Sample records for hand-held xrf industries

  1. Hand-held medical robots. (United States)

    Payne, Christopher J; Yang, Guang-Zhong


    Medical robots have evolved from autonomous systems to tele-operated platforms and mechanically-grounded, cooperatively-controlled robots. Whilst these approaches have seen both commercial and clinical success, uptake of these robots remains moderate because of their high cost, large physical footprint and long setup times. More recently, researchers have moved toward developing hand-held robots that are completely ungrounded and manipulated by surgeons in free space, in a similar manner to how conventional instruments are handled. These devices provide specific functions that assist the surgeon in accomplishing tasks that are otherwise challenging with manual manipulation. Hand-held robots have the advantages of being compact and easily integrated into the normal surgical workflow since there is typically little or no setup time. Hand-held devices can also have a significantly reduced cost to healthcare providers as they do not necessitate the complex, multi degree-of-freedom linkages that grounded robots require. However, the development of such devices is faced with many technical challenges, including miniaturization, cost and sterility, control stability, inertial and gravity compensation and robust instrument tracking. This review presents the emerging technical trends in hand-held medical robots and future development opportunities for promoting their wider clinical uptake.

  2. Hand-held Dynamo-metry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, Rutger Jan Otto van der


    This study describes the application of a hand-held dynamometer that was designed to measure muscle strength in normal individuals and neurological patients in a simple way, comparable to manual muscle testing. Zie: Summary

  3. Precision of hand-held dental radiometers. (United States)

    Rueggeberg, F A


    The intensity of light within the wavelengths of 400 to 500 nm on a dental photocurable resin restorative material is a vital factor affecting many of the physical and chemical properties of the resulting restoration. This paper compares the precision of two recently introduced hand-held radiometers. The results indicate that the response of both hand-held meters was linear. For a given amount of decrease in light source intensity, both hand-held units responded with a corresponding decrement in measured intensity value. Both hand-held meters were found to limit their pass band of intensity readings between 400 and 515 nm, making them very useful clinical instruments. However, the absolute intensity readings between the two units were significantly different.

  4. Hand-Held Power Clamp (United States)

    Clancy, J. P.


    Tool furnishes large pushing or pulling forces. Device includes two clamping blocks, two clamping plates, and a motor-driven linear actuator with selflocking screw shaft. Power clamp exerts opening or closing force at push of switch. Tool approximately 1 m long. Originally designed to secure payload aboard Space Shuttle, operated with one hand to apply opening or closing force of up to 1,000 lb (4,400 N). Clamp has potential applications as end effector for industrial robots and in rescue work to push or pull wreckage with great force.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    In thirteen major muscle groups of 50 healthy females and 50 males, aged 20-60 years, maximum voluntary contraction was measured with a hand-held dynamometer. The intrasession variation, the left-right variation, and the fifth and fiftieth centile values were calculated. The ratio of two

  6. High performance hand-held gas chromatograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.M.


    The Microtechnology Center of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed a high performance hand-held, real time detection gas chromatograph (HHGC) by Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) technology. The total weight of this hand-held gas chromatograph is about five lbs., with a physical size of 8{close_quotes} x 5{close_quotes} x 3{close_quotes} including carrier gas and battery. It consumes about 12 watts of electrical power with a response time on the order of one to two minutes. This HHGC has an average effective theoretical plate of about 40k. Presently, its sensitivity is limited by its thermal sensitive detector at PPM. Like a conventional G.C., this HHGC consists mainly of three major components: (1) the sample injector, (2) the column, and (3) the detector with related electronics. The present HHGC injector is a modified version of the conventional injector. Its separation column is fabricated completely on silicon wafers by means of MEMS technology. This separation column has a circular cross section with a diameter of 100 pm. The detector developed for this hand-held GC is a thermal conductivity detector fabricated on a silicon nitride window by MEMS technology. A normal Wheatstone bridge is used. The signal is fed into a PC and displayed through LabView software.

  7. Vibration and impulsivity analysis of hand held olive beaters. (United States)

    Deboli, Roberto; Calvo, Angela; Preti, Christian


    To provide more effective evaluations of hand arm vibration syndromes caused by hand held olive beaters, this study focused on two aspects: the acceleration measured at the tool pole and the analysis of the impulsivity, using the crest factor. The signals were frequency weighted using the weighting curve Wh as described in the ISO 5349-1 standard. The same source signals were also filtered by the Wh-bl filter (ISO/TS 15694), because the weighting filter Wh (unlike the Wh-bl filter) could underestimate the effect of high frequency vibration on vibration-induced finger disorders. Ten (experienced) male operators used three beater models (battery powered) in the real olive harvesting condition. High vibration total values were obtained with values never lower than 20 m(-2). Concerning the crest factor, the values ranged from 5 to more than 22. This work demonstrated that the hand held olive beaters produced high impulsive loads comparable to the industry hand held tools. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Algorithms for a hand-held miniature x-ray fluorescence analytical instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, W.T.; Newman, D.; Ziemba, F. [and others


    The purpose of this joint program was to provide technical assistance with the development of a Miniature X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analytical Instrument. This new XRF instrument is designed to overcome the weaknesses of spectrometers commercially available at the present time. Currently available XRF spectrometers (for a complete list see reference 1) convert spectral information to sample composition using the influence coefficients technique or the fundamental parameters method. They require either a standard sample with composition relatively close to the unknown or a detailed knowledge of the sample matrix. They also require a highly-trained operator and the results often depend on the capabilities of the operator. In addition, almost all existing field-portable, hand-held instruments use radioactive sources for excitation. Regulatory limits on such sources restrict them such that they can only provide relatively weak excitation. This limits all current hand-held XRF instruments to poor detection limits and/or long data collection times, in addition to the licensing requirements and disposal problems for radioactive sources. The new XRF instrument was developed jointly by Quantrad Sensor, Inc., the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), and the Department of Energy (DOE). This report describes the analysis algorithms developed by NRL for the new instrument and the software which embodies them.

  9. Hand-held myometry: reference values. (United States)

    van der Ploeg, R J; Fidler, V; Oosterhuis, H J


    In thirteen major muscle groups of 50 healthy females and 50 males, aged 20-60 years, maximum voluntary contraction was measured with a hand-held dynamometer. The intrasession variation, the left-right variation, and the fifth and fiftieth centile values were calculated. The ratio of two observations within one session ranged from 0.85 to 1.18 and the ratio of left to right ranged from 0.82 to 1.22 (95% reference limits). In 20 volunteers the repeatability was tested after one week. The ratio of averages of three measurements in two successive weeks ranged from 0.82 to 1.23 (95% reference limits). There were only small differences between muscle groups concerning these ratios. A significant relation with age and weight/Quetelet Index could be demonstrated in some muscle groups. The mean strength of females is approximately two thirds of the strength of males. The data may be useful as reference values in the application of hand-held myometry. PMID:2030353

  10. 30 CFR 56.12033 - Hand-held electric tools. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 56.12033 Section 56.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL....12033 Hand-held electric tools. Hand-held electric tools shall not be operated at high potential...

  11. 30 CFR 57.12033 - Hand-held electric tools. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand-held electric tools. 57.12033 Section 57.12033 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Surface and Underground § 57.12033 Hand-held electric tools. Hand-held electric tools shall not be...

  12. The Graphic Calculator Is Dead, Long Live Hand Held Technology. (United States)

    Oldknow, Adrian


    Explores the broader potential of hand held technology. Presents web resources with descriptions of new technologies and applications that include graphing calculators and classroom communication systems. (MM)

  13. High performance hand-held gas chromatograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C M; Koo, J C


    Gas chromatography is a prominent technique for separating complex gases and then analyzing the relative quantities of the separate components. This analytical technique is popular with scientists in a wide range of applications, including environmental restoration for air and water pollution, and chemical and biological analysis. Today the analytical instrumentation community is to working towards moving the analysis away from the laboratory to the point of origin of the sample (''the field'') to achieve real-time data collection and lower analysis costs. The Microtechnology Center of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, has developed a hand-held, real-time detection gas chromatograph (GC) through Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) technology. The total weight of this GC is approximately 8 pounds, and it measures 8 inches by 5 inches by 3 inches. It consumes approximately 12 watts of electrical power and has a response time on the order of 2 minutes. The current detector is a glow discharge detector with a sensitivity of parts per billion. The average retention time is about 30 to 45 seconds. Under optimum conditions, the calculated effective plate number is 40,000. The separation column in the portable GC is fabricated completely on silicon wafers. Silicon is a good thermal conductor and provides rapid heating and cooling of the column. The operational temperature can be as high as 350 degrees Celsius. The GC system is capable of rapid column temperature ramping and cooling operations. These are especially important for organic and biological analyses in the GC applications.

  14. Hand-Held Devices Detect Explosives and Chemical Agents (United States)


    Ion Applications Inc., of West Palm Beach, Florida, partnered with Ames Research Center through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) agreements to develop a miniature version ion mobility spectrometer (IMS). While NASA was interested in the instrument for detecting chemicals during exploration of distant planets, moons, and comets, the company has incorporated the technology into a commercial hand-held IMS device for use by the military and other public safety organizations. Capable of detecting and identifying molecules with part-per-billion sensitivity, the technology now provides soldiers with portable explosives and chemical warfare agent detection. The device is also being adapted for detecting drugs and is employed in industrial processes such as semiconductor manufacturing.

  15. Hand-held spectrophotometer design for textile fabrics (United States)

    Böcekçi, Veysel Gökhan; Yıldız, Kazım


    In this study, a hand-held spectrophotometer was designed by taking advantage of the developments in modern optoelectronic technology. Spectrophotometer devices are used to determine the color information from the optic properties of the materials. As an alternative to a desktop spectrophotometer device we have implemented, it is the first prototype, low cost and portable. The prototype model designed for the textile industry can detect the color tone of any fabric. The prototype model consists of optic sensor, processor, display floors. According to the color applied on the optic sensor, it produces special frequency information on its output at that color value. In Arduino type processor, the frequency information is evaluated by the program we have written and the color tone information between 0-255 ton is decided and displayed on the screen.

  16. An Intelligent Hand-Held Microsurgical Instrument for Improved Accuracy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ang, Wei


    This paper presents the development and initial experimental results of the first prototype of Micron, an active hand-held instrument to sense and compensate physiological tremor and other unwanted...

  17. A high resolution hand-held focused beam profiler (United States)

    Zapata-Farfan, J.; Garduño-Mejía, J.; Rosete-Aguilar, M.; Ascanio, G.; Román-Moreno, C. J.


    The shape of a beam is important in any laser application and depending on the final implementation, there exists a preferred one which is defined by the irradiance distribution.1 The energy distribution (or laser beam profile) is an important parameter in a focused beam, for instance, in laser cut industry, where the beam shape determines the quality of the cut. In terms of alignment and focusing, the energy distribution also plays an important role since the system must be configured in order to reduce the aberration effects and achieve the highest intensity. Nowadays a beam profiler is used in both industry and research laboratories with the aim to characterize laser beams used in free-space communications, focusing and welding, among other systems. The purpose of the profile analyzers is to know the main parameters of the beam, to control its characteristics as uniformity, shape and beam size as a guide to align the focusing system. In this work is presented a high resolution hand-held and compact design of a beam profiler capable to measure at the focal plane, with covered range from 400 nm to 1000 nm. The detection is reached with a CMOS sensor sized in 3673.6 μm x 2738.4 μm which acquire a snap shot of the previously attenuated focused beam to avoid the sensor damage, the result is an image of beam intensity distribution, which is digitally processed with a RaspberryTMmodule gathering significant parameters such as beam waist, centroid, uniformity and also some aberrations. The profiler resolution is 1.4 μm and was probed and validated in three different focusing systems. The spot sizes measurements were compared with the Foucault knife-edge test.

  18. The use of hand held mobile phones by drivers. (United States)

    Bedford, D; O'Farrell, A; Downey, J; McKeown, N; Howell, F


    The use of mobile phones by drivers has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of motor vehicle crashes. The aim of this study was to identify the use of hand held mobiles phones by drivers in Ireland. Their use was investigated by a direct observation survey of drivers. The study showed that 3.6% of drivers were using hand held mobile phones while driving. This rate is high compared to other studies. Van drivers were three times more likely than other drivers to use a mobile phone whilst driving. Legislation needs to be introduced to ban their use and thereby reduce the risk of crashes.

  19. Epilepsy Forewarning Using A Hand-Held Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hively, LM


    Over the last decade, ORNL has developed and patented a novel approach for forewarning of a large variety of machine and biomedical events. The present implementation uses desktop computers to analyze archival data. This report describes the next logical step in this effort, namely use of a hand-held device for the analysis.

  20. Fabricating a custom earpiece for hand-held radios. (United States)

    Potter, James V; Hansen, Nancy A; Schroetlin, Robert G; Jones, John D


    This article describes the fabrication of a custom earpiece for use with hand-held radios. The technique can be used to fabricate custom earpieces, as a public service, for law enforcement personnel, firefighters, emergency medical services (EMS) personnel, and others, improving safety and providing a valuable benefit to the community.

  1. System design of a hand-held mobile robot for craniotomy. (United States)

    Kane, Gavin; Eggers, Georg; Boesecke, Robert; Raczkowsky, Jörg; Wörn, Heinz; Marmulla, Rüdiger; Mühling, Joachim


    This contribution reports the development and initial testing of a Mobile Robot System for Surgical Craniotomy, the Craniostar. A kinematic system based on a unicycle robot is analysed to provide local positioning through two spiked wheels gripping directly onto a patients skull. A control system based on a shared control system between both the Surgeon and Robot is employed in a hand-held design that is tested initially on plastic phantom and swine skulls. Results indicate that the system has substantially lower risk than present robotically assisted craniotomies, and despite being a hand-held mobile robot, the Craniostar is still capable of sub-millimetre accuracy in tracking along a trajectory and thus achieving an accurate transfer of pre-surgical plan to the operating room procedure, without the large impact of current medical robots based on modified industrial robots.

  2. Interactive topology optimization on hand-held devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Niels; Nobel-Jørgensen, Morten; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe


    This paper presents an interactive topology optimization application designed for hand-held devices running iOS or Android. The TopOpt app solves the 2D minimum compliance problem with interactive control of load and support positions as well as volume fraction. Thus, it is possible to change......OS devices from the Apple App Store, at Google Play for the Android platform, and a web-version can be run from

  3. Prediction of essential oil content of oregano by hand-held and Fourier transform NIR spectroscopy. (United States)

    Camps, Cédric; Gérard, Marianne; Quennoz, Mélanie; Brabant, Cécile; Oberson, Carine; Simonnet, Xavier


    In the framework of a breeding programme, the analysis of hundreds of oregano samples to determine their essential oil content (EOC) is time-consuming and expensive in terms of labour. Therefore developing a new method that is rapid, accurate and less expensive to use would be an asset to breeders. The aim of the present study was to develop a method based on near-inrared (NIR) spectroscopy to determine the EOC of oregano dried powder. Two spectroscopic approaches were compared, the first using a hand-held NIR device and the second a Fourier transform (FT) NIR spectrometer. Hand-held NIR (1000-1800 nm) measurements and partial least squares regression allowed the determination of EOC with R² and SEP values of 0.58 and 0.81 mL per 100 g dry matter (DM) respectively. Measurements with FT-NIR (1000-2500 nm) allowed the determination of EOC with R² and SEP values of 0.91 and 0.68 mL per 100 g DM respectively. RPD, RER and RPIQ values for the model implemented with FT-NIR data were satisfactory for screening application, while those obtained with hand-held NIR data were below the level required to consider the model as enough accurate for screening application. The FT-NIR approach allowed the development of an accurate model for EOC prediction. Although the hand-held NIR approach is promising, it needs additional development before it can be used in practice. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Hand-held portable microarray reader for biodetection (United States)

    Thompson, Deanna Lynn; Coleman, Matthew A; Lane, Stephen M; Matthews, Dennis L; Albala, Joanna; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian


    A hand-held portable microarray reader for biodetection includes a microarray reader engineered to be small enough for portable applications. The invention includes a high-powered light-emitting diode that emits excitation light, an excitation filter positioned to receive the excitation light, a slide, a slide holder assembly for positioning the slide to receive the excitation light from the excitation filter, an emission filter positioned to receive the excitation light from the slide, a lens positioned to receive the excitation light from the emission filter, and a CCD camera positioned to receive the excitation light from the lens.

  5. Adaptive RF front-ends for hand-held applications

    CERN Document Server

    van Bezooijen, Andre; van Roermund, Arthur


    The RF front-end - antenna combination is a vital part of a mobile phone because its performance is very relevant to the link quality between hand-set and cellular network base-stations. The RF front-end performance suffers from changes in operating environment, like hand-effects, that are often unpredictable. ""Adaptive RF Front-Ends for Hand-Held Applications"" presents an analysis on the impact of fluctuating environmental parameters. In order to overcome undesired behavior two different adaptive control methods are treated that make RF frond-ends more resilient: adaptive impedance control,

  6. Ultratrace detector for hand-held gas chromatography (United States)

    Andresen, Brian D.; Miller, Fred S.


    An ultratrace detector system for hand-held gas chromatography having high sensitivity, for example, to emissions generated during production of weapons, biological compounds, drugs, etc. The detector system is insensitive to water, air, helium, argon, oxygen, and C0.sub.2. The detector system is basically composed of a hand-held capillary gas chromatography (GC), an insulated heated redox-chamber, a detection chamber, and a vapor trap. For example, the detector system may use gas phase redox reactions and spectral absorption of mercury vapor. The gas chromatograph initially separates compounds that percolate through a bed of heated mercuric oxide (HgO) in a silica--or other metal--aerogel material which acts as an insulator. Compounds easily oxidized by HgO liberate atomic mercury that subsequently pass through a detection chamber which includes a detector cell, such as quartz, that is illuminated with a 254 nm ultra-violet (UV) mercury discharge lamp which generates the exact mercury absorption bands that are used to detect the liberated mercury atoms. Atomic mercury strongly absorbs 254 nm energy is therefore a specific signal for reducing compounds eluting from the capillary GC, whereafter the atomic mercury is trapped for example, in a silicon-aerogel trap.

  7. 78 FR 27441 - NIJ Evaluation of Hand-Held Cell Phone Detector Devices (United States)


    ... of Justice Programs NIJ Evaluation of Hand-Held Cell Phone Detector Devices AGENCY: National...) is soliciting interest in supplying hand-held cell phone detector devices for participation in an... soliciting interest in supplying hand-held cell phone detector devices for participation in an evaluation by...

  8. Occupational risk identification using hand-held or laptop computers. (United States)

    Naumanen, Paula; Savolainen, Heikki; Liesivuori, Jyrki


    This paper describes the Work Environment Profile (WEP) program and its use in risk identification by computer. It is installed into a hand-held computer or a laptop to be used in risk identification during work site visits. A 5-category system is used to describe the identified risks in 7 groups, i.e., accidents, biological and physical hazards, ergonomic and psychosocial load, chemicals, and information technology hazards. Each group contains several qualifying factors. These 5 categories are colour-coded at this stage to aid with visualization. Risk identification produces visual summary images the interpretation of which is facilitated by colours. The WEP program is a tool for risk assessment which is easy to learn and to use both by experts and nonprofessionals. It is especially well adapted to be used both in small and in larger enterprises. Considerable time is saved as no paper notes are needed.

  9. A review of hand-held, home-use cosmetic laser and light devices. (United States)

    Hession, Meghan T; Markova, Alina; Graber, Emmy M


    As the market for home-use light-based and laser-based devices grows, consumers will increasingly seek advice from dermatologists regarding their safety and efficacy profiles. To review the literature on home-use hand-held devices for various dermatologic conditions. To educate dermatologists about commercially available products their patients may be using. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to determine the safety and efficacy of home-use laser and light devices for the treatment of the following: hair removal, acne, photoaging, scars, psoriasis, and hair regrowth. In addition, a thorough search of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) radiation-emitting electronic products' database was performed; by searching specific product codes, all hand-held devices that are FDA-approved for marketing in the United States were identified. Of the various home-use devices reviewed, intense pulsed light (IPL) for hair removal and light-emitting diode (LED) for treatment of acne have the most published data. Although the literature shows modest results for home-use IPL and LED, small sample sizes and short follow-up periods limit interpretation. There is a paucity of randomized, double-blind controlled trials to support the use of home-use laser and light devices; smaller, uncontrolled industry-sponsored single-center studies suggest that some of these devices may have modest results.

  10. [Intraoperative Measurement of Refraction with a Hand-Held Autorefractometer]. (United States)

    Gesser, C; Küper, T; Richard, G; Hassenstein, A


    The aim of this study was to evaluate an intraoperative measurement of objective refraction with a hand-held retinomax instrument. At the end of cataract surgery objective refraction in a lying position was measured with a retinomax instrument. On the first postoperative day the same measurement was performed with a retinomax and a standard autorefractometer. To evaluate the differences between measurements, the spherical equivalent (SE) and Jackson's cross cylinder at 0° (J0) and 45° (J45) was used. 103 eyes were included. 95 of them had normal cataract surgery. Differences between retinomax at the operative day and the standard autorefractometer were 0.68 ± 2.58 D in SE, 0.05 ± 1.4D in J0 and 0.05 ± 1.4D in J45. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups. Intraoperative measurement of the refraction with a retinomax can predict the postoperative refraction. Nevertheless, in a few patients great differences may occur. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Hand-Held Units for Short-Range Wireless Biotelemetry (United States)

    Miranda, Felix A.; Simons, Rainee N.


    Special-purpose hand-held radiotransceiver units have been proposed as means of short-range radio powering and interrogation of surgically implanted microelectromechanical sensors and actuators. These units are based partly on the same principles as those of the units described in "Printed Multi- Turn Loop Antennas for RF Biotelemetry" (LEW-17879-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 6 (June 2007), page 48. Like the previously reported units, these units would make it unnecessary to have wire connections between the implanted devices and the external equipment used to activate and interrogate them. Like a unit of the previously reported type, a unit of the type now proposed would include a printed-circuit antenna on a dielectric substrate. The antenna circuitry would include integrated surface-mount inductors for impedance tuning. Circuits for processing the signals transmitted and received by the antenna would be included on the substrate. During operation, the unit would be positioned near (but not in electrical contact with) a human subject, in proximity to a microelectromechanical sensor or actuator that has been surgically implanted in the subject. It has been demonstrated that significant electromagnetic coupling with an implanted device could be established at a distance of as much as 4 in. (.10 cm). During operation in the interrogation mode, the antenna of the unit would receive a radio telemetry signal transmitted by the surgically implanted device. The antenna substrate would have dimensions of approximately 3.25 by 3.75 inches (approximately 8.3 by 9.5 cm). The substrate would have a thickness of the order of 30 mils (of the order of a somewhat less than a millimeter). The substrate would be made of low-radiofrequency- loss dielectric material that could be, for example, fused quartz, alumina, or any of a number of commercially available radio-frequency dielectric composite materials. The antenna conductors would typically be made of copper or a

  12. Portable Hand-Held Electrochemical Sensor for the Transuranics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale D. Russell, William B. Knowlton, Ph.D.; Russel Hertzog, Ph.D


    sensitive detector for uranium. Millimeter scale electrodes, operated by a hand-held instrument assembled in this lab and operated in the voltammetric mode, were transported to the DOE-Nevada test site (Las Vegas, NV) where field detection and quantitation of plutonium, uranium, and a mixture of these two elements was also demonstrated. Several probe designs were prepared, built and tested including probes with movable protective windows. A miniature, battery powered potentiostat was designed, built and demonstrated for use in a hand-held field portable instrument. This work was performed largely by undergraduates who gained valuable research experience, and many of them have continued on to graduate schools. In addition, they all gained exposure to and appreciation for national security research, in particular non-proliferation research. Four graduate students participated and one earned the MS degree on this project.

  13. Direction-Sensitive Hand-Held Gamma-Ray Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.


    A novel, light-weight, hand-held gamma-ray detector with directional sensitivity is being designed. The detector uses a set of multiple rings around two cylindrical surfaces, which provides precise location of two interaction points on two concentric cylindrical planes, wherefrom the source location can be traced back by back projection and/or Compton imaging technique. The detectors are 2.0 × 2.0 mm europium-doped strontium iodide (SrI2:Eu2+) crystals, whose light output has been measured to exceed 120,000 photons/MeV, making it one of the brightest scintillators in existence. The crystal’s energy resolution, less than 3% at 662 keV, is also excellent, and the response is highly linear over a wide range of gamma-ray energies. The emission of SrI2:Eu2+ is well matched to both photo-multiplier tubes and blue-enhanced silicon photodiodes. The solid-state photomultipliers used in this design (each 2.0 × 2.0 mm) are arrays of active pixel sensors (avalanche photodiodes driven beyond their breakdown voltage in reverse bias); each pixel acts as a binary photon detector, and their summed output is an analog representation of the total photon energy, while the individual pixel accurately defines the point of interaction. A simple back-projection algorithm involving cone-surface mapping is being modeled. The back projection for an event cone is a conical surface defining the possible location of the source. The cone axis is the straight line passing through the first and second interaction points.

  14. Spray distribution evaluation of different settings of a hand-held-trolley sprayer used in greenhouse tomato crops. (United States)

    Llop, Jordi; Gil, Emilio; Gallart, Montserrat; Contador, Felipe; Ercilla, Mireia


    Hand-held-trolley sprayers have recently been promoted to improve spray application techniques in greenhouses in south-eastern Spain. However, certain aspects remain to be improved. A modified hand-held-trolley sprayer was evaluated under two different canopy conditions (high and low canopy density) and with several sprayer settings (nozzle type, air assistance and spray volume). In this study, the deposition, coverage and uniformity of distribution of the spray on the canopy have been assessed. The deposition on leaves was significantly higher when flat-fan nozzles and air assistance were used at both high and low spray volumes. No differences were detected between the reference system at a high spray volume and the modified trolley at a low spray volume. Flat-fan nozzles with air assistance increased penetrability into the canopy. Air assistance and flat-fan nozzles allow volume rates to be reduced while maintaining or improving spray quality distribution. The working parameters of hand-held sprayers must be considered to reduce environmental risk and increase the efficacy of the spraying process. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs) of urban soils in steel industrial region of Northeast China: SEM and μ-XRF results (United States)

    Shenggao, Lu


    Urban soils contain large amount of technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs) derived from various industrial processes. These TMPs are an important source of heavy metals and magnetic carriers in soils. They contain abundant information on the origin of heavy metal contamination and can be used for proxy indication for degree of heavy metal contamination in urban soils. The TMPs were separated from urban topsoils from a steel industrial city of Northeast China. Their morphology and microstructure were studied using scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). The micro-scale spatial distribution of heavy metals in TMPs was determined by synchrotron-radiation-based microprobe (μ-XRF). Three shape types: spherule, irregular-shaped, and aggregate particles in TMPs, were observed by SEM. SEM observation indicated that the TMPs were dominated by the spherules with grain sizes ranging from several to more than one hundred of micrometers. The μ-XRF mapping provide information on the micro-scale spatial distribution of heavy metals in TMPs. The elemental mapping of TMPs showed that the spatial distribution of Fe is highly heterogeneous at the micrometer scale. Visual inspection showed that Co, Cr, Pb, Cu, As, Ti, and Ni were closely associated with Fe phases. The coexistence of iron phases and these elements suggests that iron phases are the main carriers of these potentially toxic elements. The spatial distribution of Fe phases and heavy metals in TMPs at the micrometer scale confirmed the signature of different industrial pollution sources. Our results suggest that microstructure and elemental mapping of TMPs can be used as tracers for polluting sources in urban soils.

  16. Surgical guidance system using hand-held probe with accompanying positron coincidence detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Weisenberger, Andrew G.


    A surgical guidance system offering different levels of imaging capability while maintaining the same hand-held convenient small size of light-weight intra-operative probes. The surgical guidance system includes a second detector, typically an imager, located behind the area of surgical interest to form a coincidence guidance system with the hand-held probe. This approach is focused on the detection of positron emitting biomarkers with gamma rays accompanying positron emissions from the radiolabeled nuclei.

  17. Numerical identification of bacteria with a hand-held calculator as an alternative to code books.


    Schindler, J.; Schindler, Z


    The Hewlett-Packard HP 41C hand-held calculator can be used for the numerical identification of bacteria. The dimensions of the identification matrix are limited to about 30 by 22; however, many groups of clinically important bacteria can be numerically identified by this method. Hand-held calculators can be used as an alternative to code books. At present, these calculators and additional tests can help solve identification problems in profiles not contained in code books.

  18. InfraCAM (trade mark): A Hand-Held Commercial Infrared Camera Modified for Spaceborne Applications (United States)

    Manitakos, Daniel; Jones, Jeffrey; Melikian, Simon


    In 1994, Inframetrics introduced the InfraCAM(TM), a high resolution hand-held thermal imager. As the world's smallest, lightest and lowest power PtSi based infrared camera, the InfraCAM is ideal for a wise range of industrial, non destructive testing, surveillance and scientific applications. In addition to numerous commercial applications, the light weight and low power consumption of the InfraCAM make it extremely valuable for adaptation to space borne applications. Consequently, the InfraCAM has been selected by NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, for use as part of the DARTFire (Diffusive and Radiative Transport in Fires) space borne experiment. In this experiment, a solid fuel is ignited in a low gravity environment. The combustion period is recorded by both visible and infrared cameras. The infrared camera measures the emission from polymethyl methacrylate, (PMMA) and combustion products in six distinct narrow spectral bands. Four cameras successfully completed all qualification tests at Inframetrics and at NASA Lewis. They are presently being used for ground based testing in preparation for space flight in the fall of 1995.

  19. 3D interactive topology optimization on hand-held devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nobel-Jørgensen, Morten; Aage, Niels; Christiansen, Asger Nyman


    This educational paper describes the implementation aspects, user interface design considerations and workflow potential of the recently published TopOpt 3D App. The app solves the standard minimum compliance problem in 3D and allows the user to change design settings interactively at any point...... in time during the optimization. Apart from its educational nature, the app may point towards future ways of performing industrial design. Instead of the usual geometrize, then model and optimize approach, the geometry now automatically adapts to the varying boundary and loading conditions. The app...... is freely available for iOS at Apple’s App Store and at Windows and OSX....

  20. Assessing the performance of four leading-edge pXRF devices for trace metal measurement on contaminated soils in industrial and mining context (Wallonia, South Belgium). (United States)

    Vandeuren, Aubry; Pereira, Benoît; Sonnet, Philippe


    In many countries, large areas where mining and smelting activities took place in the past now exhibit elevated soil metal concentration levels. In Belgium, as in many European countries, soil assays are performed by aqua regia digestion and ICP measurement which is a cost- and time-expensive protocol. The aim of this study is to assess if this protocol could be approximated or replaced by portable XRF measurement as this method is fast, low cost and can be used in situ. This study first focused on the evaluation of the performance of four leading-edge pXRF devices for measuring metal concentrations in a collection of Belgian soil samples from industrial and mining context and non-contaminated areas. Four soil preparation protocols were then tested with one device, involving (1) measurement on fresh soil, (2) in situ sample drying and sieving, (3) in laboratory sample drying and sieving and (4) in laboratory sample drying, sieving and crushing. The comparison of the pXRF devices showed that the performance of each device varies depending on the element measured. The precision of the XRF measurement and correlation with aqua regia measurement protocol both increased for most of the elements when drying and sieving soil samples. However, for Cu and Pb, the four devices provide good measurement results whatever the sample preparation protocol. Finally, we proved the suitability of pXRF devices on a real-world case study by delineating the extent of Pb soil contamination by in situ pXRF measurement on fresh soil.

  1. Driver hand-held cellular phone use: a four-year analysis. (United States)

    Eby, David W; Vivoda, Jonathon M; St Louis, Renée M


    The use of hand-held cellular (mobile) phones while driving has stirred more debate, passion, and research than perhaps any other traffic safety issue in the past several years. There is ample research showing that the use of either hand-held or hands-free cellular phones can lead to unsafe driving patterns. Whether or not these performance deficits increase the risk of crash is difficult to establish, but recent studies are beginning to suggest that cellular phone use elevates crash risk. The purpose of this study was to assess changes in the rate of hand-held cellular phone use by motor-vehicle drivers on a statewide level in Michigan. This study presents the results of 13 statewide surveys of cellular phone use over a 4-year period. Hand-held cellular phone use data were collected through direct observation while vehicles were stopped at intersections and freeway exit ramps. Data were weighted to be representative of all drivers traveling during daylight hours in Michigan. The study found that driver hand-held cellular phone use has more than doubled between 2001 and 2005, from 2.7% to 5.8%. This change represents an average increase of 0.78 percentage points per year. The 5.8% use rate observed in 2005 means that at any given daylight hour, around 36,550 drivers were conversing on cellular phones while driving on Michigan roadways. The trend line fitted to these data predicts that by the year 2010, driver hand-held cellular phone use will be around 8.6%, or 55,000 drivers at any given daylight hour. These results make it clear that cellular phone use while driving will continue to be an important traffic safety issue, and highlight the importance of continued attempts to generate new ways of alleviating this potential hazard.

  2. Longer-term effects of Washington, DC, law on drivers' hand-held cell phone use. (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Hellinga, Laurie A


    To determine whether the substantial short-term declines in drivers' use of hand-held phones achieved in the District of Columbia (DC) were sustained 1 year after a ban. Drivers' daytime hand-held cell phone use was observed in DC and nearby areas of Virginia and Maryland, states without bans. Observations were conducted several months before the ban, shortly after, and 1 year later. The number of vehicles observed in all three surveys combined was 51,945 in DC, 36,796 in Maryland, and 43,033 in Virginia. The rate of talking on hand-held phones declined significantly from 6.1 percent before the law to 3.5 percent shortly after; when measured 1 year later, use was 4.0 percent, still significantly lower than baseline. Based on increases in rates of talking on hand-held phones in Maryland and Virginia, longer-term phone use in DC was estimated to be 53 percent lower than would have been expected without the ban. Declines in DC were identified for drivers of vehicles registered in all three jurisdictions. In DC, there was an initial decline of about 50 percent in drivers talking on hand-held cell phones following a ban, and this decline was sustained about 1 year later. After a similar ban in New York, there was an initial decline in phone use comparable with the initial decline in DC, but the decline a year after the New York ban took full effect was only about 21 percent and not statistically significant. The potential difference in sustained effectiveness for the DC ban may reflect tougher enforcement in DC. Even if full compliance with hand-held phone bans can be achieved, the risks from drivers' use of hands-free phones will remain.

  3. Survey reveals public open to ban on hand-held cell phone use and texting. (United States)


    A study performed by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics : (BTS) reveals that the public is open to a ban on : hand-held cell phone use while driving. The study is based : on data from 2009s Omnibus Household Survey (OHS), : which is administe...

  4. Strength assessment in postpolio syndrome: validity of a hand-held dynamometer in detecting change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nollet, F.; Beelen, A.


    Objectives: To investigate the validity, the intraexaminer and interexaminer reproducibility, and the ability to detect change of a hand- held dynamometer (HHD) in strength measurements in former polio subjects. Design: HHD measurement of knee extensor strength was compared with the criterion

  5. Strength assessment in postpolio syndrome: validity of a hand-held dynamometer in detecting change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nollet, F.; Beelen, A.


    To investigate the validity, the intraexaminer and interexaminer reproducibility, and the ability to detect change of a hand-held dynamometer (HHD) in strength measurements in former polio subjects. HHD measurement of knee extensor strength was compared with the criterion standard of a chair

  6. Implementation of synthetic aperture imaging on a hand-held device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Kjeldsen, Thomas; Larsen, Lee


    This paper presents several implementations of Syn- thetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) on commer- cially available hand-held devices. The implementations include real-time wireless reception of ultrasound radio frequency sig- nals and GPU processing for B-mode imaging. The proposed imp...

  7. Applying Hand-Held 3D Printing Technology to the Teaching of VSEPR Theory (United States)

    Dean, Natalie L.; Ewan, Corrina; McIndoe, J. Scott


    The use of hand-held 3D printing technology provides a unique and engaging approach to learning VSEPR theory by enabling students to draw three-dimensional depictions of different molecular geometries, giving them an appreciation of the shapes of the building blocks of complex molecular structures. Students are provided with 3D printing pens and…

  8. Hand-held radiography of the ankle joint - just a matter of routine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, C.


    Hand-held radiography for the diagnosis of ruptures of the outer ligament of the ankle joint often presents problems resulting, e.g., from errors of adjustment or inadequate stressing of the ligament. There are different techniques and criteria of interpretation none of which are ideal. Arthrography may provide further information.

  9. Online Responses towards Parental Rearing Styles Regarding Hand-Held Devices (United States)

    Geng, Gretchen; Disney, Leigh


    This article reviewed the literature on parental rearing styles and used responses from an online discussion forum to investigate people's opinions towards parental rearing styles and strategies when children use hand-held devices. Critical discourse analysis (CDA) was used as an analysis method via micro, meso and macro multi-level…

  10. Hand-Held Model of a Sarcomere to Illustrate the Sliding Filament Mechanism in Muscle Contraction (United States)

    Jittivadhna, Karnyupha; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Panijpan, Bhinyo


    From our teaching of the contractile unit of the striated muscle, we have found limitations in using textbook illustrations of sarcomere structure and its related dynamic molecular physiological details. A hand-held model of a striated muscle sarcomere made from common items has thus been made by us to enhance students' understanding of the…

  11. Research Note Calibration of a hand-held instrument for measuring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Condensed tannins are ecologically important compounds in plants for several reasons, e.g. as herbivore deterrents or protecting photosynthetic tissues against ultraviolet radiation. The hand-held Dualex Series 4 instrument was originally developed for indirect determination of flavonol concentrations in crops. Flavonols ...

  12. 77 FR 73354 - Safety Standard for Hand-Held Infant Carriers (United States)


    ... ``hand-held bassinet/cradle'' is defined as `` freestanding product, with a rest/support surface to... hazards. A Moses basket is considered to be a freestanding product with a rest/support surface to... shoulder straps in place, with the crotch strap left unsecured, which allowed the infant to slide forward...

  13. 78 FR 73415 - Safety Standard for Hand-Held Infant Carriers (United States)


    ... ``hand-held bassinet/cradle'' is defined as ``a freestanding product, with a rest/ support surface to... different hazards. A Moses basket is a freestanding product with a rest/support surface to facilitate sleep... face pressed into the side of the seat; infant strangled to death when restrained by the shoulder...

  14. Effects of Washington, D.C. law on drivers' hand-held cell phone use. (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Hellinga, Laurie A; Geary, Lori L


    To assess the effects of Washington, D.C. law prohibiting drivers' use of hand-held cell phones on such use. Daytime observations of drivers were conducted at signalized intersections in D.C. in March 2004, several months before the law took effect on July 1, 2004, and again in October 2004. As a comparison, observations also were conducted in areas of Virginia and Maryland located close to the D.C. border. Maryland and Virginia placed no limitations on drivers' phone use. Use was observed for 36,091 vehicles in D.C., 25,151 vehicles in Maryland, and 28,483 vehicles in Virginia. The rate of talking on hand-held cell phones among drivers in D.C. declined significantly from 6.1% before the law to 3.5% after. Phone use declined slightly in Maryland and increased significantly in Virginia so that, relative to the patterns of hand-held phone use in the two states, phone use in D.C. declined 50%. Hand-held phone use in D.C. declined comparably among drivers of vehicles registered in all three jurisdictions. D.C. police issued 2,556 citations and 1,232 warnings for cell phone violations during July-November 2004. There were spates of media coverage when the law was passed and when it took effect. D.C.'s law prohibiting drivers' hand-held phone use had a strong effect on such use among drivers in D.C. Without ongoing publicized enforcement of the law, long-term compliance may be difficult to achieve.

  15. The potential of lacquer-peel soil profiles for palaeo-geochemical analysis using XRF analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnoldussen, Stijn; van Os, B.J.H.


    This paper discusses the suitability of hand-held XRF analysis to extract palaeo-geochemical information from lacquer-peel soil sections that have been taken to document pedological information at geological and archaeological sites. This not only allows the study of sections from archaeological and

  16. Modification of the hand-held Vscan ultrasound and verification of its performance for transvaginal applications. (United States)

    Troyano Luque, J M; Ferrer-Roca, O; Barco-Marcellán, M J; Sabatel López, R; Pérez-Medina, T; Pérez-Lopez, F R


    The purpose of this work was to validate a new clinical obstetrics and gynecology (OB-GYN) application for a hand-held ultrasound (US) device. We modified the smallest hand-held device on the market and tested the system for transvaginal (TV) use. This device was originally conceived for abdominal scanning only. The validation involved 80 successive patients examined by the same operator: 25 obstetric and 55 gynecologic cases. US examination was performed transvaginally with two US systems: the hand-held Vscan (General Electrics; GE Vingmed Ultrasound; Norway) for which an intravaginal gadget TTGP-2010® (Troyano transvaginal gadget probe) was designed, and the Voluson 730 Expert (multifrequency transvaginal ultrasound of 3-9MHz; GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI, USA). We performed the same measurements with both US systems in order to confirm whether or not their diagnostic capability was similar. Quantitative difference in measurements between the systems was assessed, as well as the overall diagnostic detection rate and suitability for telemedicine. Regarding lesion visibility with Vscan, optimal distance was 8-16cm depending on the examination type, and the total detection rate was 98.7%. The exception was an ovarian endometrioma, diagnosed as a follicular cyst using the hand-held device. Assessment of reproducibility in 180 measurements showed that the measurements obtained with Vscan were 0.3-0.4cm lower than those obtained with the high resolution US device (Voluson 730 Expert). Nevertheless, Pearson's correlation coefficient was high for biparietal diameter (0.72) and gynecological (GYN) (0.99) measurements, and for overall correlation (0.997). Image transport on USB and SD-flash cards proved convenient for telemedicine. A novel TV application of a hand-held US device is demonstrated for OB-GYN. Heart, abdominal and obstetrics presets of the Vscan together with color-Doppler enable a detection capability comparable to that of a high-definition US device. The

  17. Computer-assisted hand-held dynamometer: low-cost instrument for muscle function assessment in rehabilitation medicine.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harlaar, J.; Roebroeck, M.E.; Lankhorst, G.J.


    In rehabilitation medicine, muscle function is assessed during the physical examination of the patient. Although a simple hand-held instrument improves the assessment of static strength, it is rarely used in clinical practice, where dynamic measurements are preferred. A computer-assisted hand-held

  18. Hand-Held Dynamometer Measurements Obtained in a Home Environment Are Reliable but Not Correlated Strongly with Function. (United States)

    Bohannon, R. W.


    This research report describes the reliability and validity of hand-held dynamometer measurements of knee extension force obtained from 13 patients referred for physical therapy. Results found that hand-held dynamometry can be used to obtain reliable measures of muscle strength; however, correlation between strength measures and function was not…

  19. Testing Precision of Measurements with Hand-Held GPS-Device GPSMAP 76CS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Župan


    Full Text Available Small hand-held GPS-devices are more and more in use these days. A need for their accuracy and precision testing arises. Precision of measurements with the small hand-held GPS-device GPSMAP 76CS is described in this paper. Also, the correlation between reading "accuracy" during survey and deviations of individual measurements from their average value has been explored. The importance of the research is in the fact that according to our knowledge, there are not any explanations or definitions of "accuracy" shown on the screen of GPSMAP 76CS or similar devices in available references.Ključne riječi

  20. Analysis of Hand-Held Phones Using the Finite Integration Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dlouhy


    Full Text Available Two different hand-held phones operating at 1.8 GHz are numerically analyzed, applying a field calculation program MAFIA (MAxwell's equations using the Finite Integration Algorithm. One phone contains a Back-Mounted Microstrip Double Patch Antenna (BMMDPA, the other, for comparison a conventional monopole. Realistic models of the the handset, the head and the hand are used to gain a detailed understanding of the antenna properties, as well as of the antenna-tissue interaction.

