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Sample records for handwashing

  1. Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Promotion Materials Buttons & Badges Fact Sheets Handwashing: A Family Activity Handwashing: A Corporate Activity Improving Child Development Podcasts Posters Social Media Social Media Library Stickers Health E-Cards Videos ...

  2. Handwashing with soap and national handwashing projects in Korea: focus on the National Handwashing Survey, 2006-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo-Sik Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Handwashing is the most fundamental way to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. Correct handwashing can prevent 50 to 70% of water-infections and foodborne-infections. We report the results of a fact-finding study on general handwashing attitude and practice in the Republic of Korea by analyzing habits and awareness among adults and students (grades 4 to 12 based on the 2006 to 2014 National Handwashing Surveys and observational surveys. METHODS: The awareness survey was performed by telephone interviews with adults and students in 16 municipalities and provinces sampled by quota for region, sex and age. The observational survey was performed in subway, railway, and other public restrooms in seven municipalities selected through systematic sampling. RESULTS: Adults and students washed their hands with soap/sanitizer an average of 6.6 and 5.2 times daily, respectively, in 2014, an increase and decrease compared to 2006 (4.8 and 2013 (6.8. Their average daily handwashing frequency in 2014, 9.8 and 8.3, was higher than in 2006 (7.6, but lower than in 2013 (10.3.The percentage of participants handwashing with soap after using the restroom (29.5% has been increasing since 2009, but remain slower than in other countries (42% to 49%. The percentages of participants handwashing with water in 2014, 2013, and 2011 were 57.5%, 72.6%, and 71.4%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Handwashing with soap is an important national public health issue, and national projects promoting it should be given high priority. Research support is necessary to provide scientific evidence of the importance of handwashing with soap and to develop and implement evidence-based policies.

  3. Peru : A Handwashing Behavior Change Journey

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    In 2003, a national multi-sectorial Handwashing Initiative (HWI) was created in Peru to increase handwashing with soap among mothers and children. The early years of the HWI focused on laying groundwork, including a formative research study in 2004; the creation of a consultative committee by the Ministry of Health (MoH); and a national decree formalizing the HWI. The Water and Sanitation ...

  4. Handwashing practices and challenges in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, B A

    2003-06-01

    Handwashing is universally promoted in health interventions. Studies in Bangladesh and elsewhere have shown a 14 - 40% reduction of diarrhoeal diseases with handwashing. The perceptions and methods related to washing of hands vary widely in Bangladesh. Socio-economic factors are also associated with methods practised. In general, the effectiveness of handwashing practices is poor. Faecal coliform bacteriological counts were reported to be high for both left and right hands. About 85% of women studied who lived in slums and 41% of rural women washed their hands using only water. However, most women rubbed their hands on the ground, or used soil, and rinsed them with water during post-defecation handwashing. Most women claimed that they could not afford to buy soap. Experimental trials showed that use of soap, ash or soil gave similar results when women washed their hands under the same conditions. The washing of both hands, rubbing of hands, and the amount and quality of rinsing water used were found to be important determinants in the reduction of bacterial counts on hands. Although handwashing messages have been revised by most of the main programmes after these studies, there is scope for further improvement, as well as evaluation of their impact.

  5. School Nurse Inspections Improve Handwashing Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Mary M.; Schrader, Ronald; Trujillo, Rebecca; Blea, Mary; Greenberg, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Handwashing in the school setting is important for infectious disease control, yet maintaining adequate handwashing supplies is often made difficult by lack of funds, limited staff time, and student vandalism. This study measured the availability of handwashing supplies for students in New Mexico public schools and determined the impact of scheduled school nurse inspections on the availability of handwashing supplies. METHODS Participating school districts in New Mexico were matched by size and randomized into intervention and control groups. Baseline inspections were conducted in November 2008 followed by 2 subsequent bimonthly inspections. For each student bathroom, the presence or absence of soap and either paper towels or hand dryers was indicated on an inspection checklist. The intervention group reported findings to the New Mexico Department of Health (NMDOH) and to school administrative and custodial staff requesting that any identified problems be addressed. The control group reported inspection findings to the NMDOH only. Descriptive analyses were conducted to determine the proportion of bathrooms with soap and either paper towels or hand dryers. Comparisons were made between the intervention schools and the control schools at baseline and during the intervention period. RESULTS The intervention group had significantly higher probability of bathrooms being supplied with soap (p school nurse inspections of hand hygiene supplies, with reporting to appropriate school officials, can improve the availability of handwashing supplies for students. PMID:21592131

  6. Knowledge, attitude and practice of handwashing with soap in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hand washing is considered as one of the most effective hygiene promotion activities for public health in developing countries. Handwashing with soap (HWWS) has been found to be more effective in removing germs than handwashing with water alone and yet handwashing with soap is seldom practiced.

  7. 20 CFR 654.412 - Bathing, laundry, and handwashing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. 654.412... RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.412 Bathing, laundry, and handwashing. (a) Bathing and handwashing facilities, supplied with hot and cold...

  8. Senegal : A Handwashing Behavior Change Journey

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    In 2003, the Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing with Soap (PPPHW) was created in Senegal with technical assistance from the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP). Housed initially within the Office Nationale de L'Assainissement, the government unit overseeing sanitation within the Ministry of Health, the PPPHW's main objective was to catalyze and coordinate multi-sectoral involvement ...

  9. Handwashing and barrier practices among Cameroonian dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infection control activities in the clinic were supervised mainly by 31% of dentists and 38.6% of dental therapists. Less than half of the respondents reported good handwashing practice. More than half (63.4%) wash their hands with running water and liquid soap and 63.9% dry their washed hands with towel in the clinic.

  10. Make Handwashing a Habit (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-10-13

    Regular handwashing helps prevent the spread of potentially harmful germs. This podcast discusses the importance of making proper handwashing (with soap and water) a regular habit.  Created: 10/13/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 10/13/2016.

  11. Exploring Determinants of Handwashing with Soap in Indonesia: A Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuaki Hirai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Handwashing with soap is recognized as a cost-effective intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with enteric and respiratory infections. This study analyzes rural Indonesian households’ hygiene behaviors and attitudes to examine how motivations for handwashing, locations of handwashing space in the household, and handwashing moments are associated with handwashing with soap as potential determinants of the behavior. The analysis was conducted using results from a UNICEF cross-sectional study of 1700 households in six districts across three provinces of Indonesia. A composite measure of handwashing with soap was developed that included self-reported handwashing, a handwashing demonstration, and observed handwashing materials and location of facilities in the home. Prevalence ratios were calculated to analyze associations between handwashing with soap and hypothesized determinants of the behavior. Our results showed that determinants that had a significant association with handwashing with soap included: (1 a desire to smell nice; (2 interpersonal influences; (3 the presence of handwashing places within 10 paces of the kitchen and the toilet; and (4 key handwashing moments when hands felt dirty, including after eating and after cleaning child stools. This study concludes that handwashing with soap may be more effectively promoted through the use of non-health messages.

  12. The Effect of Handwashing with Water or Soap on Bacterial Contamination of Hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf-Peter Schmidt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Handwashing is thought to be effective for the prevention of transmission of diarrhoea pathogens. However it is not conclusive that handwashing with soap is more effective at reducing contamination with bacteria associated with diarrhoea than using water only. In this study 20 volunteers contaminated their hands deliberately by touching door handles and railings in public spaces. They were then allocated at random to (1 handwashing with water, (2 handwashing with non-antibacterial soap and (3 no handwashing. Each volunteer underwent this procedure 24 times, yielding 480 samples overall. Bacteria of potential faecal origin (mostly Enterococcus and Enterobacter spp. were found after no handwashing in 44% of samples. Handwashing with water alone reduced the presence of bacteria to 23% (p < 0.001. Handwashing with plain soap and water reduced the presence of bacteria to 8% (comparison of both handwashing arms: p < 0.001. The effect did not appear to depend on the bacteria species. Handwashing with non-antibacterial soap and water is more effective for the removal of bacteria of potential faecal origin from hands than handwashing with water alone and should therefore be more useful for the prevention of transmission of diarrhoeal diseases.

  13. Behavior Change without Behavior Change Communication: Nudging Handwashing among Primary School Students in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreibelbis, Robert; Kroeger, Anne; Hossain, Kamal; Venkatesh, Mohini; Ram, Pavani K

    2016-01-14

    Behavior change communication for improving handwashing with soap can be labor and resource intensive, yet quality results are difficult to achieve. Nudges are environmental cues engaging unconscious decision-making processes to prompt behavior change. In this proof-of-concept study, we developed an inexpensive set of nudges to encourage handwashing with soap after toilet use in two primary schools in rural Bangladesh. We completed direct observation of behaviors at baseline, after providing traditional handwashing infrastructure, and at multiple time periods following targeted handwashing nudges (1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks). No additional handwashing education or motivational messages were completed. Handwashing with soap among school children was low at baseline (4%), increasing to 68% the day after nudges were completed and 74% at both 2 weeks and 6 weeks post intervention. Results indicate that nudge-based interventions have the potential to improve handwashing with soap among school-aged children in Bangladesh and specific areas of further inquiry are discussed.

  14. Vietnam : A Handwashing Behavior Change Journey for the Caretakers’ Program

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    The Vietnam Handwashing Initiative (HWI) was launched in January 2006 by the Ministry of Health (MoH) with funds from the Danish Embassy in Vietnam and technical assistance from the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP). This learning note documents the development process of the caretakers' program with a focus on how it was designed, implemented, and monitored. Lessons learned and challenge...

  15. Make Handwashing a Habit (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-10-13

    Hands are the easiest and most common way to pass along infectious diseases. In this podcast, Jacqueline Hurd discusses the importance of regular handwashing.  Created: 10/13/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 10/13/2016.

  16. Handwashing in 51 Countries: Analysis of Proxy Measures of Handwashing Behavior in Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys, 2010–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Swapna; Loughnan, Libbet; Luyendijk, Rolf; Hernandez, Orlando; Weinger, Merri; Arnold, Fred; Ram, Pavani K.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. In 2009, a common set of questions addressing handwashing behavior was introduced into nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS), providing large amounts of comparable data from numerous countries worldwide. The objective of this analysis is to describe global handwashing patterns using two proxy indicators for handwashing behavior from 51 DHS and MICS surveys conducted in 2010–2013: availability of soap anywhere in the dwelling and access to a handwashing place with soap and water. Data were also examined across geographic regions, wealth quintiles, and rural versus urban settings. We found large disparities for both indicators across regions, and even among countries within the same World Health Organization region. Within countries, households in lower wealth quintiles and in rural areas were less likely to have soap anywhere in the dwelling and at designated handwashing locations than households in higher wealth quintiles and urban areas. In addition, disparities existed among various geographic regions within countries. This analysis demonstrates the need to promote access to handwashing materials and placement at handwashing locations in the dwelling, particularly in poorer, rural areas where children are more vulnerable to handwashing-preventable syndromes such as pneumonia and diarrhea. PMID:28722572

  17. Handwashing in 51 Countries: Analysis of Proxy Measures of Handwashing Behavior in Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and Demographic and Health Surveys, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Swapna; Loughnan, Libbet; Luyendijk, Rolf; Hernandez, Orlando; Weinger, Merri; Arnold, Fred; Ram, Pavani K

    2017-08-01

    In 2009, a common set of questions addressing handwashing behavior was introduced into nationally representative Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS), providing large amounts of comparable data from numerous countries worldwide. The objective of this analysis is to describe global handwashing patterns using two proxy indicators for handwashing behavior from 51 DHS and MICS surveys conducted in 2010-2013: availability of soap anywhere in the dwelling and access to a handwashing place with soap and water. Data were also examined across geographic regions, wealth quintiles, and rural versus urban settings. We found large disparities for both indicators across regions, and even among countries within the same World Health Organization region. Within countries, households in lower wealth quintiles and in rural areas were less likely to have soap anywhere in the dwelling and at designated handwashing locations than households in higher wealth quintiles and urban areas. In addition, disparities existed among various geographic regions within countries. This analysis demonstrates the need to promote access to handwashing materials and placement at handwashing locations in the dwelling, particularly in poorer, rural areas where children are more vulnerable to handwashing-preventable syndromes such as pneumonia and diarrhea.

  18. Food workers' perspectives on handwashing behaviors and barriers in the restaurant environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragle, Aimee S; Harding, Anna K; Mack, James C

    2007-06-01

    Food handler focus groups in two Oregon counties discussed knowledge, practices, and barriers related to handwashing in the restaurant environment. Current knowledge-based handwashing training programs do not address the internal and external barriers that affect handwashing practice. According to the focus groups, important barriers were time pressure, inadequate facilities and supplies, lack of accountability, lack of involvement of managers and coworkers, and organizations that were not supportive of handwashing. Because barriers to handwashing are multi-dimensional in nature, the authors recommend that future educational and training programs include 1) a hands-on training program that orients new employees to correct handwashing practice and more advanced education about foodborne illness; 2) involvement of both managers and coworkers in the training; 3) easily accessible hand-washing facilities stocked with necessary supplies; 4) continued handwashing training and support involving the food service industry, managers, and coworkers; and 5) involvement of health departments and inspectors in providing managers and food workers with advice and consultation on improvement of handwashing practice.

  19. The Effect of Handwashing with Water or Soap on Bacterial Contamination of Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Maxine; Cobb, Emma; Donachie, Peter; Judah, Gaby; Curtis, Val; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter

    2011-01-01

    Handwashing is thought to be effective for the prevention of transmission of diarrhoea pathogens. However it is not conclusive that handwashing with soap is more effective at reducing contamination with bacteria associated with diarrhoea than using water only. In this study 20 volunteers contaminated their hands deliberately by touching door handles and railings in public spaces. They were then allocated at random to (1) handwashing with water, (2) handwashing with non-antibacterial soap and (3) no handwashing. Each volunteer underwent this procedure 24 times, yielding 480 samples overall. Bacteria of potential faecal origin (mostly Enterococcus and Enterobacter spp.) were found after no handwashing in 44% of samples. Handwashing with water alone reduced the presence of bacteria to 23% (p soap and water reduced the presence of bacteria to 8% (comparison of both handwashing arms: p soap and water is more effective for the removal of bacteria of potential faecal origin from hands than handwashing with water alone and should therefore be more useful for the prevention of transmission of diarrhoeal diseases. PMID:21318017

  20. The impact of gender and physical environment on the handwashing behaviour of university students in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariwah, Simon; Hampshire, Kate; Kasim, Adetayo

    2012-04-01

    To establish levels of handwashing after defecation among students at the University of Cape Coast in Ghana, and to test hypotheses that gender and washroom environment affect handwashing behaviour. Data on students' handwashing behaviour after defecation were collected by structured observations in washrooms. Eight hundred and six observations were made (360 female students and 446 males) in 56 washrooms over 496 observation periods. Observers recorded gender, duration of handwashing, use of soap, and physical characteristics of the washroom (cleanliness, availability of soap, tap flow and presence of handwashing posters). Fewer than half the students observed washed their hands or bathed after defecation. Of these, only two-thirds washed both hands and a minority (20%) used soap; only 16 students (all men) washed their hands for the recommended 15 s or longer. Female students were more likely to wash their hands at all, and were more likely to wash both hands, than males. Cleanliness of the washroom was strongly associated with improved handwashing behaviour for both women and men, as was tap flow quality for female students. Handwashing behaviour is generally poor among UCC students, mirroring results from North American Universities. The findings underline the plasticity of handwashing behaviour among this population, and highlight the need for ensuring that the physical environment in washrooms on university campuses is conducive to handwashing. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Barriers to and motivators of handwashing behavior among mothers of neonates in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Shahana; Nasreen, Sharifa; Allen, Jelena V; Kamm, Kelly B; Khan, Shifat; Akter, Shirina; Lopa, Tajnin Marin; Zaman, K; El Arifeen, Shams; Luby, Stephen P; Ram, Pavani K

    2018-04-11

    To design a maternal handwashing intervention for the newborn period, this qualitative study explored drivers of handwashing among mothers and other caregivers of neonates and infants in two rural areas of Bangladesh. We conducted 40 semi-structured observation sessions to observe handwashing behaviors of primiparous and multiparous mothers of neonates, and to understand the contextual factors that facilitated or hampered those behaviors. We then conducted 64 interviews with mothers of neonates and mothers of infants and 6 group discussions with mothers of infants, other female caregivers and fathers to explore perceptions, beliefs, and practices related to handwashing in the neonatal period. Based on a conceptual model and the Theory of Reasoned Action/Theory of Planned Behavior, we developed a conceptual model a priori, we performed thematic analysis to explain determinants of maternal handwashing behaviors. We conducted 200 h of observation among mothers of neonates. The age range of participating mothers varied between 17 and 25 years and their maximum education was up to 10th grade of schooling. Mothers, other female caregivers and fathers perceived a need to wash hands with or without soap before eating or before feeding a child by hand to prevent diarrhea. Mothers expressed the importance of washing their hands before holding a baby but were rarely observed doing so. All respondents prioritized using soap for visible dirt or feces; otherwise, water alone was considered sufficient. Lack of family support, social norms of infrequent handwashing, perceptions of frequent contact with water as a health threat and mothers' restricted movement during first 40 days of neonate's life, and childcare and household responsibilities adversely impacted handwashing behavior. Addressing emotive drivers of handwashing within existing social norms by engaging family members, ensuring handwashing facilities and clarifying neonatal health threats may improve maternal

  2. Behavior Change without Behavior Change Communication: Nudging Handwashing among Primary School Students in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreibelbis, Robert; Kroeger, Anne; Hossain, Kamal; Venkatesh, Mohini; Ram, Pavani K.

    2016-01-01

    Behavior change communication for improving handwashing with soap can be labor and resource intensive, yet quality results are difficult to achieve. Nudges are environmental cues engaging unconscious decision-making processes to prompt behavior change. In this proof-of-concept study, we developed an inexpensive set of nudges to encourage handwashing with soap after toilet use in two primary schools in rural Bangladesh. We completed direct observation of behaviors at baseline, after providing traditional handwashing infrastructure, and at multiple time periods following targeted handwashing nudges (1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks). No additional handwashing education or motivational messages were completed. Handwashing with soap among school children was low at baseline (4%), increasing to 68% the day after nudges were completed and 74% at both 2 weeks and 6 weeks post intervention. Results indicate that nudge-based interventions have the potential to improve handwashing with soap among school-aged children in Bangladesh and specific areas of further inquiry are discussed. PMID:26784210

  3. The context and practice of handwashing among new mothers in Serang, Indonesia: a formative research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, Katie; Iradati, Endang; Ati, Abigael; Maskoen, Yanti Yulianti; Aunger, Robert

    2013-09-11

    This article reports on formative research into the context and practice of handwashing with soap by new mothers, which can substantially impact child morbidity and mortality. New mothers are an important target group for handwashing interventions: they are considered particularly susceptible to behaviour change and their actions can directly affect a child's health. Twenty-seven mothers of infants (including neonates) from urban and rural sub-districts of Serang were recruited and filmed over a period of eight hours. Video footage was used to identify handwashing occasions and to understand the context in which behaviour took place. Each woman was subsequently interviewed. Handwashing with soap was found to be infrequent, typically occurring after eating, cooking and household chores or after cleaning a child's bottom. Handwashing before preparing food or eating was rare. Pre-pregnancy routines were reported to have been disrupted. Advice on child care comes from many sources, particularly the midwife and new child's grandmother. Developing interventions to change perceptions and practice of handwashing would seed an important behaviour and could save lives. New mothers represent an ideal target group for such an intervention. We suggest that interventions target an increase in handwashing with soap after contact with own and a baby's faecal matter as part of the post-defecation hygiene routines. As the child's grandmother is an authoritative source of information about parenting, interventions focussed on improving newborn care could target grandmothers as well as midwives.

  4. Behavior Change without Behavior Change Communication: Nudging Handwashing among Primary School Students in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Dreibelbis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavior change communication for improving handwashing with soap can be labor and resource intensive, yet quality results are difficult to achieve. Nudges are environmental cues engaging unconscious decision-making processes to prompt behavior change. In this proof-of-concept study, we developed an inexpensive set of nudges to encourage handwashing with soap after toilet use in two primary schools in rural Bangladesh. We completed direct observation of behaviors at baseline, after providing traditional handwashing infrastructure, and at multiple time periods following targeted handwashing nudges (1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks. No additional handwashing education or motivational messages were completed. Handwashing with soap among school children was low at baseline (4%, increasing to 68% the day after nudges were completed and 74% at both 2 weeks and 6 weeks post intervention. Results indicate that nudge-based interventions have the potential to improve handwashing with soap among school-aged children in Bangladesh and specific areas of further inquiry are discussed.

  5. Behavior Change without Behavior Change Communication: Nudging Handwashing among Primary School Students in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Dreibelbis, Robert; Kroeger, Anne; Hossain, Kamal; Venkatesh, Mohini; Ram, Pavani K.

    2016-01-01

    Behavior change communication for improving handwashing with soap can be labor and resource intensive, yet quality results are difficult to achieve. Nudges are environmental cues engaging unconscious decision-making processes to prompt behavior change. In this proof-of-concept study, we developed an inexpensive set of nudges to encourage handwashing with soap after toilet use in two primary schools in rural Bangladesh. We completed direct observation of behaviors at baseline, after providing ...

  6. The Power of Primary Schools to Change and Sustain Handwashing with Soap among Children : The Cases of Vietnam and Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Dutton, Pennelope; Peschiera, Rocio Florez; Nguyen, Nga Kim

    2011-01-01

    Vietnam and Peru are two of four countries taking part in the Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) Global Scaling up Handwashing Project. Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Global Scaling Up Handwashing Project aims to expand handwashing practices among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) and primary school-aged children (5 to 12 in Peru; 6 to 10 in Vietnam) The project...

  7. Is pregnancy a teachable moment to promote handwashing with soap among primiparous women in rural Bangladesh? Follow-up of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamm, Kelly B; Vujcic, Jelena; Nasreen, Sharifa; Luby, Stephen P; Zaman, K; El Arifeen, Shams; Ram, Pavani K

    2016-12-01

    Promoting handwashing with soap to mothers of young children can significantly reduce diarrhoea and pneumonia morbidity among children, but studies that measured long-term behaviour after interventions rarely found improvements in handwashing habits. Expecting mothers may experience emotional and social changes that create a unique environment that may encourage adoption of improved handwashing habits. The objective of this study was to determine whether exposure to an intensive handwashing intervention in the perinatal period (perinatal arm) was associated with improved maternal handwashing behaviour vs. exposure to the same intervention after the end of the perinatal period (post-neonatal arm). We identified primiparous women previously enrolled a randomised controlled handwashing intervention trial (November 2010-December 2011) and observed handwashing behaviours at the home 1-14 months after completion of the RCT (January-May 2012). We observed maternal handwashing and estimated the prevalence ratio (PR) of maternal handwashing using log-binomial regression. We enrolled 107 mothers in the perinatal arm and 105 mothers in the post-neonatal arm. Handwashing with soap at recommended times was low overall (4.6%) and comparable between arms (PR = 0.9, 95% CI 0.5, 1.5). This handwashing intervention was unable to develop and establish improved handwashing practices in primiparous women in rural Bangladesh. While pregnancy may present an opportunity and motivation to do so, further studies should assess whether social, individual and environmental influences overcome this motivation and prevent handwashing with soap among new mothers. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Using a motivational paradigm to improve handwashing compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mark

    2006-05-01

    The education and training of staff is frequently cited as essential to the development and maintenance of hand hygiene compliance, which is often quoted as the single most effective measure to prevent Hospital Acquired Infection. Despite much time, effort and cost, there is a growing frustration within infection control that training programmes do not appear to have a lasting effect on behaviour or produce consistently good hand hygiene compliers. This paper intends to encourage debate by suggesting that handwashing needs to be considered within a wider educational context and the motivational factors that impact upon performance acknowledged and addressed. A critique of learning theories in relation to hand hygiene will discuss why the use of traditional programmes in isolation may be unsuccessful, and how models and theories based in other disciplines could be adapted to help produce sustainable changes in practice. This paper recognises the contribution of contemporary training methods but argues that models such as [Prochaska, J., DiClemente, C., 1984. The Transtheoretical Approach; Crossing Traditional Boundaries of Therapy. Dow Jones Irwin, Homewood] stages of change transtheoretical model (TTM) and the interventionist paradigm of motivational interviewing could be borrowed and adapted from health promotion and applied to hand hygiene as their function, to increase understanding and enhance motivation in order to achieve sustainable behavioural change, are attributes which have resonance for a challenging problem like hand hygiene compliance.

  9. Handwashing and antiseptic-containing soaps in hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, J. D.; Wynne, C. D.; Enwright, L.; Williams, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    Two aspects of handwashing in hospital were considered. A study was carried out to examine the contamination of bar soap and containers, and the use of antiseptic soaps in reducing the resident flora of the skin. Swabs were collected from soap dishes on six wards and from a bacteriology laboratory on four consecutive days. The unmedicated bar soap was replaced by bar soap containing 2·5% povidone-iodine, and further swabs were collected over a period of seven days. Ninety-two isolates from 48 samples were obtained when unmedicated bar soap was used, and nine isolates from 42 samples when povidone-iodine (Betadine) soap was substituted. The number of organisms recovered when povidone-iodine soap was used was much reduced, and Pseudomonas spp were recovered in low numbers on only one occasion. Six laboratory workers took part in a study to compare bar soap with other agents—povidone-iodine soap, povidone-iodine surgical scrub, povidone-iodine alcoholic solution, chlorhexidine surgical scrub, and alcoholic chlorhexidine. Samples were collected after standard washes and after surgical gloves had been worn for 90 minutes. The effect of multiple washes was assessed by samples collected after six washes with the agent under study (three per day) followed by 90 minutes wearing surgical gloves. The average percentage reduction in normal flora obtained indicated that alcoholic chlorhexidine was superior to the other agents. PMID:500840

  10. A community-randomised controlled trial promoting waterless hand sanitizer and handwashing with soap, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Stephen P; Kadir, Mohammad Abdul; Yushuf Sharker, M A; Yeasmin, Farzana; Unicomb, Leanne; Sirajul Islam, M

    2010-12-01

    To pilot two intensive hand hygiene promotion interventions, one using soap and one using a waterless hand sanitizer, in low-income housing compounds in Dhaka, Bangladesh and assess subsequent changes in handwashing behaviour and hand microbiology. Fieldworkers randomized 30 housing compounds: 10 received handwashing promotion with free soap, 10 received handwashing promotion with free waterless hand sanitizer and 10 were non-intervention controls. Fieldworkers assessed handwashing behaviour by structured observation and collected hand rinse specimens. At baseline, compound residents washed their hands with soap 26% of the time after defecation and 30% after cleaning a child's anus but hands with soap after faecal contact (85-91%), before preparing food (26%) and before eating (26%). Compounds that received waterless hand sanitizer cleansed their hands more commonly than control compounds that used soap (10.4%vs. 2.3%), but less commonly than soap intervention compounds used soap (25%). Post-intervention hand rinse samples from soap and sanitizer compounds had lower concentrations of faecal indicator bacteria compared with baseline and control compounds. Waterless hand sanitizer was readily adopted by this low-income community and reduced hand contamination but did not improve the frequency of handwashing compared with soap. Future deployments of waterless hand sanitizers may improve hand hygiene more effectively by targeting settings where soap and water is unavailable. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Costs of diarrhoea and acute respiratory infection attributable to not handwashing: the cases of India and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Joy; Greenland, Katie; Curtis, Val

    2017-01-01

    To estimate the national costs relating to diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections from not handwashing with soap after contact with excreta and the costs and benefits of handwashing behaviour change programmes in India and China. Data on the reduction in risk of diarrhoea and acute respiratory infection attributable to handwashing with soap were used, together with World Health Organization (WHO) estimates of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to diarrhoea and acute respiratory infection, to estimate DALYs due to not handwashing in India and China. Costs and benefits of behaviour change handwashing programmes and the potential returns to investment are estimated valuing DALYs at per capita GDP for each country. Annual net costs to India from not handwashing are estimated at US$ 23 billion (16-35) and to China at US$ 12 billion (7-23). Expected net returns to national behaviour change handwashing programmes would be US$ 5.6 billion (3.4-8.6) for India at US$ 23 (16-35) per DALY avoided, which represents a 92-fold return to investment, and US$ 2.64 billion (2.08-5.57) for China at US$ 22 (14-31) per DALY avoided - a 35-fold return on investment. Our results suggest large economic gains relating to decreases in diarrhoea and acute respiratory infection for both India and China from behaviour change programmes to increase handwashing with soap in households. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Promoting Handwashing Behavior: The Effects of Large-scale Community and School-level Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiani, Sebastian; Gertler, Paul; Ajzenman, Nicolas; Orsola-Vidal, Alexandra

    2016-12-01

    This paper analyzes a randomized experiment that uses novel strategies to promote handwashing with soap at critical points in time in Peru. It evaluates a large-scale comprehensive initiative that involved both community and school activities in addition to communication campaigns. The analysis indicates that the initiative was successful in reaching the target audience and in increasing the treated population's knowledge about appropriate handwashing behavior. These improvements translated into higher self-reported and observed handwashing with soap at critical junctures. However, no significant improvements in the health of children under the age of 5 years were observed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. [Evaluation of the handwashing technique held by students from the nursing graduation course].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Carla Cristiane Paz; Miyadahira, Ana Maria Kazue

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the execution and verify the compliance with the handwashing techniques by students in an undergraduate Nursing course. The study was performed with 113 students enrolled in internship programs in healthcare institutions in the city of São Paulo. Data collection occurred through direct observation, using a check-list instrument with the steps of the technique. Students in their 2nd and 3rd year had better results in most steps of the technique, with a statistically significant difference when compared to the 4th year. Compliance with the steps of the technique by the students was very low, since their compliance with half the handwashing steps was lower than 50%. The average amount of students who executed all the steps of the technique correctly was very low, 8.8%. The observed students did not execute the handwashing techniques according to the recommendations.

  14. Efficacy of handrubbing with alcohol based solution versus standard handwashing with antiseptic soap: randomised clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girou, Emmanuelle; Loyeau, Sabrina; Legrand, Patrick; Oppein, Françoise; Brun-Buisson, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of handrubbing with an alcohol based solution versus conventional handwashing with antiseptic soap in reducing hand contamination during routine patient care. Design Randomised controlled trial during daily nursing sessions of 2 to 3 hours. Setting Three intensive care units in a French university hospital. Participants 23 healthcare workers. Interventions Handrubbing with alcohol based solution (n=12) or handwashing with antiseptic soap (n=11) when hand hygiene was indicated before and after patient care. Imprints taken of fingertips and palm of dominant hand before and after hand hygiene procedure. Bacterial counts quantified blindly. Main outcome measures Bacterial reduction of hand contamination. Results With handrubbing the median percentage reduction in bacterial contamination was significantly higher than with handwashing (83% v 58%, P=0.012), with a median difference in the percentage reduction of 26% (95% confidence interval 8% to 44%). The median duration of hand hygiene was 30 seconds in each group. Conclusions During routine patient care handrubbing with an alcohol based solution is significantly more efficient in reducing hand contamination than handwashing with antiseptic soap. What is already known on this topicTo improve compliance with hand hygiene during patient care, handrubbing with an alcohol based solution has been proposed as a substitute for handwashing because of its rapid action and accessibilityExperimental studies show that handrubbing is at least as effective as medicated soap in reducing artificial contamination of handsMany healthcare workers still have reservations regarding its efficacy and are reluctant to use this techniqueWhat this study addsWhen used in routine practice, handrubbing with an alcohol based solution after contact with patients achieved a greater reduction in bacterial contamination of hands than conventional handwashing with medicated soap PMID:12183307

  15. Hygiene and health: systematic review of handwashing practices worldwide and update of health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Matthew C; Stocks, Meredith E; Cumming, Oliver; Jeandron, Aurelie; Higgins, Julian P T; Wolf, Jennyfer; Prüss-Ustün, Annette; Bonjour, Sophie; Hunter, Paul R; Fewtrell, Lorna; Curtis, Valerie

    2014-08-01

    To estimate the global prevalence of handwashing with soap and derive a pooled estimate of the effect of hygiene on diarrhoeal diseases, based on a systematic search of the literature. Studies with data on observed rates of handwashing with soap published between 1990 and August 2013 were identified from a systematic search of PubMed, Embase and ISI Web of Knowledge. A separate search was conducted for studies on the effect of hygiene on diarrhoeal disease that included randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised trials with control group, observational studies using matching techniques and observational studies with a control group where the intervention was well defined. The search used Cochrane Library, Global Health, BIOSIS, PubMed, and Embase databases supplemented with reference lists from previously published systematic reviews to identify studies published between 1970 and August 2013. Results were combined using multilevel modelling for handwashing prevalence and meta-regression for risk estimates. From the 42 studies reporting handwashing prevalence we estimate that approximately 19% of the world population washes hands with soap after contact with excreta (i.e. use of a sanitation facility or contact with children's excreta). Meta-regression of risk estimates suggests that handwashing reduces the risk of diarrhoeal disease by 40% (risk ratio 0.60, 95% CI 0.53-0.68); however, when we included an adjustment for unblinded studies, the effect estimate was reduced to 23% (risk ratio 0.77, 95% CI 0.32-1.86). Our results show that handwashing after contact with excreta is poorly practiced globally, despite the likely positive health benefits. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Social determinants of good hand-washing practice (GHP) among adolescents in a rural Indian community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobe, Madhumita; Mandal, Ram Narayan; Jha, Ayan

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 randomly selected villages to assess prevalence of good hand-washing practice (GHP) among adolescents, and describe the social determinants. The prevalence of adolescent GHP was 32.1% (95% CI = 27.1, 37.1). Logistic regression established 5 significant positive predictors-maternal GHP, presence of sanitary latrine, availability of soap at hand-washing locations, in-house water supply, and higher per capita income. Our research provides a scope for better understanding of the socioeconomic determinants of GHP in a rural Indian setting, and may find implications in the Total Sanitation Campaign launched by Government of India.

  17. Global Handwashing Day 2012: a qualitative content analysis of Chinese social media reaction to a health promotion event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Isaac Chun-Hai; Cai, Jingxian; Hao, Yi; Ying, Yuchen; Chan, Benedict Shing Bun; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho; Fu, King-Wa

    2015-01-01

    Global Handwashing Day (GHD) is a handwashing promotion campaign organized by the Global Public-Private Partnership of Handwashing with Soap. In China, it has been promoted by the Chinese public health authorities, international organizations and multinational corporations through various channels including social media such as Sina Weibo, the leading Chinese microblogging site similar to Twitter. The objective of this study is to qualitatively assess Chinese social media users' reactions to a health promotion campaign using Global Handwashing Day (GHD) 2012 as an example. We conducted a qualitative content analysis of 552 Weibo posts generated on GHD 2012 by Weibo users with 1000 or more followers with the Chinese keyword for "handwashing." We categorized the Weibo posts into groups by keywords that frequently appeared in the data set. These groups were either exact reposts of an original post, or they conveyed similar information. We observed the interconnections between traditional media and social media in handwashing promotion. Social media were found to serve as amplifiers of contents provided by traditional media. We observed the contextualization of global hygiene messages in a unique national social media market in China. Our study showed that social media and traditional media are two interconnected arms of the GHD campaign in China. Our analysis demonstrated that public health campaigns in China can be evaluated using social media data. The themes and topics identified in this study will help public health practitioners evaluate future social media handwashing promotion campaigns.

  18. Effects of an Awareness Raising Campaign on Intention and Behavioural Determinants for Handwashing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimetz, E.; Kumar, S.; Mosler, H.-J.

    2016-01-01

    This article assesses the effectiveness of The Great WASH Yatra handwashing awareness raising campaign in India on changing visitors' intention to wash hands with soap after using the toilet and the underlying behavioural determinants. Interviews based on the RANAS (Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, Self-regulation) model of behaviour change were…

  19. The “Elbow-Way” to Proper Handwashing: A Device Improvised for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lack of running pipe-borne water is common to developing countries and therefore, water used in hospitals and laboratories are collected in buckets or basins from wells or bore holes. This often leads to contamination of the water from contact with the hands when this is used for routine handwashing. By improvising a ...

  20. Identifying behavioural determinants for interventions to increase handwashing practices among primary school children in rural Burundi and urban Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimetz, Elisabeth; Slekiene, Jurgita; Friedrich, Max N D; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2017-07-14

    This article presents the development of a school handwashing programme in two different sub-Saharan countries that applies the RANAS (risk, attitudes, norms, ability, and self-regulation) systematic approach to behaviour change. Interviews were conducted with 669 children enrolled in 20 primary schools in Burundi and 524 children in 20 primary schools in Zimbabwe. Regression analyses were used to assess the influence of the RANAS behavioural determinants on reported handwashing frequencies. The results revealed that, in both countries, a programme targeting social norms and self-efficacy would be most effective. In Burundi, raising the children's perceived severity of the consequences of contracting diarrhoea, and in Zimbabwe, increasing the children's health knowledge should be part of the programme. The school handwashing programme should create awareness of the benefits of handwashing through educational activities, raise the children's ability and confidence in washing hands at school through infrastructural improvements, and highlight the normality of washing hands at school through events and poster creation.

  1. The effect of a comprehensive handwashing program on absenteeism in elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, Maryellen; McGuckin, Maryanne; Ali, Yusef

    2002-06-01

    Handwashing is one of the most important factors in controlling the spread of micro-organisms and in preventing the development of infections. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a comprehensive handwashing program on absenteeism in elementary grades. Two hundred ninety students from 5 independent schools were enrolled in the study. Each test classroom had a control classroom, and only the test classroom received the intervention (education program and hand sanitizer). Absenteeism data were collected for 3 months. The number of absences was 50.6% lower in the test group (P hand hygiene program that combines education and use of a hand sanitizer in the classroom can lower absenteeism and be cost-effective.

  2. Two in-vivo protocols for testing virucidal efficacy of handwashing and hand disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, J; Nehrkorn, R; Meyer, A; Becker, K

    1995-01-01

    Whole-hands and fingerpads of seven volunteers were contaminated with poliovirus type 1 Sabin strain in order to evaluate virucidal efficacy of different forms of handwashing and handrub with alcohols and alcohol-based disinfectants. In the whole-hand protocol, handwashing with unmedicated soap for 5 min and handrubbing with 80% ethanol yielded a log reduction factor (RF) of > 2, whereas the log RF by 96.8% ethanol exceeded 3.2. With the fingerpad model ethanol produced a greater log RF than iso- or n-propanol. Comparing five commercial hand disinfectants and a chlorine solution (1.0% chloramine T-solution) for handrub, Desderman and Promanum, both composed of ethanol, yielded log RFs of 2.47 and 2.26 respectively after an application time of 60 s, similar to 1.0% chloramine T-solution (log RF of 2.28). Autosept, Mucasept, and Sterillium, based on n-propanol and/or isopropanol, were found to be significantly less effective (log RFs of 1.16, 1.06 and 1.52 respectively). A comparison of a modified whole-hand and the fingerpad protocol with Promanum showed similar results with the two systems suggesting both models are suitable for testing the in-vivo efficacy of handwashing agents and hand disinfectants which are used without any water.

  3. Handwashing: a simple, economical and effective method for preventing nosocomial infections in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyol, A; Ulusoy, H; Ozen, I

    2006-04-01

    As most nosocomial infections are thought to be transmitted by the hands of healthcare workers, handwashing is considered to be the single most important intervention to prevent nosocomial infections. However, studies have shown that handwashing practices are poor, especially among medical personnel. This review gives an overview of handwashing in health care and in the community, including some aspects that have attracted little attention, such as hand drying and cultural issues determining hand hygiene behaviour. Hand hygiene is the most effective measure for interrupting the transmission of micro-organisms which cause infection, both in the community and in the healthcare setting. Using hand hygiene as a sole measure to reduce infection is unlikely to be successful when other factors in infection control, such as environmental hygiene, crowding, staffing levels and education, are inadequate. Hand hygiene must be part of an integrated approach to infection control. Compliance with hand hygiene recommendations is poor worldwide. While the techniques involved in hand hygiene are simple, the complex interdependence of factors that determine hand hygiene behaviour makes the study of hand hygiene complex. It is now recognized that improving compliance with hand hygiene recommendations depends on altering human behaviour. Input from behavioural and social sciences is essential when designing studies to investigate compliance. Interventions to increase compliance with hand hygiene practices must be appropriate for different cultural and social needs.

  4. The effect of a soap promotion and hygiene education campaign on handwashing behaviour in rural India: a cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biran, Adam; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Wright, Richard; Jones, Therese; Seshadri, M; Isaac, Pradeep; Nathan, N A; Hall, Peter; McKenna, Joeleen; Granger, Stewart; Bidinger, Pat; Curtis, Val

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of a hygiene promotion intervention based on germ awareness in increasing handwashing with soap on key occasions (after faecal contact and before eating) in rural Indian households. Cluster randomised trial of a hygiene promotion intervention in five intervention and five control villages. Handwashing was assessed through structured observation in a random sample of 30 households per village. Additionally, soap use was monitored in a sub-sample of 10 households per village using electronic motion detectors embedded in soap bars. The intervention reached 40% of the target population. Germ awareness increased as well as reported handwashing (a possible indicator of perceived social norms). Observed handwashing with soap on key occasions was rare (6%), especially after faecal contact (2%). Observed handwashing with soap on key occasions did not change 4 weeks after the intervention in either the intervention arm (-1%, 95% CI -2%/+0.3%), or the control arm (+0.4%, 95% CI -1%/+2%). Data from motion detectors indicated a significant but small increase in overall soap use in the intervention arm. We cannot confidently identify the nature of this increase except to say that there was no change in a key measure of handwashing after defecation. The intervention proved scalable and effective in raising hygiene awareness. There was some evidence of an impact on soap use but not on the primary outcome of handwashing at key times. However, the results do not exclude that changes in knowledge and social norms may lay the foundations for behaviour change in the longer term.

  5. The Effect of Therapeutic Clowning on Handwashing Technique and Microbial Colonization in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arıkan, Duygu; Gürarslan Baş, Nazan; Kurudirek, Fatma; Baştopcu, Ayşe; Uslu, Hakan

    2018-05-15

    This study aimed to determine the effect of therapeutic clowning on handwashing technique and microbial colonization in preschool children. This randomized controlled trial was conducted using pre-test and post-test experimental and control groups. The study was conducted between March and June 2016 in two kindergartens in eastern Turkey. The study was completed with a total of 195 students, including 90 students in the experimental group and 105 students in the control group. A questionnaire was used for data collection. This questionnaire included sections about the subjects' descriptive characteristics and the results of the bacterial cultures of their hand swabs. For the collection of these swabs, the subjects were informed in advance, and samples were collected at predetermined times. The swabs were analyzed to determine the bacterial colonization of the subjects' hands. Clowns and video activities were used as intervention tools in the study. In the post-test, the microbial growth was ≤10 3 in 68.9% and >10 3 in 31.1% of the subjects in the experimental group. In contrast, the growth was ≤10 3 in 34.3% and >10 3 in 65.7% of the control group subjects. The difference in the post-test microbial growths of the two groups was statistically significant (p < .000). The hygienic handwashing technique taught in the therapeutic clowning and videos reduced the bacterial colonization on the preschool children's hands by 50%. Moreover, this method was effective in reducing the growth rate of coliform bacteria that indicate undesirable, poor hygiene of the hands. Considering these results, we recommend that pediatric healthcare professionals use entertaining methods such as those involving clowns to teach and guide children regarding hygienic handwashing techniques. © 2018 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  6. Extending the Theory of Normative Social Behavior to Predict Hand-Washing among Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Minwoong; Lapinski, Maria Knight

    2018-04-10

    The current study tests the predictions of the theory of normative social behavior (TNSB) in a hand-washing context in a Korean sample and extends the theory to examine the role of perceived publicness, a variable believed to activate face concerns, as a moderator of the norm-behavior relationship. The findings show substantial main effects for all of the study variables on behavior. In addition, the descriptive norm-behavior relationship is moderated by perceived publicness and outcome expectations, but the nature of the interactions is not consistent with that evidenced in previous literature on US samples. Implications for normative theory and communication campaigns are discussed.

  7. Effectiveness of a multifactorial handwashing program to reduce school absenteeism due to acute gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azor-Martínez, Ernestina; Cobos-Carrascosa, Elena; Gimenez-Sanchez, Francisco; Martínez-López, Jose Miguel; Garrido-Fernández, Pablo; Santisteban-Martínez, Joaquin; Seijas-Vazquez, Maria Luisa; Campos-Fernandez, Maria Amparo; Bonillo-Perales, Antonio

    2014-02-01

    Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is one of the most common diseases among children and an important cause of school absenteeism. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a handwashing program using hand sanitizers for the prevention of school absenteeism due to AGE. A randomized, controlled and open study of a sample of 1341 children between 4 and 12 years of age, attending 5 state schools in Almería (Spain), with an 8-month follow up (academic year). The experimental group (EG) washed their hands with soap and water, complementing this with the use of a hand sanitizer, and the control group (CG) followed the usual handwashing procedure. Absenteeism rates due GI were compared between the 2 groups through the multivariate Poisson regression analysis. Percent days absent in both groups were compared with a Z-test. 446 cases of school absenteeism due to AGE were registered. The school children from the EG had a 36% lower risk of absenteeism due to AGE (IRR: 0.64, 95% confidence interval: 0.52-0.78) and a decrease in absenteeism of 0.13 episodes/child/academic year (0.27 of EG vs 0.40 CG/episodes/child/academic year, P absenteeism cases due to AGE.

  8. Oral Hygiene and Handwashing Practices among Middle School Students in 15 Latin American and Caribbean Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKittrick, T R; Jacobsen, K H

    2015-06-01

    To examine the relationship between infrequent toothbrushing and infrequent handwashing among middle school students from 15 Latin American and Caribbean countries (Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Costa Rica, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Peru, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and Uruguay). A secondary analysis was done of nationally-representative data from 33 174 middle school students who participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2006 and 2011. In all 15 countries, the association between rarely brushing or cleaning teeth and rarely handwashing after using the toilet was significant for both boys and girls. The pooled odds ratio for this association was 6.7 (5.8, 7.7). Healthcare providers who notice signs of poor dental hygiene or infrequent bathing in adolescents should consider providing comprehensive hygiene education to their patients, since infrequent oral and body hygiene behaviours tend to co-exist and both are threats to health.

  9. Efficacy of Waterless Hand Hygiene Compared with Handwashing with Soap: A Field Study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Amy J.; Boehm, Alexandria B.; Mwanjali, Mathew; Davis, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Effective handwashing with soap requires reliable access to water supplies. However, more than three billion persons do not have household-level access to piped water. This research addresses the challenge of improving hand hygiene within water-constrained environments. The antimicrobial efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizer, a waterless hand hygiene product, was evaluated and compared with handwashing with soap and water in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Hand sanitizer use by mothers resulted in 0.66 and 0.64 log reductions per hand of Escherichia coli and fecal streptococci, respectively. In comparison, handwashing with soap resulted in 0.50 and 0.25 log reductions per hand of E. coli and fecal streptococci, respectively. Hand sanitizer was significantly better than handwashing with respect to reduction in levels of fecal streptococci (P = 0.01). The feasibility and health impacts of promoting hand sanitizer as an alternative hand hygiene option for water-constrained environments should be assessed. PMID:20134005

  10. Psychosocial Factors Mediating the Effect of the CHoBI7 Intervention on Handwashing with Soap: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Christine Marie; Biswas, Shwapon; Jung, Danielle; Perin, Jamie; Parvin, Tahmina; Monira, Shirajum; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K. M.; Rashid, Mahamud-ur; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Thomas, Elizabeth D.; Dreibelbis, Robert; Begum, Farzana; Zohura, Fatema; Zhang, Xiaotong; Sack, David A.; Alam, Munirul; Sack, R. Bradley; Leontsini, Elli; Winch, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Inadequate hand hygiene is estimated to result in nearly 300,000 deaths annually, with the majority of deaths being among children younger than 5 years. In an effort to promote handwashing with soap and water treatment behaviors among highly susceptible household members of cholera patients, we recently developed the Cholera-Hospital-Based…

  11. Association between moderate-to-severe diarrhea in young children in the global enteric multicenter study (GEMS) and types of handwashing materials used by caretakers in Mirzapur, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kelly K; Dil Farzana, Fahmida; Ferdous, Farzana; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Kumar Das, Sumon; Faruque, A S G; Nasrin, Dilruba; Kotloff, Karen L; Nataro, James P; Kolappaswamy, Krishnan; Levine, Myron M

    2014-07-01

    Handwashing practices among caretakers of case and control children hygiene purposes and were kept together at handwashing areas. Caretakers preferred soap for handwashing, but frequently relied on ash, or a detergent/ash mixture, as a low-cost alternative. Moderate-to-severe diarrhea was equally likely for children of caretakers who kept soap versus those who kept ash (matched OR = 0.91; 0.62-1.32). Contact with ash and water reduced concentrations of bacterial enteropathogens, without mechanical scrubbing. Thus, washing hands with ash is a prevalent behavior in Mirzapur and may help diminish transmission of diarrheal pathogens to children. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  12. Effects of water quality, sanitation, handwashing, and nutritional interventions on diarrhoea and child growth in rural Kenya: a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clair Null, PhD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Poor nutrition and exposure to faecal contamination are associated with diarrhoea and growth faltering, both of which have long-term consequences for child health. We aimed to assess whether water, sanitation, handwashing, and nutrition interventions reduced diarrhoea or growth faltering. Methods: The WASH Benefits cluster-randomised trial enrolled pregnant women from villages in rural Kenya and evaluated outcomes at 1 year and 2 years of follow-up. Geographically-adjacent clusters were block-randomised to active control (household visits to measure mid-upper-arm circumference, passive control (data collection only, or compound-level interventions including household visits to promote target behaviours: drinking chlorinated water (water; safe sanitation consisting of disposing faeces in an improved latrine (sanitation; handwashing with soap (handwashing; combined water, sanitation, and handwashing; counselling on appropriate maternal, infant, and young child feeding plus small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements from 6–24 months (nutrition; and combined water, sanitation, handwashing, and nutrition. Primary outcomes were caregiver-reported diarrhoea in the past 7 days and length-for-age Z score at year 2 in index children born to the enrolled pregnant women. Masking was not possible for data collection, but analyses were masked. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01704105. Findings: Between Nov 27, 2012, and May 21, 2014, 8246 women in 702 clusters were enrolled and randomly assigned an intervention or control group. 1919 women were assigned to the active control group; 938 to passive control; 904 to water; 892 to sanitation; 917 to handwashing; 912 to combined water, sanitation, and handwashing; 843 to nutrition; and 921 to combined water, sanitation, handwashing, and nutrition. Data on diarrhoea at year 1 or year 2 were available for 6494 children and

  13. Effects of water quality, sanitation, handwashing, and nutritional interventions on diarrhoea and child growth in rural Bangladesh: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P Luby, ProfMD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Diarrhoea and growth faltering in early childhood are associated with subsequent adverse outcomes. We aimed to assess whether water quality, sanitation, and handwashing interventions alone or combined with nutrition interventions reduced diarrhoea or growth faltering. Methods: The WASH Benefits Bangladesh cluster-randomised trial enrolled pregnant women from villages in rural Bangladesh and evaluated outcomes at 1-year and 2-years' follow-up. Pregnant women in geographically adjacent clusters were block-randomised to one of seven clusters: chlorinated drinking water (water; upgraded sanitation (sanitation; promotion of handwashing with soap (handwashing; combined water, sanitation, and handwashing; counselling on appropriate child nutrition plus lipid-based nutrient supplements (nutrition; combined water, sanitation, handwashing, and nutrition; and control (data collection only. Primary outcomes were caregiver-reported diarrhoea in the past 7 days among children who were in utero or younger than 3 years at enrolment and length-for-age Z score among children born to enrolled pregnant women. Masking was not possible for data collection, but analyses were masked. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCC01590095. Findings: Between May 31, 2012, and July 7, 2013, 5551 pregnant women in 720 clusters were randomly allocated to one of seven groups. 1382 women were assigned to the control group; 698 to water; 696 to sanitation; 688 to handwashing; 702 to water, sanitation, and handwashing; 699 to nutrition; and 686 to water, sanitation, handwashing, and nutrition. 331 (6% women were lost to follow-up. Data on diarrhoea at year 1 or year 2 (combined were available for 14 425 children (7331 in year 1, 7094 in year 2 and data on length-for-age Z score in year 2 were available for 4584 children (92% of living children were measured at year 2. All interventions had high adherence

  14. Observed Handwashing with Soap Practices among Cholera Patients and Accompanying Household Members in a Hospital Setting (CHoBI7 Trial)

    OpenAIRE

    Zohura, Fatema; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Monira, Shirajum; Begum, Farzana; Biswas, Shwapon K.; Parvin, Tahmina; Sack, David; Sack, R. Bradley; Leontsini, Elli; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K. M.; Rashid, Mahamud-ur; Sharmin, Rumana; Zhang, Xiaotong; Alam, Munirul; George, Christine Marie

    2016-01-01

    Household members of cholera patients are at a 100 times higher risk of cholera than the general population. Despite this risk, there are only a handful of studies that have investigated the handwashing practices among hospitalized diarrhea patients and their accompanying household members. To investigate handwashing practices in a hospital setting among this high-risk population, 444 hours of structured observation was conducted in a hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh, among 148 cholera patients ...

  15. Associations between presence of handwashing stations and soap in the home and diarrhoea and respiratory illness, in children less than five years old in rural western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamm, K B; Feikin, D R; Bigogo, G M; Aol, G; Audi, A; Cohen, A L; Shah, M M; Yu, J; Breiman, R F; Ram, P K

    2014-04-01

    We tested whether soap presence in the home or a designated handwashing station was associated with diarrhoea and respiratory illness in Kenya. In April 2009, we observed presence of a handwashing station and soap in households participating in a longitudinal health surveillance system in rural Kenya. Diarrhoea and acute respiratory illness (ARI) in children soap in the home and a handwashing station. Among 2547 children, prevalence of diarrhoea and ARI was 2.3 and 11.4 days per 100 child-days, respectively. Soap was observed in 97% of households. Children in households with soap had 1.3 fewer days of diarrhoea/100 child-days (95% CI -2.6, -0.1) than children in households without soap. ARI prevalence was not associated with presence of soap. A handwashing station was identified in 1.4% of households and was not associated with a difference in diarrhoea or ARI prevalence. Soap presence in the home was significantly associated with reduced diarrhoea, but not ARI, in children in rural western Kenya. Whereas most households had soap in the home, almost none had a designated handwashing station, which may prevent handwashing at key times of hand contamination. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Marketing hygiene behaviours: the impact of different communication channels on reported handwashing behaviour of women in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Beth E; Schmidt, Wolf P; Aunger, Robert; Garbrah-Aidoo, Nana; Animashaun, Rasaaque

    2008-06-01

    In 2003-04, a National Handwashing Campaign utilizing mass media and community events took place in Ghana. This article describes the results of the evaluation of the campaign in a sample of 497 women with children channels was that hands were not 'truly' clean unless washed with soap. The campaign reached 82% of the study population. Sixty-two per cent of women knew the campaign song, 44% were exposed to one channel and 36% to two or more. Overall, TV and radio had greater reach and impact on reported handwashing than community events, while exposure to both a mass media channel and an event yielded the greatest effect, resulting in a 30% increase in reported handwashing with soap after visiting the toilet or cleaning a child's bottom. Our evaluation questions wide-held belief that community events are more effective agents of behaviour change than mass media commercials, at least in the case of hygiene promotion. However, failure of mass media to reach the entire target audience, particularly in specific regions and lower socio-economic groups, and the additive effect of exposure, underscores the need to implement integrated communication programmes utilizing a variety of complementary channels.

  17. Microbial Content of “Bowl Water” Used for Communal Handwashing in Preschools within Accra Metropolis, Ghana

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    Patience B. Tetteh-Quarcoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed at determining the microbial content of “bowl water” used for communal handwashing in preschools within the Accra Metropolis. Method. Six (6 preschools in the Accra Metropolis were involved in the study. Water samples and swabs from the hands of the preschool children were collected. The samples were analysed and tested for bacteria, fungi, parasites, and rotavirus. Results. Eight different bacteria, two different parasites, and a fungus were isolated while no rotavirus was detected. Unlike the rest of the microbes, bacterial isolates were found among samples from all the schools, with Staphylococcus species being the most prevalent (40.9%. Out of the three schools that had parasites in their water, two of them had Cryptosporidium parvum. The fungus isolated from two out of the six schools was Aspergillus niger. All bacteria isolated were found to be resistant to cotrimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, and ampicillin and susceptible to amikacin and levofloxacin. Conclusion. Although handwashing has the ability to get rid of microbes, communal handwashing practices using water in bowls could be considered a possible transmission route and may be of public concern.

  18. Impact of Training on Improving Proper Handwashing Practices among Elementary School Students

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    Theruna Huthamaputiran

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hand washing is among the most effective ways to prevent diseases. In Indonesia, only a quarter of the entire population practice proper handwashing techniques. Of these, children are the most vulnerable group for contracting diseases. Nevertheless, they also are crucial agent for behavior transformation as they are keen and open to new ideas. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine if training would have an improvement on a proper hand washing practices among elementary school students. Methods:An observational descriptive study design using random sampling was conducted from September to November 2013 in Jatinangor Subdistrict, West Java, Indonesia using primary data of one hundred elementary school students from four elementary schools. Questionnaires were given after informed consent. A demonstration on hand washing techniques and education on proper hand washing practices was then given. Two weeks later, the same questionnaire was given to measure the influence of the training. The collected data were presented using frequency tabulation. Results: Before the training on proper hand washing practices was conducted, only 86.9% students were practicing it properly. After the training was given, 90.7% of the students were doing it properly. For the hand washing technique, only 66.8% of students knew the correct steps before the intervention was given and 78.7% students did them correctly after the intervention. Conclusions:The training shows an overall improvement on the students’ hand washing practices.   DOI: 10.15850/amj.v4n2.1073

  19. Low Compliance to Handwashing Program and High Nosocomial Infection in a Brazilian Hospital

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    Lizandra Ferreira de Almeida e Borges

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is a fact that hand hygiene prevents nosocomial infection, but compliance with recommended instructions is commonly poor. The purpose of this study was to implement a hand hygiene program for increase compliance with hand hygiene and its relationship with nosocomial infection (NI and MRSA infection/colonization rates. Methods. Compliance to hand hygiene was evaluated in a hospital by direct observation and measured of health care-associated infections, including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, before and after an educational intervention, using visual poster, colorful stamps, and feedback of the results. Results. Overall compliance did not increase during intervention, only handwashing before and after patient contact has improved from 40% to 76% (=0.01 for HCWs, but NI and MRSA rates remained high and stable. Conclusion. In a combination of high prevalence of NI and low compliance to hand hygiene, the programme of measure does not motivate the HCW hand hygiene. Future interventions should employ incremental evaluation to develop effective hand hygiene initiatives.

  20. Validación del Handwashing Assessment Inventory en un hospital universitario de Bogotá

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    Licet Villamizar Gómez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El lavado de manos evita infecciones asociadas al cuidado; es necesaria una escala que mida la motivación y su cumplimiento. Objetivo: Validar el Handwashing Assessment Inventory (HAI en enfermeras del Hospital de San José, Bogotá, Colombia. Métodos: Luego de la adaptación transcultural, se realizó el análisis factorial (AF. Para la validez concurrente se comparó el HAI con la escala Acttitudes Regarding Guidelines Practices (ARGP. Se evaluó consistencia interna (CI, confiabilidad prueba reprueba (CPR y sensibilidad al cambio. Resultados: Se presentó una adecuada equivalencia lingüística. El AF indicó ocho dominios, similares a la escala original. La correlación entre escalas (ARGP-HAI fue menor a 0,30. La CI indicó alfa de Cronbach de 0,82. La CPR presentó valores menores de 0,30. El ANOVA de medidas repetidas no presentó diferencias en siete dominios. Conclusión: La validación del HAI presenta satisfactoria equivalencia transcultural. La consistencia interna es adecuada; pero la confiabilidad es baja.

  1. Efficacy of Handwashing with Soap and Nail Clipping on Intestinal Parasitic Infections in School-Aged Children: A Factorial Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    Mahmud, Mahmud Abdulkader; Spigt, Mark; Bezabih, Afework Mulugeta; Pavon, Ignacio Lopez; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Velasco, Roman Blanco

    2015-06-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are highly endemic among school-aged children in resource-limited settings. To lower their impact, preventive measures should be implemented that are sustainable with available resources. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of handwashing with soap and nail clipping on the prevention of intestinal parasite reinfections. In this trial, 367 parasite-negative school-aged children (aged 6-15 y) were randomly assigned to receive both, one or the other, or neither of the interventions in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Assignment sequence was concealed. After 6 mo of follow-up, stool samples were examined using direct, concentration, and Kato-Katz methods. Hemoglobin levels were determined using a HemoCue spectrometer. The primary study outcomes were prevalence of intestinal parasite reinfection and infection intensity. The secondary outcome was anemia prevalence. Analysis was by intention to treat. Main effects were adjusted for sex, age, drinking water source, latrine use, pre-treatment parasites, handwashing with soap and nail clipping at baseline, and the other factor in the additive model. Fourteen percent (95% CI: 9% to 19%) of the children in the handwashing with soap intervention group were reinfected versus 29% (95% CI: 22% to 36%) in the groups with no handwashing with soap (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.32, 95% CI: 0.17 to 0.62). Similarly, 17% (95% CI: 12% to 22%) of the children in the nail clipping intervention group were reinfected versus 26% (95% CI: 20% to 32%) in the groups with no nail clipping (AOR 0.51, 95% CI: 0.27 to 0.95). Likewise, following the intervention, 13% (95% CI: 8% to 18%) of the children in the handwashing group were anemic versus 23% (95% CI: 17% to 29%) in the groups with no handwashing with soap (AOR 0.39, 95% CI: 0.20 to 0.78). The prevalence of anemia did not differ significantly between children in the nail clipping group and those in the groups with no nail clipping (AOR 0.53, 95% CI: 0.27 to

  2. No germs on me: a social marketing campaign to promote hand-washing with soap in remote Australian Aboriginal communities.

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    McDonald, Elizabeth; Slavin, Nicola; Bailie, Ross; Schobben, Xavier

    2011-03-01

    A social marketing campaign promoting hand-washing with soap was implemented to reduce the high burden of infection experienced by Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities. Epidemiological evidence of effect and other evidence were used to identify the hygiene intervention and health promotion approach for the project. We drew on the findings of: (i) a systematic literature review to identify the intervention for which there is strong effect in similar populations and contexts; and (ii) a narrative literature review to determine our health promotion approach. This process provided practitioners with confidence and understanding so they could address a complex problem in a politically and otherwise sensitive context.

  3. Handwashing and Ebola virus disease outbreaks: A randomized comparison of soap, hand sanitizer, and 0.05% chlorine solutions on the inactivation and removal of model organisms Phi6 and E. coli from hands and persistence in rinse water.

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    Wolfe, Marlene K; Gallandat, Karin; Daniels, Kyle; Desmarais, Anne Marie; Scheinman, Pamela; Lantagne, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    To prevent Ebola transmission, frequent handwashing is recommended in Ebola Treatment Units and communities. However, little is known about which handwashing protocol is most efficacious. We evaluated six handwashing protocols (soap and water, alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS), and 0.05% sodium dichloroisocyanurate, high-test hypochlorite, and stabilized and non-stabilized sodium hypochlorite solutions) for 1) efficacy of handwashing on the removal and inactivation of non-pathogenic model organisms and, 2) persistence of organisms in rinse water. Model organisms E. coli and bacteriophage Phi6 were used to evaluate handwashing with and without organic load added to simulate bodily fluids. Hands were inoculated with test organisms, washed, and rinsed using a glove juice method to retrieve remaining organisms. Impact was estimated by comparing the log reduction in organisms after handwashing to the log reduction without handwashing. Rinse water was collected to test for persistence of organisms. Handwashing resulted in a 1.94-3.01 log reduction in E. coli concentration without, and 2.18-3.34 with, soil load; and a 2.44-3.06 log reduction in Phi6 without, and 2.71-3.69 with, soil load. HTH performed most consistently well, with significantly greater log reductions than other handwashing protocols in three models. However, the magnitude of handwashing efficacy differences was small, suggesting protocols are similarly efficacious. Rinse water demonstrated a 0.28-4.77 log reduction in remaining E. coli without, and 0.21-4.49 with, soil load and a 1.26-2.02 log reduction in Phi6 without, and 1.30-2.20 with, soil load. Chlorine resulted in significantly less persistence of E. coli in both conditions and Phi6 without soil load in rinse water (phand hygiene in Ebola contexts, considering the potential benefit of chlorine-based methods in rinse water persistence.

