Mackus, Marlou; van Schrojenstein Lantman, Marith; van de Loo, A.J.A.E.; Kraneveld, A.D.; Garssen, J.; Verster, J.C.
Background Previous research demonstrated that urinary ethanol concentrations were significantly lower in hangover resistant individuals compared to drinkers who reported having a hangover. This finding suggests that the rate of ethanol metabolism is faster in drinkers who do not experience an
Brookhuis, Karel; Van De Loo, Aurora; Mackus, M.; Verster, Joris
Background The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between urine ethanol concentration and alcohol hangover severity. Methods N = 36 healthy social drinkers participated in a naturalistic study, comprising a hangover day and a control day. N = 18 of them have regular hangovers (the
Slutske, Wendy S; Piasecki, Thomas M; Nathanson, Lisa; Statham, Dixie J; Martin, Nicholas G
To quantify the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to alcohol hangover. Biometric models were used to partition the variance in hangover phenotypes. A community-based sample of Australian twins. Members of the Australian Twin Registry, Cohort II who reported consuming alcohol in the past year when surveyed in 2004-07 (n = 4496). Telephone interviews assessed participants' frequency of drinking to intoxication and frequency of hangover the day after drinking. Analyses examined three phenotypes: hangover frequency, hangover susceptibility (i.e. residual variance in hangover frequency after accounting for intoxication frequency) and hangover resistance (a dichotomous variable defined as having been intoxicated at least once in the past year with no reported hangovers). Genetic factors accounted for 45% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 37-53%] and 40% (95% CI = 33-48%) of the variation in hangover frequency in men and women, respectively. Most of the genetic variation in hangover frequency overlapped with genetic contributions to intoxication frequency. Genetic influences accounted for 24% (95% CI = 14-35%) and 16% (95% CI = 8-25%) of the residual hangover susceptibility variance in men and women, respectively. Forty-three per cent (95% CI = 22-63%) of the variation in hangover resistance was explained by genetic influences, with no evidence for significant sex differences. There was no evidence for shared environmental influences for any of the hangover phenotypes. Individual differences in the propensity to experience a hangover and of being resistant to hangover at a given level of alcohol use are genetically influenced. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Tolstrup, Janne S; Stephens, Richard; Grønbaek, Morten
Alcohol hangover is a growing research area, but differences across the life span have not been assessed. Here, we test the hypothesis that the severity of hangovers depends on age.......Alcohol hangover is a growing research area, but differences across the life span have not been assessed. Here, we test the hypothesis that the severity of hangovers depends on age....
Christina R Maxwell
Full Text Available The mechanism of veisalgia cephalgia or hangover headache is unknown. Despite a lack of mechanistic studies, there are a number of theories positing congeners, dehydration, or the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde as causes of hangover headache.We used a chronic headache model to examine how pure ethanol produces increased sensitivity for nociceptive behaviors in normally hydrated rats.Ethanol initially decreased sensitivity to mechanical stimuli on the face (analgesia, followed 4 to 6 hours later by inflammatory pain. Inhibiting alcohol dehydrogenase extended the analgesia whereas inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase decreased analgesia. Neither treatment had nociceptive effects. Direct administration of acetate increased nociceptive behaviors suggesting that acetate, not acetaldehyde, accumulation results in hangover-like hypersensitivity in our model. Since adenosine accumulation is a result of acetate formation, we administered an adenosine antagonist that blocked hypersensitivity.Our study shows that acetate contributes to hangover headache. These findings provide insight into the mechanism of hangover headache and the mechanism of headache induction.
... than eight breaths a minute) Irregular breathing (a gap of more than 10 seconds between breaths) Blue- ... drinking. Having a family history of alcoholism. Having close relatives with a history of alcoholism may suggest ...
Penning, R.; de Haan, L.; Verster, J.C.
This study examined the relationship between consumption of caffeinated beverages and alcohol, and effects on next day hangover severity. In 2010, a survey funded by Utrecht University was conducted among N=549 Dutch students. Beverages consumed on their latest drinking session that produced a
Tolstrup, Janne; Curtis, Tine; Petersen, Christina
We have examined the occurrence of hangovers i Danish men and women. Among 36,228 participants, the occurrence of a list of different hangover symptoms as well as of severe hangovers was higher in women than in men. For example, the odds ratio was 1.53 (95% CI: 1.41-1.66) for experiencing headache...... and 1.97 (95% CI: 1.75-2.21) for severe hangovers after an episode of binge-drinking in women compared with men. This finding could not be explained by weekly alcohol intake, type of alcohol ingested, frequency of binge drinking episodes or by the proportion of alcohol consumed with meals...
Chavarria, Jesus; Rueger, Sandra Y; King, Andrea C
Alcohol hangovers have been found to be a common and costly consequence of alcohol misuse. However, there is only limited psychometric support for instruments to accurately measure hangovers beyond the college-age years. This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Hangover Symptom Scale (HSS) and the Hangover Symptom Scale-Short Form (HSS-5) including the internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, construct validity, and the measurement invariance of these scales between light and heavy drinkers, individuals with a positive and negative family history of alcohol use disorder (AUD), and men and women in a post-college-aged sample. The association of the HSS and HSS-5 with alcohol use problems was also tested. Participants were 294 nonalcoholic light and heavy social drinkers (age range 21 to 35 years; 57.8% male) enrolled in the Chicago Social Drinking Project. They completed the HSS as part of a take-home packet completed outside of the laboratory. The psychometric properties of the HSS and HSS-5 were tested. Stronger psychometric support was found for the HSS-5 relative to the full HSS. While both measures demonstrated strong internal consistency reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and an association with alcohol use problems, only the HSS-5 showed construct validity as determined by confirmatory factor analysis. Further, only the HSS-5 showed measurement invariance between men and women, light and heavy drinkers, and individuals with a positive and negative family history of AUD. This was the first study to examine the psychometric properties of the HSS and HSS-5 in a post-college-aged sample and the first to investigate the measurement invariance of these measures as a function of sex, drinking history, and family history of AUD. This study supports the use of the HSS-5 as a reliable and valid brief measure of frequency of hangover symptoms. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Karadayian, Analía G; Cutrera, Rodolfo A
Alcohol hangover is defined as the unpleasant next-day state following an evening of excessive alcohol consumption. Hangover begins when ethanol is absent in plasma and is characterized by physical and psychological symptoms. During hangover cognitive functions and subjective capacities are affected along with inefficiency, reduced productivity, absenteeism, driving impairments, poor academic achievement and reductions in motor coordination. The aim of this work was to study the type and length of motor and exploratory functions from the beginning to the end of the alcohol hangover. Male Swiss mice were injected i.p. either with saline (control group) or with ethanol (3.8 g/kg BW) (hangover group). Motor performance, walking deficiency, motor strength, locomotion and exploratory activity were evaluated at a basal point (ZT0) and every 2 h up to 20 h after blood alcohol levels were close to zero (hangover onset). Motor performance was 80% decreased at the onset of hangover (pwalking deficiencies from the beginning to 16 h after hangover onset (popen field test and the exploratory activity on T-maze and hole board tests were reduced during 16 h after hangover onset (ptime-extension between 16 to 20 h for hangover motor and exploratory impairments. As a whole, this study shows the long lasting effects of alcohol hangover. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A Hogewoning,1,* AJAE Van de Loo,1,* M Mackus,1 SJ Raasveld,1 R De Zeeuw,1 ER Bosma,1 NH Bouwmeester,1 KA Brookhuis,2 J Garssen,1,3 JC Verster1,4 1Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, 2Faculty of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Groningen University, Groningen, 3Nutricia Research, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 4Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: A number of social drinkers claim that they do not experience next-day hangovers despite consuming large quantities of alcohol. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of drinkers who claim to be hangover immune and compare them with drinkers who do report having hangovers. Methods: A total of 36 social drinkers participated in a naturalistic study consisting of a hangover day (alcohol consumed and a control day (no alcohol consumed. Data were collected on alcohol consumption, demographics, sleep, next-day adverse effects, and mood. Data from drinkers with a hangover (N=18 were compared with data from drinkers who claim to be hangover immune (N=18. Results: Drinkers with a hangover reported drowsiness-related symptoms, symptoms related to reduced cognitive functioning, and classic hangover symptoms such as headache, nausea, dizziness, weakness, and stomach pain. Corresponding mood changes comprised increased feelings of depression, anger–hostility, fatigue, and reduced vigor–activity. In contrast, hangover-immune drinkers reported relatively few hangover symptoms, with only mild corresponding severity scores. The reported symptoms were limited to drowsiness-related symptoms such as sleepiness and being tired. The classic hangover symptoms were usually not reported by these drinkers. Conclusion: In contrast to drinkers with a hangover, for those who claim to be hangover immune, next-day adverse effects of alcohol consumption are limited to a mild increase in
Hesse, Morten; Tutenges, Sébastien
Background Little is known about predictors of hangover symptoms. The subjective experience of the night out may potentially influence the experience of hangover symptoms. Methods We conducted a survey of 325 young men and women at a vacation resort during the daytime, administering subjects...... the Acute Hangover Scale (AHS), and asking questions about drinking and behaviours the night before. Results Half the subjects reported feeling any hangover symptoms on a single item relating to hangovers in general, but 73% scored above 1 on the full AHS. Several variables correlated with AHS......, but in multivariate analyses, only variables associated with drunkenness the night before (having been more drunk than intended and still feeling intoxicated), and number of days spent in the resort were associated with AHS. Discussion Future studies should work on developing standardized definitions of hangover...
Hesse, Morten; Tutenges, Sébastien
units in the whole sample. The severity of hangover increased significantly during a week of heavy drinking and there was a time * number of drinks interaction, indicating that the impact of alcohol consumed on hangover became more pronounced later in the week. Levels of drinking before the holiday did...