  1. Long-Wavelength 256 x 256 QWIP Hand-Held Camera (United States)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Liu, J. K.; Sundaram, M.; Bandara, S. V.; Shott, C. A.; Hoelter, T.; Maker, P. D.; Muller, R. E.


    In this paper, we discuss the development of very sensitive long wavelength infrared (LWIR) GaAs/Al(x)Ga(l-x)As quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs), fabrication of random reflectors for efficient light coupling, and the demonstration of the first hand-held long-wavelength 256 x 256 QWIP focal plane array camera. Excellent imagery, with a noise equivalent differential temperature (NE Delta T) of 25 mK has been achieved.

  2. Analysis of Hand-Held Phones Using the Finite Integration Algorithm


    Dlouhy, R.


    Two different hand-held phones operating at 1.8 GHz are numerically analyzed, applying a field calculation program MAFIA (MAxwell's equations using the Finite Integration Algorithm). One phone contains a Back-Mounted Microstrip Double Patch Antenna (BMMDPA), the other, for comparison a conventional monopole. Realistic models of the the handset, the head and the hand are used to gain a detailed understanding of the antenna properties, as well as of the antenna-tissue interaction.

  3. Planning of directionally drilled wells in the offshore Wilmington field using the hand-held calculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D.D.; Barth, J.W.


    As of July 1982, 901 wells have been directionally drilled in the Long Beach Unit of the East Wilmington Field from 4 man-made islands and land based drilling sites. As more wells are added to each site the planning of new well courses has become more complex. The hand held calculator with Long Beach Unit developed programs has been an aid in laying out new wells which will avoid existing cased boreholes.

  4. Noise reduction techniques in the design of a pneumatic-driven hand held power tool (United States)

    Skinner, Christian M.


    Pneumatic-driven hand-held power tools generate noise in the workplace. Current legislation in Europe and the USA aims at protecting workers against noise exposure. In the United States, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires that employers create a hearing conservation program if the noise exposure exceeds 85 dB(A). In the European Community under the Directive 2003/10/EC, employers are required to provide hearing protection if the noise exposure within the working environment exceeds 80 dB(A) and must require hearing protection to be worn if the noise exposure exceeds 85 dB(A). This paper examines the sources of noise which contribute to the overall noise from a hand-held power tool. A test plan was developed to identify these individual sources of noise and to determine if structure-borne noise or airborne noise is the dominant source relative to the overall noise level. The measurements were performed per International Standards Organization (ISO) 15744. This paper will describe the methodology used to identify the noise sources and reduce the overall noise of a hand-held power tool.

  5. Hand-held internet tablets for school-based data collection. (United States)

    Denny, Simon J; Milfont, Taciano L; Utter, Jennifer; Robinson, Elizabeth M; Ameratunga, Shanthi N; Merry, Sally N; Fleming, Theresa M; Watson, Peter D


    In the last 20 years, researchers have been using computer self-administered questionnaires to gather data on a wide range of adolescent health related behaviours. More recently, researchers collecting data in schools have started to use smaller hand-held computers for their ease of use and portability. The aim of this study is to describe a new technology with wi-fi enabled hand-held internet tablets and to compare adolescent preferences of laptop computers or hand-held internet tablets in administering a youth health and well-being questionnaire in a school setting. A total of 177 students took part in a pilot study of a national youth health and wellbeing survey. Students were randomly assigned to internet tablets or laptops at the start of the survey and were changed to the alternate mode of administration about half-way through the questionnaire. Students at the end of the questionnaire were asked which of the two modes of administration (1) they preferred, (2) was easier to use, (3) was more private and confidential, and (4) was easier to answer truthfully. Many students expressed no preference between laptop computers or internet tablets. However, among the students who expressed a preference between laptop computers or internet tablets, the majority of students found the internet tablets more private and confidential (p internet tablets is a feasible methodology for school-based surveys especially when asking about sensitive information.

  6. The reliability and validity of hand-held refractometry water content measures of hydrogel lenses. (United States)

    Nichols, Jason J; Mitchell, G Lynn; Good, Gregory W


    To investigate within- and between-examiner reliability and validity of hand-held refractometry water content measures of hydrogel lenses. Nineteen lenses of various nominal water contents were examined by two examiners on two occasions separated by 1 hour. An Atago N2 hand-held refractometer was used for all water content measures. Lenses were presented in a random order to each examiner by a third party, and examiners were masked to any potential lens identifiers. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), 95% limits of agreement, and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to characterize the within- and between-examiner reliability and validity of lens water content measures. Within-examiner reliability was excellent (ICC, 0.97; 95% limits of agreement, -3.6% to +5.7%), and the inter-visit mean difference of 1.1 +/- 2.4% was not biased (p = 0.08). Between-examiner reliability was also excellent (ICC, 0.98; 95% limits of agreement, -4.1% to +3.9%). The mean difference between examiners was -0.1 +/- 2.1% (p = 0.83). The mean difference between the nominally reported water content and our water content measures was -2.1 +/- 1.7% (p water content of hydrogel lenses. However, with our sample of lenses, examiners tended to overestimate the nominal water content of hydrogel lenses. As discussed, this bias may be associated with the Brix scale used in refractometry and is material dependent. Therefore, investigators may need to account for bias when measuring hydrogel lens water content via hand-held refractometry.

  7. Potential role of a new hand-held miniature gamma camera in performing minimally invasive parathyroidectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Joaquin; Lledo, Salvador [University of Valencia, Clinic University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Valencia (Spain); Ferrer-Rebolleda, Jose [Clinic University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Valencia (Spain); Cassinello, Norberto [Clinic University Hospital, Unit of Endocrinologic and Bariatric Surgery, Valencia (Spain)


    Sestamibi scans have increased the use of minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) to treat primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) when caused by a parathyroid single adenoma. The greatest concern for surgeons remains the proper identification of pathological glands in a limited surgical field. We have studied the usefulness of a new hand-held miniature gamma camera (MGC) when used intraoperatively to locate parathyroid adenomas. To our knowledge this is the first report published on this subject in the scientific literature. Five patients with PHPT secondary to a single adenoma, positively diagnosed by preoperative sestamibi scans, underwent a MIP. A gamma probe for radioguided surgery and the new hand-held MGC were used consecutively to locate the pathological glands. This new MGC has a module composed of a high-resolution interchangeable collimator and a CsI(Na) scintillating crystal. It has dimensions of around 15 cm x 8 cm x 9 cm and weighs 1 kg. The intraoperative assay of PTH (ioPTH) was used to confirm the complete resection of pathological tissue. All cases were operated on successfully by a MIP. The ioPTH confirmed the excision of all pathological tissues. The MGC proved its usefulness in all patients, even in a difficult case in which the first attempt with the gamma probe failed. In all cases it offered real-time accurate intraoperative images. The hand-held MGC is a useful instrument in MIP for PHPT. It may be used to complement the standard tools used to date, or may even replace them, at least in selected cases of single adenomas. (orig.)

  8. Sensitive SERS nanotags for use with a hand-held 1064 nm Raman spectrometer (United States)

    Kearns, Hayleigh; Ali, Fatima; Bedics, Matthew A.; Shand, Neil C.; Faulds, Karen; Detty, Michael R.; Graham, Duncan


    This is the first report of the use of a hand-held 1064 nm Raman spectrometer combined with red-shifted surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanotags to provide an unprecedented performance in the short-wave infrared (SWIR) region. A library consisting of 17 chalcogenopyrylium nanotags produce extraordinary SERS responses with femtomolar detection limits being obtained using the portable instrument. This is well beyond previous SERS detection limits at this far red-shifted wavelength and opens up new options for SERS sensors in the SWIR region of the electromagnetic spectrum (between 950 and 1700 nm).

  9. A hand-held sensor for analyses of local distributions of magnetic fields and losses

    CERN Document Server

    Krismanic, G; Baumgartinger, N


    The paper describes a novel sensor for non-destructive analyses of local field and loss distributions in laminated soft magnetic cores, such as transformer cores. It was designed for rapid information on comparative local degrees of inhomogeneity, e.g., for the estimation of local building factors. Similar to a magnifying glass with handle, the compact hand-held sensor contains extremely sharp needle electrodes for the detection of the induction vector B as well as double-field coils for the vector H. Losses P are derived from the Poynting law. Applied to inner -- or also outer -- core regions, the sensor yields instantaneous computer displays of local H, B, and P.

  10. Real time OCT-based angiography device with hand-held probe (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Moiseev, Alexander A.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Ksenofontov, Sergey Y.; Gelikonov, Valentin M.; Matveev, Lev A.; Zaitsev, Vladimir Y.; Matveev, Alexander L.; Sirotkina, Marina A.; Gladkova, Natalia D.; Vitkin, I. Alex


    This work is dedicated to development of the OCT system with angiography for everyday clinical use. Two major problems were solved during the development: compensation of specific tissue displacements, induced by contact scanning mode and physiological motion of patients (e.g. respiratory and cardiac motions) and on-line visualization of vessel net, to provide the feedback for system operator. The performance of the resulting OCT-based microangiography device with hand-held probe was evaluated by visualization of vessels nets of volunteers oral mucosa and skin on different locations (hands, face, abdomen etc.). Success-rate more than 90% was demonstrated during the experiments.

  11. Finger tracking for hand-held device interface using profile-matching stereo vision (United States)

    Chang, Yung-Ping; Lee, Dah-Jye; Moore, Jason; Desai, Alok; Tippetts, Beau


    Hundreds of millions of people use hand-held devices frequently and control them by touching the screen with their fingers. If this method of operation is being used by people who are driving, the probability of deaths and accidents occurring substantially increases. With a non-contact control interface, people do not need to touch the screen. As a result, people will not need to pay as much attention to their phones and thus drive more safely than they would otherwise. This interface can be achieved with real-time stereovision. A novel Intensity Profile Shape-Matching Algorithm is able to obtain 3-D information from a pair of stereo images in real time. While this algorithm does have a trade-off between accuracy and processing speed, the result of this algorithm proves the accuracy is sufficient for the practical use of recognizing human poses and finger movement tracking. By choosing an interval of disparity, an object at a certain distance range can be segmented. In other words, we detect the object by its distance to the cameras. The advantage of this profile shape-matching algorithm is that detection of correspondences relies on the shape of profile and not on intensity values, which are subjected to lighting variations. Based on the resulting 3-D information, the movement of fingers in space from a specific distance can be determined. Finger location and movement can then be analyzed for non-contact control of hand-held devices.

  12. Simplified and quantitative saliva buffer capacity test using a hand-held pH meter. (United States)

    Kitasako, Yuichi; Moritsuka, Michiyo; Foxton, Richard M; Ikeda, Masaomi; Tagami, Junji; Nomura, Satoshi


    To evaluate and compare saliva buffer capacity using a hand-held pH meter and a commercial buffer strip in patients at risk of caries. To obtain stimulated saliva, 109 patients were given a paraffin wax to chew for 5 minutes. After reading the pH value of 0.5 ml of tested saliva using a portable hand-held pH meter (B-212), 10 microl of 0.1N HCl was titrated into the obtained saliva up to a total titration of 160 microl, and then the pH value read each time. The commercial buffer strip (CRT) was also evaluated. The correlation in ranking results (high, medium, low) between the B-212 pH meter and CRT buffer were statistically analyzed by the Bartlett's test (P buffer capacity were 50%, 17% and 33% respectively for the B-212 pH meter, and 56%, 17% and 27% respectively for the CRT. For the CRT buffer, 23 out of 109 cases showed inconclusive color change under the colorimetric test. There was significant correlation between ranking buffer capacity measured by the B-212 pH meter and the CRT buffer (P < 0.001).

  13. Hand-Held Sunphotometers for High School Student Construction and Measuring Aerosol Optical Thickness (United States)

    Almonor, Linda; Baldwin, C.; Craig, R.; Johnson, L. P.


    Science education is taking the teaching of science from a traditional (lecture) approach to a multidimensional sense-making approach which allows teachers to support students by providing exploratory experiences. Using projects is one way of providing students with opportunities to observe and participate in sense-making activity. We created a learning environment that fostered inquiry-based learning. Students were engaged in a variety of Inquiry activities that enabled them to work in cooperative planning teams where respect for each other was encouraged and their ability to grasp, transform and transfer information was enhanced. Summer, 1998: An air pollution workshop was conducted for high school students in the Medgar Evers College/Middle College High School Liberty Partnership Summer Program. Students learned the basics of meteorology: structure and composition of the atmosphere and the processes that cause weather. The highlight of this workshop was the building of hand-held sunphotometers, which measure the intensity of the sunlight striking the Earth. Summer, 1999: high school students conducted a research project which measured the mass and size of ambient particulates and enhanced our ability to observe through land based measurements changes in the optical depth of ambient aerosols over Brooklyn. Students used hand held Sunphotometers to collect data over a two week period and entered it into the NASA GISS database by way of the internet.

  14. Neurosurgical hand-held optical coherence tomography (OCT) forward-viewing probe (United States)

    Sun, Cuiru; Lee, Kenneth K. C.; Vuong, Barry; Cusimano, Michael; Brukson, Alexander; Mariampillai, Adrian; Standish, Beau A.; Yang, Victor X. D.


    A prototype neurosurgical hand-held optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging probe has been developed to provide micron resolution cross-sectional images of subsurface tissue during open surgery. This new ergonomic hand-held probe has been designed based on our group's previous work on electrostatically driven optical fibers. It has been packaged into a catheter probe in the familiar form factor of the clinically accepted Bayonet shaped neurosurgical non-imaging Doppler ultrasound probes. The optical design was optimized using ZEMAX simulation. Optical properties of the probe were tested to yield an ~20 um spot size, 5 mm working distance and a 3.5 mm field of view. The scan frequency can be increased or decreased by changing the applied voltage. Typically a scan frequency of less than 60Hz is chosen to keep the applied voltage to less than 2000V. The axial resolution of the probe was ~15 um (in air) as determined by the OCT system. A custom-triggering methodology has been developed to provide continuous stable imaging, which is crucial for clinical utility. Feasibility of this probe, in combination with a 1310 nm swept source OCT system was tested and images are presented to highlight the usefulness of such a forward viewing handheld OCT imaging probe. Knowledge gained from this research will lay the foundation for developing new OCT technologies for endovascular management of cerebral aneurysms and transsphenoidal neuroendoscopic treatment of pituitary tumors.

  15. Hand-held optoacoustic probe for three-dimensional imaging of human morphology and function (United States)

    Deán-Ben, X. Luís.; Razansky, Daniel


    We report on a hand-held imaging probe for real-time optoacoustic visualization of deep tissues in three dimensions. The proposed solution incorporates a two-dimensional array of ultrasonic sensors densely distributed on a spherical surface, whereas illumination is performed coaxially through a cylindrical cavity in the array. Visualization of three-dimensional tomographic data at a frame rate of 10 images per second is enabled by parallel recording of 256 time-resolved signals for each individual laser pulse along with a highly efficient GPUbased real-time reconstruction. A liquid coupling medium (water), enclosed in a transparent membrane, is used to guarantee transmission of the optoacoustically generated waves to the ultrasonic detectors. Excitation at multiple wavelengths further allows imaging spectrally distinctive tissue chromophores such as oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin. The performance is showcased by video-rate tracking of deep tissue vasculature and three-dimensional measurements of blood oxygenenation in a healthy human volunteer. The flexibility provided by the hand-held hardware design, combined with the real-time operation, makes the developed platform highly usable for both small animal research and clinical imaging in multiple indications, including cancer, inflammation, skin and cardiovascular diseases, diagnostics of lymphatic system and breast

  16. Smartphone based hand-held quantitative phase microscope using the transport of intensity equation method. (United States)

    Meng, Xin; Huang, Huachuan; Yan, Keding; Tian, Xiaolin; Yu, Wei; Cui, Haoyang; Kong, Yan; Xue, Liang; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Shouyu


    In order to realize high contrast imaging with portable devices for potential mobile healthcare, we demonstrate a hand-held smartphone based quantitative phase microscope using the transport of intensity equation method. With a cost-effective illumination source and compact microscope system, multi-focal images of samples can be captured by the smartphone's camera via manual focusing. Phase retrieval is performed using a self-developed Android application, which calculates sample phases from multi-plane intensities via solving the Poisson equation. We test the portable microscope using a random phase plate with known phases, and to further demonstrate its performance, a red blood cell smear, a Pap smear and monocot root and broad bean epidermis sections are also successfully imaged. Considering its advantages as an accurate, high-contrast, cost-effective and field-portable device, the smartphone based hand-held quantitative phase microscope is a promising tool which can be adopted in the future in remote healthcare and medical diagnosis.

  17. Analysis of Information Remaining on Hand Held Devices Offered for Sale on the Second Hand Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Jones


    Full Text Available The ownership and use of mobile phones, Personal Digital Assistants and other hand held devices is now ubiquitous both for home and business use. The majority of these devices have a high initial cost, a relatively short period before they become obsolescent and a relatively low second hand value.  As a result of this, when the devices are replaced, there are indications that they tend to be discarded.  As technology has continued to develop, it has led to an increasing diversity in the number and type of devices that are available, and the processing power and the storage capacity of the digital storage in the device. All organisations, whether in the public or private sector increasingly use hand held devices that contain digital media for the storage of information relating to their business, their employees or their customers. Similarly, individual private users increasingly use hand held devices containing digital media for the storage of information relating to their private lives.The research revealed that a significant number of organisations and private users are ignorant or misinformed about the volume and type of information that is stored on the hand held devices and the media on which it is stored.  It is apparent that they have either not considered, or are unaware of, the potential impact of this information becoming available to their competitors or those with criminal intent.This main purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the volume and type of information that may remain on hand held devices that are offered for sale on the second hand market.  A second aim of the research was to determine the level of damage that could, potentially be caused, if the information that remains on the devices fell into the wrong hands.  The study examined a number of hand held devices that had been obtained from sources in the UK and Australia that ranged from internet auction sites, to private sales and commercial

  18. User certification of hand-held x-ray tube based analytical fluorescent devices in a canadian context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maharaj, H.P. [Department of Health, Consumer and Clinical Radiation Protection Bureau, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)


    Safety education aims to reduce personal injury and improve well being. This health promotion principle is applied in the case of hand-held open beam x-ray tube based analytical x-ray devices. Such devices not only are light weight and portable, but also present high radiation exposure levels at the beam exit port and potentially can be used in a variety of industrial applications for determination of material composition. There is much potential for radiation risks to occur with resultant adverse effects if such devices are not used by trained individuals within controlled environments. A level of radiation safety knowledge and understanding of the device design, construction and performance characteristics appear warranted. To reduce radiation risks, user certification at a federal level was introduced in 2004 based on International Standards Organization 20807, since that standard comprises elements commensurate with risk reduction strategies. Within these contexts, a federally certified user is deemed to have acquired a level of safety knowledge and skills to facilitate safe use of the device. Certification, however, does not absolve the holder from obligations of compliance with applicable provincial, territorial or federal laws respecting device operation. The union of federal certification and applicable legislative mandated operational criteria reduces radiation risks overall. (author)

  19. Intertester reliability of the hand-held dynamometer for wrist flexion and extension. (United States)

    Rheault, W; Beal, J L; Kubik, K R; Nowak, T A; Shepley, J A


    This study was conducted to determine the intertester reliability of a hand-held dynamometer for the wrist flexor and extensor muscles. Using the break test on 20 healthy subjects, three testers obtained two measures of strength for each muscle group. The data were analyzed using the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients, intraclass correlations, and an analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures. Our Pearson product-moment correlations ranged from 0.89 to 0.95 for the intertester reliability of the wrist extensors and 0.90 to 0.93 for the wrist flexors, whereas the intraclass coefficients were 0.91 and 0.85, respectively. Although these correlations were high, ANOVA tests revealed that significant differences existed between testers for both the wrist flexion and extension data (p less than .05). From these results we concluded that although the correlations between testers were good, ANOVA tests suggested that there was limited reliability between testers.

  20. A hand-held 3D laser scanning with global positioning system of subvoxel precision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Nestor [GOM, Departamento de Fisica y Geologia, Universidad de Pamplona (Colombia); Meneses, Nestor; Meneses, Jaime [GOTS-CENM, Escuela de Fisica, UIS, Bucaramanga (Colombia); Gharbi, Tijani, E-mail: [Departement D' Optique, FEMTO-ST, 16 Route de Gray, 25030 Besancon (France)


    In this paper we propose a hand-held 3D laser scanner composed of an optical head device to extract 3D local surface information and a stereo vision system with subvoxel precision to measure the position and orientation of the 3D optical head. The optical head is manually scanned over the surface object by the operator. The orientation and position of the 3D optical head is determined by a phase-sensitive method using a 2D regular intensity pattern. This phase reference pattern is rigidly fixed to the optical head and allows their 3D location with subvoxel precision in the observation field of the stereo vision system. The 3D resolution achieved by the stereo vision system is about 33 microns at 1.8 m with an observation field of 60cm x 60cm.

  1. Musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremities due to extensive usage of hand held devices. (United States)

    Sharan, Deepak; Mohandoss, Mathankumar; Ranganathan, Rameshkumar; Jose, Jeena


    The use of hand held devices (HHD) such as mobile phones, game controls, tablets, portable media players and personal digital assistants have increased dramatically in past decade. While sending a text message or using the controls of the HHD the users need to use their thumb and other palm muscles extensively. The objective of this study was to describe the risk factors and clinical features of the musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) arising due to usage of hand held devices and to evaluate the effectiveness of a sequenced rehabilitation protocol. A retrospective report analysis of 70 subjects, who were diagnosed to have a MSD affecting the upper extremities, was conducted. Medical charts from a tertiary level rehabilitation centre from 2005-2013 were analysed. All the subjects reported pain in their upper extremities following extensive usage of HHD and were examined and diagnosed to have a MSD by an orthopaedic and rehabilitation physician. After the assessment and diagnosis, all the patients underwent rehabilitation using a sequenced protocol. All the subjects reported pain in the thumb and forearm with associated burning, numbness and tingling around the thenar aspect of the hand, and stiffness of wrist and hand. 43 subjects had symptoms on the right side; 9 on left and 18 had bilateral symptoms. Correlation was found between hand dominance and MSD. 33 subjects complained of onset of symptoms following extensive text messaging. All the subjects were diagnosed to have tendinosis of Extensor Pollicis Longus and Myofascial Pain Syndrome affecting the 1st interossei, thenar group of muscles and Extensor Digitorum Communis. 23 of the subjects were senior executives, among these 7 were CEO's of major multinational companies in India. All the subjects recovered completely following the rehabilitation. The study concluded that mobile phones and gadgets that promoted the predominant usage of thumb or only one finger while texting or using the controls were associated with

  2. Hand-held Ultrasound Scanners in Medical Education: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Galusko, Victor; Khanji, Mohammed Yunus; Bodger, Owen; Weston, Clive; Chambers, John; Ionescu, Adrian


    Ultrasound imaging devices are becoming popular in clinical and teaching settings, but there is no systematic information on their use in medical education. We conducted a systematic review of hand-held ultrasound (HHU) devices in undergraduate medical education to delineate their role, significance, and limitations. We searched Cochrane, PubMed, Embase, and Medline using the strategy: [(Hand-held OR Portable OR Pocket OR "Point of Care Systems") AND Ultrasound] AND (Education OR Training OR Undergraduate OR "Medical Students" OR "Medical School"). We retained 12 articles focusing on undergraduate medical education. We summarised the patterns of HHU use, pooled and estimated sensitivity, and specificity of HHU for detection of left ventricular dysfunction. Features reported were heterogeneous: training time (1-25 hours), number of students involved (1-an entire cohort), number of subjects scanned (27-211), and type of learning (self-directed vs. traditional lectures + hands-on sessions). Most studies reported cardiac HHU examinations, but other anatomical areas were examined, e.g. abdomen and thyroid. Pooled sensitivity 0.88 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.83-0.92] and specificity 0.86 (95% CI 0.81-0.90) were high for the detection of left ventricular systolic dysfunction by students. Data on HHU devices in medical education are scarce and incomplete, but following training students can achieve high diagnostic accuracy, albeit in a limited number of (mainly cardiac) pathologies. There is no consensus on protocols best-suited to the educational needs of medical students, nor data on long-term impact, decay in proficiency or on the financial implications of deploying HHU in this setting.

  3. Hands-free versus hand-held cell phone conversation on a braking response by young drivers. (United States)

    Hendrick, Joy L; Switzer, Jamie R


    As some states allow motorists to use hands-free cell phones only while driving, this study was done to examine some braking responses to see if conversing on these two types of cell phones affects quick responding. College-age drivers (n=25) completed reaction time trials in go/no-go situations under three conditions: control (no cell phone or conversation), and conversing on hands-free and hand-held cell phones. Their task involved moving the right foot from one pedal to another as quickly as possible in response to a visual signal in a lab setting. Significantly slower reaction times, movement times, and total response times were found for both cell phone conditions than for the control but no differences between hands-free and hand-held phone conditions. These findings provide additional support that talking on cell phones, regardless if it is hands-free or hand-held, reduces speed of information processing.

  4. From usability requirement to technical specifications for hand-held tools and materials: an applied research in the construction field. (United States)

    Duca, Gabriella; Attaianese, Erminia


    Literature shows incidence of musculoskeletal disorders in bricklaying workers as well as the relevance of good designed hand-held tools in musculoskeletal disorders prevention. In this framework, it can be supposed that providing usable hand-held tools and material in construction worksites will help to improve bricklayers' working conditions. Here a study is presented aimed at framing a methodology for usability assessment of bricklayers handled objects, in order to provide employers with practical indicators for choosing tools and materials best fitting workers needs, under the effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction perspective. On the basis of a task analysis, usability requirements for bricklaying hand-held tools and materials have been detailed and related, quantitative and qualitative, technical specifications have been elicited. Theoretical framework and usability assessment methodology are presented and, finally, findings from a field application are discussed.

  5. Strength assessment in postpolio syndrome: validity of a hand-held dynamometer in detecting change. (United States)

    Nollet, F; Beelen, A


    To investigate the validity, the intraexaminer and interexaminer reproducibility, and the ability to detect change of a hand-held dynamometer (HHD) in strength measurements in former polio subjects. HHD measurement of knee extensor strength was compared with the criterion standard of a chair dynamometer measurement in 49 subjects. The "break" method was used for HHD measurements. Reproducibility was studied for six lower extremity muscle groups in 28 subjects. The measurements were performed by one experienced and one inexperienced examiner on two separate occasions, with an interval of 1 week. The examiners were blinded to each other's and to previous results. University hospital. Volunteer sample of former polio subjects. For knee extension, the forces that could be measured with the HHD were limited to approximately 200N. Although the intraclass correlation coefficients were high (.75 to .98), the 95% limits of agreement between measurements showed large intervals for differences between two measurements (ratio intervals ranging from .76-1.52 to .52-2.77). The intraexaminer reproducibility for the experienced examiner was superior to that of the inexperienced examiner. The reproducibility of the inexperienced examiner showed systematic bias, with significantly higher strength values for the second session measurement of three muscle groups. The device has good validity in the lower force range. However, because the agreement between measurements was poor, it has limited ability to detect a change in muscle strength. Therefore, this method is unable to detect small changes in lower extremity muscle strength in former polio patients.

  6. In-Season Yield Prediction of Cabbage with a Hand-Held Active Canopy Sensor. (United States)

    Ji, Rongting; Min, Ju; Wang, Yuan; Cheng, Hu; Zhang, Hailin; Shi, Weiming


    Efficient and precise yield prediction is critical to optimize cabbage yields and guide fertilizer application. A two-year field experiment was conducted to establish a yield prediction model for cabbage by using the Greenseeker hand-held optical sensor. Two cabbage cultivars (Jianbao and Pingbao) were used and Jianbao cultivar was grown for 2 consecutive seasons but Pingbao was only grown in the second season. Four chemical nitrogen application rates were implemented: 0, 80, 140, and 200 kg·N·ha(-1). Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was collected 20, 50, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, and 140 days after transplanting (DAT). Pearson correlation analysis and regression analysis were performed to identify the relationship between the NDVI measurements and harvested yields of cabbage. NDVI measurements obtained at 110 DAT were significantly correlated to yield and explained 87-89% and 75-82% of the cabbage yield variation of Jianbao cultivar over the two-year experiment and 77-81% of the yield variability of Pingbao cultivar. Adjusting the yield prediction models with CGDD (cumulative growing degree days) could make remarkable improvement to the accuracy of the prediction model and increase the determination coefficient to 0.82, while the modification with DFP (days from transplanting when GDD > 0) values did not. The integrated exponential yield prediction equation was better than linear or quadratic functions and could accurately make in-season estimation of cabbage yields with different cultivars between years.

  7. Monitoring energy intake: a hand-held personal digital assistant provides accuracy comparable to written records. (United States)

    McClung, Holly L; Sigrist, Lori D; Smith, Tracey J; Karl, J Philip; Rood, Jennifer C; Young, Andrew J; Bathalon, Gaston P


    New approaches to assess energy intake (EI) may have advantages over traditional written methods, but validity of these emerging methodologies must be demonstrated. This exploratory study compared EI obtained using a hand-held personal digital assistant (PDA) and traditional written records with total energy expenditure measured by doubly labeled water (TEE(DLW)). Twenty-six volunteers (aged 23+/-4 years, body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] 24+/-2) participated in a randomized (either PDA or written record group) and matched (for sex, age, and body mass index) study for 7 consecutive days between June 2005 and April 2006 to record EI. Group comparisons were made with t and Mann-Whitney U tests. Bland-Altman plots were used to compare limits of agreement between methods. Volunteers remained weight stable during the study period (0.2+/-0.8 kg; P>0.05). Reported EI by written record and PDA were similar to TEE(DLW); 105% vs 92% of TEE(DLW), respectively (P>0.05). There was a significant relationship between reported EI by PDA and TEE(DLW) (r=0.60, Precord (r=0.45, P>0.05). Limits of agreement indicated both written record and PDA had large variability (range 1,394 to -1,472 kcal/day). Findings suggest the bias in using a PDA is similar to that observed when using a written record for estimation of EI in weight-stable volunteers.

  8. 3D indoor modeling using a hand-held embedded system with multiple laser range scanners (United States)

    Hu, Shaoxing; Wang, Duhu; Xu, Shike


    Accurate three-dimensional perception is a key technology for many engineering applications, including mobile mapping, obstacle detection and virtual reality. In this article, we present a hand-held embedded system designed for constructing 3D representation of structured indoor environments. Different from traditional vehicle-borne mobile mapping methods, the system presented here is capable of efficiently acquiring 3D data while an operator carrying the device traverses through the site. It consists of a simultaneous localization and mapping(SLAM) module, a 3D attitude estimate module and a point cloud processing module. The SLAM is based on a scan matching approach using a modern LIDAR system, and the 3D attitude estimate is generated by a navigation filter using inertial sensors. The hardware comprises three 2D time-flight laser range finders and an inertial measurement unit(IMU). All the sensors are rigidly mounted on a body frame. The algorithms are developed on the frame of robot operating system(ROS). The 3D model is constructed using the point cloud library(PCL). Multiple datasets have shown robust performance of the presented system in indoor scenarios.

  9. Characterization of wood dust emission from hand-held woodworking machines. (United States)

    Keller, F-X; Chata, F


    This article focuses on the prevention of exposure to wood dust when operating electrical hand-held sawing and sanding machines. A laboratory methodology was developed to measure the dust concentration around machines during operating processes. The main objective was to characterize circular saws and sanders, with the aim of classifying the different power tools tested in terms of dust emission (high dust emitter vs. low dust emitter). A test set-up was developed and is described and a measurement methodology was determined for each of the two operations studied. The robustness of the experimental results is discussed and shows good tendencies. The impact of air-flow extraction rate was assessed and the pressure loss of the system for each machine established. For the circular saws, three machines over the nine tested could be classified in the low dust emitter group. Their mean concentration values measured are between 0.64 and 0.98 mg/m3 for the low dust emitter group and from 2.55 and 4.37 mg/m3 for the high dust emitter group. From concentration measurements, a machine classification is possible-one for sanding machines and one for sawing machines-and a ratio from 1-7 is obtained when comparing the results. This classification will be helpful when a choice of high performance power tools, in terms of dust emission, must be made by professionals.

  10. Flexible CMOS low-noise amplifiers for beyond-3G wireless hand-held devices (United States)

    Becerra-Alvarez, Edwin C.; Sandoval-Ibarra, Federico; de la Rosa, José M.


    This paper explores the use of reconfigurable Low-Noise Amplifiers (LNAs) for the implementation of CMOS Radio Frequency (RF) front-ends in the next generation of multi-standard wireless transceivers. Main circuit strategies reported so far for multi-standard LNAs are reviewed and a novel flexible LNA intended for Beyond-3G RF hand-held terminals is presented. The proposed LNA circuit consists of a two-stage topology that combines inductive-source degeneration with PMOS-varactor based tuning network and a programmable load to adapt its performance to different standard specifications without penalizing the circuit noise and with a reduced number of inductors as compared to previous reported reconfigurable LNAs. The circuit has been designed in a 90-nm CMOS technology to cope with the requirements of the GSM, WCDMA, Bluetooth and WLAN (IEEE 802.11b-g) standards. Simulation results, including technology and packaging parasitics, demonstrate correct operation of the circuit for all the standards under study, featuring NF13.3dB and IIP3>10.9dBm, over a 1.85GHz-2.4GHz band, with an adaptive power consumption between 17mW and 22mW from a 1-V supply voltage. Preliminary experimental measurements are included, showing a correct reconfiguration operation within the operation band.

  11. The evaluation test of hand-held dual-sensor ALIS in Croatia and Cambodia (United States)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Takahashi, Kazunori


    We are developing a new hand-held land mine detection dual-sensor (ALIS) which is equipped with a metal detector and a GPR. ALIS is equipped with a sensor tracking system, which can record the GPR and Metal detector signal with its location. It makes possible to process the data after the data was acquired, including migration. The migration processing drastically increases the quality of the images of the buried objects. Evaluation test of ALIS has been conducted in several test sites. In February 2006, a one-month evaluation test was conducted in Croatia, and in October- December 2006, a two-month evaluation test was conducted in Croatia. Since the dual-sensor is a new landmine detection sensor, and the conventional evaluation procedure developed for metal detectors cannot directly be applied for the dual sensor. In Croatia, the detection probability was comparable to that by a metal detector operated by local deminers. In addition, we showed that ALIS provides image of buried objects by GPR, which can be used for identification. Therefore, their performances were sufficiently high. Then the test was also conducted in Cambodia. The test was carried out by 2 local deminers independently, which allows studying the influence of different operators and increases the statistical value of the results.

  12. Visualization of vasculature using a hand-held photoacoustic probe: phantom and in vivo validation (United States)

    Heres, H. Maarten; Arabul, Mustafa Umit; Rutten, Marcel C. M.; Van de Vosse, Frans N.; Lopata, Richard G. P.


    Assessment of microvasculature and tissue perfusion can provide diagnostic information on local or systemic diseases. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging has strong clinical potential because of its sensitivity to hemoglobin. We used a hand-held PA probe with integrated diode lasers and examined its feasibility and validity in the detection of increasing blood volume and (sub) dermal vascularization. Blood volume detection was tested in custom-made perfusion phantoms. Results showed that an increase of blood volume in a physiological range of 1.3% to 5.4% could be detected. The results were validated with power Doppler sonography. Using a motorized scanning setup, areas of the skin were imaged at relatively short scanning times (epidermis and submillimeter vasculature up to depth of 5 mm. The geometries of imaged vasculature were validated with segmentation of the vasculature in high-frequency ultrasound imaging. This study proves the feasibility of PA imaging in its current implementation for the detection of perfusion-related parameters in skin and subdermal tissue and underlines its potential as a diagnostic tool in vascular or dermal pathologies.

  13. 78 FR 20695 - Walk-Through Metal Detectors and Hand-Held Metal Detectors Test Method Validation (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Walk-Through Metal Detectors and Hand-Held Metal Detectors Test Method... has recently developed updated versions of its minimum performance standards for walk-through metal...

  14. Guiding Brain Tumor Resection Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Nanoparticles and a Hand-Held Raman Scanner (United States)


    The current difficulty in visualizing the true extent of malignant brain tumors during surgical resection represents one of the major reasons for the poor prognosis of brain tumor patients. Here, we evaluated the ability of a hand-held Raman scanner, guided by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles, to identify the microscopic tumor extent in a genetically engineered RCAS/tv-a glioblastoma mouse model. In a simulated intraoperative scenario, we tested both a static Raman imaging device and a mobile, hand-held Raman scanner. We show that SERS image-guided resection is more accurate than resection using white light visualization alone. Both methods complemented each other, and correlation with histology showed that SERS nanoparticles accurately outlined the extent of the tumors. Importantly, the hand-held Raman probe not only allowed near real-time scanning, but also detected additional microscopic foci of cancer in the resection bed that were not seen on static SERS images and would otherwise have been missed. This technology has a strong potential for clinical translation because it uses inert gold–silica SERS nanoparticles and a hand-held Raman scanner that can guide brain tumor resection in the operating room. PMID:25093240

  15. Effect of the amount of battery charge on tube voltage in different hand-held dental x-ray systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Kyung [Dankook University College of Dentistry, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)


    Hand-held dental x-ray system is a self contained x-ray machine designed to perform intraoral radiography with one or two hands. The issue about its usage as general dental radiography is still in dispute. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between the amount of battery charge and the tube voltage in different hand-held dental x-ray systems. Seven hand-held dental x-ray units were used for the study. Tube voltage was measured with Unfors ThinX RAD (Unfors Instruments AB, Billdal, Sweden) for 3 consecutive exposures at the different amount of battery charge of each unit. The average and the deviation percentage of measured kV from indicated kV of each unit were calculated. Tube voltage of only 1 unit was 70 kV (indicated by manufacturer) and those of the others were 60 kV. Tube voltage deviation percentage from the indicated kV at the fully charged battery was from 2.5% to -5.5% and from -0.8% to -10.0% at the lowest charged battery. Tube voltages of all units decreased as the residual amount of the battery charge decreased. It is suggested that the performance test for hand-held x-ray system should be performed for the minimum residual charged battery as well as the full charged one. Persistent battery charging is suggested to maintain the proper tube voltage of the hand-held portable x-ray system.

  16. Intraexaminer reliability of hand-held dynamometry in the upper extremity: a systematic review. (United States)

    Schrama, Patrick P M; Stenneberg, Martijn S; Lucas, Cees; van Trijffel, Emiel


    To summarize and appraise the literature on the intraexaminer reliability of hand-held dynamometry (HHD) in the upper extremity. MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE were searched for relevant studies published up to December 2011. In addition, experts were contacted, and journals and reference lists were hand searched. To be included in the review, articles needed to (1) use a repeated-measures, within-examiner(s) design; (2) include symptomatic or asymptomatic individuals, or both; (3) use HHD to measure muscle strength in any of the joints of the shoulder, elbow, or wrist with the "make" or the "break" technique; (4) report measurements in kilogram, pound, or torque; (5) use a device that is placed between the examiner's hand and the subject's body; and (6) present estimates of intraexaminer reliability. Quality assessment and data extraction were performed by 2 reviewers independently. Fifty-four studies were included, of which 26 (48%) demonstrated acceptable intraexaminer reliability. Seven high-quality studies showed acceptable reliability for flexion and extension of the elbow in healthy subjects. Conflicting results were found for shoulder external rotation and abduction. Reliability for all other movements was unacceptable. Higher estimates were reached for within-sessions reliability and if means of trials were used. Intraexaminer reliability of HHD in upper extremity muscle strength was acceptable only for elbow measurements in healthy subjects. We provide specific recommendations for future research. Physical therapists should not rely on HHD measurements for evaluation of treatment effects in patients with upper extremity disorders. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The clinical utility of a hand-held computerized optical imaging system at assessing skin discoloration. (United States)

    Fisk, Nathan A; Jensen, Kurt; Knaggs, Helen; Ferguson, Scott


    A hand-held computerized optical device (HCOD) that can be used by a layperson has been developed which is capable of imaging facial skin and assessing multiple skin attributes, including discoloration. The aim of this study was to assess the HCOD's ability to measure changes in discoloration induced over an 8-week course of treatment by comparing data obtained from the HCOD with the assessments of a trained research dermatologist. Ten female Caucasian subjects, aged between 41 and 79 years, exhibiting moderate facial dyspigmentation used a combination 0.01% fluocinolone acetonide, 4% hydroquinone, and 0.05% tretinoin cream twice daily for 8 weeks. Subjects were evaluated at weeks 0, 4, and 8 by a dermatologist. Images were also taken with high resolution digital photography and with the HCOD. Human testing was directed by a dermatologist, used approved consent forms, and products approved by the FDA. Facial dyspigmentation as scored by a clinician significantly decreased from 4.10 to 2.70 by week 8. HCOD discoloration area scores also significantly decreased from 100,989 to 87,276 by week 8. Assessment of pigmented area by the HCOD proved to be the most reliable in terms of correlating to a clinician's score. Limitations The study had a small sample size and was not placebo controlled because the effectiveness of the HCOD was being evaluated, not the skin lightening product. The HCOD's discoloration area count statistically correlated with the clinician dyspigmentation scores when evaluating the effect of a prescription skin lightening cream on subjects with moderate facial discolorations.

  18. Efficacy of hand held, inexpensive UV light sources on Acanthamoeba, causative organism in amoebic keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Cometa


    Full Text Available Ivan Cometa1, Andrew Rogerson1, Scott Schatz21Department of Biology, California State University Fresno, Fresno, CA, USA; 2Arizona College of Optometry, Midwestern University, Glendale, AZ, USAAbstract: Multipurpose lens cleaning solutions (MPS fail to consistently kill or inactivate Acanthamoeba cysts and UV irradiation, while effective at high doses, can damage contact lenses. The present study considered synergy of action between MPS and hand-held inexpensive (ie, relatively weak UV irradiation units. Regardless of disinfection method recently formed cysts (<10 days were far more susceptible to treatment than mature cysts (>14 days. This has important implications for future protocols on testing methods for killing amoebae. The study also showed that cysts of different strains (two tested, FLA2 and P120 are variable in their response to MPS, presumably reflecting differences in cyst wall structure and thus permeability to the disinfectant. On the other hand, the effect of UV irradiation was not wall structure dependent. A 6-hour treatment with MPS alone killed trophic amoebae but failed to kill any mature cysts. Cysts of strain FLA2 were killed after 24 hours with MPS but cysts of strain P120 survived. UV irradiation with the larger 4 W unit killed all cysts after 7 minutes and was more effective than the smaller battery-powered unit (after 10 minutes about 50% of cysts were killed. When the larger unit was used with the MPS disinfection, all trophozoites were killed using UV for 3 minutes and MPS for 1 hour. The resistant P120 cysts remained a challenge but a 2- to 4-minute UV treatment followed by MPS for 3 or 6 hours reduced mature cyst survival by about 50%. The small unit in combination with MPS was less effective but did reduce the time required to kill trophic amoebae in MPS (6 hours MPS alone versus 3 hours MPS with a 1-minute UV treatment. In short, inexpensive UV units do enhance MPS disinfection and future lens cleaning systems

  19. The Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV Hand-Held Computer as a Medium for Teaching Mathematics to Fire Control Systems Repairers. Research Report 1408. (United States)

    Boldovici, John A.; Scott, Thomas D.