  4. Testing biological effects of hand-washing grey water for reuse in irrigation on an urban farm: a case study.

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    Khan, Mohammad Zain; Sim, Yei Lin; Lin, Yang Jian; Lai, Ka Man

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of reusing hand-washing grey water contaminated with antibacterial hand-washing liquid for irrigation purposes in an urban farm is explored in this case study. Experiments are carried out to investigate if the quality of this grey water allows for its reuse in agriculture as per the guidelines established by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, there is no guideline to test the biological effect of grey water prior to agricultural use. It is plausible that the antibacterial property of the grey water can harm the soil microbial system and plants when applied to land, even if all other water quality parameters satisfy the WHO limit. We use algae (Chlorella vulgaris) and indigenous soil bacteria as initial plant and soil bacteria indicators, respectively, to test the potential inhibition of the water on plants and soil bacteria. Results show that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the grey water is 10% higher than the WHO permissible level, while all other water quality parameters are within the limits after four days of our experimental period. An inhibitory effect is observed in all of the biological tests. However, the inhibitory effect on algae and soil bacteria is not observed after the four-day period. The case study demonstrates a new approach for testing the biological effect of grey water, which can be used in conjunction with the WHO guideline, and provides data for this urban farm to set up a future water treatment system for grey-water reuse in irrigation.

  5. Teaching handwashing with soap for schoolchildren in a multi-ethnic population in northern rural Vietnam.

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    Xuan, Le Thi Thanh; Rheinländer, Thilde; Hoat, Luu Ngoc; Dalsgaard, Anders; Konradsen, Flemming

    2013-04-24

    In Vietnam, initiatives have been started aimed at increasing the practice of handwashing with soap (HWWS) among primary schoolchildren. However, compliance remains low. This study aims to investigate responses to a teacher-centred participatory HWWS intervention in a multi-ethnic population of primary schoolchildren in northern rural Vietnam. This study was implemented in two phases: a formative research project over 5 months (July-November 2008) and an action research project with a school-based HWWS intervention study in two rural communes during 5 months (May, September-December 2010). Based upon knowledge from the formative research in 2008, schoolteachers from four selected schools in the study communes actively participated in designing and implementing a HWWS intervention. Qualitative data was collected during the intervention to evaluate the responses and reaction to the intervention of teachers, children and parents. This included semi-structured interviews with children (15), and their parents (15), focus group discussions (FGDs) with schoolchildren (32) and school staff (20) and observations during 15 HWWS involving children. Observations and interview data from children demonstrated that children were visibly excited and pleased with HWWS sessions where teachers applied active teaching methods including rewards, games and HWWS demonstrations. All children, schoolteachers and parents also viewed the HWWS intervention as positive and feasible, irrespective of ethnicity, gender of schoolchildren and background of schoolteachers. However, some important barriers were indicated for sustaining and transferring the HWWS practice to the home setting including limited emphasis on hygiene in the standard curriculum of schools, low priority and lack of time given to practical teaching methods and lack of guidance and reminding HWWS on a regular basis at home, in particular by highland parents, who spend most of their time working away from home in the fields

  6. Teaching handwashing with soap for schoolchildren in a multi-ethnic population in northern rural Vietnam

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    Le Thi Thanh Xuan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Vietnam, initiatives have been started aimed at increasing the practice of handwashing with soap (HWWS among primary schoolchildren. However, compliance remains low. Objective: This study aims to investigate responses to a teacher-centred participatory HWWS intervention in a multi-ethnic population of primary schoolchildren in northern rural Vietnam. Design: This study was implemented in two phases: a formative research project over 5 months (July–November 2008 and an action research project with a school-based HWWS intervention study in two rural communes during 5 months (May, September–December 2010. Based upon knowledge from the formative research in 2008, schoolteachers from four selected schools in the study communes actively participated in designing and implementing a HWWS intervention. Qualitative data was collected during the intervention to evaluate the responses and reaction to the intervention of teachers, children and parents. This included semi-structured interviews with children (15, and their parents (15, focus group discussions (FGDs with schoolchildren (32 and school staff (20 and observations during 15 HWWS involving children. Results: Observations and interview data from children demonstrated that children were visibly excited and pleased with HWWS sessions where teachers applied active teaching methods including rewards, games and HWWS demonstrations. All children, schoolteachers and parents also viewed the HWWS intervention as positive and feasible, irrespective of ethnicity, gender of schoolchildren and background of schoolteachers. However, some important barriers were indicated for sustaining and transferring the HWWS practice to the home setting including limited emphasis on hygiene in the standard curriculum of schools, low priority and lack of time given to practical teaching methods and lack of guidance and reminding HWWS on a regular basis at home, in particular by highland parents, who spend most

  7. Provision of private, piped water and sewerage connections and directly observed handwashing of mothers in a peri-urban community of Lima, Peru.

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    Oswald, William E; Hunter, Gabrielle C; Kramer, Michael R; Leontsini, Elli; Cabrera, Lilia; Lescano, Andres G; Gilman, Robert H

    2014-04-01

    To estimate the association between improved water and sanitation access and handwashing of mothers living in a peri-urban community of Lima, Peru. We observed 27 mothers directly, before and after installation of private, piped water and sewerage connections in the street just outside their housing plots, and measured changes in the proportion of faecal-hand contamination and hand-to-mouth transmission events with handwashing. After provision of water and sewerage connections, mothers were approximately two times more likely to be observed washing their hands within a minute of defecation, compared with when they relied on shared, external water sources and non-piped excreta disposal (RR = 2.14, 95% CI = 0.99-4.62). With piped water and sewerage available at housing plots, handwashing with or without soap occurred within a minute after 48% (10/21) of defecation events and within 15 min prior to 8% (11/136) of handling food events. Handwashing increased following installation of private, piped water and sewerage connections, but its practice remained infrequent, particularly before food-related events. Infrastructural interventions should be coupled with efforts to promote hygiene and ensure access to water and soap at multiple on-plot locations convenient to mothers. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Comparing the behavioural impact of a nudge-based handwashing intervention to high-intensity hygiene education: a cluster-randomised trial in rural Bangladesh.

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    Grover, Elise; Hossain, Mohammed Kamal; Uddin, Saker; Venkatesh, Mohini; Ram, Pavani K; Dreibelbis, Robert

    2018-01-01

    To determine the impact of environmental nudges on handwashing behaviours among primary school children as compared to a high-intensity hygiene education intervention. In a cluster-randomised trial (CRT), we compared the rates of handwashing with soap (HWWS) after a toileting event among primary school students in rural Bangladesh. Eligible schools (government run, on-site sanitation and water, no hygiene interventions in last year, fewer than 450 students) were identified, and 20 schools were randomly selected and allocated without blinding to one of four interventions, five schools per group: simultaneous handwashing infrastructure and nudge construction, sequential infrastructure then nudge construction, simultaneous infrastructure and high-intensity hygiene education (HE) and sequential handwashing infrastructure and HE. The primary outcome, incidence of HWWS after a toileting event, was compared between the intervention groups at different data collection points with robust-Poisson regression analysis with generalised estimating equations, adjusting for school-level clustering of outcomes. The nudge intervention and the HE intervention were found to be equally effective at sustained impact over 5 months post-intervention (adjusted IRR 0.81, 95% CI 0.61-1.09). When comparing intervention delivery timing, the simultaneous delivery of the HE intervention significantly outperformed the sequential HE delivery (adjusted IRR 1.58 CI 1.20-2.08), whereas no significant difference was observed between sequential and simultaneous nudge intervention delivery (adjusted IRR 0.75, 95% CI 0.48-1.17). Our trial demonstrates sustained improved handwashing behaviour 5 months after the nudge intervention. The nudge intervention's comparable performance to a high-intensity hygiene education intervention is encouraging. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Evaluation of ozonated water using ASTM E1174 for standardized testing of handwash formulations for healthcare personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, K; Saito, K; Kashiwazaki, J; Aoyagi, T; Arai, K; Hara, Y; Kobari, S; Mori, H; Ohashi, K; Takano, Y; Kaku, M; Kanemitsu, K

    2018-02-13

    Removal of bacteria by handwashing with ozonated water was evaluated using the ASTM E1174 standard test method. Thirty healthy volunteers were assigned randomly to three groups: ozonated water, antimicrobial soap and water, and non-antimicrobial soap and water. A 3 log 10  cfu reduction was achieved by washing hands with ozonated water or antimicrobial soap and water. However, ozonated water was not significantly superior to non-antimicrobial soap and water. Ozonated water may remove bacteria from the hands to at least a similar extent as that by non-antimicrobial soap and water in the absence of visible dirt or body fluid contamination. Copyright © 2018 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy of Handwashing with Soap and Nail Clipping on Intestinal Parasitic Infections in School-Aged Children: A Factorial Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    Mahmud Abdulkader Mahmud

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infections are highly endemic among school-aged children in resource-limited settings. To lower their impact, preventive measures should be implemented that are sustainable with available resources. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of handwashing with soap and nail clipping on the prevention of intestinal parasite reinfections.In this trial, 367 parasite-negative school-aged children (aged 6-15 y were randomly assigned to receive both, one or the other, or neither of the interventions in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Assignment sequence was concealed. After 6 mo of follow-up, stool samples were examined using direct, concentration, and Kato-Katz methods. Hemoglobin levels were determined using a HemoCue spectrometer. The primary study outcomes were prevalence of intestinal parasite reinfection and infection intensity. The secondary outcome was anemia prevalence. Analysis was by intention to treat. Main effects were adjusted for sex, age, drinking water source, latrine use, pre-treatment parasites, handwashing with soap and nail clipping at baseline, and the other factor in the additive model. Fourteen percent (95% CI: 9% to 19% of the children in the handwashing with soap intervention group were reinfected versus 29% (95% CI: 22% to 36% in the groups with no handwashing with soap (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.32, 95% CI: 0.17 to 0.62. Similarly, 17% (95% CI: 12% to 22% of the children in the nail clipping intervention group were reinfected versus 26% (95% CI: 20% to 32% in the groups with no nail clipping (AOR 0.51, 95% CI: 0.27 to 0.95. Likewise, following the intervention, 13% (95% CI: 8% to 18% of the children in the handwashing group were anemic versus 23% (95% CI: 17% to 29% in the groups with no handwashing with soap (AOR 0.39, 95% CI: 0.20 to 0.78. The prevalence of anemia did not differ significantly between children in the nail clipping group and those in the groups with no nail clipping (AOR 0.53, 95% CI

  11. Effect of a behaviour-change intervention on handwashing with soap in India (SuperAmma): a cluster-randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biran, Adam; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Varadharajan, Kiruba Sankar; Rajaraman, Divya; Kumar, Raja; Greenland, Katie; Gopalan, Balaji; Aunger, Robert; Curtis, Val

    2014-03-01

    Diarrhoea and respiratory infections are the two biggest causes of child death globally. Handwashing with soap could substantially reduce diarrhoea and respiratory infections, but prevalence of adequate handwashing is low. We tested whether a scalable village-level intervention based on emotional drivers of behaviour, rather than knowledge, could improve handwashing behaviour in rural India. The study was done in Chittoor district in southern Andhra Pradesh, India, between May 24, 2011, and Sept 10, 2012. Eligible villages had a population of 700-2000 people, a state-run primary school for children aged 8-13 years, and a preschool for children younger than 5 years. 14 villages (clusters) were selected, stratified by population size (1200), and randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to intervention or control (no intervention). Clusters were enrolled by the study manager. Random allocation was done by the study statistician using a random number generator. The intervention included community and school-based events incorporating an animated film, skits, and public pledging ceremonies. Outcomes were measured by direct observation in 20-25 households per village at baseline and at three follow-up visits (6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after the intervention). Observers had no connection with the intervention and observers and participant households were told that the study was about domestic water use to reduce the risk of bias. No other masking was possible. The primary outcome was the proportion of handwashing with soap at key events (after defecation, after cleaning a child's bottom, before food preparation, and before eating) at all follow-up visits. The control villages received a shortened version of the intervention before the final follow-up round. Outcome data are presented as village-level means. Handwashing with soap at key events was rare at baseline in both the intervention and control groups (1% [SD 1] vs 2% [1]). At 6 weeks' follow-up, handwashing with soap

  12. Handwashing and Ebola virus disease outbreaks: A randomized comparison of soap, hand sanitizer, and 0.05% chlorine solutions on the inactivation and removal of model organisms Phi6 and E. coli from hands and persistence in rinse water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene K Wolfe

    Full Text Available To prevent Ebola transmission, frequent handwashing is recommended in Ebola Treatment Units and communities. However, little is known about which handwashing protocol is most efficacious. We evaluated six handwashing protocols (soap and water, alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS, and 0.05% sodium dichloroisocyanurate, high-test hypochlorite, and stabilized and non-stabilized sodium hypochlorite solutions for 1 efficacy of handwashing on the removal and inactivation of non-pathogenic model organisms and, 2 persistence of organisms in rinse water. Model organisms E. coli and bacteriophage Phi6 were used to evaluate handwashing with and without organic load added to simulate bodily fluids. Hands were inoculated with test organisms, washed, and rinsed using a glove juice method to retrieve remaining organisms. Impact was estimated by comparing the log reduction in organisms after handwashing to the log reduction without handwashing. Rinse water was collected to test for persistence of organisms. Handwashing resulted in a 1.94-3.01 log reduction in E. coli concentration without, and 2.18-3.34 with, soil load; and a 2.44-3.06 log reduction in Phi6 without, and 2.71-3.69 with, soil load. HTH performed most consistently well, with significantly greater log reductions than other handwashing protocols in three models. However, the magnitude of handwashing efficacy differences was small, suggesting protocols are similarly efficacious. Rinse water demonstrated a 0.28-4.77 log reduction in remaining E. coli without, and 0.21-4.49 with, soil load and a 1.26-2.02 log reduction in Phi6 without, and 1.30-2.20 with, soil load. Chlorine resulted in significantly less persistence of E. coli in both conditions and Phi6 without soil load in rinse water (p<0.001. Thus, chlorine-based methods may offer a benefit of reducing persistence in rinse water. We recommend responders use the most practical handwashing method to ensure hand hygiene in Ebola contexts, considering

  13. Effects of water quality, sanitation, handwashing, and nutritional interventions on child development in rural Kenya (WASH Benefits Kenya): a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Christine P; Kariger, Patricia; Fernald, Lia; Pickering, Amy J; Arnold, Charles D; Arnold, Benjamin F; Hubbard, Alan E; Dentz, Holly N; Lin, Audrie; Meerkerk, Theodora J; Milner, Erin; Swarthout, Jenna; Colford, John M; Null, Clair

    2018-04-01

    Poor nutrition and infectious diseases can prevent children from reaching their developmental potential. We aimed to assess the effects of improvements in water, sanitation, handwashing, and nutrition on early child development in rural Kenya. In this cluster-randomised controlled trial, we enrolled pregnant women in their second or third trimester from three counties (Kakamega, Bungoma, and Vihiga) in Kenya's western region, with an average of 12 households per cluster. Groups of nine geographically adjacent clusters were block-randomised, using a random number generator, into the six intervention groups (including monthly visits to promote target behaviours), a passive control group (no visits), or a double-sized active control group (monthly household visits to measure child mid-upper arm circumference). The six intervention groups were: chlorinated drinking water; improved sanitation; handwashing with soap; combined water, sanitation, and handwashing; improved nutrition through counselling and provision of lipid-based nutrient supplements; and combined water, sanitation, handwashing, and nutrition. Here we report on the prespecified secondary child development outcomes: gross motor milestone achievement assessed with the WHO module at year 1, and communication, gross motor, personal social, and combined scores measured by the Extended Ages and Stages Questionnaire (EASQ) at year 2. Masking of participants was not possible, but data assessors were masked. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01704105. Between Nov 27, 2012, and May 21, 2014, 8246 women residing in 702 clusters were enrolled. No clusters were lost to follow-up, but 2212 households with 2279 children were lost to follow-up by year 2. 5791 (69%) children were measured at year 1 and 6107 (73%) at year 2. At year 1, compared with the active control group, the combined water, sanitation, handwashing, and nutrition group had greater rates of

  14. The effect of handwashing at recommended times with water alone and with soap on child diarrhea in rural Bangladesh: an observational study.

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    Luby, Stephen P; Halder, Amal K; Huda, Tarique; Unicomb, Leanne; Johnston, Richard B

    2011-06-01

    Standard public health interventions to improve hand hygiene in communities with high levels of child mortality encourage community residents to wash their hands with soap at five separate key times, a recommendation that would require mothers living in impoverished households to typically wash hands with soap more than ten times per day. We analyzed data from households that received no intervention in a large prospective project evaluation to assess the relationship between observed handwashing behavior and subsequent diarrhea. Fieldworkers conducted a 5-hour structured observation and a cross-sectional survey in 347 households from 50 villages across rural Bangladesh in 2007. For the subsequent 2 years, a trained community resident visited each of the enrolled households every month and collected information on the occurrence of diarrhea in the preceding 48 hours among household residents under the age of 5 years. Compared with children living in households where persons prepared food without washing their hands, children living in households where the food preparer washed at least one hand with water only (odds ratio [OR]=0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.57-1.05), washed both hands with water only (OR=0.67; 95% CI=0.51-0.89), or washed at least one hand with soap (OR=0.30; 95% CI=0.19-0.47) had less diarrhea. In households where residents washed at least one hand with soap after defecation, children had less diarrhea (OR=0.45; 95% CI=0.26-0.77). There was no significant association between handwashing with or without soap before feeding a child, before eating, or after cleaning a child's anus who defecated and subsequent child diarrhea. These observations suggest that handwashing before preparing food is a particularly important opportunity to prevent childhood diarrhea, and that handwashing with water alone can significantly reduce childhood diarrhea.

  15. Comparative efficacy of a simplified handwashing program for improvement in hand hygiene and reduction of school absenteeism among children with intellectual disability.

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    Lee, Regina L T; Leung, Cynthia; Tong, Wah Kun; Chen, Hong; Lee, Paul H

    2015-09-01

    Infectious diseases are common among schoolchildren as a result of their poor hand hygiene, especially in those who have developmental disabilities. A quasi-experimental study using a pre- to post-test design with a control group was used to test the feasibility and sustainability of simplified 5-step handwashing techniques to measure the hand hygiene outcome for students with mild intellectual disability. Sickness-related school absenteeism was compared. The intervention group experienced a significant increase in the rating of their handwashing quality in both hands from pre- to post-test: left dorsum (+1.05, P absenteeism rate (0.0167) than the control group in the same year (0.028, P = .04).Students in this study showed better performance in simplified handwashing techniques and experienced lower absenteeism than those using usual practice in special education school settings. The simplified 5-step hand hygiene technique has been proven effective in reducing the spread of infectious diseases. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Seeking Clearer Recommendations for Hand Hygiene in Communities Facing Ebola: A Randomized Trial Investigating the Impact of Six Handwashing Methods on Skin Irritation and Dermatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene K Wolfe

    Full Text Available To prevent disease transmission, 0.05% chlorine solution is commonly recommended for handwashing in Ebola Treatment Units. In the 2014 West Africa outbreak this recommendation was widely extended to community settings, although many organizations recommend soap and hand sanitizer over chlorine. To evaluate skin irritation caused by frequent handwashing that may increase transmission risk in Ebola-affected communities, we conducted a randomized trial with 91 subjects who washed their hands 10 times a day for 28 days. Subjects used soap and water, sanitizer, or one of four chlorine solutions used by Ebola responders (calcium hypochlorite (HTH, sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC, and generated or pH-stabilized sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl. Outcomes were self-reported hand feel, irritation as measured by the Hand Eczema Score Index (HECSI (range 0-360, signs of transmission risk (e.g., cracking, and dermatitis diagnosis. All groups experienced statistically significant increases in HECSI score. Subjects using sanitizer had the smallest increases, followed by higher pH chlorine solutions (HTH and stabilized NaOCl, and soap and water. The greatest increases were among neutral pH chlorine solutions (NaDCC and generated NaOCl. Signs of irritation related to higher transmission risk were observed most frequently in subjects using soap and least frequently by those using sanitizer or HTH. Despite these irritation increases, all methods represented minor changes in HECSI score. Average HECSI score was only 9.10 at endline (range 1-33 and 4% (4/91 of subjects were diagnosed with dermatitis, one each in four groups. Each handwashing method has benefits and drawbacks: soap is widely available and inexpensive, but requires water and does not inactivate the virus; sanitizer is easy-to use and effective but expensive and unacceptable to many communities, and chlorine is easy-to-use but difficult to produce properly and distribute. Overall, we recommend Ebola

  17. Seeking Clearer Recommendations for Hand Hygiene in Communities Facing Ebola: A Randomized Trial Investigating the Impact of Six Handwashing Methods on Skin Irritation and Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Marlene K; Wells, Emma; Mitro, Brittany; Desmarais, Anne Marie; Scheinman, Pamela; Lantagne, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    To prevent disease transmission, 0.05% chlorine solution is commonly recommended for handwashing in Ebola Treatment Units. In the 2014 West Africa outbreak this recommendation was widely extended to community settings, although many organizations recommend soap and hand sanitizer over chlorine. To evaluate skin irritation caused by frequent handwashing that may increase transmission risk in Ebola-affected communities, we conducted a randomized trial with 91 subjects who washed their hands 10 times a day for 28 days. Subjects used soap and water, sanitizer, or one of four chlorine solutions used by Ebola responders (calcium hypochlorite (HTH), sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC), and generated or pH-stabilized sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)). Outcomes were self-reported hand feel, irritation as measured by the Hand Eczema Score Index (HECSI) (range 0-360), signs of transmission risk (e.g., cracking), and dermatitis diagnosis. All groups experienced statistically significant increases in HECSI score. Subjects using sanitizer had the smallest increases, followed by higher pH chlorine solutions (HTH and stabilized NaOCl), and soap and water. The greatest increases were among neutral pH chlorine solutions (NaDCC and generated NaOCl). Signs of irritation related to higher transmission risk were observed most frequently in subjects using soap and least frequently by those using sanitizer or HTH. Despite these irritation increases, all methods represented minor changes in HECSI score. Average HECSI score was only 9.10 at endline (range 1-33) and 4% (4/91) of subjects were diagnosed with dermatitis, one each in four groups. Each handwashing method has benefits and drawbacks: soap is widely available and inexpensive, but requires water and does not inactivate the virus; sanitizer is easy-to use and effective but expensive and unacceptable to many communities, and chlorine is easy-to-use but difficult to produce properly and distribute. Overall, we recommend Ebola responders and

  18. Does targeting children with hygiene promotion messages work? The effect of handwashing promotion targeted at children, on diarrhoea, soil-transmitted helminth infections and behaviour change, in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Julie A; Ensink, Jeroen H J; Ramos, Monica; Benelli, Prisca; Holdsworth, Elizabeth; Dreibelbis, Robert; Cumming, Oliver

    2017-05-01

    To synthesise evidence on the effect of handwashing promotion interventions targeting children, on diarrhoea, soil-transmitted helminth infection and handwashing behaviour, in low- and middle-income country settings. A systematic review of the literature was performed by searching eight databases, and reference lists were hand-searched for additional articles. Studies were reviewed for inclusion according to pre-defined inclusion criteria and the quality of all studies was assessed. Eight studies were included in this review: seven cluster-randomised controlled trials and one cluster non-randomised controlled trial. All eight studies targeted children aged 5-12 attending primary school but were heterogeneous for both the type of intervention and the reported outcomes so results were synthesised qualitatively. None of the studies were of high quality and the large majority were at high risk of bias. The reported effect of child-targeted handwashing interventions on our outcomes of interest varied between studies. Of the different interventions reported, no one approach to promoting handwashing among children appeared most effective. Our review found very few studies that evaluated handwashing interventions targeting children and all had various methodological limitations. It is plausible that interventions which succeed in changing children's handwashing practices will lead to significant health impacts given that much of the attributable disease burden is concentrated in that age group. The current paucity of evidence in this area, however, does not permit any recommendations to be made as to the most effective route to increasing handwashing with soap practice among children in LMIC. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Engagement of stakeholders in the development of a Theory of Change for handwashing and sanitation behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Buck, Emmy; Hannes, Karin; Cargo, Margaret; Van Remoortel, Hans; Vande Veegaete, Axel; Mosler, Hans-Joachim; Govender, Thashlin; Vandekerckhove, Philippe; Young, Taryn

    2018-02-01

    A Theory of Change (ToC) is an approach to map programmes aimed at inducing change in a specific context, with the goal of increasing their impact. We applied this approach to the specific case of handwashing and sanitation practices in low- and middle-income countries and developed a ToC as part of a systematic review exercise. Different existing sources of information were used to inform the initial draft of the ToC. In addition, stakeholder involvement occurred and peer review took place. Our stakeholders included methodological (ToC/quantitative and qualitative research) and content experts (WASH (Water, Sanitation, Hygiene)/behaviour change), as well as end-users/practitioners, policy-makers and donors. In conclusion, the development of a ToC, and the involvement of stakeholders in its development, was critical in terms of understanding the context in which the promotional programmes are being implemented. We recommend ToC developers to work with stakeholders to create a ToC relevant for practice.

  20. Escherichia coli Contamination across Multiple Environmental Compartments (Soil, Hands, Drinking Water, and Handwashing Water) in Urban Harare: Correlations and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navab-Daneshmand, Tala; Friedrich, Max N D; Gächter, Marja; Montealegre, Maria Camila; Mlambo, Linn S; Nhiwatiwa, Tamuka; Mosler, Hans-Joachim; Julian, Timothy R

    2018-03-01

    Escherichia coli pathotypes (i.e., enteropathogenic and enterotoxigenic) have been identified among the pathogens most responsible for moderate-to-severe diarrhea in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Pathogenic E. coli are transmitted from infected human or animal feces to new susceptible hosts via environmental reservoirs such as hands, water, and soil. Commensal E. coli , which includes nonpathogenic E. coli strains, are widely used as fecal bacteria indicator, with their presence associated with increased likelihood of enteric pathogens and/or diarrheal disease. In this study, we investigated E. coli contamination in environmental reservoirs within households ( N = 142) in high-population density communities of Harare, Zimbabwe. We further assessed the interconnectedness of the environmental compartments by investigating associations between, and household-level risk factors for, E. coli contamination. From the data we collected, the source and risk factors for E. coli contamination are not readily apparent. One notable exception is the presence of running tap water on the household plot, which is associated with significantly less E. coli contamination of drinking water, handwashing water, and hands after handwashing. In addition, E. coli levels on hands after washing are significantly associated with handwashing water contamination, hand contamination before washing, and diarrhea incidence. Finally, we observed that animal ownership increases E. coli contamination in soil, and E. coli in soil are correlated with contamination on hands before washing. This study highlights the complexity of E. coli contamination in household environments within LMICs. More, larger, studies are needed to better identify sources and exposure pathways of E. coli -and enteric pathogens generally-to identify effective interventions.

  1. Is structured observation a valid technique to measure handwashing behavior? Use of acceleration sensors embedded in soap to assess reactivity to structured observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Pavani K; Halder, Amal K; Granger, Stewart P; Jones, Therese; Hall, Peter; Hitchcock, David; Wright, Richard; Nygren, Benjamin; Islam, M Sirajul; Molyneaux, John W; Luby, Stephen P

    2010-11-01

    Structured observation is often used to evaluate handwashing behavior. We assessed reactivity to structured observation in rural Bangladesh by distributing soap containing acceleration sensors and performing structured observation 4 days later. Sensors recorded the number of times soap was moved. In 45 participating households, the median number of sensor soap movements during the 5-hour time block on pre-observation days was 3.7 (range 0.3-10.6). During the structured observation, the median number of sensor soap movements was 5.0 (range 0-18.0), a 35% increase, P = 0.0004. Compared with the same 5-hour time block on pre-observation days, the number of sensor soap movements increased during structured observation by ≥ 20% in 62% of households, and by ≥ 100% in 22% of households. The increase in sensor soap movements during structured observation, compared with pre-observation days, indicates substantial reactivity to the presence of the observer. These findings call into question the validity of structured observation for measurement of handwashing behavior.

  2. Is Structured Observation a Valid Technique to Measure Handwashing Behavior? Use of Acceleration Sensors Embedded in Soap to Assess Reactivity to Structured Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Pavani K.; Halder, Amal K.; Granger, Stewart P.; Jones, Therese; Hall, Peter; Hitchcock, David; Wright, Richard; Nygren, Benjamin; Islam, M. Sirajul; Molyneaux, John W.; Luby, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    Structured observation is often used to evaluate handwashing behavior. We assessed reactivity to structured observation in rural Bangladesh by distributing soap containing acceleration sensors and performing structured observation 4 days later. Sensors recorded the number of times soap was moved. In 45 participating households, the median number of sensor soap movements during the 5-hour time block on pre-observation days was 3.7 (range 0.3–10.6). During the structured observation, the median number of sensor soap movements was 5.0 (range 0–18.0), a 35% increase, P = 0.0004. Compared with the same 5-hour time block on pre-observation days, the number of sensor soap movements increased during structured observation by ≥ 20% in 62% of households, and by ≥ 100% in 22% of households. The increase in sensor soap movements during structured observation, compared with pre-observation days, indicates substantial reactivity to the presence of the observer. These findings call into question the validity of structured observation for measurement of handwashing behavior. PMID:21036840

  3. Evaluating a handwashing with soap program in Australian remote Aboriginal communities: a pre and post intervention study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Elizabeth; Cunningham, Teresa; Slavin, Nicola

    2015-11-27

    The No Germs on Me (NGoM) Social Marketing Campaign to promote handwashing with soap to reduce high rates of infection among children living in remote Australian Aboriginal communities has been ongoing since 2007. Recently three new television commercials were developed as an extension of the NGoM program. This paper reports on the mass media component of this program, trialling an evaluation design informed by the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). A survey questionnaire taking an ecological approach and based on the principals and constructs of the TPB was developed. Surveys were completed in six discrete Aboriginal communities immediately before and on completion of four weeks intensive televising of the three new commercials. Across the six communities access in the home to a television that worked ranged from 49 to 83 % (n = 415). Seventy-seven per cent (n = 319) of participants reported having seen one or more of the new commercials. Levels of acceptability and comprehension of the content of the commercials was high (97 % n = 308). Seventy-five per cent (n = 651) of participants reported they would buy more soap, toilet paper and facial tissues if these were not so expensive in their communities. For TPB constructs demonstrated to have good internal reliability the findings were mixed and these need to be interpreted with caution due to limitations in the study design. Cultural, social-economic and physical barriers in remote communities make it challenging to promote adults and children wash their hands with soap and maintain clean faces such that these behaviours become habit. Low levels of access to a television in the home illustrate the extreme level of disadvantage experienced in these communities. Highlighting that social marketing programs have the potential to increase disadvantage if expensive items such as television sets are needed to gain access to information. This trial of a theory informed evaluation design allowed for new and rich

  4. Happy Handwashing Song

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-25

    This song (sung to the tune of Happy Birthday) encourages kids to wash their hands with soap and water to keep germs away. The song is sung twice through, the recommended length of time to wash hands. Sing along!  Created: 2/25/2010 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID), Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ).   Date Released: 2/25/2010.

  5. Happy Handwashing Song

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This song (sung to the tune of Happy Birthday) encourages kids to wash their hands with soap and water to keep germs away. The song is sung twice through, the recommended length of time to wash hands. Sing along!

  6. Sustained Uptake of a Hospital-Based Handwashing with Soap and Water Treatment Intervention (Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 Days [CHoBI7]): A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Christine Marie; Jung, Danielle S; Saif-Ur-Rahman, K M; Monira, Shirajum; Sack, David A; Mahamud-ur Rashid; Mahmud, Md Toslim; Mustafiz, Munshi; Rahman, Zillur; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Winch, Peter J; Leontsini, Elli; Perin, Jamie; Begum, Farzana; Zohura, Fatema; Biswas, Shwapon; Parvin, Tahmina; Sack, R Bradley; Alam, Munirul

    2016-02-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age globally. The time patients and caregivers spend at a health facility for severe diarrhea presents the opportunity to deliver water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions. We recently developed Cholera-Hospital-Based Intervention for 7 days (CHoBI7), a 1-week hospital-based handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention, for household members of cholera patients. To investigate if this intervention could lead to sustained WASH practices, we conducted a follow-up evaluation of 196 intervention household members and 205 control household members enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of the CHoBI7 intervention 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Compared with the control arm, the intervention arm had four times higher odds of household members' handwashing with soap at a key time during 5-hour structured observation (odds ratio [OR]: 4.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.61, 8.49) (18% versus 50%) and a 41% reduction in households in the World Health Organization very high-risk category for stored drinking water (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.96) (58% versus 34%) 6 to 12 months post-intervention. Furthemore, 71% of observed handwashing with soap events in the intervention arm involved the preparation and use of soapy water, which was promoted during the intervention, compared to 9% of control households. These findings demonstrate that the hospital-based CHoBI7 intervention can lead to significant increases in handwashing with soap practices and improved stored drinking water quality 6 to 12 months post-intervention. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  7. Assessing the impact of a school-based latrine cleaning and handwashing program on pupil absence in Nyanza Province, Kenya: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Bethany A; Freeman, Matthew C; Garn, Joshua V; Dreibelbis, Robert; Saboori, Shadi; Muga, Richard; Rheingans, Richard

    2014-10-01

    Improving school water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) conditions reduces pupil absence and illness. However, these benefits may depend on the conditions of the latrines and availability of consumables. We sought to determine whether a low-cost, policy-relevant, environmental-level latrine cleaning intervention could improve latrine cleanliness, increase its use and reduce absenteeism. In a three-arm, cluster-randomized trial we assessed absence via periodical roll-call among 17 564 pupils in 60 schools that had previously received WASH improvements as part of the SWASH+ project. Latrine conditions and use were also assessed using structured observation. Latrine cleanliness increased significantly during the post-intervention period among schools receiving the latrine cleaning package compared to controls, as did handwashing with soap. We found no difference in latrine use and absence across arms. The additive impact of cleaning may not have been strong enough to impact absence above and beyond reductions attributable to the original WASH infrastructure improvements and basic hygiene education the schools previously received. Improving latrine conditions is important for the dignity and well-being of pupils, and investments and strategies are necessary to ensure that school toilets are clean and pupil-friendly. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Efficacy of the World Health Organization-recommended handwashing technique and a modified washing technique to remove Clostridium difficile from hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschênes, Philippe; Chano, Frédéric; Dionne, Léa-Laurence; Pittet, Didier; Longtin, Yves

    2017-08-01

    The efficacy of the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended handwashing technique against Clostridium difficile is uncertain, and whether it could be improved remains unknown. Also, the benefit of using a structured technique instead of an unstructured technique remains unclear. This study was a prospective comparison of 3 techniques (unstructured, WHO, and a novel technique dubbed WHO shortened repeated [WHO-SR] technique) to remove C difficile. Ten participants were enrolled and performed each technique. Hands were contaminated with 3 × 10 6 colony forming units (CFU) of a nontoxigenic strain containing 90% spores. Efficacy was assessed using the whole-hand method. The relative efficacy of each technique and of a structured (either WHO or WHO-SR) vs an unstructured technique were assessed by Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The median effectiveness of the unstructured, WHO, and WHO-SR techniques in log 10 CFU reduction was 1.30 (interquartile range [IQR], 1.27-1.43), 1.71 (IQR, 1.34-1.91), and 1.70 (IQR, 1.54-2.42), respectively. The WHO-SR technique was significantly more efficacious than the unstructured technique (P = .01). Washing hands with a structured technique was more effective than washing with an unstructured technique (median, 1.70 vs 1.30 log 10 CFU reduction, respectively; P = .007). A structured washing technique is more effective than an unstructured technique against C difficile. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of drinking water, sanitation and handwashing with soap on childhood diarrhoeal disease: updated meta-analysis and meta-regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jennyfer; Hunter, Paul R; Freeman, Matthew C; Cumming, Oliver; Clasen, Thomas; Bartram, Jamie; Higgins, Julian P T; Johnston, Richard; Medlicott, Kate; Boisson, Sophie; Prüss-Ustün, Annette

    2018-05-01

    Safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene are protective against diarrhoeal disease; a leading cause of child mortality. The main objective was an updated assessment of the impact of unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) on childhood diarrhoeal disease. We undertook a systematic review of articles published between 1970 and February 2016. Study results were combined and analysed using meta-analysis and meta-regression. A total of 135 studies met the inclusion criteria. Several water, sanitation and hygiene interventions were associated with lower risk of diarrhoeal morbidity. Point-of-use filter interventions with safe storage reduced diarrhoea risk by 61% (RR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.48); piped water to premises of higher quality and continuous availability by 75% and 36% (RR = 0.25 (0.09, 0.67) and 0.64 (0.42, 0.98)), respectively compared to a baseline of unimproved drinking water; sanitation interventions by 25% (RR = 0.75 (0.63, 0.88)) with evidence for greater reductions when high sanitation coverage is reached; and interventions promoting handwashing with soap by 30% (RR = 0.70 (0.64, 0.77)) vs. no intervention. Results of the analysis of sanitation and hygiene interventions are sensitive to certain differences in study methods and conditions. Correcting for non-blinding would reduce the associations with diarrhoea to some extent. Although evidence is limited, results suggest that household connections of water supply and higher levels of community coverage for sanitation appear particularly impactful which is in line with targets of the Sustainable Development Goals. © 2018 World Health Organization; licensed by WHO Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Evaluation of the role of school children in the promotion of point-of-use water treatment and handwashing in schools and households--Nyanza Province, Western Kenya, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Elizabeth; Ombeki, Sam; Oluoch, Gordon Otieno; Mwaki, Alex; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Quick, Rob

    2010-04-01

    We installed drinking water and handwashing stations in 17 rural schools and trained teachers to promote water treatment and hygiene to pupils. We gave schools flocculent-disinfectant powder and hypochlorite solution for water treatment. We conducted a baseline water handling survey of pupils' parents from 17 schools and tested stored water for chlorine. We trained teachers and students about hygiene, installed water stations, and distributed instructional comic books to students. We conducted follow-up surveys and chlorine testing at 3 and 13 months. From baseline to 3-month follow-up, parental awareness of the flocculent-disinfectant increased (49-91%, P < 0.0001), awareness of hypochlorite remained high (93-92%), and household use of flocculent-disinfectant (1-7%, P < 0.0001) and hypochlorite (6-13%, P < 0.0001) increased, and were maintained after 13 months. Pupil absentee rates decreased after implementation by 26%. This school-based program resulted in pupil-to-parent knowledge transfer and significant increases in household water treatment practices that were sustained over 1 year.

  11. Evaluation of the Role of School Children in the Promotion of Point-of-Use Water Treatment and Handwashing in Schools and Households—Nyanza Province, Western Kenya, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Elizabeth; Ombeki, Sam; Oluoch, Gordon Otieno; Mwaki, Alex; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Quick, Rob

    2010-01-01

    We installed drinking water and handwashing stations in 17 rural schools and trained teachers to promote water treatment and hygiene to pupils. We gave schools flocculent-disinfectant powder and hypochlorite solution for water treatment. We conducted a baseline water handling survey of pupils' parents from 17 schools and tested stored water for chlorine. We trained teachers and students about hygiene, installed water stations, and distributed instructional comic books to students. We conducted follow-up surveys and chlorine testing at 3 and 13 months. From baseline to 3-month follow-up, parental awareness of the flocculent-disinfectant increased (49–91%, P < 0.0001), awareness of hypochlorite remained high (93–92%), and household use of flocculent-disinfectant (1–7%, P < 0.0001) and hypochlorite (6–13%, P < 0.0001) increased, and were maintained after 13 months. Pupil absentee rates decreased after implementation by 26%. This school-based program resulted in pupil-to-parent knowledge transfer and significant increases in household water treatment practices that were sustained over 1 year. PMID:20348516

  12. Avaliação da técnica de lavagem das mãos executada por alunos do Curso de Graduação em Enfermagem Evaluación de los alumnos del curso de graduación de enfermería de la técnica de lavado de manos Evaluation of the handwashing technique held by students from the nursing graduation course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Cristiane Paz Felix

    2009-03-01

    with the handwashing techniques by students in an undergraduate Nursing course. The study was performed with 113 students enrolled in internship programs in healthcare institutions in the city of São Paulo. Data collection occurred through direct observation, using a check-list instrument with the steps of the technique. Students in their 2nd and 3rd year had better results in most steps of the technique, with a statistically significant difference when compared to the 4th year. Compliance with the steps of the technique by the students was very low, since their compliance with half the handwashing steps was lower than 50%. The average amount of students who executed all the steps of the technique correctly was very low, 8.8%. The observed students did not execute the handwashing techniques according to the recommendations.

  13. Sunflowers, Handwash and Tablets for a Sick Puppy!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Many schools are now moving towards a more creative curriculum and a topic approach in their teaching. Setting science in a real, meaningful context can capture children's imagination, while offering opportunities for teaching skills in maths, ICT, literacy, technology or art. In science, the teacher may know the expected outcome, but the children…

  14. Teaching Healthy Habits to Young Children: Handwashing, Toileting and Toothbrushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshikanlu, Seyi

    2006-01-01

    Teaching children habits is a routine part of many early childhood program curricula, with teachers never really stopping to think about what or how teaching is affecting their students. Habits are formed with consistent practice. Habits can be taught to children easily when teachers have some creativity to the actions. In this article, the author…

  15. Promotion of handwashing as a measure of quality of care and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is no room for complacency, however, in Eritrea (as indeed in other African countries) where public health services need to keep patients\\' welfare at heart; particularly with respect to women in childbirth, as mothers continue to bear the lion\\'s share of post-war rebuilding of lives, livelihoods, and the country as a whole.

  16. Effect of School Community Empowerment Model towards Handwashing Implementation among Elementary School Students in Dayeuhkolot Subdistrict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetti Solehati

    2017-02-01

    Perilaku mencuci tangan dengan sabun di Indonesia masih menjadi masalah. Penyebabnya dikaitkan dengan kurangnya kesadaran dalam mencuci tangan pakai sabun. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberdayaan komunitas sekolah terhadap penerapan mencuci tangan di kalangan siswa sekolah dasar di Kecamatan Dayeuhkolot, Kabupaten Bandung. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain quasi eksperimental dengan pretest dan posttest serta melakukan analisis deskriptif dan inferensial. Sampel terdiri dari 24 guru, 377 siswa di kelas 4-6, dan 24 dokter kecil. Metode pendekatan dalam penelitian ini menggunakan usaha kesehatan sekolah terpadu (gabungan model fit for school dan UKS terpilih, yang terdiri dari enam tahap. Instrumen terdiri dari kuesioner pengetahuan, lembar observasi, dan lembar checklist. Cuci tangan pakai sabun dievaluasi selama tiga bulan. Hasil menemukan bahwa terdapat skor meningkat dalam kategori baik untuk keterampilan cuci tangan pakai sabun guru dari 12,5% menjadi 100%, skor dokter kecil dalam kategori baik meningkat pada keterampilan cuci tangan pakai sabun dari 0% sampai 100%, keterampilan dari cuci tangan pakai sabun pada siswa meningkat dalam kategori baik dari 0% menjadi 87,5%. Pemberdayaan komunitas sekolah memengaruhi perilaku mencuci tangan di kalangan siswa SD.

  17. Arbi Care application increases preschool children's hand-washing self-efficacy among preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbianingsih; Utario, Yossy; Rustina, Yeni; Krianto, Tri; Ayubi, Dian

    2018-02-01

    This research aimed to examine the effectiveness of an Android mobile game application called Arbi Care as a means to prevent diarrhea and build self-efficacy in hand washing among preschool children. This research used a pre- and post-test control group and time series design approach. Respondents were chosen randomly from a group of four to six years children. The intervention group (n = 60) received Arbi Care intervention for 25 minutes, twice a week, for five weeks while the control group (n = 60) received standard education. Self-efficacy was measured by using questionnaire and observation. Measurement was carried out three times in the sixth, eight, and tenth week post-intervention. The data was analyzed using the GLMRM test. There was a significant increase in the average score of self-efficacy in hand washing for the intervention group versus the control group. Moreover, there were significant differences in the results of average scores in which the intervention group showed much better self-efficacy improvement over the control group during the first, second, and final post-test after the intervention was given (p Android-based educational game can be an effective medium to improve hand washing self-efficacy among preschool children, thus helping to prevent diarrhea. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Teaching handwashing with soap for schoolchildren in a multi-ethnic population in northern rural Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Thi Thanh, Xuan; Rheinländer, Thilde; Luu Ngoc, Hoat

    2013-01-01

    -ethnic population of primary schoolchildren in northern rural Vietnam. Design: This study was implemented in two phases: a formative research project over 5 months (July-November 2008) and an action research project with a school-based HWWS intervention study in two rural communes during 5 months (May, September......-December 2010). Based upon knowledge from the formative research in 2008, schoolteachers from four selected schools in the study communes actively participated in designing and implementing a HWWS intervention. Qualitative data was collected during the intervention to evaluate the responses and reaction...

  19. Reducing viral contamination from finger pads: handwashing is more effective than alcohol-based hand disinfectants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuladhar, E.; Hazeleger, W.C.; Koopmans, M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Duizer, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background - Hand hygiene is important for interrupting transmission of viruses through hands. Effectiveness of alcohol-based hand disinfectant has been shown for bacteria but their effectiveness in reducing transmission of viruses is ambiguous. Aim - To test efficacy of alcohol hand disinfectant

  20. Low Compliance to Handwashing Program and High Nosocomial Infection in a Brazilian Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Lizandra Ferreira de Almeida e; Rocha, Lilian Alves; Nunes, Maria José; Gontijo Filho, Paulo Pinto

    2012-01-01

    Background. It is a fact that hand hygiene prevents nosocomial infection, but compliance with recommended instructions is commonly poor. The purpose of this study was to implement a hand hygiene program for increase compliance with hand hygiene and its relationship with nosocomial infection (NI) and MRSA infection/colonization rates. Methods. Compliance to hand hygiene was evaluated in a hospital by direct observation and measured of health care-associated infections, including methicillin re...

  1. Handwashing Practices among Hospital Patients: Knowledge and Perception of Ambulatory Patients and Nursing Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    ORGANIZATION 6b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7a. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION AFIT STUDENT AT WRIGHT (If applicable) STATE UNIVERSITY AFIT/CIA 6c. ADDRESS (City, State... depersonalized and answers were indicated on a Likert Scale, 5 responses were considered objective. Validity and reliability were established for these 3...College 7 20 Undergraduate Degree 19 54 3 Graduate Degree 3 9 I I I I I I I 57 Table 7 Characteristics of Subsets of Nursinq Personnel Participants I

  2. Design, development and transfer of a sanitation hand-washing dispenser to rural areas in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wilkinson, M

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available was ranked fifth in the list of causes of premature mortality in South Africa in 2000 and is also a major cause of death among children under the age of five. All sanitation programmes and interventions in South Africa focus some attention on hand- washing...

  3. Efficacy of Moringa oleifera leaf powder as a hand-washing product: a crossover controlled study among healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torondel, Belen; Opare, David; Brandberg, Bjorn; Cobb, Emma; Cairncross, Sandy

    2014-02-14

    Moringa oleifera is a plant found in many tropical and subtropical countries. Many different uses and properties have been attributed to this plant, mainly as a nutritional supplement and as a water purifier. Its antibacterial activity against different pathogens has been described in different in vitro settings. However the potential effect of this plant leaf as a hand washing product has never been studied. The aim of this study is to test the efficacy of this product using an in vivo design with healthy volunteers. The hands of fifteen volunteers were artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli. Moringa oleifera leaf powder was tested as a hand washing product and was compared with reference non-medicated liquid soap using a cross over design following an adaptation of the European Committee for Standardization protocol (EN 1499). In a second part of tests, the efficacy of the established amount of Moringa oleifera leaf powder was compared with an inert powder using the same protocol. Application of 2 and 3 g of dried Moringa oleifera leaf powder (mean log10-reduction: 2.44 ± 0.41 and 2.58 ± 0.34, respectively) was significantly less effective than the reference soap (3.00 ± 0.27 and 2.99 ± 0.26, respectively; p Moringa oleifera (2 and 3 g) but using a wet preparation, was also significantly less effective than reference soap (p Moringa oleifera powder in dried or wet preparation (mean log10-reduction: 2.70 ± 0.27 and 2.91 ± 0.11, respectively) compared with reference soap (2.97 ± 0.28). Application of calcium sulphate inert powder was significantly less effective than the 4 g of Moringa oleifera powder (p Moringa oleifera powder in dried and wet application had the same effect as non-medicated soap when used for hand washing. Efficacious and available hand washing products could be useful in developing countries in controlling pathogenic organisms that are transmitted through contaminated hands.

  4. Proper Hand-Washing Techniques in Public Restrooms: Differences in Gender, Race, Signage, and Time of Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnison, Andrea; Cottrell, Randal R.; King, Keith A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate hand washing behaviors in public restrooms with and without reminder signs. Gender, race, signage, and time of day were examined to determine if there were differences in hand washing compliance based on these variables. Participants included male and female adults entering restrooms at two public shopping…

  5. Alcohol handrubbing and chlorhexidine handwashing protocols for routine hospital practice: A randomized clinical trial of protocol efficacy and time effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chow, Angela; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Chan, Siew-Pang; Poh, Bee-Fong; Krishnan, Prabha; Ng, Woei-Kian; Choudhury, Saugata; Chan, Joey; Ang, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend the use of alcohol handrubs to prevent health care-associated infections. However, the efficacy and time effectiveness of different alcohol handrubbing protocols have yet to be

  6. Cytomegalovirus Survival and Transferability and the Effectiveness of Common Hand-Washing Agents against Cytomegalovirus on Live Human Hands

    OpenAIRE

    Stowell, Jennifer D.; Forlin-Passoni, Daniela; Radford, Kay; Bate, Sheri L.; Dollard, Sheila C.; Bialek, Stephanie R.; Cannon, Michael J.; Schmid, D. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) transmission can occur when women acquire CMV while pregnant. Infection control guidelines may reduce risk for transmission. We studied the duration of CMV survival after application of bacteria to the hands and after transfer from the hands to surfaces and the effectiveness of cleansing with water, regular and antibacterial soaps, sanitizer, and diaper wipes. Experiments used CMV AD169 in saliva at initial titers of 1 × 105 infectious particles/ml. Samples fr...

  7. Cytomegalovirus survival and transferability and the effectiveness of common hand-washing agents against cytomegalovirus on live human hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Jennifer D; Forlin-Passoni, Daniela; Radford, Kay; Bate, Sheri L; Dollard, Sheila C; Bialek, Stephanie R; Cannon, Michael J; Schmid, D Scott

    2014-01-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) transmission can occur when women acquire CMV while pregnant. Infection control guidelines may reduce risk for transmission. We studied the duration of CMV survival after application of bacteria to the hands and after transfer from the hands to surfaces and the effectiveness of cleansing with water, regular and antibacterial soaps, sanitizer, and diaper wipes. Experiments used CMV AD169 in saliva at initial titers of 1 × 10(5) infectious particles/ml. Samples from hands or surfaces (points between 0 and 15 min) were placed in culture and observed for at least 2 weeks. Samples were also tested using CMV real-time PCR. After application of bacteria to the hands, viable CMV was recovered from 17/20 swabs at 0 min, 18/20 swabs at 1 min, 5/20 swabs at 5 min, and 4/20 swabs at 15 min. After transfer, duration of survival was at least 15 min on plastic (1/2 swabs), 5 min on crackers and glass (3/4 swabs), and 1 min or less on metal and cloth (3/4 swabs); no viable virus was collected from wood, rubber, or hands. After cleansing, no viable virus was recovered using water (0/22), plain soap (0/20), antibacterial soap (0/20), or sanitizer (0/22). Viable CMV was recovered from 4/20 hands 10 min after diaper wipe cleansing. CMV remains viable on hands for sufficient times to allow transmission. CMV may be transferred to surfaces with reduced viability. Hand-cleansing methods were effective at eliminating viable CMV from hands.

  8. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vaccinate posters buttons and banners videos someone you love flu overview nasal spray flu caccine CDC surveillance ... pediatric hepatitis report infection protection bioterrorism five second rule germs handwashing why handwashing is important handwashing cartoon ...

  9. One Family's Struggle with Chickenpox

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vaccinate posters buttons and banners videos someone you love flu overview nasal spray flu caccine CDC surveillance ... pediatric hepatitis report infection protection bioterrorism five second rule germs handwashing why handwashing is important handwashing cartoon ...

  10. One Family's Struggles with Rotavirus

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vaccinate posters buttons and banners videos someone you love flu overview nasal spray flu caccine CDC surveillance ... pediatric hepatitis report infection protection bioterrorism five second rule germs handwashing why handwashing is important handwashing cartoon ...

  11. One Family's Struggles with HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vaccinate posters buttons and banners videos someone you love flu overview nasal spray flu caccine CDC surveillance ... pediatric hepatitis report infection protection bioterrorism five second rule germs handwashing why handwashing is important handwashing cartoon ...

  12. Healthy Hands Hygiene (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Teaching young children personal hygiene can have a positive impact for a lifetime. Encouraging regular handwashing is a good start. In this podcast, Dr. Vincent Hill discusses the importance of regular handwashing.

  13. Social influence in child care centers: a test of the theory of normative social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinski, Maria Knight; Anderson, Jenn; Shugart, Alicia; Todd, Ewen

    2014-01-01

    Child care centers are a unique context for studying communication about the social and personal expectations about health behaviors. The theory of normative social behavior (TNSB; Rimal & Real, 2005 ) provides a framework for testing the role of social and psychological influences on handwashing behaviors among child care workers. A cross-sectional survey of child care workers in 21 centers indicates that outcome expectations and group identity increase the strength of the relationship between descriptive norms and handwashing behavior. Injunctive norms also moderate the effect of descriptive norms on handwashing behavior such that when strong injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are positively related to handwashing, but when weak injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are negatively related to handwashing. The findings suggest that communication interventions in child care centers can focus on strengthening injunctive norms in order to increase handwashing behaviors in child care centers. The findings also suggest that the theory of normative social behavior can be useful in organizational contexts.

  14. Healthy Hands Hygiene (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-10-12

    Teaching young children personal hygiene can have a positive impact for a lifetime. Encouraging regular handwashing is a good start. In this podcast, Dr. Vincent Hill discusses the importance of regular handwashing.  Created: 10/12/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 10/12/2017.

  15. Infection Control - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Well-Being 5 - Handwashing - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Arabic (العربية) Expand Section ... and Well-Being 5 - Handwashing - myanma bhasa (Burmese) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Dari (دری) Expand Section ...

  16. Germs and Hygiene - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Well-Being 5 - Handwashing - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Arabic (العربية) Expand Section ... and Well-Being 5 - Handwashing - myanma bhasa (Burmese) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect) ( ...

  17. MRSA and the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and the Workplace NIH Research on MRSA Handwashing Posters from Washington Department of Health PubMed search for Community-Associated MRSA ... Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  18. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can occur easily so strict observance of good hand hygiene is essential (e.g. proper handwashing, maintaining clean ... be discussed at the time of treatment. Good hand hygiene is the most effective means of prevention. If ...

  19. One Family's Struggle with Chickenpox

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kids labs links & resources milk thistle pediatric hepatitis report someone you know has hbv/hcv herpes overview ... links & resources listservs need more help? pediatric hepatitis report infection protection bioterrorism five second rule germs handwashing ...

  20. One Family's Struggles with Hepatitis B

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kids labs links & resources milk thistle pediatric hepatitis report someone you know has hbv/hcv herpes overview ... links & resources listservs need more help? pediatric hepatitis report infection protection bioterrorism five second rule germs handwashing ...

  1. One Family's Struggles with Rotavirus

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kids labs links & resources milk thistle pediatric hepatitis report someone you know has hbv/hcv herpes overview ... links & resources listservs need more help? pediatric hepatitis report infection protection bioterrorism five second rule germs handwashing ...

  2. One Family's Struggles with Pertussis (Whooping Cough)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kids labs links & resources milk thistle pediatric hepatitis report someone you know has hbv/hcv herpes overview ... links & resources listservs need more help? pediatric hepatitis report infection protection bioterrorism five second rule germs handwashing ...

  3. One Family's Struggles with HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kids labs links & resources milk thistle pediatric hepatitis report someone you know has hbv/hcv herpes overview ... links & resources listservs need more help? pediatric hepatitis report infection protection bioterrorism five second rule germs handwashing ...

  4. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proff.Adewunmi

    pathogenic, are increasingly associated with a variety of infections (Huebner and ..... and nosocomial infections as well as with resistance to antimicrobial agents ... importance of training in infection control such as proper hand-washing with ...

  5. Staphylococcus aureusand Escherichia colilevels on the hands of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and patients) owing to long exposures to biological agents. ... The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of different handwashing ..... with skin damage because of hand hygiene procedures on the health care workers. Am J Infect ...

  6. Computer games to teach hygiene: an evaluation of the e-Bug junior game

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, D.; Kostkova, P.; Weinberg, J.; Lazareck, L.; Weerasinghe, D.; Lecky, D. M.; McNulty, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    Handwashing, respiratory hygiene and antibiotic resistance remain major public health concerns. In order to facilitate an effective outcome when teaching the basic principles of hand and respiratory hygiene, educational interventions should first target school children. As computer games are ubiquitous in most children's lives, e-Bug developed computer games targeted at teaching children handwashing, respiratory hygiene and antibiotic resistance. The games were designed for two target audienc...

  7. A comparative study for plaque removing efficacy between commonly used denture cleansers in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: There was no significant difference among action of four denture cleansers used in this study. Thus we can infer that patients can use liquid handwashing soap or commercial products to overcome disadvantages of toothpastes. Recommendation from the results of this study is the use of liquid handwashing soap for cleansing after every meal and soaking of the denture in commercial denture cleanser during the night.

  8. Access to Waterless Hand Sanitizer Improves Student Hand Hygiene Behavior in Primary Schools in Nairobi, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Pickering, Amy J.; Davis, Jennifer; Blum, Annalise G.; Scalmanini, Jenna; Oyier, Beryl; Okoth, George; Breiman, Robert F.; Ram, Pavani K.

    2013-01-01

    Handwashing is difficult in settings with limited resources and water access. In primary schools within urban Kibera, Kenya, we investigated the impact of providing waterless hand sanitizer on student hand hygiene behavior. Two schools received a waterless hand sanitizer intervention, two schools received a handwashing with soap intervention, and two schools received no intervention. Hand cleaning behavior after toilet use was monitored for 2 months using structured observation. Hand cleaning...

  9. Observed practices and perceived advantages of different hand cleansing agents in rural Bangladesh: ash, soil, and soap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizame, Fosiul A; Nasreen, Sharifa; Halder, Amal K; Arman, Shaila; Winch, Peter J; Unicomb, Leanne; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-06-01

    Bangladeshi communities have historically used ash and soil as handwashing agents. A structured observation study and qualitative interviews on the use of ash/soil and soap as handwashing agents were conducted in rural Bangladesh to help develop a handwashing promotion intervention. The observations were conducted among 1,000 randomly selected households from 36 districts. Fieldworkers observed people using ash/soil to wash their hand(s) on 13% of occasions after defecation and on 10% after cleaning a child's anus. This compares with 19% of people who used soap after defecation and 27% after cleaning a child who defecated. Using ash/soil or soap was rarely (soap. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  10. Ethics in Public Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Valerie A.; Garbrah-Aidoo, Nana; Scott, Beth

    2007-01-01

    Skill in marketing is a scarce resource in public health, especially in developing countries. The Global Public–Private Partnership for Handwashing with Soap set out to tap the consumer marketing skills of industry for national handwashing programs. Lessons learned from commercial marketers included how to (1) understand consumer motivation, (2) employ 1 single unifying idea, (3) plan for effective reach, and (4) ensure effectiveness before national launch. After the first marketing program, 71% of Ghanaian mothers knew the television ad and the reported rates of handwashing with soap increased. Conditions for the expansion of such partnerships include a wider appreciation of what consumer marketing is, what it can do for public health, and the potential benefits to industry. Although there are practical and philosophical difficulties, there are many opportunities for such partnerships. PMID:17329646

  11. Ethics in public health research: masters of marketing: bringing private sector skills to public health partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Valerie A; Garbrah-Aidoo, Nana; Scott, Beth

    2007-04-01

    Skill in marketing is a scarce resource in public health, especially in developing countries. The Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing with Soap set out to tap the consumer marketing skills of industry for national handwashing programs. Lessons learned from commercial marketers included how to (1) understand consumer motivation, (2) employ 1 single unifying idea, (3) plan for effective reach, and (4) ensure effectiveness before national launch. After the first marketing program, 71% of Ghanaian mothers knew the television ad and the reported rates of handwashing with soap increased. Conditions for the expansion of such partnerships include a wider appreciation of what consumer marketing is, what it can do for public health, and the potential benefits to industry. Although there are practical and philosophical difficulties, there are many opportunities for such partnerships.

  12. [Visual communication in the prevention of cross infection: study performed at the intensive care unit of the Evangélic Hospital on Londrina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldy, J L; Russo, S; Jabur, A; Fantinato, I C; Yamamura, M

    1990-01-01

    The influence of posters with illustrations, instructions, and appeals for hand-washing was evaluated in terms of their effect on the frequency of occurrence this procedure, before the contact with the patients, in the Intensive Therapy Unit of the Hospital Evangélico, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. The influence of posters was statistically significant on the frequency of hand-washing by physicians, trained-nurses and laboratory technicians, but not in respect to physical-therapists, or blood-bank and X-ray technicians.

  13. Impact of sink location on hand hygiene compliance for Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellmer, Caroline; Blakney, Rebekah; Van Hoof, Sarah; Safdar, Nasia

    2015-04-01

    Hand hygiene with soap and water after the care of a patient with Clostridium difficile infection is essential to reduce nosocomial transmission in an outbreak situation. Factors that may pose barriers to user completion of infection prevention measures, such as hand hygiene, are of interest. We undertook a quantitative study to evaluate the relationship between sink location and compliance with handwashing among health care workers and visitors in a surgical transplant unit. We found that placement of 2 more easily visible sinks in a surgical transplant unit was associated with improved adherence to handwashing. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. 9 CFR 416.2 - Establishment grounds and facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE FEDERAL MEAT INSPECTION ACT AND THE POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... hand-washing areas, dressing and locker rooms, and toilets. (d) Ventilation. Ventilation adequate to... areas, livestock pens, trucks, poultry cages, picker aprons, picking room floors, and similar areas...

  15. Typhoid fever : aspects of environment, host and pathogen interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Soegianto

    2006-01-01

    In a surveillance study in Jakarta, Indonesia, 88 typhoid and 26 paratyphoid fever patients were identified by blood culture. Risk factors for transmission of typhoid fever were mainly intra-household factors (poor hand-washing hygiene, recent household contacts), whereas paratyphoid was mainly

  16. Highly Flexible and Washable Nonwoven Photothermal Cloth for Efficient and Practical Solar Steam Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Yong; Chang, Jian; Shi, Yusuf; Shi, Le; Hong, Seunghyun; Wang, Peng

    2018-01-01

    -photothermal-component-loss property and is highly flexible and mechanically strong, chemically stable in various harsh environment such as strong acid, alkaline, organic solvent and salty water. It can be hand-washed for more than 100 times without degrading its performance and thus

  17. 16 (No.2)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mwakagugu

    Handwashing and barrier practices among Cameroonian dental professionals. Agbor MA1, Azodo CC2 ... to prevent skin and mucous membrane exposures is also considered as ... materials for infection control (6-9). ... assured of strict confidentiality of their responses. .... healthcare-associated infection prevention. J Hosp.

  18. Use of Visuals for Food Safety Education of Spanish-Speaking Foodservice Workers: A Case Study in Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Lakshman

    2012-01-01

    Providing food safety training to an audience whose native language is not English is always a challenge. In the study reported here, minimal-text visuals in Spanish were used to train Hispanic foodservice workers about proper handwashing technique and glove use based on the 2005 Food Code requirements. Overall, results indicated that visuals…

  19. Hand Hygiene: When and How

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand Hygiene When and How August 2009 How to handrub? How to handwash? RUB HANDS FOR HAND HYGIENE! WASH HANDS WHEN VISIBLY SOILED Duration of the ... its use. When? YOUR 5 MOMENTS FOR HAND HYGIENE 1 BEFORETOUCHINGA PATIENT 2 B P ECFLOER R ...

