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Sample records for hanford radiological protection

  1. Hanford Radiological Protection Support Services annual report for 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, M.; Bihl, D.E.; Fix, J.J.; Piper, R.K.; Froelich, T.J.; Lynch, T.P.

    1993-07-01

    Various Hanford Site radiation protection services provided by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy Richland Field Office and Hanford contractors are described in this annual report of calendar year 1992. These activities include internal dosimetry measurements and evaluations, in vivo measurements, external dosimetry measurements and evaluations, instrument calibration and evaluation, radiation source calibration, and radiological record keeping. For each of these activities, the routine program and any program changes or enhancements are described, as well as associated tasks, investigations, and studies. Program-related publications, presentations, and other staff professional activities are also described

  2. Hanford radiological protection support services annual report for 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, M.; Bihl, D.E.; Fix, J.J.; Piper, R.K.; Freolich, T.J.; Leonowich, J.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1991-07-01

    Various Hanford site-wide radiation protection services provided by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office and Hanford contractors are described in this annual report for calendar year 1990. These activities include internal dosimetry measurements and evaluations, in vivo measurements, external dosimetry measurements and evaluations, instrument calibration and evaluation, radiation source calibration, and radiological records keeping. For each of these activities, the routine program, program changes and enhancements, associated tasks, investigations and studies, and related publications, presentations, and other staff professional activities are discussed as applicable. 22 refs., 10 figs., 19 tabs

  3. Hanford Radiological Protection Support Services annual report for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, M.; Bihl, D.E.; Fix, J.J.; Froelich, T.J.; Piper, R.K.; Olsen, P.C.

    1994-07-01

    Various Hanford Site radiation protection services provided by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy Richland Operations Office and Hanford contractors are described in this annual report for calendar year 1993. These activities include internal dosimetry measurements and evaluations, in vivo measurements, external dosimetry measurements and evaluations, instrument calibration and evaluation, radiation source calibration, and radiological record keeping. For each of these activities, the routine program and any program changes or enhancements are described, as well as associated tasks, investigations, and studies. Program-related publications, presentations, and other staff professional activities are also described

  4. Hanford radiological protection support services annual report for 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, M.; Bihl, D.E.; Fix, J.J.; Johnson, M.L.; Lynch, T.P.; Piper, R.K.

    1998-06-01

    Various Hanford Site radiation protection services provided by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy Richland Operations Office and Hanford contractors are described in this annual report for calendar year 1997. These activities include external dosimetry measurements and evaluations, internal dosimetry measurements and evaluations, in vivo measurements, radiological exposure record keeping, radiation source calibration, and instrument calibration and evaluation. For each of these activities, the routine program and any program changes or enhancements are described as well as associated tasks, investigations, and studies. Program-related publications, presentations, and other staff professional activities are also described.

  5. Hanford radiological protection support services annual report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, M.; Bihl, D.E.; Fix, J.J.; Froelich, T.J.; Piper, R.K.; Schulze, S.A.

    1997-06-01

    Various Hanford Site radiation protection services provided by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy Richland Operations Office and Hanford contractors are described in this annual report for calendar year 1996. These activities include external dosimetry measurements and evaluations, internal dosimetry measurements and evaluations, in vivo measurements, radiological exposure record keeping, radiation source calibration, and instrument calibration and evaluation. For each of these activities, the routine program and any program changes or enhancements are described, as well as associated tasks, investigations, and studies. Program-related publications, presentations, and other staff professional activities are also described

  6. Hanford radiological protection support services. Annual report for 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, M.; Bihl, D.E.; Carbaugh, E.H.

    1996-05-01

    Various Hanford Site radiation protection services provided by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office and Hanford contractors are described in this annual report for calendar year 1995. These activities include external dosimetry measurements and evaluations, internal dosimetry measurements and evaluations, in vivo measurements, radiological record keeping, radiation source calibration, and instrument calibration and evaluation. For each of these activities, the routine program and any program changes or enhancements are described, as well as associated tasks, investigations, and studies. Program-related publications, presentations, and other staff professional activities are also described

  7. Hanford radiological protection support services annual report for 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, M.; Bihl, D.E.; Fix, J.J.; Piper, R.K.; Froelich, T.J.; Leonwich, J.A.; Lynch, T.P.

    1992-07-01

    Various Hanford sitewide radiation protection services provided by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office and Hanford contractors are described In this annual report for calendar year 1991. These activities include internal dosimetry measurements and evaluations, in vivo measurements, external dosimetry measurements and evaluations, instrument calibration and evaluation, radiation source calibration, and radiological records keeping. For each of these activities, the routine program, program changes and enhancements, associated tasks, investigations and studies, and related publications, presentations, and other staff professional activities are discussed as applicable

  8. Hanford radiological protection support services annual report for 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, M.; Bihl, D.E.; Fix, J.J.; Johnson, M.L.; Lynch, T.P.; Piper, R.K.

    1998-06-01

    Various Hanford Site radiation protection services provided by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy Richland Operations Office and Hanford contractors are described in this annual report for calendar year 1997. These activities include external dosimetry measurements and evaluations, internal dosimetry measurements and evaluations, in vivo measurements, radiological exposure record keeping, radiation source calibration, and instrument calibration and evaluation. For each of these activities, the routine program and any program changes or enhancements are described as well as associated tasks, investigations, and studies. Program-related publications, presentations, and other staff professional activities are also described

  9. Hanford radiological protection support services annual report for 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, M.; Bihl, D.E.; Fix, J.J.; Froelich, T.J.; Piper, R.K.; Schulze, S.A.

    1997-06-01

    Various Hanford Site radiation protection services provided by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy Richland Operations Office and Hanford contractors are described in this annual report for calendar year 1996. These activities include external dosimetry measurements and evaluations, internal dosimetry measurements and evaluations, in vivo measurements, radiological exposure record keeping, radiation source calibration, and instrument calibration and evaluation. For each of these activities, the routine program and any program changes or enhancements are described, as well as associated tasks, investigations, and studies. Program-related publications, presentations, and other staff professional activities are also described.

  10. Hanford Radiological Protection Support Services Annual Report for 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, Timothy P.; Bihl, Donald E.; Johnson, Michelle L.; Maclellan, Jay A.; Piper, Roman K.

    2001-05-07

    During calendar year 2000, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory performed its customary radiological protection support services in support of the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office and the Hanford contractors. These services included: 1) external dosimetry, 2) internal dosimetry, 3) in vivo monitoring, 4) radiological records, 5) instrument calibration and evaluation, and 6) calibration of radiation sources traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Each program summary describes the routine operations, program changes and improvements, program assessments, supporting technical studies, and professional activities.

  11. Hanford Radiological Protection Support Services Annual Report for 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DE Bihl; JA MacLellan; ML Johnson; RK Piper; TP Lynch

    1999-05-14

    During calendar year (CY) 1998, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) performed its customary radiological protection support services in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations OffIce (RL) and the Hanford contractors. These services included: 1) external dosimetry, 2) internal dosimetry, 3) in vivo measurements, 4) radiological records, 5) instrument calibra- tion and evaluation, and 6) calibration of radiation sources traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (MST). The services were provided under a number of projects as summarized here.

  12. Hanford radiological protection support services annual report for 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, M.; Fix, J.J.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Leonowich, J.A.; Palmer, H.E.; Sula, M.J.

    1988-08-01

    This report documents the performance of certain radiological protection sitewide services during calendar year (CY) 1987 by Pacific Northwest Laboratory in support of the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and contractor activities on the Hanford Site. The routine program for each service is discussed along with any significant program changes and tasks, investigations, and studies performed in support of each program. Other related activities such as publications, presentations, and memberships on standards or industry committees are also discussed. The programs covered provide services in the areas of: external dosimetry, internal dosimetry, in vivo measurements, instrument calibration and evaluation, calibration of radiation sources traceable to the National Bureau of Standards, and radiological records. 21 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs

  13. Hanford radiological protection support services annual report for 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, M.; Fix, J.J.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Leonowich, J.A.; Palmer, H.E.; Sula, M.J.

    1989-06-01

    The report documents the performance of certain radiological protection sitewide services during calendar year (CY) 1988 by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and contractor activities on the Hanford Site. The routine program for each service is discussed along with any significant program changes and tasks, investigations, and studies performed in support of each program. Other related activities such as publications, presentations, and memberships on standard or industry committees are also listed. The programs covered provide services in the areas of (1) internal dosimetry, (2) in vivo measurements, (3) external dosimetry, (4) instrument calibration and evaluation, (5) calibration of radiation sources traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) (formerly the National Bureau of Standards), and (6) radiological records. 23 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs

  14. Hanford Radiological Protection Support Services Annual Report for 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TP Lynch; DE Bihl; ML Johnson; MA MacLellan; RK Piper

    2000-01-01

    During calendar year (CY) 1999, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) performed its customary radiological protection support services in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office (RL) and the Hanford contractors. These services included: (1) external dosimetry, (2) internal dosimetry, (3) in vivo measurements, (4) radiological records, (5) instrument calibration and evaluation, and (6) calibration of radiation sources traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The services were provided under a number of programs as summarized here. Along with providing site-wide nuclear accident and environmental dosimetry capabilities, the Hanford External Dosimetry Program (HEDP) supports Hanford radiation protection programs by providing external radiation monitoring capabilities for all Hanford workers and visitors to help ensure their health and safety. Processing volumes decreased in CY 1999 relative to prior years for all types of dosimeters, with an overall decrease of 19%. During 1999, the HEDP passed the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) performance testing criteria in 15 different categories. HEDP computers and processors were tested and upgraded to become Year 2000 (Y2K) compliant. Several changes and improvements were made to enhance the interpretation of dosimeter results. The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program (HIDP) provides for the assessment and documentation of occupational dose from intakes of radionuclides at the Hanford Site. Performance problems carried over from CY 1998 continued to plague the in vitro bioassay contractor. A new contract was awarded for the in vitro bioassay program. A new computer system was put into routine operation by the in vivo bioassay program. Several changes to HIDP protocols were made that were related to bioassay grace periods, using field data to characterize the amount of alpha activity present and using a new default particle

  15. Hanford Radiological Protection Support Services Annual Report for 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TP Lynch; DE Bihl; ML Johnson; MA MacLellan; RK Piper

    2000-05-19

    During calendar year (CY) 1999, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) performed its customary radiological protection support services in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office (RL) and the Hanford contractors. These services included: (1) external dosimetry, (2) internal dosimetry, (3) in vivo measurements, (4) radiological records, (5) instrument calibration and evaluation, and (6) calibration of radiation sources traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The services were provided under a number of programs as summarized here. Along with providing site-wide nuclear accident and environmental dosimetry capabilities, the Hanford External Dosimetry Program (HEDP) supports Hanford radiation protection programs by providing external radiation monitoring capabilities for all Hanford workers and visitors to help ensure their health and safety. Processing volumes decreased in CY 1999 relative to prior years for all types of dosimeters, with an overall decrease of 19%. During 1999, the HEDP passed the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) performance testing criteria in 15 different categories. HEDP computers and processors were tested and upgraded to become Year 2000 (Y2K) compliant. Several changes and improvements were made to enhance the interpretation of dosimeter results. The Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program (HIDP) provides for the assessment and documentation of occupational dose from intakes of radionuclides at the Hanford Site. Performance problems carried over from CY 1998 continued to plague the in vitro bioassay contractor. A new contract was awarded for the in vitro bioassay program. A new computer system was put into routine operation by the in vivo bioassay program. Several changes to HIDP protocols were made that were related to bioassay grace periods, using field data to characterize the amount of alpha activity present and using a new default particle

  16. Radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azorin N, J.; Azorin V, J. C.

    2010-01-01

    This work is directed to all those people related with the exercise of the radiological protection and has the purpose of providing them a base of knowledge in this discipline so that they can make decisions documented on technical and scientist factors for the protection of the personnel occupationally exposed, the people in general and the environment during the work with ionizing radiations. Before de lack of a text on this matter, this work seeks to cover the specific necessities of our country, providing a solid presentation of the radiological protection, included the bases of the radiations physics, the detection and radiation dosimetry, the radiobiology, the normative and operational procedures associates, the radioactive wastes, the emergencies and the transport of the radioactive material through the medical and industrial applications of the radiations, making emphasis in the relative particular aspects to the radiological protection in Mexico. The book have 16 chapters and with the purpose of supplementing the given information, are included at the end four appendixes: 1) the radioactive waste management in Mexico, 2-3) the Mexican official standards related with the radiological protection, 4) a terms glossary used in radiological protection. We hope this book will be of utility for those people that work in the investigation and the applications of the ionizing radiations. (Author)

  17. Radiological protection in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padovani, R.

    2001-01-01

    Interventional radiology (IR) reduces the need for many traditional interventions, particularly surgery, so reducing the discomfort and risk for patients compared with traditional systems. IR procedures are frequently performed by non-radiologist physicians, often without the proper radiological equipment and sufficient knowledge of radiation protection. Levels of doses to patients and staff in IR vary enormously. A poor correlation exists between patient and staff dose, and large variations of dose are reported for the same procedure. The occurrence of deterministic effects in patients is another peculiar aspect of IR owing to the potentially high skin doses of some procedures. The paper reviews the use of IR and the radiological protection of patients and staff, and examines the need for new standards for IR equipment and the training of personnel. (author)

  18. Radiological protection act, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Act provides for the establishment of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland and dissolves An Bord Fuinnimh Nuicleigh (the Board), transferring its assets and liabilities to the Institute. It sets out a range of radiation protection measures to be taken by various Ministers in the event of a radiological emergency and gives effect at national level to the Assistance Convention, the Early Notification Convention and the Physical Protection Convention. The Institute is the competent Irish authority for the three Conventions. (NEA) [fr

  19. Toxicology profiles of chemical and radiological contaminants at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, B.L.; Strenge, D.L.; Stenner, R.D.; Maughan, A.D.; Jarvis, M.K.

    1995-07-01

    This document summarizes toxicology information required under Section 3.3 (Toxicity Assessment) of HSRAM, and can also be used to develop the short toxicology profiles required in site assessments (described in HSRAM, Section 3.3.5). Toxicology information is used in the dose-response step of the risk assessment process. The dose-response assessment describes the quantitative relationship between the amount of exposure to a substance and the extent of toxic injury or disease. Data are derived from animal studies or, less frequently, from studies in exposed human populations. The risks of a substance cannot be ascertained with any degree of confidence unless dose-response relations are quantified. This document summarizes dose-response information available from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The contaminants selected for inclusion in this document represent most of the contaminants found at Hanford (both radiological and chemical), based on sampling and analysis performed during site investigations, and historical information on waste disposal practices at the Hanford Site

  20. Toxicology profiles of chemical and radiological contaminants at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, B.L.; Strenge, D.L.; Stenner, R.D.; Maughan, A.D.; Jarvis, M.K.

    1995-07-01

    This document summarizes toxicology information required under Section 3.3 (Toxicity Assessment) of HSRAM, and can also be used to develop the short toxicology profiles required in site assessments (described in HSRAM, Section 3.3.5). Toxicology information is used in the dose-response step of the risk assessment process. The dose-response assessment describes the quantitative relationship between the amount of exposure to a substance and the extent of toxic injury or disease. Data are derived from animal studies or, less frequently, from studies in exposed human populations. The risks of a substance cannot be ascertained with any degree of confidence unless dose-response relations are quantified. This document summarizes dose-response information available from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The contaminants selected for inclusion in this document represent most of the contaminants found at Hanford (both radiological and chemical), based on sampling and analysis performed during site investigations, and historical information on waste disposal practices at the Hanford Site.

  1. Development and maintenance of the Hanford Site Radiological Control Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, L.H.; Selby, J.M.; Vargo, G.J.; Clark, D.L.

    1993-04-01

    In June 1992 the US Department of Energy (DOE) issued DOE N5480.6, Radiological Control, which set forth DOE's Radiological Control Program and established the framework for its implementation at sites nationwide. Accompanying the Order was the DOE Radiological Control Manual (DOE RCM), which provided the detailed requirements for the program. The Order also mandated Field Office issuance of site-specific radiological control manuals by December 1, 1992. This paper presents the approach taken to develop, review, approve, implement, and subsequently maintain the site-specific manual for the DOE Richland Field Office (RL) at Hanford Site

  2. Radiological Protection Act 1970

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    This Act provides for the establishment of a Radiological Protection Board to undertake research and advise on protection from radiation hazards. Its functions include provision of advice to Government departments with responsibilities in relation to protection of sectors of the community or the community as a whole against the hazards of ionizing radiation. The Act, which lays down that the Board shall replace certain departments concerned with radiation protection, repeals several Sections of the Radioactive Substances Act 1948 and the Science and Technology Act 1965. (NEA) [fr

  3. Fundamentals of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.; Mill, A.J.; Charles, M.W.

    1978-05-01

    The basic processes of living cells which are relevant to an understanding of the interaction of ionizing radiation with man are described. Particular reference is made to cell death, cancer induction and genetic effects. This is the second of a series of reports which present the fundamentals necessary for an understanding of the bases of regulatory criteria such as those recommended by the International Commision on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Others consider basic radiation physics and the biological effects of ionizing radiation. (author)

  4. Fundamentals of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mill, A.J.; Charles, M.W.; Wells, J.

    1978-04-01

    A review is presented of basic radiation physics with particular relevance to radiological protection. The processes leading to the production and absorption of ionising radiation are outlined, and the important dosimetric quantities and their units of measurements. The review is the first of a series of reports presenting the fundamentals necessary for an understanding of the basis of regulatory criteria such as those recommended by the ICRP. (author)

  5. Training in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina G, E.

    2014-08-01

    In the Peru, according to the current regulations, people that work with ionizing radiations should have an authorization (individual license), which is granted by the Technical Office of the National Authority that is the technical body of the Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (IPEN) manager of the control of ionizing radiations in the country. The individual license is obtained after the applicant fulfills the requested requirements, as having safety knowledge and radiological protection. Since its founding in 1972, the Centro Superior de Estudios Nucleares (CSEN) of the IPEN has carried out diverse training courses in order to that people can work in a safe way with ionizing radiations in medicine, industry and research, until the year 2013 have been organized 2231 courses that have allowed the training of 26213 people. The courses are organized according to the specific work that is carried out with radiations (medical radio-diagnostic, dental radiology, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy, industrial radiography, nuclear meters, logging while drilling, etc.). In their majority the courses are directed to people that will make use of radiations for first time, but refresher courses are also granted in the topic. The CSEN also carries out the Master degree programs highlighting the Second Professional Specialization in Radiological Protection carried out from the year 2004 with the support of the National University of Engineering. To the present has been carried out 2 programs and there is other being developed. In this work is shown the historical evolution of the radiological protection courses as well as the important thing that they are to work in a safe way in the country. (Author)

  6. Occupational radiological protection in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, H.C.

    1983-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: occupational expossure (the ALARA principle, dose-equivalent limit, ICRP justification); radiological protection planning (general aspects, barrier estimation) and determination of the occupational expossures (individual monitoring). (M.A.) [pt

  7. Radiologic protection in dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco Jimenez, R.E.; Bermudez Jimenez, L.A.

    2000-01-01

    With this work and employing the radioprotection criterion, the authors pretend to minimize the risks associated to this practice; without losing the quality of the radiologic image. Odontology should perform the following criterions: 1. Justification: all operation of practice that implies exposition to radiations, should be reweighed, through an analysis of risks versus benefits, with the purpose to assure, that the total detriment will be small, compared to resultant benefit of this activity. 2. Optimization: all of the exposures should be maintained as low as reasonable possible, considering the social and economic factors. 3. Dose limit: any dose limit system should be considered as a top condition, nota as an admissible level. (S. Grainger)

  8. Hanford site ground water protection management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    Ground water protection at the Hanford Site consists of preventative and remedial measures that are implemented in compliance with a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. These measures seek to ensure that the resource can sustain a broad range of beneficial uses. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the U.S. Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This order requires all U.S. Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate ground water protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Ground Water Protection Management Plan (GPMP) for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the GPMP covers the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the ground water regime; (2) design and implementation of a ground water monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations; (3) a management program for ground water protection and remediation; (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste; (5) strategies for controlling hazardous waste sources; (6) a remedial action program; and (7) decontamination, decommissioning, and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are currently covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing ground water protection activities. The GPMP provides the ground water protection policy and strategies for ground water protection/management at the Hanford Site, as well as an implementation plan to improve coordination of site ground water activities

  9. Optimization in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acosta Perez, Clarice de Freitas

    1996-01-01

    The optimization concept in radiation protection is, in its essence, practical. In each aspect that we deal with the man, it is necessary to take frequent decisions such as: what is the protection level to be pursued, since the protection levels under consideration provide doses lower than the appropriate annual limits. The optimization gives a basic framework of the minding that is appropriate to conduct to a balance kind of the resources available for the protection and protection level obtained against a multitude of factors and constrains in a manner to obtain the best result. In this work, was performed the optimization, from the radiation protection point of view, of a facility project who enclose two shielded hot cells where will be handled UO 2 small plate with 50% of U-235 burn-up, irradiated in the research swimming pool reactor, IEA-R1. To obtain this goal were specified the relevant factors and criteria, were applied the main techniques used in a decision-making in radiological protection, presently adopted and was performed a sensibility study of the factors and criteria used in this work. In order to obtain a greater agility in applying the techniques for decision-making was developed a micro computer program. (author)

  10. Radiological protection in dentistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holliday, B

    1974-01-01

    Information that would allow an assessment of the standard of radiological protection in dentistry in the United Kingdom is sparse. The National Radiological Protection Board (previously the Radiological Protection Service) has provided a monitoring and advisory service to dentists for many years but very limited use has been made of this service. In a recent survey, 114 dentists were visited in representative practices in South East England and it was established that only 6.5% of dentists in general practice do not use radiography as an adjunct to their practice (Smith, 1969). In the 88 x-ray sets which were examined, 24% had less than the recommended thickness of aluminium filtration, while 25% had a fixed field size which was larger than necessary for dental radiography; in addition, 27% of the timers were found to have an error of greater than 20% in repetition of the pre-set exposure time. The exposure rate at the cone tip of a dental x-ray unit is generally in the range 1 to 4 R/s. A fault in the timer unit coupled with a failure on the part of the dentist to notice that x-rays are being generated (normally indicated by a red warning light) would rapidly lead to excessive exposure of the patient. Furthermore, a dentist continually holding films in the mouth of his patient would certainly incur a dose well in excess of the permissible hand dose, assuming anaverage work load for the x-ray equipment. Three case histories are given to illustrate the type of hazard that might arise from faulty equipment or bad operating technique.

  11. Fundamentals of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.W.; Wells, J.; Mill, A.J.

    1978-04-01

    A brief review is presented of the early and late effects of ionising radiation on man, with particular emphasis on those aspects of importance in radiological protection. The terminology and dose response curves, are explained. Early effects on cells, tissues and whole organs are discussed. Late somatic effects considered include cancer and life-span shortening. Genetic effects are examined. The review is the third of a series of reports which present the fundamentals necessary for an understanding of the basis of regulatory criteria, such as those of the ICRP. (u.K.)

  12. Radiological protection report 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    Two years after the massive release of radiation from the nuclear power plants at Fukushima Dai-ichi, the repercussions continue to preoccupy the radiological and emergency protection community, both in Switzerland and internationally. In Switzerland the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) has initiated measures as part of the European Union Stress Tests and has its own Fukushima Action Plan. In this Annual Report, ENSI focuses on radiological protection in Swiss nuclear facilities. The average individual dose has changed little compared with previous years. At 0.7 mSv, it is significantly below the limit both for persons exposed to radiation during their work (20 mSv) and the annual average rate of exposure for the population in Switzerland as a whole (5.5 mSv). In terms of collective doses, the extensive maintenance work at the Leibstadt power plant (KKL) resulted in a doubling of rates compared with recent years. However, in the remaining nuclear facilities the rates have not changed significantly. The highest individual dose during the year under review was 13 mSv. Exposure rates in 2012 for all those exposed to radiation during work in facilities subject to ENSI surveillance were below the maximum limit. Greater attention is now being given to work in high and variable radiation fields and in difficult conditions. Swiss nuclear facilities continue to operate a consistent radiological protection approach. Measuring equipment plays an important role in radiological protection. Having conducted a range of inspections and comparative measurements of aerosol-iodine filters and waste water sampling together with measurements in the field of personal dosimetry, ENSI has concluded that the required measuring equipment for radiological protection exists, that this equipment is correctly used and provides reliable data. ENSI maintains a test laboratory that analyses samples from nuclear facilities and their immediate vicinity and also conducts field

  13. Radiological Protection in Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valetin, J.

    2011-01-01

    This report was prepared to underpin the Commission's 2007 Recommendations with regard to the medical exposure of patients, including their comforters and carers, and volunteers in biomedical research. It addresses the proper application of the fundamental principles (justification, optimisation of protection, and application of dose limits) of the Commission's 2007 Recommendations to these individuals. With regard to medical exposure of patients, it is not appropriate to apply dose limits or dose constraints, because such limits would often do more harm than good. Often, there are concurrent chronic, severe, or even life-threatening medical conditions that are more critical than the radiation exposure. The emphasis is then on justification of the medical procedures and on the optimisation of radiological protection. In diagnostic and interventional procedures, justification of procedures (for a defined purpose and for an individual patient), and management of the patient dose commensurate with the medical task, are the appropriate mechanisms to avoid unnecessary or unproductive radiation exposure. Equipment features that facilitate patient dose management, and diagnostic reference levels derived at the appropriate national, regional, or local level, are likely to be the most effective approaches. In radiation therapy, the avoidance of accidents is a predominant issue. With regard to comforters and carers, and volunteers in biomedical research, dose constraints are appropriate. Over the last decade, the Commission has published a number of documents that provided detailed advice related to radiological protection and safety in the medical applications of ionising radiation. Each of the publications addressed a specific topic defined by the type of radiation source and the medical discipline in which the source is applied, and was written with the intent of communicating directly with the relevant medical practitioners and supporting medical staff. This report

  14. Radiological protection report 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-06-01

    In the radiological protection report 2016, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) provides an overview of the radiological protection in its area of supervision. Part A of the report deals with protecting the staff of nuclear power plants from the dangers of ionising radiation. It also includes a list of the personal doses accumulated by the staff, broken down using various parameters. Applying the optimisation imperative, it has been proved possible to significantly reduce the annual collective doses in Switzerland's nuclear power plants since they came on stream thanks to major efforts by the operators. In 2016, a total of 6,153 people measured accumulated 2,877 person-mSv. The collective doses have reached a low level corresponding to the radiological condition of the plants and the scope of the work required to be performed in controlled zones (e.g. non-destructive materials testing). ENSI will continue to follow the trend for collective doses and assess the reasons for local variances as well as for measures initiated. The individual doses for people employed in ENSI's area of supervision in 2016 showed a maximum figure of 10 mSv and a mean value of 0.5 mSv which was significantly below the dose limit of 20 mSv for occupational radiation exposure. The discharge of radioactive substances with the exhaust air and waste water from nuclear power plants are dealt with in Part B of the report. In 2016, nuclear power plant operators again met the admissible release limits set by the authorities, in some cases by a considerable margin. The emissions of Swiss nuclear power plants led to a dose of less than 0.01 mSv per year in the direct neighbourhood. A comparison with the average annual radiation dose for the Swiss population of 5.5 mSv shows that the relevant contribution from nuclear power plants lies in the area of one percent of this figure. Effluents from Swiss nuclear power plants were also below the target of 1 GBq per year set by ENSI

  15. Radiological protection Program of CDTN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Radiological protection program of CDTN, its purposes and rules, responsabilities, physical control, monitoring, personnel radiation protection, radiation sources and radioactive wastes control, emergency and accidents and siting are described. (C.M.) [pt

  16. Hanford Site grundwater protection management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    Groundwater protection has emerged over the past few years as a national priority that has been promulgated in a variety of environmental regulations at both the state and federal level. In order to effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the US Department of Energy (DOE) requires all DOE facilities to prepare separate groundwater protection program descriptions and plans (groundwater activities were formerly included as a subpart of environmental protection programs). This document is for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. The DOE Order specifies that the groundwater protection management program cover the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the groundwater regime, (2) design and implementation of a groundwater monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations, (3) a management program for groundwater protection and remediation, (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste, (5) strategies for controlling these sources, (6) a remedial action program, and (7) decontamination and decommissioning and related remedial action requirements. 14 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Radiological Protection Science and Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, Augustin; ); Mossman, Ken; Morgan, Bill

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of radiation at the end of the 19. century, the health effects of exposure to radiation have been studied more than almost any other factor with potential effects on human health. The NEA has long been involved in discussions on the effects of radiation exposure, releasing two reports in 1994 and 2007 on radiological protection science. This report is the third in this state-of-the-art series, examining recent advances in the understanding of radiation risks and effects, particularly at low doses. It focuses on radiobiology and epidemiology, and also addresses the social science aspects of stakeholder involvement in radiological protection decision making. The report summarises the status of, and issues arising from, the application of the International System of Radiological Protection to different types of prevailing circumstances. Reports published by the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) in 1998 and 2007 provided an overview of the scientific knowledge available at that time, as well as the expected results from further research. They also discussed the policy implications that these results could have for the radiological protection system. The 2007 report highlighted challenges posed by developments in relation to medical exposure and by intentions to include the environment (i.e. non-human species), within the scope of the radiological protection system. It also addressed the need to be able to respond to a radiological terrorist attack. This report picks up on where the 1998 and 2007 reports left off, and addresses the state of the art in radiological prevention science and application today. It is divided into five chapters. Firstly, following broadly the structural topics from the 1998 and 2007 reports, the more purely scientific aspects of radiological protection are presented. These include cancer risk of low dose and dose rates, non-cancer effects and individual sensitivity. In view of the increasing

  18. Radiological protective screen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaugnatti, R.B.

    1976-01-01

    A radiological screen for placing on a patient's skin is discussed, comprising a flat jacket containing a fine particulate filler and a settable resin binder, the fine particulate filler being of a material which absorbs medical radiation, and the jacket including a window to transmit such radiation through the flat jacket. 16 claims, 4 drawing figures

  19. Radiologic protection in pediatric radiology: ICRP recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Ramon; Khong, Pek-Lan; Ringertz, Hans

    2013-01-01

    ICRP has provided an updated overview of radiation protection principles in pediatric radiology. The authors recommend that staff, radiologists, medical physicists and vendors involved in pediatric radiology read this document. For conventional radiography, the report gives advice on patient positioning, immobilization, shielding and appropriate exposure conditions. It describes extensively the use of pulsed fluoroscopy, the importance of limiting fluoroscopy time, and how shielding and geometry must be used to avoid unnecessary radiation to the patient and operator. Furthermore, the use of fluoroscopy in interventional procedures with emphasis on dose reduction to patients and staff is discussed in light of the increasing frequency, complexity and length ofthe procedures. CT is the main reason that medical imaging in several developed countries is the highest annual per capita effective radiation dose from man-made sources. The ICRP report gives extensive descriptions of how CT protocols can be optimized to minimize radiation exposure in pediatric patients. The importance of balancing image quality with acceptable noise in pediatric imaging and the controversies regarding the use of protective shielding in CT are also discussed.

  20. Radiological risk from consuming fish and wildlife to Native Americans on the Hanford Site (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delistraty, Damon, E-mail: DDEL461@ecy.wa.gov [Washington State Department of Ecology, N. 4601 Monroe, Spokane, WA 99205-1295 (United States); Verst, Scott Van [Washington State Department of Health, Olympia, WA (United States); Rochette, Elizabeth A. [Washington State Department of Ecology, Richland, WA (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Historical operations at the Hanford Site (Washington State, USA) have released a wide array of non-radionuclide and radionuclide contaminants into the environment. As a result of stakeholder concerns, Native American exposure scenarios have been integrated into Hanford risk assessments. Because its contribution to radiological risk to Native Americans is culturally and geographically specific but quantitatively uncertain, a fish and wildlife ingestion pathway was examined in this study. Adult consumption rates were derived from 20 Native American scenarios (based on 12 studies) at Hanford, and tissue concentrations of key radionuclides in fish, game birds, and game mammals were compiled from the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) database for a recent time interval (1995-2007) during the post-operational period. It was assumed that skeletal muscle comprised 90% of intake, while other tissues accounted for the remainder. Acknowledging data gaps, median concentrations of eight radionuclides (i.e., Co-60, Cs-137, Sr-90, Tc-99, U-234, U-238, Pu-238, and Pu-239/240) in skeletal muscle and other tissues were below 0.01 and 1 pCi/g wet wt, respectively. These radionuclide concentrations were not significantly different (Bonferroni P>0.05) on and off the Hanford Site. Despite no observed difference between onsite and offsite tissue concentrations, radiation dose and risk were calculated for the fish and wildlife ingestion pathway using onsite data. With median consumption rates and radionuclide tissue concentrations, skeletal muscle provided 42% of the dose, while other tissues (primarily bone and carcass) accounted for 58%. In terms of biota, fish ingestion was the largest contributor to dose (64%). Among radionuclides, Sr-90 was dominant, accounting for 47% of the dose. At median intake and radionuclide levels, estimated annual dose (0.36 mrem/yr) was below a dose limit of 15 mrem/yr recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA

  1. Introduction of radiological protection; Pengenalan kepada perlindungan radiologi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-31

    The chapter briefly discussed the following subjects: basic principles of radiological protection , dose limit which was suggested, stochastic and nonstochastic effects, equivalent dose and alternative of it`s calculation, limit for the publics, ICRP (International Commission for Radiological Protection) recommendations, and the principles of radiological protection. Dangerous radiation sources also briefly summarized i.e. x-ray generators, reactor nucleus.

  2. [Radiation protection in interventional radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamus, R; Loose, R; Wucherer, M; Uder, M; Galster, M

    2016-03-01

    The application of ionizing radiation in medicine seems to be a safe procedure for patients as well as for occupational exposition to personnel. The developments in interventional radiology with fluoroscopy and dose-intensive interventions require intensified radiation protection. It is recommended that all available tools should be used for this purpose. Besides the options for instruments, x‑ray protection at the intervention table must be intensively practiced with lead aprons and mounted lead glass. A special focus on eye protection to prevent cataracts is also recommended. The development of cataracts might no longer be deterministic, as confirmed by new data; therefore, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has lowered the threshold dose value for eyes from 150 mSv/year to 20 mSv/year. Measurements show that the new values can be achieved by applying all X‑ray protection measures plus lead-containing eyeglasses.

  3. Radiological protection of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niroomand-Rad, A.

    2003-01-01

    The benefits of ionizing radiation in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, as well as other conditions such as cardiac ablation, are well established. However determination, monitoring, and evaluation of patient doses is not as easy task. Furthermore, radiation doses for individual patients may vary greatly from one radiological procedure to another. Attention is needed to reduce unnecessary radiation exposure to patients from All types of radiation producing machines and equipment. The patient risk from radiation injury-stochastic and/or deterministic must be weighted against the benefits of a proper medical examination or treatment as well as the risk of depriving the patient from the necessary medical care. Arbitrary reduction of radiological patient doses without regard to final outcome is determined to proper medical care provided to the patient. Sacrificing image quality in order to reduce patient dose is potentially harmful to the patient as well. Furthermore, the role of radiation exposure incurred from screening procedures such as mammography, needs to be properly considered and differentiated from medically indicated procedures. A known radiation induced risk needs to be balanced against diagnostic efficacy of a screening procedure. In these cases, regulations on standards and guidelines for determination, monitoring, and evaluation of patient doses may be appropriate. In this paper, the technical data collected in the United States have been compared with the corresponding data in Canada. However, even here, it has been recognized that we can not assume that one dose limit fits all. It is advisable to consider individual patient specifics if it means the difference between detection and miss

  4. Radiation protection in pediatric radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fendel, H.; Stieve, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    Because of the high growth rate of cell systems in phases of radiation exposure radiological investigations on children should not be considered unless there is a strong indication. The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements has worked out recommendations on radiation protection which have been published as an NCRP report. This report is most important even outside the USA. The present translation is aimed to contribute to better understanding of the bases and aims of radiation protection during radiological investigations on children. It addresses not only those physicians who carry out radiological investigations on children themselves but also all physicians requiring such investigations. For these physicians, but also for parents who are worried about the radiation risk to their children the report should be a useful source of information and decision aid ensuring, on the one hand, that necessary radiological investigations are not shunned for unjustified fear of radiation and that, on the other hand, all unnecessary exposure of children to radiation is avoided. Thus, it is to be hoped, the quality of pediatric radiological diagnostics will be improved. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Basic principles of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, Jorge Luiz Soares de; Fajardo, Patricia Wieland.

    1984-07-01

    The fundamentals of radiological protection are presented. The interaction of radiation with matter and with living systems as well as radioprotection procedures and units are described. 6 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs of radioactive wastes from nuclear medicine in Brazil are presented. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Radiological survey of shoreline vegetation from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 1990--1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, E.J.; Poston, T.M.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.

    1993-09-01

    A great deal of interest exists concerning the seepage of radiologically contaminated groundwater into the Columbia River where it borders the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site (Hanford Reach). Areas of particular interest include the 100-N Area, the Old Hanford Townsite, and the 300 Area springs. While the radiological character of the seeps and springs along the Hanford Site shoreline has been studied, less attention has been given to characterizing the radionuclides that may be present in shoreline vegetation. The objective of this study was to characterize radionuclide concentrations in shoreline plants along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River that were usable by humans for food or other purposes. Vegetation in two areas was found to have elevated levels of radionuclides. Those areas were the 100-N Area and the Old Hanford Townsite. There was also some indication of uranium accumulation in milfoil and onions collected from the 300 Area. Tritium was elevated above background in all areas; 60 Co and 9O Sr were found in highest concentrations in vegetation from the 100-N Area. Technetium-99 was found in 2 of 12 plants collected from the Old Hanford Townsite and 1 of 10 samples collected upstream from the Vernita Bridge. The concentrations of 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239,240 Pu, and isotopes of uranium were just above background in all three areas (100-N Area, Old Hanford Townsite, and 300 Area)

  7. Radiological survey of shoreline vegetation from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, 1990--1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.; Poston, T.M.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.

    1993-09-01

    A great deal of interest exists concerning the seepage of radiologically contaminated groundwater into the Columbia River where it borders the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site (Hanford Reach). Areas of particular interest include the 100-N Area, the Old Hanford Townsite, and the 300 Area springs. While the radiological character of the seeps and springs along the Hanford Site shoreline has been studied, less attention has been given to characterizing the radionuclides that may be present in shoreline vegetation. The objective of this study was to characterize radionuclide concentrations in shoreline plants along the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River that were usable by humans for food or other purposes. Vegetation in two areas was found to have elevated levels of radionuclides. Those areas were the 100-N Area and the Old Hanford Townsite. There was also some indication of uranium accumulation in milfoil and onions collected from the 300 Area. Tritium was elevated above background in all areas; {sup 60}Co and {sup 9O}Sr were found in highest concentrations in vegetation from the 100-N Area. Technetium-99 was found in 2 of 12 plants collected from the Old Hanford Townsite and 1 of 10 samples collected upstream from the Vernita Bridge. The concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239,240}Pu, and isotopes of uranium were just above background in all three areas (100-N Area, Old Hanford Townsite, and 300 Area).

  8. Ethical values in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oughton, D.H.

    1996-01-01

    Issues like consent, equity, control and responsibility are important for an ethical evaluation of radiation risks. This paper discusses the incorporation of ethical values in radiological protection policy and compares how ICRP recommendations promote their use in practice and intervention cases. The paper contends that in cases of intervention, where the overall aim is dose reduction, social and ethical factors are often alluded to when evaluating costs of an action. However, possible ethical or social benefits of intervention measures are seldom raised. On the other hand, when assessing a practice, wherein the net effect is an increase in radiation dose, one is more likely to find an appeal to ethical factors on the benefits side of the equation than with the costs. The paper concludes that all decisions concerning radiological protection should consider both positive and negative ethical aspects. (author)

  9. Protective barrier systems for final disposal of Hanford Waste Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.J.; Hartley, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    A protecting barrier system is being developed for potential application in the final disposal of defense wastes at the Hanford Site. The functional requirements for the protective barrier are control of water infiltration, wind erosion, and plant and animal intrusion into the waste zone. The barrier must also be able to function without maintenance for the required time period (up to 10,000 yr). This paper summarizes the progress made and future plans in this effort to design and test protective barriers at the Hanford Site

  10. Fifty years of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    On 21 March 1957, the Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy of the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation established the Working Party on Public Health and Safety. From this early date onwards, radiological protection formed a central part of the work of what was to become the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. Now, 50 years later, the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) has commissioned this historical review of half a century of work and accomplishments. Over this period, the key topics in radiological protection have been identified, debated and addressed by the CRPPH. This report brings this history to life, presenting the major questions in the context of their time, and of the personalities who worked to address them. The developments and views of the past condition how we are able to assess and manage radiological risks today, as well as how we may adjust to challenges that will or could emerge in the coming years. This heritage is thus an important element for the CRPPH to consider as it looks forward to its next 50 years of accomplishments. (author)

  11. Radiological protection and environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Fonseca, A.

    2010-01-01

    From the beginning of its industrial activity twenty five years ago, the Juzbado Factory of Enusa Group has always upheld a strong commitment with Radiological Protection and environmental respect and protection. Consequently, the evolution of dose shows a downward trend over the years. Although production has been increased gradually, the average doses to workers have stayed below 1 mSv. In order to identify and prevent the potential environmental impacts of its industrial activity and minimize its impact on the surroundings, the facility develops and environmental management system according to UNE-EN-ISO 14001 since 1999. (Author)

  12. An evaluation of the chemical, radiological, and ecological conditions of West Lake on the Hanford site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.; Price, K.L.; Newcomer, D.R.

    1991-03-01

    West Lake and its immediate surrounding basin represent a unique habitat that is dominated by highly saline water and soil. The basin offers a valuable research site for studies of a rare and complex wetland area in the desert. This report is an evaluation of the chemical, radiological, and ecological conditions at West Lake and describes how ground water influences site properties. The scope of this evaluation consisted of a sampling program in 1989 and a review of data from the perspective of assessing the impact of Hanford Site operations on the physical, chemical, and ecological conditions of West Lake and its surrounding basin. The water level in West Lake fluctuates in relation to changes in the water table. The connection between West Lake and ground water is also supported by the presence of {sup 3}H and {sup 99}Tc in the ground water and in the lake. There are relatively high concentrations of uranium in West Lake; the highest concentrations are found in the northernmost isolated pool. Analyses of water, sediment, vegetation, and soil indicate possible shifts of isotropic ratios that indicate a reduction of {sup 235}U. Uranium-236 was not detected in West Lake water; its presence would indicate neutron-activated {sup 235}U from fuel reprocessing at Hanford. Trace metals are found at elevated concentrations in West Lake. Arsenic, chromium, copper, and zinc were found at levels in excess of US Environmental Protection Agency water quality criteria. Levels of radiological and chemical contamination in the West Lake basin are relatively low. Concentrations of fission isotopes exceed those that could be explained by atmospheric fallout, but fall short of action levels for active waste management areas. 31 refs., 8 figs., 18 tabs.

  13. An evaluation of the chemical, radiological, and ecological conditions of West Lake on the Hanford site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, T.M.; Price, K.L.; Newcomer, D.R.

    1991-03-01

    West Lake and its immediate surrounding basin represent a unique habitat that is dominated by highly saline water and soil. The basin offers a valuable research site for studies of a rare and complex wetland area in the desert. This report is an evaluation of the chemical, radiological, and ecological conditions at West Lake and describes how ground water influences site properties. The scope of this evaluation consisted of a sampling program in 1989 and a review of data from the perspective of assessing the impact of Hanford Site operations on the physical, chemical, and ecological conditions of West Lake and its surrounding basin. The water level in West Lake fluctuates in relation to changes in the water table. The connection between West Lake and ground water is also supported by the presence of 3 H and 99 Tc in the ground water and in the lake. There are relatively high concentrations of uranium in West Lake; the highest concentrations are found in the northernmost isolated pool. Analyses of water, sediment, vegetation, and soil indicate possible shifts of isotropic ratios that indicate a reduction of 235 U. Uranium-236 was not detected in West Lake water; its presence would indicate neutron-activated 235 U from fuel reprocessing at Hanford. Trace metals are found at elevated concentrations in West Lake. Arsenic, chromium, copper, and zinc were found at levels in excess of US Environmental Protection Agency water quality criteria. Levels of radiological and chemical contamination in the West Lake basin are relatively low. Concentrations of fission isotopes exceed those that could be explained by atmospheric fallout, but fall short of action levels for active waste management areas. 31 refs., 8 figs., 18 tabs

  14. Radiation Protection in Paediatric Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade and a half, special issues have arisen regarding the protection of children undergoing radiological examinations. These issues have come to the consciousness of a gradually widening group of concerned professionals and the public, largely because of the natural instinct to protect children from unnecessary harm. Some tissues in children are more sensitive to radiation and children have a long life expectancy, during which significant pathology can emerge. The instinct to protect children has received further impetus from the level of professional and public concern articulated in the wake of media responses to certain publications in the professional literature. Many institutions have highlighted the need to pay particular attention to the special problems of protecting paediatric patients. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has noted it and the IAEA's General Safety Requirements publication, Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards (BSS), requires it. This need has been endorsed implicitly in the advisory material on paediatric computed tomography scanning issued by bodies such as the US Food and Drug Administration and the National Cancer Institute in the United States of America, as well as by many initiatives taken by other national and regional radiological societies and professional bodies. A major part of patient exposure, in general, and paediatric exposure, in particular, now arises from practices that barely existed two decades ago. For practitioners and regulators, it is evident that this innovation has been driven both by the imaging industry and by an ever increasing array of new applications generated and validated in the clinical environment. Regulation, industrial standardization, safety procedures and advice on best practice lag (inevitably) behind industrial and clinical innovations. This Safety Report is designed to consolidate and provide timely advice on

  15. Radiological protection in veterinary practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Emiko; Tabara, Takashi; Kusama, Tomoko.

    1990-01-01

    To propose measures for radiological protection of veterinary workers in Japan, X-ray exposure of workers in typical conditions in veterinary clinics was assessed. Dose rates of useful beam and scattered radiation, worker exposure doses at different stations, and effectiveness of protective clothing were determined using TLD and ion chambers. As precausions against radiation, the following practices are important: (1) use of suitable and properly maintained X-ray equipment, (2) proper selection of safe working stations, (3) use of protective clothing. Regulations are necessary to restrict the use of X-rays in the veterinary field. Because the use of X-rays in the veterinary field is not currently controlled by law, the above precautions are essential for minimizing exposure of veterinary staff. (author)

  16. Radiologic protection: technical and legal aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, A.V.A.

    1987-01-01

    Radiologic units are described with the aim to decodify the technical dosimetric language. The legal aspect of radiologic protection in Brazil is reported. Information about help in case of radiation accident is presented. (M.A.C.) [pt

  17. Training in radiological protection: Curricula and programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    An important activity of the International Atomic Energy Agency is the promotion of training in radiological protection. Through its organized training courses, its fellowship training programme and its field experts, the Agency has assisted many Member States to train an essential group of scientists in radiological protection. Many Member States are now developing their own national training programmes in radiological protection and this report has been prepared to provide the guidance that may be required in this development. In the report the various types of training which are encountered in a radiological protection programme are fully discussed, curricula are suggested and examples of established training courses are annexed

  18. The future policy for radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The international system of radiological protection is currently being revised with the aim of making it more coherent and concise. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has published its draft reflections on the system's evolution, and has opened discussions with the radiological protection community in order to seek a broad range of stakeholder input. This open dialogue will help bring about a common level of understanding of the issues at stake and contribute to the evolution of new ICRP recommendations. These proceedings present a significant block of stakeholder input, comprising the views of policy makers, regulators, radiological protection professionals, industry and representatives of both non-governmental and intergovernmental organisations. (author)

  19. Hanford Site Groundwater Protection Management Program: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    Groundwater protection is a national priority that is promulgated in a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the US Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (now under revision) that requires all US Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate groundwater protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Groundwater Protection Management Program for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the Groundwater Protection Management Program cover the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the groundwater regime, (2) design and implementation of a groundwater monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations, (3) a management program for groundwater protection and remediation, (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste, (5) strategies for controlling these sources, (6) a remedial action program, and (7) decontamination and decommissioning and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing groundwater protection activities. Additionally, it describes how information needs are identified and can be incorporated into existing or proposed new programs. The Groundwater Protection Management Program provides the general scope, philosophy, and strategies for groundwater protection/management at the Hanford Site. Subtier documents provide the detailed plans for implementing groundwater-related activities and programs. Related schedule and budget information are provided in the 5-year plan for environmental restoration and waste management at the Hanford Site

  20. Radiological Protection Miscellaneous Provisions Act 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irish Legislation

    2014-07-01

    This Act provides for the dissolution of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland and the transfer of all its functions, assets, liabilities and staff to the Environmental Protection Agency, to give effect to the Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material done at Vienna on 8 July 2005, to amend the Radiological Protection Act 1991, the Environmental Protection Agency Act 1992 and certain other enactments, and to provide for matters connected therewith

  1. Radiological protection in nucleus reactor; Perlindungan radiologi di reaktor nukleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-31

    The chapter briefly discussed the following subjects: radiological protection problems of reactor 1. in operation 2. types of reactor i.e. power reactors, research reactors, etc. 3. during maintenance and installation of fuels. 4. nuclear fuels.

  2. PROTECTING GROUNDWATER & THE COLUMBIA RIVER AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GERBER, M.S.

    2006-06-29

    Along the remote shores of the Columbia River in southeast Washington state, a race is on. Fluor Hanford, a prime cleanup contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the Hanford Site, is managing a massive, multi-faceted project to remove contaminants from the groundwater before they can reach the Columbia. Despite the daunting nature and size of the problem--about 80 square miles of aquifer under the site contains long-lived radionuclides and hazardous chemicals--significant progress is being made. Many groups are watching, speaking out, and helping. A large. passionate, diverse, and geographically dispersed community is united in its desire to protect the Columbia River--the eighth largest in the world--and have a voice in Hanford's future. Fluor Hanford and the DOE, along with the US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) interact with all the stakeholders to make the best decisions. Together, they have made some remarkable strides in the battle against groundwater contamination under the site.

  3. Radiological protection and its organization in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, E.; Canizal, C.; Garcia, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    By means of a research carried out in Radiotherapy Centers in Mexico City, divided in 7 public institutions and 5 private, aspects related to the radiological safety and its organization in radiotherapy were evaluated. The population being studied was: medical and technical personnel, that works in the selected radiotherapy centers. The survey was made with 36 dichotomic variables, being obtained 90 surveys. The personnel characteristics are: 76% works for more than 3 years in radiotherapy, 93% has updated information about radiological protection, 67% knows the general radiological safety regulations, 93% knows the radiological emergency project and 95% makes use of personal dosemeter. As result of this research we found that the main problems that the radiological protection have are: lack of personnel training in radiological protection, although the 93% states to have updated information, the few number of persons that takes part in clinical meetings and professional associations. (authors). 7 refs., 3 tabs

  4. Aspects of radiological protection in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.G.; Oliveira Filho, D.S.; Rabello, P.N.P.

    1987-01-01

    Due to the short term, long term and genetic effects of radiation, the work with radioactive materials requires special protection measures. The objective of radiological protection is to assure the occupational health of the workers by maintaining the dose levels as low as reasonably achievable. The radiological protection measures implanted in the NUCLEBRAS fuel element factory are described. The philosophy and practical measures taken are explained, and a comparison between radiation protection and industrial safety norms is made. The result of this work shows that the radiological safety of the element factory is assured. (author) [pt

  5. Summary of radiological monitoring of Columbia River water along the Hanford Reach, 1980 through 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirkes, R.L.

    1994-02-01

    The Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The Columbia River monitoring program, conducted as part of the SESP, provides a historical record of contaminant concentrations in the river attributable to natural causes, worldwide fallout, and operations conducted at the Hanford Site. In addition to ongoing monitoring, special studies are conducted periodically to enhance the understanding of the transport and fate of contaminants in the river. The Columbia River monitoring program includes sampling of river water, river sediment, river-bank springs entering the river, and various types of aquatic biota found in or along the river. These samples are analyzed for radiological constituents and a wide range of chemical parameters. This report describes the water sampling component of the overall Columbia River monitoring program conducted during the years 1980 through 1989 and summarizes the radiological results generated through the program during this time period. The only radionuclides found in the river that were consistently influenced by Hanford were tritium and iodine-129. Strontium-90 and uranium, also attributable to Hanford operations, were present in localized areas within the river near ground-water discharge points; however, these contaminants are quickly dispersed within the river to concentrations similar to background

  6. Perception of radiological technicians on radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, E.; Borges, L.M.; Camozzato, T.S.C.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to know the professionals' perception of radiological techniques about radiation protection in the work process in Nuclear Medicine. The research was carried out with nine professionals of the radiological techniques of two private institutions located in the South of Brazil. An interview was applied through recording and transcription. The analysis of the data took place through a thematic analysis. The professionals' perception of radiological techniques regarding the radiological protection in the work process is evidenced when professionals mention the basic rules of radiation protection: time, shielding and distance as attitudes used to minimize the exposure to ionizing radiation. However, it was verified the fragility in the knowledge about the norms and legislation of the radiological protection

  7. Radiological protection and quality control for diagnostic radiology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baorong, Yue

    2008-01-01

    Full text: There are 43,000 diagnostic departments, nearly 70,000 X-ray diagnostic facilities, 7,000 CT, 250 million for the annual total numbers of X-ray examinations, 120,000 occupationally exposed workers in diagnostic radiology. 'Basic standards for protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources' is promulgated on October, 2002. This basic standard follows the BSS. 'Rule on the administration of radio-diagnosis and radiotherapy', as a order of the Ministry of Health No. 46, is promulgated by Minister of Health on January 24, 2006. It includes general provisions, requirements and practice, establishment and approval of radio-diagnosis and radiotherapy services, safeguards and quality assurance, and so on. There are a series of radiological protection standards and quality control standards in diagnostic radiology, including 'radiological protection standard for the examination in X-ray diagnosis', 'radiological health protection standards for X-ray examination of child-bearing age women and pregnant women', 'radiological protection standards for the children in X-ray diagnosis', 'standards for radiological protection in medical X-ray diagnosis', 'specification for radiological protection monitoring in medical X-ray diagnosis', 'guide for reasonable application of medical X-ray diagnosis', 'general aspects for quality assurance in medical X-ray image of diagnosis', 'specification of image quality control test for the medical X-ray diagnostic equipment', 'specification of image quality assurance test for X-ray equipment for computed tomography', 'specification for testing of quality control in computed radiography (CR)' and 'specification for testing of quality control in X-ray mammography'. With the X-ray diagnostic equipment, there are acceptant tests, status tests and routing tests in large hospitals. It is poor for routing test in middle and smaller hospitals. CT is used widely in diagnostic radiology, however most workers in CT

  8. Radiologic protection in intensive therapy units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrea, H.; Juliana, C.; Gerusa, R.; Laurete, M.B.; Suelen, S.; Derech, Rodrigo D.A.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of X-ray was a great achievement for humanity, especially for the medical community. In Intensive Care Units (ICUs), the RX tests, performed with mobile devices, add immense value to the diagnosis of inpatients who do not have the option to carry them out of bed. Following the technology and its improvements, fatalities arose from misuse of ionizing radiation, which mostly gave up for lack of knowledge of the biological effects caused by them, which leads to fear among professionals and often prevents a quick job and effectively by professionals of radiological techniques. The research it is a systematic review of the literature and justified by the scarcity of materials that reflect on the radiological protection in ICUs. For this study we found the Virtual Health Library (VHL) and Pubmed were indexed terms radiological protection and intensive care units, the search in Portuguese and English terms were used radiological protection and intensive care unit. The study aims to inform professionals of ICUs on the main aspects that refer to X-rays in hospital beds, the standards of radiological protection and personal protective equipment, thus avoiding possible damage to the biological health of workers, addressing subjects in rules and laws about the X radiation, emphasizing the protection of professionals in intensive care. It is clear, finally, that little research is conducted in the context of radiological protection of workers ICU's and this is a place that receives daily RX equipment, deserving more attention to protect the worker. (author)

  9. HANFORD SITE RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT (RPP) TANK FARM CLOSURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JARAYSI, M.N.; SMITH, Z.; QUINTERO, R.; BURANDT, M.B.; HEWITT, W.