    A study compared the benefits of using the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV hand-held computer, as opposed to conventional training without computers, in teaching mathematics to fire control systems repairers. Thirty soldiers in a course to train fire control systems repairers received training in technical mathematics using the hand-held computer, whereas…

  20. Hand-held cell phone use while driving legislation and observed driver behavior among population sub-groups in the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toni M Rudisill; Motao Zhu


    .... This study examined whether universal hand-held calling while driving bans were associated with lower road-side observed hand-held cell phone conversations across drivers of different ages (16-24, 25-59, ≥60 years), sexes, races...

  1. An architecture for analysis and collection of RF signals used by hand-held devices in computer communications


    Hwa, Chua Guan


    This thesis studies the wireless communications aspects of an Internetconnected hand-held device. It reviews the multipath effects of RF propagation and provides a detailed analysis of the Mobitex network protocols. Field experiments were conducted to measure the signal strength of indoor and outdoor reception. A framework for using real-time wireless communications analysis equipment for the collection of this RF signal is designed and discussed. Expected results from the collection of this ...

  2. Promising Properties and System Demonstration of an Environmentally Benign Yellow Smoke Formulation for Hand-Held Signals (United States)


    18 a formulation from the pilot plant to manufacturing scale, the latter typically performed at about 54.5 kg. Accordingly, formulation A was added...we have advanced a yellow smoke formulation, targeted for insertion into the M194 hand-held signal, from pilot plant operations to a production run... barium - and perchlorate-free incendiary formulations. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2012, 51, 6981−6983, DOI: 10.1002/anie.201202589. (13) Poret, J. C.; Shaw, A

  3. Hand-held synchronous scan spectrometer for in situ and immediate detection of live/dead bacteria ratio (United States)

    Li, Runze; Goswami, Umang; Walck, Matthew; Khan, Kasfia; Chen, Jie; Cesario, Thomas C.; Rentzepis, Peter M.


    The design, construction, and operation of a hand-held synchronously scanned, excitation-emission, double monochromator spectrometer is described. Data show that it is possible to record and display within minutes the fluorescence spectra and ratio of live/dead bacteria in situ. Excitation emission matrix contour plots display clearly bacteria fluorescence spectra before and after UV inactivation, respectively. The separation of the fluorescence band maxima of molecular components, such as tryptophan, tyrosine, and DNA, may be distinguished in the diffused fluorescence spectra of bacteria and mixtures.

  4. Hand-held cell phone use while driving legislation and observed driver behavior among population sub-groups in the United States. (United States)

    Rudisill, Toni M; Zhu, Motao


    Cell phone use behaviors are known to vary across demographic sub-groups and geographic locations. This study examined whether universal hand-held calling while driving bans were associated with lower road-side observed hand-held cell phone conversations across drivers of different ages (16-24, 25-59, ≥60 years), sexes, races (White, African American, or other), ruralities (suburban, rural, or urban), and regions (Northeast, Midwest, South, and West). Data from the 2008-2013 National Occupant Protection Use Survey were merged with states' cell phone use while driving legislation. The exposure was presence of a universal hand-held cell phone ban at time of observation. Logistic regression was used to assess the odds of drivers having a hand-held cell phone conversation. Sub-groups differences were assessed using models with interaction terms. When universal hand-held cell phone bans were effective, hand-held cell phone conversations were lower across all driver demographic sub-groups and regions. Sub-group differences existed among the sexes (p-value, cell phone bans, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of a driver hand-held phone conversation was 0.34 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28, 0.41] for females versus 0.47 (CI 0.40, 0.55) for males and 0.31 (CI 0.25, 0.38) for drivers in Western states compared to 0.47 (CI 0.30, 0.72) in the Northeast and 0.50 (CI 0.38, 0.66) in the South. The presence of universal hand-held cell phone bans were associated lower hand-held cell phone conversations across all driver sub-groups and regions. Hand-held phone conversations were particularly lower among female drivers and those from Western states when these bans were in effect. Public health interventions concerning hand-held cell phone use while driving could reasonably target all drivers.

  5. The intra- and inter-rater reliabilities of lower extremity muscle strength assessment of healthy adults using a hand held dynamometer


    Kim, Seong-Gil; Lee, Yun-Seob


    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the intra- and inter-rater reliabilities of lower extremity muscle strength assessment of healthy adults using hand held dynamometer. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 55 students (19 males and 36 females) in Y University in Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea participated in this study. Lower extremity muscle strength was measured using a hand-held dynamometer (Commander Muscle Tester, JTech, USA). Flexion and extension strengths of the hip joint,...

  6. Demonstration of the B4C/NaIO4/PTFE Delay in the U.S. Army Hand-Held Signal (United States)


    structural role in addition to holding the delay column (Figure 1, Supporting Information). A bolt (A) holding the nozzle plate (B) at the end of the rocket ...containing formulation currently used in U.S. Army hand-held signals. Tests involving fully assembled hand-held signal rockets were conducted to...s to allow the signal rocket to approach its apex before the payload is ignited and expelled.6 For many years, the U.S. Army has used pyrotechnics

  7. Development and performance of a hand-held CZT detector for in-situ measurements at the emergency response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Young Yong; Chung, Kun Ho; Kim, Chang Jong; Lee, Wan No; Choi, Geun Sik; Kang, Mun Ja [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jin [SI Detection Co. Ltd, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    A hand-held detector for an emergency response was developed for nuclide identification and to estimate the information of the ambient dose rate in the scene of an accident as well as the radioactivity of the contaminants. To achieve this, the most suitable sensor was first selected as a cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) semiconductor and the signal processing unit from a sensor and the signal discrimination and storage unit were successfully manufactured on a printed circuit board. The performance of the developed signal processing unit was then evaluated to have an energy resolution of about 14 keV at 662 keV. The system control unit was also designed to operate the CZT detector, monitor the detector, battery, and interface status, and check and transmit the measured results of the ambient dose rate and radioactivity. In addition, a collimator, which can control the inner radius, and the airborne dust sampler, which consists of an air filter and charcoal filter, were developed and mounted to the developed CZT detector for the quick and efficient response of a nuclear accident. The hand-held CZT detector was developed to make the in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry and its performance was checked to have a good energy resolution. In addition, the collimator and the airborne dust sampler were developed and mounted to the developed CZT detector for a quick and efficient response to a nuclear accident.

  8. CT-guided bone biopsy: Initial experience with a commercially available hand held Black and Decker{sup TM} drill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, O. [Department of Radiology, Adelaide and Meath, Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Benfayed, W. [Department of Radiology, Adelaide and Meath, Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Geoghegan, T. [Department of Radiology, Adelaide and Meath, Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland); Al-Ismail, K. [Department of Radiology, King Faisal Hospital (Saudi Arabia); Munk, P.L. [Department of Radiology, Musculo-Skeletal division, Vancouver General Hospital, 899 W. 12th Ave., Vancouver, BC V5Z 1M9 (Canada); Torreggiani, William C. [Department of Radiology, Adelaide and Meath, Hospital, Tallaght, Dublin 24 (Ireland)]. E-mail:


    Purpose: To describe the use of a simple commercially available Black and Decker{sup TM} hand based drill in performing CT-guided bone biopsies. Materials and methods: Three international institutions were enrolled in the study. In each centre, a fellowship trained musculoskeletal radiologist directed the assessment of a hand based commercial drill for performing CT-guided bone biopsies. A specially designed component was engineered which allowed the connection of a standard bone biopsy set to a commercial drill. The component was distributed to the three centres involved. Over a 3-year period, data from all three institutions was collected. Information regarding technical success, diagnostic data and complication rates were all collated to assess the technical feasibility of this technique. Results: In total 68 patients underwent bone biopsy using a hand held commercial drill. Technical success was achieved in 65 patients. Diagnostic material was obtained in 53 patients. Non-diagnostic material was obtained in 12 patients. Five out of the 12 patients with non-diagnostic material had repeat biopsies with diagnostic material obtained in 2 of these. No major complications occurred in any patient. Conclusion: CT-guided bone biopsy using a hand held commercial drill has a technically high success rate with minimal complications.

  9. Assessment of foot and ankle muscle strength using hand held dynamometry in patients with established rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

    Carroll, Matthew; Joyce, William; Brenton-Rule, Angela; Dalbeth, Nicola; Rome, Keith


    The foot and ankle are frequently affected in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). One of the negative consequences of RA on the physical function of patients is a decrease in muscle strength. However, little is known about foot and muscle strength in this population. The aim of the study was to evaluate significant differences in foot and ankle muscle strength between patients with established RA against age and sex-matched controls using hand-held dynamometry. The maximal muscle strength of ankle plantarflexion, dorsiflexion, eversion and inversion was assessed in 14 patients with RA, mean (SD) disease duration of 22 (14.1) years, and 20 age and sex-matched control participants using hand-held dynamometry. Significant differences were observed in muscle strength between the two groups in plantarflexion (p = 0.00), eversion (p = 0.04) and inversion (p = 0.01). No significant difference was found in dorsiflexion (p > 0.05). The patients with RA displayed a significantly lower plantarflexion-dorsiflexion ratio than the control participants (p = 0.03). The results from this study showed that the RA patients displayed a significant decrease in ankle dorsiflexion, eversion and inversion when compared to the non-RA control group suggesting that foot and ankle muscle strength may be affected by the pathological processes in RA. This study is a preliminary step for the measurement of muscle impairments within the RA population.

  10. 75 FR 32803 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning a GTX Mobile+ Hand Held Computer (United States)


    ... asset tracking, meter reading and mobile ticketing across a variety of industries. The approximate.... Government procurement? Law and Analysis: Pursuant to Subpart B of Part 177, 19 CFR 177.21 et seq., which... worker skill required during the actual manufacturing process will be considered when analyzing whether a...

  11. Comparison of digital and optical hand-held refractometers for the measurement of feline urine specific gravity. (United States)

    Bennett, Alexander D; McKnight, Grace E; Dodkin, Steve J; Simpson, Kerry E; Schwartz, Anita M; Gunn-Moore, Danièlle A


    Measuring urine specific gravity (USG) is an important component of urine analysis as it evaluates renal concentrating capability. The objective of this study was to quantify the difference in USG values between a hand-held optical analogue refractometer and a cat-specific digital instrument. Urine samples from 55 cats were assessed. There was a statistically significant difference between these two refractometers (Purine osmolality and both the optical and digital instruments demonstrated excellent correlation. While an accurate USG reading is important, it is unlikely that the statistical significance between the two instruments is clinically significant and, therefore, unlikely to result in a change in patient evaluation or treatment plans. While both the digital and optimal refractometers are highly correlated to the urine osmolality, making both devices valid for assessment of USG in clinical practice, this digital device is easier to read and eliminates the variability of subjective interpretation. Copyright © 2010 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 3D Scan of Ornamental Column (huabiao Using Terrestrial LiDAR and Hand-held Imager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zhang


    Full Text Available In ancient China, Huabiao was a type of ornamental column used to decorate important buildings. We carried out 3D scan of a Huabiao located in Peking University, China. This Huabiao was built no later than 1742. It is carved by white marble, 8 meters in height. Clouds and various postures of dragons are carved on its body. Two instruments were used to acquire the point cloud of this Huabiao, a terrestrial LiDAR (Riegl VZ-1000 and a hand-held imager (Mantis Vision F5. In this paper, the details of the experiment were described, including the differences between these two instruments, such as working principle, spatial resolution, accuracy, instrument dimension and working flow. The point clouds obtained respectively by these two instruments were compared, and the registered point cloud of Huabiao was also presented. These should be of interest and helpful for the research communities of archaeology and heritage.

  13. Validation of a new hand-held electronic data capture method for continuous monitoring of subjective appetite sensations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Neil


    Full Text Available Abstract Background When large scale trials are investigating the effects of interventions on appetite, it is paramount to efficiently monitor large amounts of human data. The original hand-held Electronic Appetite Ratings System (EARS was designed to facilitate the administering and data management of visual analogue scales (VAS of subjective appetite sensations. The purpose of this study was to validate a novel hand-held method (EARS II (HP® iPAQ against the standard Pen and Paper (P&P method and the previously validated EARS. Methods Twelve participants (5 male, 7 female, aged 18-40 were involved in a fully repeated measures design. Participants were randomly assigned in a crossover design, to either high fat (>48% fat or low fat (ad libitum lunch was provided immediately before completing a final set of appetite sensations. Results Repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted for ratings of hunger, fullness and desire to eat. There were no significant differences between P&P compared with either EARS or EARS II (p > 0.05. Correlation coefficients between P&P and EARS II, controlling for age and gender, were performed on Area Under the Curve ratings. R2 for Hunger (0.89, Fullness (0.96 and Desire to Eat (0.95 were statistically significant (p Conclusions EARS II was sensitive to the impact of a meal and recovery of appetite during the postprandial period and is therefore an effective device for monitoring appetite sensations. This study provides evidence and support for further validation of the novel EARS II method for monitoring appetite sensations during large scale studies. The added versatility means that future uses of the system provides the potential to monitor a range of other behavioural and physiological measures often important in clinical and free living trials. This study was registered as a clinical trial by Current Controlled Trials (Registration Number - ISRCTN47291569.

  14. Assessment of Lower Limb Muscle Strength and Power Using Hand-Held and Fixed Dynamometry: A Reliability and Validity Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin F Mentiplay

    Full Text Available Hand-held dynamometry (HHD has never previously been used to examine isometric muscle power. Rate of force development (RFD is often used for muscle power assessment, however no consensus currently exists on the most appropriate method of calculation. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability of different algorithms for RFD calculation and to examine the intra-rater, inter-rater, and inter-device reliability of HHD as well as the concurrent validity of HHD for the assessment of isometric lower limb muscle strength and power.30 healthy young adults (age: 23±5 yrs, male: 15 were assessed on two sessions. Isometric muscle strength and power were measured using peak force and RFD respectively using two HHDs (Lafayette Model-01165 and Hoggan microFET2 and a criterion-reference KinCom dynamometer. Statistical analysis of reliability and validity comprised intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC, Pearson correlations, concordance correlations, standard error of measurement, and minimal detectable change.Comparison of RFD methods revealed that a peak 200 ms moving window algorithm provided optimal reliability results. Intra-rater, inter-rater, and inter-device reliability analysis of peak force and RFD revealed mostly good to excellent reliability (coefficients ≥ 0.70 for all muscle groups. Concurrent validity analysis showed moderate to excellent relationships between HHD and fixed dynamometry for the hip and knee (ICCs ≥ 0.70 for both peak force and RFD, with mostly poor to good results shown for the ankle muscles (ICCs = 0.31-0.79.Hand-held dynamometry has good to excellent reliability and validity for most measures of isometric lower limb strength and power in a healthy population, particularly for proximal muscle groups. To aid implementation we have created freely available software to extract these variables from data stored on the Lafayette device. Future research should examine the reliability and validity of these variables in

  15. Assessment of Lower Limb Muscle Strength and Power Using Hand-Held and Fixed Dynamometry: A Reliability and Validity Study. (United States)

    Mentiplay, Benjamin F; Perraton, Luke G; Bower, Kelly J; Adair, Brooke; Pua, Yong-Hao; Williams, Gavin P; McGaw, Rebekah; Clark, Ross A


    Hand-held dynamometry (HHD) has never previously been used to examine isometric muscle power. Rate of force development (RFD) is often used for muscle power assessment, however no consensus currently exists on the most appropriate method of calculation. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability of different algorithms for RFD calculation and to examine the intra-rater, inter-rater, and inter-device reliability of HHD as well as the concurrent validity of HHD for the assessment of isometric lower limb muscle strength and power. 30 healthy young adults (age: 23±5 yrs, male: 15) were assessed on two sessions. Isometric muscle strength and power were measured using peak force and RFD respectively using two HHDs (Lafayette Model-01165 and Hoggan microFET2) and a criterion-reference KinCom dynamometer. Statistical analysis of reliability and validity comprised intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Pearson correlations, concordance correlations, standard error of measurement, and minimal detectable change. Comparison of RFD methods revealed that a peak 200 ms moving window algorithm provided optimal reliability results. Intra-rater, inter-rater, and inter-device reliability analysis of peak force and RFD revealed mostly good to excellent reliability (coefficients ≥ 0.70) for all muscle groups. Concurrent validity analysis showed moderate to excellent relationships between HHD and fixed dynamometry for the hip and knee (ICCs ≥ 0.70) for both peak force and RFD, with mostly poor to good results shown for the ankle muscles (ICCs = 0.31-0.79). Hand-held dynamometry has good to excellent reliability and validity for most measures of isometric lower limb strength and power in a healthy population, particularly for proximal muscle groups. To aid implementation we have created freely available software to extract these variables from data stored on the Lafayette device. Future research should examine the reliability and validity of these variables in clinical

  16. Comparison of a digital and an optical analogue hand-held refractometer for the measurement of canine urine specific gravity. (United States)

    Paris, J K; Bennett, A D; Dodkin, S J; Gunn-Moore, D A


    Urine specific gravity (USG) is used clinically as a measure of urine concentration, and is routinely assessed by refractometry. A comparison between optical analogue and digital refractometers for evaluation of canine urine has not been reported. The aim of this study was to compare a digital and an optical analogue hand-held refractometer for the measurement of canine USG, and to assess correlation with urine osmolality. Prospective study. Free-catch urine samples were collected from 285 hospitalised adult dogs, and paired USG readings were obtained with a digital and an optical analogue refractometer. In 50 dogs, urine osmolality was also measured using a freezing point depression osmometer. There was a small but statistically significant difference between the two refractometers (P<0.001), with the optical analogue refractometer reading higher than the digital refractometer (mean difference 0.0006, sd 0.0012). Paired refractometer measurements varied by <0.002 in 91.5 per cent of cases. The optical analogue and digital refractometer readings showed excellent correlation with osmolality (r=0.980 and r=0.977, respectively, P<0.001 in both cases). Despite statistical significance, the difference between the two refractometers is unlikely to be clinically significant. Both instruments provide an accurate assessment of USG in dogs.

  17. Usefulness of Hand-Held Ultrasonography as a Gatekeeper to Standard Echocardiography for "Rarely Appropriate" Echocardiography Requests. (United States)

    Pathan, Faraz; Fonseca, Ricardo; Marwick, Thomas H


    Adoption of appropriate use criteria has not had a major impact on the frequency of "rarely appropriate" tests, with the rarely appropriate tests rate remaining at ∼20% in most institutions. We sought whether access to hand-held ultrasound (HHU) could be an alternative means of reducing rarely appropriate requests. We compared 2 approaches to rarely appropriate requests; "standard transthoracic echocardiography" (SE) as requested (control) and HHU as a gatekeeper (HHU). Patients were followed up for 6 months and assessed for end points including time until scan, repeat echocardiography/cost of either strategy, new major pathology, and change in management. The most common rarely appropriate requests in both groups were assessment of infective endocarditis without positive blood cultures and precordial murmur evaluation in absence of any other signs or symptoms of cardiovascular disease. The groups had comparable age, gender, requesting physician, and inpatient versus outpatient distribution. HHU led to a 59% reduction in rarely appropriate requests requiring SE. HHU significantly reduced time to decision for inpatients (0 [interquartile range 0, 1] vs 2 days [interquartile range 1, 4], p change in management. In conclusion, HHU can be an effective gatekeeper to SE for rarely appropriate echocardiograms, reducing time to echocardiography and cost while satisfying the referring physician and avoiding repeat requests for SE. HHU provides a safety net that identifies potential important findings in rarely appropriate requests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of a high performance ultra-thin heat pipe cooling module for mobile hand held electronic devices (United States)

    Ahamed, Mohammad Shahed; Saito, Yuji; Mashiko, Koichi; Mochizuki, Masataka


    In recent years, heat pipes have been widely used in various hand held mobile electronic devices such as smart phones, tablet PCs, digital cameras. With the development of technology these devices have different user friendly features and applications; which require very high clock speeds of the processor. In general, a high clock speed generates a lot of heat, which needs to be spreaded or removed to eliminate the hot spot on the processor surface. However, it is a challenging task to achieve proper cooling of such electronic devices mentioned above because of their confined spaces and concentrated heat sources. Regarding this challenge, we introduced an ultra-thin heat pipe; this heat pipe consists of a special fiber wick structure named as "Center Fiber Wick" which can provide sufficient vapor space on the both sides of the wick structure. We also developed a cooling module that uses this kind of ultra-thin heat pipe to eliminate the hot spot issue. This cooling module consists of an ultra-thin heat pipe and a metal plate. By changing the width, the flattened thickness and the effective length of the ultra-thin heat pipe, several experiments have been conducted to characterize the thermal properties of the developed cooling module. In addition, other experiments were also conducted to determine the effects of changes in the number of heat pipes in a single module. Characterization and comparison of the module have also been conducted both experimentally and theoretically.

  19. Intrarater reliability of hand held dynamometry in measuring lower extremity isometric strength using a portable stabilization device. (United States)

    Jackson, Steven M; Cheng, M Samuel; Smith, A Russell; Kolber, Morey J


    Hand held dynamometry (HHD) is a more objective way to quantify muscle force production (MP) compared to traditional manual muscle testing. HHD reliability can be negatively impacted by both the strength of the tester and the subject particularly in the lower extremities due to larger muscle groups. The primary aim of this investigation was to assess intrarater reliability of HHD with use of a portable stabilization device for lower extremity MP in an athletic population. Isometric lower extremity strength was measured for bilateral lower extremities including hip abductors, external rotators, adductors, knee extensors, and ankle plantar flexors was measured in a sample of healthy recreational runners (8 male, 7 females, = 30 limbs) training for a marathon. These measurements were assessed using an intrasession intrarater reliability design. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated using 3,1 model based on the single rater design. The standard error of measurement (SEM) for each muscle group was also calculated. ICC were excellent ranging from ICC (3,1) = 0.93-0.98 with standard error of measurements ranging from 0.58 to 17.2 N. This study establishes the use of a HHD with a portable stabilization device as demonstrating good reliability within testers for measuring lower extremity muscle performance in an active healthy population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Limitations of Condensed Teaching Strategies to Develop Hand-Held Cardiac Ultrasonography Skills in Internal Medicine Residents. (United States)

    Wilkinson, Jeffrey S; Barake, Walid; Smith, Chris; Thakrar, Amar; Johri, Amer M


    Advances in ultrasonographic technology have allowed for hand-held cardiac ultrasonography (HHCU) units that fit into a physician's laboratory coat. Recently, studies to educate internal medicine residents have shown promise. The optimal duration and methodology for teaching HHCU skills has not been established. Over a 1-year period, internal medicine residents were recruited during their cardiology ward rotation into a single-centre nonblinded randomized trial. The 2 condensed teaching strategies were (1) a conventional ward-based program and (2) a technology-driven simulation-based strategy. Outcomes were evaluated by (1) an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) to evaluate interpretation ability (assessing both type I and type II error rates) and (2) demonstration of HHCU skills graded by 2 level III echocardiographers. Twenty-four internal medicine residents were randomized. After teaching, the conventional teaching group had a significant absolute increase in the ability to make a singular correct diagnosis (20%; P teaching programs, because we detected a trend toward an increase in the false-positive rate after both approaches. This suggests that a short duration of training may not be sufficient for HHCU to be performed in a safe manner. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of a new mild shampoo for preventing hair loss in Asian by a simple hand-held phototrichogram technique. (United States)

    Baek, J H; Lee, S Y; Yoo, M; Park, W-S; Lee, S J; Boo, Y C; Koh, J-S


    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a commercially available shampoo in Korean subjects with alopecia using a simple hand-held phototrichogram technique. Forty-four subjects with alopecia were enrolled and forty subjects continued for 16 weeks. In the test group, total hair counts increased significantly at weeks 8 and 16, and the number of shedding hair significantly decreased at week 16. Terminal hair counts significantly increased at week 8. In the control group, hair thickness and the number of vellus hairs significantly decreased at week 16. The number of total hairs significantly increased in the test group than in the control group at weeks 8 and 16. The number of shedding hairs significantly decreased in the test group than in the control group at week 16. Visual assessment using clinical digital images showed that the number of total hairs appeared to increase although there was no statistical significance. In this study, it was found that the test shampoo could prevent hair loss. © 2011 DERMAPRO Co Ltd. ICS © 2011 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  2. Four dimensional hybrid ultrasound and optoacoustic imaging via passive element optical excitation in a hand-held probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehm, Thomas Felix; Razansky, Daniel, E-mail: [Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging (IBMI), Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg (Germany); Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Deán-Ben, Xosé Luís [Institute for Biological and Medical Imaging (IBMI), Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg (Germany)


    Ultrasonography and optoacoustic imaging share powerful advantages related to the natural aptitude for real-time image rendering with high resolution, the hand-held operation, and lack of ionizing radiation. The two methods also possess very different yet highly complementary advantages of the mechanical and optical contrast in living tissues. Nonetheless, efficient integration of these modalities remains challenging owing to the fundamental differences in the underlying physical contrast, optimal signal acquisition, and image reconstruction approaches. We report on a method for hybrid acquisition and reconstruction of three-dimensional pulse-echo ultrasound and optoacoustic images in real time based on passive ultrasound generation with an optical absorber, thus avoiding the hardware complexity of active ultrasound generation. In this way, complete hybrid datasets are generated with a single laser interrogation pulse, resulting in simultaneous rendering of ultrasound and optoacoustic images at an unprecedented rate of 10 volumetric frames per second. Performance is subsequently showcased in phantom experiments and in-vivo measurements from a healthy human volunteer, confirming general clinical applicability of the method.

  3. Test-retest reliabilities of hand-held dynamometer for lower-limb muscle strength in intellectual disabilities. (United States)

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Chang, Jyh-Jong; Wang, Min-Hung; Lin, Hsiu-Ching


    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliabilities of hand-held dynamometer (HDD) for measuring lower-limb muscle strength in intellectual disabilities (ID). The other purposes were to: (1) compare the lower-limb muscle strength between children with and without ID; (2) probe the relationship between the muscle forces and agility performance in ID; and (3) explore the factors associated with muscle strength in ID. Sixty-one participants (30 boys and 31 girls; mean age=14.1 ± 3.3 year) were assessed by the HDD using a "make" test. The comparative group consisted of 63 typically developing children (33 boys and 30 girls; mean age=14.9 ± 2.1 year). The ID group demonstrated lower muscle groups than in typically developing group. Except for the ankle plantarflexors (ICC=0.69, SEM=0.72), test-retest analysis showed good intrarater reliability with ICC ranging from 0.81 to 0.96, and intrarater SEM values ranged from 0.40 to 0.57. The HDD has the potential to be a reliable tool for strength measurement in ID. Muscle strength was positively related to agility performance. Regression analysis indicated that height, weight, BMI, and activity level were significant predictors of muscle strength in ID. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of a high performance ultra-thin heat pipe cooling module for mobile hand held electronic devices (United States)

    Ahamed, Mohammad Shahed; Saito, Yuji; Mashiko, Koichi; Mochizuki, Masataka


    In recent years, heat pipes have been widely used in various hand held mobile electronic devices such as smart phones, tablet PCs, digital cameras. With the development of technology these devices have different user friendly features and applications; which require very high clock speeds of the processor. In general, a high clock speed generates a lot of heat, which needs to be spreaded or removed to eliminate the hot spot on the processor surface. However, it is a challenging task to achieve proper cooling of such electronic devices mentioned above because of their confined spaces and concentrated heat sources. Regarding this challenge, we introduced an ultra-thin heat pipe; this heat pipe consists of a special fiber wick structure named as "Center Fiber Wick" which can provide sufficient vapor space on the both sides of the wick structure. We also developed a cooling module that uses this kind of ultra-thin heat pipe to eliminate the hot spot issue. This cooling module consists of an ultra-thin heat pipe and a metal plate. By changing the width, the flattened thickness and the effective length of the ultra-thin heat pipe, several experiments have been conducted to characterize the thermal properties of the developed cooling module. In addition, other experiments were also conducted to determine the effects of changes in the number of heat pipes in a single module. Characterization and comparison of the module have also been conducted both experimentally and theoretically.

  5. Validation of Ankle Strength Measurements by Means of a Hand-Held Dynamometer in Adult Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ancillao


    Full Text Available Uniaxial Hand-Held Dynamometer (HHD is a low-cost device widely adopted in clinical practice to measure muscle force. HHD measurements depend on operator’s ability and joint movements. The aim of the work is to validate the use of a commercial HHD in both dorsiflexion and plantarflexion ankle strength measurements quantifying the effects of HHD misplacements and unwanted foot’s movements on the measurements. We used an optoelectronic system and a multicomponent load cell to quantify the sources of error in the manual assessment of the ankle strength due to both the operator’s ability to hold still the HHD and the transversal components of the exerted force that are usually neglected in clinical routine. Results showed that foot’s movements and angular misplacements of HHD on sagittal and horizontal planes were relevant sources of inaccuracy on the strength assessment. Moreover, ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion force measurements presented an inaccuracy less than 2% and higher than 10%, respectively. In conclusion, the manual use of a uniaxial HHD is not recommended for the assessment of ankle plantarflexion strength; on the contrary, it can be allowed asking the operator to pay strong attention to the HHD positioning in ankle dorsiflexion strength measurements.

  6. Development of a minimum performance standard for hand-held fire extinguishers as a replacement for Halon 1211 on civilian transport category aircraft (United States)


    One or more Halon 1211 hand-held fire extinguishers are specified in Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 25.851 as a requirement on transport category aircraft with 31 or more seats. Halon 1211 has been linked to the destruction of the ozone layer...

  7. Inter-Tester Reliability and Precision of Manual Muscle Testing and Hand-Held Dynamometry in Lower Limb Muscles of Children with Spina Bifida (United States)

    Mahony, Kate; Hunt, Adrienne; Daley, Deborah; Sims, Susan; Adams, Roger


    Reliability and measurement precision of manual muscle testing (MMT) and hand-held dynamometry (HHD) were compared for children with spina bifida. Strength measures were obtained of the hip flexors, hip abductors, and knee extensors of 20 children (10 males, 10 females; mean age 9 years 10 months; range: 5 to 15 years) by two experienced physical…

  8. Hand-held tidal breathing nasal nitric oxide measurement--a promising targeted case-finding tool for the diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marthin, June Kehlet; Nielsen, Kim Gjerum


    BACKGROUND: Nasal nitric oxide (nNO) measurement is an established first line test in the work-up for primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). Tidal breathing nNO (TB-nNO) measurements require minimal cooperation and are potentially useful even in young children. Hand-held NO devices are becoming increa...

  9. Reproducibility of hand-held ankle dynamometry to measure altered ankle moment-angle characteristics in children with spastic cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benard, M.R.; Jaspers, R.T.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.; Becher, J.G.S.J.S.; Harlaar, J.


    Background: In children with spastic cerebral palsy, the range of motion of the ankle joint is often limited. Measurement of range of motion may be hampered by a non-rigid foot deformity. We constructed a hand-held instrument which allows measurements of static ankle angle and moment in children

  10. Beyond Textbook Illustrations: Hand-Held Models of Ordered DNA and Protein Structures as 3D Supplements to Enhance Student Learning of Helical Biopolymers (United States)

    Jittivadhna, Karnyupha; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Panijpan, Bhinyo


    Textbook illustrations of 3D biopolymers on printed paper, regardless of how detailed and colorful, suffer from its two-dimensionality. For beginners, computer screen display of skeletal models of biopolymers and their animation usually does not provide the at-a-glance 3D perception and details, which can be done by good hand-held models. Here, we…

  11. Validation of a hand-held X-ray absorptiometer caliper against computerized tomography for in vivo soft tissue composition analysis (United States)

    Objective: To develop and validate a hand-held caliper which uses a dual-energy radioactive source to monitor regional changes in mid-thigh muscle mass and % fat. Methods: Optimum photon energies were determined by minimization of uncertainties in fat content measurements due to photon count statist...

  12. Intra-operative ultrasound hand-held strain imaging for the visualization of ablations produced in the liver with a toroidal HIFU transducer: first in vivo results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenot, J; Melodelima, D; N' Djin, W A; Souchon, Remi; Rivoire, M; Chapelon, J Y, E-mail: jeremy.chenot@inserm.f [Inserm, U556, Lyon, F-69003 (France)


    The use of hand-held ultrasound strain imaging for the intra-operative real-time visualization of HIFU (high-intensity focused ultrasound) ablations produced in the liver by a toroidal transducer was investigated. A linear 12 MHz ultrasound imaging probe was used to obtain radiofrequency signals. Using a fast cross-correlation algorithm, strain images were calculated and displayed at 60 frames s{sup -1}, allowing the use of hand-held strain imaging intra-operatively. Fourteen HIFU lesions were produced in four pigs. Intra-operative strain imaging of HIFU ablations in the liver was feasible owing to the high frame rate. The correlation between dimensions measured on gross pathology and dimensions measured on B-mode images and on strain images were R = 0.72 and R = 0.94 respectively. The contrast between ablated and non-ablated tissue was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the strain images (22 dB) than in the B-mode images (9 dB). Strain images allowed equivalent or improved definition of ablated regions when compared with B-mode images. Real-time intra-operative hand-held strain imaging seems to be a promising complement to conventional B-mode imaging for the guidance of HIFU ablations produced in the liver during an open procedure. These results support that hand-held strain imaging outperforms conventional B-mode ultrasound and could potentially be used for the assessment of thermal therapies.

  13. Rapid and automatic chemical identification of the medicinal flower buds of Lonicera plants by the benchtop and hand-held Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (United States)

    Chen, Jianbo; Guo, Baolin; Yan, Rui; Sun, Suqin; Zhou, Qun


    With the utilization of the hand-held equipment, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is a promising analytical technique to minimize the time cost for the chemical identification of herbal materials. This research examines the feasibility of the hand-held FT-IR spectrometer for the on-site testing of herbal materials, using Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (LJF) and Lonicerae Flos (LF) as examples. Correlation-based linear discriminant models for LJF and LF are established based on the benchtop and hand-held FT-IR instruments. The benchtop FT-IR models can exactly recognize all articles of LJF and LF. Although a few LF articles are misjudged at the sub-class level, the hand-held FT-IR models are able to exactly discriminate LJF and LF. As a direct and label-free analytical technique, FT-IR spectroscopy has great potential in the rapid and automatic chemical identification of herbal materials either in laboratories or in fields. This is helpful to prevent the spread and use of adulterated herbal materials in time.

  14. Combination of hand-held probe and microscopy for fluorescence guided surgery in the brain tumor marginal zone. (United States)

    Richter, Johan C O; Haj-Hosseini, Neda; Hallbeck, Martin; Wårdell, Karin


    Visualization of the tumor is crucial for differentiating malignant tissue from healthy brain during surgery, especially in the tumor marginal zone. The aim of the study was to introduce a fluorescence spectroscopy-based hand-held probe (HHF-probe) for tumor identification in combination with the fluorescence guided resection surgical microscope (FGR-microscope), and evaluate them in terms of diagnostic performance and practical aspects of fluorescence detection. Eighteen operations were performed on 16 patients with suspected high-grade glioma. The HHF-probe and the FGR-microscope were used for detection of protoporphyrin (PpIX) fluorescence induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) and evaluated against histopathological analysis and visual grading done through the FGR-microscope by the surgeon. A ratio of PpIX fluorescence intensity to the autofluorescence intensity (fluorescence ratio) was used to quantify the spectra detected by the probe. Fluorescence ratio medians (range 0 - 40) measured by the probe were related to the intensity of the fluorescence in the FGR-microscope, categorized as "none" (0.3, n=131), "weak" (1.6, n=34) and "strong" (5.4, n=28). Of 131 "none" points in the FGR-microscope, 88 (67%) exhibited fluorescence with the HHF-probe. For the tumor marginal zone, the area under the receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve was 0.49 for the FGR-microscope and 0.65 for the HHF-probe. The probe was integrated in the established routine of tumor resection using the FGR-microscope. The HHF-probe was superior to the FGR-microscope in sensitivity; it detected tumor remnants after debulking under the FGR-microscope. The combination of the HHF-probe and the FGR-microscope was beneficial especially in the tumor marginal zone. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of a low-cost hand-held system for optical coherence tomography imaging (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Pande, Paritosh; Shelton, Ryan L.; Monroy, Guillermo L.; Nolan, Ryan M.; Boppart, Stephen A.


    We report the development of a low-cost hand-held optical coherence imaging system. The proposed system is based on the principle of linear optical coherence tomography (Linear OCT), a technique which was proposed in the early 2000s as a simpler alternative to the conventional time-domain and Fourier-domain OCT. In our design, as in the traditional Michaelson interferometer, light from a broadband source is split into sample and reference beams. Unlike in a Michaelson interferometer though, upon return, a tilt is introduced to the reference beam before it is combined with the sample beam to illuminate a detector array. The resulting fringe pattern encodes information about the relative time-of-flight of photons between the sample and reference arms, which can be decoded by standard signal processing techniques to obtain depth resolved reflectivity profiles of the sample. The axial resolution and the SNR of our system was measured to be approximately 5.2 μm and 80 dB, respectively. The performance of the proposed system was compared with a standard state-of-the-art Fourier-domain low coherence interferometry (LCI) system by imaging several biological and non-biological samples. The results of this study indicate that the proposed low-cost system might be a suitable choice for applications where the imaging depth and SNR can be traded for lower cost and simpler optical design. Two potentially useful applications of the proposed imaging system could be for imaging the human tympanic membrane (TM) for diagnosing middle ear pathologies, and to visualize the sub-surface features of materials for non-destructive evaluation and quality inspection.

  16. Segmentation of Environmental Time Lapse Image Sequences for the Determination of Shore Lines Captured by Hand-Held Smartphone Cameras (United States)

    Kröhnert, M.; Meichsner, R.


    The relevance of globally environmental issues gains importance since the last years with still rising trends. Especially disastrous floods may cause in serious damage within very short times. Although conventional gauging stations provide reliable information about prevailing water levels, they are highly cost-intensive and thus just sparsely installed. Smartphones with inbuilt cameras, powerful processing units and low-cost positioning systems seem to be very suitable wide-spread measurement devices that could be used for geo-crowdsourcing purposes. Thus, we aim for the development of a versatile mobile water level measurement system to establish a densified hydrological network of water levels with high spatial and temporal resolution. This paper addresses a key issue of the entire system: the detection of running water shore lines in smartphone images. Flowing water never appears equally in close-range images even if the extrinsics remain unchanged. Its non-rigid behavior impedes the use of good practices for image segmentation as a prerequisite for water line detection. Consequently, we use a hand-held time lapse image sequence instead of a single image that provides the time component to determine a spatio-temporal texture image. Using a region growing concept, the texture is analyzed for immutable shore and dynamic water areas. Finally, the prevalent shore line is examined by the resultant shapes. For method validation, various study areas are observed from several distances covering urban and rural flowing waters with different characteristics. Future work provides a transformation of the water line into object space by image-to-geometry intersection.

  17. Hand-held spectroscopic device for in vivo and intraoperative tumor detection: contrast enhancement, detection sensitivity, and tissue penetration. (United States)

    Mohs, Aaron M; Mancini, Michael C; Singhal, Sunil; Provenzale, James M; Leyland-Jones, Brian; Wang, May D; Nie, Shuming


    Surgery is one of the most effective and widely used procedures in treating human cancers, but a major problem is that the surgeon often fails to remove the entire tumor, leaving behind tumor-positive margins, metastatic lymph nodes, and/or satellite tumor nodules. Here we report the use of a hand-held spectroscopic pen device (termed SpectroPen) and near-infrared contrast agents for intraoperative detection of malignant tumors, based on wavelength-resolved measurements of fluorescence and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals. The SpectroPen utilizes a near-infrared diode laser (emitting at 785 nm) coupled to a compact head unit for light excitation and collection. This pen-shaped device effectively removes silica Raman peaks from the fiber optics and attenuates the reflected excitation light, allowing sensitive analysis of both fluorescence and Raman signals. Its overall performance has been evaluated by using a fluorescent contrast agent (indocyanine green, or ICG) as well as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) contrast agent (pegylated colloidal gold). Under in vitro conditions, the detection limits are approximately 2-5 × 10(-11) M for the indocyanine dye and 0.5-1 × 10(-13) M for the SERS contrast agent. Ex vivo tissue penetration data show attenuated but resolvable fluorescence and Raman signals when the contrast agents are buried 5-10 mm deep in fresh animal tissues. In vivo studies using mice bearing bioluminescent 4T1 breast tumors further demonstrate that the tumor borders can be precisely detected preoperatively and intraoperatively, and that the contrast signals are strongly correlated with tumor bioluminescence. After surgery, the SpectroPen device permits further evaluation of both positive and negative tumor margins around the surgical cavity, raising new possibilities for real-time tumor detection and image-guided surgery.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kröhnert


    Full Text Available The relevance of globally environmental issues gains importance since the last years with still rising trends. Especially disastrous floods may cause in serious damage within very short times. Although conventional gauging stations provide reliable information about prevailing water levels, they are highly cost-intensive and thus just sparsely installed. Smartphones with inbuilt cameras, powerful processing units and low-cost positioning systems seem to be very suitable wide-spread measurement devices that could be used for geo-crowdsourcing purposes. Thus, we aim for the development of a versatile mobile water level measurement system to establish a densified hydrological network of water levels with high spatial and temporal resolution. This paper addresses a key issue of the entire system: the detection of running water shore lines in smartphone images. Flowing water never appears equally in close-range images even if the extrinsics remain unchanged. Its non-rigid behavior impedes the use of good practices for image segmentation as a prerequisite for water line detection. Consequently, we use a hand-held time lapse image sequence instead of a single image that provides the time component to determine a spatio-temporal texture image. Using a region growing concept, the texture is analyzed for immutable shore and dynamic water areas. Finally, the prevalent shore line is examined by the resultant shapes. For method validation, various study areas are observed from several distances covering urban and rural flowing waters with different characteristics. Future work provides a transformation of the water line into object space by image-to-geometry intersection.