  20. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... action today; no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 75,362 views 3:10 Wash ' ... handwash? With soap and water - Duration: 1:27. World Health Organization 219,427 views 1:27 Hand ...

  1. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... action today; no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 74,478 views 3:10 Wash your Hands - ... handwash? With soap and water - Duration: 1:27. World Health Organization 215,487 views 1:27 Infection Control Video - ...

  2. Antiobiotic resistence awareness:spreading the word, not the worry

    OpenAIRE

    Allison, David; Hughes, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance and the emergence of multiple-resistant bacterial strains are a growing concern in UK clinics. Here, David Allison and Steven Hughes from the Manchester Pharmacy School at the University of Manchester, reflect on an interactive workshop aimed to educate students on issues surrounding antibiotic misuse, the importance of hand-washing and the role of pharmacists in public health delivery

  3. Examining school-based hygiene facilities: a quantitative assessment in a Ghanaian municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appiah-Brempong, Emmanuel; Harris, Muriel J; Newton, Samuel; Gulis, Gabriel

    2018-05-02

    The crucial role of adequate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) facilities in influencing children's handwashing behaviour is widely reported. Report from UNICEF indicates a dearth of adequate data on WASH facilities in schools, especially in the developing world. This study sought to contribute to building the evidence-base on school hygiene facilities in Ghana. The study further explored for possible associations and differences between key variables within the context of school water, sanitation and hygiene. Data was collected from 37 junior high schools using an observational checklist. Methods of data analysis included a Scalogram model, Fisher's exact test, and a Student's t-test. Results of the study showed a facility deficiency in many schools: 33% of schools had students washing their hands in a shared receptacle (bowl), 24% had students using a single cotton towel to dry hands after handwashing, and only 16% of schools had a functional water facility. Furthermore, results of a proportion test indicated that 83% of schools which had functional water facilities also had functional handwashing stations. On the other hand, only 3% of schools which had functional water facilities also had a functional handwashing stations. A test of difference in the proportions of the two sets of schools showed a statistically significant difference (p facilities would be timely.

  4. Knowledge, attitude and practice of hygiene and sanitation in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: A Salmonella typhi outbreak was reported in a Burundian refugee camp in Rwanda in October 2015. Transmission persisted despite increased hygiene promotion activities and hand-washing facilities instituted to prevent and control the outbreak. A knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) study was carried out ...

  5. Use of a patient hand hygiene protocol to reduce hospital-acquired infections and improve nurses' hand washing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Cherie; Wavra, Teresa; Drake, Diane Ash; Mulligan, Debbie; Bennett, Yvonne Pacheco; Nelson, Carla; Kirkwood, Peggy; Jones, Louise; Bader, Mary Kay

    2015-05-01

    Critically ill patients are at marked risk of hospital-acquired infections, which increase patients' morbidity and mortality. Registered nurses are the main health care providers of physical care, including hygiene to reduce and prevent hospital-acquired infections, for hospitalized critically ill patients. To investigate a new patient hand hygiene protocol designed to reduce hospital-acquired infection rates and improve nurses' hand-washing compliance in an intensive care unit. A preexperimental study design was used to compare 12-month rates of 2 common hospital-acquired infections, central catheter-associated bloodstream infection and catheter-associated urinary tract infection, and nurses' hand-washing compliance measured before and during use of the protocol. Reductions in 12-month infection rates were reported for both types of infections, but neither reduction was statistically significant. Mean 12-month nurse hand-washing compliance also improved, but not significantly. A hand hygiene protocol for patients in the intensive care unit was associated with reductions in hospital-acquired infections and improvements in nurses' hand-washing compliance. Prevention of such infections requires continuous quality improvement efforts to monitor lasting effectiveness as well as investigation of strategies to eliminate these infections. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  6. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... action today; no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 75,585 views 3:10 Wash ' ... handwash? With soap and water - Duration: 1:27. World Health Organization 224,870 views 1:27 Safety ...

  7. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... action today; no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 78,256 views 3:10 Wash ... handwash? With soap and water - Duration: 1:27. World Health Organization 230,361 views 1:27 Hand ...

  8. Developing professional habits of hand hygiene in intensive care settings: An action-research intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistella, Giuseppe; Berto, Giuliana; Bazzo, Stefania

    2017-02-01

    To explore perceptions and unconscious psychological processes underlying handwashing behaviours of intensive care nurses, to implement organisational innovations for improving hand hygiene in clinical practice. An action-research intervention was performed in 2012 and 2013 in the intensive care unit of a public hospital in Italy, consisting of: structured interviews, semantic analysis, development and validation of a questionnaire, team discussion, project design and implementation. Five general workers, 16 staff nurses and 53 nurse students participated in the various stages. Social handwashing emerged as a structured and efficient habit, which follows automatically the pattern "cue/behaviour/gratification" when hands are perceived as "dirty". The perception of "dirt" starts unconsciously the process of social washing also in professional settings. Professional handwashing is perceived as goal-directed. The main concern identified is the fact that washing hands requires too much time to be performed in a setting of urgency. These findings addressed participants to develop a professional "habit-directed" hand hygiene procedure, to be implemented at beginning of workshifts. Handwashing is a ritualistic behaviour driven by deep and unconscious patterns, and social habits affect professional practice. Creating professional habits of hand hygiene could be a key solution to improve compliance in intensive care settings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Preparing Students for Travel Abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Jeanne

    1989-01-01

    This article outlines information which can be provided by the school nurse or health educator to help make student trips abroad healthy as well as educational. Topics covered include: food and water, traveler's diarrhea, handwashing, insect and animal bites, stress, and prior health problems. (IAH)

  10. Mealtime Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedra, Betty

    2012-01-01

    By nature, lunchtime is a whirlwind of activity: from hand-washing to serving to clean-up, there are usually several things happening at once. Staff members have their hands full helping children transition into lunch from circle time or outside, keeping children focused and seated during the meal, and cleaning up after the meal, while…

  11. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... action today; no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 72,319 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand ... handwash? With soap and water - Duration: 1:27. World Health Organization 205,878 views 1:27 Germ Smart - Wash ...

  12. Comprehensive family hygiene promotion in peri-urban Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Facilitators from the communities monitored symptoms weekly and reinforced disease prevention behaviours, focusing on handwashing and bathing with soap, cleaning toilet/food surfaces, and treating skin problems with antiseptic. Results. Children aged under 5 years in all communities had significant reductions in ...

  13. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... today; no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 70,396 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - ... Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson Health 408,436 views 5:46 Handwashing Gangnam Style - ...

  14. Epidemic Cholera in a Crowded Urban Environment, Port-au-Prince, Haiti

    OpenAIRE

    Dunkle, Stacie E.; Mba-Jonas, Adamma; Loharikar, Anagha; Fouché, Bernadette; Peck, Mireille; Ayers, Tracy; Archer, W. Roodly; De Rochars, Valery M. Beau; Bender, Thomas; Moffett, Daphne B.; Tappero, Jordan W.; Dahourou, George; Roels, Thierry H.; Quick, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a case–control study to investigate factors associated with epidemic cholera. Water treatment and handwashing may have been protective, highlighting the need for personal hygiene for cholera prevention in contaminated urban environments. We also found a diverse diet, a possible proxy for improved nutrition, was protective against cholera.

  15. Healthy Hands Hygiene (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-10-12

    Worldwide, almost one and a half million children die each year from diarrheal disease and pneumonia before their fifth birthday. This podcast discusses the importance of regular handwashing.  Created: 10/12/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 10/12/2017.

  16. Hand Hygiene Program Decreases School Absenteeism Due to Upper Respiratory Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azor-Martinez, Ernestina; Cobos-Carrascosa, Elena; Seijas-Vazquez, Maria Luisa; Fernández-Sánchez, Carmen; Strizzi, Jenna M.; Torres-Alegre, Pilar; Santisteban-Martínez, Joaquin; Gimenez-Sanchez, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Background: We assessed the effectiveness of a handwashing program using hand sanitizer to prevent school absenteeism due to upper respiratory infections (URIs). Methods: This was a randomized, controlled, and open study on a sample of 1341 children 4-12 years old, attending 5 state schools in Almería (Spain), with an 8-month follow-up. The…

  17. Evaluating brief motivational and self-regulatory hand hygiene interventions: a cross-over longitudinal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhakhang, Pempa; Lippke, Sonia; Knoll, Nina; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2015-02-04

    Frequent handwashing can prevent infections, but non-compliance to hand hygiene is pervasive. Few theory- and evidence-based interventions to improve regular handwashing are available. Therefore, two intervention modules, a motivational and a self-regulatory one, were designed and evaluated. In a longitudinal study, 205 young adults, aged 18 to 26 years, were randomized into two intervention groups. The Mot-SelfR group received first a motivational intervention (Mot; risk perception and outcome expectancies) followed by a self-regulatory intervention (SelfR; perceived self-efficacy and planning) 17 days later. The SelfR-Mot group received the same two intervention modules in the opposite order. Follow-up data were assessed 17 and 34 days after the baseline. Both intervention sequences led to an increase in handwashing frequency, intention, self-efficacy, and planning. Also, overall gains were found for the self-regulatory module (increased planning and self-efficacy levels) and the motivational module (intention). Within groups, the self-regulatory module appeared to be more effective than the motivational module, independent of sequence. Self-regulatory interventions can help individuals to exhibit more handwashing. Sequencing may be important as a motivation module (Mot) first helps to set the goal and a self-regulatory module (SelfR) then helps to translate this goal into actual behavior, but further research is needed to evaluate mechanisms.

  18. Epidemiological investigation of an outbreak of hepatitis A in rural China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Yu

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: The pattern of transmission in this outbreak was person-to-person, and the transmission route was indicated to be fecal–oral. In addition to close contact, insufficient hand-washing was a risk factor. Strengthening the management of the rural environmental sanitation services and enhancing awareness in the household are key to preventing outbreaks of hepatitis A in the future.

  19. Talking dirty: how to save a million lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, V

    2003-06-01

    Infectious diseases are still the number one threat to public health in developing countries. Diarrhoeal diseases alone are responsible for the deaths of at least 2 million children yearly - hygiene is paramount to resolving this problem. The function of hygienic behaviour is to prevent the transmission of the agents of infection. The most effective way of stopping infection is to stop faecal material getting into the child's environment by safe disposal of faeces and washing hands with soap once faecal material has contaminated them in the home. A review of the literature on handwashing puts it top in a list of possible interventions to prevent diarrhoea. Handwashing with soap has been calculated to save a million lives. However, few people do wash their hands with soap at these critical times. Obtaining a massive increase in handwashing worldwide requires a sea-change in thinking. Initial results from a new programme led by the World Bank, with many partner organisations, suggest that health is low on people's list of motives, rather, hands are washed to remove dirt, to rinse food off after eating, to make hands look and smell good, and as an act of motherly caring. Professional consumer and market research agencies are being used to work with the soap industry to design professional communications programmes to reach whole populations in Ghana and India. Tools and techniques for marketing handwashing and for measuring the actual impact on behaviour will be applied in new public-private handwashing programmes, which are to start up soon in Nepal, China, Peru and Senegal.

  20. Effect of water quality, sanitation, hand washing, and nutritional interventions on child development in rural Bangladesh (WASH Benefits Bangladesh): a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofail, Fahmida; Fernald, Lia Ch; Das, Kishor K; Rahman, Mahbubur; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Jannat, Kaniz K; Unicomb, Leanne; Arnold, Benjamin F; Ashraf, Sania; Winch, Peter J; Kariger, Patricia; Stewart, Christine P; Colford, John M; Luby, Stephen P

    2018-04-01

    Poor nutrition and hygiene make children vulnerable to delays in growth and development. We aimed to assess the effects of water quality, sanitation, handwashing, and nutritional interventions individually or in combination on the cognitive, motor, and language development of children in rural Bangladesh. In this cluster-randomised controlled trial, we enrolled pregnant women in their first or second trimester from rural villages of Gazipur, Kishoreganj, Mymensingh, and Tangail districts of central Bangladesh, with an average of eight women per cluster. Groups of eight geographically adjacent clusters were block-randomised, using a random number generator, into six intervention groups (all of which received weekly visits from a community health promoter for the first 6 months and every 2 weeks for the next 18 months) and a double-sized control group (no intervention or health promoter visit). The six intervention groups were: chlorinated drinking water; improved sanitation; handwashing with soap; combined water, sanitation, and handwashing; improved nutrition through counselling and provision of lipid-based nutrient supplements; and combined water, sanitation, handwashing, and nutrition. Here, we report on the prespecified secondary child development outcomes: gross motor milestone achievement assessed with the WHO module at age 1 year, and communication, gross motor, personal social, and combined scores measured by the Extended Ages and Stages Questionnaire (EASQ) at age 2 years. Masking of participants was not possible. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01590095. Between May 31, 2012, and July 7, 2013, 5551 pregnant women residing in 720 clusters were enrolled. Index children of 928 (17%) enrolled women were lost to follow-up in year 1 and an additional 201 (3%) in year 2. 4757 children were assessed at 1 year and 4403 at 2 years. At year 1, compared with the control group, the combined water

  1. A multicenter questionnaire investigation of attitudes toward hand hygiene, assessed by the staff in fifteen hospitals in Denmark and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimakoff, J; Kjelsberg, A B; Larsen, S O

    1992-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was carried out anonymously among 2557 health care workers in Denmark and Norway to identify and quantify factors that affect the handwashing behavior of physicians, nurses, and other staff groups who perform direct patient care. For number of daily patient contacts...... and discouraging HH. The main motivating factor for all groups, however, was an awareness that HH is important for the prevention of infection. Skin problems from frequent handwashing and the use of agents that irritate and dry the skin were the main reasons for disinclination toward HH. The number of points given...... to these statements correlated well with the stated frequency of HH in staff groups with relatively many (9 to 24) patient contacts per day. Many studies have revealed low standards of HH in health care settings. Whenever HH is taught, the significance of HH for the prevention of infection is always stressed...

  2. Early-career registered nurses' participation in hospital quality improvement activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukic, Maja; Kovner, Christine T; Brewer, Carol S; Fatehi, Farida K; Bernstein, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    We surveyed 2 cohorts of early-career registered nurses from 15 states in the US, 2 years apart, to compare their reported participation in hospital quality improvement (QI) activities. We anticipated differences between the 2 cohorts because of the growth of several initiatives for engaging nurses in QI. There were no differences between the 2 cohorts across 14 measured activities, except for their reported use of appropriate strategies to improve hand-washing compliance to reduce nosocomial infection rates.

  3. Improving adherence to hand hygiene practice: a multidisciplinary approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Pittet, D.

    2001-01-01

    Hand hygiene prevents cross-infection in hospitals, but health-care workers' adherence to guidelines is poor. Easy, timely access to both hand hygiene and skin protection is necessary for satisfactory hand hygiene behavior. Alcohol- based hand rubs may be better than traditional handwashing as they require less time, act faster, are less irritating, and contribute to sustained improvement in compliance associated with decreased infection rates. This article reviews barriers to appropriate han...

  4. Infrastructure and contamination of the physical environment in three Bangladeshi hospitals: putting infection control into context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimi, Nadia Ali; Sultana, Rebeca; Luby, Stephen P; Islam, Mohammed Saiful; Uddin, Main; Hossain, Mohammad Jahangir; Zaman, Rashid Uz; Nahar, Nazmun; Gurley, Emily S

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the physical structure and environmental contamination in selected hospital wards in three government hospitals in Bangladesh. The qualitative research team conducted 48 hours of observation in six wards from three Bangladeshi tertiary hospitals in 2007. They recorded environmental contamination with body secretions and excretions and medical waste and observed ward occupant handwashing and use of personal protective equipment. They recorded number of persons, number of open doors and windows, and use of fans. They measured the ward area and informally observed waste disposal outside the wards. They conducted nine focus group discussions with doctors, nurses and support staff. A median of 3.7 persons were present per 10 m(2) of floor space in the wards. A median of 4.9 uncovered coughs or sneezes were recorded per 10 m(2) per hour per ward. Floors in the wards were soiled with saliva, spit, mucous, vomitus, feces and blood 125 times in 48 hours. Only two of the 12 patient handwashing stations had running water and none had soap. No disinfection was observed before or after using medical instruments. Used medical supplies were often discarded in open containers under the beds. Handwashing with soap was observed in only 32 of 3,373 handwashing opportunities noted during 48 hours. Mosquitoes and feral cats were commonly observed in the wards. The physical structure and environment of our study hospitals are conducive to the spread of infection to people in the wards. Low-cost interventions on hand hygiene and cleaning procedures for rooms and medical equipment should be developed and evaluated for their practicality and effectiveness.

  5. Lessons from Semmelweis:A Social Epidemiologic Update On Safe Motherhood

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Cwikel

    2008-01-01

    In this historical review, Ignaz Semmelweis's study of handwashing to prevent puerperal fever is described and used as a benchmark from which to identify salient issues that are informative to today's women’s health activists working for Safe Motherhood. The epidemiology of contemporary excess maternal mortality is reviewed. Using the conceptual framework of social epidemiology, the paper addresses four issues that were problematic in Semmelweis’ era. New tools in public health are presented ...

  6. Cluster-randomised controlled trials of individual and combined water, sanitation, hygiene and nutritional interventions in rural Bangladesh and Kenya: the WASH Benefits study design and rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Benjamin F; Null, Clair; Luby, Stephen P; Unicomb, Leanne; Stewart, Christine P; Dewey, Kathryn G; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ashraf, Sania; Christensen, Garret; Clasen, Thomas; Dentz, Holly N; Fernald, Lia C H; Haque, Rashidul; Hubbard, Alan E; Kariger, Patricia; Leontsini, Elli; Lin, Audrie; Njenga, Sammy M; Pickering, Amy J; Ram, Pavani K; Tofail, Fahmida; Winch, Peter J; Colford, John M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Enteric infections are common during the first years of life in low-income countries and contribute to growth faltering with long-term impairment of health and development. Water quality, sanitation, handwashing and nutritional interventions can independently reduce enteric infections and growth faltering. There is little evidence that directly compares the effects of these individual and combined interventions on diarrhoea and growth when delivered to infants and young children. The objective of the WASH Benefits study is to help fill this knowledge gap. Methods and analysis WASH Benefits includes two cluster-randomised trials to assess improvements in water quality, sanitation, handwashing and child nutrition—alone and in combination—to rural households with pregnant women in Kenya and Bangladesh. Geographically matched clusters (groups of household compounds in Bangladesh and villages in Kenya) will be randomised to one of six intervention arms or control. Intervention arms include water quality, sanitation, handwashing, nutrition, combined water+sanitation+handwashing (WSH) and WSH+nutrition. The studies will enrol newborn children (N=5760 in Bangladesh and N=8000 in Kenya) and measure outcomes at 12 and 24 months after intervention delivery. Primary outcomes include child length-for-age Z-scores and caregiver-reported diarrhoea. Secondary outcomes include stunting prevalence, markers of environmental enteropathy and child development scores (verbal, motor and personal/social). We will estimate unadjusted and adjusted intention-to-treat effects using semiparametric estimators and permutation tests. Ethics and dissemination Study protocols have been reviewed and approved by human subjects review boards at the University of California, Berkeley, Stanford University, the International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, the Kenya Medical Research Institute, and Innovations for Poverty Action. Independent data safety monitoring

  7. Exploring the potential of antimicrobial hand hygiene products in reducing the infectious burden in low-income countries: An integrative review.

    OpenAIRE

    de Witt Huberts, J; Greenland, K; Schmidt, WP; Curtis, V

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to understand whether adding antimicrobial agents to hand hygiene products could increase the health benefits of handwashing with plain soap (HWWS) in low-income settings. A review of experimental studies comparing the effects of HWWS with antimicrobial soap and waterless hand sanitizer on health and hand contamination in naturalistic conditions was conducted. In addition, an analysis was completed of the evidence from laboratory studies examining the factors th...

  8. Microbial Efficacy of Waterless Hand Hygiene in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, A.; Boehm, A.; Davis, J.

    2008-12-01

    Millions of people die from diarrheal and respiratory diseases every year due to lack of proper sanitation, hygiene, and access to clean water. The act of handwashing with soap has been found to effectively reduce both diarrheal and respiratory illness, however, handwashing at critical times (i.e. after using the toilet, before preparing food) remains infrequent around the world. This research investigates the potential for alcohol- based hand sanitizer (ABHS) to be an effective and appropriate hand hygiene option in developing countries. A study was conducted to assess the microbiological effectiveness of ABHS, as compared to handwashing with soap and water, in field conditions in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A total of 205 participants, including mothers, nurses, students, and teachers, were introduced to ABHS, given a standardized amount (2ml) of product, and instructed on how to use the product correctly. Hand samples were obtained using the hand rinse method before and after the use of ABHS from 152 participants. The other 53 participants were hand sampled before and after handwashing with a non-antimicrobial liquid soap and clean water (prior to using ABHS). Visual inspections of the hands were performed before hand sampling to record the level of dirt on the hands. All hand samples were processed and analyzed by membrane filtration for concentrations of two microbial indicators, enterococci and E. coli. User perceptions of the product and willingness to pay are also documented. The results of this study provide valuable insight on the prospective of promoting ABHS in developing countries and water scarce areas.

  9. A systematic review of the effectiveness of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizers for prevention of illness-related absenteeism in elementary school children

    OpenAIRE

    Meadows, Emily; Le Saux, Nicole

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Absenteeism due to communicable illness is a major problem encountered by North American elementary school children. Although handwashing is a proven infection control measure, barriers exist in the school environment, which hinder compliance to this routine. Currently, alternative hand hygiene techniques are being considered, and one such technique is the use of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizers. Methods A systematic review was conducted to examine the effectivenes...

  10. Poultry slaughtering practices in rural communities of Bangladesh and risk of avian influenza transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimi, Nadia Ali; Sultana, Rebeca; Ishtiak-Ahmed, Kazi

    2014-01-01

    communities. In 2009, we conducted 30 observations to observe slaughtering practices and 110 in-depth and short interviews and 36 group discussions to explore reasons behind those practices. The villagers reported slaughtering 103 poultry, including 20 sick poultry during 2 months. During different stages...... poultry, using hot water for defeathering and cleaning, using a bucket to contain slaughtering blood and carcass, burying the offal and encouraging handwashing....

  11. Exposure to wet work in working Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegel, Tessa G; Nixon, Rosemary L; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2012-02-01

    The Australian National Hazard Exposure Worker Surveillance (NHEWS) Survey 2008 was a cross-sectional survey undertaken by Safe Work Australia to inform the development of exposure prevention initiatives for occupational disease. This is a descriptive study of workplace exposures. To assess the occupational and demographic characteristics of workers reporting exposure to wet work. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were conducted with 4500 workers. Two wet work exposure outcomes (frequent washing of hands and duration of time spent at work with the hands immersed in liquids) were analysed. The response rate for the study was 42.3%. For hand-washing, 9.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.9-10.7] reported washing their hands more than 20 times per day. For immersion of hands in liquids, 4.5% (95% CI 3.9-5.1) reported immersion for more than 2 hr per day. Females were more likely to report exposure to frequent hand-washing than males [odds ratio (OR) 1.97, 95% CI 1.49-2.61]. Workers in the lowest occupational skill level jobs were more likely to report increased exposure to hands immersed in liquids than those in the highest (OR 6.41, 95% CI 3.78-10.88). Workers reporting skin exposure to chemicals were more likely to report exposure to hand-washing (OR 3.68, 95% CI 2.91-4.66) and immersion of the hands in liquids (OR 4.09, 95% CI 2.92-5.74). Specific groups of workers reported high levels of exposure to wet work. There were differences between the profiles of workers reporting frequent hand-washing and workers reporting increased duration of exposure to hands immersed in liquids. We also found a high correlation between wet work and chemical exposure. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Infrastructure and contamination of the physical environment in three Bangladeshi hospitals: putting infection control into context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Ali Rimi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the physical structure and environmental contamination in selected hospital wards in three government hospitals in Bangladesh. METHODS: The qualitative research team conducted 48 hours of observation in six wards from three Bangladeshi tertiary hospitals in 2007. They recorded environmental contamination with body secretions and excretions and medical waste and observed ward occupant handwashing and use of personal protective equipment. They recorded number of persons, number of open doors and windows, and use of fans. They measured the ward area and informally observed waste disposal outside the wards. They conducted nine focus group discussions with doctors, nurses and support staff. RESULTS: A median of 3.7 persons were present per 10 m(2 of floor space in the wards. A median of 4.9 uncovered coughs or sneezes were recorded per 10 m(2 per hour per ward. Floors in the wards were soiled with saliva, spit, mucous, vomitus, feces and blood 125 times in 48 hours. Only two of the 12 patient handwashing stations had running water and none had soap. No disinfection was observed before or after using medical instruments. Used medical supplies were often discarded in open containers under the beds. Handwashing with soap was observed in only 32 of 3,373 handwashing opportunities noted during 48 hours. Mosquitoes and feral cats were commonly observed in the wards. CONCLUSIONS: The physical structure and environment of our study hospitals are conducive to the spread of infection to people in the wards. Low-cost interventions on hand hygiene and cleaning procedures for rooms and medical equipment should be developed and evaluated for their practicality and effectiveness.

  13. A concealed observational study of infection control and safe injection practices in Jordanian governmental hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rawajfah, Omar M; Tubaishat, Ahmad

    2017-10-01

    The recognized international organizations on infection prevention recommend using an observational method as the gold standard procedure for assessing health care professional's compliance with standard infection control practices. However, observational studies are rarely used in Jordanian infection control studies. This study aimed to evaluate injection practices among nurses working in Jordanian governmental hospitals. A cross-sectional concealed observational design is used for this study. A convenience sampling technique was used to recruit a sample of nurses working in governmental hospitals in Jordan. Participants were unaware of the time and observer during the observation episode. A total of 384 nurses from 9 different hospitals participated in the study. A total of 835 injections events were observed, of which 73.9% were performed without handwashing, 64.5% without gloving, and 27.5% were followed by needle recapping. Handwashing rate was the lowest (18.9%) when injections were performed by beginner nurses. Subcutaneous injections were associated with the lowest rate (26.7%) of postinjection handwashing compared with other routes. This study demonstrates the need for focused and effective infection control educational programs in Jordanian hospitals. Future studies should consider exploring the whole infection control practices related to waste disposal and the roles of the infection control nurse in this process in Jordanian hospitals. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Health care workers' hand contamination levels and antibacterial efficacy of different hand hygiene methods used in a Vietnamese hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Sharon; Truong, Anh Thu; Nguyen, Viet Hung; Pittet, Didier; McLaws, Mary-Louise

    2014-02-01

    Handwashing with soap or another antisepsis disinfectant solution is a common practice in Vietnam, but the availability and quality of tap water is unpredictable. We assessed the risk for hand contamination and compared the efficacy of 5 hand hygiene methods in a tertiary Vietnamese hospital. Five fingertip imprints of the dominant hand of 134 health care workers (HCWs) were sampled to establish the average bacterial count before and after hand hygiene action using (1) alcohol-based handrub (ABHR), (2) plain soap and water handwashing with filtered and unfiltered water, or (3) 4% chlorhexidine gluconate hand antisepsis with filtered and unfiltered water. Average bacterial contamination of hands before hand hygiene was 1.65 log(10). Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus were the most commonly isolated bacterial pathogens. The highest average count before hand hygiene was recovered from HCWs without direct patient contact (2.10 ± 0.11 log(10)). Bacterial counts were markedly reduced after hand hygiene with ABHR (1.4 log(10); P hand, even without direct patient contact. ABHR as an additional step may overcome the effect of high bacterial counts in unfiltered water when soap and water handwashing is indicated. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Conditions in Kenyan Rural Schools: Are Schools Meeting the Needs of Menstruating Girls?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly T. Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH programs in African schools have received increased attention, particularly around the potential impact of poor menstrual hygiene management (MHM on equity for girls’ education. This study was conducted prior to a menstrual feasibility study in rural Kenya, to examine current WASH in primary schools and the resources available for menstruating schoolgirls. Cross-sectional surveys were performed in 62 primary schools during unannounced visits. Of these, 60% had handwashing water, 13% had washing water in latrines for menstruating girls, and 2% had soap. Latrines were structurally sound and 16% were clean. Most schools (84% had separate latrines for girls, but the majority (77% had no lock. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs supported WASH in 76% of schools. Schools receiving WASH interventions were more likely to have: cleaner latrines (Risk Ratio (RR 1.5; 95% Confidence Intervals [CI] 1.0, 2.1, handwashing facilities (RR 1.6, CI 1.1, 2.5, handwashing water (RR 2.7; CI 1.4, 5.2, and water in girls’ latrines (RR 4.0; CI 1.4, 11.6. Schools continue to lack essential WASH facilities for menstruating girls. While external support for school WASH interventions improved MHM quality, the impact of these contributions remains insufficient. Further support is required to meet international recommendations for healthy, gender-equitable schools.

  16. Comparison of the immediate, residual, and cumulative antibacterial effects of Novaderm R,* Novascrub R,* Betadine Surgical Scrub, Hibiclens, and liquid soap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faoagali, J; Fong, J; George, N; Mahoney, P; O'Rourke, V

    1995-12-01

    Triclosan (Irgasan), an antibacterial active against staphylococci and coliform bacteria, has been formulated for use as a handwash. There has been only one previous report of the use of the glove juice test to determine the immediate, residual, and cumulative effects of a 1% triclosan-based handwash product. There have been no previous studies on the use of 1% triclosan combined with povidone-iodine (PI) in a handwash product. The glove juice technique was used to document and compare the immediate, 3-hour residual, and 5-day cumulative effects on the mean log10 bacterial counts of 1% triclosan-based handwash product and 1% triclosan with 5% PI. A standardized surgical handwashing technique was used before sample collection. These results and the identity and type of the aerobic bacteria cultured from the samples were compared with the results of standardized washing and glove juice sampling with 4% weight/volume chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG), 7.5% PI, and a nonantimicrobial liquid soap. All five tested products showed significant log10 reduction from baseline on day 1, hour 0 (p 0.05). There was a significant difference between 1% triclosan and the liquid soap when they were each compared with 4% CHG, 7.5% PI, and 1% triclosan with 5% PI. There was no statistically significant difference between the 1% triclosan product and the liquid soap (p > 0.20). All products were effective at reducing the immediate bacterial count from the baseline level. All formulations except the liquid soap showed significant cumulative effect (p liquid soap and 1% triclosan (p > 0.05). Both products differed significantly (p < 0.05) from the CHG, PI, and triclosan with PI. CHG, PI, and triclosan with PI showed effects significantly different from each other (p < 0.05). Triclosan combined with PI resulted in the prevention of bacterial regrowth at 3 hours such as occurred when PI alone was used. Triclosan-containing products have a small cumulative effect, although not as great as that

  17. Hand hygiene knowledge and practice among university students: evidence from Private Universities of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultana M

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Marufa Sultana,1 Rashidul Alam Mahumud,1 Abdur Razzaque Sarker,1 Sarder Mahmud Hossain,21Health Economics and Financing Research Group, Centre for Equity and Health System (CEHS, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, 2Department of Public Health, Northern University Bangladesh, Dhaka, BangladeshAbstract: Hand hygiene has achieved the reputation of being a convenient means of preventing communicable diseases. Although causal links between hand hygiene and rates of infectious disease have also been established earlier, studies focusing on hand hygiene among university-going students are not adequate in number. This study evaluated handwashing knowledge, practice, and other related factors among the selected university students in the city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 undergraduate students from four selected universities. A pretested, semistructured questionnaire, that included a checklist associated with handwashing practice, was applied to capture all relevant data. The mean (± SD age of the participants was 20.4 (±1.8 years. The majority of the students washed their hands with water, but only 22.5% washed their hands effectively by maintaining the correct steps and frequency of handwashing with water, and soap or hand sanitizer. The mean (± SD score of the participants’ hand hygiene practice was 50.81 (±4.79, while the total score with all perfect answers was considered as 66. Regression coefficient demonstrated that age has a negative influence on hand hygiene practice, as older students have lower scores compared to the younger ones (P<0.01. However, the unmarried students were a significant predictor for influencing the incensement of handwashing practice compared to the married ones (P<0.01. Findings of this study designate widespread insufficient hand hygiene practice in the university-going students and indicate a need for an extensive public health education

  18. [Characteristics of infection prevention and coping behavior for seasonal influenza-like illnesses and its relationship to personal characteristics among hospital nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Saki; Takahashi, Mihoko

    2011-10-01

    To describe the infection prevention and coping behavior for seasonal influenza-like illnesses among hospital nurses. We conducted an anonymous questionnaire survey of 444 nurses in October 2007, who belonged to two hospitals in one city. We investigated their infection prevention behavior (handwashing, gargling, mask-use, influenza vaccination rate, humidification of the room, room ventilation, increased physical strength) and coping behavior (type of coping, elapsed time until taking appropriate action, absent days, recognition of infection source) in one season, and their characteristics (sex, age, division, family). 423 questionnaires were analyzed. Most nurses performed handwashing with soap or a disinfectant. However, only 71% and 53% of nurses regularly did this after blowing their nose or touching any hair. Many used only water. Only 58% of the nurses gargled at home. Except after handling linen, gargling was done by less than 10%. Regarding handwashing or gargling, nurses who performed these before the beginning of duties or any treatment was only in the range from 10-25% which was less than when they finished their duties or treatment. Handwashing before beginning duties was significantly associated with "living together with a family" (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] after adjusting for sex and age) (0.32[0.12-0.84]) and "living together with children who go to school" (0.49[0.24-0.995]), respectively. Gargling after any treatment and gargling at home, room humidification and ventilation were all significantly associated with "living together with babies and infants" (2.36[1.07-5.21], 1.87[1.07-3.27], 2.29[1.32-3.97] and 2.46[1.39-4.36]). Fifty-five% of the nurses regularly wore masks during work. The influenza vaccination rate was 82%. 67% of 51 nurses who had flu-like symptoms responded appropriately within 24 hours after onset. However, 25% of 51 nurses did not consult a doctor, but instead took over-the-counter medicine or rested at home. Some

  19. Hand Hygiene Intervention Strategies to Reduce Diarrhoea and Respiratory Infections among Schoolchildren in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balwani Chingatichifwe Mbakaya

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective and appropriate hand-washing practice for schoolchildren is important in preventing infectious diseases such as diarrhoea, which is the second most common cause of death among school-age children in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of the review was to identify hand hygiene intervention strategies to reduce infectious diseases such as diarrhoea and respiratory tract infections among schoolchildren aged 6–12 years in developing countries. Published research articles were searched from databases covering a period from as far back as the creation of the databases to November 2015. Eight randomized controlled trials (RCT/CRCT from developing countries met the inclusion criteria. The Jadad Scale for appraising RCT/CRCT studies revealed methodological challenges in most studies, such that 75% (6/8 were rated as low-quality articles. The review found that hand hygiene can reduce the incidence of diarrhoea and respiratory conditions. Three hand hygiene intervention strategies utilized were training, funding and policy, with training and funding implemented more commonly than policy. These strategies were not only used in isolation but also in combination, and they qualified as multi-level interventions. Factors that influenced hand washing were contextual, psychosocial and technological. Findings can inform school health workers in categorizing and prioritizing activities into viable strategies when implementing multi-level hand-washing interventions. This review also adds to the existing evidence that multi-level hand-washing interventions can reduce the incidence of diarrhoea, respiratory infections, and school absenteeism. Further evidence-based studies are needed with improved methodological rigour in developing countries, to inform policy in this area.

  20. The pursuit of balance in sequential randomized trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond P. Guiteras

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In many randomized trials, subjects enter the sample sequentially. Because the covariates for all units are not known in advance, standard methods of stratification do not apply. We describe and assess the method of DA-optimal sequential allocation (Atkinson, 1982 for balancing stratification covariates across treatment arms. We provide simulation evidence that the method can provide substantial improvements in precision over commonly employed alternatives. We also describe our experience implementing the method in a field trial of a clean water and handwashing intervention in Dhaka, Bangladesh, the first time the method has been used. We provide advice and software for future researchers.

  1. Fecal coliforms on environmental surfaces in two day care centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weniger, B G; Ruttenber, A J; Goodman, R A; Juranek, D D; Wahlquist, S P; Smith, J D

    1983-01-01

    A survey of environmental surfaces in two Atlanta area day care centers was conducted to determine the prevalence of fecal coliform bacteria, considered a marker for the presence of fecal contamination which might contain pathogenic parasites, bacteria, or viruses. Fecal coliforms were found in 17 (4.3%) of 398 representative samples of building surfaces, furniture, and other objects. These surfaces may be involved in the chain of transmission of enteric diseases among children. Therefore, disinfection of inanimate objects, in addition to good handwashing, may be important in controlling the spread of enteric diseases in day care centers. PMID:6830225

  2. Randomized Controlled Trial of Antiseptic Hand Hygiene Methods in an Outpatient Surgery Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therattil, Paul J; Yueh, Janet H; Kordahi, Anthony M; Cherla, Deepa V; Lee, Edward S; Granick, Mark S

    2015-12-01

    Outpatient wound care plays an integral part in any plastic surgery practice. However, compliance with hand hygiene measures has shown to be low, due to skin irritation and lack of time. The objective of this trial was to determine whether single-use, long-acting antiseptics can be as effective as standard multiple-use hand hygiene methods in an outpatient surgical setting. A prospective, randomized controlled trial was performed in the authors' outpatient plastic surgery clinic at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ to compare the efficacy of an ethyl alcohol-based sanitizer (Avagard D Instant Hand Aniseptic, 3M Health Care, St. Paul, MN), a benzalkonium chloride-based sanitizer (Soft & Shield, Bioderm Technologies, Inc, Trenton, NJ, distributed by NAPP Technologies, Hackensack, NJ ), and soap and- water handwashing. Subjects included clinic personnel, who were followed throughout the course of a 3-hour clinic session with hourly hand bacterial counts taken. During the course of the trial, 95 subjects completed the clinic session utilizing 1 of the hand hygiene methods (36 ethyl alcohol-based sanitizer, 38 benzalkonium chloride-based sanitizer, and 21 soap-and-water handwashing). There was no difference between hand bacterial counts using the different methods at 4 hourly time points (P greater than 0.05). Hand bacterial counts increased significantly over the 3-hour clinic session with the ethyl alcohol-based sanitizer (9.24 to 21.90 CFU, P less than 0.05), benzalkonium chloride-based sanitizer (6.69 to 21.59 CFU, P less than 0.05), and soap-and-water handwashing (8.43 to 22.75 CFU, P less than 0.05). There does not appear to be any difference in efficacy between single-use, long-acting sanitizer, and standard multiple-use hand hygiene methods. Hand bacterial counts increased significantly over the course of the 3-hour clinic session regardless of the hand hygiene measure used. Hand condition of subjects was improved with the ethyl alcohol

  3. [A photographic competition on hand hygiene in a nursing home].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerre, Graziella; Aho-Glele, Ludwig-Serge; Astruc, Karine

    2016-01-01

    Hand hygiene is often considered as the attribute of caregivers. However, it is the patient who is increasingly targeted by improved communication around hygiene in care notably in the framework of the "Clean Hands Mission". In this sense, the French regional centres for the fight against nosocomial infections in Burgundy has proved itself innovative on two levels by organising a photo competition in nursing homes. The aim was to show residents how to prevent care-related infections through the simple act of handwashing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Design, Intervention Fidelity, and Behavioral Outcomes of a School-Based Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Cluster-Randomized Trial in Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna N. Chard

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence of the impact of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH in schools (WinS interventions on pupil absence and health is mixed. Few WinS evaluations rigorously report on output and outcome measures that allow for comparisons of effectiveness between interventions to be made, or for an understanding of why programs succeed. The Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene for Health and Education in Laotian Primary Schools (WASH HELPS study was a randomized controlled trial designed to measure the impact of the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF Laos WinS project on child health and education. We also measured the sustainability of intervention outputs and outcomes, and analyzed the effectiveness of group hygiene activities on behavior change and habit formation. Here, we present the design and intermediate results from this study. We found the WinS project improved the WASH environment in intervention schools; 87.8% of schools received the intervention per design. School-level adherence to outputs was lower; on average, schools met 61.4% of adherence-related criteria. The WinS project produced positive changes in pupils’ school WASH behaviors, specifically increasing toilet use and daily group handwashing. Daily group hygiene activities are effective strategies to improve school WASH behaviors, but a complementary strategy needs to be concurrently promoted for effective and sustained individual handwashing practice at critical times.

  5. Access to Waterless Hand Sanitizer Improves Student Hand Hygiene Behavior in Primary Schools in Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Amy J.; Davis, Jennifer; Blum, Annalise G.; Scalmanini, Jenna; Oyier, Beryl; Okoth, George; Breiman, Robert F.; Ram, Pavani K.

    2013-01-01

    Handwashing is difficult in settings with limited resources and water access. In primary schools within urban Kibera, Kenya, we investigated the impact of providing waterless hand sanitizer on student hand hygiene behavior. Two schools received a waterless hand sanitizer intervention, two schools received a handwashing with soap intervention, and two schools received no intervention. Hand cleaning behavior after toilet use was monitored for 2 months using structured observation. Hand cleaning after toileting was 82% at sanitizer schools (N = 2,507 toileting events), 38% at soap schools (N = 3,429), and 37% at control schools (N = 2,797). Students at sanitizer schools were 23% less likely to have observed rhinorrhea than control students (P = 0.02); reductions in student-reported gastrointestinal and respiratory illness symptoms were not statistically significant. Providing waterless hand sanitizer markedly increased student hand cleaning after toilet use, whereas the soap intervention did not. Waterless hand sanitizer may be a promising option to improve student hand cleansing behavior, particularly in schools with limited water access. PMID:23836575

  6. Comunicação visual como recurso de apoio a prevenção e ao controle das infecções hospitalares - valor da lavagem das mãos realçado por figuras e mensagens ilustrativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luís da Silveira Baldy

    1984-11-01

    Full Text Available Proposition of visual communication, by illustrative figures and messages appealing to jokes and expressionism, as a mean to reduce the incidence of the hospital infections. The content of the messages is related to the value of the handwashing with soap and water to reach the onlookers, emphasizing the need for the physicians, nurses, students and the remaining technicians and therapists to take to the hand-washing, berfore and after the contacts with the patients, as a basic measure and a routine procedure.Proposta de recurso de comunicação visual - através de figuras e mensagens ilustrativas - para ser aplicada com o objetivo de contribuir pedagogicamente, apelando ao chiste e ao expressionismo, para a divulgação e o estimulo da prática de lavar as mãos, rotineiramente, antes e depois do contato com os doentes, como conduta de grande importância, adotada pelo pessoal médico e paramédico, entre as medidas de prevenção e controle das infecções adquiridas por pacientes hospitalizados.

  7. Cleaning and sterilisation of infant feeding equipment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfrew, Mary J; McLoughlin, Marie; McFadden, Alison

    2008-11-01

    To assess the clinical and cost-effectiveness of different methods of cleaning and sterilisation of infant feeding equipment used in the home. Systematic review of studies from developed countries on the effectiveness of methods of cleaning and sterilisation of infant feeding equipment used in the home. A brief telephone survey of UK-based manufacturers of infant feeding equipment and formula to ascertain the evidence base used for their recommendations, and a comparison of current relevant guidelines in developed countries, informed the work. National guidelines from six countries demonstrated variation and lack of evidence to support current guidance. Manufacturers did not report evidence of effectiveness to support their recommendations. Nine studies were identified; eight conducted between 1962 and 1985 and one in 1997. All had methodological weaknesses. Hand-washing was identified as fundamentally important. Health professionals were reported as not providing appropriate education on the importance and methods of cleaning and sterilisation. Mothers of subsequent babies and women from lower socio-economic groups were less likely to follow recommended procedures. There is a lack of good-quality evidence on effective ways of cleaning and sterilising infant feeding equipment in the home. The evidence base does not answer the question about which of the methods in common use is most effective or most likely to be used by parents. Hand-washing before handling feeding equipment remains important. Further research on the range of methods used in the home environment, including assessment of the views of parents and carers, is required.

  8. The Determinants of Reported Personal and Household Hygiene Behaviour: A Multi-Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunger, Robert; Greenland, Katie; Ploubidis, George; Schmidt, Wolf; Oxford, John; Curtis, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    A substantial proportion of the total infectious disease burden world-wide is due to person-to-person spread of pathogens within households. A questionnaire-based survey on the determinants of hand-washing with soap and cleaning of household surfaces was conducted in at least 1000 households in each of twelve countries across the world (N = 12,239). A structural equation model of hygiene behaviour and its consequences derived from theory was then estimated on this dataset for both behaviours, using a maximum likelihood procedure. The analysis showed that the frequency of handwashing with soap is significantly related to how automatically it is performed, and whether or not someone is busy, or tired. Surface cleaning was strongly linked to possessing a cleaning routine, the perception that one is living in a dirty environment and that others are doing the behaviour, whether one has a strong sense of contamination, as well as a felt need to keep one's surroundings tidy. Being concerned with good manners is also linked to the performance of both behaviours. This study is the first to identify the role of manners, orderliness and routine on hygiene behaviours globally. Such findings should prove helpful in designing programs to improve domestic hygiene practices.

  9. Poor hand hygiene by college students linked to more occurrences of infectious diseases, medical visits, and absence from classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Kayla J; Fortuna, Crystal A; McGill, Janis L; Brandeberry, Macey S; Stone, Abigail R; Lu, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Proper hand hygiene has been linked to lower susceptibility to infectious diseases in many types of communities, but it has not been well established on college campuses. This study investigated the hand hygiene statuses of college students and their occurrences in relation to infectious diseases, medical visits, and absence from classes or work. It also examined the effects of education on handwashing technique to improve hand hygiene. College students enrolled at a university in Northwestern Ohio were recruited as study subjects. Microbial samples were collected 3 times from each of the 220 valid volunteers before washing their hands, after washing with their own procedures, and after washing with a procedure recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Each volunteer also answered a survey including questions on their health conditions, medical visits, and absence from classes or work. Hands of 57.7% volunteers were colonized by an uncountable number of microbial colonies, which were significantly linked to more occurrences to infectious diseases (P hygiene. It is critical to promote education on proper handwashing in colleges, in grade schools, and at home to improve health and learning outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing user acceptance towards automated and conventional sink use for hand decontamination using the technology acceptance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Carolyn H; Mackrill, Jamie B; Cain, Rebecca

    2017-12-01

    Hand hygiene (HH) prevents harmful contaminants spreading in settings including domestic, health care and food handling. Strategies to improve HH range from behavioural techniques through to automated sinks that ensure hand surface cleaning. This study aimed to assess user experience and acceptance towards a new automated sink, compared to a normal sink. An adapted version of the technology acceptance model (TAM) assessed each mode of handwashing. A within-subjects design enabled N = 46 participants to evaluate both sinks. Perceived Ease of Use and Satisfaction of Use were significantly lower for the automated sink, compared to the conventional sink (p technology. We provide recommendations for future HH technology development to contribute a positive user experience, relevant to technology developers, ergonomists and those involved in HH across all sectors. Practitioner Summary: The need to facilitate timely, effective hand hygiene to prevent illness has led to a rise in automated handwashing systems across different contexts. User acceptance is a key factor in system uptake. This paper applies the technology acceptance model as a means to explore and optimise the design of such systems.

  11. Drivers of sustained hygiene behaviour change: A case study from mid-western Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Celia; Robinson, Priscilla

    2016-08-01

    Behaviour change is central to the prevention of many population health problems, yet it is typically difficult to initiate and sustain. This paper reports on an evaluation of a water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) intervention in mid-western Nepal, with particular focus on the drivers and barriers for handwashing with soap/ash and elimination of open defecation. The research was conducted during October-November 2014, two and half years following the intervention's end-point. Qualitative data were collected from the target community (n = 112) via group discussions, interviews and drawings/stories of 'most significant change'. Households' handwashing/water facilities and toilets were observed. Analysis was informed by a model that highlights environmental, psychosocial and technological factors that shape hygiene behaviours across multiple levels, from the habitual to the structural (Dreibelbis et al. 2013). Findings indicate the intervention has supported development of new norms around hygiene behaviours. Key drivers of sustained hygiene behaviour were habit formation, emotional drivers (e.g. disgust, affiliation), and collective action and civic pride; key constraints included water scarcity and socio-economic disadvantage. Identifying and responding to the drivers and constraints of hygiene behaviour change in specific contexts is critical to sustained behaviour change and population health impact. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Computer games to teach hygiene: an evaluation of the e-Bug junior game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, David; Kostkova, Patty; Weinberg, Julius; Lazareck, Lisa; Weerasinghe, Dasun; Lecky, Donna M; McNulty, Cliodna A M

    2011-06-01

    Handwashing, respiratory hygiene and antibiotic resistance remain major public health concerns. In order to facilitate an effective outcome when teaching the basic principles of hand and respiratory hygiene, educational interventions should first target school children. As computer games are ubiquitous in most children's lives, e-Bug developed computer games targeted at teaching children handwashing, respiratory hygiene and antibiotic resistance. The games were designed for two target audiences: junior school children (9-12 year olds); and senior school children (13-15 year olds). Between May and August 2009, the finalized junior game underwent an evaluation in three UK schools (in Glasgow, Gloucester and London), involving 62 children in the schools and ∼ 1700 players accessing the junior game online. The e-Bug junior game consists of a number of levels of play, each of which promotes a set of learning outcomes (LOs). These LOs, complementary to those in the e-Bug packs, are expressed through the game mechanics (the rules of the game) rather than through story or dialogue. Although the junior game's evaluation demonstrated a statistically significant change in the knowledge for only a small number of given LOs, because many children had the required knowledge already before playing the game, this is e-Bug's first statistical study on the junior game and the first comprehensive evaluation of its kind. Future work includes a re-examination of the quiz-style questionnaires utilized in this study and an exploration of the potential knowledge change acquired strictly through engagement.

  13. Washing away your sins will set your mind free: physical cleansing modulates the effect of threatened morality on executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalanthroff, Eyal; Aslan, Chen; Dar, Reuven

    2017-01-01

    The effect of threatened morality on negative emotions and on altruistic behaviour has been shown to diminish following physical cleansing (hand-washing). We hypothesised that threatened morality will broadly impair the executive control system, and that physical cleansing will moderate this detrimental effect. Thirty-seven participants were asked to write about an immoral deed they had committed, whereupon half of them were allowed to wipe their hands. Three executive control tasks-Stroop, stop-signal, and object interference-were then administered to all participants. Participants who had not wiped their hands, but not those who did, demonstrated impaired performance, compared to hand-washing controls, in all three tasks. We conclude that threatened morality has a detrimental effect on executive control, specifically on conflict monitoring and response inhibition, and that physical cleansing "frees" this system, counteracting the detrimental effects of morality threats. We discuss possible implications for obsessive-compulsive disorder, which is characterised by deficient executive control and in which both threatened morality and physical cleansing are central concerns.

  14. Beliefs, Behaviors, and Perceptions of Community-Led Total Sanitation and Their Relation to Improved Sanitation in Rural Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Lawrence, J.; Yeboah-Antwi, Kojo; Biemba, Godfrey; Ram, Pavani K.; Osbert, Nicolas; Sabin, Lora L.; Hamer, Davidson H.

    2016-01-01

    Inadequate hygiene and sanitation remain leading global contributors to morbidity and mortality in children and adults. One strategy for improving sanitation access is community-led total sanitation (CLTS), in which participants are guided into self-realization of the importance of sanitation through activities called “triggering.” This qualitative study explored community members' and stakeholders' sanitation, knowledge, perceptions, and behaviors during early CLTS implementation in Zambia. We conducted 67 in-depth interviews and 24 focus group discussions in six districts in Zambia 12–18 months after CLTS implementation. Triggering activities elicited strong emotions, including shame, disgust, and peer pressure, which persuaded individuals and families to build and use latrines and handwashing stations. New sanitation behaviors were also encouraged by the hierarchical influences of traditional leaders and sanitation action groups and by children's opinions. Poor soil conditions were identified as barriers to latrine construction. Taboos, including prohibition of different generations of family members, in-laws, and opposite genders from using the same toilet, were barriers for using sanitation facilities. CLTS, through community empowerment and ownership, produced powerful responses that encouraged construction and use of latrines and handwashing practices. These qualitative data suggest that CLTS is effective for improving sanitation beliefs and behaviors in Zambia. PMID:26787149

  15. Access to waterless hand sanitizer improves student hand hygiene behavior in primary schools in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Amy J; Davis, Jennifer; Blum, Annalise G; Scalmanini, Jenna; Oyier, Beryl; Okoth, George; Breiman, Robert F; Ram, Pavani K

    2013-09-01

    Handwashing is difficult in settings with limited resources and water access. In primary schools within urban Kibera, Kenya, we investigated the impact of providing waterless hand sanitizer on student hand hygiene behavior. Two schools received a waterless hand sanitizer intervention, two schools received a handwashing with soap intervention, and two schools received no intervention. Hand cleaning behavior after toilet use was monitored for 2 months using structured observation. Hand cleaning after toileting was 82% at sanitizer schools (N = 2,507 toileting events), 38% at soap schools (N = 3,429), and 37% at control schools (N = 2,797). Students at sanitizer schools were 23% less likely to have observed rhinorrhea than control students (P = 0.02); reductions in student-reported gastrointestinal and respiratory illness symptoms were not statistically significant. Providing waterless hand sanitizer markedly increased student hand cleaning after toilet use, whereas the soap intervention did not. Waterless hand sanitizer may be a promising option to improve student hand cleansing behavior, particularly in schools with limited water access.

  16. Effect of hand sanitizer use on elementary school absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, B; Ali, Y; Fendler, E; Dolan, M; Donovan, S

    2000-10-01

    Several studies have indicated a connection between handwashing and illness-related absenteeism in school settings. The difficulty of ensuring consistent and effective handwashing among student populations has also been noted. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the use of an alcohol gel hand sanitizer in the classroom to help decrease the illness-related absentee rate for elementary school students. This study involved 5 individual school districts, 16 individual schools, and more than 6000 students in Delaware, Ohio, Tennessee, and California. Individual schools in each district were paired into product and control groups. In the product group schools, an alcohol gel hand sanitizer was used by the students and staff when entering and leaving the classroom. Absenteeism due to infection was recorded, and the data were statistically analyzed. The overall reduction in absenteeism due to infection in the schools included in this study was 19.8% for schools that used an alcohol gel hand sanitizer compared with the control schools (P sanitizer was used. Elementary school absenteeism due to infection is significantly reduced when an alcohol gel hand sanitizer is used in the classroom as part of a hand hygiene program.

  17. Exploring the potential of antimicrobial hand hygiene products in reducing the infectious burden in low-income countries: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Witt Huberts, Jessie; Greenland, Katie; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter; Curtis, Val

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this review was to understand whether adding antimicrobial agents to hand hygiene products could increase the health benefits of handwashing with plain soap (HWWS) in low-income settings. A review of experimental studies comparing the effects of HWWS with antimicrobial soap and waterless hand sanitizer on health and hand contamination in naturalistic conditions was conducted. In addition, an analysis was completed of the evidence from laboratory studies examining the factors that may affect the impact of antimicrobial soap, taking into account the conditions in low-income settings. The review found no evidence for a superior effect of antimicrobial products compared with HWWS on disease incidence and limited evidence for an effect on hand contamination under naturalistic conditions. An analysis of the effectiveness of antimicrobial soap in laboratory settings suggested that it was only more effective than HWWS when handwashing frequency, duration, and product concentrations were above levels that could be expected in low-income settings. The limited available evidence suggests that under naturalistic conditions, antimicrobial products are no more effective than HWWS in removing pathogens from hands. Without significant improvement in efficacy, antimicrobial products are unlikely to produce greater health gains than HWWS in low-income settings. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Determinants of Reported Personal and Household Hygiene Behaviour: A Multi-Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunger, Robert; Greenland, Katie; Ploubidis, George; Schmidt, Wolf; Oxford, John; Curtis, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    A substantial proportion of the total infectious disease burden world-wide is due to person-to-person spread of pathogens within households. A questionnaire-based survey on the determinants of hand-washing with soap and cleaning of household surfaces was conducted in at least 1000 households in each of twelve countries across the world (N = 12,239). A structural equation model of hygiene behaviour and its consequences derived from theory was then estimated on this dataset for both behaviours, using a maximum likelihood procedure. The analysis showed that the frequency of handwashing with soap is significantly related to how automatically it is performed, and whether or not someone is busy, or tired. Surface cleaning was strongly linked to possessing a cleaning routine, the perception that one is living in a dirty environment and that others are doing the behaviour, whether one has a strong sense of contamination, as well as a felt need to keep one’s surroundings tidy. Being concerned with good manners is also linked to the performance of both behaviours. This study is the first to identify the role of manners, orderliness and routine on hygiene behaviours globally. Such findings should prove helpful in designing programs to improve domestic hygiene practices. PMID:27541259

  19. Effect of electronic real-time prompting on hand hygiene behaviors in health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pong, Steven; Holliday, Pamela; Fernie, Geoff

    2018-03-02

    Poor hand hygiene by health care workers is a major cause of nosocomial infections. This research evaluated the ability of an electronic monitoring system with real-time prompting capability to change hand hygiene behaviors. Handwashing activity was measured by counting dispenser activations on a single nursing unit before, during, and after installation of the system. The effect of changing the prompt duration on hand hygiene performance was determined by a cluster-randomized trial on 3 nursing units with 1 acting as control. Sustainability of performance and participation was observed on 4 nursing units over a year. All staff were eligible to participate. Between June 2015 and December 2016, a total of 459,376 hand hygiene opportunities and 330,740 handwashing events from 511 staff members were recorded. Dispenser activation counts were significantly influenced by use of the system (χ 2 [3] = 75.76; P Hand hygiene performance dropped from 62.61% to 24.94% (odds ratio, 0.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.34-0.38) when the prompting feature was removed. Staff participation had a negative trajectory of -0.72% (P Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficacy of alcohol-based hand sanitizer on hands soiled with dirt and cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Amy J; Davis, Jennifer; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2011-09-01

    Handwashing education and promotion are well established as effective strategies to reduce diarrhea and respiratory illness in countries around the world. However, access to reliable water supplies has been identified as an important barrier to regular handwashing in low-income countries. Alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) is an effective hand hygiene method that does not require water, but its use is not currently recommended when hands are visibly soiled. This study evaluated the efficacy of ABHS on volunteers' hands artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli in the presence of dirt (soil from Tanzania) and cooking oil. ABHS reduced levels of E. coli by a mean of 2.33 log colony forming units (CFU) per clean hand, 2.32 log CFU per dirt-covered hand, and 2.13 log CFU per oil-coated hand. No significant difference in efficacy was detected between hands that were clean versus dirty or oily. ABHS may be an appropriate hand hygiene method for hands that are moderately soiled, and an attractive option for field settings in which access to water and soap is limited.

  1. Sepsis puerperalis caused by a genotypically proven cat-derived Pasteurella multocida strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, A; van Zwam, Y H; Meis, J F; Melchers, W; Steegers, E A

    1998-01-01

    We report a disseminated intrauterine Pasteurella multocida infection in a puerperal woman who could not remember any traumatic exposure to her cat. An oral swab taken from the cat, just 2 days after the patient's admission, grew Pasteurella multocida, with an PCR-fingerprinting pattern identical to the patient's isolate. Hand-washing after every contact with cats and dogs and if feasible separation of in-house pets from mother and infant should be applied to prevent this uncommon but serious occurrence of post-partum infections. To our knowledge this is the first case of Pasteurella multocida 'child-bed fever', with a genotypically identical strain isolated from the in-house cat.

  2. Strategies to Minimize Antibiotic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hee Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance can be reduced by using antibiotics prudently based on guidelines of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs and various data such as pharmacokinetic (PK and pharmacodynamic (PD properties of antibiotics, diagnostic testing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST, clinical response, and effects on the microbiota, as well as by new antibiotic developments. The controlled use of antibiotics in food animals is another cornerstone among efforts to reduce antibiotic resistance. All major resistance-control strategies recommend education for patients, children (e.g., through schools and day care, the public, and relevant healthcare professionals (e.g., primary-care physicians, pharmacists, and medical students regarding unique features of bacterial infections and antibiotics, prudent antibiotic prescribing as a positive construct, and personal hygiene (e.g., handwashing. The problem of antibiotic resistance can be minimized only by concerted efforts of all members of society for ensuring the continued efficiency of antibiotics.

  3. Pulmonary complications in neurosurgical patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randeep Guleria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neurosurgical patients. The common pulmonary complications in neurosurgical patients include pneumonia, postoperative atelectasis, respiratory failure, pulmonary embolism, and neurogenic pulmonary edema. Postoperative lung expansion strategies have been shown to be useful in prevention of the postoperative complications in surgical patients. Low tidal volume ventilation should be used in patients who develop acute respiratory distress syndrome. An antibiotic use policy should be put in practice depending on the local patterns of antimicrobial resistance in the hospital. Thromboprophylactic strategies should be used in nonambulatory patients. Meticulous attention should be paid to infection control with a special emphasis on hand-washing practices. Prevention and timely management of these complications can help to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with pulmonary complications.

  4. Increase in hospital purchase of hand hygiene products: The importance of focusing on the right product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Manisha; Prasad, Amber; Dhaliwal, Navneet; Gupta, A K; Taneja, Neelam

    2015-07-01

    Alcohol-based handrub (AHR) consumption is positively correlated with increases in hand hygiene (HH) compliance. In our 2,000-bed hospital in India, multiple awareness drives have been conducted to promote HH. This study aimed to determine the quantitative effect of these campaigns on use of HH products (soap and AHR) in the hospital. Over the last 6 years, bar soap consumption has increased by 389.15%, whereas that of AHR increased by 146.7%. We also evaluated microbial contamination of 99 bar soap and 60 liquid soap samples in our hospital for a year. Of the samples, 61 (61.6%) of the bar soaps and 2 (3.3%) of the liquid soaps were found to be contaminated with various organisms (P liquid soaps instead of bar soaps for handwashing purposes. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Targeted interventions of ultra-poor women in rural Rangpur, Bangladesh: do they make a difference to appropriate cooking practices, food habits and sanitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeasmin, Lubna; Akter, Shamima; Shahidul Islam, A M; Mizanur Rahman, Md; Akashi, Hidechika; Jesmin, Subrina

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to assess whether teaching good cooking practices, food habits and sanitation to ultra-poor rural women in four rural communities of Rangpur district, Bangladesh, with a high density of extremely poor households, would improve the overall health of the community. The sample size was 200 respondents combined from the target and control areas. In the target area, twelve in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions were undertaken for knowledge dissemination. Descriptive and mixed-model analyses were performed. The results show that washing hands with soap was 1.35 times more likely in the target than the control group (ppreparing food, feeding a child and eating, and after defecating and cleaning a baby (pcooking vegetables than the control group (pfood preparation and increases their hygiene through hand-washing in every-day life.

  6. Occupational Skin Disease Prevention: An Educational Intervention for Hairdresser Cosmetology Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughtigan, Kara; Main, Eve; Bragg-Underwood, Tonya; Watkins, Cecilia

    2017-11-01

    Cosmetologists frequently develop occupational skin disease related to workplace exposures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an educational intervention to increase cosmetology students' occupational skin disease knowledge and use of preventive practices. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate students' knowledge, behaviors, intentions, expectancies, and expectations. A 20-minute verbal presentation and printed two-page educational handout were provided for participants. Statistically significant increases in knowledge, frequency of glove use, and frequency of moisturizer use were found, but the frequency of handwashing did not increase. In addition, the Behavioral Strategies subscale, the Intention subscale, and the Expectancies subscale showed statistically significant improvements. The results of this study suggest an educational intervention can increase cosmetology students' knowledge of occupational skin diseases and their use of preventive strategies.