    2006-01-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection and the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. are responsible for the operations, cleanup, and closure activities at the Hanford Tank Farms. There are 177 tanks overall in the tank farms, 149 single-shell tanks (see Figure 1), and 28 double-shell tanks (see Figure 2). The single-shell tanks were constructed 40 to 60 years ago and all have exceeded their design life. The single-shell tanks do not meet Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 [1] requirements. Accordingly, radioactive waste is being retrieved from the single-shell tanks and transferred to double-shell tanks for storage prior to treatment through vitrification and disposal. Following retrieval of as much waste as is technically possible from the single-shell tanks, the Office of River Protection plans to close the single-shell tanks in accordance with the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order [2] and the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 [3] requirements. The double-shell tanks will remain in operation through much of the cleanup mission until sufficient waste has been treated such that the Office of River Protection can commence closing the double-shell tanks. At the current time, however, the focus is on retrieving waste and closing the single-shell tanks. The single-shell tanks are being managed and will be closed in accordance with the pertinent requirements in: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and its Washington State-authorized Dangerous Waste Regulations [4], US DOE Order 435.1 Radioactive Waste Management [5], the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 [6], and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 [7]. The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, which is commonly referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement or TPA, was originally signed by Department of Energy, the State of Washington, and the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1989. Meanwhile, the

  10. History and Organizations for Radiological Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Keon Wook

    2016-02-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), an independent international organization established in 1925, develops, maintains, and elaborates radiological protection standards, legislation, and guidelines. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) provides scientific evidence. World Health Organization (WHO) and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) utilise the ICRP recommendations to implement radiation protection in practice. Finally, radiation protection agencies in each country adopt the policies, and adapt them to each situation. In Korea, Nuclear Safety and Security Commission is the governmental body for nuclear safety regulation and Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety is a public organization for technical support and R&D in nuclear safety and radiation protection.

  11. Training on Radiological Protection in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Gironzini, E.

    2004-01-01

    Since they were created in 1973 and 1988 respectively, the Superior Center of Nuclear Studies (CSEN) of the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN), together with the Peruvian Radioprotection Society (SPR) have carried out different training courses on radiological protection so that people can work safely with ionizing radiations in medicine, industry and investigation. Additionally, radiological protection is taught to pre graduate students of Medical Technology in four Universities. These courses are a must since national regulations demand that people working with ionizing radiations have an authorization, which is granted by the Technical Office of the National Authority - the technical organ of IPEN - after the candidate demonstrates that he or she knows the specific use of the technique using radiations, as well as all aspects related to safety and radiological protection. The analysis of the radiological protection programs is presented in this document. These programs were carried out by CSEN, during the last 30 years, and by the SRP, and they allowed the training of more than 2200 and 1500 people in the country, respectively. The content of both courses is aimed at specific work with radiations (diagnostic radiology, dental radiology, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy, industrial radiography, nuclear gauges, gamma irradiator, etc..) and fulfill the regulatory requirements. The Universities have different programs on radiological protection for the students of Medical Technology. (Author)

  12. Proceedings of the Session of Radiological Protection in Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The Argentine Society for Radiation Protection has organized the Radiological Protection Session in Medicine 2016 in order to continue with the radiological update on specific radiological topics in radiology, nuclear medicine and interventional medicine, as well as to optimize the radiological protection of workers, patients and the public. [es

  13. Research and development in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butragueno, J. L.; Villota, C.; Gutierrez, C.; Rodriguez, A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of Radiological Protection is to guarantee that neither people, be they workers or members of the public, or the environment are exposed to radiological risks considered by society to be unacceptable. Among the various resources available to meet this objective is Research and Development (R and D), which is carried out in three areas: I. Radiological protection of persons: (a) knowledge of the biological effects of radiations, in order to determine the relationship that exists between radiation exposure dose and its effects on health; (b) the development of new personal dosimetry techniques in order to adapt to new situations, instrumental techniques and information management technologies allowing for better assessment of exposure dose; and (c) development of the principle of radiological protection optimisation (ALARA), which has been set up internationally as the fundamental principle on which radiological protection interventions are based. II. Assessment of environmental radiological impact, the objective of which is to assess the nature and magnitude of situations of exposure to ionising radiations as a result of the controlled or uncontrolled release of radioactive material to the environment, and III.Reduction of the radiological impact of radioactive wastes, the objective of which is to develop radioactive material and waste management techniques suitable for each situation, in order to reduce the risks associated with their definitive management or their release to the environment. Briefly described below are the strategic lines of R and D of the CSN, the Electricity Industry, Ciemat and Enresa in the aforementioned areas. (Author)

  14. Strengthening the scientific basis of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The overarching objective of the radiological protection system is to contribute to an appropriate level of protection against the harmful effects of radiation exposure, without unjustifiably limiting the desired results from the human activity causing exposure. Such a balance is achieved by understanding as best as possible the scientific characteristics of radiation exposure and the related health effects, and by taking this knowledge into consideration when judging which protection decisions will ensure the best balance between social and economic aspects and risks. In general, the existing radiological protection system, on which national regulations are built in virtually every country in the world, works well and does not underestimate protection needs for either individuals or exposed populations as a whole. The latest International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations, which define this protection system, were formed after a long and open dialogue with the public, where expert views were actively collected and discussed at national, regional and international levels. Although the radiological protection system is very effective, and there is no current need for a prompt revision, it is important nonetheless to keep a watchful eye on the latest scientific results, and to work to ensure that the entire radiological protection community is kept up to date on evolving and emerging scientific issues. In this way, potential or actual scientific changes can be appropriately identified and in turn can stimulate reflection on changes that might be needed in the protection system, in policy, in regulation and in practice. Such reflection should benefit from the input of other scientific disciplines and interested stakeholders. To contribute to this process, the NEA Committee on Radiological Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) has periodically reviewed and released reports on the state of the art in radiological protection science (see NEA

  15. Efficacy of rock doves at the Hanford site, Washington, as radiological indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houser, M.R.

    1996-02-01

    Site faithfulness and general movement patterns of five rock dove (Columba livia) flocks were estimated in order to evaluate their efficacy as radiological indicators on the Hanford Site. Of 367 individually marked birds, 311 were resighted or recaptured at least once during onsite and offsite monitoring. Average site faithfulness for all flocks from resightings was 87.1% and was not significantly different than a hypothesized 90% site faithful distribution. Average site faithfulness from pooled resightings and recaptures was 91.3%, which was also not significantly different than a 90% distribution. Since Hanford rock doves exhibit site faithfulness and can be easily monitored, I conclude that they can be used as radiological indicators. I found 107 birds at 21 different locations during offsite surveys in agricultural areas adjacent to the Hanford Site. Mean movement distances from capture areas to offsite locations for each of the five flocks were significantly different. Mean movement distances from capture areas to offsite locations for each flock were highly correlated with closest possible distances for each flock. Mean movement directions from capture areas to offsite locations for each flock were significantly different than random movement patterns for each flock.

  16. Efficacy of rock doves at the Hanford site, Washington, as radiological indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houser, M.R.

    1996-02-01

    Site faithfulness and general movement patterns of five rock dove (Columba livia) flocks were estimated in order to evaluate their efficacy as radiological indicators on the Hanford Site. Of 367 individually marked birds, 311 were resighted or recaptured at least once during onsite and offsite monitoring. Average site faithfulness for all flocks from resightings was 87.1% and was not significantly different than a hypothesized 90% site faithful distribution. Average site faithfulness from pooled resightings and recaptures was 91.3%, which was also not significantly different than a 90% distribution. Since Hanford rock doves exhibit site faithfulness and can be easily monitored, I conclude that they can be used as radiological indicators. I found 107 birds at 21 different locations during offsite surveys in agricultural areas adjacent to the Hanford Site. Mean movement distances from capture areas to offsite locations for each of the five flocks were significantly different. Mean movement distances from capture areas to offsite locations for each flock were highly correlated with closest possible distances for each flock. Mean movement directions from capture areas to offsite locations for each flock were significantly different than random movement patterns for each flock

  17. Evolution of the system of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    One of the main challenges facing radiological protection experts is how to integrate radiological protection within modern concepts of and approaches to risk governance. It is within this context that the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) decided to develop new general recommendations to replace its Publication 60 recommendations of 1990. In the process of developing these new recommendations, the views of the ICRP have evolved significantly, largely due to stakeholder involvement that has been actively solicited by the ICRP. In this regard, it was upheld during the First Asian Regional Conference organised by the NEA in October 2002 that the implementation of the new system must allow for regional, societal and cultural differences. In order to ensure appropriate consideration of these differences, the NEA organised the Second Asian Regional Conference on the Evolution of the System of Radiological Protection. Held in Tokyo on 28-29 July 2004, the conference included presentations by the ICRP Chair as well as by radiological experts from Australia, China, Japan and Korea. Within their specific cultural and socio-political milieu, Asia-Pacific and western ways of thought on how to improve the current system of radiological protection were presented and discussed. These ways of thinking, along with a summary of the conference results, are described in these proceedings. (author)

  18. The future policy for radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    At the end of the 1990's, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) launched a process for establishing new recommendations, which are expected to serve as guidelines for national systems of radiological protection. Currently the ICRP's proposed recommendations are being subjected to extensive stakeholder comment and modifications. The NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) has been actively involved in this process. Part of the Committee's work has been to undertake collaborative efforts with the ICRP through, for example, the organisation of broad stakeholder fora. The first of these, held in Taormina, Italy in 2002, focused on the development of a policy basis for the radiological protection of the environment. The second forum, held in Lanzarote, Spain in April 2003, addressed the latest concepts and approaches in the ICRP proposed recommendations for a system of radiological protection. During this meeting, the ICRP listened to the views of various stakeholder groups, including radiological protection regulators, environmental protection ministries, the nuclear power industry and NGOs. As a result, the ICRP modified its proposals to better reflect stakeholder needs and wishes. This report presents the outcomes of the discussions, examining what the ICRP proposed and how its proposals have been affected and modified as a result of stakeholder input. (author)

  19. International Society of Radiology and Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standertskjoeld-Nordenstam, C.G.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the International Society of Radiology (ISR), as being the global organization of radiologists, is to promote and help co-ordinate the progress of radiology throughout the world. In this capacity and as a co-operating organization of the IAEA, the ISR has a specific responsibility in the global radiological protection of patients. Globally, there are many users of medical radiation, and radiology may be practised in the most awkward circumstances. The individuals performing X ray studies as well as those interpreting them may be well trained, as in industrialized parts of the world, but also less knowledgeable, as in developing areas. The problems of radiological protection, both of patients and of radiation workers, still exist, and radiation equipment is largely diffused throughout the world. That is why a conference like this is today as important as ever. Radiation protection is achieved through education, on the one hand, and legislation, on the other. Legislation and regulation are the instruments of national authorities. The means of the ISR are education and information. Good radiological practice is something that can be taught. The ISR is doing this mainly through the biannual International Congress of Radiology (ICR), now arranged in an area of radiological need; the three previous ICRs were in China, in India and in South America; the next one is going to be in Mexico in 2002. The goal of the ICR is mainly to be an instructive and educational event, especially designed for the needs of its surrounding region. The ISR is aiming at producing educational material. The International Commission on Radiological Education (ICRE), as part of the ISR, is launching the production of a series of educational booklets, which also include radiation protection. The ICRE is actively involved in shaping and organizing the educational and scientific programme of the ICRs

  20. Guideline concerning specialist knowledge of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The regulation is to be applied to licenses according to paragraphs 3, 15, 16, 20, 20a of the Radiation Protection Law, paragraphs 6, 7, 9 of the Atomic Law, to notices according to paragraphs 4, 17 of the Radiation Protection Law as well as in the prospecting, mining and processing of radioactive minerals. It regulates the extent and evidence of the special knowledge required for radiation protection of radiological safety officers and personnel responsible for radiation protection. (UK)

  1. Evolution of the system of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The development of new radiological protection recommendations by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) continues to be a strategically important undertaking, both nationally and internationally. With the growing recognition of the importance of stakeholder aspects in radiological protection decision making, regional and cultural aspects have also emerged as having potentially significant influence on how protection of the public, workers and the environment are viewed. Differing cultural aspects should therefore be considered by the ICRP in its development of new recommendations. Based on this assumption, the NEA organised the Asian Regional Conference on the Evolution of the System of Radiological Protection to express and explore views from the Far East. Held in Tokyo on 24-25 October 2002, the conference included presentations by the ICRP Chair as well as by radiological protection experts from Japan, the Republic of Korea, China and Australia. The distinct views and needs of these countries were discussed in the context of their regional and cultural heritages. These views, along with a summary of the conference results, are presented in these proceedings. (author)

  2. Worker radiological protection: occupational medical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas Herrera, Juan; Fernandez Gomez, Isis Maria

    2008-01-01

    Radiation exposures experienced by workers are widely explained. The first evidences of biological effects, the implications for human health and the radiological protection have been covered. The conceptual structure that covers the radiological protection and adequate protection without limiting benefits, the scientific basis of radiology, the benefits and risks of the radiological protection are specified. The effective per capita doses are exposed in medical uses both for Latin America and for other regions in the average radiology, dental radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. The manners of occupational exposures in the medicine are presented. Industrial uses have also its average effective dose in the industrial irradiation, industrial radiography and radioisotopes production. Within the natural radiation the natural sources can significantly contribute to occupational exposure and have their average effective dose. Occupational medical surveillance to be taken into industrial sites is detailed. In addition, the plan of international action for the solution of dilemmas of occupational exposures is mentioned and the different dilemmas of radioactive exposure are showed. The external irradiation, the acute diseases by radiations, the cutaneous syndrome of the chronic radiation, the radioactive contamination, the internal radioactive contamination, the combined lesion and accidental exposures are also treated [es

  3. Radiological protection at particle accelerators: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    Radiological protection began with particle accelerators. Many of the concerns in the health physics profession today were discovered at accelerator laboratories. Since the mid-1940s, our understanding has progressed through seven stages: observation of high radiation levels; shielding; development of dosimetric techniques; studies of induced activity and environmental impact; legislative and regulatory concerns; and disposal. The technical and scientific aspects of accelerator radiation safety are well in hand. In the US, there is an urgent need to move away from a ''best available technology'' philosophy to risk-based health protection standards. The newer accelerators will present interesting radiological protection issues, including copious muon production and high LET (neutron) environments

  4. Radiological Protection and Environmental Monitoring in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MartInez Pacheco, J.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes the main activities of the Department of Radiological Protection, Nuclear Energy Commission of Bolivia. The following topics are covered: organization, environmental control of air, water, milk and plants, personal dosimetry, instrumentation and calibration, protection in uranium mines. Standard setting and international cooperation aspects are also presented

  5. Radiation Protection Research: Radiological Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeevaert, T.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's research in the field of radiological impact assessment are (1) to elaborate and to improve methods and guidelines for the evaluation of restoration options for contaminated sites; (2) to develop, test and improve biosphere models for the performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal in near-surface or geological repositories; (3) to asses the impact of releases from nuclear or industrial installations. Main achievements in these areas for 2000 are summarised

  6. Radiological protection for the dental practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Rodriguez, Patricia; Loria Meneses, Luis Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    This work offers a didactical material, of easy reading and without mathematical complexity, about the fundamentals of the radiological protection in the dental area. It is dedicated to the personnel of the Ministerio de Salud, responsible to realize radiological inspection in dentistry clinics of the country. It is recommended to consult other bibliographical references if it is wished to extend about a particular subject [es

  7. Non-destructive in situ measurement of radiological distributions in Hanford Site waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyer, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    Measurement of radiological materials in defense nuclear waste stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site is being used to indicate material distributions. Both safety assessment and future processing challenges are dependent on knowledge of the distribution kinds, and quantities of various key components. Data from CdTe and neutron detector measurements are shown and correlated with physical sampling and laboratory results. The multiple assay approach is shown to increase the confidence about the material distributions. As a result, costs of physical sampling and destructive analyses can be controlled while not severely limiting the uncertainty of results

  8. Philosophy of radiological protection and radiation hazard protection law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Michiaki; Kawano, Takao

    2013-01-01

    The radiation protection and the human safety in radiation facilities are strictly controlled by law. There are rules on the radiation measurement, too. In the present review, philosophy of the radiological protection and the radiation hazard protection law is outlined with reference to ICRP recommendations. (J.P.N.)

  9. Hanford Site Protective Barrier Development Program: Fiscal year 1990 highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwell, L.L.

    1991-09-01

    The Hanford Site Protective Barrier Development Program was jointly developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to design and test an earthen cover system(s) that can be used to inhibit water infiltration; plant, animal, and human intrusion; and wind and water erosion. The joint PNL/WHC program was initiated in FY 1986. To date, research findings support the initial concepts of barrier designs for the Hanford Site. A fine-soil surface is planned to partition surface water into runoff and temporary storage. Transpiration by vegetation that grows in the fine-soil layer will return stored water to the atmosphere as will surface evaporation. A capillary break created by the interface of the fine-soil layer and coarser textured materials below will further limit the downward migration of surface water, making it available over a longer period of time for cycling to the atmosphere. Should water pass the interface, it will drain laterally through a coarse textured sand/gravel layer. Tested barrier designs appear to work adequately to prevent drainage under current and postulated wetter-climate (added precipitation) conditions. Wind and water erosion tasks are developing data to predict the extent of erosion on barrier surfaces. Data collected during the last year confirm the effectiveness of small burrowing animals in removing surface water. Water infiltrating through burrows of larger mammals was subsequently lost by natural processes. Natural analog and climate change studies are under way to provide credibility for modeling the performance of barrier designs over a long period of time and under shifts in climate. 10 refs., 30 figs

  10. Hanford Site Protective Barrier Development Program: Fiscal year 1990 highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwell, L.L. (ed.)

    1991-09-01

    The Hanford Site Protective Barrier Development Program was jointly developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to design and test an earthen cover system(s) that can be used to inhibit water infiltration; plant, animal, and human intrusion; and wind and water erosion. The joint PNL/WHC program was initiated in FY 1986. To date, research findings support the initial concepts of barrier designs for the Hanford Site. A fine-soil surface is planned to partition surface water into runoff and temporary storage. Transpiration by vegetation that grows in the fine-soil layer will return stored water to the atmosphere as will surface evaporation. A capillary break created by the interface of the fine-soil layer and coarser textured materials below will further limit the downward migration of surface water, making it available over a longer period of time for cycling to the atmosphere. Should water pass the interface, it will drain laterally through a coarse textured sand/gravel layer. Tested barrier designs appear to work adequately to prevent drainage under current and postulated wetter-climate (added precipitation) conditions. Wind and water erosion tasks are developing data to predict the extent of erosion on barrier surfaces. Data collected during the last year confirm the effectiveness of small burrowing animals in removing surface water. Water infiltrating through burrows of larger mammals was subsequently lost by natural processes. Natural analog and climate change studies are under way to provide credibility for modeling the performance of barrier designs over a long period of time and under shifts in climate. 10 refs., 30 figs.

  11. Radiological protection in dental practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Intended to be complementary to the more comprehensive document, ''Code of Practice for the protection of persons against ionizing radiations arising from medical and dental use'' (CIS 74-423), the purpose of this booklet is to give dentists some basic information on the safe use of X-rays. Contents: why protection from X-rays; responsibility for radiation protection; protection during a dental examination; ensuring a safe installation; sources of further information. Appendices: maximum permissible doses; useful addresses; summary of relevant recommendations from the Code of Practice; notes on film processing.

  12. Radiological protection in underground uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napolitano, Celia Marina

    1978-01-01

    The radiosanitary hazards that workers of an uranium ore can suffer were studied. The more used control methods for the the evaluation of doses received by the workers was studied too. It was developed a technique using the scintillation chamber method for the detection of radon. Emanation and diffusion methods were used for extraction of radon from water. A program of radiological protection based on ICRP recommendation was analysed for uranium mines. This program includes: ventilation needs calculation methods, a study of radiological protection optimization based on 'cost-benefit' analysis, a monitoring plan and a study about radioactive waste management. (author)

  13. Operational Radiological Protection and Aspects of Optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, E.; Lindvall, C.G.

    2005-01-01

    Since 1992, the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), along with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), has sponsored the Information System on Occupational Exposure (ISOE). ISOE collects and analyses occupational exposure data and experience from over 400 nuclear power plants around the world and is a forum for radiological protection experts from both nuclear power plants and regulatory authorities to share lessons learned and best practices in the management of worker radiation exposures. In connection to the ongoing work of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to develop new recommendations, the ISOE programme has been interested in how the new recommendations would affect operational radiological protection application at nuclear power plants. Bearing in mind that the ICRP is developing, in addition to new general recommendations, a new recommendation specifically on optimisation, the ISOE programme created a working group to study the operational aspects of optimisation, and to identify the key factors in optimisation that could usefully be reflected in ICRP recommendations. In addition, the Group identified areas where further ICRP clarification and guidance would be of assistance to practitioners, both at the plant and the regulatory authority. The specific objective of this ISOE work was to provide operational radiological protection input, based on practical experience, to the development of new ICRP recommendations, particularly in the area of optimisation. This will help assure that new recommendations will best serve the needs of those implementing radiation protection standards, for the public and for workers, at both national and international levels. (author)

  14. Radiological Protection Plan an ethic responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huhn, Andrea; Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    The Radiological Protection Plan - PPR, quoted by the Regulatory Standard 32, requires to be maintained at the workplace and at the disposal of the worker's inspection the PPR, for it to be aware of their work environment and the damage that can be caused by misuse of ionizing radiation. Objective: to discuss the interface between PPR and ethical reflection. Method: this is a reflective study. Discussion and results: regulatory norm 32 points out that the worker who conducts activities in areas where there are sources of ionizing radiation should know the risks associated with their work. However, it is considered that the sectors of hospital radiology the multidisciplinary health team is exposed to ionizing radiation and has not always aware of the harm caused by it, so end up unprotected conduct their activities. Concomitantly, recent studies emphasize the radiological protection and concern for the dangers of radiation on humans, but rather refer to the legislation about the radiological protection. In this context an ethical reflection is necessary, seeking to combine work ethics liability to care in protecting themselves and the other with the institutional conditions for this protection becomes effective

  15. Virtual pilot course in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Romero, Angela Maria; Plazas, Maria Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The radiological protection performs vital importance in the fields medically, industrially and environmental. The X-rays and the radioactive materials used in medicine have allowed to realize important progresses and to develop new technologies skills for the diagnosis, the therapy and the prevention of diseases. Having in it counts tells the risks associated with the ionizing radiations, it is required legally that the personnel that intervenes in the different procedures has the necessary knowledge of radiological protection to assure that the use of radiations in the medical practice should carry out of ideal form, at the right moment and adopting all the necessary measures to guarantee the best protection, so much of the occupationally exposed personnel, since as, like of the patients and the public in general. The virtual environments for the construction of the knowledge like it is the virtual university, allows presenting an effective alternative in the learning of different areas and in this particular case of the radiological protection. With the aim lens to give response to these needs there is implemented this pilot virtual course year based on the current course of radiological protection that is dictated in the Mastery in Medical Physics of the National University of Colombia, sedate Bogota. The purpose of this virtual course is to use as academic and bibliographical support on radiological protection, as well as to answer to the needs of initial formation that the professionals have, to acquire a solid base in the mentioned matter. It has been conceived so that it provides theoretical formation, so much scientific as technology and that contemplates the recommendations and international and national procedure on radiological protection and some applications. Given the incorporation of the technologies of information and communication that in the academic area it has brought with it not only to give support to the curricular activities but

  16. The Society for Radiological Protection - 40 years on from 1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunster, H John

    2003-01-01

    The Society for Radiological Protection was created in 1963 at a time when the structure of radiological protection in the United Kingdom was already well established. From its creation 40 years ago to the present, most of the features of British radiological protection stem from the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. This review of the development of radiological protection has been produced to celebrate the 40 years of the Society's support of radiological protection, both in the United Kingdom and internationally. (review)

  17. Principles to establish a culture of the radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovar M, V. M.

    2013-10-01

    The term of Culture of the Radiological Protection means the way in which the radiological protection is founded, regulated, managed, preserved and perceived in the job places, with the use of the ionizing radiations, in the industry, in medicine and in any daily activity that reflects the activities, beliefs, perceptions, goals and values that all the involved parts concern in relation to the radiological protection. The principles to establish a culture of the radiological protection that should be established by the professionals of the radiological protection, following the recommendations of the International Radiological Protection Association (IRPA) are presented. (author)

  18. Environmental and Radiological Protection Department - DEPRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The activities and purposes of the Environmental and Radiological Protection Dept. of the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry form Brazilian CNEN are presented. It is also presented an historical review of its activities, its personnel and its sections. (J.A.M.M.)

  19. Radiological protection in equine radiography and radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoxall, A.T.

    1977-10-01

    The principles of radiological protection are summarised and consideration is then given to problems, which may confront the equine practitioner, in the fulfillment of these principles during diagnostic radiography of the limbs, head, and spine of the horse. The place of anaesthesia in such procedures is discussed and the special problems associated with therapeutic radiography of the horse are considered.

  20. Radiological protection standards in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochin, E.; McLean, A.S.; Richings, L.D.G.

    1976-09-01

    In view of the interest now being expressed in the means by which radiological protection standards are derived and applied, this report briefly outlines the roles of the international organisations involved, summarises the UK arrangements, and indicates the principal sources of relevant biological information. (author)

  1. Radiation protection in the intervenmtional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Benjamin V.; Lissek, Friedrich; Waldeck, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    Interventional radiology and neuroradiology covers a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic methods. A minimal invasive percutaneous access under imaging guidance is common for all these methods. The legal regulations for quality assurance are reviewed, technical possibilities for dose reduction and the importance of modern radiation protection procedures are discussed.

  2. Notes on basic radiological protection. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    A booklet has been compiled giving a basic guide to anyone who has to work with ionising radiations and radioactive and the nature of radiation, radiological units, biological radiation effects, legislation and radiation dose limits, radiation and contamination monitoring and finally methods of protection from both external and internal radiation. (UK)

  3. Radiological protection and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpla, M.

    Dosimetric results obtained inside and outside nuclear power plants are examined with a review to proposing revision of the radiological protection standards. Dose limits are considered with regard to leukemia and genetic effects. Other topics discussed are: observed collective damage and mean risk; lethal exposure; healing and sign change of additional risk; and genetic effects of radiation on mice

  4. Radiological protection worker: occupational medical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Ramirez, Erick

    2008-01-01

    International Organizations involved with radiation protection are presented in the first part. Also some documents related to the radiation that have been published by these organizations. Among the analyzed contents are the radiation and their patients, how to avoid the damage of radiation, pregnancy and exposure to medical radiation, effects of radiation, recommendations for the protection and safety standards. Occupational exposure is defined as the exposure received and understood by a worker during a period of work. In addition, it shows the types of occupational exposure, the protection that workers must have with the radiation, regulations, laws and the regulatory authority that protects the medical personnel in the uses of radiology [es

  5. Radiation protection in veterinary radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hone, C.P.

    1989-06-01

    This Code of Practice is designed to give guidance to veterinary surgeons in ensuring that workers and members of the public are adequately protected from the hazards of ionising radiation arising from the use of x-ray equipment in veterinary practice. (author)

  6. Hanford Site River Protection Project (RPP) High-Level Waste Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRISTOFZSKI, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    The CH2M HILL Hanford Group (CHG) conducts business to achieve the goals of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of River Protection at the Hanford Site. The CHG is organized to manage and perform work to safely store, retrieve, etc

  7. Survey of radiological contaminants in the near-shore environment at the Hanford Site 100-N Area reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Verst, S.P.; Albin, C.L.; Patton, G.W.; Blanton, M.L.; Poston, T.M.; Cooper, A.T.; Antonio, E.J.

    1998-09-01

    Past operations at the Hanford Site 100-N Area reactor resulted in the release of radiological contaminants to the soil column, local groundwater, and ultimately to the near-shore environment of the Columbia River. In September 1997, the Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) and the Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) initiated a special study of the near-shore vicinity at the Hanford Site's retired 100-N Area reactor. Environmental samples were collected and analyzed for radiological contaminants ( 3 H, 90 Sr, and gamma/ emitters), with both the WDOH and SESP analyzing a portion of the samples. Samples of river water, sediment, riverbank springs, periphyton, milfoil, flying insects, clam shells, and reed canary grass were collected. External exposure rates were also measured for the near-shore environment in the vicinity of the 100-N Area. In addition, samples were collected at background locations above Vernita Bridge

  8. Science and Values in Radiological Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.; Eggermont, G.; Britt-Marie, Drottz Sjoberg; Tirmarche, M.; Geard, Ch.R.; Atkinson, M.; Murith, Ch.; Grant, K.G.; Luccioni, C.; Mays, C.; Sisko, Salomaa; Kelly, N.G.; Oughton, D.; Shannoun, F.; Grant, K.G.; Cooper, J.; Mays, C.; Weiss, V.; Oughton, D.; Kazuo, Sakai; Carroll, S.

    2010-01-01

    The workshop provides a forum for exchange of information and experience among regulators, scientists and governmental and non-governmental organisations in the areas of radiological protection and public health. This is the second in the series of NEA workshops on this subject. The first Science and Values in Radiological Protection workshop was held in Helsinki in January 2008 and hosted by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland (STUK). The workshop focussed on developing a shared understanding between various stakeholders and identifying the elements of a framework more suited to the integration of new scientific and technological developments and socio-political considerations in radiological protection. This second workshop focusses on radiological protection issues that are currently facing us, and that continue to pose challenges to our world today. This document gathers the available slides of the presentations given at the workshop: - Science and Values in Radiological Protection: Towards a Framework (Jacques Lochard): This talk makes the link with the Science and Values in Radiological Protection workshop in Helsinki, and lay out the overall goals of the present workshop. It explains the format of plenary/break-out sessions. - Public Health Perspective in Radiological Protection in Challenging Topical Areas (Gilbert Eggermont): This talk gives more detail on the choice of the three case topics and the linkage to public health concerns in radiological protection. It makes a specific link with Helsinki workshop findings and the CRPPH Expert Group on the Public Health. Perspective in Radiological Protection work. - Civil Society Needs (Britt-Marie Drottz Sjoeberg): This talk briefly reviews the radiation protection concerns and communication needs of civil society. It points out different categories of stakeholders and their understanding of radiation risks implied by the three case topics. It addresses the question of how radiological

  9. Neutron monitoring for radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.A.B.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron monitoring is a subject of increasing general interest and considerable attention is being paid to the development of improved techniques and methods for neutron monitoring. The Agency, therefore, considered it important to prepare a guide on the subject of neutron monitoring for radiation protection purposes. The present Manual is intended for those persons or authorities in Member States, particularly developing countries, who are responsible for the organization of neutron monitoring programmes and practical neutron monitoring. This Manual consequently, deals with topics such as neutron dosimetry, sources of neutrons and neutron detection as well as field instruments and operational systems used in this context

  10. Radiological protection report 2007; Strahlenschutzbericht 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This annual report issued by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Inspectorate (HSK) reports on the work carried out by the Inspectorate in 2007. It provides comprehensive data on radiation protection activities in Switzerland during 2007. This is the fourth annual summary report on the radiological protection issues regulated by the Inspectorate. It provides comprehensive data on doses for the staff and for individual jobs. It also includes year-to-year comparisons and comments on the continuing decline in collective and average doses for persons exposed to radiation in the course of their work. Radiation doses are commented on. Radiation in the four Swiss nuclear power stations and in four further nuclear installations in various Swiss research facilities is commented on. The Swiss radiation measurement network is commented on and the results obtained are discussed. The Inspectorate concludes that radiological protection in Swiss nuclear facilities is carried out consistently and in compliance with existing legislation.

  11. Recent perspectives on optimisation of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, J.D.; Croft, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    The ALARA principle as a requirement in radiological protection has evolved from its theoretical roots. Based on several years work, this paper provides a backdrop to practical approaches to ALARA for the 1990s. The key step, developing ALARA thinking so that it becomes an integral part of radiological protection programmes, is discussed using examples from the UK and France, as is the role of tools to help standardise judgements for decision-making. In its latest recommendations, ICRP have suggested that the optimisation of protection should be constrained by restrictions on the doses to individuals. This paper also considers the function of such restrictions for occupational, public and medical exposure, and in the design process. (author)

  12. Quantities used in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menossi, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The application of ICRP recommendations requires knowledge of a variety of concepts and magnitudes. Many of them are employed in other fields of science and precision in its definition reflects this wide application. In this regard, information on quantities and basic units of radiation, which exists in numerous publications, are subjects of great interest. The characteristics and radiation effects are studied by physicists, biologists and chemists mainly. However, there are basics that must be known and to be recognized by general practitioners and specialists from all branches of medicine. The information on quantities and units are used only in radiation protection, have been obtained from the reports listed on the attached bibliography. Such quantities and units contain weighting factors used to provide for different types of radiation and energies that affect the body and thus take into account the relative radio-sensitivity of different tissues. Additionally, they have added a series of data for a better understanding of the units: for example, multiples and sub-multiples, and some examples of converting the units used in radiation protection. (author) [es

  13. National Radiological Protection Board accounts 1986-87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    The 1986-87 accounts of the Radiological Protection Board are presented in accordance with the Radiological Protection Act 1970. The report of the Comptroller and Auditor General is also given. (U.K.)

  14. Radiological respiratory protection in Angra-1 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Marcos A. do

    1996-01-01

    The present paper has the purpose to describe the actual situation of the Radiological respiratory Protection in Angra I Nuclear Power Plant, the difficulties found and the goals to achieve, in order of the radiological protection excellence. (author)

  15. National Radiological Protection Board accounts 1986-87

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The 1986-87 accounts of the Radiological Protection Board are presented in accordance with the Radiological Protection Act 1970. The report of the Comptroller and Auditor General is also given. (U.K.).

  16. Radiological protection of patients in diagnostic and interventional radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    An International Conference on the Radiological Protection of Patients in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and co-sponsored by the European Commission, the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization was held in Malaga, Spain, from 26 to 30 March 2001. The Government of Spain hosted this Conference through the Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, the Junta de Andalucia, the Universidad de Malaga and the Grupo de Investigacion en Proteccion Radiologica de la Universidad de Malaga (PRUMA). The Conference was organized in co-operation with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the following professional societies: International Organization of Medical Physicists (IOMP), International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA), International Society of Radiation Oncology (ISRO), International Society of Radiology (ISR), International Society of Radiographers and Radiological Technologists (ISRRT) and World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB). This publication contains contributed papers submitted to the Conference Programme Committee. The papers are in one of the two working languages of this Conference, English and Spanish. The topics covered by the Conference are as follows: Radiological protection of patients in general diagnostic radiology (radiography), Radiological protection of patients in general diagnostic radiology (fluoroscopy), Radiological protection issues in specific uses of diagnostic radiology, such as mammography and computed tomography (with special consideration of the impact of digital techniques), Radiological protection in interventional radiology, including fluoroscopy not carried out by radiologists, Radiological protection of patients in nuclear medicine, Developing and

  17. Radiological protection of patients in diagnostic and interventional radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. Contributed papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An International Conference on the Radiological Protection of Patients in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and co-sponsored by the European Commission, the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization was held in Malaga, Spain, from 26 to 30 March 2001. The Government of Spain hosted this Conference through the Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, the Junta de Andalucia, the Universidad de Malaga and the Grupo de Investigacion en Proteccion Radiologica de la Universidad de Malaga (PRUMA). The Conference was organized in co-operation with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the following professional societies: International Organization of Medical Physicists (IOMP), International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA), International Society of Radiation Oncology (ISRO), International Society of Radiology (ISR), International Society of Radiographers and Radiological Technologists (ISRRT) and World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB). This publication contains contributed papers submitted to the Conference Programme Committee. The papers are in one of the two working languages of this Conference, English and Spanish. The topics covered by the Conference are as follows: Radiological protection of patients in general diagnostic radiology (radiography), Radiological protection of patients in general diagnostic radiology (fluoroscopy), Radiological protection issues in specific uses of diagnostic radiology, such as mammography and computed tomography (with special consideration of the impact of digital techniques), Radiological protection in interventional radiology, including fluoroscopy not carried out by radiologists, Radiological protection of patients in nuclear medicine, Developing and

  18. Radiological protection system in the era of nuclear renaissance expectation for development of radiological protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyomatsu, Hideki

    2008-01-01

    The current radiological protection system, which was established mainly by the ICRP and UNSCEAR, has contributed to the prevention of potential radiological health hazards, and has been a fundamental concept during the development of nuclear energy. Through a detailed discussion regarding the new ICRP recommendations, the world nuclear industry has reached a consensus that the current radiological protection system keeps its integrity in principle although it involves some remaining issues, such as the disposal of radioactive waste. In order to maximize the advantages of nuclear energy while keeping the integrity of radiological protection system, it is essential to address the characteristics of radiation, which is specific to nuclear energy, so that nuclear energy can coexist with other energy sources. The three basic principles of radiological protection (i.e., justification, optimization and dose limits), which were completed in the 1990 recommendations of ICRP, should be retained as the basic concepts for the future radiological protection system in order to maintain the continuity and consistency of the radiological protection system. The radiological protection system can be furthermore developed only by combining the above three principles with best practices extracted from utilities' field experience. The significant reduction of radiation exposures received by members of the public and radiation workers in the field has resulted from the efforts by the world utilities to achieve the optimization. In order to correctly apply the theory to the work practices, it is essential to see how the theory is practically used in the field. Such a process should be also emphasized in the revision work of the IAEA Basic Safety Standards (BSS), which is currently under progress. Integrating the theory in the work practices is the key to the true development of nuclear renaissance, which could lead to the establishment of the nuclear safety regime. (author)

  19. Radiological protection optimization using derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas Acosta Perez, C. de; Sordi, G.M.A.A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a different approach related to the integral cost-benefit and extended cost-benefit analysis used in the decision-aiding techniques. In the ICRP publication 55 the annual protection cost is envisaged as a set of points, each of them representing an option, linked by a straight line. The detriment cost function is considered a linear function whose angular coefficient is determined by the alpha value. In this paper the uranium mine example considered in the ICRP publication 55 was used. But the potential curve was introduced both in the integral cost benefit analysis and in the extended cost-benefit analysis, which the individual dose distribution attribute is added. The result was obtained using derivatives. The detriment cost, Y, is not necessary because the alpha value is known. The Y derivative dS/dY is the alpha value itself and so, the attention is directed to the derivative -dX/dS on the points that, along with the alpha value, present the optimum option. The results makes clear that the prevailing factor in the optimum option selection is the alpha value imputed, and those a single alpha value, as suggested now, probably as little efficiency on the optimization process. Obtaining a curve for the alpha value and using the derivative technique introduced in this paper, the analytical solution is more convenient and reliable compared to the one used now. (authors)

  20. Radiological Assessment for the Removal of Legacy BPA Power Lines that Cross the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millsap, William J.; Brush, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses some radiological field monitoring and assessment methods used to assess the components of an old electrical power transmission line that ran across the Hanford Site between the production reactors area (100 Area) and the chemical processing area (200 Area). This task was complicated by the presence of radon daughters -- both beta and alpha emitters -- residing on the surfaces, particularly on the surfaces of weathered metals and metals that had been electrically-charged. In many cases, these activities were high compared to the DOE Surface Contamination Guidelines, which were used as guides for the assessment. These methods included the use of the Toulmin model of argument, represented using Toulmin diagrams, to represent the combined force of several strands of evidences, rather than a single measurement of activity, to demonstrate beyond a reasonable doubt that no or very little Hanford activity was present and mixed with the natural activity. A number of forms of evidence were used: the overall chance of Hanford contamination; measurements of removable activity, beta and alpha; 1-minute scaler counts of total surface activity, beta and alpha, using 'background makers'; the beta activity to alpha activity ratios; measured contamination on nearby components; NaI gamma spectral measurements to compare uncontaminated and potentially-contaminated spectra, as well as measurements for the sentinel radionuclides, Am- 241 and Cs-137 on conducting wire; comparative statistical analyses; and in-situ measurements of alpha spectra on conducting wire showing that the alpha activity was natural Po-210, as well as to compare uncontaminated and potentially-contaminated spectra

  1. Radiological Assessment for the Removal of Legacy BPA Power Lines that Cross the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millsap, William J.; Brush, Daniel J.

    2013-11-13

    This paper discusses some radiological field monitoring and assessment methods used to assess the components of an old electrical power transmission line that ran across the Hanford Site between the production reactors area (100 Area) and the chemical processing area (200 Area). This task was complicated by the presence of radon daughters -- both beta and alpha emitters -- residing on the surfaces, particularly on the surfaces of weathered metals and metals that had been electrically-charged. In many cases, these activities were high compared to the DOE Surface Contamination Guidelines, which were used as guides for the assessment. These methods included the use of the Toulmin model of argument, represented using Toulmin diagrams, to represent the combined force of several strands of evidences, rather than a single measurement of activity, to demonstrate beyond a reasonable doubt that no or very little Hanford activity was present and mixed with the natural activity. A number of forms of evidence were used: the overall chance of Hanford contamination; measurements of removable activity, beta and alpha; 1-minute scaler counts of total surface activity, beta and alpha, using "background makers"; the beta activity to alpha activity ratios; measured contamination on nearby components; NaI gamma spectral measurements to compare uncontaminated and potentially-contaminated spectra, as well as measurements for the sentinel radionuclides, Am- 241 and Cs-137 on conducting wire; comparative statistical analyses; and in-situ measurements of alpha spectra on conducting wire showing that the alpha activity was natural Po-210, as well as to compare uncontaminated and potentially-contaminated spectra.

  2. Protection of staff in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melkamu, M. A.

    2013-04-01

    This project focuses on the interventional radiology. The main objective of this project work was to provide a guidance and advice for occupational exposure and hospital management to optimize radiation protection safety and endorse safety culture. It provides practical information on how to minimize occupational exposure in interventional radiology. In the literature review all considerable parameters to reduce dose to the occupationally exposed are well discussed. These parameters include dose limit, risk estimation, use of dosimeter, personal dose record keeping, analysis of surveillance of occupational dose, investigation levels, and proper use of radiation protection tools and finally about scatter radiation dose rate. In addition the project discusses the ways to reduce occupational exposure in interventional radiology. The methods for dose reduction are minimizing fluoroscopic time, minimizing the number of fluoroscopic image, use of patient dose reduction technologies, use of collimation, planning interventional procedures, positioning in low scattered areas, use of protective shielding, use of appropriate fluoroscopic imaging equipment, giving training for the staff, wearing the dosimeters and know their own dose regularly, and management commitment to quality assurance and quality control system and optimization of radiation protection of safety. (author)

  3. Training for Radiation Protection in Interventional Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartal, G.; Sapoval, M.; Ben-Shlomo, A.

    1999-01-01

    Program in radiological equipment has incorporated more powerful x-ray sources into the standard Fluoroscopy and CT systems. Expanding use of interventional procedures carries extensive use of fluoroscopy and CT which are both associated with excessive radiation exposure to the patient and personnel. During cases of Intravenous CT Angiography and direct Intraarterial CT Angiography, one may substitute a substantial number of diagnostic angiography checks. Basic training in interventional radiology hardly includes some of the fundamentals of radiation protection. Radiation Protection in Interventional Radiology must be implemented in daily practice and become an integral part of procedure planning strategy in each and every case. Interventional radiological most master all modern imaging modalities in order to choose the most effective, but least hazardous one. In addition, one must be able to use various imaging techniques (Fluoroscopy, CTA, MM and US) as a stand-alone method, as well as combine two techniques or more. Training programs for fellows: K-based simulation of procedures and radiation protection. Special attention should be taken in the training institutions and a basic training in radiation protection is advised before the trainee is involved in the practical work. Amendment of techniques for balloon and stent deployment with minimal use of fluoroscopy. Attention to the differences between radiation protection in cardiovascular and nonvascular radiology with special measures that must be taken for each one of them (i.e., peripheral angiography vs. stenting, Endo luminal Aortic Stent Graft, or nonvascular procedures such as biliary or endo urological stenting or biliary intervention). A special emphasis should be put on the training techniques of Interventional Radiologists, both beginners and experienced. Patient dose monitoring by maintaining records of fluoroscopic time is better with non-reset timer, but is optional. Lee of automated systems that

  4. Foaming in Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant LAW Evaporation Processes - FY01 Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calloway, T.B.

    2002-01-01

    The LAW evaporation processes currently being designed for the Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant are subject to foaming. Experimental simulant studies have been conducted in an effort to achieve an effective antifoam agent suitable to mitigate such foaming

  5. Radiological protection criteria for waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.D.; Webb, G.A.M.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper the progress being made by international organisations towards the development of a consensus on the radiological protection criteria to be applied to waste management, and in particular waste disposal, is reviewed. Against this background, work on the development of criteria for use in the UK is described. It is concluded that an international consensus is emerging and that the criteria being recommended for use in the UK are consistent with current international views. (author)

  6. Radiological protection criteria for waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.D.; Webb, G.A.M.

    1985-01-01

    In this Paper the progress being made by international organizations towards the development of a consensus on the radiological protection criteria to be applied to waste management, and in particular waste disposal, is reviewed. Against this background, work on the development of criteria for use in the UK is described. It is concluded that an international consensus is emerging and that the criteria being recommended for use in the UK are consistent with current international views. (author)

  7. Radiological protection in industrial gamma scintigraphy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.; Suarez, S.

    2002-01-01

    Operational experience has shown that the mobile scintigraphy sector is not only that where individual doses are highest but also where there are the greatest number of high doses, overdoses and incidents. This fact highlights the need for improvement in the optimisation of radiological protection in the sector. In this context the CSN has adopted and implemented an action plan aimed at reducing doses to operation staff. (Author)

  8. Foundations in radiological protection and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales M, F.

    2002-01-01

    The work is divided in three parts. The part 1 are a brief abstrac of some important concepts related with the cells. The part 2 speak in general of the biological effects of the ionizing radiations according to the recommendations of the international commission of radiological protection. The part 3 refer to radiobiological calculations applying the quadratic lineal pattern to the radiotherapy. These calculations are important in view of the fact that they are applied for the introduction of new outlines of treatments

  9. Training in Radiation Protection for Interventional Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vano, E.; Guibelalde, E.

    2002-07-01

    Several potential problems have been detected in the safety aspects for the practice of interventional radiology procedures: a) An important increase in the number cases and their complexity and the corresponding increase of installations and specialists involved; b) New X ray systems more sophisticated, with advanced operational possibilities, requiring special skills in the operators to obtain the expected benefits;c) New medical specialists arriving to the interventional arena to profit the benefits of the interventional techniques without previous experience in radiation protection. For that reason, education and training is one of the basic areas in any optimisation programme in radiation protection (RP). the medical field and especially interventional radiology requires actions to promote and to profit the benefit of the new emerging technologies for training (Internet, electronic books, etc). The EC has recently sponsored the MARTIR programme (Multimedia and Audio-visual Radiation Protection Training in Interventional Radiology) with the production of two videos on basic aspects of RP and quality control and one interactive CD-ROM to allow tailored individual training programmes. those educational tools are being distributed cost free in the main European languages. To go ahead with these actions, the EC has decided to promote during 2002, a forum with the main Medical European Societies involved in these interventional procedures. (Author)

  10. Principles of radiological protection: new paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ximenes, Edmir; Guimaraes, Maria Ines Calil Cury

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The relationships of workers, patients and physicians to the basic principles of radiological protection were given in this work an historical introduction that emphasizes their development from their beginnings to the current period. The evolution of scientific knowledge as regards the benefits and injuries resulting from the use of the ionizing radiation in human activities is the main focus of the work. These principles (justification, optimization and limitation) are presented in order to offer a broader view of their application fields. The principle of the optimization receives the contribution of techniques aimed to help the decision used in radiological protection. The principle of the limitation of doses is helped by the concept of limit specifically linked to a given segment of the population or a given human activity. Regarding the current relationship between physicians and patients a change of philosophy is discussed in what concerns the radiation dose supplied that should be the minimum one in relation to the diagnosis or cure objectives. The administration of radiation must follow the recommendations of ICRP - International Commission on Radiological Protection. The radiation can bring benefits if used with rationality, efficacy and care. The radiation should not be feared, but respected. (author)

  11. Evolution of the radiological protection paradigms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sordi, Gian Maria A.A.

    2009-01-01

    We consider as initial radiological protection paradigms those in vigour after the release of the atomic energy for pacific usages in 1955. In that occasion, only one paradigm was introduced, presently named dose limitation system. After arguing about the basis that raised the paradigm, we introduced the guidance, that is, the measurements to be implemented to comply with the paradigm. In that occasion, they were two, i.e., the radiation dose monitoring and the workplace classification. Afterwards, the reasons that caused the radiological protection paradigms changes in force until 1995 are discussed. The initial paradigm was modified introducing the justification and the optimization principles, adding that the radiological protection should be economical and effective. The guidance also increased to four: personal monitoring, workplace classification, reference level and workers classification. Afterwards, we give the main justifications for the present paradigms that besides the formers were added the dose constraints, the potential exposure and the annual risk limits. Due to these modifications, the workers classifications were eliminated from the guidance, but the potential exposure and the search for the dose constraints were added. Eventually, we discuss the tendencies for the next future and the main changes introduced by the ICRP in the Publication 103, 2007. (author)

  12. Training in Radiation Protection for Interventional Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vano, E.; Guibelalde, E.

    2002-01-01

    Several potential problems have been detected in the safety aspects for the practice of interventional radiology procedures: a) An important increase in the number cases and their complexity and the corresponding increase of installations and specialists involved; b) New X ray systems more sophisticated, with advanced operational possibilities, requiring special skills in the operators to obtain the expected benefits;c) New medical specialists arriving to the interventional arena to profit the benefits of the interventional techniques without previous experience in radiation protection. For that reason, education and training is one of the basic areas in any optimisation programme in radiation protection (RP). the medical field and especially interventional radiology requires actions to promote and to profit the benefit of the new emerging technologies for training (Internet, electronic books, etc). The EC has recently sponsored the MARTIR programme (Multimedia and Audio-visual Radiation Protection Training in Interventional Radiology) with the production of two videos on basic aspects of RP and quality control and one interactive CD-ROM to allow tailored individual training programmes. those educational tools are being distributed cost free in the main European languages. To go ahead with these actions, the EC has decided to promote during 2002, a forum with the main Medical European Societies involved in these interventional procedures. (Author)

  13. Radiological protection and safety in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Here is presented a book published by ICRP ( International Commission Radiological Protection) that exposes the base principles of radiation protection, especially in medical sector. The exposure to ionizing radiations in medicine concerns the persons that profit by a diagnosis or a treatment but also the medical personnel, the patients family and the public. This publication 'CIPR 73' is more particularly adapted to the physicists and physicians implied in radiotherapy, medical imaging, in nuclear medicine and dentistry. It is also useful for the hospital establishments managers and to concerned national authorities. (N.C.)

  14. ICRP-26, the recommendations on radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Since the last ICRP recommendations on radiological protection was pubished in 1966 as it's publication 9, the revised edition of the recommendations had first been published in 1977, accommodating up-to-date knowledge of radiobiology and operational experiences of radiation protection built up for over a decade. In this article, the new version of the recommendations is reviewed in comparison with those of the publication 9, while the corrections and modifications made afterward are introduced together with the recent trends and responses of the experts in various countries for the pracical adoption or legislation of the recommendations. (Author)

  15. Radiological protection of paediatric patients: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringertz, H.G.; Bremmer, S.