Cameron, Elaine; French, David P
People driving the day after drinking are at risk of impaired performance and accidents due to continued intoxication or the effects of alcohol hangover. Drivers are poor at estimating their own blood alcohol concentration, and some drive despite believing they are over the legal limit. It is therefore important to identify other factors influencing perceived ability to drive 'the morning after'. This study tested how accurately participants estimated their legal driving status, and the contribution of beliefs and hangover symptoms to the prediction of perceived driving safety. This cross-sectional study involved 193 students completing a questionnaire and alcohol breath test the morning after heavy alcohol consumption. Indicators of subjective intoxication, severity of hangover symptoms, estimated legal status and perceived safety to drive were measured. A hierarchical linear regression analysis was conducted. No participants thought they were under the English legal limit when they were not, and 47% thought they were over the limit when they were in fact legally permissible to drive. However, 20% of those believing they were over the limit nevertheless rated themselves as safe to drive. Hangover symptoms added 17% variance to the prediction of perceived safety to drive, over and above objective and subjective measures of intoxication. Perceived severity of hangover symptoms influence beliefs about driving ability: When judging safety to drive, people experiencing less severe symptoms believe they are less impaired. If this finding is robust, health promotion campaigns should aim to correct this misapprehension. [Cameron E, French D. Predicting perceived safety to drive the morning after drinking: The importance of hangover symptoms. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:442-446]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
van Schrojenstein Lantman, Marith; Mackus, Marlou; Roth, Thomas; Verster, Joris C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241442702
INTRODUCTION: An evening of alcohol consumption often occurs at the expense of sleep time. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between total sleep time and the duration and severity of the alcohol hangover. METHODS: A survey was conducted among Dutch University students to
Wiese, Jeff; McPherson, Steve; Odden, Michelle C; Shlipak, Michael G
The severity of the alcohol hangover may be related to inflammation induced by impurities in the alcohol beverage and byproducts of alcohol metabolism. An extract of the Opuntia ficus indica (OFI) plant diminishes the inflammatory response to stressful stimuli. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial, 64 healthy, young adult volunteers were randomly assigned to receive OFI (1600 IU) and identical placebo, given 5 hours before alcohol consumption. During 4 hours, subjects consumed up to 1.75 g of alcohol per kilogram of body weight. Hangover severity (9 symptoms) and overall well-being were assessed on a scale (0-6), and blood and urine samples were obtained the following morning. Two weeks later, the study protocol was repeated with OFI and placebo reversed. Fifty-five subjects completed both the OFI and placebo arms of the study. Three of the 9 symptoms-nausea, dry mouth, and anorexia-were significantly reduced by OFI (all P/=18 points) was reduced by half (odds ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.88; P =.02). C-reactive protein levels were strongly associated with hangover severity; the mean symptom index was 4.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.2-7.1; P =.007) higher in subjects with morning C-reactive protein levels greater than 1.0 mg/L. In addition, C-reactive protein levels were 40% higher after subjects consumed placebo compared with OFI. The symptoms of the alcohol hangover are largely due to the activation of inflammation. An extract of the OFI plant has a moderate effect on reducing hangover symptoms, apparently by inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators.
Pittler, Max H.; White, Adrian R.; Stevinson, Clare; Ernst, Edzard
Background Extract of globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) is promoted as a possible preventive or cure for alcohol-induced hangover symptoms. However, few rigorous clinical trials have assessed the effects of artichoke extract, and none has examined the effects in relation to hangovers. We undertook this study to test whether artichoke extract is effective in preventing the signs and symptoms of alcohol-induced hangover. Methods We recruited healthy adult volunteers between 18 and 65 years of age to participate in a randomized double-blind crossover trial. Participants received either 3 capsules of commercially available standardized artichoke extract or indistinguishable, inert placebo capsules immediately before and after alcohol exposure. After a 1-week washout period the volunteers received the opposite treatment. Participants predefined the type and amount of alcoholic beverage that would give them a hangover and ate the same meal before commencing alcohol consumption on the 2 study days. The primary outcome measure was the difference in hangover severity scores between the artichoke extract and placebo interventions. Secondary outcome measures were differences between the interventions in scores using a mood profile questionnaire and cognitive performance tests administered 1 hour before and 10 hours after alcohol exposure. Results Fifteen volunteers participated in the study. The mean number (and standard deviation) of alcohol units (each unit being 7.9 g, or 10 mL, of ethanol) consumed during treatment with artichoke extract and placebo was 10.7 (3.1) and 10.5 (2.4) respectively, equivalent to 1.2 (0.3) and 1.2 (0.2) g of alcohol per kilogram body weight. The volume of nonalcoholic drink consumed and the duration of sleep were similar during the artichoke extract and placebo interventions. None of the outcome measures differed significantly between interventions. Adverse events were rare and were mild and transient. Interpretation Our results suggest that
Full Text Available Alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and spirits are widely consumed around the world. However, alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde are toxic and harmful to human beings. Chronic alcohol use disorder or occasional binge drinking can cause a wide range of health problems, such as hangover, liver damage and cancer. Some natural products such as traditional herbs, fruits, and vegetables might be potential dietary supplements or medicinal products for the prevention and treatment of the problems caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of effective natural products for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder, and special emphasis is paid to the possible functional component(s and related mechanism(s of action.
Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Hoffmann, Sven; Beste, Christian
Effects of binge drinking on cognitive control and response selection are increasingly recognized in research on alcohol (ethanol) effects. Yet, little is known about how those processes are modulated by hangover effects. Given that acute intoxication and hangover seem to be characterized by partly divergent effects and mechanisms, further research on this topic is needed. In the current study, we hence investigated this with a special focus on potentially differential effects of alcohol intoxication and subsequent hangover on sub-processes involved in the decision to select a response. We do so combining drift diffusion modeling of behavioral data with neurophysiological (EEG) data. Opposed to common sense, the results do not show an impairment of all assessed measures. Instead, they show specific effects of high dose alcohol intoxication and hangover on selective drift diffusion model and EEG parameters (as compared to a sober state). While the acute intoxication induced by binge-drinking decreased the drift rate, it was increased by the subsequent hangover, indicating more efficient information accumulation during hangover. Further, the non-decisional processes of information encoding decreased with intoxication, but not during hangover. These effects were reflected in modulations of the N2, P1 and N1 event-related potentials, which reflect conflict monitoring, perceptual gating and attentional selection processes, respectively. As regards the functional neuroanatomical architecture, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) as well as occipital networks seem to be modulated. Even though alcohol is known to have broad neurobiological effects, its effects on cognitive processes are rather specific. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Full Text Available If Patrick Hamilton’s name is recognised at all these days, then it is for his stage thrillers Rope (1929 and Gaslight (1938. Still played in repertory, these may be his best-known works but are hardly typical of his output. Hamilton had been a published writer since his early twenties and Hangover Square (1941 was his eighth novel. Like the preceding novels, it covers much of the same thematic and topographic territory. It is a world of boarding houses in unfashionable parts of London, pu...
Japan still suffers a deflationary hangover from the great episodic yen appreciations of the 1980s into the mid-1990s. Money wages are still declining, and short-term interest rates remain trapped near zero. After Japan's 'lost decade' from 1992 to 2002, however, output has begun to grow modestly-but through export expansion and associated investment rather than domestic consumption. This export-led growth has been helped by a passive real depreciation of the yen: prices and wages in Europe a...
Asorey, Lucas G; Carbone, Silvia; Gonzalez, Bárbara J; Cutrera, Rodolfo A
In last few years it has been a significant increase in the consumption of alcohol combined with energy drink. The aim of this work was to study the effect of this mixture in motor and affective behaviors during an alcohol hangover episode. Male Swiss mice received one of the following treatments: saline + sucrose; saline + energy drink; ethanol + sucrose; ethanol + energy drink. Ethanol dose was 3.8 g/kg BW (i.p.) and energy drink dose was 18 ml/kg BW (gavage) at ZT1 (8 am) (ZT: Zeitgeber time; ZT0: 7 am; lights on). The behavioral tests used were tight rope test to determine motor coordination; hanging wire test to study muscular strength; elevated plus maze and open field tests to evaluate anxiety like-behavior and locomotor activity. Tests were carried out at basal point that matched with lights onset and every 6 h up to 18 h after treatments. Hangover onset was established at ZT7 when blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was almost zero. Our results showed that the mixture of alcohol and energy drink altered significantly motor skills. Specifically, a significant decrease was observed in the performance of the animals in the tightrope and hanging wire tests in groups treated with the mixture of alcohol and energy drink. A significant impairment in the anxiety-like behavior was observed mainly at the beginning of alcohol hangover. These findings suggest that energy drink added to alcohol extends motor disabilities observed during an alcohol hangover episode in comparison with animals that received alcohol alone. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This paper presents three embedded episodes in the life of a polyherbal drug indicated as a preventative measure for hangovers. Invented and marketed in 2005 by a leading ayurvedic pharmaceutical company in India, PartySmart is a reformulated compound based on ayurvedic, biomedical and phytochemical sources. This creative process has involved multiple translations, resulting in hybrid pharmacological models, including, for instance, ayurvedic post-digestive tastes and biomedical effects on enzymatic activities. These modes of therapeutic action are conceptualizations of an active drug-- i.e., a digested and metabolized drug. A problem arises, however, in the fact that the ingestion of this drug is linked to alcohol consumption in a country where it is widely considered in negative terms. For this reason, PartySmart was seen as an ambivalent presence in the firm's catalogue and thus a series of interventions aiming to uphold the image of this drug transformed both its social inscription and its materiality. This transformation also took a different, global trajectory as the drug gradually developed as a transnational pharmaceutical commodity and became a new object in new latitudes. By focusing on the social and material dimensions of this drug in these contexts, this paper calls upon science studies to expand the scope of pharmaceutical anthropology. It brings together various layers of analysis to offer new perspectives on contemporary herbal formulations as they traverse material cultures, medical epistemologies, sociopolitical borders, legal environments and social practices.
