynamic description of the system composed of the vapor and ambient gas. In the limit of the convective vaporization, the boundary conditions at the fluid--gas interface are formulated by using the notion of a Knudsen layer in which translational equilibrium is established. This leads to approximate jump conditions at the interface. For homogeneous energy deposition, the hydrodynamic equations are solved numerically with the aid of the CON1D computer code (''CON1D: A computer program for calculating spherically symmetric droplet combustion,'' Los Alamos National Laboratory Report No. LA-10269-MS, December, 1984), based on the implict continuous--fluid Eulerian (ICE) [J. Comput. Phys. 8, 197 (1971)] and arbitrary Lagrangian--Eulerian (ALE) [J. Comput. Phys. 14, 1227 (1974)] numerical mehtods. The solutions exhibit the existence of two shock waves propagating in opposite directions with respect to the contact discontinuity surface that separates the ambient gas and vapor

  18. Vapor liquid fraction determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This invention describes a method of measuring liquid and vapor fractions in a non-homogeneous fluid flowing through an elongate conduit, such as may be required with boiling water, non-boiling turbulent flows, fluidized bed experiments, water-gas mixing analysis, and nuclear plant cooling. (UK)

  19. Heat of vaporization spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, D. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Multilayer desorption measurements of various substances adsorbed on a stainless steel substrate are found to exhibit desorption profiles consistent with a zeroth order desorption model. The singleness of the desorption transients together with their narrow peak widths makes the technique ideally suited for a heat of vaporization spectrometer for either substance analysis or identification

  20. Enthalpy of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures: An Inexpensive Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battino, Rubin; Dolson, David A.; Hall, Michael A.; Letcher, Trevor M.

    2007-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive method to determine the enthalpy of vaporization of liquids by measuring vapor pressure as a function of temperature is described. The vapor pressures measured with the stopcock cell were higher than the literature values and those measured with the sidearm rubber septum cell were both higher and lower than literature…

  1. Is Fibular Fracture Displacement Consistent with Tibiotalar Displacement?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bekerom, Michel P. J.; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2010-01-01

    We believed open reduction with internal fixation is required for supination-external rotation ankle fractures located at the level of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis (Lauge-Hanssen SER II and Weber B) with 2 mm or more fibular fracture displacement. The rationale for surgery for these ankle

  2. Particle displacement tracking for PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    1990-01-01

    A new Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) data acquisition and analysis system, which is an order of magnitude faster than any previously proposed system has been constructed and tested. The new Particle Displacement Tracing (PDT) system is an all electronic technique employing a video camera and a large memory buffer frame-grabber board. Using a simple encoding scheme, a time sequence of single exposure images are time coded into a single image and then processed to track particle displacements and determine velocity vectors. Application of the PDT technique to a counter-rotating vortex flow produced over 1100 velocity vectors in 110 seconds when processed on an 80386 PC.

  3. Vapor pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of linear aliphatic alkanediamines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozdeev, Vasiliy A.; Verevkin, Sergey P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We measured vapor pressure of diamines H 2 N-(CH 2 ) n -NH 2 with n = 3 to 12. → Vaporization enthalpies at 298 K were derived. → We examined consistency of new and available in the literature data. → Enthalpies of vaporization show linear dependence on numbers n. → Enthalpies of vaporization correlate linearly with Kovat's indices. - Abstract: Vapor pressures and the molar enthalpies of vaporization of the linear aliphatic alkanediamines H 2 N-(CH 2 ) n -NH 2 with n = (3 to 12) have been determined using the transpiration method. A linear correlation of enthalpies of vaporization (at T = 298.15 K) of the alkanediamines with the number n and with the Kovat's indices has been found, proving the internal consistency of the measured data.

  4. Fundamentals of displacement production in irradiated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.

    1975-09-01

    Radioinduced displacement damage in metals is described. Discussions are included on the displacement event itself, calculation of displacement rates in general, the manner in which different types of radiation interact with metals to produce displacements, the similarities and differences in the types of damage produced, the current status of computer simulations of displacement cascades, experimental evidence regarding cascades, and aspects of correlating damage produced by different types of radiation

  5. Urban displaced youth in Kabul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Majidi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Displaced young people in Kabul are waiting to see what the coming year brings for Afghanistan before making a decision as whether to move on again. This provides a window of opportunity to develop youth-sensitive programming.

  6. 187 DISPLACEMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    The national and international communities are confronted with the monumental task of ... displacement and environmental protection present a vicious cycle which today has ... Thus, issues of environmental protection viz-a-viz investment and .... out the conditions for product or process standards, the use of best available ...

  7. Constrained Vapor Bubble Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Shripad; Plawsky, Joel; Wayner, Peter C., Jr.; Zheng, Ling; Wang, Ying-Xi

    2002-11-01

    Microgravity experiments on the Constrained Vapor Bubble Heat Exchanger, CVB, are being developed for the International Space Station. In particular, we present results of a precursory experimental and theoretical study of the vertical Constrained Vapor Bubble in the Earth's environment. A novel non-isothermal experimental setup was designed and built to study the transport processes in an ethanol/quartz vertical CVB system. Temperature profiles were measured using an in situ PC (personal computer)-based LabView data acquisition system via thermocouples. Film thickness profiles were measured using interferometry. A theoretical model was developed to predict the curvature profile of the stable film in the evaporator. The concept of the total amount of evaporation, which can be obtained directly by integrating the experimental temperature profile, was introduced. Experimentally measured curvature profiles are in good agreement with modeling results. For microgravity conditions, an analytical expression, which reveals an inherent relation between temperature and curvature profiles, was derived.

  8. Displacement of oil by carbon dioxide. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, Jr., F. M.; Taber, J. J.

    1981-05-01

    Results of a comprehensive research program on factors influencing CO/sub 2/ flooding are reported. Equipment constructed for static equilibrium measurements of phase volumes, compositions, densities and viscosities is described. Design of an apparatus used for a variety of displacement tests is also reported. Apparatus and experimental procedures are described for a new experiment in which equilibrium phase compositions can be measured rapidly and continuously. Results of displacements of crude oil from slim tubes, cores and mixing cells are presented and interpreted in terms of detailed measurements of the phase behavior and fluid properties of the CO/sub 2/-crude oil mixtures. The complex phase behavior of low temperature CO/sub 2/-crude oil mixtures is described and compared with similar behavior for CO/sub 2/-alkane mixtures. A simple correlation is offered for the ranges of reservoir temperature and pressure at which liquid-liquid and liquid-liquid-vapor phase behavior should be expected to occur. Direct evidence is presented of the efficiency with which a CO/sub 2/-rich liquid phase can extract hydrocarbons from a crude oil. A simple one-dimensional process simulator for CO/sub 2/ flooding applications is described. Simulation results are compared with experimental data from slim tube displacements. Good agreement is reported between calculated and experimental results as long as the volume change of CO/sub 2/ on mixing with the oil is not too great.Sensitivity of calculated results to phase behavior and fluid properties is discussed. Comparison of displacement results, phase behavior measurements, and model calculations provides strong evidence that the high displacement efficiency which can be obtained when pressure is high enough and viscous fingering is controlled is the result of efficient extraction of a broad range of hydrocarbons by a dense CO/sub 2/-rich phase which is a liquid if the temperature is below about 50/sup 0/C (130/sup 0/F).

  9. Vapor condensation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Manabu; Hirayama, Fumio; Kurosawa, Setsumi; Yoshikawa, Jun; Hosaka, Seiichi.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention enables to separate and remove 14 C as CO 3 - ions without condensation in a vapor condensation can of a nuclear facility. That is, the vapor condensation device of the nuclear facility comprises (1) a spray pipe for spraying an acidic aqueous solution to the evaporation surface of an evaporation section, (2) a spray pump for sending the acidic aqueous solution to the spray pipe, (3) a tank for storing the acidic aqueous solution, (4) a pH sensor for detecting pH of the evaporation section, (5) a pH control section for controlling the spray pump, depending on the result of the detection of the pH sensor. With such a constitution, the pH of liquid wastes on the vaporization surface is controlled to 7 by spraying an aqueous solution of dilute sulfuric acid to the evaporation surface, thereby enabling to increase the transfer rate of 14 C to condensates to 60 to 70%. If 14 C is separated and removed as a CO 2 gas from the evaporation surface, the pH of the liquid wastes returns to the alkaline range of 9 to 10 and the liquid wastes are returned to a heating section. The amount of spraying the aqueous solution of dilute sulfuric acid can be controlled till the pH is reduced to 5. (I.S.)

  10. The vapor pressures of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, Robert G.; Waltman, Melanie J.; Atkinson, David A.; Grate, Jay W.; Hotchkiss, Peter

    2013-01-05

    The vapor pressures of many explosive compounds are extremely low and thus determining accurate values proves difficult. Many researchers, using a variety of methods, have measured and reported the vapor pressures of explosives compounds at single temperatures, or as a function of temperature using vapor pressure equations. There are large variations in reported vapor pressures for many of these compounds, and some errors exist within individual papers. This article provides a review of explosive vapor pressures and describes the methods used to determine them. We have compiled primary vapor pressure relationships traceable to the original citations and include the temperature ranges for which they have been determined. Corrected values are reported as needed and described in the text. In addition, after critically examining the available data, we calculate and tabulate vapor pressures at 25 °C.

  11. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

    1997-07-01

    This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

  12. Force transmissibility versus displacement transmissibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Y. E.; Neves, M. M.; Maia, N. M. M.; Tcherniak, D.

    2014-10-01

    It is well-known that when a single-degree-of-freedom (sdof) system is excited by a continuous motion of the foundation, the force transmissibility, relating the force transmitted to the foundation to the applied force, equals the displacement transmissibility. Recent developments in the generalization of the transmissibility to multiple-degree-of-freedom (mdof) systems have shown that similar simple and direct relations between both types of transmissibility do not appear naturally from the definitions, as happens in the sdof case. In this paper, the authors present their studies on the conditions under which it is possible to establish a relation between force transmissibility and displacement transmissibility for mdof systems. As far as the authors are aware, such a relation is not currently found in the literature, which is justified by being based on recent developments in the transmissibility concept for mdof systems. Indeed, it does not appear naturally, but the authors observed that the needed link is present when the displacement transmissibility is obtained between the same coordinates where the applied and reaction forces are considered in the force transmissibility case; this implies that the boundary conditions are not exactly the same and instead follow some rules. This work presents a formal derivation of the explicit relation between the force and displacement transmissibilities for mdof systems, and discusses its potential and limitations. The authors show that it is possible to obtain the displacement transmissibility from measured forces, and the force transmissibility from measured displacements, opening new perspectives, for example, in the identification of applied or transmitted forces. With this novel relation, it becomes possible, for example, to estimate the force transmissibility matrix with the structure off its supports, in free boundary conditions, and without measuring the forces. As far as force identification is concerned, this

  13. Endothermic decompositions of inorganic monocrystalline thin plates. II. Displacement rate modulation of the reaction front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, G.; Comperat, M.; Lallemant, M.

    1980-09-01

    Copper sulfate pentahydrate dehydration into trihydrate was investigated using monocrystalline platelets with (110) crystallographic orientation. Temperature and pressure conditions were selected so as to obtain elliptical trihydrate domains. The study deals with the evolution, vs time, of elliptical domain dimensions and the evolution, vs water vapor pressure, of the {D}/{d} ratio of ellipse axes and on the other hand of the interface displacement rate along a given direction. The phenomena observed are not basically different from those yielded by the overall kinetic study of the solid sample. Their magnitude, however, is modulated depending on displacement direction. The results are analyzed within the scope of our study of endothermic decomposition of solids.

  14. A study on vapor explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, N.; Shoji, M.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out for vapor explosions of molten tin falling in water. For various initial metal temperatures and subcooling of water, transient pressure of the explosions, relative frequency of the explosions and the position where the explosions occur were measured in detail. The influence of ambient pressure was also investigated. From the results, it was concluded that the vapor explosion is closely related to the collapse of a vapor film around the molten metal. (author)

  15. Nuclear system vaporization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Nakagawa, T.; Peter, J.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.; Wieloch, A.

    1998-01-01

    A particular case of the hot nuclei de-excitation is the total nuclear dislocation into light particles (n, p, d, t, 3 He and α). Such events were first observed at bombarding energies lower than 100 MeV/nucleon due to high detection performances of the INDRA multidetector. The light system Ar + Ni was studied at several bombarding energies ranging from 32 to 95 MeV/nucleon. The events associated to a total vaporization of the system occur above the energy threshold of ∼ 50 MeV/nucleon. A study of the form of these events shows that we have essentially two sources. The excitation energy of these sources may be determined by means of the kinematic properties of their de-excitation products. A preliminary study results in excitation energy values of the order 10 - 14 MeV/nucleon. The theoretical calculation based on a statistical model modified to take into account high excitation energies and excited levels in the lightest nuclei predicts that the vaporization of the two partner nuclei in the Ar + Ni system takes place when the excitation energy exceeds 12 MeV/nucleon what is qualitatively in agreement with the values deduced from calorimetric analysis

  16. Modelling Toehold-Mediated RNA Strand Displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Šulc, Petr; Ouldridge, Thomas E.; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P.K.; Louis, Ard A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics and kinetics of an RNA toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction with a recently developed coarse-grained model of RNA. Strand displacement, during which a single strand displaces a different strand previously bound to a complementary substrate strand, is an essential mechanism in active nucleic acid nanotechnology and has also been hypothesized to occur in vivo. We study the rate of displacement reactions as a function of the length of the toehold and temperat...

  17. Resonant neutron-induced atomic displacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmaghraby, Elsayed K., E-mail: e.m.k.elmaghraby@gmail.com

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Neutron induced atomic displacements was investigated based on scattering of energy of neutron. • Model for cascade function (multiplication of displacements with increasing energy transfer) was proposed and justified. • Parameterizations for the dpa induced in all elements were performed. • Table containing all necessary parameters to calculate the displacement density induced by neutron is given. • Contribution of non resonance displacement and resonant-neutron induced displacements are distinguished. - Abstract: A model for displacement cascade function was modified to account for the continuous variation of displacement density in the material in response to neutron exposure. The model is based on the Gaussian distribution of displacement energies of atoms in a material. Analytical treatment for moderated epithermal neutron field was given in which the displacement density was divided into two terms, discrete-resonance term and continuum term. Calculation are done for all isotopes using ENDF/B VII.1 data files and temperature dependent cross section library. Weighted elemental values were reported a fitting was performed to obtain energy-dependent formula of displacement density and reduce the number of parameters. Results relevant the present specification of the cascade function are tabulated for each element to enable calculation of displacement density at any value of displacement energy in the between 5 eV and 55 eV.

  18. Electromagnetic device of linear displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savary, F.; Le Saulnier, G.

    1986-01-01

    The device moves a rod integral with a nuclear reactor control element. It has a grab for the rod operated by a mobil pole drive by a coil carried by a surrounding sealed casing, a second grab with fixed and mobile poles with facing surfaces shaped to limit the variation of magnetic force with distance between them, and a plunger driven by a coil to bear against another mobile pole moved by a coil. The invention proposes a device ensuring a displacement while the impact forces at the different level of the mechanism are reduced [fr

  19. Chemical vapor composites (CVC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reagan, P.

    1993-01-01

    The Chemical Vapor Composite, CVC trademark , process fabricates composite material by simply mixing particles (powders and or fibers) with CVD reactants which are transported and co-deposited on a hot substrate. A key feature of the CVC process is the control provided by varing the density, geometry (aspect ratio) and composition of the entrained particles in the matrix material, during deposition. The process can fabricate composite components to net shape (± 0.013 mm) on a machined substrate in a single step. The microstructure of the deposit is described and several examples of different types of particles in the matrix are illustrated. Mechanical properties of SiC composite material fabricated with SiC powder and fiber will be presented. Several examples of low cost ceramic composite products will be shown. (orig.)

  20. Iron bromide vapor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, V. B.; Shiyanov, D. V.; Trigub, M. V.; Dimaki, V. A.; Evtushenko, G. S.

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the characteristics of a pulsed gas-discharge laser on iron bromide vapor generating radiation with a wavelength of 452.9 nm at a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 5-30 kHz. The maximum output power amounted to 10 mW at a PRF within 5-15 kHz for a voltage of 20-25 kV applied to electrodes of the discharge tube. Addition of HBr to the medium produced leveling of the radial profile of emission. Initial weak lasing at a wavelength of 868.9 nm was observed for the first time, which ceased with buildup of the main 452.9-nm line.

  1. Vapor-droplet flow equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, C.T.

    1975-01-01

    General features of a vapor-droplet flow are discussed and the equations expressing the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy for the vapor, liquid, and mixture using the control volume approach are derived. The phenomenological laws describing the exchange of mass, momentum, and energy between phases are also reviewed. The results have application to development of water-dominated geothermal resources

  2. Vapor pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of aliphatic propanediamines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verevkin, Sergey P.; Chernyak, Yury

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We measured vapor pressure of four aliphatic 1,3-diamines. ► Vaporization enthalpies at 298 K were derived. ► We examined consistency of new and available data in the literature. ► A group-contribution method for prediction was developed. - Abstract: Vapor pressures of four aliphatic propanediamines including N-methyl-1,3-propanediamine (MPDA), N,N-dimethyl-1,3-propanediamine (DMPDA), N,N-diethyl-1,3-propanediamine (DEPDA) and N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyl-1,3-propanediamine (4MPDA) were measured using the transpiration method. The vapor pressures developed in this work and reported in the literature were used to derive molar enthalpy of vaporization values at the reference temperature 298.15 K. An internal consistency check of the enthalpy of vaporization was performed for the aliphatic propanediamines studied in this work. A group-contribution method was developed for the validation and prediction vaporization enthalpies of amines and diamines.

  3. A Citizen's Guide to Vapor Intrusion Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide describes how vapor intrusion is the movement of chemical vapors from contaminated soil and groundwater into nearby buildings.Vapors primarily enter through openings in the building foundation or basement walls.

  4. Vapor pressure measured with inflatable plastic bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Deflated plastic bag in a vacuum chamber measures initial low vapor pressures of materials. The bag captures the test sample vapors and visual observation of the vapor-inflated bag under increasing external pressures yields pertinent data.

  5. Shore line displacement in Oeregrundsgrepen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brydsten, Lars

    1999-12-01

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of the Final Repository of Radioactive Operational Waste). The aim of project SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1. The analysis is to be presented to the Swedish authorities not later than the end of 2000. SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste and is situated in bedrock beneath the Baltic Sea, 1 km off the coast near the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Northern Uppland. The shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area is at present approximately 60 cm per 100 years and is slowly decreasing, but will still be substantial for many thousands of years. Since Oeregrundsgrepen is a relatively shallow part of the Bothnian Sea, the positive shore displacement will greatly effect the proportions of land and sea in the future. Within 2000 years (4000 AD) half of the current water area in Oeregrundsgrepen will be land and the water volume will be decreased with two thirds. At 7000 AD, the whole Oeregrundsgrepen area will be without brackish water. The effects on the landscape evolution due to shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area are illustrated in a chronological series of digital maps in Power Point format available saved on the supplied CD-rom and entitled 'Elevation.ppt '. The bedrock tectonics in the area are in two dominating directions: one northern that can be seen in the west shoreline of the island Graesoe and one in a north-westerly direction seen in the shoreline of the mainland. Many of the large basins that will be established in the area due to the shore displacement will be elongated in one of these directions. Some of the basins are relatively shallow and therefore probably will be totally filled with organic rich sediments and will form peat or bogs. Other basins, especially Graesoeraennan (the deep channel on the west side of Graesoe) are deep basins and will form a long chain of deep lakes. One of the deeper basins

  6. Shore line displacement in Oeregrundsgrepen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brydsten, Lars [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science

    1999-12-15

    This report is a part of the SKB project 'SAFE' (Safety Assessment of the Final Repository of Radioactive Operational Waste). The aim of project SAFE is to update the previous safety analysis of SFR-1. The analysis is to be presented to the Swedish authorities not later than the end of 2000. SFR-1 is a facility for disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste and is situated in bedrock beneath the Baltic Sea, 1 km off the coast near the Forsmark nuclear power plant in Northern Uppland. The shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area is at present approximately 60 cm per 100 years and is slowly decreasing, but will still be substantial for many thousands of years. Since Oeregrundsgrepen is a relatively shallow part of the Bothnian Sea, the positive shore displacement will greatly effect the proportions of land and sea in the future. Within 2000 years (4000 AD) half of the current water area in Oeregrundsgrepen will be land and the water volume will be decreased with two thirds. At 7000 AD, the whole Oeregrundsgrepen area will be without brackish water. The effects on the landscape evolution due to shore displacement in the Oeregrundsgrepen area are illustrated in a chronological series of digital maps in Power Point format available saved on the supplied CD-rom and entitled 'Elevation.ppt '. The bedrock tectonics in the area are in two dominating directions: one northern that can be seen in the west shoreline of the island Graesoe and one in a north-westerly direction seen in the shoreline of the mainland. Many of the large basins that will be established in the area due to the shore displacement will be elongated in one of these directions. Some of the basins are relatively shallow and therefore probably will be totally filled with organic rich sediments and will form peat or bogs. Other basins, especially Graesoeraennan (the deep channel on the west side of Graesoe) are deep basins and will form a long chain of deep lakes. One

  7. Primary shield displacement and bowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, K.V.

    1978-01-01

    The reactor primary shield is constructed of high density concrete and surrounds the reactor core. The inlet, outlet and side primary shields were constructed in-place using 2.54 cm (1 in) thick steel plates as the forms. The plates remained as an integral part of the shields. The elongation of the pressure tubes due to thermal expansion and pressurization is not moving through the inlet nozzle hardware as designed but is accommodated by outward displacement and bowing of the inlet and outlet shields. Excessive distortion of the shields may result in gas seal failures, intolerable helium gas leaks, increased argon-41 emissions, and shield cooling tube failures. The shield surveillance and testing results are presented

  8. An ion displacement membrame model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladky, S B; Harris, J D

    1967-09-01

    The usual assumption in treating the diffusion of ions in an electric field has been that the movement of each ion is independent of the movement of the others. The resulting equation for diffusion by a succession of spontaneous jumps has been well stated by Parlin and Eyring. This paper will consider one simple case in which a different assumption is reasonable. Diffusion of monovalent positive ions is considered as a series of jumps from one fixed negative site to another. The sites are assumed to be full (electrical neutrality). Interaction occurs by the displacement of one ion by another. An ion leaves a site if and only if another ion, not necessarily of the same species, attempts to occupy the same site. Flux ratios and net fluxes are given as functions of the electrical potential, concentration ratios, and number of sites encountered in crossing the membrane. Quantitative comparisons with observations of Hodgkin and Keynes are presented.

  9. Displacement Based Seismic Design Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, J.F.; Hofmayer, C.; Park, Y.J.

    1999-01-01

    The USNRC has initiated a project to determine if any of the likely revisions to traditional earthquake engineering practice are relevant to seismic design of the specialized structures, systems and components of nuclear power plants and of such significance to suggest that a change in design practice might be warranted. As part of the initial phase of this study, a literature survey was conducted on the recent changes in seismic design codes/standards, on-going activities of code-writing organizations/communities, and published documents on displacement-based design methods. This paper provides a summary of recent changes in building codes and on-going activities for future codes. It also discusses some technical issues for further consideration

  10. Possible displacement of mercury's dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, K.H.; Beard, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    Earlier attempts to model the Hermean magnetospheric field based on a planet-centered magnetic multipole field have required the addition of a quadrupole moment to obtain a good fit to space vehicle observations. In this work we obtain an equally satisfactory fit by assuming a null quadrupole moment and least squares fitting of the displacement of the planetary dipole from the center of the planet. We find a best fit for a dipole displacement from the planet center of 0.033 R/sub m/ away from the solar direction, 0.025 R/sub m/ toward dawn in the magnetic equatorial plane, and 0.189 R/sub m/ northward along the magnetic dipole axis, where R/sub m/ is the planet radius. Therefore the presence of a magnetic quadrupole moment is not ruled out. The compressed dipole field more completely represents the field in the present work than in previous work where the intrinsic quadrupole field was not included in the magnetopause surface and field calculations. Moreover, we have corrected a programing error in previous work in the computation of dipole tilt lambda away from the sun. We find a slight increase for the planet dipole moment of 190γR/sub m/ 3 and a dipole tilt angle lambda away from the sun. We find a slight increase for the planet moment of 190γR/sub m/ 3 and a dipole tilt angle lambda of only 1.2 0 away from the sun. All other parameters are essentially unchanged

  11. Passive vapor extraction feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-01-01

    Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft 3 /min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft 3 /min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm

  12. The lithium vapor box divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, R J; Schwartz, J; Myers, R

    2016-01-01

    It has long been recognized that volumetric dissipation of the plasma heat flux from a fusion power system is preferable to its localized impingement on a material surface. Volumetric dissipation mitigates both the anticipated very high heat flux and intense particle-induced damage due to sputtering. Recent projections to a tokamak demonstration power plant suggest an immense upstream parallel heat flux, of order 20 GW m −2 , implying that fully detached operation may be a requirement for the success of fusion power. Building on pioneering work on the use of lithium by Nagayama et al and by Ono et al as well as earlier work on the gas box divertor by Watkins and Rebut, we present here a concept for a lithium vapor box divertor, in which lithium vapor extracts momentum and energy from a fusion-power-plant divertor plasma, using fully volumetric processes. At the high powers and pressures that are projected this requires a high density of lithium vapor, which must be isolated from the main plasma in order to avoid lithium build-up on the chamber walls or in the plasma. Isolation is achieved through a powerful multi-box differential pumping scheme available only for condensable vapors. The preliminary box-wise calculations are encouraging, but much more work is required to demonstrate the practical viability of this scheme, taking into account at least 2D plasma and vapor flows within and between the vapor boxes and out of the vapor boxes to the main plasma. (paper)

  13. Dimers in nucleating vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lushnikov, A. A.; Kulmala, M.

    1998-09-01

    The dimer stage of nucleation may affect considerably the rate of the nucleation process at high supersaturation of the nucleating vapor. Assuming that the dimer formation limits the nucleation rate, the kinetics of the particle formation-growth process is studied starting with the definition of dimers as bound states of two associating molecules. The partition function of dimer states is calculated by summing the Boltzmann factor over all classical bound states, and the equilibrium population of dimers is found for two types of intermolecular forces: the Lennard-Jones (LJ) and rectangular well+hard core (RW) potentials. The principle of detailed balance is used for calculating the evaporation rate of dimers. The kinetics of the particle formation-growth process is then investigated under the assumption that the trimers are stable with respect to evaporation and that the condensation rate is a power function of the particle mass. If the power exponent λ=n/(n+1) (n is a non-negative integer), the kinetics of the process is described by a finite set of moments of particle mass distribution. When the characteristic time of the particle formation by nucleation is much shorter than that of the condensational growth, n+2 universal functions of a nondimensional time define the kinetic process. These functions are calculated for λ=2/3 (gas-to-particle conversion in the free molecular regime) and λ=1/2 (formation of islands on surfaces).

  14. Earthquake related displacement fields near underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Zandt, G.; Bouchon, M.

    1979-04-01

    Relative displacements of rock masses are evaluated in terms of geological evidence, seismological evidence, data from simulation experiments, and analytical predictive models. Numerical models have been developed to determine displacement fields as a function of depth, distance, and azimuth from an earthquake source. Computer calculations for several types of faults indicate that displacements decrease rapidly with distance from the fault, but that displacements can either increase or decrease as a function of depth depending on the type and geometry of the fault. For long shallow vertical strike-slip faults the displacement decreases markedly with depth. For square strike slip faults and for dip slip faults displacement does not decrease as markedly with depth. Geologic structure, material properties, and depth affect the seismic source spectrum. Amplification of the high frequencies of shear waves is larger by a factor of about 2 for layered geologic models than for an elastic half space

  15. Modelling toehold-mediated RNA strand displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulc, Petr; Ouldridge, Thomas E; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P K; Louis, Ard A

    2015-03-10

    We study the thermodynamics and kinetics of an RNA toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction with a recently developed coarse-grained model of RNA. Strand displacement, during which a single strand displaces a different strand previously bound to a complementary substrate strand, is an essential mechanism in active nucleic acid nanotechnology and has also been hypothesized to occur in vivo. We study the rate of displacement reactions as a function of the length of the toehold and temperature and make two experimentally testable predictions: that the displacement is faster if the toehold is placed at the 5' end of the substrate; and that the displacement slows down with increasing temperature for longer toeholds. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Displacement measurement system for linear array detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Pengchong; Chen Ziyu; Shen Ji

    2011-01-01

    It presents a set of linear displacement measurement system based on encoder. The system includes displacement encoders, optical lens and read out circuit. Displacement read out unit includes linear CCD and its drive circuit, two amplifier circuits, second order Butterworth low-pass filter and the binarization circuit. The coding way is introduced, and various parts of the experimental signal waveforms are given, and finally a linear experimental test results are given. The experimental results are satisfactory. (authors)

  17. Displaced epithelium after liposuction for gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Cristina S; Petrey, Chris; Grant, Shawn; Ransdell, Jill S; Reynolds, Carol

    2011-08-01

    The authors describe the case of a 36-year-old man with gynecomastia who was previously treated with liposuction of the breast for cosmetic purposes. Histologic examination of a subsequent excisional biopsy revealed nests of displaced epithelial cells in adipose tissue. Epithelial cell displacement is a well-known risk of core needle biopsies and fine-needle aspirations of breast lesions. However, to the authors' knowledge, epithelial displacement in gynecomastia after liposuction, mimicking invasive ductal carcinoma, has not previously been reported.

  18. Tracking speckle displacement by double Kalman filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donghui Li; Li Guo

    2006-01-01

    @@ A tracking technique using two sequentially-connected Kalman filter for tracking laser speckle displacement is presented. One Kalman filter tracks temporal speckle displacement, while another Kalman filter tracks spatial speckle displacement. The temporal Kalman filter provides a prior for the spatial Kalman filter, and the spatial Kalman filter provides measurements for the temporal Kalman filter. The contribution of a prior to estimations of the spatial Kalman filter is analyzed. An optical analysis system was set up to verify the double-Kalman-filter tracker's ability of tracking laser speckle's constant displacement.

  19. Point Coupled Displacement Sensor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Real-time displacement measurement techniques are needed to acquire aerodynamic and structural system characteristics in flight. This proposal describes the...

  20. Tubing For Sampling Hydrazine Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Josh; Taffe, Patricia S.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Wyatt, Jeffrey R.

    1993-01-01

    Report evaluates flexible tubing used for transporting such hypergolic vapors as those of hydrazines for quantitative analysis. Describes experiments in which variety of tubing materials, chosen for their known compatibility with hydrazine, flexibility, and resistance to heat.

  1. Vapor trap for liquid metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T

    1968-05-22

    In a pipe system which transfers liquid metal, inert gas (cover gas) is packed above the surface of the liquid metal to prevent oxidization of the liquid. If the metal vapor is contained in such cover gas, the circulating system of the cover gas is blocked due to condensation of liquid metal inside the system. The present invention relates to an improvement in vapor trap to remove the metal vapor from the cover gas. The trap consists of a cylindrical outer body, an inlet nozzle which is deeply inserted inside the outer body and has a number of holes to inject the cove gas into the body, metal mesh or steel wool which covers the exterior of the nozzle and on which the condensation of the metal gas takes place, and a heater wire hich is wound around the nozzle to prevent condensation of the metal vapor at the inner peripheral side of the mesh.

  2. Vertical displacement events: a serious concern in future ITER operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.; Sizyuk, T.; Ulrickson, M.

    2007-01-01

    The strongly elongated plasma configuration in ITER-like devices is vertically unstable unless an active control feedback at the vertical position is applied. A malfunction of this feedback system for variety of reasons can lead to a rapid plasma vertical displacement at full plasma current. As the plasma contacts the top or bottom of the vacuum vessel, the current is rapidly forced to zero, similar to the behavior of the plasma after the thermal quench of a disruption. This phenomenon constitutes the vertical displacement events (VDE). This can result in melting and vaporization of the plasma-facing component (PFC) as well as melting of the copper substrate and burnout of the coolant channels. The upgraded HEIGHTS simulation package is used to simulate in full 3D the response of an entire ITER module response to a VDE. The initial temperature distribution of the PFC and the bulk substrate prior to the VDE is calculated according to steady state heat flux, module design, and initial coolant temperature. The models used in the upgraded HEIGHTS were recently benchmarked against VDE simulation experiments using powerful electron beam and show an excellent agreement with the data.The surface temperature can then be very high and could result in significant melting of substrate copper and damage the coolant channels. In the case of Be surface, surface vaporization is quite high and will remove most incoming plasma power at typical ITER VDE condition. Therefore, the transmitted heat flux to the substrate and the coolant channels are low enough to cause any significant damage. However, if tungsten is exposed to the VDE the situation is quite different. No significant surface vaporization will occur at the tungsten surface thus, leaving the majority of the incident plasma power to be conducted to the copper substrate causing melting at the interface and burnout of coolant channel with serious implications on the integrity and subsequent performance of this module. The

  3. The Displaced ‘Dispositif’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Edmonds

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available “Dispositif” is a term used in film studies since the 1970s to describe the entire system of mechanical and human factors which together bring about the cinema experience. It therefore refers to (amongst other things the space of the auditorium, the screen, the projection technology and the physiology of the spectator. Many of its qualifying components are masked from the view of participants in the system. The dispositif’s purpose is to set up the conditions for a specific type of cognitive experience, one which mirrors and extends (and in some readings, controls the experience of its participants. The Displaced Dispositif is a performance designed for the space of a cinema theatre, but featuring the projection of fragments of early silent cinema on a coeval (1910s film projector from the auditorium. The film fragments are live-scored by the sound artist, Shaun Lewin, using a combination of closely mic’d sources on the projector itself, luminance data from the projected image and EEG brainwave data recorded from participants during previous projections of the film. Displacing elements in the dispositif in this way, by shifting modalities, situating in parallel, feeding back and layering, draws attention to its hidden existence and creates the potential for a more knowing and informed participation in the cinema experience. It also serves to demonstrate the degree to which dispositifs of modern cinema spectatorship, which have morphed and proliferated since the widespread digitization of film heritage, have radically altered both the technological and experiential qualities of the medium. By integrating EEG data, the performance adds the dimension of electrophysiological experience to the long tradition within experimental cinema of artists calling attention to Cinema’s hidden structures. As well as challenging the dominance of the worldview propagated by the film industry, the performance also signals a means of re-engaging with the

  4. On the Coulomb displacement energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, H.

    1976-01-01

    The Coulomb displacement energies of the T=1/2 mirror nuclei (A=15,17,27,29,31,33,39 and 41) are re-examined with the best available HF wave functions (the DME and the Skyrme II interaction), with the inclusion of all electromagnetic corrections. The results are compared with the experimental s.p. charge dependent energies extracted from the experimental data taking into account admixtures of core-excitation corrections with the help of present shell-model and co-existence model calculations. Although the so-called Nolen-Schiffer anomaly is not removed by these improvements, it is found that the remaining observed anomalies in the ground states of s.p. and s.h. systems can be resolved with the introduction of a simple, phenomenological charge symmetry breaking nucleon-nucleon force. This force can also account for the observed anomalies in the higher excited s.p. states, while those of the deeper s.h. states need further explanation. (Auth.)

  5. Effects of Fault Displacement on Emplacement Drifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, F.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate potential effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts, including drip shields and waste packages emplaced in emplacement drifts. The output from this analysis not only provides data for the evaluation of long-term drift stability but also supports the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) process model report (PMR) and Disruptive Events Report currently under development. The primary scope of this analysis includes (1) examining fault displacement effects in terms of induced stresses and displacements in the rock mass surrounding an emplacement drift and (2 ) predicting fault displacement effects on the drip shield and waste package. The magnitude of the fault displacement analyzed in this analysis bounds the mean fault displacement corresponding to an annual frequency of exceedance of 10 -5 adopted for the preclosure period of the repository and also supports the postclosure performance assessment. This analysis is performed following the development plan prepared for analyzing effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts (CRWMS M and O 2000). The analysis will begin with the identification and preparation of requirements, criteria, and inputs. A literature survey on accommodating fault displacements encountered in underground structures such as buried oil and gas pipelines will be conducted. For a given fault displacement, the least favorable scenario in term of the spatial relation of a fault to an emplacement drift is chosen, and the analysis is then performed analytically. Based on the analysis results, conclusions are made regarding the effects and consequences of fault displacement on emplacement drifts. Specifically, the analysis will discuss loads which can be induced by fault displacement on emplacement drifts, drip shield and/or waste packages during the time period of postclosure

  6. Displacement characteristics of a piezoactuator-based prototype microactuator with a hydraulic displacement amplification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidhara; Rao, Rathnamala

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new piezoactuator-based prototype microactuator is proposed with a hydraulic displacement amplification system. A piezoactuator is used to deflect a diaphragm which displaces a certain volume of hydraulic fluid into a smaller-diameter piston chamber, thereby amplifying the displacement at the other end of the piston. An electro-mechanical model is implemented to estimate the displacement of a multilayer piezoelectric actuator for the applied input voltage considering the hysteresis behavior. The displacement characteristics of the proposed microactuator are studied for triangular actuation voltage signal. Results of the experiments and simulation of the displacement behavior of the stacked piezoactuator and the amplified displacement of the prototype actuator were compared. Experimental results suggest that the mathematical model developed for the new piezoactuator-based prototype actuator is capable of estimating its displacement behavior accurately, within an error of 1.2%.

  7. Displacement characteristics of a piezoactuator-based prototype microactuator with a hydraulic displacement amplification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidhara [NMAMIT, Nitte (India); Rao, Rathnamala [NITK, Surathkal (India)

    2015-11-15

    In this study, a new piezoactuator-based prototype microactuator is proposed with a hydraulic displacement amplification system. A piezoactuator is used to deflect a diaphragm which displaces a certain volume of hydraulic fluid into a smaller-diameter piston chamber, thereby amplifying the displacement at the other end of the piston. An electro-mechanical model is implemented to estimate the displacement of a multilayer piezoelectric actuator for the applied input voltage considering the hysteresis behavior. The displacement characteristics of the proposed microactuator are studied for triangular actuation voltage signal. Results of the experiments and simulation of the displacement behavior of the stacked piezoactuator and the amplified displacement of the prototype actuator were compared. Experimental results suggest that the mathematical model developed for the new piezoactuator-based prototype actuator is capable of estimating its displacement behavior accurately, within an error of 1.2%.

  8. Melting temperature, vapor density, and vapor pressure of molybdenum pentafluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Jr, R F; Douglas, T B [National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C. (USA). Inst. for Materials Research

    1977-12-01

    A sample of MoF/sub 5/ was prepared by reaction of MoF/sub 6/(g) and Mo(c). Melting curves of temperature against time established the melting temperature at zero impurity to be 318.85 K, the enthalpy of fusion to be 6.1 kJ mol/sup -1/ (+ - 5 per cent), and the cryoscopic impurity of the sample to be 0.15 mole per cent. In the presence of MoF/sub 6/(g) which was added to suppress disproportionation, the vapor density of MoF/sub 5/ over the liquid was measured by the transpiration method at 343, 363, and 383 K, the total MoF/sub 5/ that evaporated being determined by permanganate titration. The total vapor pressure of MoF/sub 5/ oligomers over the liquid was measured by a simple static method at 373 and 392 K, while melting temperatures were taken alternately to monitor possible contamination of the sample. Although the vapor pressures were adjusted for disproportionation, solution of MoF/sub 6/ in MoF/sub 5/ (1), and wall adsorption of MoF/sub 6/ their percentage uncertainty is probably several times that of the vapor densities. A combination of the two properties indicates the average extent of association of the saturated vapor to be near 2, which is the value for the dimer species (MoF/sub 5/)/sub 2/.

  9. Prolonged displacement may compromise resilience in Eritrean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: to assess the impact of prolonged displacement on the resilience of Eritrean mothers. Methods: an adapted SOC scale (short form) was administered. Complementary qualitative data were gathered from study participants' spontaneous reactions to and commentaries on the SOC scale. Results: Displaced ...

  10. Video Games, Adolescents, and the Displacement Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Carla Christine

    2012-01-01

    The displacement effect (the idea that time spent in one activity displaces time spent in other activities) was examined within the lens of adolescents' video game use and their time spent reading, doing homework, in physically active sports and activities, in creative play, and with parents and friends. Data were drawn from the Panel Study…

  11. Etiopathogenesis of abomasal displacement in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šamanc Horea

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abomasal displacement presents topographic gastropathy, where this organ has changed its position, and there is simultaneous dilatation which can vary in intensity. The incidence of this disorder in herds of high-yield dairy cows varies to a great degree (1 to 18 %. Abomasal displacement was established in herds of East-Frisian cows in 1 to 3% animals, and in Holstein cow herds in 5 to 18 % animals. The most frequent abomasal displacement is to the left (88%. There is significant seasonal variation in the incidence of abomasal displacement. About two-thirds of cases of abomasal displacement are diagnosed from October until April. The disorder appears more frequently in cows with repeated lactations. It has been established that it appears after the first calving in 27.8% cases, after the second to fifth calving in 66.7% cases, and after the sixth and seventh calving in 5.5% of the cows. The response of endocrine pancreas B-cells for insulin secretion to hyperglycaemia caused by applying an excess-glucose test is reduced in cows with left abomasal displacement, and there is constant hyperglycaemia in cows with right abomasal displacement. The excess-glucose test indicates a disrupted function of the endocrine pancreas in diseased animals. It has been determined through examinations of Aml genotypes in Holstein cow herds in connection with the appearance of abomasal displacement, that the occurrence of this disorder cannot be attributed to a genetic predisposition.

  12. Atomic displacements in bcc dilute alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present here a systematic investigation of the atomic displacements in bcc transition metal (TM) dilute alloys. We have calculated the atomic displacements in bcc (V, Cr, Fe, Nb, Mo, Ta and W) transition metals (TMs) due to 3d, 4d and 5d TMs at the substitutional site using the Kanzaki lattice static method. Wills and ...

  13. Displaced Homemakers: Vo-Tech Workshop Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Wanda Jo

    Written for displaced homemaker programs in vocational-technical schools, this curriculum contains material designed so that instructors can prepare student manuals appropriate to almost any educational support situation for displaced homemakers. An overview provides information on special needs groups, curriculum use, and resources and sample…

  14. 40 CFR 205.153 - Engine displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., in accordance with American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) E 29-67. (b) For rotary engines... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine displacement. 205.153 Section... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.153 Engine displacement. (a) Engine...

  15. Internal displacement in Colombia: Fifteen distinguishing features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Ceballos, Ángela Milena Gómez; Espinel, Zelde; Oliveros, Sofia Rios; Fonseca, Maria Fernanda; Florez, Luis Jorge Hernandez

    2014-01-01

    This commentary aims to delineate the distinguishing features of conflict-induced internal displacement in the nation of Colombia, South America. Even as Colombia is currently implementing a spectrum of legal, social, economic, and health programs for "victims of armed conflict," with particular focus on internally displaced persons (IDPs), the dynamics of forced migration on a mass scale within this country are little known beyond national borders.   The authors of this commentary are embarking on a global mental health research program in Bogota, Colombia to define best practices for reaching the displaced population and implementing sustainable, evidence-based screening and intervention for common mental disorders. Presenting the defining characteristics of internal displacement in Colombia provides the context for our work and, more importantly, conveys the compelling and complex nature of this humanitarian crisis. We attempt to demonstrate Colombia's unique position within the global patterning of internal displacement.

  16. Asymmetric SOL Current in Vertically Displaced Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, J. D.; Navratil, G. A.; Hanson, J. M.

    2017-10-01

    Experiments at the DIII-D tokamak demonstrate a non-monotonic relationship between measured scrape-off layer (SOL) currents and vertical displacement event (VDE) rates with SOL currents becoming largely n=1 dominant as plasma is displaced by the plasma control system (PCS) at faster rates. The DIII-D PCS is used to displace the magnetic axis 10x slower than the intrinsic growth time of similar instabilities in lower single-null plasmas. Low order (n VDE instabilities observed when vertical control is disabled. Previous inquiry shows VDE asymmetry characterized by SOL current fraction and geometric parameters of tokamak plasmas. We note that, of plasmas displaced by the PCS, short displacement time scales near the limit of the PCS temporal control appear to result in larger n=1/n=2 asymmetries. Work supported under USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-FG02-04ER54761.