  7. Code of practice for food handler activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T A; Kanas, R P; McCoubrey, I A; Belton, M E

    2005-08-01

    The food industry regulates various aspects of food handler activities, according to legislation and customer expectations. The purpose of this paper is to provide a code of practice which delineates a set of working standards for food handler hygiene, handwashing, use of protective equipment, wearing of jewellery and body piercing. The code was developed by a working group of occupational physicians with expertise in both food manufacturing and retail, using a risk assessment approach. Views were also obtained from other occupational physicians working within the food industry and the relevant regulatory bodies. The final version of the code (available in full as Supplementary data in Occupational Medicine Online) therefore represents a broad consensus of opinion. The code of practice represents a set of minimum standards for food handler suitability and activities, based on a practical assessment of risk, for application in food businesses. It aims to provide useful working advice to food businesses of all sizes.

  8. Microbial contamination of "In use" bar soap in dental clinics

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    Hegde P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Bar soap from 18 different dental clinics were investigated for microbial contamination, while it was "in-use". Of the 32 samples obtained from the bar soap, 100% yielded positive culture. A total of 8 different genera of organisms were isolated. Each bar soap was found to harbor 2-5 different genera of micro organisms. Heavily used soap had more micro organisms compared to less used soap. The microbial load of the "in-use" bar soap constituted a mixed flora of gram positive, gram negative, aerobes, anaerobes, and fungi. The results indicate that the bar soap under "in-use" condition is a reservoir of microorganisms and handwashing with such a soap may lead to spread of infection.

  9. [Other viral food poisoning (hepatitis A and E)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Kunio

    2012-08-01

    Hepatitis A and E viruses are spread via the fecal-oral route. In the endemic area, restaurant and school outbreaks due to contaminated water or food have been reported. The clinical signs and symptoms in patients with typical hepatitis A and E are similar to those seen with other forms of acute viral hepatitis. Hepatitis A tends to be more severe when acquired at older ages. Hepatitis E appears to be relatively severe compared with hepatitis A. Although both hepatitis are self-limited illness, severe hepatits are rarely observed. Hepatitis A and E can be prevented by improved sanitary conditions, handwashing, heating foods appropriately. Avoidance of water and foods from endemic areas is also effective.

  10. Learning through Teaching: A Microbiology Service-Learning Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginny Webb

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Service learning is defined as a strategy in which students apply what they have learned in the classroom to a community service project. Many educators would agree that students often learn best through teaching others. This premise was the motivation for a new service-learning project in which undergraduate microbiology students developed and taught hands-on microbiology lessons to local elementary school children. The lessons included teaching basic information about microbes, disease transmission, antibiotics, vaccines, and methods of disease prevention. This service-learning project benefitted the college students by enforcing their knowledge of microbiology and provided them an opportunity to reach out to children within their community. This project also benefitted the local schools by teaching the younger students about microbes, infections, and handwashing. In this paper, I discuss the development and implementation of this new microbiology service-learning project, as well as the observed impact it had on everyone involved.

  11. Coliform Sources and Mechanisms for Regrowth in Household Drinking Water in Limpopo, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Jonathan E; Smith, James A; Samie, Amidou; Dillingham, Rebecca A

    2013-09-01

    Resource-limited communities throughout the developing world face significant environmental health problems related to the myriad of coliform sources within those communities. This study comprehensively investigated contamination sources and the biological and chemical mechanisms sustaining them in two adjacent communities in rural Limpopo, South Africa. An 8-month study was conducted of household ( n = 14) and source water quality, measurements of biofilm layers on the inside of household water storage containers and water transfer devices, and also hand-based coliforms and hand-washing effectiveness. A 7-day water container incubation experiment was also performed to determine the biological and chemical changes that occur in a household water storage container independent of human interference. Results indicate that household drinking water frequently becomes contaminated after collection but before consumption (197 versus 1,046 colony-forming units/100 mL; n = 266; p water treatment and other interventions aimed at maintaining the safe water chain and preventing biological regrowth.

  12. Comparison of hand hygiene procedures for removing Bacillus cereus spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasahara, Teppei; Hayashi, Shunji; Hosoda, Kouichi; Morisawa, Yuji; Hirai, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a spore-forming bacterium. B. cereus occasionally causes nosocomial infections, in which hand contamination with the spores plays an important role. Therefore, hand hygiene is the most important practice for controlling nosocomial B. cereus infections. This study aimed to determine the appropriate hand hygiene procedure for removing B. cereus spores. Thirty volunteers' hands were experimentally contaminated with B. cereus spores, after which they performed 6 different hand hygiene procedures. We compared the efficacy of the procedures in removing the spores from hands. The alcohol-based hand-rubbing procedures scarcely removed them. The soap washing procedures reduced the number of spores by more than 2 log10. Extending the washing time increased the spore-removing efficacy of the washing procedures. There was no significant difference in efficacy between the use of plain soap and antiseptic soap. Handwashing with soap is appropriate for removing B. cereus spores from hands. Alcohol-based hand-rubbing is not effective.

  13. Impact of a standardized hand hygiene program on the incidence of nosocomial infection in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capretti, Maria Grazia; Sandri, Fabrizio; Tridapalli, Elisabetta; Galletti, Silvia; Petracci, Elisabetta; Faldella, Giacomo

    2008-08-01

    This study examined the effects of a standardized hand hygiene program on the rate of nosocomial infection (NI) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (birth weight hand hygiene program was implemented using antimicrobial soap (4% chlorhexidine gluconate) and alcohol-based hand rubs. NI after 72 hours of life was detected in 16 of the 85 VLBW infants in the first period and in 5 of the 80 VLBW infants in the second period. The rate of central venous catheter colonization was significantly lower in the second period (5.8%) than in the first period (16.6%). In our NICU, the incidence of NI in VLBW infants was significantly reduced after the introduction of a standardized handwashing protocol. In our experience, a proper hand hygiene program can save approximately 10 NI episodes/year, at a cost of $10,000 per episode. Therefore, improving hand hygiene practice is a cost-effective program in the NICU.

  14. Semmelweis revisited: hand hygiene and nosocomial disease transmission in the anesthesia workstation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Chuck

    2009-06-01

    Hospital-acquired infections occur at an alarmingly high frequency, possibly affecting as many as 1 in 10 patients, resulting in a staggering morbidity and an annual mortality of many tens of thousands of patients. Appropriate hand hygiene is highly effective and represents the simplest approach that we have to preventing nosocomial infections. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality has targeted hand-washing compliance as a top research agenda item for patient safety. Recent research has identified inadequate hand washing and contaminated anesthesia workstation issues as likely contributors to nosocomial infections, finding aseptic practices highly variable among providers. It is vital that all healthcare providers, including anesthesia providers, appreciate the role of inadequate hand hygiene in nosocomial infection and meticulously follow the mandates of the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists and other professional healthcare organizations.

  15. Hand hygiene for the prevention of nosocomial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Günter; Löffler, Harald; Gastmeier, Petra

    2009-10-01

    The WHO regards hand hygiene as an essential tool for the prevention of nosocomial infection, but compliance in clinical practice is often low. The relevant scientific literature and national and international evidence-based recommendations (Robert Koch Institute [Germany], WHO) were evaluated. Hygienic hand disinfection has better antimicrobial efficacy than hand-washing and is the procedure of choice to be performed before and after manual contact with patients. The hands should be washed, rather than disinfected, only when they are visibly soiled. Skin irritation is quite common among healthcare workers and is mainly caused by water, soap, and prolonged wearing of gloves. Compliance can be improved by training, by placing hand-rub dispensers at the sites where they are needed, and by physicians setting a good example for others. Improved compliance in hand hygiene, with proper use of alcohol-based hand rubs, can reduce the nosocomial infection rate by as much as 40%.

  16. Identifying and controlling a multiresistant pseudomonas aeruginosa outbreak in a latin-american cancer centre and its associated risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Cortes

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important and frightening microorganism for patients suffering from cancer. Multiresistant P. aeruginosa (MRPA may appear as a consequence of exposure to multiple antibiotics or from a breakdown in infection control practices. This article reports an MRPA outbreak in a cancer treatment centre and the consequent case control study. Mechanical ventilation was identified as being the main risk factor for developing MRPA colonisation or infection; molecular analysis confirmed the outbreak. A multifaceted strategy was adopted, involving reinforcing hand-washing practices, contact isolation, antibiotic restriction and suction devices for mechanically-ventilated patients. MRPA was controlled and the outbreak ended. Such strategy may be effective in controlling MRPS in low-resource environments amongst high risk cancer patients.

  17. Transient contribution of left posterior parietal cortex to cognitive restructuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutoh, Chihiro; Matsuzawa, Daisuke; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Yamada, Makiko; Nagaoka, Sawako; Chakraborty, Sudesna; Ishii, Daisuke; Matsuda, Shingo; Tomizawa, Haruna; Ito, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Obata, Takayuki; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-03-17

    Cognitive restructuring is a fundamental method within cognitive behavioural therapy of changing dysfunctional beliefs into flexible beliefs and learning to react appropriately to the reality of an anxiety-causing situation. To clarify the neural mechanisms of cognitive restructuring, we designed a unique task that replicated psychotherapy during a brain scan. The brain activities of healthy male participants were analysed using functional magnetic resonance imaging. During the brain scan, participants underwent Socratic questioning aimed at cognitive restructuring regarding the necessity of handwashing after using the restroom. The behavioural result indicated that the Socratic questioning effectively decreased the participants' degree of belief (DOB) that they must wash their hands. Alterations in the DOB showed a positive correlation with activity in the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC) while the subject thought about and rated own belief. The involvement of the left PPC not only in planning and decision-making but also in conceptualization may play a pivotal role in cognitive restructuring.

  18. Traditional insulin-use practices and the incidence of bacterial contamination and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, L M; Bingham, P R; Riddle, M C

    1984-01-01

    While complex procedures are usually recommended to prevent infection at insulin injection sites, adherence to these procedures is imperfect and their value incompletely established. Among 254 adult insulin users in two clinic populations, the reported prevalence of complete performance of four traditional insulin-use practices (handwashing, vial prep, skin prep, discarding of plastic syringes after one use) was 29%, and none of the individual practices considered was performed regularly by more than two-thirds of the subjects. Even so, there was no infection at 2828 injection sites, and there was no significant bacterial contamination of insulin or syringes. These findings fail to support the view that traditional practices provide protection to insulin users against infection or bacterial growth in insulin or syringes. The authors suggest that modification of traditional teaching methods would do no harm, and that benefits could include financial savings, improved client success with self-care, and enhanced health care provider credibility.

  19. Epidemiology and risk factors for typhoid fever in Central Division, Fiji, 2014-2017: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Namrata; Jenkins, Aaron P; Naucukidi, Lanieta; Rosa, Varanisese; Sahu-Khan, Aalisha; Kama, Mike; Jenkins, Kylie M; Jenney, Adam W J; Jack, Susan J; Saha, Debasish; Horwitz, Pierre; Jupiter, Stacy D; Strugnell, Richard A; Mulholland, E Kim; Crump, John A

    2018-06-01

    Typhoid fever is endemic in Fiji, with high reported annual incidence. We sought to identify the sources and modes of transmission of typhoid fever in Fiji with the aim to inform disease control. We identified and surveyed patients with blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever from January 2014 through January 2017. For each typhoid fever case we matched two controls by age interval, gender, ethnicity, and residential area. Univariable and multivariable analysis were used to evaluate associations between exposures and risk for typhoid fever. We enrolled 175 patients with typhoid fever and 349 controls. Of the cases, the median (range) age was 29 (2-67) years, 86 (49%) were male, and 84 (48%) lived in a rural area. On multivariable analysis, interrupted water availability (odds ratio [OR] = 2.17; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-4.00), drinking surface water in the last 2 weeks (OR = 3.61; 95% CI 1.44-9.06), eating unwashed produce (OR = 2.69; 95% CI 1.48-4.91), and having an unimproved or damaged sanitation facility (OR = 4.30; 95% CI 1.14-16.21) were significantly associated with typhoid fever. Frequent handwashing after defecating (OR = 0.57; 95% CI 0.35-0.93) and using soap for handwashing (OR = 0.61; 95% CI 0.37-0.95) were independently associated with a lower odds of typhoid fever. Poor sanitation facilities appear to be a major source of Salmonella Typhi in Fiji, with transmission by drinking contaminated surface water and consuming unwashed produce. Improved sanitation facilities and protection of surface water sources and produce from contamination by human feces are likely to contribute to typhoid control in Fiji.

  20. Dental Student Hand Hygiene Decreased With Increased Clinical Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaembut, Nanmanas; Ampornaramveth, Ruchanee S; Pisarnturakit, Pagaporn P; Subbalekha, Keskanya

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness, related knowledge, attitudes, and practices of hand hygiene (HH) among dental students with different levels of clinical experience. This was a cross-sectional analytical study. Bacterial samples on the participants' hands were obtained using a swab technique before and after handwashing, for oral surgical procedures. After culturing, the colony-forming units were counted. Self-reported questionnaires reflecting the knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to HH were completed by the participants. This study was performed in a primary oral health care institution, Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University (Bangkok, Thailand). Bacterial samples and self-reported questionnaires were collected in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Bacterial culture was performed in the Department of Microbiology. The 120 participants comprised first, second, third-year clinical training students (CTs), and postgraduate dental students (PGs) (32, 34, 30, and 24 participants, respectively). More than 99% of the bacteria were eliminated from the participants' hands after handwashing. Significantly higher numbers of bacteria were recovered from the hands of the PGs compared with those of the CTs, and the hands of the third-year CTs compared with those of the first-year CTs (p < 0.001), after HH. The first-year CTs had the highest attitude scores, whereas the PGs had the lowest practice scores. The knowledge scores were similar in all groups. HH effectiveness, attitudes, and practices of dental students decreased as students gained more clinical experience, whereas knowledge did not. Our results suggest that HH instruction should be given throughout the duration of dental students' education. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect Evaluation of a Randomized Trial to Reduce Infectious Illness and Illness-related Absenteeism Among Schoolchildren: The Hi Five Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denbæk, Anne Maj; Andersen, Anette; Bonnesen, Camilla Thørring; Laursen, Bjarne; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær; Due, Pernille; Johansen, Anette

    2018-01-01

    Previous school-based hand hygiene interventions have reported to successfully reduce infectious illness among schoolchildren. But few studies have tested the effect in large populations with adequate statistical power and analyses. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a school-based multicomponent intervention to improve handwashing among schoolchildren, the Hi Five study, succeeded in reducing infectious illness and illness-related absenteeism in schools. The Hi Five study was a three-armed cluster-randomized controlled trial involving 43 randomly selected Danish schools; two intervention arms involving 14 schools each, and 15 control schools. Infectious illness days, infectious illness episodes and illness-related absenteeism were estimated in multilevel regressions, based on available cases of text messages answered by parents and based on questionnaire data reported by schoolchildren, respectively. At follow-up, children in the intervention schools did not differ from the control schools in number of illness days [odds ratio (OR)I-arm I: 0.91 (0.77-1.07) and ORI-arm II: 0.94 (0.79-1.12)] and illness episodes [ORI-arm I: 0.95 (0.81-1.11) and ORI-arm II: 0.98 (0.84-1.16)] or in reporting illness-related absenteeism [ORI-arm I: 1.09 (0.83-1.43) & ORI-arm II: 1.06 (0.81-1.40)]. The multicomponent Hi Five intervention achieved no difference in the number of illness days, illness episodes or illness-related absenteeism among children in intervention schools compared with control schools. It is noteworthy that one of the main components in the intervention, a mandatory daily handwashing before lunch, was only implemented by 1 of 3 of teachers in intervention schools.

  2. When too much is not enough: obsessive-compulsive disorder as a pathology of stopping, rather than starting.

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    Andrea L Hinds

    Full Text Available In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, individuals feel compelled to repeatedly perform security-related behaviors, even though these behaviours seem excessive and unwarranted to them. The present research investigated two alternative ways of explaining such behavior: (1 a dysfunction of activation--a starting problem--in which the level of excitation in response to stimuli suggesting potential danger is abnormally strong; versus (2 a dysfunction of termination--a stopping problem--in which the satiety-like process for shutting down security-related thoughts and actions is abnormally weak.In two experiments, 70 patients with OCD (57 with washing compulsions, 13 with checking compulsions and 72 controls were exposed to contamination cues--immersing a hand in wet diapers--and later allowed to wash their hands, first limited to 30 s and then for as long as desired. The intensity of activation of security motivation was measured objectively by change in respiratory sinus arrythmia. Subjective ratings (e.g., contamination and behavioral measures (e.g., duration of hand washing were also collected.Compared to controls, OCD patients with washing compulsions did not differ significantly in their levels of initial activation to the threat of contamination; however, they were significantly less able to reduce this activation by engaging in the corrective behavior of hand-washing. Further, the deactivating effect of hand-washing in OCD patients with checking compulsions was similar to that for controls, indicating that the dysfunction of termination in OCD is specific to the patient's symptom profile.These results are the first to show that OCD is characterized by a reduced ability of security-related behavior to terminate motivation evoked by potential danger, rather than a heightened initial sensitivity to potential threat. They lend support to the security-motivation theory of OCD (Szechtman & Woody, 2004 and have important implications both for

  3. Association between Workplace and Housing Conditions and Use of Pesticide Safety Practices and Personal Protective Equipment among North Carolina Farmworkers in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DL Levesque

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are inconsistencies about the effects of farmworker housing and workplace conditions and use of self-protective behavior practices and personal protective equipment (PPE. Objective: To investigate the association between workplace and housing conditions and farmworker use of pesticide safety practices and PPE. Methods: This study was conducted in 4 counties in North Carolina, USA, from July to October, 2010, during the agricultural growing season. Farmworkers working in agriculture aged 18 to 62 (n=187 were administered a structured questionnaire to collect self-reported measures on housing and workplace conditions. Use of pesticide safety and PPE were examined by asking questions about wearing gloves, wearing socks, and wearing a hat. Chi-square and multiple logistic regression analyses were used for statistical analyses. Results: Farmworkers reporting availability of enough hot and cold water for bathing and doing laundry were 13.6 times more likely to use pesticide safety practices (adjusted OR: 13.6, 95% CI: 1.4–135.4, whereas, those who reported that soap for handwashing was always or usually available while doing agricultural work were 7.8 times more likely to use pesticide safety practices (adjusted OR: 7.8, 95% CI: 3.3–18.5. Farmworkers that reported access to water to wash their hands with while performing agricultural work were more likely to use PPE (adjusted OR: 3.4, 95% CI: 1.3–9.2. Conclusions: Some migrant farmworker labor camps are not supplying acceptable housing conditions such as 1 handwashing sink per 6 people (n=10, 5.4%. Use of pesticide safety practices and PPE is greater when farmers provide decontamination supplies. Improvement of housing and workplace conditions are crucial to increase use of pesticide safety practices and PPE.

  4. The associations between water and sanitation and hookworm infection using cross-sectional data from Togo's national deworming program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Julia M; Trinies, Victoria; Bronzan, Rachel N; Dorkenoo, Ameyo M; Garn, Joshua V; Sognikin, Sêvi; Freeman, Matthew C

    2018-03-01

    Sustainable control of soil-transmitted helminths requires a combination of chemotherapy treatment and environmental interventions, including access to safe drinking water, sufficient water for hygiene, use of clean sanitation facilities, and handwashing (WASH). We quantified associations between home-, school-, and community-level WASH characteristics and hookworm infection-both prevalence and eggs per gram of stool (intensity)-among Togolese school children in the context of community-based chemotherapy treatments administered in the country from 2010 through 2014. We analyzed data from two surveys conducted by the Togo Ministry of Health: a school-based survey of students aged 6-9 years across Togo conducted in 2009 and a follow-up survey in 2015, after four to five years of preventive chemotherapy. Data were available for 16,473 students attending 1,129 schools in 2009 and for 16,890 students from 1,126 schools in 2015. Between surveys, children in study schools received 0 to 8 rounds of deworming chemotherapy treatments. Few WASH conditions (only unimproved drinking water) were found to be significantly associated with the presence or absence of hookworms in an individual; however, quantitative eggs per gram of feces was associated with availability of unimproved drinking water, availability of improved drinking water either on or off school grounds, having a handwashing station with water available, and access to a sex-separate non-private or private latrine. The association between school WASH conditions and hookworm infection or burden often depended on the 2009 prevalence of infection, as more WASH characteristics were found to be significant predictors of infection among schools with high underlying endemicity of hookworm. Our findings emphasize the complex and often inconsistent or unpredictable relationship between WASH and hookworm. Specifically, we found that while preventive chemotherapy appeared to dramatically reduce hookworm infection, WASH was

  5. Water, sanitation and hygiene in Jordan's healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, Yousef Saleh

    2017-08-14

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to determine water availability, sanitation and hygiene (WSH) services, and healthcare waste management in Jordan healthcare facilities. Design/methodology/approach In total, 19 hospitals (15 public and four private) were selected. The WSH services were assessed in hospitals using the WSH in health facilities assessment tool developed for this purpose. Findings All hospitals (100 percent) had a safe water source and most (84.2 percent) had functional water sources to provide enough water for users' needs. All hospitals had appropriate and sufficient gender separated toilets in the wards and 84.2 percent had the same in outpatient settings. Overall, 84.2 percent had sufficient and functioning handwashing basins with soap and water, and 79.0 percent had sufficient showers. Healthcare waste management was appropriately practiced in all hospitals. Practical implications Jordan hospital managers achieved major achievements providing access to drinking water and improved sanitation. However, there are still areas that need improvements, such as providing toilets for patients with special needs, establishing handwashing basins with water and soap near toilets, toilet maintenance and providing sufficient trolleys for collecting hazardous waste. Efforts are needed to integrate WSH service policies with existing national policies on environmental health in health facilities, establish national standards and targets for the various healthcare facilities to increase access and improve services. Originality/value There are limited WSH data on healthcare facilities and targets for basic coverage in healthcare facilities are also lacking. A new assessment tool was developed to generate core WSH indicators and to assess WSH services in Jordan's healthcare facilities. This tool can be used by a non-WSH specialist to quickly assess healthcare facility-related WSH services and sanitary hazards in other countries. This tool identified some areas

  6. Clean home-delivery in rural Southern Tanzania: barriers, influencers, and facilitators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamba, Donat D; Schellenberg, Joanna; Penfold, Suzanne C; Mashasi, Irene; Mrisho, Mwifadhi; Manzi, Fatuma; Marchant, Tanya; Tanner, Marcel; Mshinda, Hassan; Schellenberg, David; Hill, Zelee

    2013-03-01

    The study explored the childbirth-related hygiene and newborn care practices in home-deliveries in Southern Tanzania and barriers to and facilitators of behaviour change. Eleven home-birth narratives and six focus group discussions were conducted with recently-delivering women; two focus group discussions were conducted with birth attendants. The use of clean cloth for delivery was reported as common in the birth narratives; however, respondents did not link its use to newborn's health. Handwashing and wearing of gloves by birth attendants varied and were not discussed in terms of being important for newborn's health, with few women giving reasons for this behaviour. The lack of handwashing and wearing of gloves was most commonly linked to the lack of water, gloves, and awareness. A common practice was the insertion of any family member's hands into the vagina of delivering woman to check labour progress before calling the birth attendant. The use of a new razor blade to cut the cord was near-universal; however, the cord was usually tied with a used thread due to the lack of knowledge and the low availability of clean thread. Applying something to the cord was near-universal and was considered essential for newborn's health. Three hygiene practices were identified as needing improvement: family members inserting a hand into the vagina of delivering woman before calling the birth attendant, the use of unclean thread, and putting substances on the cord. Little is known about families conducting internal checks of women in labour, and more research is needed before this behaviour is targeted in interventions. The use of clean thread as cord-tie appears acceptable and can be addressed, using the same channels and methods that were used for successfully encouraging the use of new razor blade.

  7. Promotion of Cholera Awareness Among Households of Cholera Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7 Days (CHoBI7) Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saif-Ur-Rahman, K M; Parvin, Tahmina; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Zohura, Fatema; Begum, Farzana; Rashid, Mahamud-Ur; Biswas, Shwapon Kumar; Sack, David; Sack, R Bradley; Monira, Shirajum; Alam, Munirul; Shaly, Nusrat Jahan; George, Christine Marie

    2016-12-07

    Previous studies have demonstrated that household contacts of cholera patients are highly susceptible to cholera infections for a 7-day period after the presentation of the index patient in the hospital. However, there is no standard of care to prevent cholera transmission in this high-risk population. Furthermore, there is limited information available on awareness of cholera transmission and prevention among cholera patients and their household contacts. To initiate a standard of care for this high-risk population, we developed the Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7-Days (CHoBI7), which delivers a handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention to household contacts during the time they spend with the admitted cholera patient in the hospital and reinforces these messages through home visits. To test CHoBI7, we conducted a randomized controlled trial among 302 intervention cholera patient household members and 302 control cholera patient household members in Dhaka, Bangladesh. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of the CHoBI7 intervention in increasing awareness of cholera transmission and prevention, and the key times for handwashing with soap. We observed a significant increase in cholera knowledge score in the intervention arm compared with the control arm at both the 1-week follow-up {score coefficient = 2.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.96, 2.71)} and 6 to 12-month follow-up period (score coefficient = 1.59 [95% CI = 1.05, 2.13]). This 1-week hospital- and home-based intervention led to a significant increase in knowledge of cholera transmission and prevention which was sustained 6 to 12 months post-intervention. These findings suggest that the CHoBI7 intervention presents a promising approach to increase cholera awareness among this high-risk population. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  8. Feasibility study for epidemic prevention and control in a regional hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Liang; Yeh, Ming-Yang; Huang, Shau-Yen; Liu, Chi-Ming; Sun, Chi-Chen; Lu, Hsu-Feng; Chiu, Tsan-Hung; Hsia, Te-Chun; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2012-03-01

    Epidemic prevention policies in hospitals address issues such as, indoor air quality control, cleanliness of medical staff clothing and employee hand-washing procedures. Our hospital employed Bio-Kil to treat air-conditioning filters and nursing staff uniforms. We also assessed the efficacy of different detergents. Using Bio-Kil technology, the mean bacterial count in the air was reduced from 108.8 CFU/h/plate (n=420) to 68.6 CFU/h/plate (n=630). On the lower hems of the Bio-Kil-treated gowns, the mean bacterial count was 1,201 CFU/100 cm(2), markedly lower than the bacterial count of 7,753 CFU/100 cm(2), found on the parts of the gowns not treated with Bio-Kil (p=0.0401). On the cuffs of sleeves treated with Bio-Kil, the mean count was 1,165 CFU/100 cm(2), markedly lower than that of 2,131 CFU/100 cm(2), found on the cuffs not treated with Bio-Kil (p=0.0073). With regard to the mean bacterial eradication rates of antimicrobial solutions, Steridal Solution, 75% alcohol and Bio-Kil (3rd generation) were shown to be the most effective, with rates exceeding 80%. Hibiscrub with paper towels and Fresh Protect Skin were the second most effective. Bio-Kil (1st generation), tap water with paper towels, liquid hand soap with paper towels and ozone water were the least effective. One important observation was that hand-washing without the use of paper towels increased the bacterial count by as much as 84% . Bio-Kil is effective in reducing bacterial counts in the air, on nursing staff uniforms and is an effective detergent.

  9. Household-level risk factors for influenza among young children in Dhaka, Bangladesh: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Saumil; Silk, Benjamin J; Dutt, Dhiman; Ahmed, Moshtaq; Cohen, Adam L; Taylor, Thomas H; Brooks, W Abdullah; Goswami, Doli; Luby, Stephen P; Fry, Alicia M; Ram, Pavani K

    2015-06-01

    To identify household-level factors associated with influenza among young children in a crowded community in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We conducted a case-control study using existing active surveillance for respiratory illness. Cases were children aged 12-59 months with laboratory-confirmed influenza. Controls were children frequency-matched by age group with no respiratory illness in the prior 6 months. We interviewed caregivers and observed household handwashing behaviour. Soap consumption was estimated by summing weight differences of three bars of soap sequentially left in each household. We measured concentrations of airborne particulate matter <2.5 μg in diameter (PM2.5) in a subset of households. We used logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We enrolled 145 cases and 341 controls between March 2009 and April 2010. Case and control household members were observed to wash hands with similar frequency during a 5-h period (mean, 0.64 events vs. 0.63, P = 0.87), and similar daily soap consumption per capita (mean 2.92 grams vs. 2.93, P = 0.92). Case households were more likely than controls to have crowded (≥4 persons) sleeping areas (aOR = 1.67, CI: 1.06-2.63) and cross-ventilated cooking spaces (aOR = 1.75, CI: 1.16-2.63). Case and control households had similar median 24-h geometric mean PM2.5 concentrations in the cooking (69.2 vs. 69.6 μg/m(3), P = 0.45) and sleeping (65.4 vs. 67.4 μg/m(3), P = 0.19) spaces. Handwashing with soap was practiced infrequently and was not associated with paediatric influenza in this community. Interventions aimed at crowded households may reduce influenza incidence in young children. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Oral Contact Events and Caregiver Hand Hygiene: Implications for Fecal-Oral Exposure to Enteric Pathogens among Infants 3–9 Months Living in Informal, Peri-Urban Communities in Kisumu, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Davis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood diarrhea is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children under five in low and middle-income countries, second only to respiratory illness. The mouthing behavior that is common in children exposes them to fecal-orally transmitted pathogens that can result in diarrhea; however, there is a need for further evidence on specific exposure routes. This study describes the frequency and diversity of two important routes of enteric pathogen exposure among infants 3–9 months of age: infant oral contact behavior and caregiver handwashing behavior. Data were collected through structured observations of 25 index infants for the oral contact data and 25 households for the caregiver handwashing data in a peri-urban setting in Kisumu (Obunga, Kenya. Breast was the most common type of oral contact event with an average of 3.00 per observation period and 0.5 events per hour. This was followed by a range of physical objects with an average of 2.49 per observation and 0.4 events per hour. The “infant’s own hands” was the third most common oral contact, with an average of 2.16 events per hour, and 0.4 oral contact events per hour. Food and liquids were the 4th and 5th most common oral contact events with an average of 1.64 food contacts and 0.52 liquid oral contact events per observation period. Feeding events, including breastfeeding, were the most commonly observed key juncture—71% of total junctures observed were caregivers feeding children. This was followed by child cleaning (23%, caregiver toilet uses at (4%, and lastly food preparation at 2%. HWWS was observed only once before a feeding event (1%, twice after cleaning a child (9%, and twice after caregiver toilet use (40%. The combined implication of data from observing oral contact behavior in children and hand hygiene of caregivers suggests that caregiver hand hygiene prior to feeding events and after cleaning a child are priority interventions.

  11. Oral Contact Events and Caregiver Hand Hygiene: Implications for Fecal-Oral Exposure to Enteric Pathogens among Infants 3–9 Months Living in Informal, Peri-Urban Communities in Kisumu, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Emily; Cumming, Oliver; Aseyo, Rose Evalyne; Muganda, Damaris Nelima; Baker, Kelly K.; Mumma, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Childhood diarrhea is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children under five in low and middle-income countries, second only to respiratory illness. The mouthing behavior that is common in children exposes them to fecal-orally transmitted pathogens that can result in diarrhea; however, there is a need for further evidence on specific exposure routes. This study describes the frequency and diversity of two important routes of enteric pathogen exposure among infants 3–9 months of age: infant oral contact behavior and caregiver handwashing behavior. Data were collected through structured observations of 25 index infants for the oral contact data and 25 households for the caregiver handwashing data in a peri-urban setting in Kisumu (Obunga), Kenya. Breast was the most common type of oral contact event with an average of 3.00 per observation period and 0.5 events per hour. This was followed by a range of physical objects with an average of 2.49 per observation and 0.4 events per hour. The “infant’s own hands” was the third most common oral contact, with an average of 2.16 events per hour, and 0.4 oral contact events per hour. Food and liquids were the 4th and 5th most common oral contact events with an average of 1.64 food contacts and 0.52 liquid oral contact events per observation period. Feeding events, including breastfeeding, were the most commonly observed key juncture—71% of total junctures observed were caregivers feeding children. This was followed by child cleaning (23%), caregiver toilet uses at (4%), and lastly food preparation at 2%. HWWS was observed only once before a feeding event (1%), twice after cleaning a child (9%), and twice after caregiver toilet use (40%). The combined implication of data from observing oral contact behavior in children and hand hygiene of caregivers suggests that caregiver hand hygiene prior to feeding events and after cleaning a child are priority interventions. PMID:29364184

  12. Hand hygiene with soap and water is superior to alcohol rub and antiseptic wipes for removal of Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oughton, Matthew T; Loo, Vivian G; Dendukuri, Nandini; Fenn, Susan; Libman, Michael D

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate common hand hygiene methods for efficacy in removing Clostridium difficile. Randomized crossover comparison among 10 volunteers with hands experimentally contaminated by nontoxigenic C. difficile. Interventions included warm water with plain soap, cold water with plain soap, warm water with antibacterial soap, antiseptic hand wipes, alcohol-based handrub, and a control involving no intervention. All interventions were evaluated for mean reduction in colony-forming units (CFUs) under 2 contamination protocols: "whole hand" and "palmar surface." Results were analyzed according to a Bayesian approach, by using hierarchical models adjusted for multiple observations. Under the whole-hand protocol, the greatest adjusted mean reductions were achieved by warm water with plain soap (2.14 log(10) CFU/mL [95% credible interval (CrI), 1.74-2.54 log(10) CFU/mL]), cold water with plain soap (1.88 log(10) CFU/mL [95% CrI, 1.48-2.28 log(10) CFU/mL), and warm water with antibacterial soap (1.51 log(10) CFU/mL [95% CrI, 1.12-1.91 log(10) CFU/mL]), followed by antiseptic hand wipes (0.57 log(10) CFU/mL [95% CrI, 0.17-0.96 log(10) CFU/mL]). Alcohol-based handrub (0.06 log(10) CFU/mL [95% CrI, -0.34 to 0.45 log(10) CFU/mL]) was equivalent to no intervention. Under the palmar surface protocol, warm water with plain soap, cold water with plain soap, and warm water with antibacterial soap again yielded the greatest mean reductions, followed by antiseptic hand wipes (26.6, 26.6, 26.6, and 21.9 CFUs per plate, respectively), when compared with alcohol-based handrub. Hypothenar (odds ratio, 10.98 [95% CrI, 1.96-37.65]) and thenar (odds ratio, 6.99 [95% CrI, 1.25-23.41]) surfaces were more likely than fingertips to remain heavily contaminated after handwashing. Handwashing with soap and water showed the greatest efficacy in removing C. difficile and should be performed preferentially over the use of alcohol-based handrubs when contact with C. difficile is suspected or likely.

  13. Helminthiasis and hygiene conditions of schools in Ikenne, Ogun State, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwem Friday Ekpo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A study of the helminth infection status of primary-school children and the hygiene condition of schools in Ikenne Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria was undertaken between November 2004 and February 2005 to help guide the development of a school-based health programme. METHODS AND FINDINGS: THREE PRIMARY SCHOOLS WERE RANDOMLY SELECTED: two government-owned schools (one urban and the other rural and one urban private school. No rural private schools existed to survey. A total of 257 schoolchildren aged 4-15 y, of whom 146 (56.8% were boys and 111 (43.2% were girls, took part in the survey. A child survey form, which included columns for name, age, sex, and class level, was used in concert with examination of stool samples for eggs of intestinal helminths. A school survey form was used to assess the conditions of water supply, condition of latrines, presence of soap for handwashing, and presence of garbage around the school compound. The demographic data showed that the number of schoolchildren gradually decreased as their ages increased in all three schools. The sex ratio was proportional in the urban school until primary level 3, after which the number of female pupils gradually decreased, whereas in the private school, sexes were proportionally distributed even in higher classes. The prevalence of helminth infection was 54.9% of schoolchildren in the urban government school, 63.5% in the rural government school, and 28.4% in the urban private school. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent species, followed by Trichuris trichiura, Taenia species, and hookworm in the three schools. Prevalence of infection in the government-owned schools was significantly higher than in the private school (chi(2 = 18.85, df = 2, p<0.0005. A survey of hygiene conditions in the three schools indicated that in the two government schools tapwater was unavailable, sanitation of latrines was poor, handwashing soap was unavailable, and garbage

  14. Is essential newborn care provided by institutions and after home births? Analysis of prospective data from community trials in rural South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, Christina; Prost, Audrey; Hossen, Munir; Azad, Kishwar; Kuddus, Abdul; Roy, Swati Sarbani; Nair, Nirmala; Tripathy, Prasanta; Saville, Naomi; Sen, Aman; Sikorski, Catherine; Manandhar, Dharma S; Costello, Anthony; Crowe, Sonya

    2014-03-07

    plastic gloves was very low and coverage of recommended thermal care was relatively poor. There were large differences between study areas in handwashing, immediate breastfeeding and delayed bathing. There remains substantial scope for health facilities to improve thermal care for the newborn and to encourage immediate and exclusive breastfeeding. For unattended home deliveries, increased handwashing, use of clean delivery kits and basic thermal care offer great scope for improvement.

  15. Improving Ebola infection prevention and control in primary healthcare facilities in Sierra Leone: a single-group pretest post-test, mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Ruwan; Ho, Lara S; Ansumana, Rashid; Brown, Hannah; Borchert, Matthias; Miller, Laura; Kratz, Thomas; McMahon, Shannon A; Sahr, Foday

    2016-01-01

    Accomplishing infection prevention and control (IPC) in health facilities in Sub-Saharan Africa is challenging. Owing to poor IPC, healthcare workers (HCWs) were frequently infected during Sierra Leone's Ebola epidemic. In late 2014, IPC was rapidly and nationally scaled up. We carried out workshops in sampled facilities to further improve adherence to IPC. We investigated HCW experiences and observed practice gaps, before and after the workshops. We conducted an uncontrolled, before and after, mixed-methods study in eight health facilities in Bo and Kenema Districts during December 2014 and January 2015. Quantitative methods administered to HCWs at baseline and follow-up included a survey on attitudes and self-efficacy towards IPC, and structured observations of behaviours. The intervention involved a workshop for HCWs to develop improvement plans for their facility. We analysed the changes between rounds in survey responses and behaviours. We used interviews to explore attitudes and self-efficacy throughout the study period. HCWs described IPC as 'life-saving' and personal protective equipment (PPE) as uncomfortable for providers and frightening for patients. At baseline, self-efficacy was high (median=4/strongly agree). Responses reflecting unfavourable attitudes were low for glove use (median=1/strongly disagree, IQR, 1-2) and PPE use with ill family members (median=1, IQR, 1-2), and mixed for PPE use with ill HCWs (median=2/disagree, IQR, 1-4). Observations demonstrated consistent glove reuse and poor HCW handwashing. The maintenance of distance (RR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.16) and patient handwashing (RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.3 to 1.25) improved to >90%. We found favourable attitudes towards IPC and gaps in practice. Risk perceptions of HCWs and tendencies to ration PPE where chronic supply chain issues normally lead to PPE stock-outs may affect practice. As Sierra Leone's Ebola Recovery Strategy aims to make all facilities IPC compliant, socio

  16. Are hygiene and public health interventions likely to improve outcomes for Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities? A systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brewster David

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australian Aboriginal children living in remote communities still experience a high burden of common infectious diseases which are generally attributed to poor hygiene and unsanitary living conditions. The objective of this systematic literature review was to examine the epidemiological evidence for a relationship between various hygiene and public health intervention strategies, separately or in combination, and the occurrence of common preventable childhood infectious diseases. The purpose was to determine what intervention/s might most effectively reduce the incidence of skin, diarrhoeal and infectious diseases experienced by children living in remote Indigenous communities. Methods Studies were identified through systematically searching electronic databases and hand searching. Study types were restricted to those included in Cochrane Collaboration Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Review Group (EPOC guidelines and reviewers assessed the quality of studies and extracted data using the same guidelines. The types of participants eligible were Indigenous populations and populations of developing countries. The types of intervention eligible for inclusion were restricted to those likely to prevent conditions caused by poor personal hygiene and poor living environments. Results The evidence showed that there is clear and strong evidence of effect of education and handwashing with soap in preventing diarrhoeal disease among children (consistent effect in four studies. In the largest well-designed study, children living in households that received plain soap and encouragement to wash their hands had a 53% lower incidence of diarrhoea (95% CI, 0.35, 0.59. There is some evidence of an effect of education and other hygiene behaviour change interventions (six studies, as well as the provision of water supply, sanitation and hygiene education (two studies on reducing rates of diarrhoeal disease. The size of these effects is

  17. Hand hygiene practices in a neonatal intensive care unit: a multimodal intervention and impact on nosocomial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Barbara C C; Lee, Josephine; Lau, Y L

    2004-11-01

    Health care-associated infections persist as a major problem in most neonatal intensive care units. Hand hygiene has been singled out as the most important measure in preventing hospital-acquired infection. However, hand hygiene compliance among health care workers (HCWs) remains low. The objective of this study was to assess the frequency and nature of patient contacts in neonatal intensive care units and observe the compliance and technique of hand hygiene among HCWs before and after the implementation of a multimodal intervention program. The nature and frequency of patient contacts, the hand hygiene compliance, and hand-washing techniques of HCWs were observed unobtrusively to reflect the baseline compliance and to investigate factors for noncompliance. The intervention consisted of problem-based and task-orientated hand hygiene education, enhancement of minimal handling protocol and clustering of nursing care, liberal provision of alcohol-based hand antiseptic, improvement in hand hygiene facilities, ongoing regular hand hygiene audit, and implementation of health care-associated infection surveillance. The observational study was repeated 6 months after the completion of the intervention program, which extended over 1-year period. Overall hand hygiene compliance increased from 40% to 53% before patient contact and 39% to 59% after patient contact. More marked improvement was observed for high-risk procedures (35%-60%). The average number of patient contacts also decreased from 2.8 to 1.8 per patient per hour. There was improvement in most aspects of hand-washing technique in the postintervention stage. The health care-associated infection rate decreased from 11.3 to 6.2 per 1000 patient-days. A problem-based and task-orientated education program can improve hand hygiene compliance. Enhancement of minimal handling and clustering of nursing procedures reduced the total patient contact episodes, which could help to overcome the major barrier of time constraints

  18. Efecto del uso de alcohol en gel sobre las infecciones nosocomiales por Klebsiella pneumoniae multirresistente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bermejo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El lavado de manos es la medida de control más efectiva para interrumpir la transmisión de microorganismos patógenos nosocomiales. Sin embargo, la adherencia por parte del personal de salud es baja. Una nueva modalidad para la higiene de las manos, el frotado con alcohol-gel (AG, permite reducir el tiempo requerido y ofrece mayor comodidad. Con la finalidad de evaluar el efecto de la introducción del AG sobre las tasas de infecciones debidas a los tres agentes nosocomiales multirresistentes (Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae y Pseudomonas aeruginosa más frecuentes en nuestro hospital, se realizó un estudio observacional, comparando la incidencia de infecciones en los 12 meses previos y posteriores a la intervención. Luego de la introducción del AG se redujo de manera significativa la incidencia de infecciones debidas a Klebsiella pneumoniae BLEE (RR: 0.38, especialmente las bacteriemias (RR:0.10. El uso de AG ofrece condiciones que probablemente mejoren la adherencia del personal a la higiene de manos. Sin embargo, sobre la base de este estudio, no podemos concluir que el resultado observado se deba al AG en sí mismo o a una mayor adherencia a la práctica higiénica.Handwashing is considered the most important and effective infection control measure to prevent transmission of nosocomial pathogens. However, compliance with handwashing by health care workers is low. A new modality for hand hygiene is alcohol gel rub, which reduces time required, does not damage the skin and increases health care workers compliance. An observational study was conducted to assess the effect of alcohol-gel hand antiseptic on infection rates due to the 3 more frequent multi-resistant bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae y Pseudomonas aeruginosa in our hospital. Two periods were compared, 12 months before and 12 months after starting alcohol gel use. The second period (AG use showed a significant reduction on incidence rates of

  19. Pragmatic prevention of preterm birth and evidence based medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyme, Udo B

    2016-07-01

    Effective prevention of preterm birth is one of the unsolved problems in modern medicine. In the Thuringia campaign 2000 based on a simple screening with intravaginal pH self-measurements, adequate medical diagnosis and immediate antimicrobial therapy of genital infection, the rate of newborns ever seen in any of the German states. Therefore, the regime should be implicated as a necessary step of optimizing and rationalizing the health care system. However, in the discussion we had to learn that the best way to inhibit progress is to cope with problems by preferring the most complicated policies under persistent renunciation of simple solutions. As long as we do not have other alternative safe, simple and cheap methods, do we really have to wait even more decades to come for a prospectively randomized double-blinded almost impracticable study to convince the latest skeptical scientist that we have plenty of evidence-based means to reduce the incidence of premature birth, now, by decreasing infectious morbidity in pregnancy and by the same action childbed fever as well? Insisting scholastically on nothing but the 100 % pure evidence sometimes can hamper innovations and potential benefit. Would a similar caution ever had allowed us for instance to introduce handwashing according to Semmelweis? Good news, the Government of the State of Thuringia has decided this year to reestablish a pH selfcare screening programme.

  20. Improving service delivery of water, sanitation, and hygiene in primary schools: a cluster-randomized trial in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kelly T; Dreibelbis, Robert; Freeman, Matthew C; Ojeny, Betty; Rheingans, Richard

    2013-09-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) programs in schools have been shown to improve health and reduce absence. In resource-poor settings, barriers such as inadequate budgets, lack of oversight, and competing priorities limit effective and sustained WASH service delivery in schools. We employed a cluster-randomized trial to examine if schools could improve WASH conditions within existing administrative structures. Seventy schools were divided into a control group and three intervention groups. All intervention schools received a budget for purchasing WASH-related items. One group received no further intervention. A second group received additional funding for hiring a WASH attendant and making repairs to WASH infrastructure, and a third group was given guides for student and community monitoring of conditions. Intervention schools made significant improvements in provision of soap and handwashing water, treated drinking water, and clean latrines compared with controls. Teachers reported benefits of monitoring, repairs, and a WASH attendant, but quantitative data of WASH conditions did not determine whether expanded interventions out-performed our budget-only intervention. Providing schools with budgets for WASH operational costs improved access to necessary supplies, but did not ensure consistent service delivery to students. Further work is needed to clarify how schools can provide WASH services daily.

  1. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Case Following Cerebral Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Bilge

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive compulsive disorder is characterised by recurrent, unwanted, distressing thoughts, images, impulses and associated behaviours which generally emerge in the 2nd or 3rd decades of life. Elderly onset cases are rare. A 71 year old patient was admitted to our hospital because of left-sided weakness. Neurological examination revealed left hemiparesis, mild dysphasia and anosognosia. Using cranial magnetic resonance, infarcts were found in the MCA territories, in the posterior portion of the middle temporal gyrus supplied by the cortical (inferior branch and in the internal capsule, globus pallidus and putamen portions supplied by the lenticolostriate branch. An occlusion was also present in the right internal carotid artery (ICA. Fifteen days after presentation he developed an abnormal fear of urine contamination. He showered and handwashed excessively and exhibited insomnia and anxiety. The patient knew that his behaviour was ridiculous but could not prevent it. Formal neuropsychological testing found his simple attention to be mildly impared. His visuospatial function and construction abilities were also impaired. Obsessive compulsive disorder is usually an early onset disease. However this report seeks to draw attention to late-onset cases such as this, which are due to a cerebrovascular disorder.

  2. Hubungan Praktik Cuci Tangan, Kriteria Pemilihan Warung Makan Langganan dan Sanitasi Warung dengan Kejadian Diare pada Mahasiswa Universitas Negeri Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Trikora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhea is an endemic disease in Indonesia and also can cause Extraordinary Occurance (KLB which often lead to death. This study has a purpose to determine the relationship of hand-washing practices, food stall choosing criteria and sanitation of food stall with diarrhea on students of Semarang State University. This research was an analytical observational study with cross-sectional design. The population in this study were 28,827 active students of the Semarang State University. The samples were 320 students. The instruments were questionnaire and check list. Data analysis was performed using univariate and bivariate (chi square test with α = 0.05. The results of this study were variables related to the incidence of diarrhea in students of Semarang State University were food stall choosing criteria (p = 0.028, and there was no relationship between students hand washing practices (p = 0,705, sanitation of food stall (p = 0,978 with the incidence of diarrhea in students of Semarang State University. The suggestion can be given to UNNES health care centerand medical center were giving health education about good criteria to choose food stall for student. Moreover, medical center can educate the owner of food stall to improve sanitation by the conseling

  3. Characteristics of radioactive contamination of vegetables derived from the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiba, Kazuhiro; Kitamura, Yoji; Kozaka, Takashi; Uno, Izumi; Shimizu, Kikuo; Hirota, Masahiro; Higaki, Shogo; Masumoto, Kazuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    We examined the characteristics of the radioactive contamination and the physical removal of radioactivity from contaminated cabbage and spinach. In a distribution imaging study, there were two types of contamination, spot type and spread type, of cabbage and spinach. The relative radioactivity (PSL) of the face of the leaf was much higher than that of the back of a leaf of cabbage. The ratio of relative radioactivity (PSL) between spot contamination and spread contamination in a leaf of spinach was 9.4% and 90.6%, respectively. More than 80% of radioactivity attaches to the surface of leaves of spinach. There was no significant difference of radioactivity removal between hand-washing and rinsing with running water. The degree of removal of radioactivity from contaminated spinach depended on the length of time between contamination and rinsing. When contaminated spinach was rinsed within 1 week after contamination, the removal ratio of 131 I and 137 Cs was high, with 50% and 70%, respectively. When rinsing contaminated spinaches more than 2 weeks after contamination, the removal ratio of 131 I and 137 Cs was low, approximately 34% and 69%, respectively. (author)

  4. Design of an Intervention to Minimize Ingestion of Fecal Microbes by Young Children in Rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Tavengwa, Naume V; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Curtis, Valerie; Pelto, Gretel H; Ntozini, Robert; Kambarami, Rukundo A; Fundira, Dadirai; Malaba, Thokozile R; Maunze, Diana; Morgan, Peter; Mangwadu, Goldberg; Humphrey, Jean H

    2015-12-15

    We sought to develop a water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) intervention to minimize fecal-oral transmission among children aged 0-18 months in the Sanitation Hygiene Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) trial. We undertook 4 phases of formative research, comprising in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, behavior trials, and a combination of observations and microbiological sampling methods. The resulting WASH intervention comprises material inputs and behavior change communication to promote stool disposal, handwashing with soap, water treatment, protected exploratory play, and hygienic infant feeding. Nurture and disgust were found to be key motivators, and are used as emotional triggers. The concept of a safe play space for young children was particularly novel, and families were eager to implement this after learning about the risks of unprotected exploratory play. An iterative process of formative research was essential to create a sequenced and integrated longitudinal intervention for a SHINE household as it expects (during pregnancy) and then cares for a new child. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  5. FY 1998 report on the results of R and D projects by local consortiums for immediate effects. R and D of high-efficiency, high-performance forming machines (HPFM) using electrophoretic techniques; 1998 nendo denki eido gijutsu wo mochiita kokoritsu takino seikei sochi (HPFM) no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The R and D project has been implemented for novel high-performance forming machines (HPFMs) which handle slurry-based stock materials, in order to impart diversified functions to a wide range of ceramic-based materials covering from traditional to fine ceramic materials, and improve their productivity. For slip casting which uses traditional slurry stock materials, electricity is passed through the work by installing electrodes in each section, to control growth speed and composition of the layers, which are inconceivable by the conventional method for each section. For casting alumina slurry as the fine ceramic-based material, the electrophoretic techniques are also applied, in an attempt to form complex shapes at high efficiency, and to control the inclined structures and compositions/structures at specific sections. For development of the machines on a trial basis for traditional materials, reduction of weight and increasing thickness of the bottom side are attempted for hand-washing bowls, leading to weight reduction of 25% at the maximum. For fine ceramic-based materials, the forming systems are developed, on a trial basis, for fine pipes and sheets. (NEDO)

  6. The study on application of radiation for preparation of oligo-β-glucan extracted from brewer yeast cell and for gold and silver nano particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Quang Luan; Nguyen Huynh Phuong Uyen; Nguyen Thanh Vu; Nguyen Quoc Hien; Dang Van Phu; Vo Thi Thu Ha; To Van Loi; Le Dinh Don; Truong Phuoc Thien Hoang; Do Thi Phuong Linh

    2015-01-01

    The process for production of insoluble β-glucan product from brewer’s yeast cell wall collected from the discard waste of beer production was successfully established. Radiation was improved as a useful tool for preparation of low Mw β-glucan. The water soluble oligo-β-glucans with Mw ~ 18 - 25 kDa were found to have novel features for application as plant growth promoter, growth and immune stimulator additive for animals and functional food for prevention and therapy of diabetic, dyslipidemia, cancer, etc. The processes for large scale production of oligo-β-glucan as plant growth promoter. chicken additive and functional food by gamma Co-60 irradiation method have been set up for application. In addition, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with size of 10 - 50 nm stabilized in sericin and water soluble chitosan and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with size of 5-20 nm stabilized PVA, PVP, sericin and alginate were also successfully synthesized by gamma Co-60 irradiation method. While AuNPs product was found to be not toxic and can be used for bio-medicine and cosmetics, AgNPs exhibited highly antimicrobial activity for potentially use as new and safety antimicrobial agent. The processes for large scale production of AuNPs, AgNPs, cream/AgNPs and hand-wash solution/AgNPs products were also successfully developed within this project. (author)

  7. Highly Flexible and Washable Nonwoven Photothermal Cloth for Efficient and Practical Solar Steam Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Yong

    2018-03-29

    Solar-driven water evaporation is emerging as a promising solar-energy utilization process. In the present work, highly stable, flexible and washable nonwoven photothermal cloth is prepared by electrospinning for efficient and durable solar steam evaporation. The cloth is composed of polymeric nanofibers as matrix and inorganic carbon black nanoparticles encapsulated inside the matrix as light absorbing component. The photothermal cloth with an optimized carbon loading shows a desirable underwater black property, absorbing 94% of the solar spectrum and giving rise to a state-of-the-art solar energy utilization efficiency of 83% during pure water evaporation process. Owing to its compositions and special structural design, the cloth possesses anti-photothermal-component-loss property and is highly flexible and mechanically strong, chemically stable in various harsh environment such as strong acid, alkaline, organic solvent and salty water. It can be hand-washed for more than 100 times without degrading its performance and thus offers a potential mechanism for foulant cleaning during practical solar steam generation and distillation processes. The results of this work stimulate more research in durable photothermal materials aiming at real world applications.

  8. Poultry slaughtering practices in rural communities of Bangladesh and risk of avian influenza transmission: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimi, Nadia Ali; Sultana, Rebeca; Ishtiak-Ahmed, Kazi; Khan, Salah Uddin; Sharker, M A Yushuf; Uz Zaman, Rashid; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Gurley, Emily S; Nahar, Nazmun; Luby, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    Slaughtering sick poultry is a risk factor for human infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza and is a common practice in Bangladesh. This paper describes human exposures to poultry during slaughtering process and the customs and rituals influencing these practices in two Bangladeshi rural communities. In 2009, we conducted 30 observations to observe slaughtering practices and 110 in-depth and short interviews and 36 group discussions to explore reasons behind those practices. The villagers reported slaughtering 103 poultry, including 20 sick poultry during 2 months. During different stages of slaughtering, humans, the environment, healthy poultry, and other animals were exposed to poultry blood and body parts. Women performed most of the slaughtering tasks, including evisceration. Defeathering required the most time and involved several persons. During festivals, ceremonies, and rituals, many people gathered and participated in the slaughtering of poultry. Exposure to poultry slaughtering created numerous opportunities for potential avian influenza transmission. Strategies that can be further tested to determine if they reduce the risk of transmission include skinning the carcasses of sick poultry, using hot water for defeathering and cleaning, using a bucket to contain slaughtering blood and carcass, burying the offal and encouraging handwashing.

  9. Viral hepatitis E during offshore deployment -A case report

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    M Indrakanth Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 20-year-old young serving sailor presented with a two day history of loss of appetite, mild grade fever and yellow discoloration of both eyes and urine, while sailing, off the home port. He had icterus and tender Grade I hepatomegaly and was provisionally diagnosed as a case of clinical jaundice. As there was no facility for investigation on board, the severity of jaundice, as well as the type of infection were not known. The patient was isolated in a separate compartment and universal precautions were taken for the nursing members. Proper handwashing, chlorination of the water tanks, boiling of drinking water for the ships' company and disinfection procedures for the sick bay were followed. The crew was educated on reporting to the sick bay whenever any signs or symptoms of jaundice appear in them. After five days, the sailor was referred to a tertiary care hospital when the ship reached the nearest port. He was found to be having high bilirubin level and his liver enzymes and PT/INR were deranged. He was positive for Hepatitis E. Prompt control measures undertaken by the Medical Officer of the ship ensured that there were no other cases of jaundice reporting from the ship.

  10. Nonpharmaceutical Interventions for Military Populations During Pandemic Influenza

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    Selim Kilic

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Influenza causes substantial illness and loss of work days among young adults, and outbreaks can affect the preparedness of military units. In an influenza pandemic, people who live in confined settings have greater risk of infection. Military trainees are at particularly high risk. Because of likely unavailability of vaccines and antiviral drugs at the start of a pandemic and for many months thereafter, nonpharmaceutical interventions may be very important. During a pandemic, it seems prudent that military public health officials employ at least several nonpharmaceutical interventions. For example frequent handwashing and respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette should be strongly encouraged among soldiers. Head-to-toe sleeping, a “no-cost” intervention should be for crowded berthing areas. Isolation of patients with influenza and quarantine of their close contacts should be employed. Masks and alcohol-based hand rubs may be employed among those at highest risk. Finally, whenever possible military planners should, reduce crowding and limit the interaction of training cohorts to reduce risk of influenza virus transmission. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 285-290

  11. Spot-checks to measure general hygiene practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonego, Ina L; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    A variety of hygiene behaviors are fundamental to the prevention of diarrhea. We used spot-checks in a survey of 761 households in Burundi to examine whether something we could call general hygiene practice is responsible for more specific hygiene behaviors, ranging from handwashing to sweeping the floor. Using structural equation modeling, we showed that clusters of hygiene behavior, such as primary caregivers' cleanliness and household cleanliness, explained the spot-check findings well. Within our model, general hygiene practice as overall concept explained the more specific clusters of hygiene behavior well. Furthermore, the higher general hygiene practice, the more likely children were to be categorized healthy (r = 0.46). General hygiene practice was correlated with commitment to hygiene (r = 0.52), indicating a strong association to psychosocial determinants. The results show that different hygiene behaviors co-occur regularly. Using spot-checks, the general hygiene practice of a household can be rated quickly and easily.

  12. Determinants of personal and household hygiene among college students in New York City, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miko, Benjamin A; Cohen, Bevin; Conway, Laurie; Gilman, Allan; Seward, Samuel L; Larson, Elaine

    2012-12-01

    Although several studies have characterized the hygiene habits of college students, few have assessed the determinants underlying such behaviors. Our study sought to describe students' knowledge, practices, and beliefs about hygiene and determine whether there is an association between reported behaviors and frequency of illness. A sample of 299 undergraduate students completed a questionnaire assessing demographics, personal and household hygiene behaviors, beliefs and knowledge about hygiene, and general health status. Variation in reported hygiene habits was noted across several demographic factors. Women reported "always" washing their hands after using the toilet (87.1%) more than men (65.3%, P = .001). Similarly, freshmen reported such behavior (80.4%) more than sophomores (71.9%), juniors (67.7%), or seniors (50%, P = .011). Whereas 96.6% of participants thought that handwashing was either "very important" or "somewhat important" for preventing disease, smaller proportions thought it could prevent upper respiratory infections (85.1%) or gastroenteritis (48.3%), specifically. There was no significant relationship between reported behaviors and self-reported health status. The hygiene habits of college students may be motivated by perceptions of socially acceptable behavior rather than scientific knowledge. Interventions targeting the social norms of incoming and continuing students may be effective in improving hygiene determinants and ultimately hygiene practices. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Association of personal hygiene with common morbidities among upper primary school children in rural Odisha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Kalyan Kumar; Panigrahi, Sandeep Kumar; Soodi Reddy, Arun Kiran; Sahu, Trilochan

    2017-01-01

    In India, children of upper primary school receive less attention from health-care providers. The majority of their health problems are preventable through hygienic practices. The aim of this study was to find out the association of personal hygiene with common morbidities among upper primary school children. A cross-sectional study conducted in a rural upper primary school of Odisha. A semi-structured schedule based on the Global School Health Survey Questionnaire and necessary instruments for clinical examination were used. Data were entered in Microsoft Excel 2007 and analyzed by SPSS version 20 software. Of 90 participants, 58 (64.4%) were girls. The mean age was 11.8 (±1.01) years. The mean body mass index of females was significantly higher than males (16.95 vs. 14.72; P = 0.001). More than 90% of children maintained good personal hygiene such as clean tongue, clean hair, handwashing, and using footwear. The most common morbidities found were dental caries (38.9%), history of worms in stool and lethargy (20%). A mean score of 6.14 ± 0.11 (out of 8) was seen for personal hygiene and not associated with any particular morbidity or gender. Brushing daily was significantly associated with reduced dental caries (χ 2 = 8.7; P personal hygiene. School health services should also focus on upper primary school children for improvement of personal hygiene.

  14. Effectiveness of liquid soap vs. chlorhexidine gluconate for the removal of Clostridium difficile from bare hands and gloved hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettin, K; Clabots, C; Mathie, P; Willard, K; Gerding, D N

    1994-11-01

    To compare liquid soap versus 4% chlorhexidine gluconate in 4% alcohol for the decontamination of bare or gloved hands inoculated with an epidemic strain of Clostridium difficile. C difficile (6.7 log10 colony-forming units [CFU], 47% spores), was seeded onto bare or latex gloved hands of ten volunteers and allowed to dry. Half the volunteers initially washed with soap and half with chlorhexidine, followed by the other agent 1 week later. Cultures were done with Rodac plates at three sites on the hand: finger/thumbtips, the palmar surfaces of the fingers, and the palm. Statistical comparison was by paired Student's t test. On bare hands, soap and chlorhexidine did not differ in residual bacterial counts on the finger/thumbtips (log10 CFU, 2.0 and 2.1, P = NS) and fingers (log10 CFU, 2.4 and 2.5, P = NS). Counts were too high on bare palms to quantitate. On gloved hands, soap was more effective than chlorhexidine on fingers (log10 CFU 1.3 and 1.7, P soap wash than following chlorhexidine wash. These observations support the use of either soap or chlorhexidine as a handwash for removal of C difficile, but efficacy in the prevention of C difficile transmission must be determined by prospective clinical trials.

  15. Intervention strategies for the reduction of microbiological contamination on the hands of food handlers

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    Naína Lopes de JESUS

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate intervention strategies for the reduction of microbiological contamination on the hands of food handlers. The study was conducted from January 2009 to December 2014 at a food and nutrition company in Curitiba, Brazil. Samples from the hands of 877 handlers were collected for microbiological analysis. The intervention strategies applied during each year were: 2009, substitute the use of odorless liquid soap and an antiseptic product by one product; 2010, was increasing the staff of technical supervisors and conducting biannual training; 2011 was to move the lavatories for handwashing, and the use of 70% alcohol gel; 2012, was to increase the frequency of the training of food handlers; 2013, was new weekly monitoring, to evaluation of the use of bactericide soap; 2013 and 2014 was implemented an internal program to verify food production. The intervention introduced in 2011 the 2012 and 2013 the 2014 reduced the contamination of the hands of food handlers. The use of 70% alcohol gel, the moving of the location of the lavatories, weekly monitoring of the use of bactericide soap and implementation of the internal program, were the strategies that contributed the most to the reduction of the microbial.

  16. Nosocomial Serratia marcescens infections associated with extrinsic contamination of a liquid nonmedicated soap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, C; Jacomo, V; Duvivier, C; Tissot-Dupont, H; Sambuc, R; Drancourt, M

    2000-03-01

    To determine the role of nonmedicated soap as a source of Serratia marcescens nosocomial infections (NIs) in hospital units with endemic S marcescens NI and to examine the mechanisms of soap colonization. University-affiliated tertiary-care hospitals. A prospective case-control study and an environmental investigation were performed to assess the relationship between S marcescens NIs in hospital units and S marcescens-contaminated soap. Soap-bottle use and handwashing practices were reviewed. Cultures of healthcare workers' (HCWs) hands were obtained before and after hand washing with soap. 5 of 7 hospital units with S marcescens NIs had soap bottles contaminated with S marcescens, compared to 1 of 14 other units (P=.006). After hand washing with an S marcescens-contaminated soap pump, HCWs' hands were 54 times more likely to be contaminated with S marcescens (Pliquid soap by S marcescens resulted in handborne transmission of S marcescens NIs by HCWs in our setting. This finding led to the application of strict guidelines for nonmedicated soap use and to the reinforcement of alcoholic hand disinfection.