Corn, wheat, sugar cane.. The multiplication of biofuel refineries has led to a rise of the prices of agriculture products. The question is: do we need ethanol? The US situation gives an answer: the offer exceeds the demand and ethanol prices have dropped down. Other environmental and socio-economical consequences of biofuels development are put forward by the UNO, the IMF and by non-governmental organizations who foresee a dramatic rise of food products prices and an aggravation of starvation in developing countries. (J.S.)
Such notable characteristics are professionalism, hierarchy of command, discipline, solidarity and cohesion (esprit de corps). These are the attributes that retired military men are expected to exhibit in their new status and responsibilities in the civil society by fair distribution of the wealth of the nation in order to meet the ...
... a villain. And what wedding concludes without a champagne toast? Alcohol is part of our culture—it ... and a waitress comes around with glasses of champagne. You drink one, then another, maybe even a ...
with Spring Festival coming up,we at The World of Chinese,like many over the New Year,hit the bottle pretty hard.Ginger dug through history books and will have a look at drinking and prohibition in ancient China,complete with drunken despots,merry ministers and plastered poets.It’s hard to imagine,especially on the subway on a Friday night,that
Devitt, Brian M
Saturday night palsy is a colloquial term given to brachial plexus injuries of the arm resulting from stretching or direct pressure against a firm object, often after alcohol or drug consumption. In most circumstances, this condition gives rise to a temporary plexopathy, which generally resolves. However, if the compression is severe and prolonged, a more grave form of this condition known as \\'Crush Syndrome\\' may occur. Skeletal muscle injury, brought about by protracted immobilization, leads to muscle decay, causing rhabdomyolysis, which may in turn precipitate acute renal failure. This condition is potentially fatal and has an extremely high morbidity. The case presented below demonstrates the drastic consequences that can result following an episode of \\'binge\\' drinking in a young man. What is most concerning is that this trend is increasing across society and cases like this may not be as rare in the future.
Gilchrist, Heidi; Smith, Kylie; Magee, Christopher A.; Jones, Sandra
Excessive alcohol consumption and heavy episodic drinking is increasingly common among female university students. This trend is concerning given that excessive alcohol consumption and binge drinking have several adverse effects, including increased levels of risky sexual behaviour. The findings presented here are the first step in establishing an…
The importance of confronting a colonial, patriarchal and racist past in addressing post-apartheid sexual violence. ... It also needs to redress problems of social and economic inequality that exist in South Africa as hangovers from this country's colonial and apartheid-era past. Keywords: Zuma, rape, Kipling, colonialism, ...
This argument is forcefully expressed, particularly in a section linking the deficiencies of extension workers' communication skills with a hangover of colonial elitism. Here Kamlongera is venturing into the more complex and controversial arena of neocolonial ideology. He is obviously aware (for example in chapter 9) of the ...
Anakin, Megan; Linsell, Chris
The concept of a growth-oriented disposition framed the analysis of theoretical and practical dimensions of pre-service teachers' mathematics content knowledge. We identify historical hangovers, tacit habits, and pedagogical strangleholds that present challenges to the way mathematics education researchers interact with the mathematics content…
Verster, Joris C; Mackus, Marlou; van de Loo, Aurora Jae; Garssen, Johan; Scholey, Andrew
INTRODUCTION: It has been postulated that the hangover state starts when breath alcohol concentration is zero. METHODS: Data from 2 studies that assessed ethanol in breath, blood and urine were compared. RESULTS: The data revealed that ethanol may still be present in the blood and urine during the
Kuntsche Emmanuel; Labhart Florian
Aims: To test whether (i) drinking motives predict the frequency of pre drinking (i.e. alcohol consumption before going out); (ii) drinking motives predict HDGE (heavy drinking on a given evening: 4+ for women 5+ for men) and related adverse consequences (hangover injuries blackouts etc.) even when pre drinking is accounted for and (iii) drinking motives moderate the impact of pre drinking on HDGE and consequences. Design: Using the internet based cellphone optimized assessment technique (ICA...
Petsatodis, Theodore; Boukis, Christos
An algorithm suitable for voice activity detection under reverberant conditions is proposed in this paper. Due to the use of far-filed microphones the proposed solution processes speech signals of highly-varying intensity and signal to noise ratio, that are contaminated with several echoes....... The core of the system is a pair of Hidden Markov Models, that effectively model the speech presence and speech absence situations. To minimise mis-detections an adaptive threshold is used, while a hang-over scheme caters for the intra-frame correlation of speech signals. Experimental results conducted...
Dang Vu, Hoai Nam; Nielsen, Martin Reinhardt
indicating utilitarian values, although difficult to separate from the hedonic value in projecting success in business. A ritualized way of honoring terminally ill relatives represented a hedonic value replacing belief in effective treatment. Demand reduction campaigns need to appropriately reflect all......We examined utilitarian and hedonic values as motivations for rhino horn use in Vietnam. We also evaluated consumers’ response to consequences of the illegal trade in behavior modification campaigns and the likely outcome of a legalized trade. The most prevalent use was for treatment of hangovers...
Glauber Alcântara Oliveira; Andres Raimundo Paiva
The periorbital region is one of the first areas to demonstrate signs of aging such as wrinkling, skin laxity and periorbital hyperpigmentation (HPO). The HPO interferes in the facial appearance resulting on a tired, sadness or hangover aspects. It has a complex etiopathogenesis with factors that could be by primary or secondary cause. The genetic factors are stated as a primary cause and the environmental factors are stated as a secondary cause. In that way, there are many examples of enviro...
Leticia Gomes Maia
Full Text Available The goals of this study are to contribute to the understanding of the development of organizational commitment and to explore the relations among psychological contract fulfillment, organizational commitment, and job performance. This paper reports the findings of a longitudinal quanti-qualitative study conducted with newcomers over three years. We identified four trajectories of commitment development: Learning to Love, High Match, Honeymoon Hangover and Learning to Hate. The last one is originally proposed in this study, and it is represented by individuals who began work highly committed to the organization, but then their commitment levels decreased dramatically over time. We discuss some characteristics associated with these trajectories. Our results corroborate the assumption that psychological contract fulfillment is positively related to commitment. Nevertheless, our findings about the relationship between commitment and job performance were different according to the trajectories. The trajectories Learning to Love and Learning to Hate support the assumption that higher commitment levels would lead to better performance, and vice versa; however, the trajectories High Match and Honeymoon Hangover contradict it. We offer and discuss some possible explanations for these findings.
Frone, Michael R.; Trinidad, Jonathan R.
This study develops and tests a new conceptual model of perceived physical availability of alcohol at work that provides unique insight into three dimensions of workplace physical availability of alcohol and their direct and indirect relations to workplace alcohol use and impairment. Data were obtained from a national probability sample of 2,727 U.S. workers. The results support the proposed conceptual model and provide empirical support for a positive relation of perceived physical availability of alcohol at work to workplace alcohol use and two dimensions of workplace impairment (workplace intoxication and workplace hangover). Ultimately, the findings suggest that perceived physical availability of alcohol at work is a risk factor for alcohol use and impairment during the workday, and that this relation is more complex than previously hypothesized. PMID:25243831
D. T. Williams
Full Text Available It is fashionable today to try to avoid sexist language in theology, despite the Bible’s consistent use of the masculine pronoun when referring to God. Although such an attempt has largely been engendered by modem culture, the maleness of God is not simply a hangover from a patriarchal society, but reflects a fundamental maleness in God’s dealing with man. It emphasises the idea of redemption by grace alone over against creation, and such aspects as the adoption of Christians as sons. The maleness of Christ likewise has not simply been cultural, but is significant theologically. This is not to deny any femininity in God, but to assert that male features predominate. Such an idea does not reduce the status of women, but rather an emphasis on redemption raises it. Raising the status of women in society would in fact reduce the pressure to demasculinize God.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND - Synthetic cannabinoids in smoking mixtures (such as Spice or as raw powder are sold for recreational use as an alternative to herbal cannabis (hashish and marijuana. Although clinical case studies have documented an array of side effects, there is also information available at Internet based drug discussion forums. AIM - Our study investigates experiences of side effects from use of synthetic cannabinoids, as described and anonymously shared on Swedish online discussion forums. METHODS - A systematic search yielded 254 unique and publicly available self-reports from the Swedish forum flashback.org. These texts were analysed thematically, which resulted in 32 sub-themes, which were combined into three overarching themes. RESULTS & CONCLUSION - The experiences of negative side effects were described as (1 Adverse reactions during acute intoxication; (2 Hangover the day after intoxication; (3 Dependency and withdrawal after long-term use. The first theme was characterized by an array of fierce and unpredictable side effects as tachycardia, anxiety, fear and nausea. The acute intoxication reactions were congruent with the side effects published in clinical case studies. The day after intoxication included residual effects of dullness, apathy, nausea and headache. Long-term use resulted in dependency and experiences of being emotionally numb and disconnected. Furthermore, withdrawal was described as sweating, shaking, loss of appetite and insomnia. Both the hangover and the long-term effects have previously been given little scientific attention and need to be investigated further. Drug related Internet discussion forums constitute an overlooked source of information which can aid in the identification of previously unknown risks and effects
Cardinali, Daniel P; Srinivasan, Venkataramanujan; Brzezinski, Amnon; Brown, Gregory M