  17. Catalytic Reactor For Oxidizing Mercury Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfritch, Dennis J.

    1998-07-28

    A catalytic reactor (10) for oxidizing elemental mercury contained in flue gas is provided. The catalyst reactor (10) comprises within a flue gas conduit a perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) having a plurality of through openings (33) and a plurality of projecting corona discharge electrodes (31); a perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) having a plurality of through openings (43) axially aligned with the through openings (33) of the perforated corona discharge plate (30a, b) displaced from and opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31); and a catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) overlaying that face of the perforated electrode plate (40a, b, c) opposing the tips of the corona discharge electrodes (31). A uniformly distributed corona discharge plasma (1000) is intermittently generated between the plurality of corona discharge electrode tips (31) and the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) when a stream of flue gas is passed through the conduit. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is not being generated, the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d) adsorb mercury vapor contained in the passing flue gas. During those periods when corona discharge (1000) is being generated, ions and active radicals contained in the generated corona discharge plasma (1000) desorb the mercury from the catalyst molecules of the catalyst member (60a, b, c, d), oxidizing the mercury in virtually simultaneous manner. The desorption process regenerates and activates the catalyst member molecules.

  18. Displacement of location in illusory line motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Timothy L; Ruppel, Susan E

    2013-05-01

    Six experiments examined displacement in memory for the location of the line in illusory line motion (ILM; appearance or disappearance of a stationary cue is followed by appearance of a stationary line that is presented all at once, but the stationary line is perceived to "unfold" or "be drawn" from the end closest to the cue to the end most distant from the cue). If ILM was induced by having a single cue appear, then memory for the location of the line was displaced toward the cue, and displacement was larger if the line was closer to the cue. If ILM was induced by having one of two previously visible cues vanish, then memory for the location of the line was displaced away from the cue that vanished. In general, the magnitude of displacement increased and then decreased as retention interval increased from 50 to 250 ms and from 250 to 450 ms, respectively. Displacement of the line (a) is consistent with a combination of a spatial averaging of the locations of the cue and the line with a relatively weaker dynamic in the direction of illusory motion, (b) might be implemented in a spreading activation network similar to networks previously suggested to implement displacement resulting from implied or apparent motion, and (c) provides constraints and challenges for theories of ILM.

  19. Variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homutescu, V. M.; Bălănescu, D. T.; Panaite, C. E.; Atanasiu, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    The basic design and construction of an alpha-type Stirling engine with on load variable displacement is presented. The variable displacement is obtained through a planar quadrilateral linkage with one on load movable ground link. The physico-mathematical model used for analyzing the variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine behavior is an isothermal model that takes into account the real movement of the pistons. Performances and power adjustment capabilities of such alpha-type Stirling engine are calculated and analyzed. An exemplification through the use of the numerical simulation was performed in this regard.

  20. Thermal plasma chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heberlein, J.; Pfender, E.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal plasmas, with temperatures up to and even exceeding 10 4 K, are capable of producing high density vapor phase precursors for the deposition of relatively thick films. Although this technology is still in its infancy, it will fill the void between the relatively slow deposition processes such as physical vapor deposition and the high rate thermal spray deposition processes. In this chapter, the present state-of-the-art of this field is reviewed with emphasis on the various types of reactors proposed for this emerging technology. Only applications which attracted particular attention, namely diamond and high T c superconducting film deposition, are discussed in greater detail. (orig.)

  1. Waste Tank Vapor Project: Tank vapor database development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seesing, P.R.; Birn, M.B.; Manke, K.L.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of the Tank Vapor Database (TVD) Development task in FY 1994 was to create a database to store, retrieve, and analyze data collected from the vapor phase of Hanford waste tanks. The data needed to be accessible over the Hanford Local Area Network to users at both Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The data were restricted to results published in cleared reports from the laboratories analyzing vapor samples. Emphasis was placed on ease of access and flexibility of data formatting and reporting mechanisms. Because of time and budget constraints, a Rapid Application Development strategy was adopted by the database development team. An extensive data modeling exercise was conducted to determine the scope of information contained in the database. a A SUN Sparcstation 1000 was procured as the database file server. A multi-user relational database management system, Sybase reg-sign, was chosen to provide the basic data storage and retrieval capabilities. Two packages were chosen for the user interface to the database: DataPrism reg-sign and Business Objects trademark. A prototype database was constructed to provide the Waste Tank Vapor Project's Toxicology task with summarized and detailed information presented at Vapor Conference 4 by WHC, PNL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Oregon Graduate Institute. The prototype was used to develop a list of reported compounds, and the range of values for compounds reported by the analytical laboratories using different sample containers and analysis methodologies. The prototype allowed a panel of toxicology experts to identify carcinogens and compounds whose concentrations were within the reach of regulatory limits. The database and user documentation was made available for general access in September 1994

  2. Displacement pile installation effects in sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijer-Lundberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Installation effects govern the post-installation behaviour of displacement piles in sand. These effects are currently not completely understood. Suitable experimental techniques to model these installation effects include field, laboratory and experimental models. In the current thesis a

  3. Geometric interpretation of density displacements and charge ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The “geometric” interpretation of the electronic density displacements in the Hilbert space is ... an attitude is also close to the chemical thinking ..... These vectors explicitly define the corresponding ..... chain-rule for implicit functionals: p p. N p.

  4. Epitaxial growth by monolayer restricted galvanic displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilić Rastko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a new method for epitaxial growth of metals in solution by galvanic displacement of layers pre-deposited by underpotential deposition (UPD was discussed and experimentally illustrated throughout the lecture. Cyclic voltammetry (CV and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM are employed to carry out and monitor a “quasi-perfect”, two-dimensional growth of Ag on Au(111, Cu on Ag(111, and Cu on Au(111 by repetitive galvanic displacement of underpotentially deposited monolayers. A comparative study emphasizes the displacement stoichiometry as an efficient tool for thickness control during the deposition process and as a key parameter that affects the deposit morphology. The excellent quality of layers deposited by monolayer-restricted galvanic displacement is manifested by a steady UPD voltammetry and ascertained by a flat and uniform surface morphology maintained during the entire growth process.

  5. Bucky gel actuator displacement: experiment and model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghamsari, A K; Zegeye, E; Woldesenbet, E; Jin, Y

    2013-01-01

    Bucky gel actuator (BGA) is a dry electroactive nanocomposite which is driven with a few volts. BGA’s remarkable features make this tri-layered actuator a potential candidate for morphing applications. However, most of these applications would require a better understanding of the effective parameters that influence the BGA displacement. In this study, various sets of experiments were designed to investigate the effect of several parameters on the maximum lateral displacement of BGA. Two input parameters, voltage and frequency, and three material/design parameters, carbon nanotube type, thickness, and weight fraction of constituents were selected. A new thickness ratio term was also introduced to study the role of individual layers on BGA displacement. A model was established to predict BGA maximum displacement based on the effect of these parameters. This model showed good agreement with reported results from the literature. In addition, an important factor in the design of BGA-based devices, lifetime, was investigated. (paper)

  6. The Chinese Export Displacement Effect Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Christian; Yu, Wusheng; Yu, Qian

    China’s global export share has increased dramatically over the past decades. This development has prompted an empirical literature on whether Chinese exports displace those originated from elsewhere in various destination markets. In this paper we focus on the growth of China’s exports to the East...... African Community (EAC) countries and show how it has affected exports from the European Union (EU) to the EAC. Our main contribution to the literature on the displacement effect of Chinese exports is a set of total and relative displacement estimates based on different specifications of the gravity model...... where we control for country-year fixed effects so as to avoid the “gold medal mistake” of not accounting for time varying “multilateral resistance”. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that Chinese exports have displaced exports from other countries in general. Nor do they support the hypothesis...

  7. Estimated vapor pressure for WTP process streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-01

    Design assumptions during the vacuum refill phase of the Pulsed Jet Mixers (PJMs) in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) equate the vapor pressure of all process streams to that of water when calculating the temperature at which the vacuum refill is reduced or eliminated. WTP design authority asked the authors to assess this assumption by performing calculations on proposed feed slurries to calculate the vapor pressure as a function of temperature. The vapor pressure was estimated for each WTP waste group. The vapor pressure suppression caused by dissolved solids is much greater than the increase caused by organic components such that the vapor pressure for all of the waste group compositions is less than that of pure water. The vapor pressure for each group at 145°F ranges from 81% to 98% of the vapor pressure of water. If desired, the PJM could be operated at higher temperatures for waste groups with high dissolved solids that suppress vapor pressure. The SO4 group with the highest vapor pressure suppression could be operated up to 153°F before reaching the same vapor pressure of water at 145°F. However, most groups would reach equivalent vapor pressure at 147 to 148°F. If any of these waste streams are diluted, the vapor pressure can exceed the vapor pressure of water at mass dilution ratios greater than 10, but the overall effect is less than 0.5%.

  8. Vapor generation methods for explosives detection research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grate, Jay W.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.

    2012-12-01

    The generation of calibrated vapor samples of explosives compounds remains a challenge due to the low vapor pressures of the explosives, adsorption of explosives on container and tubing walls, and the requirement to manage (typically) multiple temperature zones as the vapor is generated, diluted, and delivered. Methods that have been described to generate vapors can be classified as continuous or pulsed flow vapor generators. Vapor sources for continuous flow generators are typically explosives compounds supported on a solid support, or compounds contained in a permeation or diffusion device. Sources are held at elevated isothermal temperatures. Similar sources can be used for pulsed vapor generators; however, pulsed systems may also use injection of solutions onto heated surfaces with generation of both solvent and explosives vapors, transient peaks from a gas chromatograph, or vapors generated by s programmed thermal desorption. This article reviews vapor generator approaches with emphasis on the method of generating the vapors and on practical aspects of vapor dilution and handling. In addition, a gas chromatographic system with two ovens that is configurable with up to four heating ropes is proposed that could serve as a single integrated platform for explosives vapor generation and device testing. Issues related to standards, calibration, and safety are also discussed.

  9. Phenomenon of displacement in Arabic language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Displacement is one of the characteristics of language and common phenomena in the Arabic language. Not only is this phenomenon limited to Arabic poetry and prose, but it is also broadened, so we can see examples of this in the Qur'an. Because of this phenomenon extensively in Arabic literature and also because of its essence that leads to the transmission of the elements for the first visibility to the other visibility in the sentence and sometimes had to change the grammatical role of the words, its identify helps us in a better understanding of text and the correct translation of it and protects the reader from mistakes. This paper in the descriptive analytical approach tries studying of the phenomenon of the displacement in the Arabic language and bringing its instances in Arabic poetry and prose as well as verses contained in the Holy Quran, to show that through the types and characteristics in the Arabic language and to response to several questions, including: how important is the displacement and what is its types in rhetoric, and the reasons of the displacement, and etc... Of the most important results of this study may refer to the undeniable role of the displacement as a rhetorical method to better understanding of the texts including: one of the most important reasons of the displacement in the use of language is to improve speech verbally and morally, and violation of the standard language and create a poetic atmosphere, and the recognition of the occurrence of the phenomenon of displacement in the Arabic language that uphold different interpretations remote and estimates when faced with the displacement in the text and help us to understand it and etc...

  10. Histone displacement during nucleotide excision repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinant, C.; Bartek, J.; Bekker-Jensen, S.

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is an important DNA repair mechanism required for cellular resistance against UV light and toxic chemicals such as those found in tobacco smoke. In living cells, NER efficiently detects and removes DNA lesions within the large nuclear macromolecular complex called...... of histone variants and histone displacement (including nucleosome sliding). Here we review current knowledge, and speculate about current unknowns, regarding those chromatin remodeling activities that physically displace histones before, during and after NER....

  11. 2014 and beyond: implications for displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan O’Leary

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available 2014 marks a watershed for Afghanistan, with the withdrawal of the International Security Assistance Force after twelve years, and the very real risks this withdrawal poses to the capacity of the Afghan state to meet the many internal and external challenges faced by the country. These challenges have significant implications for displaced and returning Afghans and for the potential for displacement in the future.

  12. Lateral displacement in small angle multiple scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bichsel, H.; Hanson, K.M.; Schillaci, K.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1982-07-01

    Values have been calculated for the average lateral displacement in small angle multiple scattering of protons with energies of several hundred MeV. The calculations incorporate the Moliere distribution which does not make the gaussian approximations of the distribution in projected angle and lateral deflections. Compared to other published data, such approximations can lead to errors in the lateral displacement of up to 10% in water.

  13. Vapor generating unit blowdown arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, B.N.

    1978-01-01

    A vapor generating unit having a U-shaped tube bundle is provided with an orificed downcomer shroud and a fluid flow distribution plate between the lower hot and cold leg regions to promote fluid entrained sediment deposition in proximity to an apertured blowdown pipe

  14. SOCIAL CAPITAL IN INVOLUNTARY DISPLACEMENT AND RESETTLEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Quetulio-Navarra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Social capital is often seen as a substitute for lack of other types of capital amongpoor people. Because of the recognized applicability of the social capital conceptand its correlation with the different dimensions of poverty, it has been used inevaluating the adaptation and integration of involuntarily displaced individualsinto their new environment. This paper presents insights based on a review of thefindings of studies that looked into the role of social capital in conflict- anddevelopment-induced displacement contexts. Althoughboth types of displace-ments are involuntary or forced in nature, they differ in terms of the role of socialcapital regarding its main sources, the formation pattern and its determinants.Social capital studies in forced resettlement appear to be relatively small innumber and are heavily concentrated on first worldcountries and conflict- anddevelopment-induced displacements. The conduct of similar studies in developingcountries and in a disaster-induced resettlement context, the third type ofinvoluntary displacement, should generate new and relevant findings regardingthe role of social capital in resettlement communities.

  15. Hanford soil partitioning and vapor extraction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonge, D.; Hossain, A.; Cameron, R.; Ford, H.; Storey, C.

    1996-07-01

    This report describes the testing and results of laboratory experiments conducted to assist the carbon tetrachloride soil vapor extraction project operating in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Vapor-phase adsorption and desorption testing was performed using carbon tetrachloride and Hanford Site soils to estimate vapor-soil partitioning and reasonably achievable carbon tetrachloride soil concentrations during active vapor extractions efforts at the 200 West Area. (CCl 4 is used in Pu recovery from aqueous streams.)

  16. Vapor Pressure Data Analysis and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    near 8, 2000, and 200, respectively. The A (or a) value is directly related to vapor pressure and will be greater for high vapor pressure materials...1, (10) where n is the number of data points, Yi is the natural logarithm of the i th experimental vapor pressure value, and Xi is the...VAPOR PRESSURE DATA ANALYSIS AND STATISTICS ECBC-TR-1422 Ann Brozena RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DIRECTORATE

  17. Estimating enthalpy of vaporization from vapor pressure using Trouton's rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Matthew; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2007-04-15

    The enthalpy of vaporization of liquids and subcooled liquids at 298 K (delta H(VAP)) is an important parameter in environmental fate assessments that consider spatial and temporal variability in environmental conditions. It has been shown that delta H(VAP)P for non-hydrogen-bonding substances can be estimated from vapor pressure at 298 K (P(L)) using an empirically derived linear relationship. Here, we demonstrate that the relationship between delta H(VAP)and PL is consistent with Trouton's rule and the ClausiusClapeyron equation under the assumption that delta H(VAP) is linearly dependent on temperature between 298 K and the boiling point temperature. Our interpretation based on Trouton's rule substantiates the empirical relationship between delta H(VAP) degree and P(L) degrees for non-hydrogen-bonding chemicals with subcooled liquid vapor pressures ranging over 15 orders of magnitude. We apply the relationship between delta H(VAP) degrees and P(L) degrees to evaluate data reported in literature reviews for several important classes of semivolatile environmental contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorobenzenes, polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and -furans and illustrate the temperature dependence of results from a multimedia model presented as a partitioning map. The uncertainty associated with estimating delta H(VAP)degrees from P(L) degrees using this relationship is acceptable for most environmental fate modeling of non-hydrogen-bonding semivolatile organic chemicals.

  18. Emittance growth rates for displaced beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, O.A.

    1993-05-01

    Emittance growth rates have been previously analyzed for nonuniform beams in linear channels and for initially uniform mismatched beams in nonlinear channels. These studies were for centered beams. Additional emittance growth can arise in cases where the beam is initially displaced. The purpose of this study is to obtain growth rates for displaced beams. This work differs from studies involving random displacement of electrodes. Our analysis assumes instead that the focusing system is perfectly aligned but that the beam is initially displaced with respect to the equilibrium axis. If the focusing force is slightly nonlinear, we find a gradual transfer of the potential energy of beam displacement into kinetic energy associated with emittance growth. We present explicit results for the emittance growth distance as a function of the nonlinearity of the channel. These results will have practical importance for designers of accelerators and transport systems when setting realistic tolerances for initial beam alignment. These tolerances will depend on the nonlinearity and the length of the system

  19. Quantification of the vocal folds’ dynamic displacements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Montes, María del Socorro; Muñoz, Silvino; De La Torre, Manuel; Flores, Mauricio; Pérez, Carlos; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Fast dynamic data acquisition techniques are required to investigate the motional behavior of the vocal folds (VFs) when they are subjected to a steady air-flow through the trachea. High-speed digital holographic interferometry (DHI) is a non-invasive full-field-of-view technique that has proved its usefulness to study rapid and non-repetitive object movements. Hence it is an ideal technique used here to measure VF displacements and vibration patterns at 2000 fps. Analyses from a set of 200 displacement images showed that VFs’ vibration cycles are established along their width (y) and length (x). Furthermore, the maximum deformation for the right and left VFs’ area may be quantified from these images, which in itself represents an important result in the characterization of this structure. At a controlled air pressure, VF displacements fall within the range ∼100–1740 nm, with a calculated precision and accuracy that yields a variation coefficient of 1.91%. High-speed acquisition of full-field images of VFs and their displacement quantification are on their own significant data in the study of their functional and physiological behavior since voice quality and production depend on how they vibrate, i.e. their displacement amplitude and frequency. Additionally, the use of high speed DHI avoids prolonged examinations and represents a significant scientific and technological alternative contribution in advancing the knowledge and working mechanisms of these tissues. (paper)

  20. High-displacement spiral piezoelectric actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, F.; Kholkin, A. L.; Jadidian, B.; Safari, A.

    1999-10-01

    A high-displacement piezoelectric actuator, employing spiral geometry of a curved piezoelectric strip is described. The monolithic actuators are fabricated using a layered manufacturing technique, fused deposition of ceramics, which is capable of prototyping electroceramic components with complex shapes. The spiral actuators (2-3 cm in diameter) consisted of 4-5 turns of a lead zirconate titanate ceramic strip with an effective length up to 28 cm. The width was varied from 0.9 to 1.75 mm with a height of 3 mm. When driven by the electric field applied across the width of the spiral wall, the tip of the actuator was found to displace in both radial and tangential directions. The tangential displacement of the tip was about 210 μm under the field of 5 kV/cm. Both the displacement and resonant frequency of the spirals could be tailored by changing the effective length and wall width. The blocking force of the actuator in tangential direction was about 1 N under the field of 5 kV/cm. These properties are advantageous for high-displacement low-force applications where bimorph or monomorph actuators are currently employed.

  1. Quantification of the vocal folds’ dynamic displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Socorro Hernández-Montes, María; Muñoz, Silvino; De La Torre, Manuel; Flores, Mauricio; Pérez, Carlos; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    Fast dynamic data acquisition techniques are required to investigate the motional behavior of the vocal folds (VFs) when they are subjected to a steady air-flow through the trachea. High-speed digital holographic interferometry (DHI) is a non-invasive full-field-of-view technique that has proved its usefulness to study rapid and non-repetitive object movements. Hence it is an ideal technique used here to measure VF displacements and vibration patterns at 2000 fps. Analyses from a set of 200 displacement images showed that VFs’ vibration cycles are established along their width (y) and length (x). Furthermore, the maximum deformation for the right and left VFs’ area may be quantified from these images, which in itself represents an important result in the characterization of this structure. At a controlled air pressure, VF displacements fall within the range ~100-1740 nm, with a calculated precision and accuracy that yields a variation coefficient of 1.91%. High-speed acquisition of full-field images of VFs and their displacement quantification are on their own significant data in the study of their functional and physiological behavior since voice quality and production depend on how they vibrate, i.e. their displacement amplitude and frequency. Additionally, the use of high speed DHI avoids prolonged examinations and represents a significant scientific and technological alternative contribution in advancing the knowledge and working mechanisms of these tissues.

  2. Vapor deposition of tantalum and tantalum compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trkula, M.

    1996-01-01

    Tantalum, and many of its compounds, can be deposited as coatings with techniques ranging from pure, thermal chemical vapor deposition to pure physical vapor deposition. This review concentrates on chemical vapor deposition techniques. The paper takes a historical approach. The authors review classical, metal halide-based techniques and current techniques for tantalum chemical vapor deposition. The advantages and limitations of the techniques will be compared. The need for new lower temperature processes and hence new precursor chemicals will be examined and explained. In the last section, they add some speculation as to possible new, low-temperature precursors for tantalum chemical vapor deposition

  3. What Good is Raman Water Vapor Lidar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, David

    2011-01-01

    Raman lidar has been used to quantify water vapor in the atmosphere for various scientific studies including mesoscale meteorology and satellite validation. Now the international networks of NDACC and GRUAN have interest in using Raman water vapor lidar for detecting trends in atmospheric water vapor concentrations. What are the data needs for addressing these very different measurement challenges. We will review briefly the scientific needs for water vapor accuracy for each of these three applications and attempt to translate that into performance specifications for Raman lidar in an effort to address the question in the title of "What good is Raman water vapor Iidar."

  4. High temperature vapors science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hastie, John

    2012-01-01

    High Temperature Vapors: Science and Technology focuses on the relationship of the basic science of high-temperature vapors to some areas of discernible practical importance in modern science and technology. The major high-temperature problem areas selected for discussion include chemical vapor transport and deposition; the vapor phase aspects of corrosion, combustion, and energy systems; and extraterrestrial high-temperature species. This book is comprised of seven chapters and begins with an introduction to the nature of the high-temperature vapor state, the scope and literature of high-temp

  5. Importance Profiles for Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapes, Brian; Chandra, Arunchandra S.; Kuang, Zhiming; Zuidema, Paquita

    2017-11-01

    Motivated by the scientific desire to align observations with quantities of physical interest, we survey how scalar importance functions depend on vertically resolved water vapor. Definitions of importance begin from familiar examples of water mass I m and TOA clear-sky outgoing longwave flux I OLR, in order to establish notation and illustrate graphically how the sensitivity profile or "kernel" depends on whether specific humidity S, relative humidity R, or ln( R) are used as measures of vapor. Then, new results on the sensitivity of convective activity I con to vapor (with implied knock-on effects such as weather prediction skill) are presented. In radiative-convective equilibrium, organized (line-like) convection is much more sensitive to moisture than scattered isotropic convection, but it exists in a drier mean state. The lesson for natural convection may be that organized convection is less susceptible to dryness and can survive and propagate into regions unfavorable for disorganized convection. This counterintuitive interpretive conclusion, with respect to the narrow numerical result behind it, highlights the importance of clarity about what is held constant at what values in sensitivity or susceptibility kernels. Finally, the sensitivities of observable radiance signals I sig for passive remote sensing are considered. While the accuracy of R in the lower free troposphere is crucial for the physical importance scalars, this layer is unfortunately the most difficult to isolate with passive remote sensing: In high emissivity channels, water vapor signals come from too high in the atmosphere (for satellites) or too low (for surface radiometers), while low emissivity channels have poor altitude discrimination and (in the case of satellites) are contaminated by surface emissions. For these reasons, active ranging (LiDAR) is the preferred observing strategy.

  6. Vapor Pressure of Antimony Triiodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-07

    unlimited. iii Contents List of Figures iv 1. Introduction 1 2. Vapor Pressure 1 3. Experiment 3 4. Discussion and Measurements 5 5...SbI3 as a function of temperature ......................... 6 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 1 1. Introduction ...single-crystal thin films of n-type (Bi,Sb)2(Te,Se)3 materials presents new doping challenges because it is a nonequilibrium process. (Bi,Sb)2(Te,Se)3

  7. Sodium vapor charge exchange cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiddleston, H.R.; Fasolo, J.A.; Minette, D.C.; Chrien, R.E.; Frederick, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    An operational sequential charge-exchange ion source yielding a 50 MeV H - current of approximately 8 mA is planned for use with the Argonne 500 MeV booster synchrotron. We report on the progress for development of a sodium vapor charge-exchange cell as part of that planned effort. Design, fabrication, and operating results to date are presented and discussed. (author)

  8. Overtreatment of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ban, Ilija; Nowak, Jan; Virtanen, Kaisa

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose - The best treatment for displaced clavicle fractures has been debated for decades. Operative treatment has become more common. However, several randomized trials comparing non-operative and operative treatment have not shown any compelling evidence in favor of surgery. We...... identified the preferred treatment of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures at public hospitals in 3 countries in Scandinavia. Patients and methods - A purpose-made multiple-choice questionnaire in English was sent to all public hospitals in Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. This was addressed to the orthopedic...... surgeon responsible for treatment of clavicle fractures, and completed questionnaires were obtained from 85 of 118 hospitals. Results - In the 3 countries, 69 of the 85 hospitals that responded would treat displaced clavicle fractures operatively. Clear criteria for treatment allocation were used at 58...

  9. Forced displacement and women's security in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meertens, Donny

    2010-04-01

    In the protracted Colombian conflict, assistance to internally displaced persons has developed in the context of contradictory political processes. The Colombian government's launching of a transitional justice process in the midst of armed conflict has generated a complex situation displaying both conflict and post-conflict characteristics. The progressive Constitutional Court rulings on internal displacement, in particular the gender-sensitive Auto 092, constitute an attempt to bring together humanitarian interventions and transitional justice measures in a rights-based framework. However, the national government is reluctant to adopt them fully and local realities still hamper their integrated implementation. Displaced women, therefore, remain in an especially vulnerable position. This paper argues that gender-sensitive humanitarian interventions must take into account all of these complexities of scale and political process in order to make legal frameworks more effective at the local level. In these contexts, interventions should pay particular attention to strategies that contribute to transforming pre-existing gender regimes.

  10. [Management of disk displacement with condylar fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shi-bin; Li, Zu-bing; Yang, Xue-wen; Zhao, Ji-hong; Dong, Yao-jun

    2003-07-01

    To investigate clinical features of disk displacement during the course of condylar fracture and to explore the techniques of disk reposition and suturation. 32 patients (10 females and 22 males) who had disk displacements with condylar fractures were followed up. Reduction and reposition of the dislocated disks simultaneously with fixation of fractures were performed. 7 patients underwent intermaxillary fixation with elastic bands for 1 to 2 weeks. The occlusions were satisfactory in all cases but one for the reason of ramus height loss. No TMJ symptom was found when examined 3 months post operation. Anterior disk displacements were most occurred with high condylar process fractures. Surgical reposition and suturation of disk play an important role for the later TMJ-function.

  11. DNA fork displacement rates in human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapp, L.N.; Painter, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    DNA fork displacement rates were measured in 20 human cell lines by a bromodeoxyuridine-313 nm photolysis technique. Cell lines included representatives of normal diploid, Fanconi's anemia, ataxia telangiectasia, xeroderma pigmentosum, trisomy-21 and several transformed lines. The average value for all the cell lines was 0.53 +- 0.08 μm/min. The average value for individual cell lines, however, displayed a 30% variation. Less than 10% of variation in the fork displacement rate appears to be due to the experimental technique; the remainder is probably due to true variation among the cell types and to culture conditions. (Auth.)

  12. DNA fork displacement rates in human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapp, L.N.; Painter, R.B. (California Univ., San Francisco (USA). Lab. of Radiobiology)

    1981-11-27

    DNA fork displacement rates were measured in 20 human cell lines by a bromodeoxyuridine-313 nm photolysis technique. Cell lines included representatives of normal diploid, Fanconi's anemia, ataxia telangiectasia, xeroderma pigmentosum, trisomy-21 and several transformed lines. The average value for all the cell lines was 0.53 +- 0.08 ..mu..m/min. The average value for individual cell lines, however, displayed a 30% variation. Less than 10% of variation in the fork displacement rate appears to be due to the experimental technique; the remainder is probably due to true variation among the cell types and to culture conditions.

  13. Bucket Foundation Response Under Various Displacement Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    in a multi-bucket foundation system. The foundation model is at a scale of approximately 1:20 prototype foundation size. The tests are performed in a pressure tank with the foundation model installed in dense sand. Based on the data, the conclusion is that the bucket foundation design in a storm case should......The present testing program aims at showing the pore pressure response around a bucket foundation skirt as well as the load and displacement change due to ten different displacement rates. Research findings are useful for a numerical model calibration focusing on the design of the upwind foundation...

  14. Constant displacement rate testing at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepe, J.J.; Gonyea, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    A short time test has been developed which is capable of determining the long time notch sensitivity tendencies of CrMoV rotor forging materials. This test is based on Constant Displacement Rate (CDR) testing of a specific notch bar specimen at 1200 0 F at 2 mils/in/hour displacement rate. These data were correlated to conventional smooth and notch bar rupture behavior for a series of CrMoV materials with varying long time ductility tendencies. The purpose of this paper is to describe the details of this new test procedure and some of the relevant mechanics of material information generated during its development

  15. Passive Smoking in a Displacement Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The aim of this research is to see if the displacement ventilation principle can protect a person from exposure to passive tobacco smoking. This is done by full-scale experiments with two breathing thermal manikins, smoke visualisations, and tracer gas measurements. In some situations, exhaled...... smoke will stratify in a certain height due to the vertical temperature gradient. This horizontal layer of exhaled tobacco smoke may lead to exposure. In other situations, the smoke is mixed into the upper zone, and the passive smoker is protected to some extent by the displacement principle...

  16. Performance of displacement ventilation in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naidenov, K.; Pitchurov, G.; Langkilde, Gunnar

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents results of a field study in offices with displacement ventilation. It comprises detailed physical measurements of the thermal environment and collection of occupants´ response at 227 workplaces. The results, both physical measurements and human response, identified draught...... as the major local discomfort in the rooms with displacement ventilation. Twenty-three percent of the occupants were daily bothered by draught. In some buildings the maintenance personnel tried to improve occupants´ thermal comfort by raising the supply air temperature or office workers themselves blocked...

  17. Efficiency of a variable displacement open circuit floating cup pump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vael, G.E.M.; Achten, P.A.J.; Brink, van den T.L.

    2009-01-01

    The Floating Cup Displacement principle is a relatively new axial piston displacement principle for hydrostatic pumps, motors and transformers. Since its origin in 2001, it has been mainly applied in fixed displacement pump prototypes. At the SICFP’05, a design for a variable displacement open

  18. Rotational melting in displacive quantum paraelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martonak, R.; Tosatti, E.

    1994-06-01

    Displacive quantum paraelectrics are discussed as possible realizations of rotational quantum melting. The phenomenology of SrTiO 3 and KTaO 3 is discussed in this light. Both old and fresh theoretical work on two-dimensional lattice models for quantum paraelectricity is reviewed. (author). 73 refs, 15 figs

  19. Page | 187 DISPLACEMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    development remain one of the greatest concerns of human beings globally.4. This urbanization which most often result in conflicts, ethnic violence, communal rife and clashes, and incessant tussle for natural and artificial resources, has also contributed to the displacement of persons. * By Obinna MBANUGO, LLM, BL, ...

  20. Earthquake source model using strong motion displacement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The strong motion displacement records available during an earthquake can be treated as the response of the earth as the a structural system to unknown forces acting at unknown locations. Thus, if the part of the earth participating in ground motion is modelled as a known finite elastic medium, one can attempt to model the ...

  1. Public policy to address displacement in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Cossío Díaz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available At hearings of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights in November 2013 on the human rights situation in Mexico, the issue of the internally displaced in particular caught my attention, both due to its current serious level and for its potential impact in the not too distant future.

  2. Insect Wing Displacement Measurement Using Digital Holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguayo, Daniel D.; Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando; Torre I, Manuel H. de la; Caloca Mendez, Cristian I.

    2008-01-01

    Insects in flight have been studied with optical non destructive techniques with the purpose of using meaningful results in aerodynamics. With the availability of high resolution and large dynamic range CCD sensors the so called interferometric digital holographic technique was used to measure the surface displacement of in flight insect wings, such as butterflies. The wings were illuminated with a continuous wave Verdi laser at 532 nm, and observed with a CCD Pixelfly camera that acquire images at a rate of 11.5 frames per second at a resolution of 1392x1024 pixels and 12 Bit dynamic range. At this frame rate digital holograms of the wings were captured and processed in the usual manner, namely, each individual hologram is Fourier processed in order to find the amplitude and phase corresponding to the digital hologram. The wings displacement is obtained when subtraction between two digital holograms is performed for two different wings position, a feature applied to all consecutive frames recorded. The result of subtracting is seen as a wrapped phase fringe pattern directly related to the wing displacement. The experimental data for different butterfly flying conditions and exposure times are shown as wire mesh plots in a movie of the wings displacement

  3. Microbial adhesion in flow displacement systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, HJ; van der Mei, HC

    Flow displacement systems are superior to many other (static) systems for studying microbial adhesion to surfaces because mass transport and prevailing shear conditions can be adequately controlled and notoriously ill-defined slight rinsing steps to remove so-called "loosely adhering organisms" can

  4. Heterodyne displacement interferometer, insensitive for input polarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meskers, A.J.H.; Spronck, J.W.; Munnig Schmidt, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    Periodic nonlinearity (PNL) in displacement interferometers is a systematic error source that limits measurement accuracy. The PNL of coaxial heterodyne interferometers is highly influenced by the polarization state and orientation of the source frequencies. In this Letter, we investigate this error

  5. Isolated Displaced Fracture of the Lesser Tuberosity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    publication of this report. The authors declare no competing interests. Discussion. A delay in diagnosis of a lesser tuberosity fracture may lead to significant future clinical disability (2). In one such case the patient presented with axillary nerve neuropraxia while another case reported displacement of the biceps tendon (4).

  6. Comb-drive actuators for large displacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legtenberg, Rob; Legtenberg, R.; Groeneveld, A.W.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    The design, fabrication and experimental results of lateral-comb-drive actuators for large displacements at low driving voltages is presented. A comparison of several suspension designs is given, and the lateral large deflection behaviour of clamped-clamped beams and a folded flexure design is

  7. Fiber-optic couplers as displacement sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruch, Martin C.; Gerdt, David W.; Adkins, Charles M.

    2003-04-01

    We introduce the novel concept of using a fiber-optic coupler as a versatile displacement sensor. Comparatively long fiber-optic couplers, with a coupling region of approximately 10 mm, are manufactured using standard communication SM fiber and placed in a looped-back configuration. The result is a displacement sensor, which is robust and highly sensitive over a wide dynamic range. This displacement sensor resolves 1-2 μm over distances of 1-1.5 mm and is characterized by the essential absence of a 'spring constant' plaguing other strain gauge-type sensors. Consequently, it is possible to couple to extremely weak vibrations, such as the skin displacement affected by arterial heart beat pulsations. Used as a wrist-worn heartbeat monitor, the fidelity of the arterial pulse signal has been shown to be so high that it is possible to not only determine heartbeat and breathing rates, but to implement a new single-point blood pressure measurement scheme which does not squeeze the arm. In an application as a floor vibration sensor for the non-intrusive monitoring of independently living elderly, the sensor has been shown to resolve the distinct vibration spectra of different persons and different events.

  8. Displacing Media: LCD LAB Artistic Residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Pais

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This review refers to an artistic residency which took place at LCD LAB -  CAAA at Guimarães, in March, exploring a strategy for media art called Media Displacement. The text introduces the strategy very briefly and describes the residency's organization, structure, processses and the results produced.

  9. Measuring displacement signal with an accelerometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Bo

    2010-01-01

    An effective and simple way to reconstruct displacement signal from a measured acceleration signal is proposed in this paper. To reconstruct displacement signal by means of double-integrating the time domain acceleration signal, the Nyquist frequency of the digital sampling of the acceleration signal should be much higher than the highest frequency component of the signal. On the other hand, to reconstruct displacement signal by taking the inverse Fourier transform, the magnitude of the significant frequency components of the Fourier transform of the acceleration signal should be greater than the 6 dB increment line along the frequency axis. With a predetermined resolution in time and frequency domain, determined by the sampling rate to measure and record the original signal, reconstructing high-frequency signals in the time domain and reconstructing low-frequency signals in the frequency domain will produce biased errors. Furthermore, because of the DC components inevitably included in the sampling process, low-frequency components of the signals are overestimated when displacement signals are reconstructed from the Fourier transform of the acceleration signal. The proposed method utilizes curve-fitting around the significant frequency components of the Fourier transform of the acceleration signal before it is inverse-Fourier transformed. Curve-fitting around the dominant frequency components provides much better results than simply ignoring the insignificant frequency components of the signal

  10. The use of a displacement device negatively affects the performance of dogs (Canis familiaris) in visible object displacement tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Corsin A; Riemer, Stefanie; Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig

    2014-08-01

    Visible and invisible displacement tasks have been used widely for comparative studies of animals' understanding of object permanence, with evidence accumulating that some species can solve invisible displacement tasks and, thus, reach Piagetian stage 6 of object permanence. In contrast, dogs appear to rely on associative cues, such as the location of the displacement device, during invisible displacement tasks. It remains unclear, however, whether dogs, and other species that failed in invisible displacement tasks, do so because of their inability to form a mental representation of the target object, or simply because of the involvement of a more salient but potentially misleading associative cue, the displacement device. Here we show that the use of a displacement device impairs the performance of dogs also in visible displacement tasks: their search accuracy was significantly lower when a visible displacement was performed with a displacement device, and only two of initially 42 dogs passed the sham-baiting control conditions. The negative influence of the displacement device in visible displacement tasks may be explained by strong associative cues overriding explicit information about the target object's location, reminiscent of an overshadowing effect, and/or object individuation errors as the target object is placed within the displacement device and moves along a spatiotemporally identical trajectory. Our data suggest that a comprehensive appraisal of a species' performance in object permanence tasks should include visible displacement tasks with the same displacement device used in invisible displacements, which typically has not been done in the past.

  11. HTR-10GT AMBs displacement sensor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhengang; Zha Meisheng; Zhao Lei; Sun Zhuo

    2005-01-01

    The 10 MW high temperature gas-cooled test module reactor (HTR-10GT) with the core made of spherical fuel elements was designed and constructed by the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University in China. In the HTR-10GT, turbo-compressor and generator rotors are connected by a flexible coupling. The rotors, restricted by actual instruments and working environment, must be supported without any contact and lubrication. Active magnetic bearing (AMB), known as its advantages over the conventional bearings., such as contact-free, no-lubricating and active damping vibration, is the best way to suspend and stabilize the position of rotors of HTR-10GT. Each rotor is suspended by two radial and one axial AMBs. The radial AMB's radial gap is 0.15 mm considering the gap of 0.4 mm between the compressor stator and blades in order to protect the compressor. The control system controls the rotor position to meet the required gaps between rotor and stator through windings current. All the position information concerning radial and axial AMB is generated by sensors for measuring the displacement of the levitated body. Some typical sensors, i.e. eddy current displacement sensor, capacitive displacement sensor, can provide position information, but, quite often, unsatisfactory anti-jamming, which is a key issue for AMB systems near generator and other electric devices in HTR-10GT. Therefore, a kind of new type sensor is designed to measure the radial and axial displacements and the vibration of the rotors. This paper focuses on the design characteristics of the HTR-10GT AMBs displacement sensors and introduction of the related experiments to demonstrate its performance. (authors)

  12. Pre-failure behaviour of an unstable limestone cliff from displacement and seismic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-L. Got

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We monitored the displacement and seismic activity of an unstable vertical rock slice in a natural limestone cliff of the southeast Vercors massif, southeast France, during the months preceding its collapse. Displacement measurements showed an average acceleration of the movement of its top, with clear increases in the displacement velocity and in the discrete seismic event production rate during periods where temperature falls, with more activity when rainfall or frost occurs. Crises of discrete seismic events produce high amplitudes in periodograms, but do not change the high frequency base noise level rate. We infer that these crises express the critical crack growth induced by water weakening (from water vapor condensation or rain of the rock strength rather than to a rapid change in applied stresses. Seismic noise analysis showed a steady increase in the high frequency base noise level and the emergence of spectral modes in the signal recorded by the sensor installed on the unstable rock slice during the weeks preceding the collapse. High frequency seismic noise base level seems to represent subcritical crack growth. It is a smooth and robust parameter whose variations are related to generalized changes in the rupture process. Drop of the seismic noise amplitude was concomitant with the emergence of spectral modes – that are compatible with high-order eigenmodes of the unstable rock slice – during the later stages of its instability. Seismic noise analysis, especially high frequency base noise level analysis may complement that of inverse displacement velocity in early-warning approaches when strong displacement fluctuations occur.

  13. Microwave assisted chemical vapor infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devlin, D.J.; Currier, R.P.; Barbero, R.S.; Espinoza, B.F.; Elliott, N.

    1991-01-01

    A microwave assisted process for production of continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites is described. A simple apparatus combining a chemical vapor infiltration reactor with a conventional 700 W multimode oven is described. Microwave induced inverted thermal gradients are exploited with the ultimate goal of reducing processing times on complex shapes. Thermal gradients in stacks of SiC (Nicalon) cloths have been measured using optical thermometry. Initial results on the ''inside out'' deposition of SiC via decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane in hydrogen are presented. Several key processing issues are identified and discussed. 5 refs

  14. Overview of chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Lowden, R.A.

    1993-06-01

    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is developing into a commercially important method for the fabrication of continuous filament ceramic composites. Current efforts are focused on the development of an improved understanding of the various processes in CVI and its modeling. New approaches to CVI are being explored, including pressure pulse infiltration and microwave heating. Material development is also proceeding with emphasis on improving the oxidation resistance of the interfacial layer between the fiber and matrix. This paper briefly reviews these subjects, indicating the current state of the science and technology.

  15. A Lithium Vapor Box Divertor Similarity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Robert A.; Emdee, Eric D.; Goldston, Robert J.; Jaworski, Michael A.; Schwartz, Jacob A.

    2017-10-01

    A lithium vapor box divertor offers an alternate means of managing the extreme power density of divertor plasmas by leveraging gaseous lithium to volumetrically extract power. The vapor box divertor is a baffled slot with liquid lithium coated walls held at temperatures which increase toward the divertor floor. The resulting vapor pressure differential drives gaseous lithium from hotter chambers into cooler ones, where the lithium condenses and returns. A similarity experiment was devised to investigate the advantages offered by a vapor box divertor design. We discuss the design, construction, and early findings of the vapor box divertor experiment including vapor can construction, power transfer calculations, joint integrity tests, and thermocouple data logging. Heat redistribution of an incident plasma-based heat flux from a typical linear plasma device is also presented. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 and The Princeton Environmental Institute.

  16. Thermogravimetric measurements of liquid vapor pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Yunhong; Gregson, Christopher M.; Parker, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Rapid determination of vapor pressure by TGA. ► Demonstration of limitations of currently available approaches in literature. ► New model for vapor pressure assessment of small size samples in TGA. ► New model accounts for vapor diffusion and sample geometry and measures vapor pressure normally within 10%. - Abstract: A method was developed using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) to determine the vapor pressure of volatile liquids. This is achieved by measuring the rate of evaporation (mass loss) of a pure liquid contained within a cylindrical pan. The influence of factors like sample geometry and vapor diffusion on evaporation rate are discussed. The measurement can be performed across a wide range of temperature yielding reasonable results up to 10 kPa. This approach may be useful as a rapid and automatable method for measuring the volatility of flavor and fragrance raw materials.

  17. Ion vapor deposition and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, H.; Schulze, D.; Wilberg, R.

    1981-01-01

    Proceeding from the fundamentals of ion vapor deposition the characteristic properties of ion-plated coatings are briefly discussed. Examples are presented of successful applications of ion-plated coatings such as coatings with special electrical and dielectric properties, coatings for corrosion prevention, and coatings for improving the surface properties. It is concluded that ion vapor deposition is an advantageous procedure in addition to vapor deposition. (author)

  18. Monofilament Vaporization Propulsion (MVP) System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Monofilament Vaporization Propulsion (MVP) is a new propulsion technology targeted at secondary payload applications. It does not compromise on performance while...