  17. Controlling methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by stepwise implementation of preventive strategies in a university hospital: impact of a link-nurse system on the basis of multidisciplinary approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyachi, Hayato; Furuya, Hiroyuki; Umezawa, Kazuo; Itoh, Yumiko; Ohshima, Toshio; Miyamoto, Motoaki; Asai, Satomi

    2007-03-01

    Current approaches in the control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in the large tertiary referral hospital have not been universally successful. The trend of MRSA rates and their relationship with stepwise implementation of preventive strategies in Tokai University Hospital during a 76-month period from September 1998 to December 2004, was retrospectively analyzed with a quasi-experimental design. Implementation of strategies including a feedback process with case and epidemic reporting, an infection control team and office, and a preventive guideline for MRSA did not result in reduction in monthly MRSA rates in the hospital, as analyzed with Shewhart u charts. When infection control link nurses were organized and their activities became full-scale, there appeared significant reduction in arithmetic mean of the monthly rates of MRSA from 6.3% to 5.0% in June 2002. Meanwhile the mean values for monthly counts of new MRSA cases also dropped in 15 of 25 wards/units in June 2002, as analyzed with Exponentially Weighted Moving Average charts. Concurrently, there was a significant increase (17.3%) in the monthly consumption of handwashing liquid plain soap. Thereafter the MRSA rates remained low for 2 years within three standard deviations. The sustained reduction of MRSA rates in the hospital can be related to introduction of the infection control link-nurse system on the basis of continuous enforcement of basic and multidisciplinary approaches such as hand-hygiene compliance.

  18. Effect of hand hygiene on infectious diseases in the office workplace: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivich, Paul N; Gancz, Abigail S; Aiello, Allison E

    2018-04-01

    Extensive data suggests that hand hygiene is a critical intervention for reducing infectious disease transmission in the clinical setting. However, it is unclear whether hand hygiene is effective at cutting down on infectious illnesses in non-clinical workplaces. The aim of this review is to assess the current literature concerning the effects of hand-washing interventions on infectious disease prevention among employees in nonclinical, office-based workplaces. In compiling this review, PubMed, Scopus, and Business Source Premier were examined for studies published from 1960 through 2016. Eleven studies (eight experimental, two observational, one a simulation) were identified as eligible for inclusion. Hand-hygiene interventions at various levels of rigor were shown to reduce self-reported illness symptoms. Hand hygiene is thought to be more effective against gastrointestinal illness than it is against respiratory illness, but no clear consensus has been reached on this point. Minimal hand-hygiene interventions seem to be effective at reducing the incidence of employee illness. Along with reducing infections among employees, hand-hygiene programs in the workplace may provide additional benefits to employers by reducing the number of employee health insurance claims and improving employee morale. Future research should use objective measures of hand hygiene and illness, and explore economic impacts on employers more fully. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Measuring hand hygiene compliance rates at hospital entrances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidotas, Marina; Yokota, Paula Kiyomi Onaga; Marra, Alexandre R; Camargo, Thiago Zinsly Sampaio; Victor, Elivane da Silva; Gysi, Deisy Morselli; Leal, Flavio; Santos, Oscar Fernando Pavão dos; Edmond, Michael B

    2015-07-01

    Despite the importance of hand hygiene in the health care setting, there are no studies evaluating hand hygiene compliance at hospital entrances. The study was prospectively performed over a 33-week period from March 30, 2014-November 15, 2014, to evaluate hand hygiene compliance in 2 hospital reception areas. We compared electronic handwash counters with the application of radiofrequency identification (GOJO SMARTLINK) (electronic observer) that counts each activation of alcohol gel dispensers to direct observation (human observer) via remote review of video surveillance. We found low hand hygiene compliance rates of 2.2% (99/4,412) and 1.7% (140/8,277), respectively, at reception areas A and D, detected by direct observation. Using the electronic observer, we measured rates of 17% (15,624/91,724) and 7.1% (51,605/730,357) at reception areas A and D, respectively. For the overall time period of simultaneous electronic and human observation, the human observer captured 1% of the hand hygiene episodes detected by the electronic observer. Our study showed very low hand hygiene compliance in hospital reception areas, and we found an electronic hand hygiene system to be a useful method to monitor hand hygiene compliance. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of the relative importance of human- and infrastructure-associated bacteria in grey water: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keely, S P; Brinkman, N E; Zimmerman, B D; Wendell, D; Ekeren, K M; De Long, S K; Sharvelle, S; Garland, J L

    2015-07-01

    Development of efficacious grey water (GW) treatment systems would benefit from detailed knowledge of the bacterial composition of GW. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial composition from (i) various points throughout a GW recycling system that collects shower and sink handwash (SH) water into an equalization tank (ET) prior to treatment and (ii) laundry (LA) water effluent of a commercial-scale washer. Bacterial composition was analysed by high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. LA was dominated by skin-associated bacteria, with Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Propionibacterium and Lactobacillus collectively accounting for nearly 50% of the total sequences. SH contained a more evenly distributed community than LA, with some overlap (e.g. Propionibacterium), but also contained distinct genera common to wastewater infrastructure (e.g. Zoogloea). The ET contained many of these same wastewater infrastructure-associated bacteria, but was dominated by genera adapted for anaerobic conditions. The data indicate that a relatively consistent set of skin-associated genera are the dominant human-associated bacteria in GW, but infrastructure-associated bacteria from the GW collection system and ET used for transient storage will be the most common bacteria entering GW treatment and reuse systems. This study is the first to use high-throughput sequencing to identify the bacterial composition of various GW sources. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Automated and electronically assisted hand hygiene monitoring systems: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Melissa A; Schweizer, Marin L; Polgreen, Philip M; Gupta, Kalpana; Reisinger, Heather S; Perencevich, Eli N

    2014-05-01

    Hand hygiene is one of the most effective ways to prevent transmission of health care-associated infections. Electronic systems and tools are being developed to enhance hand hygiene compliance monitoring. Our systematic review assesses the existing evidence surrounding the adoption and accuracy of automated systems or electronically enhanced direct observations and also reviews the effectiveness of such systems in health care settings. We systematically reviewed PubMed for articles published between January 1, 2000, and March 31, 2013, containing the terms hand AND hygiene or hand AND disinfection or handwashing. Resulting articles were reviewed to determine if an electronic system was used. We identified 42 articles for inclusion. Four types of systems were identified: electronically assisted/enhanced direct observation, video-monitored direct observation systems, electronic dispenser counters, and automated hand hygiene monitoring networks. Fewer than 20% of articles identified included calculations for efficiency or accuracy. Limited data are currently available to recommend adoption of specific automatic or electronically assisted hand hygiene surveillance systems. Future studies should be undertaken that assess the accuracy, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of such systems. Given the restricted clinical and infection prevention budgets of most facilities, cost-effectiveness analysis of specific systems will be required before these systems are widely adopted. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  2. Outsourcing cleaning services increases MRSA incidence: Evidence from 126 english acute trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffolutti, Veronica; Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2017-02-01

    There has been extensive outsourcing of hospital cleaning services in the NHS in England, in part because of the potential to reduce costs. Yet some argue that this leads to lower hygiene standards and more infections, such as MRSA and, perhaps because of this, the Scottish, Welsh, and Northern Irish health services have rejected outsourcing. This study evaluates whether contracting out cleaning services in English acute hospital Trusts (legal authorities that run one or more hospitals) is associated with risks of hospital-borne MRSA infection and lower economic costs. By linking data on MRSA incidence per 100,000 hospital bed-days with surveys of cleanliness among patient and staff in 126 English acute hospital Trusts during 2010-2014, we find that outsourcing cleaning services was associated with greater incidence of MRSA, fewer cleaning staff per hospital bed, worse patient perceptions of cleanliness and staff perceptions of availability of handwashing facilities. However, outsourcing was also associated with lower economic costs (without accounting for additional costs associated with treatment of hospital acquired infections). Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Lessons from Semmelweis:A Social Epidemiologic Update On Safe Motherhood

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    Julie Cwikel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this historical review, Ignaz Semmelweis's study of handwashing to prevent puerperal fever is described and used as a benchmark from which to identify salient issues that are informative to today's women’s health activists working for Safe Motherhood. The epidemiology of contemporary excess maternal mortality is reviewed. Using the conceptual framework of social epidemiology, the paper addresses four issues that were problematic in Semmelweis’ era. New tools in public health are presented that can help to solve critical, still challenging problems to reduce excess maternal mortality, nosocomial infections, and puerperal fever at childbirth: 1 progress in behavioral methods to promote health behavior change, 2 the introduction of participatory action research, 3 the diffusion of evidence-based public health practice and 4 understanding how politics and health interact and present challenges when trying to meet public health goals. Social exclusion and marginality are still key issues in determining who has access to safe motherhood and who risks her life in maternity. Applied social epidemiology allows practitioners to make effective use of the already accumulated evidence and translate it into effective public health practice to promote safe motherhood around the world.

  4. Poor practice and knowledge among traditional birth attendants in Eastern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A A; Siddig, M F

    2012-11-01

    To identify and understand knowledge and practice among traditional birth attendants (TBAs), a total of 111 TBAs were interviewed at Kassala, Eastern Sudan between March and April 2011. Hand-washing prior to the delivery was a universal practice but only 25.2% of the interviewed TBAs used sterilised equipment. TBAs in this study appeared to have a low level of awareness about when a mother should be referred to hospital, and lacked basic information on family planning and HIV/AIDS. None of these 111 TBAs knew or used equipment for neonatal resuscitation (such as bag, tube and mask) or knew neonatal signs that needed extra attention such as change in skin colour, weak suckling and respiratory distress, and nearly one-third (28.8%) of the respondents believed in a few days delay in milk production. Thus, substantial effort is needed to improve the knowledge and practice among TBAs in Eastern Sudan, including training programmes, and this might be the best hope to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.

  5. Traditional birth attendants in rural Nepal: knowledge, attitudes and practices about maternal and newborn health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatte, N; Mullany, L C; Khatry, S K; Katz, J; Tielsch, J M; Darmstadt, G L

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to formalise the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in maternal and neonatal health programmes have had limited success. TBAs' continued attendance at home deliveries suggests the potential to influence maternal and neonatal outcomes. The objective of this qualitative study was to identify and understand the knowledge, attitudes and practices of TBAs in rural Nepal. Twenty-one trained and untrained TBAs participated in focus groups and in-depth interviews about antenatal care, delivery practices, maternal complications and newborn care. Antenatal care included advice about nutrition and tetanus toxoid (TT) immunisation, but did not include planning ahead for transport in cases of complications. Clean delivery practices were observed by most TBAs, though hand-washing practices differed by training status. There was no standard practice to identify maternal complications, such as excessive bleeding, prolonged labour, or retained placenta, and most referred outside in the event of such complications. Newborn care practices included breastfeeding with supplemental feeds, thermal care after bathing, and mustard seed oil massage. TBAs reported high job satisfaction and desire to improve their skills. Despite uncertainty regarding the role of TBAs to manage maternal complications, TBAs may be strategically placed to make potential contributions to newborn survival.

  6. Adherence and factors related to acceptance of alcohol for antiseptic hand rubbing among nursing professionals

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    Adriana Cristina de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Identify rates of adhesion and related factors to acceptance of an alcohol based preparation to hands antiseptic friction among nursing professionals in a unit of intensive therapy. METHOD A cross-sectional study, which involved direct observation of hand hygiene opportunities and nursing professionals’ completion of questionnaires, was conducted at a university hospital between January and July 2015. Descriptive and univariate analyses were performed, with a 5% significance level. RESULTS It was observed 956 opportunities of hand hygiene among 46 nursing professionals. The rate of adhesion to alcohol-based handrub (ABH was 34.8% and about 87.0% preferred handwashing. Nurses used ABH more frequently than nursing technicians (p <0.001, and the report of feeling of clean hands after using the alcohol product was directly related to higher rates of adherence to antiseptic friction through observation (P <0.05. CONCLUSION The finding indicating low ABH usage highlights the need for greater institutional investment in strategies that help health professionals to recognize the advantages of this type of HH with respect to time spent, ease of access to dispensers, effectiveness in eliminating microorganisms, and maintaining skin moisturization.

  7. Rapid assessment procedures in environmental sanitation research: a case study from the northern border of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, Enrique; Alamo, Urinda; Kendall, Tamil; Brunkard, Joan; Scrimshaw, Susan

    2006-01-01

    There is a need to enhance the quality and sustainability of environmental health programs in Mexico. What socio-cultural factors influenced the adoption or rejection of Clean Water in Homes programs in this population? We applied rapid appraisal procedures (RAP) to evaluate these community-based programs. Qualitative study conducted in communities along Mexico's northern border. We conducted informal dialogues, semi-structured interviews, field notes and observations. Home visits used a checklist to observe: sources of water, handwashing, as well as human waste and garbage disposal patterns. Data analysis was conducted using ATLAS.ti, which facilitated comparison and illustration of discrepancies, the elaboration of emerging issues and relationships between them. Community members perceived that the Clean Water program was a top-down intervention. Water is perceived as a political issue and a matter of corruption. Inequity also limits solidarity activities involved in environmental sanitation. Migration to the United States of America (US) contributes to community fragmentation, which in turn dilutes communal efforts to improve water and sanitation infrastructure. While targeting women as program "recipients", the Clean Water program did not take gendered spheres of decision-making into account. Community members and authorities discussed the main results in "assemblies", particularly addressing the needs of excluded groups. The oversight of not exploring community members' needs and priorities prior to program implementation resulted in interventions that did not address the structural (economic, infrastructure) and socio-cultural barriers faced by community members to undertake the health-promoting behaviour change, and provoked resentment.

  8. Evaluation of the School Environment of Public and Private Schools in Enugu to Ensure Child Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi-Onyemaechi, A I; Akani, N A; Ikefuna, A N; Tagbo, B N; Chinawa, J M

    2018-02-01

    Poor maintenance of school environment can cause or worsen illnesses among schoolchildren. The objective of this study was to assess the healthfulness of school environments of primary schools in Enugu East, Nigeria, and to compare the difference if any between public and private schools. This was a cross-sectional noninterventional study of the school environments in Enugu East, Nigeria. Multistage sampling method was used to select the sample population. The participating schools were inspected and their head teachers were interviewed using a questionnaire. Scores were awarded using the School Health Program Evaluation scale. Results: Thirty-three schools were studied. The most common source of water for most schools was well. Eleven schools dump refuse openly. Three public schools only had functional toilets. All public schools were adequately ventilated and lit. One private school had a foodservice area. Ten schools did not have a play field, while three public schools had soaps for handwashing. The mean scores for public and private schools were 33.00 and 37.86, respectively. Three schools only attained the minimum score of 57 of a maximum of 66. The environment of primary schools in Enugu east, Nigeria, is unhealthy and unfriendly and currently cannot promote and protect the health of the schoolchildren.

  9. Caregivers' responses to an intervention to improve young child feeding behaviors in rural Bangladesh: a mixed method study of the facilitators and barriers to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affleck, William; Pelto, Gretel

    2012-08-01

    Behavior change communications regarding child feeding have met with mixed success. The present study analyzes responses of 34 Bangladeshi caregivers seven months after they received a responsive feeding intervention. The intervention communicated and demonstrated five feeding interactions: hand-washing, self-feeding, verbal responsivity, managing refusals non-forcefully, and dietary diversity. Seventeen caregivers who adopted key behaviors addressed by the intervention and 17 who did not were compared in terms of socio-demographic variables, but more importantly in terms of their recall of the messages, their reported practice, and reported facilitators and barriers. Both those who changed and those who did not reported similar facilitators and barriers to practicing the new behaviors; there was also no difference in recall or in socio-demographic variables. Key themes identified through a constant comparative analysis helped to focus on common features of the lives of caregivers that made it easy or difficult to perform the practices. Some of these were household constraints such as poverty, shortage of time in which to complete chores, and avoiding waste and messiness; others related to the child's demands. Many caregivers misinterpreted instructions about talking to one's child in response to signals, as opposed to more common forms of supervision. Facilitators such as the child's evident pleasure and the caregiver's satisfaction did not always outweigh the barriers. Recommendations for improving interventions include helping caregivers solve problems tied to barriers and including more family members in the intervention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of Glucocorticoids in UPLC-MS in Environmental Samples from an Occupational Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Oddone

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposures to glucocorticoids are still a neglected issue in some work environments, including pharmaceutical plants. We developed an analytical method to quantify simultaneously 21 glucocorticoids using UPLC coupled with mass spectrometry to provide a basis to carry out environmental monitoring. Samples were taken from air, hand-washing tests, pad-tests and wipe-tests. This paper reports the contents of the analytical methodology, along with the results of this extensive environmental and personal monitoring of glucocorticoids. The method in UPLC-MS turned out to be suitable and effective for the aim of the study. Wipe-test and pad-test desorption was carried out using 50 mL syringes, a simple technique that saves time without adversely affecting analyte recovery. Results showed a widespread environmental pollution due to glucocorticoids. This is of particular concern. Evaluation of the dose absorbed by each worker and identification of a biomarker for occupational exposure will contribute to assessment and prevention of occupational exposure.

  11. Protection motivation theory and social distancing behaviour in response to a simulated infectious disease epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lynn; Rasmussen, Susan; Kleczkowski, Adam; Maharaj, Savi; Cairns, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Epidemics of respiratory infectious disease remain one of the most serious health risks facing the population. Non-pharmaceutical interventions (e.g. hand-washing or wearing face masks) can have a significant impact on the course of an infectious disease epidemic. The current study investigated whether protection motivation theory (PMT) is a useful framework for understanding social distancing behaviour (i.e. the tendency to reduce social contacts) in response to a simulated infectious disease epidemic. There were 230 participants (109 males, 121 females, mean age 32.4 years) from the general population who completed self-report measures assessing the components of PMT. In addition, participants completed a computer game which simulated an infectious disease epidemic in order to provide a measure of social distancing behaviour. The regression analyses revealed that none of the PMT variables were significant predictors of social distancing behaviour during the simulation task. However, fear (β = .218, p < .001), response efficacy (β = .175, p < .01) and self-efficacy (β = .251, p < .001) were all significant predictors of intention to engage in social distancing behaviour. Overall, the PMT variables (and demographic factors) explain 21.2% of the variance in intention. The findings demonstrated that PMT was a useful framework for understanding intention to engage in social distancing behaviour, but not actual behaviour during the simulated epidemic. These findings may reflect an intention-behaviour gap in relation to social distancing behaviour.

  12. Mobilizing the private sector. Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz-tabor, L

    1993-12-01

    The national diarrheal disease control program has made progress against diarrheal illness in Indonesia, but diarrhea still accounts for 130,000 deaths of under-5 year olds annually. The potential of the private sector had been virtually untapped until the PRITECH Project designed and implemented a private sector based program to complement government efforts to reduce childhood morbidity and mortality related to diarrhea. PRITECH wanted to motivate commercial firms to invest the capital necessary to commercialize oral rehydration salts (ORS) so that program self-sufficiency would be maximized over the long term without depending upon donor support. Sections describe the lack of commercial sector ORS promotion, supply and demand factors, raising interest in ORS, conditions for change, the potential market for ORS, demand, production capacity, previous collaborative efforts, areas for improvement, PRITECH's role as catalyst, coordination with commercial companies, marketing workshops, collaboration with the Indonesian Medical Association, the handwashing campaign, and program impact. Although the program has been in place for just 1 year, sales of ORS have increased along with the degree of sustainable collaboration among local institutions. The author stresses that for the model to be successfully replicated elsewhere, the government, medical and pediatric associations, the World Health Organization, UNICEF, groups which can promote oral rehydration therapy, and opinion leaders in the medical community must be involved. Finally, note is made that the image of ORS must be improved and that the work of the public and commercial sectors can be complementary.

  13. Analysis of different communication channels for promoting hygiene behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinfold, J V

    1999-10-01

    A hygiene intervention study reduced diarrhoeal disease transmission in rural northeast Thailand by promoting hand-washing and dish-washing behaviour. Most of the target audience did not recognize a connection between these behaviours and diarrhoeal disease, and therefore a social marketing approach was used to develop a campaign promoting behaviours through a variety of communication channels keeping messages simple and in terms understood by the community. Overall, there was a strong correlation between the number of communication channels remembered by respondents and their knowledge score, with passive channels of printed media such as stickers, posters and leaflets associated with significantly higher scores than other channels. However, the same did not hold true for improvement in actual behaviour and only 'school children' were associated with significantly less fingertip contamination. In-depth interviews with conformers and non-conformers suggested that although most knew the intervention messages well enough, the importance they attached to them differed markedly. Thus dissemination of message knowledge was not consistent with the process of dissemination of actual practice. Where a strong sense of community spirit existed, friends, relatives and neighbours were more likely to discuss intervention activities with each other.

  14. Health Worker Focused Distributed Simulation for Improving Capability of Health Systems in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Thomas C E; Chatterjee, Arunangsu; Mellor, Nicholas E; Allan, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    The main goal of this study was to produce an adaptable learning platform using virtual learning and distributed simulation, which can be used to train health care workers, across a wide geographical area, key safety messages regarding infection prevention control (IPC). A situationally responsive agile methodology, Scrum, was used to develop a distributed simulation module using short 1-week iterations and continuous synchronous plus asynchronous communication including end users and IPC experts. The module contained content related to standard IPC precautions (including handwashing techniques) and was structured into 3 distinct sections related to donning, doffing, and hazard perception training. Using Scrum methodology, we were able to link concepts applied to best practices in simulation-based medical education (deliberate practice, continuous feedback, self-assessment, and exposure to uncommon events), pedagogic principles related to adult learning (clear goals, contextual awareness, motivational features), and key learning outcomes regarding IPC, as a rapid response initiative to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. Gamification approach has been used to map learning mechanics to enhance user engagement. The developed IPC module demonstrates how high-frequency, low-fidelity simulations can be rapidly designed using scrum-based agile methodology. Analytics incorporated into the tool can help demonstrate improved confidence and competence of health care workers who are treating patients within an Ebola virus disease outbreak region. These concepts could be used in a range of evolving disasters where rapid development and communication of key learning messages are required.

  15. A practical guide to alcohol-based hand hygiene infrastructure in a resource-poor pediatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniza, Miguela A; Dueñas, Lourdes; Lopez, Blanca; Rodriguez, Alicia; Maron, Gabriela; Hayden, Randall; Srivastava, Deo Kumar; McCullers, Jonathan A

    2009-12-01

    Resource-poor hospitals have many barriers to proper hand hygiene (HH). Alcohol-based HH can compensate for inadequate infrastructure and supplies. We describe the implementation of alcohol-based HH in five high-risk wards of a pediatric hospital in El Salvador. In 5 high-risk wards for nosocomial infections, we evaluated the accessibility, supplies, and cleanliness of the hand-washing sinks at 132 time points. We then installed gel dispensers, identified a local gel supplier, and trained nursing staff to maintain the dispensers. We evaluated user acceptance, costs, and the practice and technique of HH before and after installation. Access and cleanliness were adequate at 18.9% and 11.3% of observation points, and towels and soap were available at 61.3% and 93.18% of points. Placement of 35 gel dispensers increased the ratio of HH stations to beds from 1:6.2 to 1:1.8. Alcohol gel was better tolerated than hand washing among 60 surveyed staff. Installation cost $2558 (US) and the monthly gel supply, $731 (US). HH practice increased from 33.8% to 40.5%; use of correct technique increased from 73.8% to 95.2%. Alcohol gel can address some of the barriers to effective HH at resource-poor institutions, and its cost may be offset by reduction of nosocomial infection.

  16. Evaluation of hygiene practices and microbiological status of ready-to-eat vegetable salads in Spanish school canteens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Caturla, Magdevis Y; Valero, Antonio; Carrasco, Elena; Posada, Guiomar D; García-Gimeno, Rosa M; Zurera, Gonzalo

    2012-08-30

    This study was conducted in eight Spanish school canteens during the period 2008-2009. Food handlers' practices, kitchen equipment, hygiene/sanitation conditions and handling practices were evaluated using checklists. In parallel, the microbiological quality and safety of ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetable salads were assessed. In addition, food contact surfaces and environmental air quality of different areas were analysed. The study determined the relationship between the microbiological quality of RTE foods and food handling practices, together with the degree of contamination of working surfaces and environmental contamination of processing and distribution areas. Some deficiencies were found regarding the use and change of gloves, hand-washing and cleanliness of working surfaces. The microbial levels detected in the foods examined indicated the absence of pathogens in the samples analysed. Surface counts were higher on cutting boards and faucets, showing insufficient cleanliness procedures. This study constitutes a descriptive analysis of the hygiene/sanitation conditions implemented in food service systems in eight Spanish school canteens. The results should help risk managers to better define control measures to be adopted in order to prevent foodborne infections. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Water, sanitation, and hygiene in schools: Status and implications of low coverage in Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, Uganda, and Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Camille; Bowling, Michael; Bartram, Jamie; Lyn Kayser, Georgia

    2017-08-01

    Adequate access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) in schools impacts health, educational outcomes, and gender disparities. Little multi-country research has been published on WaSH in rural schools in Sub-Saharan Africa. In this multi-national cross-sectional WaSH study, we document WaSH access, continuity, quality, quantity, and reliability in 2270 schools that were randomly sampled in rural regions of six Sub-Saharan African countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, Uganda, and Zambia. Data collection included: school WaSH surveys containing internationally established WaSH indicators, direct observation, and field- and laboratory-based microbiological water quality testing. We found 1% of rural schools in Ethiopia and Mozambique to 23% of rural schools in Rwanda had improved water sources on premises, improved sanitation, and water and soap for handwashing. Fewer than 23% of rural schools in the six countries studied met the World Health Organization's recommended student-to-latrine ratios for boys and for girls. Fewer than 20% were observed to have at least four of five recommended menstrual hygiene services (separate-sex latrines with doors and locks, water for use, waste bin). The low access to safe and adequate WaSH services in rural schools suggest opportunities for WaSH interventions that could have substantive impact on health, education, and gender disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of a mixed media education intervention program on increasing knowledge, attitude, and compliance with standard precautions among nursing students: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Peng; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xiaohui; Wu, Tat Leong; Hall, Brian J

    2017-04-01

    Standard precautions (SPs) are considered fundamental protective measures to manage health care-associated infections and to reduce occupational health hazards. This study intended to assess the effectiveness of a mixed media education intervention to enhance nursing students' knowledge, attitude, and compliance with SPs. A randomized controlled trial with 84 nursing students was conducted in a teaching hospital in Hubei, China. The intervention group (n = 42) attended 3 biweekly mixed media education sessions, consisting of lectures, videos, role-play, and feedback with 15-20 minutes of individual online supervision and feedback sessions following each class. The control group learned the same material through self-directed readings. Pre- and posttest assessments of knowledge, attitudes, and compliance were assessed with the Knowledge with Standard Precautions Questionnaire, Attitude with Standard Precautions Scale, and the Compliance with Standard Precautions Scale, respectively. The Standard Bacterial Colony Index was used to assess handwashing effectiveness. At 6-week follow-up, performance on the Knowledge with Standard Precautions Questionnaire, Attitude with Standard Precautions Scale, and Compliance with Standard Precautions Scale were significantly improved in the intervention group compared with the control group (P media education intervention is effective in improving knowledge, attitude, and compliance with SPs. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A systematic review of the effectiveness of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizers for prevention of illness-related absenteeism in elementary school children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Emily; Le Saux, Nicole

    2004-01-01

    Background Absenteeism due to communicable illness is a major problem encountered by North American elementary school children. Although handwashing is a proven infection control measure, barriers exist in the school environment, which hinder compliance to this routine. Currently, alternative hand hygiene techniques are being considered, and one such technique is the use of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizers. Methods A systematic review was conducted to examine the effectiveness of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizer interventions in the elementary school setting. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biological Abstract, CINAHL, HealthSTAR and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched for both randomized and non-randomized controlled trials. Absenteeism due to communicable illness was the primary outcome variable. Results Six eligible studies, two of which were randomized, were identified (5 published studies, 1 published abstract). The quality of reporting was low. Due to a large amount of heterogeneity and low quality of reporting, no pooled estimates were calculated. There was a significant difference reported in favor of the intervention in all 5 published studies. Conclusions The available evidence for the effectiveness of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizer in the school environment is of low quality. The results suggest that the strength of the benefit should be interpreted with caution. Given the potential to reduce student absenteeism, teacher absenteeism, school operating costs, healthcare costs and parental absenteeism, a well-designed and analyzed trial is needed to optimize this hand hygiene technique. PMID:15518593

  20. A systematic review of the effectiveness of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizers for prevention of illness-related absenteeism in elementary school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Saux Nicole

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Absenteeism due to communicable illness is a major problem encountered by North American elementary school children. Although handwashing is a proven infection control measure, barriers exist in the school environment, which hinder compliance to this routine. Currently, alternative hand hygiene techniques are being considered, and one such technique is the use of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizers. Methods A systematic review was conducted to examine the effectiveness of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizer interventions in the elementary school setting. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biological Abstract, CINAHL, HealthSTAR and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched for both randomized and non-randomized controlled trials. Absenteeism due to communicable illness was the primary outcome variable. Results Six eligible studies, two of which were randomized, were identified (5 published studies, 1 published abstract. The quality of reporting was low. Due to a large amount of heterogeneity and low quality of reporting, no pooled estimates were calculated. There was a significant difference reported in favor of the intervention in all 5 published studies. Conclusions The available evidence for the effectiveness of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizer in the school environment is of low quality. The results suggest that the strength of the benefit should be interpreted with caution. Given the potential to reduce student absenteeism, teacher absenteeism, school operating costs, healthcare costs and parental absenteeism, a well-designed and analyzed trial is needed to optimize this hand hygiene technique.

  1. The effect of hand hygiene on illness rate among students in university residence halls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Cindy; Kolble, Robin; Carlson, Rebecca; Lipson, Natasha; Dolan, Mike; Ali, Yusuf; Cline, Mojee

    2003-10-01

    Several studies have indicated a connection between hand sanitization and infection control in numerous settings such as extended care facilities, schools, and hospitals. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of both a hand-hygiene message campaign and the use of an alcohol gel hand sanitizer in decreasing the incidence of upper-respiratory illness among students living in university residence halls. This study involved a total of 430 students recruited from 4 residence halls during the fall semester at the University of Colorado at the Boulder campus. Dormitories were paired into control and product groups. In the product groups, alcohol gel hand-sanitizer dispensers were installed in every room, bathroom, and dining hall. The data were statistically analyzed for the differences between product and control groups in reported symptoms, illness rates, and absenteeism from classes. The overall increase in hand-hygiene behavior and reduction in symptoms, illness rates, and absenteeism between the product group and control group was statistically significant. Reductions in upper respiratory-illness symptoms ranged from 14.8% to 39.9%. Total improvement in illness rate was 20%. The product group had 43% less missed school/work days. Hand-hygiene practices were improved with increased frequency of handwashing through increasing awareness of the importance of hand hygiene, and the use of alcohol gel hand sanitizer in university dormitories. This resulted in fewer upper respiratory-illness symptoms, lower illness rates, and lower absenteeism.

  2. A systematic review of the effectiveness of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizers for prevention of illness-related absenteeism in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Emily; Le Saux, Nicole

    2004-11-01

    Absenteeism due to communicable illness is a major problem encountered by North American elementary school children. Although handwashing is a proven infection control measure, barriers exist in the school environment, which hinder compliance to this routine. Currently, alternative hand hygiene techniques are being considered, and one such technique is the use of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizers. A systematic review was conducted to examine the effectiveness of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizer interventions in the elementary school setting. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biological Abstract, CINAHL, HealthSTAR and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched for both randomized and non-randomized controlled trials. Absenteeism due to communicable illness was the primary outcome variable. Six eligible studies, two of which were randomized, were identified (5 published studies, 1 published abstract). The quality of reporting was low. Due to a large amount of heterogeneity and low quality of reporting, no pooled estimates were calculated. There was a significant difference reported in favor of the intervention in all 5 published studies. The available evidence for the effectiveness of antimicrobial rinse-free hand sanitizer in the school environment is of low quality. The results suggest that the strength of the benefit should be interpreted with caution. Given the potential to reduce student absenteeism, teacher absenteeism, school operating costs, healthcare costs and parental absenteeism, a well-designed and analyzed trial is needed to optimize this hand hygiene technique.

  3. TINGKAT RISIKO PEMAKAIAN ALAT PELINDUNG DIRI DAN HIGINE PETUGAS DI LABORATORIUM KLINIK RSPUN CIPTOMANGUNKUSUMO, JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Perwitasari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Level of Risk Used Material Safety and Hygiene Laboratory Employee In Clinical Laboratory Ciptomangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta.The study on the description of personal protective equipment (PPE and personal hygiene for laboratorian were undertaken, in relation to high risk factor being infected with diseases including HIV/AIDS, in cl inical laboratory Ciptomangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, in 2001. The number of samplesis 48 personnel who work in laboratories (24 hour, emergency installation, hematology, and child laboratory, and the study design is cross-sectional. The risk level is being scored in several criteria. There are 56.8% laboratorian who did not use PPE. Based on risks, the high risk group is those who work inchild laboratory (100% and hematological laboratory (75%. Based on personal hygiene habit after handling specimen, such as handwashing, 45.4% personnel had bad personal hygiene, thus the high riskgroup in child laboratory and hematological laboratory are both 75%.Keywords: clinical laboratory, level of risk, personal hygiene

  4. Infection control in intensive care units and prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonten, M J; Weinstein, R A

    2000-12-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is considered the most frequent infection in the intensive care unit (ICU), although incidence rates depend on the diagnostic methods. Because VAP has been associated with increased mortality and greater costs for medical care, prevention remains an important goal for intensive care medicine. Selective digestive decontamination (SDD), the most frequently studied method of infection prevention, is still controversial despite more than 30 prospective randomized trials and 6 metaanalyses. SDD reduces the incidence of VAP diagnoses, but beneficial effects on duration of ventilation or ICU stay, antibiotic use, and patient survival have not been shown unequivocally. Although recent metaanalyses suggest a 20% to 40% decrease in ICU mortality for SDD used with systemic prophylaxis, this benefit should be confirmed in a large, prospective, randomized study, preferably with a cost-benefit analysis. Selection of pathogens resistant to the antibiotics used in SDD remains the most important drawback of SDD, rendering SDD contraindicated in wards with endemic resistant problems. Other methods of infection prevention that do not create a selective growth advantage for resistant microorganisms may be more useful. Among these are the use of endotracheal tubes with the possibility of continuous aspiration of subglottic secretions, oropharyngeal decontamination with antiseptics, or the semirecumbent treatment position of patients. Although these methods were successful in single studies, more data are needed. Notwithstanding the potential benefits of these interventions, such classic infection control measures as handwashing remain the cornerstone of infection prevention.

  5. Comparison of human and electronic observation for the measurement of compliance with hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Miguel Almeida O; Marra, Alexandre R; Magnus, Thyago Pereira; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Dias; Prado, Marcelo; de Souza Santini, Tales Roberto; da Silva Victor, Elivane; Ishibe, Eder Issao; Pavão Dos Santos, Oscar Fernando; Edmond, Michael B

    2014-11-01

    Monitoring of hand hygiene is an important part of the improvement of hospital quality indicators. This study was prospectively performed over a 14-week (electronic observer) period from December 3, 2013-March 9, 2014, to evaluate hand hygiene compliance in an adult step-down unit. We compared electronic handwash counters with the application of radiofrequency identification (RFID - ZigBee; i-Healthsys, São Carlos, Brazil) (electronic observer), which counts each activation of the alcohol gel dispenser to direct observation (human observer) using the iScrub application. For the overall time period of simultaneous electronic and human observation, we found that the electronic observer identified 414 hand hygiene episodes, whereas the human observers identified 448 episodes. Therefore, we found 92% (95% confidence interval [CI], 90%-95%) overall concordance (414/448), with an intraclass correlation coefficient of .87 (95% CI, 0.77-0.92). Our RFID (ZigBee) system showed good accuracy (92%) and is a useful method to monitor hand hygiene compliance. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Infection control and hand hygiene in nursing homes in Oslo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sie, Ingrid; Thorstad, Margrete; Andersen, Bjørg Marit

    2008-06-26

    Nosocomial infections and transmission can be substantially reduced by good infection control. The laws and regulations for infection control in heath care institutions emphasize establishment of infection control programs and improved hand hygiene. Our study reviews some factors that are important for practicing adequate hand hygiene (knowledge about infection control and hand-washing facilities). Health care workers (HCW) in nursing homes in Oslo participated in this study in 2006-2007. A questionnaire was made and SPSS was used to analyse the data . 70.7% of 324 HCW (in 42 nursing homes) answered the questionnaires. Nearly all of the respondents (95.6%) knew about the written procedures for hygiene and infection control; 88.5% knew that an infection control program was in place and about 50% had received information through internal education. Three of four had read the National guidelines for hand hygiene, 77.5% thought that hand disinfection was more effective than hand washing, and 97% reported hand hygiene after contact with a patient having an infection. Dispensers for hand disinfection were situated at central work places. At the same time, 17.9% informed that they worked in more than one place at the same time. This study confirms that most nursing homes in Oslo have an infection control program and training that improves the knowledge and awareness of hand hygiene among HCWs. However, the fact that nursing homes in Oslo have the resources, knowledge and education, is not the same as compliance.

  7. Reduction in nosocomial infection with improved hand hygiene in intensive care units of a tertiary care hospital in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Victor D; Guzman, Sandra; Safdar, Nasia

    2005-09-01

    Hand hygiene is a fundamental measure for the control of nosocomial infection. However, sustained compliance with hand hygiene in health care workers is poor. We attempted to enhance compliance with hand hygiene by implementing education, training, and performance feedback. We measured nosocomial infections in parallel. We monitored the overall compliance with hand hygiene during routine patient care in intensive care units (ICUs); 1 medical surgical ICU and 1 coronary ICU, of 1 hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina, before and during implementation of a hand hygiene education, training, and performance feedback program. Observational surveys were done twice a week from September 2000 to May 2002. Nosocomial infections in the ICUs were identified using the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) criteria, with prospective surveillance. We observed 4347 opportunities for hand hygiene in both ICUs. Compliance improved progressively (handwashing adherence, 23.1% (268/1160) to 64.5% (2056/3187) (RR, 2.79; 95% CI: 2.46-3.17; P nosocomial infection in both ICUs decreased from 47.55 per 1000 patient-days (104/2187) to 27.93 per 1000 patient days (207/7409) RR, 0.59; 95% CI: 0.46-0.74, P hand hygiene, coinciding with a reduction in nosocomial infection rates in the ICUs.

  8. Contact lens use and its compliance for care among healthcare workers in Pakistan

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    Muhammed Hamza Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor care and hygiene of contact lens (CL results in eye problems and infections. Healthcare workers have an important role in advocating correct lens care. Objectives: To determine the practices of CL care and the adverse consequences of poor CL care among healthcare workers. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional study in one public and three private sector hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan, in 2009-2010. Materials and Methods: We questioned 500 healthcare workers of all ages and both sexes, who wore CL, about compliance with advice on care and any complications due to improper hygiene practices. Ethical approval was obtained. Chi-square tests were used to determine significance and p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Of the total CL users, 385 (77% were females. Most (75% respondents wore CL to correct myopia, whereas 54% wore CL only occasionally. Surprisingly, only 24% knew the CL cleaning protocol. Lens solution was changed daily by 33% of users and after more than 2 weeks by 42%. Although 412 (82% participants practised reasonable hand hygiene before inserting CL, 88 (18% did not. Infection and eye dryness were statistically significantly (P < 0.01 associated with sex, hand-washing, and frequency of CL use. Conclusion: Noncompliance with the CL protocol was common among healthcare workers in our society. This behavior calls for targeted health education and awareness programs for healthcare workers.

  9. Hospital management of Clostridium difficile infection: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanafer, N; Voirin, N; Barbut, F; Kuijper, E; Vanhems, P

    2015-06-01

    The emergence of the epidemic Clostridium difficile 027 strain has renewed interest in infection control practices. To review the effectiveness of different practices to reduce hospital C. difficile infection (CDI) in non-outbreak settings. Data sources were identified by a MEDLINE search in English and French. The ORION statement was used to extract key data from articles describing interventions to manage CDI. Twenty-one studies, published between 1982 and December 2013, were reviewed. Most studies were before-after interventions, and a few studies were planned, formal, prospective investigations. The effects of the following single or combined interventions were described: antibiotic management; environmental disinfection and/or cleaning; hand hygiene; bathing; surveillance; cohorting; and isolation of infected patients in private rooms. With many methodological weaknesses and some inadequate research reporting, the observed reduction in CDI may not be entirely attributable to interventions. Although infection control programmes involving education and handwashing/gloving protocols were found to have contributed to a reduction in the incidence of CDI, these measures were usually a component of multi-faceted interventions that did not provide for evaluation of the relative impact of each factor. Appropriate environmental disinfection and antibiotic stewardship would appear to offer the most effective benefits. Copyright © 2015 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Healthcare worker and family caregiver hand hygiene in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities: results from the Bangladesh National Hygiene Baseline Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horng, L M; Unicomb, L; Alam, M-U; Halder, A K; Shoab, A K; Ghosh, P K; Opel, A; Islam, M K; Luby, S P

    2016-11-01

    Healthcare facility hand hygiene impacts patient care, healthcare worker safety, and infection control, but low-income countries have few data to guide interventions. To conduct a nationally representative survey of hand hygiene infrastructure and behaviour in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities to establish baseline data to aid policy. The 2013 Bangladesh National Hygiene Baseline Survey examined water, sanitation, and hand hygiene across households, schools, restaurants and food vendors, traditional birth attendants, and healthcare facilities. We used probability proportional to size sampling to select 100 rural and urban population clusters, and then surveyed hand hygiene infrastructure in 875 inpatient healthcare facilities, observing behaviour in 100 facilities. More than 96% of facilities had 'improved' water sources, but environmental contamination occurred frequently around water sources. Soap was available at 78-92% of handwashing locations for doctors and nurses, but just 4-30% for patients and family. Only 2% of 4676 hand hygiene opportunities resulted in recommended actions: using alcohol sanitizer or washing both hands with soap, then drying by air or clean cloth. Healthcare workers performed recommended hand hygiene in 9% of 919 opportunities: more after patient contact (26%) than before (11%). Family caregivers frequently washed hands with only water (48% of 2751 opportunities), but with little soap (3%). Healthcare workers had more access to hand hygiene materials and performed better hand hygiene than family, but still had low adherence. Increasing hand hygiene materials and behaviour could improve infection control in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. [Risk of nosocomial infection in Intertropical Africa. Part 4: prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebaudet, S; De Pina, J J; Rapp, C; Kraemer, P; Savini, H; Demortiere, E; Simon, F

    2008-02-01

    Nosocomial infections have long been neglected in Sub-Saharan Africa, even though their prevalence is higher than in developed countries. Recently, however, this major public health problem has been the focus of a growing number of recommendations not only from the World Health Organization but also from some national health ministries. Because of the numerous limitations especially in financial resources in these regions, priority must be given to the implementation of simple and cost-effective measures. Accordingly the greatest efforts must be devoted to educating healthcare workers and patients about the importance of handwashing, eliminating unnecessary injections and transfusions, performing the latter acts in aseptic conditions, isolating patients with communicable diseases, handling waste products safely, and using antimicrobials properly. Amid the daunting health issues facing Sub-Saharan Africa, implementing these inexpensive measures that could save the lives of thousands of patients and healthcare workers appears easy. However it will require a cultural revolution. The keys to success will be changing the organizational culture, developing a commitment to prevention and evaluating performance regularly.

  12. A qualitative exploration of the perceptions and information needs of public health inspectors responsible for food safety

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    Sargeant Jan M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ontario, local public health inspectors play an important frontline role in protecting the public from foodborne illness. This study was an in-depth exploration of public health inspectors' perceptions of the key food safety issues in public health, and their opinions and needs with regards to food safety information resources. Methods Four focus group discussions were conducted with public health inspectors from the Central West region of Ontario, Canada during June and July, 2008. A questioning route was used to standardize qualitative data collection. Audio recordings of sessions were transcribed verbatim and data-driven content analysis was performed. Results A total of 23 public health inspectors participated in four focus group discussions. Five themes emerged as key food safety issues: time-temperature abuse, inadequate handwashing, cross-contamination, the lack of food safety knowledge by food handlers and food premise operators, and the lack of food safety information and knowledge about specialty foods (i.e., foods from different cultures. In general, participants reported confidence with their current knowledge of food safety issues and foodborne pathogens. Participants highlighted the need for a central source for food safety information, access to up-to-date food safety information, resources in different languages, and additional food safety information on specialty foods. Conclusions The information gathered from these focus groups can provide a basis for the development of resources that will meet the specific needs of public health inspectors involved in protecting and promoting food safety.

  13. Beyond Scientism and Skepticism: An Integrative Approach to Global Mental Health

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    Dan J Stein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of disorders has shifted from infectious disease to non-communicable diseases, including neuropsychiatric disorders. Whereas infectious disease can sometimes be combated by targeting single causal mechanisms, such as prevention of contact-spread illness by hand-washing, in the case of mental disorders multiple causal mechanisms are relevant. The emergent field of global mental health has emphasized the magnitude of the treatment gap, particularly in the low and middle income world, and has paid particular attention to upstream causal factors, for example, poverty, inequality, and gender discrimination in the pathogenesis of mental disorders. However, this field has also been criticised for relying on erroneous Western paradigms of mental illness, which may not be relevant or appropriate to the low- and middle-income context. Here, it is important to steer a path between scienticism and skepticism. Scientism regards mental disorders as essential categories, and takes a covering law approach to causality; skepticism regards mental disorders as merely social constructions, and emphasizes the role of political power in causal relations. We propose an integrative model that emphasizes the contribution of a broad range of causal mechanisms operating at biological and societal levels to mental disorders, and the consequent importance of broad-spectrum and multi-pronged approaches to intervention.

  14. Perceptions of Health Communication, Water Treatment and Sanitation in Artibonite Department, Haiti, March-April 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Ann Williams

    Full Text Available The international response to Haiti's ongoing cholera outbreak has been multifaceted, including health education efforts by community health workers and the distribution of free water treatment products. Artibonite Department was the first region affected by the outbreak. Numerous organizations have been involved in cholera response efforts in Haiti with many focusing on efforts to improve water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH. Multiple types of water treatment products have been distributed, creating the potential for confusion over correct dosage and water treatment methods. We utilized qualitative methods in Artibonite to determine the population's response to WASH messages, use and acceptability of water treatment products, and water treatment and sanitation knowledge, attitudes and practices at the household level. We conducted eighteen focus group discussions (FGDs: 17 FGDs were held with community members (nine among females, eight among males; one FGD was held with community health workers. Health messages related to WASH were well-retained, with reported improvements in hand-washing. Community health workers were identified as valued sources of health information. Most participants noted a paucity of water-treatment products. Sanitation, specifically the construction of latrines, was the most commonly identified need. Lack of funds was the primary reason given for not constructing a latrine. The construction and maintenance of potable water and sanitation services is needed to ensure a sustainable change.

  15. Vaccination against seasonal influenza

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    This year, as usual, the Medical Service is helping to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal flu is especially recommended for anyone who suffers from chronic pulmonary, cardio-vascular or kidney disease or diabetes, is recovering from a serious illness or major surgery, or is over 65 years of age. The flu virus is transmitted through the air and through contact with contaminated surfaces, so frequent hand-washing with soap and/or an antiseptic hand wash is of great importance. As soon as the first symptoms appear (fever above 38°, shivering, coughing, muscle and/or joint pains, generalised weakness), you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. Anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor), with their dose of vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement through UNIQA...

  16. Infection control practices across Canada: do dentists follow the recommendations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, G M; Koval, J J; John, M A; MacDonald, J K

    1999-10-01

    This study investigated provincial and territorial differences in dentists' compliance with recommended infection control practices in Canada (1995). Questionnaires were mailed to a stratified random sample of 6,444 dentists, of whom 66.4% responded. Weighted analyses included Pearson's chi-square test and multiple logistic regression. Significant provincial and territorial differences included testing for immune response after hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination, HBV vaccination for all clinical staff, use of infection control manuals and post-exposure protocols, biological monitoring of heat sterilizers, handwashing before treating patients, using gloves and changing them after each patient, heat-sterilizing handpieces between patients, and using masks and uniforms to protect against splatter of blood and saliva. Excellent compliance (compliance with a combination of 18 recommended infection control procedures) ranged from 0% to 10%; the best predictors were more hours of continuing education on infection control in the last two years, practice location in larger cities (> 500,000) and sex (female). Clearly, improvements in infection control are desirable for dentists in all provinces and territories. Extending mandatory continuing education initiatives to include infection control may promote better compliance with current recommendations.

  17. Improving water, sanitation, and hygiene in schools in Indonesia: A cross-sectional assessment on sustaining infrastructural and behavioral interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karon, Andrew J; Cronin, Aidan A; Cronk, Ryan; Hendrawan, Reza

    2017-05-01

    Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) in schools are important for child health, development, and educational performance; yet coverage in Indonesian schools remains low. To address this deficiency, UNICEF and partners conducted a WASH intervention in 450 schools across three provinces in Indonesia. A survey evaluating the sustainability of infrastructure and behavioral interventions in comparison to control districts was conducted one year after completion of the intervention. The survey data were also compared with national government data to assess the suitability of government data to report progress on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Logistic regression was used to explore associations between WASH conditions and behaviors. Intervention schools were more likely to have handwashing stations with soap and water. In multivariable analyses, schools with a toilet operation and maintenance fund were more likely to have functional toilets. Students who learn hygiene skills from their teachers were less likely to defecate openly, more likely to share hygiene knowledge with their parents, and more likely to wash their hands. Survey data were comparable with government data, suggesting that Indonesian government monitoring may be a reliable source of data to measure progress on the SDGs. This research generates important policy and practice findings for scaling up and sustaining WASH in schools and may help improve WASH in schools programs in other low-resource contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Are healthcare workers' mobile phones a potential source of nosocomial infections? Review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulger, Fatma; Dilek, Ahmet; Esen, Saban; Sunbul, Mustafa; Leblebicioglu, Hakan

    2015-10-29

    Mobile communication devices help accelerate in-hospital flow of medical information, information sharing and querying, and contribute to communications in the event of emergencies through their application and access to wireless media technology. Healthcare-associated infections remain a leading and high-cost problem of global health systems despite improvements in modern therapies. The objective of this article was to review different studies on the relationship between mobile phones (MPs) and bacterial cross-contamination and report common findings. Thirty-nine studies published between 2005 and 2013 were reviewed. Of these, 19 (48.7%) identified coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), and 26 (66.7%) identified Staphylococcus aureus; frequency of growth varied. The use of MPs by healthcare workers increases the risk of repetitive cyclic contamination between the hands and face (e.g., nose, ears, and lips), and differences in personal hygiene and behaviors can further contribute to the risks. MPs are rarely cleaned after handling. They may transmit microorganisms, including multiple resistant strains, after contact with patients, and can be a source of bacterial cross-contamination. To prevent bacterial contamination of MPs, hand-washing guidelines must be followed and technical standards for prevention strategies should be developed.

  19. Prevalence and associated risk factors of Taenia solium taeniasis in a rural pig farming community of north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kashi N; Prasad, Amit; Gupta, Rakesh K; Pandey, Chandra M; Singh, Uttam

    2007-12-01

    There is a lack of information on the disease burden due to Taenia solium taeniasis and its associated risk factors in pig farming communities throughout the world. The present study was conducted in a rural pig farming community of north India to estimate the prevalence of T. solium taeniasis and associated factors. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected from 1181 subjects in 210 households in 30 villages. Stool specimens from 924 subjects were examined for eggs of Taenia and other parasites. Identification of T. solium was confirmed by morphological features of segments and species-specific DNA detection from segments and stool. The prevalence of T. solium taeniasis was 18.6% (172/924); factors associated with taeniasis on multivariate analysis were age above 15 years, history of passage of Taenia segments in stool, undercooked pork consumption and poor hand hygiene (hand-washing with clay/water after defecation). Seventy-eight subjects (6.6%) with epilepsy were identified. The study showed alarmingly high rates of epilepsy and T. solium taeniasis in the study community; it highlights the need for large-scale imaging-based surveys to identify the factors associated with epilepsy including neurocysticercosis. Health education, mass anthelminthic therapy and other preventive measures are required to control the menace of the disease.

  20. Hand hygiene: the impact of incentive strategies on adherence among healthcare workers from a newborn intensive care unit Higienización de las manos: el impacto de estrategias que incentiven la adhesión entre los profesionales de la salud de una unidad de terapia intensiva neonatal Higienização das mãos: o impacto de estratégias de incentivo à adesão entre profissionais de saúde de uma unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilah Cândida Pereira das Neves

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available We carried out a before-after non-controlled intervention study to assess the impact of different handwashing strategies in health care workers at a neonatal ICU in Goiânia - Goiás, Brazil. All ethical aspects were considered. Data was collected by using a check list in order to register hand hygiene opportunities during six months. Three strategies were elaborated together with the hospital team. We observed 1358 handwashing opportunities. Incentive strategies caused a small impact on the increase of adherence to hand hygiene during and after the implementation period. However, we noticed that this increase mainly occurred after the procedures were realized. On the whole, adherence levels were similar before (62.2% and after (61.6% the procedures. The study showed that health care workers were more worried about individual risks.Con objeto de evaluar el impacto del uso de diferentes estrategias que incentiven la higienización de las manos entre profesionales de la salud en una unidad de cuidados intensivos neonatales en Goiânia - Goiás, Brasil, efectuamos un estudio de intervención no controlada, denominada antes-después. Observados los aspectos éticos, los datos fueron recolectados utilizándose un check list para registrar las oportunidades de higienización de las manos, por seis meses. Utilizamos tres estrategias de incentivo construidas con la participación de los grupos de la institución. Fueron observadas 1358 oportunidades de higienización de las manos. Las estrategias de incentivo consiguieron un pequeño impacto en el aumento de la adhesión de la higienización de las manos en los periodos durante y después de su implementación. Este aumento ocurrió principalmente después de la realización de los procedimientos. En la adhesión total, los porcentajes fueron semejantes antes (62,2% y después (61,6% de la ejecución de procedimientos. El estudio señala una mayor preocupación de los profesionales con el propio riesgo

  1. Environmental conditions in health care facilities in low- and middle-income countries: Coverage and inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronk, Ryan; Bartram, Jamie

    2018-04-01

    Safe environmental conditions and the availability of standard precaution items are important to prevent and treat infection in health care facilities (HCFs) and to achieve Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets for health and water, sanitation, and hygiene. Baseline coverage estimates for HCFs have yet to be formed for the SDGs; and there is little evidence describing inequalities in coverage. To address this, we produced the first coverage estimates of environmental conditions and standard precaution items in HCFs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); and explored factors associated with low coverage. Data from monitoring reports and peer-reviewed literature were systematically compiled; and information on conditions, service levels, and inequalities tabulated. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with low coverage. Data for 21 indicators of environmental conditions and standard precaution items were compiled from 78 LMICs which were representative of 129,557 HCFs. 50% of HCFs lack piped water, 33% lack improved sanitation, 39% lack handwashing soap, 39% lack adequate infectious waste disposal, 73% lack sterilization equipment, and 59% lack reliable energy services. Using nationally representative data from six countries, 2% of HCFs provide all four of water, sanitation, hygiene, and waste management services. Statistically significant inequalities in coverage exist between HCFs by: urban-rural setting, managing authority, facility type, and sub-national administrative unit. We identified important, previously undocumented inequalities and environmental health challenges faced by HCFs in LMICs. The information and analyses provide evidence for those engaged in improving HCF conditions to develop evidence-based policies and efficient programs, enhance service delivery systems, and make better use of available resources. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  2. Generic Escherichia coli Contamination of Spinach at the Preharvest Stage: Effects of Farm Management and Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratil, Sarah; Gregory, Ashley; Bauer, Arin; Srinath, Indumathi; Jun, Mikyoung; Szonyi, Barbara; Nightingale, Kendra; Anciso, Juan; Ivanek, Renata

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of farm management and environmental factors on preharvest spinach contamination with generic Escherichia coli as an indicator of fecal contamination. A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted by visiting spinach farms up to four times per growing season over a period of 2 years (2010 to 2011). Spinach samples (n = 955) were collected from 12 spinach farms in Colorado and Texas as representative states of the Western and Southwestern United States, respectively. During each farm visit, farmers were surveyed about farm-related management and environmental factors using a questionnaire. Associations between the prevalence of generic E. coli in spinach and farm-related factors were assessed by using a multivariable logistic regression model including random effects for farm and farm visit. Overall, 6.6% of spinach samples were positive for generic E. coli. Significant risk factors for spinach contamination with generic E. coli were the proximity (within 10 miles) of a poultry farm, the use of pond water for irrigation, a >66-day period since the planting of spinach, farming on fields previously used for grazing, the production of hay before spinach planting, and the farm location in the Southwestern United States. Contamination with generic E. coli was significantly reduced with an irrigation lapse time of >5 days as well as by several factors related to field workers, including the use of portable toilets, training to use portable toilets, and the use of hand-washing stations. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an association between field workers' personal hygiene and produce contamination with generic E. coli at the preharvest level. Collectively, our findings support that practice of good personal hygiene and other good farm management practices may reduce produce contamination with generic E. coli at the preharvest level. PMID:23666336

  3. Improving neonatal care in district and community health facilities in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, David Lawrance

    2015-08-01

    A high standard of newborn care, especially at a primary level, is needed to address the neonatal mortality rate in South Africa. The current approach to continuing training of health-care workers uses traditional methods of centralised teaching by formal tutors away from the place of work. This is no longer affordable, achievable or desirable, particularly in rural areas. An innovative system of self-directed learning by groups of nurses caring for mothers and their newborn infants uses specially prepared course books without the need for trainers. Using self-study supported by peer discussion groups, nurses can take responsibility for their own professional growth. This builds competence, confidence and a sense of pride. Since 1993, the Perinatal Education Programme has provided continuing learning opportunities for thousands of nurses in Southern Africa. A number of prospective trials have demonstrated that study groups can significantly improve knowledge and understanding, attitudes, clinical skills and quality of care provided to mothers and infants. A recent review of 10,000 successful participants across a wide range of provinces, ages and home languages documented the success of the project. Using a question-and-answer format to promote problem-solving, case studies, simple skills workshops and multiple choice tests, each module addresses common conditions with appropriate care practices such as thorough drying at birth, delayed cord-clamping, skin-to-skin care, breast feeding, basic resuscitation, correct use of oxygen therapy, hand-washing, blood glucose monitoring and promotion of parental bonding. The training material is now also available free of charge on an on-line website as well as being presented as e-books which can be downloaded onto personal computers, tablet readers and smart phones. This is supplemented by regular SMS text messages providing nurses with relevant 'knowledge bites'. All nurses caring for newborn infants now have easy

  4. A multimodal intervention to improve hand hygiene in ICUs in Buenos Aires, Argentina: a stepped wedge trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Viviana; Giuffre, Carolina; Villa, Silvia; Almada, Griselda; Prasopa-Plaizier, Nittita; Gogna, Monica; Gibbons, Luz; García Elorrio, Ezequiel

    2015-10-01

    Hand hygiene is a cost-effective measure to reduce microbial transmission (Teare EL, Cookson B, French GL, et al. UK handwashing initiative. J Hosp Infect. 1999;43:1-3.) and is considered to be the most important measure to prevent healthcare-associated infections (Pittet D, Allegranzi B, Sax H, Evidence-based model for hand transmission during patient care and the role of improved practices. Lancet Infect Dis 2006;6:641-52). Unfortunately, the compliance rate of healthcare workers (HCWs) with recommended hand hygiene procedures is less than expected. In order to estimate the effect of a multimodal intervention on improving healthcare workers' compliance with hand hygiene in eleven intensive care units (ICUs) from 11 hospitals of Buenos Aires, a randomized cluster-stepped wedge trial was designed. A multimodal intervention was designed based on practices characterized by being evidence-based, low cost and suggested by qualitative research: (i) leadership commitment, (ii) surveillance of materials needed to comply with hand hygiene and alcohol consumption, (iii) utilization of reminders, (iv) a storyboard of the project and (v) feedback (hand hygiene compliance rate). The study enrolled 705 participants, comprising nurses (66.4%), physicians (25.8%) and other HCW (7.8%) along 9 months of observation. Compliance with hand hygiene in the control group was 66.0% (2354/3565) vs. 75.6% (5190/6864) in the intervention group. Univariate analysis showed an association between the intervention and hand hygiene compliance (odds ratio, OR 1.17; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.13-1.22). The effect was still present after adjustment by calendar's time and providers' characteristics-age, gender and profession (OR 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.14). His study supports that a multimodal intervention was effective to improve compliance with hand hygiene in ICUs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care

  5. Cost and impact of scaling up interventions to save lives of mothers and children: taking South Africa closer to MDGs 4 and 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumbwe Chola

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa has made substantial progress on child and maternal mortality, yet many avoidable deaths of mothers and children still occur. This analysis identifies priority interventions to be scaled up nationally and projects the potential maternal and child lives saved. Design: We modelled the impact of maternal, newborn and child interventions using the Lives Saved Tools Projections to 2015 and used realistic coverage increases based on expert opinion considering recent policy change, financial and resource inputs, and observed coverage change. A scenario analysis was undertaken to test the impact of increasing intervention coverage to 95%. Results: By 2015, with realistic coverage, the maternal mortality ratio (MMR can reduce to 153 deaths per 100,000 and child mortality to 34 deaths per 1,000 live births. Fifteen interventions, including labour and delivery management, early HIV treatment in pregnancy, prevention of mother-to-child transmission and handwashing with soap, will save an additional 9,000 newborns and children and 1,000 mothers annually. An additional US$370 million (US$7 per capita will be required annually to scale up these interventions. When intervention coverage is increased to 95%, breastfeeding promotion becomes the top intervention, the MMR reduces to 116 and the child mortality ratio to 23. Conclusions: The 15 interventions identified were adopted by the National Department of Health, and the Health Minister launched a campaign to encourage Provincial Health Departments to scale up coverage. It is hoped that by focusing on implementing these 15 interventions at high quality, South Africa will reach Millennium Development Goal (MDG 4 soon after 2015 and MDG 5 several years later. Focus on HIV and TB during early antenatal care is essential. Strategic gains could be realised by targeting vulnerable populations and districts with the worst health outcomes. The analysis demonstrates the usefulness of priority

  6. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Ebola Virus Disease at the End of a National Epidemic - Guinea, August 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalloh, Mohamed F; Robinson, Susan J; Corker, Jamaica; Li, Wenshu; Irwin, Kathleen; Barry, Alpha M; Ntuba, Paulyne Ngalame; Diallo, Alpha A; Jalloh, Mohammad B; Nyuma, James; Sellu, Musa; VanSteelandt, Amanda; Ramsden, Megan; Tracy, LaRee; Raghunathan, Pratima L; Redd, John T; Martel, Lise; Marston, Barbara; Bunnell, Rebecca

    2017-10-20

    Health communication and social mobilization efforts to improve the public's knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding Ebola virus disease (Ebola) were important in controlling the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic in Guinea (1), which resulted in 3,814 reported Ebola cases and 2,544 deaths.* Most Ebola cases in Guinea resulted from the washing and touching of persons and corpses infected with Ebola without adequate infection control precautions at home, at funerals, and in health facilities (2,3). As the 18-month epidemic waned in August 2015, Ebola KAP were assessed in a survey among residents of Guinea recruited through multistage cluster sampling procedures in the nation's eight administrative regions (Boké, Conakry, Faranah, Kankan, Kindia, Labé, Mamou, and Nzérékoré). Nearly all participants (92%) were aware of Ebola prevention measures, but 27% believed that Ebola could be transmitted by ambient air, and 49% believed they could protect themselves from Ebola by avoiding mosquito bites. Of the participants, 95% reported taking actions to avoid getting Ebola, especially more frequent handwashing (93%). Nearly all participants (91%) indicated they would send relatives with suspected Ebola to Ebola treatment centers, and 89% said they would engage special Ebola burial teams to remove corpses with suspected Ebola from homes. Of the participants, 66% said they would prefer to observe an Ebola-affected corpse from a safe distance at burials rather than practice traditional funeral rites involving corpse contact. The findings were used to guide the ongoing epidemic response and recovery efforts, including health communication, social mobilization, and planning, to prevent and respond to future outbreaks or sporadic cases of Ebola.