Benzodiazepine sedative-hypnotic drugs are widely used for the treatment of insomnia. Nevertheless, their adverse effects, such as next-day hangover, dependence and impairment of memory, make them unsuitable for long-term treatment. Melatonin has been used for improving sleep in patients with insomnia mainly because it does not cause hangover or show any addictive potential. However, there is a lack of consistency on its therapeutic value (partly because of its short half-life and the small quantities of melatonin employed). Thus, attention has been focused either on the development of more potent melatonin analogs with prolonged effects or on the design of slow release melatonin preparations. The MT(1) and MT(2) melatonergic receptor ramelteon was effective in increasing total sleep time and sleep efficiency, as well as in reducing sleep latency, in insomnia patients. The melatonergic antidepressant agomelatine, displaying potent MT(1) and MT(2) melatonergic agonism and relatively weak serotonin 5HT(2C) receptor antagonism, was found effective in the treatment of depressed patients. However, long-term safety studies are lacking for both melatonin agonists, particularly considering the pharmacological activity of their metabolites. In view of the higher binding affinities, longest half-life and relative higher potencies of the different melatonin agonists, studies using 2 or 3mg/day of melatonin are probably unsuitable to give appropriate comparison of the effects of the natural compound. Hence, clinical trials employing melatonin doses in the range of 50-100mg/day are warranted before the relative merits of the melatonin analogs versus melatonin can be settled. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Full Text Available Daniel P Cardinali, María F Vidal, Daniel E VigoDepartment of Teaching and Research, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Pontificia Universidad Católica Argentina, Buenos Aires, ArgentinaAbstract: A temporal relationship between the nocturnal rise in melatonin secretion and the increase in sleep propensity at the beginning of the night, coupled with the sleep-promoting effects of exogenous melatonin, indicate that melatonin is involved in the regulation of sleep. This action is attributed to the MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptors present in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus and other brain areas. The sleep-promoting actions of melatonin, which are demonstrable in healthy humans, have been found to be useful in subjects suffering from circadian rhythm sleep disorders and in elderly patients, who had low nocturnal melatonin production and secretion. The effectiveness of melatonin in treating sleep disturbances in these patients is relevant because the sleep-promoting compounds that are usually prescribed, such as benzodiazepines and related drugs, have many adverse effects, such as next-day hangover, dependence, and impairment of memory. Melatonin has been used for improving sleep in patients with insomnia mainly because it does not cause any hangover or show any addictive potential. However, there is a lack of consistency concerning its therapeutic value (partly because of its short half-life and the small quantities of melatonin used. Thus, attention has been focused either on the development of more potent melatonin analogs with prolonged effects or on the design of slow-release melatonin preparations. A prolonged-release preparation of melatonin 2 mg (Circadin® has been approved for the treatment of primary insomnia in patients aged ≥55 years in the European Union. This prolonged-release preparation of melatonin had no effect on psychomotor functions, memory recall, or driving skills during the night or the next morning relative to placebo
PABLINE M. VIEIRA
Full Text Available Solanum paniculatum L. is a plant species widespread throughout tropical America, especially in the Brazilian Cerrado region. It is used in Brazil for culinary purposes and in folk medicine to treat liver and gastric dysfunctions, as well as hangovers. Previous studies with S. paniculatum ethanolic leaf extract or ethanolic fruit extract demonstrated that they have no genotoxic activity neither in mice nor in bacterial strains, although their cytotoxicity and antigenotoxicity were demonstrated in higher doses. In order to assess the possible compounds responsible for the activities observed, we fractionated the ethanolic fruit extract of S. paniculatum, characterized by 1H and 13C NMR spectra, and evaluated two fractions containing steroidal alkaloids against mitomycin C (MMC using the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test. Swiss mice were orally treated with different concentrations (25, 50, or 100 mg.kg−1 of each fraction simultaneously with a single intraperitonial dose of MMC (4 mg.kg−1. Antigenotoxicity was evaluated by using the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE, whereas anticytotoxicity was assessed by the polychromatic and normochromatic erythrocytes ratio (PCE/NCE. Our results demonstrated that steroidal alkaloids isolated from S. paniculatum strongly protected cells against MMC aneugenic and/or clastogenic activities as well as modulated MMC cytotoxic action.
Full Text Available The thought of the limit has in its genetics the questioning of time and place. The essays in this collection, African Thinking and/at Its Limits, demonstrate this essential interrogation (how time and space both belong to a certain critical modality; their address of (and at the limits of African thinking is inevitably also one that presents us with the limitedness of temporal and spatial understandings. For the limit signals the very reach(es of time and place, and enables the possibility of territory, control, management, and measure – possibilities that can seem at once infinite and inordinately restricted. Possibility, the very provocation of the limit, can itself be formulated in terms of time and place—What can (yet be done? Where is it possible to go? Where do we from here? The limit signifies both expiration, the farthest point a thinking can take one, and consolidation, the demarcation and establishment of a territory. These questions of time and place are, as such and for these very reasons, bound up in any thinking of Africa. This, too, is clear from the issues addressed by the contributions to this collection, not the least of which are the very historicity of the concepts commonly used to assess or explain state crisis, the hangovers of colonial paradigms, and how to think, address, and analyze the crisis of the postcolony.
Nowak, Dariusz; Jasionowski, Artur
Energy drinks (EDs) have become widely popular among young adults and, even more so, among adolescents. Increasingly, they are consumed by athletes, particularly those who have just begun their sporting career. Uncontrolled and high consumption of EDs, in addition to other sources of caffeine, may pose a threat to the health of young people. Hence, our objective was to analyze the consumption of EDs among teenagers engaged in sports, including quantity consumed, identification of factors influencing consumption, and risks associated with EDs and EDs mixed with alcohol (AmEDs). The study involved a specially designed questionnaire, which was completed by 707 students, 14.3 years of age on average, attending secondary sports schools. EDs were consumed by 69% of the young athletes, 17% of whom drank EDs quite often: every day or 1-3 times a week. Most respondents felt no effects after drinking EDs, but some reported symptoms, including insomnia, anxiety, tachycardia, nervousness and irritability. The major determinant of the choice of EDs was taste (47%), followed by price (21%). One in ten respondents admitted to consumption of AmEDs. Among the consequences reported were: abdominal pains, nausea, vomiting, amnesia, headache, and hangover. EDs consumption among adolescent athletes was relatively high. Considering the habit of AmEDs and literature data, it is worth emphasizing that it may lead to health problems in the near future, alcohol- or drug-dependence, as well as other types of risk behaviour.
Kim, Jung Wha; Kim, Tae Bum; Kim, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Wook; Kim, Hong Pyo; Sung, Sang Hyun
Liver disorder was associated with alcohol consumption caused by hepatic cellular damages. Opuntia ficus-indica fruit extracts (OFIEs), which contain betalain pigments and polyphenols including flavonoids, have been introduced as reducing hangover symptoms and liver protective activity. To evaluate hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds by high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC). The extract of O. ficus-indica fruits was fractionated into methylene chloride and n -butanol. The n -butanol fraction was isolated by HSCCC separation (methylene chloride-methanol- n -butanol-water, 5:4:3:5, v/v/v/v). The hepatoprotective activity of OFIEs and isolated compounds was evaluated on rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol-induced toxicity. Antioxidative parameters such as glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-P x ) enzymes and the GSH content were measured. Two flavonoids, quercetin 3- O -methyl ester (1) and (+)-taxifolin, and two flavonoid glycosides, isorhamnetin 3- O -β- d -glucoside (3) and narcissin (4), were isolated from the n -butanol fraction by HSCCC separation. Among them, compound 2 significantly protected rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol exposure by preserving antioxidative properties of GR and GSH-P x . OFIEs and (+)-taxifolin were suggested to reduce hepatic damage by alcoholic oxidative stress. Hepatoprotective Flavonoids were isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica by high -speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC).
Shirokawa, Yuka; Shimada, Masakazu
In cytoplasmic inheritance, structural states of a parent cell could be transmitted to offspring cells via two mechanisms. The first is referred to as the hangover of parent structure, where the structure itself remains and faithfully transmits within offspring cells; the second is structural inheritance, wherein the parent structure functions as a template for development of new offspring structure. We estimated to what extent the parent structure affects the development of offspring structure by structural inheritance, using a clone of the diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana The cell has two siliceous valves (a cell wall part at both cell poles): one is inherited from the parent and the other is newly formed. We estimated cytoplasmic heritability by comparing valve traits (central fultoportulae (CTFP), striae, central area, and cell diameter) of parent and new offspring valves, using single-cell isolation and valve labelling. Parent-offspring valve trait regressions showed that all traits, except CTFP, were significantly correlated. We formulated a quantitative genetic model considering the diatom inheritance system and revealed short-term rapid evolution compared with other inheritance systems. Diatom structural inheritance will have evolved to enable clonal populations to rapidly acquire and maintain suitable structures for temporal changes in environments and life-cycle stages. © 2016 The Author(s).
Harburg, E; Gleiberman, L; Difranceisco, W; Peele, S
The major focus of research on alcohol is not on the majority who drink without problems, but on the small minority who have extreme problems. Difficulty in conceiving, measuring, and analyzing non-problem drinking lies in the exclusively problem-drinking orientation of most drinking measures. Drawing on conventionally used scales (e.g. Short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test) and other established concepts in the alcohol literature (e.g. craving, hangover), a set of 24 items was selected to classify all persons in a sample from Tecumseh, Michigan, as to their alcohol-related behaviors (N = 1266). A Sensible-Problem Drinking Classification (SPDC) was developed with five categories: very sensible, sensible, borderline, problem, and impaired. A variety of known alcohol and psychosocial variables were related monotonically across these categories in expected directions. Ethanol ounces per week was only modestly related to SPDC groups: R2 = 0.09 for women, R2 = 0.21 for men. The positive relationship of problem and non-problem SPDC groups to high and low blood pressure was P = 0.07, while ethanol (oz/week) was uncorrelated to blood pressure (mm Hg) in this subsample (N = 453). The development of SPDC requires additional items measuring self and group regulatory alcohol behavior. However, this initial analysis of no-problem subgroups has direct import for public health regulation of alcohol use by providing a model of a sensible view of alcohol use.