    2001-01-01

    Paediatric patients require special attention with respect to radiation protection, for various reasons. The difference between a 1 kg premature baby and a 100 kg teenager puts special demands on the radiographic techniques used, and the increased radiosensitivity of growing tissue and the patients' longer life expectancy put greater demands on the justification of the procedures to be carried out. The optimization procedure involves practical aspects such as immobilization, body build specific exposure parameters and body build specific anatomical knowledge. These and other aspects of paediatric radiological protection are discussed in this overview. (author)

  16. Advanced radiological protection course 1993: 15 November - 3 December

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This pamphlet describes an advanced radiological protection course organised by the NRPB and aimed at experienced health physicists and others who have worked in radiological protection for some years. A knowledge of basic radiological protection is assumed. The course concentrates on developing awareness of the policies and philosophy upon which radiological protection is based. Emphasis is given to managerial and professional responsibilities in radiological protection and to involvement with problems of industrial and public relations. The 1994 course is 3 - 21st October. (Author)

  17. Implications of tissue reactions for radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, S.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer effects and risks at low doses from ionising radiation have been main issues within the field of radiological protection. In contrast, non-cancer effects and risks at low doses from ionising radiation are controversial topics within the field of radiation protection. These issues are discussed in ICRP Publication 118, 'ICRP Statement on Tissue Reactions.' Both non-cancer effects and risks are expected to become increasingly important to the system of radiation protection. Before this can happen, several factors must be considered: thorough characterization of the relationship between dose and risk; verification of the biological mechanisms for any noted excess risk; and adjustment of noted excess risks through the use of a detriment factor. It is difficult to differentiate the relatively small risks associated with radiation from other risk factors in the low-dose region of the dose response curve. Several recent papers also indicate the possibility of a non-linear dose response relationship for non-cancer effects. In addition, there are still many uncertainties associated with the biological mechanisms for non-cancer effects. Finally, it is essential to consider the incorporation of detriment into a well-defined system of radiological protection. Given the recent interest in non-cancer effects, it is essential to facilitate discussions in order to more clearly define dose limits within the existing system of radiation protection for both cancer and non-cancer effects. (author)

  18. Radiological protection report 2014; Strahlenschutzbericht 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    In its 11{sup th} Annual Report on Radiological Protection, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) provides the public with information on dose rates for individuals professionally exposed to radiation, releases of radioactive material and the monitoring of environmental radiation. ENSI, as the regulatory body for nuclear facilities in Switzerland, is continuing to expand its information provision over and above that contained in the Radiological Protection Report. At 0.6 mSv per year, the average individual dose for professionally exposed persons remains significantly below the annual limit of 20 mSv specified by the Swiss Federal Council. It is also less than the average annual rate of natural environmental exposure of 5.5 mSv for the population in Switzerland as a whole. The highest individual dose during the year was 12 mSv. The collective doses lie within the range of past years. There is a trend towards higher collective doses at KKL. As a general rule, planning by the licensees of nuclear facilities in the field of radiological protection is of a high standard. Actual collective doses in 2014 at Beznau 1, Goesgen and Leibstadt were within 10% of projected exposure rates and at Beznau 2 and Muehleberg the doses were about 30% lower. Demands in terms of radiological protection were particularly high at Leibstadt and Beznau 1; at Leibstadt mainly as a result of a fuel cladding defect and at Beznau 1 because of the continuing elevated ambient rate for components in the primary circuit. ENSI concluded that the Swiss nuclear facilities continue to operate a consistent approach to radiological protection. In 2014, licensees of nuclear facilities remained within official release limits, in some cases by a significant margin. Liquid releases from Muehleberg were below the target value of 1 GBq per year set by ENSI on the basis of international recommendations. At the Central Interim Storage Facility (ZWILAG) and at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI

  19. Sampling on radiological protection training in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, E.

    2001-01-01

    Radiological security aspects were evaluated in radiology departments from Mexico City. The study was carried out in two stages, the first one evaluated 40 departments just before the implementation of the new Official Mexican Standards related to Radiological Security and Quality Control in Radiology; in the second stage 33 departments were evaluated 2 years after those standards were implanted, showing a favorable impact of the training programs for the type of answers obtained [es

  20. Application of Biota Dose Assessment Committee Methodology to Assess Radiological Risk to Salmonids in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, Ted M.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Peterson, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    Protective guidance for biota in the U.S. Department of Energy's Graded Approach for Evaluating Radiation Doses to Aquatic and Terrestrial Biota is based on population level protection guides of 10 or 1 mGy.d-1, respectively. Several 'ecologically significant units' of Pacific salmon are listed under the Endangered Species Act. The Middle Columbia Steelhead unit is endangered and the adult steelhead spawn in the reach. The reach also supports one of the largest spawning populations of fall chinook salmon in the Northwest. The existence of the major spawning areas in the Hanford Reach has focused considerable attention on their ecological health by the U.S. Department of Energy, other federal and state regulatory agencies, and special interest groups. Dose assessments for developing salmonid embryos were performed for the hypothetical exposure to tritium, strontium-90, technetium-99, iodine-129, and uranium isotopes at specific sites on the Hanford Reach. These early life stages are potentially exposed in some areas of the Hanford Reach to radiological contaminants that enter the river via shoreline seeps and upwelling through the river substrate. At the screening level, one site approached the dose guideline of 10 mGy.d-1 established with the RAD-BCG methodology and exceeded a precautionary benchmark of 2.5 mGy.d-1. Special status of listed species affords these populations more consideration when assessing potential impacts of exposure to radionuclides and other contaminants associated with the Hanford Site operations. The evolution of dose benchmarks for aquatic organisms and consideration of precautionary principal and cumulative impacts are discussed in this paper.

  1. Optimization in radiological protection; Otimizacao em radioprotecao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta Perez, Clarice de Freitas

    1996-07-01

    The optimization concept in radiation protection is, in its essence, practical. In each aspect that we deal with the man, it is necessary to take frequent decisions such as: what is the protection level to be pursued, since the protection levels under consideration provide doses lower than the appropriate annual limits. The optimization gives a basic framework of the minding that is appropriate to conduct to a balance kind of the resources available for the protection and protection level obtained against a multitude of factors and constrains in a manner to obtain the best result. In this work, was performed the optimization, from the radiation protection point of view, of a facility project who enclose two shielded hot cells where will be handled UO{sub 2} small plate with 50% of U-235 burn-up, irradiated in the research swimming pool reactor, IEA-R1. To obtain this goal were specified the relevant factors and criteria, were applied the main techniques used in a decision-making in radiological protection, presently adopted and was performed a sensibility study of the factors and criteria used in this work. In order to obtain a greater agility in applying the techniques for decision-making was developed a micro computer program. (author)

  2. Work management to optimise occupational radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahier, B.

    2009-01-01

    Occupational exposures at nuclear power plants worldwide have steadily decreased since the early 1990's. Regulatory pressures, technological advances, improved plant designs and operational procedures, as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) culture and information exchange have contributed to this downward trend. However, with the continued ageing and possible life extensions of nuclear power plants, ongoing economic pressures, regulatory, social and political evolutions, and the potential of new nuclear build, the task of ensuring that occupational exposures are kept as low as reasonably achievable continues to present challenges to radiological protection professionals

  3. Work management to optimise occupational radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahier, B.

    2009-01-01

    Although work management is no longer a new concept, continued efforts are still needed to ensure that good performance, outcomes and trends are maintained in the face of current and future challenges. The ISOE programme thus created an Expert Group on Work Management in 2007 to develop an updated report reflecting the current state of knowledge, technology and experience in the occupational radiological protection of workers at nuclear power plants. Published in 2009, the new ISOE report on Work Management to Optimise Occupational Radiological Protection in the Nuclear Power Industry provides up-to-date practical guidance on the application of work management principles. Work management measures aim at optimising occupational radiological protection in the context of the economic viability of the installation. Important factors in this respect are measures and techniques influencing i) dose and dose rate, including source- term reduction; ii) exposure, including amount of time spent in controlled areas for operations; and iii) efficiency in short- and long-term planning, worker involvement, coordination and training. Equally important due to their broad, cross-cutting nature are the motivational and organisational arrangements adopted. The responsibility for these aspects may reside in various parts of an installation's organisational structure, and thus, a multi-disciplinary approach must be recognised, accounted for and well-integrated in any work. Based on the operational experience within the ISOE programme, the following key areas of work management have been identified: - regulatory aspects; - ALARA management policy; - worker involvement and performance; - work planning and scheduling; - work preparation; - work implementation; - work assessment and feedback; - ensuring continuous improvement. The details of each of these areas are elaborated and illustrated in the report through examples and case studies arising from ISOE experience. They are intended to

  4. Design principles for radiological protection instrumentation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, F.H.; Powell, R.G.

    1981-02-01

    This Code of Practice takes the form of recommendations intended for designers and installers of Radiological Protection Instrumentation, and should also be of value to the newcomer to the R.P.I. field. Topics are discussed under the following headings: outline of R.P.I. requirements, specifying the requirement, satisfying the requirements, (overall design, availability and reliability, information display, human factors, power supplies, manufacture, quality assurance, testing, and cost analysis), supply, location and operation of the equipment, importance of documentation. (U.K.)

  5. Radiological protection report 2012; Strahlenschutzbericht 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-15

    Two years after the massive release of radiation from the nuclear power plants at Fukushima Dai-ichi, the repercussions continue to preoccupy the radiological and emergency protection community, both in Switzerland and internationally. In Switzerland the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) has initiated measures as part of the European Union Stress Tests and has its own Fukushima Action Plan. In this Annual Report, ENSI focuses on radiological protection in Swiss nuclear facilities. The average individual dose has changed little compared with previous years. At 0.7 mSv, it is significantly below the limit both for persons exposed to radiation during their work (20 mSv) and the annual average rate of exposure for the population in Switzerland as a whole (5.5 mSv). In terms of collective doses, the extensive maintenance work at the Leibstadt power plant (KKL) resulted in a doubling of rates compared with recent years. However, in the remaining nuclear facilities the rates have not changed significantly. The highest individual dose during the year under review was 13 mSv. Exposure rates in 2012 for all those exposed to radiation during work in facilities subject to ENSI surveillance were below the maximum limit. Greater attention is now being given to work in high and variable radiation fields and in difficult conditions. Swiss nuclear facilities continue to operate a consistent radiological protection approach. Measuring equipment plays an important role in radiological protection. Having conducted a range of inspections and comparative measurements of aerosol-iodine filters and waste water sampling together with measurements in the field of personal dosimetry, ENSI has concluded that the required measuring equipment for radiological protection exists, that this equipment is correctly used and provides reliable data. ENSI maintains a test laboratory that analyses samples from nuclear facilities and their immediate vicinity and also conducts field

  6. Radiological protection report 2013; Strahlenschutzbericht 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-06-15

    The public often regard radiation from nuclear facilities as more dangerous than that from natural sources or medicinal applications, but there is no scientific justification for this view. Operators of nuclear facilities endeavour to keep radiation releases at a level much below the limits specified in law. The latter are defined in such a way that the limit for public exposure to radiation is not exceeded even if very unfavourable assumptions were to apply. In its 10{sup th} Annual Report on Radiological Protection, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) analyses the release of radioactive materials from Swiss nuclear facilities. All nuclear facilities complied with the limits and in some cases by a very large margin. Fuel rod damage at the Leibstadt nuclear power station (KKL) did trigger higher releases of airborne iodine than in previous years. The Muehleberg power station must further reduce its waterborne releases of radiation. The Swiss Federal Office of Public Health (FOPH) has confirmed that these releases would not have affected public safety even if river or seawater had been used for drinking water. With the exception of the increase in the release of gaseous iodine at KKL, emissions from Swiss nuclear facilities were comparable with previous years and the annual dose to which young children in the immediate vicinity of nuclear facilities were exposed was less than 0.01 mSv. The main element contributing to these releases is the radioactive carbon isotope {sup 14}C produced by neutron reactions with nitrogen, carbon and oxygen. The low level of releases is due to the responsible actions of nuclear facilities in the fulfillment of their obligations with regard to radiological protection. The mean individual dose for those exposed to radiation during their work has not changed significantly in recent years and is at 0.6 mSv significantly below the limit for persons professionally exposed to radiation (20 mSv) and even the mean annual dose

  7. Radiological protection and public health: crossbreeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smeesters, Patrick; Pinak, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This paper summarizes the scope of activities, ongoing experience and current results of the Expert Group on the Public Health Perspective in Radiological Protection (EGPH) of the Committee of Radiological Protection and Public Health, OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. While the prime and general task of the EGPH group is looking at how the public health and radiation protection can better take an advantage of their respective perspectives, the following four areas have been explored in detail: a) Exposure to radon; b) Justification of medical exposures; c) Public health judgement and decision making based on new scientific evidence; and d) Management of individual differences. In most of these areas, a targeted telephone survey on public policies in selected countries was used for collecting information from stake holders (public, consumers groups, public health and radiation protection regulators, governmental bodies, medical practitioners, patients, scientific communities, NGOs, etc.). The presented paper also highlights key issues of collected information and summarises existing approaches and policies. The case study on exposure to radon collects national information on approaches to the management of domestic radon risks, focusing on the integration of radiation protection and public health aspects (quality of dwellings, overall quality of indoor air, perception of radon levels, position of radon risk in the pool of other risks). In the case of justification of medical exposures, the Group studies the applications of the justification principle in opportunistic screenings (responsibilities, management of the situation, risk assessment). The precautionary principle and its impact on policy judgement in the light of significant scientific uncertainties can have a large influence on radiological-protection decision making. The case study on public health judgement and decision making based on new scientific evidence is exploring how these uncertainties and

  8. Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) Hanford Tank Waste Treatment Alternatives March 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WODRICH, D.D.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently planning to retrieve, pretreat, immobilize and safely dispose of 53 million gallons of highly radioactive waste currently stored in underground tanks at Hanford Site. The DOE plan is a two-phased approach to privatizing the processing of hazardous and radioactive waste. Phase 1 is a proof-of-concept/commercial demonstration-scale effort whose objectives are to: demonstrate, the technical and business viability of using privatized facilities to treat Hanford tank waste; define and maintain required levels of radiological, nuclear, process and occupational safety; maintain environmental protection and compliance; and substantially reduce life-cycle costs and time required to treat Hanford tank waste. The Phase 1 effort consists of Part A and Part B. On September 25, 1996 (Reference 1), DOE signed a contract with BNFL, Inc. (BNFL) to commence with Phase 1, Part A. In August 1998, BNFL was authorized to proceed with Phase I, Part 6-1, a 24-month design phase that will-provide sufficient engineering and financial maturity to establish fixed-unit prices and financing terms for tank waste processing services in privately-owned and -operated facilities. By August 2000, DOE will decide whether to authorize BNFL to proceed with construction and operation of the proposed processing facilities, or pursue a different path. To support of the decision, DOE is evaluating alternatives to potentially enhance the BNFL tank waste processing contract, as well as, developing an alternate path forward should DOE decide to not continue the BNFL contract. The decision on whether to continue with the current privatization strategy (BNFL contract) or to pursue an alternate can not be made until the evaluation process leading up to the decision on whether to authorize BNFL to proceed with construction and operation (known as the Part 8-2 decision) is completed. The evaluation process includes reviewing and evaluating the information BNFL is

  9. Radiological protection of the unborn child. Recommendation of the Commission on Radiological Protection and scientific grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarenio, O.

    2006-01-01

    The Commission on Radiological Protection was asked to give advice on the practical implications of the absorption of the maximum possible activity values that, under the Radiological Protection Ordinance, may be incorporated in women of child-bearing age occupationally exposed to radiation with regard to incorporation monitoring and compliance with the dose limit for the protection of the unborn child. An unborn child's conceivable level of exposure to radiation in the least favourable case due to continuous and single incorporations of radionuclides in the mother was determined on a nuclide-specific basis by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection with the aid of the mathematical metabolic models provided in ICRP 88. At the proposal of the Commission on Radiological Protection, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection considered the following very conservative scenarios: - the mother's maximum possible exposure due to a continuous intake of activity over 10 years prior to the pregnancy and in the first 10 weeks postconception based on the limits set out in the Radiological Protection Ordinance; - the mother's maximum possible exposure due to a single intake at the most unfavourable time in the first 10 weeks postconception based on the limits set out in the Radiological Protection Ordinance. Examination of these scenarios found that, with a few exceptions, the dose to the unborn child attributable to the incorporation of radiation in the mother summed up over 70 years is less than that to the mother. The committed effective dose to the unborn child from certain radionuclides may exceed the value of 1 mSv when the dose to the mother reaches the maximum limit. The Commission on Radiological Protection was therefore asked 1. to examine whether compliance with the limit of 1 mSv effective dose is sufficient for the protection of the unborn child or whether any additional limitation is required for individual organs, 2. to discuss the implications for

  10. History of the radiological protection in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz M, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    The beginning in the use of the ionizing radiations goes back towards end of 19 century, when Wilhelm Roentgen discovers x-rays in 1985, finding that quickly founds also the new technology, which spreads to tabs of multiple applications anywhere in the world, some of very beneficial them of use like the radio diagnosis, but others of frivolous and commercial kind. As much in the beneficial uses as in the banal ones, the world also is begun to be aware that the ionizing radiations are a physical element that must be handled with precaution then also can induce injuries in the involved people, which is documented already in 1912. This characteristic is confirmed with the use of Radio-226 as source of ionizing radiation, in whose applications were observed some deleterious effects, which forces to take some measures of protection an intuitive and rather incipient way. The first attempt of limit was denominated erythema dose, that it was a concept of qualitative-subjective character when it is observed a reddening of the skin of the radiated zone. Just a short time later, with the invention of the detector Geiger and the possibility of measuring the radiation quantity received by the people, the limits are transformed into quantitative. lt is as well as it is born the radiological protection like scientific and technological discipline, and essential ally of the nuclear energy pacific applications , event in which the international organizations related to the subject play a very important role, in the middle of the 1920 decade. Since then radiological protection (RP) is in permanent evolution, keeping a balance between the people protection, the sources security and the benefits of the ionizing radiations applications. In Mexico, the nuclear energy taking height from the second half of 1950, when the National Commission of Nuclear Energy was created, it spent in his first years to functions that mainly were of investigation, but in which already appeared the RP like

  11. Radiological protection report 2015; Strahlenschutzbericht 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    In the 2015 annual report on radiological protection, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) reports on occupational radiation doses, releases of radioactive material and the monitoring of environmental radiation in the areas subject to its surveillance. It concludes that Swiss nuclear facilities continue to maintain a consistent approach to radiological protection. ENSI has identified an increasing public interest in data concerning radiation and has therefore introduced a number of new concepts, such as the online availability of monthly nuclear power plant releases. There is also a new development concerning the data from the network for automatic measurement of dose rates in the vicinity of nuclear power plants (MADUK) which has been in operation since 1994. It is now possible to view dose rates since 1994 averaged over periods of ten minutes, one hour and one day. A special chapter of this report deals with {sup 14}C releases, which are the subject of enquiries from interested parties. The mean annual individual occupational radiation dose remains at 0.6 mSv, being significantly less than the mean annual radiation dose of the population in Switzerland of 5.5 mSv. The highest annual individual dose was almost 11 mSv so that once again in 2015 the annual limit of 20 mSv was not exceeded. The collective doses lie within the range of past years. However, the trend towards a higher collective dose noted at the Leibstadt Nuclear Power Plant has continued. Planning by the operators of nuclear facilities in the field of radiological protection is of a high standard so that the resulting collective doses generally closely match the projected values. In 2015, nuclear power plant operators have again complied with the release limits specified by the authorities, to some extent by a considerable margin. Emissions from Swiss nuclear power plants resulted in a dose of less than 0.01 mSv per year in their immediate surroundings. Liquid releases from Swiss

  12. Radiological protection national system. Basic security rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This work has been prepared as the first one of a set of standards and regulations that will be enforced to provide the protection of men and the environment against the undesirable effects of ionizing radiations. It establishes, in the first place, the system of dose limits for the country and the principles of its utilization. It takes into account the CIPR's recommendations in this area and the mentioned frame of reference, it establishes further the necessary restrictions for the application of the limits to the professionally exposed workers, as well as to the isolated members of the public and the population in general. In addition it establishes the general conditions to be met for the implementation of radiological protection, among them, the classification of working areas and working conditions as well as the compulsory periodical medical surveillance. (H.D.N.)

  13. Radiological protection and nuclear safety postgraduate course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segado, R.C.; Menossi, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The first Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Postgraduate Course was held in 1977, when the former Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety Branch of the National Atomic Energy Commission decided implement that course for the qualification of its professionals. After then, in 1980, by agreement between the CNEA, the National University of Buenos Aires and the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare got its present academic qualification as a Post-Graduate Course. Since then, it was sponsored by the IAEA. This Organization annually grants fellowships to fifteen students from different countries. Up to now, twenty consecutive courses have been delivered and more than five hundredth graduated, more than half of them coming from abroad. The aim of the course is the qualification and training in Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety of those professionals involved in the design, construction, operation and decommissioning of Nuclear and Radioactive Installation and their related regulatory issues. (author) [es

  14. The provision of radiological protection services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    This publication is a code of practice for the provision or radiological protection services for establishments in which, or in part of which, work is primarily with radiation sources. It was prepared with the help of an international panel of experts and representatives of international organizations which have an interest in this field and was promulgated by the Director General of the Agency under the authority of the Board of Governors of the Agency as a code of practice in the framework of the Agency's Safety Standards. The Board of Governors also authorized the Director General to recommend to Member States that the code of practice be taken into account in the formulation of national regulations or recommendations. The Appendix to the code contains a number of examples of the organization of radiological protection services that have been provided by the members of the panel of experts. These examples do not form a part of the code of practice, but are intended to illustrate the methods of organization which have been adopted in different countries.

  15. Evolution of the system of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has actively participated in discussions with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) regarding the development of new recommendations that will replace those in ICRP Publication 60, which has long served as the international standard in this field. Part of this development process has involved the organisation of seven international workshops, including the First and Second Asian Regional Conferences on the Evolution of the System of Radiological Protection which took place in Tokyo, Japan in October 2002 and July 2004. The Third Asian Regional Conference was held on 5-6 July 2006, also in Tokyo. The main objective of these conferences was to ensure that the views and concerns of relevant Asian stakeholders, such as regulatory authorities, industry, professional societies and NGO, could be expressed and discussed with the ICRP. The three conferences provided the ICRP with specific views on how new recommendations could best be developed to address regulatory and implementation needs in the Asian context. These proceedings summarize the results and key discussions of the Third Asian Regional Conference. (author)

  16. ICRP and radiological protection in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousins, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Standards in relation to radiological protection in medicine are well-documented, particularly with the recent update of the Basic Safety Standards. The principles of justification and optimisation remain key, as dose limitation is not applicable in medical practice. Appropriate justification relies on the knowledge, experience and discretion of the relevant medical practitioners and this may be overlooked in the race for diagnosis and treatment. One argument would be further regulation of medical exposures, although it is difficult to see how this could be imposed without denying patients essential investigations and treatments. Another contentious issue is individual patient dose management with the possible creation of a 'radiation passport'. Individual radiation susceptibility is a topic that has attracted much attention, but how to manage such persons, if identified, raises further questions. Communicating radiation risks and benefits to patients appropriately needs to be addressed, including who should be responsible for this, given accurate knowledge is a prerequisite. Ethics in radiological protection is also being widely discussed and this in relation to medical practice, which already involves numerous ethical issues, is likely to be open to debate in the near future. (authors)

  17. Radiological protection in interventional cardiology in Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, A.; Leyton, F.A.; Farias, E.; Silva, A.M.; Vano, E.; Oyarzun, C.; Gamarra, J.; Ortiz, P.

    2001-01-01

    In September 2000, an expert mission was assigned to Chile, under the regional project named 'International BBS in Medical Practices Radiation Protection and Quality Assurance In Interventional Radiology' (ARCAL XLIX). The objective of the mission was to evaluate the level of radiation protection (RP) and safety in interventional cardiology ( IC ) installations. A team of local cardiologists, medical physicists and technologists was created for this purpose and during one week, several cardiology laboratories were evaluated and some basic quality controls (QC) were carried out. A basic pilot training course in radiation protection was imparted at the Hospital of the University of Chile in Santiago de Chile and some of the key objectives for a future national quality assurance programme were presented during the national congress of IC. In addition, a national survey on radiation protection aspects was circulated and its results evaluated. These activities enabled the local team to become familiar with the methodology of assessment of the level of protection and the organization of a programme, which was illustrated with the examples of similar European programmes. As result of these actions, several proposals were made to both the local authorities and the IAEA. The most important were: a) to initiate a basic QC programme, b) to organize a training in RP for cardiologists in order to formalize their accreditation, c) to improve personal occupational dosimetry, d) to initiate a programme of patient dosimetry, e) to optimize the technical and clinical protocols, f) to create a national registry of incidents with skin injuries. (author)

  18. Proceedings of the National Conference on Radiological Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Radioprotection Argentine Society (SAR) was organized the National Conference on Radiation Protection in 2014, in order to inform to the technical and scientific community about the scopes on radiation protection. The principal treated topics were the following: radiological protection in medical applications, radiology, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy, nuclear fuel cycle, industrial gammagraphy, oil well logging.

  19. Board's system of publications. [National Radiological Protection Board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, M J [National Radiological Protection Board, Harwell (UK)

    1978-07-01

    The purpose of each of the several classes of publication issued by the National Radiological Protection Board is stated. The classes are: advice on standards for protection, emergency reference levels, technical reports, instrument evaluation reports, annual research and development reports, three-yearly reports on the work of the NRPB, miscellaneous specialist booklets, publications for the layman, radiological protection bulletin, information sheets, and brochures.

  20. Requirements to obtain the recognition of radiological protection experts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arguelles, R.; Villarroel, R.; Senderos, V.; Campos, R.; Pinos, M.; Ponjuan, G.; Franco, P.; Rueda, D.

    2003-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to summarize the general requirements related to education, training and skill of the individual to obtain the recognition of radiological protection experts on ionizing radiation (experts on radiological protection- RP). There has been established two levels according to the grade of responsibility: Qualified expert provided with a diploma given by de Nuclear Safety Council. Technician expert on radiological protection whose certification is made by the Qualified expert that supervise their work. To obtain the diploma of qualified expert is required an official degree, a title of Architecture, Engineering or equivalent in case of no national degrees; specific training on radiological protection (300 hours) and the knowledge on safety and radiological protection of the facilities to be supervised. Three years of experience on radiological protection must be proved. To get the recognition of technician expert on radiological protection is required Formacion Profesional de Grado Superior or equivalent and specific training on safety and radiological protection. Knowledge on basis and principles of radiological protection are required. According to the type of the facilities to be supervised there are two models: A model: to deal with facilities included in RD 1836/1999 (nuclear and radioactive facilities). B model: to deal with medical X rays facilities approved under RD 1891/1991 three months of experience on the selected model must be proved. (Author)

  1. Radiological protection in medicine. ICRP Publication 105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report was prepared to underpin the Commission's 2007 Recommendations with regard to the medical exposure of patients, including their comforters and carers, and volunteers in biomedical research. It addresses the proper application of the fundamental principles (justification, optimisation of protection, and application of dose limits) of the Commission's 2007 Recommendations to these individuals. With regard to medical exposure of patients, it is not appropriate to apply dose limits or dose constraints, because such limits would often do more harm than good. Often, there are concurrent chronic, severe, or even life-threatening medical conditions that are more critical than the radiation exposure. The emphasis is then on justification of the medical procedures and on the optimisation of radiological protection. In diagnostic and interventional procedures, justification of procedures (for a defined purpose and for an individual patient), and management of the patient dose commensurate with the medical task, are the appropriate mechanisms to avoid unnecessary or unproductive radiation exposure. Equipment features that facilitate patient dose management, and diagnostic reference levels derived at the appropriate national, regional, or local level, are likely to be the most effective approaches. In radiation therapy, the avoidance of accidents is a predominant issue. With regard to comforters and carers, and volunteers in biomedical research, dose constraints are appropriate. Over the last decade, the Commission has published a number of documents that provided detailed advice related to radiological protection and safety in the medical applications of ionising radiation. Each of the publications addressed a specific topic defined by the type of radiation source and the medical discipline in which the source is applied, and was written with the intent of communicating directly with the relevant medical practitioners and supporting medical staff. This report

  2. Training in radiological protection for nuclear programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Many Member States are developing or already have developed their own national training programmes. The IAEA is actively involved in promoting training in radiological protection for nuclear programmes. The various types of training are fully discussed, with suggested curricula. An earlier report was published as Technical Reports Series No.31 in 1964. In 1973, new and additional information was received from Member States which is reflected in the present report. Training programmes are classified, according to those requiring training: specialists; persons whose work is closely related to radiological protection (administrators, public health officers and industrial health personnel, safety inspectors and engineers in nuclear installations, public service personnel); persons working with radiation; and the general public. Forms, scope and duration of training are discussed. Different types of training programmes are currently required for training of medical doctors (those providing medical surveillance for radiation workers and others dealing with public health aspects of radiation hazards), for technical supervisors, radiologists, and qualified workers in nuclear medicine, technological staff, administrators, persons working with radiation, and public service personnel. Standard curricula and desirable experiments and exercises are discussed. The organization of training together with the facilities, equipment and teaching staff required are considered, as is follow-up training. Annexes 1 to 4 give examples of training curricula and training courses available in various countries, a suggested syllabus for training of technical supervisors, and a bibliography consisting of 210 references dealing with general topics, nuclear radiation physics, radiochemistry and radiation chemistry, radiation biology and biophysics, dosimetry and health physics and radiation protection, medical aspects and toxicology, and environmental aspects

  3. ICRP Publication 105. Radiological Protection in Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, Bernard; Biau, Alain; Derreumaux, Sylvie; Etard, Cecile; Rannou, Alain; Rehel, Jean-Luc; Roch, Patrice Elle a ete validee par le Professeur Jean-Marc Cosset

    2011-01-01

    This report was prepared to underpin the Commission's 2007 Recommendations with regard to the medical exposure of patients, including their comforters and carers, and volunteers in biomedical research. It addresses the proper application of the fundamental principles (justification, optimisation of protection, and application of dose limits) of the Commission's 2007 Recommendations to these individuals. With regard to medical exposure of patients, it is not appropriate to apply dose limits or dose constraints, because such limits would often do more harm than good. Often, there are concurrent chronic, severe, or even life-threatening medical conditions that are more critical than the radiation exposure. The emphasis is then on justification of the medical procedures and on the optimisation of radiological protection. In diagnostic and interventional procedures, justification of procedures (for a defined purpose and for an individual patient), and management of the patient dose commensurate with the medical task, are the appropriate mechanisms to avoid unnecessary or unproductive radiation exposure. Equipment features that facilitate patient dose management, and diagnostic reference levels derived at the appropriate national, regional, or local level, are likely to be the most effective approaches. In radiation therapy, the avoidance of accidents is a predominant issue. With regard to comforters and carers, and volunteers in biomedical research, dose constraints are appropriate. Over the last decade, the Commission has published a number of documents that provided detailed advice related to radiological protection and safety in the medical applications of ionising radiation. Each of the publications addressed a specific topic defined by the type of radiation source and the medical discipline in which the source is applied, and was written with the intent of communicating directly with the relevant medical practitioners and supporting medical staff. This

  4. Coincidence of needs in radiological and toxicological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    Research needs for radiological protection and research programs that have evolved to meet these needs parallel closely those in the chemical toxicology field. The similarity of these needs is described as perceived from the radiological side. Further, the frame work for radiologically-related research, out lines of the research programs, and the development of the facilities at Chalk River Nuclear Labs were presented

  5. [Regulating radiological protection and the role of health authorities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, César F

    2006-01-01

    This article summarizes the development of protection against ionizing radiation and explains current thinking in the field. It also looks at the decisive role that regulatory agencies for radiological protection must play and the important contributions that can be made by health authorities. The latter should take an active part in at least three aspects: the formal education of health personnel regarding radiological protection; the medical care of individuals who are accidentally overexposed, and the radiological protection of patients undergoing radiological procedures. To this end, health professionals must possess sufficient knowledge about radiological protection, promote the use of proper equipment, and apply the necessary quality assurance procedures. Through their effective intervention, national health authorities can greatly contribute to reducing unnecessary doses of radiation during medical procedures involving radiation sources and decrease the chances that radiological accidents will take place.

  6. An Evolved System of Radiological Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, M.

    2004-01-01

    The current system of radiological protection based on the Linear No-Threshold (LNT) hypothesis has greatly contributed to the minimization of doses received by workers and members of the public. However, it has brought about r adiophobia a mong people and waste of resources due to over-regulation, because the LNT implies that radiation is harmful no matter how small the dose is. The author reviewed the results of research on health effects of radiation including major epidemiological studies on radiation workers and found no clear evidence of deleterious health effects from radiation exposures below the current maximum dose limits (50 mSv/y for workers and 5 mSv/y for members of the public), which have been adopted worldwide in the second half of the 20th century. Now that the existence of bio-defensive mechanisms such as DNA repair, apoptosis and adaptive response are well recognized, the linearity assumption cannot be said to be s cientific . Evidences increasingly imply that there are threshold effects in risk of radiation. A concept of practical thresholds or virtually safe doses will have to be introduced into the new system of radiological protection in order to resolve the low dose issues. Practical thresholds may be defined as dose levels below which induction of detectable radiogenic cancers or hereditary effects are not expected. If any workers and members of the public do not gain benefits from being exposed, excepting intentional irradiation for medical purposes, their radiation exposures should be kept below practical thresholds. On the assumption that the current dose limits are below practical thresholds and with no radiation detriments, there is no need of justification and optimization (ALARA) principles for occupational and public exposures. Then the ethical issue of justification to allow benefit to society to offset radiation detriments to individuals can be resolved. And also the ethical issue of optimization to exchange health or safety for

  7. Science and values in radiological protection: impact on radiological protection decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomaa, Sisko; Pinak, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Full text: This work summarises the main ideas and achievements of the Science and Values in Radiological Protection Workshop that was held on 15-17 January 2008 in Helsinki, Finland. In the view of developing of new radiological applications and emerging scientific phenomena it has been recognized a need to develop a shared understanding of emerging challenges for radiological protection among scientific and regulatory communities, public and other concerned stake holders. In response to this the Committee of Radiation Protection and Public Health of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland tried to initiate a process of longer-term reflection on scientific and societal issues that might challenge radiological protection in the coming years. Among general issues like radiological policy issues, improvement of understanding between research and policy communities, sharing views on emerging scientific issues, there were addressed several scientific issues, like non-targeted effects, individual sensitivity; and circulatory diseases. The main focus of these discussions was to elaborate potential 'what if' scenarios and propose feasible solutions at various levels. These discussions addressed effects that are not direct and evident consequence of the initial lesions produced at the cellular and DNA level like bystander responses, genomic instability, gene induction, adaptive responses and low dose. Particular interest was paid to an extrapolation of risk estimates to low doses and role of Linear Non-Threshold theory in setting regulatory principles. Individual radio-sensitivity and identification of genes that are suspected of having an influence on it were also discussed in one of the Breakout Sessions. Another Breakout Session addressed circulatory diseases. There is emerging evidence in the A-bomb survivors and in other exposed groups that ionising radiation also causes other diseases than cancer, such as circulatory

  8. ENETRAP: training and education in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coeck, M.

    2006-01-01

    The development of a common European radiation protection and safety culture and, based on that, the mutual recognition of radiation protection courses and the acquired competencies of radiation protection experts (RPE) and officers (RPO) is becoming a real need. The ENETRAP project ('European Network for Education and Training in RAdiological Protection') aims at bringing together different ideas and approaches of education and training (E and T) in radiological protection (RP) in order to better integrate and harmonise national E and T activities on a European level. The project started in April 2005. 10 partners are involved in ENETRAP: SCK-CEN (coordinator), CEA-INSTN, FZK-FTU, BfS, ENEA, NRG, CIEMAT, HPA-RPD, UJF and UHI-NHC. These partners have years of experience with established E and T programmes and play an important role in the development of specific techniques such as e-learning or On-the-Job Training (OJT) related to RP. As a result of their fundamental scientific research, collaboration with industry and practical experience, the partners have a solid scientific knowledge of all aspects of RP and are ideally placed to transfer the know-how and estimate the needs in this field. The ENETRAP project aims at establishing a sustainable E and T infrastructure for RP as an essential component to combat the perceived decline in expertise and to ensure the continuation of the high level of RP knowledge. The main objectives of the ENETRAP project are (1) to better integrate existing E and T activities in the RP infrastructure of the European countries in order to combat the decline in both student numbers and teaching institutions, (2) to develop more harmonised approaches for E and T in RP in Europe, (3) to better integrate the national resources and capacities for E and T and (4) to provide the necessary competence and expertise for the continued safe use of radiation in industry, medicine and research. Any such infrastructure must ensure that provision is

  9. Radiological protection in the dental profession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holyoak, B.

    1979-01-01

    A summary is given of legislation concerning health and safety of people as affected by work activities. In connection with legislation in the special field of radiological protection, it was agreed between the (United Kingdom) Health and Safety Executive and the British Dental Association that a survey should be carried out into the use of radiography in dental practices. The terms of the survey, and relevant safety standards, are summarized. The results are discussed under the following headings: personal radiation dose to dental staff, beam filtration, beam diameter, timing units, warning signals, dose per exposure, scattered doserate, film processing, location of the x-ray set, maintenance of the x-ray equipment, holding of dental films, instruction training and supervision. Conclusions are reached, and basic rules proposed. (U.K.)

  10. Radiological protection report 2008; Strahlenschutzbericht 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-05-15

    This annual report issued by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Inspectorate (ENSI) reports on the work carried out by ENSI in 2008. It provides comprehensive data on radiation protection activities in Switzerland during the year 2008. The first section of the report provides comprehensive data on radiation protection and deals with exposure rates for personnel and individual jobs. The authors note that, in recent years, both collective doses and average individual doses have declined by a factor of two. Radiation doses are commented on as being significantly lower than the maximum annual limit for persons exposed to radiation in the course of their work. Radiation in the four Swiss nuclear power stations and in four further nuclear installations in various Swiss research facilities is commented on. The Swiss radiation measurement network is commented on and the results obtained are discussed. ENSI concludes that the new recommendations published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 103) did not necessitate any significant changes in its surveillance activities.

  11. Establish radiation protection programme for diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mboya, G.

    2014-01-01

    Mammography is an effective method used for breast diagnostics and screening. The aim of this project is to review the literature on how to establish radiation protection programme for mammography in order to protect the patients, the occupationally exposed workers and the members of the public from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. It reviews some of the trends in mammography doses and dosimetric principles such as average glandular dose in the glandular tissue which is used for description of radiation risk, also the factors affecting patient doses are discussed. However, the average glandular dose should not be used directly to estimate the radiation risk from mammography. Risk is calculated under certain assumptions from determined entrance surface air kerma. Given the increase in population dose, emphasis is placed on the justification and optimization of the mammographic procedures. Protection is optimized by the radiation dose being appropriate with the purpose of the mammographic examination. The need to establish diagnostic reference levels as an optimization is also discussed. In order to obtain high quality mammograms at low dose to the breast, it is necessary to use the correct equipment and perform periodic quality control tests on mammography equipment. It is noted that in order to achieve the goal of this project, the application of radiation protection should begin at the time of requesting for mammography examination, positioning of the patient, irradiation, image processing and interpretation of mammogram. It is recommended that close cooperation between radiology technologists, radiologist, medical physicists, regulatory authority and other support workers be required and established to obtain a consistent and effective level of radiation protection in a mammography facility. (author)

  12. Radiological protection report 2016; Strahlenschutzbericht 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-06-15

    In the radiological protection report 2016, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) provides an overview of the radiological protection in its area of supervision. Part A of the report deals with protecting the staff of nuclear power plants from the dangers of ionising radiation. It also includes a list of the personal doses accumulated by the staff, broken down using various parameters. Applying the optimisation imperative, it has been proved possible to significantly reduce the annual collective doses in Switzerland's nuclear power plants since they came on stream thanks to major efforts by the operators. In 2016, a total of 6,153 people measured accumulated 2,877 person-mSv. The collective doses have reached a low level corresponding to the radiological condition of the plants and the scope of the work required to be performed in controlled zones (e.g. non-destructive materials testing). ENSI will continue to follow the trend for collective doses and assess the reasons for local variances as well as for measures initiated. The individual doses for people employed in ENSI's area of supervision in 2016 showed a maximum figure of 10 mSv and a mean value of 0.5 mSv which was significantly below the dose limit of 20 mSv for occupational radiation exposure. The discharge of radioactive substances with the exhaust air and waste water from nuclear power plants are dealt with in Part B of the report. In 2016, nuclear power plant operators again met the admissible release limits set by the authorities, in some cases by a considerable margin. The emissions of Swiss nuclear power plants led to a dose of less than 0.01 mSv per year in the direct neighbourhood. A comparison with the average annual radiation dose for the Swiss population of 5.5 mSv shows that the relevant contribution from nuclear power plants lies in the area of one percent of this figure. Effluents from Swiss nuclear power plants were also below the target of 1 GBq per year set by ENSI

  13. Radiological Protection of Patients in Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: This lecture aims at presenting the state of the art of radiological protection of patients in nuclear medicine focusing on three aspects of interest where to achieve improvement. The hierarchy of the justification principle of the radiation protection is one of them. There seems for a change to be presented in the paradigm of the radiological protection of patients. The role of the physician who prescribes the medical practice becomes more relevant, together with the nuclear medicine specialist who should be co-responsible for the application of this justification principle. Regarding the doses optimization and the implementation of Dose Reference Level the involvement extends far beyond the physician and radioprotection officer. It is clear that the Medical Physicist is to play a very relevant role in the coordination of actions, as the nuclear medicine technician is to execute them. Another aspect to consider is patient specific dosimetry. It should become a routine practice through calculation of the absorbed dose based on biodistribution data. It should be assessed for each individual patient, as it depends on a number of patient-specific parameters, such as gender, size and the amount of fatty tissue in the body, as well as the extent and nature of the disease. In most cases, dosimetry calculations are not carried out and patients are administered standard levels of activity. There may be situations with a lack of knowledge on internal dosimetry as in many centers either none or only one or two medical physics experts are available. It shows that a formal training for experts in internal dosimetry at national level is required. However up to now, there has been no satisfactory correlation between absorbed dose estimates and patient response. Moreover, the radiation protection for the patient is not assured, as the dose values given are often numbers without connection to radiobiological and/or hematological findings. Pending tasks related to

  14. Education and Training in the Field of Radiological Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meskens, G.

    2002-01-01

    The International School for Radiological Protection (isRP) was founded within SCK-CEN in 1996 and organises training programmes on radiological protection for nuclear workers and staff. In 2001, isRP organised twelve courses for Belgian and foreign organisations active in the nuclear and non-nuclear field. The report gives an overview of the main activities in 2001

  15. Environmental aspects at radiological protection in ArcelorMittal Monlevade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Filho, Cleber Marques; Soares Filho, Mauricio; Franco, Jose Otavio Andrade; Leite, Roberto Paulo; Goncalves, Breno Cunha; Costa, Jose Gustavo de Souza

    2010-01-01

    ArcelorMittal Monlevade Environmental Management of Radiological Protection is based on radiological protection team training, start up of radioactivity materials detection equipment in several steps of industrial processes and internal procedures according to CNEN - Nuclear Energy National Commission guidelines. At this way ArcelorMittal Monlevade seeks to guarantee the safety of employees, community, customers, equipment and the environment and their business. (author)

  16. Account 1983-1984. [National Radiological Protection Board

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Account prepared pursuant to section 3 (4) of the Radiological Protection Act 1970 of the receipts and payments of the National Radiological Protection Board for the year ended 31st March 1984; together with the Report of the Comptroller and Auditor General thereon. (In continuation of House of Commons Paper No. 149 of 1983-84).

  17. Some aspects of radiological protection in uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, E.; Napolitano, C.M.

    1978-01-01

    The basic principles of radiation protection recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection - ICRP are presented and the main radiological risks for the uranium mining workers are discussed. Finally some criteria for planning the radioactive waste management in uranium mines are given [pt

  18. Radiological Protection (Amendment) Act, 2002. Number 3 of 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This Act amends the Radiological Protection Acts, 1991 and 1995, and provides for the making of grants out of funds provided by the legislature for remediation works for houses having certain levels of radon gas and for the administration by the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland of such grants and to provide for related matters

  19. Radiological protection of service and civilian personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Since the United Kingdom's defence nuclear industry was founded in the late 1940s, Service and civilian personnel have been exposed to ionising radiation. During the last forty years, as knowledge about the effects of radiation exposure has grown, concern to ensure adequate protection against exposure has also increased,. As part of our continuing scrutiny of the Ministry of Defence (MoD), we have undertaken a short inquiry to examine MoD's current and future policy and practice on radiological protection. The principal work involving exposure of Service and civilian personnel to significant levels of radiation falls into two discrete areas: the nuclear weapons programme and the nuclear propulsion programme. The nuclear weapons programme involves research, the production of nuclear warheads and their deployment with Her Majesty's Forces. The nuclear propulsion programme involves research, production, operation, refitting and decommissioning of pressurised water reactors as a source of propulsion power in Royal Navy submarines. These two nuclear programmes are not the only sources of ionising radiation within MoD's responsibility: it also arises from research, non-destructive testing and medical applications, most notably conventional radiography. In this Report we have concentrated upon ionising radiation arising from the two defence nuclear programmes. (author)

  20. Accounting for biological effectiveness in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) presents a practical problem to radiological protection when attempts are made to ensure that the assessed risks from different types of radiation and different modes of exposure to radiation are commensurate with one another. Unfortunately, the theoretical understanding of RBE is still in the stage of competing explanations and hypotheses. Furthermore, the division of the concept of dose equivalent into a set of concepts for risk assessment and another set for measurement and control has introduced conflicting requirements of a practical nature that are difficult to resolve. Many of those working in radiobiology and radiation protection have perceived the need to increase the quality factors for photon and neutron radiations. It may be more reasonable to change the quality factors for neutrons than for other radiations. The advantages and disadvantages of different methods for accommodating such changes within the dose-equivalent concepts are to be examined. The method of accommodating such a change that has the least practical disadvantages is to increase the quality factors for all secondary particles produced in tissue by neutron radiations by a constant factor. The only disadvantage would be the perception that the quality factors for these secondary particles were not treated in a consistent fashion for all types of ionising radiation. (author)

  1. Mission and activities of the International Commission on Radiological Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, C.H.

    2018-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), formed in 1928, develops the System of Radiological Protection for the public benefit. The objective of the recommendations is to contribute to an appropriate level of protection for people and the environment against the harmful effects of radiation exposure without unduly limiting the individual or societal benefits of activities involving radiation. In developing its recommendations, ICRP considers advances in scientific knowledge, evolving social values, and practical experience. These recommendations are the basis of radiological protection standards and practice worldwide

  2. Radiological protection in the mining industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, M.C.

    1976-01-01

    The information contained in the National Radiological Protection Board's report (Strong, J.C., Laidlaw, A.J. and O'Riordan, M.C., Radon and its daughters in various British mines, NRPB-R39 (1975), HMSO) is updated with data collected between October 1975 and January 1976, and certain aspects of the work highlighted. The latest results in the continuing survey, which now covers more than 60 non-coal mines employing nearly 2000 men underground, reflect the corrective actions taken in a number of mines by improvements in ventilation management. The survey is now carried out by means of radon flasks supplied by post and returned to the NRPB for measurement. An empirical relationship is used to relate the radon gas and daughter concentrations at different ventilation rates. The results show that there has been a marked decrease (from 42% to 24%) in the number of men exposed above 4 working level months (WLM) in a year, the category requiring supervision (1 to 4 WLM in a year) has increased from 15% to 28%, and the lowest exposure category has increased from 43% to 48%. Although excessive exposures are still a problem, particularly in some tin mines in Cornwall, general compliance with the exposure limit seems possible in the near future. (U.K.)

  3. Radiation protection problems with dental radiological equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooney, P.; Rajan, J.; Malone, J.F.; Gavin, G.

    1995-01-01

    With the advent of the EC Patient Directive, the importance of surveying and optimising patient exposure for diagnostic imaging procedures is paramount. In the field of dentistry there has been a heightened interest in areas of equipment performance and patient exposure. This interest, coupled with a number of dental radiation safety incidents investigated by our department, and the issuing of a Code of Practice for Radiological Protection in Dentistry by the Department of Health, led to the establishment in our department, of an evaluation protocol for the performance and operation of dental X ray equipment. The protocol was used to perform a survey on over 100 dental X ray units in use in the Public Sector in Ireland. This presentation will report on the radiation incidents mentioned above. It will detail the protocol and furnish the results and conclusions of the survey. The survey has made it possible to establish clearly the necessary steps required to ensure compliance with requirements. In addition, the corrective steps taken by the dental authorities will be presented and the overall impact of the regulations and the programme consequent on them will be reviewed. (Author)

  4. Hanford protective barriers program: Status of asphalt barrier studies - FY 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Gee, G.W.

    1989-11-01

    The Hanford Protective Barrier Program is evaluating alternate barriers to provide a means of meeting stringent water infiltration requirements. One type of alternate barrier being considered is an asphalt-based layer, 1.3 to 15 cm thick. Evaluations of these barriers were initiated in FY 1988, and, based on laboratory studies, two asphalt formulations were selected for further testing in small-tube lysimeters: a hot rubberized asphalt and an admixture of cationic asphalt emulsion and concrete sand containing 24 wt% residual asphalt. Eight lysimeters containing asphalt seals were installed as part of the Small Tube Lysimeter Test Facility on the Hanford Site. Two control lysimeters containing Hanford sand with a surface gravel treatment were also installed for comparison. 5 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  5. Radiation protection during radiological examinations of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, D.; Gillet, R.; Wambersie, A.

    The dose delivered to children during radiological examinations were assessed and their variations compared with an experimental model. It is shown how to make good radiological examinations limiting the dose delivered to children and reducing the hazard to the medical staff [fr

  6. Independent auto evaluation of an operative radiological protection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medrano L, M.A.; Rodriguez C, C.C.; Linares R, D.; Zarate M, N.; Zempoalteca B, R.

    2006-01-01

    The program of operative radiological protection of a nuclear power plant consists of multiple procedures and associate tasks that have as purpose the radiological protection of the workers of the power station. It is for this reason that the constant evaluation of the one it programs it is an important tool in the identification of their weaknesses (and strengths), so they can be assisted appropriately. In this work the main elements of the program of independent auto evaluation of the program of operative radiological protection of the Laguna Verde Central that has been developed and implemented by the National Institute of Nuclear Research are described. (Author)

  7. New nuclear build and evolving radiological protection challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, T.

    2010-01-01

    Many trends and indicators suggest that the use of nuclear power for generating electricity will increase, perhaps significantly, in the coming 10 to 20 years and beyond. Any such expansion will not take place in a static scientific or social context, but rather in the midst of ongoing changes in many relevant fields, radiological protection, radioactive waste management and nuclear safety to name a few. Regarding radiological protection, this evolution can be characterised in many different ways, but can conveniently be described as having scientific and socially driven aspects. These may well pose challenges to radiological protection (RP) policy, regulation and application in the future

  8. Assessment of radiological protection systems among diagnostic radiology facilities in North East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Thokchom Dewan; Jayaraman, T; Arunkumar Sharma, B

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to assess the adequacy level of radiological protection systems available in the diagnostic radiology facilities located in three capital cities of North East (NE) India. It further attempts to understand, using a multi-disciplinary approach, how the safety codes/standards in diagnostic radiology framed by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to achieve adequate radiological protection in facilities, have been perceived, conceptualized, and applied accordingly in these facilities. About 30 diagnostic radiology facilities were randomly selected from three capitals of states in NE India; namely Imphal (Manipur), Shillong (Meghalaya) and Guwahati (Assam). A semi-structured questionnaire developed based on a multi-disciplinary approach was used for this study. It was observed that radiological practices undertaken in these facilities were not exactly in line with safety codes/standards in diagnostic radiology of the AERB and the IAEA. About 50% of the facilities had registered/licensed x-ray equipment with the AERB. More than 80% of the workers did not use radiation protective devices, although these devices were available in the facilities. About 85% of facilities had no institutional risk management system. About 70% of the facilities did not carry out periodic quality assurance testing of their x-ray equipment or surveys of radiation leakage around the x-ray room, and did not display radiation safety indicators in the x-ray rooms. Workers in these facilities exhibited low risk perception about the risks associated with these practices. The majority of diagnostic radiology facilities in NE India did not comply with the radiological safety codes/standards framed by the AERB and IAEA. The study found inadequate levels of radiological protection systems in the majority of facilities. This study suggests a need to establish firm measures that comply with the radiological safety codes/standards of the

  9. Radiologic science for technologists: physics, biology, and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushong, S.C.

    1980-01-01

    The second edition of a textbook primarily for students in radiologic technology is presented. Separate chapters discuss mammography, computed tomography, diagnostic ultrasound, and design of radiologic physics. Radiation protection is specifically presented in two chapters as well as being integrated throughout the text. The fundamentals of radiobiology, molecular and cellular effects of irradiation, and early and late radiation effects comprise four chapters

  10. Radiological protection in the industrial area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraga, H.

    2008-12-01

    Radiation protection (RP) in industrial applications is composed of four major themes that are recruiting and training personnel, equipment and instrumentation, materials used and also the acquisition of new technologies to improve their own RP. To carry out the recruitment of staff and train them to serve as occupationally exposed personnel in the industry continues with the Mexican Official Standard NOM-031-NUCL-1999, R equirements for qualification and training of personnel occupationally exposed to radiation ionizing , what will be done regarding the physical fitness of personnel by NOM-026-NUCL-1999, M edical surveillance of personnel occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation . The principle of optimization of the RP, or ALARA principle (keeping the risk as low as reasonably achievable), is assumed to be the safety philosophy in the field of industrial applications of ionizing radiation. Practically all the elements that make up the equipment, instrumentation and materials used in industrial radiography and other industrial applications, has an orientation towards the protection, along with procedures that operate. For example, in industrial radiography the technician always has several instruments for radiation detection and measurement, some with visible and audible alarms. The equipment characteristics and transport (containers) are regulated by the standards NOM-025/1- 2000 and NOM-025/2-2996, which contains requirements for radiological safety in design and operation, respectively, for both as containers for some of its parts and accessories. As part of the technological innovation with benefits to the RP itself and eventually target practice today are venturing into the radiography digital, which involves the exposure of a plate image phosphorus-based with the later download to a computer. In combination with the use of sources of X-rays, there is a real contribution to reducing the dose, since the later are nowadays equipped with programmable

  11. Protective equipment of radiological protection and the worker wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassia, Flor Rita de; Huhn, Andrea; Lima, Gelbcke Francine

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative research with workers of seven hemodynamic service of Santa Catarina, Brazil aimed to analyze the use of radiological protection equipment (RPE), as well as wear to the health of workers who use these causes. The study was conducted between March 2010 and November 2010, totaling approximately 30 hours of observations. Results showed resistance to the use of RPE and also showed wear to workers' health, mainly due to the weight and discomfort they cause, as may weigh 7-9 pounds, depending on the model used. Evidenced also the absence of workers due herniated disc, back pain, and other musculo skeletal problems. These complaints, in addition to being related to the use of these protective gear also related with the time that workers remain standing for long periods on certain procedures, such as angioplasty. Given these results, the research recommended the use of these devices with materials, that are already being produced, making lighter aprons, thus avoiding fatigue and back pain and also provide greater comfort by reducing workers' resistance to its use and its adverse consequences

  12. Quality assurance programs from laboratories offering radiological protection services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero Garcia, M.; Prendes Alonso, M.; Jova Sed, L.; Morales Monzon, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The implementation of an adequate program for quality assurance in institutions servicing radiological protection programs will become an additional tool to achieve security targets included in that program. All scientific and technical services offered by CPHR employ quality assurance systems

  13. SCK CEN'S International School for Radiological Protection (ISRP): communicating the aspects of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coeck, M.; Majakowski, I.; Verachtert, C.; Meskens, G.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Thanks to its thorough experience in the field of peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology, radiological protection and radiobiology, the Belgian nuclear research centre S.C.K. E.N. has garnered a reputation as an outstanding centre of research, training and education. Functioning as a task force within S.C.K. E.N., the international school for Radiological Protection (i.s.R.P.) initiates and manages training and research projects and contributes to related activities on national and international level. I.s.R.P. activities are situated on three axes: Coordination and organisation of training and education programmes on radiological protection The i.s.R.P. training activities deal with all aspects of radiological protection and are directed to the private, medical and industrial nuclear sector, national and international policy organisations, the political and academic world and the general public. Courses are also organised in cooperation with technical high schools, universities and public and private health services. In addition, i.s.R.P. is involved in international research networks and training programmes, such as those of the European Commission and the IAEA. The i.s.R.P. team of lecturers includes technicians, physicists, biologists, medical doctors, engineers and social scientists, who all bring insights and ideas from their specific background into the course programmes. As S.C.K. E.N. staff members, they have a solid knowledge and experience in their field, and can thus directly transfer their theoretical knowledge and practical experience to the various courses. Course programmes are composed together with the customer, drawing from the set of basic and expertise course modules and completed with technical visits. The basic modules textbooks exist in Dutch, French and English. In addition, all course modules and visits can be lectured and guided in Dutch, French or English. Research on trans-disciplinary aspects of education

  14. ICRP Publication 139: Occupational Radiological Protection in Interventional Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, P Ortiz; Dauer, L T; Loose, R; Martin, C J; Miller, D L; Vañó, E; Doruff, M; Padovani, R; Massera, G; Yoder, C

    2018-03-01

    In recent publications, such as Publications 117 and 120, the Commission provided practical advice for physicians and other healthcare personnel on measures to protect their patients and themselves during interventional procedures. These measures can only be effective if they are encompassed by a framework of radiological protection elements, and by the availability of professionals with responsibilities in radiological protection. This framework includes a radiological protection programme with a strategy for exposure monitoring, protective garments, education and training, and quality assurance of the programme implementation. Professionals with responsibilities in occupational radiological protection for interventional procedures include: medical physicists; radiological protection specialists; personnel working in dosimetry services; clinical applications support personnel from the suppliers and maintenance companies; staff engaged in training, standardisation of equipment, and procedures; staff responsible for occupational health; hospital administrators responsible for providing financial support; and professional bodies and regulators. This publication addresses these elements and these audiences, and provides advice on specific issues, such as assessment of effective dose from dosimeter readings when an apron is worn, estimation of exposure of the lens of the eye (with and without protective eyewear), extremity monitoring, selection and testing of protective garments, and auditing the interventional procedures when occupational doses are unusually high or low (the latter meaning that the dosimeter may not have been worn).