  7. Development and validation of a questionnaire to evaluate infection control in oral radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Camila; da Silva Tagliaferro, Elaine P; Corrente, José E; Ambrosano, Glaucia M B

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To create and validate a questionnaire to evaluate infection control in oral radiology. Methods: The questionnaire was developed after review of the literature, which included published articles and the biosafety protocols available from healthcare agencies. The initial version of the questionnaire was composed of 14 multiple choice questions and was divided into 3 domains on handwashing, disinfection/protection of surfaces and disinfectant used. Content validity was assessed by two expert committees, which reviewed the content and scope of the questionnaire and the relevance of each item, respectively. Reliability was evaluated using test–retest and internal consistency methods with 115 undergraduate dentistry students. Construct validity was assessed using the known-groups technique and factor analysis. The known-groups technique involved 641 undergraduate dentistry students, 20 PhD students and 15 oral radiology professors. In the factor analysis, 3 radiology technicians also participated in addition to the 641 undergraduates, 20 PhD students and 15 oral radiology professors. Results: The content validity results were found to be satisfactory to excellent for the ordinal variables (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.722–1.000) and good to great for the yes/no questions (kappa = 0.662–0.913) in terms of reliability and good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.88). After a factor analysis, some questions were excluded, and the questions were grouped into new domains. Significant differences were observed between answers from different groups. The final version of the questionnaire was composed of nine domains. Conclusions: The questionnaire created was found to exhibit good psychometric properties for assessing infection control in oral radiology. PMID:28112553

  8. [Perception of nosocomial risk among healthcare workers at "Hopital Principal" in Dakar, Senegal (survey 2004)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, B; Margery, J; Wade, B; Ka, S; Diatta, B; Gueye, M; Mbaye, P S; Debonne, J M

    2008-12-01

    Nosocomial Infection (NI) is also observed in healthcare facilities in non-Western countries. The purpose of this report is to describe the findings of a survey undertaken to evaluate hygiene procedures implemented at the "Hopital Principal" in Dakar, Senegal and to assess perception and awareness of nosocomial risk among the hospital staff. A total of 264 healthcare workers were interviewed. Mean age was 39 years (range, 18-60) and the sex ratio was 1.3 (150 men/114 women). Sixty (22.7%) had university degrees, 106 (40.2%) had secondary school diplomas, 50 (18.9%) had attended middle school, and 13 (4.9%) had no schooling. Analysis of interview data showed that 56.1% (157/264) defined NI as infection acquired at the hospital but that only 9.8% (n=26) knew that a minimum 48-hour delay was necessary to distinguish nosocomial from community acquired infection. While understanding about NI was correlated with education level, data showed that 1 out of 3 physicians (13/39) failed to give the exact definition. Hand contact was cited as the second route of transmission. Isolation precautions were understood by 22.7% of personnel (60/264). Systematic handwashing was reported by 363% (96/264) but observation demonstrated that it was not performed properly regardless of the category of personnel. Care protocols were understood by 54.6% of persons interviewed (144/264). A hygiene-training course had been attended by 52.2% (n=138). Two thirds of the staff (69.7%: 54/264) was able to identify the hygiene nurse. Ninety-eight health care providers (37.1%) were familiar with the CLIN (Comités de Lutte contre les Infections Nosocomiales).

  9. Social marketing of water and sanitation products: a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W D; Pattanayak, S K; Young, S; Buszin, J; Rai, S; Bihm, Jasmine Wallace

    2014-06-01

    Like commercial marketing, social marketing uses the 4 "Ps" and seeks exchange of value between the marketer and consumer. Behaviors such as handwashing, and products such as those for oral rehydration treatment (ORT), can be marketed like commercial products in developing countries. Although social marketing in these areas is growing, there has been no systematic review of the current state of practice, research and evaluation. We searched the literature for published peer-reviewed studies available through major online publication databases. We identified manuscripts in the health, social science, and business literature on social marketing that used at least one of the 4 Ps of marketing and had a behavioral objective targeting the behaviors or products related to improving water and sanitation. We developed formalized decision rules and applied them in identifying articles for review. We initially identified 117 articles and reviewed a final set of 32 that met our criteria. Social marketing is a widespread strategy. Marketing efforts have created high levels of awareness of health threats and solutions, including behavior change and socially marketed products. There is widespread use of the 4 Ps of marketing, with price interventions being the least common. Evaluations show consistent improvements in behavioral mediators but mixed results in behavior change. Interventions have successfully used social marketing following widely recommended strategies. Future evaluations need to focus on mediators that explain successful behavior change in order to identify best practices and improve future programs. More rigorous evaluations including quasi-experimental designs and randomized trials are needed. More consistent reporting of evaluation results that permits meta-analysis of effects is needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Generic Escherichia coli contamination of spinach at the preharvest stage: effects of farm management and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangshin; Navratil, Sarah; Gregory, Ashley; Bauer, Arin; Srinath, Indumathi; Jun, Mikyoung; Szonyi, Barbara; Nightingale, Kendra; Anciso, Juan; Ivanek, Renata

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of farm management and environmental factors on preharvest spinach contamination with generic Escherichia coli as an indicator of fecal contamination. A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted by visiting spinach farms up to four times per growing season over a period of 2 years (2010 to 2011). Spinach samples (n = 955) were collected from 12 spinach farms in Colorado and Texas as representative states of the Western and Southwestern United States, respectively. During each farm visit, farmers were surveyed about farm-related management and environmental factors using a questionnaire. Associations between the prevalence of generic E. coli in spinach and farm-related factors were assessed by using a multivariable logistic regression model including random effects for farm and farm visit. Overall, 6.6% of spinach samples were positive for generic E. coli. Significant risk factors for spinach contamination with generic E. coli were the proximity (within 10 miles) of a poultry farm, the use of pond water for irrigation, a >66-day period since the planting of spinach, farming on fields previously used for grazing, the production of hay before spinach planting, and the farm location in the Southwestern United States. Contamination with generic E. coli was significantly reduced with an irrigation lapse time of >5 days as well as by several factors related to field workers, including the use of portable toilets, training to use portable toilets, and the use of hand-washing stations. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an association between field workers' personal hygiene and produce contamination with generic E. coli at the preharvest level. Collectively, our findings support that practice of good personal hygiene and other good farm management practices may reduce produce contamination with generic E. coli at the preharvest level.

  11. Generating Insights from Trends in Newborn Care Practices from Prospective Population-Based Studies: Examples from India, Bangladesh and Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Crowe

    Full Text Available Delivery of essential newborn care is key to reducing neonatal mortality rates, yet coverage of protective birth practices remains incomplete and variable, with or without skilled attendance. Evidence of changes over time in newborn care provision, disaggregated by care practice and delivery type, can be used by policymakers to review efforts to reduce mortality. We examine such trends in four areas using control arm trial data.We analysed data from the control arms of cluster randomised controlled trials in Bangladesh (27 553 births, eastern India (8 939, Dhanusha, Nepal (15 344 and Makwanpur, Nepal (6 765 over the period 2001-2011. For each trial, we calculated the observed proportion of attended births and the coverage of WHO essential newborn care practices by year, adjusted for clustering and stratification. To explore factors contributing to the observed trends, we then analysed expected trends due only to observed shifts in birth attendance, accounted for stratification, delivery type and statistically significant interaction terms, and examined disaggregated trends in care practice coverage by delivery type. Attended births increased over the study periods in all areas from very low rates, reaching a maximum of only 30% of deliveries. Newborn care practice trends showed marked heterogeneity within and between areas. Adjustment for stratification, birth attendance and interaction revealed that care practices could change in opposite directions over time and/or between delivery types - e.g. in Bangladesh hygienic cord-cutting and skin-to-skin contact fell in attended deliveries but not home deliveries, whereas in India birth attendant hand-washing rose for institutional deliveries but fell for home deliveries.Coverage of many essential newborn care practices is improving, albeit slowly and unevenly across sites and delivery type. Time trend analyses of birth patterns and essential newborn care practices can inform policy-makers about

  12. Hyperendemic H. pylori and tapeworm infections in a U.S.-Mexico border population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Victor M; Mena, Kristina D; Ortiz, Melchor; Karri, Sitrulasi; Variyam, Easwaran; Behravesh, Casey Barton; Snowden, Karen F; Flisser, Ana; Bristol, John R; Mayberry, Lillian F; Ortega, Ynes R; Fukuda, Yoshihiro; Campos, Armando; Graham, David Y

    2010-01-01

    A higher incidence of infectious disease has been documented in U.S. regions bordering Mexico compared with non-border areas. We assessed the prevalence of important gastrointestinal infections in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, and El Paso, Texas, the largest binational community along the U.S.-Mexico border. Fecal specimens from a sample of the asymptomatic population representing all ages were tested for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., and other intestinal parasitic pathogens using flotation, immunoassays, and/or polymerase chain reaction. We also measured indicators of microbiological contamination of drinking water, hands of food preparers, and kitchen surfaces. Overall, of the 386 participants, H. pylori was present in 38.2%, Taenia spp. in 3.3%, Giardia spp. in 2.7%, Cryptosporidium spp. in 1.9%, Entamoeba dispar in 1.3%, and Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus in 0.3% of the study subjects; Cyclospora spp. and Entamoeba histolytica were not found. H. pylori infection was associated with handwashing (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0, 1.8). Taenia spp. was found more often on the U.S. side (PR=8.6, 95% CI 2.3, 30.8). We did not find an association between these infections and the occurrence of total coliforms or fecal coliforms on kitchen surfaces. In addition, Escherichia coli was not found in any drinking water sample. The study results indicated that H. pylori and Taenia spp. infections may be highly prevalent along the U.S.-Mexico border. Additional research is necessary to adequately characterize the prevalence, as well as determine whether interventions that reduce these infections are warranted.

  13. School Children's Intestinal Parasite and Nutritional Status One Year after Complementary School Garden, Nutrition, Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Interventions in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erismann, Séverine; Diagbouga, Serge; Schindler, Christian; Odermatt, Peter; Knoblauch, Astrid M; Gerold, Jana; Leuenberger, Andrea; Shrestha, Akina; Tarnagda, Grissoum; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2017-09-01

    The potential health benefits of combined agricultural, nutrition, water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions are poorly understood. We aimed to determine whether complementary school garden, nutrition, and WASH interventions reduce intestinal parasites and improve school children's nutritional status in two regions of Burkina Faso. A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted in the Plateau Central and Center-Ouest regions of Burkina Faso. A total of 360 randomly selected children, aged 8-15 years, had complete baseline and end-line survey data. Mixed regression models were used to assess the impact of the interventions, controlling for baseline characteristics. The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections decreased both in intervention and control schools, but the decrease was significantly higher in the intervention schools related to the control schools (odds ratio [OR] of the intervention effect = 0.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.1-0.5). Indices of undernutrition did not decrease at end-line in intervention schools. Safe handwashing practices before eating and the use of latrines at schools were significantly higher in the intervention schools than in the control schools at end-line (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.4-34.4, and OR = 14.9, 95% CI = 1.4-153.9, respectively). Parameters of water quality remained unchanged. A combination of agricultural, nutritional, and WASH-related interventions embedded in the social-ecological systems and delivered through the school platform improved several child health outcomes, including intestinal parasitic infections and some WASH-related behaviors. Sustained interventions with stronger household and community-based components are, however, needed to improve school children's health in the long-term.

  14. Spoiled breast milk and bad water; local understandings of diarrhea causes and prevention in rural Sierra Leone.

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    McMahon, Shannon A; George, Asha S; Yumkella, Fatu; Diaz, Theresa

    2013-12-13

    Globally, diarrhea remains a leading killer of young children. In Sierra Leone, one in seven children die before their fifth birthday and diarrhea is a leading cause. Studies that emphasize the demand-side of health interventions -- how caregivers understand causation and prevention of diarrhea -- have been neglected in research and programming. We undertook applied qualitative research including 68 in-depth interviews and 36 focus group discussions with mothers, fathers and older female caretakers to examine the causes and prevention of childhood diarrhea in villages near and far from health facilities across four rural districts. Verbal consent was obtained. Respondents reported multiple, co-existing descriptions of causation including: contaminated water and difficulties accessing clean water; exposure to an unclean environment and poor food hygiene; contaminated breast milk due to sexual intercourse, overheated breast milk or bodily maternal conditions such as menstruation or pregnancy; and dietary imbalances and curses. Respondents rarely discussed the role of open defecation or the importance of handwashing with soap in preventing diarrhea. Categorizing behaviors as beneficial, harmful, non-existent or benign enables tailored programmatic recommendations. For example, respondents recognized the value of clean water and we correspondingly recommend interventions that reinforce consumption of and access to clean water. Second, respondents report denying "contaminated" breast milk to breastfeeding children. This is a harmful practice that merits attention. Third, the role of open defecation and poor hygiene in causing diarrhea is less understood and warrants introduction or clarification. Finally, the role of exposed feet or curses in causing diarrhea is relatively benign and does not necessitate programmatic attention. Further research supportive of communication and social mobilization strategies building on these findings is required to ensure that improved

  15. Use of a simulation intervention to examine differences in nursing students' hand hygiene knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors.

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    Konicki, Tara; Miller, Elaine

    2016-10-01

    Although hand hygiene remains an essential aspect of quality care, adherence to best patient safety practices continues to pose major challenges. The objectives of this study are to examine hand hygiene knowledge, beliefs, practices, perceived importance and behaviors using Social Cognitive Theory and simulation-based intervention. Participants were taken from a convenience sample of 131 undergraduate nursing students enrolled in a nursing fundamentals course at an urban university in the midwestern United States, and then randomly assigned to their respective groups. Using an experimental pretest-posttest design, control and intervention groups received the same lecture pertaining to hand hygiene and 3 data collection points where van de Mortel's Hand Hygiene Questionnaire (HHQ) was administered. In addition, the intervention group viewed a 6.5min video related to healthcare acquired infection and participated in 4 simulated situations requiring hand hygiene, based on World Health Organization guidelines. For all students, the hand hygiene technique was assessed through the use of Glo Germ, followed by handwashing and photography under ultraviolet light (posttest only). Image illumination was analyzed using image processing software. Microbiological sampling plates (pretest-posttest) were assessed quantitatively by colony counting. Study findings did not support differences in the intervention group for the 5 hypothesized relationships. Social desirability responding and negative item confusion were found to occur with the HHQ in the student population. There was a significant difference in the UV hand photographs, with students in the afternoon having lower values than students in the morning. Given the study results, there were no definitive educational recommendations to teach hand hygiene to nursing students. Future research should continue to further examine multi-focal modalities to enhance adherence to hand hygiene practices, as well as control for

  16. Compliance With Guideline Statements for Urethral Catheterization in an Iranian Teaching Hospital

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    Negar Taleschian-Tabrizi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background It is believed that healthcare staff play an important role in minimizing complications related to urethral catheterization. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not healthcare staff complied with the standards for urethral catheterization. Methods This study was conducted in Imam Reza teaching hospital, Tabriz, Iran, from July to September 2013. A total of 109 catheterized patients were selected randomly from surgical and medical wards and intensive care units (ICUs. A questionnaire was completed by healthcare staff for each patient to assess quality of care provided for catheter insertion, while catheter in situ, draining and changing catheter bags. Items of the questionnaire were obtained from guidelines for the prevention of infection. Data analysis was performed with SPSS 16. Results The mean age of the patients was 50.54 ± 22.13. Of the 109 patients, 56.88% were admitted to ICUs. The mean duration of catheter use was 15.86 days. Among the 25 patients who had a urinalysis test documented in their hospital records, 11 were positive for urinary tract infection (UTI. The lowest rate of hand-washing was reported before bag drainage (49.52%. The closed drainage catheter system was not available at all. Among the cases who had a daily genital area cleansing, in 27.63% cases, the patients or their family members performed the washing. In 66.35% of cases, multiple-use lubricant gel was applied; single-use gel was not available. The rate of documentation for bag change was 79%. Conclusion The majority of the guideline statements was adhered to; however, some essential issues, such as hand hygiene were neglected. And some patients were catheterized routinely without proper indication. Limiting catheter use to mandatory situations and encouraging compliance with guidelines are recommended.

  17. Role of parents in the promotion of hand hygiene in the paediatric setting: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellissimo-Rodrigues, F; Pires, D; Zingg, W; Pittet, D

    2016-06-01

    When a child is hospitalized, parents have to share their role to protect the child with the hospital, and establish a partnership with healthcare workers to deliver safe care to the child, including undertaking good hand hygiene practices. To review the scientific evidence about the participation of parents in the promotion of hand hygiene in paediatric settings. A systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and SciELO databases was undertaken using the following terms: ('hand hygiene'[MeSH] OR 'hand hygiene' OR 'hand disinfection'[MeSH] OR hand disinf* OR hand wash* OR handwash* OR hand antisep*) AND (parent OR caregiver OR mother OR father OR family OR families OR relatives). The Integrated Quality Criteria for Review of Multiple Study Designs tool was used for quality assessment. The literature search yielded 1645 articles, and 11 studies met the inclusion criteria for the final analysis. Most studies were observational, and were based on questionnaires or interviews. Most parents had little knowledge about the indications to perform hand hygiene, but recognized hand hygiene as a relevant tool for the prevention of healthcare-associated infections. Their willingness to remind healthcare workers about a failed opportunity to perform hand hygiene was variable and, overall, rather low. Parents felt more comfortable about reminding healthcare workers about hand hygiene if they had previously been invited to do so. Literature on the subject is scarce. The promotion of hand hygiene by parents should be further explored by research as a potential intervention for enhancing patient safety in paediatric settings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Study on Hand Hygiene Among Imam Hossein Hospital’s Residents in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Mahmoud; Alavi-Moghaddam, Mostafa; Gachkar, Latif; Moeinian, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hand hygiene is considered one of the most important infection control measures for preventing health care-associated infections. Although the techniques involved in hand hygiene are simple, compliance with hand hygiene recommendations is poor worldwide. Objectives: We sought to perform a knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) study on hand hygiene among medical residents at Imam Hossein hospital, Tehran, Iran. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional KAP study was conducted among medical residents in Imam Hossein hospital, Iran, 2013. All medical residents from different wards were invited to participate in this study (270 in total). The world health organization questionnaires and an observational checklist were used to collect data. The χ2 test and the Fisher exact test were utilized to analyze the qualitative variables. Since the quantitative variables had no normal distribution, the Mann-Whitney test and the Kruskal-Wallis method were employed. A P value hand hygiene, and only 20.16% (n = 25) managed to identify the correct answer. Moreover, 3.1% (n = 8) of the residents adhered to the 8 standard steps, 12.1% (n = 31) washed their hands for 20 - 30 seconds, and only 2 residents observed the sequences of hand hygiene. Additionally, none of the residents performed hand washing with available means (water and hand-washing liquid) in the morning visit hours. Conclusions: Concerning hand hygiene, the residents had moderate knowledge but overall poor attitudes and practices. The present study underscores the need for further improvement in the existing training programs to address the gaps in KAP regarding hand hygiene. PMID:26568858

  19. Outbreak of caliciviruses in the Singapore military, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Freddy Jun Xian; Loh, Jimmy Jin Phang; Ting, Peijun; Yeo, Wei Xin; Gao, Christine Qiu Han; Lee, Vernon Jian Ming; Tan, Boon Huan; Ng, Ching Ging

    2017-11-14

    From 31 August to 9 September 2015, a total of 150 military personnel at a military institution in Singapore were infected with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) with an attack rate of approximately 3%. This study aimed to determine the epidemiology of the outbreak, investigate its origins, and discuss measures to prevent future occurrences. After the AGE outbreak was declared on 31 August 2015, symptom surveys, hygiene inspections, and the testing of water, food, and stool samples were initiated. We collected 86 stool samples from AGE cases and 58 samples from food-handlers during the course of the outbreak and these stool samples were tested for 8 bacterial pathogens and 2 viral pathogens (i.e., norovirus and sapovirus). We detected Sapovirus (SaV), group I Norovirus (NoV GI) and group II Norovirus (NoV GII) from the stool samples of AGE cases. Further sequence analyses showed that the AGE outbreak in August was caused mainly by three rarely reported calicivirus novel genotypes: NoV GI.7, NoV GII.17 and SaV GII.3. Control measures implemented focused on the escalation of personal and environmental hygiene, which included the separation of affected and unaffected soldiers, enforcement of rigorous hand-washing and hygiene, raising awareness of food and water safety, and disinfection of communal areas with bleach. This study identified both NoV and SaV as the causative agents for an AGE outbreak at a Singapore military camp in August 2015. This study is also the first to report SaV as one of the main causative agents, highlighting the importance of caliciviruses as causative agents of AGE outbreaks in the Singapore military. As there are no commercially available vaccines against caliciviruses, strict personal hygiene and proper disinfection of environmental surfaces remain crucial to prevent calicivirus outbreak and transmission.

  20. Generating Insights from Trends in Newborn Care Practices from Prospective Population-Based Studies: Examples from India, Bangladesh and Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Sonya; Prost, Audrey; Hossen, Munir; Azad, Kishwar; Kuddus, Abdul; Roy, Swati; Nair, Nirmala; Tripathy, Prasanta; Saville, Naomi; Sen, Aman; Sikorski, Catherine; Manandhar, Dharma; Costello, Anthony; Pagel, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Delivery of essential newborn care is key to reducing neonatal mortality rates, yet coverage of protective birth practices remains incomplete and variable, with or without skilled attendance. Evidence of changes over time in newborn care provision, disaggregated by care practice and delivery type, can be used by policymakers to review efforts to reduce mortality. We examine such trends in four areas using control arm trial data. We analysed data from the control arms of cluster randomised controlled trials in Bangladesh (27 553 births), eastern India (8 939), Dhanusha, Nepal (15 344) and Makwanpur, Nepal (6 765) over the period 2001-2011. For each trial, we calculated the observed proportion of attended births and the coverage of WHO essential newborn care practices by year, adjusted for clustering and stratification. To explore factors contributing to the observed trends, we then analysed expected trends due only to observed shifts in birth attendance, accounted for stratification, delivery type and statistically significant interaction terms, and examined disaggregated trends in care practice coverage by delivery type. Attended births increased over the study periods in all areas from very low rates, reaching a maximum of only 30% of deliveries. Newborn care practice trends showed marked heterogeneity within and between areas. Adjustment for stratification, birth attendance and interaction revealed that care practices could change in opposite directions over time and/or between delivery types - e.g. in Bangladesh hygienic cord-cutting and skin-to-skin contact fell in attended deliveries but not home deliveries, whereas in India birth attendant hand-washing rose for institutional deliveries but fell for home deliveries. Coverage of many essential newborn care practices is improving, albeit slowly and unevenly across sites and delivery type. Time trend analyses of birth patterns and essential newborn care practices can inform policy-makers about effective

  1. Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections in neonates in a hospital in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rabea, A A; Burwen, D R; Eldeen, M A; Fontaine, R E; Tenover, F; Jarvis, W R

    1998-09-01

    To identify risk factors for Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infections (BSI) in neonates in a hospital in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Two case-control studies among hospitalized neonates during February 15-May 14, 1991, and a procedural and microbiological investigation. Hospital A, a maternity and children's hospital in KSA. Case patients had a blood culture positive for K pneumoniae after >2 days of hospitalization and had no evidence of a nonblood primary site of infection. When the 20 case patients were compared with controls, hospitalization in a critical-care unit (odds ratio [OR], 5.5; 95% confidence interval [CI95], 1.20-51.1; P=.03) was identified as a risk factor. When the case patients were compared with a second set of controls matched by critical-care status, receipt of a particular intravenous fluid (D10%/0.2NS; OR, 11.0; CI95, 1.42-85.2; P=.009) or a blood product (OR undefined; P=.04) were identified as risk factors. Infusates were administered via umbilical catheters for most case and control patients (19/20 vs 15/20, P>.05); catheters were manipulated more frequently in patients in critical-care units. Umbilical catheter tip, skin, or mucus membrane K pneumoniae colonization occurred in 47% and 53% of evaluated case and control patients, respectively. Available K pneumoniae isolates from blood cultures and colonization sites had identical antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Emphasis on handwashing, careful preparation and administration of infusates, and aseptic technique for catheter insertion, maintenance, and manipulation was temporally associated with resolution of the epidemic. This outbreak was probably due to infusion therapy practices that led to BSI in nursery patients colonized with K pneumoniae. Both catheter-related infections and extrinsic contamination of infusates may have occurred. Hospital personnel should be aware of their potential to spread nosocomial pathogens from person to person and should implement Centers for

  2. Does routine gowning reduce nosocomial infection and mortality rates in a neonatal nursery? A Singapore experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S G; Lim, S H; Malathi, I

    1995-11-01

    A 1 year prospective study on routine gowning before entering a neonatal unit was conducted in a maternity hospital in Singapore. This study was done based on previous work by Donowitz, Haque and Chagla and Agbayani et al., as there have been no known studies done in Singapore. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that routine gowning before entering a neonatal nursery does not reduce nosocomial infection and mortality rate. A total of 212 neonates from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and 1694 neonates from the neonatal special care unit (NSCU) were studied. Neonates admitted during the 1 year study were assigned to the gowning (control) and no routine gowning (trial) group on every alternate 2 months. The hospital infection control nurse provided data on nosocomial infection. The overall nosocomial infection rate in the NICU was 24% (25 of 104 admissions) during gowning periods compared to 16.6% (18 of 108 admissions) when plastic aprons were not worn before entry. In the NSCU, the overall infection rate was 1.5% (12 of 800 admissions) during gowning periods compared to 2.1% (19 of 894 admissions) when no gown was worn before entry. Results of the study found no significant differences in the incidences of nosocomial infection and mortality in the neonates. The cost of gowns used during the no routine gowning periods was S$2012.8 compared to S$3708 used during the routine gowning procedure. The investigators recommend that routine gowning before entering a neonatal unit is not essential and cost effective for the purpose of reducing infection. Rather the focus should be on adequate handwashing by all hospital personnel and visitors before handling neonates.

  3. Nosocomial outbreak of staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in neonates: epidemiological investigation and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Helali, N; Carbonne, A; Naas, T; Kerneis, S; Fresco, O; Giovangrandi, Y; Fortineau, N; Nordmann, P; Astagneau, P

    2005-10-01

    Over a three-month period, 13 neonates developed staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) in a maternity unit, between four and 18 days after their birth. An epidemiological and descriptive study followed by a case-control study was performed. A case was defined as a neonate with blistering or peeling skin, and exfoliative toxin A Staphylococcus aureus positive cultures. Controls were selected at random from the asymptomatic, non-colonized neonates born on the same day as the cases. All staff members and all neonates born during the outbreak period were screened for carriage by nasal swabs and umbilical swabs, respectively. S. aureus isolates were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screened for etA gene and genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Two clusters of eight and five cases were identified. Receiving more than one early umbilical care procedure by the same ancillary nurse was the only risk factor identified in the case-control study (odds ratio=15, 95% confidence intervals 2-328). The ancillary nurse suffered from chronic dermatitis on her hands that favoured S. aureus carriage. Exfoliative-toxin-A-producing strains, as evidenced by PCR and indistinguishable by PFGE, were isolated from all but one of the SSSS cases, from four asymptomatic neonates, from two staff members and from the ancillary nurse's hands. Removal of the ancillary nurse from duty, infection control measures (isolation precautions, chlorhexidine handwashing and barrier protections), and treatment of the carriers (nasal mupirocin and chlorhexidine showers) led to control of the epidemic. In conclusion, this study emphasizes the need for tight surveillance of chronic dermatitis in healthcare workers.

  4. A multilevel analysis of lifestyle variations in symptoms of acute respiratory infection among young children under five in Nigeria

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    Oluwafunmilade A. Adesanya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nigeria has the second highest estimated number of deaths due to acute respiratory infection (ARI among children under five in the world. A common hypothesis is that the inequitable distribution of socioeconomic resources shapes individual lifestyles and health behaviors, which leads to poorer health, including symptoms of ARI. This study examined whether lifestyle factors are associated with ARI risk among Nigerian children aged less than 5 years, taking individual-level and contextual-level risk factors into consideration. Methods Data were obtained from the nationally representative 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. A total of 28,596 surviving children aged 5 years or younger living in 896 communities were analyzed. We employed two-level multilevel logistic regressions to model the relationship between lifestyle factors and ARI symptoms. Results The multivariate results from multilevel regressions indicated that the odds of having ARI symptoms were increased by a number of lifestyle factors such as in-house biomass cooking (OR = 2.30; p < 0.01 and no hand-washing (OR = 1.66; p < 0.001. An increased risk of ARI symptoms was also significantly associated with living in the North West region and the community with a high proportion of orphaned/vulnerable children (OR = 1.74; p < 0.001. Conclusions Our findings underscore the importance of Nigerian children’s lifestyle within the neighborhoods where they reside above their individual characteristics. Program-based strategies that are aimed at reducing ARI symptoms should consider policies that embrace making available basic housing standards, providing improved cooking stoves and enhancing healthy behaviors.

  5. Control of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae outbreaks in acute settings: an evidence review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, C E; Coope, C; Conway, L; Higgins, J P T; McCulloch, J; Okoli, G; Patel, B C; Oliver, I

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, infections with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) have been increasing globally and present a major public health challenge. To review the international literature: (i) to describe CPE outbreaks in acute hospital settings globally; and (ii) to identify the control measures used during these outbreaks and report on their effectiveness. A systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, abstract lists for key conferences and reference lists of key reviews was undertaken, and information on unpublished outbreaks was sought for 2000-2015. Where relevant, risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. A narrative synthesis of the evidence was conducted. Ninety-eight outbreaks were eligible. These occurred worldwide, with 53 reports from Europe. The number of cases (CPE infection or colonization) involved in outbreaks varied widely, from two to 803. In the vast majority of outbreaks, multi-component infection control measures were used, commonly including: patient screening; contact precautions (e.g. gowns, gloves); handwashing interventions; staff education or monitoring; enhanced environmental cleaning/decontamination; cohorting of patients and/or staff; and patient isolation. Seven studies were identified as providing the best-available evidence on the effectiveness of control measures. These demonstrated that CPE outbreaks can be controlled successfully using a range of appropriate, commonly used, infection control measures. However, risk of bias was considered relatively high for these studies. The findings indicate that CPE outbreaks can be controlled using combinations of existing measures. However, the quality of the evidence base is weak and further high-quality research is needed, particularly on the effectiveness of individual infection control measures. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Knowledge, practices and attitudes toward volunteer work in an influenza pandemic: cross-sectional study with Peruvian medical students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huapaya, Julio A; Maquera-Afaray, Julio; García, Patricia J; Cárcamo, César; Cieza, Javier A

    2015-05-08

    Reductions in health personnel during disasters or epidemics such as an influenza pandemic may need to include volunteer students. The aim of this article is to determine knowledge and practices about pandemic influenza and the attitudes towards volunteer work in Peruvian medical students. We performed a cross-sectional analytic study by simple sampling using a survey regarding “"knowledge and practices"” about pandemic influenza and the attitudes to volunteer work. From the group of 865 students who were surveyed, 848 accepted to participate in the investigation (54% were male and their mean age was 22.1 ± 3.0). Ninety-seven percent correctly identified the spread routes of influenza and 81% knew its treatment. Regarding preventive measures, covering the mouth when coughing/sneezing and hand-washing were the most commonly recognized options (95% y 92%, respectively), and vaccination was the less recognized one (54%). The most common practice, readily acknowledged as preventive, was covering when coughing/sneezing (86%). Regarding volunteer works, students answered that it is a moral/ethical/professional obligation (77%); that a contingency university service needs to be established (88%), that it does not have to substitute for the lack of workers (49%), and that its role should be related to hospital work (83%). Coming from a public university was more associated to the concept that volunteer work was a moral obligation and that the student should be punished if he/she refuses to be a volunteer, whereas being from a private university was more related to a history of been involved in volunteering programs. In general, medical students have good knowledge and practices toward influenza. There is a good disposition to volunteer their work and skills, recognizing it as a moral/ethical/professional obligation.

  7. Puerperal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschenbach, D A; Wager, G P

    1980-12-01

    . Prevention strategies are straightforward: handwashing, changing scrub clothes, isolation of infected patients, restriction of staff contact and prophylactic antibiotics for cesarean section patients at high risk, starting when the cord is clamped.

  8. Injectable-antineoplastic-drug practices in Michigan hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, I A; Newland, S J; Kirking, D M

    1987-05-01

    Practices related to parenteral (injectable) antineoplastic drugs (PADs) in Michigan hospitals were surveyed. All hospitals in Michigan were surveyed to assess compliance with American Society of Hospital Pharmacists (ASHP) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recommendations related to PADs. Other PAD-related practice issues not covered within those guidelines were also studied. Surveys were mailed to the pharmacy directors of the state's 192 acute-care hospitals. Included were questions concerning policies and procedures for ordering, storing, preparing, handling, labeling, transporting, administering, and disposing of PADs. Questions concerning staff education, spill cleanup, and personnel issues were also included. A total of 169 questionnaires were returned, yielding a response rate of 88%. Of those respondents, 132 indicated that they prepare PAD doses for inpatients. Adherence rates were high for several of the PAD-preparation recommendations, including handwashing (97%) and gloving (98.5%). Rates for gowning (71.2%), labeling of PAD doses as biohazards (chemical hazards) (73.5%), and use of Class II biological-safety cabinets (71.2%) were less favorable. Practice areas with relatively poor adherence rates included use of plastic-backed absorbent pads under PAD preparation areas (53.8%), storing PADs separately from other drugs (48.5%), informing prospective employees of potential risks of handling PADs (36.4%), availability of spill kits (36.4%), and attaching and priming i.v. tubing before adding PADs to i.v. containers (5.4%). Many pharmacy departments in Michigan hospitals can substantially improve their adherence to ASHP and OSHA recommendations related to PADs.

  9. Impact of 4.0% chlorhexidine cleansing of the umbilical cord on mortality and omphalitis among newborns of Sylhet, Bangladesh: design of a community-based cluster randomized trial

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    Ahmed Saifuddin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization recommends dry cord care for newborns but this recommendation may not be optimal in low resource settings where most births take place in an unclean environment and infections account for up to half of neonatal deaths. A previous trial in Nepal indicated that umbilical cord cleansing with 4.0% chlorhexidine could substantially reduce mortality and omphalitis risk, but policy changes await additional community-based data. Methods The Projahnmo Chlorhexidine study was a three-year, cluster-randomized, community-based trial to assess the impact of three cord care regimens on neonatal mortality and omphalitis. Women were recruited mid-pregnancy, received a basic package of maternal and neonatal health promotion messages, and were followed to pregnancy outcome. Newborns were visited at home by local village-based workers whose areas were randomized to either 1 single- or 2 7-day cord cleansing with 4.0% chlorhexidine, or 3 promotion of dry cord care as recommended by WHO. All mothers received basic messages regarding hand-washing, clean cord cutting, and avoidance of harmful home-base applications to the cord. Death within 28 days and omphalitis were the primary outcomes; these were monitored directly through home visits by community health workers on days 1, 3, 6, 9, 15, and 28 after birth. Discussion Due to report in early 2010, the Projahnmo Chlorhexidine Study examines the impact of multiple or single chlorhexidine cleansing of the cord on neonatal mortality and omphalitis among newborns of rural Sylhet District, Bangladesh. The results of this trial will be interpreted in conjunction with a similarly designed trial previously conducted in Nepal, and will have implications for policy guidelines for optimal cord care of newborns in low resource settings in Asia. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00434408

  10. Generating Insights from Trends in Newborn Care Practices from Prospective Population-Based Studies: Examples from India, Bangladesh and Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Sonya; Prost, Audrey; Hossen, Munir; Azad, Kishwar; Kuddus, Abdul; Roy, Swati; Nair, Nirmala; Tripathy, Prasanta; Saville, Naomi; Sen, Aman; Sikorski, Catherine; Manandhar, Dharma; Costello, Anthony; Pagel, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Background Delivery of essential newborn care is key to reducing neonatal mortality rates, yet coverage of protective birth practices remains incomplete and variable, with or without skilled attendance. Evidence of changes over time in newborn care provision, disaggregated by care practice and delivery type, can be used by policymakers to review efforts to reduce mortality. We examine such trends in four areas using control arm trial data. Methods and Findings We analysed data from the control arms of cluster randomised controlled trials in Bangladesh (27 553 births), eastern India (8 939), Dhanusha, Nepal (15 344) and Makwanpur, Nepal (6 765) over the period 2001–2011. For each trial, we calculated the observed proportion of attended births and the coverage of WHO essential newborn care practices by year, adjusted for clustering and stratification. To explore factors contributing to the observed trends, we then analysed expected trends due only to observed shifts in birth attendance, accounted for stratification, delivery type and statistically significant interaction terms, and examined disaggregated trends in care practice coverage by delivery type. Attended births increased over the study periods in all areas from very low rates, reaching a maximum of only 30% of deliveries. Newborn care practice trends showed marked heterogeneity within and between areas. Adjustment for stratification, birth attendance and interaction revealed that care practices could change in opposite directions over time and/or between delivery types – e.g. in Bangladesh hygienic cord-cutting and skin-to-skin contact fell in attended deliveries but not home deliveries, whereas in India birth attendant hand-washing rose for institutional deliveries but fell for home deliveries. Conclusions Coverage of many essential newborn care practices is improving, albeit slowly and unevenly across sites and delivery type. Time trend analyses of birth patterns and essential newborn care practices

  11. Healthcare workers and prevention of hepatitis C virus transmission: exploring knowledge, attitudes and evidence-based practices in hemodialysis units in Italy

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    Bianco Aida

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence exists regarding the full prevention of HCV transmission to hemodialysis patients by implementing universal precaution. However, little information is available regarding the frequency with which hospitals have adopted evidence-based practices for preventing HCV infection among hemodialysis patients. A cross-sectional survey has been conducted among nurses in Calabria region (Italy in order to acquire information about the level of knowledge, the attitudes and the frequencies of evidence-based practices that prevent hospital transmission of HCV. Methods All 37 hemodialysis units (HDU of Calabria were included in the study and all nurses were invited to participate in the study and to fill in a self-administered questionnaire. Results 90% of the nurses working in HDU participated in the study. Correct answers about HCV pattern of transmission ranged from 73.7% to 99.3% and were significantly higher in respondents who knew that isolation of HCV-infected patients is not recommended and among those who knew that previous bloodstream infections should be included in medical record and among nurses with fewer years of practice. Most correctly thought that evidence-based infection control measures provide adequate protection against transmission of bloodborne pathogens among healthcare workers. Positive attitude was significantly higher among more knowledgeable nurses. Self-reporting of appropriate handwashing procedures were significantly more likely in nurses who were aware that transmission of bloodborne pathogens among healthcare workers may be prevented through adoption of evidence-based practices and with a correct knowledge about HCV transmission patterns. Conclusions Behavior changes should be aimed at abandoning outdated practices and adopting and maintaining evidence-based practices. Initiatives focused at enabling and reinforcing adherence to effective prevention practices among nurses in HDU are strongly needed.

  12. Indwelling urinary catheter management and catheter-associated urinary tract infection prevention practices in Nurses Improving Care for Healthsystem Elders hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Regina; Gilmartin, Heather; Richard, Angela; Capezuti, Elizabeth; Boltz, Marie; Wald, Heidi

    2012-10-01

    Indwelling urinary catheters (IUCs) are commonly used in hospitalized patients, especially elders. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) account for 34% of all health care associated infections in the United States, associated with excess morbidity and health care costs. Adherence to CAUTI prevention practices has not been well described. This study used an electronic survey to examine IUC care practices for CAUTI prevention in 3 areas-(1) equipment and alternatives and insertion and maintenance techniques; (2) personnel, policies, training, and education; and (3) documentation, surveillance, and removal reminders-at 75 acute care hospitals in the Nurses Improving the Care of Healthsystem Elders (NICHE) system. CAUTI prevention practices commonly followed included wearing gloves (97%), handwashing (89%), maintaining a sterile barrier (81%), and using a no-touch insertion technique (73%). Silver-coated catheters were used to varying degrees in 59% of the hospitals; 4% reported never using a catheter-securing device. Urethral meatal care was provided daily by 43% of hospitals and more frequently that that by 41% of hospitals. Nurses were the most frequently reported IUC inserters. Training in aseptic technique and CAUTI prevention at the time of initial nursing hire was provided by 64% of hospitals; however, only 47% annually validated competency in IUC insertion. Systems for IUC removal were implemented in 56% of hospitals. IUC documentation and routine CAUTI surveillance practices varied widely. Although many CAUTI prevention practices at NICHE hospitals are in alignment with evidence-based guidelines, there is room for improvement. Further research is needed to identify the effect of enhanced compliance with CAUTI prevention practices on the prevalence of CAUTI in NICHE hospitals. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Situational awareness and health protective responses to pandemic influenza A (H1N1 in Hong Kong: a cross-sectional study.

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    Qiuyan Liao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Whether information sources influence health protective behaviours during influenza pandemics or other emerging infectious disease epidemics is uncertain.Data from cross-sectional telephone interviews of 1,001 Hong Kong adults in June, 2009 were tested against theory and data-derived hypothesized associations between trust in (formal/informal information, understanding, self-efficacy, perceived susceptibility and worry, and hand hygiene and social distancing using Structural Equation Modelling with multigroup comparisons.Trust in formal (government/media information about influenza was associated with greater reported understanding of A/H1N1 cause (β = 0.36 and A/H1N1 prevention self-efficacy (β = 0.25, which in turn were associated with more hand hygiene (β = 0.19 and β = 0.23, respectively. Trust in informal (interpersonal information was negatively associated with perceived personal A/H1N1 susceptibility (β = -0.21, which was negatively associated with perceived self-efficacy (β = -0.42 but positively associated with influenza worry (β = 0.44. Trust in informal information was positively associated with influenza worry (β = 0.16 which was in turn associated with greater social distancing (β = 0.36. Multigroup comparisons showed gender differences regarding paths from trust in formal information to understanding of A/H1N1 cause, trust in informal information to understanding of A/H1N1 cause, and understanding of A/H1N1 cause to perceived self-efficacy.Trust in government/media information was more strongly associated with greater self-efficacy and handwashing, whereas trust in informal information was strongly associated with perceived health threat and avoidance behaviour. Risk communication should consider the effect of gender differences.

  14. Situational awareness and health protective responses to pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in Hong Kong: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Qiuyan; Cowling, Benjamin; Lam, Wing Tak; Ng, Man Wai; Fielding, Richard

    2010-10-12

    Whether information sources influence health protective behaviours during influenza pandemics or other emerging infectious disease epidemics is uncertain. Data from cross-sectional telephone interviews of 1,001 Hong Kong adults in June, 2009 were tested against theory and data-derived hypothesized associations between trust in (formal/informal) information, understanding, self-efficacy, perceived susceptibility and worry, and hand hygiene and social distancing using Structural Equation Modelling with multigroup comparisons. Trust in formal (government/media) information about influenza was associated with greater reported understanding of A/H1N1 cause (β = 0.36) and A/H1N1 prevention self-efficacy (β = 0.25), which in turn were associated with more hand hygiene (β = 0.19 and β = 0.23, respectively). Trust in informal (interpersonal) information was negatively associated with perceived personal A/H1N1 susceptibility (β = -0.21), which was negatively associated with perceived self-efficacy (β = -0.42) but positively associated with influenza worry (β = 0.44). Trust in informal information was positively associated with influenza worry (β = 0.16) which was in turn associated with greater social distancing (β = 0.36). Multigroup comparisons showed gender differences regarding paths from trust in formal information to understanding of A/H1N1 cause, trust in informal information to understanding of A/H1N1 cause, and understanding of A/H1N1 cause to perceived self-efficacy. Trust in government/media information was more strongly associated with greater self-efficacy and handwashing, whereas trust in informal information was strongly associated with perceived health threat and avoidance behaviour. Risk communication should consider the effect of gender differences.

  15. A systematic review on hand hygiene knowledge and compliance in student nurses.

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    Labrague, L J; McEnroe-Petitte, D M; van de Mortel, T; Nasirudeen, A M A

    2017-10-27

    Hand hygiene competence is one of the critical outcomes in nursing education. Ensuring nursing students recognize the what, when and how of hand hygiene is critical in the light of the increasing rates of healthcare-associated infections. To systematically appraise and synthesize articles on hand hygiene knowledge and compliance among nursing students. This is a systematic review of scientific articles published from 2006 to 2016. The primary databases used were as follows: PubMed, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature, Proquest and PsychINFO. Key search terms utilized were as follows: 'handwashing', 'hand hygiene', 'compliance', 'knowledge', 'practice' and 'nursing students'. Nineteen studies met the review criteria. The findings revealed a low-to-moderate knowledge of and compliance with hand hygiene among nursing students. In addition, there were significantly higher rates of hand hygiene compliance in nursing students when compared to medical students. Relatively few studies attempted to identify predictors of hand hygiene knowledge and compliance. This review demonstrated suboptimal knowledge and compliance to hand hygiene among student nurses. In addition, this review also highlighted the paucity of studies that examined individual and organizational factors, which influence nursing students hand hygiene knowledge and compliance. The findings of this review emphasized the role of nurse educators in enhancing hand hygiene competence in nursing students. Implementation of empirically tested strategies such as utilizing multidimensional interventions, scenario-based hand hygiene simulation activities and hand hygiene education programmes that would enhance nursing students' hand hygiene knowledge and compliance is an asset. Hospital and nursing administrators should ensure continuous support and monitoring to guarantee that hand hygiene programmes are institutionalized in every healthcare setting by every healthcare worker. © 2017

  16. Multiple Household Water Sources and Their Use in Remote Communities With Evidence From Pacific Island Countries

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    Elliott, Mark; MacDonald, Morgan C.; Chan, Terence; Kearton, Annika; Shields, Katherine F.; Bartram, Jamie K.; Hadwen, Wade L.

    2017-11-01

    Global water research and monitoring typically focus on the household's "main source of drinking-water." Use of multiple water sources to meet daily household needs has been noted in many developing countries but rarely quantified or reported in detail. We gathered self-reported data using a cross-sectional survey of 405 households in eight communities of the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) and five Solomon Islands (SI) communities. Over 90% of households used multiple sources, with differences in sources and uses between wet and dry seasons. Most RMI households had large rainwater tanks and rationed stored rainwater for drinking throughout the dry season, whereas most SI households collected rainwater in small pots, precluding storage across seasons. Use of a source for cooking was strongly positively correlated with use for drinking, whereas use for cooking was negatively correlated or uncorrelated with nonconsumptive uses (e.g., bathing). Dry season water uses implied greater risk of water-borne disease, with fewer (frequently zero) handwashing sources reported and more unimproved sources consumed. Use of multiple sources is fundamental to household water management and feasible to monitor using electronic survey tools. We contend that recognizing multiple water sources can greatly improve understanding of household-level and community-level climate change resilience, that use of multiple sources confounds health impact studies of water interventions, and that incorporating multiple sources into water supply interventions can yield heretofore-unrealized benefits. We propose that failure to consider multiple sources undermines the design and effectiveness of global water monitoring, data interpretation, implementation, policy, and research.

  17. Adherence to evidence based care practices for childbirth before and after a quality improvement intervention in health facilities of Rajasthan, India.

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    Iyengar, Kirti; Jain, Motilal; Thomas, Sunil; Dashora, Kalpana; Liu, William; Saini, Paramsukh; Dattatreya, Rajesh; Parker, Indrani; Iyengar, Sharad

    2014-08-13

    After the launch of Janani Suraksha Yojana, a conditional cash transfer scheme in India, the proportion of women giving birth in institutions has rapidly increased. However, there are important gaps in quality of childbirth services during institutional deliveries. The aim of this intervention was to improve the quality of childbirth services in selected high caseload public health facilities of 10 districts of Rajasthan. This intervention titled "Parijaat" was designed by Action Research & Training for Health, in partnership with the state government and United Nations Population Fund. The intervention was carried out in 44 public health facilities in 10 districts of Rajasthan, India. These included district hospitals (9), community health centres (32) and primary health centres (3). The main intervention was orientation training of doctors and program managers and regular visits to facilities involving assessment, feedback, training and action. The adherence to evidence based practices before, during and after this intervention were measured using structured checklists and scoring sheets. Main outcome measures included changes in practices during labour, delivery or immediate postpartum period. Use of several unnecessary or harmful practices reduced significantly. Most importantly, proportion of facilities using routine augmentation of labour reduced (p = 0), episiotomy for primigravidas (p = 0.0003), fundal pressure (p = 0.0003), and routine suction of newborns (0 = 0.0005). Among the beneficial practices, use of oxytocin after delivery increased (p = 0.0001) and the practice of listening foetal heart sounds during labour (p = 0.0001). Some practices did not show any improvements, such as dorsal position for delivery, use of partograph, and hand-washing. An intervention based on repeated facility visits combined with actions at the level of decision makers can lead to substantial improvements in quality of childbirth practices at health facilities.

  18. Knowledge, attitudes, and practice on the prevention of central line-associated bloodstream infections among nurses in oncological care: A cross-sectional study in an area of southern Italy.

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    Maria Rosaria Esposito

    Full Text Available The objectives of the cross-sectional study were to delineate the knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among nurses regarding the prevention of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs and to identify their predisposing factors. A questionnaire was self-administered from September to November 2011 to nurses in oncology and outpatient chemotherapy units in 16 teaching and non-teaching public and private hospitals in the Campania region (Italy. The questionnaire gathered information on demographic and occupational characteristics; knowledge about evidence-based practices for the prevention of CLABSIs; attitudes towards guidelines, the risk of transmitting infections, and hand-washing when using central venous catheter (CVC; practices about catheter site care; and sources of information. The vast majority of the 335 nurses answered questions correctly about the main recommendations to prevent CLABSIs (use sterile gauze or sterile transparent semipermeable dressing to cover the catheter site, disinfect the needleless connectors before administer medication or fluid, disinfect with hydrogen peroxide the catheter insertion site, and use routinely anticoagulants solutions. Nurses aged 36 to 50 years were less likely to know these main recommendations to prevent CLABSIs, whereas this knowledge was higher in those who have received information about the prevention of these infections from courses. Nurses with lower education and those who do not know two of the main recommendations on the site's care to prevent the CLABSIs, were more likely to perceive the risk of transmitting an infection. Higher education, attitude toward the utility allow to dry antiseptic, and the need of washing hands before wearing gloves for access to port infusion were predictors of performing skin antiseptic and aseptic technique for dressing the catheter insertion site. Educational interventions should be implemented to address the gaps regarding knowledge and

  19. Video surveillance captures student hand hygiene behavior, reactivity to observation, and peer influence in Kenyan primary schools.

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    Amy J Pickering

    Full Text Available In-person structured observation is considered the best approach for measuring hand hygiene behavior, yet is expensive, time consuming, and may alter behavior. Video surveillance could be a useful tool for objectively monitoring hand hygiene behavior if validated against current methods.Student hand cleaning behavior was monitored with video surveillance and in-person structured observation, both simultaneously and separately, at four primary schools in urban Kenya over a study period of 8 weeks.Video surveillance and in-person observation captured similar rates of hand cleaning (absolute difference <5%, p = 0.74. Video surveillance documented higher hand cleaning rates (71% when at least one other person was present at the hand cleaning station, compared to when a student was alone (48%; rate ratio  = 1.14 [95% CI 1.01-1.28]. Students increased hand cleaning rates during simultaneous video and in-person monitoring as compared to single-method monitoring, suggesting reactivity to each method of monitoring. This trend was documented at schools receiving a handwashing with soap intervention, but not at schools receiving a sanitizer intervention.Video surveillance of hand hygiene behavior yields results comparable to in-person observation among schools in a resource-constrained setting. Video surveillance also has certain advantages over in-person observation, including rapid data processing and the capability to capture new behavioral insights. Peer influence can significantly improve student hand cleaning behavior and, when possible, should be exploited in the design and implementation of school hand hygiene programs.

  20. Reducing absenteeism from gastrointestinal and respiratory illness in elementary school students: a randomized, controlled trial of an infection-control intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandora, Thomas J; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Goldmann, Donald A

    2008-06-01

    Students often miss school because of gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses. We assessed the effectiveness of a multifactorial intervention, including alcohol-based hand-sanitizer and surface disinfection, in reducing absenteeism caused by gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses in elementary school students. We performed a school-based cluster-randomized, controlled trial at a single elementary school. Eligible students in third to fifth grade were enrolled. Intervention classrooms received alcohol-based hand sanitizer to use at school and quaternary ammonium wipes to disinfect classroom surfaces daily for 8 weeks; control classrooms followed usual hand-washing and cleaning practices. Parents completed a preintervention demographic survey. Absences were recorded along with the reason for absence. Swabs of environmental surfaces were evaluated by bacterial culture and polymerase chain reaction for norovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza, and parainfluenza 3. The primary outcomes were rates of absenteeism caused by gastrointestinal or respiratory illness. Days absent were modeled as correlated Poisson variables and compared between groups by using generalized estimating equations. Analyses were adjusted for family size, race, health status, and home sanitizer use. We also compared the presence of viruses and the total bacterial colony counts on several classroom surfaces. A total of 285 students were randomly assigned; baseline demographics were similar in the 2 groups. The adjusted absenteeism rate for gastrointestinal illness was significantly lower in the intervention-group subjects compared with control subjects. The adjusted absenteeism rate for respiratory illness was not significantly different between groups. Norovirus was the only virus detected and was found less frequently on surfaces in intervention classrooms compared with control classrooms (9% vs 29%). A multifactorial intervention including hand sanitizer and surface disinfection

  1. Video didactic at the point of care impacts hand hygiene compliance in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

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    Hoang, Danthanh; Khawar, Nayaab; George, Maria; Gad, Ashraf; Sy, Farrah; Narula, Pramod

    2018-04-01

    To increase the hand-washing (HW) duration of staff and visitors in the NICU to a minimum of 20 seconds as recommended by the CDC. Intervention included video didactic triggered by motion sensor to play above wash basin. Video enacted Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) HW technique in real time and displayed timer of 20 seconds. HW was reviewed from surveillance video. Swabs of hands plated and observed for qualitative growth (QG) of bacterial colonies. In visitors, the mean HW duration at baseline was 16.3 seconds and increased to 23.4 seconds at the 2-week interval (p = .003) and 22.9 seconds at the 9-month interval (p < .0005). In staff, the mean HW duration at baseline was 18.4 seconds and increased to 29.0 seconds at 2-week interval (p = .001) and 25.7 seconds at the 9-month interval (p < .0005). In visitors, HW compliance at baseline was 33% and increased to 52% at the 2-week interval (p = .076) and 69% at the 9-month interval (p = .001). In staff, HW compliance at baseline was 42% and increased to 64% at the 2-week interval (p = .025) and 72% at the 9-month interval (p = .001). Increasing HW was significantly associated with linear decrease in bacterial QG. The intervention significantly increased mean HW time, compliance with a 20-econd wash time and decreased bacterial QG of hands and these results were sustained over a 9-month period. © 2018 American Society for Healthcare Risk Management of the American Hospital Association.

  2. Street foods in Accra, Ghana: how safe are they?

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    Mensah, Patience; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Owusu-Darko, Kwaku; Ablordey, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the microbial quality of foods sold on streets of Accra and factors predisposing to their contamination. METHODS: Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 117 street vendors on their vital statistics, personal hygiene, food hygiene and knowledge of foodborne illness. Standard methods were used for the enumeration, isolation, and identification of bacteria. FINDINGS: Most vendors were educated and exhibited good hygiene behaviour. Diarrhoea was defined as the passage of > or =3 stools per day) by 110 vendors (94.0%), but none associated diarrhoea with bloody stools; only 21 (17.9%) associated diarrhoea with germs. The surroundings of the vending sites were clean, but four sites (3.4%) were classified as very dirty. The cooking of food well in advance of consumption, exposure of food to flies, and working with food at ground level and by hand were likely risk factors for contamination. Examinations were made of 511 menu items, classified as breakfast/snack foods, main dishes, soups and sauces, and cold dishes. Mesophilic bacteria were detected in 356 foods (69.7%): 28 contained Bacillus cereus (5.5%), 163 contained Staphylococcus aureus (31.9%) and 172 contained Enterobacteriaceae (33.7%). The microbial quality of most of the foods was within the acceptable limits but samples of salads, macaroni, fufu, omo tuo and red pepper had unacceptable levels of contamination. Shigella sonnei and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli were isolated from macaroni, rice, and tomato stew, and Salmonella arizonae from light soup. CONCLUSION: Street foods can be sources of enteropathogens. Vendors should therefore receive education in food hygiene. Special attention should be given to the causes of diarrhoea, the transmission of diarrhoeal pathogens, the handling of equipment and cooked food, hand-washing practices and environmental hygiene. PMID:12163918

  3. Epidemiological Survey on Porcine Cysticercosis in Nay Pyi Taw Area, Myanmar

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    Tin Aye Khaing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional surveys were conducted to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs within Nay Pyi Taw area, Myanmar. Meat inspection in three slaughterhouses, ELISA test, and questionnaire surveys were conducted in this study. Three hundred pigs were inspected in slaughterhouses and 364 pigs were randomly selected and examined from 203 households from three townships in Nay Pyi Taw area. The prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in meat inspection was 23.67% (71/300. Seroprevalence of T. solium cysticercosis in pigs in the study area was 15.93% (58/364. Significant associated risk factors with T. solium cysticercosis were gender (OR=3.0; 95% CI=1.7–5.4, increased age (OR=2.3; 95% CI=1.2–4.2, husbandry system (OR=5.1; 95% CI=2.4–11.2, feed type (OR=16.9; 95% CI=2.3–124.3, not using anthelmintics in pigs (OR=11.9; 95% CI=5.0–28.5, not using anthelmintics in owner (OR=2.5; 95% CI=1.4–4.4, no hand-washing before feeding (OR=31.5; 95% CI=4.3–230.9, and pork consumption of owner (OR=37.4; 95% CI=9.0–156.1 in the study area. This is the first report of porcine cysticercosis in Myanmar.

  4. Allergic contact dermatitis due to nickel in household detergent

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    Dewi Utami Putri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD is a cutaneous inflammatory reaction caused by contact with specific exogenous allergen to which a person has developed allergic sensitization. Nickel was reported as one of the most common causes of ACD worldwide, particularly affecting females. It is associated with a variety of nickel-containing products, from jewelry to detergent. A 32-year-old female was presented with pruritic eruption consist of erythematous papules and vesicles on both hands and extensor forearms since 2 weeks before admission. The patient is a housewife who did handwashing clothes and kitchenware with detergent and soap every day. At first, there were erythematous papules on the right extensor forearm, then the patient wore rubber gloves to protect hands when washing. However, the lesions spread to the left extensor forearm and there were also vesicles on both hands. There was history of localized reactions to metal items, the latter one was 3 weeks ago after wearing a metal necklace. The clinical presentation were multiple erythematous papules and vesicles, erythematous and hyperpigmented macules. The patch test using Chemotechnique Diagnostics AB and square chamber showed a 2+ reaction to nickel sulfate. The patient was educated to avoid the causative allergen and treated with oral antihistamine and topical corticosteroid. The patient showed significant clinical improvement after 2 weeks. Nickel as metal catalyst used in detergents is found in small concentration, but can lead to ACD in an already sensitized individual.The lesions persist despite the use of gloves because nickel is absorbed through rubber materia

  5. The use of real-time feedback via wireless technology to improve hand hygiene compliance.

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    Marra, Alexandre R; Sampaio Camargo, Thiago Zinsly; Magnus, Thyago Pereira; Blaya, Rosangela Pereira; Dos Santos, Gilson Batista; Guastelli, Luciana Reis; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Dias; Prado, Marcelo; Victor, Elivane da Silva; Bogossian, Humberto; Monte, Julio Cesar Martins; dos Santos, Oscar Fernando Pavão; Oyama, Carlos Kazume; Edmond, Michael B

    2014-06-01

    Hand hygiene (HH) is widely regarded as the most effective preventive measure for health care-associated infection. However, there is little robust evidence on the best interventions to improve HH compliance or whether a sustained increase in compliance can reduce rates of health care-associated infection. To evaluate the effectiveness of a real-time feedback to improve HH compliance in the inpatient setting, we used a quasiexperimental study comparing the effect of real-time feedback using wireless technology on compliance with HH. The study was conducted in two 20-bed step-down units at a private tertiary care hospital. Phase 1 was a 3-month baseline period in which HH counts were performed by electronic handwash counters. After a 1-month washout period, a 7-month intervention was performed in one step-down unit while the other unit served as a control. HH, as measured by dispensing episodes, was significantly higher in the intervention unit (90.1 vs 73.1 dispensing episodes/patient-day, respectively, P = .001). When the intervention unit was compared with itself before and after implementation of the wireless technology, there was also a significant increase in HH after implementation (74.5 vs 90.1 episodes/patient-day, respectively, P = .01). There was also an increase in mean alcohol-based handrub consumption between the 2 phases (68.9 vs 103.1 mL/patient-day, respectively, P = .04) in the intervention unit. We demonstrated an improvement in alcohol gel usage via implementation of real-time feedback via wireless technology. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Coping with hygiene in South Africa, a water scarce country.

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    Duse, A G; da Silva, M P; Zietsman, I

    2003-06-01

    The burden of infectious diseases may be reduced by adopting effective infection control measures. Some of these are dependent on the provision of adequate and safe water supplies for maintenance of basic standards of personal, domestic and healthcare hygiene. Consequences of scarce, and sometimes unsafe, waters supplies in South Africa are highlighted with reference to healthcare-associated infections, community acquired infectious intestinal diseases and domestic practices as infection sources. Availability of water in more than 67% of South African municipal hospitals and primary health care facilities (delivered by water tanker in 12.5% of satellite clinics, 5% from river or dam sources, 12.4% relying on rainwater) does not necessarily guarantee that it's quality is safe for utilisation. In the Northern Province and Mpumalanga, water needs to be purified prior to usage in 14.4 and 33% of satellite clinics respectively. Simple, low maintenance and low-cost interventions to maximise use and safety of limited water resources may be implemented: micro-organism (S. dysenteriae) inactivation by direct UV-exposure in sunlight abundant environments, water purification by filtration mechanisms and making use of iron pots in the community for pasteurisation, decontamination and boiling procedures. Education is paramount in promoting healthy domestic food handling practices, changing cultural perceptions of hygiene, hand-washing technique and mechanisms of domestic environmental decontamination. Water provision cannot be separated from other inter-related factors such as sanitation. Although the present government has taken initiatives to reduce the number of people not having access to water by 50% in 2002, provision of sanitation has been slower (>38% inadequate sanitation in 2002). Adoption of integrated environmental management approaches in conjunction with community participation (WASH Campaign--2002), by the government, aims to address the sanitation problems.

  7. Use of hand hygiene agents as a surrogate marker of compliance in Hungarian long-term care facilities: first nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Rita; Morvai, Júlia; Bellissimo-Rodrigues, Fernando; Pittet, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Hand hygiene practice is an important measure for preventing infections in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). However, low compliance with hand hygiene has been reported in a number of studies. The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the first reference data collected on alcohol-based handrub (ABHR) and antiseptic soap consumption, as surrogate markers for hand hygiene compliance by healthcare workers (HCWs) in Hungarian LTCFs. The objective was to inform stakeholders on the need of hand hygiene improvement in these settings. Between 5 May and 30 September 2014, we conducted a nationwide, cross-sectional survey using a standardized self-administered questionnaire; all Hungarian LTCFs were eligible. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 was used for data analysis. The questionnaire was completed by 354 LTCFs, representing 24 % of all Hungarian LTCFs. In total, the median consumption of ABHR and antimicrobial soap was 15.5 L (IQR, 0-800 L) and 60 L (IQR, 0-1,680 L) per LTCFs, and 2.2 mL (IQR, 0.4-9.1 mL) and 12.1 mL (IQR, 0.7-32.8 mL) per HCWs in 2013, respectively. The estimated number of hand hygiene actions was 0.6 hygienic handrub/HCW per day (IQR, 0-12.8/HCWs) and 2.4 hygienic handwashing/HCW per day (IQR, 0-21.9/HCWs; P = .001), respectively. This study suggests that non-compliance with hand hygiene is a significant problem in Hungarian LTCFs. Based on our results, there is an urgent need for a nationwide multimodal hand hygiene promotion strategy including education and performance monitoring and feedback in all LTCFs. Furthermore, monitoring of ABHR consumption constitute an additional component of the existing National Nosocomial Surveillance system.