  19. Experiences of marijuana-vaporizer users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouff, John M; Rooke, Sally E; Copeland, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Using a marijuana vaporizer may have potential harm-reduction advantages on smoking marijuana, in that the user does not inhale smoke. Little research has been published on use of vaporizers. In the first study of individuals using a vaporizer on their own initiative, 96 adults anonymously answered questions about their experiences with a vaporizer and their use of marijuana with tobacco. Users identified 4 advantages to using a vaporizer over smoking marijuana: perceived health benefits, better taste, no smoke smell, and more effect from the same amount of marijuana. Users identified 2 disadvantages: inconvenience of setup and cleaning and the time it takes to get the device operating for each use. Only 2 individuals combined tobacco in the vaporizer mix, whereas 15 combined tobacco with marijuana when they smoked marijuana. Almost all participants intended to continue using a vaporizer. Vaporizers seem to have appeal to marijuana users, who perceive them as having harm-reduction and other benefits. Vaporizers are worthy of experimental research evaluating health-related effects of using them.

  20. Conflict, displacement and health in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowafi, Hani

    2011-01-01

    Displacement is a hallmark of modern humanitarian emergencies. Displacement itself is a traumatic event that can result in illness or death. Survivors face challenges including lack of adequate shelter, decreased access to health services, food insecurity, loss of livelihoods, social marginalisation as well as economic and sexual exploitation. Displacement takes many forms in the Middle East and the Arab World. Historical conflicts have resulted in long-term displacement of Palestinians. Internal conflicts have driven millions of Somalis and Sudanese from their homes. Iraqis have been displaced throughout the region by invasion and civil strife. In addition, large numbers of migrants transit Middle Eastern countries or live there illegally and suffer similar conditions as forcibly displaced people. Displacement in the Middle East is an urban phenomenon. Many displaced people live hidden among host country populations in poor urban neighbourhoods - often without legal status. This represents a challenge for groups attempting to access displaced populations. Furthermore, health information systems in host countries often do not collect data on displaced people, making it difficult to gather data needed to target interventions towards these vulnerable populations. The following is a discussion of the health impacts of conflict and displacement in the Middle East. A review was conducted of published literature on migration and displacement in the region. Different cases are discussed with an emphasis on the recent, large-scale and urban displacement of Iraqis to illustrate aspects of displacement in this region.

  1. Vapor pressures and thermophysical properties of selected hexenols and recommended vapor pressure for hexan-1-ol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štejfa, V.; Fulem, Michal; Růžička, K.; Matějka, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 402, Sep (2015), 18-29 ISSN 0378-3812 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : alcohols * vapor pressure * heat capacity * ideal - gas thermodynamic properties * vaporization enthalpy Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.846, year: 2015

  2. Measurement of interfacial displacement of a liquid film in microchannels using laser focus displacement meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazuku, Tatsuya; Fukamachi, Norihiro; Takamasa, Tomoji; Hibiki, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for measuring the interfacial displacement of a liquid film in microchannels using a laser focus displacement meter (LFD). The purpose of the study is to clarify the effectiveness of the new method for obtaining detailed information concerning interfacial displacement, especially in the case of a thin liquid film, in micro- and mini-channels. To prevent the tube wall signal from disturbing that of the gas-liquid interface, a fluorocarbon tube with water box was used; the refraction index of this device is same as that for water. With this method, accurate instantaneous measurements of interfacial displacement of the liquid film were achieved. The error caused by refraction of the laser beam passing through the acrylic water box and fluorocarbon tube was estimated analytically and experimentally. The formulated analytical equation can estimate the real interface displacement using measured displacement in a fluorocarbon tube of 25 μm to 2.0 mm I.D. A preliminary test using fluorocarbon tubes of 1 and 2 mm I.D. showed that the corrected interface displacement calculated by the equation agreed with real displacement within a 1% margin of error. It was also confirmed that the LFD in the system could measure a liquid film of 0.25 μm at the thinnest. We made simultaneous measurements of the interface in fluorocarbon tubes of 0.5 and 1 mm I.D. using the LFD and a high-speed video camera with a microscope. These showed that the LFD could measure the interface of a liquid film with high spatial and temporal resolution during annular, slug, and piston flow regimes. The data also clarified the existence of a thin liquid film less than 1 μm in thickness in slug and annular flow regions. (author)

  3. Remarks about the displaced spectra techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behringer, K.; Pineyro, J.

    1989-01-01

    In a recent paper a new method, called displaced spectra techniques, was presented for distinguishing between sinusoidal components and narrowband random noise contributions in otherwise random noise data. It is based on Fourier transform techniques, and uses the power spectral density (PSD) and a newly-introduced second-order displaced power spectra density (SDPSD) function. In order to distinguish between the two peak types, a validation criterion has been established. In this note, three topics are covered: a) improved numerical data for the validation criterion are given by using the refined estimation procedure of the PSD and SDPSD functions by the Welch method; b) the validation criterion requires the subtraction of the background below the peaks. A semiautomatic procedure is described; c) it was observed that peaks in the real part of the SDPSD function can be accompanied by fine structure phenomena which are unresolved in the PSD function. A few remarks are made about this problem. (author)

  4. OSPAR 30'' displacement; Esvaziamento do OSPAR 30''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Jose Carlos [White Martins Gases Industriais do Nordeste S.A., Recife, PE (Brazil); Souza, Antonio Geraldo de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Crude oil pipeline OSPAR that unites Sao Francisco do Sul-SC to Araucaria-PR, with 30 inches in diameter and extension of 118 km (74 mi) was displaced in May 2004. Nitrogen at high flow rate and a pig were used to remove the crude oil, liberating the line to maintenance. Logistic restrictions prevented that the displacement followed the normal flow direction, so the option was to do the job in the reverse direction. To make viable our operation, a maneuver was performed; which we suppose was never done before in Brazil, at an intermediate pumping station, allowing a pressure reduction at the line end, maintaining it at permissible levels. Despite logistical and operational difficulties, the job was performed with success in 47 hours. (author)

  5. Lepton flavor violation with displaced vertices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Heeck

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available If light new physics with lepton-flavor-violating couplings exists, the prime discovery channel might not be ℓ→ℓ′γ but rather ℓ→ℓ′X, where the new boson X could be an axion, majoron, familon or Z′ gauge boson. The most conservative bound then comes from ℓ→ℓ′+inv, but if the on-shell X can decay back into leptons or photons, displaced-vertex searches could give much better limits. We show that only a narrow region in parameter space allows for displaced vertices in muon decays, μ→eX,X→γγ,ee, whereas tauon decays can have much more interesting signatures.

  6. Personal Exposure in Displacement Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    1996-01-01

    in the lower part of the room close to the occupant. A personal exposure model for displacement ventilated rooms is proposed. The model takes the influence of gradients and the human thermal boundary layer into account. Two new quantities describing the interaction between a person and the ventilation......Personal exposure in a displacement ventilated room is examined. The stratified flow and the considerable concentration gradients necessitate an improvement of the widely used fully mixing compartmental approach. The exposure of a seated and a standing person in proportion to the stratification...... contaminant sources, this entrainment improves the indoor air quality. Measurements of exposure due to a passive contaminant source show a significant dependence on the flow field as well as on the contaminant source location. Poor system performance is found in the case of a passive contaminant released...

  7. Neogene displacements in the Solomon Islands Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, J.

    1987-02-01

    The geology and present configuration of the Solomon Island arc can be explained in terms of the Neogene displacement of a single linear chain of islands. The central part of an original arc consisting of Bougainville, Choiseul, Santa Ysabel, Guadalcanal and San Cristobal was displaced to the northeast as a consequence of the attempted subduction of the Woodlark spreading system. Malaita arose on the northeastern side of the arc as a result of interaction between the arc and the Pacific Ocean floor and the volcanic islands of the New Georgia group formed to the southwest in response to the subduction of a spreading ridge, thus giving rise to the present double chain structure of the arc.

  8. Boron isotopic enrichment by displacement chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, K.K.; Bose, Arun

    2014-01-01

    10 B enriched boron is used in applications requiring high volumetric neutron absorption (absorption cross section- 3837 barn for thermal and 1 barn for 1 MeV fast neutron). It is used in fast breeder reactor (as control rod material), in neutron counter, in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy etc. Owing to very small separation factor, boron isotopic enrichment is a complex process requiring large number of separation stages. Heavy Water Board has ventured in industrial scale production of 10 B enriched boron using Exchange Distillation Process as well as Ion Displacement Chromatography Process. Ion Displacement Chromatography process is used in Boron Enrichment Plant at HWP, Manuguru. It is based on isotopic exchange between borate ions (B(OH) 4 - ) on anion exchange resin and boric acid passing through resin. The isotopic exchange takes place due to difference in zero point energy of 10 B and 11 B

  9. Enthalpy of vaporization and vapor pressure of whiskey lactone and menthalactone by correlation gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, Daniel; Chickos, James

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The vapor pressure and vaporization enthalpies of cis and trans-whiskey lactone have been evaluated. • Enthalpies of vaporization and vapor pressures of (+)-isomintlactone and (−)-mintlactone were also evaluated. • The sublimation enthalpy and corresponding vapor pressure of (+) -isomintlactone at T = 298.15 K is estimated. - Abstract: Enthalpies of vaporization at T = 298.15 K of cis and trans-whiskey lactone have been evaluated by correlation gas chromatography to be (68.4 ± 1.7) kJ·mol −1 and (67.5 ± 1.7) kJ·mol −1 , respectively. The enthalpies of vaporization of isomintlactone and mintlactone also evaluated by correlation gas chromatography have been found to have vaporization enthalpies of (74.2 ± 1.8) kJ·mol −1 and (73.2 ± 1.8) kJ·mol −1 respectively. The vapor pressures for cis and trans-whiskey lactone at T = 298.15 K have been evaluated as (1.5 ± 0.09) Pa and (2.0 ± 0.1) Pa using vapor pressures of a series of lactones as standards. Vapor pressures for isomintlactone and mintlactone were evaluated as (0.26 ± 0.012) Pa and (0.33 ± 0.02) Pa, respectively. Fusion and sublimation enthalpies for (+)-isomintlactone as well as the vapor pressure of the solid have been estimated.

  10. Nuclear sizes and the Coulomb Displacement Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Werf, S.Y.

    1997-01-01

    Data on Coulomb Displacement Energies in the mass range A = 40 - 240 are analyzed in the deformed Liquid Drop model and in the independent particle model. Reduced half-widths of Woods-Saxon mean-field potential of the resulting neutron-excess distributions are deduced. It is argued that the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly may be lifted by allowing for a slight binding-energy dependence of the mean-field potential geometry. (author)

  11. Computer simulation of displacement cascades in copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinisch, H.L.

    1983-06-01

    More than 500 displacement cascades in copper have been generated with the computer simulation code MARLOWE over an energy range pertinent to both fission and fusion neutron spectra. Three-dimensional graphical depictions of selected cascades, as well as quantitative analysis of cascade shapes and sizes and defect densities, illustrate cascade behavior as a function of energy. With increasing energy, the transition from production of single compact damage regions to widely spaced multiple damage regions is clearly demonstrated

  12. Displaced abomasum and ketosis in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Stengärde, Lena

    2010-01-01

    High producing dairy cows struggle to meet energy demands and handle various transitional changes in late gestation and early lactation. Negative energy balance in early lactation is inevitable and metabolic disorders may follow as a consequence of a deep negative energy balance. This thesis studies associations between blood profiles and body condition score (BCS) in dairy cows, and displaced abomasum (DA) or clinical ketosis, and investigates risk factors for the two diseases at the herd le...

  13. Environmentally-induced displacement and human security

    OpenAIRE

    Terminski, Bogumil

    2012-01-01

    We can distinguish two general causes of internal displacement worldwide: 1. the impact of threats to and ensuing decline in the level of human security below that needed for normal existence in the homeland territory, 2. administrative compulsion to leave the current place of residence. Every year, at least tens of millions of people on all continents are forced to leave their places of residence. The predominant cause is the occurrence of natural disasters, creating the most dynamic categor...

  14. Contactless sub-millimeter displacement measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliepen, Guus; Jägers, Aswin P. L.; Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; Hammerschlag, Robert H.

    2008-07-01

    Weather effects on foldable domes, as used at the DOT and GREGOR, are investigated, in particular the correlation between the wind field and the stresses caused to both metal framework and tent clothing. Camera systems measure contactless the displacement of several dome points. The stresses follow from the measured deformation pattern. The cameras placed near the dome floor do not disturb telescope operations. In the set-ups of DOT and GREGOR, these cameras are up to 8 meters away from the measured points and must be able to detect displacements of less than 0.1 mm. The cameras have a FireWire (IEEE1394) interface to eliminate the need for frame grabbers. Each camera captures 15 images of 640 × 480 pixels per second. All data is processed on-site in real-time. In order to get the best estimate for the displacement within the constraints of available processing power, all image processing is done in Fourier-space, with all convolution operations being pre-computed once. A sub-pixel estimate of the peak of the correlation function is made. This enables to process the images of four cameras using only one commodity PC with a dual-core processor, and achieve an effective sensitivity of up to 0.01 mm. The deformation measurements are well correlated to the simultaneous wind measurements. The results are of high interest to upscaling the dome design (ELTs and solar telescopes).

  15. International Monetary Fund and aid displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Several recent papers find evidence that global health aid is being diverted to reserves, education, military, or other sectors, and is displacing government spending. This is suggested to occur because ministers of finance have competing, possibly corrupt, priorities and deprive the health sector of resources. Studies have found that development assistance for health routed to governments has a negative impact on health spending and that similar assistance routed to private nongovernmental organizations has a positive impact. An alternative hypothesis is that World Bank and IMF macro-economic policies, which specifically advise governments to divert aid to reserves to cope with aid volatility and keep government spending low, could be causing the displacement of health aid. This article evaluates whether aid displacement was greater when countries undertook a new borrowing program from the IMF between 1996 and 2006. As found in existing studies, for each $1 of development assistance for health, about $0.37 is added to the health system. However, evaluating IMF-borrowing versus non-IMF-borrowing countries reveals that non-borrowers add about $0.45 whereas borrowers add less than $0.01 to the health system. On average, health system spending grew at about half the speed when countries were exposed to the IMF than when they were not. It is important to take account of the political economy of global health finance when interpreting data on financial flows.

  16. Overloaded CDMA Systems with Displaced Binary Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanhaverbeke Frederik

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend three types of overloaded CDMA systems, by displacing in time the binary signature sequences of these systems: (1 random spreading (PN, (2 multiple-OCDMA (MO, and (3 PN/OCDMA (PN/O. For each of these systems, we determine the time shifts that minimize the overall multiuser interference power. The achievable channel load with coded and uncoded data is evaluated for the conventional (without displacement and improved (with displacement systems, as well as for systems based on quasi-Welch-bound-equality (QWBE sequences, by means of several types of turbo detectors. For each system, the best performing turbo detector is selected in order to compare the performance of these systems. It is found that the improved systems substantially outperform their original counterparts. With uncoded data, (improved PN/O yields the highest acceptable channel load. For coded data, MO allows for the highest acceptable channel load over all considered systems, both for the conventional and the improved systems. In the latter case, channel loads of about 280% are achievable with a low degradation as compared to a single user system.

  17. Comparing Teaching Approaches About Maxwell's Displacement Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Ricardo; Coimbra, Debora; Pietrocola, Maurício

    2014-08-01

    Due to its fundamental role for the consolidation of Maxwell's equations, the displacement current is one of the most important topics of any introductory course on electromagnetism. Moreover, this episode is widely used by historians and philosophers of science as a case study to investigate several issues (e.g. the theory-experiment relationship). Despite the consensus among physics educators concerning the relevance of the topic, there are many possible ways to interpret and justify the need for the displacement current term. With the goal of understanding the didactical transposition of this topic more deeply, we investigate three of its domains: (1) The historical development of Maxwell's reasoning; (2) Different approaches to justify the term insertion in physics textbooks; and (3) Four lectures devoted to introduce the topic in undergraduate level given by four different professors. By reflecting on the differences between these three domains, significant evidence for the knowledge transformation caused by the didactization of this episode is provided. The main purpose of this comparative analysis is to assist physics educators in developing an epistemological surveillance regarding the teaching and learning of the displacement current.

  18. Optical Sensor for Diverse Organic Vapors at ppm Concentration Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora M. Paolucci

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A broadly responsive optical organic vapor sensor is described that responds to low concentrations of organic vapors without significant interference from water vapor. Responses to several classes of organic vapors are highlighted, and trends within classes are presented. The relationship between molecular properties (vapor pressure, boiling point, polarizability, and refractive index and sensor response are discussed.

  19. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is a general and powerful technique. A major present application to the enrichment of uranium for light-water power reactor fuel has been under development for over 10 years. In June 1985 the Department of Energy announced the selection of AVLIS as the technology to meet the nation's future need for the internationally competitive production of uranium separative work. The economic basis for this decision is considered, with an indicated of the constraints placed on the process figures of merit and the process laser system. We then trace an atom through a generic AVLIS separator and give examples of the physical steps encountered, the models used to describe the process physics, the fundamental parameters involved, and the role of diagnostic laser measurements

  20. SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY: REFERENCE HANDBOOK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) systems are being used in Increasing numbers because of the many advantages these systems hold over other soil treatment technologies. SVE systems appear to be simple in design and operation, yet the fundamentals governing subsurface vapor transport ar...

  1. Mechanics of gas-vapor bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hao, Yue; Zhang, Yuhang; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Most bubbles contain a mixture of vapor and incondensible gases. While the limit cases of pure vapor and pure gas bubbles are well studied, much less is known about the more realistic case of a mixture. The bubble contents continuously change due to the combined effects of evaporation and

  2. Vapor Pressures of Several Commercially Used Alkanolamines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klepacova, Katarina; Huttenhuis, Patrick J. G.; Derks, Peter W. J.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Klepáčová, Katarína

    For the design of acid gas treating processes, vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data must be available of the solvents to be applied. In this study the vapor pressures of seven frequently industrially used alkanolamines (diethanolamine, N-methylethanolamine, N,N-dimethylethanolamine,

  3. Recommended Vapor Pressure of Solid Naphthalen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžička, K.; Fulem, Michal; Růžička, V.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 50, - (2005), s. 1956-1970 ISSN 0021-9568 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : solid naphthalene * vapor pressure * enthalpy of vaporization * enthalpy of fusion Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.610, year: 2005

  4. Effect of granosan vapors on mitosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lishenko, N P; Lishenko, I D

    1974-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of granosan on the germination of vetch seeds. Vetch seeds were stored from 4-6 days in ethyl mercuric chloride vapors. Results indicated that the vapors caused a sharp decrease in germination and caused chromosomal aberrations during the anaphase.

  5. Condensation of vapor bubble in subcooled pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, K.; Koiwa, Y.; Kaneko, T.; Ueno, I.

    2017-02-01

    We focus on condensation process of vapor bubble exposed to a pooled liquid of subcooled conditions. Two different geometries are employed in the present research; one is the evaporation on the heated surface, that is, subcooled pool boiling, and the other the injection of vapor into the subcooled pool. The test fluid is water, and all series of the experiments are conducted under the atmospheric pressure condition. The degree of subcooling is ranged from 10 to 40 K. Through the boiling experiment, unique phenomenon known as microbubble emission boiling (MEB) is introduced; this phenomenon realizes heat flux about 10 times higher than the critical heat flux. Condensation of the vapor bubble is the key phenomenon to supply ambient cold liquid to the heated surface. In order to understand the condensing process in the MEB, we prepare vapor in the vapor generator instead of the evaporation on the heated surface, and inject the vapor to expose the vapor bubble to the subcooled liquid. Special attention is paid to the dynamics of the vapor bubble detected by the high-speed video camera, and on the enhancement of the heat transfer due to the variation of interface area driven by the condensation.

  6. 40 CFR 796.1950 - Vapor pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL FATE TESTING GUIDELINES Physical and Chemical Properties § 796.1950 Vapor pressure. (a.... In addition, chemicals that are likely to be gases at ambient temperatures and which have low water... gases until the measured vapor pressure is constant, a process called “degassing.” Impurities more...

  7. Risk assessment of metal vapor arcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Monika C. (Inventor); Leidecker, Henning W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method for assessing metal vapor arcing risk for a component is provided. The method comprises acquiring a current variable value associated with an operation of the component; comparing the current variable value with a threshold value for the variable; evaluating compared variable data to determine the metal vapor arcing risk in the component; and generating a risk assessment status for the component.

  8. Displaced, Homeless and Abused: The Dynamics of Gender-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based abuse (SPGBV) experienced by displaced Zimbabwean refugees, perpetrators of such abuses and the gender of perpetrators in South Africa. Refugee and Internally displaced persons are interchangeably used in this study. Through in-depth ...

  9. Displacement laser interferometry with sub-nanometer uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cosijns, S.J.A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Development in industry is asking for improved resolution and higher accuracy in mechanical measurement. Together with miniaturization the demand for sub nanometer uncertainty on dimensional metrology is increasing rapidly. Displacement laser interferometers are used widely as precision displacement

  10. Dissolved oxygen detection by galvanic displacement-induced

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dissolved oxygen detection by galvanic displacement-induced graphene/silver nanocomposite ... dissolved oxygen (DO) detection based on a galvanic displacement synthesized reduced graphene oxide–silver nanoparticles ... Current Issue

  11. Displacement Ventilation in a Room with Low-Level Diffusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    Ventilation systems with vertical displacement flow have been used in industrial areas with high thermal loads for many years. Quite resently the vertical displacement flow systems have grown popular as comfort ventilation in rooms with thermal loads e.g. offices.......Ventilation systems with vertical displacement flow have been used in industrial areas with high thermal loads for many years. Quite resently the vertical displacement flow systems have grown popular as comfort ventilation in rooms with thermal loads e.g. offices....

  12. The Effect of Basepair Mismatch on DNA Strand Displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Broadwater, D.?W.?Bo; Kim, Harold?D.

    2016-01-01

    DNA strand displacement is a key reaction in DNA homologous recombination and DNA mismatch repair and is also heavily utilized in DNA-based computation and locomotion. Despite its ubiquity in science and engineering, sequence-dependent effects of displacement kinetics have not been extensively characterized. Here, we measured toehold-mediated strand displacement kinetics using single-molecule fluorescence in the presence of a single base pair mismatch. The apparent displacement rate varied si...

  13. Building blocks for ionic liquids: Vapor pressures and vaporization enthalpies of 1-(n-alkyl)-imidazoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N.; Portnova, Svetlana V.; Verevkin, Sergey P.; Skrzypczak, Andrzej; Schubert, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We measured vapor pressures of the 1-(n-alkyl)-imidazoles by transpiration method. → Variations on the alkyl chain length n were C 3 , C 5 -C 7 , and C 9 -C 10 . → Enthalpies of vaporization were derived from (p, T) dependencies. → Enthalpies of vaporization at 298.15 K were linear dependent on the chain length. - Abstract: Vapor pressures of the linear 1-(n-alkyl)-imidazoles with the alkyl chain C 3 , C 5 -C 7 , and C 9 -C 10 have been measured by the transpiration method. The molar enthalpies of vaporization Δ l g H m of these compounds were derived from the temperature dependencies of vapor pressures. A linear correlation of enthalpies of vaporization Δ l g H m (298.15 K) of the 1-(n-alkyl)-imidazoles with the chain length has been found.

  14. Stability of Miscible Displacements Across Stratified Porous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shariati, Maryam; Yortsos, Yanis C.

    2000-09-11

    This report studied macro-scale heterogeneity effects. Reflecting on their importance, current simulation practices of flow and displacement in porous media were invariably based on heterogeneous permeability fields. Here, it was focused on a specific aspect of such problems, namely the stability of miscible displacements in stratified porous media, where the displacement is perpendicular to the direction of stratification.

  15. Peroneal tendon displacement accompanying intra-articular calcaneal fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Rull James; Lin, Darius; Ehrlichman, Lauren K; Ellington, J Kent; Strasser, Nicholas; Kwon, John Y

    2014-02-19

    Peroneal tendon displacement (subluxation or dislocation) accompanying an intra-articular calcaneal fracture is often undetected and under-treated. The goals of this study were to determine (1) the prevalence of peroneal tendon displacement accompanying intra-articular calcaneal fractures, (2) the association of tendon displacement with fracture classifications, (3) the association of tendon displacement with heel width, and (4) the rate of missed diagnosis of the tendon displacement on radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans and the resulting treatment rate. A retrospective radiographic review of all calcaneal fractures presenting at three institutions from June 30, 2006, to June 30, 2011, was performed. CT imaging of 421 intra-articular calcaneal fractures involving the posterior facet was available for review. The prevalence of peroneal tendon displacement was noted and its associations with fracture classification and heel width were evaluated. Peroneal tendon displacement was identified in 118 (28.0%) of the 421 calcaneal fracture cases. The presence of tendon displacement was significantly associated with joint-depression fractures compared with tongue-type fractures (p displacement had been identified in the radiology reports. Although sixty-five (55.1%) of the fractures with tendon displacement had been treated with internal fixation, the tendon displacement was treated surgically in only seven (10.8%) of these cases. Analysis of CT images showed a 28% prevalence of peroneal tendon displacement accompanying intra-articular calcaneal fractures. Surgeons and radiologists are encouraged to consider this association.

  16. 5 CFR 330.706 - Notification of displaced employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of displaced employees. 330... RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Interagency Career Transition Assistance Plan for Displaced Employees § 330.706 Notification of displaced employees. (a) In addition to meeting the requirements of...

  17. Displaced and non-displaced Colombian children's evaluations of moral transgressions, retaliation, and reconciliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila-Rey, Alicia; Killen, Melanie; Brenick, Alaina

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of displacement and exposure to violence on children's moral reasoning, Colombian children exposed to minimal violence (non-displaced or low-risk) (N = 99) and to extreme violence (displaced or high-risk) (N = 94), evenly divided by gender, at 6-, 9-, and 12 - years of age, were interviewed regarding their evaluation of peer-oriented moral transgressions (hitting and not sharing toys). The vast majority of children evaluated moral transgressions as wrong. Group and age differences were revealed, however, regarding provocation and retaliation. Children who were exposed to violence, in contrast to those with minimum exposure, judged it more legitimate to inflict harm or deny resources when provoked and judged it more okay to retaliate for reasons of retribution. Surprisingly, and somewhat hopefully, all children viewed reconciliation as feasible. The results are informative regarding theories of morality, culture, and the effects of violence on children's social development. PMID:25722543

  18. Borehole tool outrigger arm displacement control mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    As the outrigger arms of a borehole logging tool are flexed inwardly and outwardly according to the diameter of the borehole opening through which they pass, the corresponding axial displacements of the ends of the arms are controlled to determine the axial positions of the arms relative to the tool. Specifically, as the arm ends move, they are caused to rotate by a cam mechanism. The stiffness of the arms causes the arm ends to rotate in unison, and the exact positions of the arms on the tool are then controlled by the differential movements of the arm ends in the cams

  19. Superconducting inductive displacement detection of a microcantilever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinante, A.

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate a superconducting inductive technique to measure the displacement of a micromechanical resonator. In our scheme, a type I superconducting microsphere is attached to the free end of a microcantilever and approached to the loop of a dc Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) microsusceptometer. A local magnetic field as low as 100 μT, generated by a field coil concentric to the SQUID, enables detection of the cantilever thermomechanical noise at 4.2 K. The magnetomechanical coupling and the magnetic spring are in good agreement with image method calculations assuming pure Meissner effect. These measurements are relevant to recent proposals of quantum magnetomechanics experiments based on levitating superconducting microparticles.

  20. Traumatic displacement of stomach - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Joshima; Tarvadi, Pratik Vijay; Manipady, Shahnavaz; Shetty, Mahabalesh; Somashekar, C

    2014-01-01

    These days we have fast paced traffic on our roads to help us keep up with our fast paced life. But every boon has a down side and our high velocity traffic is no exception. Here is a case report of a blunt abdominal injury following a road traffic accident. Externally the deceased had only a few grazed abrasions on the forehead and right forearm. But on internal examination of abdomen, it was noticed that the left hemi-diaphragm was torn and the stomach and intestines were found displaced into the left thoracic cavity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  1. Gender-based violence in conflict and displacement: qualitative findings from displaced women in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Andrea L; Pham, Kiemanh; Glass, Nancy; Loochkartt, Saskia; Kidane, Teemar; Cuspoca, Decssy; Rubenstein, Leonard S; Singh, Sonal; Vu, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Gender-based violence (GBV) is prevalent among, though not specific to, conflict affected populations and related to multifarious levels of vulnerability of conflict and displacement. Colombia has been marked with decades of conflict, with an estimated 5.2 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) and ongoing violence. We conducted qualitative research to understand the contexts of conflict, displacement and dynamics with GBV. This as part of a multi-phase, mixed method study, in collaboration with UNHCR, to develop a screening tool to confidentially identify cases of GBV for referral among IDP women who were survivors of GBV. Qualitative research was used to identify the range of GBV, perpetrators, contexts in conflict and displacement, barriers to reporting and service uptake, as well as to understand experiences of service providers. Thirty-five female IDPs, aged 18 years and older, who self-identified as survivors of GBV were enrolled for in-depth interviews in San Jose de Guaviare and Quibdo, Colombia in June 2012. Thirty-one service providers participated in six focus group discussions and four interviews across these sites. Survivors described a range of GBV across conflict and displacement settings. Armed actors in conflict settings perpetrated threats of violence and harm to family members, child recruitment, and, to a lesser degree, rape and forced abortion. Opportunistic violence, including abduction, rape, and few accounts of trafficking were more commonly reported to occur in the displacement setting, often perpetrated by unknown individuals. Intrafamilial violence, intimate partner violence, including physical and sexual violence and reproductive control were salient across settings and may be exacerbated by conflict and displacement. Barriers to reporting and services seeking were reported by survivors and providers alike. Findings highlight the need for early identification of GBV cases, with emphasis on confidential approaches and active

  2. Transient digitizer with displacement current samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A low component count, high speed sample gate, and digitizer architecture using the sample gates is based on use of a signal transmission line, a strobe transmission line and a plurality of sample gates connected to the sample transmission line at a plurality of positions. The sample gates include a strobe pickoff structure near the strobe transmission line which generates a charge displacement current in response to propagation of the strobe signal on the strobe transmission line sufficient to trigger the sample gate. The sample gate comprises a two-diode sampling bridge and is connected to a meandered signal transmission line at one end and to a charge-holding cap at the other. The common cathodes are reverse biased. A voltage step is propagated down the strobe transmission line. As the step propagates past a capacitive pickoff, displacement current i=c(dv/dT), flows into the cathodes, driving the bridge into conduction and thereby charging the charge-holding capacitor to a value related to the signal. A charge amplifier converts the charge on the charge-holding capacitor to an output voltage. The sampler is mounted on a printed circuit board, and the sample transmission line and strobe transmission line comprise coplanar microstrips formed on a surface of the substrate. Also, the strobe pickoff structure may comprise a planar pad adjacent the strobe transmission line on the printed circuit board.

  3. Water vapor retrieval over many surface types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borel, C.C.; Clodius, W.C.; Johnson, J.

    1996-04-01

    In this paper we present a study of of the water vapor retrieval for many natural surface types which would be valuable for multi-spectral instruments using the existing Continuum Interpolated Band Ratio (CIBR) for the 940 nm water vapor absorption feature. An atmospheric code (6S) and 562 spectra were used to compute the top of the atmosphere radiance near the 940 nm water vapor absorption feature in steps of 2.5 nm as a function of precipitable water (PW). We derive a novel technique called ``Atmospheric Pre-corrected Differential Absorption`` (APDA) and show that APDA performs better than the CIBR over many surface types.

  4. Water Vapor Permeation in Plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Paul E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kouzes, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Polyvinyl toluene (PVT) and polystyrene (PS) (referred to as “plastic scintillator”) are used for gamma ray detectors. A significant decrease in radiation detection performance has been observed in some PVT-based gamma-ray detectors in systems in outdoor environments as they age. Recent studies have revealed that plastic scintillator can undergo an environmentally related material degradation that adversely affects gamma ray detection performance under certain conditions and histories. A significant decrease in sensitivity has been seen in some gamma-ray detectors in some systems as they age. The degradation of sensitivity of plastic scintillator over time is due to a variety of factors, and the term “aging” is used to encompass all factors. Some plastic scintillator samples show no aging effects (no significant change in sensitivity over more than 10 years), while others show severe aging (significant change in sensitivity in less than 5 years). Aging effects arise from weather (variations in heat and humidity), chemical exposure, mechanical stress, light exposure, and loss of volatile components. The damage produced by these various causes can be cumulative, causing observable damage to increase over time. Damage may be reversible up to some point, but becomes permanent under some conditions. The objective of this report is to document the phenomenon of permeability of plastic scintillator to water vapor and to derive the relationship between time, temperature, humidity and degree of water penetration in plastic. Several conclusions are documented about the properties of water permeability of plastic scintillator.

  5. Point of net vapor generation and vapor void fraction in subcooled boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, P.; Zuber, N.

    1974-01-01

    An analysis is presented directed at predicting the point of net vapor generation and vapor void fraction in subcooled boiling. It is shown that the point of net vapor generation depends upon local conditions--thermal and fluid dynamic. Thus, at low mass flow rates the net vapor generation is determined by thermal conditions, whereas at high mass flow rates the phenomenon is hydrodynamically controlled. Simple criteria are derived which can be used to predict these local conditions for net vapor generation. These criteria are used to determine the vapor void fraction is subcooled boiling. Comparison between the results predicted by this analysis and experimental data presently available shows good agreement for wide range of operating conditions, fluids and geometries. (U.S.)

  6. GOES WATER VAPOR TRANSPORT V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOES Water Vapor Transport CD contains nineteen months of geostationary satellite-derived products from the GOES-8 satellite spanning the 1987-1988 El Nino...

  7. Vaporization of Samarium trichloride studied by thermogravimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquivel, Marcelo R.; Pasquevich, Daniel M.

    2003-01-01

    In the present work, the vaporization reaction of SmCl 3 (l) obtained from the 'in situ' reaction of Sm 2 O 3 (s) and Cl 2 (g)-C(s) was studied by thermogravimetry under controlled atmosphere. The effects of both the temperature between 825 C degrees and 950 C degrees and the total flow gas on the vaporization rate of the following reaction: SmCl 3 (l) = SmCl 3 (g) were analyzed. The vaporization rate of the process was found to be independent of then total gas flow rate and highly dependent on the temperature. E ap calculation led to a value of 240 ± 10 kJ.mol -1 . A comparison between this value and that of the molar enthalpy of vaporization allow to the conclusion that the reaction occur in conditions near to equilibrium. The SmCl 3 identity was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). (author)

  8. Perspective: Highly stable vapor-deposited glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    This article describes recent progress in understanding highly stable glasses prepared by physical vapor deposition and provides perspective on further research directions for the field. For a given molecule, vapor-deposited glasses can have higher density and lower enthalpy than any glass that can be prepared by the more traditional route of cooling a liquid, and such glasses also exhibit greatly enhanced kinetic stability. Because vapor-deposited glasses can approach the bottom of the amorphous part of the potential energy landscape, they provide insights into the properties expected for the "ideal glass." Connections between vapor-deposited glasses, liquid-cooled glasses, and deeply supercooled liquids are explored. The generality of stable glass formation for organic molecules is discussed along with the prospects for stable glasses of other types of materials.

  9. Fundamentals of Friction and Vapor Phase Lubrication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gellman, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This is the final report for the three year research program on "Fundamentals of Friction and Vapor Phase Lubrication" conducted at Carnegie Mellon with support from AFOSR grant number F49630-01-1-0069...

  10. GOES WATER VAPOR TRANSPORT V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOES Water Vapor Transport CD contains nineteen months of geostationary satellite-derived products spanning the 1987/1988 El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO)...

  11. Drag Reduction by Leidenfrost Vapor Layers

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Marston, Jeremy O.; Chan, Derek Y. C.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2011-01-01

    , we show that such vapor layers can reduce the hydrodynamic drag by over 85%. These results appear to approach the ultimate limit of drag reduction possible by different methods based on gas-layer lubrication and can stimulate the development

  12. DMSP SSMT/2 - Atmospheric Water Vapor Profiler

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SSM/T-2 sensor is a five channel, total power microwave radiometer with three channels situated symmetrically about the 183.31 GHz water vapor resonance line and...

  13. 78 FR 42595 - Marine Vapor Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... revise the substance As noted in the NPRM, the changes in this section were of this section. intended... the vapor-moving device, as recommended by CTAC in 1997 to maintain a minimum size of non-flammable...

  14. A technique to depress desflurane vapor pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Robert J; Pypendop, Bruno H

    2006-09-01

    To determine whether the vapor pressure of desflurane could be decreased by using a solvent to reduce the anesthetic molar fraction in a solution (Raoult's Law). We hypothesized that such an anesthetic mixture could produce anesthesia using a nonprecision vaporizer instead of an agent-specific, electronically controlled, temperature and pressure compensated vaporizer currently required for desflurane administration. One healthy adult female dog. Propylene glycol was used as a solvent for desflurane, and the physical characteristics of this mixture were evaluated at various molar concentrations and temperatures. Using a circle system with a breathing bag attached at the patient end and a mechanical ventilator to simulate respiration, an in-circuit, nonprecision vaporizer containing 40% desflurane and 60% propylene glycol achieved an 11.5% +/- 1.0% circuit desflurane concentration with a 5.2 +/- 0.4 (0 = off, 10 = maximum) vaporizer setting. This experiment was repeated with a dog attached to the breathing circuit under spontaneous ventilation with a fresh gas flow of 0.5 L minute(-1). Anesthesia was maintained for over 2 hours at a mean vaporizer setting of 6.2 +/- 0.4, yielding mean inspired and end-tidal desflurane concentrations of 8.7% +/- 0.5% and 7.9% +/- 0.7%, respectively. Rather than alter physical properties of vaporizers to suit a particular anesthetic agent, this study demonstrates that it is also possible to alter physical properties of anesthetic agents to suit a particular vaporizer. However, propylene glycol may not prove an ideal solvent for desflurane because of its instability in solution and substantial-positive deviation from Raoult's Law.

  15. Metal Vapor Arcing Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Monika C.; Leidecker, Henning W.

    2010-01-01

    The Tin Whisker Metal Vapor Arcing Risk Assessment Tool has been designed to evaluate the risk of metal vapor arcing and to help facilitate a decision toward a researched risk disposition. Users can evaluate a system without having to open up the hardware. This process allows for investigating components at risk rather than spending time and money analyzing every component. The tool points to a risk level and provides direction for appropriate action and documentation.

  16. Effects of threshold displacement energy on defect production by displacement cascades in α, β and γ-LiAlO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchihira, H.; Oda, T.; Tanaka, S.

    2013-01-01

    Threshold displacement energy evaluation and a series of displacement cascade simulations in α, β, and γ-LiAlO 2 were performed using molecular dynamics. Threshold displacement energy evaluations indicated that higher absolute ionic charge values and larger densities both increase threshold displacement energy. The displacement cascade simulations suggest that the influence of different crystal structures on the number of interstitial atoms generated in a displacement cascade is explainable almost entirely by the difference of the threshold displacement energy

  17. A heated vapor cell unit for dichroic atomic vapor laser lock in atomic rubidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Daniel J; Hughes, Ifan G; Tierney, Patrick; Cornish, Simon L

    2007-09-01

    The design and performance of a compact heated vapor cell unit for realizing a dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) for the D(2) transitions in atomic rubidium is described. A 5 cm long vapor cell is placed in a double-solenoid arrangement to produce the required magnetic field; the heat from the solenoid is used to increase the vapor pressure and correspondingly the DAVLL signal. We have characterized experimentally the dependence of important features of the DAVLL signal on magnetic field and cell temperature. For the weaker transitions both the amplitude and gradient of the signal are increased by an order of magnitude.

  18. A heated vapor cell unit for dichroic atomic vapor laser lock in atomic rubidium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarron, Daniel J.; Hughes, Ifan G.; Tierney, Patrick; Cornish, Simon L.

    2007-01-01

    The design and performance of a compact heated vapor cell unit for realizing a dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) for the D 2 transitions in atomic rubidium is described. A 5 cm long vapor cell is placed in a double-solenoid arrangement to produce the required magnetic field; the heat from the solenoid is used to increase the vapor pressure and correspondingly the DAVLL signal. We have characterized experimentally the dependence of important features of the DAVLL signal on magnetic field and cell temperature. For the weaker transitions both the amplitude and gradient of the signal are increased by an order of magnitude

  19. Vapor Explosions with Subcooled Freon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, R.E.; Fauske, Hans K.; McUmber, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    Explosive vapor formation accompanied by destructive shock waves, can be produced when two liquids, at much different temperatures, are brought into intimate contact. A proposed analytical model states that the interface temperature upon contact between the two liquid systems, gust be greater than or equal to the spontaneous nucleation temperature of that liquid-liquid system and that the thermal boundary layer must be sufficiently developed to support a critical size cavity. For time scales greater than 10-12 sec, the interface temperature upon contact of two semi-infinite masses, with constant thermal properties, can be related to the initial liquid temperatures. The spontaneous nucleation behavior at the interface can either be heterogeneous or homogeneous in nature. In either case, the critical size cavities, which initiate the vaporization process, are produced by local density fluctuations within the cold liquid. For homogeneous conditions, the two liquids present a well-wetted system and the vapor embryos are produced entirely within the cold liquid. For heterogeneous conditions, which result from poor, or imperfect wetting, at the liquid-liquid interface, the critical sized cavities are created at the interface at somewhat lower temperatures. A sequence of experiments, using Freon-22 and water, Freon-22 and mineral oil, and Freon-12 and mineral oil have been performed to test this spontaneous nucleation premise. For Freon-22 at its normal boiling point, the interface temperature of the water must be at least 77 deg. C before the interface temperature equals or exceeds the minimum homogeneous nucleation value of 54 deg. C and 84 deg. C before the interface temperature equals 60 deg. C where the homogeneous nucleation rate becomes truly explosive. The Freon-water test demonstrated explosive interactions for water temperatures considerably lower than this value and this was attributed to the heterogeneous nucleation characteristics of that particular system

  20. War, forced displacement and growth in Laotian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkin, Patrick F

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from several populations suggests that war negatively impacts civilian nutrition, physical growth and overall health. This effect is often enduring or permanent, particularly if experienced early in life. To assess whether the number of lifetime displacement experiences and being displaced in infancy were associated with adult height, sitting height, leg length and the sitting height ratio. Retrospective questionnaires on displacement and resettlement experiences and anthropometric data were collected from a sample of Laotian adult refugees (ethnic Hmong and Lao; n = 365). All were born in Laos or Thailand and had resettled in French Guiana or the US. Many had been displaced several times by military conflict in Laos. In bivariate analyses, being displaced in infancy and the number of lifetime displacement experiences one had were negatively associated with final adult height and leg length in both sexes. The association was stronger in females, particularly Hmong females. There was no significant association between total displacement experiences and the sitting height ratio. In multiple regression analyses, linear growth in males was negatively associated with being displaced in infancy; in females, the number of lifetime displacement experiences was a significant predictor. Forced displacement from war appears to have a lasting effect on final adult height, sitting height and leg length, although not necessarily on the sitting height ratio in this sample.

  1. Effect of impact angle on vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Peter H.

    1996-09-01

    Impacts into easily vaporized targets such as dry ice and carbonates generate a rapidly expanding vapor cloud. Laboratory experiments performed in a tenuous atmosphere allow deriving the internal energy of this cloud through well-established and tested theoretical descriptions. A second set of experiments under near-vacuum conditions provides a second measure of energy as the internal energy converts to kinetic energy of expansion. The resulting data allow deriving the vaporized mass as a function of impact angle and velocity. Although peak shock pressures decrease with decreasing impact angle (referenced to horizontal), the amount of impact-generated vapor is found to increase and is derived from the upper surface. Moreover, the temperature of the vapor cloud appears to decrease with decreasing angle. These unexpected results are proposed to reflect the increasing roles of shear heating and downrange hypervelocity ricochet impacts created during oblique impacts. The shallow provenance, low temperature, and trajectory of such vapor have implications for larger-scale events, including enhancement of atmospheric and biospheric stress by oblique terrestrial impacts and impact recycling of the early atmosphere of Mars.

  2. Mirror displacement energies and neutron skins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duflo, J.; Zuker, A.P.