  15. Education and Training in the Field of Radiological Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meskens, G.

    2001-01-01

    The International School for Radiological Protection (isRP) was founded within SCK-CEN in 1996 and organises training programmes on radiological protection for nuclear workers and staff. In 2000, isRP organised eleven courses for Belgian and foreign organisations active in the nuclear and non-nuclear field. The report summarises major achievements in 2000 and outlines a number of recent initiates, in particular the development of a distance learning programme

  16. Conditions of radiological protection in the health unities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa, L.R.B.S.; Neto, A.T.; Pires, A.; Azevedo, H.F.; Boasquevisque, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was explained which conditions is practiced for occupational and environmental radiological protection. Fifteen hospitables and ambulatories services, pertaining to the public system are studies, verifying that the professional group that are preoccupied with the radioprotection conditions are the assistants services and technician. The common knowledge about Basic Standards of Radiological Protection was also observed, of which is rather precarious. (C.G.C.) [pt

  17. Good practices in radiological protection at Narora Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V.P.; Kumar, Sanjeev; Agrawal, Mitesh; Tiwari, S.K.; Kulhari, Praveen; Gupta, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Radiological protection performance of nuclear power plant is assessed by collective exposure, individual average exposure, external/external exposure, personnel/surface contamination and reduction of radioactive wastes. Collective exposure is reduced by integrated comprehensive ALARA program in all aspects of nuclear plant operation and maintenance has reduced collective dose many folds. In the present paper, implementation of new good practices in Radiological Protection is presented

  18. Radiological protection in medicine: work of ICRP Committee 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vañó, E.; Cosset, J.M.; Rehani, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Committee 3 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is concerned with protection in medicine, and develops recommendations and guidance on the protection of patients, staff, and the public against radiation exposure in medicine. This paper presents an overview of the work of Committee 3 over recent years, and the work in progress agreed at the last annual meeting in Bethesda, MD in October 2011. The reports published by ICRP dealing with radiological protection in medicine in the last 10 years cover topics on: education and training in radiological protection; preventing accidental exposures in radiation therapy; dose to patients from radiopharmaceuticals; radiation safety aspects of brachytherapy; release of patients after therapy with unsealed radionuclides; managing patient dose in digital radiology and computed tomography; avoidance of radiation injuries from medical interventional procedures; pregnancy and medical radiation; and diagnostic reference levels in medical imaging. Three new reports will be published in the coming months dealing with aspects of radiological protection in fluoroscopically guided procedures outside imaging departments; cardiology; and paediatric radiology. The work in progress agreed by Committee 3 is also described.

  19. Radiological protection objectives for the disposal of solid radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-10-01

    Guidance is given on the standards to be used in the UK in decisions on the radiological acceptability of disposal methods for solid radioactive wastes. The radiological protection objectives given in the report are intended to be applied to all types of solid radioactive waste, and to all the disposal methods which are in use or under consideration. This guidance complements and extends previous Board advice on radiological protection objectives which apply to the control of routine discharges of gaseous and liquid effluents. (author)

  20. Radiological protection of patients in general diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karigi, A.W.

    2001-01-01

    With medical radiation exposures to mankind ranking the highest among man-made radiation, radiation protection safeguards have to be put in place in all countries. Competent authorities should have the legal legislation and adequate infrastructure to ensure implementation, enforcement and compliance with the radiation protection standards. Justification, optimization, quality assurance and control are to be the guiding ideals for those who prescribe and/or carry out radiographic procedures. Radiation dose limitation in medical practices is to be encouraged so far as it does not compromise image quality and the provision of a direct benefit to the exposed individual. (author)

  1. Radiological protection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorrilla R, S.

    2008-12-01

    This presentation sharing experiences which correspond to the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde. This nuclear power plant is located at level 2 of four possible, in the classification performance of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO), which means the mexican nuclear power plant is classified in terms of its performance indicators and above the average achieved by their counterparts americans and canadians. In the national context, the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde has also been honored with several awards such as the National Quality Award, the Clean Industry Certificate, the distinction of Environmental Excellence and others of similar importance. For the standards of WANO, the basic idea is that there are shortcomings in one of nuclear power plant concern to all partners. The indicators used for the classification will always go beyond more compliance with regulations, which are assumed, and rather assume come or a path to excellence. Among the most important indicators are: the collective dose, the percentage of areas declared as contaminated, the number, type and tendency of contamination personal cases, the number of dosimetry alarms, the number of unplanned exposures, loss control of high radiation areas and the release of contaminated material outside the restricted areas. Furthermore, as already indicated, nuclear power plants are of special care situations, such as, carrying out work in areas with radiation fields of more than 15 mSv h -1 , the movement of spent fuel in the reload floor. The consideration of the minimum total effective dose equivalent as a criterion for prescribing tools that reduce exposures, but may increase the external cases of contaminated casualties, the experience in portals such as workers subject to radiology, where exposure in industrial radiography, and so on. Special mention deserve the conditions generated during fuel reload stops, which causes a massive personnel movement, working simultaneously on

  2. Training in radiological protection at the Institute of Naval Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, P.E.; Robb, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Training Division at the Institute of Naval Medicine, Alverstoke, UK, provides courses in radiological protection for government and military personnel who are radiation protection supervisors, radiation safety officers, members of naval emergency monitoring teams and senior medical officers. The course programmes provide formal lectures, practical exercises and tabletop exercises. The compliance of the Ministry of Defence with the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 and the implementation of Ministry of Defence instructions for radiological protection rely to a large extent on its radiation protection supervisors understanding of the training he receives. Quality assurance techniques are therefore applied to the training. (author)

  3. Guidelines for selection of radiological protective head covering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, G.R. Jr.

    1995-08-01

    The hood is recognized throughout the nuclear industry as the standard radiological protective head covering for use in radioactively contaminated work environments. As of June 15, 1995, hoods were required for all activities performed in contaminated areas at the Y-12 Plant. The use of hoods had historically been limited to those radiological activities with a high potential for personnel contamination. Due to the large size of many posted contaminated areas at the Y-12 Plant, and compounding safety factors, requirements for the use of hoods are being reevaluated. The purpose of the evaluation is to develop technically sound guidelines for the selection of hoods when prescribing radiological protective head covering. This report presents the guidelines for selection of radiological protective hoods

  4. Evaluation of the effectiveness of gonad protection in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaura, Chiyo; Aoyama, Takahiko; Koyama, Shuji

    2004-01-01

    In the present study we describes the evaluation of the effectiveness of gonad protection in diagnostic radiology based on the measurement of organ and the effective doses with and without lead clothing to gonads. We devised in-phantom dosimetry system and measured organ and effective doses in x-ray radiography and CT examinations with the new dosimetry system. From the data of organ and the effective doses we assessed the effectiveness of radiological protection by the use of lead clothing to gonads. Although in chest radiography and chest CT examinations, the effectiveness of radiological protection was not found, in the case of hip joint radiography (AP), gonad doses decreased remarkably by using lead clothing. The effectiveness of radiological protection, i.e. the ratio of the decreased dose to the dose value without protection, in testis and ovary were found to be 91.4% and 68.0%, respectively. It was also found that gonad doses observed with and without gonad protection were extremely lower than those of threshold for sterility recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection 60 (ICRP Publ. 60). (author)

  5. [Evaluation of the effectiveness of gonad protection in diagnostic radiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaura, Chiyo; Aoyama, Takahiko; Koyama, Shuji

    2004-01-01

    In the present study we describe the evaluation of the effectiveness of gonad protection in diagnostic radiology based on the measurement of organ and the effective doses with and without lead clothing to gonads. We devised in-phantom dosimetry system and measured organ and effective doses in x-ray radiography and CT examinations with the new dosimetry system. From the data of organ and the effective doses we assessed the effectiveness of radiological protection by the use of lead clothing to gonads. Although in chest radiography and chest CT examinations, the effectiveness of radiological protection was not found, in the case of hip joint radiography (AP), gonad doses decreased remarkably by using lead clothing. The effectiveness of radiological protection, i.e. the ratio of the decreased dose to the dose value without protection, in testis and ovary were found to be 91.4% and 68.0%, respectively. It was also found that gonad doses observed with and without gonad protection were extremely lower than those of threshold for sterility recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection 60 (ICRP Publ. 60).

  6. Occupational and Radiological Protection Department - DEPRO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report presents the activities and purposes of the Occupational and Radiological Dept. of the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry of Brazilian CNEN. A critical analysis of its situation and expectations are also presented, besides personnel list. (J.A.M.M.)

  7. Second Professional Specialization in Radiological Protection in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina-Gironzini, E.

    2004-01-01

    Considering that professionals with studies, training and experience in Radiological Protection as a Second Professional Specialization must be recognized, the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN), which is the institution responsible for the promotion and control of ionizing radiations in the country, has sign a specific agreement with the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, in order to develop these courses. They are based on the content of the Post Graduate Course on Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety of the Universidad de Buenos Aires, in Argentina, where more than 360 people from 27 different countries have been trained in the last 20 years. People who have a professional degree in Sciences or Engineering, and who fulfill the requirements demanded by the University, study this Second Professional Specialization in Radiological Protection. The studies last 2 years and the courses cover the following subjects: Nuclear Physics, Basic Mathematics, Basic Biology, Radiation Sources, Interaction between Radiation and Matter, Radiation Detection and Measurement, Biological effects of ionizing radiations, Radiological protection in the use of radiations in industry and medicine, Regulatory aspects, and nuclear safety - radiological protection interface. IPEN has taken the responsibility to carry out these studies due to its experience in the organization, together with different Universities, of six Masters in Nuclear Energy, four Masters in Medical Physics, one Master in Nuclear Physics, one Master in Nuclear Chemistry, and two Specialization in Nuclear Medicine. For this purpose, IPEN has the Superior Center of Nuclear Studies (CSEN), which has trained more than 2200 people in radiological protection in more than 30 years. CSEN is the first center in the country to train people in the area of nuclear energy and radiological protection. It has the best staff of professors with a both a great education and professional experience, as well as

  8. Second Professional Specialization in Radiological Protection in Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina-Gironzini, E.

    2004-07-01

    Considering that professionals with studies, training and experience in Radiological Protection as a Second Professional Specialization must be recognized, the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN), which is the institution responsible for the promotion and control of ionizing radiations in the country, has sign a specific agreement with the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, in order to develop these courses. They are based on the content of the Post Graduate Course on Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety of the Universidad de Buenos Aires, in Argentina, where more than 360 people from 27 different countries have been trained in the last 20 years. People who have a professional degree in Sciences or Engineering, and who fulfill the requirements demanded by the University, study this Second Professional Specialization in Radiological Protection. The studies last 2 years and the courses cover the following subjects: Nuclear Physics, Basic Mathematics, Basic Biology, Radiation Sources, Interaction between Radiation and Matter, Radiation Detection and Measurement, Biological effects of ionizing radiations, Radiological protection in the use of radiations in industry and medicine, Regulatory aspects, and nuclear safety - radiological protection interface. IPEN has taken the responsibility to carry out these studies due to its experience in the organization, together with different Universities, of six Masters in Nuclear Energy, four Masters in Medical Physics, one Master in Nuclear Physics, one Master in Nuclear Chemistry, and two Specialization in Nuclear Medicine. For this purpose, IPEN has the Superior Center of Nuclear Studies (CSEN), which has trained more than 2200 people in radiological protection in more than 30 years. CSEN is the first center in the country to train people in the area of nuclear energy and radiological protection. It has the best staff of professors with a both a great education and professional experience, as well as

  9. Current evaluation of the information about Radiological Protection in Internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Cruces, R.; Marco, M.; Villanueva, I.

    2003-01-01

    To analyze the current situation about the pedagogic information on radiological protection training which could be found in Internet. More than 756 web-pages have been visited in Internet about Radiological Protection in the nuclear and medical fields, providing information mainly focusing on information to the members of the public. In this search were used internet Searching Appliance (as Copernicus, Google and Scirus), using key words related with this subject (as Radiological Protection and Health Safety), getting the internet address of organizations, societies and investigation groups. Only a low percentage (less than 5 per cent) of these addresses content information on Radiological Protection for the members of the public, including information about the regulator Organizations, and which are the objectives for protection of the members of the public against ionization radiation (from the point of view of the use of the ionization radiation in the medical and nuclear field). This work attempts to propose the use of internet as a tool for informing the members of the public in matter of radiological protection, as first link in the chain of the training and education. (Author)

  10. Continuing training in radiological protection as an effective means of avoiding radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, C.M.A.; Pelegrineli, S.Q.; Martins, G.; Lima, A.R.; Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    it is notorious that one of the main causes of radiological accidents is the lack of knowledge of radiological protection of workers. In order to meet the needs of professionals in acquiring a solid base in radiological protection and safety, was created in 2013, by the Casa Branca School / SP and technically supported by the company MAXIM Cursos, the 'Post-Graduation Course Lato Sensu de Radiological Protection in Medical, Industrial and Nuclear Applications', which offers a broad improvement in radiation protection. The course of 380 hours and duration of 18 months is divided into 13 modules, including theoretical classes, in person and online using the virtual classroom and practical training in radiation protection in general. In the end students should present a monograph, guided by a course teacher and reviewed by an Examining Bank. Five classes have been formed in these four years, totaling 92 students. In all, 51 monographs have been defended on topics of technical and scientific interest. For this, the Faculty consists of 25 professors, being 9 Doctors, 13 Masters and 3 Specialists in Radiological Protection

  11. Radiological protection of the environment from an NGO perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, S.

    2008-01-01

    Non-governmental environmental organisations (environmental NGOs) may consider the issue of radiological protection of the environment differently to other interested parties such as regulators or industry. While environmental NGOs are broadly positive towards the current emphasis and engagement on radiological protection of the environment per se, there remain concerns about the precise meaning of the term and the ultimate objectives of the current initiatives. Various strategies are studied and discussed. The disposal of radioactive waste at sea is discussed and a case study presented. What the environmental NGOs are looking for is focused upon and various environmental protection systems are discussed (tk)

  12. Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland activities and responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This brochure describes the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland's functions and responsibilities which relate principally to the monitoring of radioactivity in the environment and of radiation doses received by people occupationally or otherwise; regulation of the uses of ionising radiation in medicine, industry and elsewhere; assistance in developing national preparedness for response to a radiological emergency; and providing information and advice to government, other organisations and the general public on matters relating to ionising radiation. ills

  13. Radiological protection in computed tomography and cone beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehani, M M

    2015-06-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has sustained interest in radiological protection in computed tomography (CT), and ICRP Publications 87 and 102 focused on the management of patient doses in CT and multi-detector CT (MDCT) respectively. ICRP forecasted and 'sounded the alarm' on increasing patient doses in CT, and recommended actions for manufacturers and users. One of the approaches was that safety is best achieved when it is built into the machine, rather than left as a matter of choice for users. In view of upcoming challenges posed by newer systems that use cone beam geometry for CT (CBCT), and their widened usage, often by untrained users, a new ICRP task group has been working on radiological protection issues in CBCT. Some of the issues identified by the task group are: lack of standardisation of dosimetry in CBCT; the false belief within the medical and dental community that CBCT is a 'light', low-dose CT whereas mobile CBCT units and newer applications, particularly C-arm CT in interventional procedures, involve higher doses; lack of training in radiological protection among clinical users; and lack of dose information and tracking in many applications. This paper provides a summary of approaches used in CT and MDCT, and preliminary information regarding work just published for radiological protection in CBCT. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykora, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this text-book basic knowledge about radiology, biomedical diagnostic methods (radiography, computer tomography), nuclear medicine and safety and radiation protection of personnel on the radiodiagnostic place of work are presented

  15. Potential radiological impacts of upper-bound operational accidents during proposed waste disposal alternatives for Hanford defense waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishima, J.; Sutter, S.L.; Hawley, K.A.; Jenkins, C.E.; Napier, B.A.

    1986-02-01

    The Geologic Disposal Alternative, the In-Place Stabilization and Disposal Alternative, and the Reference Disposal Alternative are being evaluated for disposal of Hanford defense high-level, transuranic, and tank wastes. Environmental impacts associated with disposal of these wastes according to the alternatives listed above include potential doses to the downwind population from operation during the application of the handling and processing techniques comprising each disposal alternative. Scenarios for operational accident and abnormal operational events are postulated, on the basis of the currently available information, for the application of the techniques employed for each waste class for each disposal alternative. From these scenarios, an upper-bound airborne release of radioactive material was postulated for each waste class and disposal alternative. Potential downwind radiologic impacts were calculated from these upper-bound events. In all three alternatives, the single postulated event with the largest calculated radiologic impact for any waste class is an explosion of a mixture of ferri/ferro cyanide precipitates during the mechanical retrieval or microwave drying of the salt cake in single shell waste tanks. The anticipated downwind dose (70-year dose commitment) to the maximally exposed individual is 3 rem with a total population dose of 7000 man-rem. The same individual would receive 7 rem from natural background radiation during the same time period, and the same population would receive 3,000,000 man-rem. Radiological impacts to the public from all other postulated accidents would be less than that from this accident; furthermore, the radiological impacts resulting from this accident would be less than one-half that from the natural background radiation dose.

  16. Potential radiological impacts of upper-bound operational accidents during proposed waste disposal alternatives for Hanford defense waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, J.; Sutter, S.L.; Hawley, K.A.; Jenkins, C.E.; Napier, B.A.

    1986-02-01

    The Geologic Disposal Alternative, the In-Place Stabilization and Disposal Alternative, and the Reference Disposal Alternative are being evaluated for disposal of Hanford defense high-level, transuranic, and tank wastes. Environmental impacts associated with disposal of these wastes according to the alternatives listed above include potential doses to the downwind population from operation during the application of the handling and processing techniques comprising each disposal alternative. Scenarios for operational accident and abnormal operational events are postulated, on the basis of the currently available information, for the application of the techniques employed for each waste class for each disposal alternative. From these scenarios, an upper-bound airborne release of radioactive material was postulated for each waste class and disposal alternative. Potential downwind radiologic impacts were calculated from these upper-bound events. In all three alternatives, the single postulated event with the largest calculated radiologic impact for any waste class is an explosion of a mixture of ferri/ferro cyanide precipitates during the mechanical retrieval or microwave drying of the salt cake in single shell waste tanks. The anticipated downwind dose (70-year dose commitment) to the maximally exposed individual is 3 rem with a total population dose of 7000 man-rem. The same individual would receive 7 rem from natural background radiation during the same time period, and the same population would receive 3,000,000 man-rem. Radiological impacts to the public from all other postulated accidents would be less than that from this accident; furthermore, the radiological impacts resulting from this accident would be less than one-half that from the natural background radiation dose

  17. The teaching of Radiological Protection in actual society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzo, Nestor Pedro de

    1996-01-01

    The use more and more frequent of radiations in different areas of the daily life generate a growing necessity of competent professionals and technicians qualified in Health Physics. The teaching of the Radiological Protection does not limit only to the instruction in scientists topics that quality to the professionals in the resolution of problems or the application of techniques, must qualified also the students in the diffusion of the own problems of the radiological protection. The content of different courses of radiological protection given in the Instituto Bailer's ( a join between the National University of Cuyo and the National Commission of Atomic Energy) guided to different groups of students or professionals are also introduced. Finally, some of the examples used in order to clarify practical situations are shown. (author)

  18. Radiation protection study of radiology medical workers in radiodiagnosis area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, E.; Canizal, C.; Garcia, M.A.; Orozco, M.; Rincon, A.; Padilla, Y.; Martinez, A.

    1996-01-01

    Aspects related to radiological safety and its organization in radiodiagnosis were evaluated by means of scanning carried out in 18 hospitals of Mexico City, divided in 11 public institutions and 7 private ones. The population being studied was: hospital personnel that works in radiodiagnosis. The survey was made with 31 dichotomic variables, being obtained 132 surveys. The personnel characteristics are 83% works in public institutions, 49% works in radiodiagnosis, 3% has an academic degree, 13% is member of a hospital professional association, 13% has updated information on radiological protection, 36% was trained, 45% works for more than 2 years, 52% uses personal dosemeter, less than the 20% knows about the fundamentals of the radiological protection and 24% states to suffer from biological radiation effects, due to the exposure to x-rays. As result of the study, it was found that the main problems that the radiological protection has, are: lack of training programs in radiological protection and supervision, medical surveillance and the few number of persons that takes part in clinical meetings and professional associations. (authors). 7 refs., 3 tabs

  19. Evaluation of the conditions and practices of radiological protection technicians in radiology, according to Ordinance 453

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Rogerio Ferreira da

    2013-01-01

    Professionals in radiology suffer whole body exposure to low doses for long periods . The system of radiological protection should keep exposures below recommended thresholds, thus avoiding the stochastic effects that can be triggered with any dose level value, and there is not a threshold for induction of the same. Therefore it is important to use personal dosimeter for monitoring doses and protective equipment. The increase in procedures using ionizing radiation in recent years has been noted with concern, since many companies are not complying with the standards of protection. This is because some procedures may be performed without the need of surgery, which presents a greater risk to the patient. Furthermore, Brazilians are being exposed to radiation without necessity. The reasons range from radiological equipment miscalibrated to poorly trained staff. Thus we evaluate the conditions and practices of radiation protection technicians in radiology according to Ordinance 453 in Goiania, GO, Brazil. Through a descriptive survey with a quantitative approach, we used the technique of gathering information based on a questionnaire. From this survey, we identified the procedures used by radiation protection professionals and concluded that there are failures in the procedures for protecting patients and accompanying and in the training of the professionals. (author)

  20. Radiological protection, from regulation to culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehler, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    In order to encourage a high degree of radiation protection of workers and members of public, the relevant authorities and operators in the nuclear industry should urge those responsible for radiation protection to do more than is required bu the pure and simple application of the regulations related to dose limitation compliance with the technical standards and specifications a necessary but not sufficient condition for quality in radiation protection. Reaching this quality objective is not a matter of forcing improvements bu a regulatory policy of reducing dose limits, but of promoting a real radiation protection culture based on an approach of optimizing the radiation protection formalized at the lightest level of the company structure, as well as on the professionalism individual responsibility, motivation and the freely consented to and understood participation of those involved in implementing this policy. The spread of a radiation protection culture encourages the deliberate adoption in everyday practice of behaviour likely to reduce exposure to ionizing radiation, as law as reasonably achievable, and to give life to the 'spirit' of the regulations in the best conditions. This article intends to show that the need to diffuse a radiation protection culture, particularly based on the principle of optimization, is inspired both by the philosophy behind the system recommended by the behavioural and incentive approach implied by the optimization principle. Special attention will be given to the fundamentals likely to contribute in a definition of radiation protection culture. (author)

  1. Radiological protection of the radiotherapy patient?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waligorski, M.P.R.; Lesiak, J.

    2001-01-01

    We propose that the system and concepts of radiation protection should not be used with reference to radiotherapy patients. We justify this on conceptual grounds. The patient undergoing radiotherapy procedures, as prescribed by the medical practitioner, is protected by the quality assurance system legally required for medical exposures. (author)

  2. ICRP PUBLICATION 121: Radiological Protection in Paediatric Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khong, P-L.; Ringertz, H.; Donoghue, V.; Frush, D.; Rehani, M.; Appelgate, K.; Sanchez, R.

    2013-01-01

    Paediatric patients have a higher average risk of developing cancer compared with adults receiving the same dose. The longer life expectancy in children allows more time for any harmful effects of radiation to manifest, and developing organs and tissues are more sensitive to the effects of radiation. This publication aims to provide guiding principles of radiological protection for referring clinicians and clinical staff performing diagnostic imaging and interventional procedures for paediatric patients. It begins with a brief description of the basic concepts of radiological protection, followed by the general aspects of radiological protection, including principles of justification and optimisation. Guidelines and suggestions for radiological protection in specific modalities – radiography and fluoroscopy, interventional radiology, and computed tomography – are subsequently covered in depth. The report concludes with a summary and recommendations. The importance of rigorous justification of radiological procedures is emphasised for every procedure involving ionising radiation, and the use of imaging modalities that are non-ionising should always be considered. The basic aim of optimisation of radiological protection is to adjust imaging parameters and institute protective measures such that the required image is obtained with the lowest possible dose of radiation, and that net benefit is maximised to maintain sufficient quality for diagnostic interpretation. Special consideration should be given to the availability of dose reduction measures when purchasing new imaging equipment for paediatric use. One of the unique aspects of paediatric imaging is with regards to the wide range in patient size (and weight), therefore requiring special attention to optimisation and modification of equipment, technique, and imaging parameters. Examples of good radiographic and fluoroscopic technique include attention to patient positioning, field size and adequate collimation

  3. Proceedings of the 3. Regional Meeting on Radiological and Nuclear Safety, Regional Meeting on International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA)and 3. Peruvian Meeting on Radiological Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    There we show works of the Third Regional Meeting on Radiological and Nuclear Safety held on 23-27 October, 1995 in Cusco-Peru. Latin americans specialists talk about nuclear safety and radiological protection, radiation natural exposure, biological effect of radiation, radiotherapy and medical radiological safety, radiological safety in industry and research. Also we deal with subjects related to radiological safety of nuclear and radioactive facilities, radioactive waste management, radioactive material transport, environmental radiological monitoring program, radiological emergency and accidents, instruments and dosimetry, basic safety standards of protection against radiation. More than 225 works were presented on the meeting

  4. Protecting National Critical Infrastructure against Radiological Threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaar, I.; Halevy, I.; Berenstein, Z.; Sharon, A.

    2014-01-01

    National Critical Infrastructure (NCI) such as transportation, water, energy etc., are essential elements in a developed country's economy. As learned after the 9/11 attackxx, a terror attack on these complex system may cause thousands of casualties and significant economic damage. The attack can be a conventional one; like the train bombing in Spainxxi or the bus bombing in Londonxxii, or a non-conventional one; like the Sarin attack on the underground train in Tokyo, Japanxxiii. A radiological attack on a NCI is also feasiblexxiv. This type of attack must be taken into consideration due to the vulnerability of ani infrastructure to such an attack, and the severe economic outcome of itxxv. The radioactive materials that might be used by terrorists were recently identified and categorized in one of the IAEA Nuclear Security Series publicationxxvi,xxvii. The most common and therefore reachable radio nuclides are the gamma emitters 60Co, 137Cs and 192Ir, the beta emitter 90Sr and the alpha emitters 241Pu, 238Pu and 241Am. A radiological event can be any of two principle scenarios. In the first scenario, a radiological dispersion device (RDD) or ôdirtyö bomb is used. This device consists of a radiation source which is detonated using conventional or improvised explosivesxxviii. Most of the casualties in this event will be from the explosion blast wave. However, some people might become contaminated with different levels of radiationxxix, some might need to go through some type of medical screening process and the costs of the total actions might be significantxxx. The second scenario involves a silent dispersion of radioactive material in a public site. In this event, there are no immediate known casualties, and the fact that people were exposed to radioactive material will be discovered only in the uncommon event when symptoms of radiation sickness will be identified due to exposure to high radiation dosexxxi, or if the radioactive material is discovered by a first

  5. Initial laboratory studies into the chemical and radiological aging of organic materials in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuels, W.D.; Camaioni, D.M.; Babad, H.

    1994-01-01

    The underground storage tanks at the Hanford Complex contain wastes generated over many years from plutonium production and recovery processes, and mixed wastes from radiological degradation processes. The chemical changes of the organic materials used in the extraction processes have a direct bearing on several specific safety issues, including potential energy releases from these tanks. The major portion of organic materials that have been added to the tanks consists of tributyl phosphate, dibutyl phosphate, butyl alcohol, hexone (methyl isobutyl ketone), normal paraffin hydrocarbons (NPH), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), hydroxyethylethylenediaminetriadetic acid (HEDTA), other complexants, and lesser quantities of ion exchange polymers and minor organic compounds. A study of how thermal and radiological processes that may have changed the composition of organic tanks constituents has been initiated after a review of the open literature revealed little information was available about the rates and products of these processes under basic pH conditions. This paper will detail the initial findings as they relate to gas generation, e.g. H 2 , CO, NH 3 , CH 4 , and to changes in the composition of the organic and inorganic components brought about by ''Aging'' processes

  6. Protection and radiological safety in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenot, J.C.; Lochard, J.; Aubert, B.; Aurengo, A.; Cosset, J.M.; Kalifa, G.

    1996-01-01

    The present publication put the base principles of radiation protection by dwelling on these ones that take the lead of medicine. It is a reference text. The exposure to ionizing radiations in medicine, concerns essentially the persons that need a diagnosis or a treatment but also the medical personnel, the family of the patients and the public: the protection have to take into account all these situations. (N.C.)

  7. Radiological protection criteria risk assessments for waste disposal options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    Radiological protection criteria for waste disposal options are currently being developed at the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), and, in parallel, methodologies to be used in assessing the radiological impact of these options are being evolved. The criteria and methodologies under development are intended to apply to all solid radioactive wastes, including the high-level waste arising from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (because this waste will be solidified prior to disposal) and gaseous or liquid wastes which have been converted to solid form. It is envisaged that the same criteria will be applied to all solid waste disposal options, including shallow land burial, emplacement on the ocean bed (sea dumping), geological disposal on land and sub-seabed disposal

  8. Radiological protection program in x-ray diagnostic facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melara F, N.E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a basic document to initiate a discussion which will originate a Unified Protocol in Latin America and the Caribbean for radiological protection in the installations of medical radiology. The following principal elements are considered an inherent part of radiology protection: 1. Quality control of equipment. 2. Conditions in the dark room which coincide in the quality of the image. Levels of patient exposure and the processes for the quality control of the processors are not discussed, and it is limited to the installation of radiographic medical x-ray equipment, stationary and mobile. Each point to be put into effect is presented in a diagram, frequency and criteria for acceptance. A detailed explanation of each point along with a clear explanation of the recommended method for each follows in the same order in which they are presented in the diagram. Finally adequate forms for easily acquiring data are presented. (author)

  9. Intervention levels for protective action in the radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, G.Y.; Khang, B.O.; Lee, M.; Lee, J.T.

    1998-09-01

    In the event of nuclear accident or radiological emergency, the protective action based on intervention levels prepared in advance should be implemented in order to minimize the public hazard. There are several protective measures such as sheltering, evacuation, iodine prophylaxis, foodstuff restrictions, temporary relocation, permanent resettlement, etc. for protecting the public. The protective measures should be implemented on the basis of operational intervention level of action level. This report describes the basic principles of intervention and the methodology for deriving intervention levels, and also recommendations for the intervention levels suggested from IAEA, ICRP, WHO and EU are summarized to apply to the domestic radiological emergency. This report also contains a revision procedure of operational intervention levels to meet a difference accident condition. Therefore, it can be usefully applied to establish revised operational intervention levels considering or the regional characteristics of our country. (author). 20 refs

  10. Radiological protection of the worker in medicine and dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The first three sections of this report concern general understanding of radiation protection, basic concepts for all workers, and practical problems common to all users of radiation in medicine and dentistry. The remaining sections cover specialist topics covering practical aspects in diagnostic radiology, dental radiography, the use of unsealed radionuclides (in the laboratory, diagnostic and therapeutic uses) balneotherapy, brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy. (author)

  11. Radiological protection of the worker in medicine and dentistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The first three sections of this report concern general understanding of radiation protection, basic concepts for all workers, and practical problems common to all users of radiation in medicine and dentistry. The remaining sections cover specialist topics covering practical aspects in diagnostic radiology, dental radiography, the use of unsealed radionuclides (in the laboratory, diagnostic and therapeutic uses) balneotherapy, brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy. (author).

  12. Optimization of radiological protection in Spanish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, P.; Amor, I.; Butragueno, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Optimizing the radiological protection of occupationally exposed nuclear power plant workers has become one further item in what is called the safety culture. Spanish facilities are implementing programme with this in mind, grounded on a personal motivation policy with the backing of a suitable organizational structure. (Author)

  13. Radiation protection of patients in general diagnostic radiology in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morkunas, G.; Ziliukas, J.

    2001-01-01

    The situation in control of exposure due to general diagnostic radiological examinations in Lithuania is described. Experience in creation of legal basis for radiation protection, results of measurements of patients' doses and quality control tests of x-ray units are given. The main problems encountered in implementation of international recommendations and requirements of European Medical Exposure Directive are discussed. (author)

  14. Radiological protection. Responsibility of the Safety Engineering Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netto, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    This subject takes care of the Safety Engineering at the Radiologic Protection area on the X and Gama Rays Services. It mainly emphasis the case of that companies that, due do not have proper X and Gama Rays Services utilize partime task force on this area, but answer themselves for the safety of their employees in case of any accident occurence. (author) [pt

  15. Action research regarding the optimisation of radiological protection for nurses during vascular interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Hiroshige

    2015-01-01

    The optimisation and decision-making processes for radiological protection have been broadened by the introduction of re-examination or feedback after introducing protective measures. In this study, action research was used to reduce the occupational exposure of vascular interventional radiology (IR) nurses. Four radiological protection improvement measures were continuously performed in cooperation with the researchers, nurses and stakeholders, and the nurses’ annual effective doses were compared before and after the improvements. First, the dosimetry equipment was changed from one electronic personal dosimeter (EPD) to two silver-activated phosphate glass dosimeters (PGDs). Second, the nurses were educated regarding maintaining a safe distance from the sources of scattered and leakage radiation. Third, portable radiation shielding screens were placed in the IR rooms. Fourth, the x-ray units’ pulse rates were reduced by half. On changing the dosimetry method, the two PGDs recorded a 4.4 fold greater dose than the single EPD. Educating nurses regarding radiological protection and reducing the pulse rates by half decreased their effective doses to one-third and two-fifths of the baseline dose, respectively. No significant difference in their doses was detected after the placement of the shielding screens. Therefore, the action research effectively decreased the occupational doses of the vascular IR nurses. (practical matter)

  16. Action research regarding the optimisation of radiological protection for nurses during vascular interventional radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hiroshige

    2015-06-01

    The optimisation and decision-making processes for radiological protection have been broadened by the introduction of re-examination or feedback after introducing protective measures. In this study, action research was used to reduce the occupational exposure of vascular interventional radiology (IR) nurses. Four radiological protection improvement measures were continuously performed in cooperation with the researchers, nurses and stakeholders, and the nurses' annual effective doses were compared before and after the improvements. First, the dosimetry equipment was changed from one electronic personal dosimeter (EPD) to two silver-activated phosphate glass dosimeters (PGDs). Second, the nurses were educated regarding maintaining a safe distance from the sources of scattered and leakage radiation. Third, portable radiation shielding screens were placed in the IR rooms. Fourth, the x-ray units' pulse rates were reduced by half. On changing the dosimetry method, the two PGDs recorded a 4.4 fold greater dose than the single EPD. Educating nurses regarding radiological protection and reducing the pulse rates by half decreased their effective doses to one-third and two-fifths of the baseline dose, respectively. No significant difference in their doses was detected after the placement of the shielding screens. Therefore, the action research effectively decreased the occupational doses of the vascular IR nurses.

  17. Environmental radiological protection of Bariloche Atomic Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres, Pablo A.; Levanon, Izhar S.

    2013-01-01

    This plan of monitoring radiological environmental routine fits on environmental policy of CNEA, satisfying national and international recommendations for licensed facilities. Sampling matrices are related to direct routes of exposure: air and water (river, lake, sediments, drinking water). Soil samples are also analyzed for having integrated matrices. They are considered as minimum three points of measurement: a white point (water or winds up), a point of maximum (water or winds down) and a point corresponding to the location of the individual representative or a point of public interest. Measurements in air estimate KERMA rate with thermoluminescent dosimeters, bi-monthly, and concentrations of particulate material and aerosols. For water samples (monthly), soil and sediments (quarterly), radionuclides that have download limits are analyzed, according to its importance in the dosages produced in the representative individual. In these cases artificial radionuclides using gamma spectrometry, beta total and Sr-90 by radiochemical techniques if the value of total screening (1 Bq/L) is exceeded. Foods are not included because no possible matrices were detected, either by their distance. by located not predominant wind direction. They are however still looking for milk producers that fulfills the minimum requirements.The data collected are compared with environmental baselines to set trends that might point to future significant changes in the environment during the life of the facilities. So far it was not observed significant differences with respect to baseline values

  18. Ethical foundations of environmental radiological protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oughton, D H

    2016-06-01

    Assessing the potential ecological impact of ionising radiation raises a number of ethical questions. These include fundamental questions such as what exactly constitutes harming the environment, and how the environment should be valued, as well as links to political protection principles such as sustainability and biodiversity. Starting from developments within ecological risk assessment, this paper summarises some of the ethical issues concerning the protection of the environment from radiation. Chapter 2 gives a brief overview of different philosophical and cultural world views on valuing the environment in a context of radiation risk. Chapter 3 addresses some recent challenges to proposed environmental protection frameworks, including practical applications following the Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents, and some scientific developments such as the ecosystem approach. Finally, Chapter 4 offers some recommendations on how ethical evaluation can help produce a more robust and transparent approach to the protection of the environment. In conclusion, there is a need for a holistic evaluation of the environmental impacts of ionising radiation that not only considers the direct consequences on the health of humans and non-human species, but also the more complex social, ethical, and economic consequences of both human and non-human exposures. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics.

  19. Protection of persons undergoing radiological examinations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protection was in the form of gonad shields, lead apron to shield the unwanted parts during examinations and coning the X-ray field before exposure. The staff had Thermoluminscent Dosimeters (TLD) to monitor dose levels received by such staff every three months. They wore hand gloves, lead aprons and stayed behind ...

  20. International Commission on Radiological Protection. History, policies, procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, Bo; Dunster, H.J.; Valentin, Jack; )

    2000-01-01

    This report briefly reviews the history, mode of operation, concepts, and current policies of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). It touches upon the objectives of the Commission's recommendations, the quantities used, the biological basis of the Commission's policy, the quantitative basis for its risk estimates, the structure of the system of protection, some problems of interpretation and application in that system, and the need for stability, consistency, and clarity in the Commission's recommendations. (author)

  1. Objectives of radiological environment protection in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberhausen, E.

    1976-01-01

    The aim of the radiological environment protection is to avoid risks to the health of the population. But the risks from radiation can only be considered in connection with spontaneously occuring malignancies. The comparison shows that according to the maximum permissible doses in the German Ordinance of Radiation Protection the risks of radiation injury are so low that they cannot be detected relative to the spontaneous malignancies. (orig.) [de

  2. River Protection Project: Interface Management in the Multi Contract Project Environment at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SHIKASHIO, L.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Office of River Protection (ORP) is implementing the River Protection Project (RPP) using two prime contractors. CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) is responsible for operating the existing tank system, delivering the waste feed to the waste treatment plant, and managing the resulting low- and high-level glass waste ''product'' through a performance-based fee type contract. A separate prime contractor will be responsible for designing, constructing and commissioning of a new Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), and preparing the waste for ultimate disposal. In addition to the prime contractors and their interfaces, the River Protection Project is being conducted on the Hanford Site, which is under the management of another DOE organization, DOE Richland Field Office (DOE-RL). The infrastructure and utilities are provided by DOE-RL, for example. In addition, there are multiple other technical interfaces with federal, state and other regulatory agencies that influence the management of the activities. This paper provides an overview of the approach employed by ORP to identify, coordinate, and manage the technical interfaces of RPP. In addition, this paper describes the approach and methodologies used to: Establish an overall framework for interface management. Establish the requirements for defining and managing interfaces for the prime contractors and DOE. Contractually requiring the prime contractors to control and manage the interfaces

  3. Radiological protection of patients in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, L.K.

    2001-01-01

    The key factor in medical exposure is justification, that is ensuring that the benefit exceeds the risk. Nuclear medicine studies are comparable in cost to more sophisticated radiological tests such as ultrasound, computed tomography or magnetic resonance. Radiation doses are similar from X ray and nuclear medicine procedures. Having justified exposures the next step is optimization, namely using a radiation dose as low as is reasonably practicable. Diagnostic reference levels may be set nationally or locally such that the balance of diagnostic quality and radiation burden is optimized. In therapy the aim is to achieve a therapeutic dose while keeping the dose to non-target tissues as low as reasonably practicable. Variations in activities may be required for overweight patients, those in severe pain, those with certain conditions and in the case of tomography. Any woman who has missed a period should be assumed to be pregnant; there should be notices to patients emphasizing this. Following the administration of longer lived pharmaceuticals it is important to avoid pregnancy for a time such that the dose to a foetus will not exceed 1 mGy. A similar situation applies to a child who is being breastfed when a mother receives a radiopharmaceutical. In the case of children undergoing investigations the activity needs to be reduced to maintain the same count density as in adults. With the administration of an incorrect pharmaceutical an attempt should be made to enhance excretion, and the referring doctor and the patient should be informed. Extravasation usually requires no action. Positron emission tomography results in higher doses both to staff and patients. Research should use subjects over the age of 50, and avoid anyone who is pregnant or is a child. Nuclear medicine procedures result in a very small loss in life expectancy compared with other common risks. (author)

  4. Medical exposure and optimization of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drexler, Gunter

    1997-01-01

    Full text. In the context of occupational and populational exposure the concepts of optimization are implemented widely, at least conceptually, by the relevant authorities and the responsible for radiation protection. In the case of medical exposures this is not so common since the patient is exposed deliberately and cannot be isolated from his environment. The concepts and the instruments of optimization in these cases are discussed with emphasis to the ICRP recommendations in Publication 73. (author)

  5. Health and nuclear: For which radiological protection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proust, Claude

    2016-01-01

    The author aims at providing citizen with knowledge in the field of health in relationship with nuclear energy. A first part proposes a historical overview of knowledge of nuclear effects on health, with references to the discovery and first works on radioactivity, to the Manhattan project, to the creation of national and international bodies in charge of nuclear issues, to various nuclear accidents and their consequences. In the second part, the author describes mechanisms of radiation protection and its organisation at the world level (ICRP, UNSCEAR, IAEA, and so on), and discusses in a very critical way the basic aspects which are now governing radiation protection standards. Indeed, he outlines denials, lies, and the inappropriate character of the risk model created in 1951. He also discusses the optimisation principle, criticises the application of deterministic effect criteria to stochastic effects. In the fourth part, the author analyses consequences of the present official radiation protection which he considers as a pseudo-science as shown by misleading assessments of Chernobyl victims, and by publications which also criticise this science. The last part addresses the specific case of France

  6. SUPPLEMENTAL COLUMBIA RIVER PROTECTION ACTIVITIES AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE: 2006 TECHNICAL PEER REVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B; Dawn Kaback; Gene Leboeuf; Jason Mulvihill-Kuntz; Lynn Lefkoff

    2006-01-01

    Prompted by a $10 million Congressional allocation to identify supplemental actions to protect the Columbia River from groundwater contamination beneath the Hanford Reservation, the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Office of Clean-up Technology identified twenty-three potential technical projects and then down-selected ten of these for further evaluation. An independent expert peer review was conducted for the ten down-selected proposals. The review panel consisted of twenty-three recognized subject matter experts that broadly represented academia, industry, and federal laboratories. Of the initial ten proposals reviewed, one was given unconditional support, six were given conditional support, and three were not supported as proposed. Three additional proposals were then submitted by DOE for review--these proposals were structured, in part, to respond to the initial round of technical peer review comments. Peer reviews of these additional proposals provided conditional support. For those proposals that received conditional support, DOE requested specific implementation and work plans and assessed whether the plans adequately addressed the technical conditions identified by the review panel. The final list of technology proposals receiving support, or conditional support, primarily focused on understanding and reducing the potential impacts of uranium, chromium, and strontium from facilities adjacent to the Columbia River, with a secondary focus on understanding and limiting the future Columbia River impacts from the large carbon tetrachloride groundwater plume underlying and downgradient of the Hanford Central Plateau facilities. The results and recommendations of the peer reviews informed the final DOE project selections and supported implementation of the selected projects to protect the Columbia River and address groundwater contamination at Hanford

  7. SUPPLEMENTAL COLUMBIA RIVER PROTECTION ACTIVITIES AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE: 2006 TECHNICAL PEER REVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B; Dawn Kaback; Gene Leboeuf; Jason Mulvihill-Kuntz; Lynn Lefkoff

    2006-12-20

    Prompted by a $10 million Congressional allocation to identify supplemental actions to protect the Columbia River from groundwater contamination beneath the Hanford Reservation, the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Office of Clean-up Technology identified twenty-three potential technical projects and then down-selected ten of these for further evaluation. An independent expert peer review was conducted for the ten down-selected proposals. The review panel consisted of twenty-three recognized subject matter experts that broadly represented academia, industry, and federal laboratories. Of the initial ten proposals reviewed, one was given unconditional support, six were given conditional support, and three were not supported as proposed. Three additional proposals were then submitted by DOE for review--these proposals were structured, in part, to respond to the initial round of technical peer review comments. Peer reviews of these additional proposals provided conditional support. For those proposals that received conditional support, DOE requested specific implementation and work plans and assessed whether the plans adequately addressed the technical conditions identified by the review panel. The final list of technology proposals receiving support, or conditional support, primarily focused on understanding and reducing the potential impacts of uranium, chromium, and strontium from facilities adjacent to the Columbia River, with a secondary focus on understanding and limiting the future Columbia River impacts from the large carbon tetrachloride groundwater plume underlying and downgradient of the Hanford Central Plateau facilities. The results and recommendations of the peer reviews informed the final DOE project selections and supported implementation of the selected projects to protect the Columbia River and address groundwater contamination at Hanford.

  8. Radiological Protection Studies for NGLS XTOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Shanjie [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Santana-Leitner, Mario [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Rokni, Sayed [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Donahue, Rick [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Emma, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Floyd, James [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Warwick, Tony [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-11-21

    The X-ray transport, optics and diagnostic system (XTOD) starts from the end of bending magnets sending electrons to the main dump and ends at the end wall separating the accelerator tunnel from the user experimental hall (hereafter referred as EH wall), as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1.a shows the general schematic and Figure 1.b shows the initial layout with possible shielding components. This document summarizes the extensive studies on the shielding and collimator system design necessary to meet the radiation protection requirements.

  9. Environmental and ground-water surveillance at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental and ground-water surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to DOE environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. Environmental surveillance encompasses sampling and analyzing for potential radiological and nonradiological chemical contaminants on and off the Hanford Site. Emphasis is placed on surveillance of exposure pathways and chemical constituents that pose the greatest risk to human health and the environment

  10. Environmental and ground-water surveillance at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Luttrell, S.P.

    1995-06-01

    Environmental and ground-water surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding region is conducted to demonstrate compliance with environmental regulations, confirm adherence to DOE environmental protection policies, support DOE environmental management decisions, and provide information to the public. Environmental surveillance encompasses sampling and analyzing for potential radiological and nonradiological chemical contaminants on and off the Hanford Site. Emphasis is placed on surveillance of exposure pathways and chemical constituents that pose the greatest risk to human health and the environment.

  11. Design an online course of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia S, R.; Del Sol F, S.; Rivera M, T.; Sanchez G, D.

    2015-10-01

    Currently there is a vast research about the harmful effects of the use of ionizing radiation in medical procedures and in recent years struck by the rapid innovation in imaging equipment, considerably increasing the radiation dose received both patients and professionals in the radiodiagnosis area, service having the greatest demand in our country. The main strategy that has so far is education, that is, to inform all those involved in managing ionizing radiation about the applications and risks associated with them. Generally it requires that all personnel occupationally exposed attesting a course of radiation protection. However, the high demand for this type of medical services and poorly trained staff, makes taking a classroom course for personnel occupationally exposed is complicated. So that in the Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN) we are designing a course in radiation protection to be implemented online, through the virtual platform Moodle in a first stage, and a massive open online course as the second stage so that can be carried by anyone interested in the subject, without having to appear in person. This will allows to reach the largest possible number of personnel occupationally exposed to just have a computer with internet access. (Author)

  12. Services of radiological protection: as sizing the human and material resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueda Guerrero, M. D.; Sierra Perler, I.; Lorenzo Perez, P.

    2014-01-01

    Discussion of radiological protection in the Middle Health has formed a task force to develop a technical document recommendatory to help plan and evaluate resources radiological protection services. (Author)

  13. Statutory Instrument No 48 of 1992. Radiological Protection Act, 1991 (Establishment day) Order, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This order appoints 1st April 1992 as the day on which the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland is established. From that day the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland will take over the functions of An Bord Fuinnimh Nuicleigh

  14. Capacitation in radiological protection by internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, Juan J.; Vega, Jose Maria; Rossell, Maria Angeles; Calvo, Jose L.; Galvez, Manuel

    2001-01-01

    This paper makes a proposal to use the Web for training Radiation Protection in Spanish/Portuguese languages. The Iberoamerican Group of Scientific Societies of Radioprotection (GRIAPRA) should take the lead of this educational project, to get in two years the following objectives: to prepare educational resources about Radioprotection in Spanish/Portuguese languages with the support of two Internet servers, one of them will be in Latin-American and the other in Spain; to talk over the methods for exchanging information between the teachers, tutors and students interested in participating in this project, to have a thorough knowledge of the activities and courses supported by the two internet servers; to set up agreements with Universities and professional Institutions related with Radioprotection in order that students, who get pass all the evaluations, exams and practical presential training organized in reference Centers previously selected, could obtain an academic accreditation. (author)

  15. Accreditation of professionals for radiological protection in medical and dental radiology at Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Teogenes A. da; Pereira, Elton G.; Alonso, Thessa C.; Guedes, Elton C.; Goncalves, Elaine C.; Nogueira, Maria Angela A.

    2000-01-01

    The role of the CDTN/CNEN as far as the radiological protection services in the medical and dental radiology has changed a lot due to the new Regulatory Directives. The CDTN/CNEN was recognized as the regional reference center for providing not only radiological survey services, but to coordinate an accreditation procedure for professional persons to be accepted by the State Regulatory Authorities to work at Minas Gerais. All the new activities were formalized in a Cooperation Agreement between the CDTN/CNEN and the Regulatory Authority. This paper describes the accreditation procedure for candidates, the adopted requirements, the intercomparison results among measuring instruments and the main achievements during the first year of the Agreement. (author)

  16. Division of Radiological Protection : progress report, 1989-1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, B.L.; Nagarajan, P.S.; Bhatt, B.C.; Seethapathy, A.; Pradhan, A.S.; Vishwakarma, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the work of the Division of Radiological Protection during 1989-91, for implementation of radiation safety in all institutions in the country using radiation sources for medical, industrial and research applications. It gives information about personnel monitoring using photographic film and TLD badges, neutron monitoring badges, dosimetric techniques developed, calibration techniques for high-dose irradiators, design and fabrication of special radiation protection instruments, advisory and licensing services, regulation and transport of radioactive materials, periodic protection survey, education and training related to radiation safety programmes. About 164 publications by the staff of this Division are listed. (author). 1 index., 1 tab

  17. A project: 'Radiological protection in radiology', IAEA - Universidad Central de Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, A.R.; Salazar, G.; Fermin, R.; Gonzalez, M.

    2001-01-01

    For several years a reference center of the UCV has been working on the project VEN/9/007 on dose reduction in diagnostic radiology sponsored by the IAEA. The dose and quality image was evaluated for different types of radiological study (conventional radiology, CT, mammography, interventional radiology) in different facilities at Caracas and others regions of the Venezuela. TL dosimeters were used to assess dose and reduction in dose. Based on the recommendations given by CEC documents on diagnostic quality criteria, a quality control program in radiological protection of patients and staff has been developed, for example: Pilot study by using TLD in personnel radiation monitoring. Comparative study between high and low kVp in chest. Evaluation and dose reduction in chest pediatric. Reduction of radiation dose in studies of billiards via Quality Image and reduction of the dose in studies of colon by enema. Radiation dose of staff in fluoroscopy procedures. Evaluation and dose reduction in dental radiography in public Institutions. A mammography accreditation program for Venezuela, applied to public hospitals. (author)

  18. Training in radiological protection of residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicent, M. D.; Fernandez, M. J.; Olmos, C.; Isidoro, B.; Espana, M. L.; Arranz, L.