  19. Increasing hand hygiene compliance by use of a novel hand held device at a university hospital - biomed 2013. (United States)

    Ghonim, Elham; Nolan, Rathel; Benghuzzi, Hamed


    Hand hygiene (HH) is the single most effective modality to prevent the spread of infection in healthcare. HH is also one of the most difficult quality measures to monitor. In a 722 bed tertiary referral teaching hospital, collection of accurate and timely HH compliance data on 25 inpatient units was problematic. We needed a process that avoided confrontation and keep secret the identity of HH surveyors to avoid compromise of professional work relationships. Our solution was to employ a unique handheld device. iScrub®, a hand-held application developed by The University of Iowa, was used to record compliance with HH. Dates of intervention were January 1st – December 31st, 2011. HH observations were collected by trained nursing volunteers and displayed on a central intranet –based database using SharePoint software®. Data was then included in quality scorecards, and in the Infection Prevention (IP) monthly report. Episodes of non-compliance generated e-mail notifications with escalating consequences that might end with termination of employment. Multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs) surveillance was performed by the infection prevention department (IPD). HH and MDROs monthly data analysis was published on SharePoint® for stakeholders’ review. During the intervention we collected 26,657 observations. Average HH compliance was 95%,( average physician’s compliance was 88%, and average nurse’s compliance was 98%). Non-compliance occurred at a similar frequency both before and after patient contact. Alcohol hand rub was the most frequently used method to perform HH. Physicians demonstrated the lowest compliance rates among healthcare workers. Time and date of observations had no effect on compliance. Shielding the identity of HH observers eliminated confrontation, and probably increased the accuracy of collected data. Applying strict consequences for non-compliance with HH aided in increasing compliance among staff and physicians. Publishing HH data analysis

  20. Hip- and knee-strength assessments using a hand-held dynamometer with external belt-fixation are inter-tester reliable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Bandholm, Thomas; Hölmich, Per


    PURPOSE: In football, ice-hockey, and track and field, injuries have been predicted, and hip- and knee-strength deficits quantified using hand-held dynamometry (HHD). However, systematic bias exists when testers of different sex and strength perform the measurements. Belt-fixation of the dynamome......PURPOSE: In football, ice-hockey, and track and field, injuries have been predicted, and hip- and knee-strength deficits quantified using hand-held dynamometry (HHD). However, systematic bias exists when testers of different sex and strength perform the measurements. Belt......-fixation. This procedure is therefore perfectly suited for the evaluation and monitoring of strong athletes with hip, groin and hamstring injuries, some of the most common and troublesome injuries in sports. LEVELS OF EVIDENCE: Diagnostic, Level III....

  1. Assessment of nickel and cobalt release from 200 unused hand-held work tools for sale in Denmark — Sources of occupational metal contact dermatitis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P.; Jensen, Peter; Lidén, Carola


    IntroductionNickel and cobalt allergy remain frequent in dermatitis patients. It is important to determine possible nickel and cobalt exposures at work as these may offer important information to regulators and physicians who perform patch testing. Clinical relevance of metal exposure is usually...... assessed by the treating physician via the medical history and by presentation of allergic contact dermatitis. ObjectivesTo screen unused non-powered hand-held work tools for nickel and cobalt release by using colorimetric spot tests. Materials & methodsA random selection of 200 non-powered hand-held work...... tools for sale in 2 retailers of home improvement and construction products were analyzed qualitatively for metal release using the colorimetric nickel and cobalt spot tests. ResultsNickel release was identified from 5% of 200 work tools using the dimethylglyoxime (DMG) test. In 8 of 10, positive...

  2. The intra- and inter-rater reliabilities of lower extremity muscle strength assessment of healthy adults using a hand held dynamometer. (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Gil; Lee, Yun-Seob


    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the intra- and inter-rater reliabilities of lower extremity muscle strength assessment of healthy adults using hand held dynamometer. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 55 students (19 males and 36 females) in Y University in Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea participated in this study. Lower extremity muscle strength was measured using a hand-held dynamometer (Commander Muscle Tester, JTech, USA). Flexion and extension strengths of the hip joint, the knee joint, and the ankle joint were measured. [Results] The intra-rater reliabilities were excellent (above 0.9) for the flexion and extension strengths of the ankle, knee, and hip joints. The inter-rater reliabilities were also excellent (above 0.8) for the flexion and extension strengths of the ankle, knee, and hip joint. [Conclusion] Lower extremity muscle strength assessment using a hand-held dynamometer provided consistent results when conducted by different examiners and when measured several times. Therefore, this method is a useful way of deriving objective and quantitative measurement values.


    The Niton XLt 700 Series (XLt) XRF Services x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer was demonstrated under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The field portion of the demonstration was conducted in January 2005 at the Kennedy Athletic, Recreational and Social Park (KARS) at Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, Florida. The demonstration was designed to collect reliable performance and cost data for the XLt analyzer and seven other commercially available XRF instruments for measuring trace elements in soil and sediment. The performance and cost data were evaluated to document the relative performance of each XRF instrument. This innovative technology verification report describes the objectives and the results of that evaluation and serves to verify the performance and cost of the XLt analyzer. Separate reports have been prepared for the other XRF instruments that were evaluated as part of the demonstration. The objectives of the evaluation included determining each XRF instrument’s accuracy, precision, sample throughput, and tendency for matrix effects. To fulfill these objectives, the field demonstration incorporated the analysis of 326 prepared samples of soil and sediment that contained 13 target elements. The prepared samples included blends of environmental samples from nine different sample collection sites as well as spiked samples with certified element concentrations. Accuracy

  4. Portable computing for taking part of the lab to the sample types of applications. From hand held personal digital assistants to smart phones for mobile spectrometry (United States)

    Weagant, Scott; Karanassios, Vassili


    The use of portable hand held computing devices for the acquisition of spectrochemical data is briefly discussed using examples from the author's laboratory. Several network topologies are evaluated. At present, one topology that involves a portable computing device for data acquisition and spectrometer control and that has wireless access to the internet at one end and communicates with a smart phone at the other end appears to be better suited for "taking part of the lab to the sample" types of applications. Thus, spectrometric data can be accessed from anywhere in the world.

  5. (abstract) Applications of Long-wavelength 256x256 GaAs/Al&subx;Ga&sub1-x;As Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector Hand-held Camera (United States)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Liu, J. K.; Sundaram, M.; Hong, W.; Shott, C. A.; Hoelter, T.; Laband, S.; James, J. B.


    A 9 (micro)m 256x256 hand-held quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) camera has been demonstrated. Excellent imagery, with a noise equivalent differential temperature (NE(gamma)) of 26 mK has been achieved. In this presentation, we discuss the development of this very sensitive long wavelength infrared (LWIR) camera based on a GaAs/AlGaAs QWIP focal plane array, its performance in quantum efficience, NA(gamma), minimum resolvable temperature (MRTD), uniformity, operability, and its applications.

  6. Vacuum Attachment for XRF Scanner (United States)

    Schramm, Harry F.; Kaiser, Bruce


    Vacuum apparatuses have been developed for increasing the range of elements that can be identified by use of x-ray fluorescent (XRF) scanners of the type mentioned in the two immediately preceding articles. As a consequence of the underlying physical principles, in the presence of air, such an XRF scanner is limited to analysis of chlorine and elements of greater atomic number. When the XRF scanner is operated in a vacuum, it extends the range of analysis to lower atomic numbers - even as far as aluminum and sodium. Hence, more elements will be available for use in XRF labeling of objects as discussed in the two preceding articles. The added benefits of the extended capabilities also have other uses for NASA. Detection of elements of low atomic number is of high interest to the aerospace community. High-strength aluminum alloys will be easily analyzed for composition. Silicon, a major contaminant in certain processes, will be detectable before the process is begun, possibly eliminating weld or adhesion problems. Exotic alloys will be evaluated for composition prior to being placed in service where lives depend on them. And in the less glamorous applications, such as bolts and fasteners, substandard products and counterfeit items will be evaluated at the receiving function and never allowed to enter the operation

  7. Into the Wild: Neuroergonomic Differentiation of Hand-Held and Augmented Reality Wearable Displays during Outdoor Navigation with Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy. (United States)

    McKendrick, Ryan; Parasuraman, Raja; Murtza, Rabia; Formwalt, Alice; Baccus, Wendy; Paczynski, Martin; Ayaz, Hasan


    Highly mobile computing devices promise to improve quality of life, productivity, and performance. Increased situation awareness and reduced mental workload are two potential means by which this can be accomplished. However, it is difficult to measure these concepts in the "wild". We employed ultra-portable battery operated and wireless functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to non-invasively measure hemodynamic changes in the brain's Prefrontal cortex (PFC). Measurements were taken during navigation of a college campus with either a hand-held display, or an Augmented reality wearable display (ARWD). Hemodynamic measures were also paired with secondary tasks of visual perception and auditory working memory to provide behavioral assessment of situation awareness and mental workload. Navigating with an augmented reality wearable display produced the least workload during the auditory working memory task, and a trend for improved situation awareness in our measures of prefrontal hemodynamics. The hemodynamics associated with errors were also different between the two devices. Errors with an augmented reality wearable display were associated with increased prefrontal activity and the opposite was observed for the hand-held display. This suggests that the cognitive mechanisms underlying errors between the two devices differ. These findings show fNIRS is a valuable tool for assessing new technology in ecologically valid settings and that ARWDs offer benefits with regards to mental workload while navigating, and potentially superior situation awareness with improved display design.

  8. Localized specific absorption rate in the human head in metal-framed spectacles for 1.5GHz hand-held mobile telephones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.; Joko, T.; Fujikawa, O. [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)


    Enhancements of the localized specific absorption rate (SAR) caused by metal-framed spectacles are analyzed numerically for 1.5 GHz hand-held mobile telephones. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and an anatomically based human head model are employed in the analysis. Enhancements up to 1.2 times for the ten-gram-averaged spatial peak SAR in the head and up to 2.75 times for the one-gram-averaged SAR in the eye are found, whereas there is no significant variation on the absorbed power or averaged SAR in the whole head. The mechanism of localized SAR enhancement is clarified to be due to an induced current on the metal frame. 17 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Suitability of capillary blood obtained by a minimally invasive lancet technique to detect subclinical ketosis in dairy cows by using 3 different electronic hand-held devices. (United States)

    Kanz, P; Drillich, M; Klein-Jöbstl, D; Mair, B; Borchardt, S; Meyer, L; Schwendenwein, I; Iwersen, M


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of capillary blood obtained by a minimally invasive lancet technique to detect subclinical ketosis in 49 prepartum and 191 postpartum Holstein-Friesian cows using 3 different electronic hand-held devices [FreeStyle Precision (FSP, Abbott), GlucoMen LX Plus (GLX, A. Menarini), NovaVet (NOV, Nova Biomedical)]. The β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentration in serum harvested from coccygeal blood samples was analyzed in a laboratory and used as a reference value. Capillary samples were obtained from the skin of the exterior vulva by using 1 of 3 different lancets. In all samples, the concentration of BHBA was immediately analyzed with all 3 hand-held devices used in random order. All lancets used in the study were eligible for capillary blood collection but differed in the total number of incisions needed. Spearman correlation coefficients between the BHBA concentrations in capillary blood and the reference test were highly significant with 83% for the FSP, 73% for the NOV, and 63% for the GLX. Using capillary blood, the FSP overestimated the mean BHBA concentration compared with the reference test (+0.08 mmol/L), whereas the GLX and NOV underestimated the mean concentration (-0.07 and -0.01 mmol/L). When a BHBA concentration of 1.2 mmol/L in serum was used to define subclinical ketosis, the corresponding analyses of receiver operating characteristics resulted in optimized thresholds for capillary blood of 1.1 mmol/L for the NOV and GLX devices, and of 1.0 mmol/L for the FSP. Based on these thresholds, sensitivities (Se) and specificities (Sp) were 89 and 84% for the NOV, 80 and 89% for the GLX, and 100 and 76% for the FSP. Based on a serum BHBA concentration of 1.4 mmol/L, analyses of receiver operating characteristics resulted in optimized cut-offs of 1.4 mmol/L for the FSP (Se 100%, Sp 92%), 1.3 mmol/L for the NOV (Se 80%, Sp 95%), and 1.1 mmol/L (Se 90%, Sp 85%) for the GLX. Using these optimized thresholds

  10. Glucose concentration in capillary blood of dairy cows obtained by a minimally invasive lancet technique and determined with three different hand-held devices. (United States)

    Mair, B; Drillich, M; Klein-Jöbstl, D; Kanz, P; Borchardt, S; Meyer, L; Schwendenwein, I; Iwersen, M


    Dairy cows have a massive demand for glucose at the onset of lactation. A poor adaption to this period leads to an excessive negative energy balance with an increased risk for ketosis and impaired animal health and production. Besides the measurement of ketones, analysing the glucose concentration in blood is reported as helpful instrument for diagnosis and differentiation of ketosis. Monitoring metabolic parameters requires multiple blood sampling. In other species, new blood sampling techniques have been introduced in which small amounts of blood are rapidly analysed using electronic hand-held devices. The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of capillary blood for blood glucose measurement in dairy cows using the hand-held devices FreeStyle Precision (FSP, Abbott), GlucoMen LX Plus (GLX, A. Menarini) and the WellionVet GLUCO CALEA, (WGC, MED TRUST). In total, 240 capillary blood samples were obtained from dry and fresh lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Blood was collected from the skin of the exterior vulva by using a lancet. For method comparison, additional blood samples were taken from a coccygeal vessel and analyzed in a laboratory. Glucose concentrations measured by a standard laboratory method were defined as the criterion standard. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the glucose concentrations analyzed in capillary blood with the devices and the reference were 73% for the FSP, 81% for the GLX and 41% for the WGC. Bland-Altman plots showed biases of -18.8 mg/dL for the FSP, -11.2 mg/dL for the GLX and +20.82 mg/dL for the WGC. The optimized threshold determined by a Receiver Operating Characteristics analysis to detect hyperglycemia using the FSP was 43 mg/dL with a sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of 76 and 80%. Using the GLX and WGC optimized thresholds were 49 mg/dL (Se = 92%, Sp = 85%) and 95 mg/dL (Se = 39%, Sp = 92%). The results of this study demonstrate good performance characteristics for the GLX

  11. Hand-held survey probe (United States)

    Young, Kevin L [Idaho Falls, ID; Hungate, Kevin E [Idaho Falls, ID


    A system for providing operational feedback to a user of a detection probe may include an optical sensor to generate data corresponding to a position of the detection probe with respect to a surface; a microprocessor to receive the data; a software medium having code to process the data with the microprocessor and pre-programmed parameters, and making a comparison of the data to the parameters; and an indicator device to indicate results of the comparison. A method of providing operational feedback to a user of a detection probe may include generating output data with an optical sensor corresponding to the relative position with respect to a surface; processing the output data, including comparing the output data to pre-programmed parameters; and indicating results of the comparison.

  12. Hand-held UXO Discriminator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasperikova, E.; Smith, J.T.; Kappler, K.N.; Ratti, A.; Morrison, H.F.; Becker, A.


    With prior funding (UX-1225, MM-0437, and MM-0838), we have successfully designed and built a cart-mounted Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD) and demonstrated its performance at various test sites (e.g., Gasperikova et al., 2007, 2009). It is a multi-transmitter multi-receiver active electromagnetic system that is able to discriminate UXO from scrap at a single measurement position, hence eliminates equirement of a very accurate sensor location. The cart-mounted system comprises of three orthogonal transmitters and eight pairs of differenced receivers (Smith et al., 2007). Receiver coils are located on ymmetry lines through the center of the system and see identical fields during the on-time of the pulse in all of the transmitter coils. They can then be wired in opposition to produce zero output during the n-ime of the pulses in three orthogonal transmitters. Moreover, this configuration dramatically reduces noise in the measurements by canceling the background electromagnetic fields (these fields are uniform ver the scale of the receiver array and are consequently nulled by the differencing operation), and by canceling the noise contributed by the tilt of the receivers in the Earth's magnetic field, and therefore reatly enhances receivers sensitivity to the gradients of the target.

  13. Real-time neutron source localization and identification with a hand-held, volumetrically-sensitive, moderating-type neutron spectrometer (United States)

    Hoshor, C. B.; Myers, E. R.; Oakes, T. M.; Young, S. M.; Currie, J. E.; Scott, P. R.; Miller, W. H.; Bellinger, S. L.; McGregor, D. S.; Caruso, A. N.


    Measuring source-dependent properties of free neutrons over a large neutron energy range, with hand-portable instrumentation, continues to push the frontier of neutron detection instrumentation design and analysis techniques. Building on prior work - C.B. Hoshor, et al., A portable and wide energy range semiconductor-based neutron spectrometer, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 803 (2015) 68-81 - which focused on demonstrating one-dimensional-based energy-dependent neutron measurement and analysis with a new class of solid-state moderating-type spectrometer, this work introduces two ;core; algorithmic methodologies that expand the analysis of neutron thermalization measurements to three spatial dimensions to determine the location and identity of neutron radiation sources in real time. Two extensions of these core methodologies are then proposed to further improve both the accuracy and reliability of source location and identity determinations with this new class of hand-held instrumentation. In 432 preliminary simulation tests, these method extensions are shown to decrease the average source location error by 64% and provide correct identity determinations in all test cases.

  14. The use of hand-held 35 mm color infrared imagery for estimates of suspended solids - A progress report. [in water pollution monitoring (United States)

    Miller, W. F.; Whisler, F. D.; Robinette, H. R.; Finnie, D.; Cannon, T.


    A cost-effective aerial surveillance technique is proposed for detection and identification of suspended solids which would be operational for both governmental monitoring organizations and private individuals operating catfish farms. Sixteen catfish ponds were flown daily for seven days using two hand-held 35 mm cameras with both Kodachrome X and Ektachrome infrared film. Hue, value, and chroma designations were recorded for each pond on each date by three interpreters, and the accepted color was that recorded by at least two of the interpreters, or if there was a three hue range, the median was accepted. Relations between suspended solids and color designations were analyzed graphically, and chroma was discarded due to an apparent lack of correlation. The data obtained were then analyzed by multiple regression. Significant correlations were revealed between hue and value and total and inorganic suspended solids. If perfected, this technique could be developed to sufficent accuracy for large-scale reconnaissance surveys to monitor the quality of rivers and streams.

  15. Lactate study using umbilical cord blood: agreement between Lactate Pro hand-held devices with blood gas analyser and evaluation of lactate stability over time. (United States)

    Su, Tina Y; Reece, Mifanwy; Chua, Seng C


    Lactate measurements have become increasingly preferred over pH analysis in the evaluation of fetal acidaemia in labour. In a busy labour ward, often the umbilical cord may be sampled late and as a result yield unreliable lactate values. To investigate the agreement of hand-held device Lactate Pro with a reference method blood gas analyser and evaluate the stability of umbilical cord lactate values over time. Prospective study carried out at elective caesarean section. Sixteen umbilical cords were double clamped immediately after delivery with paired arterial and venous blood samples collected by an independent researcher, at varying time intervals, and processed by two Lactate Pro devices and a reference method blood gas analyser. A significant difference of -0.41 to 0.10 mmol/L was found when different groups of Lactate Pro devices were compared with blood gas analyser at lactate values up to 5.70 mmol/L, with average lactate value of 2.45 mmol/L. Over time, there is progressive rise in lactate samples obtained from the umbilical cord. Lactate Pro devices have a significant difference, but when used in clinical practice on cord blood after delivery, this is unlikely to be meaningful. In intrapartum fetal surveillance, a systematic overestimation might lead to unnecessary intervention. It is possible to retrospectively predict the likely level of lactate at birth in delayed cord samples. © 2013 The Authors ANZJOG © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  16. Absolute reliability and concurrent validity of hand held dynamometry and isokinetic dynamometry in the hip, knee and ankle joint: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamorro Claudio


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to establish absolute reliability and concurrent validity between hand-held dynamometers (HHDs and isokinetic dynamometers (IDs in lower extremity peak torque assessment. Medline, Embase, CINAHL databases were searched for studies related to psychometric properties in muscle dynamometry. Studies considering standard error of measurement SEM (% or limit of agreement LOA (% expressed as percentage of the mean, were considered to establish absolute reliability while studies using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC were considered to establish concurrent validity between dynamometers. In total, 17 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The COSMIN checklist classified them between fair and poor. Using HHDs, knee extension LOA (% was 33.59%, 95% confidence interval (CI 23.91 to 43.26 and ankle plantar flexion LOA (% was 48.87%, CI 35.19 to 62.56. Using IDs, hip adduction and extension; knee flexion and extension; and ankle dorsiflexion showed LOA (% under 15%. Lower hip, knee, and ankle LOA (% were obtained using an ID compared to HHD. ICC between devices ranged between 0.62, CI (0.37 to 0.87 for ankle dorsiflexion to 0.94, IC (0.91to 0.98 for hip adduction. Very high correlation were found for hip adductors and hip flexors and moderate correlations for knee flexors/extensors and ankle plantar/dorsiflexors.

  17. A randomised comparison of a hand-held Neurotip and the Neuropen for assessing loss of touch sensation during spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section. (United States)

    Soundararajan, N; Russell, I


    With spinal anaesthesia various methods may be used to assess the block to touch. We wished to compare the levels of block assessed using a non-standardised, assessor-dependent touch stimulus with those assessed when the same stimulus was applied in a standardised manner independent of the assessor. In a double-blind, randomised study the levels of block to touch were assessed by two investigators, one using a hand-held Neurotip tester pin and the other using the same tester pin mounted in a spring loaded system (Neuropen). Both the testing device and the order of testing were randomised between the two observers. The dermatomes were marked on patients' torsos before surgery. Whole group data analysis in a Bland Altman plot demonstrated a median difference of 0 dermatomes between the two methods: the 5th, 25th, 75th, and 95th centiles of agreement being -2, -1, +1, and +2 dermatomes respectively. There were occasional wide differences in levels of block to touch with the Neuropen varying between seven dermatomes rostral to and four dermatomes caudal to the Neurotip. These differences were short-lived and did not affect clinical management. When comparing two very similar touch stimuli, one standardised and user-independent and one non-standardised, we observed occasional wide but short lived differences in the assessed levels of block to touch. Although these differences did not affect clinical management, whether more dissimilar touch testing methods might affect clinical management remains to be seen.

  18. Performance of hand-held whole-breast ultrasound based on BI-RADS in women with mammographically negative dense breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youk, Ji Hyun; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Min Jung; Kwak, Jin Young; Son, Eun Ju [Yonsei University, College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To assess the performance of breast ultrasound based on BI-RADS final assessment categories in women with mammographically negative dense breast. Of 3,820 cases with mammographically negative dense breast and subsequent hand-held bilateral whole-breast ultrasound, a total of 1,507 cases in 1,046 women who had biopsy or at least 2-year follow-up ultrasound constituted the basis of this retrospective study. Cancer rate of each sonographic BI-RADS category was determined and medical audit was performed separately in screening-general, screening-treated, and diagnostic group. A total of 43 cases (2.9%) were confirmed as malignancy. Cancer rate among BI-RADS categories was significantly different (p < 0.0001). Among three groups, the cancer rate was significantly different (p < 0.0001) and the highest in diagnostic group (15.8%, 22 of 139). Abnormal interpretation rate, PPV of biopsy performed, cancer detection rate, and rate of early stage cancer, and the size of invasive cancer were significantly different among three groups and the highest in diagnostic group. Regarding cancer characteristics, the proportion of advanced cancer was the highest in diagnostic group. Breast ultrasound based on BI-RADS as an adjunctive to negative mammography can be useful for predicting malignancy in women with dense breast. (orig.)

  19. The role of internal models in motion planning and control: evidence from grip force adjustments during movements of hand-held loads. (United States)

    Flanagan, J R; Wing, A M


    We investigated the issue of whether or not the CNS makes use of an internal model of the motor apparatus in planning and controlling arm movements. In particular, we tested the ability of subjects to predict different hand-held loads by examining grip force adjustments used to stabilize the load in the hand during arm movements. Subjects grasped a manipulandum using a precision grip with the tips of the thumb and index finger on either side. The grip force (normal to the contact surfaces) and the load force (tangential to the surfaces) were measured, along with the trajectory of the hand. The manipulandum was attached to two servo-controlled linear motors used to create inertial and viscous loads as well as a composite load, including inertial, viscous, and elastic components. The form of the hand trajectory was independent of load for some subjects but varied systematically across load conditions in others. Nevertheless, under all load conditions and in all subjects, grip force was modulated in parallel with, and thus anticipated, fluctuations in load force despite the marked variation in the form of the load function. This indicates that the CNS is able to predict the load force and the kinematics of hand movement on which the load depends. We suggest this prediction is based on an internal model of the motor apparatus and external load and is used to determine the grip forces required to stabilize the load.

  20. What is the most cost-effective strategy to screen for left ventricular systolic dysfunction: natriuretic peptides, the electrocardiogram, hand-held echocardiography, traditional echocardiography, or their combination? (United States)

    Galasko, Gavin I W; Barnes, Sophie C; Collinson, Paul; Lahiri, Avijit; Senior, Roxy


    To assess the screening characteristics and cost-effectiveness of screening for left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) in community subjects. A total of 1392 members of the general public and 928 higher risk subjects were randomly selected from seven community practices. Attending subjects underwent an ECG, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) serum levels, and traditional echocardiography (TE). A total of 533 consecutive subjects underwent hand-held echocardiography (HE). The screening characteristics and cost-effectiveness (cost per case of LVSD diagnosed) of eight strategies to predict LVSD (LVSD cost-effective, screening low-risk subjects least cost-effective. TE screening was the least cost-effective strategy. NTproBNP screening gave similar cost savings to ECG screening; HE screening greater cost-savings, and HE screening following NTproBNP or ECG pre-screening the greatest cost-savings, costing approximately 650 Euros per case of LVSD diagnosed in high-risk subjects (63% cost-savings vs.TE). Thus several different modalities allow cost-effective community-based screening for LVSD, especially in high-risk subjects. Such programmes would be cost-effective and miss few cases of LVSD in the community.

  1. Specific absorption rate levels measured in a phantom head exposed to radio frequency transmissions from analog hand-held mobile phones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, V.; Joyner, K.H. [Telecom Research Labs., Clayton, Victoria (Australia). Electromagnetic Compatibility Section


    Electric fields (E-fields) induced within a phantom head from exposure to three different advanced mobile phone system (AMPS) hand-held telephones were measured using an implantable E-Field probe. Measurements were taken in the eye nearest the phone and along a lateral scan through the brain from its center to the side nearest the phone. During measurement, the phones were positioned alongside the phantom head as in typical use and were configured to transmit at maximum power (600 mW nominal). The specific absorption rate (SAR) was calculated from the in situ E-field measurements, which varied significantly between phone models and antenna configuration. The SARs induced in the eye ranged from 0.007 to 0.21 W/kg. Metal-framed spectacles enhanced SAR levels in the eye by 9--29%. In the brain, maximum levels were recorded at the measurement point closest to the phone and ranged from 0.12 to 0.83 W/kg. These SARs are below peak spatial limits recommended in the US and Australian national standards and the IRPA guidelines for safe exposure to radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields. Furthermore, a detailed thermal analysis of the eye indicated only a 0.022 C maximum steady-state temperature rise in the eye from a uniform SAR loading of 0.21 W/kg. A more approximate thermal analysis in the brain also indicated only a small maximum temperature rise of 0.034 C for a local SAR loading of 0.83 W/kg.

  2. Reliability of hand-held dynamometry for measurement of lower limb muscle strength in children with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei SHI


    Full Text Available Objective To determine the reliability of hand-held dynamometry (HHD for lower limb isometric muscle strength measurement in children with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD.  Methods A total of 21 children [20 males and one female; mean age was (7.88 ± 2.87 years, ranging between 3.96-14.09 years; mean age at diagnosis was (5.88 ± 2.88 years, ranging between 1.35-12.89 years; mean height was (120.64 ± 16.30 cm, ranging between 97-153 cm; mean body weight was (24.62 ± 9.05 kg, ranging between 14-50 kg] with DMD (19/21 and BMD (2/21 were involved from Rehabilitation Center of Children's Hospital of Fudan University. The muscle strength of hip, knee and ankle was measured by HHD under standardized test methods. The test-retest results were compared to determine the inter-test reliability, and the results among testers were compared to determine the inter-tester reliability.  Results HHD showed fine inter-tester reliability (ICC = 0.762-0.978 and inter-test reliability (ICC = 0.690-0.938 in measuring lower limb muscle strength of children with DMD/BMD. Results also showed relatively poor reliability in distal muscle groups (foot plantar flexion and dorsiflexion.  Conclusions HHD, showing fine inter-tester and inter-test reliability in measuring the lower limb muscle strength of children with DMD/BMD, can be used in monitoring muscle strength changing and assessing effects of clinical interventions. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.05.009

  3. In-field Volatile Analysis Employing a Hand-held Portable GC-MS: Emission Profiles Differentiate Damaged and Undamaged Yellow Starthistle Flower Heads. (United States)

    Beck, John J; Porter, Nathan; Cook, Daniel; Gee, Wai S; Griffith, Corey M; Rands, Anthony D; Truong, Tai V; Smith, Lincoln; San Román, Itxaso


    Understanding the complex chemical signalling of plants and insects is an important component of chemical ecology. Accordingly, the collection and analysis of chemical cues from plants in their natural environment is integral to elucidation of plant-insect communications. Remote plant locations and the need for a large number of replicates make in situ headspace analyses a daunting logistical challenge. A hand-held, portable GC-MS system was used to discriminate between damaged and undamaged Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle) flower heads in both a potted-plant and natural setting. To determine if a portable GC-MS system was capable of distinguishing between undamaged and mechanically damaged plant treatments, and plant environments. A portable GC-MS utilising needle trap adsorbent technology was used to collect and analyse in situ headspace volatiles of varying yellow starthistle treatments. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to distinguish treatments and identify biomarker volatiles. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine differences between treatment volatile amounts. The portable GC-MS system detected 31 volatiles from the four treatments. Each GC-MS run was completed in less than 3 min. PCA showed four distinct clusters representing the four treatments - damaged and undamaged potted plant, and damaged and undamaged natural plant. Damage-specific volatiles were identified. The portable GC-MS system distinguished the treatments based on their detected volatile profiles. Additional statistical analysis identified five possible biomarker volatiles for the treatments, among them cyclosativene and copaene, which indicated damaged flower heads. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorier, T.


    SRNL’s validation of ANSI N42.34-D6 for the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) was performed utilizing one hand-held instrument (or RID) – the FLIR identiFINDER 2. Each section of the standard was evaluated via a walk-through or test. NOTE: In Table 1, W = walk-through and T = test, as directed by the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO). For a walk-through, the experiment was either setup or reviewed for setup; for a test, the N42.34-D6 procedures were followed with some exceptions and comments noted. SRNL is not fully able to evaluate a RID against Sections 7 (Environmental), 8 (Electromagnetic), and 9 (Mechanical) of N42.34, so those portions of this validation were done in collaboration with Qualtest, Inc. in Orlando, Florida. The walk-throughs and tests of Sections 7, 8, and 9 were performed in Qualtest, Inc. facilities with SRNL providing radiological sources as necessary. Where applicable, assessment results and findings of the walk-throughs and tests were recorded on datasheets and a validation summary is provided. A general comment pertained to test requirements found in another standard and referenced in N42.34-D6. For example, step 1 of the test method in section 8.1.2 states “RF test set up information can be found in IEC 61000-4-3.” It is recommended that any information from other standards necessary for conducting the tests within N42.34 should be posted in N42.34 for simplicity and to prevent the user from having to peruse other documents. Another general comment, as noted by Qualtest, is that a tolerance reference is not listed for each test in sections 7-9. Overall, the N42.34-D6 was proven to be practicable, but areas for improvement and recommendations were identified for consideration prior to final ballot submittal.

  5. An Approach to Precise Nitrogen Management Using Hand-Held Crop Sensor Measurements and Winter Wheat Yield Mapping in a Mediterranean Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Quebrajo


    Full Text Available Regardless of the crop production system, nutrients inputs must be controlled at or below a certain economic threshold to achieve an acceptable level of profitability. The use of management zones and variable-rate fertilizer applications is gaining popularity in precision agriculture. Many researchers have evaluated the application of final yield maps and geo-referenced geophysical measurements (e.g., apparent soil electrical conductivity-ECa as a method of establishing relatively homogeneous management zones within the same plot. Yield estimation models based on crop conditions at certain growth stages, soil nutrient statuses, agronomic factors, moisture statuses, and weed/pest pressures are a primary goal in precision agriculture. This study attempted to achieve the following objectives: (1 to investigate the potential for predicting winter wheat yields using vegetation measurements (the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index—NDVI at the beginning of the season, thereby allowing for a yield response to nitrogen (N fertilizer; and (2 evaluate the feasibility of using inexpensive optical sensor measurements in a Mediterranean environment. A field experiment was conducted in two commercial wheat fields near Seville, in southwestern Spain. Yield data were collected at harvest using a yield monitoring system (RDS Ceres II-volumetric meter installed on a combine. Wheat yield and NDVI values of 3498 ± 481 kg ha−1 and 0.67 ± 0.04 nm nm−1 (field 1 and 3221 ± 531 kg ha−1 and 0.68 ± 0.05 nm nm−1 (field 2 were obtained. In both fields, the yield and NDVI exhibited a strong Pearson correlation, with rxy = 0.64 and p < 10−4 in field 1 and rxy = 0.78 and p < 10−4 in field 2. The preliminary results indicate that hand-held crop sensor-based N management can be applied to wheat production in Spain and has the potential to increase agronomic N-use efficiency on a long-term basis.

  6. Hip- and knee-strength assessments using a hand-held dynamometer with external belt-fixation are inter-tester reliable. (United States)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Bandholm, Thomas; Hölmich, Per


    In football, ice-hockey, and track and field, injuries have been predicted, and hip- and knee-strength deficits quantified using hand-held dynamometry (HHD). However, systematic bias exists when testers of different sex and strength perform the measurements. Belt-fixation of the dynamometer may resolve this. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine the inter-tester reliability concerning strength assessments of isometric hip abduction, adduction, flexion, extension and knee-flexion strength, using HHD with external belt-fixation. Twenty-one healthy athletes (6 women), 30 (8.6) (mean (SD)) years of age, were included. Two physiotherapy students (1 female and 1 male) performed all the measurements after careful instruction and procedure training. Isometric hip abduction, adduction, flexion, extension, and knee-flexion strength were tested. The tester-order and hip-action order were randomised. No systematic between-tester differences (bias) were observed for any of the hip or knee actions. The intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC 2.1) ranged from 0.76 to 0.95. Furthermore, standard errors of measurement in per cent (SEM %) ranged from 5 to 11 %, and minimal detectable change in per cent (MDC %) from 14 to 29 % for the different hip and knee actions. The present study shows that isometric hip- and knee-strength measurements have acceptable inter-tester reliability at the group level, when testing strong individuals, using HHD with belt-fixation. This procedure is therefore perfectly suited for the evaluation and monitoring of strong athletes with hip, groin and hamstring injuries, some of the most common and troublesome injuries in sports. Diagnostic, Level III.

  7. Evaluation of a hand-held blood gas analyzer for rapid determination of blood gases, electrolytes and metabolites in intensive care setting. (United States)

    Luukkonen, Antti A M; Lehto, Tiina M; Hedberg, Pirjo S M; Vaskivuo, Tommy E


    Intensive care units, operating rooms, emergency departments, and neonatology units need rapid measurements of blood gases, electrolytes, and metabolites. These analyses can be performed in a central laboratory or at the clinic with traditional or compact cassette-type blood gas analyzers such as the epoc blood gas testing system for analyzing whole blood samples at the bedside. In this study, the performance and interchangeability of a hand-held epoc blood gas analyzer was evaluated. The analytical performance of the epoc analyzer was evaluated by determining within-and between-run precisions. The accuracy of the epoc analyzer was assessed by comparing patient results from the device with those obtained with the Siemens Rapidlab 1265 and Rapidpoint RP500 and Siemens Dimension Vista and Sysmex XE-2100 analyzers. The following parameters were measured: pH, pCO2, pO2, Hb (calc), Na+, K+, iCa2+, glucose, and lactate. The CV% of the epoc's between-day imprecision for the various parameters varied from 0.4 to 8.6. The within-run imprecision CV% varied from 0.6 to 5.2. The squared regression coefficient (R2) between the epoc and RL1265 varied from 0.94 to 0.99, with the exception of Na+ and Ca2+ (R2≥0.82). The correlation (R2) of Na+ and K+ between epoc and Dimension Vista was 0.73 and 0.89, respectively. The correlation (R2) of Hb between the epoc and the XE-2100 analyzer was 0.94. With most of the measured blood gas parameters, the epoc analyzer correlated well with reference techniques. The epoc analyzer is suitable for rapid measurement of the blood gases, the electrolytes, and the metabolites in the ICU.

  8. Intrarater reliability of goniometry and hand-held dynamometry for shoulder and elbow examinations in female team handball athletes and asymptomatic volunteers. (United States)

    Fieseler, Georg; Molitor, Thomas; Irlenbusch, Lars; Delank, Karl-Stefan; Laudner, Kevin G; Hermassi, Souhail; Schwesig, Rene


    To evaluate the intrarater reliability for examining active range of motion (ROM) and isometric strength of the shoulder and elbow among asymptomatic female team handball athletes and a control group using a manual goniometer and hand-held dynamometry (HHD). 22 female team handball athletes (age: 21.0 ± 3.7 years) and 25 volunteers (13 female, 12 male, age: 21.9 ± 1.24 years) participated to determine bilateral ROM for shoulder rotation and elbow flexion/extension, as well as isometric shoulder rotation and elbow flexion/extension strength. Subjects were assessed on two separate test sessions with 7 days between sessions. Relative (intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and standard error of measurement (SEM) reliability were calculated. Reliability for ROM and strength were good to excellent for both shoulders and groups (athletes: ICC = 0.94-0.97, SEM 1.07°-4.76 N, controls: ICC = 0.96-1.00, SEM = 0.00 N-4.48 N). Elbow measurements for both groups also showed good-to-excellent reliability (athletes: ICC = 0.79-0.97, SEM = 0.98°-5.94 N, controls: ICC = 0.87-1.00, SEM = 0.00 N-5.43 N). It is important to be able to reliably reproduce active ROM and isometric strength evaluations. Using a standardized testing position, goniometry and HHD are reliable instruments in the assessment of shoulder and elbow joint performance testing. We showed good-to-excellent reproducible results for male and female control subjects and female handball athletes, although the single parameters in ROM and strength were different for each group and between the shoulders and elbows.

  9. Combined XRF and PIXE analysis of flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleh, N.S.; Al-Saleh, K.A.

    Combined X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) techniques were used for the determination of trace and minor elements in two different samples of flour purchased at the local market. The significance of some of the elements found in the samples is discussed from the viewpoint of nutrition. It is also shown that XRF can be a useful complementary technique for PIXE analysis of flour.

  10. Evaluation of a hand-held far-ultraviolet radiation device for decontamination of Clostridium difficile and other healthcare-associated pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerandzic Michelle M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental surfaces play an important role in transmission of healthcare-associated pathogens. There is a need for new disinfection methods that are effective against Clostridium difficile spores, but also safe and rapid. The Sterilray™ Disinfection Wand device is a hand-held room decontamination technology that utilizes far-ultraviolet radiation (185-230 nm to kill pathogens. Methods We examined the efficacy of disinfection using the Sterilray device in the laboratory, in rooms of hospitalized patients, and on surfaces outside of patient rooms (i.e. keyboards and portable medical equipment. Cultures for C. difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE were collected from commonly-touched surfaces before and after use of the Sterilray device. Results On inoculated surfaces in the laboratory, application of the Sterilray device at a radiant dose of 100 mJ/cm2 for ~ 5 seconds consistently reduced recovery of C. difficile spores by 4.4 CFU log10, MRSA by 5.4 log10CFU and of VRE by 6.9 log10CFU. A >3 log10 reduction of MRSA and VRE was achieved in ~2 seconds at a lower radiant dose, but killing of C. difficile spores was significantly reduced. On keyboards and portable medical equipment that were inoculated with C. difficile spores, application of the Sterilray device at a radiant dose of 100���mJ/cm2 for ~ 5 seconds reduced contamination by 3.2 log10CFU. However, the presence of organic material reduced the lethal effect of the far-UV radiation. In hospital rooms that were not pre-cleaned, disinfection with the Sterilray device significantly reduced the frequency of positive C. difficile and MRSA cultures (P =0.007. Conclusions The Sterilray™ Disinfection Wand is a novel environmental disinfection technology that rapidly kills C. difficile spores and other healthcare-associated pathogens on surfaces. However, the presence of organic matter

  11. Feasibility and accuracy of a newly developed hand-held device with a flat-type fluorescent lamp for measuring the minimal erythema dose for narrow-band UVB therapy. (United States)

    Morita, Akimichi; Shintani, Yoichi; Nishida, Emi; Kato, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Hisashi; Minamoto, Maki; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Maeda, Akira


    Narrow-band ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) for the treatment of refractory skin diseases, such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, requires an adequate irradiation protocol based on the minimal erythema dose (MED) to establish an optimal dosage schedule. Although MED can be measured using a systemic-type irradiation unit, there are difficulties associated with this device. There is no standardized device available to determine the MED for NB-UVB. Here, we compared a conventional device with a newly developed device for measuring MED. MED was measured in 16 psoriasis patients using both a conventional measuring device and the newly developed device, which comprised a hand-held NB-UVB (311-313 nm) flat-type fluorescent lamp with neutral density filters having different transmittances ranging from 10% to 90%. This device was designed to be stably maintained on the skin surface and to provide a highly accurate measurement with only one UV irradiation exposure while also preventing UV radiation from leaking to nonirradiated areas. The MED values obtained from each patient were the same using both devices. One-time irradiation using the new hand-held device with the NB-UVB flat-type fluorescent lamp is feasible and accurate for determining the MED to use in calculating the UV irradiation treatment dose.

  12. PIXE and XRF Analysis of Roman Denarii (United States)

    Fasano, Cecilia; Raddell, Mark; Manukyan, Khachatur; Stech, Edward; Wiescher, Michael


    A set of Roman Denarii from the republican to the imperial period (140BC-240AD) has been studied using X-ray fluorescent (XRF) scanning and proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) techniques. XRF and PIXE are commonly used in the study of cultural heritage objects because they are nondestructive. The combination of these two methods is also unique because of the ability to penetrate the sample with a broader spectrum of depths and energies than either could achieve on its own. The coins are from a large span of Roman history and their analysis serves to follow the economic and political change of the era using the relative silver and copper contents in each sample. In addition to analyzing the samples, the study sought to compare these two common analysis techniques and to explore the use of a standard to examine any shortcomings in either of the methods. Data sets were compared and then adjusted to a calibration curve which was created from the analysis of a number of standard solutions. The concentrations of the standard solutions were confirmed using inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy. Through this we were able to assemble results which will progress the basis of understanding of PIXE and XRF techniques as well as increase the wealth of knowledge of Ancient Roman currency.