Insects, such as stinkbugs, are able to produce noxious defence chemicals to ward off predators, nevertheless, some ethnic groups have recipes to render them delicious. We provide an example of edible stinkbugs (Encosternum delegorguei) used by two locally separate ethnic groups in South Africa, the Vhavenda and Mapulana, with a third group, the Bolobedu using them for commercial purposes. Structured interview schedules and observations with 106 harvesters were conducted to determine differences in use, nomenclature and oral history, methods of collection and preparation as well as perceptions pertaining to availability. The stinkbugs’ foul defence chemical and flight response necessitates nocturnal harvesting when the insect is immobilised by cold. The defence chemical stains the skin and affects vision yet protective gear is not worn. Damage to host trees was recorded when harvesters poached from plantations or private land, whereas, in communal-lands, sustainable methods were preferred. The legitimisation of stinkbug harvesting and introduction of a collection funnel could reduce conflicts with managers of plantations and private land. Two methods to remove the defence chemical for increased palatability were used. Preparation methods differed in whether or not water was used and also whether the head was left intact or removed. Stinkbugs have numerous medicinal uses, in particular as a hangover cure. Awareness and optimal use of beneficial insects, such as stinkbugs, in rural areas could lead to a reconsideration of current environmental management strategies, where harvesters act as habitat stewards and clearing, grazing or burning indigenous vegetation is kept to a minimum. PMID:23531129
Full Text Available Rüdiger HardelandJohann Friedrich Blumenbach Institute of Zoology and Anthropology, University of Göttingen, GermanyAbstract: Hypnotic effects of melatonin and melatoninergic drugs are mediated via MT1 and MT2 receptors, especially those in the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which acts on the hypothalamic sleep switch. Therefore, they differ fundamentally from GABAergic hypnotics. Melatoninergic agonists primarily favor sleep initiation and reset the circadian clock to phases allowing persistent sleep, as required in circadian rhythm sleep disorders. A major obstacle for the use of melatonin to support sleep maintenance in primary insomnia results from its short half-life in the circulation. Solutions to this problem have been sought by developing prolonged-release formulations of the natural hormone, or melatoninergic drugs of longer half-life, such as ramelteon, tasimelteon and agomelatine. With all these drugs, improvements of sleep are statistically demonstrable, but remain limited, especially in primary chronic insomnia, so that GABAergic drugs may be indicated. Melatoninergic agonists do not cause next-day hangover and withdrawal effects, or dependence. They do not induce behavioral changes, as sometimes observed with z-drugs. Despite otherwise good tolerability, the use of melatoninergic drugs in children, adolescents, and during pregnancy has been a matter of concern, and should be avoided in autoimmune diseases and Parkinsonism. Problems and limits of melatoninergic hypnotics are compared.Keywords: agomelatine, hypnotics, melatonin, prolonged-release, ramelteon, tasimelteon
Full Text Available Background: Energy drinks (EDs have become widely popular among young adults and, even more so, among adolescents. Increasingly, they are consumed by athletes, particularly those who have just begun their sporting career. Uncontrolled and high consumption of EDs, in addition to other sources of caffeine, may pose a threat to the health of young people. Hence, our objective was to analyze the consumption of EDs among teenagers engaged in sports, including quantity consumed, identification of factors influencing consumption, and risks associated with EDs and EDs mixed with alcohol (AmEDs. Methods: The study involved a specially designed questionnaire, which was completed by 707 students, 14.3 years of age on average, attending secondary sports schools. Results: EDs were consumed by 69% of the young athletes, 17% of whom drank EDs quite often: every day or 1–3 times a week. Most respondents felt no effects after drinking EDs, but some reported symptoms, including insomnia, anxiety, tachycardia, nervousness and irritability. The major determinant of the choice of EDs was taste (47%, followed by price (21%. One in ten respondents admitted to consumption of AmEDs. Among the consequences reported were: abdominal pains, nausea, vomiting, amnesia, headache, and hangover. Conclusions: EDs consumption among adolescent athletes was relatively high. Considering the habit of AmEDs and literature data, it is worth emphasizing that it may lead to health problems in the near future, alcohol- or drug-dependence, as well as other types of risk behaviour.
Ichoku, Hyacinth Eme; Mooney, Gavin; Ataguba, John Ele-Ojo
There is a growing interest in health policy in the social determinants of health. This has increased the demand for a paradigm shift within the discipline of health economics from health care economics to health economics. While the former involves what is essentially a medical model that emphasizes the maximization of individual health outcomes and considers the social organization of the health system as merely instrumental, the latter emphasizes that health and its distribution result from political, social, economic, and cultural structures. The discipline of health economics needs to refocus its energy on the social determinants of health but, in doing so, must dig deeper into the reasons for structurally embedded inequalities that give rise to inequalities in health outcomes. Especially is this the case in Africa and other low- and middle-income regions. This article seeks to provide empirical evidence from sub-Saharan Africa, including Ghana and Nigeria, on why such inequalities exist, arguing that these are in large part a product of hangovers from historically entrenched institutions. It argues that there is a need for research in health economics to embrace the social determinants of health, especially inequality, and to move away from its current mono-cultural focus.
Dzerefos, Catherine Maria; Witkowski, Ed Tadeusz Fernando; Toms, Rob
Insects, such as stinkbugs, are able to produce noxious defence chemicals to ward off predators, nevertheless, some ethnic groups have recipes to render them delicious. We provide an example of edible stinkbugs (Encosternum delegorguei) used by two locally separate ethnic groups in South Africa, the Vhavenda and Mapulana, with a third group, the Bolobedu using them for commercial purposes. Structured interview schedules and observations with 106 harvesters were conducted to determine differences in use, nomenclature and oral history, methods of collection and preparation as well as perceptions pertaining to availability. The stinkbugs’ foul defence chemical and flight response necessitates nocturnal harvesting when the insect is immobilised by cold. The defence chemical stains the skin and affects vision yet protective gear is not worn. Damage to host trees was recorded when harvesters poached from plantations or private land, whereas, in communal-lands, sustainable methods were preferred. The legitimisation of stinkbug harvesting and introduction of a collection funnel could reduce conflicts with managers of plantations and private land. Two methods to remove the defence chemical for increased palatability were used. Preparation methods differed in whether or not water was used and also whether the head was left intact or removed. Stinkbugs have numerous medicinal uses, in particular as a hangover cure. Awareness and optimal use of beneficial insects, such as stinkbugs, in rural areas could lead to a reconsideration of current environmental management strategies, where harvesters act as habitat stewards and clearing, grazing or burning indigenous vegetation is kept to a minimum.
Zhang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin
The consumption of alcohol is often accompanied by other foods, such as fruits and vegetables. This study is aimed to investigate the effects of 20 selected fruits on ethanol metabolism to find out their potential health benefits and harmful impacts. The effects of the fruits on ethanol metabolism were characterized by the concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood, as well as activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in liver of mice. Furthermore, potential health benefits and harmful impacts of the fruits were evaluated by biochemical parameters including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Generally, effects of these fruits on ethanol metabolism were very different. Some fruits (such as Citrus limon (yellow), Averrhoa carambola, Pyrus spp., and Syzygium samarangense) could decrease the concentration of ethanol in blood. In addition, several fruits (such as Cucumis melo) showed hepatoprotective effects by significantly decreasing AST or ALT level in blood, while some fruits (such as Averrhoa carambola) showed adverse effects. The results suggested that the consumption of alcohol should not be accompanied by some fruits, and several fruits could be developed as functional foods for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder.
Elisa Correa dos Santos Townsend
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2017v70n1p297 Lesley Blume’s book depicts the ‘making of’ of Ernest Hemingway's The Sun Also Rises by studying the personalities who inspired it and the immeasurable changes it brought to the literary world. Blume is a well accomplished North American cultural historian and journalist who - amongst other achievements - has covered the United States presidential elections of 2000 and the September 11th catastrophe of 2001. This book, released on June 7, 2016 has already become a source of polemic in face of her revelations about Hemingway’s debut novel that gave voice to the so-called “Lost Generation”. During the summer of 1925, Ernest Hemingway and a group of disorderly friends went to Pamplona, in Spain, for the well-known annual San Fermín bull fighting festival. Subsequently, throughout the next weeks to come he conducted the expedition like an orchestra of turbulent wild waters – quite a plate full of creative motivation for a writer - including drunkenness, wrestles, sexual competitiveness, nighttime infidelities, and next day hangovers, which he spilled out and translated into his trailblazing novel The Sun Also Rises.
Glauber Alcântara Oliveira
Full Text Available The periorbital region is one of the first areas to demonstrate signs of aging such as wrinkling, skin laxity and periorbital hyperpigmentation (HPO. The HPO interferes in the facial appearance resulting on a tired, sadness or hangover aspects. It has a complex etiopathogenesis with factors that could be by primary or secondary cause. The genetic factors are stated as a primary cause and the environmental factors are stated as a secondary cause. In that way, there are many examples of environmental factors such as excess of sun exposition, post inflammatory hyper pigmentation, excess of subcutaneous vascularization, hyper transparency of the skin, periorbital edema, and fat herniation eyelid. The clinical severity of the condition varies and normally the hyper pigmentation is present bilaterally and symmetrically around the eye region. The main objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the causes and etiological factors, and to describe the possible treatments available in the current literature. It was utilized 26 scientific papers on the following subjects: anatomy, etiology, causes and treatments. Owing to the information scarcity about its etiology, as well as its consensual treatment, it is necessary an adequate clinical examination in order to provide directions to the conduct. There are several suggestions for HPO treatment described: peeling, fillers, autologous fat fillers, cosmetic use, injection of platelet rich plasma (PRP, and carboxytherapy.
Kumar, Anil; Chanana, Priyanka; Choudhary, Supriti
The pharmacological management of insomnia has lately become a challenge for researchers worldwide. As per the third International Classification of Sleep disorders (ICSD-3) insomnia can be defined as a state with repeated difficulty in sleep initiation, duration, consolidation, or quality that occurs despite adequate opportunity and circumstances for sleep, and results in some form of daytime impairment. The conventional treatments approved for management of insomnia were benzodiazepines (BZDs) (estazolam, quazepam, triazolam, flurazepam and temazepam) and non-BZDs, also known as z-drugs (zaleplon, zolpidem, and eszopiclone), tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) doxepin as well as melatonin agonists, e.g. ramelteon. But the potential of these agents to address sleep problems has been limited due to substantial side effects associated with them like hangover, dependence and tolerance, rebound insomnia, muscular atonia, inhibition of respiratory system, cognitive dysfunctions, and increased anxiety. Recently, orexin neuropeptides have been identified as regulators of transition between wakefulness and sleep and documented to aid an initial transitory effect towards wakefulness by activating cholinergic/monoaminergic neural pathways of the ascending arousal system. This has led to the development of orexin peptides and receptors, as possible therapeutic targets for the treatment of sleep disorders with the advantage of having lesser side effects as compared to conventional treatments. The present review focuses on the orexin peptides and receptors signifying their physiological profile as well as the development of orexin receptor antagonists as novel strategies in sleep medicine. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.