    2002-01-01

    A gross estimate of the neutron skin [0.80(5)(N-Z)/A fm] is extracted from experimental proton radii, represented by a four parameter fit, and observed mirror displacement energies (CDE). The calculation of the latter relies on an accurately derived Coulomb energy and smooth averages of the charge symmetry breaking potentials constrained to state of the art values. The only free parameter is the neutron skin itself. The Nolen Schiffer anomaly is reduced to small deviations (rms=127 keV) that exhibit a secular trend. It is argued that with state of the art shell model calculations the anomaly should disappear. Highly accurate fits to proton radii emerge as a fringe benefit

  3. Core polarization and Coulomb displacement energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlomo, S.; Love, W.G.

    1982-01-01

    The contributions of core polarization terms (other than the Auerbach-Kahana-Weneser (AKW) effect) to Coulomb displacement energies of mirror nuclei near A = 16 and A = 40 are examined within the particle-vibration coupling model. The parameters of the model are determined using updated data on the locations and strengths of multipole core excitations. In the absence of relevant data an energy-weighted sum rule (EWSR) is exploited. Taking into account multipole excitations up to L = 5 and subtracting the contributions which are due to short-range correlations, significant contributions (1-3%) to ΔEsub(c) are found. These corrections arise from particle coupling to low-lying collective states (long-range correlations). The implications of these results on the Coulomb energy problem are discussed. (Auth.)

  4. Searching for displaced Higgs boson decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáki, Csaba; Kuflik, Eric; Lombardo, Salvator; Slone, Oren

    2015-10-01

    We study a simplified model of the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson decaying to a degenerate pair of scalars which travel a macroscopic distance before decaying to SM particles. This is the leading signal for many well-motivated solutions to the hierarchy problem that do not propose additional light colored particles. Bounds for displaced Higgs boson decays below 10 cm are found by recasting existing tracker searches from Run I. New tracker search strategies, sensitive to the characteristics of these models and similar decays, are proposed with sensitivities projected for Run II at √{s }=13 TeV . With 20 fb-1 of data, we find that Higgs branching ratios down to 2 ×1 0-4 can be probed for centimeter decay lengths.

  5. Violence Against Displaced Syrian Women in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Jinan; Masterson, Amelia Reese; Farver, JoAnn M

    2016-10-01

    This study used focus group discussions to explore 29 Syrian women's experiences of being displaced refugees in Lebanon. Women reported intimate partner violence (IPV), harassment, and community violence. They experienced difficult living conditions characterized by crowding and lack of privacy, adult unemployment, and overall feelings of helplessness. Most frequently, they used negative coping strategies, including justification and acceptance of IPV and often physically harmed their own children due to heightened stress. Some sought support from other Syrian refugee women. Although the study did not address the root causes of IPV, the results shed light on women's experiences and indicate that training them in positive coping strategies and establishing support groups would help them face IPV that occurs in refugee settings.

  6. Displaced fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakar, Chrishan; Allibone, James; Harish, Srinivasan; Saifuddin, Asif

    2005-01-01

    In the acute setting, accurate radiological interpretation of paediatric cervical spine trauma can be difficult due to a combination of normal variants and presence of multiple synchondroses. We present a rare case of a fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis in a paediatric spine. A five-year-old boy, who fell backwards onto the top of his head while swinging across on a monkey bar frame, presented with neck pain, cervical muscle spasm and decreased right lateral rotation and extension of his neck. Computed tomography showed a displaced diastatic fracture through right anterior atlantal synchondrosis. There are only 12 cases of paediatric C1 fractures reported in the world literature. The importance of considering this diagnosis in the appropriate clinical setting, and the normal variants in the paediatric atlas that can cause diagnostic dilemma to the interpreting radiologist, are discussed in this case report. (orig.)

  7. Displaced fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakar, Chrishan; Allibone, James [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Spinal Deformity, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Harish, Srinivasan [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, Asif [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); University College, The Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Sciences, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-01

    In the acute setting, accurate radiological interpretation of paediatric cervical spine trauma can be difficult due to a combination of normal variants and presence of multiple synchondroses. We present a rare case of a fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis in a paediatric spine. A five-year-old boy, who fell backwards onto the top of his head while swinging across on a monkey bar frame, presented with neck pain, cervical muscle spasm and decreased right lateral rotation and extension of his neck. Computed tomography showed a displaced diastatic fracture through right anterior atlantal synchondrosis. There are only 12 cases of paediatric C1 fractures reported in the world literature. The importance of considering this diagnosis in the appropriate clinical setting, and the normal variants in the paediatric atlas that can cause diagnostic dilemma to the interpreting radiologist, are discussed in this case report. (orig.)

  8. Connecting localized DNA strand displacement reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullor Ruiz, Ismael; Arbona, Jean-Michel; Lad, Amitkumar; Mendoza, Oscar; Aimé, Jean-Pierre; Elezgaray, Juan

    2015-07-01

    Logic circuits based on DNA strand displacement reactions have been shown to be versatile enough to compute the square root of four-bit numbers. The implementation of these circuits as a set of bulk reactions faces difficulties which include leaky reactions and intrinsically slow, diffusion-limited reaction rates. In this paper, we consider simple examples of these circuits when they are attached to platforms (DNA origamis). As expected, constraining distances between DNA strands leads to faster reaction rates. However, it also induces side-effects that are not detectable in the solution-phase version of this circuitry. Appropriate design of the system, including protection and asymmetry between input and fuel strands, leads to a reproducible behaviour, at least one order of magnitude faster than the one observed under bulk conditions.Logic circuits based on DNA strand displacement reactions have been shown to be versatile enough to compute the square root of four-bit numbers. The implementation of these circuits as a set of bulk reactions faces difficulties which include leaky reactions and intrinsically slow, diffusion-limited reaction rates. In this paper, we consider simple examples of these circuits when they are attached to platforms (DNA origamis). As expected, constraining distances between DNA strands leads to faster reaction rates. However, it also induces side-effects that are not detectable in the solution-phase version of this circuitry. Appropriate design of the system, including protection and asymmetry between input and fuel strands, leads to a reproducible behaviour, at least one order of magnitude faster than the one observed under bulk conditions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/C5NR02434J

  9. Fundamental principles of rotary displacement meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, J. [Schlumberger Industries, Owenton, KY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The gas meter exists to continually and accurately measure the volume of gas supplied over the complete flow range of the load. In effect the gas meter serves as the {open_quotes}cash register{close_quotes} of the gas industry; its accurate and dependable performance ensures fair dealings for both the supplier and the user. An investment both in and of itself, the gas meter should be chosen as a function of its usefullness both over the short term and the long term. Thus in addition to initial cost, one must take into account various associated factors, costs and benefits, including the following: Design Characteristics Application, suitability, Meter features and options, Operation constraints, Installation, Service and maintenance, Repair and replacement, Life expectancy, Compatibility with complimentary products, Correcting devices, Remote reading capabilities, Data generation and gathering, Upgradeabilty. This paper will look at one positive displacement meter, the Rotary meter, and address the fundamentals principals of the technology as well as looking at some of the benefits derived from its application. Rotary positive displacement meters were introduced at the end of last century. Used primarily for metering transmission sized loads, the meters` measuring capabilities have extended to cover nearly all areas of distribution with exception of domestic applications. Rotary meters are available in rated capacities from 800 cfh to 102,000 cfh and operating pressures from 175 PSIG to 1440 PSIG. The use of rotary meters on load ranges in the 800 to 10,000 cfh category has increased and is replacing the use of diaphragm meters because of the smaller relative size of rotaries, and improvements in rangeabilities in the last few years. Turbine meters are usually the meter of choice on loads over 16,000 cfh unless a meter with high rangeability is required because of varying load characteristics, in which case a large foot mounted rotary might still be selected.

  10. Comparison of cryopreserved human sperm in vapor and liquid phases of liquid nitrogen: effect on motility parameters, morphology, and sperm function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punyatanasakchai, Piyaphan; Sophonsritsuk, Areephan; Weerakiet, Sawaek; Wansumrit, Surapee; Chompurat, Deonthip

    2008-11-01

    To compare the effects of cryopreserved sperm in vapor and liquid phases of liquid nitrogen on sperm motility, morphology, and sperm function. Experimental study. Andrology laboratory at Ramathibodi Hospital, Thailand. Thirty-eight semen samples with normal motility and sperm count were collected from 38 men who were either patients of an infertility clinic or had donated sperm for research. Each semen sample was divided into two aliquots. Samples were frozen with static-phase vapor cooling. One aliquot was plunged into liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C), and the other was stored in vapor-phase nitrogen (-179 degrees C) for 3 days. Thawing was performed at room temperature. Motility was determined by using computer-assisted semen analysis, sperm morphology was determined by using eosin-methylene blue staining, and sperm function was determined by using a hemizona binding test. Most of the motility parameters of sperm stored in the vapor phase were not significantly different from those stored in the liquid phase of liquid nitrogen, except in amplitude of lateral head displacement. The percentages of normal sperm morphology in both vapor and liquid phases also were not significantly different. There was no significant difference in the number of bound sperm in hemizona between sperm cryopreserved in both vapor and liquid phases of liquid nitrogen. Cryopreservation of human sperm in a vapor phase of liquid nitrogen was comparable to cryopreservation in a liquid phase of liquid nitrogen.

  11. Lateral vibration analysis of continuous bridges utilizing equal displacement rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Wei

    Full Text Available The application of equal displacement rule simplifies the evaluation of lateral displacement demand forSDOF system. For complex multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF structures such as continuous bridge systems, however, it requires more investigations. In this paper, a comprehensive parametric study of the ratio of maximum inelastic displacement to maximum elastic displacement for typical continuous bridges is performedto advance the application of equal displacement rule to MDOF systems. Particurlarly for the bridges with long periods, this adapted methodlogy is further simplified. It is concluded that equal displacement rule of MDOF is applicable to continuous bridges when the periods of the main modes are no less than the limiting period, which usually serves as an indication to the level of inelastic deformation for a bridge subjected to an earthquake.

  12. 100 group displacement cross sections from RECOIL data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishnan, V.

    1995-01-01

    Displacement cross sections in 100 neutron energy groups were calculated from the RECOIL data base using the RECOIL program, for use in DPA (Displacement Per Atom) calculations for FBTR and PFBR materials. 100 group displacement cross sections were calculated using RECOIL-Data Base and RECOIL Program. Modifications were made in the data base to reduce space requirement, and in the program for easy handling on a PC. 2 refs

  13. Distal displacement of the maxilla and the upper first molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S; Molthen, R; West, E E; Miller, D M

    1979-06-01

    Data from a sample of 198 Class II cases treated with various appliances which deliver distally directed forces to the maxilla were examined to determine the frequency of absolute distal displacement of the upper first molar and of the maxilla. Analysis revealed that such distal displacement is possible and that it is, in fact, a frequent finding following treatment. Long-range stability of distal displacement was not assessed.

  14. Employment protection and the consequences for displaced workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; van Audenrode, Marc; Browning, Martin

    We compare the wage and employment consequences of a job displacement in Belgium and Denmark. These two countries both have generous unemployment insurance schemes but job protection laws vary dramatically between the two. Using comparable data we find that the incidence of displacement and the c...... and the consequences for wages are similar in the two countries. The consequences for employment are very different with Danish workers experiencing much less unemployment after a displacement...

  15. Mental health of internally displaced persons in Jalozai camp, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujeeb, Arooj

    2015-11-01

    Internal displacement has been a distressing issue of Pakistan for last one decade. Few research works have been conducted on the psychological issues of internally displaced persons in Pakistan. The current research was aimed at determining the psychological effects of internal displacement, that is, psychological well-being, depression, anxiety and stress (internalizing problems) of the individuals who were displaced as a result of an armed conflict in Swat. A sample of 126 internally displaced persons was taken from Jalozai camp which included females (n = 65) and males (n = 61). Age of the sample ranged from 20 to 75 years with a mean of 47.5 years. Translated and adapted versions of Well-Being Affectometer-2 Scale and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale were used in the current research. Results of the study indicated differences between males and females, females being higher on internalizing problems and lower on psychological well-being, whereas family loss during displacement affected the results in the same way. Well-being, gender and family loss emerged as significant predictors of internalizing problems, and gender moderated the relationship between well-being and internalizing problems. Internal displacement may bring psychological issues for internally displaced persons, that is, their well-being may decrease and depression, anxiety and stress may increase during displacement. Limitations and implications of the study were discussed further. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Large scale chromatographic separations using continuous displacement chromatography (CDC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, V.T.; Doty, A.W.; Byers, C.H.

    1988-01-01

    A process for large scale chromatographic separations using a continuous chromatography technique is described. The process combines the advantages of large scale batch fixed column displacement chromatography with conventional analytical or elution continuous annular chromatography (CAC) to enable large scale displacement chromatography to be performed on a continuous basis (CDC). Such large scale, continuous displacement chromatography separations have not been reported in the literature. The process is demonstrated with the ion exchange separation of a binary lanthanide (Nd/Pr) mixture. The process is, however, applicable to any displacement chromatography separation that can be performed using conventional batch, fixed column chromatography

  17. Studying Landslide Displacements in Megamendung (Indonesia Using GPS Survey Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanuddin Z. Abidin

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Landslide is one of prominent geohazards that frequently affects Indonesia, especially in the rainy season. It destroys not only environment and property, but usually also causes deaths. Landslide monitoring is therefore very crucial and should be continuously done. One of the methods that can have a contribution in studying landslide phenomena is repeated GPS survey method. This paper presents and discusses the operational performances, constraints and results of GPS surveys conducted in a well known landslide prone area in West Java (Indonesia, namely Megamendung, the hilly region close to Bogor. Three GPS surveys involving 8 GPS points have been conducted, namely on April 2002, May 2003 and May 2004, respectively. The estimated landslide displacements in the area are relatively quite large in the level of a few dm to a few m. Displacements up to about 2-3 m were detected in the April 2002 to May 2003 period, and up to about 3-4 dm in the May 2003 to May 2004 period. In both periods, landslides in general show the northwest direction of displacements. Displacements vary both spatially and temporally. This study also suggested that in order to conclude the existence of real and significant displacements of GPS points, the GPS estimated displacements should be subjected to three types of testing namely: the congruency test on spatial displacements, testing on the agreement between the horizontal distance changes with the predicted direction of landslide displacement, and testing on the consistency of displacement directions on two consecutive periods.

  18. The Three Gorges: the unexamined toll of development-induced displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Stein

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available In China, the context of forced displacement in its broadest sense centres on four issues: (1 coercive displacement for development; (2 political persecution resulting in controlled displacement; (3 massive labour dislocations; and (4 disaster-induced displacement. This article looks at the role of the state in displacement, focusing on the first of these issues: development-induced displacement.

  19. A Simple Experiment for Determining Vapor Pressure and Enthalpy of Vaporization of Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Gerald S.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory procedures, calculations, and sample results are described for a freshman chemistry experiment in which the Clausius-Clapeyron equation is introduced as a means of describing the variation of vapor pressure with temperature and for determining enthalpy of vaporization. (Author/SK)

  20. Vapor pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of oil of catnip by correlation gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, Daniel; Gobble, Chase; Chickos, James

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Vaporization enthalpies of the nepetalactones from oil of catnip have been evaluated. • Vapor pressures from T = (298.15 to 350) K have been evaluated. • Oil of catnip has a vapor pressure similar to DEET at T = 298.15 K. - Abstract: The vaporization enthalpy and vapor pressure of the two nepetalactones found in Nepeta cataria have been evaluated by correlation gas chromatography. Vaporization enthalpies at T = 298.15 K of {(68.0 ± 1.9) and (69.4 ± 1.9)} kJ ⋅ mol"−"1 have been derived for the minor diastereomer, (4aS,7S,7aS)-nepetalactone, and major one, (4aS,7S,7aR)-nepetalactone, respectively. Vapor pressures also at T = 298.15 K of p = (1.2 ± 0.04) Pa and (0.91 ± 0.03) Pa have been evaluated for the minor and the major stereoisomer. In addition to being of interest because of the remarkable effect it has on various felids, oil of catnip is also quite effective in repelling mosquitoes, comparable to diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET). The vapor pressures evaluated in this work suggest that the two stereoisomers have similar volatility to DEET at ambient temperatures.

  1. Vapor pressures and enthalpies of vaporization of a series of the linear aliphatic aldehydes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Verevkin, S. P.; Krasnykh, E. L.; Vasiltsova, T. V.; Koutek, Bohumír; Doubský, Jan; Heintz, A.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 206, - (2003), s. 331-339 ISSN 0378-3812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : aldehydes * vapor pressure * enthalpy of vaporization Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.165, year: 2003

  2. Vapor pressures and vaporization enthalpy of codlemone by correlation gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, Shannon M.; Harris, Harold H.; Chickos, James S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The vaporization enthalpy of codlemone has been evaluated. • The vapor pressure of codlemone has been evaluated from T = (298.15 to T b ) K. • Vapor pressures for the 1-alkanols standards are available from T = (298.15 to 500) K. - Abstract: The vapor pressure and vaporization enthalpy of codlemone (trans, trans 8,10-dodecadien-1-ol), the female sex hormone of the codling moth is evaluated by correlation gas chromatography using a series of saturated primary alcohols as standards. A vaporization enthalpy of (92.3 ± 2.6) kJ · mol −1 and a vapor pressure, p/Pa = (0.083 ± 0.012) were evaluated at T = 298.15 K. An equation for the evaluation of vapor pressure from ambient temperature to boiling has been derived by correlation for codlemone. The calculated boiling temperature of T B = 389 K at p = 267 Pa is within the temperature range reported in the literature. A normal boiling temperature of T B = (549.1 ± 0.1) K is also estimated by extrapolation

  3. Evidence of a sewer vapor transport pathway at the USEPA vapor intrusion research duplex

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of sewer lines as preferential pathways for vapor intrusion is poorly understood. Although the importance of sewer lines for volatile organic compound (VOC) transport has been documented at a small number of sites with vapor intrusion, sewer lines are not routinely sampl...

  4. Water vapor profiling using microwave radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. R.; Wilheit, T. T.

    1988-01-01

    Water vapor is one of the most important constituents in the Earth's atmosphere. Its spatial and temporal variations affect a wide spectrum of meteorological phenomena ranging from the formation of clouds to the development of severe storms. The passive microwave technique offers an excellent means for water vapor measurements. It can provide both day and night coverage under most cloud conditions. Two water vapor absorption features, at 22 and 183 GHz, were explored in the past years. The line strengths of these features differ by nearly two orders of magnitude. As a consequence, the techniques and the final products of water vapor measurements are also quite different. The research effort in the past few years was to improve and extend the retrieval algorithm to the measurements of water vapor profiles under cloudy conditions. In addition, the retrieval of total precipitable water using 183 GHz measurements, but in a manner analogous to the use of 22 GHz measurements, to increase measurement sensitivity for atmospheres of very low moisture content was also explored.

  5. Control of sodium vapor transport in annuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, G.E.; Bohringer, A.P.

    1983-11-01

    The method used to control sodium vapor transport in the annuli of various components at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is a downward purge of the annuli with high purity argon. The purge rates for the FFTF were selected by calculating the gas velocity required to overcome thermal convection transport in the annuli. To evaluate the effectiveness of the gas purge, laboratory apparatus was fabricated which simulated selected annuli in the FFTF In-Vessel Handling Machine (IVHM) and the Instrument Tree (IT) annuli. Tests were conducted at temperatures similar to FFTF conditions. Gas purge rates ranged from zero to 130% of FFTF flow rates. Test results show the effectiveness of a high purity gas purge in decreasing the accumulation of sodium vapor deposits in an annulus. The presence of water vapor and oxygen in the purge gas increased the sodium deposition rate by a factor of three over other tests usig high purity argon. The presence of a vapor control collar used in the IT annulus was shown to be beneficial for controlling vapor transport into the upper region of the annulus

  6. Vapor pressure and thermodynamics of beryllium carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinehart, G.H.; Behrens, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    The vapor pressure of beryllium carbide has been measured over the temperature range 1388 to 1763 K using Knudsen-effusion mass spectrometry. Vaporization occurs incongruently according to the reaction Be 2 C(s) = 2Be(g) + C(s). The equilibrium vapor pressure above the mixture of Be 2 C and C over the experimental temperature range is (R/J K -1 mol -1 )ln(p/Pa) = -(3.610 +- 0.009) x 10 5 (K/T) + (221.43 +- 1.06). The third-law enthalpy change for the above reaction obtained from the present vapor pressures is ΔH 0 (298.15 K) = (740.5 +- 0.1) kJ mol -1 . The corresponding second-law result is ΔH 0 (298.15 K) = (732.0 +- 1.8) kJ mol -1 . The enthalpy of formation for Be 2 C(s) calculated from the present third-law vaporization enthalpy and the enthalpy of formation of Be(g) is ΔH 0 sub(f)(298.15 K) = -(92.5 +- 15.7) kJ mol -1 . (author)

  7. Vapor pumps and gas-driven machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillet, R.

    1991-01-01

    The vapor pump, patented in 1979 by Gaz de France, is an additional mass and heat exchanger which uses the combustion air of fuel-burning machines as an additional cold source. This cold source is preheated and, above all, humidified before reaching the burner, by means of the residual sensible and latent heat in the combustion products of the fuel-burning process. This final exchanger thus makes it possible, in many cases, to recover all the gross calorific value of natural gas, even when the combustion products leave the process at a wet temperature greater than 60 0 C, the maximum dew point of the products of normal combustion. Another significant advantage of the vapor pump being worth highlighting is the selective recycling of water vapor by the vapor pump which reduces the adiabatic combustion temperature and the oxygen concentration in the combustion air, two factors which lead to considerable reductions in nitrogen oxides formation, hence limiting atmospheric pollution. Alongside a wide range of configurations which make advantageous use of the vapor pump in association with gas-driven machines and processes, including gas turbines, a number of boiler plant installations are also presented [fr

  8. Distribution of tropical tropospheric water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, De-Zheng; Lindzen, Richard S.

    1993-01-01

    Utilizing a conceptual model for tropical convection and observational data for water vapor, the maintenance of the vertical distribution of the tropical tropospheric water vapor is discussed. While deep convection induces large-scale subsidence that constrains the turbulent downgradient mixing to within the convective boundary layer and effectively dries the troposphere through downward advection, it also pumps hydrometeors into the upper troposphere, whose subsequent evaporation appears to be the major source of moisture for the large-scale subsiding motion. The development of upper-level clouds and precipitation from these clouds may also act to dry the outflow, thus explaining the low relative humidity near the tropopause. A one-dimensional model is developed to simulate the mean vertical structure of water vapor in the tropical troposphere. It is also shown that the horizontal variation of water vapor in the tropical troposphere above the trade-wind boundary layer can be explained by the variation of a moisture source that is proportional to the amount of upper-level clouds. Implications for the nature of water vapor feedback in global warming are discussed.

  9. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Silicate Vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Costa, Gustavo C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Silicates are a common class of materials that are often exposed to high temperatures. The behavior of these materials needs to be understood for applications as high temperature coatings in material science as well as the constituents of lava for geological considerations. The vaporization behavior of these materials is an important aspect of their high temperature behavior and it also provides fundamental thermodynamic data. The application of Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS) to silicates is discussed. There are several special considerations for silicates. The first is selection of an appropriate cell material, which is either nearly inert or has well-understood interactions with the silicate. The second consideration is proper measurement of the low vapor pressures. This can be circumvented by using a reducing agent to boost the vapor pressure without changing the solid composition or by working at very high temperatures. The third consideration deals with kinetic barriers to vaporization. The measurement of these barriers, as encompassed in a vaporization coefficient, is discussed. Current measured data of rare earth silicates for high temperature coating applications are discussed. In addition, data on magnesium-iron-silicates (olivine) are presented and discussed.

  10. A Numerical Investigation of Vapor Intrusion — the Dynamic Response of Contaminant Vapors to Rainfall Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G.; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. government and various agencies have published guidelines for field investigation of vapor intrusion, most of which suggest soil gas sampling as an integral part of the investigation. Contaminant soil gas data are often relatively more stable than indoor air vapor concentration measurements, but meteorological conditions might influence soil gas values. Although a few field and numerical studies have considered some temporal effects on soil gas vapor transport, a full explanation of the contaminant vapor concentration response to rainfall events is not available. This manuscript seeks to demonstrate the effects on soil vapor transport during and after different rainfall events, by applying a coupled numerical model of fluid flow and vapor transport. Both a single rainfall event and seasonal rainfall events were modeled. For the single rainfall event models, the vapor response process could be divided into three steps: namely, infiltration, water redistribution, and establishment of a water lens atop the groundwater source. In the infiltration step, rainfall intensity was found to determine the speed of the wetting front and wash-out effect on the vapor. The passage of the wetting front led to an increase of the vapor concentration in both the infiltration and water redistribution steps and this effect is noted at soil probes located 1 m below the ground surface. When the mixing of groundwater with infiltrated water was not allowed, a clean water lens accumulated above the groundwater source and led to a capping effect which can reduce diffusion rates of contaminant from the source. Seasonal rainfall with short time intervals involved superposition of the individual rainfall events. This modeling results indicated that for relatively deeper soil that the infiltration wetting front could not flood, the effects were damped out in less than a month after rain; while in the long term (years), possible formation of a water lens played a larger role in

  11. Coulomb displacement energies and neutron density distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlomo, S.

    1979-01-01

    We present a short review of the present status of the theory of Coulomb displacement energies, ΔEsub(c), discussing the Okamoto-Nolem-Schiffer anomaly and its solution. We emphasize, in particular, that contrary to previous hopes, ΔEsub(c) does not determine rsub(ex), the root-mean square (rms) radius of the excess (valence) neutron density distribution. Instead, ΔEsub(c) is very sensitive to the value of Δr = rsub(n) - rsub(p), the difference between the rms radii of the density distributions of all neutrons and all protons. For neutron rich nuclei, such as 48 Ca and 208 Pb, a value of Δr = 0.1 fm is found to be consistent with ΔEsub(c). This value of Δr, which is considerably smaller than that (of 0.2 - 0.3 fm) predicted by some common Hartree-Fock calculations, seems to be confirmed by very recent experimental results. (orig.)

  12. Realization of fiber optic displacement sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzowski, Bartlomiej; Lakomski, Mateusz

    2018-03-01

    Fiber optic sensors are very promising because of their inherent advantages such as very small size, hard environment tolerance and impact of electromagnetic fields. In this paper three different types of Intensity Fiber Optic Displacement Sensors (I-FODS) are presented. Three configurations of I-FODS were realized in two varieties. In the first one, the cleaved multimode optical fibers (MMF) were used to collect reflected light, while in the second variety the MMF ended with ball lenses were chosen. To ensure an accurate alignment of optical fibers in the sensor head the MTP C9730 optical fiber ferrules were used. In this paper the influence of distribution of transmitting and detecting optical fibers on sensitivity and linear range of operation of developed I-FODS were investigated. We have shown, that I-FODS with ball lenses receive average 10.5% more reflected power in comparison to the cleaved optical fibers and they increase linearity range of I-FODS by 33%. In this paper, an analysis of each type of the realized sensor and detailed discussion are given.

  13. Computer simulation of high energy displacement cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinisch, H.L.

    1990-01-01

    A methodology developed for modeling many aspects of high energy displacement cascades with molecular level computer simulations is reviewed. The initial damage state is modeled in the binary collision approximation (using the MARLOWE computer code), and the subsequent disposition of the defects within a cascade is modeled with a Monte Carlo annealing simulation (the ALSOME code). There are few adjustable parameters, and none are set to physically unreasonable values. The basic configurations of the simulated high energy cascades in copper, i.e., the number, size and shape of damage regions, compare well with observations, as do the measured numbers of residual defects and the fractions of freely migrating defects. The success of these simulations is somewhat remarkable, given the relatively simple models of defects and their interactions that are employed. The reason for this success is that the behavior of the defects is very strongly influenced by their initial spatial distributions, which the binary collision approximation adequately models. The MARLOWE/ALSOME system, with input from molecular dynamics and experiments, provides a framework for investigating the influence of high energy cascades on microstructure evolution. (author)

  14. Algebraic motion of vertically displacing plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Pfefferle, David; Hirvijoki, Eero

    2017-10-01

    The vertical displacement of tokamak plasmas is modelled during the non-linear phase by a free-moving current-carrying rod coupled to a set of fixed conducting wires and a cylindrical conducting shell. The models capture the leading term in a Taylor expansion of the Green's function for the interaction between the plasma column and the vacuum vessel. The plasma is assumed not to vary during the VDE such that it behaves as a rigid body. In the limit of perfectly conducting structures, the plasma is prevented from coming in contact with the wall due to steep effective potential barriers by the eddy currents, and will hence oscillate at Alfvénic frequencies about a given force-free position. In addition to damping oscillations, resistivity allows for the column to drift towards the vessel on slow flux penetration timescales. The initial exponential motion of the plasma, i.e. the resistive vertical instability, is succeeded by a non-linear sinking behaviour, that is shown analytically to be algebraic and decelerative. The acceleration of the plasma column often observed in experiments is thus conjectured to originate from an early sharing of toroidal current between the core, the halo plasma and the wall or from the thermal quench dynamics precipitating loss of plasma current

  15. Molecular dynamics studies of displacement cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averback, R.S.; Hsieh, Horngming; Diaz de la Rubia, T.

    1990-02-01

    Molecular-dynamics simulations of cascades in Cu and Ni with primary-knock-on energies up to 5 keV and lattice temperatures in the range 0 K--700 K are described. Interatomic forces were represented by either the Gibson II (Cu) or Johnson-Erginsoy (Ni) potentials in most of this work, although some simulations using ''Embedded Atom Method'' potentials, e.g., for threshold events in Ni 3 Al, are also presented. The results indicate that the primary state of damage produced by displacement cascades is controlled by two phenomena, replacement collision sequences during the collisional phase of the cascade and local melting during the thermal spike. As expected, the collisional phase is rather similar in Cu and Ni, however, the thermal spike is of longer duration and has a more pronounced influence in Cu than Ni. When the ambient temperature of the lattice is increased, the melt zones are observed to both increase in size and cool more slowly. This has the effect of reducing defect production and enhancing atomic mixing and disordering. The implications of these results for defect production, cascade collapse, atomic disordering will be discussed. 34 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  16. TREATMENT OF DISPLACED MALLEOLAR FRACTURES AT CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franci Vindišar

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The exact knowledge of the anatomic relations of the juvenile skeleton is of great importance for the determination of the injury and proper treatment. The treatment should be uniform and carried out in one act. Considering this facts the functional results are usually very good and no late sequel are recorded.Methods. In 5-years period 25 children with age 7 to 17 were treated with displaced fracture of ankle. The Salter-Harris classification (SHC was used. Children were classified in two groups. In first group (G-I 11 children were treated with closed reduction. Whole group was classified as type II fractures of SHC. In second group (G-II 14 children were treated operatively. 10 cases were type III, 2 cases were type IV of SHC and 2 were juvenil Tillaux fracture. In follow-up we registered the duration of immobilisation, non-weight bearing period, mobility and residual pain at the end of the treatment.Results. In G-I average non-weight bearing period was 10.4 weeks, in G-II only 7.8 weeks. At the end of the treatment in both groups very good functional results were achieved. There were no complications in operative group (G-II.Conclusions. Children relatively often suffer ankle injuries. With proper diagnosis and early adequate treatment the prognosis is good and no functional sequel were recorded.

  17. Auxiliary Electrodes for Chromium Vapor Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fergus, Jeffrey; Shahzad, Moaiz; Britt, Tommy

    2018-05-15

    Measurement of chromia-containing vapors in solid oxide fuel cell systems is useful for monitoring and addressing cell degradation caused by oxidation of the chomia scale formed on alloys for interconnects and balance-of-plant components. One approach to measuring chromium is to use a solid electrolyte with an auxiliary electrode that relates the partial pressure of the chromium containing species to the mobile species in the electrolyte. One example is YCrO3 which can equilibrate with the chromium containing vapor and yttrium in yttria stabilized zirconia to establish an oxygen activity. Another is Na2CrO4 which can equilibrate with the chromium-containing vapor to establish a sodium activity.

  18. Monolithic microwave integrated circuit water vapor radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukamto, L. M.; Cooley, T. W.; Janssen, M. A.; Parks, G. S.

    1991-01-01

    A proof of concept Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Water Vapor Radiometer (WVR) is under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). WVR's are used to remotely sense water vapor and cloud liquid water in the atmosphere and are valuable for meteorological applications as well as for determination of signal path delays due to water vapor in the atmosphere. The high cost and large size of existing WVR instruments motivate the development of miniature MMIC WVR's, which have great potential for low cost mass production. The miniaturization of WVR components allows large scale deployment of WVR's for Earth environment and meteorological applications. Small WVR's can also result in improved thermal stability, resulting in improved calibration stability. Described here is the design and fabrication of a 31.4 GHz MMIC radiometer as one channel of a thermally stable WVR as a means of assessing MMIC technology feasibility.

  19. Numerical modeling of a vaporizing multicomponent droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megaridis, C. M.; Sirignano, W. A.

    The fundamental processes governing the energy, mass, and momentum exchange between the liquid and gas phases of vaporizing, multicomponent liquid droplets have been investigated. The axisymmetric configuration under consideration consists of an isolated multicomponent droplet vaporizing in a convective environment. The model considers different volatilities of the liquid components, variable liquid properties due to variation of the species concentrations, and non-Fickian multicomponent gaseous diffusion. The bicomponent droplet model was employed to examine the commonly used assumptions of unity Lewis number in the liquid phase and Fickian gaseous diffusion. It is found that the droplet drag coefficients, the vaporization rates, and the related transfer numbers are not influenced by the above assumptions in a significant way.

  20. Secondhand Exposure to Vapors From Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czogala, Jan; Fidelus, Bartlomiej; Zielinska-Danch, Wioleta; Travers, Mark J.; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are designed to generate inhalable nicotine aerosol (vapor). When an e-cigarette user takes a puff, the nicotine solution is heated and the vapor is taken into lungs. Although no sidestream vapor is generated between puffs, some of the mainstream vapor is exhaled by e-cigarette user. The aim of this study was to evaluate the secondhand exposure to nicotine and other tobacco-related toxicants from e-cigarettes. Materials and Methods: We measured selected airborne markers of secondhand exposure: nicotine, aerosol particles (PM2.5), carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an exposure chamber. We generated e-cigarette vapor from 3 various brands of e-cigarette using a smoking machine and controlled exposure conditions. We also compared secondhand exposure with e-cigarette vapor and tobacco smoke generated by 5 dual users. Results: The study showed that e-cigarettes are a source of secondhand exposure to nicotine but not to combustion toxicants. The air concentrations of nicotine emitted by various brands of e-cigarettes ranged from 0.82 to 6.23 µg/m3. The average concentration of nicotine resulting from smoking tobacco cigarettes was 10 times higher than from e-cigarettes (31.60±6.91 vs. 3.32±2.49 µg/m3, respectively; p = .0081). Conclusions: Using an e-cigarette in indoor environments may involuntarily expose nonusers to nicotine but not to toxic tobacco-specific combustion products. More research is needed to evaluate health consequences of secondhand exposure to nicotine, especially among vulnerable populations, including children, pregnant women, and people with cardiovascular conditions. PMID:24336346

  1. Vapor characterization of Tank 241-C-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Story, M.S.

    1994-06-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program has developed, in cooperation with Northwest Instrument Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory, the equipment and expertise to characterize gases and vapors in the high-level radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site in south central Washington State. This capability has been demonstrated by the characterization of the tank 241-C-103 headspace. This tank headspace is the first, and for many reasons is expected to be the most problematic, that will be characterized (Osborne 1992). Results from the most recent and comprehensive sampling event, sample job 7B, are presented for the purpose of providing scientific bases for resolution of vapor issues associated with tank 241-C-103. This report is based on the work of Clauss et al. 1994, Jenkins et al. 1994, Ligotke et al. 1994, Mahon et al. 1994, and Rasmussen and Einfeld 1994. No attempt has been made in this report to evaluate the implications of the data presented, such as the potential impact of headspace gases and vapors to tank farm workers health. That and other issues will be addressed elsewhere. Key to the resolution of worker health issues is the quantitation of compounds of toxicological concern. The Toxicology Review Panel, a panel of Pacific Northwest Laboratory experts in various areas, of toxicology, has chosen 19 previously identified compounds as being of potential toxicological concern. During sample job 7B, the sampling and analytical methodology was validated for this preliminary list of compounds of toxicological concern. Validation was performed according to guidance provided by the Tank Vapor Conference Committee, a group of analytical chemists from academic institutions and national laboratories assembled and commissioned by the Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program

  2. Vapor characterization of Tank 241-C-103

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Story, M.S. [Northwest Instrument Systems, Inc. Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program has developed, in cooperation with Northwest Instrument Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oregon Graduate Institute of Science and Technology, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratory, the equipment and expertise to characterize gases and vapors in the high-level radioactive waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site in south central Washington State. This capability has been demonstrated by the characterization of the tank 241-C-103 headspace. This tank headspace is the first, and for many reasons is expected to be the most problematic, that will be characterized (Osborne 1992). Results from the most recent and comprehensive sampling event, sample job 7B, are presented for the purpose of providing scientific bases for resolution of vapor issues associated with tank 241-C-103. This report is based on the work of Clauss et al. 1994, Jenkins et al. 1994, Ligotke et al. 1994, Mahon et al. 1994, and Rasmussen and Einfeld 1994. No attempt has been made in this report to evaluate the implications of the data presented, such as the potential impact of headspace gases and vapors to tank farm workers health. That and other issues will be addressed elsewhere. Key to the resolution of worker health issues is the quantitation of compounds of toxicological concern. The Toxicology Review Panel, a panel of Pacific Northwest Laboratory experts in various areas, of toxicology, has chosen 19 previously identified compounds as being of potential toxicological concern. During sample job 7B, the sampling and analytical methodology was validated for this preliminary list of compounds of toxicological concern. Validation was performed according to guidance provided by the Tank Vapor Conference Committee, a group of analytical chemists from academic institutions and national laboratories assembled and commissioned by the Tank Vapor Issue Resolution Program.

  3. Expansion of a function about a displaced centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, M.A.

    1981-07-01

    We review the progress recently made in obtaining closed form expressions for the expansion of general orbitals about a displaced centre and establish the equivalence between different expansions. We also examine how these expressions do have the desired limit as the displacement approaches zero. (author)

  4. Sideways displacement and curved path of recti eye muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib); F. Harting (Friedrich); B.J. de Waal (Bob); B.W.J.M. Verbeeten (Ben)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractWe investigated the sideways displacement of recti muscles with the eye in various gaze-positions by making computed tomographic (CT) scans in a plane perpendicular to the muscle cone, posterior to the globe. We found no consistent sideways displacement of the horizontal recti in the up

  5. Iraqi Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: A Deepening Humanitarian Crisis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Margesson, Rhoda; Sharp, Jeremy M; Bruno, Andorra

    2007-01-01

    .... It is estimated that in total (including those displaced prior to the war) there may be 2 million Iraqi refugees who have fled to Jordan, Syria, and other neighboring states, and approximately 2 million Iraqis who have been displaced within Iraq itself...

  6. Sieve-based lateral displacement technology for suspension separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn, J.P.; Wagterveld, R.M.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2017-01-01

    Sparse lateral displacement arrays are easier to scale up than full deterministic lateral displacement arrays or deterministic ratchets, because they require lower pressure drop and simplify the construction of the device. However, the asymmetry of sparse arrays leads to a non-homogeneous pressure

  7. Topology synthesis of large-displacement compliant mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus B. Wittendorf; Buhl, Thomas; Sigmund, Ole

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the use of topology optimization as a synthesis tool for the design of large-displacement compliant mechanisms. An objective function for the synthesis of large-displacement mechanisms is proposed together with a formulation for synthesis of path-generating compliant mechanisms...

  8. Prolonged displacement may compromise resilience in Eritrean mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almedom, Astier; Tesfamichael, Berhe; Mohammed, Zein; Mascie-Taylor, Nick; Muller, Jocelyn; Alemu, Zemui

    2005-12-01

    to assess the impact of prolonged displacement on the resilience of Eritrean mothers. an adapted SOC scale (short form) was administered. Complementary qualitative data were gathered from study participants' spontaneous reactions to and commentaries on the SOC scale. Displaced women's SOC scores were significantly less than those of the non-displaced: Mean = 54.84; SD = 6.48 in internally displaced person (IDP) camps, compared to non-displaced urban and rural/pastoralist: Mean = 48. 94, SD = 11.99; t = 3.831, p urban (non-displaced). Rural but traditionally mobile (pastoralist or transhumant) communities scored more or less the same as the urban non-displaced--i.e., significantly higher than those in IDP camps (p urban and pastoralist/transhumant groups were similar, while women in IDP camps were lower scoring--RR = .268, p < .001. The implications of these findings for health policy are critical. It is incumbent on the international health institutions including the World Health Organization and regional as well as local players to address the plight of internally displaced women, their families and communities in Eritrea and other places of dire conditions such as, for example Darfur in the Sudan.

  9. Hyoid Displacement in Post-Treatment Cancer Patients: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Yihe; Yang, Zhenyu; Perlman, Adrienne L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Dysphagia after head and neck cancer treatment is a health care issue; in some cases, the cause of death is not cancer but, rather, the passage of food or liquid into the lungs. Hyoid displacement is known to be important to safe swallowing function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hyoid displacement after cancer treatment.…

  10. Study on the applicability of the desk displacement ventilation concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, Marcel G.L.C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes an experimental and numerical study into a ventilation concept that combines displacement ventilation with task conditioning, the so-called desk displacement ventilation (DDV) concept. The study uses steady-state and transient results to discuss the applicability of the DDV

  11. Job Displacement and First Birth Over the Business Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Barbara; Kreyenfeld, Michaela; Uhlendorff, Arne

    2017-06-01

    In this article, we investigate the impact of job displacement on women's first-birth rates as well as the variation in this effect over the business cycle. We use mass layoffs to estimate the causal effects of involuntary job loss on fertility in the short and medium term, up to five years after displacement. Our analysis is based on rich administrative data from Germany, with an observation period spanning more than 20 years. We apply inverse probability weighting (IPW) to flexibly control for the observed differences between women who were and were not displaced. To account for the differences in the composition of the women who were displaced in a downturn and the women who were displaced in an upswing, we use a double weighting estimator. Results show that the extent to which job displacement has adverse effects on fertility depends on the business cycle. The first-birth rates were much lower for women who were displaced in an economic downturn than for those who lost a job in an economic upturn. This result cannot be explained by changes in the observed characteristics of the displaced women over the business cycle.

  12. Test Rig for Valves of Digital Displacement Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Christian; Christensen, Jeppe Haals; Bech, Michael Møller

    2017-01-01

    A test rig for the valves of digital displacement machines has been developed at Aalborg University. It is composed of a commercial radial piston machine, which has been modified to facilitate Digital Displacement operation for a single piston. Prototype valves have been optimized, designed and m...

  13. 40 CFR 86.419-2006 - Engine displacement, motorcycle classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reference in § 86.1). (2) For rotary engines, displacement means the maximum volume of a combustion chamber... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine displacement, motorcycle... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES...

  14. Retention of Displaced Students after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Joshua Christian

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the strategies that university leaders implemented to improve retention of displaced students in the aftermaths of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. The universities that participated in this study admitted displaced students after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. This study utilized a qualitative…

  15. A displacement based FE formulation for steady state problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Y.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis a new displacement based formulation is developed for elasto-plastic deformations in steady state problems. In this formulation the displacements are the primary variables, which is in contrast to the more common formulations in terms of the velocities as the primary variables. In a

  16. Atomic displacements in dilute alloys of Cr, Nb and Mo

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 497–514. Atomic displacements in dilute alloys of Cr, Nb and Mo ... used to calculate dynamical matrix and the impurity-induced forces up to second nearest ... origin, the lattice is strained, and the host atoms get displaced to new ...

  17. Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honegger, R. J.; Neveril, R. B.; Remus, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The development and evaluation of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration (VD/VF) water recovery system are considered. As a functional model, the system converts urine and condensates waste water from six men to potable water on a steady-state basis. The system is designed for 180-day operating durations and for function on the ground, on zero-g aircraft, and in orbit. Preparatory tasks are summarized for conducting low gravity tests of a vacuum distillation/vapor filtration system for recovering water from urine.