  13. The reliability and validity of measurements of human dental casts made by an intra-oral 3D scanner, with conventional hand-held digital callipers as the comparison measure. (United States)

    Rajshekar, Mithun; Julian, Roberta; Williams, Anne-Marie; Tennant, Marc; Forrest, Alex; Walsh, Laurence J; Wilson, Gary; Blizzard, Leigh


    Intra-oral 3D scanning of dentitions has the potential to provide a fast, accurate and non-invasive method of recording dental information. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of measurements of human dental casts made using a portable intra-oral 3D scanner appropriate for field use. Two examiners each measured 84 tooth and 26 arch features of 50 sets of upper and lower human dental casts using digital hand-held callipers, and secondly using the measuring tool provided with the Zfx IntraScan intraoral 3D scanner applied to the virtual dental casts. The measurements were repeated at least one week later. Reliability and validity were quantified concurrently by calculation of intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and standard errors of measurement (SEM). The measurements of the 110 landmark features of human dental casts made using the intra-oral 3D scanner were virtually indistinguishable from measurements of the same features made using conventional hand-held callipers. The difference of means as a percentage of the average of the measurements by each method ranged between 0.030% and 1.134%. The intermethod SEMs ranged between 0.037% and 0.535%, and the inter-method ICCs ranged between 0.904 and 0.999, for both the upper and the lower arches. The inter-rater SEMs were one-half and the intra-method/rater SEMs were one-third of the inter-method values. This study demonstrates that the Zfx IntraScan intra-oral 3D scanner with its virtual on-screen measuring tool is a reliable and valid method for measuring the key features of dental casts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantitative analysis of trace palladium contamination in solution using electrochemical X-ray fluorescence (EC-XRF). (United States)

    Ayres, Zoë J; Newton, Mark E; Macpherson, Julie V


    The application of electrochemical X-ray fluorescence (EC-XRF), for the detection of palladium (Pd) contamination in a range of solutions containing electrochemically active compounds, present in excess and relevant to the pharmaceutical and food industries, is reported. In EC-XRF, EC is used to electrochemically pre-concentrate metal on an electrode under forced convection conditions, whilst XRF is employed to spectroscopically quantify the amount of metal deposited, which quantitatively correlates with the original metal concentration in solution. Boron doped diamond is used as the electrode due to its very wide cathodic window and the fact that B and C are non-interfering elements for XRF analysis. The effect of several parameters on the Pd XRF signal intensity are explored including: deposition potential (Edep), deposition time (tdep) and Pd(2+) concentration, [Pd(2+)]. Under high deposition potentials (Edep = -1.5 V), the Pd XRF peak intensity varies linearly with both tdep and [Pd(2+)]. Quantification of [Pd(2+)] is demonstrated in the presence of excess acetaminophen (ACM), l-ascorbic acid, caffeine and riboflavin. We show the same Pd XRF signal intensity (for [Pd(2+)] = 1.1 μM and tdep = 325 s) is observed, i.e. same amount of Pd is deposited on the electrode surface, irrespective of whether these redox active molecules are present or absent. For tdep = 900 s we report a limit of detection for [Pd(2+)] of 3.6 ppb (34 nM). Even lower LODs are possible by increasing tdep or by optimising the X-ray source specifically for Pd. The work presented for Pd detection in the presence of ACM, achieves the required detection sensitivity stipulated by international pharmacopeia guidelines.

  15. High resolution HH-XRF scanning and XRD modelling as a tool in sedimentological analysis - A case study from the Enreca-3 core, Bach Long Vi Island, Vietnam (United States)

    Rizzi, Malgorzata; Hemmingsen Schovsbo, Niels; Korte, Christoph; Bryld Wessel Fyhn, Michael


    To improve the understanding and interpretation of the depositional environment of a late Oligocene lacustrine organic rich oil-prone source rock succession, 2464 hand held (HH)-XRF measurements were made systematically on the 500 m long, continuous core from the fully cored Enreca-3 well. This core, drilled on the remote Bach Long Vi Island, northern Gulf of Tonkin, offshore Vietnam, represents a deep lake succession alternating between lacustrine pelagic dominated sediments interrupted by hyperpycnal turbidites, high density turbidites and debris flows [1, 2]. From a combined HH-XRF-XRD data set, multivariate data analysis and regression models are used to type the rock and to predict the XRD mineral composition based on HH-XRF composition. The rock types and the modelled mineral composition highlight the geochemical variations of the sediment and allows for direct comparison with sedimentological processes and facies changes. The modeling also depicts the cyclic alteration of rock types that are present on many different scales ranging from centimeters to hundreds of meters [1, 2]. The sedimentological and geochemical variations observed throughout the cored section reflects fluctuating paleoclimate, tectonism and hinterland condition controlling the depositional setting, which may provide a deeper understanding of the deposition of this and similar Paleogene syn-rift succession in the South China Sea region. It allows furthermore the development of a more generalized depositional model relevant for other deep-lacustrine syn-rift basins. [1] Petersen et al. (2014) Journal of Petroleum Geology, 37: 373-389. [2] Hovikoski et al. (2016) Journal of Sedimentary Research, 86(8): 982-1007.

  16. Instrumental characterization of clay by XRF, XRD and FTIR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Instrumental characterizations of the clay were performed by different techniques such as XRF, XRD and FTIR. XRF shows the chemical compositions of the clay where Al-oxide and silica oxide are present in major quantity whereas XRD confirms the presence of these minerals in clay. FTIR studies show the presence of ...

  17. Large area imaging of forensic evidence with MA-XRF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langstraat, Kirsten; Knijnenberg, Alwin; Edelman, Gerda; Van De Merwe, Linda; van Loon, A.; Dik, J.; van Asten, Arian C.


    This study introduces the use of macroscopic X-ray fluorescence (MA-XRF) for the detection, classification and imaging of forensic traces over large object areas such as entire pieces of clothing and wall paneling. MA-XRF was sufficiently sensitive and selective to detect human biological traces

  18. Large area imaging of forensic evidence with MA-XRF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langstraat, K.; Knijnenberg, A.; Edelman, G.; van de Merwe, L.; van Loon, A.; Dik, J.; van Asten, A.


    This study introduces the use of macroscopic X-ray fluorescence (MA-XRF) for the detection, classification and imaging of forensic traces over large object areas such as entire pieces of clothing and wall paneling. MA-XRF was sufficiently sensitive and selective to detect human biological traces

  19. Development of a Hand Held Thromboelastograph (United States)


    of electrical and electronic products with respect to the restriction of hazardous substances EN 62133:2013 Secondary cells and batteries...graphical displays to the displays created by the predicate product for the same patients. Entegrion is developing the protocols to complete are pending in Europe, Canada, Ecuador , Peru, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Hong Kong. REPORTABLE OUTCOMES

  20. A novel XRF method to measure environmental release of copper and zinc from antifouling paints. (United States)

    Ytreberg, Erik; Lagerström, Maria; Holmqvist, Albin; Eklund, Britta; Elwing, Hans; Dahlström, Magnus; Dahl, Peter; Dahlström, Mia


    The release of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) from vessels and leisure crafts coated with antifouling paints can pose a threat to water quality in semi-enclosed areas such as harbors and marinas as well as to coastal archipelagos. However, no reliable, practical and low-cost method exists to measure the direct release of metals from antifouling paints. Therefore, the paint industry and regulatory authorities are obliged to use release rate measurements derived from either mathematical models or from laboratory studies. To bridge this gap, we have developed a novel method using a handheld X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) to determine the cumulative release of Cu and Zn from antifouling paints. The results showed a strong linear relationship between XRF K α net intensities and metal concentrations, as determined by ICP-MS. The release of Cu and Zn were determined for coated panels exposed in harbors located in the Baltic Sea and in Kattegat. The field study showed salinity to have a strong impact on the release of Cu, i.e. the release increased with salinity. Contrary, the effect of salinity on Zn was not as evident. As exemplified in this work, the XRF method also makes it possible to identify the governing parameters to the release of Cu and Zn, e.g. salinity and type of paint formulation. Thus, the XRF method can be used to measure environmentally relevant releases of metallic compounds to design more efficient and optimized antifouling coatings. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Uranium and Iron XRF distribution and Fe speciation results (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dataset 1: XRF image of U and Fe distribution Dataset 2: Fe linear combination fitting data. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Koster van...

  2. Use of field-portable XRF analyzers for rapid screening of toxic elements in FDA-regulated products. (United States)

    Palmer, Peter T; Jacobs, Richard; Baker, Peter E; Ferguson, Kelly; Webber, Siri


    Analytical instrumentation continues its amazing evolution, especially in regard to generating ever more sensitive, faster, and reliable measurements. Perhaps the most difficult challenges are making these instruments small enough to use in the field, equipping them with well-designed software that facilitates and simplifies their use by nonexperts while preserving enough of their analytical capabilities to render them useful for a wide variety of applications. Perhaps the most impressive and underappreciated example of instruments that meet these criteria are field-portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzers. In the past, these analyzers have been routinely used for environmental applications (lead in paint and soil, metal particulates in air samples collected onto filters), geology studies (ore and soil analysis, precious metal identification), and recycling industries (alloy identification). However, their use in the analysis of toxic elements in food, food ingredients, dietary supplements, and medicinal and herbal products, especially within the FDA and regulatory environments, has been surprisingly limited to date. Although XRF will not replace atomic spectrometry techniques such as ICP-MS for sub-parts per million level analyses, it offers a number of significant advantages including minimal sample preparation, high sample throughputs, rapid and definitive identification of many toxic elements, and accurate quantitative results. As should be obvious from many recent news reports on elevated levels of toxic elements in children's lunchboxes, toys, and supplements, field-portable XRF analyzers can fill a very important niche and are becoming increasingly popular for a wide variety of elemental analysis applications. This perspective begins with a brief review of the theory of XRF to highlight the underlying principle, instrumentation, and spectra. It includes a discussion of various analytical figures of merit of XRF to illustrate its strengths and limitations

  3. Large area imaging of forensic evidence with MA-XRF. (United States)

    Langstraat, Kirsten; Knijnenberg, Alwin; Edelman, Gerda; van de Merwe, Linda; van Loon, Annelies; Dik, Joris; van Asten, Arian


    This study introduces the use of macroscopic X-ray fluorescence (MA-XRF) for the detection, classification and imaging of forensic traces over large object areas such as entire pieces of clothing and wall paneling. MA-XRF was sufficiently sensitive and selective to detect human biological traces like blood, semen, saliva, sweat and urine on fabric on the basis of Fe, Zn, K, Cl and Ca elemental signatures. With MA-XRF a new chemical contrast is introduced for human stain detection and this can provide a valuable alternative when the evidence item is challenging for conventional techniques. MA-XRF was also successfully employed for the chemical imaging and classification of gunshot residues (GSR). The full and non-invasive elemental mapping (Pb, Ba, Sr, K and Cl) of intact pieces of clothing allows for a detailed shooting incident reconstruction linking firearms and ammunition to point of impact and providing information on the shooting angle. In high resolution mode MA-XRF can even be used to provide information on the shooting order of different ammunition types. Finally, by using the surface penetration of X-rays we demonstrate that the lead signature of a bullet impact can be easily detected even if covered by multiple layers of wall paint or human blood.

  4. XRF-measured bone lead (Pb) as a biomarker for Pb exposure and toxicity among children diagnosed with Pb poisoning. (United States)

    Specht, Aaron J; Lin, Yanfen; Weisskopf, Marc; Yan, Chonghuai; Hu, Howard; Xu, Jian; Nie, Linda H


    Childhood lead (Pb) poisoning remains a global issue, especially in industrial areas. In this study, 115 children with average age 5.7 years were recruited as either patient diagnosed with Pb poisoning or controls at Xinhua Hospital in China. The subjects' bone Pb was measured with a K-shell X-ray fluorescence (KXRF) and a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) system. A significant correlation between KXRF bone Pb and blood Pb and portable XRF and KXRF measurements were observed. The half-life of blood-lead was calculated to be 9.96 ± 3.92 d. Our results indicate that bone is a useful biomarker for Pb in children.

  5. Industrialization


    Blundel, Richard


    Industrialization, the historical development that saw cheesemaking transformed from a largely craft-based or artisanal activity, often located on a dairy farm, to a production process that, for the most part, takes place in large ‘cheese factories’ or creameries [See ARTISANAL]. The principal features of modern industrialized cheesemaking, which set it apart from traditional approaches include: high production volumes; sourcing of milk from multiple dairy herds; pasteurization and re-balanci...

  6. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia


    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  7. Temporal Profiles and Spectral Lags of XRF 060218 (United States)

    Liang, En-Wei; Zhang, Bin-Bin; Stamatikos, Mike; Zhang, Bing; Norris, Jay; Gehrels, Neil; Zhang, Jin; Dai, Z. G.


    The spectral and temporal properties of the nonthermal emission of the nearby XRF 060218 in the 0.3-150 keV band are studied. We show that both the spectral energy distribution and the light-curve properties suggest the same origin of the nonthermal emission detected by Swift BAT and XRT. This event has the longest pulse duration and spectral lag observed to date among the known GRBs. The pulse structure and its energy dependence are analogous to typical GRBs,. By extrapolating the observed spectral lag to the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) BATSE bands we find that the hypothesis that this event complies with the same luminosity-lag relation with bright GRBs cannot be ruled out at 2 sigma significance level. These intriguing facts, along with its compliance with the Amati relation, indicate that XRF 060218 shares the similar radiation physics as typical GRBs.

  8. Spatial resolution of confocal XRF technique using capillary optics. (United States)

    Dehlinger, Maël; Fauquet, Carole; Lavandier, Sebastien; Aumporn, Orawan; Jandard, Franck; Arkadiev, Vladimir; Bjeoumikhov, Aniouar; Tonneau, Didier


    XRF (X-ray fluorescence) is a powerful technique for elemental analysis with a high sensitivity. The resolution is presently limited by the size of the primary excitation X-ray beam. A test-bed for confocal-type XRF has been developed to estimate the ultimate lateral resolution which could be reached in chemical mapping using this technique. A polycapillary lens is used to tightly focus the primary X-ray beam of a low power rhodium X-ray source, while the fluorescence signal is collected by a SDD detector through a cylindrical monocapillary. This system was used to characterize the geometry of the fluorescent zone. Capillary radii ranging from 50 μm down to 5 μm were used to investigate the fluorescence signal maximum level This study allows to estimate the ultimate resolution which could be reached in-lab or on a synchrotron beamline. A new tool combining local XRF and scanning probe microscopy is finally proposed.

  9. Portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF applications in tropical Soil Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Teixeira Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The X-ray fluorescence (XRF is an analytical technique for determination of elemental composition of different materials. In soils, the XRF has many pedological, environmental and agronomic applications, mainly after the emergence of portable equipments (pXRF. This technique has been recently adopted and successfully used for soil characterization worldwide, but very rare works have been carried out in soils of developing countries. The soil characterization includes the complete elemental composition determination (nutrients, trace and rare-earth elements and allows estimating some soil physical and chemical properties. In Brazil, this technique is still incipient, mainly the use of pXRF, however, it can greatly contribute to soil characterization in-field or in-lab conditions and also replacing methods of soil analyses considered non-environmentally friendly. This review summarizes the XRF technique including principles and the main applications of pXRF in soils highlighting its potential for tropical Soil Science.

  10. Suitability of field portable XRF for the study of contaminated peat soils (United States)

    Shuttleworth, E. L.; Evans, M. G.; Rothwell, J. J.; Hutchinson, S. M.


    Upland peat soils in close proximity to urban and industrial areas can be contaminated with - and act as sinks for - high concentrations of atmospherically deposited lead. Erosion of these soils has the potential to release lead to surface waters. Lead storage is not uniform across peat surfaces and significant within-site spatial variability has previously been found. In heavily degraded areas this is further complicated by gullying and the removal of surface material from bare peat flats. Quantifying lead concentrations across the surface of actively eroding peatlands is vital in order to understand lead storage and release in such systems. Field portable x-ray fluorescence (FPXRF) continues to gain acceptance in the study of metal contaminated soil; however, FPXRF has not been used to conduct field surveys of contaminated peat soils due to their high moisture content. FPXRF analysers allow a large number of samples to be processed in a relatively short time giving a high level of detail with little disturbance to the surrounding area. They also offer significant advantages over off-site laboratory analysis in terms of on-site decision making and faster turn-around of results. This study compares lead concentration data obtained in situ using a handheld Niton XL3t 900 X-Ray Fluorescence analyser with data derived from ex situ lab based analyses. In situ measurements were acquired across degraded and intact peatland sites in the Peak District, southern Pennines, UK. Field samples were then dried, homogenised and analysed again using the FPXRF before subsequent acid digestion and analysis using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The moisture content of the samples was also determined and used to normalise the in situ field measurements. A good relationship was found between in situ and ex situ lead concentration data. Linear regression analysis yielded r2 values of 0.80 (in situ XRF vs. ICP-OES) and 0.82 (in situ XRF vs. ex situ XRF

  11. Exploration of mXRF analysis of gunshot residue from cartridge cases (United States)

    Janssen, Martin; Stamouli, Amalia; Knijnenberg, Alwin


    During the reconstruction of a shooting incident, several analytical techniques are at the disposal of forensic scientists. The Netherlands Forensic Institute is exploring the opportunities in which mXRF can be used to obtain information in these reconstructions. In this paper the possibilities of using the 2D-mXRF instrument as a screening tool are explored. Primarily the focus is on using mXRF to obtain information regarding the elemental composition of gunshot residue from cartridge cases. Secondly, the possibilities of using the 2D-mXRF instrument to, quickly and easily, set up databases for gunshot residue analysis are investigated.

  12. Depth elemental imaging of forensic samples by confocal micro-XRF method. (United States)

    Nakano, Kazuhiko; Nishi, Chihiro; Otsuki, Kazunori; Nishiwaki, Yoshinori; Tsuji, Kouichi


    Micro-XRF is a significant tool for the analysis of small regions. A micro-X-ray beam can be created in the laboratory by various focusing X-ray optics. Previously, nondestructive 3D-XRF analysis had not been easy because of the high penetration of fluorescent X-rays emitted into the sample. A recently developed confocal micro-XRF technique combined with polycapillary X-ray lenses enables depth-selective analysis. In this paper, we applied a new tabletop confocal micro-XRF system to analyze several forensic samples, that is, multilayered automotive paint fragments and leather samples, for use in the criminaliztics. Elemental depth profiles and mapping images of forensic samples were successfully obtained by the confocal micro-XRF technique. Multilayered structures can be distinguished in forensic samples by their elemental depth profiles. However, it was found that some leather sheets exhibited heterogeneous distribution. To confirm the validity, the result of a conventional micro-XRF of the cross section was compared with that of the confocal micro-XRF. The results obtained by the confocal micro-XRF system were in approximate agreement with those obtained by the conventional micro-XRF. Elemental depth imaging was performed on the paint fragments and leather sheets to confirm the homogeneity of the respective layers of the sample. The depth images of the paint fragment showed homogeneous distribution in each layer expect for Fe and Zn. In contrast, several components in the leather sheets were predominantly localized.

  13. Trace element analysis on speleothems using micro-XRF scanning (United States)

    Plessen, Birgit; Tjallingii, Rik; Dudashvilli, Alexey; Cheng, Hai; Wolff, Christian; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.


    Non-destructive micro-XRF scanning is a well-established, accurate and efficient method for high-resolution geochemical analyses on finely laminated sediments, e.g. for distinguishing detrital and authigenic layers in lake sediments. To test this method's applicability on speleothems, micro-XRF scanning analyses were performed on finely polished speleothems using the EAGLE-III-XL micro-XRF scanner at GFZ Potsdam. This scanner can perform multi-element analyses over a predefined sampling profile at sampling rates between 20 and 250 micro m trace of samples no larger than 30 x 30 cm. We measured profiles on two late to mid Holocene stalagmites from caves of the Keklik and Uluu Too mountains near Osh (Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia) with a spot size of 53 micro m. We ran each profile at least twice to obtain replicate measurements of the elements Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, and Sr. The caves are situated in Upper Devonian to Lower Carboniferous limestone formations at the SE rim of the Fergana Basin. Both speleothems are characterized by distinct alternating light and darker colored laminae that also reveal strong variations of trace elements and potentially provide information concerning variations in dust load, soil development, vegetation, precipitation and infiltration. One speleothem shows elevated Cl and S contents during relatively dry periods associated with salt dust input, probably derived from the Aral Sea region. Identification of the dry periods is further supported by stable oxygen and carbon isotope data. The multi-proxy chemical analyses suggest that Holocene humidity variations in this region are linked to variable strength of the North Atlantic westerlies regime. However, further validation of element variations in speleothems based on host rock and soil chemistry, monitored drip water composition and local climatic variations are needed to improve climatic and of environmental interpretations.

  14. Micro-XRF analysis of silver coins from medieval Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyo-Meléndez, Julio M. del, E-mail: [Laboratory of Analysis and Non-Destructive Investigation of Heritage Objects, National Museum in Krakow, Krakow 31109 (Poland); Świt, Paweł [Jerzy Haber Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow 30239 (Poland); Faculty of Chemistry, Jagiellonian University, Krakow 30060 (Poland); Matosz, Marta [Laboratory of Analysis and Non-Destructive Investigation of Heritage Objects, National Museum in Krakow, Krakow 31109 (Poland); Woźniak, Mateusz [Numismatic Cabinet, National Museum in Krakow, Krakow 31109 (Poland); Klisińska-Kopacz, Anna [Laboratory of Analysis and Non-Destructive Investigation of Heritage Objects, National Museum in Krakow, Krakow 31109 (Poland); Bratasz, Łukasz [Laboratory of Analysis and Non-Destructive Investigation of Heritage Objects, National Museum in Krakow, Krakow 31109 (Poland); Jerzy Haber Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow 30239 (Poland)


    Highlights: •A micro-XRF study of the surface composition of Polish Ag coins was conducted. •The main elements are Ag, Cu and Pb; with Ag concentrations in the 82–98% range. •The results indicate that revaluation probably took place during 995–1031. -- Abstract: X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis has become a standard method in archaeological science due to its non-invasive and non-destructive nature. This technique has extensively been used for the study of numismatic collections since the data derived from it can be correlated with manufacturing processes, provenance of raw materials, and geographical distribution of ancient mints. A group of 71 silver coins of the first Piasts: Boleslaus the Brave (996–1025) and Mieszko II Lambert (1025–1034) belonging to the collections of the National Museum in Krakow have been characterized using micro-XRF spectrometry. This is the most numerous collection of their coins representing nearly 30% of all known coins from these rulers. The research has focused on evaluating the use of this technique as a screening tool for elemental surface characterization of the alloys. Surveyed coins are mainly constituted by Ag, Cu and Pb along with trace levels of Fe, Ni, Zn, Au, Hg, Bi, and Br. Quantitative analyses have revealed Ag contents in the 81.6–97.5% range for all the evaluated coins. This study had the goal of providing information about the elemental composition of these objects, which will serve to enhance the existing knowledge about geographical and chronological diversification of Polish numismatic collections.

  15. Micro-XRF analysis of silver coins from medieval Poland (United States)

    del Hoyo-Meléndez, Julio M.; Świt, Paweł; Matosz, Marta; Woźniak, Mateusz; Klisińska-Kopacz, Anna; Bratasz, Łukasz


    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis has become a standard method in archaeological science due to its non-invasive and non-destructive nature. This technique has extensively been used for the study of numismatic collections since the data derived from it can be correlated with manufacturing processes, provenance of raw materials, and geographical distribution of ancient mints. A group of 71 silver coins of the first Piasts: Boleslaus the Brave (996-1025) and Mieszko II Lambert (1025-1034) belonging to the collections of the National Museum in Krakow have been characterized using micro-XRF spectrometry. This is the most numerous collection of their coins representing nearly 30% of all known coins from these rulers. The research has focused on evaluating the use of this technique as a screening tool for elemental surface characterization of the alloys. Surveyed coins are mainly constituted by Ag, Cu and Pb along with trace levels of Fe, Ni, Zn, Au, Hg, Bi, and Br. Quantitative analyses have revealed Ag contents in the 81.6-97.5% range for all the evaluated coins. This study had the goal of providing information about the elemental composition of these objects, which will serve to enhance the existing knowledge about geographical and chronological diversification of Polish numismatic collections.

  16. A Combined XRD/XRF Instrument for Lunar Resource Assessment (United States)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Blacic, J. D.


    Robotic surface missions to the Moon should be capable of measuring mineral as well as chemical abundances in regolith samples. Although much is already known about the lunar regolith, our data are far from comprehensive. Most of the regolith samples returned to Earth for analysis had lost the upper surface, or it was intermixed with deeper regolith. This upper surface is the part of the regolith most recently exposed to the solar wind; as such it will be important to resource assessment. In addition, it may be far easier to mine and process the uppermost few centimeters of regolith over a broad area than to engage in deep excavation of a smaller area. The most direct means of analyzing the regolith surface will be by studies in situ. In addition, the analysis of the impact-origin regolith surfaces, the Fe-rich glasses of mare pyroclastic deposits, are of resource interest, but are inadequately known; none of the extensive surface-exposed pyroclastic deposits of the Moon have been systematically sampled, although we know something about such deposits from the Apollo 17 site. Because of the potential importance of pyroclastic deposits, methods to quantify glass as well as mineral abundances will be important to resource evaluation. Combined x ray diffraction (XRD) and x ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis will address many resource characterization problems on the Moon. XRF methods are valuable for obtaining full major-element abundances with high precision. Such data, collected in parallel with quantitative mineralogy, permit unambiguous determination of both mineral and chemical abundances where concentrations are high enough to be of resource grade. Collection of both XRD and XRF data from a single sample provides simultaneous chemical and mineralogic information. These data can be used to correlate quantitative chemistry and mineralogy as a set of simultaneous linear equations, the solution of which can lead to full characterization of the sample. The use of

  17. Elemental mapping of medieval teeth using XRF technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muja, Cristina [Laboratoire Diagnostics des Plasma, CUFR J.F.C, Albi (France); Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest (Romania); Vasile Parvan Institute of Archaeology, Bucharest (Romania); Therese, Laurent; Guillot, Philippe, E-mail: [Laboratoire Diagnostics des Plasma, CUFR J.F.C, Albi (France)


    Full text: Recent developments in X-Ray Fluorescence micro-analysis techniques made the traditional range of XRF applications expand, benefiting from the combination of single point analysis with high spatial element imaging. The sample is scanned through the X-Ray beam and corresponding spectra are continuously read from the detector and correlated to a particular position on the sample. In this work, elemental concentrations were obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique (Jobin Yvon Horiba XGT-5000 instrument) offering detailed elemental analysis. The instrument is equipped with a tungsten X-ray tube and a beryllium window, operating at 50 kV with a beam collimator of 100{mu}m in diameter to irradiate the sample and with a Si detector. Tooth mapping provided semi-quantitative information and highlighted the regions of interest. Then multi-points analysis was used to obtain quantitative results on calcium, phosphorus, strontium and iron. As the chemical composition of dental tissues is similar to the one of bone tissue, the certified reference materials NIST SRM 1400 Bone Ash and NIST SRM 1486 Bone Meal were used for calibration. In this study, only permanent first molars were selected for analysis. The material comes from the medieval cemetery (XII{sup th} . XIII{sup th}) of Feldioara (Bra.ov County, Romania). In the same time, modern teeth were used as reference. The top of the tooth was removed using a diamond disk, with a cut lying perpendicular to the dental cusps, creating a flat transversal surface to be characterized. XRF elemental (Ca, P, Sr, Fe) and ratio (Ca/P, Sr/Ca, Sr/Fe) distribution images for dental tissues (enamel and dentin) were obtained from past and modern teeth with and without caries and the results are presented and discussed. The analysis of the spatial element distribution in the teeth tissues revealed severe alterations in elemental composition of both enamel and dentin from the regions affected by caries that were confirmed by the

  18. XPS and XRF depth patina profiles of ancient silver coins (United States)

    Caridi, F.; Torrisi, L.; Cutroneo, M.; Barreca, F.; Gentile, C.; Serafino, T.; Castrizio, D.


    Ancient silver coins of different historical periods going from IV cent. B.C. up to recent XIX century, coming from different Mediterranean countries have been investigated with different surface physical analyses. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis has been performed by using electron emission induced by 1.4 keV X-rays. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis has been devoted by using 30 keV electron beam. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been employed to analyze the surface morphology and the X-ray map distribution by using a 30 keV microbeam. Techniques were used to investigate about the patina composition and trace elements as a function of the sample depth obtained coupling XPS to 3 keV argon ion sputtering technique.

  19. Portable XRF analysis of occupational air filter samples from different workplaces using different samplers: final results, summary and conclusions. (United States)

    Harper, Martin; Pacolay, Bruce; Hintz, Patrick; Bartley, David L; Slaven, James E; Andrew, Michael E


    This paper concludes a five-year program on research into the use of a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer for analyzing lead in air sampling filters from different industrial environments, including mining, manufacturing and recycling. The results from four of these environments have already been reported. The results from two additional metal processes are presented here. At both of these sites, lead was a minor component of the total airborne metals and interferences from other elements were minimal. Nevertheless, only results from the three sites where lead was the most abundant metal were used in the overall calculation of method accuracy. The XRF analyzer was used to interrogate the filters, which were then subjected to acid digestion and analysis by inductively-coupled plasma optical-emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The filter samples were collected using different filter-holders or "samplers" where the size (diameter), depth and homogeneity of aerosol deposit varied from sampler to sampler. The aerosol collection efficiencies of the samplers were expected to differ, especially for larger particles. The distribution of particles once having entered the sampler was also expected to differ between samplers. Samplers were paired to allow the between-sampler variability to be addressed, and, in some cases, internal sampler wall deposits were evaluated and compared to the filter catch. It was found, rather surprisingly, that analysis of the filter deposits (by ICP-OES) of all the samplers gave equivalent results. It was also found that deposits on some of the sampler walls, which in some protocols are considered part of the sample, could be significant in comparison to the filter deposit. If it is concluded that wall-deposits should be analyzed, then XRF analysis of the filter can only give a minimum estimate of the concentration. Techniques for the statistical analysis of field data were also developed as part of this program and have been reported

  20. Iron-related toxicity of single-walled carbon nanotubes and crocidolite fibres in human mesothelial cells investigated by Synchrotron XRF microscopy. (United States)

    Cammisuli, Francesca; Giordani, Silvia; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Rizzardi, Clara; Radillo, Lucia; Zweyer, Marina; Da Ros, Tatiana; Salomé, Murielle; Melato, Mauro; Pascolo, Lorella


    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising products in industry and medicine, but there are several human health concerns since their fibrous structure resembles asbestos. The presence of transition metals, mainly iron, in the fibres seems also implicated in the pathogenetic mechanisms. To unravel the role of iron at mesothelial level, we compared the chemical changes induced in MeT-5A cells by the exposure to asbestos (crocidolite) or CNTs at different content of iron impurities (raw-SWCNTs, purified- and highly purified-SWCNTs). We applied synchrotron-based X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) microscopy and soft X-ray imaging (absorption and phase contrast images) to monitor chemical and morphological changes of the exposed cells. In parallel, we performed a ferritin assay. X-ray microscopy imaging and XRF well localize the crocidolite fibres interacting with cells, as well as the damage-related morphological changes. Differently, CNTs presence could be only partially evinced by low energy XRF through carbon distribution and sometimes iron co-localisation. Compared to controls, the cells treated with raw-SWCNTs and crocidolite fibres showed a severe alteration of iron distribution and content, with concomitant stimulation of ferritin production. Interestingly, highly purified nanotubes did not altered iron metabolism. The data provide new insights for possible CNTs effects at mesothelial/pleural level in humans.

  1. µ-XRF Studies on the Colour Brilliance in Ancient Wool Carpets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Meyer


    Full Text Available Many handmade ancient and recent oriental wool carpets show outstanding brilliance and persistence of colour that is not achieved by common industrial dyeing procedures. Anthropologists have suggested the influence of wool fermentation prior to dyeing as key technique to achieve the high dyeing quality. By means of μ-XRF elemental mapping of mordant metals we corroborate this view and show a deep and homogenous penetration of colourants into fermented wool fibres. Furthermore we are able to apply this technique and prove that the fermentation process for ancient specimens cannot be investigated by standard methods due to the lack of intact cuticle layers. This finding suggests a broad range of further investigations that will contribute to a deeper understanding of the development of traditional dyeing techniques. Spectroscopic studies add information on the oxidation states of the metal ions within the respective mordant-dye-complexes and suggest a partial charge transfer as basis for a significant colour change when Fe mordants are used.

  2. In-Situ XRF Measurements in Lunar Surface Exploration Using Apollo Samples as a Standard (United States)

    Young, Kelsey E.; Evans, C.; Allen, C.; Mosie, A.; Hodges, K. V.


    Samples collected during the Apollo lunar surface missions were sampled and returned to Earth by astronauts with varying degrees of geological experience. The technology used in these EVAs, or extravehicular activities, included nothing more advanced than traditional terrestrial field instruments: rock hammer, scoop, claw tool, and sample bags. 40 years after Apollo, technology is being developed that will allow for a high-resolution geochemical map to be created in the field real-time. Handheld x-ray fluorescence (XRF) technology is one such technology. We use handheld XRF to enable a broad in-situ characterization of a geologic site of interest based on fairly rapid techniques that can be implemented by either an astronaut or a robotic explorer. The handheld XRF instrument we used for this study was the Innov-X Systems Delta XRF spectrometer.

  3. XRF and leaching characterization of waste glasses derived from wastewater treatment sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragsdale, Jr, Robert G. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)


    Purpose of this study was to investigate use of XRF (x-ray fluorescence spectrometry) as a near real-time method to determine melter glass compositions. A range of glasses derived from wastewater treatment sludges associated with DOE sites was prepared. They were analyzed by XRF and wet chemistry digestion with atomic absorption/inductively coupled emission spectrometry. Results indicated good correlation between these two methods. A rapid sample preparation and analysis technique was developed and demonstrated by acquiring a sample from a pilot-scale simulated waste glass melter and analyzing it by XRF within one hour. From the results, XRF shows excellent potential as a process control tool for waste glass vitrification. Glasses prepared for this study were further analyzed for durability by toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and product consistency test and results are presented.

  4. Exposure measurements on portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometers (XRF); Expositionsmessungen an mobilen Roentgenfluoreszenz-Spektrometern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boernsen, Frank; Ludwig, Thomas [Berufsgenossenschaft Energie Textil Elektro Medienerzeugnisse (BG ETEM), Koeln (Germany). Fachbereich Strahlenschutz; Hoewekenmeier, Dirk; Reinhardt, Erich [Bezirksregierung Koeln (Germany). Dezernat 55 - Strahlenschutz


    Portable XRF are more and more used for the verification of alloy in miscellaneous materials. Dose rates of five portable XRF were measured with thermoluminescent dose meters in combination with an Alderson phantom. At operating parameters of 40 kV and 50 {mu}A, for example, an extremely high dose rate of 76 Sv/h in the primary beam had been determined. The measurements, the results and the consequences for protection measures will be presented and discussed. (orig.)

  5. XRF map identification problems based on a PDE electrodeposition model (United States)

    Sgura, Ivonne; Bozzini, Benedetto


    In this paper we focus on the following map identification problem (MIP): given a morphochemical reaction-diffusion (RD) PDE system modeling an electrodepostion process, we look for a time t *, belonging to the transient dynamics and a set of parameters \\mathbf{p} , such that the PDE solution, for the morphology h≤ft(x,y,{{t}\\ast};\\mathbf{p}\\right) and for the chemistry θ ≤ft(x,y,{{t}\\ast};\\mathbf{p}\\right) approximates a given experimental map M *. Towards this aim, we introduce a numerical algorithm using singular value decomposition (SVD) and Frobenius norm to give a measure of error distance between experimental maps for h and θ and simulated solutions of the RD-PDE system on a fixed time integration interval. The technique proposed allows quantitative use of microspectroscopy images, such as XRF maps. Specifically, in this work we have modelled the morphology and manganese distributions of nanostructured components of innovative batteries and we have followed their changes resulting from ageing under operating conditions. The availability of quantitative information on space-time evolution of active materials in terms of model parameters will allow dramatic improvements in knowledge-based optimization of battery fabrication and operation.

  6. Portable XRF Technology to Quantify Pb in Bone In Vivo. (United States)

    Specht, Aaron James; Weisskopf, Marc; Nie, Linda Huiling


    Lead is a ubiquitous toxicant. Bone lead has been established as an important biomarker for cumulative lead exposures and has been correlated with adverse health effects on many systems in the body. K-shell X-ray fluorescence (KXRF) is the standard method for measuring bone lead, but this approach has many difficulties that have limited the widespread use of this exposure assessment method. With recent advancements in X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technology, we have developed a portable system that can quantify lead in bone in vivo within 3 minutes. Our study investigated improvements to the system, four calibration methods, and system validation for in vivo measurements. Our main results show that the detection limit of the system is 2.9 ppm with 2 mm soft tissue thickness, the best calibration method for in vivo measurement is background subtraction, and there is strong correlation between KXRF and portable LXRF bone lead results. Our results indicate that the technology is ready to be used in large human population studies to investigate adverse health effects of lead exposure. The portability of the system and fast measurement time should allow for this technology to greatly advance the research on lead exposure and public/environmental health.

  7. Nondestructive analysis of Portuguese "dinheiros" using XRF: overcoming patina constraints (United States)

    Pessanha, Sofia; Costa, Mário; Oliveira, Maria Inês; Jorge, Maria Estrela M.; Carvalho, Maria Luísa


    "Dinheiros" are the first Portuguese coins, minted with a billon alloy (majority-based copper alloyed with silver). In this work, a set of "dinheiros" from D. Fernando of Portugal was analyzed and the composition of the alloy was compared with other "dinheiros" from previous reigns. Although the coins were in good state of conservation and no active corrosion was macroscopically observable, they still presented a corrosion layer of unknown thickness that would impair the XRF quantitative determinations. In order to overcome this hindrance, the silver K/L intensity ratios were determined and compared for the analyzed samples in order to choose "clean" spots for quantitative analysis. The results show a clear decrease in the Ag content: from 7-9 % in the previous reigns to 0.2-0.3 % in the coins attributed to D. Fernando. The silver content determined is very comparable to the silver content determined in other copper or bronze artifacts analyzed, leading us to believe that this low amount of silver was not intentionally introduced to create a billon alloy but relates to impurities present in the original mineral specimen.

  8. SAFARI 2000 Atmospheric Aerosol Measurements, Hand-held Hazemeters, Zambia (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In conjunction with the AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) participation in SAFARI 2000, the USDA Forest Service deployed handheld hazemeters in western Zambia from...

  9. SAFARI 2000 Atmospheric Aerosol Measurements, Hand-held Hazemeters, Zambia (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: In conjunction with the AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) participation in SAFARI 2000, the USDA Forest Service deployed handheld hazemeters in western...

  10. Real-Time Hand-Held Magnetometer Array (United States)


    Time Magnetometer Array Geometrics ix 1.3 LIST OF ACRONYMS ADC – Analog to Digital Converter AFE – Analog Front End AGC – Automatic Gain...automatically and in real time. Linear arrays of magnetometer sensors have been deployed in many scenarios in unexploded ordnance (UXO) detection. These have...past or over a target. This leads to various positioning and time changing errors, which limits the accuracy of the device. However, linear arrays

  11. Hand-Held Calculator Algorithms for Coastal Engineering. (United States)


    A. Birkemeier, and J. Richard Weggel 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK Department of the Army AREA...ENT) _____ AJEuZ 2- C ATM DEPTH f(t CitM) j(ccM) FSi Z 2 Yi 4 E N T 9-wAvE i-tc, -. U Ar DC.PTI d 14 (t oe r H (4hce i) r~ Z 5 ti~ eNFP WAEPPIj T (SEC

  12. Hand held sample tube manipulator, system and method (United States)

    Kenny, Donald V [Liberty Township, OH; Smith, Deborah L [Liberty Township, OH; Severance, Richard A [late of Columbus, OH


    A manipulator apparatus, system and method for measuring analytes present in sample tubes. The manipulator apparatus includes a housing having a central bore with an inlet end and outlet end; a plunger mechanism with at least a portion thereof slideably disposed for reciprocal movement within the central bore, the plunger mechanism having a tubular gas channel with an inlet end and an outlet end, the gas channel inlet end disposed in the same direction as said inlet end of the central bore, wherein the inlet end of said plunger mechanism is adapted for movement so as to expel a sample tube inserted in the bore at the outlet end of the housing, the inlet end of the plunger mechanism is adapted for connection to gas supply; a first seal is disposed in the housing for sealing between the central bore and the plunger mechanism; a second seal is disposed at the outlet end of the housing for sealing between the central bore and a sample tube; a holder mounted on the housing for holding the sample tube; and a biasing mechanism for returning the plunger mechanism to a starting position.

  13. Absorption Related to Hand-Held Devices in Data Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert F.


    The human body has an influence on the radiation from handheld devices like smartphones, tablets and laptops, part of the energy is absorbed and the spatial distribution of the radiated part is modified. Previous studies of whole body absorp- tion have mainly been numerical or related to talk mode....... In the present paper an experimental study involving four volunteers and three different devices is performed from 0.5 to 3 GHz. The devices are a laptop, a tablet, and a smartphone all held in the lap. The 3D distribution of radiation is measured. Comparing the integrated power in the case of a person present...

  14. Testing of Hand-Held Mine Detection Systems (United States)


    samples, chemically and physically well characterized, typically have well defined electromagnetic (EM) properties (electrical permittivity and...Radiated Emissions - Radiated Susceptibility - Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Ordnance (HERO) - Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Fuel ...I-2 APPENDIX I. ABBREVIATIONS. HEMP High altitude electromagnetic pulse HERF Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Fuel HERO Hazards of

  15. Development of a hand-held fast neutron survey meter. (United States)

    Yoshida, T; Tsujimura, N; Yamano, T


    A neutron survey meter with a ZnS(Ag) scintillator to measure recoil protons was built. The detection probe weighs ~2 kg, therefore providing us with true portability. Performance tests exhibited satisfactory neutron dosimetry characteristics in unmoderated or lightly moderated fission neutron fields and in particular work environments at a mixed oxide fuel facility. This new survey meter will augment a routine of neutron monitoring that is inconveniently being carried out by moderator-based neutron survey meters.

  16. Characterization study of industrial waste glass as starting material ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In present study, an industrial waste glass was characterized and the potential to assess as starting material in development of bioactive materials was investigated. A waste glass collected from the two different glass industry was grounded to fine powder. The samples were characterized using X-ray fluorescence (XRF), ...

  17. 57Fe Mössbauer, SEM/EDX, p-XRF and μ-XRF studies on a Dutch painting (United States)

    Lehmann, R.; Schmidt, H.-J.; Costa, B. F. O.; Blumers, M.; Sansano, A.; Rull, F.; Wengerowsky, D.; Nürnberger, F.; Maier, H. J.; Klingelhöfer, G.; Renz, F.


    The painting of a rich Jewish merchant "Bildnis eines jüdischen Kaufmanns" from the Netherlands is dated presumably to the 16th century. After a vivid historical background, i.e. robbed by the Nazis by order of Hermann Göring, it was recently discovered on an Austrian flea market. Different analysis methods were combined to identify the time of the production of this historically interesting looted art. Non-destructive MIMOS II Fe-57 Mössbauer spectroscopy was utilised for mesurements in selected spots. This mainly revealed haematite ( α-Fe2O3) in the red curtain. In spots of the brown jacket Mössbauer spectra indicated the presence of mainly Iron(III) in super-paramagnetic oxide or oxide-hydroxide. Consecutively SEM measurements revealed a restoration by partly over-painting. The elementary composition of the pigments was examined by a portable-X-ray fluorescence. μ-XRF analysis for element distribution at different areas was performed. The look into a crack showed Zinc-white at the bottom of the crack. Traces of Titanium-white could be found within some locations on the surface of the painting. In terms of provenance of the artwork, the presence of Zink-white suggests that the painting was painted around the 19th century. Titanium-white indicates a reconstruction during the 20th century, approximately between 1917 and 1958.