Lalanne, Laurence; Lutz, Pierre-Eric; Paille, François
Energy drinks are popular beverages that are supposed to counteract sleepiness, increase energy, maintain alertness and reduce symptoms of hangover. Cognitive enhancing seems to be related to many compounds such as caffeine, taurine and vitamins. Currently, users mostly combine psychostimulant effects of energy drinks to counteract sedative effects of alcohol. However, recent literature suggests that this combination conducts to feel less intoxicated but still impaired. The goal of the present article is to review cognitive impact and subjective awareness in case of caffeinated alcoholic beverage (CAB) intoxication. PubMed (January 1960 to March 2016) database was searched using the following terms: cognitive impairments, alcohol, energy drinks; cognition, alcohol, caffeine. 99 papers were found but only 12 randomized controlled studies which explored cognitive disorders and subjective awareness associated with acute CAB or AED (alcohol associated with energy drinks) intoxication were included. The present literature review confirmed that energy drinks might counteract some cognitive deficits and adverse effects of alcohol i.e. dry mouth, fatigue, headache, weakness, and perception of intoxication due to alcohol alone. This effect depends on alcohol limb but disappears when the complexity of the task increases, when driving for example. Moreover, studies clearly showed that CAB/AEDs increase impulsivity which conducts to an overconsumption of alcohol and enhanced motivation to drink compared to alcohol alone, potentiating the risk of developing addictive behaviors. This is a huge problem in adolescents with high impulsivity and immature decision making processes. Although energy drinks counteract some cognitive deficits due to alcohol alone, their association promotes the risk of developing alcohol addiction. As a consequence, it is necessary to better understand the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these interactions in order to better prevent the development
Background Young people around the world are increasingly combining alcohol with energy drinks (AEDs). However, as yet, limited research has been conducted examining this issue, particularly in terms of exploring patterns of consumption, social practices and the cultural contexts of AED consumption. We sought to understand how AEDs are used and socially constructed among young people. Methods We conducted 25 hours of observation in a variety of pubs, bars and nightclubs, as well as in-depth interviews with ten young people who regularly consumed AEDs during a session of alcohol use. Results In this pilot study, participants were highly organised in their AED consumption practices and reported rarely altering this routine. Some young people consumed upwards of eight AEDs on a typical night, and others limited their use to between three and five AEDs to avoid unpleasant consequences, such as sleep disturbances, severe hangovers, heart palpitations and agitation. Wakefulness and increased energy were identified as the primary benefits of AEDs, with taste, reduced and increased intoxication, and sociability reported as additional benefits. Young AED users were brand sensitive and responded strongly to Red Bull imagery, as well as discounted AEDs. Finally, some young people reported substituting illicit stimulants with energy drinks. Conclusions Combining energy drinks with alcohol is now a normalised phenomenon and an integral and ingrained feature of the night-time economy. Despite this, many young people are unaware of recommended daily limits or related harms. While some young people consume AEDs to feel less drunk (consistent with motivations for combining alcohol with illicit stimulants), others report using AEDs to facilitate intoxication. While preliminary, our findings have relevance for potential policy and regulatory approaches, as well as directions for future research. PMID:22824297
Wójta-Kempa, Monika; Krzyżanowski, Dominik M
Almost 90% of households in Poland buy medicines on their own initiative. The most popular OTC medicines bought by Polish consumers are painkillers and non-steroid-anti-inflammatory drugs. The aim of this article was to recognize and describe the most important predictive factors of the abuse and misuse of over-the-counter pain relievers among adults in Wrocław (Poland). The groups of users were selected and described. Some examples of misuse were analyzed. Three hundred eighty six adult inhabitants of Wrocław took part in the survey. The quota sample was representative referring to the most important socio-demographic factors (sex and median age). Almost 91% of participants declare taking OTC pain relievers, and 1.3% of them are their daily users. Only 6.2% of adult inhabitants of Wrocław never take OTC pain relievers. The category of "heavy users" embraces 11% of participants. The most important risk factors of overusing OTC pain relievers are sex (female), age over 55 years and the low health status. Only half of participants read the box label regularly and 25% of users admit they have modified recommended doses. Over 60% shortened recommended intervals between doses and 16% took two or more different pain medications (containing different substances). The non-medical purposes of using OTC pain relievers were: tiredness (7%), stressful situations (5.4%), and discomfort (18.4%). Some users take pain medications to cure hangovers (26%), or instead of the appropriate medicine (7%). About 20% take pain medications without a doctor's advice for longer than the recommended 3 days, and 10% never consult taking such medications with doctors. Pain should be treated aggressively and successfully, especially among chronically ill patients. We should monitor the consumption of OTC pain relievers and limit their current excessively supply and high availability.
Nzarubara, Gabriel R
Our understanding of the cause and treatment of peptic ulcer disease has changed dramatically over the last couple of decades. It was quite common some years ago to treat chronic ulcers surgically. These days, the operative treatment is restricted to the small proportion of ulcer patients who have complications such as perforation. The author reports seven cases of perforated duodenal ulcers seen in a surgical clinic between 1995 and 2001. Recommendations on the criteria for selecting the appropriate surgical intervention for patients with perforated duodenal ulcer are given. To decide on the appropriate surgical interventions for patients with perforated duodenal ulcer. These are case series of 7 patients who presented with perforated duodenal ulcers without a history of peptic ulcer disease. Seven patients presented with perforated duodenal ulcer 72 hours after perforation in a specialist surgical clinic in Kampala were analyzed. Appropriate management based on these patients is suggested. These patients were initially treated in upcountry clinics for acute gastritis from either alcohol consumption or suspected food poisoning. There was no duodenal ulcer history. As a result, they came to specialist surgical clinic more than 72 hours after perforation. Diagnosis of perforated duodenal ulcer was made and they were operated using the appropriate surgical intervention. Diagnosis of hangovers and acute gastritis from alcoholic consumption or suspected food poisoning should be treated with suspicion because the symptoms and signs may mimic perforated peptic ulcer in "silent" chronic ulcers. The final decision on the appropriate surgical intervention for patients with perforated duodenal ulcer stratifies them into two groups: The previously fit patients who have relatively mild physiological compromise imposed on previously healthy organ system by the perforation can withstand the operative stress of definitive procedure. The Second category includes patients who are
Sheridan, Janie; Stewart, Joanna; Smart, Ros; McCormick, Ross
To estimate the prevalence of risky drinking among customers in community pharmacies and to explore customer attitudes towards screening and brief intervention (SBI). Cross-sectional, anonymous survey, using random selection of community pharmacies in New Zealand to collect data using self-completion questionnaires and an opportunity to enter a prize draw. Participants were customers/patients attending the community pharmacy on a specific, randomly selected day (Monday to Friday) in one set week. Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT)-C using a cut-off score of 5 was used to measure risky drinking. Attitudes towards pharmacists engaging in SBI for risky drinkers were measured. 2384 completed customer/patient questionnaires from 43 participating pharmacies. Almost 84% ever drank alcohol and using a score of 5 or more as a cut-off, 30% of the sample would be considered as risky drinkers. Attitudes were generally positive to pharmacists undertaking SBI. Logistic regression with AUDIT-C positive or negative as the dependent variable found those taking medicines for mental health and liver disease being more likely to score negative on the AUDIT-C, and smokers and those purchasing hangover cures were more likely than average to have a positive AUDIT-C screen. This study indicates there is scope for community pharmacists to undertake SBI for risky drinking, and that customers find this to be acceptable. Targeted screening may well be useful, in particular for smokers. Further research is required to explore the effectiveness of SBI for risky drinkers in this setting. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Absorbatox™ resulted in an overall significant reduction in central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract symptoms associated with veisalgia, warranting further investigation. Keywords: hangover, clinoptilolite, Absorbatox, alcohol
Slais, Karel; Machalova, Alena; Landa, Leos; Vrskova, Dagmar; Sulcova, Alexandra
Press and internet reports mention abuse of nootropic drug piracetam (PIR) in combination with psychostimulants methamphetamine (MET) or 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). These combinations are believed to produce more profound desirable effects, while decreasing hangover. However, there is a lack of valid experimental studies on such drug-drug interactions in the scientific literature available. Our hypothesis proposes that a functional interaction exists between PIR and amphetamine psychostimulants (MET and MDMA) which can potentiate psychostimulant behavioural effects. Our hypothesis is supported by the results of our pilot experiment testing acute effects of drugs given to mice intraperitoneally (Vehicle, n=12; MET 2.5mg/kg, n=10; MDMA 2.5mg/kg, n=11; PIR 300 mg/kg, n=12; PIR+MET, n=12; PIR+MDMA, n=11) in the Open Field Test (Actitrack, Panlab, Spain). PIR given alone caused no significant changes in mouse locomotor/exploratory behaviour, whereas the same dose combined with either MET or MDMA significantly enhanced their stimulatory effects. Different possible neurobiological mechanism underlying drug-drug interaction of PIR with MET or MDMA are discussed, as modulation of dopaminergic, glutamatergic or cholinergic brain systems. However, the interaction with membrane phospholipids seems as the most plausible mechanism explaining PIR action on activities of neurotransmitter systems. Despite that our behavioural experiment cannot serve for explanation of the pharmacological mechanisms of these functional interactions, it shows that PIR effects can increase behavioural stimulation of amphetamine drugs. Thus, the reported combining of PIR with MET or MDMA by human abusers is not perhaps a coincidental phenomenon and may be based on existing PIR potential to intensify acute psychostimulant effects of these drugs of abuse. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Young people around the world are increasingly combining alcohol with energy drinks (AEDs. However, as yet, limited research has been conducted examining this issue, particularly in terms of exploring patterns of consumption, social practices and the cultural contexts of AED consumption. We sought to understand how AEDs are used and socially constructed among young people. Methods We conducted 25 hours of observation in a variety of pubs, bars and nightclubs, as well as in-depth interviews with ten young people who regularly consumed AEDs during a session of alcohol use. Results In this pilot study, participants were highly organised in their AED consumption practices and reported rarely altering this routine. Some young people consumed upwards of eight AEDs on a typical night, and others limited their use to between three and five AEDs to avoid unpleasant consequences, such as sleep disturbances, severe hangovers, heart palpitations and agitation. Wakefulness and increased energy were identified as the primary benefits of AEDs, with taste, reduced and increased intoxication, and sociability reported as additional benefits. Young AED users were brand sensitive and responded strongly to Red Bull imagery, as well as discounted AEDs. Finally, some young people reported substituting illicit stimulants with energy drinks. Conclusions Combining energy drinks with alcohol is now a normalised phenomenon and an integral and ingrained feature of the night-time economy. Despite this, many young people are unaware of recommended daily limits or related harms. While some young people consume AEDs to feel less drunk (consistent with motivations for combining alcohol with illicit stimulants, others report using AEDs to facilitate intoxication. While preliminary, our findings have relevance for potential policy and regulatory approaches, as well as directions for future research.