  18. Detection of water vapor on Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, H. P.; Fink, U.; Treffers, R.; Gautier, T. N., III

    1975-01-01

    High-altitude (12.4 km) spectroscopic observations of Jupiter at 5 microns from the NASA 91.5 cm airborne infrared telescope have revealed 14 absorptions assigned to the rotation-vibration spectrum of water vapor. Preliminary analysis indicates a mixing ratio about 1 millionth for the vapor phase of water. Estimates of temperature (greater than about 300 K) and pressure (less than 20 atm) suggest observation of water deep in Jupiter's hot spots responsible for its 5 micron flux. Model-atmosphere calculations based on radiative-transfer theory may change these initial estimates and provide a better physical picture of Jupiter's atmosphere below the visible cloud tops.

  19. Vapor deposition in basaltic stalactites, Kilauea, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, A. K.; Mohrig, D. C.; Welday, E. E.

    Basaltic stalacties suspended from the ceiling of a large lava tube at Kilauea, Hawaii, have totally enclosed vesicles whose walls are covered with euhedral FeTi oxide and silicate crystals. The walls of the vesicles and the exterior surfaces of stalactites are Fe and Ti enriched and Si depleted compared to common basalt. Minerals in vesicles have surface ornamentations on crystal faces which include alkali-enriched, aluminosilicate glass(?) hemispheres. No sulfide-, chloride-, fluoride-, phosphate- or carbonate-bearing minerals are present. Minerals in the stalactites must have formed by deposition from an iron oxide-rich vapor phase produced by the partial melting and vaporization of wall rocks in the tube.

  20. Flammability characteristics of combustible gases and vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabetakis, M. G. [Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1964-05-01

    This is a summary of the available limit of flammability, autoignition and burning-rate data for more than 200 combustible gases and vapors in air and other oxidants, as well as of empirical rules and graphs that can be used to predict similar data for thousands of other combustibles under a variety of environmental conditions. Spec$c data are presented on the paraffinic, unsaturated, aromatic, and alicyclic hydrocarbons, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, and sulfur compounds, and an assortment of fuels, fuel blends, hydraulic fluids, engine oils, and miscellaneous combustible gases and vapors.

  1. Laser vapor phase deposition of semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlov, N.V.; Luk' ianchuk, B.S.; Sisakian, E.V.; Shafeev, G.A.

    1987-06-01

    The pyrolytic effect of IR laser radiation is investigated with reference to the initiation and control of the vapor phase deposition of semiconductor films. By selecting the gas mixture composition and laser emission parameters, it is possible to control the deposition and crystal formation processes on the surface of semiconductors, with the main control action achieved due to the nonadiabatic kinetics of reactions in the gas phase and high temperatures in the laser heating zone. This control mechanism is demonstrated experimentally during the laser vapor deposition of germanium and silicon films from tetrachlorides on single-crystal Si and Ge substrates. 5 references.

  2. The vertical distribution of Mars water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of observations made from the Viking 1 Orbiter indicates that the water vapor over the Viking 1 landing site is uniformly mixed with the atmosphere and not concentrated near the surface. The analysis incorporates the effects of atmospheric scattering and explains why previous earth-based observations showed a strong diurnal variation in water content. It also explains the lack of an early morning fog and removes the necessity of daily exchange of large amounts of water between the surface and the atmosphere. A water vapor volume mixing ratio of 1.5 x 10 to the -4th is inferred for the Viking 1 site in late summer.

  3. Drag Reduction by Leidenfrost Vapor Layers

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2011-05-23

    We demonstrate and quantify a highly effective drag reduction technique that exploits the Leidenfrost effect to create a continuous and robust lubricating vapor layer on the surface of a heated solid sphere moving in a liquid. Using high-speed video, we show that such vapor layers can reduce the hydrodynamic drag by over 85%. These results appear to approach the ultimate limit of drag reduction possible by different methods based on gas-layer lubrication and can stimulate the development of related energy saving technologies.

  4. Low temperature vapor phase digestion of graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Robert A.

    2017-04-18

    A method for digestion and gasification of graphite for removal from an underlying surface is described. The method can be utilized to remove graphite remnants of a formation process from the formed metal piece in a cleaning process. The method can be particularly beneficial in cleaning castings formed with graphite molding materials. The method can utilize vaporous nitric acid (HNO.sub.3) or vaporous HNO.sub.3 with air/oxygen to digest the graphite at conditions that can avoid damage to the underlying surface.

  5. Effect of displaced versus non-displaced pelvic fractures on long-term racing performance in 31 Thoroughbred racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, S E; Muurlink, M A; Anderson, G A; Puksmann, T N; Whitton, R C

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the long-term racing prognosis for Thoroughbred racehorses with displaced versus non-displaced fractures of the pelvis identified by scintigraphy. Retrospective case analysis. Medical records of 31 Thoroughbred racehorses presenting to the University of Melbourne Equine Centre with fractures of the pelvis that were identified by scintigraphy were reviewed. Pelvic fracture site was determined and defined as displaced or non-displaced based on ultrasound and/or radiographic findings. Race records were analysed for each horse, with a minimum of 24 months' follow-up, and correlated with fracture type to determine long-term prognosis for racing. Results are expressed as median and range. Fractures at a single site were more common (n = 22) than fractures involving two sites (n = 9) and the ilial wing was the most commonly affected (n = 12). Thoroughbred racehorses with displaced pelvic fractures at any site (n = 12) raced fewer times within 24 months of diagnosis than horses with non-displaced fractures (n = 19) (median 0.5, range 0-13 vs 7, 0-24; P = 0.037), but there was no clear statistical difference in race earnings between the two groups (median A$0, range A$0-$123,250 vs A$14,440, A$0-$325,500, respectively; P = 0.080). Four horses with displaced fractures (33%) were euthanased on humane grounds because of persistent severe pain. When these horses were excluded from the analysis, there were no differences in performance variables between horses with a displaced or non-displaced pelvic fracture. Thoroughbred racehorses with a displaced or non-displaced pelvic fracture that survive the initial post-injury period have a good prognosis for racing. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

  6. Displacement and deformation measurement for large structures by camera network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yang; Yu, Qifeng; Yang, Zhen; Xu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xiaohu

    2014-03-01

    A displacement and deformation measurement method for large structures by a series-parallel connection camera network is presented. By taking the dynamic monitoring of a large-scale crane in lifting operation as an example, a series-parallel connection camera network is designed, and the displacement and deformation measurement method by using this series-parallel connection camera network is studied. The movement range of the crane body is small, and that of the crane arm is large. The displacement of the crane body, the displacement of the crane arm relative to the body and the deformation of the arm are measured. Compared with a pure series or parallel connection camera network, the designed series-parallel connection camera network can be used to measure not only the movement and displacement of a large structure but also the relative movement and deformation of some interesting parts of the large structure by a relatively simple optical measurement system.

  7. Miscible fluid displacement: an answer to increasing oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, N R; Rivera, R J

    1976-01-01

    This study presents the state of the art on miscible and miscible-type processes. It is well known that when these processes are applied under ideal laboratory conditions, the oil recovery obtained from linear cores approaches 100% of the total oil contained in the porous structure which is contacted by the displacing fluids. In the past few years, a worldwide shortage of crude oil supplies produced an increased interest in new oil recovery methods. Because of this situation, the oil industry turned its eyes back toward the miscible processes. This study discusses the following miscible fluid displacement processes: (1) high-pressure dry gas displacement; (2) enriched gas displacement; (3) GLP slug flooding; and (4) carbon dioxide displacement. In addition to the processes aforementioned, this work presents the main features of the micellar solution flooding process. (17 refs.)

  8. Land Restitution and Prevention of Forced Displacement in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Gómez-Isa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The armed conflict in Colombia, which has generated over three million internally displaced persons, has dramatic humanitarian consequences and raises serious issues regarding the protection of displaced peoples’ rights. The underlying reasons for the displacement often lie in the dynamics associated with territorial control and land seizures undertaken for strategic, military or purely economic purposes. Domestic and international legal provisions have established the victims’ right to the restitution of their homes and property as the “preferred remedy” in cases of displacement. However, policies dealing with displacement, both those of the Colombian government and of several international institutions, fail to take this sufficiently into account. A comprehensive reparation policy for victims must necessarily entail the reversion of lands, territories and goods seized in Colombia under the pretext of the internal armed conflict.

  9. Financing of internal displacement: excerpts from the Sri Lankan experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirthalingam, Kopalapillai; Lakshman, Rajith W D

    2010-04-01

    This paper investigates how internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Batticaloa, Sri Lanka, financed their first year of displacement. We conducted extensive fieldwork in August 2007 in numerous welfare centres in Batticaloa that have received persons displaced from the Mutur divisional secretariat (DS) in the Trincomalee district. The sample was selected from the village of Sampur in Mutur DS. The displaced from Sampur are of Tamil origin and our findings reveal certain coping strategies that may be particular to this community, including the selling or mortgaging of gold jewellery to address the effects of displacement. We found that the IDPs in this region rely heavily on jewellery and other forms of savings to ensure their survival. There is also strong evidence to support the critically important coping role played by livelihoods. These coping strategies have enabled the IDP households in the present sample to live marginally above the poverty line.

  10. Diagnosing displaced four-part fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig; Bagger, Jens; Sylvest, Annette

    2009-01-01

    Displaced four-part fractures comprise 2-10 % of all proximal humeral fractures. The optimal treatment is unclear and randomised trials are needed. The conduct and interpretation of such trials is facilitated by a reproducible fracture classification. We aimed at quantifying observer agreement...... on the classification of displaced four-part fractures according to the Neer system. Published and unpublished data from five observer studies were reviewed. Observers agreed less on displaced four-part fractures than on the overall Neer classification. Mean kappa values for interobserver agreement ranged from 0.......16 to 0.48. Specialists agreed slightly more than fellows and residents. Advanced imaging modalities (CT and 3D CT) seemed to contribute more to classification of displaced four-part patterns than in less complex fracture patterns. Low observer agreement may challenge the clinical approach to displaced...

  11. Pitot-probe displacement in a supersonic turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    Eight circular pitot probes ranging in size from 2 to 70 percent of the boundary-layer thickness were tested to provide experimental probe displacement results in a two-dimensional turbulent boundary layer at a nominal free-stream Mach number of 2 and unit Reynolds number of 8 million per meter. The displacement obtained in the study was larger than that reported by previous investigators in either an incompressible turbulent boundary layer or a supersonic laminar boundary layer. The large probes indicated distorted Mach number profiles, probably due to separation. When the probes were small enough to cause no appreciable distortion, the displacement was constant over most of the boundary layer. The displacement in the near-wall region decreased to negative displacement in some cases. This near-wall region was found to extend to about one probe diameter from the test surface.

  12. Surface displacement imaging by interferometry with a light emitting diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilhaire, Stefan; Grauby, Stephane; Jorez, Sebastien; Lopez, Luis David Patino; Rampnoux, Jean-Michel; Claeys, Wilfrid

    2002-01-01

    We present an imaging technique to measure static surface displacements of electronic components. A device is supplied by a transient current that creates a variation of temperature, thus a surface displacement. To measure the latter, a setup that is based on a Michelson interferometer is used. To avoid the phenomenon of speckle and the drawbacks inherent to it, we use a light emitting diode as the light source for the interferometer. The detector is a visible CCD camera that analyzes the optical signal containing the information of surface displacement of the device. Combining images, we extract the amplitude of the surface displacement. Out-of-plane surface-displacement images of a thermoelectric device are presented

  13. Human response to ductless personalized ventilation coupled with displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Veselý, Michal; Melikov, Arsen K.

    2012-01-01

    A human subject experiment was carried out to investigate the extent to which ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) in conjunction with displacement ventilation can improve perceived air quality (PAQ) and thermal comfort at elevated room air temperature in comparison with displacement ventilation...... alone. The experimental conditions comprised displacement ventilation alone (room air temperature of 23 °C, 26 °C, 29 °C) and DPV with displacement ventilation (26 °C, 29 °C), both operating at supply air temperatures 3, 5 or 6K lower than room air temperature, as well as mixing ventilation (23 °C, 3 K......). During one hour exposure participants answered questionnaires regarding PAQ and thermal comfort. PAQ was significantly better with DPV than without DPV at the same background conditions. Thermal comfort improved when DPV was used. Combining DPV with displacement ventilation showed the potential...

  14. Large scale intender test program to measure sub gouge displacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Been, Ken; Lopez, Juan [Golder Associates Inc, Houston, TX (United States); Sancio, Rodolfo [MMI Engineering Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The production of submarine pipelines in an offshore environment covered with ice is very challenging. Several precautions must be taken such as burying the pipelines to protect them from ice movement caused by gouging. The estimation of the subgouge displacements is a key factor in pipeline design for ice gouged environments. This paper investigated a method to measure subgouge displacements. An experimental program was implemented in an open field to produce large scale idealized gouges on engineered soil beds (sand and clay). The horizontal force required to produce the gouge, the subgouge displacements in the soil and the strain imposed by these displacements were monitored on a buried model pipeline. The results showed that for a given keel, the gouge depth was inversely proportional to undrained shear strength in clay. The subgouge displacements measured did not show a relationship with the gouge depth, width or soil density in sand and clay tests.

  15. Actuators Using Piezoelectric Stacks and Displacement Enhancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Lee, Hyeong Jae; Walkenmeyer, Phillip; Lih, Shyh-Shiuh

    2015-01-01

    Actuators are used to drive all active mechanisms including machines, robots, and manipulators to name a few. The actuators are responsible for moving, manipulating, displacing, pushing and executing any action that is needed by the mechanism. There are many types and principles of actuation that are responsible for these movements ranging from electromagnetic, electroactive, thermo-mechanic, piezoelectric, electrostrictive etc. Actuators are readily available from commercial producers but there is a great need for reducing their size, increasing their efficiency and reducing their weight. Studies at JPL’s Non Destructive Evaluation and Advanced Actuators (NDEAA) Laboratory have been focused on the use of piezoelectric stacks and novel designs taking advantage of piezoelectric’s potential to provide high torque/force density actuation and high electromechanical conversion efficiency. The actuators/motors that have been developed and reviewed in this paper are operated by various horn configurations as well as the use of pre-stress flexures that make them thermally stable and increases their coupling efficiency. The use of monolithic designs that pre-stress the piezoelectric stack eliminates the use of compression stress bolt. These designs enable the embedding of developed solid-state motors/actuators in any structure with the only macroscopically moving parts are the rotor or the linear translator. Finite element modeling and design tools were used to determine the requirements and operation parameters and the results were used to simulate, design and fabricate novel actuators/motors. The developed actuators and performance will be described and discussed in this paper.

  16. Separation of aromatics by vapor permeation through solvent swollen membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, A.; Adachi, K.; Feng, Y. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan)

    1995-12-20

    A vapor permeation process for aromatics separation from a hydrocarbon mixture was studied by means of the simultaneous permeation of dimethylsulfoxide vapor as an agent for membrane swelling and preferential permeation of aromatics. The separation performance of the process was demonstrated by a polyvinylalcohol membrane for mixed vapors of benzene/cyclohexane, xylene/octane and a model gasoline. The aromatic vapors preferentially permeated from these mixed vapor feeds. The separation factor was over 10. The separation mechanism of the process mainly depends on the relative salability of the vapors between aromatics and other hydrocarbons in dimethylsulfoxide. 14 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Neutron displacement damage cross sections for SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Hanchen; Ghoniem, N.

    1993-01-01

    Calculations of neutron displacement damage cross sections for SiC are presented. We use Biersack and Haggmark's empirical formula in constructing the electronic stopping power, which combines Lindhard's model at low PKA energies and Bethe-Bloch's model at high PKA energies. The electronic stopping power for polyatomic materials is computed on the basis of Bragg's Additivity Rule. A continuous form of the inverse power law potential is used for nuclear scattering. Coupled integro-differential equations for the number of displaced atoms j, caused by PKA i, are then derived. The procedure outlined above gives partial displacement cross sections, displacement cross sections for each specie of the lattice, and for each PKA type. The corresponding damage rates for several fusion and fission neutron spectra are calculated. The stoichiometry of the irradiated material is investigated by finding the ratio of displacements among various atomic species. The role of each specie in displacing atoms is also investigated by calculating the fraction of displacements caused by each PKA type. The study shows that neutron displacement damage rates of SiC in typical magnetic fusion reactor first walls will be ∝10-15 dpa MW -1 m 2 ; in typical lead-protected inertial confinement fusion reactor first walls they will be ∝15-20 dpa MW -1 m 2 . For fission spectra, we find that the neutron displacement damage rate of SiC is ∝74 dpa per 10 27 n/m 2 in FFTF, ∝39 dpa per 10 27 n/m 2 in HFIR, and 25 dpa per 10 27 n/m 2 in NRU. Approximately 80% of displacement atoms are shown to be of the carbon-type. (orig.)

  18. A Local Propagation for Vapor Explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, M.; Bankoff, S.G.

    1976-01-01

    Explosive boiling, defined as energy transfer leading to formation of vapor rapidly enough to produce large shock waves, has been widely studied in a number of contexts. Depending upon the nature and temperatures of the liquids and mode of contacting, large-scale mixing and explosive vaporization may occur, or alternatively, only relatively non-energetic, film-type boiling may exist. The key difference is whether a mechanism is operative for increasing the liquid-liquid interfacial area in a time scale consistent with the formation of a detonation wave. Small drops of a cold volatile liquid were dropped onto a free surface of a hot, non-volatile liquid. The critical Weber number for coalescence is obtained from the envelope of the film boiling region. Markedly different behavior for the two hot liquids is observed. A 'splash' theory for local propagation of vapor explosions in spontaneously nucleating liquid-liquid systems is now formulated. After a random contact is made, explosive growth and coalescence of the vapor bubbles occurs as soon as the surrounding pressure is relieved, resulting in a high-pressure vapor layer at the liquid-liquid contact area. This amounts to an impact pressure applied to the free surface, with a resulting velocity distribution obtained from potential flow theory. The peak pressure predictions are. consistent with data for Freon-oil mixing, but further evaluation will await additional experimental data. Nevertheless, the current inference is that a UO 2 -Na vapor explosion in a reactor environment cannot be visualized. In conclusion: The propagation model presented here differs in some details from that of Henry and Fauske, although both are consistent with some peak pressure data obtained by Henry, et al. Clearly, additional experimental information is needed for further evaluation of these theories. Nevertheless, it should be emphasized that even at this time a number of important observations concerning the requirements for a vapor

  19. Distally displaced premolars: A dental anomaly associated with palatally displaced canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Leonardi, Maria; Giuntini, Veronica

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of association between distally displaced premolars (DDP) and palatally displaced canines (PDC) in the pattern of associated phenotypes of dental developmental disturbance. A sample of 2811 subjects (mean age, 9 years 7 months +/- 1 year 3 months) was divided randomly into 2 groups. The first group of 500 subjects was the control group. The reference prevalence rates for the examined parameters were calculated for this group: DDP (measured with the distal angle theta and the premolar-molar angle gamma); PDC; and other dental anomalies, specifically, aplasia of the third molars, aplasia of the contralateral mandibular second premolar, aplasia of the maxillary lateral incisors, and small maxillary lateral incisors. Of the remaining 2311 subjects, the first 100 with a diagnosis of DDP of at least 1 mandibular second premolar comprised experimental group 1 (DDP group). In addition to sex distribution, the same variables that were examined in the control group were analyzed. In the subgroup with the concurrent DDP and PDC (experimental group 2, or DDP-PDC group), the presence of other dental anomalies was investigated. The prevalence rate for PDC in experimental group 1 was compared with that in the control group. The same was done for the prevalence rates for the 4 other dental anomalies in the PDC-DDP group (experimental group 2) vs the prevalence rates for these anomalies in the control group. All comparisons were performed with chi-square tests with the Yates correction (P <0.05), as were the comparisons between the sexes in experimental groups 1 and 2. The values for theta and gamma angles in experimental group 1 were compared with the values for these angles in experimental group 2, as well as with those in the control group. These statistical comparisons were made with analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Bonferroni post-hoc test (P <0.05). The prevalence rate for PDC in experimental group 1 (28%) was

  20. Knudsen cell vaporization of rare earth nitrides: enthalpy of vaporization of HoN098

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.C.; Clark, N.J.

    1975-01-01

    The enthalpy of vaporization of HoN 0 . 98 was measured by the weight-loss Knudsen cell technique using Motzfeldt-Whitman extrapolations to zero orifice area. A third-law enthalpy of vaporization of HoN 0 . 98 of 155.9 +- 5 kcal mole -1 was obtained compared to a second-law value of 162.0 +- 5 kcal mole -1 . Similar measurements on the nitrides of samarium, erbium, and ytterbium gave third-law enthalpies of vaporization of 126.8 +-- 5 kcal mole -1 ; 159.6 +- 5 kcal mole -1 , and 121.0 +- 5 kcal mole -1 , respectively. 7 tables

  1. Collapsing criteria for vapor film around solid spheres as a fundamental stage leading to vapor explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freud, Roy; Harari, Ronen; Sher, Eran

    2009-01-01

    Following a partial fuel-melting accident, a Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) can result with the fragmentation of the melt into tiny droplets. A vapor film is then formed between the melt fragments and the coolant, while preventing a contact between them. Triggering, propagation and expansion typically follow the premixing stage. In the triggering stage, vapor film collapse around one or several of the fragments occurs. This collapse can be the result of fragments cooling, a sort of mechanical force, or by any other means. When the vapor film collapses and the coolant re-establishes contact with the dry surface of the hot melt, it may lead to a very rapid and rather violent boiling. In the propagation stage the shock wave front leads to stripping of the films surrounding adjacent droplets which enhance the fragmentation and the process escalates. During this process a large quantity of liquid vaporizes and its expansion can result in destructive mechanical damage to the surrounding structures. This multiphase thermal detonation in which high pressure shock wave is formed is regarded as 'vapor explosion'. The film boiling and its possible collapse is a fundamental stage leading to vapor explosion. If the interaction of the melt and the coolant does not result in a film boiling, no explosion occurs. Many studies have been devoted to determine the minimum temperature and heat flux that is required to maintain a film boiling. The present experimental study examines the minimum temperature that is required to maintain a film boiling around metal spheres immersed into a liquid (subcooled distilled water) reservoir. In order to simulate fuel fragments that are small in dimension and has mirror-like surface, small spheres coated with anti-oxidation layer were used. The heat flux from the spheres was calculated from the sphere's temperature profiles and the sphere's properties. The vapor film collapse was associated with a sharp rise of the heat flux during the cooling

  2. [Displacement of the posterior part of the eyeball in myopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akizawa, Yasuko; Masahiro, Ida

    2006-12-01

    The principal aim of this study was to investigate displacement of the posterior part of the eyeball within the muscle cone in myopic eyes, particularly in moderately myopic subjects as well as in high myopes. Secondly, the correlation of the amount of displacement and the outer axial length of the globe was studied. The direction of displacement was also examined to clarify whether the eyeball tends to shift toward a certain direction. Seven patients with moderate myopia (moderate myopia group), fifteen patients with high myopia without esotropia (high myopia group), five patients with high myopia and esotropia (myopic esotropia group), and twenty-two controls (control group) were examined. Using magnetic resonance imaging, the outer axial length and the displacement of the posterior portion of the eyeball in the muscle cone were measured. In order to eliminate interindividual differences in the facial configuration, the coronal scanning was done perpendicularly to the orbital axis. The displacement was measured in a plane 4 mm anterior to the globe-optic nerve junction. The displacement was represented by the distance and direction of the globe center from the center of the muscle cone. In the moderate myopia group, there was no displacement of the posterior part of the eyeball in the muscle cone. It was the same as in the control group. But among the three groups, the displacement (mean standard deviation) was significantly greater in the myopic esotropia group (1.53 +/- 0.49 mm) and the high myopia group (0.94 +/- 0.52 mm) than in the control group (0.11 +/- 0.18 mm) (one way ANOVA and multiple comparison). The outer axial length and the distance of the displacement in all cases was significantly correlated (r = 0.87, p = 0.01). Moreover, the posterior part of the eyeball of the myopic esotropia group and the high myopia group was displaced superiorly and temporally. The posterior part of the eyeball of myopic eyes was displaced superotemporally in the muscle

  3. Displacement of the posterior part of the eyeball in myopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akizawa, Yasuko; Ida, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    The principal aim of this study was to investigate displacement of the posterior part of the eyeball within the muscle cone in myopic eyes, particularly in moderately myopic subjects as well as in high myopes. Secondly, the correlation of the amount of displacement and the outer axial length of the globe was studied. The direction of displacement was also examined to clarify whether the eyeball tends to shift toward a certain direction. Seven patients with moderate myopia (moderate myopia group), fifteen patients with high myopia without esotropia (high myopia group), five patients with high myopia and esotropia (myopic esotropia group), and twenty-two controls (control group) were examined. Using magnetic resonance imaging, the outer axial length and the displacement of the posterior portion of the eyeball in the muscle cone were measured. In order to eliminate interindividual differences in the facial configuration, the coronal scanning was done perpendicularly to the orbital axis. The displacement was measured in a plane 4 mm anterior to the globe-optic nerve junction. The displacement was represented by the distance and direction of the globe center from the center of the muscle cone. In the moderate myopia group, there was no displacement of the posterior part of the eyeball in the muscle cone. It was the same as in the control group. But among the three groups, the displacement (mean±standard deviation) was significantly greater in the myopic esotropia group (1.53±0.49 mm) and the high myopia group (0.94±0.52 mm) than in the control group (0.11±0.18 mm) (one way ANOVA and multiple comparison). The outer axial length and the distance of the displacement in all cases was significantly correlated (r=0.87, p=0.01). Moreover, the posterior part of the eyeball of the myopic esotropia group and the high myopia group was displaced superiorly and temporally. The posterior part of the eyeball of myopic eyes was displaced superotemporally in the muscle cone

  4. MRI of radial displacement of the meniscus in the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jian; Lv Houshan; Lao Shan; Guan Zhenpeng; Hong Nan; Liang Hao

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the phenomenon of radial displacement of the meniscus of the knees in the study population with MR imaging, and to establish MRI diagnostic criteria for radial displacement of the meniscus and displacement index. Methods: MR signs of radial displacement of the meniscus were evaluated retrospectively in 398 patients with knee symptoms who were examined with non- weight bearing MR images from Jan. 2000 to Feb. 2004. The patients younger than 18 years old, with joint effusion or serious arthropathy were excluded and 312 patients were eligible to be enrolled in this study. The criterion for radial displacement of the meniscus was defined as the location of the edge of meniscal body beyond the femoral and tibial outer border line. A displacement index, defined as the ratio of meniscal overhang to meniscal width, was used to quantify meniscal displacement. Results: The prevalence of radial displacement of the meniscus was 16.7% (52/312) and 13.9% (21/151) in right knee and 19.3% (31/161 )in left knee, respectively. There was no significant difference between left and right knee (χ 2 =1.60, P>0.05) and the ratio between medial and lateral meniscus was 7.8:1. The average displacement index was 0.54±0.24. The displacement indices were significant higher in older group (F=3.63, P<0.05). The incidence and indices of radial displacement of the meniscus for patients under or above 50 year older were 12.0%(17/142), 0.46±0.22 and 20.6% (35/170), 0.64±0.20, respectively. Difference was highly significant (t=0.84, P<0.01). Conclusion: It was concluded that radial displacement of the meniscus in knees was not a rare finding with MR imaging in patients with knee symptoms. The incidence increased in older age group. Further investigations were recommended to understand the etiology and clinical significance of the phenomenon of radial displacement of the meniscus. (authors)

  5. Solvent-vapor-assisted imprint lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voicu, Nicoleta E.; Ludwigs, Sabine; Crossland, Edward J. W.; Andrew, Piers; Steiner, Ullrich

    2007-01-01

    Sub-micrometer features are replicated into high-molecular-weight polymer resists by using solvent-assisted nanoimprint lithography (see figure). By swelling the polymer in a controlled solvent-vapor atmosphere, millibar pressures and ambient temperatures are sufficient to achieve high-fidelity

  6. General well function for soil vapor extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perina, Tomas

    2014-04-01

    This paper develops a well function applicable to extraction of groundwater or soil vapor from a well under the most common field test conditions. The general well function (Perina and Lee, 2006) [12] is adapted to soil vapor extraction and constant head boundary at the top. For groundwater flow, the general well function now applies to an extraction well of finite diameter with uniform drawdown along the screen, finite-thickness skin, and partially penetrating an unconfined, confined, and leaky aquifer, or an aquifer underneath a reservoir. With a change of arguments, the model applies to soil vapor extraction from a vadose zone with no cover or with leaky cover at the ground surface. The extraction well can operate in specified drawdown (pressure for soil vapor) or specified flowrate mode. Frictional well loss is computed as flow-only dependent component of the drawdown inside the extraction well. In general case, the calculated flow distribution is not proportional to screen length for a multiscreen well.

  7. Atomic lithium vapor laser isotope separation

    CERN Document Server

    Olivares, I E

    2002-01-01

    An atomic vapor laser isotope separation in lithium was performed using tunable diode lasers. The method permits also the separation of the isotopes between the sup 6 LiD sub 2 and the sup 7 LiD sub 1 lines using a self-made mass separator which includes a magnetic sector and an ion beam designed for lithium. (Author)

  8. Atomic lithium vapor laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivares, I.E.; Rojas, C.

    2002-01-01

    An atomic vapor laser isotope separation in lithium was performed using tunable diode lasers. The method permits also the separation of the isotopes between the 6 LiD 2 and the 7 LiD 1 lines using a self-made mass separator which includes a magnetic sector and an ion beam designed for lithium. (Author)

  9. Resonant second harmonic generation in potassium vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.; Mullin, C.S.; Shen, Y.R.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1995-06-01

    Picosecond pulses are used to study resonant second harmonic generation in potassium vapor. Although the process is both microscopically and macroscopically forbidden, it can readily be observed. The results can be quantitatively understood by a multiphoton-ionization-initiated, dc-field-induced, coherent transient model

  10. Vapor Bubbles in Flow and Acoustic Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prosperetti, Andrea; Hao, Yue; Sadhal, S.S

    2002-01-01

    A review of several aspects of the interaction of bubbles with acoustic and flow fields is presented. The focus of the paper is on bubbles in hot liquids, in which the bubble contains mostly vapor, with little or no permanent gas. The topics covered include the effect of translation on condensation

  11. A FGGE water vapor wind data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Tod R.; Hayden, Christopher M.

    1985-01-01

    It has been recognized for some time that water vapor structure visible in infrared imagery offers a potential for obtaining motion vectors when several images are considered in sequence (Fischer et al., 1981). A study evaluating water vapor winds obtained from the VISSR atmospheric sounder (Stewart et al., 1985) has confirmed the viability of the approach. More recently, 20 data sets have been produced from METEOSAT water vapor imagery for the FGGE period of 10-25 November 1979. Where possible, two data sets were prepared for each day at 0000 and 1200 GMT and compared with rawinsondes over Europe, Africa, and aircraft observations over the oceans. Procedures for obtaining winds were, in general, similar to the earlier study. Motions were detected both by a single pixel tracking and a cross correlation method by using three images individually separated by one hour. A height assignment was determined by matching the measured brightness temperature to the temperature structure represented by the FGGE-IIIB analyses. Results show that the METEOSAT water vapor winds provide uniform horizontal coverage of mid-level flow over the globe with good accuracy.

  12. External fuel vaporization study, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szetela, E. J.; Chiappetta, L.

    1981-01-01

    An analytical study was conducted to evaluate the effect of variations in fuel properties on the design of an external fuel vaporizaton system. The fuel properties that were considered included thermal stability, critical temperature, enthalpy a critical conditions, volatility, and viscosity. The design parameters that were evaluated included vaporizer weight and the impact on engine requirement such as maintenance, transient response, performance, and altitude relight. The baseline fuel properties were those of Jet A. The variation in thermal stability was taken as the thermal stability variation for Experimental Referee Broad Specification (ERBS) fuel. The results of the analysis indicate that a change in thermal stability equivalent to that of ERBS would increase the vaporization system weight by 20 percent, decrease oprating time between cleaning by 40 percent and make altitude relight more difficult. An increase in fuel critical temperature of 39 K would require a 40 percent increase in vaporization system weight. The assumed increase in enthalpy and volatility would also increase vaporizer weight by 40 percent and make altitude relight extremely difficult. The variation in fuel viscosity would have a negligible effect on the design parameters.

  13. Atomic-vapor-laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.I.

    1982-10-01

    This paper gives a brief history of the scientific considerations leading to the development of laser isotope separation (LIS) processes. The close relationship of LIS to the broader field of laser-induced chemical processes is evaluated in terms of physical criteria to achieve an efficient production process. Atomic-vapor LIS processes under development at Livermore are reviwed. 8 figures

  14. Fractional condensation of biomass pyrolysis vapors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik; Garcia Perez, M.; Wang, Zhouhong; Oudenhoven, Stijn; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria; Kersten, Sascha R.A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the possibilities to steer the composition and, thus, the quality of pyrolysis liquids by the reactor temperature and the pyrolysis vapor condenser temperature. Pine wood was pyrolyzed in a 1 kg/h fluidized-bed pyrolysis reactor operated at 330 or 480 °C. The

  15. 75 FR 65151 - Marine Vapor Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... Classification UFL Upper flammable limit USCG U.S. Coast Guard VCS Vapor control system VOC Volatile organic... transfer substance to new Subpart P, beginning with 33 CFR 154.2000, to facilitate the substantive changes... that guidance. Limit requirements for flame arresters or flame screens to the flammable, combustible...

  16. Covering sources of toxic vapors with foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aue, W. P.; Guidetti, F.

    2009-01-01

    In a case of chemical terrorism, first responders might well be confronted with a liquid source of toxic vapor which keeps spreading out its hazardous contents. With foam as an efficient and simple means, such a source could be covered up in seconds and the spread of vapors mitigated drastically. Once covered, the source could then wait for a longer time to be removed carefully and professionally by a decontamination team. In order to find foams useful for covering up toxic vapor sources, a large set of measurements has been performed in order to answer the following questions: - Which foams could be used for this purpose? - How thick should the foam cover be? - For how long would such a foam cover be effective? - Could the practical application of foam cause a spread of the toxic chemical? The toxic vapors sources included GB, GD and HD. Among the foams were 10 fire fighter foams (e.g. AFFF, protein) and the aqueous decontamination foam CASCAD. Small scale experiments showed that CASCAD is best suited for covering a toxic source; a 10 cm layer of it covers and decontaminates GB. The large scale experiments confirmed that any fire fighter foam is a suitable cover for a longer or shorter period.(author)

  17. Similarities and differences in vapor explosion criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronenberg, A.W.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of recent ideas pertaining to vapor explosion criteria indicates that in general sense, a consensus of opinion is emerging on the conditions applicable to explosive vaporization. Experimental and theoretical work has lead a number of investigators to the formulation of such conditions which are quite similar in many respects, although the quantitative details of the model formulation of such conditions are somewhat different. All model concepts are consistent in that an initial period of stable film boiling, separating molten fuel from coolant, is considered necessary (at least for large-scale interactions and efficient intermixing), with subsequent breakdown of film boiling due to pressure and/or thermal effects, followed by intimate fuel-coolant contact and a rapid vaporization process which is sufficient to cause shock pressurization. Although differences arise as to the conditions for and the energetics associated with film boiling destabilization and the mode and energetics of fragmentation and intermixing. However, the principal area of difference seems to be the question of what constitutes the requisite condition(s) for rapid vapor production to cause shock pressurization

  18. HYDROCARBON VAPOR DIFFUSION IN INTACT CORE SLEEVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The diffusion of 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (TMP) and 2,2,5-trimethylhexane (TMH) vapors put of residually contaminated sandy soil from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) field research site at Traverse City, Michigan, was measured and modeled. The headspace of an intact ...

  19. Multicomponent droplet vaporization in a convecting environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megaridis, C.M.; Sirignano, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper a parametric study of the fundamental exchange processes for energy, mass and momentum between the liquid and gas phases of multicomponent liquid vaporizing droplets is presented. The model, which examines an isolated, vaporizing, multicomponent droplet in an axisymmetric, convecting environment, considers the different volatilities of the liquid components, the alteration of the liquid-phase properties due to the spatial/temporal variations of the species concentrations and also the effects of multicomponent diffusion. In addition, the model accounts for variable thermophysical properties, surface blowing and droplet surface regression due to vaporization, transient droplet heating with internal liquid circulation, and finally droplet deceleration with respect to the free flow due to drag. The numerical calculation employs finite-difference techniques and an iterative solution procedure that provides time-varying spatially-resolved data for both phases. The effects of initial droplet composition, ambient temperature, initial Reynolds number (based on droplet diameter), and volatility differential between the two liquid components are investigated for a liquid droplet consisting of two components with very different volatilities. It is found that mixtures with higher concentration of the less volatile substance actually vaporize faster on account of intrinsically higher liquid heating rates

  20. Terahertz radiation in alkali vapor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xuan; Zhang, X.-C.

    2014-01-01

    By taking advantage of low ionization potentials of alkali atoms, we demonstrate terahertz wave generation from cesium and rubidium vapor plasmas with an amplitude nearly one order of magnitude larger than that from nitrogen gas at low pressure (0.02–0.5 Torr). The observed phenomena are explained by the numerical modeling based upon electron tunneling ionization

  1. Vapor pressure of selected organic iodides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fulem, M.; Růžička, K.; Morávek, P.; Pangrác, Jiří; Hulicius, Eduard; Kozyrkin, B.; Shatunov, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 11 (2010), 4780-4784 ISSN 0021-9568 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0217 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : vapor pressure * static method * organic iodides Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.089, year : 2010

  2. Radiation displacement damage estimates for a radionuclide waste stabilization material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, K.W.

    1977-01-01

    Estimates of the number of atomic displacements produced in pollucite by the radioactive decay of Cs-134 are made. Pollucite is a candidate material for radionuclide waste stabilization, while Cs-134 is one of the radionuclide products which would be chemically bound in the pollucite lattice. At the maximum concentration of Cs-134 in pollucite, assuming a threshold displacement energy of 15.0 eV, the displacement rate is estimated to be 4.3 x 10 12 atoms/cm 3 /second which includes all atomic species in the pollucite lattice. It was found that most of the displacements, 85 percent, were caused by elastic scattering of photoelectrons and Compton electrons which are products of γ-ray interactions in the material. Most of the remaining displacements are caused by elastic scattering of β-particles. Recoil energies of the Ba daughter product are insufficient to cause displacement. Atomic displacements of nearest neighbors, atoms within one lattice spacing of the decay site, are estimated to be 2.7 x 10 6 atoms/cm 3 /second. These estimates provide a starting point for assessing the long term stability of pollucite to radiation damage

  3. The Effect of Basepair Mismatch on DNA Strand Displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadwater, D W Bo; Kim, Harold D

    2016-04-12

    DNA strand displacement is a key reaction in DNA homologous recombination and DNA mismatch repair and is also heavily utilized in DNA-based computation and locomotion. Despite its ubiquity in science and engineering, sequence-dependent effects of displacement kinetics have not been extensively characterized. Here, we measured toehold-mediated strand displacement kinetics using single-molecule fluorescence in the presence of a single basepair mismatch. The apparent displacement rate varied significantly when the mismatch was introduced in the invading DNA strand. The rate generally decreased as the mismatch in the invader was encountered earlier in displacement. Our data indicate that a single base pair mismatch in the invader stalls branch migration and displacement occurs via direct dissociation of the destabilized incumbent strand from the substrate strand. We combined both branch migration and direct dissociation into a model, which we term the concurrent displacement model, and used the first passage time approach to quantitatively explain the salient features of the observed relationship. We also introduce the concept of splitting probabilities to justify that the concurrent model can be simplified into a three-step sequential model in the presence of an invader mismatch. We expect our model to become a powerful tool to design DNA-based reaction schemes with broad functionality. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. On virtual displacement and virtual work in Lagrangian dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Subhankar; Shamanna, J

    2006-01-01

    The confusion and ambiguity encountered by students in understanding virtual displacement and virtual work is discussed in this paper. A definition of virtual displacement is presented that allows one to express them explicitly for holonomic (velocity independent), non-holonomic (velocity dependent), scleronomous (time independent) and rheonomous (time dependent) constraints. It is observed that for holonomic, scleronomous constraints, the virtual displacements are the displacements allowed by the constraints. However, this is not so for a general class of constraints. For simple physical systems, it is shown that the work done by the constraint forces on virtual displacements is zero. This motivates Lagrange's extension of d'Alembert's principle to a system of particles in constrained motion. However, a similar zero work principle does not hold for the allowed displacements. It is also demonstrated that d'Alembert's principle of zero virtual work is necessary for the solvability of a constrained mechanical problem. We identify this special class of constraints, physically realized and solvable, as the ideal constraints. The concept of virtual displacement and the principle of zero virtual work by constraint forces are central to both Lagrange's method of undetermined multipliers and Lagrange's equations in generalized coordinates

  5. The role of environmental degradation in population displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonergan, S

    1998-01-01

    This article answers a series of questions about the role of environmental degradation in population displacement, refugee movement, and migration. The environment tends not to be included in the reasons for migration. Roger's indicators of migration potential include population growth, economic restructuring, increased economic disparities, and increased refugee flows. Myers (1993) estimated that international displacement and internal displacement may amount to about 25 million and may rise to 150 million by 2050. The role of the environment in displacement must be examined in the broader political and cultural context. Definitions of environmental refugees are ambiguous and inconsistent, and research has not answered why people continue to move to Mexico City and Chongqing, China, which both have very high levels of pollution. El-Hinnawi (1985) defined 3 groups of environmental refugees: those displaced due to natural disasters; those displaced due to permanent habitat changes; and those displaced who migrated from areas that cannot support their basic needs and who desire an improved quality of life. Lonergan (1994) identified environmental stresses as natural disasters, cumulative or slow-onset changes, accidental disruptions or industrial accidents, development projects, and conflict and warfare. These 5 causes must be treated separately and not lumped together as environmental degradation. Shoreline erosion, coastal flooding, and agricultural disruption associated with climate change may increase migration. Global measures must address world poverty and promote sustainable development.

  6. A study of the displacement of a Wankel rotary engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, J. E.; Pennock, G. R.

    1993-03-01

    The volumetric displacement of a Wankel rotary engine is a function of the trochoid ratio and the pin size ratio, assuming the engine has a unit depth and the number of lobes is specified. The mathematical expression which defines the displacement contains a function which can be evaluated directly and a normal elliptic integral of the second type which does not have an explicit solution. This paper focuses on the contribution of the elliptic integral to the total displacement of the engine. The influence of the elliptic integral is shown to account for as much as 20 percent of the total displacement, depending on the trochoid ratio and the pin size ratio. Two numerical integration techniques are compared in the paper, namely, the trapezoidal rule and Simpson's 1/3 rule. The bounds on the error, associated with each numerical method, are analyzed. The results indicate that the numerical method has a minimal effect on the accuracy of the calculated displacement for a practical number of integration steps. The paper also evaluates the influence of manufacturing tolerances on the calculated displacement and the actual displacement. Finally. a numerical example of the common three-lobed Wankel rotary engine is included for illustrative purposes.

  7. Project-induced displacement, secondary stressors, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yue; Hwang, Sean-Shong; Xi, Juan

    2012-04-01

    It has been estimated that about 15 million people are displaced by development projects around the world each year. Despite the magnitude of people affected, research on the health and other impacts of project-induced displacement is rare. This study extends existing knowledge by exploring the short-term health impact of a large scale population displacement resulting from China's Three Gorges Dam Project. The study is theoretically guided by the stress process model, but we supplement it with Cernea's impoverishment risks and reconstruction (IRR) model widely used in displacement literature. Our panel analysis indicates that the displacement is associated positively with relocatees' depression level, and negatively with their self-rated health measured against a control group. In addition, a path analysis suggests that displacement also affects depression and self-rated health indirectly by changing social integration, socioeconomic status, and community resources. The importance of social integration as a protective mechanism, a factor that has been overlooked in past studies of population displacement, is highlighted in this study. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. A Vision-Based Sensor for Noncontact Structural Displacement Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dongming; Feng, Maria Q.; Ozer, Ekin; Fukuda, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Conventional displacement sensors have limitations in practical applications. This paper develops a vision sensor system for remote measurement of structural displacements. An advanced template matching algorithm, referred to as the upsampled cross correlation, is adopted and further developed into a software package for real-time displacement extraction from video images. By simply adjusting the upsampling factor, better subpixel resolution can be easily achieved to improve the measurement accuracy. The performance of the vision sensor is first evaluated through a laboratory shaking table test of a frame structure, in which the displacements at all the floors are measured by using one camera to track either high-contrast artificial targets or low-contrast natural targets on the structural surface such as bolts and nuts. Satisfactory agreements are observed between the displacements measured by the single camera and those measured by high-performance laser displacement sensors. Then field tests are carried out on a railway bridge and a pedestrian bridge, through which the accuracy of the vision sensor in both time and frequency domains is further confirmed in realistic field environments. Significant advantages of the noncontact vision sensor include its low cost, ease of operation, and flexibility to extract structural displacement at any point from a single measurement. PMID:26184197

  9. Vaporization of fault water during seismic slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianye; Niemeijer, André R.; Fokker, Peter A.