  18. CE-XRF-initial steps toward a non-invasive elemental sensitive detector for liquid separations. (United States)

    Tyssebotn, Inger Marie Bergø; Fittschen, Andreas; Fittschen, Ursula Elisabeth Adriane


    The toxicity, bioavailability, and mobilization of elements within the biosphere is dependent on its species. CE has emerged as a strong separation technique for elemental speciation. Conventionally, CE has been coupled with UV-vis, C 4 D, PIXE (proton-induced X-ray emission), and ICP-MS. UV-vis and C 4 D are not elemental sensitive detection methods, PIXE requires the etching of the detection window resulting in a very brittle capillary, and ICP-MS is an expensive large footprint instrument. Here, we aim to develop an elemental specific detector, XRF (X-ray fluorescence spectrometry), for use with CE. A custom-built micro-XRF was tested and static LODs were determined for 19 elements (Ca-U) with both unmodified (20-926 ppm) and modified capillaries (20-291 ppm). A custom-built CE was combined with the micro-XRF and separation of Ca 2+ and Co 2+ was obtained. Sr 2+ coeluted with Ca 2+ in the mixture, but because of the elemental sensitivity of XRF, the Sr and Ca signals could be separated. After successful testing of the micro-XRF, the feasibility of using a low-cost X-ray source and detector was tested. Even lower LODs were obtained for Ga and Rb, showing the feasibility of a smaller, low-cost XRF unit as an elemental specific detector. However, the buffer selection that can be conveniently used with XRF is currently limited due to capillary corrosion, likely correlated to radiolysis. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. PyXRF: Python-based X-ray fluorescence analysis package (United States)

    Li, Li; Yan, Hanfei; Xu, Wei; Yu, Dantong; Heroux, Annie; Lee, Wah-Keat; Campbell, Stuart I.; Chu, Yong S.


    We developed a python-based fluorescence analysis package (PyXRF) at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) for the X-ray fluorescence-microscopy beamlines, including Hard X-ray Nanoprobe (HXN), and Submicron Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy (SRX). This package contains a high-level fitting engine, a comprehensive commandline/ GUI design, rigorous physics calculations, and a visualization interface. PyXRF offers a method of automatically finding elements, so that users do not need to spend extra time selecting elements manually. Moreover, PyXRF provides a convenient and interactive way of adjusting fitting parameters with physical constraints. This will help us perform quantitative analysis, and find an appropriate initial guess for fitting. Furthermore, we also create an advanced mode for expert users to construct their own fitting strategies with a full control of each fitting parameter. PyXRF runs single-pixel fitting at a fast speed, which opens up the possibilities of viewing the results of fitting in real time during experiments. A convenient I/O interface was designed to obtain data directly from NSLS-II's experimental database. PyXRF is under open-source development and designed to be an integral part of NSLS-II's scientific computation library.

  20. Application of principal component analysis for improvement of X-ray fluorescence images obtained by polycapillary-based micro-XRF technique


    Aida, S.; Matsuno, T.; Hasegawa, T.; Tsuji, K.


    Micro X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) analysis is repeated as a means of producing elemental maps. In some cases, however, the XRF images of trace elements that are obtained are not clear due to high background intensity. To solve this problem, we applied principal component analysis (PCA) to XRF spectra. We focused on improving the quality of XRF images by applying PCA. XRF images of the dried residue of standard solution on the glass substrate were taken. The XRF intensities for the dried re...

  1. XRF Analysis of mineralogical matrix effects and differences between pulverized and fused ferromanganese slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Determination and analysis is only as good as the sample preparation that preceded it. Even the most sophisticated analysis is worthless if it follows sloppy sampling and poor preparation. Whether one does plasma emission, infrared or X-ray fluorescence or another spectroscopic technique, it is essential to get reproducible and accurate analysis. This paper shows the effect of mineralogical matrix differences in quantitative measurements by XRF of the main elements (Al, Ca, Mg, Si, Mn and K as oxides of ferromanganese alloy slag. Fused and pulverized slag show a significant difference in XRF microstructure, micro heterogeneity and mineralogy although the results of measurements between pulverized and fused slag, expressed as a percentage of the main elements, is not different. Other analytical techniques such as ICP-OES and classical gravimetric and titrimetric were also used for checking the XRF calibration accuracy

  2. Microbialite Biosignature Analysis by Mesoscale X-ray Fluorescence (μXRF) Mapping (United States)

    Tice, Michael M.; Quezergue, Kimbra; Pope, Michael C.


    As part of its biosignature detection package, the Mars 2020 rover will carry PIXL, the Planetary Instrument for X-ray Lithochemistry, a spatially resolved X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) spectrometer. Understanding the types of biosignatures detectable by μXRF and the rock types μXRF is most effective at analyzing is therefore an important goal in preparation for in situ Mars 2020 science and sample selection. We tested mesoscale chemical mapping for biosignature interpretation in microbialites. In particular, we used μXRF to identify spatial distributions and associations between various elements ("fluorescence microfacies") to infer the physical, biological, and chemical processes that produced the observed compositional distributions. As a test case, elemental distributions from μXRF scans of stromatolites from the Mesoarchean Nsuze Group (2.98 Ga) were analyzed. We included five fluorescence microfacies: laminated dolostone, laminated chert, clotted dolostone and chert, stromatolite clast breccia, and cavity fill. Laminated dolostone was formed primarily by microbial mats that trapped and bound loose sediment and likely precipitated carbonate mud at a shallow depth below the mat surface. Laminated chert was produced by the secondary silicification of microbial mats. Clotted dolostone and chert grew as cauliform, cryptically laminated mounds similar to younger thrombolites and was likely formed by a combination of mat growth and patchy precipitation of early-formed carbonate. Stromatolite clast breccias formed as lag deposits filling erosional scours and interstromatolite spaces. Cavities were filled by microquartz, Mn-rich dolomite, and partially dolomitized calcite. Overall, we concluded that μXRF is effective for inferring genetic processes and identifying biosignatures in compositionally heterogeneous rocks.

  3. Development of a (170)Tm source for mercury monitoring studies in humans using XRF. (United States)

    Timmaraju, K Phanisree; Fajurally, Bibi Najah; Armstrong, Andrea F; Chettle, David R


    The goals of the present study were to develop a (170)Tm radioisotope and generate a K XRF spectrum of mercury. Thulium foil and thulium oxide powder were both tested for impurities and the latter was found to be a better prospect for further studies. The (170)Tm radioisotope was developed from thulium oxide powder following the method of disolution and absorption. A suitable source holder and collimator were also designed based on Monte Carlo simulations. Using the radioisotope thus developed, a mercury XRF spectrum was successfully generated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A (not so) dangerous method: pXRF vs. EPMA-WDS analyses of copper-based artefacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orfanou, Vana; Rehren, Thilo


    on the comparative analyses of a set of copper-based objects by means of pXRF and EPMA. The analytical investigation aims to explore issues of instrument comparability and reliability of the non-invasive pXRF results. The different analytical approaches produce a comparable pattern for the major ele...

  5. XRF core scanners as a quick and good screening tool for detecting pollution in sediment cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Rubio


    Full Text Available The capabilities of X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF core scanners, to acquire high-resolution geochemical data sets in relatively short time, have made them an increasingly popular geochemical screening tool to study sediment cores for palaeoclimatologic and palaeoceanographic purposes (Peck et al., 2007; Rebolledo et al., 2008. These scanners are able to obtain optical images, X-ray radiographs, and continuous geochemical data with a maximum resolution of 200 µm directly from sediment cores (Croudace et al., 2006. Geochemical results are obtained as peak areas of counts per second that are proportional to element concentrations in the sediment, and thus the assumed semi-quantitative nature of these analyses have hampered the use of this type of instruments to monitor and detect pollution at large; where the availability of a fast screening tool that could substantially cut analytical and time costs will certainly be an advantage. This study explores the sensitivity of a ITRAX core scanner (Cox Analytical Systems on sedimentary records from estuarine-like environments in NW (Rías Baixas Galicia and SW Spain (Ría de Huelva. The Galician Rías Baixas sediments are characterized by high contents of organic matter, but in general terms, are not heavily polluted. We have selected one core in the Marín harbour (Ría de Pontevedra and another in the intertidal area of San Simón Bay (inner Ría de Vigo, close to a ceramic factory, which is relatively highly polluted by lead. By the contrary, the Ría de Huelva is one of the most polluted areas in western Europe because of the high acid mining activity together with the chemical industries located in its margins. We have selected a core in the Padre Santo Channel in the confluence of the Odiel and Tinto rivers. ITRAX sensitivity was obtained by establishing equivalences between peak areas and concentrations obtained by traditional analytical techniques such as ICP-MS, ICP-OES and/or conventional XRF of

  6. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescent (ED XRF) analyzer X-Art for investigation of artworks (United States)

    Serebryakov, A. S.; Demchenko, E. L.; Koudryashov, V. I.; Sokolov, A. D.


    A novel compact ED XRF analyzer based on Si(Li) detector is developed for the attribution of artworks. Approbation of the instrument in two leading museums in Moscow and St. Petersburg showed that the chemical elements in the range from Mg to Pb can be determined in the artworks simultaneosely in the open air.


    The objectives of this protocol were to remove the laminate coating from lead paint film standards acquired from NIST by means of surface heating. The average XRF value did not change after removal of the polymer coating suggesting that this protocol is satisfactory for renderin...

  8. Remote In-Situ Quantitative Mineralogical Analysis Using XRD/XRF (United States)

    Blake, D. F.; Bish, D.; Vaniman, D.; Chipera, S.; Sarrazin, P.; Collins, S. A.; Elliott, S. T.


    X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) is the most direct and accurate method for determining mineralogy. The CHEMIN XRD/XRF instrument has shown promising results on a variety of mineral and rock samples. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  9. De bepaling van aluminium in slib met behulp van een nieuwe smelttechniek en XRF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer JLM de; Boogerd JP


    Dit rapport beschrijft de monstervoorbereiding met behulp van een nieuwe smelttechniek en de analytische aspecten van de bepaling met behulp van rontgenfluorescentiespectrometrie (XRF) van aluminium en slib. De aanleiding tot dit onderzoek was de noodzaak om analytisch-chemische bijstand te

  10. Comparison between XRF and IBA techniques in analysis of fine aerosols collected in Rijeka, Croatia (United States)

    Ivošević, Tatjana; Mandić, Luka; Orlić, Ivica; Stelcer, Eduard; Cohen, David D.


    The new system for energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis has been installed at the Laboratory for Elemental Micro-Analysis (LEMA) at the University of Rijeka. Currently the key application of this new XRF system is in the field of environmental science, i.e. in the analysis of fine airborne particles. In this work, results of initial multi-elemental analysis of PM2.5 fraction is reported for the first time in the region of Rijeka, Croatia. Sampling was performed at the Rijeka City center, during a continuous 9-day period in February/March 2012. All samples were collected on stretched Teflon filters in 12 h periods. To check the reliability of the new XRF system, results of XRF analysis are compared with the results obtained by the well-established Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) laboratory at Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The concentrations of H, Na, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb were determined. In addition, black carbon was determined by Laser Integrating Plate Method (LIPM). Very good agreement between XRF and IBA techniques is obtained for all elements detected by both techniques. Elemental concentrations were correlated with the traffic volume and wind speed and direction. The summary of our findings is presented and discussed in this paper.

  11. PIXE and XRF analysis of particulate matter samples: an inter-laboratory comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calzolai, Giulia [University of Florence, Physics Department and INFN, Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Florence) (Italy); Chiari, Massimo [INFN, National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Florence (Italy); Lucarelli, Franco [University of Florence, Physics Department and INFN, Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Florence) (Italy)], E-mail:; Mazzei, Federico [University of Genoa, Physics Department and INFN, Genoa (Italy); Nava, Silvia [INFN, National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Florence (Italy); Prati, Paolo [University of Genoa, Physics Department and INFN, Genoa (Italy); Valli, Gianluigi; Vecchi, Roberta [University of Milan, Applied General Physics Institute and INFN, Milan (Italy)


    PIXE and XRF are very effective techniques in atmospheric aerosol investigation, therefore they are extensively used by the authors. In this work an inter-laboratory comparison of the results obtained analysing several samples (collected on different substrata) with both techniques is presented: the samples were analysed by PIXE (in Florence, at the 3 MV Tandetron accelerator of LABEC laboratory) and by XRF (in Genoa and Milan, where two Oxford XRF instruments are operational). The results of the three sets of measurements are in good agreement for all the analysed samples. The aim of this work was also to compare PIXE and XRF performance in atmospheric aerosol analysis with the routine set-up currently in use at the three laboratories, to determine the best technique to be applied depending on the substratum used for aerosol sampling and the main elements of interest for each specific research project. Results of the comparison between the minimum detection limits of both techniques will be shown for all the measured elements, for different substrata (Teflon, polycarbonate and cellulose mixed esters)

  12. Monitoring of WEEE plastics in regards to brominated flame retardants using handheld XRF. (United States)

    Aldrian, Alexia; Ledersteger, Alfred; Pomberger, Roland


    This contribution is focused on the on-site determination of the bromine content in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), in particular waste plastics from television sets (TV) and personal computer monitors (PC) using a handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) device. The described approach allows the examination of samples in regards to the compliance with legal specifications for polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) directly after disassembling and facilitates the sorting out of plastics with high contents of brominated flame retardants (BFRs). In all, over 3000 pieces of black (TV) and 1600 pieces of grey (PC) plastic waste were analysed with handheld XRF technique for this study. Especially noticeable was the high percentage of pieces with a bromine content of over 50,000ppm for TV (7%) and PC (39%) waste plastics. The applied method was validated by comparing the data of handheld XRF with results obtained by GC-MS. The results showed the expected and sufficiently accurate correlation between these two methods. It is shown that handheld XRF technique is an effective tool for fast monitoring of large volumes of WEEE plastics in regards to BFRs for on-site measurements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Combining micro-CT data and XRF spectra for advanced element analysis (United States)

    Boone, M. N.; Dewanckele, J.; Cnudde, V.; Silversmit, G.; Vandeputte, K.; Ernst, G.; van Hoorebeke, L.; Vincze, L.; Jacobs, P.


    Micro-computed tomography ( CT) is a very powerful tool for analysing geo-materials. However, this technique does not provide information about the elemental composition. Different compounds of the material can be reconstructed and visualised based on their attenuation coefficient, but cannot be identified. A combination of CT data with X-ray fluorescence (XRF) can provide this additional information. In XRF, incident photons from the X-ray source are absorbed, ejecting an electron from an inner shell of an atom. The resulting vacancies are filled in by electrons from outer shells, emitting X-rays with an energy characteristic for the given atom. By measuring this fluorescent spectrum, the chemical elements present in the material can be determined. Based on the peak area of the XRF line, the concentration of the corresponding element can be estimated. The combination of this technique with CT can be very valuable in the field of geo-sciences and other related research domains. In this study, two different applications of the combination of XRF and CT will be discussed. The first application obtains chemical information on the different compounds in the inner part of a granite. This information cannot be measured directly with XRF, but can be derived from the combined XRF spectra and CT data. In the second application, the chemical elements present in volcanic rock are analysed, providing information about their origin. For the first application, a Precambrian granite from China was scanned at the Centre for X-ray Tomography of the Ghent University (UGCT) at high resolution (voxel size less than 5 micrometer) and subsequently scanned with the Eagle III micro-XRF scanner from the Ghent University X-ray Microspectroscopy and Imaging Group (XMI). From the CT-scan, a 3D volume was reconstructed, where the gray value of a volume element (voxel) is proportional to the mass attenuation coefficient of the concerned voxel. The XRF imaging on the surface of the rock sample

  14. Application of GEM-based detectors in full-field XRF imaging (United States)

    Dąbrowski, W.; Fiutowski, T.; Frączek, P.; Koperny, S.; Lankosz, M.; Mendys, A.; Mindur, B.; Świentek, K.; Wiącek, P.; Wróbel, P. M.


    X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) is a commonly used technique for non-destructive elemental analysis of cultural heritage objects. It can be applied to investigations of provenance of historical objects as well as to studies of art techniques. While the XRF analysis can be easily performed locally using standard available equipment there is a growing interest in imaging of spatial distribution of specific elements. Spatial imaging of elemental distrbutions is usually realised by scanning an object with a narrow focused X-ray excitation beam and measuring characteristic fluorescence radiation using a high energy resolution detector, usually a silicon drift detector. Such a technique, called macro-XRF imaging, is suitable for investigation of flat surfaces but it is time consuming because the spatial resolution is basically determined by the spot size of the beam. Another approach is the full-field XRF, which is based on simultaneous irradiation and imaging of large area of an object. The image of the investigated area is projected by a pinhole camera on a position-sensitive and energy dispersive detector. The infinite depth of field of the pinhole camera allows one, in principle, investigation of non-flat surfaces. One of possible detectors to be employed in full-field XRF imaging is a GEM based detector with 2-dimensional readout. In the paper we report on development of an imaging system equipped with a standard 3-stage GEM detector of 10 × 10 cm2 equipped with readout electronics based on dedicated full-custom ASICs and DAQ system. With a demonstrator system we have obtained 2-D spatial resolution of the order of 100 μm and energy resolution at a level of 20% FWHM for 5.9 keV . Limitations of such a detector due to copper fluorescence radiation excited in the copper-clad drift electrode and GEM foils is discussed and performance of the detector using chromium-clad electrodes is reported.

  15. Monitoring of WEEE plastics in regards to brominated flame retardants using handheld XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrian, Alexia, E-mail: [Chair of Waste Processing Technology and Waste Management, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz-Josef-Straße 18, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Ledersteger, Alfred, E-mail: [Saubermacher Dienstleistungs AG, Hans-Roth-Straße 1, 8073 Feldkirchen bei Graz (Austria); Pomberger, Roland, E-mail: [Chair of Waste Processing Technology and Waste Management, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Franz-Josef-Straße 18, 8700 Leoben (Austria)


    Highlights: • Specification of an empirical factor for conversion from bromine to PBB and PBDE. • The handheld XRF device was validated for this particular application. • A very large number of over 4600 pieces of monitor housings was analysed. • The recyclable fraction mounts up to 85% for TV but only 53% of PC waste plastics. • A high percentage of pieces with bromine contents of over 50,000 ppm was obtained. - Abstract: This contribution is focused on the on-site determination of the bromine content in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), in particular waste plastics from television sets (TV) and personal computer monitors (PC) using a handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) device. The described approach allows the examination of samples in regards to the compliance with legal specifications for polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) directly after disassembling and facilitates the sorting out of plastics with high contents of brominated flame retardants (BFRs). In all, over 3000 pieces of black (TV) and 1600 pieces of grey (PC) plastic waste were analysed with handheld XRF technique for this study. Especially noticeable was the high percentage of pieces with a bromine content of over 50,000 ppm for TV (7%) and PC (39%) waste plastics. The applied method was validated by comparing the data of handheld XRF with results obtained by GC–MS. The results showed the expected and sufficiently accurate correlation between these two methods. It is shown that handheld XRF technique is an effective tool for fast monitoring of large volumes of WEEE plastics in regards to BFRs for on-site measurements.

  16. Performance evaluation of the ORNL multi-elemental XRF analysis algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElroy, Robert Dennis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Hybrid K-Edge Densitometer (HKED) systems integrate both K-Edge Densitometry (KED) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyses to provide accurate rapid, assay results of the uranium and plutonium content of dissolver solution samples from nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. Introduced for international safeguards applications in the late 1980s, the XRF component of the hybrid analyses is limited to quantification of U and Pu over a narrow range of U:Pu concentration ratios in the vicinity of ≈100. The analysis was further limited regarding the presence of minor actinide components where only a single minor actinide (typically Am) is included in the analysis and then only treated as an interference. The evolving nuclear fuel cycle has created the need to assay more complex dissolver solutions where uranium may no longer be the dominant actinide in the solution and the concentrations of the so called minor actinides (e.g., Th, Np, Am, and Cm) are sufficiently high that they can no longer be treated as impurities and ignored. Extension of the traditional HKED Region of Interest (ROI) based analysis to include these additional actinides is not possible due to the increased complexity of the XRF spectra. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a spectral fitting approach to the HKED XRF measurement with an enhanced algorithm set to accommodate these complex XRF spectra. This report provides a summary of the spectral fitting methodology and examines the performance of these algorithms using data obtained from the ORNL HKED system, as well as data provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on actual dissolver solutions.

  17. Analysis of the elemental composition of marine litter by field-portable-XRF. (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Solman, Kevin R


    Marine litter represents a pervasive environmental problem that poses direct threats to wildlife and habitats. Indirectly, litter can also act as a vehicle for the exposure and bioaccumulation of chemicals that are associated with manufactured or processed solids. In this study, we describe the use of a Niton field-portable-x-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) spectrometer to determine the content of 17 elements in beached plastics, foams, ropes and painted items. The instrument was used in a 'plastics' mode configured for complex, low density materials, and employed a thickness correction algorithm to account for varying sample depth. Accuracy was evaluated by analysing two reference polyethylene discs and was better than 15% for all elements that had been artificially impregnated into the polymer. Regarding the litter samples, limits of detection for a 120s counting time varied between the different material categories and among the elements but were generally lowest for plastics and painted items with median concentrations of less than 10μgg(-1) for As, Bi, Br, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn. Concentrations returned by the XRF were highly sensitive to the thickness correction applied for certain elements (Ba, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, Sb, Ti, Zn) in all matrices tested, indicating that accurate measurement and application of the correct thickness is critical for acquiring reliable results. An independent measure of the elemental content of selected samples by ICP spectrometry following acid digestion returned concentrations that were significantly correlated with those returned by the XRF, and with an overall slope of [XRF]/[ICP]=0.85. Within the FP-XRF operating conditions, Cl, Cr, Fe, Ti and Zn were detected in more than 50% and Hg and Se in less than 1% of the 376 litter samples analysed. Significant from an environmental perspective were concentrations of the hazardous elements, Cd, Br and Pb, that exceeded several thousand μgg(-1) in many cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  18. In Vivo Quantification of Lead in Bone with a Portable X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) System – Methodology and Feasibility (United States)

    Nie, LH; Sanchez, S; Newton, K; Grodzins, L; Cleveland, RO; Weisskopf, MG


    This study was conducted to investigate the methodology and feasibility of developing a portable XRF technology to quantify lead (Pb) in bone in vivo. A portable XRF device was set up and optimal setting of voltage, current, and filter combination for bone lead quantification were selected to achieve the lowest detection limit. The minimum radiation dose delivered to the subject was calculated by Monte Carlo simulations. An ultrasound device was used to measure soft tissue thickness to account for signal attenuation, and an alternative method to obtain soft tissue thickness from the XRF spectrum was developed and shown to be equivalent to the ultrasound measurements (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, ICC=0.82). We tested the correlation of in vivo bone lead concentrations between the standard KXRF technology and the portable XRF technology. There was a significant correlation between the bone lead concentrations obtained from the standard KXRF technology and those obtained from the portable XRF technology (ICC=0.65). The detection limit for the portable XRF device was about 8.4 ppm with 2 mm soft tissue thickness. The entrance skin dose delivered to the human subject was about 13 mSv and the total body effective dose was about 1.5 μSv and should pose a minimal radiation risk. In conclusion, portable XRF technology can be used for in vivo bone lead measurement with sensitivity comparable to the KXRF technology and good correlation with KXRF measurements. PMID:21242629

  19. New insights into the painting stratigraphy of L'Homme blesse by Gustave Courbet combining scanning macro-XRF and confocal micro-XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiche, Ina [Staatliche Museen zu Berlin-Preussischer Kulturbesitz, Rathgen-Forschungslabor, Berlin (Germany); Laboratoire d' Archeologie Moleculaire et Structurale, Sorbonne Universites, Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 8220, Paris (France); Eveno, Myriam; Pichon, Laurent; Laval, Eric; Mottin, Bruno [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France (C2RMF), Paris (France); Mueller, Katharina [Laboratoire d' Archeologie Moleculaire et Structurale, Sorbonne Universites, Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 8220, Paris (France); Calligaro, Thomas [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France (C2RMF), Paris (France); PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech-CNRS, Institut de Recherche Chimie Paris, Paris (France); Mysak, Erin [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France (C2RMF), Paris (France); Yale University, Institute for the Preservation of Cultural Heritage, New Haven, CT (United States)


    The painting L'Homme blesse by Gustave Courbet kept at the Musee d'Orsay in Paris has been recently studied by X-ray radiography, SEM-EDX observation of paint cross sections and confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence analyses (CXRF) at locations where the cross section samples were taken. This study allowed the establishment of the paint palette used by Courbet for the three paint compositions. Eight or more paint layers could be evidenced. In the view of the complexity of this painting, further analyses using two-dimensional scanning macro-X-ray fluorescence imaging (MA-XRF) providing chemical images corresponding to the superimposition of all detectable paint layers were employed. This method is combined with CXRF for depth-resolved paint layer analysis. Large elemental maps of Hg, Cu, As, Fe, Zn, Cr, Ba, Pb and Ca were obtained by MA-XRF on the painting and are discussed in combination with depth profiles obtained by CXRF on strategic points where three painting compositions overlap. The order of three successive compositions of this painting were determined in this study. This work also highlights the benefits of using complementary imaging methods to obtain a complete three-dimensional vision of the chemistry and stratigraphy of paintings. (orig.)

  20. PXRF, μ-XRF, vacuum μ-XRF, and EPMA analysis of Email Champlevé objects present in Belgian museums. (United States)

    Van der Linden, Veerle; Meesdom, Eva; Devos, Annemie; Van Dooren, Rita; Nieuwdorp, Hans; Janssen, Elsje; Balace, Sophie; Vekemans, Bart; Vincze, Laszlo; Janssens, Koen


    The enamel of 20 Email Champlevé objects dating between the 12th and 19th centuries was investigated by means of microscopic and portable X-ray fluorescence analysis (μ-XRF and PXRF). Seven of these objects were microsampled and the fragments were analyzed with electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and vacuum μ-XRF to obtain quantitative data about the composition of the glass used to produce these enameled objects. As a result of the evolution of the raw materials employed to produce the base glass, three different compositional groups could be discriminated. The first group consisted of soda-lime-silica glass with a sodium source of mineral origin (with low K content) that was opacified by addition of calcium antimonate crystals. This type of glass was only used in objects made in the 12th century. Email Champlevé objects from the beginning of the 13th century onward were enameled with soda-lime-silica glass with a sodium source of vegetal origin. This type of glass, which has a higher potassium content, was opacified with SnO2 crystals. The glass used for 19th century Email Champlevé artifacts was produced with synthetic and purified components resulting in a different chemical composition compared to the other groups. Although the four analytical techniques employed in this study have their own specific characteristics, they were all found to be suitable for classifying the objects into the different chronological categories.

  1. Development of a prototype hybrid L-edge/L-XRF densitometer for nuclear fuel assay. (United States)

    Joung, Sungyeop; Park, Seunghoon


    The hybrid L-edge/L-XRF densitometer (HLED) was developed for on-site nuclear fuel assays intended for safeguards purpose. The HLED can simultaneously measure both X-ray photon transmissions and characteristic X-ray emissions, which characterizes the elemental composition of samples of interest to determine the concentration of actinide-bearing materials, such as plutonium and uranium, in a nuclear fuel. A prototype of the HLED equipment was fabricated and tested to study the feasibility of nuclear material assays using a surrogate material (lead) to avoid radiation effects from nuclear materials. The uncertainty of the L-edge and L-XRF characteristics of the sample material are discussed in the article. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. In situ XRF and gamma ray spectrometer for Mars sample return mission (United States)

    Lo, I. Yin; Trombka, Jacob I.; Evans, Larry G.; Squyres, Steven W.


    A combined in situ X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and passive gamma ray spectrometer instrument is proposed for the chemical elemental analysis of various Martian surfaces and samples. The combined instrument can be carried on board a rover. The passive gamma ray or the neutron excited gamma ray system would be used to determine the elemental composition of the Martian surface while the rover is in motion. The XRF system would be used to perform analysis either on the Martian surface or on collected samples when the rover is stationary. The latter function is important both in cataloging the collected samples and in the selection of samples to be returned to earth. For both systems, data accumulation time would be on the order of 30 minutes. No sample preparation would be necessary.

  3. Application of Compton-suppressed self-induced XRF to spent nuclear fuel measurement (United States)

    Park, Se-Hwan; Jo, Kwang Ho; Lee, Seung Kyu; Seo, Hee; Lee, Chaehun; Won, Byung-Hee; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Ku, Jeong-Hoe


    Self-induced X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is a technique by which plutonium (Pu) content in spent nuclear fuel can be directly quantified. In the present work, this method successfully measured the plutonium/uranium (Pu/U) peak ratio of a pressurized water reactor (PWR)'s spent nuclear fuel at the Korea atomic energy research institute (KAERI)'s post irradiation examination facility (PIEF). In order to reduce the Compton background in the low-energy X-ray region, the Compton suppression system additionally was implemented. By use of this system, the spectrum's background level was reduced by a factor of approximately 2. This work shows that Compton-suppressed selfinduced XRF can be effectively applied to Pu accounting in spent nuclear fuel.

  4. Application of XRF to measure strontium in human bone in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielopolski, L.; Vartsky, D.; Yasumura, S.; Cohn, S.H.


    As a basis for better understanding the role that Sr fulfills in human body, it is desirable to measure directly the main Sr store in human body. Although strontium is omnipresent in human tissues, 99% is stored inthe mineral portion of the bone. In the present study x-ray fluorescence (XRF) was applied to measure the strontium content of the tibial shaft in vivo. The feasibility studies showed that normal levels of stable strontium in the bone can be measured successfully.

  5. Gaining improved chemical composition by exploitation of Compton-to-Rayleigh intensity ratio in XRF analysis. (United States)

    Hodoroaba, Vasile-Dan; Rackwitz, Vanessa


    The high specificity of the coherent (Rayleigh), as well as incoherent (Compton) X-ray scattering to the mean atomic number of a specimen to be analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), is exploited to gain more information on the chemical composition. Concretely, the evaluation of the Compton-to-Rayleigh intensity ratio from XRF spectra and its relation to the average atomic number of reference materials via a calibration curve can reveal valuable information on the elemental composition complementary to that obtained from the reference-free XRF analysis. Particularly for matrices of lower mean atomic numbers, the sensitivity of the approach is so high that it can be easily distinguished between specimens of mean atomic numbers differing from each other by 0.1. Hence, the content of light elements which are "invisible" for XRF, particularly hydrogen, or of heavier impurities/additives in light materials can be calculated "by difference" from the scattering calibration curve. The excellent agreement between such an experimental, empirical calibration curve and a synthetically generated one, on the basis of a reliable physical model for the X-ray scattering, is also demonstrated. Thus, the feasibility of the approach for given experimental conditions and particular analytical questions can be tested prior to experiments with reference materials. For the present work a microfocus X-ray source attached on an SEM/EDX (scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) system was used so that the Compton-to-Rayleigh intensity ratio could be acquired with EDX spectral data for improved analysis of the elemental composition.

  6. XRF measurements of tin, copper and zinc in antifouling paints coated on leisure boats. (United States)

    Ytreberg, Erik; Bighiu, Maria Alexandra; Lundgren, Lennart; Eklund, Britta


    Tributyltin (TBT) and other organotin compounds have been restricted for use on leisure boats since 1989 in the EU. Nonetheless, release of TBT is observed from leisure boats during hull maintenance work, such as pressure hosing. In this work, we used a handheld X-ray Fluorescence analyser (XRF) calibrated for antifouling paint matrixes to measure tin, copper and zinc in antifouling paints coated on leisure boats in Sweden. Our results show that over 10% of the leisure boats (n = 686) contain >400 μg/cm(2) of tin in their antifouling coatings. For comparison, one layer (40 μm dry film) of a TBT-paint equals ≈ 800 μg Sn/cm(2). To our knowledge, tin has never been used in other forms than organotin (OT) in antifouling paints. Thus, even though the XRF analysis does not provide any information on the speciation of tin, the high concentrations indicate that these leisure boats still have OT coatings present on their hull. On several leisure boats we performed additional XRF measurements by progressively scraping off the top coatings and analysing each underlying layer. The XRF data show that when tin is detected, it is most likely present in coatings close to the hull with several layers of other coatings on top. Thus, leaching of OT compounds from the hull into the water is presumed to be negligible. The risk for environmental impacts arises during maintenance work such as scraping, blasting and high pressure hosing activities. The data also show that many boat owners apply excessive paint layers when following paint manufacturers recommendations. Moreover, high loads of copper were detected even on boats sailing in freshwater, despite the more than 20 year old ban, which poses an environmental risk that has not been addressed until now. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of small volume cups in XRF analysis of treated wood retention (United States)

    Rene Stelzer; Adam Taylor; Patricia Lebow


    Efforts are underway in the United States to improve the conformance of commercially-treated wood with the applicable retention standards. As part of an effort to devise a practical method for on-site assessment of within-charge retention variation, we investigated whether small-volume x-ray fluorescence (XRF) sample cups could be used with treated wood. A range of cup...

  8. Measurements of Strontium Levels in Human Bone In Vivo Using Portable X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). (United States)

    Specht, Aaron J; Mostafaei, Farshad; Lin, Yanfen; Xu, Jian; Nie, Linda H


    Measurement of bone strontium (Sr) is vital to determining the effectiveness of Sr supplementation, which is commonly used for the treatment of osteoporosis. Previous technology uses radioisotope sources and bulky equipment to measure bone Sr. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) for bone Sr measurement and validates it using data from a population of 238 children. We identified correlations between bone Sr and age in our participants.

  9. [Determination of film thickness, component and content based on glass surface by using XRF spectrometry]. (United States)

    Mei, Yan; Ma, Mi-Xia; Nie, Zuo-Ren


    Film thickness, component and content based on glass surface were determined by using XRF technic, measure condition and instrument work condition in every layer were set and adjusted for the best measure effect for every element. Background fundamental parameter (BG-FP) method was built up. Measure results with this method were consistent with the actual preparation course and the method could fit to production application.

  10. 2D and 3D micro-XRF based on polycapillary optics at XLab Frascati (United States)

    Polese, C.; Cappuccio, G.; Dabagov, S. B.; Hampai, D.; Liedl, A.; Pace, E.


    XRF imaging spectrometry is a powerful tool for materials characterization. A high spatial resolution is often required, in order to appreciate very tiny details of the studied object. With respect to simple pinholes, polycapillary optics allows much more intense fluxes to be achieved. This is fundamental to detect elements in trace and to strongly reduce the global acquisition time that is actually among the main reasons, in addition to radioprotection issues, affecting the competitiveness of XRF imaging with respect to other faster imaging techniques such as multispectral imaging. Unlike other well-known X-ray optics, principally employed for high brilliant radiation source such as synchrotron facilities, polyCO can be efficiently coupled also with conventional X-ray tubes. All these aspects make them the most suitable choice to realize portable, safe and high performing μXRF spectrometers. In this work preliminary results achieved with a novel 2D and 3D XRF facility, called Rainbow X-Ray (RXR), are reported, with particular attention to the spatial resolution achieved. RXR is based on the confocal arrangement of three polycapillary lenses, one focusing the primary beam and the other two capturing the fluorescence signal. The detection system is split in two couples of lens-detector in order to cover a wider energy range. The entire device is a laboratory user-friendly facility and, though it allows measurements on medium-size objects, its dimensions do not preclude it to be transported for in situ analysis on request, thanks also to a properly shielded cabinet.

  11. Field portable XRF as a tool for the assessment of contaminated peat soils (United States)

    Shuttleworth, Emma; Evans, Martin; Rothwell, James; Hutchinson, Simon


    Upland blanket bogs in the UK have suffered severe erosion over the last millennium but there is evidence to show that this has increased in intensity in the last 250 years, coinciding with increased pressures on the land during the British Industrial Revolution. Upland peat soils in close proximity to urban and industrial areas can be contaminated with - and act as sinks for - high concentrations of atmospherically deposited lead. Atmospheric pollution has been shown to have had significant effects on blanket bog vegetation, the damage and removal of which makes the peat mass highly susceptible to erosion. Erosion of these soils has the potential to release lead into the fluvial system. Detailed quantification of lead concentrations across the surface of actively eroding peatlands is vital in order to understand lead storage and release in such environments. Previous attempts to quantify peatland lead pollution have been undertaken using the inventory approach. However, there can be significant within-site spatial heterogeneity in lead concentrations, highlighting the need for multiple samples to properly quantify lead storage. Lead concentrations in peat are traditionally derived through acid extraction followed by ICP-OES or AAS analyses, but these can be time consuming, expensive and destructive. By contrast, field portable x-ray fluorescence (FPXRF) analysers are relatively inexpensive, allow a large number of samples to be processed in a comparatively short time, giving a high level of detail with little disturbance to the surrounding area. FPXRF continues to gain acceptance in the study of metal contaminated soil but has not been used to conduct field surveys of contaminated peat soils due to their high moisture content. This study compares lead concentration data obtained in situ using a handheld Niton XL3t 900 XRF analyser with data derived from ex situ lab based analyses. In situ measurements were acquired across degraded and intact peatland sites in the

  12. Analysis of gold coins on the XIX century by portable XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Marcelo O. [Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica Celso Suckow da Fonseca (CEFET/RJ), Nova Iguaçu, RJ (Brazil); Felix, Valter de S.; Freitas, Renato P. [Instituto Federal do Rio de Janeiro (LISCOMP/IFRJ), Paracambi, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentação e Simulação Computacional; Aranha, Paula de J.M.; Heringer, Pedro C.S., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Museu Histórico Nacional (IBRAM), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Coins are cultural symbols and reflect important historical events through of the history. Archaeologists, historians and other experts make use of the study of coins (Numismatics) to reconstruct the economy, forms of commerce, customs, religion, political history and art of people and region throughout the globe. The knowledge about the composition of the metal alloy of coins is essential to characterize the fabrication in a historical period and identify possible falsifications. The X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) is a technique of analysis spectroscopic widely used in archaeometry to investigate the elemental composition of pigments, ceramic objects, metal alloy. In this work were XRF analyzes used in a rare coin of the coronation of the emperor D. Pedro I in 1822, Brazilian coins of 1816 and a Portuguese coin of 1823 from the collection of the Museu Histórico Nacional of Rio de Janeiro (MHN). The XRF analyzes were performed using a portable Bruker TRACE IV model system, the spectra operation at a voltage of 40 keV and electric current of 10 uA in acquisition time of 60s. The results indicated the presence of Au, Ag, Cu. The portable X-ray system was shown to be powerful tool in the investigation of metallic alloys with high concentration. (author)

  13. Calcium micro-depositions in jugular truncular venous malformations revealed by Synchrotron-based XRF imaging. (United States)

    Pascolo, Lorella; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Rizzardi, Clara; Tisato, Veronica; Salomé, Murielle; Calligaro, Carla; Salvi, Fabrizio; Paterson, David; Zamboni, Paolo


    It has been recently demonstrated that the internal jugular vein may exhibit abnormalities classified as truncular venous malformations (TVMs). The investigation of possible morphological and biochemical anomalies at jugular tissue level could help to better understand the link between brain venous drainage and neurodegenerative disorders, recently found associated with jugular TVMs. To this end we performed sequential X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyses on jugular tissue samples from two TVM patients and two control subjects, using complementary energies at three different synchrotrons. This investigation, coupled with conventional histological analyses, revealed anomalous micro-formations in the pathological tissues and allowed the determination of their elemental composition. Rapid XRF analyses on large tissue areas at 12.74 keV showed an increased Ca presence in the pathological samples, mainly localized in tunica adventitia microvessels. Investigations at lower energy demonstrated that the high Ca level corresponded to micro-calcifications, also containing P and Mg. We suggest that advanced synchrotron XRF micro-spectroscopy is an important analytical tool in revealing biochemical changes, which cannot be accessed by conventional investigations. Further research on a larger number of samples is needed to understand the pathogenic significance of Ca micro-depositions detected on the intramural vessels of vein walls affected by TVMs.

  14. Combined non-destructive XRF and SR-XAS study of archaeological artefacts. (United States)

    Bardelli, Fabrizio; Barone, Germana; Crupi, Vincenza; Longo, Francesca; Majolino, Domenico; Mazzoleni, Paolo; Venuti, Valentina


    We report on a non-destructive study of Sicilian ceramic fragments of cultural heritage interest, classified as "proto-majolica" pottery and dating back to the twelfth to thirteen centuries AD. The analytical approach used is based on the employment of two totally non-invasive spectroscopic techniques: X-ray fluorescence (XRF), using a portable energy-dispersive XRF analyser, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy, using synchrotron radiation as a probe (SR-XAS). XRF measurements allowed us to collect elemental and spatially resolved information on major and minor constituents of the decorated coating of archaeological pottery fragments, so providing preliminary results on the main components characterizing the surface. In particular, we assigned to Fe and Mn the role of key elements of the colouring agent. With the aim of obtaining more detailed information, we performed SR-XAS measurements at the Fe and Mn K-edges at the Italian BM08 beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (Grenoble, France). The experimental data were analysed by applying principal component analysis and least-squares fitting to the near-edge part of the spectra (X-ray absorption near-edge structure) to determine the samples' speciation. From the overall results, umber, a class of brownish pigments characterized by a mixture of hydrated iron and manganese oxides, has been ascribed as a pigmenting agent.

  15. Quantification of manganese and mercury in toenail in vivo using portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF). (United States)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Specht, Aaron J; Weisskopf, Marc G; Weuve, Jennifer; Nie, Linda H


    Toenail is an advantageous biomarker to assess exposure to metals such as manganese and mercury. Toenail Mn and Hg are in general analyzed by chemical methods such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In this project, a practical and convenient technology-portable X-ray florescence (XRF)-is studied for the noninvasive in vivo quantification of manganese and mercury in toenail. The portable XRF method has advantages in that it does not require toenail clipping and it can be done in 3 min, which will greatly benefit human studies involving the assessment of manganese and mercury exposures. This study mainly focused on the methodology development and validation which includes spectral analysis, system calibration, the effect of toenail thickness, and the detection limit of the system. Manganese- and mercury-doped toenail phantoms were made. Calibration lines were established for these measurements. The results show that the detection limit for manganese is 3.65 μg/g (ppm) and for mercury is 0.55 μg/g (ppm) using 1 mm thick nail phantoms with 10 mm soft tissue underneath. We conclude that portable XRF is a valuable and sensitive technology to quantify toenail manganese and mercury in vivo.

  16. Textural and Mineralogical Analysis of Volcanic Rocks by µ-XRF Mapping. (United States)

    Germinario, Luigi; Cossio, Roberto; Maritan, Lara; Borghi, Alessandro; Mazzoli, Claudio


    In this study, µ-XRF was applied as a novel surface technique for quick acquisition of elemental X-ray maps of rocks, image analysis of which provides quantitative information on texture and rock-forming minerals. Bench-top µ-XRF is cost-effective, fast, and non-destructive, can be applied to both large (up to a few tens of cm) and fragile samples, and yields major and trace element analysis with good sensitivity. Here, X-ray mapping was performed with a resolution of 103.5 µm and spot size of 30 µm over sample areas of about 5×4 cm of Euganean trachyte, a volcanic porphyritic rock from the Euganean Hills (NE Italy) traditionally used in cultural heritage. The relative abundance of phenocrysts and groundmass, as well as the size and shape of the various mineral phases, were obtained from image analysis of the elemental maps. The quantified petrographic features allowed identification of various extraction sites, revealing an objective method for archaeometric provenance studies exploiting µ-XRF imaging.