Frömmel, Jan; Tarkowski, Petr; Kopečný, David; Šebela, Marek
Plant NAD(+)-dependent aminoaldehyde dehydrogenases (AMADHs, EC 184.108.40.206) belong to the family 10 of aldehyde dehydrogenases. They participate in the metabolism of polyamines or osmoprotectants. The enzymes are characterized by their broad substrate specificity covering ω-aminoaldehydes, aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes as well as nitrogen-containing heterocyclic aldehydes. The isoenzyme 1 from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum; SlAMADH1) oxidizes aliphatic aldehydes very efficiently and converts also furfural, its derivatives or benzaldehyde, which are present at low concentrations in alcoholic distillates such as fruit brandy. In this work, SlAMADH1 was examined as a bioanalytical tool for their detection. These aldehydes arise from fermentation processes or thermal degradation of sugars and their presence is related to health complications after consumption including nausea, emesis, sweating, decrease in blood pressure, hangover headache, among others. Sixteen samples of slivovitz (plum brandy) from local producers in Moravia, Czech Republic, were analyzed for their aldehyde content using a spectrophotometric activity assay with SlAMADH1. In all cases, there were oxidative responses observed when monitoring NADH production in the enzymatic reaction. Aldehydes in the distillate samples were also subjected to a standard determination using reversed-phase HPLC with spectrophotometric and tandem mass spectrometric detection after a derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Results obtained by both methods were found to correlate well for a majority of the analyzed samples. The possible applicability of SlAMADH1 for the evaluation of aldehyde content in food and beverages has now been demonstrated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Edvardsen, Hilde Marie Erøy; Moan, Inger Synnøve; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Gjerde, Hallvard
Alcohol or drug use and associated hangover may reduce workplace safety and productivity and also cause sickness absence. The aims of this study were to examine (i) the use of alcohol and drugs, and (ii) reduced efficiency at work and absence due to such use among employees. Forty-four companies were invited; half of them agreed to participate. Employees filled in a questionnaire and provided a sample of oral fluid, which was analysed for alcohol, 12 psychoactive medicinal drugs and 6 illicit drugs. Participation was voluntary and anonymous. Two thousand four hundred thirty-seven employees in eight business areas agreed to participate (92 % of those invited). By combining questionnaires and oral fluid testing, we found that 5.2 % had used psychoactive medication during the last couple of days, 1.4 % had used illicit drugs, 17.0 % had used alcohol during the last 24 h but only one person (0.04 %) was positive for alcohol in oral fluid. About 25 % reported reduced efficiency at work, and 5 % reported absence from work due to alcohol use during the past 12 months. The use of illicit drugs and binge drinking resulting in reduced efficiency and absence was most common among restaurant and bar workers and more common among men than women, whereas use of psychoactive medication was most common among healthcare, transportation and storage workers. Impairment at work due to alcohol or drugs was rare, whereas reduced efficiency due to drinking was reported by a fairly large proportion. There were marked differences between some business areas, and across gender.
Jovanović, U J; Ott, H; Heidrich, H; Stephan, K; Schratzer, M
Lormetazepam, a new benzodiazepine derivative, was tested under double blind conditions in order to find the optimal dosage for different age groups of out-patients. 120 patients suffering from chronic sleep disturbance were included in the study: a younger group (age 20 to 55) and an older group (age 56 to 85 years). Four different doses were given to each age group: 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 mg to the younger group and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mg to the older group. A pre-placebo week (i.e. when all patients received placebo) in which baseline data were recorded preceded the two verum weeks, and these were followed by a post-placebo or withdrawal week (again all patients receiving placebo). The level of significance accepted for statistical decisions was alpha = 0.05. No differences in effects between the different doses were observed with regard to sleep pattern variables (sleep latency, sleep duration, frequency of awakenings, sleep quality, occurrence of 'bad' dreams) with the exception of sleep quality which was better in the older group than in the younger group after 0.5 mg in week 2. Considerable differences with regard to hangover feelings the next morning and during the next day (morning feelings, tranquility, alertness, and concentration), comparison of the effects of discontinuing therapy upon the above-mentioned sleep pattern variables and small differences in side effects--which were few--led to the following conclusion: --0.5 mg stood out as the best dose for the older group. --None of the dosages given to the younger group emerged clearly as superior. However, it would seem that the 1 mg dose should be the dose recommended, since fewer unfavourable scores and side effects appeared after this dose.
Revonta, M; Raitanen, J; Sihvo, S; Koponen, P; Klemetti, R; Männistö, S; Luoto, R
Lifetime prevalence of infertility among couples is approximately 10-15%, but studies addressing their health behavior are few. Our aim was to describe health and life style of Finnish men and women who had experienced infertility. Cross-sectional survey. Finland. Data from a population-based survey (n=7021) was utilized. Life style of infertile men (n=289) and women (n=155) were compared to other men and fertile women. Life style (dietary factors, use of alcohol, physical activity), reproductive factors, other diseases and symptoms. After adjusting for age, area and education, infertile women under 50 years consumed more polyunsaturated fat (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.03-1.46), less saturated fat (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.74-0.92) and had experienced more hangovers during previous year (OR 1.02, 95% CI 1.00-1.05) than fertile women. Infertile men under 50 years consumed more total fat (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03-1.10), polyunsaturated fat (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.05-1.37) and monounsaturated fat (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.06-1.28) compared to other men. Infertile men did not consume more alcohol nor smoke more cigarettes but reported more often allergies than fertile men. Infertile women also had Chlamydia trachomatis infection, benign tumor in their uterus and intestinal disease more often than fertile women. Infertile women over 50 years were more often current smokers than fertile women, but the differences in other age-groups were not significant. Women with infertility experience reported more diseases and less use of oral contraceptives than other women, possibly reflecting reasons to infertility. Since both infertility and unhealthy use of alcohol are an increasing public health issues in western societies, more attention should be paid towards life style, especially alcohol use of infertile women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sara De Bruyn
Full Text Available Alcohol and drug misuse among college students has been studied extensively and has been clearly identified as a public health problem. Within more general populations alcohol misuse remains one of the leading causes of disease, disability and death worldwide. Conducting research on alcohol misuse requires valid and reliable instruments to measure its consequences. One scale that is often used is the consequences scale in the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey (CADS. However, psychometric studies on the CADS are rare and the ones that do exist report varying results. This article aims to address this imbalance by examining the psychometric properties of a Dutch version of the CADS in a large sample of Flemish university and college students.The analyses are based on data collected by the inter-university project 'Head in the clouds', measuring alcohol use among students. In total, 19,253 students participated (22.1% response rate. The CADS scale was measured using 19 consequences, and participants were asked how often they had experienced these on a 6-point scale. Firstly, the factor structure of the CADS was examined. Two models from literature were compared by performing confirmatory factor analyses (CFA and were adapted if necessary. Secondly, we assessed the composite reliability as well as the convergent, discriminant and concurrent validity.The two-factor model, identifying personal consequences (had a hangover; got nauseated or vomited; missed a class and social consequences (got into an argument or fight; been criticized by someone I know; done something I later regretted; been hurt or injured was indicated to be the best model, having both a good model fit and an acceptable composite reliability. In addition, construct validity was evaluated to be acceptable, with good discriminant validity, although the convergent validity of the factor measuring 'social consequences' could be improved. Concurrent validity was evaluated as good.In deciding
Edvardsen, Hilde Marie Erøy; Karinen, Ritva; Moan, Inger Synnøve; Oiestad, Elisabeth Leere; Christophersen, Asbjørg Solberg; Gjerde, Hallvard
Working under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol may affect safety and job performance. However, the size of this possible problem among health professionals (HPs) is unknown. The aim of this study was threefold: (i) to analyze samples of oral fluid and self-reported data from questionnaires to investigate the prevalence of alcohol and drugs among a sample of HPs in Norway, (ii) to study self-reported absence from or impairment at work due to alcohol and/or drug use, and (iii) to examine whether such use and absence/impairment due to such use depend on socio-demographic variables.A total of 916 of the 933 invited HPs from hospitals and pharmacies participated in the study (participation rate = 98.2%), and 81.1% were women. Associations were analyzed in bi-variate cross tables with Chi-square statistics to assess statistical significance.Alcohol was not detected in any of the samples. Ethyl glucuronide, a specific alcohol metabolite, was found in 0.3% of the collected samples. Illicit drugs and medicinal drugs were identified in 0.6% and 7.3% of the samples, respectively. Both analytical results and self-reported use of alcohol and drugs during the past 12 months indicate that recent and past year alcohol and drug use was lower among HPs than among workers in other business areas in Norway, Europe and US. Nevertheless, several HPs reported absence from work due to alcohol (0.9%) and medicinal drug use (0.8%) during the past 12 months. A substantial part (16.7%) of the self-reported medicinal drug users reported absence from work because of use of medicinal drugs during the past 12 months, and more than 1/4 of those reported in-efficiency at work because of the use of medicinal drugs during the past 12 months. Reduced efficiency at work due to alcohol use during the past 12 months was reported by 12.2%.This sample of HPs seldom used illicit drugs, few had a high level of alcohol consumption, and few tested positive for medicinal drugs. Absence or hangover related