    2017-06-01

    Laboratory and numerical studies, as well as field observations, indicate that phase transitions of pore water might be an important process in large earthquakes. We present a model of the thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical processes, including a two-phase mixture model to incorporate the phase transitions of pore water, occurring during fast slip (i.e., a natural earthquake) in order to investigate the effects of vaporization on the coseismic slip. Using parameters from typical natural faults, our modeling shows that vaporization can indeed occur at the shallow depths of an earthquake, irrespective of the wide variability of the parameters involved (sliding velocity, friction coefficient, gouge permeability and porosity, and shear-induced dilatancy). Due to the fast kinetics, water vaporization can cause a rapid slip weakening even when the hydrological conditions of the fault zone are not favorable for thermal pressurization, e.g., when permeability is high. At the same time, the latent heat associated with the phase transition causes the temperature rise in the slip zone to be buffered. Our parametric analyses reveal that the amount of frictional work is the principal factor controlling the onset and activity of vaporization and that it can easily be achieved in earthquakes. Our study shows that coseismic pore fluid vaporization might have played important roles at shallow depths of large earthquakes by enhancing slip weakening and buffering the temperature rise. The combined effects may provide an alternative explanation for the fact that low-temperature anomalies were measured in the slip zones at shallow depths of large earthquakes.

  10. The vapor pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of M-xylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenberg, S J; Seiler, F A; Bechtold, W E; Eidson, A F

    1988-12-01

    We measured the vapor pressure of m-xylene over the temperature range 273 to 293 deg K with a single-sided capacitance manometer. The enthalpy of vaporization was 42.2 {+-} 0.1 (SE) kj/ g{center_dot}mol. Combining our own data with previously published data, we recommend using the values 42.0, 40.6, and 39.1 ({+-} 0.1) (SE) kjg{center_dot}mol for the enthalpy of vaporization of m-xylene at 300, 340, and 380 deg. K, respectively, and a value for the change in heat capacity on vaporization ({delta}Cpdeg.) of 35 {+-} 3 (SE) J/g{center_dot}mol{center_dot}K over the temperature range studied. (author)

  11. The vapor pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of M-xylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothenberg, S.J.; Seiler, F.A.; Bechtold, W.E.; Eidson, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    We measured the vapor pressure of m-xylene over the temperature range 273 to 293 deg K with a single-sided capacitance manometer. The enthalpy of vaporization was 42.2 ± 0.1 (SE) kj/ g·mol. Combining our own data with previously published data, we recommend using the values 42.0, 40.6, and 39.1 (± 0.1) (SE) kjg·mol for the enthalpy of vaporization of m-xylene at 300, 340, and 380 deg. K, respectively, and a value for the change in heat capacity on vaporization (ΔCpdeg.) of 35 ± 3 (SE) J/g·mol·K over the temperature range studied. (author)

  12. 46 CFR 182.480 - Flammable vapor detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.480 Flammable vapor... permit calibration in a vapor free atmosphere. (g) Electrical connections, wiring, and components for a...

  13. Ammonia IR Absorbance Measurements with an Equilibrium Vapor Cell

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Field, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Infrared (IR) absorbance spectra were acquired for 18 ammonia vapor pressures. The vapor pressures were generated with 15 gravimetrically prepared aqueous solutions and three commercial aqueous solutions using a dynamic method I.E...

  14. Water vapor movement in freezing aggregate base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to 1) measure the extent to which water vapor movement results in : water accumulation in freezing base materials; 2) evaluate the effect of soil stabilization on water vapor movement : in freezing base materials;...

  15. Axial displacements in external and internal implant-abutment connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Dae-Gon; Park, Chan-Jin; Cho, Lee-Ra

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the axial displacement of the abutments during clinical procedures by the tightening torque and cyclic loading. Two different implant-abutment connection systems were used (external butt joint connection [EXT]; internal tapered conical connection [INT]). The master casts with two implant replicas, angulated 10° from each other, were fabricated for each implant connection system. Four types of impression copings were assembled and tightened with the corresponding implants (hex transfer impression coping, non-hex transfer impression coping, hex pick-up impression coping, non-hex pick-up impression coping). Resin splinted abutments and final prosthesis were assembled. The axial displacement was measured from the length of each assembly, which was evaluated repeatedly, after 30 Ncm torque tightening. After 250 N cyclic loading of final prosthesis for 1,000,000 cycles, additional axial displacement was recorded. The mean axial displacement was statistically analyzed (repeated measured ANOVA). There was more axial displacement in the INT group than that of the EXT group in impression copings, resin splinted abutments, and final prosthesis. Less axial displacement was found at 1-piece non-hex transfer type impression coping than other type of impression copings in the INT group. There was more axial displacement at the final prosthesis than resin splinted abutments in the INT and the EXT groups. After 250 N cyclic loading of final prosthesis, the INT group showed more axial displacement than that of the EXT group. Internal tapered conical connection demonstrated a varying amount of axial displacement with tightening torque and cyclic loading. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Earthquake damage to underground facilities and earthquake related displacement fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Stephenson, D.E.; Zandt, G.; Bouchon, M.; Hustrulid, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground facility is considered in the evaluation of its location and design. The possible damage resulting from either large-scale displacements or high accelerations should be considered in evaluating potential sites of underground facilities. Scattered through the available literature are statements to the effect that below a few hundred meters shaking and damage in mines is less than at the surface; however, data for decreased damage underground have not been completely reported or explained. In order to assess the seismic risk for an underground facility, a data base was established and analyzed to evaluate the potential for seismic disturbance. Substantial damage to underground facilities is usually the result of displacements primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures, or at the surface entrance to these facilities. Evidence of this comes from both earthquakes as a function of depth is important in the evaluation of the hazard to underground facilities. To evaluate potential displacements due to seismic effects of block motions along pre-existing or induced fractures, the displacement fields surrounding two types of faults were investigated. Analytical models were used to determine relative displacements of shafts and near-surface displacement of large rock masses. Numerical methods were used to determine the displacement fields associated with pure strike-slip and vertical normal faults. Results are presented as displacements for various fault lengths as a function of depth and distance. This provides input to determine potential displacements in terms of depth and distance for underground facilities, important for assessing potential sites and design parameters

  17. Axial linear patellar displacement: a new measurement of patellofemoral congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urch, Scott E; Tritle, Benjamin A; Shelbourne, K Donald; Gray, Tinker

    2009-05-01

    The tools for measuring the congruence angle with digital radiography software can be difficult to use; therefore, the authors sought to develop a new, easy, and reliable method for measuring patellofemoral congruence. The abstract goes here and covers two columns. The abstract goes The linear displacement measurement will correlate well with the congruence angle measurement. here and covers two columns. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. On Merchant view radiographs obtained digitally, the authors measured the congruence angle and a new linear displacement measurement on preoperative and postoperative radiographs of 31 patients who suffered unilateral patellar dislocations and 100 uninjured subjects. The linear displacement measurement was obtained by drawing a reference line across the medial and lateral trochlear facets. Perpendicular lines were drawn from the depth of the sulcus through the reference line and from the apex of the posterior tip of the patella through the reference line. The distance between the perpendicular lines was the linear displacement measurement. The measurements were obtained twice at different sittings. The observer was blinded as to the previous measurements to establish reliability. Measurements were compared to determine whether the linear displacement measurement correlated with congruence angle. Intraobserver reliability was above r(2) = .90 for all measurements. In patients with patellar dislocations, the mean congruence angle preoperatively was 33.5 degrees , compared with 12.1 mm for linear displacement (r(2) = .92). The mean congruence angle postoperatively was 11.2 degrees, compared with 4.0 mm for linear displacement (r(2) = .89). For normal subjects, the mean congruence angle was -3 degrees and the mean linear displacement was 0.2 mm. The linear displacement measurement was found to correlate with congruence angle measurements and may be an easy and useful tool for clinicians to evaluate patellofemoral

  18. Serial forced displacement in American cities, 1916-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullilove, Mindy Thompson; Wallace, Rodrick

    2011-06-01

    Serial forced displacement has been defined as the repetitive, coercive upheaval of groups. In this essay, we examine the history of serial forced displacement in American cities due to federal, state, and local government policies. We propose that serial forced displacement sets up a dynamic process that includes an increase in interpersonal and structural violence, an inability to react in a timely fashion to patterns of threat or opportunity, and a cycle of fragmentation as a result of the first two. We present the history of the policies as they affected one urban neighborhood, Pittsburgh's Hill District. We conclude by examining ways in which this problematic process might be addressed.

  19. Nanomechanical displacement sensing using a quantum point contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, A.N.; Aldridge, J.S.; Driscoll, D.C.; Gossard, A. C.

    2002-01-01

    We describe a radio frequency mechanical resonator that includes a quantum point contact, defined using electrostatic top gates. We can mechanically actuate the resonator using either electrostatic or magnetomotive forces. We demonstrate the use of the quantum point contact as a displacement sensor, operating as a radio frequency mixer at the mechanical resonance frequency of 1.5 MHz. We calculate a displacement sensitivity of about 3x10 -12 m/Hz 1/2 . This device will potentially permit quantum-limited displacement sensing of nanometer-scale resonators, allowing the quantum entanglement of the electronic and mechanical degrees of freedom of a nanoscale system

  20. On the atomic displacement fields of small interstitial dislocation loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Z.; Dudarev, S.L.; Jenkins, M.L.; Sutton, A.P.; Kirk, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The atomic displacement fields of dislocation loops of size 1-5 nm formed by self-interstitial atoms in α-Fe have been calculated using isotropic elasticity theory and anisotropic elasticity theory, and compared with atomic simulations for loops formed by 43-275 self-interstitial atoms. The atomic displacements predicted by anisotropic elasticity theory were in good agreement with those given by the atomistic simulations at distances greater than 3 nm from the loop plane, but the displacements predicted by isotropic elasticity theory showed significant discrepancies at distances up to 15 nm

  1. Method of making self-calibrated displacement measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, H.N.

    1977-01-01

    A method for monitoring the displacement of an object having an acoustically reflective surface at least partially submerged in an acoustically conductive medium is described. The reflective surface is designed to have a stepped interface responsive to an incident acoustic pulse to provide separate discrete reflected pulses to a receiving transducer. The difference in the time of flight of the reflected acoustic signals corresponds to the known step height and the time of travel of the signals to the receiving transducer provides a measure of the displacement of the object. Accordingly, the reference step length enables simultaneous calibration of each displacement measurement. 3 claims, 3 figures

  2. Displacive stability of a void in a void lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brailsford, A.D.

    1977-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that the stability of the void-lattice structure in irradiated metals may be attributed to the effect of the overlapping of the point-defect diffusion fields associated with each void. It is shown here, however, that the effect is much too weak. When one void is displaced from its lattice site, the displacement is shown to relax to zero as proposed, but a conservative estimate indicates that the characteristic time is equivalent to an irradiation dose of the order of 300 displacements per atom which is generally much greater than the dose necessary for void-lattice formation

  3. Bionanomaterials and Bioinspired Nanostructures for Selective Vapor Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    agricultural crops. To meet the requirements for these and other demanding applications, new sensing approaches with improved sensor selectivity are required...of these vapors with key side- chain amino acids. DNT-binding peptide receptors were further conjugated to an oligo(ethylene glycol) hydrogel for vapor...coefficient for DNT over TNT vapor. Vapor-phase binding performance was attributed to the ability of the oligo(ethylene glycol) hydrogel to maintain the

  4. DSMC simulations of vapor transport toward development of the lithium vapor box divertor concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagoe, Christopher; Schwartz, Jacob; Goldston, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The lithium vapor divertor box concept attempts to achieve volumetric dissipation of the high heat efflux from a fusion power system. The vapor extracts the heat of the incoming plasma by ionization and radiation, while remaining localized in the vapor box due to differential pumping based on rapid condensation. Preliminary calculations with lithium vapor at densities appropriate for an NSTX-U-scale machine give Knudsen numbers between 0.01 and 1, outside both the range of continuum fluid dynamics and of collisionless Monte Carlo. The direct-simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, however, can simulate rarefied gas flows in this regime. Using the solver contained in the OpenFOAM package, pressure-driven flows of water vapor will be analyzed. The use of water vapor in the relevant range of Knudsen number allows for a flexible similarity experiment to verify the reliability of the code before moving to tests with lithium. The simulation geometry consists of chains of boxes on a temperature gradient, connected by slots with widths that are a representative fraction of the dimensions of the box. We expect choked flow, sonic shocks, and order-of-magnitude pressure and density drops from box to box, but this expectation will be tested in the simulation and then experiment. This work is supported by the Princeton Environmental Institute.

  5. 40 CFR 52.255 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control. 52.255... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.255 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) “Gasoline” means any petroleum distillate having a Reid vapor pressure of 4 pounds or greater...

  6. 40 CFR 52.787 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control. 52.787... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.787 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) Gasoline means any petroleum distillate having a Reid vapor pressure of 4 pounds or greater...

  7. 21 CFR 888.4220 - Cement monomer vapor evacuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cement monomer vapor evacuator. 888.4220 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4220 Cement monomer vapor evacuator. (a) Identification. A cement monomer vapor evacuator is a device intended for use during surgery to contain or remove...

  8. Review of literature on the asymmetric collapse of vapor bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fremd, R.; Froehlich, G.

    1977-06-01

    This report contains a review of literature on the asymmetric collape of vapor bubbles by cavitation with special consideration to vapor explosions. Two numerical models, which describe the collapse of cavities in the neighbourhood of a solid surface, are presented. Moreover experimental results for this case are provided. Propositions to apply the numerical models to vapor explosions are made. (orig.) [de

  9. The separation of hydrocarbons from waste vapor streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behling, R.D.; Ohlrogge, K.; Peinemann, K.V.; Kyburz, E.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrocarbon vapors generated from industrial processes dispersed into air are contributing factors for the creation of photochemical smog. The separation of hydrocarbon vapor by means of membranes is in case of some applications a technically simple and economic process. A membrane vapor separation process with a following treatment of the retentate by catalytic incineration is introduced in this paper

  10. Recommended vapor pressures for thiophene, sulfolane, and dimethyl sulfoxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fulem, Michal; Růžička, K.; Růžička, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 303, č. 2 (2011), s. 205-216 ISSN 0378-3812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : thiophene sulfolane * dimethyl sulfoxide * vapor pressure * heat capacity * vaporization enthalpy * recommended vapor pressure equation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.139, year: 2011

  11. 33 CFR 154.826 - Vapor compressors and blowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Excessive shaft bearing temperature. (d) If a centrifugal compressor, fan, or lobe blower handles vapor in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vapor compressors and blowers....826 Vapor compressors and blowers. (a) Each inlet and outlet to a compressor or blower which handles...

  12. The vaporization enthalpy and vapor pressure of S (+)-methamphetamine at T = 298.15 K by correlation gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, Melissa; Gobble, Chase; Chickos, James

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The vaporization enthalpy of (d)-methamphetamine was measured. • The vapor pressure of (d)-methamphetamine as a function of temperature was evaluated. • The vapor pressure of 4-benzylpiperidine as a function of temperature was evaluated. - Abstract: The vaporization enthalpy and vapor pressure of S (+)-methamphetamine is evaluated by correlation-gas chromatography. A vaporization enthalpy of (58.7 ± 4.3) kJ · mol −1 and a vapor pressure, p = (38 ± 9) Pa has been obtained using a variety of secondary aliphatic amines as standards. In addition, equations describing the vapor pressure temperature dependence are provided for standards and S (+)-methamphetamine covering the temperature range from T = 298.15 K to the boiling temperature. Boiling temperatures are reproduced within an interval of 8 K or less

  13. Temperature dependences of saturated vapor pressure and the enthalpy of vaporization of n-pentyl esters of dicarboxylic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnova, S. V.; Krasnykh, E. L.; Levanova, S. V.

    2016-05-01

    The saturated vapor pressures and enthalpies of vaporization of n-pentyl esters of linear C2-C6 dicarboxylic acids are determined by the transpiration method in the temperature range of 309.2-361.2 K. The dependences of enthalpies of vaporization on the number of carbon atoms in the molecule and on the retention indices have been determined. The predictive capabilities of the existing calculation schemes for estimation of enthalpy of vaporization of the studied compounds have been analyzed.

  14. A numerical investigation of vapor intrusion--the dynamic response of contaminant vapors to rainfall events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G; Suuberg, Eric M

    2012-10-15

    The U.S. government and various agencies have published guidelines for field investigation of vapor intrusion, most of which suggest soil gas sampling as an integral part of the investigation. Contaminant soil gas data are often relatively more stable than indoor air vapor concentration measurements, but meteorological conditions might influence soil gas values. Although a few field and numerical studies have considered some temporal effects on soil gas vapor transport, a full explanation of the contaminant vapor concentration response to rainfall events is not available. This manuscript seeks to demonstrate the effects on soil vapor transport during and after different rainfall events, by applying a coupled numerical model of fluid flow and vapor transport. Both a single rainfall event and seasonal rainfall events were modeled. For the single rainfall event models, the vapor response process could be divided into three steps: namely, infiltration, water redistribution, and establishment of a water lens atop the groundwater source. In the infiltration step, rainfall intensity was found to determine the speed of the wetting front and wash-out effect on the vapor. The passage of the wetting front led to an increase of the vapor concentration in both the infiltration and water redistribution steps and this effect is noted at soil probes located 1m below the ground surface. When the mixing of groundwater with infiltrated water was not allowed, a clean water lens accumulated above the groundwater source and led to a capping effect which can reduce diffusion rates of contaminant from the source. Seasonal rainfall with short time intervals involved superposition of the individual rainfall events. This modeling results indicated that for relatively deeper soil that the infiltration wetting front could not flood, the effects were damped out in less than a month after rain; while in the long term (years), possible formation of a water lens played a larger role in determining

  15. Iraqi Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: A Deepening Humanitarian Crisis?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Margesson, Rhoda; Sharp, Jeremy M; Bruno, Andorra

    2007-01-01

    .... It is estimated that in total (including those displaced prior to the war) there may be as many as 2 million Iraqi refugees who have fled to Jordan, Syria, and other neighboring states, and approximately...

  16. Iraqi Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons: A Deepening Humanitarian Crisis?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Margesson, Rhoda; Sharp, Jeremy M; Bruno, Andorra

    2008-01-01

    .... It is estimated that in total (including those displaced prior to the war) there may be as many as 2 million Iraqi refugees who have fled to Jordan, Syria, and other neighboring states, and approximately...

  17. Management of Internally Displaced Persons in Africa: Comparing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    Geneva based Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC), there are ..... adequate machinery in place to address IDPs issues and the organizations ... could be deduced that the mandates and organizational structures of the National.

  18. Displaced Electric Sail Orbits Design and Transition Trajectory Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiming Qi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Displaced orbits for spacecraft propelled by electric sails are investigated as an alternative to the use of solar sails. The orbital dynamics of electric sails based spacecraft are studied within a spherical coordinate system, which permits finding the solutions of displaced electric sail orbits and optimize transfer trajectory. Transfer trajectories from Earth's orbit to displaced orbit are also studied in an optimal framework, by using genetic algorithm and Gauss pseudospectral method. The initial guesses for the state and control histories used in the Gauss pseudospectral method are interpolated from the best solution of a genetic algorithm. Numerical simulations show that the electric sail is able to perform the transfer from Earth’s orbit to displaced orbit in acceptable time, and the hybrid optimization method has the capability to search the feasible and optimal solution without any initial value guess.

  19. Atomic displacements due to interstitial hydrogen in Cu and Pd

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... Atomic displacements; density functional theory; Kanzaki method. ... pseudopotentials for H, Cu and Pd are generated self-consistently. ... Both Cu and Pd lattices show lattice expansion due to the presence of hydrogen and ...

  20. Effect of excavation method on rock mass displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Toshinori; Kikuchi, Tadashi; Sugihara, Kozo

    1998-01-01

    Rock mass displacement measurements have been performed to understand rock mass behavior and its dependence on excavation method during drift excavation at the Tono mine. Rock mass displacements of 1.46 mm and 0.67 mm have been measured at one meter (0.33D: blasting, 0.42D: machine, D: width of drift) from the walls of drifts excavated by the drill and blasting method and machine, respectively. Numerical analysis of rock mass displacements with Finite Element Method has been performed assuming an excavation disturbed zone. Measured and analysed rock mass displacements are consistent with each other for the drift excavation by the drill and blasting method. The excavation disturbed zone was narrower for the drift excavated by machine than for the drift excavated by the drill and blasting method. (author)

  1. Displacement energies for Zr measured in a HVEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes direct measurements of threshold displacement energies for Zr obtained by electron irradiation in a high voltage microscope (HVEM) and compares the measurements with the earlier data.

  2. Evolution of specialization and ecological character displacement: metabolic plasticity matters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egas, C.J.M.; Reydon, Th.A.C.; Hemerik, L.

    2005-01-01

    An important question in evolutionary biology, especially with respect to herbivorous arthropods, is the evolution of specialization. In a previous paper, the combined evolutionary dynamics of specialization and ecological character displacement was studied, focusing on the role of herbivore

  3. Control of DNA strand displacement kinetics using toehold exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, David Yu; Winfree, Erik

    2009-12-02

    DNA is increasingly being used as the engineering material of choice for the construction of nanoscale circuits, structures, and motors. Many of these enzyme-free constructions function by DNA strand displacement reactions. The kinetics of strand displacement can be modulated by toeholds, short single-stranded segments of DNA that colocalize reactant DNA molecules. Recently, the toehold exchange process was introduced as a method for designing fast and reversible strand displacement reactions. Here, we characterize the kinetics of DNA toehold exchange and model it as a three-step process. This model is simple and quantitatively predicts the kinetics of 85 different strand displacement reactions from the DNA sequences. Furthermore, we use toehold exchange to construct a simple catalytic reaction. This work improves the understanding of the kinetics of nucleic acid reactions and will be useful in the rational design of dynamic DNA and RNA circuits and nanodevices.

  4. FOREIGN AFFAIRS: Internally Displaced Persons Lack Effective Protection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    Internally displaced persons--those forced to flee their homes because of armed conflict and persecution but who remain within their own country are among the most at-risk, vulnerable populations in the world...

  5. Influence of stability of polymer surfactant on oil displacement mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Li, Chengliang; Pi, Yanming; Wu, Di; He, Ying; Geng, Liang

    2018-02-01

    At present, most of the oilfields of China have entered the late stage of high water-cut development, and three oil recovery technique has become the leading technology for improving oil recovery. With the improvement of three oil recovery techniques, the polymer surfactant flooding technology has been widely promoted in oil fields in recent years. But in the actual field experiment, it has been found that the polymer surfactant has chromatographic separation at the extraction end, which indicates that the property of the polymer surfactant has changed during the displacement process. At present, there was few literature about how the stability of polymer surfactant affects the oil displacement mechanism. This paper used HuaDing-I polymer surfactant to conduct a micro photolithography glass flooding experiment, and then compared the oil displacement law of polymer surfactant before and after static setting. Finally, the influence law of stability of polymer surfactant on the oil displacement mechanism is obtained by comprehensive analysis.

  6. Searches for light sterile neutrinos with multitrack displaced vertices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottin, Giovanna; Helo, Juan Carlos; Hirsch, Martin

    2018-03-01

    We study discovery prospects for long-lived sterile neutrinos at the LHC with multitrack displaced vertices, with masses below the electroweak scale. We reinterpret current displaced vertex searches making use of publicly available, parametrized selection efficiencies for modeling the detector response to displaced vertices. We focus on the production of right-handed WR bosons and neutrinos N in a left-right symmetric model, and find poor sensitivity. After proposing a different trigger strategy (considering the prompt lepton accompanying the neutrino displaced vertex) and optimized cuts in the invariant mass and track multiplicity of the vertex, we find that the LHC with √{s }=13 TeV and 300 fb-1 is able to probe sterile neutrino masses between 10 GeV right-handed gauge boson mass of 2 TeV work joins other efforts in motivating dedicated experimental searches to target this low sterile neutrino mass region.

  7. Job displacement and stress-related health outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Danø, Anne Møller; Heinesen, Eskil

    2006-01-01

    We investigate whether job loss as the result of displacement causes hospitalization for stress-related diseases which are widely thought to be associated with unemployment. In doing this, we use much better data than any previous investigators. Our data are a random 10% sample of the male...... group of displaced workers if they had not in fact been displaced. Our results indicate unequivocally that being displaced in Denmark does not cause hospitalization for stress-related disease. An analysis of the power of our test suggests that even though we are looking for a relatively rare outcome...... population of Denmark for the years 1981-1999 with full records on demographics, health and work status for each person, and with a link from every working person to a plant. We use the method of matching on observables to estimate the counter-factual of what would have happened to the health of a particular...

  8. Ekhaya : Human displacement and the yearning for familial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ekhaya : Human displacement and the yearning for familial homecoming. From Throne (Cathedra) to Home ( Oikos ) in a grassroots ecclesiology of place and space: Fides Quaerens Domum et Locum [Faith Seeking Home and Space

  9. Damage energy and displacement cross sections: survey and sensitivity. [Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doran, D.G.; Parkin, D.M.; Robinson, M.T.

    1976-10-01

    Calculations of damage energy and displacement cross sections using the recommendations of a 1972 IAEA Specialists' Meeting are reviewed. The sensitivity of the results to assumptions about electronic energy losses in cascade development and to different choices respecting the nuclear cross sections is indicated. For many metals, relative uncertainties and sensitivities in these areas are sufficiently small that adoption of standard displacement cross sections for neutron irradiations can be recommended.

  10. Dispersive effects of transverse displacements of SLC Arc magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.J.; Fieguth, T.; Kheifets, S.

    1986-01-01

    The SLC Arc magnets are subject to random displacements and field errors resulting in unpredictable transverse displacement of the central trajectory from that of the design. The chosen method of correcting this perturbed trajectory in the SLC Arcs utilizes mechanical movement of the combined function magnets which compose the Arc transport lines. Here we present the results of a recent investigation substantiating the earlier results which led to the adoption of this method

  11. Viscous Flow with Large Fluid-Fluid Interface Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole; Saasen, Arild

    1998-01-01

    The arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) kinematic description has been implemented in a 3D transient finite element program to simulate multiple fluid flows with fluid-fluid interface or surface displacements. The description of fluid interfaces includes variable interfacial tension, and the formulation...... is useful in the simulation of low and intermediate Reynolds number viscous flow. The displacement of two immiscible Newtonian fluids in a vertical (concentric and eccentric) annulus and a (vertical and inclined)tube is simulated....

  12. Noise cancellation properties of displacement noise free interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shuichi; Kawamura, Seiji; Nishizawa, Atsushi; Chen Yanbei

    2010-01-01

    We have demonstrated the practical feasibility of a displacement- and frequency-noise-free laser interferometer (DFI) by partially implementing a recently proposed optical configuration using bi-directional Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs). The noise cancellation efficiency was evaluated by comparing the displacement noise spectrum of the MZIs and the DFI, demonstrating up to 50 dB of noise cancellation. In addition, the possible extension of DFI as QND device is explored.

  13. MRI anatomy of anteriorly displaced anus: what obstructs defecation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbouZeid, Amr Abdelhamid; Mohammad, Shaimaa Abdelsattar; Khairy, Khaled Talaat

    2014-01-01

    Anteriorly displaced anus is an anomaly that is debated with regard to its nomenclature, diagnosis and management. To describe MRI anatomy of the anal canal in children with anteriorly displaced anus and its impact on the process of defecation. We prospectively examined ten children (7 girls, 3 boys; age range 7 months to 8 years, mean 3 years) with anteriorly displaced anus between August 2009 and April 2012. Noncontrast MRI examinations were performed on a 1.5-T magnet. T1- and T2-weighted turbo spin-echo images were acquired in axial, sagittal and coronal planes of the pelvis. The anorectal angle and the relative hiatal distance were measured in mid-sagittal images, and compared with those of a control group using the Mann-Whitney test. In children with anteriorly displaced anus, no anatomical abnormality was depicted at the level of the proximal anal canal. However, the distal anal canal was displaced anteriorly, running out its external muscle cuff, which remained un-displaced at the usual site of the anus. This changes the orientation of the central axis of the anal canal by passing across instead of along the fibers of the longitudinal muscle coat. Children with anteriorly displaced anus had a more obtuse anorectal angle (mean 112.1 ), which was significantly greater than that of the control group (mean 86.2 ). MRI is a valuable tool in studying the anatomy of the anal canal in children with anteriorly displaced anus. The abnormal orientation of the longitudinal muscle across the anal canal can explain the obstructed defecation in these children. Based on this study, it might be of interest to use MRI in studying equivocal cases and children with unexplained constipation. (orig.)

  14. Gaas Displacement Damage Dosimeter Based on Diode Dark Currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warner Jeffrey H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available GaAs diode dark currents are correlated over a very large proton energy range as a function of displacement damage dose (DDD. The linearity of the dark current increase with DDD over a wide range of applied voltage bias deems this device an excellent candidate for a displacement damage dosimeter. Additional proton testing performed in situ enabled error estimate determination to within 10% for simulated space use.

  15. Semen Displacement as a Sperm Competition Strategy in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon G. Gallup

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine some of the implications of the possibility that the human penis may have evolved to compete with sperm from other males by displacing rival semen from the cervical end of the vagina prior to ejaculation. The semen displacement hypothesis integrates considerable information about genital morphology and human reproductive behavior, and can be used to generate a number of interesting predictions.

  16. Origins of displacements caused by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinehart, John S.

    1970-01-01

    Elastic theory has been used to calculate the relative displacement that will occur between the two sides of a loose boundary when a plane wave strikes the boundary obliquely. The calculations suggest that the displacements produced along loose fractures and faults close in to the underground nuclear explosions are a direct consequence of reflection of the transient stress wave at this loose boundary. Quantitatively the results agree fairly well with the limited data that are available. (author)

  17. Damage energy and displacement cross sections: survey and sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.; Parkin, D.M.; Robinson, M.T.

    1976-10-01

    Calculations of damage energy and displacement cross sections using the recommendations of a 1972 IAEA Specialists' Meeting are reviewed. The sensitivity of the results to assumptions about electronic energy losses in cascade development and to different choices respecting the nuclear cross sections is indicated. For many metals, relative uncertainties and sensitivities in these areas are sufficiently small that adoption of standard displacement cross sections for neutron irradiations can be recommended

  18. MRI anatomy of anteriorly displaced anus: what obstructs defecation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AbouZeid, Amr Abdelhamid [Ain-Shams University, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Cairo (Egypt); Mohammad, Shaimaa Abdelsattar; Khairy, Khaled Talaat [Ain-Shams University, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cairo (Egypt)

    2014-07-15

    Anteriorly displaced anus is an anomaly that is debated with regard to its nomenclature, diagnosis and management. To describe MRI anatomy of the anal canal in children with anteriorly displaced anus and its impact on the process of defecation. We prospectively examined ten children (7 girls, 3 boys; age range 7 months to 8 years, mean 3 years) with anteriorly displaced anus between August 2009 and April 2012. Noncontrast MRI examinations were performed on a 1.5-T magnet. T1- and T2-weighted turbo spin-echo images were acquired in axial, sagittal and coronal planes of the pelvis. The anorectal angle and the relative hiatal distance were measured in mid-sagittal images, and compared with those of a control group using the Mann-Whitney test. In children with anteriorly displaced anus, no anatomical abnormality was depicted at the level of the proximal anal canal. However, the distal anal canal was displaced anteriorly, running out its external muscle cuff, which remained un-displaced at the usual site of the anus. This changes the orientation of the central axis of the anal canal by passing across instead of along the fibers of the longitudinal muscle coat. Children with anteriorly displaced anus had a more obtuse anorectal angle (mean 112.1 ), which was significantly greater than that of the control group (mean 86.2 ). MRI is a valuable tool in studying the anatomy of the anal canal in children with anteriorly displaced anus. The abnormal orientation of the longitudinal muscle across the anal canal can explain the obstructed defecation in these children. Based on this study, it might be of interest to use MRI in studying equivocal cases and children with unexplained constipation. (orig.)

  19. Chemical Shift Imaging (CSI) by precise object displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Leclerc, Sebastien; Trausch, Gregory; Cordier, Benoit; Grandclaude, Denis; Retournard, Alain; Fraissard, Jacques; Canet, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    International audience; A mechanical device (NMR lift) has been built for displacing vertically an object (typically a NMR sample tube) inside the NMR probe with an accuracy of 1 Μm. A series of single pulse experiments are performed for incremented vertical positions of the sample. With a sufficiently spatially selective rf field, one obtains chemical shift information along the displacement direction (one dimensional Chemical Shift Imaging – CSI). Knowing the vertical radio-frequency (rf) f...

  20. Urban revitalization and displacement: types, causes, and public policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feagin, J.R.

    1981-05-01

    The policy research report reviews the scholarly and print media literatures on urban revitalization. The extent of revitalization; the incumbent or occupant upgrading; gentrification (displacement of low- and moderate-income households by better-off households); gentrification and displacement from all causes; and the role of powerful actors in revitalization are discussed. Public policy dealing with land use and development in urban areas is discussed. Future research needs are indicated.

  1. Origins of displacements caused by underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinehart, John S [ESSA Research Laboratories, and Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Elastic theory has been used to calculate the relative displacement that will occur between the two sides of a loose boundary when a plane wave strikes the boundary obliquely. The calculations suggest that the displacements produced along loose fractures and faults close in to the underground nuclear explosions are a direct consequence of reflection of the transient stress wave at this loose boundary. Quantitatively the results agree fairly well with the limited data that are available. (author)

  2. A wireless laser displacement sensor node for structural health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyo Seon; Kim, Jong Moon; Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok

    2013-09-30

    This study describes a wireless laser displacement sensor node that measures displacement as a representative damage index for structural health monitoring (SHM). The proposed measurement system consists of a laser displacement sensor (LDS) and a customized wireless sensor node. Wireless communication is enabled by a sensor node that consists of a sensor module, a code division multiple access (CDMA) communication module, a processor, and a power module. An LDS with a long measurement distance is chosen to increase field applicability. For a wireless sensor node driven by a battery, we use a power control module with a low-power processor, which facilitates switching between the sleep and active modes, thus maximizing the power consumption efficiency during non-measurement and non-transfer periods. The CDMA mode is also used to overcome the limitation of communication distance, which is a challenge for wireless sensor networks and wireless communication. To evaluate the reliability and field applicability of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system, the system is tested onsite to obtain the required vertical displacement measurements during the construction of mega-trusses and an edge truss, which are the primary structural members in a large-scale irregular building currently under construction. The measurement values confirm the validity of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system and its potential for use in safety evaluations of structural elements.

  3. A Wireless Laser Displacement Sensor Node for Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Woon Choi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a wireless laser displacement sensor node that measures displacement as a representative damage index for structural health monitoring (SHM. The proposed measurement system consists of a laser displacement sensor (LDS and a customized wireless sensor node. Wireless communication is enabled by a sensor node that consists of a sensor module, a code division multiple access (CDMA communication module, a processor, and a power module. An LDS with a long measurement distance is chosen to increase field applicability. For a wireless sensor node driven by a battery, we use a power control module with a low-power processor, which facilitates switching between the sleep and active modes, thus maximizing the power consumption efficiency during non-measurement and non-transfer periods. The CDMA mode is also used to overcome the limitation of communication distance, which is a challenge for wireless sensor networks and wireless communication. To evaluate the reliability and field applicability of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system, the system is tested onsite to obtain the required vertical displacement measurements during the construction of mega-trusses and an edge truss, which are the primary structural members in a large-scale irregular building currently under construction. The measurement values confirm the validity of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system and its potential for use in safety evaluations of structural elements.

  4. Prostate HDR brachytherapy catheter displacement between planning and treatment delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, May; Hruby, George; Lovett, Aimee; Patanjali, Nitya

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: HDR brachytherapy is used as a conformal boost for treating prostate cancer. Given the large doses delivered, it is critical that the volume treated matches that planned. Our outpatient protocol comprises two 9 Gy fractions, two weeks apart. We prospectively assessed catheter displacement between CT planning and treatment delivery. Materials and methods: Three fiducial markers and the catheters were implanted under transrectal ultrasound guidance. Metal marker wires were inserted into 4 reference catheters before CT; marker positions relative to each other and to the marker wires were measured from the CT scout. Measurements were repeated immediately prior to treatment delivery using pelvic X-ray with marker wires in the same reference catheters. Measurements from CT scout and film were compared. For displacements of 5 mm or more, indexer positions were adjusted prior to treatment delivery. Results: Results are based on 48 implants, in 25 patients. Median time from planning CT to treatment delivery was 254 min (range 81–367 min). Median catheter displacement was 7.5 mm (range −2.9–23.9 mm), 67% of implants had displacement of 5 mm or greater. Displacements were predominantly caudal. Conclusions: Catheter displacement can occur in the 1–3 h between the planning CT scan and treatment. It is recommended that departments performing HDR prostate brachytherapy verify catheter positions immediately prior to treatment delivery.

  5. Mass spectrometric study of Nd2S3 vaporization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenochka, B.V.

    1987-01-01

    The authors conduct a mass-spectrometric study of neodymium(III) sulfide vaporization. The chemical composition of the samples was stoichiometric and the samples were vaporized from tantalum effusion cells. When the vapor over Nd 2 S 3 is ionized by electrons the mass spectra shows monovalent cations of Nd, S, NdS, and NdO. The enthalpy of vaporization if Nd atoms from Nd 2 S 3 at average experimental temperatures and the standard enthalpy of reaction is shown. Also presented is the enthalpy of vaporization of NdS molecules from Nd 2 S 3 at average experimental temperatures and the standard enthalpy of reaction

  6. Cumulus convection and the terrestrial water-vapor distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Leo J.

    1988-01-01

    Cumulus convection plays a significant role in determining the structure of the terrestrial water vapor field. Cumulus convection acts directly on the moisture field by condensing and precipitating water vapor and by redistributing water vapor through cumulus induced eddy circulations. The mechanisms by which cumulus convection influences the terrestrial water vapor distribution is outlined. Calculations using a theory due to Kuo is used to illustrate the mechanisms by which cumulus convection works. Understanding of these processes greatly aids the ability of researchers to interpret the seasonal and spatial distribution of atmospheric water vapor by providing information on the nature of sources and sinks and the global circulation.

  7. Liquid-liquid contact in vapor explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segev, A.

    1978-08-01

    The contact of two liquid materials, one of which is at a temperature substantially above the boiling point of the other, can lead to fast energy conversion and a subsequent shock wave. This phenomenon is called a vapor explosion. One method of producing intimate, liquid-liquid contact (which is known to be a necessary condition for vapor explosion) is a shock tube configuration. Such experiments in which water was impacted upon molten aluminum showed that very high pressures, even larger than the thermodynamic critical pressure, could occur. The mechanism by which such sharp pressure pulses are generated is not yet clear. The report describes experiments in which cold liquids (Freon-11, Freon-22, water, or butanol) were impacted upon various hot materials

  8. Thermodynamics of the vaporization of uranium tetrabromide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Z.; Prasad, R.; Venugopal, P.V.; Roy, K.N.; Sood, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    Vapour pressures of solid and liquid uranium tetrabromide have been measured in the temperature range of 696 to 805 K and 805 to 1003 K respectively by transpiration and evaporation-temperature techniques. The vapour pressures obtained by the two techniques are in good agreement and have been combined to give the reported vapour-pressure equations for solid and liquid uranium tetrabromide. The melting temperature, the normal boiling temperature, the standard enthalpy of vaporization ΔH 0 (vap, 298.15 K), and the standard entropy of vaporization ΔS 0 (vap, 298.15 K) are reported. The enthalpy of fusion ΔH 0 (fus, 802 K) is also reported. The thermodynamic quantities from the present study are compared with those in the literature and critically analysed. (author)

  9. Vaporization of structural materials in severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Vaporized structural materials form the bulk of aerosol particles that can transport fission products in severe LWR accidents. As part of the Severe Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a model has been developed based on a mass transport coefficient to describe the transport of materials from the surface of a molten pool. In many accident scenarios, the coefficient can be calculated from existing correlations for mass transfer by natural convection. Data from SASCHA fuel melting tests (Karlsruhe, Germany) show that the partial pressures of many of the melt components (Fe, Cr, Co, Mn, Sn) required for the model can be calculated from the vapor pressures of the pure species and Raoult's law. These calculations indicate much lower aerosol concentrations than reported in previous studies

  10. Improved cell for water-vapor electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Continuous-flow electrolytic cells decompose water vapor in steam and room air into hydrogen and oxygen. Sintered iridium oxide catalytic anode coating yields dissociation rates hundredfold greater than those obtained using platinum black. Cell consists of two mirror-image cells, with dual cathode sandwiched between two anodes. Gas traverses serpentine channels within cell and is dissociated at anode. Oxygen mingles with gas stream, while hydrogen migrates through porous matrix and is liberated as gas at cathode.

  11. Ceramic composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinton, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Composites consisting of silicon carbide matrices reinforced with continuous ceramic fibers are being developed for high-temperature structural applications. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques are very effective in fabricating composites with high strengths and exceptional fracture toughness. Mechanical properties of infiltrated composites are controlled by the strength of the interfacial bond between the fibers and matrix. This paper describes two CVD techniques and reviews the models being developed to better understand and control the infiltration process

  12. DuPont Chemical Vapor Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MOORE, T.L.

    2003-01-01

    DuPont Safety Resources was tasked with reviewing the current chemical vapor control practices and providing preventive recommendations on best commercial techniques to control worker exposures. The increased focus of the tank closure project to meet the 2024 Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestones has surfaced concerns among some CH2MHill employees and other interested parties. CH2MHill is committed to providing a safe working environment for employees and desires to safely manage the tank farm operations using appropriate control measures. To address worker concerns, CH2MHill has chartered a ''Chemical Vapors Project'' to integrate the activities of multiple CH2MHill project teams, and solicit the expertise of external resources, including an independent Industrial Hygiene expert panel, a communications consultant, and DuPont Safety Resources. Over a three-month time period, DuPont worked with CH2MHill ESH and Q, Industrial Hygiene, Engineering, and the independent expert panel to perform the assessment. The process included overview presentations, formal interviews, informal discussions, documentation review, and literature review. DuPont Safety Resources concluded that it is highly unlikely that workers in the tank farms are exposed to chemicals above established standards. Additionally, the conventional and radiological chemistry is understood, the inherent chemical hazards are known, and the risk associated with chemical vapor exposure is properly managed. The assessment highlighted management's commitment to addressing chemical vapor hazards and controlling the associated risks. Additionally, we found the Industrial Hygiene staff to be technically competent and well motivated. The tank characterization data resides in a comprehensive database containing the tank chemical compositions and relevant airborne concentrations

  13. Discharge characteristics of copper vapor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Koshichi; Fujii, Takashi

    1988-01-01

    This report describes about the copper vapor laser and experimental results of it's discharge characteristics. We measured time varing of plasma regist, and analyzed electron density. (1) The plasma regist is larger than 100Ω at the beginning of discharge, and is rapidly reduced to about 10Ω. (2) The electron density is estimated about 1∼2 x 10 12 /cc at the begining of discharge. (author)

  14. Transport properties of fission product vapors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

    1983-07-01

    Kinetic theory of gases is used to calculate the transport properties of fission product vapors in a steam and hydrogen environment. Provided in tabular form is diffusivity of steam and hydrogen, viscosity and thermal conductivity of the gaseous mixture, and diffusivity of cesium iodide, cesium hydroxide, diatomic tellurium and tellurium dioxide. These transport properties are required in determining the thermal-hydraulics of and fission product transport in light water reactors

  15. Quality and Control of Water Vapor Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Atkinson, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    Water vapor imagery from the geostationary satellites such as GOES, Meteosat, and GMS provides synoptic views of dynamical events on a continual basis. Because the imagery represents a non-linear combination of mid- and upper-tropospheric thermodynamic parameters (three-dimensional variations in temperature and humidity), video loops of these image products provide enlightening views of regional flow fields, the movement of tropical and extratropical storm systems, the transfer of moisture between hemispheres and from the tropics to the mid- latitudes, and the dominance of high pressure systems over particular regions of the Earth. Despite the obvious larger scale features, the water vapor imagery contains significant image variability down to the single 8 km GOES pixel. These features can be quantitatively identified and tracked from one time to the next using various image processing techniques. Merrill et al. (1991), Hayden and Schmidt (1992), and Laurent (1993) have documented the operational procedures and capabilities of NOAA and ESOC to produce cloud and water vapor winds. These techniques employ standard correlation and template matching approaches to wind tracking and use qualitative and quantitative procedures to eliminate bad wind vectors from the wind data set. Techniques have also been developed to improve the quality of the operational winds though robust editing procedures (Hayden and Veldon 1991). These quality and control approaches have limitations, are often subjective, and constrain wind variability to be consistent with model derived wind fields. This paper describes research focused on the refinement of objective quality and control parameters for water vapor wind vector data sets. New quality and control measures are developed and employed to provide a more robust wind data set for climate analysis, data assimilation studies, as well as operational weather forecasting. The parameters are applicable to cloud-tracked winds as well with minor

  16. Displacement in new economy labor markets: Post-displacement wage loss in high tech versus low tech cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel J; Rubin, Beth A

    2016-11-01

    While scholars and politicians tout education as the salve to employment disruptions, we argue that the geography of the new economy, and the social closure mechanisms that geography creates, may be just as important as individuals' characteristics for predicting post-displacement wage loss (or gain). We use data from the 2012 Displaced Workers ement of the Current Population Survey and from the 2010 United States Census to test hypotheses linking local labor markets in different industrial contexts to post-displacement wage loss. Our results point to age as a closure mechanism, and to the partially protective effect of education in high-tech versus low-tech economic sectors. This study is the first to use national level data to examine how employment in high-tech cities influences post-displacement wages. These findings are relevant both for theorizing about the new economy and for public policy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimating evaporative vapor generation from automobiles based on parking activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Xinyi; Tschantz, Michael; Fu, Joshua S.