  17. Confirming improved detection of gadolinium in bone using in vivo XRF. (United States)

    Lord, M L; McNeill, F E; Gräfe, J L; Galusha, A L; Parsons, P J; Noseworthy, M D; Howard, L; Chettle, D R


    The safety of using Gd in MRI contrast agents has recently been questioned, due to recent evidence of the retention of Gd in individuals with healthy renal function. Bone has proven to be a storage site for Gd, as unusually high concentrations have been measured in femoral heads of patients undergoing hip replacement surgery, as well as in autopsy samples. All previous measurements of Gd in bone have been invasive and required the bone to be removed from the body. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) offers a non-invasive and non-destructive method for carrying out in vivo measurements of Gd in humans. An updated XRF system provides improved detection limits in a short measurement time of 30-min. A new four-detector system and higher activity Cd-109 excitation source of 5GBq results in minimum detection limits (MDLs) of 1.64-1.72μgGd/g plaster for an average overlaying tissue thickness of the tibia. These levels are well within the range of previous in vitro Gd measurements. Additional validation through comparison with ICP-MS measurements has confirmed the ability of the XRF system for detecting Gd further, proving it is a feasible system to carry out human measurements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A calibration method for proposed XRF measurements of arsenic and selenium in nail clippings. (United States)

    Gherase, Mihai R; Fleming, David E B


    A calibration method for proposed x-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements of arsenic and selenium in nail clippings is demonstrated. Phantom nail clippings were produced from a whole nail phantom (0.7 mm thickness, 25 × 25 mm(2) area) and contained equal concentrations of arsenic and selenium ranging from 0 to 20 µg g(-1) in increments of 5 µg g(-1). The phantom nail clippings were then grouped in samples of five different masses: 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg for each concentration. Experimental x-ray spectra were acquired for each of the sample masses using a portable x-ray tube and a detector unit. Calibration lines (XRF signal in a number of counts versus stoichiometric elemental concentration) were produced for each of the two elements. A semi-empirical relationship between the mass of the nail phantoms (m) and the slope of the calibration line (s) was determined separately for arsenic and selenium. Using this calibration method, one can estimate elemental concentrations and their uncertainties from the XRF spectra of human nail clippings.

  19. The Eye of the Medusa: XRF Imaging Reveals Unknown Traces of Antique Polychromy. (United States)

    Alfeld, Matthias; Mulliez, Maud; Martinez, Philippe; Cain, Kevin; Jockey, Philippe; Walter, Philippe


    The colorful decoration of statues and buildings in antique times is commonly described by the term antique polychromy. It is well-known among scholars but less so to the general public, and its exact form is the subject of research. In this paper we discuss results obtained from the frieze of the Siphnian Treasury in the Sanctuary of Delphi (Greece). We will present the first application of a mobile instrument for macro-XRF imaging for the in situ investigation of antique polychromy and show that it allows one to identify significant traces not visible to the naked eye and not detectable by XRF spot measurements or any other mobile, noninvasive method. These findings allow for a partial reconstruction of the polychromy. Furthermore, we present a novel approach enabling the correct interpretation of artifacts resulting from changes of the detection geometry in the investigation of complexly shaped samples by XRF imaging. This approach is based on the 3D surface model acquired by photogrammetry and fundamental parameter calculations.

  20. Quantitative assessment of historical coastal landfill contamination using in-situ field portable XRF (FPXRF) (United States)

    O'Shea, Francis; Spencer, Kate; Brasington, James


    Historically, waste was deposited on low value, easily accessible coastal land (e.g. marsh land). Within England and Wales alone, there are over 5000 historical landfills situated within coastal areas at risk of flooding at a 1 in 100 year return period (Environment Agency, 2012). Historical sites were constructed prior to relevant legislation, and have no basal or side wall engineering, and the waste constituents are mostly unknown. In theory, contaminant concentrations should be reduced through natural attenuation as the leachate plume migrates through surrounding fine-grained inter-tidal sediments before reaching receptor waters. However, erosion resulting from rising sea level and increased storm intensity may re-distribute these sediments and release associated contaminants into the estuarine and coastal environment. The diffuse discharge from these sites has not been quantified and this presents a problem for those landfill managers who are required to complete EIAs. An earlier detailed field campaign at Newlands landfill site, on the Thames Estuary, UK identified a sub-surface (~2m depth) contaminant plume extending c. 20 m from the landfill boundary into surrounding fine-grained saltmarsh sediments. These saltmarsh sediments are risk of being eroded releasing their contaminant load to the Thames Estuary. The aims of this work were to; 1) assess whether this plume is representative of other historical landfills with similar characteristics and 2) to develop a rapid screening methodology using field portable XRF that could be used to identify potential risk of other coastal landfill sites. GIS was used to select landfill sites of similar age, hydrological regime and sedimentary setting in the UK, for comparison. Collection of sediment samples and analysis by ICP OES is expensive and time-consuming, therefore cores were extracted and analysed with a Niton Goldd XRF in-situ. Contaminant data were available immediately and the sampling strategy could be adapted

  1. Development of a versatile XRF scanner for the elemental imaging of paintworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravaud, E.; Pichon, L.; Laval, E.; Eveno, M. [Centre de recherche et de restauration des musees de France, C2RMF, Paris (France); Gonzalez, V.; Calligaro, T. [Centre de recherche et de restauration des musees de France, C2RMF, Paris (France); PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech-CNRS, Institut de Recherche Chimie Paris, UMR8247, Paris (France)


    Scanning XRF is a powerful elemental imaging technique introduced at the synchrotron that has recently been transposed to laboratory. The growing interest in this technique stems from its ability to collect images reflecting pigment distribution within large areas on artworks by means of their elemental signature. In that sense, scanning XRF appears highly complementary to standard imaging techniques (Visible, UV, IR photography and X-ray radiography). The versatile XRF scanner presented here has been designed and built at the C2RMF in response to specific constraints: transportability, cost-effectiveness and ability to scan large areas within a single working day. The instrument is based on a standard X-ray generator with sub-millimetre collimated beam and a SDD-based spectrometer to collected X-ray spectra. The instrument head is scanned in front of the painting by means of motorised movements to cover an area up to 300 x 300 mm{sup 2} with a resolution of 0.5 mm (600 x 600 pixels). The 15-kg head is mounted on a stable photo stand for rapid positioning on paintworks and maintains a free side-access for safety; it can also be attached to a lighter tripod for field measurements. Alignment is achieved with a laser pointer and a micro-camera. With a scanning speed of 5 mm/s and 0.1 s/point, elemental maps are collected in 10 h, i.e. a working day. The X-ray spectra of all pixels are rapidly processed using an open source program to derive elemental maps. To illustrate the capabilities of this instrument, this contribution presents the results obtained on the Belle Ferronniere painted by Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) and conserved in the Musee du Louvre, prior to its restoration at the C2RMF. (orig.)

  2. Composition and microstructure of MTA and Aureoseal Plus: XRF, EDS, XRD and FESEM evaluation. (United States)

    Cianconi, L; Palopoli, P; Campanella, V; Mancini, M


    The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition and the phases' microstructure of Aureoseal Plus (OGNA, Italy) and ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, USA) and to compare their characteristics. Study Design: Comparing Aureoseal Plus and ProRoot MTA microstructure by means of several analyses type. The chemical analysis of the two cements was assessed following the UNI EN ISO 196-2 norm. X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) was used to determine the element composition. The crystalline structure was analysed quantitatively using x-ray diffraction (XRD). Powders morphology was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with backscattering detectors, and a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Elemental analysis was performed by energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDS). The semi-quantitative XRF analysis showed the presence of heavy metal oxides in both cements. The XRD spectra of the two cements reported the presence of dicalcium silicate, tricalcium silicate, tricalcium aluminate, tetracalcium aluminoferrite, bismuth oxide and gypsum. SEM analysis showed that ProRoot MTA powder is less coarse and more homogeneous than Aureoseal. Both powders are formed by particles of different shapes: round, prismatic and oblong. The EDS analysis showed that some ProRoot MTA particles, differently from Aureoseal, contain Ca, Si, Al and Fe. Oblong particles in ProRoot and Aureoseal are rich of bismuth. The strong interest in developing new Portland cement-based endodontic sealers will create materials with increased handling characteristics and physicochemical properties. A thorough investigation on two cement powders was carried out by using XRF, XRD, SEM and EDS analysis. To date there was a lack of studies on Aureoseal Plus. This cement is similar in composition to ProRoot MTA. Despite that it has distinctive elements that could improve its characteristics, resulting in a good alternative to MTA.

  3. μ-XRF analysis of glasses: a non-destructive utility for Cultural Heritage applications. (United States)

    Vaggelli, G; Cossio, R


    This paper presents a μ-XRF analytical approach for a non-destructive study of Cultural Heritage glass finds. This technique can be used for quantitative analysis of small volumes of solid samples, with a sensitivity that is superior to the electron microprobe but inferior to an ICP-MS system. An experimental set-up with natural and synthetic glass standards is proposed here for the quantitative analyses of major and trace elements on glass objects which cannot be sampled such as small archaeological or historical artefacts from Cultural Heritage. The described method, performed by means of the commercial μ-XRF Eagle III-XPL, was applied to Islamic glass specimens of Sasanian production (III-VII century A.D.) previously analyzed by ICP-MS and SEM-EDS techniques (P. Mirti, M. Pace, M. Negro Ponzi and M. Aceto, Archaeometry, 2008, 50(3), 429-450; P. Mirti, M. Pace, M. Malandrino and M. Negro Ponzi, J. Archaeol. Sci., 36, 1061-1069; and M. Gulmini, M. Pace, G. Ivaldi, M. Negro Ponzi and P. Mirti, J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 2009, 355, 1613-1621) and coming from the archaeological site of Veh Ardasir in modern Iraq. Major elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Fe) of glass specimens show an accuracy better than 5%. Trace elements (Cr, Mn, Sr and Zr) display an accuracy better than 5% when the checked elements have a concentration >100 ppm by weight, whereas it is around 10% with a concentration XRF is, therefore, a suitable elemental analysis technique for the non-destructive study of small glass finds due to its relatively good accuracy, reproducibility and low detection limits (∼tens ppm).

  4. Online sorting of recovered wood waste by automated XRF-technology: part II. Sorting efficiencies. (United States)

    Hasan, A Rasem; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Townsend, Timothy


    Sorting of waste wood is an important process practiced at recycling facilities in order to detect and divert contaminants from recycled wood products. Contaminants of concern include arsenic, chromium and copper found in chemically preserved wood. The objective of this research was to evaluate the sorting efficiencies of both treated and untreated parts of the wood waste stream, and metal (As, Cr and Cu) mass recoveries by the use of automated X-ray fluorescence (XRF) systems. A full-scale system was used for experimentation. This unit consisted of an XRF-detection chamber mounted on the top of a conveyor and a pneumatic slide-way diverter which sorted wood into presumed treated and presumed untreated piles. A randomized block design was used to evaluate the operational conveyance parameters of the system, including wood feed rate and conveyor belt speed. Results indicated that online sorting efficiencies of waste wood by XRF technology were high based on number and weight of pieces (70-87% and 75-92% for treated wood and 66-97% and 68-96% for untreated wood, respectively). These sorting efficiencies achieved mass recovery for metals of 81-99% for As, 75-95% for Cu and 82-99% of Cr. The incorrect sorting of wood was attributed almost equally to deficiencies in the detection and conveyance/diversion systems. Even with its deficiencies, the system was capable of producing a recyclable portion that met residential soil quality levels established for Florida, for an infeed that contained 5% of treated wood. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 3D micro-XRF for cultural heritage objects: new analysis strategies for the investigation of the Dead Sea Scrolls. (United States)

    Mantouvalou, Ioanna; Wolff, Timo; Hahn, Oliver; Rabin, Ira; Lühl, Lars; Pagels, Marcel; Malzer, Wolfgang; Kanngiesser, Birgit


    A combination of 3D micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (3D micro-XRF) and micro-XRF was utilized for the investigation of a small collection of highly heterogeneous, partly degraded Dead Sea Scroll parchment samples from known excavation sites. The quantitative combination of the two techniques proves to be suitable for the identification of reliable marker elements which may be used for classification and provenance studies. With 3D micro-XRF, the three-dimensional nature, i.e. the depth-resolved elemental composition as well as density variations, of the samples was investigated and bromine could be identified as a suitable marker element. It is shown through a comparison of quantitative and semiquantitative values for the bromine content derived using both techniques that, for elements which are homogeneously distributed in the sample matrix, quantification with micro-XRF using a one-layer model is feasible. Thus, the possibility for routine provenance studies using portable micro-XRF instrumentation on a vast amount of samples, even on site, is obtained through this work.

  6. Identification of inorganic pigments used in porcelain cards based on fusing Raman and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) data. (United States)

    Deneckere, Annelien; de Vries, Lieke; Vekemans, Bart; Van de Voorde, Lien; Ariese, Freek; Vincze, Laszlo; Moens, Luc; Vandenabeele, Peter


    Raman spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy are often used as complementary techniques that are well suited for the analysis of art objects because both techniques are fast, sensitive, and noninvasive and measurements can take place in situ. In most of these studies, both techniques are used separately, in the sense that the spectra are evaluated independently and single conclusions are obtained, considering both results. This paper presents a data fusion procedure for Raman and XRF data for the characterization of pigments used in porcelain cards. For the classification of the analyzed points of the porcelain cards principal component analysis (PCA) was used. A first attempt was made to develop a new procedure for the identification of the pigments using a database containing the fused Raman-XRF data of 24 reference pigments. The results show that the classification based on the fused Raman-XRF data is significantly better than the classifications based on the Raman data or the XRF data separately.

  7. Determination of scandium concentrate composition by WD-XRF and ICP-MS methods (United States)

    Sarkisova, A. S.; Shibitko, A. O.; Abramov, A. V.; Rebrin, O. I.; Bunkov, G. M.; Lisienko, D. G.


    WD-XRF spectroscopy was applied for determining composition of scandium concentrate (ScC) containing 70 % scandium fluoride. Determination of ScC composition was performed using 6 glass beads reference materials produced by fusing synthesized mixture of analyte compounds with the lithium-borate flux in the ratio of 1:10. ScC powder with the known composition was then used as a powder pellet reference material to analyze scandium concentrate from technological line by external standard method. ICP-MS method was employed to control the ScC composition. The statistical data processing and metrological parameters evaluation of the analytical technique developed were carried out.

  8. XRF intermediate thickness layer technique for analysis of residue of hard to dissolve materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mzyk, Z.; Mzyk, J.; Buzek, L. [Institute of Non-Ferrous Metals, Gliwice (Poland); Baranowska, I. [Department of Analytical and General Chemistry, Silesian Technical University, Gliwice (Poland)


    This work presents a quick method for lead and silver determination in materials, such as slags from silver metallurgy and slimes from copper electrorefining, which are very difficult to dissolve, even using a microwave technique. The idea was to dissolve the possibly greatest amount of the sample using acids. Insoluble deposit was filtered out. Silver content in the solution was analysed by potentiometric titration or AAS, lead content by XRS, while sediment deposit on filter - by XRF intermediate thickness technique. The results of silver and lead analysis obtained by this method were compared with those obtained by classical method, i.e. melting the residue with sodium peroxide. (author) 8 refs, 5 tabs

  9. First experiences with 2D-mXRF analysis of gunshot residue on garment, tissue, and cartridge cases (United States)

    Knijnenberg, Alwin; Stamouli, Amalia; Janssen, Martin


    The investigation of garment and human tissue originating from a victim of a shooting incident can provide crucial information for the reconstruction of such an incident. The use of 2D-mXRF for such investigations has several advantages over current methods as this new technique can be used to scan large areas, provides simultaneous information on multiple elements, can be applied under ambient conditions and is non-destructive. In this paper we report our experiences and challenges with the implementation of 2D-mXRF in GSR analysis. Currently we mainly focus on the use of 2D-mXRF as a tool for visualizing elemental distributions on various samples.

  10. An Integrated XRF/XRD Instrument for Mars Exobiology and Geology Experiments (United States)

    Koppel, L. N.; Franco, E. D.; Kerner, J. A.; Fonda, M. L.; Schwartz, D. E.; Marshall, J. R.


    By employing an integrated x-ray instrument on a future Mars mission, data obtained will greatly augment those returned by Viking; details characterizing the past and present environment on Mars and those relevant to the possibility of the origin and evolution of life will be acquired. A combined x-ray fluorescence/x-ray diffraction (XRF/XRD) instrument was breadboarded and demonstrated to accommodate important exobiology and geology experiment objectives outlined for MESUR and future Mars missions. Among others, primary objectives for the exploration of Mars include the intense study of local areas on Mars to establish the chemical, mineralogical, and petrological character of different components of the surface material; to determine the distribution, abundance, and sources and sinks of volatile materials, including an assessment of the biologic potential, now and during past epoches; and to establish the global chemical and physical characteristics of the Martian surface. The XRF/XRD breadboard instrument identifies and quantifies soil surface elemental, mineralogical, and petrological characteristics and acquires data necessary to address questions on volatile abundance and distribution. Additionally, the breadboard is able to characterize the biogenic element constituents of soil samples providing information on the biologic potential of the Mars environment. Preliminary breadboard experiments confirmed the fundamental instrument design approach and measurement performance.

  11. Development of confocal 3D micro-XRF spectrometer with dual Cr-Mo excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouichi Tsuji [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); PRESTO-JST - Precursory Research for Embryonic Science and Technology, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); Kazuhiko Nakano [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)


    A new 3D micro-XRF instrument based on a confocal setup using two independent poly-capillary x-ray lenses and two x-ray sources (Cr and Mo targets) was developed. A full poly-capillary x-ray lens was attached to each x-ray tube. Another half poly-capillary lens was attached to a silicon drift x-ray detector (SDD). The focal spots of the three lenses were adjusted to a common position. The depth resolutions that were evaluated by use of a 10-{mu}m thick Au foil were approximately 90 {mu}m for the x-ray energy of Au L{alpha}. The effects of the dual Cr-Mo x-ray beam excitation were investigated. It was confirmed that the XRF intensity of light elements was increased by applying the Cr-target x-ray tube in a confocal configuration. In the proposed confocal configuration, 3D elemental mapping of the major elements of an amaranth seed was performed nondestructively at ambient air pressure. Each element of the seed showed different mapping images in the different depth layers. (authors)

  12. Investigation by pXRF of Caltagirone Pottery Samples Produced in Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gueli Anna M.


    Full Text Available In the study of archaeological ceramics, it is important to have compositional data to identify their origin and source. The fabric also provides useful information on the production technology, especially with regard to the firing steps. The work presented here is connected to this field and focuses on the main parameters related to the terracotta artefacts preparation. Thus, one can consider the effects in terracotta characteristics of different raw materials and firing parameters, in particular for pottery of Caltagirone, which is one of most important centres of pottery production in Italy, active since the Neolithic. To this end, terracotta samples have been reproduced in a laboratory setting according to the ancient procedure of Caltagirone manufacture, starting from clay and degreaser extraction in local historical sites. The analysis was conducted using a portable X-Ray Fluorescence (pXRF spectrometer for elemental characterization of sand degreaser and of clays during each step of the realization process and in different firing conditions. SEM-ED techniques were also employed to verify the method and results for some of the samples after firing process. Framing the technological context of manufacture production, known in the specific case, it is also possible to identify potential outcomes and limits in the study of potsherds using pXRF technology, in applying the methodology to historic artefacts.

  13. Characterization of aerosol in the atmosphere at Syowa Station by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Aoyama


    Full Text Available The particle size distribution has been continuously measured by optical particle counter at Syowa Station. Physical and chemical properties of particulate matter have been analyzed in the laboratory after arriving in Japan. However, the properties of particles may be changed in this case. In the present work, the atmospheric particulate matter at Syowa Station, Antarctica was characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF at Syowa Station. The advantages of this method have non destructive, rapid and simple analysis. The particle samples were collected on a Teflon filter; the obtained particles were measured by XRF (HORIBA, X-ray Analytical Microscope XGT-5000 on site soon for elemental analysis. The obtained results show that collected particles mainly contain sea salt (Na, Mg, Cl, K, Ca and soil (Si, Fe origin components. The particles from sea salt and soil origin increased under blizzard and strong wind condition. Sulfur increased in summer, and decreased in winter while particles from sea salt decreased in summer.

  14. Determination of the reactive component of fly ashes for geopolymer production using XRF and XRD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross P. Williams; Arie van Riessen [Curtin University, Perth, WA (Australia). Centre for Materials Research


    Geopolymers are a class of versatile materials that have the potential for utilisation as a cement replacement, fireproof barriers, materials for high temperatures, and biological implant applications. This study investigated methods for determining the formulation for manufacturing geopolymers made with fly ash from coal-fired power stations. The accepted method of determining the formulation of geopolymers to get the desired matrix chemistry uses the bulk composition of the feedstock materials. This formulation method is widely used in investigations using feedstock materials that almost completely react during processing. It is widely considered that amorphous components of fly ash are the reactive components in the geopolymerisation reaction. However, quantification of the amorphous components is challenging and generally avoided with the concomitant problem that the formulation is far from optimum. For the work presented here, the composition of the amorphous part is determined accurately and this information utilised to synthesise geopolymers. The bulk composition is first determined using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and then the amorphous composition determined using XRF and quantitative X-ray diffraction (QXRD). Formulating the mixture based on amorphous composition produced samples with a significantly higher compressive strength than those formulated using the bulk composition. Using the amorphous composition of fly ash produced geopolymers with similar physical properties to that of metakaolin geopolymers with the same targeted composition. We demonstrated a new quantitative formulation method that is superior to the accepted method. 37 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. [Preparation of sub-standard samples and XRF analytical method of powder non-metallic minerals]. (United States)

    Kong, Qin; Chen, Lei; Wang, Ling


    In order to solve the problem that standard samples of non-metallic minerals are not satisfactory in practical work by X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) analysis with pressed powder pellet, a method was studied how to make sub-standard samples according to standard samples of non-metallic minerals and to determine how they can adapt to analysis of mineral powder samples, taking the K-feldspar ore in Ebian-Wudu, Sichuan as an example. Based on the characteristic analysis of K-feldspar ore and the standard samples by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and chemical methods, combined with the principle of the same or similar between the sub-standard samples and unknown samples, the experiment developed the method of preparation of sub-standard samples: both of the two samples above mentioned should have the same kind of minerals and the similar chemical components, adapt mineral processing, and benefit making working curve. Under the optimum experimental conditions, a method for determination of SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, TiO2, CaO, MgO, K2O and Na2O of K-feldspar ore by XRF was established. Thedetermination results are in good agreement with classical chemical methods, which indicates that this method was accurate.

  16. [Study on trace elements of lake sediments by ICP-AES and XRF core scanning]. (United States)

    Cheng, Ai-Ying; Yu, Jun-Qing; Gao, Chun-Liang; Zhang, Li-Sha; He, Xian-Hu


    It is the first time to study sediment of Toson lake in Qaidam Basin. Trace elements including Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb in lake sediment were measured by ICP-AES method, studied and optimized from different resolution methods respectively, and finally determined a optimum pretreatment system for sediment of Toson lake, namely, HCl-HNO3-HF-HClO4-H2O2 system in the proportions of 5 : 5 : 5 : 1 : 1 was determined. At the same time, the data measured by XRF core scanning were compared, the use of moisture content correction method was analyzed, and the influence of the moisture content on the scanning method was discussed. The results showed that, compared to the background value, the contents of Cd and Zn were a little higher, the content of Cr, Cu and Pb was within the background value limits. XRF core scanning was controlled by sediment elements as well as water content in sediment to some extent. The results by the two methods showed a significant positive correlation, with the correlation coefficient up to 0.673-0.925, and they have a great comparability.

  17. Provenance studies on Dead Sea scrolls parchment by means of quantitative micro-XRF. (United States)

    Wolff, Timo; Rabin, Ira; Mantouvalou, Ioanna; Kanngiesser, Birgit; Malzer, Wolfgang; Kindzorra, Emanuel; Hahn, Oliver


    In this study, we address the question of the provenance and origin of the Dead Sea Scrolls manuscripts. A characteristic low ratio of chlorine to bromine, corresponding to that of the Dead Sea water, may serve as an indicator for local production. For this aim we developed a non-destructive procedure to determine the Cl/Br ratio in the parchment of these manuscripts. Micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) measurements of a large number of parchment and leather fragments from the Dead Sea Scrolls were analyzed with a routine we developed based on fundamental parameter quantification. This routine takes into account the absorption of the collagen matrix and the influence of the different sample thicknesses. To calculate the representative Cl/Br ratio for each fragment, we investigated the lateral homogeneity and determined the total mass deposition using the intensity of the inelastically scattered, characteristic tube radiation. The distribution of the Cl/Br ratios thus obtained from the μ-XRF measurements make it possible to distinguish fragments whose origin lies within the Dead Sea region from those produced in other locations.

  18. Identification of Adhesive Material Substance in Ancient Fortress Located at Aceh Besar using XRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Fitri


    Preliminary study about adhesive material content in ancient fortress at Aceh Besar has been done. The fortress are Indrapatra, Inong Balee and Kuta Lubok. The sample is analyzed using X-Ray Flourescence (XRF with Fusion Beads method. The result of XRF shows that all of the fortress have the same oxide compound which is CaO, with percentage of (46,16-51,37%, SiO2 around (2,56-6,68%, MgO around (1,01-2,16%, Al2O3 around (0,73-1,18%, and Fe2O3 around (0,53-0,70%. The compounds are constituent of limestone of calcite. The results have been compared with the modern adhesive material (cement. It was found that cement has a different oxide composition with the adhesive material used in ancient fortress. Cement contains SiO2 and SO3 more than ancient adhesive material, the values are 18% and 3%, respectively, in one gram sample.

  19. The use of XRF core scanner technique to identify anthropogenic chronological markers for dating recent sediments and for mapping and estimating the quantity of contaminated sediments in different fjord settings in western Norway (United States)

    Haflidason, H.; Thorsen, L.; Soldal, O. L.


    Following the initiation of the industrial revolution in Norway at the early 1900´s many of the heavy industrial factories established at that time were located in inner fjord systems of western Norway. The advantage was an easy access to cheap electricity, but the main disadvantage has been that the pollution from this industrial activity has been transported into fjord systems where the circulation of the water masses has been fairly limited leading to a high concentration of heavy metals in the fjord basin sediments. The recently developed non-destructive X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) core scanning technique offers new possibilities to obtain near-continuous records of bulk element composition in marine records. This new analytical geochemical method can measure the bulk element content directly from the surface sediment archives within a period of seconds and with a resolution up to 200 microns. By applying this method on rapidly deposited sediments one can reconstruct a continuous record of carbonate content on a sub-decadal to annual scale. This kind of high-resolution records can also be compared directly with historical and instrumental records from the same area. This offers new possibilities to identify in an effective way the geochemical anomalies in the sediment column and estimate the variability of the industrially produced elements as e.g. Cu, Zn and Pb and their distribution and thickness/quantity in fjord basin sediments. Examples will be presented demonstrating the close linkage between the industrial production history and the entrance of these elements in the fjord sediments. Identification of these elements offers an excellent opportunity to date the recent marine sediments using these elements as an event spike and also to reconstruct the history of pollution in these fjord basin sediments. As the precision of the XRF element detection is high the time of full recovery to natural conditions of the basin sediments, after close down of these

  20. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer, SEM/EDX, p-XRF and μ-XRF studies on a Dutch painting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, R., E-mail:; Schmidt, H.-J. [Leibniz Universität Hannover, Institut für Anorganische Chemie (Germany); Costa, B. F. O. [University of Coimbra, CFisUC, Physics Department (Portugal); Blumers, M. [Joh. Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Institut für Anorganische Chemie und Analytische Chemie (Germany); Sansano, A.; Rull, F. [Fisica de Materia Condensata, Centro de Astrobiologia, Universidade de Valladolid (Spain); Wengerowsky, D. [Leibniz Universität Hannover, Institut für Anorganische Chemie (Germany); Nürnberger, F.; Maier, H. J. [Leibniz Universität Hannover, Institut für Werkstoffkunde (Germany); Klingelhöfer, G. [University of Coimbra, CFisUC, Physics Department (Portugal); Renz, F., E-mail: [Leibniz Universität Hannover, Institut für Anorganische Chemie (Germany)


    The painting of a rich Jewish merchant “Bildnis eines jüdischen Kaufmanns” from the Netherlands is dated presumably to the 16{sup th} century. After a vivid historical background, i.e. robbed by the Nazis by order of Hermann Göring, it was recently discovered on an Austrian flea market. Different analysis methods were combined to identify the time of the production of this historically interesting looted art. Non-destructive MIMOS II Fe-57 Mössbauer spectroscopy was utilised for mesurements in selected spots. This mainly revealed haematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in the red curtain. In spots of the brown jacket Mössbauer spectra indicated the presence of mainly Iron(III) in super-paramagnetic oxide or oxide-hydroxide. Consecutively SEM measurements revealed a restoration by partly over-painting. The elementary composition of the pigments was examined by a portable-X-ray fluorescence. μ-XRF analysis for element distribution at different areas was performed. The look into a crack showed Zinc-white at the bottom of the crack. Traces of Titanium-white could be found within some locations on the surface of the painting. In terms of provenance of the artwork, the presence of Zink-white suggests that the painting was painted around the 19{sup th} century. Titanium-white indicates a reconstruction during the 20{sup th} century, approximately between 1917 and 1958.

  1. Evaluating Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Technology in Planetary Exploration: Demonstrating Instrument Stability and Understanding Analytical Constraints and Limits for Basaltic Rocks (United States)

    Young, K. E.; Hodges, K. V.; Evans, C. A.


    While large-footprint X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instruments are reliable providers of elemental information about geologic samples, handheld XRF instruments are currently being developed that enable the collection of geochemical data in the field in short time periods (approx.60 seconds) [1]. These detectors are lightweight (1.3kg) and can provide elemental abundances of major rock forming elements heavier than Na. While handheld XRF detectors were originally developed for use in mining, we are working with commercially available instruments as prototypes to explore how portable XRF technology may enable planetary field science [2,3,4]. If an astronaut or robotic explorer visited another planetary surface, the ability to obtain and evaluate geochemical data in real-time would be invaluable, especially in the high-grading of samples to determine which should be returned to Earth. We present our results on the evaluation of handheld XRF technology as a geochemical tool in the context of planetary exploration.

  2. 100-OL-1 Operable Unit Pilot Study: XRF Evaluation of Select Pre-Hanford Orchards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunn, Amoret L.; Fritz, Brad G.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Gorton, Alicia M.; Bisping, Lynn E.; Brandenberger, Jill M.; Pino, Christian; Martinez, Dominique M.; Rana, Komal; Wellman, Dawn M.


    Prior to the acquisition of land by the U.S. Department of War in February 1943 and the creation of the Hanford Site, the land along the Columbia River was home to over 1000 people. Farming and orchard operations by both homesteaders and commercial organizations were prevalent. Orchard activities and the associated application of lead arsenate pesticide ceased in 1943, when residents were moved from the Hanford Site at the beginning of the Manhattan Project. Today, the residues from historical application of lead arsenate pesticide persist in some locations on the Hanford Site. In 2012, the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology established the 100-OL-1 Operable Unit (OU) through the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the Tri-Party Agreement. The pre-Hanford orchard lands identified as the 100-OL-1 OU are located south of the Columbia River and east of the present-day Vernita Bridge, and extend southeast to the former Hanford townsite. The discontinuous orchard lands within 100-OL-1 OU are approximately 20 km2 (5000 ac). A pilot study was conducted to support the approval of the remedial investigation/feasibility study work plan to evaluate the 100-OL-1 OU. This pilot study evaluated the use of a field portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer for evaluating lead and arsenic concentrations on the soil surface as an indicator of lead arsenate pesticide residues in the OU. The objectives of the pilot study included evaluating a field portable XRF analyzer as the analytical method for decision making, estimating the nature and extent of lead and arsenic in surface soils in four decision units, evaluating the results for the purpose of optimizing the sampling approach implemented in the remedial investigation, and collecting information to improve the cost estimate and planning the cultural resources review for sampling activities in the remedial investigation. Based on

  3. Nondestructive Analysis of Astromaterials by Micro-CT and Micro-XRF Analysis for PET Examination (United States)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Righter, K.; Allen, C. C.


    An integral part of any sample return mission is the initial description and classification of returned samples by the preliminary examination team (PET). The goal of the PET is to characterize and classify returned samples and make this information available to the larger research community who then conduct more in-depth studies on the samples. The PET tries to minimize the impact their work has on the sample suite, which has in the past limited the PET work to largely visual, nonquantitative measurements (e.g., optical microscopy). More modern techniques can also be utilized by a PET to nondestructively characterize astromaterials in much more rigorous way. Here we discuss our recent investigations into the applications of micro-CT and micro-XRF analyses with Apollo samples and ANSMET meteorites and assess the usefulness of these techniques in future PET. Results: The application of micro computerized tomography (micro-CT) to astromaterials is not a new concept. The technique involves scanning samples with high-energy x-rays and constructing 3-dimensional images of the density of materials within the sample. The technique can routinely measure large samples (up to approx. 2700 cu cm) with a small individual voxel size (approx. 30 cu m), and has the sensitivity to distinguish the major rock forming minerals and identify clast populations within brecciated samples. We have recently run a test sample of a terrestrial breccia with a carbonate matrix and multiple igneous clast lithologies. The test results are promising and we will soon analyze a approx. 600 g piece of Apollo sample 14321 to map out the clast population within the sample. Benchtop micro x-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) instruments can rapidly scan large areas (approx. 100 sq cm) with a small pixel size (approx. 25 microns) and measure the (semi) quantitative composition of largely unprepared surfaces for all elements between Be and U, often with sensitivity on the order of a approx. 100 ppm. Our recent

  4. Determination of the chemical properties of residues retained in individual cloud droplets by XRF microprobe at SPring-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, C.-J. E-mail:; Tohno, S.; Kasahara, M.; Hayakawa, S


    To determine the chemical properties of residue retained in individual cloud droplets is primarily important for the understanding of rainout mechanism and aerosol modification in droplet. The sampling of individual cloud droplets were carried out on the summit of Mt. Taiko located in Tango peninsula, Kyoto prefecture, during Asian dust storm event in March of 2002. XRF microprobe system equipped at SPring-8, BL-37XU was applied to the subsequent quantification analysis of ultra trace elements in residues of individual cloud droplets. It was possible to form the replicas of separated individual cloud droplets on the thin collodion film. The two dimensional XRF maps for the residues in individual cloud droplets were clearly drawn by scanning of micro-beam. Also, XRF spectra of trace elements in residues were well resolved. From the XRF spectra for individual residues, the chemical mixed state of residues could be assumed. The chemical forms of Fe (Fe{sup +++}) and Zn (Zn{sup +}) could be clearly characterized by their K-edge micro-XANES spectra. By comparison of Z/Si mass ratios of residues in cloud droplets and those of the original sands collected in desert areas in China, the aging of ambient dust particles and their in cloud modification were indirectly assumed.

  5. Identification of inorganic pigments used in porcelain cards based on fusing Raman and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deneckere, A.; de Vries, L.; Vekemans, M.; van de Voorde, L.; Ariese, F.; Vincze, L.; Moens, L.; Vandenabeele, P.


    Raman spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy are often used as complementary techniques that are well suited for the analysis of art objects because both techniques are fast, sensitive, and noninvasive and measurements can take place in situ. In most of these studies, both techniques

  6. Combined elemental analysis of ancient glass beads by means of ion beam, portable XRF, and EPMA techniques. (United States)

    Sokaras, D; Karydas, A G; Oikonomou, A; Zacharias, N; Beltsios, K; Kantarelou, V


    Ion beam analysis (IBA)- and X-ray fluorescence (XRF)-based techniques have been well adopted in cultural-heritage-related analytical studies covering a wide range of diagnostic role, i.e., from screening purposes up to full quantitative characterization. In this work, a systematic research was carried out towards the identification and evaluation of the advantages and the limitations of laboratory-based (IBA, electron probe microanalyzer) and portable (milli-XRF and micro-XRF) techniques. The study focused on the analysis of an Archaic glass bead collection recently excavated from the city of Thebes (mainland, Greece), in order to suggest an optimized and synergistic analytical methodology for similar studies and to assess the reliability of the quantification procedure of analyses conducted in particular by portable XRF spectrometers. All the employed analytical techniques and methodologies proved efficient to provide in a consistent way characterization of the glass bead composition, with analytical range and sensitivity depending on the particular technique. The obtained compositional data suggest a solid basis for the understanding of the main technological features related to the raw major and minor materials utilized for the manufacture of the Thebian ancient glass bead collection.

  7. Hidden library : Visualizing fragments of medieval manuscripts in early-modern bookbindings with mobile macro-XRF scanner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivenvoorden, Jorien R.; Käyhkö, Anna; Kwakkel, Erik; Dik, J.


    This experiment demonstrates the large potential of macro-XRF imaging for the visualization of fragments of medieval manuscripts hidden in early-modern bookbindings. The invention of the printing press in the fifteenth century made manuscripts obsolete and bookbinders started recycling their

  8. Novel use of field-portable-XRF for the direct analysis of trace elements in marine macroalgae. (United States)

    Bull, Annie; Brown, Murray T; Turner, Andrew


    Samples of dried marine macroalgae (Fucus serratus, Palmaria palmata and Ulva lactuca) have been analysed for trace elements by a novel, non-destructive approach involving a Niton field-portable-X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) spectrometer configured in a low density plastics mode with thickness correction. Detection limits for a 200-s counting time ranged from XRF in samples collected from a protected beach (n = 18) and in samples therefrom that had been exposed to additional aqueous elements in combination (n = 72) with concentrations returned (in μg g -1 ) ranging from 3.9 to 39.7 for As, 13.0 to 307 for Cu, 6.1 to 14.7 for Pb and 12.5 to 522 for Zn. Independent measurements of trace elements in the macroalgae by ICP-MS following nitric acid digestion revealed a direct and significant proportionality with concentrations returned by the XRF, with slopes of the XRF-ICP relationships (As = 1.0; Cu = 2.3; Pb = 2.4; Zn = 1.7) that can be used to calibrate the instrument for direct measurements. The approach shows potential for the in situ monitoring of macroalgae in coastal regions that is currently being investigated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapid and nondestructive measurement of labile Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and As in DGT by using field portable-XRF. (United States)

    Chen, Zheng; Williams, Paul N; Zhang, Hao


    The technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) is often employed to quantify labile metals in situ; however, it is a challenge to perform the measurements in-field. This study evaluated the capability of field-portable X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) to swiftly generate elemental speciation information with DGT. Biologically available metal ions in environmental samples passively preconcentrate in the thin films of DGT devices, providing an ideal and uniform matrix for XRF nondestructive detection. Strong correlation coefficients (r > 0.992 for Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and As) were obtained for all elements during calibration. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) for the investigated elements of FP-XRF on DGT devices are 2.74 for Mn, 4.89 for Cu, 2.89 for Zn, 2.55 for Pb, and 0.48 for As (unit: μg cm(-2)). When Pb and As co-existed in the solution trials, As did not interfere with Pb detection when using Chelex-DGT. However, there was a significant enhancement of the Pb reading attributed to As when ferrihydrite binding gels were tested, consistent with Fe-oxyhydroxide surfaces absorbing large quantities of As. This study demonstrates the value of the FP-XRF technique to rapidly and nondestructively detect the metals accumulated in DGT devices, providing a new and simple diagnostic tool for on-site environmental monitoring of labile metals/metalloids.

  10. Fingerprinting of sildenafil citrate and tadalafil tablets in pharmaceutical formulations via X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry. (United States)

    Ortiz, Rafael S; Mariotti, Kristiane C; Schwab, Nicolas V; Sabin, Guilherme P; Rocha, Werickson F C; de Castro, Eustáquio V R; Limberger, Renata P; Mayorga, Paulo; Bueno, Maria Izabel M S; Romão, Wanderson


    The production of counterfeited drugs is a criminal problem that carries serious risks to public health in the worldwide. In Brazil, Viagra and Cialis are the most counterfeit medicines, being used to inhibit the phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5), treating thus, problems related to erectile dysfunction. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is a suitable technique to control the quality of new pharmaceutical formulations and distinguish between authentic and counterfeit tablets. XRF has advantageous features like multielemental capability, good detectivity, high precision, short analysis times, and is nondestructive, which makes it suitable to be extended to a great variety of samples. In this work, the inorganic fingerprinting chemical of forty-one commercial samples (Viagra, Cialis, Lazar, Libiden, Maxfil, Plenovit, Potent 75, Rigix, V-50, Vimax and Pramil) and fifty-six counterfeit samples (Viagra and Cialis) were obtained from XRF data. XRF presented an excellent analytical methodology for semi-quantitative determination of active ingredient (in case of sildenafil citrate that presents S in its structure) and excipients such as calcium phosphate, titanium oxide and iron oxide (P, Ca, Ti and Fe). The matrix data were allied to chemometric methods (Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis) to classify the tablets investigated between authentic and counterfeit, grouping the samples into of seven groups: A, B, C, D and E (counterfeit group) and F and G (authentic group). Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Spatially resolved XRF, XAFS, XRD, STXM and IR investigation of a natural U-rich clay (United States)

    Denecke, M. A.; Michel, P.; Schäfer, T.; Huber, F.; Rickers, K.; Rothe, J.; Dardenne, K.; Brendebach, B.; Vitova, T.; Elie, M.


    Combined spatially resolved hard X-ray μ-XRF and μ-XAFS studies using an X-ray beam with micrometer dimensions at the INE-Beamline for actinide research at ANKA and Beamline L at HASYLAB with those from scanning transmission soft X-ray microscopy (STXM) and synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (μ-FTIR) recorded with beam spots in the nanometer range are used to study a U-rich clay originating from Autunian shales in the Permian Lodève Basin (France). This argillaceous formation is a natural U deposit associated with organic matter (bitumen). Results allow us to differentiate between possible mechanisms leading to U enrichment: likely U immobilization via reaction with organic material associated with clay mineral. Such investigations support development of reliable assessment of the long term radiological safety for proposed nuclear waste disposal sites.

  12. 100-OL-1 Operable Unit Field Portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analyzer Pilot Study Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunn, Amoret L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fritz, Brad G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wellman, Dawn M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    A pilot study is being conducted to support the approval of the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Work Plan to evaluate the 100-OL-1 Operable Unit (OU) pre-Hanford orchard lands. Based on comments received by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington State Department of Ecology, the pilot study will evaluate the use of field portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry measurements for evaluating lead and arsenic concentrations on the soil surface as an indicator of past use of lead arsenate pesticide residue in the OU. The work will be performed in the field during the summer of 2014, and assist in the planning for the characterization activities in the RI/FS.

  13. 2D-3D μXRF elemental mapping of archeological samples (United States)

    Hampai, D.; Liedl, A.; Cappuccio, G.; Capitolo, E.; Iannarelli, M.; Massussi, M.; Tucci, S.; Sardella, R.; Sciancalepore, A.; Polese, C.; Dabagov, S. B.


    Recently opened for users at LNF XLab-Frascati a μ XRF station, named ;Rainbow X-ray; - RXR, has been optimized for most of X-ray analytical research fields. The basic principle of the station is in the use of various geometrical combinations of polycapillary optics for X-ray beam shaping (focusing/collimation) at specially designed laboratory unit. In this work we have presented the results of archaeological studies on the artifacts of Paleolithic period and Iron Age (9th century BC to the midway of the 8th BC). The elemental analysis of these artifacts has been first performed by compact laboratory setup. Superficial (2D) and bulk (3D) micro-fluorescence mapping provides useful informations for the geologists in order to identify the possible artifacts provenience and origin. The results presented in this work are a part of wider anthropological/archeological investigations aimed at the understanding of social and economical relations of prehistorical communities.