    2013-01-01

    In compliance with the current laws, radiation protection (RP) training is required during the formative programs of certain Health Sciences specialties. Laws entrust to official bodies in specialized training the adoption of necessary measures to coordinate and ensure a correct implementation. The aim of this study is to describe Community of Madrid experience in RP training to specialists during their formative programs, and to determine the number of residents trained and analyze their satisfaction level with the training. A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed, including all training specialists from the Community of Madrid during the 2007-2011 period. We determined the number of residents trained per year and we evaluated their satisfaction level with the training through a survey. A total of 55 training courses were carried out and 5820 residents have been trained during the 2007-2011 period. the student satisfaction level with the training has increased gradually from 6.1 points in 2007 to 7.0 points in 2011. The development of the RP formative program for residents in the Community of Madrid has meant the start up o the necessary official mechanisms to ensure the quality and adequacy of training in this area, covering the formative needs of the collective. (Author)

  19. Scientific issues and emerging challenges for radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Scientific knowledge is constantly evolving as more advanced technologies become available and more in-depth research is carried out. Given the potential implications that new findings could have on policy decisions, in 1998 the NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) performed a survey of state-of-the-art research in radiological protection science. This study suggested that, while the current system of radiological protection was well under-pinned by scientific understanding, growing knowledge in several areas could seriously impact policy and regulation. Ten years later, the CRPPH has again performed a survey of state-of-the-art research which reiterates and clarifies its earlier conclusions. This report summarises the results of this latest CRPPH assessment of radiological protection science. Specifically, it explains that knowledge of non-targeted and delayed effects, as well as of individual sensitivity, have been significantly refined over the past ten years. Although at this point there is still no scientific certainty in these areas, based on the most recent studies and results, the report strongly suggests that policy makers and regulatory authorities should consider possible impacts that could arise from research in the next few years. Further, the report identifies research areas that should be supported to more definitively answer scientific questions having the most direct impacts on policy choices. (author)

  20. Concepts of collective dose in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, B.

    1985-01-01

    The collective dose (S) is the product of the number of individuals exposed and their average radiation dose. ''Radiation dose'' is usually taken to be the effective dose equivalent (Hsub(E)) as defined by the ICRP. The unit of the collective dose is then the man.sievert (man.Sv). The following four applications of the collective dose are the most common: (a) in the assessment of the highest per caput dose rate in the future from a continued practice which exposes some critical group or the population as a whole to radiation; (b) in the limitation of present radiation sources, if it is believed that additional sources in the future may add to the per caput dose in a population so that it might reach unacceptable levels unless all sources are controlled at an early stage; (c) as an input to justification assessments, indicating the total detriment from a certain practice; and (d) as an input to optimization assessments as the basis for costing detriment in differential cost-benefit analyses of protection arrangements. It is sometimes said that the collective dose is a useful quantity only if the assumption of a non-threshold, linear dose-response relation is valid. This assumption is not always necessary. Applications (a) and (b) are possible without any assumption on the dose-response relationship at very low doses. Only applications (c) and (d) require the assumption of a non-threshold, linear dose-response relation. Some hesitation in using the collective dose originates in distrust in the biological assumptions implied by uses (c) and (d), but also in lack of confidence in the meaningfulness of collective doses that have been derived by adding dose contributions over very long time periods. However, none of the four applications (a) - (d) is by necessity related to extreme time scales. That problem mainly arises in the assessment of radioactive waste repositories

  1. The regulation of the radiological protection in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eibenschutz H, J.

    2008-12-01

    The regulation antecedents in nuclear question in Mexico are placed in 1950, with the promulgation of L aw that declares national mining reserves the uranium deposits, thorium and the other substances of which obtains fissionable isotopes that can produce nuclear energy , instrument that stipulated the control of uranium, thorium, as to its it indicated it name, and other fissionable substances, on the part of the state, although they were without a doubt the respective institutions, the National Commission of Nuclear Energy in 1955, and the one of the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards (CNSNS) in 1979, those that allowed the development of a prescribed frame in the nuclear and radiological areas. One characteristic of the regulation in radiological protection is the variety in the authorities type that have incidence in the regulation, as a result of the different approaches with which it can be approached. For example, in Mexico normative instruments with content in radiological protection exist and are watched over the Health Secretary, who is oriented to the protection of the patient, their relatives and the medical body; Work and Social Welfare Secretary, with a labor approach; Communications and Transport Secretary, which regulates the transport of nuclear and radioactive materials; Finance and Public Credit Secretary, who regulates the import and export of radioactive materials; Environment and Natural Resources Secretary, which regulates the environment protection; Energy Secretary who has responsibilities inside of the p rescribed law of article 27 constitutional in nuclear matter ; and within the energy sector, the CNSNS that expedite and watch the fulfillment of normative in radiological protection and nuclear safety. In order to resist effects of on regulation; frequently inter institutional agreements are carried out in which the areas of monitoring are agreed by each authority. The regulation in radiological protection demands the

  2. Radiological protection procedures for industrial applications of computed radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, Josilto Oliveira de

    2009-03-01

    Due to its very particular characteristics, industrial radiography is responsible for roughly half of the relevant accidents in nuclear industry, in developed as well as in developing countries, according to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Thus, safety and radiological protection in industrial gamma radiography have been receiving especial treatment by regulatory authorities of most Member States. The main objective of the present work was to evaluate, from the radioprotection point of view, the main advantages of computed radiography (CR) for filmless industrial radiography. In order to accomplish this, both techniques, i.e. conventional and filmless computed radiography were evaluated and compared through practical studies. After the studies performed at the present work it was concluded that computed radiography significantly reduces the inherent doses, reflecting in smaller restricted areas and costs, with consequent improvement in radiological protection and safety. (author)

  3. e-Learning applications for radiological protection training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, F.; Gomez-Arguello, B.; Callejo, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    The unattended training, through e-learning platforms, offers advantages in comparison with the traditional attended training, such as, freedom to study when, where and how the trance desires, the student is learning customization, a continuous self evaluation of the learning process and the rhythm of study, etc. To explore the possibilities of the radiological protection training in a WEB site, a first application for External Workers has been developed. The high number of students, their geographical dispersion and their different level of knowledge and experience arise attended training limitations in this area. In this article, the WEB course Basic Radiological Protection is presented and the results, preliminarily conclusions and lesson learnt are analysed. (Author) 7 refs

  4. Surveillance and radiological protection in the Hot Cell laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, J.M.; Torre, J. De la; Garcia C, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Hot Cells Laboratory (LCC) located in the National Institute of Nuclear Research are an installation that was designed for the management at distance of 10,000 Curies of Co-60 or other radioactive materials with different values in activity. The management of such materials in the installation, implies to analyze and to determine the doses that the POE will receive as well as the implementation of protection measures and appropriate radiological safety so that is completed the specified by the ALARA concept. In this work it is carried out an evaluation of the doses to receive for the POE when managing radionuclides with maximum activities that can be allowed in function of the current conditions of the cells and an evaluation of results is made with the program of surveillance and radiological protection implemented for the development of the works that carried out in the installation. (Author)

  5. Radiological Engineering: A graduate engineering - based curriculum for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearfott, K.J.; Wepfer, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    Several U.S. universities maintain formal graduate health physics curricula within their Colleges of Engineering. The term radiological engineering was coined to describe the discipline of applying engineering principles to the radiation protection aspects of nuclear technology. Radiological engineering programmes may require a specific core group of courses such as radiation biology, radiation protection practice, nuclear physics, radiation detectors, and radiation dosimetry. Students then might specialist in environmental, nuclear facilities or medical applications areas by selecting advanced courses and graduate design or research projects. In some instances the master's degree may be completed through remotely-delivered lectures. Such programmes promise to assist in educating a new group of engineering professionals dedicated to the safe utilisation of nuclear technology. The Georgis Institute of Technology's programme will serve as the specific example for this report. 8 refs., 1 fig

  6. Protective effect of lead aprons in medical radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huyskens, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of an ongoing study regarding the protective effect that lead aprons, as used in medical radiology, have on the resulting effective dose for medical personnel. By means of model calculations we have analyzed the protection efficacy of lead aprons for various lead thicknesses, in function of tube potential and of variations in exposure geometry as they occur in practice. The degree of efficacy appears to be highly dependent on the fit of aprons because of the dominating influence of the equivalent dose of partially unshielded organs on the resulting effective dose. Also by model calculations we investigated the ratio between the effective dose and the operational quantify for personal dose monitoring. Our study enables the choice of appropriate correction factors for convering personal dosimetry measurements into effective dose, for typical exposure situations in medical radiology. (orig.) [de

  7. Radiation and man. From radiology to radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    Man first became aware of the invisible radiation surrounding him in 1895, when Wilhelm Roentgen showed that a photographic plate could be affected by an invisible radiation capable of passing through matter. He called this radiation 'X-rays' from X, the unknown. Doctors immediately saw the usefulness of this type of radiation and began to use it in medical research. This was the birth of radiology. 'Mankind has been exposed to radiation since his first appearance on Earth. We first became aware of this at the end of the 19. century'. However, it was not long before some of the doctors and radiologists treating their patients with X-rays began to fall ill. It began to be understood that exposure to high doses of radiation was dangerous and protective measures were necessary. From the 1920's onwards, international commissions were established to specify regulations for the use of radiation and for the radiological protection of personnel. (authors)

  8. Course on radiology and radiation protection. 3. rev. enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This book shall serve as accompanying study text-book for students of medicine, who are in the clinical semesters in the course on radiology and radiation protection. The book deals in general with the field of radiology, starting from the physical and radiobiological fundamentals, through the large field of X-ray diagnostics and radiotherapy to nuclear medicine, including computerized tomography. Broad space is dedicated to radiation protection. A brief, strongly didactically divided text presents this large scientific field of knowledge in systematic order. It is illustrated by numerous tables and sketches, which shall facilitate understanding in cases of difficult problems. The book is completed by a detailed time table, by references to the essential and most important advancing literature and by a comprehensive subject index. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Regional views on the new system of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoda, N.; Fujimoto, K.; Miyamaru, K.; Lee, J.; Loy, J.; Pan, Z.Q.

    2005-01-01

    This document takes stock on the second session of the second Asian regional conference. In this session, japanese regulators, researchers and operators presented their regional views on the new ICRP recommendations. It was commonly expressed that an understanding of the background to the introduced concepts in the new recommendations is required. Other regional views from Korea, Australia and China were also expressed, based on their own regulatory system and referring to radiological protection topics in their countries. (A.L.B.)

  10. Skin dosimetry - radiological protection aspects of skin dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Following a Workshop in Skin Dosimetry, a summary of the radiological protection aspects is given. Aspects discussed include routine skin monitoring and dose limits, the need for careful skin dosimetry in high accidental exposures, techniques for assessing skin dose at all relevant depths and the specification of dose quantities to be measured by personal dosemeters and the appropriate methods to be used in their calibration. (UK)

  11. Practical radiation protection for radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, S.K.; Proudfoot, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    Nondestructive Testing Applications and Radiological Engineering at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory have developed radiation protection procedures, radiation work procedures, and safe practice procedures to assure safe operation for all radiographic work. The following topics are discussed: training in radiation safety; radiation exposure due to operations at Hanford; safeguards employed in laboratory radiography; field radiographic operations; and problems

  12. Enhancement of radiological protection through an internal quality assessment cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Filipe Morais de; Gama, Zenewton Andre da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the level of quality in radiation protection of patients during radiological examination, evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention aimed at enhancing the quality of such a protection. Materials and Methods: A quality improvement cycle was implemented in a radiology service of the Regional Health Administration, in Algarve, Portugal. Based on six quality criteria, an initial evaluation was performed and followed by an intervention focused on the most problematic points (over an eight-month period) and a subsequent quality reassessment. A random sampling (n = 60) has allowed the authors to infer the point estimates and confidence intervals for each criterion, as well as calculating the statistical significance of the results by means of the Z-test. Results: Initially, deficiencies were observed in relation to all the quality criteria. After the intervention, a minimum relative improvement of 33% was observed in five of the six criteria, with statistical significance (p < 0.05) in two of them. The absolute frequency of noncompliance decreased from 38 (first evaluation) to 21 (second evaluation), corresponding to a 44.7% improvement. Conclusion: The first institutional evaluation cycle showed a seemingly incipient improvement margin. However, the implemented intervention was effective in stimulating good practices and improving the level of radiological protection of patients. (author)

  13. Training in radiological protection - a pool of practical exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, J.R.; Hudson, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    Courses in Radiological Protection have been organised at Leeds by the NRPB since its formation, and prior to that by the Leeds Centre of the Radiological Protection Service. From the outset it seemed essential that such courses should contain a practical element, and accordingly a number of exercises were drawn up. Since that time further exercises have been added, often in response to a specific requirement from a customer or group of customers. Most of the exercises have involved the design and construction of 'one-off' items of equipment, a number of which can be considered to represent interesting approaches towards radiological protection teaching. The construction of a 'second generation' of hardware has focused attention on the objectives and design features of the exercises, which in turn has prompted a desire to publish a series of short papers describing the pool of exercises that is currently available for inclusion in the various courses run by the NRPB Centres. The first of these papers puts the series into context and provides a background to the descriptions of specific exercises. (author)

  14. Importance of establishing radiation protection culture in Radiology Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploussi, Agapi; Efstathopoulos, Efstathios P

    2016-02-28

    The increased use of ionization radiation for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, the rapid advances in computed tomography as well as the high radiation doses delivered by interventional procedures have raised serious safety and health concerns for both patients and medical staff and have necessitated the establishment of a radiation protection culture (RPC) in every Radiology Department. RPC is a newly introduced concept. The term culture describes the combination of attitudes, beliefs, practices and rules among the professionals, staff and patients regarding to radiation protection. Most of the time, the challenge is to improve rather than to build a RPC. The establishment of a RPC requires continuing education of the staff and professional, effective communication among stakeholders of all levels and implementation of quality assurance programs. The RPC creation is being driven from the highest level. Leadership, professionals and associate societies are recognized to play a vital role in the embedding and promotion of RPC in a Medical Unit. The establishment of a RPC enables the reduction of the radiation dose, enhances radiation risk awareness, minimizes unsafe practices, and improves the quality of a radiation protection program. The purpose of this review paper is to describe the role and highlight the importance of establishing a strong RPC in Radiology Departments with an emphasis on promoting RPC in the Interventional Radiology environment.

  15. Guidelines for training and qualification of radiological protection technicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    These guidelines, used in combination with plant-specific job analysis, provide the framework for a training and qualification program for radiological protection technicians at nuclear power plants. Radiological protection technicians are defined as those individuals, both plant and contractor, who will be engaged in the evaluation of radiological conditions in the nuclear plant and the implementation of the necessary radiological safety measures as they apply to nuclear plant workers and members of the general public. An important aspect of this work is recognizing and handling unusual situations involving radioactivity, including incidents related to degraded core conditions. These guidelines incorporate the results of an industry-wide job analysis and task analysis (JTA) combined with industry operating experience review. However, the industry-wide analyses did not identify all important academic and fundamental knowledge and skills. Further in-depth analysis by subject matter experts produced additional knowledge and skills that were added to these guidelines. All utilities should use these guidelines in conjunction with plant-specific and industry-wide JTA results to develop or validate their radiological protection technician training program. Plant-specific information should be used to establish appropriate training program content. This plant-specific information should reflect unique job duties, equipment, operating experience, and trainee entry-level qualifications. Revisions to these guidelines should be reviewed for applicability and incorporated into the training program using each utility's training system development (TSD) procedures. Plant-specific job analysis and task analysis data is essential to the development of performance-based training programs. These analyses are particularly useful in selecting tasks for training and in developing on-the-job training (OJT), laboratory training, and mock-up training. Qualification programs based on these

  16. The work of the international commission on radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    ICRP was established in 1928 as the International X-ray and Radium Protection Committee. In 1950 the name was changed to reflect the wider scope of radiological protection. The present membership of the Main Commission and its four committees was established in July 1993 for the period 1993-1997. Their programmes of work are now nearing completion with the Committees having met four times and their progress is summarised. The Main Commission meets in November 1996, when one of the main topics will be the election of the new Commission and members of the four Committees for the period 1997-2001

  17. Shielded chamber control stations: an answer to radiological protection requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaboudiniere, Catherine.

    1979-06-01

    This study, carried out at the radiometallurgy laboratory of the Fontenay-aux-Roses Nuclear Research Centre, is based on an ergonomic approach. It shows that the shielded chamber control station, designed for human protection against ionizing radiations, demands an effort of adaptation on the part of the operator. This station does in fact meet radiological protection obligations but would benefit from certain improvements aimed at reducing the secondary fatigue of manipulators already under the strain of adapting to the machine. Fields in which improvements and/or changes are desirable have been investigated with special reference to telemanipulators. New and better designed instruments will soon appear on the telemanipulator market [fr

  18. Radiological protection survey results about radiodiagnosis protection practices in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jova S, L.; Morales M, J.A.; Quevedo, J.R.; Medina, J.R.; Naranjo, A.M.; Fornet, O.M.

    1996-01-01

    In order to identify radiation protection current situation in national X-ray diagnostic practice , the State (cuban) Supervision System for Radiation and Nuclear Safety carried out in 1992 a survey which was planned for projection of future regulatory activities in this field. Survey covers the most important aspects related to radiation protection of occupationally exposed workers, patients and general population. Surveyed sample included a total of 52 X-ray units, sited in 7 dental clinics, 2 polyclinics and 13 hospitals, from 7 provinces of the country. Results showed that the organization of radiation protection in terms of personnel specially designated to carry out surveillance and control activities and level of documentation is deficient. Survey evidenced the general lack of safety and quality culture among technologists and radiologists which is mainly reflected in non regular application of basic patient protection measures (shielding, collimation, use of proper filtration among others) and non regular execution of basic quality inspection of employed radiographic systems. (authors). 4 refs., 1 fig

  19. Evaluation of radiation protection conditions in intraoral radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, Cristiano; Barros, Frieda Saicla; Rocha, Anna Silvia Penteado Setti da, E-mail: miguel_cristianoch@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (PPGEB/UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Biomedica; Tilly Junior, Joao Gilberto [Universidade Federal do Parana (UNIR/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Unidade de Imagem e Radioterapia; Almeida, Claudio Domingues de [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Medica

    2016-04-15

    Introduction: The dental radiology represents about 20% of human exposure to radiation in radio diagnostic. Although the doses practiced in intraoral dentistry are considered low, they should not be ignored due to the volume of the performed procedures. This study presents the radiation protection conditions for intraoral radiology in Curitiba - PR. Methods: Data was collected through a quantitative field research of a descriptive nature during the period between September of 2013 and December of 2014. The survey sample consisted of 97 dentists and 130 intraoral equipment. The data related to the equipment was collected using structured questions and quality control evaluations. The evaluations of the entrance skin dose, the size of the radiation field and the total filtration were performed with dosimetry kits provided and evaluated by IRD/CNEN. The exposure time and voltage were measured using noninvasive detectors. The occupational dose was verified by thermoluminescent dosimeters. The existence of personal protection equipment, the type of image processing and knowledge of dentists about radiation protection were verified through the application of a questionnaire. Results: Among the survey's results, it is important to emphasize that 90% of the evaluated equipment do not meet all the requirements of the Brazilian radiation protection standards. Conclusion: The lack of knowledge about radiation protection, the poor operating conditions of the equipment, and the image processing through visual method are mainly responsible for the unnecessary exposure of patients to ionizing radiation. (author)

  20. Radiation Protection Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (KAP) in Interventional Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Fatemeh; Hasanzadeh, Hadi; Emadi, Alireza; Mirmohammadkhani, Majid; Bitarafan-Rajabi, Ahmad; Abedelahi, Ali; Bokharaeian, Mitra; Masoumi, Hamed; Seifi, Danial; Khani, Tahereh; Sanchooli, Mohamad; Moshfegh, Shima; Ziari, Abbas

    2018-03-01

    Due to increasing cardiac disease and its mortality rate, the frequency of cardiac imaging has grown and, as a result, interventional cardiologists potentially receive high radiation doses in cardiac examinations. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) level of radiation protection (RP) among interventional radiology staff in Iranian health care centers across the country. We used a validated questionnaire survey consisting of 30 multiple-choice questions to perform a cross-sectional study. Participants were healthcare personnel working professionally with radiation at different levels (i.e., secretary, radiology technologists, nurse, and physician). The questionnaire was divided into three sections to assess KAP regarding RP. Significant differences exist in RP KAP mean scores based on educational age (p 0.050). We found a significant difference between RP KAP mean scores and different regions (p < 0.050). Educational and practice age, sex, type of hospital, and geographical region affect he KAP of interventional radiology staff regarding RP. Since many of the subjective radiation harms for both medical team and patients, this can be easily controlled and prevented; a checkup for personnel of interventional radiology departments, considering samples from different parts of the country with different levels of education, continuous training, and practical courses may help map the status of KAP. The results of this study may also help authorized health physics officers design strategic plans to enhance the quality of such services in radiation departments.

  1. Radiation Protection Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (KAP in Interventional Radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shabani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Due to increasing cardiac disease and its mortality rate, the frequency of cardiac imaging has grown and, as a result, interventional cardiologists potentially receive high radiation doses in cardiac examinations. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP level of radiation protection (RP among interventional radiology staff in Iranian health care centers across the country. Methods: We used a validated questionnaire survey consisting of 30 multiple-choice questions to perform a cross-sectional study. Participants were healthcare personnel working professionally with radiation at different levels (i.e., secretary, radiology technologists, nurse, and physician. The questionnaire was divided into three sections to assess KAP regarding RP. Results: Significant differences exist in RP KAP mean scores based on educational age (p 0.050. We found a significant difference between RP KAP mean scores and different regions (p < 0.050. Conclusions: Educational and practice age, sex, type of hospital, and geographical region affect he KAP of interventional radiology staff regarding RP. Since many of the subjective radiation harms for both medical team and patients, this can be easily controlled and prevented; a checkup for personnel of interventional radiology departments, considering samples from different parts of the country with different levels of education, continuous training, and practical courses may help map the status of KAP. The results of this study may also help authorized health physics officers design strategic plans to enhance the quality of such services in radiation departments.

  2. Training in radiological protection; Capacitacion en proteccion radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina G, E., E-mail: medina@ipen.gob.pe [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Av. Canada 1470, San Borja, Lima 41 (Peru)

    2014-08-15

    In the Peru, according to the current regulations, people that work with ionizing radiations should have an authorization (individual license), which is granted by the Technical Office of the National Authority that is the technical body of the Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (IPEN) manager of the control of ionizing radiations in the country. The individual license is obtained after the applicant fulfills the requested requirements, as having safety knowledge and radiological protection. Since its founding in 1972, the Centro Superior de Estudios Nucleares (CSEN) of the IPEN has carried out diverse training courses in order to that people can work in a safe way with ionizing radiations in medicine, industry and research, until the year 2013 have been organized 2231 courses that have allowed the training of 26213 people. The courses are organized according to the specific work that is carried out with radiations (medical radio-diagnostic, dental radiology, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy, industrial radiography, nuclear meters, logging while drilling, etc.). In their majority the courses are directed to people that will make use of radiations for first time, but refresher courses are also granted in the topic. The CSEN also carries out the Master degree programs highlighting the Second Professional Specialization in Radiological Protection carried out from the year 2004 with the support of the National University of Engineering. To the present has been carried out 2 programs and there is other being developed. In this work is shown the historical evolution of the radiological protection courses as well as the important thing that they are to work in a safe way in the country. (Author)

  3. Implications of science and technology on the radiological protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metivier, H.; LAZO, T.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The mission of the Nuclear Energy Agency (Nea) Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (C.R.P.P.H.) includes providing member -country governments with insight into evolving or emerging issues that could affect radiation protection policy, regulation or application. Although it can not be currently said that the scientific understanding of radiological risks has significantly changed recently, ongoing radio-biological and epidemiological research could challenge the conventional paradigm in the mid -term future. The C.R.P.P.H. finalized in March 2006 finalize a study of possible challenges and their implications. This study includes two principle areas: challenges arising from scientific developments; and, challenges to the implementation of radiation protection. This report updates the earlier C.R.P.P.H. report, 'Developments in Radiation Health Sciences and their Impact on Radiation Protection' (Nea 1998). Broadly speaking, ongoing radiation biology studies present the possibility that our current practice of summing various type s of exposures into a single value of effective dose is not scientifically supported because of significantly differing dose/response relationships (chronic vs. acute, internal vs. external, high Let versus low Let, etc.). In addition, non-targeted effects, and the possibility of individual hyper-sensitivity to radiation further challenge our current notion of the relationship between detriment and dose. Although there is no conclusive evidence for this at this time, the possible implications of such changes will be investigated to better prepare governments and the radiation protection community should sound scientific evidence emerge. In addition to these possible scientific challenges, the applications and events that would require radiological protection input are also evolving. In particular, the use of radiation in medicine, with new techniques and the spread of existing technologies

  4. Cesium Ion Exchange Program at the Hanford River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHARLES, NASH

    2004-01-01

    The River Protection Project - Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant will use cesium ion exchange to remove 137Cs from Low Activity Waste down to 0.3 Ci/m3 in the Immobilized LAW, ILAW product. The project baseline for cesium ion exchange is the elutable SuperLig, R, 644, SL-644, resin registered trademark of IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc., American Fork, UT or the Department of Energy approved equivalent. SL-644 is solely available through IBC Advanced Technologies. To provide an alternative to this sole-source resin supply, the RPP--WTP initiated a three-stage process for selection and qualification of an alternative ion exchange resin for cesium removal in the RPPWTP. It was recommended that resorcinol formaldehyde RF be pursued as a potential alternative to SL-644

  5. Evaluation of radiological protection aspects in radiodiagnostic rooms in Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar A, L.; Vizuet G, J.; Ruiz, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The preliminary results of an evaluation of radiological protection carried out in radiology services of different hospitals of Mexico are shown. The evaluated points were: relative aspects of the room, operation parameters of operation of the equipment, work procedures and training about radiological protection for the equipment operators. (authors). 2 refs., 1 fig

  6. Radiological protection issues in endovascular use of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    The use of radiation from radioactive materials for cancer treatment is well established. However, examples of uses of radiation therapy for benign conditions have been limited. Placing a radioactive source in the blood vessel so as to irradiate the surrounding inner periphery of the vessel has been attempted in recent years to prevent restenosis after percutaneous coronary and peripheral interventions. This kind of endovascular application provides treatment options that are less invasive for various vascular conditions compared with open surgery. As a part of the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) function for providing for application of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) that were jointly sponsored by the IAEA, FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and WHO, the IAEA planned a coordinated research project (CRP) that was to start in 2002 on radiological protection problems in endovascular use of radiation sources. However, as experts soon realized that the interest in this modality was waning, the CRP was not initiated. Nevertheless, it was felt that it would be appropriate to compile the information available on radiological protection problems observed so far and their possible solutions. This work was seen as part of a broader IAEA programme that covered accident prevention in radiotherapy. Publications on this topic have included, inter alia, Lessons Learned from Accidental Exposures in Radiotherapy (Safety Reports Series No. 17); Accidental Overexposure of Radiotherapy Patients in Bialystok; Investigation of an Accidental Exposure of Radiotherapy Patients in Panama; Accidental Overexposure of Radiotherapy Patients in San Jose, Costa Rica; and Investigation of an Accidental Exposure of Radiotherapy Patients in Poland. Keeping in mind that endovascular applications involve specialists such as cardiologists, angiologists and surgeons, all of whom might not have a

  7. The radiological protection in the nuclear medicine practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado M, H.

    2010-09-01

    The nuclear medicine practice dates of the 1950 years, in this work the achievements reached as regards radiological protection are shown, although even lack a lot to make, the doses for the occupationally exposed personnel have decreased with lapsing of the years, thanks to the perception of the nuclear physicians to improve the administration techniques of the radioactive material, the decrease of administered activity and the unit doses use among the most remarkable advances. The changes in the equipment s technology to quantify the activity to administer, detection systems and image formation have demanded the development of the new professionals of the nuclear medicine that allows give protection to the patient. This improvement needs to consolidate with the appropriate normative development, the involved personnel qualification and the methods and procedures actualization to improve the protection of the occupationally exposed personnel, the public, the environment and the patient. (Author)

  8. Division of Radiological Protection progress report 1982-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, B.L.; Bhat, R.M.; Narayan, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the work of the Division of Radiological Protection during 2-88, for implementation of radiation safety in all institutions in the country using radiation sources for medical, industrial and research applications. It gives information about personnel monitoring using photographic film and TLD badges, neutron monitoring badges, dosimetric techniques developed, calibration facilities and maintenance of national standards for radiation and radioactivity, design and fabrication of special radiation protection instruments, development of coloured indicators for indentification of radiation sterilized medical products, advisory and licencing services, regulation and transport of radioactive materials, periodic protection survey, education and training related to radiation safety programmes. About 500 publications by the staff of this Division are listed. (author). 46 figs

  9. Air and smear sample calculational tool for Fluor Hanford Radiological control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAUMANN, B.L.

    2003-01-01

    A spreadsheet calculation tool was developed to automate the calculations performed for determining the concentration of airborne radioactivity and smear counting as outlined in HNF--13536, Section 5.2.7, ''Analyzing Air and Smear Samples''. This document reports on the design and testing of the calculation tool. Radiological Control Technicians (RCTs) will save time and reduce hand written and calculation errors by using an electronic form for documenting and calculating work place air samples. Current expectations are RCTs will perform an air sample and collect the filter or perform a smear for surface contamination. RCTs will then survey the filter for gross alpha and beta/gamma radioactivity and with the gross counts utilize either hand calculation method or a calculator to determine activity on the filter. The electronic form will allow the RCT with a few key strokes to document the individual's name, payroll, gross counts, instrument identifiers; produce an error free record. This productivity gain is realized by the enhanced ability to perform mathematical calculations electronically (reducing errors) and at the same time, documenting the air sample

  10. The R+D radiological protection program in the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingot Buades, F.

    1993-01-01

    The R+D program a radiological protection for the year 1992 has lied basically on three areas: I .- Radiological exposure of man II .- Radiation effects on man (evaluation, prevention and treatment) III.- Risks and management of radiation exposure

  11. Environmental protection: Researches in National Inst. of Radiological Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuma, S.; Ban-nai, T.; Doi, M.; Fujimori, A.; Ishii, N.; Ishikawa, Y.; Kawaguchi, I.; Kubota, Y.; Maruyama, K.; Miyamoto, K.; Nakamori, T.; Takeda, H.; Watanabe, Y.; Yanagisawa, K.; Yasuda, T.; Yoshida, S.

    2011-01-01

    Some studies for radiological protection of the environment have been made at the National Inst. of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). Transfer of radionuclides and related elements has been investigated for dose estimation of non-human biota. A parameter database and radionuclide transfer models have been also developed for the Japanese environments. Dose (rate)-effect relationships for survival, growth and reproduction have been investigated in conifers, Arabidopsis, fungi, earthworms, springtails, algae, duckweeds, daphnia and medaka. Also genome-wide gene expression analysis has been carried out by high coverage expression profiling (HiCEP). Effects on aquatic microbial communities have been studied in experimental ecosystem models, i.e., microcosms. Some effects were detected at a dose rate of 1 Gy day -1 and were likely to arise from inter-species interactions. The results obtained at NIRS have been used in development of frameworks for environmental protection by some international bodies, and will contribute to environmental protection in Japan and other Asian countries. (authors)

  12. Radiological protection in the use of radiotracers in industrial process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.L L.; Gomes, R.S.; Gomes, J.D.R.L.; Costa, E.L.C.; Thomé, Z.D.

    2017-01-01

    The use of radiotracers plays an important role to provide methods to optimize industrial process and improve product quality. An increase in the use of radiotracers investigations has been observed in Brazil, however, as there is no specific standard for the licensing of these facilities, generic radiation protection regulations have been used, but these are not comprehensive or technically suitable for this purpose. Regulatory inspections in radiotracer facilities have reported failures in disagreement with best practices for radiological safety, mainly in radioactive waste management and in the control of workplaces during radiotracer injections. In this work, an assessment of radiological protection aspects of radioactive tracers is performed, based on the licensing process of radiotracers facilities, as well as the experience of regulatory inspections and a review of international standards, pointing out relevant radiation safety aspects for working practices, procedures and protective measures before, during and after injections of radioactive tracers, in order to contribute to the future development of specific safety regulations on radiotracers in Brazil. (author)

  13. Radiological protection in the use of radiotracers in industrial process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, M.L L.; Gomes, R.S.; Gomes, J.D.R.L.; Costa, E.L.C., E-mail: mara@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: rogeriog@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jlopes@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: evaldo@cnen.gov.br [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Radioproteção e Segurança Nuclear; Thomé, Z.D., E-mail: zielithome@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Seção de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    The use of radiotracers plays an important role to provide methods to optimize industrial process and improve product quality. An increase in the use of radiotracers investigations has been observed in Brazil, however, as there is no specific standard for the licensing of these facilities, generic radiation protection regulations have been used, but these are not comprehensive or technically suitable for this purpose. Regulatory inspections in radiotracer facilities have reported failures in disagreement with best practices for radiological safety, mainly in radioactive waste management and in the control of workplaces during radiotracer injections. In this work, an assessment of radiological protection aspects of radioactive tracers is performed, based on the licensing process of radiotracers facilities, as well as the experience of regulatory inspections and a review of international standards, pointing out relevant radiation safety aspects for working practices, procedures and protective measures before, during and after injections of radioactive tracers, in order to contribute to the future development of specific safety regulations on radiotracers in Brazil. (author)

  14. Radiological protection: a summary handbook of ICRP publications and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaratnam, A.

    1995-01-01

    The biological effects of radiation and potential risks therefrom far exceeds the knowledge of any other hazardous agent, whether in the industrial field, or in the general environment affecting members of the public. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has been playing a pioneering role for decades in this direction. The extensive database that has been established over the decades by the ICRP, the methodologies, techniques and the organizational structures that have been developed to control radiation hazards, and, above all, the philosophy of risk evaluation and management that has been evolved by ICRP, would serve as valuable guides not only to those concerned with radiological protection but to scientist, technologist and administrators involved in all facets of occupational and industrial safety, as well as those concerned with environmental protection. From 1959 to the end of 1993 ICRP has brought out 64 publications running to around 9000 pages. It is important that everyone connected with the uses of ionizing radiations should be familiar with at least the basic features of the thinking of ICRP as embodied in these publications. The present handbook attempts to give in a concise, consolidated and codified form the salient features of all the relevant information contained in the voluminous ICRP publications. The material has been presented in 7 parts, each dealing with one major aspect of the recommendations, and summarizing the various publications connected with it. A separate note following the preface gives a brief summary of the way the contents of the handbook have been arranged. refs., tabs., figs

  15. The regulatory application of authorization in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, T.; Frullani, S.

    2004-01-01

    Authorization is the process used by governments and regulatory authorities to decide what regulatory controls or conditions, if any, should be applied to radioactive sources or radiation exposure situations in order to protect the public, workers and the environment appropriately. Over the years, governments and regulatory authorities have used various approaches to the authorization process under differing circumstances. Now, with the new draft recommendations from the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), there is the prospect of being able to use a single, simple and self-coherent approach for the process of regulatory authorization under all circumstances. Previously, the ICRP recommended the use of various approaches to manage radiological protection situations. For what were called practices, exposures were subject to limits, and optimisation was required below these limits. What were called interventions were subject to intervention levels, above which some action could be considered justified, and which should be optimised based on consideration of how much dose could be averted by the countermeasure considered. Radon in homes was subject to action levels, above which some sort of countermeasure could be recommended. These approaches are all philosophically distinct and logically constructed, but their differences, particularly in the types of numerical criteria used (limits, intervention levels, action levels, etc.) contributed to confusion and misunderstanding. (author)

  16. General comments on radiological patient protection in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellez de Cepeda, M.; Plaza, R.; Corredoira, E.; Martin Curto, L.M.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper an observation series about different aspects of the radiological protection of the patient in nuclear medicine is provided. It includes: The specific legislation contribution, the justification and, especially, optimization, as a fundamental base of the quality guarantee program, the importance of the fulfillment of the program and the importance of getting done the corresponding internal audits of the pursuit, the communication between the different groups of professionals implicated and between these and the patient, the volunteers who collaborate in the patient's care and the people in the patient's environment, knowing that the patient is a source of external radiation and contamination. (author) [es

  17. Twenty years of Radiology in RP-10 nuclear reactor protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, Alejandro L.; Ramos, Fernando T.; Arrieta, Rolando W.B.; Vela Mora, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    In this report we present the results about radiation controls during 1990 - 2010, carried out in the Nuclear Reactor RP-10 of the Nuclear Center of Huarangal. These controls and radiological evaluation are of much utility for the radio personnel protection of this one and other reactors, since it allows to compares these variables with respect to the time. From the results obtained in monitoring and radiation controls, we conclude that in no case it has been reached the limits allowed by the Peruvian Regulating Authority. (author)

  18. Radiological protection for the ANGRA 1 steam generator replacement outage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Magno Jose de; Amaral, Marcos Antonio do; Minelli, Edson; Ferreira, William Alves

    2009-01-01

    The Angra 1 Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is a Westinghouse two-loop plant with net output before its 1P16 Outage of 632 MWe, with the Old Steam Generators (OSG) type model D3, which were replaced by two new Steam Generators with feed water-ring system. Localized in Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro - Brazil, Angra 1 started in commercial operation in 1985 and, from the beginning problems related to corrosion have appeared in the Inconel 600 alloy of the tubes. The corrosion problems indicated the necessity for a strong control of the tubes thicknesses and, after a time, the ELETRONUCLEAR decided to replace the OSG. In 2009, ELETRONUCLEAR initiated in January 24, the actions for the Steam Generators Replacement - SGR. During the SGR process, several controls were applied in field, which made possible to have no radiological accidents, no dose limits exceeded, and permitted to achieve a very good result in terms of Collective Dose. This paper describes the radiological controls applied for the Angra 1 Steam Generator Replacement Outage, the radiological protection team sizing and distribution and the obtained results. (author)

  19. The current status of radiological protection infraestructures in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngalie, J.E.; Mompome, W.K.; Meza, L.H.

    2008-01-01

    Without adequate and sustainable radiation protection infrastructure, the benefits associated with safe use of nuclear technology and atomic energy might be jeopardized. In the United Republic of Tanzania, the Atomic Energy Act No. 7 of 2003 established the Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission as sole regulatory body responsible for regulating and controlling the safe and peaceful utilization of nuclear technology in the country. The Atomic Energy (Protection from ionizing radiation) Regulations, 2004 further specifies practices designed to ensure that unnecessary exposure of persons to ionizing radiation is avoided, that all exposures are kept as low as reasonably achievable and that all the dose limits specified in the radiation protection standards are not exceeded. This is achieved through the systems of notification, authorizations through registration and licensing, safety and security of radiation sources as well as regulatory inspections and enforcements. These activities are performed by the Commission with operational funds allocated by the Government of Tanzania. The Commission further provides other services namely individual monitoring; calibration services; education and training to radiation workers, public as well as law enforcers; and safe management of radioactive waste. Despite such achievement, still there are a lot to be done in order to strengthen the radiation protection infrastructure in Tanzania. These include issues such as gaps in our legislations, regulations and guidance, security of sources, enforcement of laws, etc. This paper describes and discusses the current status of the regulatory control activities and radiation protection services provided by the Commission and suggestions for further improvement of radiological protection infrastructure in Tanzania. (author)

  20. Radiation protection in interventional radiology; Strahlenschutz in der interventionellen Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamus, R.; Loose, R.; Galster, M. [Klinikum Nuernberg Nord, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Nuernberg (Germany); Wucherer, M. [Klinikum Nuernberg Nord, Institut fuer Medizinische Physik, Nuernberg (Germany); Uder, M. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Institut fuer Radiologie, Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    The application of ionizing radiation in medicine seems to be a safe procedure for patients as well as for occupational exposition to personnel. The developments in interventional radiology with fluoroscopy and dose-intensive interventions require intensified radiation protection. It is recommended that all available tools should be used for this purpose. Besides the options for instruments, x-ray protection at the intervention table must be intensively practiced with lead aprons and mounted lead glass. A special focus on eye protection to prevent cataracts is also recommended. The development of cataracts might no longer be deterministic, as confirmed by new data; therefore, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has lowered the threshold dose value for eyes from 150 mSv/year to 20 mSv/year. Measurements show that the new values can be achieved by applying all X-ray protection measures plus lead-containing eyeglasses. (orig.) [German] Die Anwendung ionisierender Strahlung in der Medizin scheint sowohl fuer Patienten als auch fuer beruflich exponierte Personen sicher zu sein. Die interventionellen Entwicklungen der letzten Jahre mit sehr durchleuchtungs- und dosisintensiven Eingriffen erfordern allerdings eine Intensivierung des Strahlenschutzes. Es empfiehlt sich, die zur Verfuegung stehenden Moeglichkeiten auszuschoepfen. Neben den Geraeteoptionen muss der Strahlenschutz am Eingriffstisch durch Bleilamellenaufstecker und montiertes Bleiglas intensiv betrieben werden. Besonderen Fokus muss auf den Schutz der Augen zur Kataraktvermeidung gelegt werden. Da dessen Ausbildung nach neuen Erkenntnissen moeglicherweise nicht mehr deterministisch zu sehen ist, hat die Internationale Strahlenschutzkommission (IRCP) den Grenzwert von 150 auf 20 Mikrosievert (mSv)/Jahr erniedrigt. Messungen belegen, dass unter Einhaltung aller Strahlenschutzmassnahmen plus Bleiglasbrille dieser einzuhalten ist. (orig.)

  1. Implementation of procedures of radiological protection in the section of Radiology of the emergency Hospital of Porto Alegre-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzini, F.; Rizzati, M.R. [Emergency Hospital of Porto Alegre, HPS (Brazil)

    1998-12-31

    The Emergency Hospital of Porto Alegre (HPS) is one of the main reference centers for the population in the attendance of medical emergencies/urgencies. The Section of Radiology, which informs the patients clinical conditions based on radiological images, is the most demanded section of the hospital (81.43 % of the medical cases request radiological exams) in the aid of the diagnosis, in which excels for the search of the quality in the health branch. In this work are presented the procedures to have been implemented about radiological protection according to effective norm, methods, ways and conditions to satisfy the radiation workers and the internal and external patients. (Author)

  2. Implementation of procedures of radiological protection in the section of Radiology of the emergency Hospital of Porto Alegre-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzini, F.; Rizzati, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    The Emergency Hospital of Porto Alegre (HPS) is one of the main reference centers for the population in the attendance of medical emergencies/urgencies. The Section of Radiology, which informs the patients clinical conditions based on radiological images, is the most demanded section of the hospital (81.43 % of the medical cases request radiological exams) in the aid of the diagnosis, in which excels for the search of the quality in the health branch. In this work are presented the procedures to have been implemented about radiological protection according to effective norm, methods, ways and conditions to satisfy the radiation workers and the internal and external patients. (Author)

  3. Radiological protection challenges at B.N.G. Sellafield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallard, R.; Anderson, B.; Hutton, E.

    2006-01-01

    The UK Nuclear Industry is in the midst of a period of intense change with the formation of a national body to manage the clean up of Nuclear facilities. Previous owners of nuclear sites have become contractors and the emphasis has switched from production facilities for power or reprocessing to decommissioning and clean up. Many of the older facilities were not designed for decommissioning and now require attention to reduce risks. Sellafield represents a microcosm of the industry with operating and production facilities, waste storage facilities and plants awaiting or undergoing decommissioning. The experience already gained in decommissioning of redundant facilities over the last decade is being used to develop an accelerated response to clean up of the past. The major challenge is to accommodate the changes whilst monitoring and improving Radiological standards and performance. This paper describes a number of issues to which the site must be managed to ensure that the current Radiological performance is maintained and improved. The dose control arrangements for some 6000 radiation workers on the site requires a change in approach as we move towards localised project based systems with an increasingly mobile workforce. Work is proceeding to introduce a new generation of short term dose control equipment with an emphasis on safety culture and management responsibilities for dose control. The achievement and demonstration of ALARP in these circumstances, is being reviewed in situations where timescale, overall risk to public and workforce and exposure to non radiological hazards are factors. Clean up requires more attention to clearance of materials and this aspect has an increasing profile to recognize the need to balance risk and expenditure. The paper will review the current Radiological Protection challenges to the changing Nuclear Industry using the Sellafield site as the prime example and will discuss achievements and areas where further work is necessary

  4. Westinghouse Hanford Company ALARA year-end report, Calendar Year 1994: Revision 3A, Radiological engineering and ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, O.D.

    1995-06-01

    It has long been the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Policy that radiation doses should be maintained as far below the dose limits as is reasonably achievable. This policy, known as the ''ALARA Principle of radiation protection,'' maintains that radiation exposures should be maintained as low as reasonably achievable, taking into account social, technical, economic, practical, and public policy considerations. The ALARA Principle is based on the hypothesis that even very low radiation doses carry some risk. As a result, it is not enough to maintain doses at/or slightly below limits; the lower the doses, the lower the risks. Because it is not possible to reduce all doses at DOE facilities to zero, economic and social factors must be considered to determine the optimal level of radiation doses. According to the ALARA Principle, if doses are too high, resources should be well spent to reduce them. At some point, the resources being spent to maintain low doses are exactly balanced by the risks avoided. Reducing doses below this point results in a misallocation of resources; the resources could be spent elsewhere and have a greater positive impact on health and safety. The objective of the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) ALARA/Contamination Control Improvement Project (CCIP) Program is to manage and control exposures (both individual and collective) to the work force, the general public, and the environment to levels as low as is reasonable using the aforementioned ALARA Principle

  5. Proceedings of the 3. Regional Meeting on Radiological and Nuclear Safety. Radiological protection in Latin America and the Caribbean. Vol. 1,2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    Two volumes contain more than 183 complete papers presented during the Third Regional Meeting on Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety held on 23-27 October, 1995 in Cusco-Peru. Latin american specialist talk about nuclear safety and radiological protection, radiation natural exposure, biological effect of radiation, radiotherapy and medical radiological safety, radiological safety in industry and research. Also we deal with subjects related to radiological safety of nuclear and radioactive facilities, radioactive waste management, radioactive material transport, environmental radiological monitoring program, radiological emergency and accidents, instruments and dosimetry, basic safety standards of protection against radiation

  6. GESCOM: system for commercial management of radiological protection services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Abad, Dolores; Simon Rodriguez, Carmen; Proenza Suarez, Emma

    2008-01-01

    A wide range of Radiological protection services of national reach are offered by the Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR). The software developed enlarges the possibilities of the commercial management of these services. It contains all information generated in the interaction as much with the client as with the specialists during the process of realization of these services, impregnating them an added value and contributing to increase the quality and the efficiency of the commercial management of the organization. GESCOM has a wide group of reports which offer clear and precise information. It contains general modules such as entities, services request and services contract. It has specific modules for the most complex services: external dosimetry, calibration and/or verification of dose equipment, internal contamination and measurement of samples. (author)

  7. Radiological protection of patients: conceptual framework and new international recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisone, Pablo A.; Perez, Maria del R.

    2005-01-01

    Medical exposures represent the largest man-made source of radiation exposure. Within the concept medical exposures includes different kind of exposure: of patients as part of their own medical diagnosis or treatment; of individuals as part of occupational health surveillance; of individuals as part of health screening programs; of volunteers participating in biomedical research programs; of individuals as part of medico-legal procedures and of voluntary patient caregivers (relatives or friends). Radiological protection of patients (RPP) is founded on two basic principles: justification and optimization. The justification of a medical exposure is founded in the consideration that it will give a sufficient net benefit, including the direct health benefits to the patients and the potential benefits to society, against the individual detriment that the exposure might cause, taking into account the efficacy, benefits and risks of available alternative techniques having the same objective but involving no or less exposure to ionizing radiation. Concerning optimization in diagnosis, the radiological protection objective is to keep doses as low as reasonably achievable while obtaining the necessary diagnostic information. In therapy, the objective is to ensure that the target tissue is given the prescribed dose while minimizing the dose to surrounding healthy tissue. In this presentation we analyze new international recommendations concerning RPP, with emphasis in the Directive 97/43/EURATOM. The importance of referral guidelines to help physicians during the process of justification and use of diagnostic reference levels (to help in optimization) is discussed. (author)

  8. Nuclear medicine and its radiological protection in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J.

    2001-01-01

    The China Society of Nuclear Medicine was established on 27 May 1980. Since then, nuclear medicine in clinical diagnosis and therapy has been developed rapidly in China. So far there are more than 4000 members of the Society, and more than 350 sets of SPECT and 12 sets of PET have been installed and are busily running in clinic nowadays and about 1 million patients with different types of diseases have obtained nuclear medicine imaging examinations per year. Concerning the nuclear medicine therapy, a lot of patients with many types of diseases obtained benefit from radioisotope therapy. Accordingly, several Policies and Regulations have been enacted by the Government for the radiological protection. Furthermore, a special book titled 'Standardization in Diagnostic and Therapeutic Nuclear Medicine' has been promulgated in June, 1997 by the Health Administration of People's Republic of China, and this book is distributed to almost every nuclear medicine physician and technician in China for their reference in routine nuclear medicine work or research. In this book three parts of the contents are covered: Policies and Regulations for the radiological protection, basic knowledge and clinical nuclear medicine applications. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the integrity of radiological protection clothing used in veterinary radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Paola da Costa; Barros, Frieda Saicla; Costa, Douglas Siqueira da, E-mail: paah_dacosta@hotmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Curso Superior de Tecnologia em Radiologia e Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Biomedica

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the integrity of radiological protection clothing used by veterinarians in veterinary radiology facilities, and whether they are available in an adequate quantity for the team. Inspection was performed by palpation, followed by X-ray scanning in 189 clothing from 29 veterinary facilities. The results indicate that 5% of the clothes evaluated in this study were considered inadequate due to the failure of the integrity of the lead, being most lead aprons. All facilities have at least two lead aprons and one Thyroid protectors. 24% of the facilities have lead glasses, pointing to a risk to veterinarians by radiosensitivity of the eyes. Also, 24% of the facilities do not have lead gloves, which also presents a risk due to the hand's exposure to the primary beam. Most lead clothing has shield equivalence of 0.5mmPb. The method used in the study was effective in attesting the adequacy of lead clothing. It is recommended to periodically evaluate clothing to ensure that users are always protected. (author)

  10. Evaluation of the integrity of radiological protection clothing used in veterinary radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Paola da Costa; Barros, Frieda Saicla; Costa, Douglas Siqueira da

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the integrity of radiological protection clothing used by veterinarians in veterinary radiology facilities, and whether they are available in an adequate quantity for the team. Inspection was performed by palpation, followed by X-ray scanning in 189 clothing from 29 veterinary facilities. The results indicate that 5% of the clothes evaluated in this study were considered inadequate due to the failure of the integrity of the lead, being most lead aprons. All facilities have at least two lead aprons and one Thyroid protectors. 24% of the facilities have lead glasses, pointing to a risk to veterinarians by radiosensitivity of the eyes. Also, 24% of the facilities do not have lead gloves, which also presents a risk due to the hand's exposure to the primary beam. Most lead clothing has shield equivalence of 0.5mmPb. The method used in the study was effective in attesting the adequacy of lead clothing. It is recommended to periodically evaluate clothing to ensure that users are always protected. (author)

  11. Role of the IAEA in the radiological protection of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz Lopez, P.; Wrixon, A.D.; Meghzifene, A.; Izewska, J.

    2001-01-01

    The paper discusses the role of the IAEA in relation to the radiological protection of patients. Within the IAEA there are two major programmes which have an impact on the protection of the patient. Firstly, patient protection is part of the programme on radiation safety; secondly, the human health programme contains a number of activities related to quality assurance (QA), and these also contribute to the protection of patients. A function of the IAEA, as stipulated in its Statute, is 'to establish or adopt, in consultation and, where appropriate, in collaboration with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned, standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property' and to provide for the application of these standards...'. There are three different levels of the IAEA Safety Standards: Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. The Standards are supported by other documents such as Safety Reports. There are five means used by the IAEA in providing for the application of the Standards: co-ordinating research, promoting education and training, providing assistance, fostering information exchange and rendering services to its Member States. All these means are used in the programme on radiological protection of patients as described in the paper. The IAEA is assisting its Member Sates in the development and implementation of QA programmes. These activities help disseminate not only the technical knowledge but also the basic ingredients of the QA culture. The IAEA assistance is directed at: (1) national regulatory bodies for the establishment of a regulatory framework which complies with the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources; (2) standards laboratories for metrological traceability; and (3) end users at medical institutions for the development and implementation of QA programmes

  12. National Radiological Protection Board. Account 1991-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Board was constituted as a public authority under the Radiological Protection Act 1970 with the functions of advancing the acquisition of knowledge about the protection of mankind from radiation hazards and providing information and advice to persons, including Government Departments, with responsibilities in the United Kingdom in relation to the protection from radiation hazards either of the community as a whole or particular sections of the community. The Board is also empowered to provide technical services to persons and groups of persons concerned with radiation hazards on a commercial basis. These accounts show that the surplus on ordinary activities amounted to 210k pounds; cash balances increased by 161k pounds to 748k pounds which includes 431k pounds held on behalf of European Partners under the CEC Association Agreement. The Board achieved the principal objectives which had been set out in the Corporate Plan. Demand for the provision of services and advice to industry and other public bodies continued at a constant level. Current major issues are the new Recommendations from the International Commission on Radiological Protection for control of exposure, and subsequent national recommendations on dose limitation; an increasing awareness of non-ionising radiation, and public exposures and aspects of radiation in the environment. In particular there has been a significant demand for radon surveys as part of a sponsored monitoring programme in the south-west which is largely responsible for the increase in income-earning activities. Further studies are being commissioned and it is likely, therefore, that the Board will continue to be involved in large-scale radon work in the immediate future. The financial objectives were attained with minor variances on the planned budget profiles. (UK)

  13. Radiological protection principles concerning the safeguard, use or release of contaminated materials, buildings, areas or dumps from uranium mining. Recommendations of the Commission on Radiological Protection with explanations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Neumann, M.

    1992-01-01

    The volume presents the full texts of the SSK Recommendations addressing the aspects and problems involved, and which can be separately retrieved from the database: 1) Radiological protection principles concerning the release of scrap from the shut-down of uranium mining plants; 2) Radiological protection principles concerning the release for industrial use of areas contaminated from uranium mining; 3) Radiological protection principles concerning the use for forest and agricultural purposes and as public gardens (parks) and residential areas of areas contaminated from uranium mining; 4) Radiological protection principles concerning the safeguard and use of mine dumps; 5) Radiological protection principles concerning the release for further commercial or industrial use of buildings used for commercial or industrial purposes and the disposal of building debris from uranium mining and milling; 6) Radiological protection principles concerning the release for general use of reusable equipment and installations from uranium mining. The following appendices round up the material: 1) Radiation exposure from mining in Saxony and Thuringia and its evaluation (Summary of the results of consultations during the 1990 closed meeting); 2) Radiological protection principles for the limitation of the radiation exposure of the public to radon and its daughters; 3) Epidemiological studies on the health state of the inhabitants of the mining region and the miners in Saxony and Thuringia. (orig.) [de

  14. Radiological protection of the patient in the diagnostic X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, A.M.C. de

    1983-01-01

    Measures and procedures are given in relation to the radiological protection of the patient in diagnostic radiology. Technical and physical factors of the patient protection are discussed, as radiation beam properties, size of the irradiation field, shieldings, control of the scattered radiation that reaches the imaging record system, films, ecrans and radiographic film processing. General recommendations about the radiation protection of the patient in diagnostic radiology are given. (M.A.) [pt

  15. The role of radiologic technologist in radiation protection and quality assurance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurovic, B.; Spasci -Jokic, V.; Misovic, M.