    2015-01-01

    A new approach is proposed to quantify the evaporative vapor generation based on real parking activity data. As compared to the existing methods, two improvements are applied in this new approach to reduce the uncertainties: First, evaporative vapor generation from diurnal parking events is usually calculated based on estimated average parking duration for the whole fleet, while in this study, vapor generation rate is calculated based on parking activities distribution. Second, rather than using the daily temperature gradient, this study uses hourly temperature observations to derive the hourly incremental vapor generation rates. The parking distribution and hourly incremental vapor generation rates are then adopted with Wade–Reddy's equation to estimate the weighted average evaporative generation. We find that hourly incremental rates can better describe the temporal variations of vapor generation, and the weighted vapor generation rate is 5–8% less than calculation without considering parking activity. - Highlights: • We applied real parking distribution data to estimate evaporative vapor generation. • We applied real hourly temperature data to estimate hourly incremental vapor generation rate. • Evaporative emission for Florence is estimated based on parking distribution and hourly rate. - A new approach is proposed to quantify the weighted evaporative vapor generation based on parking distribution with an hourly incremental vapor generation rate

  18. Marketing practices of vapor store owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Marshall; Gowin, Mary; Wann, Taylor Franklin

    2015-06-01

    We examined the marketing strategies for local vapor stores in a large metropolitan area in Oklahoma. Vapor store owners or managers (n = 33) participated in individual interviews regarding marketing practices in 2014. We asked owners about their marketing strategies and the groups they targeted. We transcribed the interviews and analyzed them for themes. Store owners used a variety of marketing strategies to bring new customers to their stores and keep current customers coming back. These marketing strategies showed many parallels to tobacco industry strategies. Most owners engaged in some form of traditional marketing practices (e.g., print media), but only a few used radio or television advertising because of budget constraints. Owners used social media and other forms of electronic communication, pricing discounts and specials, and loyalty programs. Owners also had booths at local events, sponsored community events, and hosted them in their stores. Owners attempted to target different groups of users, such as college students and long-term smokers. Local vapor store marketing practices closely resemble current and former tobacco industry marketing strategies. Surveillance of marketing practices should include local and Web-based strategies.

  19. Released air during vapor and air cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonská, Jana, E-mail: jana.jablonska@vsb.cz; Kozubková, Milada, E-mail: milada.kozubkova@vsb.cz [VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Hydromechanics and Hydraulic Equipment, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic)

    2016-06-30

    Cavitation today is a very important problem that is solved by means of experimental and mathematical methods. The article deals with the generation of cavitation in convergent divergent nozzle of rectangular cross section. Measurement of pressure, flow rate, temperature, amount of dissolved air in the liquid and visualization of cavitation area using high-speed camera was performed for different flow rates. The measurement results were generalized by dimensionless analysis, which allows easy detection of cavitation in the nozzle. For numerical simulation the multiphase mathematical model of cavitation consisting of water and vapor was created. During verification the disagreement with the measurements for higher flow rates was proved, therefore the model was extended to multiphase mathematical model (water, vapor and air), due to release of dissolved air. For the mathematical modeling the multiphase turbulence RNG k-ε model for low Reynolds number flow with vapor and air cavitation was used. Subsequently the sizes of the cavitation area were verified. In article the inlet pressure and loss coefficient depending on the amount of air added to the mathematical model are evaluated. On the basis of the approach it may be create a methodology to estimate the amount of released air added at the inlet to the modeled area.

  20. Combined rankine and vapor compression cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliff, Thomas D.; Biederman, Bruce P.; Brasz, Joost J.

    2005-04-19

    An organic rankine cycle system is combined with a vapor compression cycle system with the turbine generator of the organic rankine cycle generating the power necessary to operate the motor of the refrigerant compressor. The vapor compression cycle is applied with its evaporator cooling the inlet air into a gas turbine, and the organic rankine cycle is applied to receive heat from a gas turbine exhaust to heat its boiler within one embodiment, a common condenser is used for the organic rankine cycle and the vapor compression cycle, with a common refrigerant, R-245a being circulated within both systems. In another embodiment, the turbine driven generator has a common shaft connected to the compressor to thereby eliminate the need for a separate motor to drive the compressor. In another embodiment, an organic rankine cycle system is applied to an internal combustion engine to cool the fluids thereof, and the turbo charged air is cooled first by the organic rankine cycle system and then by an air conditioner prior to passing into the intake of the engine.

  1. Liquid--liquid contact in vapor explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segev, A.

    1978-08-01

    The contact of two liquid materials, one of which is at a temperature substantially above the boiling point of the other, can lead to fast energy conversion and a subsequent shock wave. This well-known phenomenon is called a ''vapor explosion.'' One method of producing intimate, liquid--liquid contact (which is known to be a necessary condition for vapor explosion) is a shock tube configuration. Such experiments in which water was impacted upon molten aluminum showed that very high pressures, even larger than the thermodynamic critical pressure, could occur. The mechanism by which such sharp pressure pulses are generated is not yet clear. In this experiment cold liquids (Freon-11, Freon-22, water, or butanol) were impacted upon various hot materials (mineral oil, silicone oil, water, mercury, molten Wood's metal or molten salt mixture). The main conclusion from the experimental study is that hydrodynamic effects may be very significant in any shock tube analyses, especially when multiple interactions are observed. A theoretical study was performed to check the possibility of vapor film squeezing (between a drop in film boiling and a surface) as a controlling mechanism for making liquid--liquid contact. Using experimental data, the film thickness was calculated and it was found to be too thick for any conceivable film rupture mechanism. It was suggested that the coalescence is a two-stage process, in which the controlling stage depends mainly on temperature and surface properties and can be described as the ability of cold liquid to spread on a hot surface

  2. Vapor-Driven Propulsion of Catalytic Micromotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Renfeng; Li, Jinxing; Rozen, Isaac; Ezhilan, Barath; Xu, Tailin; Christianson, Caleb; Gao, Wei; Saintillan, David; Ren, Biye; Wang, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Chemically-powered micromotors offer exciting opportunities in diverse fields, including therapeutic delivery, environmental remediation, and nanoscale manufacturing. However, these nanovehicles require direct addition of high concentration of chemical fuel to the motor solution for their propulsion. We report the efficient vapor-powered propulsion of catalytic micromotors without direct addition of fuel to the micromotor solution. Diffusion of hydrazine vapor from the surrounding atmosphere into the sample solution is instead used to trigger rapid movement of iridium-gold Janus microsphere motors. Such operation creates a new type of remotely-triggered and powered catalytic micro/nanomotors that are responsive to their surrounding environment. This new propulsion mechanism is accompanied by unique phenomena, such as the distinct off-on response to the presence of fuel in the surrounding atmosphere, and spatio-temporal dependence of the motor speed borne out of the concentration gradient evolution within the motor solution. The relationship between the motor speed and the variables affecting the fuel concentration distribution is examined using a theoretical model for hydrazine transport, which is in turn used to explain the observed phenomena. The vapor-powered catalytic micro/nanomotors offer new opportunities in gas sensing, threat detection, and environmental monitoring, and open the door for a new class of environmentally-triggered micromotors.

  3. Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A unified treatment of the theories, data, and technologies underlying physical vapor deposition methods With electronic, optical, and magnetic coating technologies increasingly dominating manufacturing in the high-tech industries, there is a growing need for expertise in physical vapor deposition of thin films. This important new work provides researchers and engineers in this field with the information they need to tackle thin film processes in the real world. Presenting a cohesive, thoroughly developed treatment of both fundamental and applied topics, Physical Vapor Deposition of Thin Films incorporates many critical results from across the literature as it imparts a working knowledge of a variety of present-day techniques. Numerous worked examples, extensive references, and more than 100 illustrations and photographs accompany coverage of: * Thermal evaporation, sputtering, and pulsed laser deposition techniques * Key theories and phenomena, including the kinetic theory of gases, adsorption and condensation, high-vacuum pumping dynamics, and sputtering discharges * Trends in sputter yield data and a new simplified collisional model of sputter yield for pure element targets * Quantitative models for film deposition rate, thickness profiles, and thermalization of the sputtered beam

  4. Characterization of a Compact Water Vapor Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Ajay; Selina, Rob

    2018-01-01

    We report on laboratory test results of the Compact Water Vapor Radiometer (CWVR) prototype for the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), a five-channel design centered around the 22 GHz water vapor line. Fluctuations in perceptible water vapor cause fluctuations in atmospheric brightness emission, which are assumed to be proportional to phase fluctuations of the astronomical signal seen by an antenna. The design is intended to support empirical radiometric phase corrections for each baseline in the array.The dynamic range, channel isolation, and gain stability of the device were characterized. The device has a useful dynamic range of order 18 dB after calibration, and the CWVR channel isolation requirement of test, the diode detectors were operated in the square-law region, and a K-band noise diode was used as the broadband input power source to the CWVR over a period of 64 hours. Results indicate that the fluctuations in output counts are negatively correlated to the CWVR enclosure ambient temperature, with a change of ~ 405 counts per 1° C change in temperature.A correction for the CWVR ambient temperature makes a considerable improvement in stability for τ > 102.6 sec. With temperature corrections, the single channel and channel difference gain stability per channel is test results indicate that the CWVR meets required specifications for dynamic range, channel isolation, and gain stability in order to proceed with testing on a pair of VLA antennas.

  5. Marketing Practices of Vapor Store Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowin, Mary; Wann, Taylor Franklin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the marketing strategies for local vapor stores in a large metropolitan area in Oklahoma. Methods. Vapor store owners or managers (n = 33) participated in individual interviews regarding marketing practices in 2014. We asked owners about their marketing strategies and the groups they targeted. We transcribed the interviews and analyzed them for themes. Results. Store owners used a variety of marketing strategies to bring new customers to their stores and keep current customers coming back. These marketing strategies showed many parallels to tobacco industry strategies. Most owners engaged in some form of traditional marketing practices (e.g., print media), but only a few used radio or television advertising because of budget constraints. Owners used social media and other forms of electronic communication, pricing discounts and specials, and loyalty programs. Owners also had booths at local events, sponsored community events, and hosted them in their stores. Owners attempted to target different groups of users, such as college students and long-term smokers. Conclusions. Local vapor store marketing practices closely resemble current and former tobacco industry marketing strategies. Surveillance of marketing practices should include local and Web-based strategies. PMID:25880960

  6. A multistratum approach to soil vapor extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhr, J.M.; Giesler, R.S.

    1993-01-01

    An innovative soil remediation design was implemented to address petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in a gradationally stratified subsurface environment containing alternating layers of clay, sand and clayey sand, and perched water tables in north Florida. The soil vapor extraction (SVE) design enables remediation to focus on distinct subsurface intervals depending on changing site conditions such as constituent concentration levels and periodic water-table fluctuations. Contaminated soils were assessed from the land surface to the top of a two foot thick perched water table located at 13 feet below land surface (bls), and also were encountered below the perched water table downward to another perched water table at 45 feet bls. Use of an organic vapor analyzer equipped with a flame ionization detector revealed hydrocarbon vapor concentrations in soil samples ranging to greater than 1,000 parts per million (ppm). Nonaqueous phase liquids were encountered on both perched water tables. Based on the site assessment, a multistratum soil and ground-water remediation system was designed and constructed. A pilot test was conducted to aid in the design of an effective SVE system

  7. Experimental study of vapor bubble dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquini, Maria-Elena

    2015-01-01

    The object of this thesis is an experimental study of vapor bubble dynamics in sub-cooled nucleate boiling. The test section is locally heated by focusing a laser beam: heat fluxes from 1 e4 to 1.5 e6 W/m 2 and water temperature between 100 and 88 C have been considered. Three boiling regimes have been observed. Under saturated conditions and with low heat fluxes a developed nucleate boiling regime has been observed. Under higher sub-cooling and still with low heat fluxes an equilibrium regime has been observed in which the liquid flowrate evaporating at the bubble base is compensated by the vapor condensing flowrate at bubble top. A third regime have been observed at high heat fluxes for all water conditions: it is characterized by the formation of a large dry spot on the heated surface that keeps the nucleation site dry after bubble detachment. The condensation phase starts after bubble detachment. Bubble equivalent radius at detachment varies between 1 and 2.5 mm. Bubble properties have been measured and non-dimensional groups have been used to characterize bubble dynamics. Capillary waves have been observed on the bubble surface thanks to high-speed images acquisition. Two main phenomena have been proposed to explain capillary waves effects on bubble condensation: increasing of the phases interface area and decreasing of vapor bubble translation velocity, because of the increased drag force on the deformed bubble. (author) [fr

  8. Nuclear vapor thermal reactor propulsion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maya, I.; Diaz, N.J.; Dugan, E.T.; Watanabe, Y.; McClanahan, J.A.; Wen-Hsiung Tu; Carman, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    The conceptual design of a nuclear rocket based on the vapor core reactor is presented. The Nuclear Vapor Thermal Rocket (NVTR) offers the potential for a specific impulse of 1000 to 1200 s at thrust-to-weight ratios of 1 to 2. The design is based on NERVA geometry and systems with the solid fuel replaced by uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4 ) vapor. The closed-loop core does not rely on hydrodynamic confinement of the fuel. The hydrogen propellant is separated from the UF 4 fuel gas by graphite structure. The hydrogen is maintained at high pressure (∼100 atm), and exits the core at 3,100 K to 3,500 K. Zirconium carbide and hafnium carbide coatings are used to protect the hot graphite from the hydrogen. The core is surrounded by beryllium oxide reflector. The nuclear reactor core has been integrated into a 75 klb engine design using an expander cycle and dual turbopumps. The NVTR offers the potential for an incremental technology development pathway to high performance gas core reactors. Since the fuel is readily available, it also offers advantages in the initial cost of development, as it will not require major expenditures for fuel development

  9. Calculating the enthalpy of vaporization for ionic liquid clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, Manish S; Maginn, Edward J

    2007-08-16

    Classical atomistic simulations are used to compute the enthalpy of vaporization of a series of ionic liquids composed of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations paired with the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anion. The calculations show that the enthalpy of vaporization is lowest for neutral ion pairs. The enthalpy of vaporization increases by about 40 kJ/mol with the addition of each ion pair to the vaporizing cluster. Non-neutral clusters have much higher vaporization enthalpies than their neutral counterparts and thus are not expected to make up a significant fraction of volatile species. The enthalpy of vaporization increases slightly as the cation alkyl chain length increases and as temperature decreases. The calculated vaporization enthalpies are consistent with two sets of recent experimental measurements as well as with previous atomistic simulations.

  10. Vapor pressures and vapor compositions in equilibrium with hypostoichiometric plutonium dioxide at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.W.; Fink, J.K.; Leibowitz, L.

    1982-01-01

    Vapor pressures and vapor compositions have been calculated for 1500 less than or equal to T less than or equal to 4000 0 K. Thermodynamic functions for the condensed phase and for each of the gaseous species were combined with an oxygen-potential model extended into the liquid region to obtain the partial pressures of O 2 , O, Pu, PuO and PuO 2 . The calculated oxygen pressures increase very rapidly as stoichiometry is approached. At least part of this increase is a consequence of the exclusion of Pu 6 + from the oxygen-potential model. No reliable method was found to estimate the importance of this ion. As a result of large oxygen potentials at high temperatures, extremely high total pressures that produced unreasonably high vapor densities were calculated. The highest temperature was therefore limited to 400 K, and the range of oxygen-to-metal ratios was limited to 1.994 to 1.70. These calculations show that vapor in equilibrium with hypostoichiometric plutonium dioxide is poorly approximated as PuO 2 for most of the temperture and composition range of interest. The vapor is much more oxygen-rich than the condensed phase. Implications for the (U,Pu)O/sub 2-x/ system are discussed

  11. Vapor cycle energy system for implantable circulatory assist devices. Annual progress report Jul 1974--Jun 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, K.G.

    1975-06-01

    The report describes the development status of a heart assist system driven by a nuclear fueled, electronically controlled vapor cycle engine termed the tidal regenerator engine (TRE). The TRE pressurization (typically from 5-160 psia) is controlled by a torque motor coupled to a displacer. The electrical power for the sensor, electronic logic and actuator is provided by a thermoelectric module interposed between the engine superheater and boiler. The TRE is direct coupled to an assist blood pump which also acts as a blood-cooled heat exchanger, pressure-volume transformer and sensor for the electronic logic. Engine efficiencies in excess of 14% have been demonstrated. Efficiency values as high as 13% have been achieved to date

  12. Vapor cycle energy system for implantable circulatory assist devices. Final summary May--Oct 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watelet, R.P.; Ruggles, A.E.; Hagen, K.G.

    1977-03-01

    The report describes the development status of a heart assist system driven by a nuclear-fueled, electronically controlled vapor cycle engine termed the tidal regenerator engine (TRE). The TRE pressurization is controlled by a torque motor coupled to a displacer. The electrical power for the sensor, electronic logic and actuator is provided by thermoelectric modules interposed between the engine superheater and boiler. The TRE is direct-coupled to an assist blood pump which also acts as a blood-cooled heat exchanger, pressure-volume trasformer and sensor for the electronic logic. Engine cycle efficiency in excess of 14% has been demonstrated routinely. Overall system efficiency on 33 watts of over 9% has been demonstrated (implied 13% engine cycle efficiency). A binary version of this engine in the annular configuration is now being tested. The preliminary tests demonstrated 10% cycle efficiency on the first buildup which ran well and started easily

  13. The effect of multi-component adsorption on selectivity in ion exchange displacement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugcu, N; Cramer, S M

    2005-01-21

    This paper examines chemically selective displacement chromatography using affinity ranking plots, batch displacer screening experiments, column displacements, multi-component adsorption isotherms and spectroscopy. The affinity ranking plot indicated that the displacers, sucrose octasulfate (SOS) and tatrazine, should possess sufficient affinity to displace the proteins amyloglucosidase and apoferritin over a wide range of operating conditions. In addition, the plots indicated that the separation of these proteins by displacement chromatography would be extremely difficult. Further, the two proteins were shown to have very similar retention times under shallow linear gradient conditions. When batch displacement experiments were carried out, both tartrazine and SOS exhibited significant selectivity differences with respect to their ability to displace these two proteins, in contrast to the affinity ranking plot results. Column displacement experiments carried out with sucrose octasulfate agreed with the predictions of the affinity ranking plots, with both proteins being displaced but poorly resolved under several column displacement conditions. On the other hand, column displacement with tartrazine as the displacer resulted in the selective displacement and partial purification of apoferritin. Single- and multi-component isotherms of the proteins with or without the presence of displacers were determined and were used to help explain the selectivity reversals observed in the column and batch displacement experiments. In addition, fluorescence and CD spectra suggested that the displacers did not induce any structural changes to either of the proteins. The results in this paper indicate that multi-component adsorption behavior can be exploited for creating chemically selective displacement separations.

  14. Directional dependence of the threshold displacement energies in metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, Benjamin J.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2017-12-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to investigate the directional dependence and the values of the threshold energies (TDEs) for the displacements of the oxygen and metal atoms and for producing stable Frenkel pairs in five metal oxides of Cr2O3, Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2, and MgO. The TDEs for the Frenkel pairs and atoms displacement are calculated in 66 crystallographic directions, on both the anion and cation sublattices. The performed simulations are for metal and oxygen PKA energies up to 350 and 400 eV, respectively. The calculated probability distributions for the atoms displacement and average number of Frenkel pairs produced in the different oxides are compared. The results revealed unique symmetrical patterns of the TDEs for the displacement of the atoms and the formation of stable Frenkel pairs, confirming the strong dependence on the direction and the crystalline structure of the oxides. Results also showed that the formation of stable Frenkel pairs is associated with the displacements of the PKAs and/or of the SKAs. The probabilities of the TDEs for the displacement of the oxygen and metal PKAs are consistently lower than those of the atoms in the crystal. In SiO2, TDEs for the displacement of oxygen and metal atoms and those for the formation of stable Frenkel pairs are the lowest, while those in TiO2 are among the highest. The results for Cr2O3 and Al2O3, which have the same crystal structure, are similar. The calculated TDEs for MgO, Al2O3 and TiO2 are generally in good agreement with the experimental values and the probability distributions of the TDEs for the PKAs in TiO2 are in good agreement with reported MD simulation results.

  15. Traumatic corneal flap displacement after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Han; Peng, Kai-Ling; Lin, Chien-Jen

    2017-01-01

    Laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is the most common and popular procedure performed for the correction of refractive errors in the last two decades. We report a case of traumatic flap displacement with flap folding which occurred 3 years after LASIK was performed. Previous literature suggests that vision prognosis would be closely related to proper and prompt management of traumatic flap displacement with flap folding 3 years after LASIK. A 23-year-old female presented to our hospital who had undergone uneventful LASIK in both eyes 3 years prior. Unfortunately, she had suffered a blunt trauma in her right eye in a car accident. A late onset of corneal flap displacement was found with upper and lower portion of the flap being folded inside the corneal bed. Surgical intervention for debridement with subsequent reposition of corneal flap was performed as soon as possible in the operating room. A bandage contact lens was placed, and topical antibiotic and corticosteroids were given postoperatively. Two days after the operation, the displaced corneal flap was found to be well attached smoothly on the corneal bed without folds. The best-corrected visual acuity was 6/6 with refraction of -0.75 D to 1.0 D ×175° in her right eye 1 month later. We reviewed a total of 19 published cases of late-onset traumatic flap dislocations or displacements after LASIK with complete data from 2000 to 2014. Traumatic displacement of corneal flaps after LASIK may occur after blunt injury with specific direction of force to the flap margin, especially tangential one. According to the previous literature, late-onset traumatic flap displacement may happen at any time after LASIK and be caused by various types of injuries. Fortunately, good visual function could mostly be restored with immediate and proper management.

  16. Copper-vapor-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition of graphene on dielectric substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Wu, Tianru; Wang, Haomin; Zhang, Xuefu; Shi, Zhiyuan; Xie, Xiaoming

    2017-07-01

    Direct synthesis of high-quality graphene on dielectric substrates is important for its application in electronics. In this work, we report the process of copper-vapor-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition of high-quality and large graphene domains on various dielectric substrates. The copper vapor plays a vital role on the growth of transfer-free graphene. Both single-crystal domains that are much larger than previous reports and high-coverage graphene films can be obtained by adjusting the growth duration. The quality of the obtained graphene was verified to be comparable with that of graphene grown on Cu foil. The progress reported in this work will aid the development of the application of transfer-free graphene in the future.

  17. Collapsing criteria for vapor film around solid spheres as a fundamental stage leading to vapor explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freud, Roy [Nuclear Research Center - Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)], E-mail: freud@bgu.ac.il; Harari, Ronen [Nuclear Research Center - Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Sher, Eran [Pearlstone Center for Aeronautical Studies, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2009-04-15

    Following a partial fuel-melting accident, a Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) can result with the fragmentation of the melt into tiny droplets. A vapor film is then formed between the melt fragments and the coolant, while preventing a contact between them. Triggering, propagation and expansion typically follow the premixing stage. In the triggering stage, vapor film collapse around one or several of the fragments occurs. This collapse can be the result of fragments cooling, a sort of mechanical force, or by any other means. When the vapor film collapses and the coolant re-establishes contact with the dry surface of the hot melt, it may lead to a very rapid and rather violent boiling. In the propagation stage the shock wave front leads to stripping of the films surrounding adjacent droplets which enhance the fragmentation and the process escalates. During this process a large quantity of liquid vaporizes and its expansion can result in destructive mechanical damage to the surrounding structures. This multiphase thermal detonation in which high pressure shock wave is formed is regarded as 'vapor explosion'. The film boiling and its possible collapse is a fundamental stage leading to vapor explosion. If the interaction of the melt and the coolant does not result in a film boiling, no explosion occurs. Many studies have been devoted to determine the minimum temperature and heat flux that is required to maintain a film boiling. The present experimental study examines the minimum temperature that is required to maintain a film boiling around metal spheres immersed into a liquid (subcooled distilled water) reservoir. In order to simulate fuel fragments that are small in dimension and has mirror-like surface, small spheres coated with anti-oxidation layer were used. The heat flux from the spheres was calculated from the sphere's temperature profiles and the sphere's properties. The vapor film collapse was associated with a sharp rise of the heat flux

  18. Characteristics of children with hip displacement in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Philippe

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip dislocation in children with cerebral palsy (CP is a common and severe problem. The dislocation can be avoided, by screening and preventive treatment of children with hips at risk. The aim of this study was to analyse the characteristics of children with CP who develop hip displacement, in order to optimise a hip surveillance programme. Methods In a total population of children with CP a standardised clinical and radiological follow-up of the hips was carried out as a part of a hip prevention programme. The present study is based on 212 children followed until 9–16 years of age. Results Of the 212 children, 38 (18% developed displacement with Migration Percentage (MP >40% and further 19 (9% MP between 33 and 39%. Mean age at first registration of hip displacement was 4 years, but some hips showed MP > 40% already at two years of age. The passive range of hip motion at the time of first registration of hip displacement did not differ significantly from the findings in hips without displacement. The risk of hip displacement varied according to CP-subtype, from 0% in children with pure ataxia to 79% in children with spastic tetraplegia. The risk of displacement (MP > 40% was directly related to the level of gross motor function, classified according to the gross motor function classification system, GMFCS, from 0% in children in GMFCS level I to 64% in GMFCS level V. Conclusion Hip displacement in CP often occurs already at 2–3 years of age. Range of motion is a poor indicator of hips at risk. Thus early identification and early radiographic examination of children at risk is of great importance. The risk of hip displacement varies according to both CP-subtype and GMFCS. It is sometimes not possible to determine subtype before 4 years of age, and at present several definitions and classification systems are used. GMFCS is valid and reliable from 2 years of age, and it is internationally accepted. We recommend a hip

  19. Characterization of the elastic displacement demand: Case study - Sofia city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paskaleva, I.; Kouteva, M.; Vaccari, F.; Panza, G.F.

    2008-02-01

    The results of the study on the seismic site response in a part of the metropolitan Sofia are discussed. The neo-deterministic seismic hazard assessment procedure has been used to compute realistic synthetic waveforms considering four earthquake scenarios, with magnitudes M = 3.7, M = 6.3 and M = 7.0. Source and site specific ground motion time histories are computed along three investigated cross sections, making use of the hybrid approach, combining the modal summation technique and the finite differences scheme. Displacement and acceleration response spectra are considered. These results are validated against the design elastic displacement response spectra and displacement demand, recommended in Eurocode 8. The elastic response design spectrum from the standard pseudo-acceleration, versus natural period, Tn, format is converted to the Sa - Sd format. The elastic displacement response spectra and displacement demand are discussed with respect to the earthquake magnitude, the seismic source-to-site distance, seismic source mechanism, and the local geological site conditions. (author)

  20. Overhead Transmission Lines Deicing under Different Incentive Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Overhead transmission line icing is one of the main factors affecting safety and reliability of power grid. This paper proposed an excitation deicing method of iced wire and theoretically revealed the ice removal mechanism under displacement excitation conditions, by taking the LGJ-70/10 glaze icing wire as the 3D model and analyzing and studying its dynamic response under the effect of displacement excitation. The simulation results show that the stress of wire icing area is enlarged with the increase of excitation displacement and frequency. Through the comparison of the compression strength experimental results on a series of different iced wires in low temperature environment, the authors found out that the stress generated from the wire icing area is greater than the crushing strength of the ice within the scope of the calculation parameters, which proved the validity and the feasibility of the method, and finally the suitable excitation displacement is determined. Following studies show that, as far as possible, it is necessary to reduce the incentive displacement and also to select the appropriate constraint length in order to avoid the line jumping that may be caused by large span ice shedding.

  1. Molecular dynamics study of the vaporization of an ionic drop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galamba, N

    2010-09-28

    The melting of a microcrystal in vacuum and subsequent vaporization of a drop of NaCl were studied through molecular dynamics simulations with the Born-Mayer-Huggins-Tosi-Fumi rigid-ion effective potential. The vaporization was studied for a single isochor at increasing temperatures until the drop completely vaporized, and gaseous NaCl formed. Examination of the vapor composition shows that the vapor of the ionic drop and gaseous NaCl are composed of neutral species, the most abundant of which, ranging from simple NaCl monomers (ion pairs) to nonlinear polymers, (Na(n)Cl(n))(n=2-4). The enthalpies of sublimation, vaporization, and dissociation of the different vapor species are found to be in reasonable agreement with available experimental data. The decrease of the enthalpy of vaporization of the vapor species, with the radius of the drop decrease, accounts for a larger fraction of trimers and tetramers than that inferred from experiments. Further, the rhombic dimer is significantly more abundant than its linear isomer although the latter increases with the temperature. The present results suggest that both trimers and linear dimers may be important to explain the vapor pressure of molten NaCl at temperatures above 1500 K.

  2. Molecular dynamics study of the vaporization of an ionic drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galamba, N.

    2010-09-01

    The melting of a microcrystal in vacuum and subsequent vaporization of a drop of NaCl were studied through molecular dynamics simulations with the Born-Mayer-Huggins-Tosi-Fumi rigid-ion effective potential. The vaporization was studied for a single isochor at increasing temperatures until the drop completely vaporized, and gaseous NaCl formed. Examination of the vapor composition shows that the vapor of the ionic drop and gaseous NaCl are composed of neutral species, the most abundant of which, ranging from simple NaCl monomers (ion pairs) to nonlinear polymers, (NanCln)n=2-4. The enthalpies of sublimation, vaporization, and dissociation of the different vapor species are found to be in reasonable agreement with available experimental data. The decrease of the enthalpy of vaporization of the vapor species, with the radius of the drop decrease, accounts for a larger fraction of trimers and tetramers than that inferred from experiments. Further, the rhombic dimer is significantly more abundant than its linear isomer although the latter increases with the temperature. The present results suggest that both trimers and linear dimers may be important to explain the vapor pressure of molten NaCl at temperatures above 1500 K.

  3. Effect of vapor-phase oxygen on chemical vapor deposition growth of graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasawa, Tomo-o.; Saiki, Koichiro

    2015-03-01

    To obtain a large-area single-crystal graphene, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth on Cu is considered the most promising. Recently, the surface oxygen on Cu has been found to suppress the nucleation of graphene. However, the effect of oxygen in the vapor phase was not elucidated sufficiently. Here, we investigate the effect of O2 partial pressure (PO2) on the CVD growth of graphene using radiation-mode optical microscopy. The nucleation density of graphene decreases monotonically with PO2, while its growth rate reaches a maximum at a certain pressure. Our results indicate that PO2 is an important parameter to optimize in the CVD growth of graphene.

  4. Boundary vapor contentsin an annular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remizov, O.V.; Shurkin, N.G.; Podgornyj, K.K.; Gal'chenko, Eh.F.; Bukhteev, I.S.

    1978-01-01

    The work is aimed at the experimental investigation of the worsening of the heat transfer in an annular channel. The experiments have been carried out on the annular channel 32x28x3000 mm with the even distribution of the heat flux along the length at pressures of 6.9-19.6 MPa, flow rate of 350-1000 kg/m 2 s, and specific heat fluxes from 0.18 up to 0.6 MW/m 2 . Heating is external, oneside. Water monodistillate of the following composition has been used as a coolant: pH 9; dry residue - 0.8-1.2 mg/kg, oxygen -10-15 mg/kg. It is found out that the change character of the temperature field of the heating surface of the annular channel at the regime with the worsen of heat emission depends on the ratio of regime parameters. At pressures of 6.9-13.7 MPa and flow rate of 350-500 kg/m 2 s the channel wall temperature rises monotoneously, never reaching its maximum. With pressure rise > 13.7 MPa and mass velocity > 500 kg/m 2 s the temperature of the heat emitting surface reaches its maximum, and then slowly falls. At pressures of 6.9-11.8 MPa the boundary vapor content value within the whole range of mass velocities does not depend on the specific heat flux q. At pressures higher than 13.7 MPa and mass velocities of 350-1000 kg/m 2 s the boundary vapor content depends on q. The heating of the external or internal surface of the annular channel affects the value of the boundary vapor content within the whole range of regime parameters' change under investigation

  5. Treatment of displaced mandibular condylar fracture with botulinum toxin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbay, Ercan; Cevik, Cengiz; Damlar, Ibrahim; Altan, Ahmet

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this case report is to discuss the effect on condylar reduction of botulinum toxin A treatment used in a child with displaced fracture at condylar neck of mandible. A 3-years old boy was admitted to our clinic for incomplete fracture of mandibular symphysis and displaced condylar fracture at the left side. An asymmetrical occlusal splint with intermaxillary fixation was used instead of open reduction and internal fixation because of incomplete fracture of symphysis and possible complications of condyle surgery. However, it was observed that condylar angulation persisted despite this procedure. Thus, botulinum toxin A was administered to masseter, temporalis and pterygoideus medialis muscles. At the end of first month, it was seen that mandibular condyle was almost completely recovered and that fusion was achieved. In conclusion, Botulinum A toxin injection aiming the suppression of masticatory muscle strength facilitates the reduction in the conservative management of displaced condyle in pediatric patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Modelling magnetic forces during asymmetric vertical displacement events at JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccardo, V.; Walker, S.; Noll, P.

    2000-01-01

    Asymmetric vertical disruption events (AVDEs) are fortunately rare, but can induce large lateral forces which can cause significant mechanical damage to tokamaks. In this paper we present a simple model which allows the lateral forces generated during such a disruption to be estimated as a function of relatively easily obtained electromagnetic parameters: the asymmetries in the vertical current moment. This model is validated by using it to predict the displacement history of the JET tokamak caused by a number of major AVDEs. It is shown that the predicted forces and displacements agree well with quantities measured during these disruptions. One conclusion from the model is that the maximum sideways displacement scales with the product of the plasma current and the toroidal field, and this recipe is now used at JET to assess a priori the hazards of performing high current and high field pulses when they are known to be likely to disrupt. (author)

  7. Displaced vertex searches for sterile neutrinos at future lepton colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antusch, Stefan [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut),Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Cazzato, Eros; Fischer, Oliver [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2016-12-02

    We investigate the sensitivity of future lepton colliders to displaced vertices from the decays of long-lived heavy (almost sterile) neutrinos with electroweak scale masses and detectable time of flight. As future lepton colliders we consider the FCC-ee, the CEPC, and the ILC, searching at the Z-pole and at the center-of-mass energies of 240, 350 and 500 GeV. For a realistic discussion of the detector response to the displaced vertex signal and the Standard Model background we consider the ILC’s Silicon Detector (SiD) as benchmark for the future lepton collider detectors. We find that displaced vertices constitute a powerful search channel for sterile neutrinos, sensitive to squared active-sterile mixing angles as small as 10{sup −11}.

  8. Reconstructing particle masses in events with displaced vertices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottin, Giovanna

    2018-03-01

    We propose a simple way to extract particle masses given a displaced vertex signature in event topologies where two long-lived mother particles decay to visible particles and an invisible daughter. The mother could be either charged or neutral and the neutral daughter could correspond to a dark matter particle in different models. The method allows to extract the parent and daughter masses by using on-shell conditions and energy-momentum conservation, in addition to the displaced decay positions of the parents, which allows to solve the kinematic equations fully on an event-by-event basis. We show the validity of the method by means of simulations including detector effects. If displaced events are seen in discovery searches at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), this technique can be applied.

  9. Time varying behavior of the loudspeaker suspension: Displacement level dependency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.; Pedersen, Bo Rohde

    2009-01-01

    The compliance of the loudspeaker suspension is known to depend on the recent excitation level history. Previous investigations have shown that the electrical power as well as displacement and velocity plays a role. In this paper the hypothesis that the changes in compliance are caused mainly...... by how much the suspension has been stretched, i.e. the maximum displacement, is investigated. For this purpose the changes in compliance are measured when exposing the speaker to different levels and types of electrical excitation signals, as well as mechanical excitation only. For sinusoidal excitation...... the change in compliance is shown to depend primarily on maximum displacement. But for square pulse excitation the duration of the excitation also plays an important role...

  10. Summary of ionizing and displacive irradiation fields in various facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinkle, S.J.; Greenwood, L.R.

    1993-01-01

    Calculations have been performed to estimate the ionizing and displacive irradiation fields that will occur in ceramics during irradiation in accelerators and fission and fusion reactors. A useful measure of the relative strength of ionizing vs. displasive radiation is the ratio of the absorbed ionizing dose to the displacement damage dose, which in the case of ion irradiation is equal to the ratio of the electronic stopping power to the nuclear stopping power. In ceramics such as Al 2 O 3 , this ratio is about 20 at a fusion reactor first wall, and has a typical value of about 100 in a fusion reactor blanket region and in mixed spectrum reactors such as HFIR. Particle accelerator sources typically have much higher ionizing to displacive radiation ratios, ranging from about 2000 for 1 MeV protons to >10,000 for 1 MeV electrons

  11. Large displacement vertical translational actuator based on piezoelectric thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhen; Pulskamp, Jeffrey S; Lin, Xianke; Rhee, Choong-Ho; Wang, Thomas; Polcawich, Ronald G; Oldham, Kenn

    2010-07-01

    A novel vertical translational microactuator based on thin-film piezoelectric actuation is presented, using a set of four compound bend-up/bend-down unimorphs to produce translational motion of a moving platform or stage. The actuation material is a chemical-solution deposited lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) thin film. Prototype designs have shown as much as 120 μ m of static displacement, with 80-90 μ m displacements being typical, using four 920 μ m long by 70 μ m legs. Analytical models are presented that accurately describe nonlinear behavior in both static and dynamic operation of prototype stages when the dependence of piezoelectric coefficients on voltage is known. Resonance of the system is observed at a frequency of 200 Hz. The large displacement and high bandwidth of the actuators at low-voltage and low-power levels should make them useful to a variety of optical applications, including endoscopic microscopy.

  12. Displacement of carbon-14 labelled amino acids from leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, R.

    1973-01-01

    The displacement of amino acids from nature leaves was investigated. The amino acids (Ala, Asn, Asp, Glu, Gln, Val, Leu, Lys, Ser, Pro) were applied on the leaves in L-form, uniformly labelled with 14 C, and the type and direction of displacement have been observed. Most of the studies have been carried out on bush beans aged 3 to 4 weeks. The experiments were carried out in climatic chambers; in one case, barley plants just reaching maturity were used. In order to find out whether the applied amino acids were also displaced in their original form, freeze-dried plants were extracted and the 14 C activity of the various fraction was determined. The radioactivity of some free amino acids was determined after two-dimensional separation by thin film chromatography. (orig./HK) [de

  13. Evaluation of throughwall crack pipes under displacement controlled loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahoor, A.

    1987-02-01

    Tearing modulus solutions are developed for flawed throughwall pipes subjected to displacement controlled loading. Two cases of loading were considered: (1) a displacement controlled bending loading, and (2) a displacement controlled axial tension loading. A revised version of the EPRI J-integral estimation scheme is used in the development of the solutions. These solutions can be used for the entire range of elastic-plastic loading, from linear elastic, contained yielding, to large scale yielding of the crack section. Experimental data from pipes in bending were used to assess the accuracy of the compliant loading solutions. The evaluations were performed using elastic plastic J-integral (J) and tearing modulus (T) analysis methods. These solutions are shown to have good accuracy when used to predict the experimental results. The methodology and procedure can also be applied to part-throughwall cracks. These solutions have application to the leak before break fracture mechanics analyses.

  14. Evaluation of throughwall crack pipes under displacement controlled loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, A.

    1987-01-01

    Tearing modulus solutions are developed for flawed throughwall pipes subjected to displacement controlled loading. Two cases of loading were considered: (1) a displacement controlled bending loading, and (2) a displacement controlled axial tension loading. A revised version of the EPRI J-integral estimation scheme is used in the development of the solutions. These solutions can be used for the entire range of elastic-plastic loading, from linear elastic, contained yielding, to large scale yielding of the crack section. Experimental data from pipes in bending were used to assess the accuracy of the compliant loading solutions. The evaluations were performed using elastic plastic J-integral (J) and tearing modulus (T) analysis methods. These solutions are shown to have good accuracy when used to predict the experimental results. The methodology and procedure can also be applied to part-throughwall cracks. These solutions have application to the leak before break fracture mechanics analyses. (orig.)

  15. Understanding interferometry for micro-cantilever displacement detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander von Schmidsfeld

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Interferometric displacement detection in a cantilever-based non-contact atomic force microscope (NC-AFM operated in ultra-high vacuum is demonstrated for the Michelson and Fabry–Pérot modes of operation. Each mode is addressed by appropriately adjusting the distance between the fiber end delivering and collecting light and a highly reflective micro-cantilever, both together forming the interferometric cavity. For a precise measurement of the cantilever displacement, the relative positioning of fiber and cantilever is of critical importance. We describe a systematic approach for accurate alignment as well as the implications of deficient fiber–cantilever configurations. In the Fabry–Pérot regime, the displacement noise spectral density strongly decreases with decreasing distance between the fiber-end and the cantilever, yielding a noise floor of 24 fm/Hz0.5 under optimum conditions.

  16. Molecular dynamics study of atomic displacements in disordered solid alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzyrev, Yevgeniy S.

    The effects of atomic displacements on the energetics of alloys plays important role in the determining the properties of alloys. We studied the atomic displacements in disordered solid alloys using molecular dynamics and Monte-Carlo methods. The diffuse scattering of pure materials, copper, gold, nickel, and palladium was calculated. The experimental data for pure Cu was obtained from diffuse scattering intensity of synchrotron x-ray radiation. The comparison showed the advantages of molecular dynamics method for calculating the atomic displacements in solid alloys. The individual nearest neighbor separations were calculated for Cu 50Au50 alloy and compared to the result of XAFS experiment. The molecular dynamics method provided theoretical predictions of nearest neighbor pair separations in other binary alloys, Cu-Pd and Cu-Al for wide range of the concentrations. We also experimentally recovered the diffuse scattering maps for the Cu47.3Au52.7 and Cu85.2Al14.8 alloy.

  17. Displacement disorder and reconstruction of the (001) face of tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorushkin, V.E.; Kul'ment'ev, A.I.; Savushkin, E.V.