  8. Knowledge of congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) among physical and occupational therapists in the United States.

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    Muldoon, Kathleen M; Armstrong-Heimsoth, Amy; Thomas, Jodi

    2017-01-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infections cause more children to have permanent disabilities than Down Syndrome, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Spina Bifida, and pediatric HIV/AIDS combined. The risk of infection during pregnancy can be significantly decreased using universal precautions, such as thorough handwashing and cleansing of surfaces and objects that have come into contact with infected body fluids. Children under 3 years of age are commonly asymptomatic excretors of CMV, with the highest viral loads present in saliva. Pediatric therapists have regular close contact with young children, and are thus likely at elevated occupational risk of acquiring CMV. Our objective was to evaluate therapist knowledge of cCMV and its transmission. We recruited American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) and American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) members via electronic newsletters and printed flyers from April to September 2015. Participants completed an online, anonymous 24-question survey using Survey Monkey. We compared responses between groups and previously published CMV awareness data using binomial tests of difference of proportions and multiple logistic regression. Our study identified both a low level of therapist awareness and poor demonstrated understanding of cCMV. Self-reported cCMV awareness amongst therapists was greater than awareness in the general population, and equivalent to awareness amongst health care professionals. Whereas 52% of participants self-reported awareness of cCMV, only 18% demonstrated understanding of the behavioral modes of CMV transmission. Fewer therapists reported awareness of cCMV than other, less prevalent conditions. Higher levels of health risk knowledge were associated with greater contact with children. Most participants reported learning about cCMV from the workplace. The knowledge gaps between self-reported awareness of cCMV and demonstrated understanding of modes of transmission described by our results emphasize the

  9. Occupational health hazards among health care workers of Shahid Sadoughi Hospital

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    F. Ghavidel

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and AimsBiological hazards exist throughout all healthcare settings and include airborne and blood borne pathogens. Health care workers are also subject to exposure to hazardous chemicals such as disinfectants and sterilizing agents. In addition to the traditional aforementioned categories of occupational hazards, health care workers experience the stress of being directly responsible for the care of very sick and dying patients, which, coupled with  increasing workloads, can seriously threaten their health and well-being.MethodsThe study population was all hospital staff (# 207, of whom198 health care workers eventually participated in the study. The questionnaires were administered to doctors, nurses and ward orderlies in Shahid Sadoughi Teaching Hospital Yazd, Iran. Data were analyzed by SPSS11.5 software using Fisher's exact and Chi square tests.ResultsThe common occupational health hazards were work-related stress (60.1%, bloodstains on skin (51%, needle-stick injuries (42.9%, assault from patients (21.2%, skin reaction (19.2%, sleep disturbance (15.2%, stew blood on mucosal (3.1% and use of drugs (4.5%. Nearly 4.5% of the staff used tranquilizers to cope with the work stress. A greater percentage of doctors compared to nurses and ward orderlies used safety precautions such as gloves, facemasks and aprons. 70.2% staff employed regular hand-washing after various procedures 68.2% of staff adopted regularly proper disposal of needles and sharps into separate puncture resistant containers. About 55.6% of the staff recap used needles.ConclusionIn according to frequent types of occupational related dangers, corporation between chiefs and members of health care center to decrease these seems wishful and we recommend preparing and distributing necessary guidelines with related awareness among these groups.

  10. Mevsimlik Tarım İşçisi Gençlerin Sağlıklı Yaşam Bilgi ve Davranışlarına Akran Eğitiminin Etkisi/The Effect of Peer Education on the Healthy-Life Knowledge and Behavior of Young Seasonal Farmworkers

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    Zeynep Simsek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of peer education on young seasonal farmworkers’ healthy life knowledge and behavior related to living arrangement, pesticide use, and reproductive - sexual health.Method: In this controlled-experimental design study, two settlements with similar characteristics were selected experiment and control group. Twenty six youths from experimental area were selected and trained as peer educator. One-hundred young people from among the 650 in that neighborhood that received training were randomly selected and compared with the control group, which consisted of 125 youths. For data collection, a questionnaire developed by the authors was used. The questionnaires were applied in face-to-face interview. A total of 113 young people were reached in the intervention group (response rate 90%, and 118 young people were reached in the control group (response rate 94%. It was used t-test, chi-square and analyses of variance for statistical analyses.Findings: No significant differences were detected between the intervention and control groups with regards to age, gender, duration of work as farmworkers or level of education (p>0.05. The difference between the total scores of the intervention and control groups (respectively;50.8±8.6- 27.2±9.1 and the scores of sub domains were significant (p<0.05. In addition, the frequency of use of iodized salt, vaccination, hand-washing, breast self examination and testicular self examination was significantly higher in the intervention group.Conclusion: The peer education model could be of use in the development of healthy life skills among young seasonal farmworkers.

  11. A qualitative evaluation of hand drying practices among Kenyans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Bobbie; Schilling, Katharine; Owuor, Mercy; Ogange, Lorraine; Quick, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Recommended disease prevention behaviors of hand washing, hygienic hand drying, and covering one's mouth and nose in a hygienic manner when coughing and sneezing appear to be simple behaviors but continue to be a challenge to successfully promote and sustain worldwide. We conducted a qualitative inquiry to better understand current hand drying behaviors associated with activities of daily living, and mouth and nose covering practices, among Kenyans. We conducted 7 focus group discussions; 30 in-depth interviews; 10 structured household observations; and 75 structured observations in public venues in the urban area of Kisumu; rural communities surrounding Kisumu; and a peri-urban area outside Nairobi, Kenya. Using a grounded theory approach, we transcribed and coded the narrative data followed by thematic analysis of the emergent themes. Hand drying, specifically on a clean towel, was not a common practice among our participants. Most women dried their hands on their waist cloth, called a leso, or their clothes whether they were cooking, eating or cleaning the nose of a young child. If men dried their hands, they used their trousers or a handkerchief. Children rarely dried their hands; they usually just wiped them on their clothes, shook them, or left them wet as they continued with their activities. Many people sneezed into their hands and wiped them on their clothes. Men and women used a handkerchief fairly often when they had a runny nose, cold, or the flu. Most people coughed into the air or their hand. Drying hands on dirty clothes, rags and lesos can compromise the benefits of handwashing. Coughing and sneezing in to an open hand can contribute to spread of disease as well. Understanding these practices can inform health promotion activities and campaigns for the prevention and control of diarrheal disease and influenza.

  12. A qualitative evaluation of hand drying practices among Kenyans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobbie Person

    Full Text Available Recommended disease prevention behaviors of hand washing, hygienic hand drying, and covering one's mouth and nose in a hygienic manner when coughing and sneezing appear to be simple behaviors but continue to be a challenge to successfully promote and sustain worldwide. We conducted a qualitative inquiry to better understand current hand drying behaviors associated with activities of daily living, and mouth and nose covering practices, among Kenyans.We conducted 7 focus group discussions; 30 in-depth interviews; 10 structured household observations; and 75 structured observations in public venues in the urban area of Kisumu; rural communities surrounding Kisumu; and a peri-urban area outside Nairobi, Kenya. Using a grounded theory approach, we transcribed and coded the narrative data followed by thematic analysis of the emergent themes. Hand drying, specifically on a clean towel, was not a common practice among our participants. Most women dried their hands on their waist cloth, called a leso, or their clothes whether they were cooking, eating or cleaning the nose of a young child. If men dried their hands, they used their trousers or a handkerchief. Children rarely dried their hands; they usually just wiped them on their clothes, shook them, or left them wet as they continued with their activities. Many people sneezed into their hands and wiped them on their clothes. Men and women used a handkerchief fairly often when they had a runny nose, cold, or the flu. Most people coughed into the air or their hand.Drying hands on dirty clothes, rags and lesos can compromise the benefits of handwashing. Coughing and sneezing in to an open hand can contribute to spread of disease as well. Understanding these practices can inform health promotion activities and campaigns for the prevention and control of diarrheal disease and influenza.

  13. Street foods in Accra, Ghana: how safe are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, Patience; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Owusu-Darko, Kwaku; Ablordey, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the microbial quality of foods sold on streets of Accra and factors predisposing to their contamination. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 117 street vendors on their vital statistics, personal hygiene, food hygiene and knowledge of foodborne illness. Standard methods were used for the enumeration, isolation, and identification of bacteria. Most vendors were educated and exhibited good hygiene behaviour. Diarrhoea was defined as the passage of > or =3 stools per day) by 110 vendors (94.0%), but none associated diarrhoea with bloody stools; only 21 (17.9%) associated diarrhoea with germs. The surroundings of the vending sites were clean, but four sites (3.4%) were classified as very dirty. The cooking of food well in advance of consumption, exposure of food to flies, and working with food at ground level and by hand were likely risk factors for contamination. Examinations were made of 511 menu items, classified as breakfast/snack foods, main dishes, soups and sauces, and cold dishes. Mesophilic bacteria were detected in 356 foods (69.7%): 28 contained Bacillus cereus (5.5%), 163 contained Staphylococcus aureus (31.9%) and 172 contained Enterobacteriaceae (33.7%). The microbial quality of most of the foods was within the acceptable limits but samples of salads, macaroni, fufu, omo tuo and red pepper had unacceptable levels of contamination. Shigella sonnei and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli were isolated from macaroni, rice, and tomato stew, and Salmonella arizonae from light soup. Street foods can be sources of enteropathogens. Vendors should therefore receive education in food hygiene. Special attention should be given to the causes of diarrhoea, the transmission of diarrhoeal pathogens, the handling of equipment and cooked food, hand-washing practices and environmental hygiene.

  14. Using the Delphi method to develop nursing-sensitive quality indicators for the NICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Huang, Li-Hua; Xing, Mei-Yuan; Feng, Zhi-Xian; Shao, Le-Wen; Zhang, Mei-Yun; Shao, Rong-Ya

    2017-02-01

    To develop nursing-sensitive quality indicators consistent with current medical practices in Chinese neonatal intensive care units. The development of nursing-sensitive quality indicators has become a top priority in nursing management. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no objective, scientific and sensitive evaluation of the quality of neonatal intensive care unit nursing in China. A modified Delphi technique was used to seek opinions from experts about what should be used and prioritised as indicators of quality care in neonatal intensive care unit nursing. Based on a literature review, we identified 21 indicators of nursing-sensitive quality in the neonatal intensive care unit. Our group of 11 consultants chose 13 indicators to be discussed using the Delphi method. In October and November 2014, 39 neonatal intensive care unit experts in 18 tertiary hospitals spread across six provinces participated in two rounds of Delphi panels. Of the 13 indicators discussed, 11 were identified as indicators of nursing-sensitive quality in the neonatal intensive care unit: rate of nosocomial infections, rate of accidental endotracheal extubation, rate of errors in medication administration, rate of treatment for pain, rate of peripheral venous extravasation, rate of compliance with handwashing techniques, incidence of pressure ulcers, incidence of noise, the bed-to-care ratio, the proportion of nurses with greater than five years neonatal intensive care unit experience and incidence of retinopathy. The 11 neonatal intensive care unit nursing-sensitive indicators identified by the Delphi method integrated with basic Chinese practices provide a basis for nursing management and the monitoring of nursing quality. This study identified nursing-sensitive quality indicators for neonatal intensive care unit care that are suitable for current clinical practice in China. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Association of personal hygiene with common morbidities among upper primary school children in rural Odisha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan Kumar Paul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: In India, children of upper primary school receive less attention from health-care providers. The majority of their health problems are preventable through hygienic practices. Aims: The aim of this study was to find out the association of personal hygiene with common morbidities among upper primary school children. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study conducted in a rural upper primary school of Odisha. Subjects and Methods: A semi-structured schedule based on the Global School Health Survey Questionnaire and necessary instruments for clinical examination were used. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were entered in Microsoft Excel 2007 and analyzed by SPSS version 20 software. Results: Of 90 participants, 58 (64.4% were girls. The mean age was 11.8 (±1.01 years. The mean body mass index of females was significantly higher than males (16.95 vs. 14.72; P = 0.001. More than 90% of children maintained good personal hygiene such as clean tongue, clean hair, handwashing, and using footwear. The most common morbidities found were dental caries (38.9%, history of worms in stool and lethargy (20%. A mean score of 6.14 ± 0.11 (out of 8 was seen for personal hygiene and not associated with any particular morbidity or gender. Brushing daily was significantly associated with reduced dental caries (χ2 = 8.7; P < 0.005 and foul-smelling breath (χ2 = 4.93; P < 0.05. Fungal infections were significantly less in children who bathed daily (χ2 = 28.7; <0.005 and wore clean clothes (χ2 = 5.06; P < 0.05. Conclusion: Dental caries, foul-smelling breath, and fungal infections were significantly associated with poor personal hygiene. School health services should also focus on upper primary school children for improvement of personal hygiene.

  16. Intestinal parasite infections in symptomatic children attending hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Catrin E; Nget, Phot; Saroeun, Mao; Kuong, Suy; Chanthou, Seng; Kumar, Varun; Bousfield, Rachel; Nader, Johanna; Bailey, J Wendi; Beeching, Nicholas J; Day, Nicholas P; Parry, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    Infections with helminths and other intestinal parasites are an important but neglected problem in children in developing countries. Accurate surveys of intestinal parasites in children inform empirical treatment regimens and can assess the impact of school based drug treatment programmes. There is limited information on this topic in Cambodia. In a prospective study of intestinal parasites in symptomatic children attending Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, April-June 2012, samples were examined by microscopy of a direct and concentrated fecal sample. Two culture methods for hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were employed when sufficient sample was received. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected. We studied 970 samples from 865 children. The median (inter-quartile range) age of the children was 5.4 (1.9-9.2) years, 54% were male. The proportion of children with abdominal pain was 66.8%, diarrhea 34.9%, anemia 12.7% and malnutrition 7.4%. 458 parasitic infections were detected in 340 (39.3%) children. The most common parasites using all methods of detection were hookworm (14.3%), Strongyloides stercoralis (11.6%) and Giardia lamblia (11.2%). Giardia lamblia was most common in children aged 1-5 years, hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were more common with increasing age. Hookworm, Strongloides stercoralis and Giardia lamblia were more common in children living outside of Siem Reap town. In a multivariate logistic regression increasing age was associated with all three infections, defecating in the forest for hookworm infection, the presence of cattle for S. stercoralis and not using soap for handwashing for G. lamblia. This study confirms the importance of intestinal parasitic infections in symptomatic Cambodian children and the need for adequate facilities for laboratory diagnosis together with education to improve personal hygiene and sanitation.

  17. Intestinal parasite infections in symptomatic children attending hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrin E Moore

    Full Text Available Infections with helminths and other intestinal parasites are an important but neglected problem in children in developing countries. Accurate surveys of intestinal parasites in children inform empirical treatment regimens and can assess the impact of school based drug treatment programmes. There is limited information on this topic in Cambodia.In a prospective study of intestinal parasites in symptomatic children attending Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, April-June 2012, samples were examined by microscopy of a direct and concentrated fecal sample. Two culture methods for hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were employed when sufficient sample was received. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected.We studied 970 samples from 865 children. The median (inter-quartile range age of the children was 5.4 (1.9-9.2 years, 54% were male. The proportion of children with abdominal pain was 66.8%, diarrhea 34.9%, anemia 12.7% and malnutrition 7.4%. 458 parasitic infections were detected in 340 (39.3% children. The most common parasites using all methods of detection were hookworm (14.3%, Strongyloides stercoralis (11.6% and Giardia lamblia (11.2%. Giardia lamblia was most common in children aged 1-5 years, hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were more common with increasing age. Hookworm, Strongloides stercoralis and Giardia lamblia were more common in children living outside of Siem Reap town. In a multivariate logistic regression increasing age was associated with all three infections, defecating in the forest for hookworm infection, the presence of cattle for S. stercoralis and not using soap for handwashing for G. lamblia.This study confirms the importance of intestinal parasitic infections in symptomatic Cambodian children and the need for adequate facilities for laboratory diagnosis together with education to improve personal hygiene and sanitation.

  18. In the wake of a possible mistake: Security motivation, checking behavior, and OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Andrea L; Woody, Erik Z; Schmidt, Louis A; Van Ameringen, Michael; Szechtman, Henry

    2015-12-01

    In previous experiments, OCD washers did not differ significantly from controls in their initial level of activation in response to the potential threat of contamination; however, they were less able to reduce their activation by engaging in hand-washing, suggesting that the key problem in OCD is a faulty stopping mechanism. The main objectives of the present experiments were to develop a similar experimental paradigm for investigating checking behavior, and to use it to test the hypothesis that a faulty stopping mechanism also underlies OCD checking. Participants sorted pills under the guise of beta testing a new medication system and then were given suggestions of the possibility of having made mistakes with potentially serious consequences. Later, participants engaged in a 90-s checking period and an unlimited period of checking. At baseline and three other times during the experiment, security motivation was measured with respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and subjective ratings of confidence. Experiment 1 established the parameters of the paradigm in non-patient participants, and Experiment 2 contrasted OCD checkers with OCD washers and non-patients. Results for both subjective and physiological measures of security motivation closely replicated previous findings for washing behavior. Groups did not differ significantly in initial activation, but the OCD checkers were unable to reduce their activation by engaging in period of checking that was ample for returning controls to baseline. The sample size for the patient groups was modest. These results lend further support to the security-motivation theory of OCD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis and Taenia solium taeniasis in California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGiorgio, C; Pietsch-Escueta, S; Tsang, V; Corral-Leyva, G; Ng, L; Medina, M T; Astudillo, S; Padilla, N; Leyva, P; Martinez, L; Noh, J; Levine, M; del Villasenor, R; Sorvillo, F

    2005-02-01

    Taenia solium Cysticercosis is a leading cause of epilepsy and neurological disability in the developing world. It is caused by ingestion of the eggs of the tapeworm, T. solium Taeniasis. The prevalence of either T. solium Cysticercosis or T. solium Taeniasis in the United States in populations at risk is poorly understood. The primary objectives of this study are to perform the first study of the sero-prevalence of T. solium Cysticercosis and T. solium Taeniasis in an at-risk community in the USA, specifically rural Southern California; identify T. solium Taeniasis positive individuals, and treat positive individuals for the tapeworm T. solium Taeniasis. Community based sero-prevalence study of antibodies to T. solium Cysticercosis and T. solium Taeniasis in 449 subjects living in a federally funded, predominantly Hispanic residential community; and in two migrant farm worker camps in rural Ventura County, California, USA. For this study, fingerstick blood samples were obtained. Serum immunoblots for both T. solium Cysticercosis and T. solium Taeniasis were performed. The sero-prevalence of T. solium Cysticercosis was 1.8% and the sero-prevalence of T. solium Taeniasis by serum immunoblot was 1.1%. Taenia solium Cysticercosis and T. solium Taeniasis antibodies were not detected in children. The sero-prevalence of T. solium Taeniasis was highest in the migrant farm worker community. Handwashing frequency was correlated with T. solium Taeniasis sero-positivity. The sero-prevalence of T. solium Cysticercosis and T. solium Taeniasis in this population, as detected by serum immunoblot, approximates the prevalence in some endemic areas of Latin America. Importantly, most patients likely had prior exposure, not active infection. This study establishes for the first time, the relative sero-prevalence of T. solium Cysticercosis and T. solium Taeniasis in at-risk populations in the United States.

  20. Water, Sanitation, Hygiene, and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunz, Eric C.; Addiss, David G.; Stocks, Meredith E.; Ogden, Stephanie; Utzinger, Jürg; Freeman, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    odds of hookworm infection (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.18–0.47) and infection with any STH (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.11–0.83). Handwashing, both before eating (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.26–0.55) and after defecating (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.35–0.58), was associated with lower odds of A. lumbricoides infection. Soap use or availability was significantly associated with lower infection with any STH (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.29–0.98), as was handwashing after defecation (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.24–0.90). Observational evidence constituted the majority of included literature, which limits any attempt to make causal inferences. Due to underlying heterogeneity across observational studies, the meta-analysis results reflect an average of many potentially distinct effects, not an average of one specific exposure-outcome relationship. Conclusions WASH access and practices are generally associated with reduced odds of STH infection. Pooled estimates from all meta-analyses, except for two, indicated at least a 33% reduction in odds of infection associated with individual WASH practices or access. Although most WASH interventions for STH have focused on sanitation, access to water and hygiene also appear to significantly reduce odds of infection. Overall quality of evidence was low due to the preponderance of observational studies, though recent randomized controlled trials have further underscored the benefit of handwashing interventions. Limited use of the Joint Monitoring Program's standardized water and sanitation definitions in the literature restricted efforts to generalize across studies. While further research is warranted to determine the magnitude of benefit from WASH interventions for STH control, these results call for multi-sectoral, integrated intervention packages that are tailored to social-ecological contexts. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24667810

  1. Pathogens transmitted in animal feces in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahoy, Miranda J; Wodnik, Breanna; McAliley, Lydia; Penakalapati, Gauthami; Swarthout, Jenna; Freeman, Matthew C; Levy, Karen

    2018-05-01

    Animals found in close proximity to humans in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) harbor many pathogens capable of infecting humans, transmissible via their feces. Contact with animal feces poses a currently unquantified-though likely substantial-risk to human health. In LMIC settings, human exposure to animal feces may explain some of the limited success of recent water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions that have focused on limiting exposure to human excreta, with less attention to containing animal feces. We conducted a review to identify pathogens that may substantially contribute to the global burden of disease in humans through their spread in animal feces in the domestic environment in LMICs. Of the 65 potentially pathogenic organisms considered, 15 were deemed relevant, based on burden of disease and potential for zoonotic transmission. Of these, five were considered of highest concern based on a substantial burden of disease for which transmission in animal feces is potentially important: Campylobacter, non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS), Lassa virus, Cryptosporidium, and Toxoplasma gondii. Most of these have a wide range of animal hosts, except Lassa virus, which is spread through the feces of rats indigenous to sub-Saharan Africa. Combined, these five pathogens cause close to one million deaths annually. More than half of these deaths are attributed to invasive NTS. We do not estimate an overall burden of disease from improperly managed animal feces in LMICs, because it is unknown what proportion of illnesses caused by these pathogens can be attributed to contact with animal feces. Typical water quantity, water quality, and handwashing interventions promoted in public health and development address transmission routes for both human and animal feces; however, sanitation interventions typically focus on containing human waste, often neglecting the residual burden of disease from pathogens transmitted via animal feces. This review compiles evidence on

  2. Developing robust arsenic awareness prediction models using machine learning algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sushant K; Taylor, Robert W; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Pradhan, Biswajeet

    2018-04-01

    Arsenic awareness plays a vital role in ensuring the sustainability of arsenic mitigation technologies. Thus far, however, few studies have dealt with the sustainability of such technologies and its associated socioeconomic dimensions. As a result, arsenic awareness prediction has not yet been fully conceptualized. Accordingly, this study evaluated arsenic awareness among arsenic-affected communities in rural India, using a structured questionnaire to record socioeconomic, demographic, and other sociobehavioral factors with an eye to assessing their association with and influence on arsenic awareness. First a logistic regression model was applied and its results compared with those produced by six state-of-the-art machine-learning algorithms (Support Vector Machine [SVM], Kernel-SVM, Decision Tree [DT], k-Nearest Neighbor [k-NN], Naïve Bayes [NB], and Random Forests [RF]) as measured by their accuracy at predicting arsenic awareness. Most (63%) of the surveyed population was found to be arsenic-aware. Significant arsenic awareness predictors were divided into three types: (1) socioeconomic factors: caste, education level, and occupation; (2) water and sanitation behavior factors: number of family members involved in water collection, distance traveled and time spent for water collection, places for defecation, and materials used for handwashing after defecation; and (3) social capital and trust factors: presence of anganwadi and people's trust in other community members, NGOs, and private agencies. Moreover, individuals' having higher social network positively contributed to arsenic awareness in the communities. Results indicated that both the SVM and the RF algorithms outperformed at overall prediction of arsenic awareness-a nonlinear classification problem. Lower-caste, less educated, and unemployed members of the population were found to be the most vulnerable, requiring immediate arsenic mitigation. To this end, local social institutions and NGOs could play a

  3. Self-Reported Acute Health Effects and Exposure to Companion Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, W S; Hilborn, E D; Dufour, A P; Sams, E A; Wade, T J

    2016-06-01

    . Prevention of pet-associated zoonotic diseases includes commonsense measures such as hand-washing, but are often overlooked by pet owners and non-pet owners alike. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Trends, causes, and risk factors of mortality among children under 5 in Ethiopia, 1990-2013: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deribew, Amare; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Deribe, Kebede; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Lakew, Yihunie; Amare, Azmeraw T; Abera, Semaw F; Mohammed, Mesoud; Hiruye, Abiy; Teklay, Efrem; Misganaw, Awoke; Kassebaum, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    attributable to childhood wasting. Similarly, 19% (43,759/229,333) of the total under-5 deaths and 45% (43,759/97,963) of the deaths due to diarrhea and LRI were attributable to wasting in 2013. Of the total diarrheal disease- and LRI-related deaths ( n  = 97,963) in 2013, 59% (57,923/97,963) of them were attributable to unsafe water supply, unsafe sanitation, household air pollution, and no handwashing with soap. LRI, diarrheal diseases, and neonatal syndromes remain the major causes of under-5 deaths in Ethiopia. These findings call for better-integrated newborn and child survival interventions focusing on the main risk factors.

  5. Parenting for Lifelong Health: a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial of a non-commercialised parenting programme for adolescents and their families in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Lucie D; Meinck, Franziska; Steinert, Janina I; Shenderovich, Yulia; Doubt, Jenny; Herrero Romero, Rocio; Lombard, Carl J; Redfern, Alice; Ward, Catherine L; Tsoanyane, Sibongile; Nzima, Divane; Sibanda, Nkosiyapha; Wittesaele, Camille; De Stone, Sachin; Boyes, Mark E; Catanho, Ricardo; Lachman, Jamie McLaren; Salah, Nasteha; Nocuza, Mzuvukile; Gardner, Frances

    2018-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of ‘Parenting for Lifelong Health: Sinovuyo Teen’, a parenting programme for adolescents in low-income and middle-income countries, on abuse and parenting practices. Design Pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting 40 villages/urban sites (clusters) in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa. Participants 552 families reporting conflict with their adolescents (aged 10–18). Intervention Intervention clusters (n=20) received a 14-session parent and adolescent programme delivered by trained community members. Control clusters (n=20) received a hygiene and hand-washing promotion programme. Main outcome measures Primary outcomes: abuse and parenting practices at 1 and 5–9 months postintervention. Secondary outcomes: caregiver and adolescent mental health and substance use, adolescent behavioural problems, social support, exposure to community violence and family financial well-being at 5–9 months postintervention. Blinding was not possible. Results At 5–9 months postintervention, the intervention was associated with lower abuse (caregiver report incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.55 (95% CI 0.40 to 0.75, Pcorporal punishment (caregiver report IRR=0.55 (95% CI 0.37 to 0.83, P=0.004)); improved positive parenting (caregiver report d=0.25 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.47, P=0.024)), involved parenting (caregiver report d=0.86 (95% CI 0.64 to 1.08, Pcorporal punishment IRR=1.05 (95% CI 0.70 to 1.57, P=0.819). Secondary outcomes showed reductions in caregiver corporal punishment endorsement, mental health problems, parenting stress, substance use and increased social support (all caregiver report). Intervention adolescents reported no differences in mental health, behaviour or community violence, but had lower substance use (all adolescent report). Intervention families had improved economic welfare, financial management and more violence avoidance planning (in caregiver and adolescent report). No adverse effects were detected

  6. Primary and secondary cases in Escherichia coli O157 outbreaks: a statistical analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Snedeker, Kate G

    2009-01-01

    category. CONCLUSION: Our analyses indicated that ~20% of E. coli O157 outbreak cases were the result of secondary spread, and that this spread is significantly influenced by age and modes of primary and secondary transmission, but not country. In particular, the results provide further data emphasising the importance of simple but effective preventive strategies, such as handwashing, that can reduce the risk of secondary spread, particularly amongst young children in nurseries.

  7. A survey of prosthetic eye wearers to investigate mucoid discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pine K

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Keith Pine1, Brian Sloan2, Joanna Stewart3, Robert J Jacobs11Department of Optometry and Vision Science, 2Department of Ophthalmology, New Zealand National Eye Centre, 3Section of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New ZealandBackground: This study aimed to better understand the causes and treatments of mucoid discharge associated with prosthetic eye wear by reviewing the literature and surveying anophthalmic patients.Methods: An anonymous questionnaire was completed by 429 prosthetic eye wearers who used visual analog scales to self-measure their discharge experience for four discharge characteristics: frequency, color, volume, and viscosity. These characteristics were analyzed with age, ethnicity, years wearing a prosthesis, eye loss cause, removal and cleaning regimes, hand-washing behavior, age of current prosthesis, and professional repolishing regimes as explanatory variables. Eighteen ocularists’ Web sites containing comments on the cause and treatment of discharge were surveyed.Results: Associations were found between discharge frequency and cleaning regimes with more frequent cleaning accompanying more frequent discharge. Color was associated with years of wearing and age, with more years of wearing and older people having less colored discharge. Volume was associated with cleaning regimes with more frequent cleaners having more volume. Viscosity was associated with cleaning regimes and years of wearing with more frequent cleaning and shorter wearing time accompanying more viscous discharge. No associations were found between discharge characteristics and ethnicity, eye loss cause, hand washing, age of current prosthesis, or repolishing regimes. Forty-seven percent of ocularists’ Web sites advised that discharge was caused by surface deposits on the prosthesis, 29% by excessive handling of the prosthesis, and 24% by other causes.Conclusions: A standardized treatment

  8. STUDY OF CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETER RELATED BLOOD STREAM INFECTIONS IN PATIENTS ON HAEMODIALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranjal Pankaj

    2018-01-01

    negative and the rest culture positive. No mortality was observed in patients with gram positive cultures and E.Coli infections. Mortality in culture positive group was predominantly in klebsiella (40%, Acinetobacter (40% and pseudomonas (20% CONCLUSION CRBSI related bacteremia and sepsis pose a major cause of morbidity and mortality among CKD patients and also increase the cost of therapy and financial burden of healthcare. Simple handwashing techniques, proper handling of CVCs during dialysis, antiseptic and antibiotic locking of catheters remain gold standard to reduce CRBSIs. CRBSIs are certainly not inevitable completely but preventable to a significant extent.

  9. Risk Factors of Typhoid Infection in the Indonesian Archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Alba

    potentially be achieved in reducing the incidence of typhoid by ensuring adherence to adequate hand-washing practices alone. This confirms that there is a pivotal role for 'software' related interventions to encourage behavior change and create demand for goods and services, alongside development of water and sanitation infrastructure.

  10. Sanitation and Hygiene-Specific Risk Factors for Moderate-to-Severe Diarrhea in Young Children in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study, 2007-2011: Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kelly K; O'Reilly, Ciara E; Levine, Myron M; Kotloff, Karen L; Nataro, James P; Ayers, Tracy L; Farag, Tamer H; Nasrin, Dilruba; Blackwelder, William C; Wu, Yukun; Alonso, Pedro L; Breiman, Robert F; Omore, Richard; Faruque, Abu S G; Das, Sumon Kumar; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Saha, Debasish; Sow, Samba O; Sur, Dipika; Zaidi, Anita K M; Quadri, Fahreen; Mintz, Eric D

    2016-05-01

    Diarrheal disease is the second leading cause of disease in children less than 5 y of age. Poor water, sanitation, and hygiene conditions are the primary routes of exposure and infection. Sanitation and hygiene interventions are estimated to generate a 36% and 48% reduction in diarrheal risk in young children, respectively. Little is known about whether the number of households sharing a sanitation facility affects a child's risk of diarrhea. The objective of this study was to describe sanitation and hygiene access across the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) sites in Africa and South Asia and to assess sanitation and hygiene exposures, including shared sanitation access, as risk factors for moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) in children less than 5 y of age. The GEMS matched case-control study was conducted between December 1, 2007, and March 3, 2011, at seven sites in Basse, The Gambia; Nyanza Province, Kenya; Bamako, Mali; Manhiça, Mozambique; Mirzapur, Bangladesh; Kolkata, India; and Karachi, Pakistan. Data was collected for 8,592 case children aged hygiene exposures and MSD. Most households at six sites (>93%) had access to a sanitation facility, while 70% of households in rural Kenya had access to a facility. Practicing open defecation was a risk factor for MSD in children <5 y old in Kenya. Sharing sanitation facilities with 1-2 or ≥3 other households was a statistically significant risk factor for MSD in Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, and Pakistan. Among those with a designated handwashing area near the home, soap or ash were more frequently observed at control households and were significantly protective against MSD in Mozambique and India. This study suggests that sharing a sanitation facility with just one to two other households can increase the risk of MSD in young children, compared to using a private facility. Interventions aimed at increasing access to private household sanitation facilities may reduce the burden of MSD in children. These findings

  11. Effectiveness of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign and obstacles to success in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene is the cornerstone of infection control and reduces rates of healthcare associated infection. There are limited data evaluating hand hygiene adherence and hand hygiene campaign effect in resource-limited settings, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed the impact of implementing a World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign at a hospital in Ethiopia. Methods This study included a before-and-after assessment of health care worker (HCW) adherence with WHO hand hygiene guidelines. It was implemented in three phases: 1) baseline evaluation of hand hygiene adherence and hospital infrastructure; 2) intervention (distribution of commercial hand sanitizer and implementation of an abbreviated WHO-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign); and 3) post-intervention evaluation of HCW hand hygiene adherence. HCWs’ perceptions of the campaign and hand sanitizer tolerability were assessed through a survey performed in the post-intervention period. Results At baseline, hand washing materials were infrequently available, with only 20% of sinks having hand-washing materials. There was a significant increase in hand hygiene adherence among HCWs following implementation of a WHO multimodal hand hygiene program. Adherence increased from 2.1% at baseline (21 hand hygiene actions/1000 opportunities for hand hygiene) to 12.7% (127 hand hygiene actions /1000 opportunities for hand hygiene) after the implementation of the hand hygiene campaign (OR = 6.8, 95% CI 4.2-10.9). Hand hygiene rates significantly increased among all HCW types except attending physicians. Independent predictors of HCW hand hygiene compliance included performing hand hygiene in the post-intervention period (aOR = 5.7, 95% CI 3.5-9.3), in the emergency department (aOR = 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.6), during patient care that did not involve Attending Physician Rounds (aOR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.5), and after patient contact (aOR = 2

  12. A quasi-experimental study to determine the effects of a multifaceted educational intervention on hand hygiene compliance in a radiography unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Margaret; Ng, Suk-Hing; Suen, Lorna Kp; Boost, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Whilst numerous studies have investigated nurses' compliance with hand hygiene and use of alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR), limited attention has been paid to these issues in allied health staff. Reports have linked infections to breaches in infection control in the radiography unit (RU). With advances in medical imaging, a higher proportion of patients come into contact with RU staff increasing the need for good hand hygiene compliance. This study aimed to evaluate effectiveness on compliance of an intervention to improve awareness of hand hygiene in the RU of a district hospital. A quasi-experimental study design including questionnaires assessing knowledge and attitudes of hand hygiene and direct observation of participants was used to evaluate an educational programme on hand hygiene of the RU of a large district hospital. All healthcare workers (HCW), comprising 76 radiographers, 17 nurses, and nine healthcare assistants (HCA), agreed to participate in the study. Of these, 85 completed the initial and 76 the post-test anonymous questionnaire. The hand hygiene compliance of all 102 HCW was observed over a 3-week period prior to and after the intervention. The 2-month intervention consisted of talks on hand hygiene and benefits of ABHR, provision of visual aids, wall-mounted ABHR dispensers, and personal bottles of ABHR. Before the intervention, overall hand hygiene compliance was low (28.9 %). Post-intervention, compliance with hand hygiene increased to 51.4 %. This improvement was significant for radiographers and HCA. Additionally, knowledge and attitudes improved in particular, understanding that ABHR can largely replace handwashing and there is a need to perform hand hygiene after environmental contact. The increased use of ABHR allowed HCW to feel they had enough time to perform hand hygiene. The educational intervention led to increased awareness of hand hygiene opportunities and better acceptance of ABHR use. The reduced time needed to perform hand

  13. A quasi-experimental study to determine the effects of a multifaceted educational intervention on hand hygiene compliance in a radiography unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret O’Donoghue

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whilst numerous studies have investigated nurses’ compliance with hand hygiene and use of alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR, limited attention has been paid to these issues in allied health staff. Reports have linked infections to breaches in infection control in the radiography unit (RU. With advances in medical imaging, a higher proportion of patients come into contact with RU staff increasing the need for good hand hygiene compliance. This study aimed to evaluate effectiveness on compliance of an intervention to improve awareness of hand hygiene in the RU of a district hospital. Methods A quasi-experimental study design including questionnaires assessing knowledge and attitudes of hand hygiene and direct observation of participants was used to evaluate an educational programme on hand hygiene of the RU of a large district hospital. All healthcare workers (HCW, comprising 76 radiographers, 17 nurses, and nine healthcare assistants (HCA, agreed to participate in the study. Of these, 85 completed the initial and 76 the post-test anonymous questionnaire. The hand hygiene compliance of all 102 HCW was observed over a 3-week period prior to and after the intervention. The 2-month intervention consisted of talks on hand hygiene and benefits of ABHR, provision of visual aids, wall-mounted ABHR dispensers, and personal bottles of ABHR. Results Before the intervention, overall hand hygiene compliance was low (28.9 %. Post-intervention, compliance with hand hygiene increased to 51.4 %. This improvement was significant for radiographers and HCA. Additionally, knowledge and attitudes improved in particular, understanding that ABHR can largely replace handwashing and there is a need to perform hand hygiene after environmental contact. The increased use of ABHR allowed HCW to feel they had enough time to perform hand hygiene. Conclusions The educational intervention led to increased awareness of hand hygiene opportunities and better

  14. Intentions to perform non-pharmaceutical protective behaviors during influenza outbreaks in Sweden: a cross-sectional study following a mass vaccination campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpka, Toomas; Spreco, Armin; Gursky, Elin; Eriksson, Olle; Dahlström, Örjan; Strömgren, Magnus; Ekberg, Joakim; Pilemalm, Sofie; Karlsson, David; Hinkula, Jorma; Holm, Einar

    2014-01-01

    Failure to incorporate the beliefs and attitudes of the public into theoretical models of preparedness has been identified as a weakness in strategies to mitigate infectious disease outbreaks. We administered a cross-sectional telephone survey to a representative sample (n = 443) of the Swedish adult population to examine whether self-reported intentions to improve personal hygiene and increase social distancing during influenza outbreaks could be explained by trust in official information, self-reported health (SF-8), sociodemographic factors, and determinants postulated in protection motivation theory, namely threat appraisal and coping appraisal. The interviewees were asked to make their appraisals for two scenarios: a) an influenza with low case fatality and mild lifestyle impact; b) severe influenza with high case fatality and serious disturbances of societal functions. Every second respondent (50.0%) reported high trust in official information about influenza. The proportion that reported intentions to take deliberate actions to improve personal hygiene during outbreaks ranged between 45-85%, while less than 25% said that they intended to increase social distancing. Multiple logistic regression models with coping appraisal as the explanatory factor most frequently contributing to the explanation of the variance in intentions showed strong discriminatory performance for staying home while not ill (mild outbreaks: Area under the curve [AUC] 0.85 (95% confidence interval 0.82;0.89), severe outbreaks AUC 0.82 (95% CI 0.77;0.85)) and acceptable performance with regard to avoiding public transportation (AUC 0.78 (0.74;0.82), AUC 0.77 (0.72;0.82)), using handwash products (AUC 0.70 (0.65;0.75), AUC 0.76 (0.71;0.80)), and frequently washing hands (AUC 0.71 (0.66;0.76), AUC 0.75 (0.71;0.80)). We conclude that coping appraisal was the explanatory factor most frequently included in statistical models explaining self-reported intentions to carry out non

  15. Intentions to perform non-pharmaceutical protective behaviors during influenza outbreaks in Sweden: a cross-sectional study following a mass vaccination campaign.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toomas Timpka

    Full Text Available Failure to incorporate the beliefs and attitudes of the public into theoretical models of preparedness has been identified as a weakness in strategies to mitigate infectious disease outbreaks. We administered a cross-sectional telephone survey to a representative sample (n = 443 of the Swedish adult population to examine whether self-reported intentions to improve personal hygiene and increase social distancing during influenza outbreaks could be explained by trust in official information, self-reported health (SF-8, sociodemographic factors, and determinants postulated in protection motivation theory, namely threat appraisal and coping appraisal. The interviewees were asked to make their appraisals for two scenarios: a an influenza with low case fatality and mild lifestyle impact; b severe influenza with high case fatality and serious disturbances of societal functions. Every second respondent (50.0% reported high trust in official information about influenza. The proportion that reported intentions to take deliberate actions to improve personal hygiene during outbreaks ranged between 45-85%, while less than 25% said that they intended to increase social distancing. Multiple logistic regression models with coping appraisal as the explanatory factor most frequently contributing to the explanation of the variance in intentions showed strong discriminatory performance for staying home while not ill (mild outbreaks: Area under the curve [AUC] 0.85 (95% confidence interval 0.82;0.89, severe outbreaks AUC 0.82 (95% CI 0.77;0.85 and acceptable performance with regard to avoiding public transportation (AUC 0.78 (0.74;0.82, AUC 0.77 (0.72;0.82, using handwash products (AUC 0.70 (0.65;0.75, AUC 0.76 (0.71;0.80, and frequently washing hands (AUC 0.71 (0.66;0.76, AUC 0.75 (0.71;0.80. We conclude that coping appraisal was the explanatory factor most frequently included in statistical models explaining self-reported intentions to carry out non

  16. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Kerry Parents And Friends Of Mentally Handicapped, Kerry

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Snedeker, Kate G

    2009-01-01

    category. CONCLUSION: Our analyses indicated that ~20% of E. coli O157 outbreak cases were the result of secondary spread, and that this spread is significantly influenced by age and modes of primary and secondary transmission, but not country. In particular, the results provide further data emphasising the importance of simple but effective preventive strategies, such as handwashing, that can reduce the risk of secondary spread, particularly amongst young children in nurseries.

  17. A comparison of private and public sector intensive care unit infrastructure in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, S; Sturm, A W; Moodley, P

    2017-11-27

    Intensive care units (ICUs) are designed to care for patients who are often at increased risk of acquiring healthcare-associated infections. The structure of ICUs should be optimally designed to facilitate the care of these critically ill patients, and minimise their risk of infection. National regulations (R158) were developed to govern the building and registration of private hospitals, and until recently equivalent regulations were not available for public hospitals. To assess and compare the compliance of ICUs in the private and public sectors with the R158 regulations. A cross-sectional study design was used to assess the infrastructure of 25 private sector and 6 public sector ICUs in eThekwini Health District, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. We used the R158 checklist, which was developed by the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Health Private Licensing Unit and Infection Prevention and Control Unit. The aspects covered in the R158 checklist were categorised into the design, general safety and patient services of the ICUs. Most of the ICUs in both sectors met the general safety requirements. There were varying levels of compliance with the design criteria. Only 7 (28.0%) and 1 (16.7%) of the private and public ICUs, respectively, had sufficient space around the beds. Twenty-two private ICUs (88.0%) and 4 public ICUs (66.7%) had isolation rooms, but only some of these isolation rooms (15 private and 2 public) had appropriate mechanical ventilation. None of the ICUs had clinical hand-wash basins in the nurse stations and dirty utility rooms. The majority of the ICUs had the required number of oxygen and electric outlets at the bedside. None of the public ICUs met the light intensity requirement over the bed area. Adequate spacing in ICUs is an issue in many cases. Interventions need to be put in place to ensure that ICUs meet the relevant design standards. There is an urgent need to revise the R158 regulations to reflect current best practices, particularly

  18. Working conditions and public health risks in slaughterhouses in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Anne Jessie Cook

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate facilities and hygiene at slaughterhouses can result in contamination of meat and occupational hazards to workers. The objectives of this study were to assess current conditions in slaughterhouses in western Kenya and the knowledge, and practices of the slaughterhouse workers toward hygiene and sanitation. Methods Between February and October 2012 all consenting slaughterhouses in the study area were recruited. A standardised questionnaire relating to facilities and practices in the slaughterhouse was administered to the foreperson at each site. A second questionnaire was used to capture individual slaughterhouse workers’ knowledge, practices and recent health events. Results A total of 738 slaughterhouse workers from 142 slaughterhouses completed questionnaires. Many slaughterhouses had poor infrastructure, 65% (95% CI 63–67% had a roof, cement floor and walls, 60% (95% CI 57–62% had a toilet and 20% (95% CI 18–22% had hand-washing facilities. The meat inspector visited 90% (95% CI 92–95% of slaughterhouses but antemortem inspection was practiced at only 7% (95% CI 6–8%. Nine percent (95% CI 7–10% of slaughterhouses slaughtered sick animals. Only half of workers wore personal protective clothing - 53% (95% CI 51–55% wore protective coats and 49% (95% CI 46–51% wore rubber boots. Knowledge of zoonotic disease was low with only 31% (95% CI 29–33% of workers aware that disease could be transmitted from animals. Conclusions The current working conditions in slaughterhouses in western Kenya are not in line with the recommendations of the Meat Control Act of Kenya. Current facilities and practices may increase occupational exposure to disease or injury and contaminated meat may enter the consumer market. The findings of this study could enable the development of appropriate interventions to minimise public health risks. Initially, improvements need to be made to facilities and practices to improve

  19. Current issues in burn wound infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, D; Stutman, H R

    1991-01-01

    As we have emphasized, the diagnosis of burn wound infections in the high-risk burned child can be difficult and depends on a very high degree of suspicion and daily clinical evaluation of the burn wound site by consistent observers. Appropriate precautions include meticulous hand-washing and the use of gloves when handling the wound site and prophylactic application of a topical antibacterial agent such as SSD cream. Wound therapy should include routine vigorous surgical débridement. Surveillance wound cultures should be done weekly to determine the emergency of colonization and aid in the selection of empiric antimicrobial regimens when these are appropriate. Wound biopsy for histological examination and quantitative culture is highly recommended in the severely ill child with an unclear etiology or site of infection. If, despite these measures, sepsis ensues, then systemic antibiotics must be started empirically as an adjuctive therapy to surgical débridement. Knowledge of the organisms colonizing a wound will prove useful in choosing an antibiotic regimen while awaiting definitive results of blood and wound biopsy cultures. Without this information, early burn sepsis therapy should focus on gram-positive organisms, while infection later in the course should raise suspicion of nosocomial pathogens such as P. aeruginosa, other enteric bacilli, and C. albicans. An initial regimen might include nafcillin plus ceftazidime or an aminoglycoside, with anaerobic coverage depending on considerations noted previously. Once the causative agent is identified, therapy must be modified accordingly. Amphotericin B and acyclovir use should be guided by positive cultures from the burn wound site along with systemic evidence of dissemination. Available studies do not yet make clear the role of empiric immunotherapy with intravenous gamma globulin in the burned child. Therefore, its use cannot be recommended at the present time, although the development of specific

  20. Effectiveness of message framing on women's intention to perform cytomegalovirus prevention behaviors: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Magnusson, Brianna M; Christensen, Emily M

    2017-12-20

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of message framing on women's intention to perform cytomegalovirus (CMV) prevention behaviors involving handwashing, not sharing food and eating utensils, not kissing a child on the lips and not placing a pacifier in the mouth after it was in a child's mouth. An online panel of women 18-40 years, who were pregnant or planning a pregnancy were randomized in a 2 × 2 factorial design to receive 1 of 4 CMV fact sheets. The fact sheets were framed as either what could be gained or be lost by following (or not) the recommendations and the likelihood of being affected by CMV (i.e., small chance or one of the most common infections in infants). The questionnaire measured CMV knowledge, participation in CMV risk or prevention behaviors, perceived severity of and susceptibly to CMV, and the perceived control over and the efficacy of recommended prevention behaviors. The dependent variable, intention to modify behavior, was an index score that ranged from 0 to 16 with higher values indicating greater intention. Linear regression was used to evaluate the association between all independent variables and overall behavioral intention. The sample included 840 women; 15.5% were familiar with CMV. Behavioral intention was high (M = 10.43; SD = 5.13) but did not differ across the message frames (p = 0.23). Overall, behavioral intention was predicted by CMV knowledge, message credibility, perceived severity of CMV, perceived behavioral control and response efficacy. Significant interactions with gain vs. loss frame were observed for perceived behavioral control (p = 0.03) and response efficacy (p = .003). Framing CMV messages by what women stand to gain or lose interacts with perceived behavioral control and response efficacy to influence behavioral intention. Perceived behavioral control and response efficacy were most predictive of behavioral intention overall regardless of frame. Messaging that focuses

  1. A Systems Approach to Climate, Water and Diarrhea in Hubli-Dharward, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, J. E.; Zimmerman, J.

    2014-12-01

    Although evidence suggests that climate change will negatively impact water resources and hence diarrheal disease rates in the developing world, there is uncertainty surrounding prior studies. This is due to the complexity of the pathways by which climate impacts diarrhea rates making it difficult to develop interventions. Therefore, our goal was to develop a mechanistic systems approach that incorporates the complex climate, human, engineered and water systems to relate climate change to diarrhea rates under future climate scenarios.To do this, we developed an agent-based model (ABM). Our agents are households and children living in Hubli-Dharward, India. The model was informed with 15 months of weather, water quality, ethnographic and diarrhea incidence data. The model's front end is a stochastic weather simulator incorporating 15 global climate models to simulate rainfall and temperature. The water quality available to agents (residents) on a model "day" is a function of the simulated day's weather and is fully validated with field data. As with the field data, as the ambient temperature increases or it rains, the quality of water available to residents in the model deteriorates. The propensity for an resident to get diarrhea is calculated with an integrated Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment model with uncertainty simulated with a bootstrap method. Other factors include hand-washing, improved water sources, household water treatment and improved sanitation.The benefits of our approach are as follows: Our mechanistic method allows us to develop scientifically derived adaptation strategies. We can quantitatively link climate scenarios with diarrhea incidence over long time periods. We can explore the complex climate and water system dynamics, rank risk factor importance, examine a broad range of scenarios and identify tipping points. Our approach is modular and expandable such that new datasets can be integrated to study climate impacts on a larger scale. Our

  2. Sanitation and Hygiene-Specific Risk Factors for Moderate-to-Severe Diarrhea in Young Children in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study, 2007–2011: Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Reilly, Ciara E.; Levine, Myron M.; Kotloff, Karen L.; Farag, Tamer H.; Nasrin, Dilruba; Alonso, Pedro L.; Breiman, Robert F.; Omore, Richard; Faruque, Abu S. G.; Das, Sumon Kumar; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Saha, Debasish; Sow, Samba O.; Sur, Dipika; Zaidi, Anita K. M.; Quadri, Fahreen; Mintz, Eric D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Diarrheal disease is the second leading cause of disease in children less than 5 y of age. Poor water, sanitation, and hygiene conditions are the primary routes of exposure and infection. Sanitation and hygiene interventions are estimated to generate a 36% and 48% reduction in diarrheal risk in young children, respectively. Little is known about whether the number of households sharing a sanitation facility affects a child's risk of diarrhea. The objective of this study was to describe sanitation and hygiene access across the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) sites in Africa and South Asia and to assess sanitation and hygiene exposures, including shared sanitation access, as risk factors for moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) in children less than 5 y of age. Methods/Findings The GEMS matched case-control study was conducted between December 1, 2007, and March 3, 2011, at seven sites in Basse, The Gambia; Nyanza Province, Kenya; Bamako, Mali; Manhiça, Mozambique; Mirzapur, Bangladesh; Kolkata, India; and Karachi, Pakistan. Data was collected for 8,592 case children aged sanitation and hygiene exposures and MSD. Most households at six sites (>93%) had access to a sanitation facility, while 70% of households in rural Kenya had access to a facility. Practicing open defecation was a risk factor for MSD in children sanitation facilities with 1–2 or ≥3 other households was a statistically significant risk factor for MSD in Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, and Pakistan. Among those with a designated handwashing area near the home, soap or ash were more frequently observed at control households and were significantly protective against MSD in Mozambique and India. Conclusions This study suggests that sharing a sanitation facility with just one to two other households can increase the risk of MSD in young children, compared to using a private facility. Interventions aimed at increasing access to private household sanitation facilities may reduce the burden of

  3. Effectiveness of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign and obstacles to success in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Karen; Kempker, Russell R; Tenna, Admasu; Stenehjem, Edward; Abebe, Engida; Tadesse, Lia; Jirru, Ermias Kacha; Blumberg, Henry M

    2014-03-17

    Hand hygiene is the cornerstone of infection control and reduces rates of healthcare associated infection. There are limited data evaluating hand hygiene adherence and hand hygiene campaign effect in resource-limited settings, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed the impact of implementing a World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign at a hospital in Ethiopia. This study included a before-and-after assessment of health care worker (HCW) adherence with WHO hand hygiene guidelines. It was implemented in three phases: 1) baseline evaluation of hand hygiene adherence and hospital infrastructure; 2) intervention (distribution of commercial hand sanitizer and implementation of an abbreviated WHO-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign); and 3) post-intervention evaluation of HCW hand hygiene adherence. HCWs' perceptions of the campaign and hand sanitizer tolerability were assessed through a survey performed in the post-intervention period. At baseline, hand washing materials were infrequently available, with only 20% of sinks having hand-washing materials. There was a significant increase in hand hygiene adherence among HCWs following implementation of a WHO multimodal hand hygiene program. Adherence increased from 2.1% at baseline (21 hand hygiene actions/1000 opportunities for hand hygiene) to 12.7% (127 hand hygiene actions /1000 opportunities for hand hygiene) after the implementation of the hand hygiene campaign (OR = 6.8, 95% CI 4.2-10.9). Hand hygiene rates significantly increased among all HCW types except attending physicians. Independent predictors of HCW hand hygiene compliance included performing hand hygiene in the post-intervention period (aOR = 5.7, 95% CI 3.5-9.3), in the emergency department (aOR = 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.6), during patient care that did not involve Attending Physician Rounds (aOR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.5), and after patient contact (aOR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.4-3.3). In the

  4. Shelf-Life of Chlorine Solutions Recommended in Ebola Virus Disease Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qais Iqbal

    Full Text Available In Ebola Virus Disease (EVD outbreaks, it is widely recommended to wash living things (handwashing with 0.05% (500 mg/L chlorine solution and non-living things (surfaces, personal protective equipment, dead bodies with 0.5% (5,000 mg/L chlorine solution. Chlorine solutions used in EVD response are primarily made from powdered calcium hypochlorite (HTH, granular sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC, and liquid sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, and have a pH range of 5-11. Chlorine solutions degrade following a reaction highly dependent on, and unusually sensitive to, pH, temperature, and concentration. We determined the shelf-life of 0.05% and 0.5% chlorine solutions used in EVD response, including HTH, NaDCC, stabilized NaOCl, generated NaOCl, and neutralized NaOCl solutions. Solutions were stored for 30 days at 25, 30, and 35°C, and tested daily for chlorine concentration and pH. Maximum shelf-life was defined as days until initial concentration fell to 30 days. Models were developed for solutions with maximum shelf-lives between 1-30 days. Extrapolating to 40°C, the maximum predicted shelf-life for 0.05% and 0.5% NaDCC solutions were 0.38 and 0.82 hours, respectively; predicted shelf-life for 0.05% and 0.5% generated NaOCl solutions were >30 and 5.4 days, respectively. Each chlorine solution type offers advantages and disadvantages to responders, as: NaDCC is an easy-to-import high-concentration effervescent powder; HTH is similar, but forms a precipitate that may clog pipes; and, NaOCl solutions can be made locally, but are difficult to transport. We recommend responders chose the most appropriate source chlorine compound for their use, and ensure solutions are stored at appropriate temperatures and used or replaced before expiring.

  5. A large outbreak of Hepatitis E virus genotype 1 infection in an urban setting in Chad likely linked to household level transmission factors, 2016-2017.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Spina

    Full Text Available In September 2016, three acutely jaundiced (AJS pregnant women were admitted to Am Timan Hospital, eastern Chad. We described the outbreak and conducted a case test-negative study to identify risk factors for this genotype of HEV in an acute outbreak setting.Active case finding using a community based surveillance network identified suspected AJS cases. Pregnant or visibly ill AJS cases presenting at hospital were tested with Assure® IgM HEV rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs and some with Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR in Amsterdam; confirmed cases were RDT-positive and controls were RDT-negative. All answered questions around: demographics, household makeup, area of residence, handwashing practices, water collection behaviour and clinical presentation. We calculated unadjusted odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI.Between September and April 2017, 1443 AJS cases (1293 confirmed were detected in the town(attack rate: 2%; estimated 65,000 population. PCR testing confirmed HEV genotype 1e. HEV RDTs were used for 250 AJS cases; 100 (40% were confirmed. Risk factors for HEV infection, included: having at least two children under the age of 5 years (OR 2.1, 95%CI 1.1-4.3, having another household member with jaundice (OR 2.4, 95%CI 0.90-6.3 and, with borderline significance, living in the neighbourhoods of Riad (OR 3.8, 95%CI 1.0-1.8 or Ridina (OR 3.3, 95%CI 1.0-12.6. Cases were more likely to present with vomiting (OR 3.2, 9%CI 1.4-7.9 than controls; possibly due to selection bias. Cases were non-significantly less likely to report always washing hands before meals compared with controls (OR 0.33, 95%CI 0.1-1.1.Our study suggests household factors and area of residence (possibly linked to access to water and sanitation play a role in HEV transmission; which could inform future outbreak responses. Ongoing sero-prevalence studies will elucidate more aspects of transmission dynamics of this virus with genotype 1e.

  6. Contributing to the debate on categorising shared sanitation facilities as 'unimproved': An account based on field researchers' observations and householders' opinions in three regions, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Khalid; Kilamile, Fadhili; Safari, Emmanuela; Seleman, Amour; Mwakitalima, Anyitike; Balengayabo, Jonas G; Kassile, Telemu; Mangesho, Peter E; Mubyazi, Godfrey M

    2017-01-01

    Health risks associated with poor sanitation behaviours continue to be reported mostly from low-income countries (LICs). Reports show that various factors limit many people from accessing and using improved latrines, forcing some to opt for sharing latrines with neighbours, others practicing open defecation. Meanwhile, debate prevails on whether shared latrines should be categorised as unimproved according to WHO/UNICEF-JMP criteria. We contribute to this debate based on results from a study undertaken in three regions, Tanzania. Data were collected through observations in 1,751 households with latrines, coupled with collection of opinions from heads of such households regarding the latrine-sharing practices. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess associations between the outcome and possible predictor variables. Of all 1,751 latrines, 14.6% were shared. Among the shared latrines, 74.2% were found being generally clean as compared to 69.2% of the non-shared ones. Comparing the shared and non-shared latrines, the non-shared latrines were significantly less likely to be found with floors built with permanent materials (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.55, 0.98); washable floors (OR = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.93); and lockable doors (OR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.95). Shared latrines were less likely to have floors with faecal matter, functional handwashing facilities (HWFs), HWFs with running water, and roofs; albeit the differences in all these scenarios were not statistically significant. Respondents expressed desire for improved latrines, but also did not find it wrong to share latrines if cleanliness was maintained. Having an 'improved' latrine remains important as JMP recommends, but based on our study findings, we argue that possessing a non-shared latrine neither guarantees safety to its users nor its categorisation as 'improved'. Instead, the state of the latrine, the construction technology used and the behaviours of the users may be

  7. Human dermal absorption of chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants; implications for human exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Elwafa Abdallah, Mohamed, E-mail: mae_abdallah@yahoo.co.uk [Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Assiut University, 71526 Assiut (Egypt); Pawar, Gopal; Harrad, Stuart [Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, School of Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-15

    Tris-2-chloroethyl phosphate (TCEP), tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and tris-1,3-dichloropropyl phosphate (TDCIPP) are organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) widely applied in a plethora of consumer products despite their carcinogenic potential. Human dermal absorption of these PFRs is investigated for the first time using human ex vivo skin and EPISKIN™ models. Results of human ex vivo skin experiments revealed 28%, 25% and 13% absorption of the applied dose (500 ng/cm{sup 2}, finite dose) of TCEP, TCIPP and TDCIPP, respectively after 24 h exposure. The EPISKIN™ model showed enhanced permeability values (i.e. weaker barrier), that were respectively 16%, 11% and 9% for TCEP, TCIPP and TDCIPP compared to human ex vivo skin. However, this difference was not significant (P > 0.05). Estimated permeability constants (K{sub p}, cm/h) showed a significant negative correlation with log K{sub ow} for the studied contaminants. The effect of hand-washing on dermal absorption of PFRs was investigated. Washing reduced overall dermal absorption, albeit to varying degrees depending on the physicochemical properties of the target PFRs. Moreover, slight variations of the absorbed dose were observed upon changing the dosing solution from acetone to 20% Tween 80 in water, indicating the potential influence of the dose vehicle on the dermal absorption of PFRs. Finally, estimated dermal uptake of the studied PFRs via contact with indoor dust was higher in UK toddlers (median ΣPFRs = 36 ng/kg bw day) than adults (median ΣPFRs = 4 ng/kg bw day). More research is required to fully elucidate the toxicological implications of such exposure. - Highlights: • Human dermal absorption of PFRs was studied using human ex vivo skin and EPISKIN™. • Absorbed fractions of TCEP, TCIPP and TDCIPP were 28%, 25% and 13% of applied dose. • Permeability constants showed significant negative correlation to log K{sub ow} of PFRs. • Skin washing reduced the overall dermal

  8. Hand hygiene in preventing nosocomial infections:a nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Muzio, M; Cammilletti, V; Petrelli, E; Di Simone, E

    2015-01-01

    To verify whether there is some correlation between the nursing workload and the occurrence of healthcare-associated infections. An anonymous questionnaire made up of 20 items has been drafted for this specific purpose and delivered to a sample of 70 participants, including 33 nurses and 37 nursing students of a well-known University Hospital in Rome. The study is supported by extensive documental research, and a specific literature review. Hand hygiene is a mandatory daily practice, simple but critical, but not always clear enough for both nurses and students. The investigation demonstrated inconsistencies between nurses' and students' behaviour and what is recommended by the new WHO international guidelines. The documented correlation between the workload and the occurrence of healthcare-associated infections may be explained by the negative effect of nursing workload on correct hand-washing procedures. Out of the total sample, 58.6% answered affirmatively to both the presence of healthcare-associated infections within their unit and an excessive daily workload. Indeed, the remaining 41.4% of the sample do not report an excessive workload and states that "there are no healthcare-associated infections within their operational reality, at least not in the time period covered by the present investigation". Although limited to a small sample, this study may reveal that the correct practice of hand washing, prompted and considered fundamental by WHO, is still much underrated. Hand hygiene should be better understood and practiced in all healthcare facilities, through a series of interventions such as: specific training courses, the presence of a gel sanitizer next to each patient's bed or in each patient's room, as well as the adoption of the new international guidelines in all units. The analysis of other correlations found the presence of a protective factor (RRinfections. In fact, we found no statistically significant values to support such considerations (p>0

  9. Participatory science and innovation for improved sanitation and hygiene: process and outcome evaluation of project SHINE, a school-based intervention in Rural Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Hetherington

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrheal disease is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in low and middle income countries with children being disproportionately affected. Project SHINE (Sanitation & Hygiene INnovation in Education is a grassroots participatory science education and social entrepreneurship model to engage youth and the wider community in the development of sustainable strategies to improve sanitation and hygiene. Methods Based in rural and remote Tanzania, this pilot study engaged pastoralist high-school students and communities in the development and evaluation of culturally and contextually relevant strategies to improve sanitation and hygiene. Using a train-the-trainer approach, key activities included teacher workshops, school-based lessons, extra-curricular activities, community events and a One Health sanitation science fair which showcased projects related to water, sanitation and hygiene in relation to human and animal health. The process and outcome of the study were evaluated through qualitative interviews and focus group discussions with diverse project participants, as well as pre- and post- questionnaires completed by students on knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning sanitation and hygiene. Results The questionnaire results at baseline and follow-up showed statistically significant improvements on key measures including a decrease in unhygienic behaviors, an increase in the perceived importance of handwashing and intention to use the toilet, and increased communication in the social network about the importance of clean water and improved sanitation and hygiene practices, however there were no significant changes in sanitation related knowledge. Qualitative data highlighted strong leadership emerging from youth and enthusiasm from teachers and students concerning the overall approach in the project, including the use of participatory methods. There was a high degree of community engagement with hundreds of

  10. Shelf-Life of Chlorine Solutions Recommended in Ebola Virus Disease Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Qais; Lubeck-Schricker, Maya; Wells, Emma; Wolfe, Marlene K; Lantagne, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    In Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreaks, it is widely recommended to wash living things (handwashing) with 0.05% (500 mg/L) chlorine solution and non-living things (surfaces, personal protective equipment, dead bodies) with 0.5% (5,000 mg/L) chlorine solution. Chlorine solutions used in EVD response are primarily made from powdered calcium hypochlorite (HTH), granular sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC), and liquid sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and have a pH range of 5-11. Chlorine solutions degrade following a reaction highly dependent on, and unusually sensitive to, pH, temperature, and concentration. We determined the shelf-life of 0.05% and 0.5% chlorine solutions used in EVD response, including HTH, NaDCC, stabilized NaOCl, generated NaOCl, and neutralized NaOCl solutions. Solutions were stored for 30 days at 25, 30, and 35°C, and tested daily for chlorine concentration and pH. Maximum shelf-life was defined as days until initial concentration fell to pH = 7) had a maximum shelf-life of a few hours, NaDCC solutions (pH = 6) 2 days, generated NaOCl solutions (pH = 9) 6 days, and HTH and stabilized NaOCl solutions (pH 9-11) >30 days. Models were developed for solutions with maximum shelf-lives between 1-30 days. Extrapolating to 40°C, the maximum predicted shelf-life for 0.05% and 0.5% NaDCC solutions were 0.38 and 0.82 hours, respectively; predicted shelf-life for 0.05% and 0.5% generated NaOCl solutions were >30 and 5.4 days, respectively. Each chlorine solution type offers advantages and disadvantages to responders, as: NaDCC is an easy-to-import high-concentration effervescent powder; HTH is similar, but forms a precipitate that may clog pipes; and, NaOCl solutions can be made locally, but are difficult to transport. We recommend responders chose the most appropriate source chlorine compound for their use, and ensure solutions are stored at appropriate temperatures and used or replaced before expiring.