    2001-01-01

    The most important sources of ionizing radiation for general public are medical sources. Good working protocols and radiological protections measurements provided significant reduction of patients and professional doses. Medical users of ionizing radiation are radiological technologists. The purpose of this paper is to point out to several facts and errors in radiation protection educational programs for radiological technologists. Medical College educational program covers main specific topics in radiation protection, but there are some omissions in training process. Radiological technologists must be actively involved in radiation protection. Following ethical standards they will reach higher standards than the law requires

  16. ICRP Publication 125: Radiological Protection in Security Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cool, D A; Lazo, E; Tattersall, P; Simeonov, G; Niu, S

    2014-07-01

    The use of technologies to provide security screening for individuals and objects has been increasing rapidly, in keeping with the significant increase in security concerns worldwide. Within the spectrum of technologies, the use of ionizing radiation to provide backscatter and transmission screening capabilities has also increased. The Commission has previously made a number of statements related to the general topic of deliberate exposures of individuals in non-medical settings. This report provides advice on how the radiological protection principles recommended by the Commission should be applied within the context of security screening. More specifically, the principles of justification, optimisation of protection, and dose limitation for planned exposure situations are directly applicable to the use of ionising radiation in security screening. In addition, several specific topics are considered in this report, including the situation in which individuals may be exposed because they are concealed (‘stowaways’) in a cargo container or conveyance that may be subject to screening. The Commission continues to recommend that careful justification of screening should be considered before decisions are made to employ the technology. If a decision is made that its use is justified, the framework for protection as a planned exposure situation should be employed, including optimization of protection with the use of dose constraints and the appropriate provisions for authorisation and inspection.

  17. Practical aspects of radiation protection in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulkner, K.; Vano, E.; Ortiz, P.; Ruiz, R.

    2000-01-01

    to the patient, c) making selective use of high dose rate mode, by prior identification situations in which this use is really necessary, d) changing the projection possible, and d) performing simple constancy checks to detect malfunctions in the automatic control systems. In addition to these straightforward measures derived from the lessons learned, a more comprehensive approach should include review and optimization of technical factors used in protocols, such as the use of high-dose-rate modes, of magnification, of high image frequency, of extremely extended fluoroscopy time and exploratory research of the potential for dose reference levels as a tool for optimization. The IAEA, together with the European Commission, the World Health Organization and the Pan American Health Organization has prepared a report which provides practical measures of radiation protection in interventional radiology. This report reviews the use of interventional radiology, the observed deterministic effects, the methods for dose monitoring to patients and staff and the parameters influencing image quality and radiation dose. Finally, the document provides recommendations on syllabus for training programmes of the different professionals involved. (author)

  18. Problems with radiation protection concerning volunteers accompanying radiological patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrian Daoud

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of this work is to point out, within the framework of the Radiation Protection guidelines, the irregular situation of the 'volunteer' or 'accompanying person' who accompanies anyone requiring medical treatment with ionising radiation, as well as to suggest a possible justification for such role. It should be noted that most of these persons are subject to ionising radiation without knowing anything about the effects that it could cause on them, so that their condition could be hardly considered as 'voluntary'. There are several circumstances under which the presence of accompanying persons is required, being different among them. Several examples could be mentioned such as: those who are accompanying a direct relative (family bonds), those who are acting in service during their normal work (social workers, policemen) and even those who are forced by unusual under an accidental situation. The qualitative classification that radiological protection established in society concerning radiation risks for people in general enables to set mechanisms of justification, optimisation and dose limitation for each category, being perfectly identified which of them each person belongs to. But the figure of 'accompanying person' has been excluded from such characterisation. They are subject to radiation exposure without knowing it, or without having any information concerning the potential risks. For them, no balance between the net benefit of an adequate medical treatment versus potential health detriment may be applied as for the case of a patient. Thus, their exposure could be not justified. It is not the purpose of this work to question radiological medicine or its practices, but to clarify certain aspects involving members of the public in general, patients and members of the radiological community, as well as to propose lines of action concerning this subject. We conclude that it is not the volunteer who should decide about medical actions, a role

  19. Safety requirements and radiological protection for ore installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    This norm establishes the safety and radiological protection requirements for mining installations which manipulates, process and storing ores, raw materials, steriles, slags and wastes containing radionuclides of the uranium and thorium natural series, simultaneously or separated, and which can cause undue exposures to the public and workers, at anytime of the functioning or pos operational stage. This norm applies to the mining installations activities, suspended or which have ceased their activities before the issue date of this norm, destined to the mining, physical, chemical and metallurgical processing, and the industrialization of raw materials and residues containing associated radionuclides from the natural series of uranium and thorium, including the stages of implantation, operation and decommissioning of the installation

  20. A practical approach to radiation protection information in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederblad, Aa.; Bjurklint, E.; Maansson, L.G.; Sund, P.; Kheddache, S.

    1999-01-01

    In a benchmarking process, parameters related to patient doses and image quality were compared in x-ray examinations from 10 radiology departments in western Sweden. One main object of the project was to form a pedagogical process focussing on radiation protection and quality matters by engaging radiographers and radiologists from the departments in practical project work and optimisation discussions. Anatomical phantoms with simulated pathology were used for standardised entrance dose measurements and exposure of phantom images. Radiographer performance, such as centering and collimation, was evaluated by radiographers. Radiologists evaluated clinical images using revised CEC quality criteria. The results of the measurements showed significant differences between the departments both for image quality, entrance dose and the performance of examinations. Explanations to these differences were in many cases found in the choice of equipment, working methods etc. (au)

  1. The effect of radiological protection standards on the uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, Y.; Pradel, J.; Zettwoog, P.

    1975-01-01

    On the basis of concrete results obtained in the CEA's uranium mines over a period of 15 years, the authors determine to what extent the costs of radiological protection affect the price of uranium. The principles on which radiological protection is organized in the CEA mines are mentioned. Emphasis is placed on the precautions which have to be taken in order to ensure that radioactivity measurements are representative despite the extreme complexity and the variability of conditions in the workings. A description is given of the way in which the operation of the ventilation system is varied on the basis of radioactivity measurements as the workings are extended. The authors conclude that in the CEA mines, where the uranium content in the ores frequently exceeds one per cent, it is possible to ensure that the current standard is actually adhered to and that nevertheless the cost of radiological protection remains marginal. In the second part of the paper the possible effects of increasing the stringency of the standards are examined. The considerations are based on several thousands of measurements carried out in various workings and galleries. It is shown that the correlation between radon concentration and ore content is weak. It is pointed out that the state of equilibrium of radon daughters in the workings is of the order of 0.2 rather than the 0.5 assumed in the standard. On this basis the mean level of actual exposure, in total alpha energy, is of the order of 20% of the value 1.3 x 10 5 MeV α/litre, the level of the most highly exposed worker being 80% of that value. In addition, it is shown that with simple improvements to the design of the ventilation circuits and elementary precautions it is often possible to ''rejuvenate'' the radon in the workings and influence still further the state of equilibrium of the daughters. Finally, preliminary results obtained in the experimental mine at La Crouzille indicate that the radon concentration can be further

  2. Radiation protection of patients in diagnostic radiology in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippova, I.

    2001-01-01

    The medical use of ionizing radiation started at the beginning of the century. It has always been considered necessary, as well as for diagnostic applications where exposure to the patient is the price to pay in order to obtain useful images, as for therapy where the patient is exposed on purpose, in order to kill malignant cells. It is nowadays the major man-made contribution to the population dose. Even with the developments of substitutive imaging or treatment techniques, there is still an increasing demand and many organizations are joining their efforts to try to keep the dose to the patient 'as low as reasonably achievable'. This is particularly the case for the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) which recommended in publication 26 to follow three main principles: justification, optimisation and limitation. Limitation, however, does not apply to patients since the individuals exposed are expected to benefit from this exposure, but justification and optimization are relevant. (author)

  3. Mechanisms of radiation oncogenesis and their implications for radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, R.

    1992-01-01

    Studies on the genetics, cytogenetics, biochemistry and molecular biology of neoplasia are now beginning to provide us with an increasingly coherent picture of cancer induction and development. Some of the genes involved in this complex multi-step cellular process have been isolated and characterized and in a few instances it is possible to identify target genes for the initiation of specific neoplasms and how these genes are mutated by environmental carcinogens. Knowledge of molecular mechanisms of mammalian DNA repair and mutagenesis has similarly increased and, together with limited studies of molecular mechanisms of radiation oncogenesis in animal systems, allows specific comment on the molecular nature of radiation-induced initiating events for neoplasia. These data are discussed with an emphasis on their possible implications for radiological protection. (author)

  4. International Society of Radiographers and Radiological Technologists and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yule, A.

    2001-01-01

    The ISRRT was formed in 1962 with 15 national societies and by the year 2000 has grown to comprise more than 70 member societies. The main objects of the organization are to: Improve the education of radiographers; Support the development of medical radiation technology worldwide; Promote a better understanding and implementation of radiation protection standards. The ISRRT has been a non-governmental organization in official relations with the World Health Organization (WHO) since 1967. It is the only international radiographic organization that represents radiation medicine technology and has more than 200 000 members within its 70 member countries. Representatives of the ISRRT have addressed a number of assemblies of WHO regional committees on matters relating to radiation protection and radiation medicine technology. In this way, the expertise of radiographers worldwide contributes to the establishment of international standards in vital areas, such as: Quality control; Legislation for radiation protection; Good practice in radiographic procedures; Basic radiological services. The ISRRT believes that good and consistent standards of practice throughout the world are essential

  5. Protection of school children during a radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, W.B.; Johnson, F.C.; Goodkind, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    The protection of children during a radiological emergency is a potential concern that clearly transcends national boundaries and is therefore international in scope. Careful planning is needed to prevent independent actions on the part of school officials and parents that, although well intended, may lead to increased risks from radiation exposure, from traffic accidents, or from panic behavior. As part of its overall support for off-site emergency preparedness program, the Commonwealth Edison Company (CECo) has recently expanded the scope of planning for the protection of students in schools near its Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station in Cordova, Illinois. Working with off-site officials and with the assistance of emergency planners from Impell Corp., CECo has developed standard operating procedures (SOPs) to direct the emergency response activities for school administrators. These SOPs establish the chain of command for implementing protective actions and list alternative precautionary actions for a range of site conditions. In addition, during the development of these SOPs, CECo has had to address the following issues: interagency cooperation and consistency in approach; resource identification for transport, reception, registration, and communication; internal school procedures; and emergency preparedness training and exercising

  6. Key issues concerning changes in the radiological protection system: some thoughts from the French Society for Radiation Protection (SFRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieber, C.; Cordoliani, Y.S.

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, the International Radiological Protection Association (IRPA) asked for contributions to the debate on future changes to the radiological protection system proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). In response, the Board of the French Society for Radiation Protection (SFRP) created a working group to deal specifically with this issue. It met on several occasions between April and July and its findings were presented at the IRPA Congress in May 2000. They were also published in the French journal Radioprotection and in the British Journal of Radiological Protection. To further its discussions, the Board of the SFRP decided to create a second working group which became operational in September 2001. It has around 20 members representing the major players in the radiological protection field in France: authorities, experts and professionals from the nuclear, medical and research fields as well as one association representative (the list of members can be found at the end of this document). The working group was set up to produce proposals relating to the key issues likely to be raised, particularly by the ICRP, concerning the development of new radiological protection recommendations. The members of the working group analysed the ICRP memorandum published in the June 2001 edition of the Journal of Radiological Protection and used their own experience to determine what these key issues would be. The following issues were discussed: General thoughts on the new radiological protection system proposed by the ICRP, Individual and collective approaches to the radiological risk, Comparison with chemical risk management, Radiological protection of the environment, Changes in exposure levels and units of measurement. This paper, which has been approved by the Board of the SFRP, gives the main conclusions of the working group on the key issues in these areas. It is intended to reflect the various opinions expressed during the groups

  7. Radiology standards for primary dental care: report by the Royal College of Radiologists and the National Radiological Protection Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, Tony

    1994-01-01

    In 1992 a joint venture between the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) and the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) resulted in the formation of a Working Party (WP) to consider dental radiology. Although individual doses to patients are low, WP identified considerable scope for reducing the collective dose to patients and for improving the diagnostic quality of radiographs. The report published in the Documents of the NRPB series presents the WP conclusions in the form of guidelines that deal with all aspects of dental radiology in primary dental care. (Author)

  8. Radiological protection aspects regarding to assistance of the cesium-137 radiation accident victims in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, John Graham; Oliveira Filho, Denizart Silveira de; Rabelo, Paulo Ney Pamplona

    1997-01-01

    The radiological protection measures taken in the general hospital of Goiania (HGG/INAMPS) and in the FEBEM institution, due to the accident involving Cesium-137 are described, as well as the work of the IRD personnel in the areas of: radiological protection of the medical and auxiliary staff, contamination control of the ward, radiological monitoring of the patients, waste management, personnel and area decontamination and patient transportation. (author)

  9. Aspects of radiation protection to attend the victims of radiological accident with cesium 137 in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.G.; Oliveira Filho, D.S. de; Rabello, P.N.P.

    1988-01-01

    The radiological protection measures taken in the general hospital of Goiania (HGG/INAMPS) and in the FEBEM institution, due do the accident involving cesium 137 are described, as well the work of the NUCLEI personnel in the areas of: radiological protection of the medical and auxiliary staff, contamination control of the ward, radiological monitoring of the patients, waste management, personnel and area decontamination and patient transportation. (author) [pt

  10. Analysis of radiological protection and security in the radioactive diagnosis area in a third level hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azorin Vega, J.C.; Aazorin Nieto, J.; Rivera Montalvo, T.

    1998-01-01

    Results from the evaluation made to radiological security and protection conditions prevailing in 13 medical diagnosis rooms with X rays at the National Nutrition Institute Zlavador Zubiran (third level hospital), aiming to give adequate protection and radiological security devices to the staff exposed from that hospital and to comply fully with requirements set by the standards

  11. Statutory Instrument no. 1230, The National Radiological Protection Board (Extension of Functions) Order 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This Order, which came into operation of 1st August 1974, extends the functions and powers of the National Radiological Protection Board, which was established by the Radiological Protection Act 1970 so as to cover research and the giving of advice on the dangers of radiation which is electromagnetic but not ionizing. (NEA) [fr

  12. From a regulatory to a cultural approach in the field of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehler, M.-C.

    1995-01-01

    A radiological protection culture, which is seen to be a 'management' approach to individual and collective doses, based on the principle of optimisation is described with particular reference to the nuclear industry. The article discusses the fundamental role of the principle of optimisation, the legal nature of the principle of optimisation and the implementation of a radiological protection culture. (UK)

  13. Contribution to the optimization of worker's radiological protection in a uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.; Oudiz, A.; Zettwoog, P.

    1984-04-01

    This report presents the results of an optimization study dealing with radiological protection in a uranium mine. The modelization of alpha contamination associated with short-lived radon daughter in a mine branch allows the comparison of various protection strategies by a cost-effectiveness analysis in view of determining the ''optimal'' protection strategy. The study points out the interest of the optimization procedure as a decision-aiding tool within the framework of radiological protection [fr

  14. Issues around radiological protection of the environment and its integration with protection of humans: promoting debate on the way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownless, G P

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores issues to consider around integrating direct, explicit protection of the environment into the current system of radiological protection, which is focused on the protection of humans. Many issues around environmental radiological protection have been discussed, and ready-to-use toolboxes have been constructed for assessing harm to non-human biota, but it is not clear how (or even if) these should be fitted into the current system of protection. Starting from the position that the current approach to protecting the environment (namely that it follows from adequately protecting humans) is generally effective, this paper considers how explicit radiological protection of the environment can be integrated with the current system, through developing a 'worked example' of how this could be done and highlighting issues peculiar to protection of the environment. The aim of the paper is to promote debate on this topic, with the ultimate aim of ensuring that any changes to the system are consensual and robust

  15. Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigot, J.M.; Moreau, J.F.; Nahum, H.; Bellet, M.

    1990-01-01

    The 17th International Congress of Radiology was conducted in two separate scientific sessions, one for radiodiagnosis and one for radiation oncology. Topics covered are: Radiobiology -radioprotection; imaging and data processing; contrast media; MRI; nuclear medicine; radiology and disasters; radiology of tropical diseases; cardiovascular radiology; interventional radiology; imaging of trauma; imaging of chest, gastro-intestinal tract, breast and genito-urinary tract; imaging in gynecology;imaging in oncology; bone and joint radiology; head and neck-radiology; neuro-radiology. (H.W.). refs.; fig.; tabs

  16. The radiological protection in technical-professional level in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizuet Gonzalez, Jorge; Suarez, Gerardo

    2005-01-01

    This work describes the work done in the implementation of an educational project which aims the formation of technical-professional in radiation protection (RP) with official recognition in Mexico. The constant growth of business activities related to the use of radioactive material in industry, medicine and research has required the development and implementation of standardization by the regulatory authorities of our country. However the advance with regards to training of specialized personnel is reduced in comparison to current needs. in our country there is no technical personnel with studies recognised by the regulatory body in this specialty (RP), however quality assurance programs currently require an educational training that will help to meet the standards in the various activities that develop in the use and handling of sources and ionizing radiation generating equipment, reason why it was developed and implemented this educational project. Additionally induce and promote the need for the peaceful use of nuclear energy and ionizing radiation, at the national level is one more reason to implement the programme at upper secondary level, with the purpose to have knowledge related to the topic. The technical course has a duration of six semesters (three years), and currently there are two generations of graduating. The plan of study consists of the required disciplines for upper secondary level more plus those corresponding to technological training in radiological protection

  17. A training syllabus for radiation protection in dental radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, A.; Dowling, A.; Renehan, J.; Clarke, D.; Malone, J. F.

    2008-01-01

    The EU Council Directive 97/43/EURATOM (MED) states that Member States shall ensure that adequate theoretical and practical training is provided for dental practitioners working with ionising radiation; this also includes the provision of continuing education and training programmes, post-qualification. The area of dental radiology is specifically mentioned in this legally binding document. The Dept. of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, St James's Hospital, Dublin, is particularly interested in the area of radiation protection training and routinely provides educational courses both at national and international levels. A recent review of their dental radiation protection course was undertaken in conjunction with a number of Principal Dental Surgeons within the Health Service Executive in Ireland. The revised course was delivered to over 200 dental staff members at two separate meetings during 2006. The response from attendees was very positive. It is proposed to extend this course to other dental professionals, working both in the Irish private and public health sectors in the future. (authors)

  18. A training syllabus for radiation protection in dental radiology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gallagher, A

    2008-01-01

    The EU Council Directive 97\\/43\\/EURATOM (MED) states that Member States shall ensure that adequate theoretical and practical training is provided for dental practitioners working with ionising radiation; this also includes the provision of continuing education and training programmes, post-qualification. The area of dental radiology is specifically mentioned in this legally binding document. The Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, St James\\'s Hospital, Dublin, is particularly interested in the area of radiation protection training and routinely provides educational courses both at national and international levels. A recent review of their dental radiation protection course was undertaken in conjunction with a number of Principal Dental Surgeons within the Health Service Executive in Ireland. The revised course was delivered to over 200 dental staff members at two separate meetings during 2006. The response from attendees was very positive. It is proposed to extend this course to other dental professionals, working both in the Irish private and public health sectors in the future.

  19. Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland Strategic Plan 2011 to 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    The RPII's remit is very broad. It includes three main pillars; regulating all uses of ionising radiation; assessing people's exposure to ionising radiation; advising Government and the public on the prevention of unnecessary exposure. This plan builds on the previous Strategic Plan for 2008 to 2012 and sets out clearly the developments we expect over the planning period, the strategic priorities we are commiting to, along with a clear description of how we will address these priorities. Four key strategic priorities and associated objectives have been developed for this period. The key themes underpinning all four strategic priorities are public value, transparency, communication and sustainability. The priorities are; to provide the expertise, technical capability and information essential to the protection of the Irish population and the environment; to regulate the safe and secure use of ionising radiation in Ireland in a sustainable and transparent manner; to work in partnership with others to implement national radiological protection initiatives; to deliver value to the public in everything we do

  20. Final storage of radioactive waste and radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metivier, H.

    2008-01-01

    For operational effectiveness, ICRP built a dosimetric system based on the additivity of the effects whatever are the nature of the radiation and the origin of the exposure, external or internal. This system fulfilled the assigned role; the assessment of the protection against radiation is good. Today, the challenge to overcome with regard of the nuclear energy is to make the demonstration that the management of disposed wastes in geological formations will be without risk to the future generations. The scenario considered is related to the return towards the biosphere and an internal contamination by ingestion of long-lived radionuclides. Is the current radiological protection system adapted to this situation? What means irradiation alpha? What does one really know in dosimetric and risk terms for the chronicity of internal exposures? As many questions for which we always do not have the answer and that it is thus necessary to consider at the time when one recommends a dialogue with the stakeholders and that recent scientific observations call into question many certainties. New research programmes in radio toxicology appear absolutely necessary to answer these legitimate questions. The example of the step of pharmaceutical industry for obtaining the marketing authorizations of the drugs is to be meditated. (author)

  1. Protecting people in Ireland from the harmful effects of radiation 2014 to 2015 - The Strategic Plan of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGarry, A.; McMahon, C.; Pollard, D.; Rafferty, B.; Ryan, T.

    2014-02-01

    This strategic plan has been written in the context of the merger with the Environmental Protection Agency. It addresses the delivery of radiological protection during the period spanning the transition from RPII to the Office of Radiological Protection in the EPA. The plan is focused on priorities for radiological protection and does not deal directly with corporate or support functions

  2. Hanford River Protection Project Life cycle Cost Modeling Tool to Enhance Mission Planning - 13396

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunford, Gary; Williams, David; Smith, Rick

    2013-01-01

    The Life cycle Cost Model (LCM) Tool is an overall systems model that incorporates budget, and schedule impacts for the entire life cycle of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, and is replacing the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model as the foundation of the RPP system planning process. Currently, the DOE frequently requests HTWOS simulations of alternative technical and programmatic strategies for completing the RPP mission. Analysis of technical and programmatic changes can be performed with HTWOS; however, life cycle costs and schedules were previously generated by manual transfer of time-based data from HTWOS to Primavera P6. The LCM Tool automates the preparation of life cycle costs and schedules and is needed to provide timely turnaround capability for RPP mission alternative analyses. LCM is the simulation component of the LCM Tool. The simulation component is a replacement of the HTWOS model with new capability to support life cycle cost modeling. It is currently deployed in G22, but has been designed to work in any full object-oriented language with an extensive feature set focused on networking and cross-platform compatibility. The LCM retains existing HTWOS functionality needed to support system planning and alternatives studies going forward. In addition, it incorporates new functionality, coding improvements that streamline programming and model maintenance, and capability to input/export data to/from the LCM using the LCM Database (LCMDB). The LCM Cost/Schedule (LCMCS) contains cost and schedule data and logic. The LCMCS is used to generate life cycle costs and schedules for waste retrieval and processing scenarios. It uses time-based output data from the LCM to produce the logic ties in Primavera P6 necessary for shifting activities. The LCM Tool is evolving to address the needs of decision makers who want to understand the broad spectrum of risks facing complex organizations like DOE-RPP to understand how near

  3. Hanford River Protection Project Life cycle Cost Modeling Tool to Enhance Mission Planning - 13396

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunford, Gary [AEM Consulting, LLC, 1201 Jadwin Avenue, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Williams, David [WIT, Inc., 11173 Oak Fern Court, San Diego, CA 92131 (United States); Smith, Rick [Knowledge Systems Design, Inc., 13595 Quaker Hill Cross Rd, Nevada City, CA 95959 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Life cycle Cost Model (LCM) Tool is an overall systems model that incorporates budget, and schedule impacts for the entire life cycle of the River Protection Project (RPP) mission, and is replacing the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS) model as the foundation of the RPP system planning process. Currently, the DOE frequently requests HTWOS simulations of alternative technical and programmatic strategies for completing the RPP mission. Analysis of technical and programmatic changes can be performed with HTWOS; however, life cycle costs and schedules were previously generated by manual transfer of time-based data from HTWOS to Primavera P6. The LCM Tool automates the preparation of life cycle costs and schedules and is needed to provide timely turnaround capability for RPP mission alternative analyses. LCM is the simulation component of the LCM Tool. The simulation component is a replacement of the HTWOS model with new capability to support life cycle cost modeling. It is currently deployed in G22, but has been designed to work in any full object-oriented language with an extensive feature set focused on networking and cross-platform compatibility. The LCM retains existing HTWOS functionality needed to support system planning and alternatives studies going forward. In addition, it incorporates new functionality, coding improvements that streamline programming and model maintenance, and capability to input/export data to/from the LCM using the LCM Database (LCMDB). The LCM Cost/Schedule (LCMCS) contains cost and schedule data and logic. The LCMCS is used to generate life cycle costs and schedules for waste retrieval and processing scenarios. It uses time-based output data from the LCM to produce the logic ties in Primavera P6 necessary for shifting activities. The LCM Tool is evolving to address the needs of decision makers who want to understand the broad spectrum of risks facing complex organizations like DOE-RPP to understand how near

  4. Radiation protection in dental radiology - Recent advances and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapaki, V

    2017-12-01

    Dental radiology uses X-ray technology to diagnose and design treatment of various clinical problems related to the oral cavity and surrounding tissues. As technology quickly evolves, there are numerous X-ray modalities using different tools in the attempt to best image and treat efficiently these diseases, disorders or other related clinical conditions. The reported numbers of dental X-rays, the fact that these may be under-reported in many countries and because dental X-rays are performed more on younger individuals, whose teeth and dentition are still developing, calls for increased need on radiation protection. The objectives of this paper are to report on the latest technology updates and related radiation protection issues, to present future directions and define gaps. Most of existing radiation protection national and international guidelines are more than a decade old. Update is needed to account for newer technologies such as cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and digital imaging. Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs), a well established method for dose optimization, are not yet defined for CBCT and have to be set for various clinical indications. As far as shielding is concerned, recent data confirm that use of lead apron, even in pregnant patients, or gonadal shielding are not recommended, due to negligible radiation dose reduction. Thyroid lead shielding should be used in case the organ is in or close to the primary beam. Specifically for CBCT, leaded glasses, thyroid collars and collimation (smaller field of view (FOV) especially for paediatric patients) minimize the dose to organs outside the FOV. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. International Commission On Radiological Protection: recommendations relevant to the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, C.H.

    2010-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is an independent, international organization that advances for the public benefit the science of radiological protection, in particular by providing recommendations and guidance on all aspects of protection against ionizing radiation. This presentation touches on aspects of The 2007 Recommendations of the ICRP, a fundamental document that lays out the system of radiological protection for all exposure situations and types, and focuses on other recent publications relevant to the uranium industry. Of particular relevance are the 2009 ICRP Statement on Radon and the accompanying report on lung cancer risk from radon. (author)

  6. ICRP Publication 138: Ethical Foundations of the System of Radiological Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, K-W; Cantone, M-C; Kurihara-Saio, C; Le Guen, B; Martinez, N; Oughton, D; Schneider, T; Toohey, R; ZöLzer, F

    2018-02-01

    Despite a longstanding recognition that radiological protection is not only a matter of science, but also ethics, ICRP publications have rarely addressed the ethical foundations of the system of radiological protection explicitly. The purpose of this publication is to describe how the Commission has relied on ethical values, either intentionally or indirectly, in developing the system of radiological protection with the objective of presenting a coherent view of how ethics is part of this system. In so doing, it helps to clarify the inherent value judgements made in achieving the aim of the radiological protection system as underlined by the Commission in Publication 103. Although primarily addressed to the radiological protection community, this publication is also intended to address authorities, operators, workers, medical professionals, patients, the public, and its representatives (e.g. NGOs) acting in the interest of the protection of people and the environment. This publication provides the key steps concerning the scientific, ethical, and practical evolutions of the system of radiological protection since the first ICRP publication in 1928. It then describes the four core ethical values underpinning the present system: beneficence/ non-maleficence, prudence, justice, and dignity. It also discusses how these core ethical values relate to the principles of radiological protection, namely justification, optimisation, and limitation. The publication finally addresses key procedural values that are required for the practical implementation of the system, focusing on accountability, transparency, and inclusiveness. The Commission sees this publication as a founding document to be elaborated further in different situations and circumstances.

  7. Radiological respiratory protection in Angra-1 Nuclear Power Plant; Protecao respiratoria radiologica na Usina Nuclear de Angra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amaral, Marcos A. do [Furnas Centrais Eletricas S.A., Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil). Central Nuclear de Angra I. Div. de Protecao Radiologica e Ambiental

    1996-07-01

    The present paper has the purpose to describe the actual situation of the Radiological respiratory Protection in Angra I Nuclear Power Plant, the difficulties found and the goals to achieve, in order of the radiological protection excellence. (author)

  8. Radiological protection for medical exposure to ionizing radiation. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    radiotherapy owing to an ageing population. In addition, further growth in medical radiology can be expected in developing States, where at present facilities and services are often lacking. The risks associated with these expected increases in medical exposures should be outweighed by the benefits. For the purposes of radiation protection, ionizing radiation exposures are divided into three types: Medical exposure, which is mainly the exposure of patients as part of their diagnosis or treatment (see below); Occupational exposure, which is the exposure of workers incurred in the course of their work, with some specific exclusions; and Public exposure, which comprises all other exposures of members of the public that are susceptible to human control. Medical exposure is defined in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS, the Standards) as: 'Exposure incurred by patients as part of their own medical or dental diagnosis or treatment; by persons, other than those occupationally exposed, knowingly while voluntarily helping in the support and comfort of patients; and by volunteers in a programme of biomedical research involving their exposure.' This Safety Guide covers all of the medical exposures defined above, with emphasis on the radiological protection of patients, but does not cover exposures of workers or the public derived from the application of medical radiation sources. Guidance relating to these exposures can be found in the Safety Guide on Occupational Radiation Protection. In addition to the IAEA, several intergovernmental and international organizations, among them the European Commission, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the World Health Organization (WHO), have already published numerous recommendations, guides and codes of practice relevant to this subject area. National authorities should therefore

  9. Radiological protection for medical exposure to ionizing radiation. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    radiotherapy owing to an ageing population. In addition, further growth in medical radiology can be expected in developing States, where at present facilities and services are often lacking. The risks associated with these expected increases in medical exposures should be outweighed by the benefits. For the purposes of radiation protection, ionizing radiation exposures are divided into three types: Medical exposure, which is mainly the exposure of patients as part of their diagnosis or treatment (see below). Occupational exposure, which is the exposure of workers incurred in the course of their work, with some specific exclusions. And Public exposure, which comprises all other exposures of members of the public that are susceptible to human control. Medical exposure is defined in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS, the Standards) as: 'Exposure incurred by patients as part of their own medical or dental diagnosis or treatment. By persons, other than those occupationally exposed, knowingly while voluntarily helping in the support and comfort of patients. And by volunteers in a programme of biomedical research involving their exposure.' This Safety Guide covers all of the medical exposures defined above, with emphasis on the radiological protection of patients, but does not cover exposures of workers or the public derived from the application of medical radiation sources. Guidance relating to these exposures can be found in the Safety Guide on Occupational Radiation Protection. In addition to the IAEA, several intergovernmental and international organizations, among them the European Commission, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the World Health Organization (WHO), have already published numerous recommendations, guides and codes of practice relevant to this subject area. National authorities should therefore

  10. Fire protection program fiscal year 1995 site support program plan, Hanford Fire Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good, D.E.

    1994-09-01

    The mission of the Hanford Fire Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating emergency situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the US Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. This includes response to surrounding fire departments/districts under a mutual aid agreement and contractual fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System). The fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing and maintenance, self-contained breathing apparatus maintenance, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention education. This report describes the specific responsibilities and programs that the HFD must support and the estimated cost of this support for FY1995

  11. Fire Protection Program fiscal year 1996, site support program plan Hanford Fire Department. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good, D.E.

    1995-09-01

    The mission of the Hanford Fire Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating emergency situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the US Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. This includes response to surrounding fire departments/districts under a mutual aid agreement and contractual fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System). The fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing and maintenance, self-contained breathing apparatus maintenance, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention education. This report gives a program overview, technical program baselines, and cost and schedule baseline

  12. SUPPLEMENTAL COLUMBIA RIVER PROTECTION ACTIVITIES AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY HANFORD SITE 2008 TECHNICAL REVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B; Dawn S. Kaback, D; Eugene L. LeBoeuf, E; Joe Rossabi, J; Karen L. Skubal, K; David L. Cocke, D; Paul C. Deutsch, P

    2008-09-30

    Beginning in 2006, the US Department of Energy (DOE) supported nine applied research projects to improve the protection of the Columbia River and mitigate the impacts of Hanford Site groundwater. These projects were funded through a supplemental Congressional budget allocation, and are now in various stages of completion in accordance with the research plans. The DOE Office of Environmental Management Groundwater and Soil Cleanup Technologies (EM-22) sponsored a technical peer review meeting for these projects in Richland WA, July 28-31, 2008. The overall objective of the peer review is to provide information to support DOE decisions about the status and potential future application of the various technologies. The charge for the peer review panel was to develop recommendations for each of the nine 'technologies'. Team members for the July 2008 review were Brian Looney, Gene LeBoeuf, Dawn Kaback, Karen Skubal, Joe Rossabi, Paul Deutsch, and David Cocke. Previous project reviews were held in May 2007 and March-May of 2006. The team used the following four rating categories for projects: (a) Incorporate the technology/strategy in ongoing and future EM activities; (b) Finish existing scope of applied research and determine potential for EM activities when research program is finished; (c) Discontinue current development activities and do not incorporate technology/strategy into ongoing and future EM activities unless a significant and compelling change in potential viability is documented; and (d) Supplement original funded work to obtain the data needed to support a DOE decision to incorporate the technology into ongoing and future EM activities. The supplemental funding portfolio included two projects that addressed strontium, five projects that addressed chromium, one project that addressed uranium and one project that addressed carbon tetrachloride. The projects ranged from in situ treatment methods for immobilizing contaminants using chemical

  13. The evolving system of radiological protection: the nuclear industry perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coates, R.

    2003-01-01

    . (A set of key examples is listed herein.) In our view, the current system comprising of the dose limit (1 mSv pa) and the ALARA Principle provides the necessary flexibility and tools to regulators for addressing any country specific or site specific settings, and there are already good examples of this. Again, we believe that this matter is best left for discussion and agreement between the local stakeholders rather than at an international level. We strongly support the need to establish an international approach to defining a level of dose below which society may legitimately maintain that an individual is adequately protected., and hence the allocation of further resources to control the source on radiological health grounds would be inappropriate. WNA considers that this dose is not less than a few tens of micro-sieverts. This approach should be supported by guidance on the appropriate level of conservatism within dose assessments, both in the context of exclusion/clearance/exemption and critical groups in general. WNA supports the continued use of the term 'ALARA, economic and social factors being taken into account'. Collective dose is a useful concept in the optimisation of occupational exposure: in addition it needs to be supplemented by the consideration of the number of workers exposed at the higher levels and by wider pragmatic experience. Public collective dose is of very limited utility in decision making, and little if any weight should be given to exposures at long timescales and exceedingly trivial levels of individual exposure. WNA welcomes both the lead taken by ICRP to bring the protection of non-human biota into a coherent overall framework addressing the totality of radiological protection, and the recognition that the current system has in practice provided an appropriate standard of environmental protection. On this basis the development of the future system of protection must not impose a disproportionate burden on operators. The focus for

  14. The mandate and work of ICRP Committee 3 on radiological protection in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D L; Martin, C J; Rehani, M M

    2018-01-01

    The mandate of Committee 3 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is concerned with the protection of persons and unborn children when ionising radiation is used in medical diagnosis, therapy, and biomedical research. Protection in veterinary medicine has been newly added to the mandate. Committee 3 develops recommendations and guidance in these areas. The most recent documents published by ICRP that relate to radiological protection in medicine are 'Radiological protection in cone beam computed tomography' (ICRP Publication 129) and 'Radiological protection in ion beam radiotherapy' (ICRP Publication 127). A report in cooperation with ICRP Committee 2 entitled 'Radiation dose to patients from radiopharmaceuticals: a compendium of current information related to frequently used substances' (ICRP Publication 128) has also been published. 'Diagnostic reference levels in medical imaging' (ICRP Publication 135), published in 2017, provides specific advice on the setting and use of diagnostic reference levels for diagnostic and interventional radiology, digital imaging, computed tomography, nuclear medicine, paediatrics, and multi-modality procedures. 'Occupational radiological protection in interventional procedures' was published in March 2018 as ICRP Publication 139. A document on radiological protection in therapy with radiopharmaceuticals is likely to be published in 2018. Work is in progress on several other topics, including appropriate use of effective dose in collaboration with the other ICRP committees, guidance for occupational radiological protection in brachytherapy, justification in medical imaging, and radiation doses to patients from radiopharmaceuticals (an update to ICRP Publication 128). Committee 3 is also considering the development of guidance on radiological protection in medicine related to individual radiosusceptibility, in collaboration with ICRP Committee 1.

  15. The recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vennart, J.

    1983-01-01

    The most recent recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in its Publication 26 differ from all those made earlier by being based quantitatively on the risk of deleterious effects. Two types of effect are considered: stochastic and non-stochastic effects. The recommended dose limits are designed to avoid non-stochastic effects and reduce the risks of stochastic effects to acceptable values. The dose equivalent limits are only part of a much wider system that requires justification for the use of sources of ionizing radiation and consideration of costs and benefits to ensure that doses are kept as low as reasonably achievable. Annual Limits for Intakes (ALIs) of radionuclides by workers are recommended in ICRP Publication 30 and the dosimetric models and sources of data used to derive these values are described. ICRP are currently considering a statement about values of ALI for members of the public. The many factors by which these would differ from those recommended for workers are discussed. (author)

  16. General comments on radiological patient protection in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellez de Cepeda, M; Plaza, R; Corredoira, E [Servicio de Radiofisica y Radioproteccion, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (Spain); Martin Curto, L M [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-03-01

    In this paper an observation series about different aspects of the radiological protection of the patient in nuclear medicine is provided. It includes: The specific legislation contribution, the justification and, especially, optimization, as a fundamental base of the quality guarantee program, the importance of the fulfillment of the program and the importance of getting done the corresponding internal audits of the pursuit, the communication between the different groups of professionals implicated and between these and the patient, the volunteers who collaborate in the patient's care and the people in the patient's environment, knowing that the patient is a source of external radiation and contamination. (author) [Spanish] Se resumen en este trabajo, una serie de observaciones sobre distintos aspectos de la proteccion radiologica del paciente en Medicina Nuclear que incluyen: El aporte de la legislacion especifica, los principios de justificacion y optimizacion (en especial este ultimo) como base fundamental del programa de garantia de calidad asi como la importancia de que dicho programa se cumpla y se lleven a cabo las correspondientes auditorias internas de seguimiento, la comunicacion tanto entre los diferentes grupos de profesionales implicados como entre estos y el paciente, los voluntarios que colaboran en su cuidado y las personas de su entorno, teniendo en cuenta que el paciente es una fuente de radiacion externa y contaminacion. (author)

  17. The role of the IEC and ISO in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    The history, objectives, structures and functions of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO) are summarized. The IEC is affiliated to the ISO as its electrical division, but has technical and financial autonomy. Member countries of the EEC may be committed to the adoption of their formal agreements ('Standards') if these become incorporated as Directives. The national standardisation organisations, such as BSI in the U.K., form national committees and are responsible for submitting to the IEC the co-ordinated national viewpoints on particular subjects. The overall links between the technical committees and sub-committees of the ISO, IEC and BSI in the field of radiological protection are tabulated, and the relevant International Standards produced, or in the course of preparation, by the appropriate committees of the ISO and the IEC are listed. The bulk of the effort of the BSI committees is now aimed at the production of acceptable international standards. Compatible national standards then follow. This policy is in contrast to the earlier initial emphasis on national standards, and the improved international collaboration has had two welcome effects. The selection of proposals for standards is more critical, and compatibility with the relevant ICRP and ICRU publications is almost a prerequisite for any international standard. (U.K.)

  18. Radiation Protection Education in Diagnostic Radiology in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotelo, E.; Paolini, G.

    2003-01-01

    In Uruguay the lack of Radiation Protection (RP) laws makes education in medical use of ionizing radiations at University, a decisive factor of changes. The six years experience in teaching technicians, radiologists, interventional cardiologists and anesthetists in curricular lectures, continuing education courses and workshops, show the importance of a close link between educators and occupationally exposed professionals. Regarding training and education in the optimization of the procedures, it is essential that both teacher and student comprehend the exact meaning of ALARA concept. This implies that although the educator is the one who manages the physical basis of RP, the student is who teaches the educator about the procedures. This turns RP education into a dynamic process in which at the same time, both educator and student learn and teach. After the theoretical lectures, it is essential that students show their ability in applying the acquired knowledge in their everyday practice. Last nut not least, in order to fulfill the first RP principle,all medicine students need to be educated in RP and quality image criteria before the get their medical doctor degree. Our experience shows that RP education in diagnostic radiology requires an expert with both medical physics and Image technology knowledge that allow an approach to students work, language and everyday problems. Despite the fact that the main result of the Education Program is the way professionals improve their practice, another consequence was that the Regulatory Authority of the country called the teacher team to coordinate the first RP national course. (Author) 14 refs

  19. Radiological protection for spent fuel dry storage at Embalse NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carballo, Carlos; Melo, Rodolfo

    2008-01-01

    Embalse NPP dry-stores used fuel elements in concrete silos inside the premises: The fuel elements are kept for at least 6 years in pools located in the controlled area , before being moved into the silos. This paper describes the radiological protection for the different stages of the process, i.e., when the used fuel elements are moved from the pools into the silos, and while they are kept in the concrete silos. The occupational exposure of the personnel operating this system at each stage is showed, as well as the environmental dose rates around the silos, and the dose rate in the shields used during the transfer. These environmental dose rates are assessed with portable instruments and with TLD dosimeters placed around the silos. This paper also describes the periodical routine control performed every two years in the atmosphere inside the silo, the moisture control and the detection of possible aerosols (in some cases, traces of krypton 85 were detected). It is important to point out that the maximum equivalent environmental dose rate H* (10) detected at approximately 20 metres from the silos is overly low: (0.35 micro sievert / hour). Our experience demonstrates that dry storage is totally compatible with the environment and with the ALARA criterion for personnel's doses. (author)

  20. Role and responsibilities of medical physicists in radiological protection of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niroomand-Rad, A.

    2001-01-01

    The paper provides a brief history of the International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP), followed by some general comments on the radiological protection of patients. The importance of establishing scientific guidelines and professional standards is emphasized, as is the need to ensure the protection of patients undergoing radiation therapy. The responsibility of qualified medical physicists in the protection of patients in nuclear medicine and in diagnostic and interventional radiology is also discussed. (author)

  1. Ethical Consideration of Radiological Protection: Learning from Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara-Saio, Chieko

    2013-01-01

    Chieko Kurihara suggested the bio-ethics principles of autonomy, beneficence and justice as related and linked to those ones of radiological protection, justification, optimization and dose limit, by giving the bases for an introductory discussion around them and the RP system. The second part of the presentation focused on ethical considerations about actual issues which happened in Fukushima, by analyzing and studying them from different perspectives and points of view: logistics, communication, evacuation-return processes, aspects such as compensation, conflict of interests and future perspectives. For example a lack of logistic in repairing the facilities, evacuation and elimination of contaminated land contributed in the distrustfulness of public; lay-experts, learning from anti-nuke experts have been communicating about radiation risk; mandatory evacuation was criticized by considering other types of impact resulting from the evacuation itself. Also decision-making about returning is always difficult in view of the protection of vulnerable groups such as of elderly, children and fetus while hot discussions were opened on the basis of to which extent damage resulting from radiation exposure should be compensated and the level of epidemiological survey. A significant part of criticisms started about the conflict of interest among NPP related companies, government, students with great attention of the public. Within the conclusions it was highlighted the need to make RP system working well and properly, especially in emergency situations and this could be improved if the RP system, well before emergency situations, is understood at least by politicians and stakeholders and implemented in governmental policies and regulations, with ethical justifications

  2. Global view on the radiological protection of patients: PAHO position paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borras, C.

    2001-01-01

    The Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization (PAHO/WHO), founded in 1902, initiated a radiological health programme in the 1950s. Within this programme, there are currently three lines of work: (a) radiology services; (b) radiation safety; and (c) radiological emergencies. Radiology services deals with health services for diagnostic and interventional imaging, and for radiation therapy. Radiation safety studies the three types of exposures to both ionizing and non-ionizing radiation: occupational; medical; and public. Radiological emergencies involve radioactive waste management programmes and emergency plans. The radiological protection of patients is addressed in each of these areas: (a) when analysing the infrastructure of radiology services; and (b) when determining medical exposures; and (c) when investigating overexposures in interventional or therapeutic procedures or under-doses in radiation therapy. (author)

  3. Experience to the center of radiations hygiene and protection and Hygiene in the training as regards radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenech Nieves, H.; Jove ased, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    The CPHR comes carrying out for several years a group activities among them regular courses for the basic formation as regards radiological protection the personnel with responsibilities as for the security the nuclear facilities. Presently work summary these experiences

  4. Reflections on a peculiar bet for the future's radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, P.

    2000-01-01

    Wishing to make fruitless certain types of speculations and wanting to avoid the perplexity that can provoke a strict application of the actual system, Roger Clarke, Chairman of ICRP, has been proposing, for a year now, a new protection frame. In this article, the main aspects of his proposal and the consequences of its implantation are analysed. To express his principles, Clarke has settled a new term, the controllable dose. The author believes that naming under the same concept different sources and exposures, avoiding a separate treatment of them, could create a more balance outlook on the public's perception from radiological risk, somewhat distant from the facts. The author shares the idea of establishing a general principle based on the individual's protection, but does not see the need of rejecting the collective dose concept, especially in occupational exposure, and its role on optimisation and justification principles. Justification has been one of the less used and understood principles in the practice. Few are the counties that have thoroughly regulated their application, apart from naming it. Nonetheless, the author does not share the attitude of giving up under the weight of the evidence, and would rather persuade on the need of rationalisation in regulating the practices through justification. The author firmly believes that the use of this principle should be established more explicitly, through a balanced distribution of different roles which different institutions must act. Accordingly to the author, Clarke's approach has distorted the principle of optimisation in more ambiguous and less compromising terms. There is however one aspect, which the author considers more significant, the evolution taking place in its praxis and, in particular, within the nuclear power plants organisations. The author highlights that this principle has transformed into a personal challenge for workers and managers, moving from radiological expert to performer's field

  5. The quality assurance in diagnostic radiology and their effect in the quality image and radiological protection of the patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, Enrique

    2002-01-01

    The quality assurance in diagnostic radiology in Mexico before 1997 was virtually nonexistent except in few academic institutions and hospitals. The purpose of this study was to carry out an exploratory survey of the issue of quality control parameters of general and fluoroscopy x-ray systems in the Mexican Republic and their effects in the quality image and radiological protection of the patient. A general result of the survey is that there is not significant difference in the observed frequencies among public and private radiology departments for α = 0.05, then the results are valid for both departments. 37% of x-ray systems belong to public radiology departments. In the radiology departments that didn't agree with the Mexican regulations in: light field to mach the x-ray field, light field intensity, kV, time and output. In those cases, we found a repeat rate of radiography studies >30% with non necessary dose to patient, low quality image and high operating costs of the radiology service. We found in x-ray fluoroscopy systems that 62% had a low quality image due to electronic noise in the television chain. In general the x-ray systems that didn't agree with Mexican regulations are 35% and they can affect in a way or other the quality image and the dose to patient

  6. Radiological protection and the Fukushima Daiichi accident. Responses of the key international organisations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in March 2011 shook the radiological protection world. All major organisations in the radiological protection field turned their eyes to Japan. Their actions, driven by their mandates, are reflected in their respective landmark reports on the accident. Reports of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, World Health Organisation, United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and International Atomic Energy Agency are summarised. Collaboration between key international organisations is strong, based in part on informal interactions which need to be backed up with formal relations to ensure solid long-term collaboration.

  7. Use of the analytical tree technique to develop a radiological protection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenech N, H.; Jova S, L.

    1996-01-01

    The results obtained by the Cuban Center for Radiological Protection and Hygiene by using an analytical tree technique to develop its general operational radiation protection program are presented. By the application of this method, some factors such as the organization of the radiation protection services, the provision of administrative requirements, the existing general laboratories requirements, the viability of resources and the current documentation was evaluated. Main components were considered such as: complete normative and regulatory documentation; automatic radiological protection data management; scope of 'on the-job'and radiological protection training for the personnel; previous radiological appraisal for the safety performance of the works and application of dose constrains for the personnel and the public. The detailed development of the program allowed to identify the basic aims to be achieved in its maintenance and improvement. (authors). 3 refs

  8. The state of radiological protection; views of the radiation protection profession: IRPA13, Glasgow, May 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, Edward; Smith, Rachel; Coates, Roger; Andersen, Ralph; Asano, Yoshihiro; Chapple, Claire-Louise; Faulkner, Keith; Hefner, Alfred; Hill, Marion; Jones, Rick; Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Liebenberg, Gert; Visage, Abrie; Liland, Astrid; McKinlay, Alastair; Menzel, Hans-Georg; Perks, Christopher; Rodriguez, Manuel; Schieber, Caroline; Shaw, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The IRPA13 Congress took place from 14–18 May 2012 in Glasgow, Scotland, UK, and was attended by almost 1500 radiological protection professionals. The scientific programme of the Congress was designed to capture a snapshot of the profession’s views of the current state of knowledge, and of the challenges seen for the coming years. This paper provides a summary of these results of the Congress in twelve key scientific areas that served as the structural backbone of IRPA13. (memorandum)

  9. HANFORD SITE RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT (RPP) TRANSURANIC (TRU) TANK WASTE IDENTIFICATION and PLANNING FOR REVRIEVAL TREATMENT and EVENTUAL DISPOSAL AT WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRISTOFZSKI, J.G.; TEDESCHI, R.; JOHNSON, M.E.; JENNINGS, M

    2006-01-01

    The CH2M HILL Manford Group, Inc. (CHG) conducts business to achieve the goals of the Office of River Protection (ORP) at Hanford. As an employee owned company, CHG employees have a strong motivation to develop innovative solutions to enhance project and company performance while ensuring protection of human health and the environment. CHG is responsible to manage and perform work required to safely store, enhance readiness for waste feed delivery, and prepare for treated waste receipts for the approximately 53 million gallons of legacy mixed radioactive waste currently at the Hanford Site tank farms. Safety and environmental awareness is integrated into all activities and work is accomplished in a manner that achieves high levels of quality while protecting the environment and the safety and health of workers and the public. This paper focuses on the innovative strategy to identify, retrieve, treat, and dispose of Hanford Transuranic (TRU) tank waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

  10. Radiological protection of the environment: the path forward to a new policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The international system of radiological protection is currently being revised with the aim of making it more coherent and concise. During the revision process, particular attention is being given to the development of an explicit system for the radiological protection of the environment in addition to that of human beings. In order to support the ongoing discussions of the international community of radiological protection experts, these proceedings try to answer the questions: Is there an international rationale behind the wish to protect the environment from radiation? Do we have enough scientific information to develop and define a broadly accepted policy? What are the socio-political dynamics, beyond science, that will influence policy on radiological protection of the environment? What are the characteristics of the process for developing a system of radiological protection of the environment? These proceedings comprise the views of a broad range of invited speakers, including policy makers, regulators, radiological protection and environmental protection professionals, industry, social scientists and representatives of both non-governmental and intergovernmental organisations. (author)

  11. Radiologic protection in intensive therapy units; Protecao radiologica em unidades de terapia intensiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrea, H.; Juliana, C.; Gerusa, R.; Laurete, M.B.; Suelen, S., E-mail: andrea.huhn@ifsc.edu.br, E-mail: juliana@ifsc.edu.br, E-mail: gerusa@ifsc.edu.br, E-mail: laurete@ifsc.edu.br, E-mail: suelen.saraiva@ifsc.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina (IFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Derech, Rodrigo D.A., E-mail: dagostiniderech@gmail.com [Policlinica Municipal Sul, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    The discovery of X-ray was a great achievement for humanity, especially for the medical community. In Intensive Care Units (ICUs), the RX tests, performed with mobile devices, add immense value to the diagnosis of inpatients who do not have the option to carry them out of bed. Following the technology and its improvements, fatalities arose from misuse of ionizing radiation, which mostly gave up for lack of knowledge of the biological effects caused by them, which leads to fear among professionals and often prevents a quick job and effectively by professionals of radiological techniques. The research it is a systematic review of the literature and justified by the scarcity of materials that reflect on the radiological protection in ICUs. For this study we found the Virtual Health Library (VHL) and Pubmed were indexed terms radiological protection and intensive care units, the search in Portuguese and English terms were used radiological protection and intensive care unit. The study aims to inform professionals of ICUs on the main aspects that refer to X-rays in hospital beds, the standards of radiological protection and personal protective equipment, thus avoiding possible damage to the biological health of workers, addressing subjects in rules and laws about the X radiation, emphasizing the protection of professionals in intensive care. It is clear, finally, that little research is conducted in the context of radiological protection of workers ICU's and this is a place that receives daily RX equipment, deserving more attention to protect the worker. (author)

  12. A new approach to authorization in the field of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Approaches to radiological protection have been evolving, particularly over the past several years. This has been driven by the emergence of modern concepts of and approaches to risk governance, and by calls from within the radiological protection community for the simplification and clarification of the existing system of protection, as based on the Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The NEA Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) has been very active in developing its own suggestions as to how the system of radiological protection should evolve to better meet the needs of policy makers, regulators and practitioners. One of those suggestions is that a generic concept of 'regulatory authorization' of certain levels and types of exposure to radiation should replace the current and somewhat complicated concepts of exclusion, exemption and clearance. It has also been suggested that by characterising emerging sources and exposures in a screening process leading into the authorization process, regulatory authorities could develop a better feeling for the type and scale of stakeholder involvement that would be necessary to reach a widely accepted approach to radiological protection. In order to verify that these suggestions would make the system of radiological protection more understandable, easy to apply, and acceptable, independent consultants have 'road tested' the CRPPH concepts of authorization and characterisation. Their findings, which show that applying these concepts would represent significant improvement, are reproduced herein. Specific approaches for the application of the new CRPPH ideas are also illustrated in this report. (author)

  13. Report by the work-group on radiation protection in interventional radiology. Recommendations related to the improvement of radiation protection in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report aims at proposing recommendations for the improvement of the quality of radiation protection of workers and patients in the field of interventional radiology. These recommendations concern the training of health personnel, the application of the optimization principle to health professionals and patients, dosimetry and the definition of diagnosis reference levels. More particularly, these recommendations concern professions involved in interventional radiology, and take into account the experience of other European Union State members and recommendations made by the IAEA. The authors analyze the equipment, radiological actions, procedures and doses, practitioners, equipment used for radio-guided interventions. They discuss doses received by patients, patient monitoring and radio-induced lesions. Then, they address the role and training of the different interveners in radiation protection, the equipment maintenance issue, and personnel dosimetry and protection

  14. Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edholm, P.R.