    1992-01-01

    The reconstruction of the (001) border of tungsten is examined taking into consideration random static displacements of surface atoms in the high-temperature (1 x 1) phase. A microscopic model is proposed, in which the creation of c(2 x 2) phase is described as a transition of the Jahn-Teller type and an ordering of static displacements. It is shown that displacement disorder induces instability of (001) tungsten with respect to reconstruction. The effect of a uniform electric field on a disordered reconstructing surface is examined. A possible reason is given for pronounced differences in the results of investigations of the structural conversion of the (001) face in tungsten when different experimental methods are used

  18. The Displaced Female Voice: Poetry of Natalya Gorbanevskaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneerah Badr Almahasheer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Natalya Gorbanevskaya’s poetry uses unanchored imagery, direct address, and other specific means of creating a mood of rootlessness that is ambiguous and echoes her own experience as a Russian exile. Her work focuses on themes of displacement and trauma that are common to those who are forcibly made to leave their homes. This article is one of the first close readings of selected poems by Gorbanevskaya that is to merit attention to her displacement, marginalized feminine identity and resistance to the hegemony of political repression. The loss of her home in a literal and a geographical sense, and her status as an expatriate in Paris, can be understood as a complete displacement for Gorbanevskaya, forging her identity as a political refugee poet. Her work further reveals the power of poetry in reclaiming identity, asserting memory, and resisting the patriarchal system.

  19. Mental health problems among internally displaced persons in Darfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Abdalla A R M; Musa, Saif A

    2010-08-01

    War victims are regarded as one of the highest risk groups for mental disturbances. This study investigated the effects of the Darfur conflict on mental health of 430 internally displaced persons (IDPs) from three camps located around Fasher and Nyala towns. A stratified random sampling technique was used to select participants. Male participants represented 50.6% of the sample while female participants represented 49.4%. The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) were used in addition to a questionnaire measuring demographic variables and living conditions. It was hypothesized that high prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and of nonpsychotic psychiatric symptoms will be evident. Results showed a high dissatisfaction rate (72%) with living conditions among IDPs. There was also high prevalence of PTSD (54%) and general distress (70%) among IDPs. Female participants showed more somatic symptoms than their male counterparts. Married participants were more distressed, anxious, and showed more social dysfunction, while single ones reported more avoidance symptoms. Significant differences related to date of displacement were found in PTSD and hyperarousal. The group of IDPs displaced in 2003 scored higher on these scales than those displaced in 2004 and 2005. There was also significant difference related to date of displacement in distress, somatic symptoms, depression, anxiety, and social dysfunction. IDPs displaced in 2003 scored higher on these scales. Results are discussed in light of the study hypotheses and previous findings. It is concluded that three factors might affect the dissatisfaction of IDPs with living conditions inside camps. These are: lack of employment, unsuitability of food items, and lack of security around camps. It was recommended that psychological support services should be among the prime relief services provided by aid agencies.

  20. Internal displacement and health among the Palestinian minority in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Nihaya; Shankardass, Ketan; O'Campo, Patricia; Anderson, Kim; Agbaria, Ayman K

    2012-04-01

    Long term health impacts of internal displacement (ID) resulting from political violence are not well documented or understood. One such case is the ID of 300,000-420,000 Palestinian citizens of Israel and their descendants during the Nakba of 1948 (Palestinian Catastrophe). We aim to document the long term health impacts of this ID. We draw on data collected in 2005 from a nationwide random sample of 902 individuals aged 30-70. Research participants were interviewed in person after being selected through a multistage sampling procedure. About 24% of participants reported that either they or their families had been internally displaced. Palestinian internally displaced persons (IDPs), that is, those who were forcibly displaced and dispossessed from their homes and lands during the Nakba and its aftermath, as well as their families and descendants, and who reside within the current borders of Israel, had an odds ratio of 1.45 (95% CI = 1.02-2.07) for poor self-rated health (SRH) compared to non-IDPs after controlling for demographic, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors. No difference was found between IDPs and non-IDPs in limiting longstanding illness following control for confounders. Low socioeconomic position and chronic stress were significantly related to ID and to SRH. Our findings suggest adverse long term health impacts of the Nakba on the IDPs when compared to non-IDPs. We propose that these disparities might stem from IDPs' unhealed post-traumatic scars from the Nakba, or from becoming a marginalized minority within their own society due to their displacement and loss of collective identity. Given these long term health consequences, we conclude that displacement should be addressed with health and social policies for IDPs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of the transient compressible vapor flow in heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, J. H.; Faghri, A.; Chang, W. S.

    1989-01-01

    The transient compressible one-dimensional vapor flow dynamics in a heat pipe is modeled. The numerical results are obtained by using the implicit non-iterative Beam-Warming finite difference method. The model is tested for simulated heat pipe vapor flow and actual vapor flow in cylindrical heat pipes. A good comparison of the present transient results for the simulated heat pipe vapor flow with the previous results of a two-dimensional numerical model is achieved and the steady state results are in agreement with the existing experimental data. The transient behavior of the vapor flow under subsonic, sonic, and supersonic speeds and high mass flow rates are successfully predicted. The one-dimensional model also describes the vapor flow dynamics in cylindrical heat pipes at high temperatures.

  2. Analysis of the transient compressible vapor flow in heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, J.H.; Faghri, A.; Chang, W.S.

    1989-07-01

    The transient compressible one-dimensional vapor flow dynamics in a heat pipe is modeled. The numerical results are obtained by using the implicit non-iterative Beam-Warming finite difference method. The model is tested for simulated heat pipe vapor flow and actual vapor flow in cylindrical heat pipes. A good comparison of the present transient results for the simulated heat pipe vapor flow with the previous results of a two-dimensional numerical model is achieved and the steady state results are in agreement with the existing experimental data. The transient behavior of the vapor flow under subsonic, sonic, and supersonic speeds and high mass flow rates are successfully predicted. The one-dimensional model also describes the vapor flow dynamics in cylindrical heat pipes at high temperatures

  3. Current Density and Plasma Displacement Near Perturbed Rational Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.; Pomphrey, N.

    2010-01-01

    The current density in the vicinity of a rational surface of a force-free magnetic field subjected to an ideal perturbation is shown to be the sum of both a smooth and a delta-function distribution, which give comparable currents. The maximum perturbation to the smooth current density is comparable to a typical equilibrium current density and the width of the layer in which the current flows is shown to be proportional to the perturbation amplitude. In the standard linearized theory, the plasma displacement has an unphysical jump across the rational surface, but the full theory gives a continuous displacement.

  4. Traumatic corneal flap displacement after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai TH

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Tsung-Han Tsai,1 Kai-Ling Peng,1 Chien-Jen Lin2 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Radiology, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan Background: Laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK is the most common and popular procedure performed for the correction of refractive errors in the last two decades. We report a case of traumatic flap displacement with flap folding which occurred 3 years after LASIK was performed. Previous literature suggests that vision prognosis would be closely related to proper and prompt management of traumatic flap displacement with flap folding 3 years after LASIK.Case presentation: A 23-year-old female presented to our hospital who had undergone uneventful LASIK in both eyes 3 years prior. Unfortunately, she had suffered a blunt trauma in her right eye in a car accident. A late onset of corneal flap displacement was found with upper and lower portion of the flap being folded inside the corneal bed. Surgical intervention for debridement with subsequent reposition of corneal flap was performed as soon as possible in the operating room. A bandage contact lens was placed, and topical antibiotic and corticosteroids were given postoperatively. Two days after the operation, the displaced corneal flap was found to be well attached smoothly on the corneal bed without folds. The best-corrected visual acuity was 6/6 with refraction of −0.75 D to 1.0 D ×175° in her right eye 1 month later.Literature review: We reviewed a total of 19 published cases of late-onset traumatic flap dislocations or displacements after LASIK with complete data from 2000 to 2014.Conclusion: Traumatic displacement of corneal flaps after LASIK may occur after blunt injury with specific direction of force to the flap margin, especially tangential one. According to the previous literature, late-onset traumatic flap displacement may happen at any time after LASIK and be caused by various types of injuries. Fortunately, good visual function could

  5. Nanoscale displacement sensing using microfabricated variable-inductance planar coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, M. Bulut; Thotahewa, Kasun; Ying, York-Sing; Yuce, Mehmet; Neild, Adrian; Alan, Tuncay

    2013-09-01

    Microfabricated spiral inductors were employed for nanoscale displacement detection, suitable for use in implantable pressure sensor applications. We developed a variable inductor sensor consisting of two coaxially positioned planar coils connected in series to a measurement circuit. The devices were characterized by varying the air gap between the coils hence changing the inductance, while a Colpitts oscillator readout was used to obtain corresponding frequencies. Our approach shows significant advantages over existing methodologies combining a displacement resolution of 17 nm and low hysteresis (0.15%) in a 1 × 1 mm2 device. We show that resolution could be further improved by shrinking the device's lateral dimensions.

  6. Monitoring of pipe displacements in French LMFBR SUPERPHENIX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foucher, N.; Debaene, J.P.; Renault, Y.; Blin, B.

    1993-01-01

    In order to check that pipe supports work properly and that the locking of snubbers or the loss of supports do not put a pipe in unacceptable loading conditions, a monitoring of the behaviour of the main pipes of SUPERPHENIX is planned. This monitoring system consists in measuring the displacements at selected points of the pipe by means of measuring rods and checking that these displacements remain inside allowable domains. These allowable domains are defined so that, if the displacements of the pipe are inside all these domains, the plant operator is sure that the stresses verify the allowable limits and then no additional inspection is carried out. In the opposite case, the operator will inspect the pipe in detail in order to determine the consequences and repair if necessary before restarting. Selection of points for monitoring was done with the to minimize the number of measures to be carried out and to use as far as possible the measuring rods that were installed to check that pipe displacements were consistent with what has been obtained in design calculations. However, it appears necessary to ensure that any incident occurring at any point of the pipe can be detected and, if necessary, additional measuring rods may be installed. An incident is said detectable if it induces on at least one measuring rod a deviation with respect to expected displacement not lower than 5 mm. It has been chosen so that small normal changes in measured displacements are not mistaken as incidents. The incidents that are supposed likely to occur are: 1) loss of a support which induces mainly primary stresses, 2) locking of a snubber which induces mainly secondary stresses. Monitoring of pipe displacements is a simple and effective way of checking that no damaging perturbation has occurred on the pipe. Calculations carried out on the DHR loops of SUPERPHENIX show that allowable domains of acceptable size may be obtained using a relatively small number of measuring rods. The method

  7. Job Displacement and First Birth Over the Business Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Barbara; Kreyenfeld, Michaela; Uhlendorff, Arne

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the impact of job displacement on women?s first-birth rates as well as the variation in this effect over the business cycle. We use mass layoffs to estimate the causal effects of involuntary job loss on fertility in the short and medium term, up to five years after displacement. Our analysis is based on rich administrative data from Germany, with an observation period spanning more than 20 years. We apply inverse probability weighting (IPW) to flexibly control ...

  8. Displacement-noise-free gravitational-wave detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Seiji; Chen Yanbei

    2004-01-01

    We present a new idea that allows us to detect gravitational waves without being disturbed by any kind of displacement noise, based on the fact that gravitational waves and test-mass motions affect the propagations of light differently. We demonstrate this idea by analyzing a simple toy model consisting of three equally-separated objects on a line. By taking a certain combination of light travel times between these objects, we construct an observable free from the displacement of each object, which has a reasonable sensitivity to gravitational waves

  9. SPS data on tunnel displacements and the ATL law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiltsev, V.

    1993-09-01

    In this article we analyze data from long-term measurements of quadrupole displacements in the Super Proton Synchrotron ring at CERN. The variance of displacement can be approximated by ATL law with coefficient A = (0.1--0.4) * 10 -4 μm 2 /s/m, with T the time interval between measurements and L the distance between two points of the tunnel. The shape of the distribution function is found to be close to Gaussian. The results of the analysis are compared with other data on slow ground motion

  10. Airflow and Temperature Distribution in Rooms with Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, T. V.

    This thesis deals with air flow and temperature distribution in a room ventilated by the displacement principle. The characteristic features of the ventilation system are treated in the whole room but main emphasis is laid on the analysis of the stratified flow region in front of the inlet device....... After a prefatory description of the background and the fundamentals of displacement ventilation the objectives of the current study are specified. The subsequent sections describe the measurements of velocity and temperature profiles carried out in a full scale test room. Based on experimental data...... of measured data is of crucial importance. Qualitatively satisfactory results do not ensure quantitative agreement....

  11. Kinetics of spontaneous displacement of RNA from heteroduplexes by DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Landgraf, R; Ramamurthi, K S; Sigman, D S

    1996-01-01

    We have used R-loop formation and direct hybridization techniques to analyze the kinetics by which RNA is displaced from a heteroduplex by DNA of identical sequence. Using random walk simulations we were able to calculate the step times for a single displacement reaction. For RNA with a GC content of 57-60% the data indicate an RNA exchange probability of 50.06%, which is indicative of a modest destabilization of the heteroduplex compared with a DNA duplex in the presence of magnesium. The av...

  12. A Computer Based Moire Technique To Measure Very Small Displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Amadshahi, Mansour A.; Subbaraman, B.

    1987-02-01

    The accuracy that can be achieved in the measurement of very small displacements in techniques such as moire, holography and speckle is limited by the noise inherent to the utilized optical devices. To reduce the noise to signal ratio, the moire method can be utilized. Two system of carrier fringes are introduced, an initial system before the load is applied and a final system when the load is applied. The moire pattern of these two systems contains the sought displacement information and the noise common to the two patterns is eliminated. The whole process is performed by a computer on digitized versions of the patterns. Examples of application are given.

  13. Coulomb displacement energies in nuclei: a new approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, N.; Tel Aviv Univ.; Bernard, V.; Nguyen, V.G.

    1978-04-01

    The neutron core polarization gives rise to an important correction to the direct Coulomb contribution when one calculates the Coulomb displacement energies. In the Hartree-Fock model it is shown that this correction is about 2% to 4.5% in medium and heavy nuclei. The core polarization as well as other higher order effects can be included by using a selfconsistent description of the analog state in a complete proton particle-neutron hole space. The Coulomb displacement energies in 48 Ca, 88 Sr and 208 Pb have been calculated using Skyrme interactions SIII and SIV. A good agreement with experiment is obtained

  14. The Displacement of Regimes of Action in the Armed Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holsting, Vilhelm Stefan

    The aim of this paper is to explore how one might approach the profession of military command using the concepts of regimes of justification by Luc Boltanski and Laurent Thévenot in an analysis of the contemporary disputes and tensions between political and professional actors and in a time where...... of their contemporary role, responsibility and challenges) and an analysis of the displacement of military regimes in the light of economic and security changes at the societal level. I am arguing that the entrance of new regimes of justification are challenging and displacing the traditional professional justificatory...

  15. Dependence of displacement fields on the damage cluster nucleus geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, A.N.; Zabela, A.G.; Nikolajchuk, L.I.; Prokhorenko, E.M.; Khizhnyak, N.A.

    1988-01-01

    Displacement fields in doped crystals of cubic and hexagonal structures containing extended defects are studied. The numerical results are presented depending on the damage cluster nucleus geometry. All calculations are based on analytical representations of displacement fields in an integral form using elasticity theory equations. The investigation results are vital for radiation physics as they permit to predict and calculate both the character and geometry of distortions near damaged region cluster and determine cluster parameters on the basis of the known structure of distortions. Dependences are obtained for the following monocrystals: Mg, ZnO, CdS, W, Au. 6 refs.; 3 figs

  16. A comparison of cord gingival displacement with the gingitage technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupac, R G; Neacy, K

    1981-11-01

    Fifteen young adult dogs were divided into three groups representing 0, 7- and 21-day healing periods. Randomly selected cuspid teeth were used to compare cord gingival displacement and gingitage techniques for subgingival tooth preparation and impression making. Clinical and histologic measurements were used as a basis for comparison. Results indicate that (1) the experimental teeth were clinically healthy at the beginning of the experiment, (2) clinical health of the gingival tissues was controlled throughout the course of the experiment, and (3) within this experimental setting, there was no significant difference between the cord gingival displacement technique and the gingitage technique.

  17. Vaporization of a mixed precursors in chemical vapor deposition for YBCO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Meng, Guangyao; Schneider, Roger L.; Sarma, Bimal K.; Levy, Moises

    1995-01-01

    Single phase YBa2Cu3O7-delta thin films with T(c) values around 90 K are readily obtained by using a single source chemical vapor deposition technique with a normal precursor mass transport. The quality of the films is controlled by adjusting the carrier gas flow rate and the precursor feed rate.

  18. Design and physical features of inductive coaxial copper vapor lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batenin, V. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Kazaryan, M. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Karpukhin, V. T. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Lyabin, N. A. [Istok Research and Production Corporation (Russian Federation); Malikov, M. M., E-mail: mmalikov@oivtran.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    A physical model of a copper vapor laser pumped by a pulse-periodic inductive (electrodeless) discharge is considered. The feasibility of efficient laser pumping by an inductive discharge and reaching high output parameters comparable to those of conventional copper vapor lasers pumped by a longitudinal electrode discharge is demonstrated. The design and physical features of an inductive copper vapor laser with an annular working volume are discussed.

  19. Review of enhanced vapor diffusion in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S.W.; Ho, C.K.

    1998-01-01

    Vapor diffusion in porous media in the presence of its own liquid has often been treated similar to gas diffusion. The gas diffusion rate in porous media is much lower than in free space due to the presence of the porous medium and any liquid present. However, enhanced vapor diffusion has also been postulated such that the diffusion rate may approach free-space values. Existing data and models for enhanced vapor diffusion, including those in TOUGH2, are reviewed in this paper

  20. The prevalence and significance of displacement for wilderness recreation management and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrid E. Schneider

    2007-01-01

    The concept of visitor displacement has important implications for wilderness management and research. Research on actual displacement of wilderness visitors is extremely limited, but this displacement likely follows patterns found for general recreationists: visitors employ a variety of coping responses and displacement is prevalent. Understanding if and when visitors...

  1. Excessively High Vapor Pressure of Al-based Amorphous Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Im Jeong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum-based amorphous alloys exhibited an abnormally high vapor pressure at their approximate glass transition temperatures. The vapor pressure was confirmed by the formation of Al nanocrystallites from condensation, which was attributed to weight loss of the amorphous alloys. The amount of weight loss varied with the amorphous alloy compositions and was inversely proportional to their glass-forming ability. The vapor pressure of the amorphous alloys around 573 K was close to the vapor pressure of crystalline Al near its melting temperature, 873 K. Our results strongly suggest the possibility of fabricating nanocrystallites or thin films by evaporation at low temperatures.

  2. Comparative study of the vapor analytes of trinitrotoluene (TNT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edge, Cindy C.; Gibb, Julie; Dugan, Regina E.

    1998-12-01

    Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a high explosive used in most antipersonnel and antitank landmines. The Institute for Biological Detection Systems (IBDS) has developed a quantitative vapor delivery system, termed olfactometer, for conducting canine olfactory research. The research is conducted utilizing dynamic conditions, therefore, it is imperative to evaluate the headspace of TNT to ensure consistency with the dynamic generation of vapor. This study quantified the vapor headspace of military- grade TNT utilizing two different vapor generated methodologies, static and dynamic, reflecting differences between field and laboratory environments. Static vapor collection, which closely mimics conditions found during field detection, is defined as vapor collected in an open-air environment at ambient temperature. Dynamic vapor collection incorporates trapping of gases from a high flow vapor generation cell used during olfactometer operation. Analysis of samples collected by the two methodologies was performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and the results provided information with regard to the constituents detected. However, constituent concentration did vary between the sampling methods. This study provides essential information regarding the vapor constituents associated with the TNT sampled using different sampling methods. These differences may be important in determining the detection signature dogs use to recognize TNT.

  3. The liquid to vapor phase transition in excited nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, J.B.; Moretto, L.G.; Phair, L.; Wozniak, G.J.; Beaulieu, L.; Breuer, H.; Korteling, R.G.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Lefort, T.; Pienkowski, L.; Ruangma, A.; Viola, V.E.; Yennello, S.J.

    2001-05-08

    For many years it has been speculated that excited nuclei would undergo a liquid to vapor phase transition. For even longer, it has been known that clusterization in a vapor carries direct information on the liquid-vapor equilibrium according to Fisher's droplet model. Now the thermal component of the 8 GeV/c pion + 197 Au multifragmentation data of the ISiS Collaboration is shown to follow the scaling predicted by Fisher's model, thus providing the strongest evidence yet of the liquid to vapor phase transition.

  4. Fuel conditioning facility electrorefiner cadmium vapor trap operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaden, D. E.

    1998-01-01

    Processing sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel at the Fuel Conditioning Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West involves an electrometallurgical process employing a molten LiCl-KCl salt covering a pool of molten cadmium. Previous research has shown that the cadmium dissolves in the salt as a gas, diffuses through the salt layer and vaporizes at the salt surface. This cadmium vapor condenses on cool surfaces, causing equipment operation and handling problems. Using a cadmium vapor trap to condense the cadmium vapors and reflux them back to the electrorefiner has mitigated equipment problems and improved electrorefiner operations

  5. Water Vapor Remote Sensing Techniques: Radiometry and Solar Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somieski, A.; Buerki, B.; Cocard, M.; Geiger, A.; Kahle, H.-G.

    The high variability of atmospheric water vapor content plays an important role in space geodesy, climatology and meteorology. Water vapor has a strong influence on transatmospheric satellite signals, the Earth's climate and thus the weather forecasting. Several remote sensing techniques have been developed for the determination of inte- grated precipitable water vapor (IPWV). The Geodesy and Geodynamics Lab (GGL) utilizes the methods of Water Vapor Radiometry and Solar Spectrometry to quantify the amount of tropospheric water vapor and its temporal variations. The Water Vapor Radiometer (WVR) measures the radiation intensity of the atmosphere in a frequency band ranging from 20 to 32 GHz. The Solar Atmospheric MOnitoring Spectrome- ter (SAMOS) of GGL is designed for high-resolution measurements of water vapor absorption lines using solar radiation. In the framework of the ESCOMPTE (ExpÊrience sur Site pour COntraindre les Mod- Éles de Pollution atmosphÊrique et de Transport d'Emissions) field campaign these instruments have been operated near Marseille in 2001. They have aquired a long time series of integrated precipitable water vapor content (IPWV). The accuracy of IPWV measured by WVR and SAMOS is 1 kg/m2. Furthermore meteorological data from radiosondes were used to calculate the IPWV in order to provide comparisons with the results of WVR and SAMOS. The methods of Water Vapor Radiometry and So- lar Spectrometry will be discussed and first preliminary results retrieved from WVR, SAMOS and radiosondes during the ESCOMPTE field campaign will be presented.

  6. A heated vapor cell unit for DAVLL in atomic rubidium

    OpenAIRE

    McCarron, Daniel J.; Hughes, Ifan G.; Tierney, Patrick; Cornish, Simon L.

    2007-01-01

    The design and performance of a compact heated vapor cell unit for realizing a dichroic atomic vapor laser lock (DAVLL) for the D2 transitions in atomic rubidium is described. A 5 cm-long vapor cell is placed in a double-solenoid arrangement to produce the required magnetic field; the heat from the solenoid is used to increase the vapor pressure and correspondingly the DAVLL signal. We have characterized experimentally the dependence of important features of the DAVLL signal on magnetic field...

  7. Water vapor permeabilities through polymers: diffusivities from experiments and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seethamraju, Sindhu; Ramamurthy, Praveen Chandrashekarapura; Madras, Giridhar

    2014-01-01

    This study experimentally determines water vapor permeabilities, which are subsequently correlated with the diffusivities obtained from simulations. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used for determining the diffusion of water vapor in various polymeric systems such as polyethylene, polypropylene, poly (vinyl alcohol), poly (vinyl acetate), poly (vinyl butyral), poly (vinylidene chloride), poly (vinyl chloride) and poly (methyl methacrylate). Cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) based methodology has been used to determine the water vapor transmission rates. These values were then used to calculate the diffusion coefficients for water vapor through these polymers. A comparative analysis is provided for diffusivities calculated from CRDS and MD based results by correlating the free volumes. (paper)

  8. Ultrasound-assisted vapor generation of mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Anderson S.; Vieira, Mariana A. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Departamento de Quimica, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Willie, Scott; Sturgeon, Ralph E. [National Research Council Canada, Institute for National Measurement Standards, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2007-06-15

    Cold vapor generation arising from reduction of both Hg{sup 2+} and CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +} occurs using ultrasonic (US) fields of sufficient density to achieve both localized heating as well as radical-based attack in solutions of formic and acetic acids and tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). A batch sonoreactor utilizing an ultrasonic probe as an energy source and a flow through system based on a US bath were optimized for this purpose. Reduction of CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +} to Hg{sup 0} occurs only at relatively high US field density (>10 W cm{sup -3} of sample solution) and is thus not observed when a conventional US bath is used for cold vapor generation. Speciation of mercury is thus possible by altering the power density during the measurement process. Thermal reduction of Hg{sup 2+} is efficient in formic acid and TMAH at 70 C and occurs in the absence of the US field. Room temperature studies with the batch sonoreactor reveal a slow reduction process, producing temporally broad signals having an efficiency of approximately 68% of that arising from use of a conventional SnCl{sub 2} reduction system. Molecular species of mercury are generated at high concentrations of formic and acetic acid. Factors affecting the generation of Hg{sup 0} were optimized and the batch sonoreactor used for the determination of total mercury in SLRS-4 river water reference material. (orig.)

  9. Reactions of atmospheric vapors with lunar soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, E.L. Jr.; Agron, P.A.

    1976-03-01

    Detailed experimental data have been acquired for the hydration of the surfaces of lunar fines. Inert vapor adsorption has been employed to measure the surface properties (surface energy, surface area, porosity, etc.) and changes wrought in the hydration-dehydration processes. Plausible mechanisms have been considered and the predominant process involves hydration of the metamict metallosilicate surfaces to form a hydrated laminar structure akin to terrestrial clays. Additional credence for this interpretation is obtained by comparison to existing geochemical literature concerning terrestrial weathering of primary metallosilicates. The surface properties of the hydrated lunar fines are compared favorably to those of terrestrial clay minerals. In addition, experimental results are given to show that fresh disordered surfaces of volcanic sand react with water vapor in a manner virtually identical to the majority of the lunar fines. The results show that ion track etching and/or grain boundary attack are minor contributions in the weathering of lunar fines in the realm of our microgravimetric experimental conditions. 14 references

  10. Potassium permanganate for mercury vapor environmental control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuivinen, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) was evaluated for application in removing mercury vapor from exhaust air systems. The KMnO4 may be used in water solution with a liquid spray scrubber system or as a solid adsorber bed material when impregnated onto a zeolite. Air samples contaminated with as much as 112 mg/cu m of mercury were scrubbed to 0.06mg/cum with the KMnO4-impregnated zeolite (molecular sieve material). The water spray solution of permanganate was also found to be as effective as the impregnated zeolite. The KMnO4-impregnated zeolite was applied as a solid adsorber material to (1) a hardware decontamination system, (2) a model incinerator, and (3) a high vacuum chamber for ion engine testing with mercury as the propellant. A liquid scrubber system was also applied in an incinerator system. Based on the results of these experiments, it is concluded that the use of KMnO4 can be an effective method for controlling noxious mercury vapor.

  11. Ultrasound-assisted vapor generation of mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Anderson S; Vieira, Mariana A; Willie, Scott; Sturgeon, Ralph E

    2007-06-01

    Cold vapor generation arising from reduction of both Hg(2+) and CH(3)Hg(+) occurs using ultrasonic (US) fields of sufficient density to achieve both localized heating as well as radical-based attack in solutions of formic and acetic acids and tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). A batch sonoreactor utilizing an ultrasonic probe as an energy source and a flow through system based on a US bath were optimized for this purpose. Reduction of CH(3)Hg(+) to Hg(0) occurs only at relatively high US field density (>10 W cm(-3) of sample solution) and is thus not observed when a conventional US bath is used for cold vapor generation. Speciation of mercury is thus possible by altering the power density during the measurement process. Thermal reduction of Hg(2+) is efficient in formic acid and TMAH at 70 degrees C and occurs in the absence of the US field. Room temperature studies with the batch sonoreactor reveal a slow reduction process, producing temporally broad signals having an efficiency of approximately 68% of that arising from use of a conventional SnCl(2) reduction system. Molecular species of mercury are generated at high concentrations of formic and acetic acid. Factors affecting the generation of Hg(0) were optimized and the batch sonoreactor used for the determination of total mercury in SLRS-4 river water reference material.

  12. Plantas indicadoras de clomazone na fase vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Schreiber

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A volatilização representa um processo importante no deslocamento de agrotóxicos para o ambiente. As características físico-químicas da molécula do clomazone indicam que este possui potencial de volatilização. Em vista do exposto, para a realização deste estudo, foram conduzidos dois experimentos com o objetivo de avaliar a suscetibilidade das espécies: pepino, melão, milho, sorgo e arroz a diferentes formulações do herbicida clomazone na fase vapor. Para isso, foram utilizadas caixas de vidro hermeticamente fechadas, com a presença de diferentes formulações de clomazone e as espécies vegetais. As formulações utilizadas foram Gamit 360 CS®, Gamit 500 EC® e Gamit Star®. Com os resultados obtidos, foi possível concluir que, dentre as espécies avaliadas, independente da formulação utilizada, a de menor tolerância ao herbicida clomazone na fase vapor foi o sorgo, seguido do milho e do arroz.

  13. Cesium vapor cycle for an advanced LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraas, A.P.

    1975-01-01

    A review indicates that a cesium vapor topping cycle appears attractive for use in the intermediate fluid circuit of an advanced LMFBR designed for a reactor outlet temperature of 1250 0 F or more and would have the following advantages: (1) it would increase the thermal efficiency by about 5 to 10 points (from approximately 40 percent to approximately 45 to 50 percent) thus reducing the amount of waste heat rejected to the environment by 15 to 30 percent. (2) the higher thermal efficiency should reduce the overall capital cost of the reactor plant in dollars per kilowatt. (3) the cesium can be distilled out of the intermediate fluid circuit to leave it bone-dry, thus greatly reducing the time and cost of maintenance work (particularly for the steam generator). (4) the large volume and low pressure of the cesium vapor region in the cesium condenser-steam generator greatly reduces the magnitude of pressure fluctuations that might occur in the event of a leak in a steam generator tube, and the characteristics inherent in a condenser make it easy to design for rapid concentration of any noncondensibles that may form as a consequence of a steam leak into the cesium region so that a steam leak can be detected easily in the very early stages of its development

  14. Vapor pressures and vaporization enthalpy of (−) α-bisabolol and (dl) menthol by correlation gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keating, Leasa; Harris, Harold H.; Chickos, James S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The vaporization enthalpy and vapor pressure of (−) α-bisabolol and (dl)-menthol have been measured as a function of temperature. • Vapor pressures, vaporization enthalpies and boiling temperatures have been compared to available literature data. • Vapor pressures of (l)-menthol are compared to (dl)-menthol. - Abstract: The vapor pressures and vaporization enthalpies of (−) α-bisabolol and (dl)-menthol, two GRAS chemicals (generally recognized as safe) are evaluated by correlation gas chromatography using a series of saturated primary alcohols as standards. Vaporization enthalpies of (96.6 ± 2.4) and (74.2 ± 2.8) kJ mol −1 and vapor pressures of p/Pa = (0.020 ± 0.003) and (4.5 ± 0.44) were evaluated at T = 298.15 K for (−) α-bisabolol and (dl)-menthol, respectively, and compared to literature values. The vapor pressures of both compounds from T = (298.15 to 500) K have been derived from correlations using vapor pressures of a series of 1-alkanols and corresponding gas chromatographic retention times at 10 K intervals. The results were fit to a second order polynomial. Calculated normal boiling temperatures of T B = (574.8 and 492.7) K are calculated for (−) α-bisabolol and (dl)-menthol, respectively. A normal boiling temperature of T B = (485.2, and 489.7) K has previously been reported for (dl)-menthol. Vapor pressures for both (l)-menthol and (dl)-menthol from a previous study and (dl)-menthol from this study are compared with literature values.

  15. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-S-106 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-S-106. This document presents In Situ vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the June 13, 1996 sampling of SST 241-S-106. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which'supplied and analyzed the sample media

  16. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-U-104 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Vapor Issue.Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-U-104. This document presents In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the July 16, 1996 sampling of SST 241-U-104. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which supplied and analyzed the sample media

  17. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-S-103 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockrem, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-S-103. This document presents In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the June 12, 1996 sampling of SST 241-S-103. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which supplied and analyzed the sample media

  18. Relation between anterior displacement of the temporomandibular joint disc and size of the condyle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohgushi, Masatoshi; Kubota, Hisashi; Yamaguchi, Kouichi; Shibata, Takanori

    1996-01-01

    To elucidate the cause of anterior displacement of the disc, we evaluated the relation between anterior displacement and the size of the condyle from MR images in 301 patients (602 TMJs) with clinical diagnosis of internal derangement. We found that the size of condyles with anterior displacement of the disc was significantly smaller than that of condyles without anterior displacement. This result suggests that small condyles may give rise to anterior displacement of the disc. (author)

  19. Forced population displacement | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 oct. 2015 ... Increase land and housing tenure for the poor and help displaced communities rebuild the social fabric in their new neighbourhoods. ... The urban poor in Zimbabwe live in extreme stress and anxiety because they are unable to buy or rent property, or meet government requirements to develop their land.

  20. Current techniques for management of transverse displaced olecranon fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hamer, A.; Heusinkveld, M.H.G.; Traa, W.; Oomen, P.; Oliva, F.; Del Buono, A.; Maffulli, N.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: displaced transverse fractures of the olecranon are the most common fractures occurring in the elbow in adults that requires operative intervention. METHODS: a literature search was performed on PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct/Scopus, Google Scholar and Google using the keywords

  1. The internally displaced persons in Ukraine: Lviv’s example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Bubniak

    2016-11-01

    As a result, the conclusions indicate that the internally displaced persons are gradually adopting in Lviv, as they got new social relations, gained new knowledge and skills, understood local social norms, realized that they are masters of their life and they are the only ones, who determine their future.

  2. Libyan armed conflict 2011: Mortality, injury and population displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Daw

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The Libyan armed conflict resulted in great human loss and social damage mirrored by high rates of mortality, injury and human displacement. Such parameters peaked as the conflict escalated and differed according to the Libyan regions and provinces involved. National and international efforts should be combined to overcome the consequences of these conflicts.

  3. Potential displacement of petroleum imports by solar energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLeon, P.; Jackson, B.L.; McNown, R.F.; Mahrenholz, G.J.

    1980-05-01

    The United States currently imports close to half of its petroleum requirements. This report delineates the economic, social, and political costs of such a foreign oil dependency. These costs are often intangible, but combined they clearly constitute a greater price for imported petroleum than the strictly economic cost. If we can assume that imported oil imposes significant socioeconomic costs upon the American economy and society, one way to reduce these costs is to develop alternative, domestic energy sources - such as solar energy technologies - which can displace foreign petroleum. The second half of this report estimates that by the year 2000, solar energy technologies can displace 3.6 quads of petroleum. This figure includes solar energy applications in utilities, industrial and agricultural process heat, and transportation. The estimate can be treated as a lower bound; if the United States were to achieve the proposed goal of 20 quads by 2000, the amount of displaced oil probably would be greater. Although all the displaced oil would not be imported, the reduction in imported petroleum would relieve many of the conditions that increase the present cost of foreign oil to the American consumer.

  4. Environmental stress, displacement and the challenge of rights protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Zetter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available "Examination of migration histories and current politics in Kenya, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Ethiopia and Ghana sheds light on how rights are articulated for groups and individuals displaced in a context of environmental stress and climate change. Both migration and rights are sensitive issues in these case-study countries, and the conjunction of the two is especially sensitive."

  5. Disaster-induced displacement in the Caribbean and the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Hamza

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available People in Small Island Developing States are particularly vulnerable to displacement by disaster. Governments in the Caribbean and the Pacific need urgently to do more risk management and planning, rather than focusing almost exclusively on response and relocation.

  6. Hydrodynamic Excitation Forces on Floating Structures with Finite Displacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten Thøtt; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    2015-01-01

    excitation force is solely a function of time, hence the body is fixed in reference to the wave field. In this paper, the instantaneous position of the body is included in the calculation of the excitation force. Even though the displacement of the structure relative to a characteristic wavelength...

  7. Finding small displacements of recorded speckle patterns: revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Chakrabarti, Maumita

    2015-01-01

    An analytical expression for the bias effect in digital speckle correlation is derived based on a Gaussian approximation of the spatial pixel size and array extent. The evaluation is carried out having assumed an incident speckle field. The analysis is focused on speckle displacements in the order...

  8. Internal population displacement and its aftermath on Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper interrogated the corporate existence of Nigeria and raised some fundamental questions regarding reasons for discontent, violent conflicts and internal population displacement in Nigeria given her enormous resources, both human and material. The paper through intensive content analysis provided answers to ...

  9. The importance of social capital in protracted displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Uzelac

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available By understanding the role that social capital plays in the lives of Syrian refugees in Lebanon – how it is created, sustained, converted and what happens when it breaks down – we hope to generate discussion about ways to further tailor assessments, targeting and programming in this and other situations of protracted displacement.

  10. Crystal structure of vanadite: Refinement of anisotropic displacement parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laufek, F.; Skála, Roman; Haloda, J.; Císařová, I.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, 3-4 (2006), s. 271-275 ISSN 1210-8197 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : anisotropic displacement parameter * crystal structure * single-crystal X-ray refinement * vanadinite Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  11. Quantum Phonon Optics: Squeezing Quantum Noise in the Atomic Displacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X.; Nori, F.

    1996-03-01

    We have investigated(X. Hu and F. Nori, Physical Review B, in press; preprints.) coherent and squeezed quantum states of phonons. Squeezed states are interesting because they allow the possibility of modulating the quantum fluctuations of atomic displacements below the zero-point quantum noise level of phonon vacuum states. We have studiedfootnotemark[1] the possibility of squeezing quantum noise in the atomic displacement using a polariton-based approach and also a method based on the three-phonon anharmonic interaction. Our focus here is on the first approach. We have diagonalized the polariton Hamiltonian and calculated the corresponding expectation values and fluctuations of both the atomic displacement and the lattice amplitude operators (the later is the phonon analog of the electric field operator for photons). Our results shows that squeezing of quantum fluctuations in the atomic displacements can be achieved with appropriate initial states of both photon and phonon fields. The degree of squeezing is directly related to the crystal susceptibility, which is indicative of the interaction strength between the incident light and the crystal.

  12. Classification of displacive transformations: what is a martensitic transformation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, J.W.; Olson, G.B.; Cohen, M.

    1995-01-01

    The displacive transformation classification proposed at ICOMAT 79 is reviewed in light of recent progress in mechanistic understanding. Issues considered include distinctions between shuffle transformation vs. self-accommodating shear, dilatation vs. shear-dominant transformation, and nucleated vs. continuous transformation. (orig.)

  13. The UN Security Council and prevention of displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjula Weerasinghe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Respecting the prohibitions against forced and arbitrary displacementcould significantly reduce the risk of, or prevent, displacement insituations of armed conflict, as could insisting on accountabilityfor violations of these prohibitions that amount to war crimes orcrimes against humanity. The UN Security Council has only partiallyaddressed these issues.

  14. Coulomb displacement energies between analog levels for 44 < = A < = 239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antony, M.S.; Britz, J.; Pape, A.

    1985-08-01

    Experimental Coulomb displacement energie ΔEsub(C) between isobaric analog levels are tabulated for 44 <- A <- 239, extending recent work in which similar data were presented for 3 <- A <- 45. An overall parametrization in anti-Z/A sup(1/3) and uniform radius parameters rsub(o) are given

  15. Rotational displacement skills in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kelly D; Santos, Laurie R

    2012-11-01

    Rotational displacement tasks, in which participants must track an object at a hiding location within an array while the array rotates, exhibit a puzzling developmental pattern in humans. Human children take an unusually long time to master this task and tend to solve rotational problems through the use of nongeometric features or landmarks as opposed to other kinds of spatial cues. We investigated whether these developmental characteristics are unique to humans by testing rotational displacement skills in a monkey species, the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), using a looking-time method. Monkeys first saw food hidden in two differently colored boxes within an array. The array was then rotated 180° and the boxes reopened to reveal the food in an expected or unexpected location. Our first two experiments explored the developmental time-course of performance on this rotational displacement task. We found that adult macaques looked longer at the unexpected event, but such performance was not mirrored in younger-aged macaques. In a third study, we systematically varied featural information and visible access to the array to investigate which strategies adult macaques used in solving rotational displacements. Our results show that adult macaques need both sets of information to solve the task. Taken together, these results suggest both similarities and differences in mechanisms by which human and nonhuman primates develop this spatial skill.

  16. Urban Displacement: Fruits of a History of Collusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, June Manning

    1979-01-01

    Examines evidence supporting the theory that urban displacement is an example of the link between social injustice and economic interests. Considers federal policies regarding public housing, urban renewal, and highway construction and demonstrates how they have resulted in perpetuating discrimination against poorer citizens. (Author/WP)

  17. Lumped impulses, discrete displacements and a moving load analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.W.M.

    1997-01-01

    Finite element models are usually presented as relations between lumped forces and discrete displacements. Mostly finite element models are found by the elaboration of the method of the virtual work - which is a special case of the Galerkin's variational principle -. By application of Galerkin's

  18. Multi-link laser interferometry architecture for interspacecraft displacement metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Samuel P.; Lam, Timothy T.-Y.; McClelland, David E.; Shaddock, Daniel A.

    2018-03-01

    Targeting a future Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, we present a new laser interferometry architecture that can be used to recover the displacement between two spacecraft from multiple interspacecraft measurements. We show it is possible to recover the displacement between the spacecraft centers of mass in post-processing by forming linear combinations of multiple, spatially offset, interspacecraft measurements. By canceling measurement error due to angular misalignment of the spacecraft, we remove the need for precise placement or alignment of the interferometer, potentially simplifying spacecraft integration. To realize this multi-link architecture, we propose an all-fiber interferometer, removing the need for any ultrastable optical components such as the GRACE Follow-On mission's triple mirror assembly. Using digitally enhanced heterodyne interferometry, the number of links is readily scalable, adding redundancy to our measurement. We present the concept, an example multi-link implementation and the signal processing required to recover the center of mass displacement from multiple link measurements. Finally, in a simulation, we analyze the limiting noise sources in a 9 link interferometer and ultimately show we can recover the 80 {nm}/√{ {Hz}} displacement sensitivity required by the GRACE Follow-On laser ranging interferometer.

  19. Perceived Air Quality in a Displacement Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Nielsen, Peter V.

    in a displacement ventilated room was determined directly by asking humans about how they perceived the air quality. A trained sensory panel comprising 12 subjects assessed the perceived air quality immediately after entering a climate chamber. The experiments showed that the perceived air quality...

  20. Inferomedial displacement of the meniscal free fragment: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorrentino, Fortunato; Iovane, Angelo; Nicosia, Antonio; Candela, Fabrizio; Midiri, Massimo; De Maria, Marcello

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. To define the accuracy of Magnetic Resonance (MR) in the diagnosis of inferomedial displacement of the meniscal fragments. Materials and methods. The MR examinations of the knee performed between December 2002 and April 2004 on 676 patients (mean age 32 years) with knee trauma and subsequently subjected to arthroscopy were retrospectively reviewed to assess the presence of bucket-handle meniscal tear and inferomedial displacement of the meniscal free fragment. The MR examinations were performed using a superconductive 0.5 T MR unit with a transmitting/receiving coil dedicated for the extremities. The MR images were acquired with SE T1 and GE T2 sequences in the sagittal, coronal and axial planes with 3 mm thickness and 1 mm gap. The images were independently reviewed by two authors blinded to the arthroscopy findings. In case of disagreement, a third author, unaware of the arthroscopic findings, gave his judgment. Results. On MR images a bucket-handle meniscal tear was identified in 54/676 patients. In 6 out of 54 patients, an inferomedial meniscal fragment displacement of the medical meniscus with associated inflammatory synovial reaction around the distal insertion of the medial homolateral collateral ligament was detected. All cases were confirmed by arthroscopy and no statistical differences between the two authors were observed. Conclusions. MR allows the detection of the inferomedial meniscal fragment displacement and a more correct planning of arthroscopy with a strong reduction of repeat interventions [it