Giam, G C
This review discusses the need for sleep, effects of sleep deprivation on behaviour and performance in the military, and sleep management recommendations to optimise combat effectiveness. Most people, regardless of sex or race, prefer 7 to 8 hours of sleep each night. Sleeping during the day is less recuperative. Continuous sleep is more effective than multiple short naps-even when the total hours for naps is more. Ten to 20 minute naps are useful when continuous sleep is not possible. Sleep inertia is the 5 to 30 minute period of sluggishness after awakening and important military tasks should be avoided. Previously, continuous work episodes (CWEs) duration was restricted by limited night vision, unreliable equipment and reduced endurance of military personnel. With improved technology, CWEs are now restricted primarily by endurance which is affected by sleep deprivation. This was one of the experiences noted in recent conflicts (e.g. Desert Storm) by personnel in the air force, army and navy. Since there will be changes in operational requirements, several work-rest-sleep plans must be prepared. Sleeping the preferred 7 to 8 hours per 24 hours the week before an operation may help prepare for optimal performance. Personnel should be familiarised with conditions under which they may sleep. During combat, sleep management should ideally avoid situations where all personnel are exhausted at the same time. As sleep debt accumulates, a person's mood, motivation, attention, alertness, short-term memory, ability to complete routines, task performance (errors of omission more than errors of commission) and physical performance will become more negatively affected. Counter measures must then be taken (e.g. time for sleep or naps, changing routines or rotating jobs). Drugs like caffeine and amphetamine can help personnel stay awake. However, they may also keep them awake when they need to sleep- and on awakening, they could suffer from "hang-overs" and are less efficient
Full Text Available Russia has experienced massive fluctuations in mortality at working ages over the past three decades. Routine data analyses suggest that these are largely driven by fluctuations in heavy alcohol drinking. However, individual-level evidence supporting alcohol having a major role in Russian mortality comes from only two case-control studies, which could be subject to serious biases due to their design.A prospective study of mortality (2003-9 of 2000 men aged 25-54 years at recruitment was conducted in the city of Izhevsk, Russia. This cohort was free from key limitations inherent in the design of the two earlier case-control studies. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios of all-cause mortality by alcohol drinking type as reported by a proxy informant. Hazardous drinkers were defined as those who either drank non-beverage alcohols or were reported to regularly have hangovers or other behaviours related to heavy drinking episodes. Over the follow-up period 113 men died. Compared to non-hazardous drinkers and abstainers, men who drank hazardously had appreciably higher mortality (HR = 3.4, 95% CI 2.2, 5.1 adjusted for age, smoking and education. The population attributable risk percent (PAR% for hazardous drinking was 26% (95% CI 14,37. However, larger effects were seen in the first two years of follow-up, with a HR of 4.6 (2.5, 8.2 and a corresponding PAR% of 37% (17, 51.This prospective cohort study strengthens the evidence that hazardous alcohol consumption has been a major determinant of mortality among working age men in a typical Russian city. As such the similar findings of the previous case-control studies cannot be explained as artefacts of limitations of their design. As Russia struggles to raise life expectancy, which even in 2009 was only 62 years among men, control of hazardous drinking must remain a top public health priority.
Widget Jones's Highgate science week diary Saturday 17 March Alcohol units 20 (but all went up in flames—what a waste!), smoke—lots (but none from cigarettes!) (g. though possible concern about passive inhaling) Who needs a hangover when you've got crazy Highgate School chemist 'Zbig' Szydlo launching Science Week with exploding potato crisp cartons! Looks like that liquid nitrogen stuff might be good for chilling the Chardonnay though. Memo to self: buy earplugs next year and go with Shazzer so don't suffer embarrassment of grabbing hold of complete stranger during scary bits! Must take sunglasses too for big flash at the end—must admit Hydro Gin is a brand I've not come across, but sounds v.g. Monday 19 March Alcohol units 2 (fizzy wine at opening ceremony for refurbished Physics Department!), smoke—lots again (but all from Trevor's pipe!) Big coup as Trevor Baylis turned up to speak about inventing the clockwork radio. Not sure I'd have strength or coordination to wind one up before breakfast—would need to find environmentally aware boyfriend with healthy liver and strong wrist. We all proved weakest links when it came to the 'name a woman inventor' quiz—Trev was so right when he said that men don't realize that girls with great legs can have good ideas as well! But then went on to say that even the blokes often end up penniless and destined —like me the way things are going—to be discovered half eaten by Alsatians a couple of weeks after snuffing it in a lonely bedsit. Thursday 22 MarchAlcohol units 0 (but the first event was at 9 o'clock in the morning!), smoke—none (couldn't persuade any of the pupils to give me one!), endangered species saved: 1 (v.v.g. indeed) Lured by promise of 'live astrology in the classroom' I staggered out of bed at an ungodly hour hoping to find that my Venus was ascendant and Mark Darcy and I would be aligned soon. Initially disappointed to discover that it was in fact astronomy on the breakfast menu via a remotely
Cooper, P David
Dear Editor, By focussing on the details of the Watson case, I believe Bryan Walpole has missed the thrust of my earlier letter. I agree this was a complex case, which is why I deliberately avoided the murky specifics in order to consider the 'big-picture' ramifications of the judgement. My concerns relate to the potential consequences of the unintended interplay between unrelated developments in the medical and legal arenas. Taken together, I believe these developments threaten the very institution of buddy diving. I have been unable to verify Dr Walpole's claim that the statute under which Mr Watson was convicted has not been used previously in a criminal trial. I must, however, refute his assertion that this legislation is some sort of idiosyncratic historical hangover or legal curiosity unique to Queensland. Although the original legislation pre-dates Australian federation, this statute has survived intact through 110 years of reviews and amendments to the Queensland Criminal Code. The application of this 19th century law to the Watson case now provides a direct, post-federation, 21st century relevance. Nor is Queensland alone in having such a statute on its books. Section 151 of the Criminal Code Act in Dr Walpole's home state of Tasmania states "When a person undertakes to do any act, the omission to do which is or may be dangerous to human life or health, it is his duty to do that act." Similar statutes can also be found in the legislation of other Australian states and as far afield as New Zealand and Canada. The phrasing of the relevant sections is, in many cases, almost identical to Queensland's, reflecting the common judicial heritage of these places. Even if this ruling's reach extended no further than the Queensland border its ramifications would be immense. Tourism statistics reveal that over 1.2 million visitors perform nearly 3.5 million dives/snorkels in Queensland each year. An estimated 93% of international divers visiting Australia stopover in
Crombie, Iain K; Cunningham, Kathryn B; Irvine, Linda; Williams, Brian; Sniehotta, Falko F; Norrie, John; Melson, Ambrose; Jones, Claire; Briggs, Andrew; Rice, Peter M; Achison, Marcus; McKenzie, Andrew; Dimova, Elena; Slane, Peter W
group and 34 to the control group. The analysis was conducted on 31 participants from the intervention group and 30 from the control group. The participants covered a wide range of ages and socioeconomic statuses. The average alcohol consumption of the men recruited was 47.2 units per week, more than twice that of the entry criterion (> 21 units per week). Most (78%) engaged in binge drinking (> 8 units in a session) at least weekly. Almost all (95%) exceeded the threshold for a 19-fold increase in the risk of dying from liver disease (BMI of > 30 kg/m 2 and > 14 units of alcohol per week). Despite this, they believed that they were at low risk of harm from alcohol, possibly because they seldom suffered acute harms (e.g. hangovers) and made few visits to a general practitioner or hospital. The intervention was delivered with high fidelity. A high follow-up rate was achieved (98%) and the outcomes for the full RCT were measured. A process evaluation showed that participants engaged with the main components of the intervention. The acceptability of the study methods was high. This feasibility study developed a novel intervention and evaluated all of the stages of a RCT that would test the effectiveness of the intervention. The main stages of a trial were completed successfully: recruitment, randomisation, intervention delivery, follow-up and measurement of study outcomes. Most of the men recruited drank very heavily and were also obese. This places them at a very high risk of liver disease, making them a priority for intervention. A RCT to test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN55309164. This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment ; Vol. 21, No. 19. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.
Newman IM; Huang Zhaoqing; Shell DF; 钱玲
.3% drinkers drank without any reason,while about one-fifth drinkers drank because of socializing and communicating or just enjoying the feeling of drinking.Students with concePtions of drinking is helPful to socialize with other people and drinking improves communication,parents and classmates/friends drinking,from rural area or small town and smokers were more likely to drink alcohol (P <0.05).Males,regular drinkers were more likely to be forced to toast and get drunk (P <0.05).More than half drinkers had the physiological consequences of alcohol-related flushing and muscle weakness etc.The main Psychosocial consequences associated with drinking alcohol were memory loss (23.9%),hangover (14.6%), doing something they later regretted (less than 10%).Conclusions The university students are still keeping a low-risk drinking pattern.Alcohol education needs to provide scientific information about the benefits and risks of drinking so to shape the drink-ers'realistic expectations.Carefully targeted alcohol policies and education needs to be developed to control high risk drinking patterns,and to encourage and support dinking patterns with low risk and serving as important social functions.