    1990-01-01

    This is a report describing diagnostic techniques used in radiology. It describes the equipment necessary for, and the operation of a radiological department. Also is described the standard methods used in radiodiagnosis. (K.A.E.)

  15. Radiological protection and the selection of management strategies for intermediate level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.D.; Webb, G.A.M.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the steps involved in selecting management systems and an overall management strategy for intermediate level solid radioactive wastes. The radiological protection inputs to intermediate level waste management decisions are discussed, together with the results of preliminary radiological assessments of disposal options. Areas where further work is required are identified. (author)

  16. Public competitive examination for radiology technologist: knowledge in radiation protection required in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, J.S.; Silva, K.R.; Gomes, A.S.

    2017-01-01

    Ionizing radiations are used in areas such as health, industry and safety, not only in the private sector, but also in the public. Thus, it is necessary the radiological protection, a set of studies and practices that increases the safety in these applications, where the professional involved is the technologist in radiology. The objective was to analyze the contents effectively required by the Brazilian public agencies in their competitions for radiology technologist, regarding the area of radiological protection, identifying their profile of requirement. It consisted of three stages: first, a survey of all the public competitions already carried out in the country up to the end of 2016, that requested a diploma of graduation in Technology in Radiology; second, all the specific questions were collected and grouped in an electronic text file; third, issues involving radiological protection were segregated, using as reference the 2017 edition of the National Nuclear Energy Commission's General Proof of Radioprotection Supervision. The results showed that almost 40% of the competition questions were about radiation protection. From this sampling, the topics most covered were: radiological safety (36%), fundamentals of atomic and nuclear physics (24%) and biological effects of radiation (16%). It is concluded that the competitions for radiologist technologist have the profile of concentration of exigency in radiological safety, fundamentals of atomic and nuclear physics and biological effects of the radiations

  17. Chernobyl related research and radiological protection activities in Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, B; Cunningham, J D [Radiological Protection Inst. of Ireland (Ireland)

    1996-10-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident a programme of monitoring and research was initiated in the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland to address questions concerning the immediate and longer term impact of the fallout. Prior to the Chernobyl accident the scientific literature contained limited information on the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment and their entry into food-chains. In response to this lack of information the monitoring programme assessed the contamination status following the accident, while the research programme was aimed at gaining a fuller understanding of the processes of radionuclide transfer. Investigations were undertaken into the pathways through which Chernobyl radionuclides may be transferred to man i.e. via agricultural crops, meat and milk production. The results showed that the behaviour of the fallout radionuclides is complex and highly variable, being influenced by weather, topography, season, crop type, land management etc. The research continues today and its aim is to identify pathways of radiation dose transfer to man and to determine strategies for minimising risk and cost to man and the environment. Examination of the factors which control radionuclide behaviour has revealed practical strategies for dealing with contaminated lands and foods. A significant factor controlling the behaviour of radionuclides in ecosystems is the physico-chemical characteristics of the soil. These physico-chemical characteristics have proved to be useful parameters which can be manipulated to reduce the transfer of radionuclides in agricultural systems. In semi-natural ecosystems (peatlands and commercial forests) the controls on the behaviour of radionuclides are generally more complicated and intervention is more difficult. These ecosystems present a challenge in terms of the identification of possible practical rehabilitation measures. (Abstract Truncated)

  18. Adaptive Response- A Universal Phenomenon for Radiological Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, C.

    2004-01-01

    Predominantly with cells in vitro but also with whole animals in vivo it bas been shown that small radiation doses like other stress factors can render cells or organisms to a stage of higher radioresistance. This has been demonstrated with chromosomal aberrations gene mutation, cell transformation and survival. However, it is necessary to keep the appropriate conditions in a very stringent way. This implies radiation dose ranges, time factors and others. The adaptive response is transient and keeps for about three cell cycles or two to three days for mammalian cells. Most studies have been performed with low LET radiation. From the few data with high LET radiation it can be concluded that the adaptive response is much less or does not occur at all. Cellular and molecular studies indicate that the DNA repair is most important for the induction of adaptive response although the understanding of the mechanisms is certainly incomplete. In vivo other biological phenomena like the immune system also play a significant role. A high individual variability exists with respect to the extent of the adaptive response. No adaptive response apparently occurs with cells from individuals with repair-and immune-deficiencies. Several experiments during the prenatal development indicate that there is no or only little adaptive response during wide developmental stages in utero. Therefore it must be concluded that the adaptive response has limitations and is not a universal principle. Due to these restrictions of the validity and strength of adaptive response it is doubtful whether adaptive response can generally be applied in the practice of radiological protection. (Author) 42 refs

  19. Annual report 1996 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland. figs., tabs., refs.

  20. Annual Report 1998 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland.

  1. Annual Report 1998 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland

  2. Annual Report 1999 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-08-01

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland

  3. Contribution the ARCAL/IAEA project to the development the radiological protection in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Gironzini, Eduardo

    1998-01-01

    In this work is shown the radiological protection development in the Latin America region and the direct incidence that has had on the same one the technical cooperation impelled by the IAEA with ARCAL projects ARCAL

  4. Annual Report 1999 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-15

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland.

  5. Annual report 1996 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland. figs., tabs., refs

  6. The recommendations 2007 of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugier, A.; Lecomte, J.F.; Nenot, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), in particular in the situations of emergency exposure, after an accident or to natural radioactivity. (authors)

  7. Radiation protection and quality assurance in dental radiology: II. Panoramic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jodar-Porlan, S.; Alcaraz, M.; Martinez-Beneyto, Y.; Saura-Iniesta, A.M.; Velasco-Hidalgo, E.

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies 278 official reports on quality assurance in dental radiology in the context of the first revision of these dental clinics, as a result of the entry into force of the regulations establishing the duties for these types of facilities. In the results section we present a quantitative analysis of the facilities equipped with an panoramic radiology apparatus, making a special reference to the brands they have available, as well as their physical features (kV, mA, filtration) and the deviations detected in their operation. Some of their features in the process of obtaining radiological images at those facilities (film control, development time, liquid renewal) are determined, and the average dose of ionising radiation used in order to obtain the same tooth radiological image is presented. This paper shows, in a quantitative way, the characteristic features of panoramic radiology in our medium. The study is intended to be continued during the next years, which would allow the assessment of the prospective improvement in dental radiological performances as a result of the newly established regulations. (author)

  8. Soil Sampling to Demonstrate Compliance with Department of Energy Radiological Clearance Requirements for the ALE Unit of the Hanford Reach National Monument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Dirkes, Roger L.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2007-04-01

    The Hanford Reach National Monument consists of several units, one of which is the Fitzner/Eberhardt Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE) Unit. This unit is approximately 311 km2 of shrub-steppe habitat located to the south and west of Highway 240. To fulfill internal U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements prior to any radiological clearance of land, DOE must evaluate the potential for residual radioactive contamination on this land and determine compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 5400.5. Historical soil monitoring conducted on ALE indicated soil concentrations of radionuclides were well below the Authorized Limits. However, the historical sampling was done at a limited number of sampling locations. Therefore, additional soil sampling was conducted to determine if the concentrations of radionuclides in soil on the ALE Unit were below the Authorized Limits. This report contains the results of 50 additional soil samples. The 50 soil samples collected from the ALE Unit all had concentrations of radionuclides far below the Authorized Limits. The average concentrations for all detectable radionuclides were less than the estimated Hanford Site background. Furthermore, the maximum observed soil concentrations for the radionuclides included in the Authorized Limits would result in a potential annual dose of 0.14 mrem assuming the most probable use scenario, a recreational visitor. This potential dose is well below the DOE 100-mrem per year dose limit for a member of the public. Spatial analysis of the results indicated no observable statistically significant differences between radionuclide concentrations across the ALE Unit. Furthermore, the results of the biota dose assessment screen, which used the ResRad Biota code, indicated that the concentrations of radionuclides in ALE Unit soil pose no significant health risk to biota.

  9. Supplemental Groundwater Remediation Technologies to Protect the Columbia River at Hanford, WA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, K.M.; Petersen, Scott W.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Szecsody, Jim E.; Truex, Michael J.; Amonette, James E.; Long, Philip E.

    2007-01-01

    Nine projects have been recently selected by the US Department of Energy (EM-22) to address groundwater contaminant migration at the Hanford Site. This paper summarizes the background and objectives of these projects. Five of the selected projects are targeted at hexavalent chromium contamination in Hanford 100 Area groundwater. These projects represent an integrated approach towards identifying the source of hexavalent chromium contamination in the Hanford 100-D Area and treating the groundwater contamination. Currently, there is no effective method to stop strontium-90 associated with the riparian zone sediments from leaching into the river. Phytoremediation may be a possible way to treat this contamination. Its use at the 100-N Area will be investigated. Another technology currently being tested for strontium-90 contamination at the 100-N Area involves injection (through wells) of a calcium-citrate-phosphate solution, which will precipitate apatite, a natural calcium-phosphate mineral. Apatite will adsorb the strontium-90, and then incorporate it as part of the apatite structure, isolating the strontium-90 contamination from entering the river. This EM-22 funded apatite project will develop a strategy for infiltrating the apatite solution from ground surface or a shallow trench to provide treatment over the upper portion of the contaminated zone, which is unsaturated during low river stage.

  10. Malpractice claims in interventional radiology: frequency, characteristics and protective measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnavita, N; Fileni, A; Mirk, P; Magnavita, G; Ricci, S; Cotroneo, A R

    2013-04-01

    The use of interventional radiology procedures has considerably increased in recent years, as has the number of related medicolegal litigations. This study aimed to highlight the problems underlying malpractice claims in interventional radiology and to assess the importance of the informed consent process. The authors examined all insurance claims relating to presumed errors in interventional radiology filed by radiologists over a period of 14 years after isolating them from the insurance database of all radiologists registered with the Italian Society of Medical Radiology (SIRM) between 1 January1993 and 31 December 2006. In the period considered, 98 malpractice claims were filed against radiologists who had performed interventional radiology procedures. In 21 cases (21.4%), the event had caused the patient's death. In >80% of cases, the event occurred in a public facility. The risk of a malpractice claim for a radiologist practising interventional procedures is 47 per 1,000, which corresponds to one malpractice claim for each 231 years of activity. Interventional radiology, a discipline with a biological risk profile similar to that of surgery, exposes practitioners to a high risk of medicolegal litigation both because of problems intrinsic to the techniques used and because of the need to operate on severely ill patients with compromised clinical status. Litigation prevention largely depends on both reducing the rate of medical error and providing the patient with correct and coherent information. Adopting good radiological practices, scrupulous review of procedures and efficiency of the instruments used and audit of organisational and management processes are all factors that can help reduce the likelihood of error. Improving communication techniques while safeguarding the patient's right to autonomy also implies adopting clear and rigorous processes for obtaining the patient's informed consent to the medical procedure.

  11. Research and development in radiological protection; Investigacion y desarrollo en proteccion radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butragueno, J. L.; Villota, C.; Gutierrez, C.; Rodriguez, A.

    2004-07-01

    The objective of Radiological Protection is to gurantee that neither people, be they workers or members of the public, or the environment are exposed to radiological risks considered by society to be unacceptable. Among the various resources available to meet this objective is Research and Development (R and D), which is carried out in three areas: I. Radiological protection of persons: (a) knowledge of the biological effects of radiations, in order to determine the relationship that exists between radiation exposure dose and its effects on health; (b) the development of new personal dosimetry techniques in order to adapt to new situations, instrumental techniques and information managmenet technologies allowing for better assessment of exposure dose; and (c) development of the principle of radiological protection optimisation (ALARA), which has been set up internationally as the fundamental principle on which radiological protection interventions are based. II. Assessment of environmental radiological impact, the objective of which is to assess the nature and magnitude of situations of exposure to ionising radiations as a result of the controlled or uncontrolled release of radioactive material to the environment, and III.Reduction of the radiological impact of radioactive wastes, the objective of which is to develop radioactive material and waste management techniques suitable for each situation, in order to reduce the risks assocaited with their definitive managmenet or thier release to the environment. Briefly desribed below are the strategic lines of R and D of the CSN, the Electricity Industry, Ciemat and Enresa in the aforementioned areas. (Author)

  12. Networking as an efficient, modern way of favouring stakeholders' involvement in implementing good radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefaure, Ch.; Janssens, A.; Mrabit, K.; Ahier, B.

    2006-01-01

    Since the publication of ICRP 22 and ICRP 26 in 1973 and 1977 respectively, the understanding and practical implementation of the concept of Optimisation of Radiation Protection known as ALARA ('as low as reasonably achievable') has developed considerably globally and particularly in Europe. In the 1990 ICRP 60 publication, ALARA was re-emphasised as the cornerstone of the radiological protection system. This is also an explicit requirement of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (International BSS) and EC Directive laying down the Basic Safety Standards for radiological protection (EURATOM Directive 96/29), as well as of most of the national regulations. Throughout the 1980's and early 1990's ALARA was integrated into many organisations' radiation protection programmes, particularly in the nuclear industry and mainly for managing occupational exposure. One of the main lessons identified from that period was that it was not possible to implement good radiological protection by relying only on technical rules and procedures summarised in the three words: 'Time-Distance-Shielding'. A fourth word, 'Commitment', was to be added as no radiological protection programme would be successful without the commitment of all concerned stakeholders: regulatory bodies, managers, workers, etc. The scope of this presentation is, through different international feedback experiences, to demonstrate how networking is an efficient, modern way of fostering stakeholders involvement in implementing good radiological protection. (authors)

  13. L-035: EPR-First Responders: Basic Risk and Protection for First Responders to a Radiological Emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    There are some basic actions and self-protective actions to take in an radiological emergency. Radiation is detected with appropriate instrumentation and measuring the rate of exposure (Sv per hour) in contact with radioactive materials involved. Is important to note: Responsive to a radiological emergency, tool to identify radiological risks, radiation protection, radioactive symbol and instrumentation

  14. Evolution of the radiological protection policy. Applications in developing countries. IPEN a case of study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, A.M.P.L.; Sordi, G.M.A. A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to show the radiological protection development in Brazil from the beginning, when President Joao Cafe Filho signed an agreement with the U.S.A. In this agreement, Brazil joined the 'Atoms for Peace' program established on August 3., 1955. Yet in 1955, Brazil participated as a foundation member in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). As a result, the Iea - 'Instituto de Energia Atomica'- was created on August 31., 1956 and a research reactor type swimming pool was installed to produce radioisotopes and prepare experts in the field of nuclear activities. This reactor is maintained in operation at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), former Iea. Having the Iea as a case of study, we analyze the radiological protection evolution during the fifty years of its life. We correlate this development with the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) Regulations. CNEN was also created in 1956. The first safety standard in Brazil was delivered in 1973. Therefore, this paper will focus the radiological protection development at national level. Both institutions followed the international radiological protection recommendations, under the difficulties imposed by the historical conditions of a developing country. In order to have an outline of the radiological protection development, we inform that it was started as a section of the Radiological Division at the Iea. At that time, the Iea had four divisions. The radiological protection was performed by four people, being two physicists and two technicians that accomplished all the duties. On that occasion, approximately 30 people operated the Iea. The work staff at IPEN increased, arriving to 1600 people in 1998, including 150 persons in the radiological protection activities. Nowadays, 1200 people, including 100 persons in the health physics duties operate the IPEN. (authors)

  15. Evolution of the radiological protection policy. Applications in developing countries. IPEN a case of study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, A.M.P.L.; Sordi, G.M.A. A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    This paper aims to show the radiological protection development in Brazil from the beginning, when President Joao Cafe Filho signed an agreement with the U.S.A. In this agreement, Brazil joined the 'Atoms for Peace' program established on August 3., 1955. Yet in 1955, Brazil participated as a foundation member in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). As a result, the Iea - 'Instituto de Energia Atomica'- was created on August 31., 1956 and a research reactor type swimming pool was installed to produce radioisotopes and prepare experts in the field of nuclear activities. This reactor is maintained in operation at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), former Iea. Having the Iea as a case of study, we analyze the radiological protection evolution during the fifty years of its life. We correlate this development with the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) Regulations. CNEN was also created in 1956. The first safety standard in Brazil was delivered in 1973. Therefore, this paper will focus the radiological protection development at national level. Both institutions followed the international radiological protection recommendations, under the difficulties imposed by the historical conditions of a developing country. In order to have an outline of the radiological protection development, we inform that it was started as a section of the Radiological Division at the Iea. At that time, the Iea had four divisions. The radiological protection was performed by four people, being two physicists and two technicians that accomplished all the duties. On that occasion, approximately 30 people operated the Iea. The work staff at IPEN increased, arriving to 1600 people in 1998, including 150 persons in the radiological protection activities. Nowadays, 1200 people, including 100 persons in the health physics duties operate the IPEN. (authors)

  16. Application of radiological protection measures to meet different environmental protection criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copplestone, D.

    2012-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recognises that there is no simple or single universal definition of ‘environmental protection’, and that the concept differs from country to country and from one circumstance to another. However, there is an increasing need to be able to demonstrate that the environment is protected from radioactive substances released under authorisation for various reasons, such as for wildlife conservation requirements, or wildlife management for commercial reasons, or simply as part of pollution control. The Commission is developing the concept of Representative Organisms, which may be identified from any specific legal requirements or from more general requirements to protect local habitats or ecosystems. Such organisms may be the actual objects of protection or they may be hypothetical, depending on the objectives of the assessment. They may be similar to, or even congruent with, one or more of the Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs). Where this is not the case, attempts can be made to consider the extent to which the Representative Organisms differ from the nearest RAP in terms of known radiation effects upon it, basic biology, radiation dosimetry, and pathways of exposure. This paper discusses the practical implications of such an approach.

  17. Annual Report and Accounts 2000 Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This report outlines the work of the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland (RPII) during 2000. The report highlights its report published a year ago on the safety of the storage tanks holding liquid high-level radioactive waste at Sellafield. This report has gained heightened relevance from the fear, following September 11, of a terrorist attack on Sellafield. Also detailed in the report is the programme of monitoring of the radioactive contamination of the Irish sea caused by discharges from Sellafield which continues to be an important area of the Institute's work. A major focus is on the levels of technetium-99, which rose sharply from 1994 to 1998. Since 1998 these levels have begun to decrease, but are still considerably above pre-1994 levels, and remain a significant cause of concern. Also of considerable current interest is the key role assigned to the Institute under the National Emergency Plan for Nuclear Accidents. The Institute has further developed the capability of the computer model ARGOS (Accident Reporting and Guiding Operational System), which would enable it to predict the dispersion pattern of a plume of radioactive material being transported in the atmosphere towards Ireland from a disaster at a nuclear installation overseas. This prediction would be a vital element in ensuring an optimum response to a nuclear disaster affecting Ireland. The lung cancer risk associated with exposure to high levels of naturally occurring radon gas in buildings continues to be an important concern for the Institute. The Institute's nationwide survey of radon levels in primary and secondary level schools, commissioned by the Minister for Education and Science, and aimed at eliminating the exposure of children and staff to elevated radon levels in schools, has been highly successful and is entering its final stages. New legislation introduced in 2000 addresses the issue of radon in workplaces, and the Institute's implementation of this legislation has got

  18. The evolution of the system of radiological protection: the programme of the Nea committee on radiation protection and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundigl, S.

    2004-01-01

    The primary aim of radiological protection has always been to provide an appropriate standard of protection for the public and workers without unduly limiting the beneficial practices giving rise to radiation exposure. Over the past few decades, many studies concerning the effects of ionising radiation have been conducted, ranging from those that examine the effects of radiation on individual cells, to epidemiological studies that examine the effects on large populations exposed to different radiation sources. Using information gained from these studies to estimate the consequences of radiation exposure, together with the necessary social and economic judgements, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has put forward a series of recommendations to structure an appropriate system for radiological protection, and to ensure a high standard of protection for the public and for occupational exposed workers. The ICRP system of radiological protection that has evolved over the years now covers many diverse radiological protection issues. Emerging issues have been dealt with more or less on an individual basis resulting in an overall system, which while very comprehensive, is also complex. With such a complex system it is not surprising that some perceived inconsistencies or incoherence may lead to concerns that radiation protection issues are not being adequately addressed. Different stakeholders in decisions involving radiological protection aspects tend to focus on different elements of this perceived incoherence. To advance solutions to these issues, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) has been working for some time to contribute to the evolution of a new radiological protection system, through its Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH). This group of senior regulators and expert practitioners has, throughout its existence, been interested in the development of recommendations by the ICRP. Recently, this interest has

  19. Environmental monitoring at Hanford by the state of Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conklin, A.W.; Mooney, R.R.; Erickson, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Social and Health Services' Office of Radiation Protection (ORP), Washington State's radiation control agency, has a mandate to protect the public from radiation. In 1985, ORP was instructed by the legislature to establish a statewide environmental radiological base line, beginning with Hanford, to verify federal environmental programs, and to enforce federal and state Clean Air Acts. The primary mission of the agency is to protect public health by active involvement in Hanford monitoring and oversight. The state's program was designed not to duplicate but to supplement existing programs and to identify any sampling gaps or problems. Split, side-by-side, and independent samples are collected, with analysis performed by the state's own laboratory. Media sampled have included surface and drinking water, seep and ground water, fruits and vegetables, milk, soils, and air particulates; ambient radiation levels have been determined. Special activities have included split sampling of river seeps with multiple agencies, preliminary dose assessment of early Hanford releases, investigations of 129 I in the environment and in Franklin County drinking water, verification of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) data on erroneous alarms at the Hanford Plutonium Uranium Extraction Plant, split sampling with a DOE headquarters survey, and participation in several General Accounting Office investigations and a National Academy of Sciences review. The independence of ORP programs guarantees that the public has access to environmental data on the activities of DOE and its contractors. We will describe the interrelationship of ORP and Hanford programs and present results of ORP activities

  20. The DOE policy for protection against radiological and toxicological sabotage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassell, C. Jr.; Callahan, S.; Myers, D.

    1995-01-01

    In response to a Department of Energy Office of Security Evaluations study on radiological and toxicological sabotage, the Under Secretary of Energy has directed that all departmental elements initiate analyses to determine the extent of radiological and toxicological sabotage threats within the department. To accomplish this, a plan was adopted whereby radioactive and other hazardous materials at DOE sites would be assessed by an interdisciplinary team as to quantities, ranked according to their hazards, subjected to a vulnerability assessment, and appropriate upgrades selected and monitored. This paper is a discussion of those efforts

  1. Radiological protection and transuranic wastes from the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, F.; Kelly, G.N.

    1976-01-01

    The significant higher actinides in the nuclear fuel cycle are identified and current knowledge of their radiotoxicity is reviewed with particular emphasis on plutonium. Experience of plutonium in the environment is briefly summarised. The origins of fuel cycle wastes contaminated by actinides are described and available data examined to estimate the amounts of radioactivity involved now and in the future. The radiological importance of individual isotopes of the various actinide elements in wastes is compared and attention drawn to changes with time. Some possible alternative waste management policies are reviewed against the requirements of radiological safety. (author)

  2. Radiation hazards and protection of patient in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Y.C.; Haldar, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    Biological radiation effects such as somatic certainty effects, somatic stochastic effects and genetic effects are described. Diagnostic radiology, therefore, involves risk to the patient in case of undesirable exposures and in particular to the fetus. Gonad doses in diagnostic radiology which may lead to genetic effects have been found to vary within a wide range. To avoid somatic certainty and to keep genetic effects to a minimum, some suggestions are enumerated. They deal with the choice of technique, proper positioning, use of calibrated equipment and use of techniques like xerography, ultrasonography, thermography etc. (M.G.B.)

  3. Radiological protection. Textbook for radiographers and reference book for radiological safety officers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieve, F.E.; Stargardt, A.; Stender, H.S.

    1996-01-01

    The textbook is primarily intended for radiologic staff and radiologic safety officers and gives information on the current regulatory provisions of the German X-ray Ordinance, applications of X-rays, quality assurance, organisational aspects of film processing and quality requirements of X-rays. An annex lists the guidelines of the Bundesaerztekammer (German National Chamber of Physicians) relating to quality assurance aspects, and further useful information on commercially available film-screen systems, the various associations of physicians in Germany, and requirements and performance of radiation surveys. (vhe) [de

  4. Education and training in radiological protection for diagnostic and interventional procedures ICRP 113 in brief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, S.; Gomaa, M. A.; Alshoufi, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    The international commission on radiological protection (ICRP) is the primary body in protection against ionizing radiation. Among its latest publication is ICRP publication 113 e ducation and training in radiological protection for diagnostic and interventional procedures . This document introduces diagnostic and interventional medical procedures using ionizing radiations in deep details. The document is approved by the commission in October 2010 and translated into Arabic at December 2011. This work is a continuation of the efforts series to translate some of the most important of the radiological protection references into the Arabic; aiming to maximize the benefit. The previous translation include WHO handbook on indoor radon: a public health perspective, issued by world health organization 2009 and Radiation Protection in Medicine, ICRP Publication 105 2007 that translated into Arabic with support of Arab atomic energy authority at 2011.

  5. The protection of on-site personnel in the event of a radiological accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrey, M.; Simister, D.N.

    2003-01-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board (NPRB) is responsible in the UK for advising Government and other responsible bodies on the principles for responding to radiological emergencies. NRPB has published appropriate advice on the off-site protection of the public and on the protection of workers involved in taking mitigating actions to reduce the exposure of others. This paper puts forward a suggested framework for the protection of on-site personnel in the event of a radiological emergency which might include a criticality accident. This framework both dovetails with existing planning for the protection of members of the public off-site, and also takes account of specific differences between the situations on and off-site. (author)

  6. Application of the ICRP approach for radiological protection of the marine environment in generic impact assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kliaus, Viktoryia [Republican Scientific-Practical Centre of Hygiene, Laboratory of Radiation Safety, Akademicheskaya str. 8, 220012, Minsk (Belarus); Telleria, Diego M. [IAEA-Assessment and Management of Environmental Releases Unit, Wagramer Strasse 5 - PO Box 100, A-1400, Vienna (Austria); Cabianca, Tiberio [Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, PHE, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a way to use the ICRP approach for protection of the environment in generic assessments of the radiological impact of radioactive releases to the marine environment. Generic assessments of radiological impact to the environment are needed in certain circumstances, for example, when input data are limited or when the likely radiological consequences are expected to be not significant. Under these circumstances the effort in performing the assessment must be commensurate with the potential radiological consequences. The generic assessment described in this paper is a simple tool which provides reasonable and cautious results and is applicable to multiple exposure scenarios associated with the assessment of the radiological impact of releases to the marine the environment. This generic assessment can be also used to provide preliminary results which, when compared to radiological criteria, may determine the need of further specific assessments. The ICRP based its approach to protect the environment in the definition of a set of reference animals and plants and the use of related radiological criteria, in the form of derived consideration reference levels. The paper discusses selection and exposure conditions of the reference animals and plants, methods to estimate their doses and the use of the radiological criteria, for the purpose of a generic assessment. The IAEA is elaborating applications of these generic impact assessments presented in the paper to be included in international guidance under development. (authors)

  7. Application of the diagnostic radiological index of protection to protective garments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasciak, Alexander S. [Department of Radiology, The University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville, Knoxville, Tennessee 37922 (United States); Jones, A. Kyle, E-mail: kyle.jones@mdanderson.org [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Wagner, Louis K. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Previously, the diagnostic radiological index of protection (DRIP) was proposed as a metric for quantifying the protective value of radioprotective garments. The DRIP is a weighted sum of the percent transmissions of different radiation beams through a garment. Ideally, the beams would represent the anticipated stray radiation encountered during clinical use. However, it is impractical to expect a medical physicist to possess the equipment necessary to accurately measure transmission of scattered radiation. Therefore, as a proof of concept, the authors tested a method that applied the DRIP to clinical practice. Methods: Primary beam qualities used in interventional cardiology and radiology were observed and catalogued. Based on the observed range of beam qualities, five representative clinical primary beam qualities, specified by kV and added filtration, were selected for this evaluation. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using these primary beams as source definitions to generate scattered spectra from the clinical primary beams. Using numerical optimization, ideal scatter mimicking primary beams, specified by kV and added aluminum filtration, were matched to the scattered spectra according to half- and quarter-value layers and spectral shape. To within reasonable approximation, these theoretical scatter-mimicking primary beams were reproduced experimentally in laboratory x ray beams and used to measure transmission through pure lead and protective garments. For this proof of concept, the DRIP for pure lead and the garments was calculated by assigning equal weighting to percent transmission measurements for each of the five beams. Finally, the areal density of lead and garments was measured for consideration alongside the DRIP to assess the protective value of each material for a given weight. Results: The authors identified ideal scatter mimicking primary beams that matched scattered spectra to within 0.01 mm for half- and quarter-value layers in

  8. Application of the diagnostic radiological index of protection to protective garments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasciak, Alexander S; Jones, A Kyle; Wagner, Louis K

    2015-02-01

    Previously, the diagnostic radiological index of protection (DRIP) was proposed as a metric for quantifying the protective value of radioprotective garments. The DRIP is a weighted sum of the percent transmissions of different radiation beams through a garment. Ideally, the beams would represent the anticipated stray radiation encountered during clinical use. However, it is impractical to expect a medical physicist to possess the equipment necessary to accurately measure transmission of scattered radiation. Therefore, as a proof of concept, the authors tested a method that applied the DRIP to clinical practice. Primary beam qualities used in interventional cardiology and radiology were observed and catalogued. Based on the observed range of beam qualities, five representative clinical primary beam qualities, specified by kV and added filtration, were selected for this evaluation. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using these primary beams as source definitions to generate scattered spectra from the clinical primary beams. Using numerical optimization, ideal scatter mimicking primary beams, specified by kV and added aluminum filtration, were matched to the scattered spectra according to half- and quarter-value layers and spectral shape. To within reasonable approximation, these theoretical scatter-mimicking primary beams were reproduced experimentally in laboratory x ray beams and used to measure transmission through pure lead and protective garments. For this proof of concept, the DRIP for pure lead and the garments was calculated by assigning equal weighting to percent transmission measurements for each of the five beams. Finally, the areal density of lead and garments was measured for consideration alongside the DRIP to assess the protective value of each material for a given weight. The authors identified ideal scatter mimicking primary beams that matched scattered spectra to within 0.01 mm for half- and quarter-value layers in copper and within 5% for the

  9. Application of the diagnostic radiological index of protection to protective garments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasciak, Alexander S.; Jones, A. Kyle; Wagner, Louis K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Previously, the diagnostic radiological index of protection (DRIP) was proposed as a metric for quantifying the protective value of radioprotective garments. The DRIP is a weighted sum of the percent transmissions of different radiation beams through a garment. Ideally, the beams would represent the anticipated stray radiation encountered during clinical use. However, it is impractical to expect a medical physicist to possess the equipment necessary to accurately measure transmission of scattered radiation. Therefore, as a proof of concept, the authors tested a method that applied the DRIP to clinical practice. Methods: Primary beam qualities used in interventional cardiology and radiology were observed and catalogued. Based on the observed range of beam qualities, five representative clinical primary beam qualities, specified by kV and added filtration, were selected for this evaluation. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using these primary beams as source definitions to generate scattered spectra from the clinical primary beams. Using numerical optimization, ideal scatter mimicking primary beams, specified by kV and added aluminum filtration, were matched to the scattered spectra according to half- and quarter-value layers and spectral shape. To within reasonable approximation, these theoretical scatter-mimicking primary beams were reproduced experimentally in laboratory x ray beams and used to measure transmission through pure lead and protective garments. For this proof of concept, the DRIP for pure lead and the garments was calculated by assigning equal weighting to percent transmission measurements for each of the five beams. Finally, the areal density of lead and garments was measured for consideration alongside the DRIP to assess the protective value of each material for a given weight. Results: The authors identified ideal scatter mimicking primary beams that matched scattered spectra to within 0.01 mm for half- and quarter-value layers in

  10. 1988 Hanford riverbank springs characterization report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirkes, R.L.

    1990-12-01

    This reports presents the results of a special study undertaken to characterize the riverbank springs (i.e., ground-water seepage) entering the Columbia River along the Hanford Site. Radiological and nonradiological analyses were performed. River water samples were also analyzed from upstream and downstream of the Site as well as from the immediate vicinity of the springs. In addition, irrigation return water and spring water entering the river along the shoreline opposite Hanford were analyzed. Hanford-origin contaminants were detected in spring water entering the Columbia River along the Hanford Site. The type and concentrations of contaminants in the spring water were similar to those known to exist in the ground water near the river. The location and extent of the contaminated discharges compared favorably with recent ground-water reports and predictions. Spring discharge volumes remain very small relative to the flow of the Columbia. Downstream river sampling demonstrates the impact of ground-water discharges to be minimal, and negligible in most cases. Radionuclide concentrations were below US Department of Energy Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs) with the exception 90 Sr near the 100-N Area. Tritium, while below the DCG, was detected at concentrations above the US Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standards in several springs. All other radionuclide concentrations were below drinking water standards. Nonradiological contaminants were generally undetectable in the spring water. River water contaminant concentrations, outside of the immediate discharge zones, were below drinking water standards in all cases. 19 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  11. Study on generic intervention levels for protecting the public in a nuclear accident or radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Fabio Fumio

    2003-01-01

    After a nuclear accident or radiological emergency, several social and economical factors shall be considered for the actions to protect the public and to recover the environment. The application of the radiological protection principles on practices in intervention situations may lead to adoption of protective measures disproportional to the involved risk, compromising the resources available to more effective actions. This causes a negative impact on the population and may conduct to discredit about the protective measures and the lost of confidence on the authorities. In this context, the principles of radiological protection for interventions should be studied and analyzed for being adequately applied in accident situations or radiological emergencies that involves the country. These principles are constantly improved and the concept of generic intervention level plays an important role in the decision-making to protect the public. The costs involved to the protective measures for the public in Brazil were studied and cost benefit analysis techniques were applied to estimate the generic intervention levels for public protection applicable in the country. These results were compared to those values internationally recommended, as well to values obtained in a similar study accomplished for Japan. It was also performed a sensibility analysis of the results regarding a value and a simple analysis of the results considering the costs of the several protective measures. (author)

  12. Concept of radiological, medical and social protection of the population of Russia affected by accidental exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osechinski, I.V.; Ivanov, E.V.; Ramzaev, P.V.; Balonov, M.I.; Tsyb, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    Main principles of population radiation protection from various accidental exposure, including the Chernobyl accident, have been implemented in officially approved Concept ''On radiological, medical, social protection and rehabilitation of the Russian Federation population affected by accidental radiation exposure''. The concept includes basic principles of radiation protection, designation of regional radionuclide contaminated territories, records and registers of exposed persons, health protection and rehabilitation, socio-economic and legal aspects

  13. Comparison between radiological protection against ionizing radiation and non ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammet, H.P.

    1992-01-01

    Protection against IR and NIR developed in completely different ways because of the very different evolution of the techniques they involve. While as soon as 1928, the International Society of Radiology created the International Commission of Radiological Protection, we had to wait until 1977 to see the creation of the International Committee for NIR (INIRC) by IRPA. To compare protection against Ionizing Radiations and Non Ionizing Radiations we will first carry out a general analysis of its components and then we will draw the general conclusions leading to a quite comparable evolution. (author)

  14. Focal role of tolerability and reasonableness in the radiological protection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, T; Lochard, J; Vaillant, L

    2016-06-01

    The concepts of tolerability and reasonableness are at the core of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) system of radiological protection. Tolerability allows the definition of boundaries for implementing ICRP principles, while reasonableness contributes to decisions regarding adequate levels of protection, taking into account the prevailing circumstances. In the 1970s and 1980s, attempts to find theoretical foundations in risk comparisons for tolerability and cost-benefit analysis for reasonableness failed. In practice, the search for a rational basis for these concepts will never end. Making a wise decision will always remain a matter of judgement and will depend on the circumstances as well as the current knowledge and past experience. This paper discusses the constituents of tolerability and reasonableness at the heart of the radiological protection system. It also emphasises the increasing role of stakeholder engagement in the quest for tolerability and reasonableness since Publication 103. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics.

  15. Status of radiation protection in interventional radiology. Assessment of inspections in 2009 by the ASN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report first describes the organization of inspections performed in health institutions, indicates the inspected establishments, the types of fixed installations in interventional radiology, the use of imagery in the operating theatre, and discusses the regulatory arrangements applicable to interventional radiology (in the Public Health Code, in the Labour Code). Then, the report discusses the results of inspections regarding radiation protection in interventional radiology: application of public health code arrangements (justification, patient training in radiation protection, radiological procedures and protocols, patient dosimetry monitoring), application of Labour Code arrangements (designation of the person with expertise in radiation protection, risk assessment and delimitation of monitored and controlled areas, workstation analysis, workers' training in radiation protection, individual protection equipment, workers' dosimetric monitoring, workers' medical monitoring, radiation protection technical controls), significant events, radiation protection in operating theatre. Propositions are stated regarding the differences noticed within or between the health establishments, the methodological and organisational difficulties faced by persons with expertise in radiation protection (PCR), the need of an interdisciplinary team

  16. Evaluation of the radiological protection in several departments of nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Bejerano, G.; Jova Sed, L.

    2001-01-01

    For the evaluation of radiation protection, in several departments of nuclear medicine a survey was elaborated and applied that includes mainly: aspects of the licence and compliance with the requirements settled down in this, the program of individual radiological surveillance and their evaluation, functions that it completes the service of radiation protection, training program and the personnel's training, equipment and means of radiation protection, radiological surveillance program of the work areas, characteristics of the installation, radioactive waste management, quality assurance program, relative aspects to radiation protection in the procedures of diagnoses, as well as to pregnant patients and those related with the investigation of accidental medical exposures. The work makes a systematization and discussion of the state of compliance of the radiation protection requirements reflected in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) and the main recommendations are exposed to achieve in these departments the optimization of the radiation protection. (author)

  17. Managing risk at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesser, W.A.; Stillwell, W.G.; Rutherford, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    Clearly, there is sufficient motivation from Washington for the Hanford community to pay particular attention to the risks associated with the substantial volumes of radiological, hazardous, and mixed waste at Hanford. But there is also another reason for emphasizing risk: Hanford leaders have come to realize that their decisions must consider risk and risk reduction if those decisions are to be technically sound, financially affordable, and publicly acceptable. The 560-square miles of desert land is worth only a few thousand dollars an acre (if that) -- hardly enough to justify the almost two billion dollars that will be spent at Hanford this year. The benefit of cleaning up the Hanford Site is not the land but the reduction of potential risk to the public and the environment for future generations. If risk reduction is our ultimate goal, decisions about priority of effort and resource allocation must consider those risks, now and in the future. The purpose of this paper is to describe how Hanford is addressing the issues of risk assessment, risk management, and risk-based decision making and to share some of our experiences in these areas

  18. Radiological protection aspects of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzuru, Hideo; Kimura, Hideo

    1992-01-01

    A high-level radioactive waste, generated at a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, will be disposed of deep, i.e., several hundred meters, within geological formations, to isolate it from the human environment. Since the waste contains significant amounts of long-lived radionuclides, such as Tc-99, I-129, Cs-135 and transuranic elements, the safety of its disposal, particularly as regards the requirement for the radiological protection of human and his environment even in the far future, is one of the essential subjects of all countries engaged in nuclear power production. The radiological protection system has long been established and applied to regulate radiation exposures to the public associated with a relatively short-term release of radioactive materials, during normal and accidental conditions, from nuclear installations such as a power plant and reprocessing plant. Radioactive waste disposal, which potentially offers a long-term radiological consequence on the public, inevitably produces a specific requirement, from the standpoint of radiological protection, that individuals and populations in the future should be accorded at least a current level of the protection. This requirement has caused a serious debate, among the community of radiological protection, on how to establish radiological protection standards and criteria, and how to establish safety assessment methodologies to demonstrate compliance with them. We have discussed in this paper on specific items such as numerical guides to indicate radiological consequences, time frames over which calculations of the consequences are to be carried out, uncertainties to be involved in the calculations, and safety assessment methodologies. (author)

  19. Proposed radiological protection rules for patients in radiodiagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yacovenco, A.; Souza, A.C.A.; Ferreira, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    Faced with the increasing exposure of the population to ionizing radiations and the need to respect users' rights, political and scientific efforts have been undertaken in order to improve image quality in radiodiagnostics and reduce risks to patients. In Brazil, in the past 20 years, a low rate of investment in this area and inadequate health policies have lead to diagnostic radiology services of poor quality. For their part, scientific societies, professional associations and the Ministry of Health have issued federal and state norms which require the control of physical parameters of the radiological equipment. Consequently, there is a need to create a National Reference Laboratory to oversee, inspect and evaluate the implementation of such norms. Another topic addressed in this article is the professional profile of the Medical Physics Specialist. (author)

  20. Regulation of radiological protection for patients under radiodiagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yacovenco, Alejandro; Ferreira, R.S.; Souza, A.C.A.

    1997-01-01

    Face to the increasing exposition of the population to ionizing radiations and the needs to fulfill user's rights, political and scientific efforts have been made in order to improve image quality and reduce risks to patients. A proposal to create a National Reference Laboratory to survey, supervise and evaluate the implementation of norms which require the control of physical parameters of the radiological equipment is presented. Aspects related to the profile of the Medical Physicist are also discussed. (author)

  1. Core ethical values of radiological protection applied to Fukushima case: reflecting common morality and cultural diversities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Chieko; Cho, Kunwoo; Toohey, Richard E

    2016-12-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has established Task Group 94 (TG94) to develop a publication to clarify the ethical foundations of the radiological protection system it recommends. This TG identified four core ethical values which structure the system: beneficence and non-maleficence, prudence, justice, and dignity. Since the ICRP is an international organization, its recommendations and guidance should be globally applicable and acceptable. Therefore, first this paper presents the basic principles of the ICRP radiological protection system and its core ethical values, along with a reflection on the variation of these values in Western and Eastern cultural traditions. Secondly, this paper reflects upon how these values can be applied in difficult ethical dilemmas as in the case of the emergency and post-accident phases of a nuclear power plant accident, using the Fukushima case to illustrate the challenges at stake. We found that the core ethical values underlying the ICRP system of radiological protection seem to be quite common throughout the world, although there are some variations among various cultural contexts. Especially we found that 'prudence' would call for somewhat different implementation in each cultural context, balancing and integrating sometime conflicting values, but always with objectives to achieve the well-being of people, which is itself the ultimate aim of the radiological protection system.

  2. The work of ICRP on the ethical foundations of the system of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Kun-Woo

    2017-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has established Task Group 94 (TG 94) to develop a publication on the ethical foundations of the system of radiological protection aiming to consolidate the basis of ICRP's recommendations, to improve the understanding of the system and to provide a basis for communication on radiation risk and its perception. Through the review of the publications of the Commission and the conduct of a series of workshops, TG 94 has identified the key components of the ethical theories and principles relevant to the system of radiological protection. The purpose of eliciting the ethical values underpinning the system of radiological protection is not only to clarify the rationale of the recommendations made by the Commission, but also to assist in discussions related to its practical implementation. The report nearing completion by TG 94 will present the key steps concerning the scientific, ethical and practical evolutions of the system of radiological protection since the first ICRP publication in 1928, describe the core ethical values underpinning the present system and address the key procedural aspects for its implementation. (authors)

  3. Radiological Calibration and Standards Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — PNNL maintains a state-of-the-art Radiological Calibration and Standards Laboratory on the Hanford Site at Richland, Washington. Laboratory staff provide expertise...

  4. Radiation protection in the diagnostic radiology. General viewpoint including CT; Strahlenschutz in der diagnostischen Radiologie. Allgemeine Sichtweise einschliesslich CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroepil, Patric [Universitaetsklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie

    2017-07-01

    Radiation protection in radiology has received public attention due to reports in the media on radiation hazards due to CT. The contribution covers the issues radiation protection in radiology, including the documentation of dose information, the responsibility of radiologists for their patients, new developments with respect to dose intensive CT and the changes due to the new radiation protection law.

  5. Radiological Protection in Odontology: Analysis from the Faculty of Odontology at Rio de Janeiro concerning standards, licenses, controls and installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilha Filho, L.G.; Borgues, J.C.; Raymundo Junior, R.; Koch, H.A.

    1998-01-01

    This work shows the need and the importance training odontologists on radiological protection has. This is based on a proposal recently made by Technical Regulations: Trends for Radiological Protection in Medical and Odontological Radiodiagnosis from the Secretariat of Health Security from the Ministry of Health. These establish basic standards for radiation protection in medical and odontological areas

  6. Hanford cultural resources laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, M.K.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes activities of the Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) which was established by the Richland Operations Office in 1987 as part of PNL.The HCRL provides support for the management of the archaeological, historical, and traditional cultural resources of the site in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act

  7. Hanford cultural resources laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, M.K.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes activities of the Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) which was established by the Richland Operations Office in 1987 as part of PNL.The HCRL provides support for the management of the archaeological, historical, and traditional cultural resources of the site in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act, the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act.

  8. Survey of Radiological and Chemical Contaminants in the Near-Shore Environment at the Hanford Site 300 Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, Gregory W.; Van Verst, Scott P.; Tiller, Brett L.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Poston, Ted M.

    2003-01-01

    This updates the original report by correcting some errors and adding new information. This assessment of the 300 Area was completed to identify any contamination present and determine if it could present a risk to humans and plant and animal life. The assessment characterized the radiological and chemical conditions existing in the near-shore environment of the Columbia River at the 300 Area by collecting water, biota, and sediment samples and measuring radiation levels during a time when the effects of riverbank spring discharges and groundwater upwelling into the river was likely to be present

  9. Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland 1992 annual report and accounts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This report outlines the work of the Institute during 1992. The main developments during the year included the expansion of the programme of measurement of radon gas in buildings. A nationwide survey was launched in which, over a period of four years, radon levels will be measured in more than 6000 homes. A major exercise of the National Emergency Plan for Nuclear Accidents took place in October which enhanced the level of preparedness of those who will have a key part in the national response to any radiological emergency

  10. Science and Values in Radiological Protection - Helsinki, Finland, 15-17 January 2008. Workshop proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Key scientific challenges arising from ongoing radiobiological research have been identified recently. From this scientific base, the possible implications for radiological protection science are expected to be further elaborated. Through discussions among members of various NEA committees, it is clear that there is a need for radiological protection policy makers, regulators and practitioners to better understand possible developments coming from radiological protection science. At the same time, there is also a need for radiological protection scientists to better understand the broad processes of radiological protection decision making and to better interact with these processes in terms of furnishing input coming from their research. Participants in this workshop will attempt to identify elements of a framework that are better suited for the integration of new scientific and technological developments and socio-political considerations into radiological protection. This workshop initiated a process of reflection and dialogue among researchers, policy makers and other stakeholders that will, in the longer term: - improve understanding in both the research and policy communities of what is at stake in the system of radiological protection as scientific knowledge and social values evolve; - contribute to the development of a more shared view of emerging scientific and societal challenges to radiological protection, taking into account existing differences; - identify research that will better inform decision makers' judgments on emerging issues; - be the first step in the identification of elements of a framework that is better suited for the integration of new scientific and technological developments and socio-political considerations into radiological protection; and - identify the most appropriate next steps in this process. To achieve the above objectives, selected examples of emerging radiological protection issues were addressed during the workshop. The

  11. Radiological dose assessment for the decontaminated concrete removed from 183-H solar evaporation basins at the Hanford site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamboj, S.; Faillace, E.; Yu, C.

    1997-01-01

    Potential maximum radiation dose rates over a 1,000-year time horizon were calculated for exposure to the decontaminated concrete removed from the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. The RESRAD computer code, Version 5.62, which implements the methodology described in the US Department of Energy's manual for developing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation. Currently, the concrete is not being used. Four potential exposure scenarios were developed for the land area where the decontaminated concrete will be stored. In Scenario A industrial use of the land is assumed; in Scenario B recreational use of the land is assumed; in Scenario C residential use of the land is assumed; and in Scenario D (a plausible but unlikely land-use scenario), the presence of a subsistence farmer in the immediate vicinity of the land is assumed. For Scenarios A and B, water used for drinking is assumed to be surface water from the Columbia River; for Scenarios C and D, groundwater drawn from a well located at the downgradient edge of the storage area is the only source of water for drinking, irrigation, and raising livestock. Conservative parameters values were used to estimate the radiation doses. The results of the evaluation indicate that the US Department of Energy's dose limit of 100 mrem/yr would not be exceeded for any of the scenarios analyzed. The potential maximum dose rates for Scenarios A, B, C, and D are 0.75, 0.022, 29, 29 mrem/yr, respectively. An uncertainty analysis was performed to determine which parameters have the greatest impact on the estimated doses. The doses in Scenarios C and D were found to be very sensitive to the magnitude of the irrigation rate

  12. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES--INTEGRATED LIFE-CYCLE OPTIMIZATION INITIATIVES FOR THE HANFORD RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT--WASTE TREATMENT PLANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auclair, K. D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the ongoing integrated life-cycle optimization efforts to achieve both design flexibility and design stability for activities associated with the Waste Treatment Plant at Hanford. Design flexibility is required to support the Department of Energy Office of River Protection Balance of Mission objectives, and design stability to meet the Waste Treatment Plant construction and commissioning requirements in order to produce first glass in 2007. The Waste Treatment Plant is a large complex project that is driven by both technology and contractual requirements. It is also part of a larger overall mission, as a component of the River Protection Project, which is driven by programmatic requirements and regulatory, legal, and fiscal constraints. These issues are further complicated by the fact that both of the major contractors involved have a different contract type with DOE, and neither has a contract with the other. This combination of technical and programmatic drivers, constraints, and requirements will continue to provide challenges and opportunities for improvement and optimization. The Bechtel National, Inc. team is under contract to engineer, procure, construct, commission and test the Waste Treatment Plant on or ahead of schedule, at or under cost, and with a throughput capacity equal to or better than specified. The Department of Energy is tasked with the long term mission of waste retrieval, treatment, and disposal. While each mission is a compliment and inextricably linked to one another, they are also at opposite ends of the spectrum, in terms of expectations of one another. These mission requirements, that are seemingly in opposition to one another, pose the single largest challenge and opportunity for optimization: one of balance. While it is recognized that design maturation and optimization are the normal responsibility of any engineering firm responsible for any given project, the aspects of integrating requirements and the management

  13. Assessment of radiation protection awareness and knowledge about radiological examination doses among Italian radiographers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolicchi, F; Miniati, F; Bastiani, L; Faggioni, L; Ciaramella, A; Creonti, I; Sottocornola, C; Dionisi, C; Caramella, D

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate radiation protection basic knowledge and dose assessment for radiological procedures among Italian radiographers A validated questionnaire was distributed to 780 participants with balanced demographic characteristics and geographic distribution. Only 12.1 % of participants attended radiation protection courses on a regular basis. Despite 90 % of radiographers stating to have sufficient awareness of radiation protection issues, most of them underestimated the radiation dose of almost all radiological procedures. About 5 % and 4 % of the participants, respectively, claimed that pelvis magnetic resonance imaging and abdominal ultrasound exposed patients to radiation. On the contrary, 7.0 % of the radiographers stated that mammography does not use ionising radiation. About half of participants believed that radiation-induced cancer is not dependent on age or gender and were not able to differentiate between deterministic and stochastic effects. Young radiographers (with less than 3 years of experience) showed a higher level of knowledge compared with the more experienced radiographers. There is a substantial need for radiographers to improve their awareness of radiation protection issues and their knowledge of radiological procedures. Specific actions such as regular training courses for both undergraduate and postgraduate students as well as for working radiographers must be considered in order to assure patient safety during radiological examinations. • Radiographers should improve their knowledge on radiation protection issues. • Only 12.1 % of participants attended radiation protection courses on a regular basis. • Specific actions must be considered in order to increase knowledge and awareness.

  14. Radiological Environmental Protection for LCLS-II High Power Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu James

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The LCLS-II superconducting electron accelerator at SLAC plans to operate at up to 4 GeV and 240 kW average power, which would create higher radiological impacts particularly near the beam loss points such as beam dumps and halo collimators. The main hazards to the public and environment include direct or skyshine radiation, effluent of radioactive air such as 13N, 15O and 41Ar, and activation of groundwater creating tritium. These hazards were evaluated using analytic methods and FLUKA Monte Carlo code. The controls (mainly extensive bulk shielding and local shielding around high loss points and monitoring (neutron/photon detectors with detection capabilities below natural background at site boundary, site-wide radioactive air monitors, and groundwater wells were designed to meet the U.S. DOE and EPA, as well as SLAC requirements. The radiological design and controls for the LCW systems [including concrete housing shielding for 15O and 11C circulating in LCW, 7Be and erosion/corrosion products (22Na, 54Mn, 60Co, 65Zn, etc. captured in resin and filters, leak detection and containment of LCW with 3H and its waste water discharge; explosion from H2 build-up in surge tank and release of radionuclides] associated with the high power beam dumps are also presented.

  15. Radiological Environmental Protection for LCLS-II High Power Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, James; Blaha, Jan; Cimeno, Maranda; Mao, Stan; Nicolas, Ludovic; Rokni, Sayed; Santana, Mario; Tran, Henry

    2017-09-01

    The LCLS-II superconducting electron accelerator at SLAC plans to operate at up to 4 GeV and 240 kW average power, which would create higher radiological impacts particularly near the beam loss points such as beam dumps and halo collimators. The main hazards to the public and environment include direct or skyshine radiation, effluent of radioactive air such as 13N, 15O and 41Ar, and activation of groundwater creating tritium. These hazards were evaluated using analytic methods and FLUKA Monte Carlo code. The controls (mainly extensive bulk shielding and local shielding around high loss points) and monitoring (neutron/photon detectors with detection capabilities below natural background at site boundary, site-wide radioactive air monitors, and groundwater wells) were designed to meet the U.S. DOE and EPA, as well as SLAC requirements. The radiological design and controls for the LCW systems [including concrete housing shielding for 15O and 11C circulating in LCW, 7Be and erosion/corrosion products (22Na, 54Mn, 60Co, 65Zn, etc.) captured in resin and filters, leak detection and containment of LCW with 3H and its waste water discharge; explosion from H2 build-up in surge tank and release of radionuclides] associated with the high power beam dumps are also presented.