  11. Human dermal absorption of chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants; implications for human exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Elwafa Abdallah, Mohamed; Pawar, Gopal; Harrad, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Tris-2-chloroethyl phosphate (TCEP), tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and tris-1,3-dichloropropyl phosphate (TDCIPP) are organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) widely applied in a plethora of consumer products despite their carcinogenic potential. Human dermal absorption of these PFRs is investigated for the first time using human ex vivo skin and EPISKIN™ models. Results of human ex vivo skin experiments revealed 28%, 25% and 13% absorption of the applied dose (500 ng/cm 2 , finite dose) of TCEP, TCIPP and TDCIPP, respectively after 24 h exposure. The EPISKIN™ model showed enhanced permeability values (i.e. weaker barrier), that were respectively 16%, 11% and 9% for TCEP, TCIPP and TDCIPP compared to human ex vivo skin. However, this difference was not significant (P > 0.05). Estimated permeability constants (K p , cm/h) showed a significant negative correlation with log K ow for the studied contaminants. The effect of hand-washing on dermal absorption of PFRs was investigated. Washing reduced overall dermal absorption, albeit to varying degrees depending on the physicochemical properties of the target PFRs. Moreover, slight variations of the absorbed dose were observed upon changing the dosing solution from acetone to 20% Tween 80 in water, indicating the potential influence of the dose vehicle on the dermal absorption of PFRs. Finally, estimated dermal uptake of the studied PFRs via contact with indoor dust was higher in UK toddlers (median ΣPFRs = 36 ng/kg bw day) than adults (median ΣPFRs = 4 ng/kg bw day). More research is required to fully elucidate the toxicological implications of such exposure. - Highlights: • Human dermal absorption of PFRs was studied using human ex vivo skin and EPISKIN™. • Absorbed fractions of TCEP, TCIPP and TDCIPP were 28%, 25% and 13% of applied dose. • Permeability constants showed significant negative correlation to log K ow of PFRs. • Skin washing reduced the overall dermal absorption of target PFRs

  12. Participatory science and innovation for improved sanitation and hygiene: process and outcome evaluation of project SHINE, a school-based intervention in Rural Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, Erin; Eggers, Matthijs; Wamoyi, Joyce; Hatfield, Jennifer; Manyama, Mange; Kutz, Susan; Bastien, Sheri

    2017-02-07

    Diarrheal disease is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in low and middle income countries with children being disproportionately affected. Project SHINE (Sanitation & Hygiene INnovation in Education) is a grassroots participatory science education and social entrepreneurship model to engage youth and the wider community in the development of sustainable strategies to improve sanitation and hygiene. Based in rural and remote Tanzania, this pilot study engaged pastoralist high-school students and communities in the development and evaluation of culturally and contextually relevant strategies to improve sanitation and hygiene. Using a train-the-trainer approach, key activities included teacher workshops, school-based lessons, extra-curricular activities, community events and a One Health sanitation science fair which showcased projects related to water, sanitation and hygiene in relation to human and animal health. The process and outcome of the study were evaluated through qualitative interviews and focus group discussions with diverse project participants, as well as pre- and post- questionnaires completed by students on knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning sanitation and hygiene. The questionnaire results at baseline and follow-up showed statistically significant improvements on key measures including a decrease in unhygienic behaviors, an increase in the perceived importance of handwashing and intention to use the toilet, and increased communication in the social network about the importance of clean water and improved sanitation and hygiene practices, however there were no significant changes in sanitation related knowledge. Qualitative data highlighted strong leadership emerging from youth and enthusiasm from teachers and students concerning the overall approach in the project, including the use of participatory methods. There was a high degree of community engagement with hundreds of community members participating in school-based events

  13. Intentions to Perform Non-Pharmaceutical Protective Behaviors during Influenza Outbreaks in Sweden: A Cross-Sectional Study following a Mass Vaccination Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpka, Toomas; Spreco, Armin; Gursky, Elin; Eriksson, Olle; Dahlström, Örjan; Strömgren, Magnus; Ekberg, Joakim; Pilemalm, Sofie; Karlsson, David; Hinkula, Jorma; Holm, Einar

    2014-01-01

    Failure to incorporate the beliefs and attitudes of the public into theoretical models of preparedness has been identified as a weakness in strategies to mitigate infectious disease outbreaks. We administered a cross-sectional telephone survey to a representative sample (n = 443) of the Swedish adult population to examine whether self-reported intentions to improve personal hygiene and increase social distancing during influenza outbreaks could be explained by trust in official information, self-reported health (SF-8), sociodemographic factors, and determinants postulated in protection motivation theory, namely threat appraisal and coping appraisal. The interviewees were asked to make their appraisals for two scenarios: a) an influenza with low case fatality and mild lifestyle impact; b) severe influenza with high case fatality and serious disturbances of societal functions. Every second respondent (50.0%) reported high trust in official information about influenza. The proportion that reported intentions to take deliberate actions to improve personal hygiene during outbreaks ranged between 45–85%, while less than 25% said that they intended to increase social distancing. Multiple logistic regression models with coping appraisal as the explanatory factor most frequently contributing to the explanation of the variance in intentions showed strong discriminatory performance for staying home while not ill (mild outbreaks: Area under the curve [AUC] 0.85 (95% confidence interval 0.82;0.89), severe outbreaks AUC 0.82 (95% CI 0.77;0.85)) and acceptable performance with regard to avoiding public transportation (AUC 0.78 (0.74;0.82), AUC 0.77 (0.72;0.82)), using handwash products (AUC 0.70 (0.65;0.75), AUC 0.76 (0.71;0.80)), and frequently washing hands (AUC 0.71 (0.66;0.76), AUC 0.75 (0.71;0.80)). We conclude that coping appraisal was the explanatory factor most frequently included in statistical models explaining self-reported intentions to carry out non

  14. Working conditions and public health risks in slaughterhouses in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Elizabeth Anne Jessie; de Glanville, William Anson; Thomas, Lian Francesca; Kariuki, Samuel; Bronsvoort, Barend Mark de Clare; Fèvre, Eric Maurice

    2017-01-05

    Inadequate facilities and hygiene at slaughterhouses can result in contamination of meat and occupational hazards to workers. The objectives of this study were to assess current conditions in slaughterhouses in western Kenya and the knowledge, and practices of the slaughterhouse workers toward hygiene and sanitation. Between February and October 2012 all consenting slaughterhouses in the study area were recruited. A standardised questionnaire relating to facilities and practices in the slaughterhouse was administered to the foreperson at each site. A second questionnaire was used to capture individual slaughterhouse workers' knowledge, practices and recent health events. A total of 738 slaughterhouse workers from 142 slaughterhouses completed questionnaires. Many slaughterhouses had poor infrastructure, 65% (95% CI 63-67%) had a roof, cement floor and walls, 60% (95% CI 57-62%) had a toilet and 20% (95% CI 18-22%) had hand-washing facilities. The meat inspector visited 90% (95% CI 92-95%) of slaughterhouses but antemortem inspection was practiced at only 7% (95% CI 6-8%). Nine percent (95% CI 7-10%) of slaughterhouses slaughtered sick animals. Only half of workers wore personal protective clothing - 53% (95% CI 51-55%) wore protective coats and 49% (95% CI 46-51%) wore rubber boots. Knowledge of zoonotic disease was low with only 31% (95% CI 29-33%) of workers aware that disease could be transmitted from animals. The current working conditions in slaughterhouses in western Kenya are not in line with the recommendations of the Meat Control Act of Kenya. Current facilities and practices may increase occupational exposure to disease or injury and contaminated meat may enter the consumer market. The findings of this study could enable the development of appropriate interventions to minimise public health risks. Initially, improvements need to be made to facilities and practices to improve worker safety and reduce the risk of food contamination. Simultaneously, training

  15. Factores de riesgo de la infección por Giardia lamblia en niños de guarderías infantiles de Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba Risk factors for Giardia lamblia in children in daycare centers in Havana, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel Ángel Núñez

    2003-04-01

    than complete secondary education among cases as compared to controls. In addition, we found no differences in lack of hand-washing before eating and after defecation; however, we found a higher percentage of families who washed vegetables insufficiently among predisposed children. Finally, a lower percentage of families with predisposed children boiled their water. Our results demonstrate the important role of water as a vehicle for transmission of giardiasis and the importance of various epidemiologic factors.

  16. A cluster-randomized controlled trial of handrubs for prevention of infectious diseases among children in Colombia Ensayo controlado aleatorizado por conglomerados sobre el uso de antisépticos para las manos para la prevención de enfermedades infecciosas en los niños en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Correa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of alcohol-based handrubs (ABH in reducing acute diarrheal diseases (ADD and acute respiratory infections (ARI among children 1-5 years of age in childcare centers with limited tap water. METHODS: This was the first cluster-randomized controlled trial in a developing country. The study took place at 42 childcare centers with sporadic and limited water availability in six towns in Colombia. Participants were randomly assigned to use ABH as a complement to handwashing (intervention arm: 21 centers/794 children; or to continue existing handwashing practices (control arm: 21 centers/933 children. ADD and ARI cases were identified through teacher-reported signs and symptoms of illness. Adverse events were monitored. Hazard ratios (HR were obtained using Cox proportional hazards multivariate regression shared frailty models. RESULTS: Child-days of surveillance totaled 336 038. Loss to follow up was 14.5%. For both ADD and ARI, there were no differences in hazard ratios during the first trimester of the study. In the second and third trimesters, significant reductions in the risk of ADD were found in the intervention compared to control arm (HR = 0.55, P OBJETIVO: Evaluar la eficacia del uso de antisépticos para las manos a base de alcohol en la disminución de las enfermedades diarreicas agudas y las infecciones respiratorias agudas en niños de 1 a 5 años de edad en los centros de atención infantil donde el lavado de las manos con agua y jabón no es factible. MÉTODOS. El presente fue el primer ensayo controlado y aleatorizado por conglomerados llevado a cabo en un país en desarrollo. El estudio tuvo lugar en 42 centros de atención infantil con disponibilidad de agua esporádica y limitada ubicados en seis ciudades de Colombia. Se asignó aleatoriamente a los participantes a usar antisépticos a base de alcohol como complemento del lavado de las manos (grupo de intervención: 21 centros/794 niños o a

  17. Production of high quality castile soap from high rancid olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girgis, Adel Y.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-edible olive oil, characterized by high acid and peroxide values as well as deep in color and unpleasant odor, was used to produce a fine castile soap (soap sample nº. 1. Semi-fine virgin olive oil was also used to produce the standard castile soap (soap sample nº. 2. The obtained results illustrated that the unpleasant odor was disappeared in soap nº. 1 compared to the standard soap (weakly like oil. Also, there were remarkable that no high differences were observed in all physical and chemical properties (appearance, smooth surface, erosion from hand-washing, consistency, moisture content, total fatty acids, free alkali and salt content in the two fresh soap samples. Whilst, the color in soap sample nº. 1 was fuscous green color compared to the standard soap (which was white to pale yellow. Soap samples were stored on a shelf at room temperature for 6 months showed some changes in their chemical properties. On the other hand, physical properties of the above two samples were improved after the storage period (6 months where their structures became very firm with high lather volume and rates of their erosions from hand-washing were retrenched except, the color in soap sample nº. 1 was not improved which was dark green color. Therefore, the present study recommend to use non-edible olive oil as unusually fatty material to produce a fine castile soap (high smooth surface, fairly lather and high glossy appearance as an alternative to edible olive oil (which is very expensive and also to reduce the cost of castile soap manufacturing.Aceite de oliva no comestible, caracterizado por su alta acidez e índice de peróxido así como de su elevada coloración y sabor desagradable se utilizó para la producción de jabón fino tipo ‘‘Castilla’’ (muestra de jabón nº 1. Otro aceite de oliva semifino se empleo para la fabricación de jabón estándar tipo ‘‘Castilla’’. Los resultados mostraron

  18. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouzanfar, Mohammad H; Alexander, Lily; Anderson, H Ross; Bachman, Victoria F; Biryukov, Stan; Brauer, Michael; Burnett, Richard; Casey, Daniel; Coates, Matthew M; Cohen, Aaron; Delwiche, Kristen; Estep, Kara; Frostad, Joseph J; Astha, K C; Kyu, Hmwe H; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Ng, Marie; Slepak, Erica Leigh; Thomas, Bernadette A; Wagner, Joseph; Aasvang, Gunn Marit; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbasoglu Ozgoren, Ayse; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abera, Semaw F; Aboyans, Victor; Abraham, Biju; Abraham, Jerry Puthenpurakal; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M E; Aburto, Tania C; Achoki, Tom; Adelekan, Ademola; Adofo, Koranteng; Adou, Arsène K; Adsuar, José C; Afshin, Ashkan; Agardh, Emilie E; Al Khabouri, Mazin J; Al Lami, Faris H; Alam, Sayed Saidul; Alasfoor, Deena; Albittar, Mohammed I; Alegretti, Miguel A; Aleman, Alicia V; Alemu, Zewdie A; Alfonso-Cristancho, Rafael; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Raghib; Ali, Mohammed K; Alla, François; Allebeck, Peter; Allen, Peter J; Alsharif, Ubai; Alvarez, Elena; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amankwaa, Adansi A; Amare, Azmeraw T; Ameh, Emmanuel A; Ameli, Omid; Amini, Heresh; Ammar, Walid; Anderson, Benjamin O; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T; Anwari, Palwasha; Argeseanu Cunningham, Solveig; Arnlöv, Johan; Arsenijevic, Valentina S Arsic; Artaman, Al; Asghar, Rana J; Assadi, Reza; Atkins, Lydia S; Atkinson, Charles; Avila, Marco A; Awuah, Baffour; Badawi, Alaa; Bahit, Maria C; Bakfalouni, Talal; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Balalla, Shivanthi; Balu, Ravi Kumar; Banerjee, Amitava; Barber, Ryan M; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L; Barquera, Simon; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Basto-Abreu, Ana C; Basu, Arindam; Basu, Sanjay; Basulaiman, Mohammed O; Batis Ruvalcaba, Carolina; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Bekele, Tolesa; Bell, Michelle L; Benjet, Corina; Bennett, Derrick A; Benzian, Habib; Bernabé, Eduardo; Beyene, Tariku J; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhalla, Ashish; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Bikbov, Boris; Bin Abdulhak, Aref A; Blore, Jed D; Blyth, Fiona M; Bohensky, Megan A; Bora Başara, Berrak; Borges, Guilherme; Bornstein, Natan M; Bose, Dipan; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert R; Brainin, Michael; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J; Brenner, Hermann; Briggs, Adam D M; Broday, David M; Brooks, Peter M; Bruce, Nigel G; Brugha, Traolach S; Brunekreef, Bert; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Bui, Linh N; Bukhman, Gene; Bulloch, Andrew G; Burch, Michael; Burney, Peter G J; Campos-Nonato, Ismael R; Campuzano, Julio C; Cantoral, Alejandra J; Caravanos, Jack; Cárdenas, Rosario; Cardis, Elisabeth; Carpenter, David O; Caso, Valeria; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A; Castro, Ruben E; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Cavalleri, Fiorella; Çavlin, Alanur; Chadha, Vineet K; Chang, Jung-Chen; Charlson, Fiona J; Chen, Honglei; Chen, Wanqing; Chen, Zhengming; Chiang, Peggy P; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christophi, Costas A; Chuang, Ting-Wu; Chugh, Sumeet S; Cirillo, Massimo; Claßen, Thomas K D; Colistro, Valentina; Colomar, Mercedes; Colquhoun, Samantha M; Contreras, Alejandra G; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooperrider, Kimberly; Cooper, Leslie T; Coresh, Josef; Courville, Karen J; Criqui, Michael H; Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia; Damsere-Derry, James; Danawi, Hadi; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; Dargan, Paul I; Davis, Adrian; Davitoiu, Dragos V; Dayama, Anand; de Castro, E Filipa; De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; De Leo, Diego; de Lima, Graça; Degenhardt, Louisa; del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Dellavalle, Robert P; Deribe, Kebede; Derrett, Sarah; Des Jarlais, Don C; Dessalegn, Muluken; deVeber, Gabrielle A; Devries, Karen M; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Dherani, Mukesh K; Dicker, Daniel; Ding, Eric L; Dokova, Klara; Dorsey, E Ray; Driscoll, Tim R; Duan, Leilei; Durrani, Adnan M; Ebel, Beth E; Ellenbogen, Richard G; Elshrek, Yousef M; Endres, Matthias; Ermakov, Sergey P; Erskine, Holly E; Eshrati, Babak; Esteghamati, Alireza; Fahimi, Saman; Faraon, Emerito Jose A; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fay, Derek F J; Feigin, Valery L; Feigl, Andrea B; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Ferrari, Alize J; Ferri, Cleusa P; Flaxman, Abraham D; Fleming, Thomas D; Foigt, Nataliya; Foreman, Kyle J; Paleo, Urbano Fra; Franklin, Richard C; Gabbe, Belinda; Gaffikin, Lynne; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Gamkrelidze, Amiran; Gankpé, Fortuné G; Gansevoort, Ron T; García-Guerra, Francisco A; Gasana, Evariste; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Gessner, Bradford D; Gething, Pete; Gibney, Katherine B; Gillum, Richard F; Ginawi, Ibrahim A M; Giroud, Maurice; Giussani, Giorgia; Goenka, Shifalika; Goginashvili, Ketevan; Gomez Dantes, Hector; Gona, Philimon; Gonzalez de Cosio, Teresita; González-Castell, Dinorah; Gotay, Carolyn C; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N; Guerrant, Richard L; Gugnani, Harish C; Guillemin, Francis; Gunnell, David; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gutiérrez, Reyna A; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hagan, Holly; Hagstromer, Maria; Halasa, Yara A; Hamadeh, Randah R; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hankey, Graeme J; Hao, Yuantao; Harb, Hilda L; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Haro, Josep Maria; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Simon I; Hedayati, Mohammad T; Heredia-Pi, Ileana B; Hernandez, Lucia; Heuton, Kyle R; Heydarpour, Pouria; Hijar, Martha; Hoek, Hans W; Hoffman, Howard J; Hornberger, John C; Hosgood, H Dean; Hoy, Damian G; Hsairi, Mohamed; Hu, Guoqing; Hu, Howard; Huang, Cheng; Huang, John J; Hubbell, Bryan J; Huiart, Laetitia; Husseini, Abdullatif; Iannarone, Marissa L; Iburg, Kim M; Idrisov, Bulat T; Ikeda, Nayu; Innos, Kaire; Inoue, Manami; Islami, Farhad; Ismayilova, Samaya; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Jansen, Henrica A; Jarvis, Deborah L; Jassal, Simerjot K; Jauregui, Alejandra; Jayaraman, Sudha; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jensen, Paul N; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Fan; Jiang, Guohong; Jiang, Ying; Jonas, Jost B; Juel, Knud; Kan, Haidong; Kany Roseline, Sidibe S; Karam, Nadim E; Karch, André; Karema, Corine K; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Kazi, Dhruv S; Kemp, Andrew H; Kengne, Andre P; Keren, Andre; Khader, Yousef S; Khalifa, Shams Eldin Ali Hassan; Khan, Ejaz A; Khang, Young-Ho; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Khonelidze, Irma; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Sungroul; Kim, Yunjin; Kimokoti, Ruth W; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kinge, Jonas M; Kissela, Brett M; Kivipelto, Miia; Knibbs, Luke D; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kose, M Rifat; Kosen, Soewarta; Kraemer, Alexander; Kravchenko, Michael; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Kromhout, Hans; Ku, Tiffany; Kuate Defo, Barthelemy; Kucuk Bicer, Burcu; Kuipers, Ernst J; Kulkarni, Chanda; Kulkarni, Veena S; Kumar, G Anil; Kwan, Gene F; Lai, Taavi; Lakshmana Balaji, Arjun; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lallukka, Tea; Lam, Hilton; Lan, Qing; Lansingh, Van C; Larson, Heidi J; Larsson, Anders; Laryea, Dennis O; Lavados, Pablo M; Lawrynowicz, Alicia E; Leasher, Janet L; Lee, Jong-Tae; Leigh, James; Leung, Ricky; Levi, Miriam; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Liang, Juan; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S; Lindsay, M Patrice; Lipshultz, Steven E; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lloyd, Belinda K; Logroscino, Giancarlo; London, Stephanie J; Lopez, Nancy; Lortet-Tieulent, Joannie; Lotufo, Paulo A; Lozano, Rafael; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Ma, Jixiang; Ma, Stefan; Machado, Vasco M P; MacIntyre, Michael F; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Mahdi, Abbas A; Majdan, Marek; Malekzadeh, Reza; Mangalam, Srikanth; Mapoma, Christopher C; Marape, Marape; Marcenes, Wagner; Margolis, David J; Margono, Christopher; Marks, Guy B; Martin, Randall V; Marzan, Melvin B; Mashal, Mohammad T; Masiye, Felix; Mason-Jones, Amanda J; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Matzopoulos, Richard; Mayosi, Bongani M; Mazorodze, Tasara T; McKay, Abigail C; McKee, Martin; McLain, Abigail; Meaney, Peter A; Medina, Catalina; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mejia-Rodriguez, Fabiola; Mekonnen, Wubegzier; Melaku, Yohannes A; Meltzer, Michele; Memish, Ziad A; Mendoza, Walter; Mensah, George A; Meretoja, Atte; Mhimbira, Francis Apolinary; Micha, Renata; Miller, Ted R; Mills, Edward J; Misganaw, Awoke; Mishra, Santosh; Mohamed Ibrahim, Norlinah; Mohammad, Karzan A; Mokdad, Ali H; Mola, Glen L; Monasta, Lorenzo; Montañez Hernandez, Julio C; Montico, Marcella; Moore, Ami R; Morawska, Lidia; Mori, Rintaro; Moschandreas, Joanna; Moturi, Wilkister N; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Mueller, Ulrich O; Mukaigawara, Mitsuru; Mullany, Erin C; Murthy, Kinnari S; Naghavi, Mohsen; Nahas, Ziad; Naheed, Aliya; Naidoo, Kovin S; Naldi, Luigi; Nand, Devina; Nangia, Vinay; Narayan, K M Venkat; Nash, Denis; Neal, Bruce; Nejjari, Chakib; Neupane, Sudan P; Newton, Charles R; Ngalesoni, Frida N; Ngirabega, Jean de Dieu; Nguyen, Grant; Nguyen, Nhung T; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Nisar, Muhammad I; Nogueira, José R; Nolla, Joan M; Nolte, Sandra; Norheim, Ole F; Norman, Rosana E; Norrving, Bo; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Oh, In-Hwan; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Omer, Saad B; Opio, John Nelson; Orozco, Ricardo; Pagcatipunan, Rodolfo S; Pain, Amanda W; Pandian, Jeyaraj D; Panelo, Carlo Irwin A; Papachristou, Christina; Park, Eun-Kee; Parry, Charles D; Paternina Caicedo, Angel J; Patten, Scott B; Paul, Vinod K; Pavlin, Boris I; Pearce, Neil; Pedraza, Lilia S; Pedroza, Andrea; Pejin Stokic, Ljiljana; Pekericli, Ayfer; Pereira, David M; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando; Perico, Norberto; Perry, Samuel A L; Pervaiz, Aslam; Pesudovs, Konrad; Peterson, Carrie B; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael R; Phua, Hwee Pin; Plass, Dietrich; Poenaru, Dan; Polanczyk, Guilherme V; Polinder, Suzanne; Pond, Constance D; Pope, C Arden; Pope, Daniel; Popova, Svetlana; Pourmalek, Farshad; Powles, John; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Prasad, Noela M; Qato, Dima M; Quezada, Amado D; Quistberg, D Alex A; Racapé, Lionel; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Sajjad Ur; Raju, Murugesan; Rakovac, Ivo; Rana, Saleem M; Rao, Mayuree; Razavi, Homie; Reddy, K Srinath; Refaat, Amany H; Rehm, Jürgen; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ribeiro, Antonio L; Riccio, Patricia M; Richardson, Lee; Riederer, Anne; Robinson, Margaret; Roca, Anna; Rodriguez, Alina; Rojas-Rueda, David; Romieu, Isabelle; Ronfani, Luca; Room, Robin; Roy, Nobhojit; Ruhago, George M; Rushton, Lesley; Sabin, Nsanzimana; Sacco, Ralph L; Saha, Sukanta; Sahathevan, Ramesh; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Salomon, Joshua A; Salvo, Deborah; Sampson, Uchechukwu K; Sanabria, Juan R; Sanchez, Luz Maria; Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; Sanchez-Riera, Lidia; Sandar, Logan; Santos, Itamar S; Sapkota, Amir; Satpathy, Maheswar; Saunders, James E; Sawhney, Monika; Saylan, Mete I; Scarborough, Peter; Schmidt, Jürgen C; Schneider, Ione J C; Schöttker, Ben; Schwebel, David C; Scott, James G; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Serdar, Berrin; Servan-Mori, Edson E; Shaddick, Gavin; Shahraz, Saeid; Levy, Teresa Shamah; Shangguan, Siyi; She, Jun; Sheikhbahaei, Sara; Shibuya, Kenji; Shin, Hwashin H; Shinohara, Yukito; Shiri, Rahman; Shishani, Kawkab; Shiue, Ivy; Sigfusdottir, Inga D; Silberberg, Donald H; Simard, Edgar P; Sindi, Shireen; Singh, Abhishek; Singh, Gitanjali M; Singh, Jasvinder A; Skirbekk, Vegard; Sliwa, Karen; Soljak, Michael; Soneji, Samir; Søreide, Kjetil; Soshnikov, Sergey; Sposato, Luciano A; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Stapelberg, Nicolas J C; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Steckling, Nadine; Stein, Dan J; Stein, Murray B; Stephens, Natalie; Stöckl, Heidi; Straif, Kurt; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sturua, Lela; Sunguya, Bruno F; Swaminathan, Soumya; Swaroop, Mamta; Sykes, Bryan L; Tabb, Karen M; Takahashi, Ken; Talongwa, Roberto T; Tandon, Nikhil; Tanne, David; Tanner, Marcel; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Te Ao, Braden J; Teixeira, Carolina M; Téllez Rojo, Martha M; Terkawi, Abdullah S; Texcalac-Sangrador, José Luis; Thackway, Sarah V; Thomson, Blake; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L; Thrift, Amanda G; Thurston, George D; Tillmann, Taavi; Tobollik, Myriam; Tonelli, Marcello; Topouzis, Fotis; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Traebert, Jefferson; Tran, Bach X; Trasande, Leonardo; Trillini, Matias; Trujillo, Ulises; Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis; Tuzcu, Emin Murat; Uchendu, Uche S; Ukwaja, Kingsley N; Uzun, Selen B; van de Vijver, Steven; Van Dingenen, Rita; van Gool, Coen H; van Os, Jim; Varakin, Yuri Y; Vasankari, Tommi J; Vasconcelos, Ana Maria N; Vavilala, Monica S; Veerman, Lennert J; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Venketasubramanian, N; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Villalpando, Salvador; Violante, Francesco S; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wagner, Gregory R; Waller, Stephen G; Wallin, Mitchell T; Wan, Xia; Wang, Haidong; Wang, JianLi; Wang, Linhong; Wang, Wenzhi; Wang, Yanping; Warouw, Tati S; Watts, Charlotte H; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G; Werdecker, Andrea; Wessells, K Ryan; Westerman, Ronny; Whiteford, Harvey A; Wilkinson, James D; Williams, Hywel C; Williams, Thomas N; Woldeyohannes, Solomon M; Wolfe, Charles D A; Wong, John Q; Woolf, Anthony D; Wright, Jonathan L; Wurtz, Brittany; Xu, Gelin; Yan, Lijing L; Yang, Gonghuan; Yano, Yuichiro; Ye, Pengpeng; Yenesew, Muluken; Yentür, Gökalp K; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa Z; Younoussi, Zourkaleini; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaki, Maysaa E; Zhao, Yong; Zheng, Yingfeng; Zhou, Maigeng; Zhu, Jun; Zhu, Shankuan; Zou, Xiaonong; Zunt, Joseph R; Lopez, Alan D; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J

    2015-12-05

    The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for prevention. The GBD 2013 provides a timely opportunity to update the comparative risk assessment with new data for exposure, relative risks, and evidence on the appropriate counterfactual risk distribution. Attributable deaths, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) have been estimated for 79 risks or clusters of risks using the GBD 2010 methods. Risk-outcome pairs meeting explicit evidence criteria were assessed for 188 countries for the period 1990-2013 by age and sex using three inputs: risk exposure, relative risks, and the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL). Risks are organised into a hierarchy with blocks of behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks at the first level of the hierarchy. The next level in the hierarchy includes nine clusters of related risks and two individual risks, with more detail provided at levels 3 and 4 of the hierarchy. Compared with GBD 2010, six new risk factors have been added: handwashing practices, occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, childhood wasting, childhood stunting, unsafe sex, and low glomerular filtration rate. For most risks, data for exposure were synthesised with a Bayesian meta-regression method, DisMod-MR 2.0, or spatial-temporal Gaussian process regression. Relative risks were based on meta-regressions of published cohort and intervention studies. Attributable burden for clusters of risks and all risks combined took into account evidence on the mediation of some risks such as high body-mass index (BMI) through other risks such as high systolic blood pressure and high cholesterol. All risks combined account for 57·2% (95% uncertainty interval

  19. External cultic tradition and internal ethical purity in Matthew 15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Viljoen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In Matthew 15:1–20, Jesus responds to the accusation made by the Pharisees and the scribes that his disciples do not observe the tradition of hand-washing (οὐ γὰρ νίπτονται τὰς χεῖραςὅταν ἄρτον ἐσθίωσιν, because they do not wash their hands before they eat bread. In this story of dispute, two ideas are interwoven, namely the locus of impurity (external or internal and the manmade tradition of the elders (ἡ παράδοσις τῶν πρεσβυτέρων versus the Word of God (ὁ λόγος τοῦ Θεοῦ. The Pharisees are depicted as obsessed with external manmade rules to ensure purity, whilst Jesus is concerned with inner purity based on God’s Word. In this article, the story is interpreted on two levels. The first level describes the dispute between Jesus and the Pharisees. The second level explores the tension the Matthean community experienced in their encounter with Pharisean Judaism of their day – the Judaism of the dual Torah. The question is which aspect of the Torah is challenged by Matthew’s Jesus, and what he considers to be the true meaning of the Law. It seems that Matthew uses this story to define and maintain the identity and values of his community over and against that of the Pharisees and their successors. Devices that Matthew uses to define the identity and required morality for his community, are identified. Such devices demonstrate how a community’s values can influence the identity and ethics of a society. In Matteus 15:1–20 reageer Jesus op die aantyging van die Fariseërs en skrifgeleerdes dat sy dissipels nie die handewas-tradisie eerbiedig nie. In hierdie verhaal van dispuut word twee idees vervleg: eerstens dié van die locus van onreinheid, en tweedens dié van mensgemaakte tradisies teenoor die Woord van God. Die Fariseërs word voorgestel as mense wat obsessiefis oor mensgemaakte reëls wat reinheid verseker, terwyl Jesus op innerlike reinheid

  20. Improving Health with Science: Exploring Community-Driven Science Education in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leak, Anne Emerson

    learning. Students applied learning across health topics they identified as interesting and relevant to their community: hand-washing, disease-prevention, first aid, balanced diet, and water. Students' application of their learning was influenced by internal, external, and relational factors with the community, science education factors, and cultural factors. Some factors, which may have been barriers for students to apply their learning, were turned into supports via bridging strategies used by the students and teacher. Bridging strategies allowed students to connect between their place and science in meaningful ways in the classroom. These strategies were critical in bringing students' place into the classroom and enabling students to apply their learning toward place. The model resulting from the identified factors informed existing models for sociocultural considerations in community-based health interventions. The community-engagement applied practices of science (CAPS) model serves to conceptualize findings in this study and informs an integrated method for using community-engagement education as a stimuli for students to become cultural brokers and improve community health. In addition to focusing on teaching practices of science and encouraging students to apply their learning, this research suggests that bridging strategies can be used to connect science with a students' place in meaningful ways that serve both students and their local communities.

  1. The WHO Health Promoting School framework for improving the health and well-being of students and their academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Rebecca; Bonell, Christopher P; Jones, Hayley E; Pouliou, Theodora; Murphy, Simon M; Waters, Elizabeth; Komro, Kelli A; Gibbs, Lisa F; Magnus, Daniel; Campbell, Rona

    2014-04-16

    interventions according to the health topic targeted or the approach used, or both. Where data permitted, we performed random-effects meta-analyses to provide a summary of results across studies. We included 67 eligible cluster trials, randomising 1443 schools or districts. This is made up of 1345 schools and 98 districts. The studies tackled a range of health issues: physical activity (4), nutrition (12), physical activity and nutrition combined (18), bullying (7), tobacco (5), alcohol (2), sexual health (2), violence (2), mental health (2), hand-washing (2), multiple risk behaviours (7), cycle-helmet use (1), eating disorders (1), sun protection (1), and oral health (1). The quality of evidence overall was low to moderate as determined by the GRADE approach. 'Risk of bias' assessments identified methodological limitations, including heavy reliance on self-reported data and high attrition rates for some studies. In addition, there was a lack of long-term follow-up data for most studies.We found positive effects for some interventions for: body mass index (BMI), physical activity, physical fitness, fruit and vegetable intake, tobacco use, and being bullied. Intervention effects were generally small but have the potential to produce public health benefits at the population level. We found little evidence of effectiveness for standardised body mass index (zBMI) and no evidence of effectiveness for fat intake, alcohol use, drug use, mental health, violence and bullying others; however, only a small number of studies focused on these latter outcomes. It was not possible to meta-analyse data on other health outcomes due to lack of data. Few studies provided details on adverse events or outcomes related to the interventions. In addition, few studies included any academic, attendance or school-related outcomes. We therefore cannot draw any clear conclusions as to the effectiveness of this approach for improving academic achievement. The results of this review provide evidence for the

  2. Disentangling the effects of a multiple behaviour change intervention for diarrhoea control in Zambia: a theory-based process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, Katie; Chipungu, Jenala; Chilekwa, Joyce; Chilengi, Roma; Curtis, Val

    2017-10-17

    Diarrhoea is a leading cause of child death in Zambia. As elsewhere, the disease burden could be greatly reduced through caregiver uptake of existing prevention and treatment strategies. We recently reported the results of the Komboni Housewives intervention which tested a novel strategy employing motives including affiliation and disgust to improve caregiver practice of four diarrhoea control behaviours: exclusive breastfeeding; handwashing with soap; and correct preparation and use of oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc. The intervention was delivered via community events (women's forums and road shows), at health clinics (group session) and via radio. A cluster randomised trial revealed that the intervention resulted in a small improvement in exclusive breastfeeding practices, but was only associated with small changes in the other behaviours in areas with greater intervention exposure. This paper reports the findings of the process evaluation that was conducted alongside the trial to investigate how factors associated with intervention delivery and receipt influenced caregiver uptake of the target behaviours. Process data were collected from the eight peri-urban and rural intervention areas throughout the six-month implementation period and in all 16 clusters 4-6 weeks afterwards. Intervention implementation (fidelity, reach, dose delivered and recruitment strategies) and receipt (participant engagement and responses, and mediators) were explored through review of intervention activity logs, unannounced observation of intervention events, semi-structured interviews, focus groups with implementers and intervention recipients, and household surveys. Evaluation methods and analyses were guided by the intervention's theory of change and the evaluation framework of Linnan and Steckler. Intervention reach was lower than intended: 39% of the surveyed population reported attending one or more face-to-face intervention event, of whom only 11% attended two or more

  3. The Short-term Protective Effects of ‘Non-PPE’ Gloves Used by Greenhouse Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roff, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Task-based worker exposure assessments are used in regulatory product approval for pesticides. Some agricultural workers may be exposed to pesticide residues predominantly via transfer to the hands during plant tending or crop harvesting. They may use thin ‘splash-resistant single-use’ (SRSU) gloves or cotton gloves as good industry practice, for example, to protect a delicate crop from bruising, rather than specifically for chemical protection. These ‘non-personal protective equipment (PPE)’ gloves may or may not have been tested for chemical resistance, but can nevertheless give limited protection from chemicals. This paper reports experiments to assess the protection factors (PFs) of ‘non-PPE’ gloves against chemicals, to better inform the regulatory exposure assessments. One type of lightweight cotton and three types of 0.1 mm SRSU gloves 25cm long (latex, nitrile, and vinyl) that might be used as ‘non-PPE’ gloves and one type of 0.4 mm PPE nitrile gauntlet 33cm long were worn by 36 volunteers in greenhouses at four nurseries, handling plants sprayed with transferable but non-permeating strontium acetate in four consecutive 1-h sessions, including one session in which no gloves were worn. Dislodgeable foliar residues were measured by rinsing leaves in bags. Each subject carried out their task such as weeding or trimming, for their four sessions on their set of plants. Handwashes followed each session, and the washings were sampled and analysed for strontium. Unprotected hand contamination was taken to be the within-subject ‘challenge’ in the absence of gloves. It ranged from 166 to 4091 µg equivalent of strontium acetate on the hands and increased with increasing foliar residues. Geometric mean PFs were 60 (95% CI 38–87, n = 22) for PPE gauntlets, 32 (25–41, n = 65) for SRSU gloves and 5.3 (3.5–8, n = 21) for lightweight cotton. The PFs offered by the waterproof gloves (gauntlets and SRSU) increased with challenge, but for the

  4. The Short-term Protective Effects of 'Non-PPE' Gloves Used by Greenhouse Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roff, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Task-based worker exposure assessments are used in regulatory product approval for pesticides. Some agricultural workers may be exposed to pesticide residues predominantly via transfer to the hands during plant tending or crop harvesting. They may use thin 'splash-resistant single-use' (SRSU) gloves or cotton gloves as good industry practice, for example, to protect a delicate crop from bruising, rather than specifically for chemical protection. These 'non-personal protective equipment (PPE)' gloves may or may not have been tested for chemical resistance, but can nevertheless give limited protection from chemicals. This paper reports experiments to assess the protection factors (PFs) of 'non-PPE' gloves against chemicals, to better inform the regulatory exposure assessments.One type of lightweight cotton and three types of 0.1 mm SRSU gloves 25cm long (latex, nitrile, and vinyl) that might be used as 'non-PPE' gloves and one type of 0.4 mm PPE nitrile gauntlet 33cm long were worn by 36 volunteers in greenhouses at four nurseries, handling plants sprayed with transferable but non-permeating strontium acetate in four consecutive 1-h sessions, including one session in which no gloves were worn. Dislodgeable foliar residues were measured by rinsing leaves in bags. Each subject carried out their task such as weeding or trimming, for their four sessions on their set of plants. Handwashes followed each session, and the washings were sampled and analysed for strontium. Unprotected hand contamination was taken to be the within-subject 'challenge' in the absence of gloves. It ranged from 166 to 4091 µg equivalent of strontium acetate on the hands and increased with increasing foliar residues. Geometric mean PFs were 60 (95% CI 38-87, n = 22) for PPE gauntlets, 32 (25-41, n = 65) for SRSU gloves and 5.3 (3.5-8, n = 21) for lightweight cotton. The PFs offered by the waterproof gloves (gauntlets and SRSU) increased with challenge, but for the absorbent cotton gloves it

  5. The role of patient isolation and compliance with isolation practices in the control of nosocomial MRSA in acute care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halcomb, Elizabeth J; Griffiths, Rhonda; Fernandez, Ritin

    2008-06-01

    methodological quality, care must be taken when interpreting the review findings. There is some evidence that cessation of single room isolation and cohorting of MRSA patients does not increase nosocomial MRSA transmission when hand-washing compliance and standard precautions are maintained. Indeed, there is some evidence that reduced MRSA transmission can be achieved by improving compliance with contact precautions alone. The low level of hand hygiene compliance reported in the literature suggests that staff compliance with isolation practices is a significant factor in evaluating any infection-controlled intervention in the clinical setting. While staff compliance data are conflicting, regular audit and feedback of performance may improve compliance. Implications for clinical practice  The heterogeneous nature of the topic and methodological weaknesses of included studies impairs the ability to aggregate data and develop specific practice recommendations. While this review presents evidence to suggest that ceasing single room or cohort isolation does not lead to increased MRSA transmission, these studies maintained high levels of hand hygiene or standard precautions. Additionally, the role of extraneous factors, such as environmental reservoirs, specific MRSA strains and patient mix, is unclear. None of the included studies measured financial, social or psychological factors associated with isolation practices. There is an urgent need for well-designed research with significant sample sizes to develop an evidence base upon which to underpin future clinical practice. © 2008 The Authors. Journal Compilation © Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Nosocomial outbreak of Serratia marcescens in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: what to do not to close the unit when cohorting is not enough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Pugni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Serratia marcescens, a Gram-negative organism, is a well-recognized nosocomial pathogen, especially in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs. Even if multiple point sources have been identified, the source of an outbreak often remains unknown. Because an outbreak of S. marcescens can spread rapidly, closing the Unit sometimes is necessary. Here, we report on an outbreak of S. marcescens occurred in our NICU and describe the control measures taken to stop the epidemic without closing the Unit. Material and Methods. Our Unit is a 56-bed Unit composed of two areas: a 23-bed (4 rooms intensive-care and a 33-bed (6 rooms intermediate-care area. After some cases of S. marcescens infection were identified during a 3-month period, a prospective epidemiological study was performed in both areas during a period of 8 months. Surveillance cultures were obtained from all neonates (pharynx, rectum, eyes, ears at admission, at room-changing and twice weekly, from medical and nursing staff (pharynx, rectum and from the environment (sinks, ventilators, incubators, soap dispensers, disinfectants, breast pumps, work surfaces. The following control measures were also taken: universal precautions were intensified (handwashing, gloves, masks, education of the staff was stressed, a survey was instituted to check the observance of the control measures, admissions to the NICU were limited and infected/colonized babies were strictly cohorted. Because the outbreak continued despite these control measures, we separated new admissions from hospitalized babies by using two ways in the Unit: a clean way (green and a dirty way (red with nurses, rooms and everything different between the green and the red babies. Results. During the study period, 589 neonates underwent surveillance cultures (14.156 samples; 32/589 (5% infants had positive swabs. Four (12.5% of the 32 colonized infants had clinical signs of infection: sepsis-like symptoms (2 cases and conjunctivitis

  7. [Bacteriologic and clinical analysis of nosocomial infections in patients from the intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikodemski, T

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate what pathogens are mainly responsible for infection among all hospitalised at our ITU patients, to define the influence of antibiotic use on the aetiology of nosocomial infection. The research was conducted on a six-bedded surgical ITU in a 700-bed teaching hospital from January 1995 till June 1996. In August 1995 we changed infection control protocols (more stress on: handwashing with antiseptic soaps and routine microbiological culture for early prediction of infection) and antibiotic guidelines on our ITU (third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and Vancomycin were used only as the last option and never in prevention). 1276 samples for microbiological culture were obtained in routine manner. From 60% positive cultures 1216 strains were isolated (Tab. 1) and resistance to antibiotics were defined (Tab. 3). Monthly antibiotic consumption was expressed in defined daily dose (DDD) for 1000 hospitalisation-days. DDD = (X/Y)/Z x x 1000, were: X-cumulative antibiotic consumption during analysed period (g), Y-standard daily dose (g/24 h), Z-number of hospitalisation-days during analysed period (Tab. 2). Values were expressed as the mean +/- standard error (SE). Relationships between variables were analysed using linear correlation. All data were categorised for the frequency table. Statistically significant differences were considered to exist when calculated p values were less than 0.05. There were no statistically significant differences in the number of treated patients, length of stay and mortality rate on our ITU in 18 months. 58% of isolated strains were Gram-negative bacteria especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22%) and Acinetobacter spp. (16%) and Proteus spp. (9%). The commonly isolated Gram-positive bacteria were Enterococcus faecalis (14%), Staphylococcus aureus (12%)--of which 90% were MRSA. In 8% of cases we have isolated Candida spp. Monthly antibiotic consumption was displayed in table 2. Trend analysis

  8. On the Identification of Associations between Five World Health Organization Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Phenotypes and Six Predictors in Low and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Hugh; Schoenberger, Erica

    2017-01-01

    According to the most recent estimates, 842,000 deaths in low- to middle-income countries were attributable to inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene in 2012. Despite billions of dollars and decades of effort, we still lack a sound understanding of which kinds of WASH interventions are most effective in improving public health outcomes, and an important corollary-whether the right things are being measured. The World Health Organization (WHO) has made a concerted effort to compile comprehensive data on drinking water quality and sanitation in the developing world. A recent 2014 report provides information on three phenotypes (responses): Unsafe Water Deaths, Unsafe Sanitation Deaths, Unsafe Hygiene Deaths; two grouped phenotypes: Unsafe Water and Sanitation Deaths and Unsafe Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Deaths; and six explanatory variables (predictors): Improved Sanitation, Unimproved Water Source, Piped Water To Premises, Other Improved Water Source, Filtered and Bottled Water in the Household and Handwashing. Regression analyses were performed to identify statistically significant associations between these mortality responses and predictors. Good fitted-model performance required: (1) the use of population-normalized death fractions as opposed to number of deaths; (2) transformed response (logit or power); and (3) square-root predictor transformation. Given the complexity and heterogeneity of the relationships and countries being studied, these models exhibited remarkable performance and explained, for example, about 85% of the observed variance in population-normalized Unsafe Sanitation Death fraction, with a high F-statistic and highly statistically significant predictor p-values. Similar performance was found for all other responses, which was an unexpected result (the expected associations between responses and predictors-i.e., water-related with water-related, etc. did not occur). The set of statistically significant predictors remains the same across

  9. On the Identification of Associations between Five World Health Organization Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Phenotypes and Six Predictors in Low and Middle-Income Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Ellis

    Full Text Available According to the most recent estimates, 842,000 deaths in low- to middle-income countries were attributable to inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene in 2012. Despite billions of dollars and decades of effort, we still lack a sound understanding of which kinds of WASH interventions are most effective in improving public health outcomes, and an important corollary-whether the right things are being measured. The World Health Organization (WHO has made a concerted effort to compile comprehensive data on drinking water quality and sanitation in the developing world. A recent 2014 report provides information on three phenotypes (responses: Unsafe Water Deaths, Unsafe Sanitation Deaths, Unsafe Hygiene Deaths; two grouped phenotypes: Unsafe Water and Sanitation Deaths and Unsafe Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Deaths; and six explanatory variables (predictors: Improved Sanitation, Unimproved Water Source, Piped Water To Premises, Other Improved Water Source, Filtered and Bottled Water in the Household and Handwashing.Regression analyses were performed to identify statistically significant associations between these mortality responses and predictors. Good fitted-model performance required: (1 the use of population-normalized death fractions as opposed to number of deaths; (2 transformed response (logit or power; and (3 square-root predictor transformation. Given the complexity and heterogeneity of the relationships and countries being studied, these models exhibited remarkable performance and explained, for example, about 85% of the observed variance in population-normalized Unsafe Sanitation Death fraction, with a high F-statistic and highly statistically significant predictor p-values. Similar performance was found for all other responses, which was an unexpected result (the expected associations between responses and predictors-i.e., water-related with water-related, etc. did not occur. The set of statistically significant predictors remains the

  10. Trends, causes, and risk factors of mortality among children under 5 in Ethiopia, 1990–2013: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013

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    Amare Deribew

    2016-11-01

    diarrhea, LRI, and other common infections were attributable to childhood wasting. Similarly, 19% (43,759/229,333 of the total under-5 deaths and 45% (43,759/97,963 of the deaths due to diarrhea and LRI were attributable to wasting in 2013. Of the total diarrheal disease- and LRI-related deaths (n = 97,963 in 2013, 59% (57,923/97,963 of them were attributable to unsafe water supply, unsafe sanitation, household air pollution, and no handwashing with soap. Conclusions LRI, diarrheal diseases, and neonatal syndromes remain the major causes of under-5 deaths in Ethiopia. These findings call for better-integrated newborn and child survival interventions focusing on the main risk factors.

  11. Effect of participatory women's groups and counselling through home visits on children's linear growth in rural eastern India (CARING trial): a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Nirmala; Tripathy, Prasanta; Sachdev, H S; Pradhan, Hemanta; Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Gope, Rajkumar; Gagrai, Sumitra; Rath, Shibanand; Rath, Suchitra; Sinha, Rajesh; Roy, Swati Sarbani; Shewale, Suhas; Singh, Vijay; Srivastava, Aradhana; Costello, Anthony; Copas, Andrew; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; Saville, Naomi; Prost, Audrey

    2017-10-01

    , and were therefore eligible for follow-up (1460 assigned to intervention; 1541 assigned to control). Three groups of children could not be included in the final analysis: 147 migrated out of the study area (67 in intervention clusters; 80 in control clusters), 77 died after the neonatal period and before 18 months (31 in intervention clusters; 46 in control clusters), and seven had implausible length-for-age Z scores (<-5 SD; one in intervention cluster; six in control clusters). We measured 1253 (92%) of 1362 eligible children at 18 months in intervention clusters, and 1308 (92%) of 1415 eligible children in control clusters. Mean length-for-age Z score at 18 months was -2·31 (SD 1·12) in intervention clusters and -2·40 (SD 1·10) in control clusters (adjusted difference 0·107, 95% CI -0·011 to 0·226, p=0·08). The intervention did not significantly affect exclusive breastfeeding, timely introduction of complementary foods, morbidity, appropriate home care or care-seeking during childhood illnesses. In intervention clusters, more pregnant women and children attained minimum dietary diversity (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] for women 1·39, 95% CI 1·03-1·90; for children 1·47, 1·07-2·02), more mothers washed their hands before feeding children (5·23, 2·61-10·5), fewer children were underweight at 18 months (0·81, 0·66-0·99), and fewer infants died (0·63, 0·39-1·00). Introduction of a new worker in areas with a high burden of undernutrition in rural eastern India did not significantly increase children's length. However, certain secondary outcomes such as self-reported dietary diversity and handwashing, as well as infant survival were improved. The interventions tested in this trial can be further optimised for use at scale, but substantial improvements in growth will require investment in nutrition-sensitive interventions, including clean water, sanitation, family planning, girls' education, and social safety nets. UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome

  12. Multiple component patient safety intervention in English hospitals: controlled evaluation of second phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benning, Amirta; Dixon-Woods, Mary; Nwulu, Ugochi; Ghaleb, Maisoon; Dawson, Jeremy; Barber, Nick; Franklin, Bryony Dean; Girling, Alan; Hemming, Karla; Carmalt, Martin; Rudge, Gavin; Naicker, Thirumalai; Kotecha, Amit; Derrington, M Clare; Lilford, Richard

    2011-02-03

    To independently evaluate the impact of the second phase of the Health Foundation's Safer Patients Initiative (SPI2) on a range of patient safety measures. Design A controlled before and after design. Five substudies: survey of staff attitudes; review of case notes from high risk (respiratory) patients in medical wards; review of case notes from surgical patients; indirect evaluation of hand hygiene by measuring hospital use of handwashing materials; measurement of outcomes (adverse events, mortality among high risk patients admitted to medical wards, patients' satisfaction, mortality in intensive care, rates of hospital acquired infection). Setting NHS hospitals in England. Nine hospitals participating in SPI2 and nine matched control hospitals. The SPI2 intervention was similar to the SPI1, with somewhat modified goals, a slightly longer intervention period, and a smaller budget per hospital. One of the scores (organisational climate) showed a significant (P = 0.009) difference in rate of change over time, which favoured the control hospitals, though the difference was only 0.07 points on a five point scale. Results of the explicit case note reviews of high risk medical patients showed that certain practices improved over time in both control and SPI2 hospitals (and none deteriorated), but there were no significant differences between control and SPI2 hospitals. Monitoring of vital signs improved across control and SPI2 sites. This temporal effect was significant for monitoring the respiratory rate at both the six hour (adjusted odds ratio 2.1, 99% confidence interval 1.0 to 4.3; P = 0.010) and 12 hour (2.4, 1.1 to 5.0; P = 0.002) periods after admission. There was no significant effect of SPI for any of the measures of vital signs. Use of a recommended system for scoring the severity of pneumonia improved from 1.9% (1/52) to 21.4% (12/56) of control and from 2.0% (1/50) to 41.7% (25/60) of SPI2 patients. This temporal change was significant (7.3, 1.4 to 37.7; P

  13. Physical and chemical characteristics of toilet soap made from apricot kernel oil and palm stearin.

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    Girgis, Adel Y.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to use apricot kernel oil with palm stearin in toilet soap-making. Apricot kernel oil was obtained from apricot kernel seed (Prunus armeniaca through hydraulic pressing (12000lb/in2. Kernel contained 43.3% oil. The fatty acids of apricot kernel oil had high oleic acid (81.73% while, the major of the fatty acid in palm stearin was palmitic acid (55.17%. Eight of the toilet soap samples were prepared from apricot kernel oil, palm kernel oil and palm stearin at different ratios. The structure of soap samples nº1 and 8 were sticky and with bad physical properties. On the other hand, the physical characteristics of blends nos 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 had firm consistency and creamy lather while, in soap nº 7, its were moderatement; i. e. medium hard makeup with fairly lather. After storage (6 months on a shelf at room temperature, all soaps (nº1-8 were declined in their moisture content. On contrary, the total fatty acids of the same samples were augmented at different ratios during storage. Physical characteristics of soap samples nos 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 were increased after the storage time (6 months, their consistencies were very firm with creamy lather and reducement in their erosion from handwashing ratios was observed. It can be recommended that apricot kernel oil can be used in the manufacturing of toilet soap until ratio 50% of the fatty blend (the blend was bear palm stearin.

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue el uso del aceite de semilla de albaricoque con estearina de palma en la fabricación de jabón de tocador. El aceite de semilla de albaricoque (Prunus armeniaca se obtuvo por presión hidráulica (12000lb/in2, y la semilla contenía el 43.3% de aceite. Los ácidos grasos del aceite de semilla de albaricoque tenían altos contenidos de ácido oleico (81.73% mientras, el ácido graso mayoritario en la estearina de palma fue el ácido palm

  14. Multiple component patient safety intervention in English hospitals: controlled evaluation of second phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benning, Amirta; Dixon-Woods, Mary; Nwulu, Ugochi; Ghaleb, Maisoon; Dawson, Jeremy; Barber, Nick; Franklin, Bryony Dean; Girling, Alan; Hemming, Karla; Carmalt, Martin; Rudge, Gavin; Naicker, Thirumalai; Kotecha, Amit; Derrington, M Clare

    2011-01-01

    Objective To independently evaluate the impact of the second phase of the Health Foundation’s Safer Patients Initiative (SPI2) on a range of patient safety measures. Design A controlled before and after design. Five substudies: survey of staff attitudes; review of case notes from high risk (respiratory) patients in medical wards; review of case notes from surgical patients; indirect evaluation of hand hygiene by measuring hospital use of handwashing materials; measurement of outcomes (adverse events, mortality among high risk patients admitted to medical wards, patients’ satisfaction, mortality in intensive care, rates of hospital acquired infection). Setting NHS hospitals in England. Participants Nine hospitals participating in SPI2 and nine matched control hospitals. Intervention The SPI2 intervention was similar to the SPI1, with somewhat modified goals, a slightly longer intervention period, and a smaller budget per hospital. Results One of the scores (organisational climate) showed a significant (P=0.009) difference in rate of change over time, which favoured the control hospitals, though the difference was only 0.07 points on a five point scale. Results of the explicit case note reviews of high risk medical patients showed that certain practices improved over time in both control and SPI2 hospitals (and none deteriorated), but there were no significant differences between control and SPI2 hospitals. Monitoring of vital signs improved across control and SPI2 sites. This temporal effect was significant for monitoring the respiratory rate at both the six hour (adjusted odds ratio 2.1, 99% confidence interval 1.0 to 4.3; P=0.010) and 12 hour (2.4, 1.1 to 5.0; P=0.002) periods after admission. There was no significant effect of SPI for any of the measures of vital signs. Use of a recommended system for scoring the severity of pneumonia improved from 1.9% (1/52) to 21.4% (12/56) of control and from 2.0% (1/50) to 41.7% (25/60) of SPI2 patients. This temporal

  15. Ab-sorption machines for heating and cooling in future energy systems - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tozer, R.; Gustafsson, M.

    2000-12-15

    After the Executive Summary and a brief introductory chapter, Chapter 2, Sorption Technologies for Heating and Cooling in Future Energy Systems, reviews the main types of sorption systems. Chapter 3, Market Segmentation, then considers the major segments of the market including residential, commercial/institutional and industrial, and the types of sorption hardware most suitable to each. The highly important residential and commercial/institutional markets are mostly concerned with air-conditioning of buildings. More applications are identified and discussed for the industrial market, including refrigeration, food-storage cooling, process cooling, and process heating at various temperature ranges from hot water for hand-washing to high-temperature (greater than 130C). Other interesting industrial applications are absorption cooling or heating combined with co-generation, desiccant cooling, gas turbine inlet air cooling, combining absorption chillers with district heating systems, direct-fired absorption heat pumps (AHPs), and a closed greenhouse concept being developed for that economically important sector in the Netherlands. Most of the sorption market at this time comprises direct-fired absorption chillers, or hot water or steam absorption chillers indirectly driven by direct-fired boilers. Throughout the report, this category of absorption chillers is referred to generically as 'direct-fired'. In addition, this report covers absorption (reversible) heat pumps, absorption heat transformers, compression-absorption heat pumps, and adsorption chillers and heat pumps. Adsorption systems together with desiccant systems are also addressed. Chapter 4, Factors Affecting the Market, considers economic, environmental and policy issues. The geographical make-up of the world sorption market is then reviewed, followed by a number of practical operating and control considerations. These include vacuum requirements, crystallisation, corrosion, maintenance, health and

  16. El papel de la epidemiología en la investigación de los trastornos mentales The role of epidemiology in mental disorder research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Borges

    2004-10-01

    characteristic of mental disorder epidemiology is that its target diseases manifest in two levels: behaviorally (for example, compulsive hand-washing and as an element of the individual's mental life (e.g., obsession with bacteria being a constant, omnipresent health threat. It follows that much of the knowledge currently available on the phenomena of mental disorders in general is based on the self-reported insight of individuals. Trained clinicians have collected such reports by interview or with standardized questionnaires. This field of epidemiology is characterized by having two-sides: a mental disorder is a problem in and of itself, causing suffering and prompting the search for specialized care, as it has peculiar clinical manifestations. On the other hand, mental disorder epidemiology also focuses on determining factors (drug use, abuse, or addiction and on the way these independent variables result in certain processes and outcomes (such as accidents, homicide, suicide, liver cirrhosis, etc.. Finally, the epidemiology of mental disorders has also been set apart by its focus in series of processes that are not suitably classified as syndromes, but which are germane to public health, for example, violence. The epidemiology of mental disorders faces great challenges in the new millennium, including a complex, changing epidemiologic scenario. Several important issues will influence the future development of mental disorder epidemiology: measurement of mental disorders and risk factors, more efficient sampling design and methods, the relationships among biological research, genetics, social studies, and epidemiology, and the interface between epidemiology and the evaluation of therapies and health services.

  17. Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I; Ehiri, John E; Arikpo, Dachi; Meremikwu, Martin M; Critchley, Julia A

    2015-01-01

    , songs, and drama. What this review says Hand washing promotion at child day-care facilities or schools in HICs probably prevents around 30% of diarrhoea episodes (high quality evidence), and may prevent a similar proportion in schools in LMICs (low quality evidence). Among communities in LMICs hand washing promotion prevents around 28% of diarrhoea episodes (moderate quality evidence). In the only hospital-based trial included in this review, hand washing promotion also had important reduction in the mean episodes of diarrhoea (moderate quality evidence). This is based on only a single trial with few participants and thus there is need for more trials to confirm this. Effects of hand washing promotion on related hand hygiene behaviour changes improved more in the intervention groups than in the control in all the settings (low to high quality evidence). None of the included trials assessed the effect of handwashing promotion on diarrhoeal-related deaths, all-cause under-five mortality, or the cost-effectiveness of hand washing promotions. Conclusion Hand washing promotion in HICs and LMICs settings may reduce incidence of diarrhoea by about 30%. However, less is known about how to help people maintain hand washing habits in the longer term. PMID:26346329

  18. Implementation strategies for health systems in low-income countries: an overview of systematic reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, Tomas; Opiyo, Newton; Lewin, Simon; Paulsen, Elizabeth; Ciapponi, Agustín; Wiysonge, Charles S; Herrera, Cristian A; Rada, Gabriel; Peñaloza, Blanca; Dudley, Lilian; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Garcia Marti, Sebastian; Oxman, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    (vs. another intervention). - Pharmacist-provided services. - Safety checklists for use by medical care teams in acute hospital settings. - Tailored interventions (vs. non-tailored interventions, and interventions targeted at organisational and individual barriers vs. interventions targeted at individual barriers only). - Interventions to encourage the use of systematic reviews in clinical decision-making. Strategies targeted at healthcare workers for specific types of problems - Interventions to improve handwashing. - Interventions to reduce unnecessary caesarean section rates. - Training of traditional birth attendants. - Skilled birth attendance. - Training of traditional healers about STD and HIV medicine. Strategies targeted at healthcare recipients - Providing information/education for promoting HIV testing (multimedia). - Providing written medicine information. - Single interventions to improve health literacy. - Interventions to improve medication adherence. - Adherence – TB (immediate versus deferred incentives; cash vs. non-cash incentive; different levels of cash incentives; incentives vs. other interventions). - Adherence – malarial medication (blister packed tablets and capsules compared to tablets and capsules in paper envelopes; tablets in sectioned polythene bags compared to bottled syrup). - Training of healthcare workers, home visits, and monetary incentives to improve immunisation coverage. - Risk factor assessment to improve the uptake of cervical cancer screening. How up to date is this overview? The overview authors searched for systematic reviews that had been published up to 17 December 2016. PMID:28895659