  16. Radionuclides in Bayer process residues: previous analysis for radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuccia, Valeria; Rocha, Zildete; Oliveira, Arno H. de

    2011-01-01

    Natural occurring radionuclides are present in many natural resources. Human activities may enhance concentrations of radionuclides and/or enhance potential of exposure to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The industrial residues containing radionuclides have been receiving a considerable global attention, because of the large amounts of NORM containing wastes and the potential long term risks of long-lived radionuclides. Included in this global concern, this work focuses on the characterization of radioactivity in the main residues of Bayer process for alumina production: red mud and sand samples. Usually, the residues of Bayer process are named red mud, in their totality. However, in the industry where the samples were collected, there is an additional residues separation: sand and red mud. The analytical techniques used were gamma spectrometry (HPGe detector) and neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of radionuclides are higher in the red mud than in the sand. These solid residues present activities concentrations enhanced, when compared to bauxite. Further uses for the residues as building material must be more evaluated from the radiological point of view, due to its potential of radiological exposure enhancement, specially caused by radon emission. (author)

  17. How can interventions for inhabitants be justified after a nuclear accident? An approach based on the radiological protection system of the international commission on radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahara, Shogo; Homma, Toshimitsu; Yoneda, Minoru; Shimada, Yoko

    2016-01-01

    Management of radiation-induced risks in areas contaminated by a nuclear accident is characterized by three ethical issues: (1) risk trade-off, (2) paternalistic intervention and (3) individualization of responsibilities. To deal with these issues and to clarify requirements of justification of interventions for the purpose of reduction in radiation-induced risks, we explored the ethical basis of the radiological protection system of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The ICRP's radiological protection system is established based on three normative ethics, i.e. utilitarianism, deontology and virtue ethics. The three ethical issues can be resolved based on the decision-making framework which is constructed in combination with these ethical theories. In addition, the interventions for inhabitants have the possibility to be justified in accordance with two ways. Firstly, when the dangers are severe and far-reaching, interventions could be justified with a sufficient explanation about the nature of harmful effects (or beneficial consequences). Secondly, if autonomy of intervened-individuals can be promoted, those interventions could be justified. (author)

  18. PPR: a database for radiologic protection plan elaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, M.; Farias, J.T. de; Batista, D.V.

    2001-01-01

    The Plan of Radiation Protection is a document demanded for Licensing of the Radioactive Installations. It establishes the system of Radioprotection to be implemented by the Service of Radiation Protection. Its main objective is to achieve the requirements of Radiation Protection and Safety constants in the regulations CNEN-NE-3.01 - Basic Guidelines of Radiation Protection and CNEN-NE-3.06 - Requirements of Radiation Protection and Safety for Services of Radiotherapy. The proposal presented here has the aim to easy the development and the uniformity of the elaboration of the Plan of Radiation Protection. Considering the difficulties found by the physicists responsible for the services in developing a Plan of Radiation Protection that contemplate all the necessary requirements, as well as the final analysis accomplished by CNEN, the present project was elaborated. This consists of a software of easy use, developed according to the most modern patterns of programming, allowing to the user to elaborate the Plan of Radiation Protection in agreement with to basic needs of the Installation. Soon the software will be available in the page web of CNEN for download. (author)

  19. A multimedia - virtual reality based- tool for training in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salve, R.; Castro, A.; Javier, Castelo; Francisco, Diaz; Francisco, Massana; Antonio, A. de; Herrero, P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the work that has been carried out under the frame of the project PRVIR, promoted by DTN in co-operation with the UPM and Vandellos II NPP, as the pilot plant. The aim of the project is to make use of computer-based training in nuclear plants, taking advantage of multimedia resources and advanced computer graphics. The area that has been selected for this first training program is radiological protection fundamentals, and the end users of the program will be professionally exposed workers. The software can also be used for radiological protection concepts dissemination purposes. (author)

  20. A multimedia - virtual reality based- tool for training in radiological protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salve, R.; Castro, A. [DTN, Madrid (Spain); Antonio, A. de; Herrero, P. [UPM Facultad de Informatica, Madrid (Spain); Diaz, F.; Massana, F [Central Nuclear Vandellos 2, Tarragona (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the work that has been carried out under the frame of the project PRVIR, promoted by DTN in co-operation with the UPM and Vandellos II NPP, as the pilot plant. The aim of the project is to make use of computer-based training in nuclear plants, taking advantage of multimedia resources and advanced computer graphics. The area that has been selected for this first training program is radiological protection fundamentals, and the end users of the program will be professionally exposed workers. The software can also be used for radiological protection concepts dissemination purposes. (author)

  1. Code of practice and design principles for portable and transportable radiological protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, F.H.; Powell, R.G.

    1980-10-01

    The Code of Practice and design principles for portable and transportable radiological protection systems are presented in three parts. Part 1 specifies the requirement for Radiological Protection Instrumentation (RPI) including operational characteristics and the effects of both a radiation and non-radiation environment. Part 2 satisfies the requirement for RPI equipment as regards the overall design, the availability, the reliability, the information display, the human factors, the power supplies, the manufacture and quality assurance, the testing and the cost. Part 3 deals with the supply, location and operation of the RPI equipment. (U.K.)

  2. Radiation protection of workers in radiological emergency situation. Proceedings of the technical day

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rannou, Alain; Gosset, Eric; Lahaye, Thierry; Foucher, Laurent; Couasnon, Olivier; Bouchery, Pascal; Gaillard-Lecanu, Emmanuelle; Pectorin, Xavier; Fusil, Laurence; Boudergui, Karim; Adhemar, Bruno; Devin, Patrick; Mace, Jean-Reynald; Chevallier, Michel; Leautaud, Jean-Marc; LANCE, Benoit

    2015-03-01

    Following the Fukushima-Daichi accident, several actions have been taken in France from the lessons learnt from the accident: the elaboration of a national plan for the management of a major nuclear or radiological accident, and the safety complementary evaluations to be carried out by nuclear operators. As a complement to the measures to be implemented for the protection of the overall population in emergency radiological situation, the protection of workers mobilized for the management of the crisis has also to be taken into account in the framework of these measures. The French Society of Radiation Protection (SFRP) has organized a technical day to take stock of this question. The program comprises 4 topical sessions dealing with: the main actions taken at the national scale after the Fukushima-Daichi accident, the strategies and intervention means of nuclear operators in case of radiological emergency, the radiation protection R and D for the protection of intervenors in case of radiological emergency, and the main actions implemented at the international scale and their perspectives. This document brings together the abstracts and the presentations (slides) of the different talks given at the meeting: 1 - Health status and lessons learnt from the Fukushima accident - workers (Alain RANNOU, IRSN); 2 - National response plan to a major nuclear or radiologic accident (Eric GOSSET, SGDSN); 3 - Legal framework applicable to intervenors (Thierry LAHAYE, DGT); 4 - Prescriptions linked with complementary safety and liability studies (Laurent FOUCHER, ASN); 5 - EDF: radiological risk management in emergency situation (Pascal BOUCHERY, EDF); 6 - CEA: intervention strategy, means and radiation protection (Xavier PECTORIN, Laurence FUSIL - CEA); 7 - AREVA: FINA's Intervention and workers' radiation protection (Bruno ADHEMAR, Patrick DEVIN - AREVA); 8 - Intervention in radiological emergency situation: the INTRA (Robots intervention on accidents) economic

  3. Radiological protection tests for products which can lead to exposure of the public to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.D.; Wrixon, A.D.; Wilkins, B.T.

    1976-07-01

    Testing plays an important role in deciding whether products which irradiate the general public are acceptable from a radiological protection point of view. This report discusses the role which testing should play in decision-making and develops a systematic approach to the testing of products. As an example of this approach, a proposed test programme for ionisation chamber smoke detectors is described. The use of test results as a basis for design specifications and performance requirements in the development of radiological protection standards for products is discussed. A description of the relevant standards is included. (author)

  4. ICRP PUBLICATION 122: radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W; Larsson, C-M; McKenney, C; Minon, J-P; Mobbs, S; Schneider, T; Umeki, H; Hilden, W; Pescatore, C; Vesterlind, M

    2013-06-01

    This report updates and consolidates previous recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) related to solid waste disposal (ICRP, 1985, 1997b, 1998). The recommendations given apply specifically to geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report explains how the ICRP system of radiological protection described in Publication 103 (ICRP, 2007) can be applied in the context of the geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. Although the report is written as a standalone document, previous ICRP recommendations not dealt with in depth in the report are still valid. The 2007 ICRP system of radiological protection evolves from the previous process-based protection approach relying on the distinction between practices and interventions by moving to an approach based on the distinction between three types of exposure situation: planned, emergency and existing. The Recommendations maintains the Commission's three fundamental principles of radiological protection namely: justification, optimisation of protection and the application of dose limits. They also maintain the current individual dose limits for effective dose and equivalent dose from all regulated sources in planned exposure situations. They re-enforce the principle of optimisation of radiological protection, which applies in a similar way to all exposure situations, subject to restrictions on individual doses: constraints for planned exposure situations, and reference levels for emergency and existing exposure situations. The Recommendations also include an approach for developing a framework to demonstrate radiological protection of the environment. This report describes the different stages in the life time of a geological disposal facility, and addresses the application of relevant radiological protection principles for each stage depending on the various exposure situations that can be encountered. In particular, the crucial factor that

  5. ICRP PUBLICATION 122: Radiological Protection in Geological Disposal of Long-lived Solid Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, W.; Larsson, C-M.; McKenney, C.; Minon, J-P.; Mobbs, S.; Schneider, T.; Umeki, H.; Hilden, W.; Pescatore, C.; Vesterlind, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report updates and consolidates previous recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) related to solid waste disposal (ICRP, 1985, 1997b, 1998). The recommendations given apply specifically to geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report explains how the ICRP system of radiological protection described in Publication 103 (ICRP, 2007) can be applied in the context of the geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. Although the report is written as a standalone document, previous ICRP recommendations not dealt with in depth in the report are still valid. The 2007 ICRP system of radiological protection evolves from the previous process-based protection approach relying on the distinction between practices and interventions by moving to an approach based on the distinction between three types of exposure situation: planned, emergency and existing. The Recommendations maintains the Commission’s three fundamental principles of radiological protection namely: justification, optimisation of protection and the application of dose limits. They also maintain the current individual dose limits for effective dose and equivalent dose from all regulated sources in planned exposure situations. They re-enforce the principle of optimisation of radiological protection, which applies in a similar way to all exposure situations, subject to restrictions on individual doses: constraints for planned exposure situations, and reference levels for emergency and existing exposure situations. The Recommendations also include an approach for developing a framework to demonstrate radiological protection of the environment. This report describes the different stages in the life time of a geological disposal facility, and addresses the application of relevant radiological protection principles for each stage depending on the various exposure situations that can be encountered. In particular, the crucial factor that

  6. Biological effects and radiation protection in veterinary radiology: a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, P.C.; Siqueira, D.; Barros, F.S.

    2017-01-01

    Veterinary radiology is a tool of excellent diagnostic support. Besides X--ray, it counts on technological advances such as computed tomography, nuclear medicine and interventional radiology . It is common during X-ray practice to use exposure parameters with short times to avoid blurring by the movement of the animal, but the fact that the animals need to be immobilized during the exposures contribute significantly with the increase of the dose received by the professionals, whose biological risks are not yet well established as a result of exposure to other factors harmful to health, such as anesthetic gases, insecticides, zoonoses and others. For this reason, we sought to verify the main radiological risks to which veterinarians are exposed and the best means to guarantee radiological protection

  7. Proceedings of the 15th nuclear safety research association symposium ICRP's 2005 Recommendations on radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-02-01

    This is the document of the Symposium in the title, held in Tokyo, 2003. The document contains the greeting by chairperson (Toshiso Kosako, International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) member, Tokyo University): lecture 1; for the title subject presented as ''ICRP's 2005 Recommendations on Radiological Protection'' with its slides entitled ''The Evolution of the System of Radiological Protection-The Justification for ICRP's 2005 Recommendations'' by L.-E. Holm (ICRP Vice-Chairman, Swedish Radiation Protection Authority): lecture 2; ''Protection of the Environment: from Ethics to Genetics''' with slides, ''Ionising Radiation and the Environment'', by R. J. Pentreath (ICRP member, The University of Reading, the United Kingdom (UK)): respectively followed by discussion with 3 Japanese panelists for each lecture: and chairperson's summary. The chair's greeting is about the rise of interest in environmental radiation protection, its background, and related trends in The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)/Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH). L-EH's presentation involves sections of the background of the recommendations and protection of the environment, mentioning some of the proposed changes in the Commission's recommendations for its 2005 Recommendations. RJP's presentation involves sections of a philosophical platform, environmental management, relevance to radiation and its effects, points of reference and discussion where the impact of radionuclides and radiation in environment on various biological systems is mentioned in view for future. (R.T.)

  8. Radiological protection issues arising during and after the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Abel J; Akashi, Makoto; Sakai, Kazuo; Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Boice Jr, John D; Chino, Masamichi; Homma, Toshimitsu; Ishigure, Nobuhito; Kai, Michiaki; Kusumi, Shizuyo; Lee, Jai-Ki; Menzel, Hans-Georg; Niwa, Ohtsura; Yamashita, Shunichi; Weiss, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Following the Fukushima accident, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) convened a task group to compile lessons learned from the nuclear reactor accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan, with respect to the ICRP system of radiological protection. In this memorandum the members of the task group express their personal views on issues arising during and after the accident, without explicit endorsement of or approval by the ICRP. While the affected people were largely protected against radiation exposure and no one incurred a lethal dose of radiation (or a dose sufficiently large to cause radiation sickness), many radiological protection questions were raised. The following issues were identified: inferring radiation risks (and the misunderstanding of nominal risk coefficients); attributing radiation effects from low dose exposures; quantifying radiation exposure; assessing the importance of internal exposures; managing emergency crises; protecting rescuers and volunteers; responding with medical aid; justifying necessary but disruptive protective actions; transiting from an emergency to an existing situation; rehabilitating evacuated areas; restricting individual doses of members of the public; caring for infants and children; categorising public exposures due to an accident; considering pregnant women and their foetuses and embryos; monitoring public protection; dealing with ‘contamination’ of territories, rubble and residues and consumer products; recognising the importance of psychological consequences; and fostering the sharing of information. Relevant ICRP Recommendations were scrutinised, lessons were collected and suggestions were compiled. It was concluded that the radiological protection community has an ethical duty to learn from the lessons of Fukushima and resolve any identified challenges. Before another large accident occurs, it should be ensured that inter alia: radiation risk coefficients of

  9. Radiological protection issues arising during and after the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Abel J; Akashi, Makoto; Boice, John D; Chino, Masamichi; Homma, Toshimitsu; Ishigure, Nobuhito; Kai, Michiaki; Kusumi, Shizuyo; Lee, Jai-Ki; Menzel, Hans-Georg; Niwa, Ohtsura; Sakai, Kazuo; Weiss, Wolfgang; Yamashita, Shunichi; Yonekura, Yoshiharu

    2013-09-01

    Following the Fukushima accident, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) convened a task group to compile lessons learned from the nuclear reactor accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan, with respect to the ICRP system of radiological protection. In this memorandum the members of the task group express their personal views on issues arising during and after the accident, without explicit endorsement of or approval by the ICRP. While the affected people were largely protected against radiation exposure and no one incurred a lethal dose of radiation (or a dose sufficiently large to cause radiation sickness), many radiological protection questions were raised. The following issues were identified: inferring radiation risks (and the misunderstanding of nominal risk coefficients); attributing radiation effects from low dose exposures; quantifying radiation exposure; assessing the importance of internal exposures; managing emergency crises; protecting rescuers and volunteers; responding with medical aid; justifying necessary but disruptive protective actions; transiting from an emergency to an existing situation; rehabilitating evacuated areas; restricting individual doses of members of the public; caring for infants and children; categorising public exposures due to an accident; considering pregnant women and their foetuses and embryos; monitoring public protection; dealing with 'contamination' of territories, rubble and residues and consumer products; recognising the importance of psychological consequences; and fostering the sharing of information. Relevant ICRP Recommendations were scrutinised, lessons were collected and suggestions were compiled. It was concluded that the radiological protection community has an ethical duty to learn from the lessons of Fukushima and resolve any identified challenges. Before another large accident occurs, it should be ensured that inter alia: radiation risk coefficients of potential

  10. Proposed radiological protection criteria for waste disposal options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    Criteria which are based solely on the consequences of releases of radionuclides, that is doses to man, are inappropriate for decisions on the acceptability of many of the disposal options for solid wastes. The risks associated with disposal options in which the intention is to isolate wastes from the biosphere for any length of time have two major components: the probability that a release of radionuclides will occur and the probability that subsequent radiation doses will give rise to deleterious effects. It is therefore necessary to develop criteria which embody the basic radiological principle of keeping risks to acceptable levels and take account of both components of risk. In this paper proposed criteria are described and some of the implications of adopting these criteria are discussed. (author)

  11. Calibration of instrument and personnel monitoring in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Aziz Mohamad Ramli; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah

    1987-01-01

    It is difficult to choose radioprotection equipments that are not too expensive and suit the purpose. Some of the dosimetric characteristics of good dosemeters outlined by ISO 4071-1978 (E) namely scale linearity, energy dependence, radiation quality dependence and angular dependence for some of the commercially available dosemeters are discussed. The calibration procedures practised at the National Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL), of the Nuclear Energy Unit (NEU) is also explained. The radiological equipments for personnel monitoring such as film badge and TLD are widely used to estimate the radiation dose delivered to the whole or partial body of a personnel. Both of the personnel monitoring procedures have been established at the NEU. The objective, use and maintenance of the devices are also discussed in detail. The evaluation of the monthly dose received by a personnel from various establishments in the country are also presented. (author). 17 figs

  12. New ethical issues for radiation protection in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    The ethical basis for many medical practices has been challenged over the last two decades. Radiology has seen enormous growth during the same period. Many practices and equipment types, now commonplace, did not exist a generation ago. Yet the fundamental ethical basis for these practices has not seen a corresponding level of development. This is possibly an oversight, and may be particularly important given that these innovations have taken place over a period of changing social attitudes. Areas of concern include, for example, issues around justification, consent/authorisation, inadvertent irradiation of the foetus/embryo during pregnancy and the place of paternalism/individual autonomy in the structure of practice. This paper provides the background to a workshop on these issues held in late-2006 and presents a summary of its findings. (authors)

  13. Radiological Protection Plan an ethic responsibility; Plano de protecao radiologica e responsabilidade etica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huhn, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.huhn@ifsc.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina (IFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Vargas, Mara Ambrosina de Oliveira, E-mail: mara@ccs.ufs.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The Radiological Protection Plan - PPR, quoted by the Regulatory Standard 32, requires to be maintained at the workplace and at the disposal of the worker's inspection the PPR, for it to be aware of their work environment and the damage that can be caused by misuse of ionizing radiation. Objective: to discuss the interface between PPR and ethical reflection. Method: this is a reflective study. Discussion and results: regulatory norm 32 points out that the worker who conducts activities in areas where there are sources of ionizing radiation should know the risks associated with their work. However, it is considered that the sectors of hospital radiology the multidisciplinary health team is exposed to ionizing radiation and has not always aware of the harm caused by it, so end up unprotected conduct their activities. Concomitantly, recent studies emphasize the radiological protection and concern for the dangers of radiation on humans, but rather refer to the legislation about the radiological protection. In this context an ethical reflection is necessary, seeking to combine work ethics liability to care in protecting themselves and the other with the institutional conditions for this protection becomes effective.

  14. Master Training in Radiological Protection Facilities Radioactive and Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdu, G.; Mayo, P.; Campayo, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    The master includes general aspects of radiation protection in nuclear facilities. also an advanced module to acquire a high level training highlights as nuclear decommissioning, shielding calculation using advanced codes, particle accelerators, international law, etc.

  15. Reengineering and health physics within the project Hanford management contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atencio, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    The impending transition of the Hartford Site management and operations (M ampersand O) contract to a management and integrating (M ampersand I) contract format, together with weak radiological performance assessments by external organizations and reduced financial budgets prompted the 're-engineering' of the previous Hanford prime contractor Radiological Control (Rad Con) organization. This paper presents the methodology, identified areas of improvements, and results of the re-engineering process. The conversion from the M ampersand O to the M ampersand I contract concept resulted in multiple independent Rad Con organizations reporting to separate major contractors who are managed by an integrating contractor. This brought significant challenges when establishing minimum site standards for sitewide consistency, developing roles and responsibilities, and maintaining site Rad Con goals. Championed by the previous contractor's Rad Con Director, Denny Newland, a five month planning effort was executed to address the challenges of the M ampersand I and to address identified weaknesses. Fluor Daniel Hanford assumed the responsibility as integrator of the Project Hanford Management Contract on October 1, 1996. The Fluor Daniel Hanford Radiation Protection Director Jeff Foster presents the results of the re-engineering effort, including the significant cost savings, process improvements, field support improvements, and clarification of roles and responsibilities that have been achieved

  16. Hanford Emergency Response Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagoner, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Emergency Response Plan for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), incorporates into one document an overview of the emergency management program for the Hanford Site. The program has been developed in accordance with DOE orders, and state and federal regulations to protect worker and public health and safety and the environment in the event of an emergency at or affecting the Hanford Site. This plan provides a description of how the Hanford Site will implement the provisions of DOE 5500 series and other applicable Orders in terms of overall policies and concept of operations. It should be used as the basis, along with DOE Orders, for the development of specific contractor and RL implementing procedures

  17. Hanford Emergency Response Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagoner, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Emergency Response Plan for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), incorporates into one document an overview of the emergency management program for the Hanford Site. The program has been developed in accordance with DOE orders, and state and federal regulations to protect worker and public health and safety and the environment in the event of an emergency at or affecting the Hanford Site. This plan provides a description of how the Hanford Site will implement the provisions of DOE 5500 series and other applicable Orders in terms of overall policies and concept of operations. It should be used as the basis, along with DOE Orders, for the development of specific contractor and RL implementing procedures.

  18. Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on disease processes originating within the alimentary tract, may extend through the extraperitoneal spaces, and abnormalities primarily arising within other extraperitoneal sites may significantly affect the bowel. Symptoms and signs may be obscure, delayed, or nonspecific, and the area is generally not accessible to auscultation, palpation, or percussion. Radiologic evaluation thus plays a critical role

  19. A study of the arrangements for radiological protection in twenty-three veterinary practices in Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheelton, R.

    1977-09-01

    The general standards of radiological protection found in 23 veterinary practices are summarised, with reference to the recommendations of the Code of Practice for the Protection of Persons Exposed to Ionising Radiations from Veterinary Uses. The views expressed by the veterinary surgeons interviewed are included where relevant. It is concluded that the majority of practices do not completely satisfy the present standards for radiological safety but that the radiographic workloads are small and unlikely to give cause for alarm. Of most concern are the doses to the hands and forearms of persons who manually restrain small animals during radiography. Recommendations are made concerning the need for greater management supervision in practices and the training and designation of veterinary workers. The veterinary profession are urged to promote discussion on radiological procedures and techniques which avoid the exposure of the personnel involved. (author)

  20. Studies on optimization of radiation protection for patients in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Z.; Zhang, Q.; Li, W.; Li, K.; Wei, L.; Zong, X.; Qiang, Z.; Wu, Y.

    1994-01-01

    For the exposure of patients in diagnostic radiology, individual dose limit does not apply, but optimization of radiological protection may play a major role. This project has been carried out with the purpose of improving the protection of patients in medical diagnostic radiology in China utilizing the principles of optimization. Taking Sichuan, Shandong and Beijing as surveyed areas, we investigated the present situation of the protection of patients. In the survey, the patient doses were classified into practical dose, justified dose and optimized dose to evaluate the influences of managerial and equipment factors separately. The results show that there are some urgent protection problems in X-ray protection to be solved in the surveyed regions. This paper, however, points out that the prospects of reducing patient doses are encouraging provided that appropriate measures are adopted. For instance, taking proper managerial measures without radical change of existing equipments may reduce patient doses in chest fluoroscopy and radiography by 40% and 18% respectively; refitting some equipment may reduce the doses by 82.4% in chest fluoroscopy, 66% in chest radiography, and 80% in barium meal examination of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Using chest radiography instead of fluoroscopy supplemented by other protection measures may reduce the doses by 91.7%. Optimization analysis shows that adoption of the above measures conforms to the principle of optimization of radiation protection. (authors). 5 refs., 7 tabs

  1. Radiological Protection in Transition. Proceedings of the 14. Regular Meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection, NSFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentin, J.; Cederlund, T.; Drake, P.; Finne, I.E.; Glansholm, A.; Jaworska, A.; Paile, W.; Rahola, T.

    2005-09-01

    These proceedings comprise the papers and posters presented at the 14th Regular Meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection, the theme of which was 'Radiological protection in transformation'. There were sessions on international developments and stakeholder involvement, on education, training, and measurements, on emergencies, on nuclear installations, on non-ionising radiation, on medical radiation, on industrial uses of radiation, on radiobiology, on natural sources of radiation, on non-nuclear waste, on NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety Research), on radioecology and artificial radionuclides in the environment, and on regulatory and international activities. In addition to invited lectures and proffered papers, there were educational primer lessons in the mornings and several roundtable discussions. In all, there were almost 100 contributions from participants representing at least 10 different countries. The range of different topics covered, the scientific quality of the contributions, and the interest shown in this meeting reflect the high standing of radiological protection in the Nordic countries

  2. Radiological Protection in Transition. Proceedings of the 14. Regular Meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection, NSFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentin, J; Cederlund, T; Drake, P; Finne, I E; Glansholm, A; Jaworska, A; Paile, W; Rahola, T [eds.

    2005-09-01

    These proceedings comprise the papers and posters presented at the 14th Regular Meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection, the theme of which was 'Radiological protection in transformation'. There were sessions on international developments and stakeholder involvement, on education, training, and measurements, on emergencies, on nuclear installations, on non-ionising radiation, on medical radiation, on industrial uses of radiation, on radiobiology, on natural sources of radiation, on non-nuclear waste, on NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety Research), on radioecology and artificial radionuclides in the environment, and on regulatory and international activities. In addition to invited lectures and proffered papers, there were educational primer lessons in the mornings and several roundtable discussions. In all, there were almost 100 contributions from participants representing at least 10 different countries. The range of different topics covered, the scientific quality of the contributions, and the interest shown in this meeting reflect the high standing of radiological protection in the Nordic countries.

  3. Radiological Protection in Transition. Proceedings of the 14. Regular Meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection, NSFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentin, J.; Cederlund, T.; Drake, P.; Finne, I.E.; Glansholm, A.; Jaworska, A.; Paile, W.; Rahola, T. (eds.)

    2005-09-01

    These proceedings comprise the papers and posters presented at the 14th Regular Meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection, the theme of which was 'Radiological protection in transformation'. There were sessions on international developments and stakeholder involvement, on education, training, and measurements, on emergencies, on nuclear installations, on non-ionising radiation, on medical radiation, on industrial uses of radiation, on radiobiology, on natural sources of radiation, on non-nuclear waste, on NKS (Nordic Nuclear Safety Research), on radioecology and artificial radionuclides in the environment, and on regulatory and international activities. In addition to invited lectures and proffered papers, there were educational primer lessons in the mornings and several roundtable discussions. In all, there were almost 100 contributions from participants representing at least 10 different countries. The range of different topics covered, the scientific quality of the contributions, and the interest shown in this meeting reflect the high standing of radiological protection in the Nordic countries.

  4. Quality assurance in radiological protection in a Hospital environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, M.; Castaneda, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a model for the application of Quality Assurance criteria in the protection against radiation in a hospital environment. A description is made of the radiation protection manual and of the General procedures. Details are given of how these were elaborated, revised, approved and distributed under control, and the need is stressed for all affected areas to participate. Finally and analysis is made of the current situation and the intrinsic difficulties involved in the application of these concepts in a hospital. (author)

  5. Hanford well custodians. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatz, A.L.; Underwood, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Hanford Site Groundwater Protection Management Program recognized the need to integrate monitoring well activities in a centralized manner. A key factor to Hanford Site well integration was the need to clearly identify a responsible party for each of the wells. WHC was asked to identify all wells on site, the program(s) using each well, and the program ultimately responsible for the well. This report lists the custodian and user(s) for each Hanford well and supplies a comprehensive list of all decommissioned and orphaned wells on the Hanford Site. This is the first update to the original report released in December 1993

  6. Ethical and social implications of microdosing clinical trial (3). Radiological protection of human subjects in research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Chieko

    2008-01-01

    Internal irradiation of human subjects in research is discussed. Radiological protection of human subjects in medical research in a framework of radiation protection is surveyed from a viewpoint of general life-ethics and research-ethics. A workshop 'On the internal irradiation of human subjects' to summarize special and systematic knowledge was organized by Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences in the beginning of 2008. Activities of this workshop are introduced. Discussion covers also (1) Research ethics and radiation protection, (2) Fundamentals and applications of risk-benefit assessment, (3) Human subjects risk assessment in ICRP recommendation, (4) Mechanism of human subjects internal irradiation assessment, and (5) Present status and future prospects in Japan. (K.Y.)

  7. 6. Regional Congress on Radiation Protection and Safety; 3. Iberian and Latin American Congress on Radiological Protection Societies; Regional IRPA Congress. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    The 6th Regional Congress on Radiation Protection and Safety was organized by the Peruvian Radiation Protection Society and the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy, held in Lima, Peru, between 9 and 13 of november of 2003. In this event, were presented 227 papers that were articulated in the following sessions: radiation natural exposure, biological effects of ionizing radiation, instruments and dosimetry, radiological emergency and accidents, occupational radiation protection, radiological protection in medical exposure, radiological environmental protection, legal aspects, standards and regulations, training, education and communication, radioactive waste management, radioactive material transport, nuclear safety and biological effects of non-ionizing radiation. (APC)

  8. L-061: EPR--First responders: Risk and Protection radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This conference is about the basic risks, protection and the consequences in a radiological emergency. The first responders have to know the deterministic and stochastic effects in the health as well as the cancer risk due of the high radioactive doses exposure

  9. New recommendations from the International Commission on Radiological Protection-a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrixon, A D

    2008-01-01

    For almost half a century, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has revised its recommendations on radiological protection with an average frequency of about 10 years, building on the experience gained in their implementation. This has ensured that the recommendations remain up to date and fit for purpose and it is this that has led in turn to their wide acceptance internationally. Indeed, the 1990 version of the recommendations forms the basis of the international radiological protection standards and the systems of control of exposure to ionizing radiation in many countries throughout the world. This version introduced new concepts and a more holistic approach to radiological protection but marrying the different exposure situations into one coherent framework has proved not to be straightforward and further reflection seemed necessary in order to satisfy both those who are responsible for the development of the control systems as well as a broader audience. Review of the 1990 recommendations started around 1998 and, since then, many ideas have been explored and avenues followed. Eventually, new recommendations were agreed by the Commission at its meeting in Essen in March 2007. This paper provides a review of these new recommendations and their possible implications. (topical review)

  10. Legislation and Organization of Radiological Protection in the Republic of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.; Carrea, A.; Nowotny, G.

    1979-01-01

    The history of legislation and organization of radiological protection goes hack to 1950 in Argentina. The terms of references of the National Commission of Atomic Energy in Argentina are outlined and the actual organization of the authority is also presented. (author)

  11. Optimization of radiological protection and dose constraints in the new draft ICRP Recommendations 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klener, V.

    2007-01-01

    The overall concept of the new ICRP Recommendations 2006 is analyzed, the concept of dose constraints as a basic tool of radiological protection management is described, arguments and criticisms against the current proposal are cited and points of dispute highlighted, and perspectives of the Recommendations are assessed. (author)

  12. Stockholm Safety Conference. Analysis of the sessions on radiological protection, licensing and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gea, A.

    1981-01-01

    A summary of the sessions on radiological protection, licensing and risk assessment in the safety conference of Stockholm is presented. It is considered the new point of view of the nuclear safety, probabilistic analysis, components failures probability and accident analysis. They are included conclusions applicable in many cases to development countries. (author)

  13. Radiation protection in the intervenmtional radiology; Strahlenschutz in der interventionellen Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Benjamin V. [Institut fuer Radiobiologie der Bundeswehr, Muenchen (Germany); Ulm Univ. (Germany); Lissek, Friedrich; Waldeck, Stephan [Bundeswehrzentralkrankenhaus Koblenz (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie

    2017-07-01

    Interventional radiology and neuroradiology covers a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic methods. A minimal invasive percutaneous access under imaging guidance is common for all these methods. The legal regulations for quality assurance are reviewed, technical possibilities for dose reduction and the importance of modern radiation protection procedures are discussed.

  14. Advances and results of the educative project: Implementation of the career of 'Technician in Radiological protection'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizuet G, J.; Suarez, G.; Sanchez C, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this work the obtained advances and achievements during the impartment of the technician career in radiological protection are presented. This is carried out in the 'Justo Sierra' Technological High School Center of San Mateo Atenco, Estado de Mexico, and has for objective the formation of professional-technicians. (Author)

  15. Analysis of conditions to safety and radiological protection of Brazilian research particle accelerators facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lourenco, Manuel Jacinto Martins

    2010-01-01

    Eleven institutions of education and research in Brazil use particle accelerators, which fulfill different functions and activities. Currently, these institutions employ a total of fifteen accelerators. In this paper, the object of study is the radiological protection of occupationally exposed individuals, the general public and the radiation safety of particle accelerators. Research facilities with accelerators are classified in categories I and II according to the International Atomic Energy Agency or groups IX and X in accordance with the Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy. Of the 15 accelerators in use for research in Brazil, four belong to category I or group X and eleven belong to category II or group IX. The methodology presented and developed in this work was made through the inspection and assessment of safety and radiological protection of thirteen particle accelerators facilities, and its main purpose was to promote safer use of this practice by following established guidelines for safety and radiological protection. The results presented in this work showed the need to create a program, in our country, for the control of safety and radiological protection of this ionizing radiation practice. (author)

  16. Manual of use and accounting of radioactive material and procedures of radiological protection for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, Miguel

    1997-03-01

    This manual of use and accounting of material radioactive and procedures of radiological safety tries to facilitate workings of protection of material radioactive in services of medicine nuclear, during diagnosis (examinations with x-rays, or those that are made in nuclear medicine), or during the processing of diseases, mainly of the carcinomas (x-ray)

  17. Non-radiological factors and decision making on the radiological protection of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simcock, A.

    2002-01-01

    'Non-radiological factors' can cover both physical and non-physical issues. As far as physical issues are concerned, the appropriate course is not to forget that radioactive substances have to be considered in the same way as other substances in respect of their non-radioactive properties. 'Damage to amenities' and 'interference with legitimate uses of the sea' are long-standing descriptions of the non-physical aspects of marine pollution and degradation. A framework for a taxonomy of the interests involved in such aspects is suggested, using the three dimensions of the degree of linkage to the marine environment, the nature of the interaction with the marine environment, and the economic nature of the interest concerned. Questions of remoteness also arise. A multi-dimensional analysis of the risks to the interests concerned is suggested. The dimension of 'public response' is particularly significant for the non-physical aspects of marine pollution and degradation. This dimension is complex, being influenced by 'fright factors' and subject to media amplification. These influences can include special local economic circumstances and past experiences. Finally, the process for integrating physical and non-physical factors is examined. Early consideration is recommended of how to achieve a transparent presentation of the issues and the way in which decisions are to be taken. (author)

  18. Radiological protection 1993 post-graduate course: 22 Feb -19 March and 10 May - 4 June

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This pamphlet describes a post-graduate course organized by the NRPB and intended to meet the initial and early training requirements of full-time staff of graduate level or equivalent involved in radiological protection including health physics. The course contains sixty-five lectures covering topics such as nuclear physics, sources and uses of radiation, instrumentation, radiation biology, system of protection, occupational protection, dosimetry, population protection, legal, medical and administrative aspects and general hazards. The 1994 courses are being held from 28th February - 25th March and 18th April -13th May, 1993. (UK)

  19. Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland Strategic Plan 2008 to 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-09-01

    The RPII recognises that Ireland is now entering a time of transition and change, with many uncertain variables in economic and environmental issues emerging. Against this background, this strategy document seeks to ensure that the high level of radiation protection that already exists in Ireland is sustained and built upon over the next three years

  20. The NRPB Chilton Calibration Laboratory for radiological protection measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iles, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    The Calibration Laboratory in NRPB Headquarters is intended as an authoritative reference laboratory for all aspects of radiation protection level instrument calibrations for X-, gamma and beta radiations and to be complementary to the national primary standards of the National Physical Laboratory. The gamma ray, filtered X-ray, fluorescence X-ray and beta ray facilities are described. (U.K.)

  1. Radiological protection, environmental implications, health and risk management: forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Topics related to the radioactivity or radiation are presented. The importance of protection and security measures that are required both for public health, occupational health and the medical radiation is analyzed. In addition, it emphasizes the risks faced by professionals who work with radioactivity. Issues that confront the serious environmental implications of such activities are also showed [es

  2. The radiological protection in the practice of industrial X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez C, I.; Carrasco C, R.

    2010-09-01

    The kindness of this technique of non destructive assays is very appreciative when the protection standards and radiological protection are completed faithfully, this work show in a succinct way the development through the years where have improved the equipment s, the procedures, the training and the regulation. This development has allowed reduce the dose to the occupational exposed personnel, to the public, but mainly the accidents incidence with loss of fingers, hands, legs and worker lives, children and the people in general. (Author)

  3. Recent developments underlying the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunster, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    A brief indication is given of the structure of the International Commission on Radiological Protection and of the main programme of work in hand at the start of 1989. This is followed by a discussion of some of the more important issues of policy under discussion during the preparation of the Commission's new recommendations on dose limits, units radiation quality, worker protection, risk assessment. (author)

  4. Radiological protection of the environment from the Swedish point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, Lars-Erik; Hubbard, Lynn; Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Sundell-Bergman, Synnoeve

    2002-01-01

    The current system of radiological protection is aimed at protecting human health, and largely neglects both the effects of radiation on the environment and the managerial aspects of environmental protection. The Swedish Radiation Protection Act was revised in 1988 and includes environmental protection as one of its aims. In practice, little guidance had been given in the regulations based on the Act until 1998, when the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) formulated environmental aims in its regulations concerning protection of human health and the environment in connection to the final management of spent nuclear fuel and waste. These regulations focus on protection of biodiversity and biological resources, based on ecosystem characterisation. In a broader perspective, the Swedish Parliament established 15 national environmental quality objectives in 1999, covering all aspects of protecting the environment, including the effects of radiation. This paper reviews the background for radiological protection of the environment from both an international and a Swedish perspective, describing the aims and current activities in establishing a system for assessing environmental effects and their consequences that can be used in decision-making. Such activities are largely a result of the European Union research project FASSET (Framework for Assessment of Environmental Impact), carried out under the 5th Framework Programme of the Union. This work is complemented at the Swedish national level by government support to initiate a national environmental monitoring and assessment programme for characterising the radiation environment, which will provide the foundation for decision-making. (review)

  5. Protecting and improving health through the radiological sciences. A report to the Surgeon General

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1966-04-01

    This is the third in a series of reports prepared by the-National Advisory Committee on Radiation for the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service. The first two were directed to the broad responsibilities of the Service in the field of radiation control and to problems concerned with the protection of the public against undue radiation exposure from contamination of the environment with radioactive materials. In this report the Committee traces the remarkable growth that has taken place in the uses of ionizing radiation in the health professions, in industry, and in other walks of life. It also notes a number of emerging problems which not only are of importance from the point of view of radiation protection, but also, if not alleviated, threaten the quality of medical care in the United States and the translation of the advances of atomic research into needed benefits for the people. These problems include (a) serious weaknesses in academic departments of radiology which have restricted efforts to provide adequate instruction of medical and post-doctoral students in the clinical applications of ionizing radiation, including radiation protection; and (b) an increasingly severe shortage of manpower in all branches of the radiological sciences. The magnitude and complexity of these problems are sufficiently great that a concerted effort is needed by the Public Health Service to correct them. The alleviation of the problems just cited is but a part of a more comprehensive series of responsibilities faced by the Service in the radiological sciences. The Service must play an important role in the prevention of undue exposure of the population from medical, occupational, and environmental sources of ionizing radiation; at the same time, it must actively support the development and application of radiological methods in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. In order that the Service may effectively meet its enlarging responsibilities in the radiological sciences

  6. Protecting and improving health through the radiological sciences. A report to the Surgeon General

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-04-01

    This is the third in a series of reports prepared by the-National Advisory Committee on Radiation for the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service. The first two were directed to the broad responsibilities of the Service in the field of radiation control and to problems concerned with the protection of the public against undue radiation exposure from contamination of the environment with radioactive materials. In this report the Committee traces the remarkable growth that has taken place in the uses of ionizing radiation in the health professions, in industry, and in other walks of life. It also notes a number of emerging problems which not only are of importance from the point of view of radiation protection, but also, if not alleviated, threaten the quality of medical care in the United States and the translation of the advances of atomic research into needed benefits for the people. These problems include (a) serious weaknesses in academic departments of radiology which have restricted efforts to provide adequate instruction of medical and post-doctoral students in the clinical applications of ionizing radiation, including radiation protection; and (b) an increasingly severe shortage of manpower in all branches of the radiological sciences. The magnitude and complexity of these problems are sufficiently great that a concerted effort is needed by the Public Health Service to correct them. The alleviation of the problems just cited is but a part of a more comprehensive series of responsibilities faced by the Service in the radiological sciences. The Service must play an important role in the prevention of undue exposure of the population from medical, occupational, and environmental sources of ionizing radiation; at the same time, it must actively support the development and application of radiological methods in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. In order that the Service may effectively meet its enlarging responsibilities in the radiological sciences

  7. Mortality studies of Hanford workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1986-04-01

    Radiation exposures at Hanford have been deliberately limited as a protection to the worker. This means that if current estimates of radiation risks, which have been determined by national and international groups, are correct, it's highly unlikely that noticeable radiation-induced health effects will be identified among Hanford workers. 1 fig., 4 tabs

  8. Influence of physical parameters on radiation protection and image quality in intra-oral radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinato, W.; Souza, D. N.

    2011-10-01

    In the world of diagnostic imaging, radiography is an important supplementary method for dental diagnosis. In radiology, special attention must be paid to the radiological protection of patients and health professionals, and also to image quality for correct diagnosis. In Brazil, the national rules governing the operation of medical and dental radiology were specified in 1998 by the National Sanitary Surveillance Agency, complemented in 2005 by the guide "Medical radiology: security and performance of equipment." In this study, quality control tests were performed in public clinics with dental X-ray equipment in the State of Sergipe, Brazil, with consideration of the physical parameters that influence radiological protection and also the quality of images taken in intra-oral radiography. The accuracy of the exposure time was considered acceptable for equipment with digital timers. Exposure times and focal-spot size variations can lead to increased entrance dose. Increased dose has also been associated with visual processing of radiographic film, which often requires repeating the radiographic examination.

  9. Influence of physical parameters on radiation protection and image quality in intra-oral radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belinato, W.; Souza, D.N.

    2011-01-01

    In the world of diagnostic imaging, radiography is an important supplementary method for dental diagnosis. In radiology, special attention must be paid to the radiological protection of patients and health professionals, and also to image quality for correct diagnosis. In Brazil, the national rules governing the operation of medical and dental radiology were specified in 1998 by the National Sanitary Surveillance Agency, complemented in 2005 by the guide 'Medical radiology: security and performance of equipment.' In this study, quality control tests were performed in public clinics with dental X-ray equipment in the State of Sergipe, Brazil, with consideration of the physical parameters that influence radiological protection and also the quality of images taken in intra-oral radiography. The accuracy of the exposure time was considered acceptable for equipment with digital timers. Exposure times and focal-spot size variations can lead to increased entrance dose. Increased dose has also been associated with visual processing of radiographic film, which often requires repeating the radiographic examination.

  10. Influence of physical parameters on radiation protection and image quality in intra-oral radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belinato, W. [Instituto Federal de Ensino Basico, Tecnico e Tecnologico da Bahia, Av. Amazonas, 1350-45030-220, Zabele, Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Av. Marechal Rondon s/n, 49100-000 Rosa Elze, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil); Souza, D.N., E-mail: divanizi@ufs.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Av. Marechal Rondon s/n, 49100-000 Rosa Elze, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil)

    2011-10-01

    In the world of diagnostic imaging, radiography is an important supplementary method for dental diagnosis. In radiology, special attention must be paid to the radiological protection of patients and health professionals, and also to image quality for correct diagnosis. In Brazil, the national rules governing the operation of medical and dental radiology were specified in 1998 by the National Sanitary Surveillance Agency, complemented in 2005 by the guide 'Medical radiology: security and performance of equipment.' In this study, quality control tests were performed in public clinics with dental X-ray equipment in the State of Sergipe, Brazil, with consideration of the physical parameters that influence radiological protection and also the quality of images taken in intra-oral radiography. The accuracy of the exposure time was considered acceptable for equipment with digital timers. Exposure times and focal-spot size variations can lead to increased entrance dose. Increased dose has also been associated with visual processing of radiographic film, which often requires repeating the radiographic examination.

  11. ICRP Publication 103. The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenot, Jean-Claude; Brenot, Jean; Laurier, Dominique; Rannou, Alain; Thierry, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    These revised Recommendations for a System of Radiological Protection formally replace the Commission's previous, 1990, Recommendations; and update, consolidate, and develop the additional guidance on the control of exposure from radiation sources issued since 1990. Thus, the present Recommendations update the radiation and tissue weighting factors in the quantities equivalent and effective dose and update the radiation detriment, based on the latest available scientific information of the biology and physics of radiation exposure. They maintain the Commission's three fundamental principles of radiological protection, namely justification, optimisation, and the application of dose limits, clarifying how they apply to radiation sources delivering exposure and to individuals receiving exposure. The Recommendations evolve from the previous process-based protection approach using practices and interventions by moving to an approach based on the exposure situation. They recognise planned, emergency, and existing exposure situations, and apply the fundamental principles of justification and optimisation of protection to all of these situations. They maintain the Commission's current individual dose limits for effective dose and equivalent dose from all regulated sources in planned exposure situations. They reinforce the principle of optimisation of protection, which should be applicable in a similar way to all exposure situations, subject to the following restrictions on individual doses and risks; dose and risk constraints for planned exposure situations, and reference levels for emergency and existing exposure situations. The Recommendations also include an approach for developing a framework to demonstrate radiological protection of the environment

  12. STRAPIR, an European initiative for optimizing radiation protection in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vano, E.; Gonzalez, L.; Loon, R. van; Padovani, R.; Maccia, C.; Eggermont, G.

    1997-01-01

    In 1995, a European initiative for optimizing radiation protection in interventional radiology was proposed by 8 research groups. The project acronym was STPAPIR (Staff Radiation Protection in Interventional Radiology). Interventional Radiology involves an important number of specialists and their risk level is not well known, since dosimetric records exhibit important discrepancies. Many professionals using these techniques are not radiologists and the basic rules of radiation protection, known by radiologists, are not always correctly and completely followed, hence the use of protection devices is not as regular as desirable. Additionally, x-ray systems not specifically designed for interventional procedures are still used in many hospitals, what entails a significant occupational risk increase to the specialists. Some relevant questions for regulatory bodies are presented, namely, reliability of the actual data banks for occupational dosimetry, use of two personal dosimeters for assessing effective dose, actions to strengthen the systematic use of personal dosimeters and protection tools, proposals for specific training in radiation protection and use of x-ray systems specifically designed for interventional procedures, publication of reports about accidents and incidents, are also discussed. (author)

  13. Protecting people against radiation exposure in the event of a radiological attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentin, J.

    2005-01-01

    This report responds to a widely perceived need for professional advice on radiological protection measures to be undertaken in the event of a radiological attack. The report, which is mainly concerned with possible attacks involving 'radioactive dispersion devices', re-affirms the applicability of existing ICRP recommendations to such situations, should they ever occur. Many aspects of the emergency scenarios expected to arise in the event of a radiological attack may be similar to those that experience has shown can arise from radiological accidents, but there may also be important differences. For instance, a radiological attack would probably be targeted at a public area, possibly in an urban environment, where the presence of radiation is not anticipated and the dispersion conditions commonly assumed for a nuclear or radiological emergency, such as at a nuclear installation, may not be applicable. First responders to a radiological attack and other rescuers need to be adequately trained and to have the proper equipment for identifying radiation and radioactive contamination, and specialists in radiological protection must be available to provide advice. It may be prudent to assume that radiological, chemical, and/or biological agents are involved in an attack until it is proven otherwise. This calls for an 'all-hazard' approach to the response. In the aftermath of an attack, the main aim of radiological protection must be to prevent the occurrence of acute health effects attributable to radiation exposure (termed 'deterministic' effects) and to restrict the likelihood of late health effects (termed 'stochastic' effects) such as cancers and some hereditable diseases. A supplementary aim is to minimise environmental contamination from radioactive residues and the subsequent general disruption of daily life. The report notes that action taken to avert exposures is a much more effective protective measure than protective measure the provision of medical treatment

  14. Scientific trends in radiological protection of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, F.; Howard, B.J.

    2005-01-01

    This volume brings together some of the most outstanding guest contributions at the 2. ECORAD International Conference held in Aix en Provence, France, on 6-10 September 2004. Traditionally dealing with Radioecology, this Conference event has focused on the 'scientific basis for environmental protection against ionising radiation'. The aim is to consider the current challenges faced by this scientific discipline in an emerging general context that places environmental protection issues on a par with human-related concerns. This is not just a trend or the latest conveniently-milked fashion, but the natural and credible consequence of the intensity of human activity, which is now encroaching in many different ways on both human and environmental health. The contributions included herein provide an advanced, updated and focused understanding that will help to ensure that environmental regulations currently at the centre of international debate are pertinent and adequate, and contribute to an increasingly efficient system of environmental intervention and crisis management. (authors)

  15. Regulatory Politic for the radiological protection to the patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancourt Hernandez, L.A.; De la Fuente Puch, A.; Jerez Vegueria, P.

    1998-01-01

    The present work has as objective to propose on based to the national experience the Regulatory Authority, the reach the competition to this authorization in the regulation to the topics with the patients protection and to base starting from the content the apendice II to the Basic Standards, the approaches in those that it should impact directly in the acting give their functions to assure it

  16. Education and training in radiological protection in the Argentine region- IAEA, toward a long term commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrado, C.; Arbor G, A.; Bozzo, R.; Larcher, A.; Menossi, C.; Sajaroff, P.

    2006-01-01

    The Argentine Republic has extensive antecedents in education and training in radiological protection. From the beginning of the nuclear activity in the country was given preponderance to the aspects related with the radiological protection and the personnel's training involved in the employment of ionizing radiations. At the present time these educational activities already overcome the 50 years, there being accumulated a rich and important experience in the matter. In the country the organisms that have assigned by law the responsibility of the regulation and the control of practice them with ionizing radiations are the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the Ministry of Health and Atmosphere of the Nation. The first one has the mission of protecting people of the noxious effects of the ionizing radiations derived of nuclear activities, the second is in charge of the control of the equipment dedicated specifically to generate X-rays. This includes the responsibility of elaborating, to emit and to make complete the regulations, standards and other corresponding requirements, in particular - in the mark of the present work - regarding to establish demands and to promote education activities and training in radiological protection. The sure use of the benefits that offers the nuclear development in its diverse applications implies to overturn resources, experience and dedication for the personnel's training. In that sense the Argentina has committed recently to undertake the necessary actions to constitute a Regional Center of Education and Training for Latin America and the Caribbean, taking advantage of the important experience obtained in more of 25 years of imparting graduate degree courses in radiological protection and nuclear safety with inter regional and regional character. With that purpose a process of self evaluation has begun (self appraisal), following the limits settled down by the International Atomic Energy Agency in the document 'Education and

  17. Radiological Protection Criteria for the Safety of LILW Repository in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levanat, I.; Lokner, V.; Subasic, D.

    2000-01-01

    Preparations for a LILW repository development in Croatia, conducted by APO Hazardous Waste Management Agency, have reached a point where the first safety assessment of the prospective facility is being attempted. For evaluation of the calculated radiological impact in the assessed option of repository development, a set of radiological protection criteria should be included in the definition of the assessment context. The Croatian regulations do not explicitly require that the repository development be supported by such safety assessment process, and do not provide a specific set of radiological criteria intended for the repository assessment which would be suitable for the constrained optimization of protection. For the initial safety assessment iterations of the prospective repository, which will address long term performance of the facility for various design and other safety options, we propose to use relatively simple radiological protection criteria, consisting only of individual dose and risk constraints for the general population. The numerical values for these constraints are established in accordance with the recognized international recommendations and in compliance with all possibly relevant Croatian safety requirements. (author)

  18. Ethical Components in Radiological Protection Communication: First Feedbacks from Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochud, Francois

    2013-01-01

    The presentation started by underlying that moral philosophy relates to deontology, virtues and utilitarianism: deontology defines the way an actor is acting; an actor is judged based on the virtues of his actions and the actions are judged by their consequences (Utilitarianism). The presentation then moves on by talking about ethical history in medicine and focusing the attention on the three basic principles of bio-ethics: Autonomy (deontology), Beneficence or non-maleficence (utilitarianism) and Justice (deontology). The three principles of radiation protection: justification, optimization and limitation were then framed within the ICRP publications 103 and 105 and discussed with reference to the bio-ethics basic of deontology, virtue and utilitarianism. For a practical application of these principles, the lecturer used different examples to demonstrate the difficulties encountered in applying them and the degree of flexibility needed in doing so. Examples were related to: back scattering images (airplane boarding); annual effective dose related to the decision to leave the house; person genetically more radiosensitive (risk of leukaemia) and people tobacco smoking. The scheme to present the examples is the same in three steps: 1. First answers to a question involving moral or ethical elements; 2. Rephrasing the same question with an ethical perspective; 3. Second answers to the rephrased question. Finally the first and second answers are compared and commented. After the discussion around these examples, the following conclusions can be drawn: Ethical principles are enshrined in radiation protection and in medicine; Ethical decisions need to be taken with the help of different schools of moral philosophy and Ethics and radiation protection are dynamic (Now and here versus tomorrow and there)

  19. Radiological protection in medicine: Current problems in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiswara, E.

    2001-01-01

    The medical applications of ionizing radiation in Indonesia have been introduced in the early 20th century. Since then it dominates the application of radiation in various fields. By several regulations, the government has tried to control these applications. However, some problems are still persisting. This paper presents the safety-related regulations that are in place in Indonesia, authorization status regarding medical applications, the existing problems and the efforts to tackle them. Even though the funds are always the scapegoat, it is believed that the real reason for all problems concerning radiation protection in Indonesia is lack of safety culture among the users. (author)

  20. International commission radiological protection: its policy, its works, its thoughts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenot, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The I.C.R.P. is an advisory organism. It offers recommendations to regulatory and advisory organisms at the international and national levels. Given the differences that exist between the national legislations, its recommendations cannot be directly transcribed in regulatory terms. The base recommendations are used for the essential in the international regulations and in particular in the European Directive, whom transposition in national law is compulsory. The aim of the Commission is to elaborate a protection system against ionizing radiations, sufficiently general to apply at the totality of situations during which ones the human is exposed or could be exposed to radiations. (N.C.)