  14. A compact {mu}-XRF spectrometer for (in situ) analyses of cultural heritage and forensic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vittiglio, G.; Bichlmeier, S.; Klinger, P.; Heckel, J.; Fuzhong, W.; Vincze, L.; Janssens, K. E-mail:; Engstroem, P.; Rindby, A.; Dietrich, K.; Jembrih-Simbuerger, D.; Schreiner, M.; Denis, D.; Lakdar, A.; Lamotte, A


    A compact, light weight and relatively inexpensive {mu}-XRF instrument that allows for non-destructive and local analysis of sub-mm samples with minor/trace level sensitivity was developed. Two versions of this prototype instrument exist: a table-top version that can be used in a laboratory environment while for in situ measurements a readily transportable version was constructed. Polycapillary lenses are used to focus the primary X-ray beam down to the level of 70-100 {mu}m in diameter. Relative detection limits of transition elements in biological and glass matrices are situated at the 10-100 ppm level. These instruments are useful for characterization of various materials from the cultural heritage and forensic sector.

  15. Definitive Mineralogical Analysis of Mars Analog Rocks Using the CheMin XRD/XRF Instrument (United States)

    Blake, D. F.; Sarrazin, P.; Bish, D. L.; Feldman, S.; Chipera, S. J.; Vaniman, D. T.; Collins, S.


    Mineral identification is a critical component of Mars Astrobiological missions. Chemical or elemental data alone are not definitive because a single elemental or chemical composition or even a single bonding type can represent a range of substances or mineral assemblages. Minerals are defined as unique structural and compositional phases that occur naturally. There are about 15,000 minerals that have been described on Earth, all uniquely identifiable via diffraction methods. There are likely many minerals yet undiscovered on Earth, and likewise on Mars. If an unknown phase is identified on Mars, it can be fully characterized by structural (X-ray Diffraction, XRD) and elemental analysis (X-ray Fluorescence, XRF) without recourse to other data because XRD relies on the principles of atomic arrangement for its determinations. XRD is the principal means of identification and characterization of minerals on Earth.

  16. Development of the calibration transfer procedures for the XRF analyser AF-20

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalska, E


    Two standardization techniques; Direct (DS) and Picewise Direct Standardization (PDS) were applied to multivariate models developed using x-ray spectra. The data were obtained for the determination of Ca and fe in flying ash from brown coal using low resolution XRF analysis. The analyser AF-20 was used with an argon proportional counter and a Cd-109 radioisotope source. Number and comparison of samples from the calibration set were selected. Root mean square error of prediction (RMSEPr) was used as a criterion for assessment of the standardization quality. The best performance was obtained for the PDS method using 5 samples chosen with the leverage method. The RMSEPr value was 4 times lower for Ca determination and 2 times lower for Fe compared with the results without standardization. Software package was designed for fast computation of the standardization transform. The program can be used when the instrument parameters have changed as well as for calibration of the new instrument.

  17. The XRF mapping of archaeological artefacts as the key to understanding of the past. (United States)

    Kozak, L; Niedzielski, P; Jakubowski, K; Michałowski, A; Krzyżanowska, M; Teska, M; Wawrzyniak, M; Kot, K; Piotrowska, M


    The article describes the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) studies on the chemical composition of archaeological artefacts. The mapping of the concentration of selected elements has been used to recognise the way of object production and the use. The obtained data allowed to obtain the new information, which is impossible to gain by use of different methods. 'The data obtained from the chemical composition of the particular parts of the objects may be used for the interpretation of the manufacturing technology or the primal form of the objects. Additionally, the knowledge obtained from the chemical composition of the different parts of the artefacts may be essential for the selection of the protection and conservation methods. The present studies can be useful to improve knowledge about the level of former craftsmanship. These knowledge allow us to exam archaeological artefacts in a new light, and these findings can also broaden the archaeological knowledge horizons and provide good bases for further detailed studies.

  18. XRF-analysis of fine and ultrafine particles emitted from laser printing devices. (United States)

    Barthel, Mathias; Pedan, Vasilisa; Hahn, Oliver; Rothhardt, Monika; Bresch, Harald; Jann, Oliver; Seeger, Stefan


    In this work, the elemental composition of fine and ultrafine particles emitted by ten different laser printing devices (LPD) is examined. The particle number concentration time series was measured as well as the particle size distributions. In parallel, emitted particles were size-selectively sampled with a cascade impactor and subsequently analyzed by the means of XRF. In order to identify potential sources for the aerosol's elemental composition, materials involved in the printing process such as toner, paper, and structural components of the printer were also analyzed. While the majority of particle emissions from laser printers are known to consist of recondensated semi volatile organic compounds, elemental analysis identifies Si, S, Cl, Ca, Ti, Cr, and Fe as well as traces of Ni and Zn in different size fractions of the aerosols. These elements can mainly be assigned to contributions from toner and paper. The detection of elements that are likely to be present in inorganic compounds is in good agreement with the measurement of nonvolatile particles. Quantitative measurements of solid particles at 400 °C resulted in residues of 1.6 × 10(9) and 1.5 × 10(10) particles per print job, representing fractions of 0.2% and 1.9% of the total number of emitted particles at room temperature. In combination with the XRF results it is concluded that solid inorganic particles contribute to LPD emissions in measurable quantities. Furthermore, for the first time Br was detected in significant concentrations in the aerosol emitted from two LPD. The analysis of several possible sources identified the plastic housings of the fuser units as main sources due to substantial Br concentrations related to brominated flame retardants.

  19. Micro-XRF for In Situ Geological Exploration of Other Planets (United States)

    Wade, Lawrence A.; Hodyss, Robert P.; Allwood, Abigail C.; Gao, Ning; Kozaczek, Kris


    In situ analysis of rock chemistry is a fundamental tool for exploration of planets. To meet this need, a high-spatial-resolution micro x-ray fluorescence (Micro-XRF) instrument was developed that is capable of determining the elemental composition of rocks (elements Na U) with 100 microns spatial resolution, thus providing insight to the composition of features as small as sand grains and individual laminae. The resulting excitation beam is of sufficient intensity that high signal-to-noise punctual spectra are acquired in seconds to a few minutes using an Amptek Silicon Drift Detector (SDD). The instrument features a tightly focused x-ray tube and HVPS developed by Moxtek that provides up to 200 micro-A at 10 to 50 keV, with a custom polycapillary optic developed by XOS Inc. and integrated into a breadboard Micro-XRF (see figure). The total mass of the complete breadboard instrument is 2.76 kg, including mounting hardware, mounting plate, camera, laser, etc. A flight version of this instrument would require less than 5W nominal power and 1.5 kg mass. The instrument includes an Amptek SDD that draws 2.5 W and has a resolution of 135 to 155 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV. It weighs 180 g, including the preamplifier, digital pulse processor, multichannel analyzer, detector and preamp power supplies, and packaging. Rock samples are positioned relative to the instrument by a three-axis arm whose position is controlled by closed-loop translators (mimicking the robotic arm of a rover). The distance from the source to the detector is calculated from the position of a focused laser beam on the sample as imaged by the camera. The instrument enables quick scans of major elements in only 1 second, and rapid acquisition (30 s) of data with excellent signal-to-noise and energy resolution for trace element analysis

  20. Combined micro-XRF and TXRF methodology for quantitative elemental imaging of tissue samples. (United States)

    Wróbel, Paweł M; Bała, Sławomir; Czyzycki, Mateusz; Golasik, Magdalena; Librowski, Tadeusz; Ostachowicz, Beata; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Surówka, Artur; Lankosz, Marek


    Local differences in structural properties of biological specimens pose a major limitation to quantitative X-ray fluorescence imaging. This is because both the various tissue compartments of different density and variation in the sample thickness upon frequently used freeze-drying come up with the different values of the sample mass per unit area to be taken into account. Even though several solutions to tackle this problem based on the home-made standards for quantification in terms of thickness- and density-independent elemental mass fractions have been proposed, this issue is not addressed enough due to the samples' heterogeneity. In our recent study, we propose a calculation scheme based on combined external-standard micro X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) imaging and internal-standard total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis to determine the corrected elemental mass fraction distributions in commonly analysed rat tissues: kidney, liver and spleen. The results of TXRF analysis of digested large tissue sections together with the mean values of elemental masses per unit area obtained with micro-XRF were employed to determine the average masses per unit area of the samples. The correction for variation of the tissue thickness and density was done through with the use of Compton intensities. Importantly, by its versatility, our novel approach can be used to produce elemental contrast in a variety of biological specimens where local variations in either the sample density or thickness are no longer the issue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Online X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analysis of Heavy Metals in Pulverized Coal on a Conveyor Belt. (United States)

    Yan, Zhang; XinLei, Zhang; WenBao, Jia; Qing, Shan; YongSheng, Ling; DaQian, Hei; Da, Chen


    Heavy metals in haze episode will continue to threaten the quality of public health around the world. In order to decrease the emission of heavy metals produced from coal burning, an online X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer system, consisting of an XRF analyzer with data acquisition software and a laser rangefinder, was developed to carry out the measurement of heavy metals in pulverized coal. The XRF analyzer was mounted on a sled, which can effectively smooth the surface of pulverized coal and reduce the impact of surface roughness during online measurement. The laser rangefinder was mounted over the sled for measuring the distance between a pulverized coal sample and the analyzer. Several heavy metals and other elements in pulverized coal were online measured by the XRF analyzer directly above a conveyor belt. The limits of detection for Hg, Pb, Cr, Ti, Fe, and Ca by the analyzer were 44 ± 2, 34 ± 2, 17 ± 3, 41 ± 4, 19 ± 3, and 65 ± 2 mg·kg(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation (%RSD) for the elements mentioned was less than 7.74%. By comparison with the results by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), relative deviation (%D) of the online XRF analyzer was less than 10% for Cr, Ti, and Ca, in the range of 0.8-24.26% for Fe, and greater than 20% for Hg and Pb. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Investigating how fundamental parameters of XRF sample preparation and analysis affect the observed elemental concentration: an experiment using fluvial sediment from Sabah, Borneo. (United States)

    Higton, Sam; Walsh, Rory


    X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) is an important technique for measuring the concentrations of geochemical elements and inorganic contaminants adsorbed to sediments as an input to sediment tracing methods used to evaluate sediment transport dynamics in river catchments. In addition to traditional laboratory-based XRF instruments, the advent of increasingly advanced portable handheld XRF devices now mean that samples of fluvial sediment can be analysed in the field or in the laboratory following appropriate sample preparation procedures. There are limitations and sources of error associated with XRF sample preparation and analysis, however. It is therefore important to understand how fundamental parameters involved in sample preparation and analysis, such as sample compression and measurement exposure duration, affect observed variability in measurement results. Such considerations become important if the resulting measurement variability is high relative to the natural variability in element concentrations at a sample site. This paper deployed a simple experimental design to assess the impacts of varying a number of sample preparation and XRF analysis parameters on recorded measurements of elemental concentrations of the fine fraction (plastic sample cups were used for both the Rigaku laboratory machine and the Niton portable XRF machine. A computer-controlled desktop laboratory stand was used in conjunction with the Niton handheld XRF analyser to ensure consistent repeated measurements. Parameters investigated related to sample preparation included consistent mechanical compression of samples within the sample cup and film thickness. Parameters investigated related to XRF analysis included the XRF machine selected and measurement exposure duration. As XRF is a non-destructive technique, wherever possible the same sample material was used to test different parameters, so as to reduce variations due to the heterogeneous nature of sediment. Observed XRF measurements

  3. Tin accumulation in spermatozoa of the rats exposed to tributyltin chloride by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) analysis with microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homma-Takeda, S. [Environmental Radiation Protection Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail:; Nishimura, Y. [Environmental Radiation Protection Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Terada, Y. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Mikazuki, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Ueno, S. [School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Kitasato University, Towada, Aomori 034-8628 (Japan); Watanabe, Y. [Environmental Radiation Protection Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Yukawa, M. [Environmental Radiation Protection Research Group, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)


    Organotin compounds are widely used in industry and its environmental contamination by these compounds has recently become a concern. It is known that they act as endocrine disruptors but details of the dynamics of Sn in reproductive organs are still unknown. In the present study, we attempted to determine Sn distribution in the testis of rats exposed to tributyltin chloride (TBTC) by inductively coupled argon plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for microdissectioned seminiferous tubules and cell-selective metal determination of synchrotron radiation X-ray florescence (SR-XRF) analysis. TBTC was orally administered to rats at a dose of 45 {mu}mol/kg per day for 3 days. One day later, Sn was detected in the microdissectioned seminiferous tubules at a level approximately equivalent to that in the testis. Significant stage-specificity of Sn accumulation was not observed in the experimental model. Sn was also detected in spermatozoa at the stage VIII seminiferous tubule, which are the final step of spermatogenesis in the testis. These data indicate that Sn accumulates in germ cells as well as in spermatozoa in a short period of TBTC exposure.

  4. Micro-PIXE and micro-SR-XRF studies for Romanian archaeological gold identification (United States)

    Constantinescu, B.


    For gold, trace elements are more significant for provenancing archaeological artifacts than the main components: Platinum Group Elements (PGE), Sn, Te, Sb, Hg, Pb, but also high melting point elements, such as Ta and Nb. Several small fragments of native Carpathian gold were studied using micro-PIXE technique at the AGLAE accelerator, Louvre Museum and at the Legnaro AN2000 microbeam facility, and using SR-XRF at BESSY synchrotron. The goal of the study was to identify the trace elements, especially Sn, Sb and Te. At BESSY, the SR-XRF measurements were performed in air by using a 34 keV beam to excite the characteristic X-lines in Sn-Sb-Te region. We found Sn to be present in placers from Valea Arieşului and Valea Pianului, Sb in primary gold from Zlatna, Ruda-Brad, Valea Morii, Runculeţ-Straja and Pb in primary gold from Brǎdişor-Brad, Zlatna, Runculeţ-Straja, Valea Morii, Muşariu-Brad. Ten native gold nuggets and several fragments of objects coming from Visigothic Pietroasa "The Golden Brood Hen with Its Chickens" hoard were analyzed using micro-PIXE technique at the AGLAE accelerator, Louvre Museum, Paris and at the Legnaro AN2000 microbeam facility. We found Te in primary gold from Brǎdişor-Brad, Muşariu-Brad (different samples from BESSY analyzed ones), and Roşia Montanǎ, Sb in primary gold at Bucium-Izbiţa. For Pietroasa hoard, we found Sn in the Oenochoe cup and small fibula, indicating that alluvial gold - probably from Anatolia (Pactolus river) - was used. We also detected Ta inclusions in the large fibula, indicating that Ural Mountains (the only region where Ta and Au minerals are together) gold was (at least partially) used. A spectacular application to nine Dacian gold bracelets (belonging to National History Museum of Romania) authentication is presented. These bracelets look like spirals and are based on the same artistic idea, are centred around the same theme. The number of spiral varies from 6 to 8. When uncoiled, some bracelets

  5. Leonardo da Vinci's drapery studies: characterization of lead white pigments by µ-XRD and 2D scanning XRF (United States)

    Gonzalez, Victor; Calligaro, Thomas; Pichon, Laurent; Wallez, Gilles; Mottin, Bruno


    This work focuses on the composition and microstructure of the lead white pigment employed in a set of paintworks, using a combination of µ-XRD and 2D scanning XRF, directly applied on five drapery studies attributed to Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) and conserved in the Département des Arts Graphiques, Musée du Louvre and in the Musée des Beaux- Arts de Rennes. Trace elements present in the composition as well as in the lead white highlights were imaged by 2D scanning XRF. Mineral phases were determined in a fully noninvasive way using a special µ-XRD diffractometer. Phase proportions were estimated by Rietveld refinement. The analytical results obtained will contribute to differentiate lead white qualities and to highlight the artist's technique.

  6. In-situ and elementally resolved determination of the thickness uniformity of multi-ply films by confocal micro XRF. (United States)

    Peng, Song; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi; Wang, Guangfu; Ma, Yongzhong; Ding, Xunliang


    Confocal micro X-ray fluorescence (CM-XRF) with quasi-monochromatic excitation based on polycapillary X-ray optics was used to measure the thickness of multi-ply films. The relative errors of measuring an Fe film with a thickness of 16.3 μm and a Cu film with a thickness of 24.5 μm were 7.3% and 0.4%, respectively. The non-destructive and in-situ measurement of the thickness and uniformity of multi-ply films of Cu, Fe and Ni on a silicon surface was performed. CM-XRF was convenient in in-situ and elementally resolved analysis of the thickness of multi-ply films without a cumbersome theoretical correction model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Micro-XRF complemented by x-radiography and digital microscopy imaging for the study of hidden paintings (United States)

    Gasanova, Svetlana; Hermon, Sorin


    The present study describes a novel approach to the study of hidden by integrating the non-invasive micro-X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy, X-radiography and digital microscopy. The case study analysed is a portrait of a male figure discovered under the painting of Ecce Homo, attributed to Titian's studio with an estimated date in the 1550s. The X-radiography images exposed the details of the underpainting, which appeared to be a nearly finished portrait of a standing man, overpainted by the current composition of Ecce Homo at a 180° angle. The microscopy observations of the upper painting's cracks and flaked areas enabled the study of the exposed underlayers in terms of their colour appearance and pigment particles. The subsequent pigment analysis was performed by micro-XRF. Since the described XRF analysis was performed not in scanner mode, the correct selection of the measurement spots for the micro analysis and separation between pigments of the lower and the upper painting was of paramount importance. The described approach for spot selection was based on the results of the preceding X-radiography and digital microscopy tests. The presence of lead white, vermilion, copper green and iron earth in the underlying portrait was confirmed by the multiple point XRF analysis of Pb, Hg, Cu, Fe and Mn lines. The described investigation method proved to be useful in the identification of the pigments of the underlying painting and consequently assisted in the tentative reconstruction of its colour palette. Moreover, the undertaken approach allowed discovering the potential of micro-XRF technique in the study of hidden compositions.

  8. Assessment of climatic and seismic cycles in southern chile from high resolution XRF and magnetic susceptibility measurements of historic lake sediments. (United States)

    Boes, X.; Hubert-Ferrari, A.; Fagel, N.


    The high-resolution sedimentological studies performed on the sediment cores collected in the oceans or in the lakes constitutes the basis for inter-comparison of past climate variability. Among the new high-resolution approaches, the X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis of varved marine and lacustrine cores represents some of the best resolution. These data are particularly useful for tracking short-term climate changes expressed with calibrated time scales. However, the XRF results obtain on the fresh cores surface may be of low resolution because the core material is wet and unconsolidated. One particularly attractive method to solve this problem consists of impregnating the sediment cores with polymers in order to polish the core surface for XRF analyses. This step is essential for being able to get significant XRF and Magnetic Susceptibility (MS) results in the muddy cores. Since the 1960s, the evolution of sediment impregnation methods has been strongly linked to the development of innovative techniques (e.g., sampling devices, cryogenic and vacuum technologies, polymers, etc.). In this communication, we first propose a revised method that may be applied to prepare sediment cores for high-resolution XRF and MS data acquisition. Then we show an example of XRF and MS results obtain on laminated lake sediments from South America (Lago Puyehue, 40°S). As this area is very sensitive in terms of precipitation change (i.e., Southern Westerlies); the XRF data are compared with the regional instrumental precipitation database. The results are discussed in terms of climate and sismo- tectonic impacts over historic times. Our results shows that, in order to better interpret XRF tool over long sequences, the measurements should be first "calibrated" according to instrumental data such as precipitation, temperatures, and earthquake magnitudes.

  9. A versatile technique for the investigation of gunshot residue patterns on fabrics and other surfaces: m-XRF. (United States)

    Berendes, Antje; Neimke, Dieter; Schumacher, Rüdiger; Barth, Martin


    With heavy-metal-free ammunitions becoming more and more popular, it is necessary to find methods to visualize patterns of those elements in gunshot residues (GSRs) that are not accessible by chemographic coloring tests. The recently introduced millimeter-X-ray fluorescence analysis (m-XRF) spectrometer Spectro Midex M offers an easy way to record mappings of GSRs containing such elements in order to determine shooting distances as well as the general composition of these particles. A motorized stage enables samples of a maximum size of 20 x 20 cm to be investigated, like fabric, clothes, adhesive tapes (Filmolux films), and polyvinylalcohol gloves of shooter's hands. Human tissues can be measured using a Peltier-cooled specimen holder that is mounted onto the stage. As the spot size of the exiting X-rays lies in the millimeter range, which is adequate for the assessment of the residue patterns for shooting distance determination, a significant reduction in measurement time is achieved compared with mu-XRF methods. Test shots with heavy-metal-free ammunitions were performed on different target materials, like pork skin and fabric, and the elemental distributions of Ti, K, and Ga were determined. In order to show the capability of the spectrometer for conventional lead ammunitions as well, a shot series of 5-100 cm shooting distance and an adhesive tape of a shooter's hand were investigated analogously. A comparison of several methods applied in GSR investigation shows the advantages of the m-XRF method.

  10. The three-dimensional elemental distribution based on the surface topography by confocal 3D-XRF analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Longtao; Qin, Min; Wang, Kai; Peng, Shiqi; Sun, Tianxi; Liu, Zhiguo [Beijing Normal University, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing (China); Lin, Xue [Northwest University, School of Cultural Heritage, Xi' an (China)


    Confocal three-dimensional micro-X-ray fluorescence (3D-XRF) is a good surface analysis technology widely used to analyse elements and elemental distributions. However, it has rarely been applied to analyse surface topography and 3D elemental mapping in surface morphology. In this study, a surface adaptive algorithm using the progressive approximation method was designed to obtain surface topography. A series of 3D elemental mapping analyses in surface morphology were performed in laboratories to analyse painted pottery fragments from the Majiayao Culture (3300-2900 BC). To the best of our knowledge, for the first time, sample surface topography and 3D elemental mapping were simultaneously obtained. Besides, component and depth analyses were also performed using synchrotron radiation confocal 3D-XRF and tabletop confocal 3D-XRF, respectively. The depth profiles showed that the sample has a layered structure. The 3D elemental mapping showed that the red pigment, black pigment, and pottery coat contain a large amount of Fe, Mn, and Ca, respectively. From the 3D elemental mapping analyses at different depths, a 3D rendering was obtained, clearly showing the 3D distributions of the red pigment, black pigment, and pottery coat. Compared with conventional 3D scanning, this method is time-efficient for analysing 3D elemental distributions and hence especially suitable for samples with non-flat surfaces. (orig.)

  11. Lead detection in food, medicinal, and ceremonial items using a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument. (United States)

    Reames, Ginger; Charlton, Valerie


    The authors evaluated a Niton XLp303A X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument, used to identify lead hazards in housing, to determine its effectiveness to screen food, medicinal, and ceremonial items during lead poisoning investigations. Fifty-eight suspect exposure items were tested for lead by XRF and then sent to the laboratory for confirmation. A lead content cut-point of 10 parts per million (ppm; the lower level at which the XRF model could reliably determine the presence of lead) was used to evaluate the results. The Niton consistently identified the presence of lead spectra emissions and gave quantitative readings above 10 ppm for the nine samples with lead content that exceeded 10 ppm in laboratory testing. The authors' study suggests that the Niton XLp303A is an effective screening method for food and similar items with lead content > or = 10 ppm, provided the operator is trained to identify lead spectra. Rapid, on-site identification of lead exposure sources allows an investigator to inform the family of immediate steps they can take to decrease their child's lead exposure.

  12. The decrease in population bone lead levels in Canada between 1993 and 2010 as assessed by in vivo XRF. (United States)

    McNeill, F E; Fisher, M; Chettle, D R; Inskip, M; Healey, N; Bray, R; Webber, C E; Manton, W I; Marro, L; Arbuckle, T E


    Objective and Approach: A study, conducted in Toronto, Canada, between 2009 and 2011, measured the bone lead concentrations of volunteers aged 1-82 years using in vivo x-ray fluorescence (XRF) technology. Bone lead levels were lower compared to Ontario in vivo XRF studies from the early 1990s. In adults, the slope of tibia lead content versus age was reduced by 36-56%, i.e. bone lead levels for a given age group were approximately half compared to the same age group 17 years prior. Further, bone lead levels of individuals fell over that time period. In 2010, an average person aged 57 years had a bone lead level approximately 1/3 less than their bone lead level age 40 years in 1993. Using this data, the half-lives of lead in the tibia were estimated as 7-26 years. Tibia lead levels were found to be low in children. The reduction in bone tibia content in children was not significant (p  =  0.07), but using data from additional north eastern US studies, there is evidence that childhood tibia stores are lower than in the 1990s. In vivo XRF analysis shows that there has been a reduction in the level of lead in bone in Canada over the last two decades. Public health measures have been very successful in reducing ongoing exposure to lead and in reducing bone lead stores.

  13. The Three-Dimensional Elemental Distribution of 3D Printing Stainless Steel Gear via Confocal 3D–XRF Analysis (United States)

    Qin, Min; Yi, Longtao; Wang, Jingbang; Han, Yue; Sun, Tianxi; Liu, Zhiguo


    The macroscopic mechanical properties of 3D printing product are closely related to their microstructure, it has significant importance to accurately characterize the micro-structure of 3D printing products. Confocal three-dimensional micro-X-ray fluorescence (3D-XRF) is a good surface analysis technology widely used to analyse elements and elemental distributions. Therefore, this technique is also very suitable for element distribution measurement of 3D printing product which is printed layer by layer. In this paper the 3D-XRF technique was used to study the spatial elemental distribution of a micro zone from the 3D printing stainless steel gear. An elemental mapping of two orthogonal sections in the depth direction and three dimensional elemental rendering of one micro-region were obtained. The result shows that elemental distribution of the sample is not uniform, the elemental layer structure is formed in the depth direction, the content of the element in measured area vary smoothly, and with no elemental mutation region. This indicates that the 3D printing sample are fused well between layers and layers, with no large pores or bubbles inside the sample. This study demonstrates that it is feasible to make assessment for micro-structure of 3D printing metal product by using confocal 3D-XRF.

  14. Non-matrix Matched Glass Disk Calibration Standards Improve XRF Micronutrient Analysis of Wheat Grain across Five Laboratories in India. (United States)

    Guild, Georgia E; Stangoulis, James C R


    Within the HarvestPlus program there are many collaborators currently using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy to measure Fe and Zn in their target crops. In India, five HarvestPlus wheat collaborators have laboratories that conduct this analysis and their throughput has increased significantly. The benefits of using XRF are its ease of use, minimal sample preparation and high throughput analysis. The lack of commercially available calibration standards has led to a need for alternative calibration arrangements for many of the instruments. Consequently, the majority of instruments have either been installed with an electronic transfer of an original grain calibration set developed by a preferred lab, or a locally supplied calibration. Unfortunately, neither of these methods has been entirely successful. The electronic transfer is unable to account for small variations between the instruments, whereas the use of a locally provided calibration set is heavily reliant on the accuracy of the reference analysis method, which is particularly difficult to achieve when analyzing low levels of micronutrient. Consequently, we have developed a calibration method that uses non-matrix matched glass disks. Here we present the validation of this method and show this calibration approach can improve the reproducibility and accuracy of whole grain wheat analysis on 5 different XRF instruments across the HarvestPlus breeding program.

  15. Applications of XRF, NAA and low-kV radiographic techniques in the study of body composition and diseased tissue (United States)

    Bradley, D. A.; Ng, K. H.; Green, S.; Mountford, P. J.; Shukri, A.; Evans, J.


    Members of this group have responded to a number of challenging health issues by attempting to devise sensitive XRF, NAA and low-kV radiographic measurement systems foboth in vivo and in vitro applications. These studies are generally either of toxicological importance, examine potential for diagnosing the presence of disease, or offer effective means for monitoring potentially harmful side-effects of therapy. Particular examples include the in vivo XRF investigation of human skeletal uptake of Pb in working and living environments, in vivo XRF monitoring of elevated levels of Fe in skin (indicating the presence of an undesirable side-effect of the treatment of thalassaemia), in vivo NAA monitoring of elevated levels of Al in bone (indicating an undesirable side-effect of the treatment of chronic renal failure) and in vitro characterization, by means of low-kV imaging, of a range of calcification parameters in healthy and diseased breast tissue. The latter investigation has been conducted in association with an in vitro NAA study of concentrations of trace elements in the same types of tissue. Figures of merit for the various measurement systems have been obtained in terms of minimum detectable levels and concentrations (MDL's and MDC's) and where applicable, image related parameters.

  16. In-situ XRF and LIBS analysis of roman silver denarii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, A. El; Harith, M.A. [National Institute for Laser- Enhanced Science (NILES), Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Ferretti, M. [Istituto per le Tecnologie Applicate ai Beni Culturali, Area della Ricerca del CNR di Montelibretti, Roma (Italy); Foresta, A.; Legnaioli, S.; Lorenzetti, G.; Palleschi, V.; Pardini, L., E-mail: [Istituto di Chimica dei Composti Organometallici del CNR. Area della Ricerca del CNR di Pisa (Italy); Nebbia, E. [Universita degli Studi di Torino (Italy); Catalli, F. [Monetiere di Firenze, Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Firenze (Italy)


    Full text: In this paper we present the result of a study performed on a large collection of silver roman republican denarii, encompassing about two centuries of history. The joint use of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy allowed for an accurate determination of the coins' elemental composition; the measurements, performed mostly in situ at the 'Monetiere' in Florence, revealed a striking correlation of the 'quality' of the silver alloy with some crucial contemporary events. This finding was used for classifying a group of denarii whose dating was otherwise impossible. The results reported demonstrate the possibility of analyzing in short time and in situ a statistically significant number of coins. Useful information can be obtained about the coin composition, both for main components and traces that could be used for classifying the coins in groups, according to different levels of concentrations of the detected elements. The comparison with other contemporary denarii allowed also to controvert a recent theory on the origin of the so called 'serrated' denarii (denarii showing notched chisel marks on the edge of the coin). (author)

  17. Structural and chemical diagnosis of magnetic multilayers by RAFS and XRF techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mai, Z H; Liu, C X; Li, M H; Jiang, H W; Lai, W Y; Wang, J; Ding, Y F; Hase, T P A; Fulthorpe, B D; Tanner, B K


    Elemental distribution of Ni, Mn and Co at the NiMn/Co and Co/NiMn interfaces of ultra-thin NiMn/Co multilayers and that of Bi in the Cu/NiFe/Bi/FeMn/Cu multilayers have been investigated by X-ray reflection anomalous fine structure (RAFS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) methods. For the as-grown sample of the NiMn/Co multilayers, a chemical intermixing region with the chemical component varying gradually from Co to CoMn is observed at the Co/NiMn interface, but not at the NiMn/Co interface. After annealing at 250 deg. C for 3, 10 and 20 h respectively, this gradual chemical component variation also appears at the NiMn/Co interface. For the Cu/NiFe/Bi/FeMn/Cu multilayers, the depth distributions of the Bi atoms of the samples with different thicknesses of Bi layer are obtained. The results show that the diffuse ability of Bi is strongly dependent on the thickness of the Bi layer.

  18. Non Invasive XRF Analysis of Human Hair for Health State Determination of Breast Tissue. (United States)

    Maziar, Asghar; Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Tavakoli, Mohammad Bagher; Changizi, Vahid


    Using hair samples to analyze the trace element concentrations is of interest among many researchers. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are the most common methods in studying the structure and concentration of elements of tissues and also crystalline materials, using low energy X-ray. In the present study, the detection ability of Wave Length X-ray Fluorescence (WLXRF) of breast cancer at early stages was evaluated and the results were compared with other routine modalities such as mammography. Hair samples of 54 women (including 27 healthy and 27 patients) with average age of 52.03 ± 11.44 years were analyzed. All the sample donors were Iranian women. For the measurements Wave Length X-ray Fluorescence (WLXRF) method was used. Trace elements in healthy individuals were higher than those in cancer patients. In addition, sensitivity of the used method (WLXRF) was 96% compared to mammography (77%) as a gold standard for breast cancer detection. Trace elements in healthy individuals were higher than cancer patients and it seems that WLXRF may be used as a safe, low cost and reliable method with sensitivity higher than those of the other two relevant methods, XRD and mammography.

  19. The reasons for the color green fluorite Mehmandooye cover using UV spectroscopy and XRF results (United States)

    Pirzadeh, Sara; Zahiri, Reza


    Fluorite mineral or fluorine with chemical formula CaF2 is most important mineralfluor in nature. This mineral crystallization to colors yellow, green, pink, blue, purple, colorless and sometimes black andin cubic system crystallized.assemi transparent and glass with polished.fluoritethe purity include 48/9% fluoreand 51/9% calcium. How the creation colors in minerals different greatly indebted to Kurt Nassau research from Bell Labs, Murray Hill, New Jersey.almostall the mechanisms that cause color in minerals, are the result of the interaction of light waves with the electrons The main factors affecting the color generation include the following: 1)the presence of a constructive element inherent (essential ingredient mineral composition) 2)The presence of a minor impurities (such a element as involved in latticesolid solution) 3) appearancedefects in the crystal structure 4) There are some physical boundaries with distances very small and delicate, like blades out of the solution (which may be the play of colors or Chatvyansy) 5) Mixing mechanical impurities dispersed in a host mineral Based on the results of the analysis, XRF and UV spectrum and also based on the results of ICP, because the color green fluorite examined, the focus color (F_center) and also the presence of some elementsintermediate (such as Y (yttrium). [1] Bill, H., Calas, G. Color centres associated rare earth ions and the origin of coloration in natural fluorites// PhysChem Min, (1978), v 3, pp. 117-131.

  20. Correlations of trace elements in breast human tissues: Evaluation of spatial distribution using {mu}-XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piacenti da Silva, Marina; Silva, Deisy Mara da; Ribeiro-Silva, Alfredo; Poletti, Martin Eduardo [Departamento de Fisica, FFCLRP/USP, Av. dos Bandeirantes n. 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto - SP (Brazil); Departamento de Patologia, HCFM/USP, Av. dos Bandeirantes n. 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto - SP (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, FFCLRP/USP, Av. dos Bandeirantes n. 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto - SP (Brazil)


    The aim of this work is to investigate microscopic correlations between trace elements in breast human tissues. A synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microprobe system ({mu}-XRF) was used to obtain two-dimensional distribution of trace element Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in normal (6 samples) and malignant (14 samples) breast tissues. The experiment was performed in X-ray Fluorescence beam line at Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, Brazil. The white microbeam was generated with a fine conical capillary with a 20 {mu}m output diameter. The samples were supported on a XYZ table. An optical microscope with motorized zoom was used for sample positioning and choice the area to be scanned. Automatic two-dimensional scans were programmed and performed with steps of 30 {mu}m in each direction (x, y) on the selected area. The fluorescence signals were recorded using a Si(Li) detector, positioned at 90 degrees with respect to the incident beam, with a collection time of 10 s per point. The elemental maps obtained from each sample were overlap to observe correlation between trace elements. Qualitative results showed that the pairs of elements Ca-Zn and Fe-Cu could to be correlated in malignant breast tissues. Quantitative results, achieved by Spearman correlation tests, indicate that there is a spatial correlation between these pairs of elements (p < 0.001) suggesting the importance of these elements in metabolic processes associated with the development of the tumor.

  1. Assessment of chemical analyses by means of portable XRF in the Roman mortars of Complutum archaeological site (Spain) (United States)

    Ergenç, Duygu; Freire, David; Fort, Rafael


    The chemical characterization of lime mortars used in Roman period has a great significance and plays a key role in the acquisition of knowledge with respect to construction technology, raw materials and, accordingly, in its conservation works. When it comes to cultural heritage studies, sampling is always complicated since the minimum damage is the primary concern. The use of non-destructive techniques and direct measurements with portable devices reduce the amount of samples and time consumed in analyses, consequently it could be stated that such techniques are extremely useful in conservation and restoration works. In this study, the portable XRF device was used to determine the composition of chemical elements which compose the Roman lime mortars in the archaeological site of Complutum, Alcalá de Henares (Madrid, Spain) which is listed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO since 1998. Portable XRF devices have some detection limits below the ones of the laboratory equipment that are immovable and require sampling. In order to correlate the results, sampling and grinding were initially done to prepare the powders for the laboratory XRF analysis with the following elements: Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, K, Ti, Nb, Zr, Sr, Rb, Pb, Zn and Cr. The analyses of the powdered samples were conducted with the laboratory equipment PHILIPS Magix Pro (PW-2440) from the Centre of Scientific Instrumentation CIC in the University of Granada, and the results were compared to the results gathered with X Ray Florescence (EDTRX) THERMO NITON model XL3T from the Petrophysics Laboratory Geosciences Institute IGEO (CSIC-UCM). Analyses were performed on the surfaces of the samples -without any previous preparation-, and on the powdered samples to compare the variations between both traditional XRF analyses and the portable XRF. A good correlation was found among the results obtained by the laboratory equipment, the portable device as well as the surface measurements. The results of this study

  2. The Fast Evolution of SN 2010bh Associated with XRF 100316D (United States)

    Olivares E., F.; Greiner, J.; Schady, P.; Rau, A.; Klose, S.; Kruhler, T.; Afonso, P. M. J.; Updike, A. C.; Nardini, M.; Filgas, R.; hide


    The first observational evidence of a connection between supernovae (SNe) and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) was found about a decade ago. Since then, only half a dozen spectroscopically confirmed associations have been discovered and XRF 1003160 associated with the type-Ic SN 20lObh is among the latest. Aims. We constrain the progenitor radius, the host-galaxy extinction, and the physical parameters of the explosion of XRF l00316D/SN 20lObh at z 0.059. We study the SN brightness and colours in the context of GRB-SNe. Methods. We began observations with the Gamma-Ray burst Optical and Near-infrared Detector (GROND) 12 hours after the GRB trigger and continued until 80 days after the burst. GROND provided excellent photometric data in six filter bands covering a wavelength range from approximately 350 to 1800 nm, significantly expanding the pre-existing data set for this event. Combining GROND and Swift data, the early broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED) is modelled with a blackbody and afterglow component attenuated by dust and gas absorption. The temperature and radius evolution of the thermal component are analysed and combined with earlier measurements available from the literature. Templates of SN 1998bw are fitted to the SN itself to directly compare the lightcurve properties. Finally, a two-component parametrized model is fitted to the quasi-bolometric light curve. which delivers physical parameters of the explosion. Results. The best-fit models to the broad-band SEDs imply moderate reddening along the line of sight through the host galaxy (A(sub = 1.2 +/- 0.1 mag). Furthermore, the parameters of the blackbody component reveal a cooling envelope at an apparent initial radius of 7 x 10(exp 11) cm, which is compatible with a dense wind surrounding a Wolf-Rayet star. A multicolor comparison shows that SN 2010bh is 60 - 70% as bright as SN 1998bw. Reaching maximum brightness at 8 - 9 days after the burst in the blue bands, SN 20lObh proves to be the

  3. An XRF Geochemical Investigation of the Deglaciation of Hall Basin, Naires Strait (United States)

    Albert, S. W.; Reilly, B. T.; Stoner, J. S.; Jennings, A. E.; Mix, A.; Jakobsson, M.


    Sediment core HLY0301-5GC, raised from Hall Basin, Nares Strait, documents the early Holocene opening of Nares Strait at about 9,000 cal yr BP (dR = 0), containing a lithological transition from high accumulation rate laminated sediments to low accumulation rate bioturbated sediments coupled with changes in paleoceanographic proxies at the transition (see Jennings et al., 2011, Oceanography). New sediment cores recovered from Hall Basin during the multidisciplinary OD1507 expedition onboard the Swedish Icebreaker Oden contain similar lithologic changes and provide new spatial context to the deglacial stratigraphy of Hall Basin. High-resolution x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and computed tomography (CT) scans of the new OD1507 cores and HLY0301-5GC were obtained to augment the existing data set and to study the down-core and between core variations in elemental composition and lithology. The laminated interval of HLY0301-5GC is characterized by high frequency variability in titanium (Ti) normalized to calcium (Ca) superimposed on longer wavelength variations. Nearby cores OD1507-31PC to the west, near the mouth of Archer Fjord, Ellesmere Island, and OD1507-18GC to the east, near the Polaris Foreland, Northwest Greenland, form a west-east transect with HLY03-01-5GC. While all three cores have broadly similar lithology, Ca is enriched relative to Ti in cores closer to Greenland. 18GC shows an abrupt shift not captured in the two other cores to high Ca relative to Ti at about 3 meters. Geochronologic work on the new OD1507 cores is in progress, however paleomagnetic measurements on u-channel samples isolate a strong and stable characteristic remanent magnetization, allowing for paleosecular variation (PSV) based stratigraphic correlation, independent of paleoenvironmental variability. These data are used to investigate lithologic, temporal, and spatial geochemical variations to better understand changes in sediment process and provenance during the deglaciation of Hall Basin.

  4. Field-portable-XRF reveals the ubiquity of antimony in plastic consumer products. (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Filella, Montserrat


    Very little systematic information exists on the occurrence and concentrations of antimony (Sb) in consumer products. In this study, a Niton XL3t field-portable-X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) spectrometer was deployed in situ and in the laboratory to provide quantitative information on Sb dissipated in plastic items and fixtures (including rubber, textile and foamed materials) from the domestic, school, vehicular and office settings. The metalloid was detected in 18% of over 800 measurements performed, with concentrations ranging from about 60 to 60,000μgg -1 . The highest concentrations were encountered in white, electronic casings and in association with similar concentrations of Br, consistent with the use of antimony oxides (e.g. Sb 2 O 3 ) as synergistic flame retardants. Concentrations above 1000μgg -1 , and with or without Br, were also encountered in paints, piping and hosing, adhesives, whiteboards, Christmas decorations, Lego blocks, document carriers, garden furniture, upholstered products and interior panels of private motor vehicles. Lower concentrations of Sb were encountered in a wide variety of items but its presence (without Br) in food tray packaging, single-use drinks bottles, straws and small toys were of greatest concern from a human health perspective. While the latter observations are consistent with the use of antimony compounds as catalysts in the production of polyethylene terephthalate, co-association of Sb and Br in many products not requiring flame retardancy suggests that electronic casings are widely recycled. Further research is required into the mobility of Sb when dissipated in new, recycled and aged polymeric materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [New methodology for heavy metals measurement in water samples by PGNAA-XRF]. (United States)

    Jia, Wen-Bao; Zhang, Yan; Hei, Da-Qian; Ling, Yong-Sheng; Shan, Qing; Cheng, Can


    In the present paper, a new combined detection method was proposed using prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) and characteristic X-ray fluorescence to improve the heavy metals measurement accuracy for in-situ environmental water rejects analysis by PGNAA technology. Especially, the characteristic X-ray fluorescence (XRF) of heavy metals is induced by prompt gamma-ray directly instead of the traditional excitation sources. Thus, a combined measurement facility with an 241 AmBe neutron source, a BGO detector and a NaI-Be detector was developed to analyze the pollutants in water. The two detectors were respectively used to record prompt gamma-ray and characteristic X-ray fluorescence of heavy metals. The prompt gamma-ray intensity (I(γ)) and characteristic X-ray fluorescence intensity (I(x)) was determined by MCNP calculations for different concentration (c(i)) of chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb), respectively. The simulation results showed that there was a good linear relationship between I(γ), I(x) and (c(i)), respectively. The empirical formula of combined detection method was given based on the above calculations. It was found that the combined detection method was more sensitive for high atomic number heavy metals like Hg and Pb measurement than low atomic number like Cr and Cd by comparing and analyzing I(γ) and I(x). The limits of detection for Hg and Pb by the combined measurement instrument were 17.4 and 24.2 mg x kg(-1), respectively.

  6. ARTROC—a readout ASIC for GEM-based full-field XRF imaging system (United States)

    Fiutowski, T.; Koperny, S.; Łach, B.; Mindur, B.; Świentek, K.; Wiącek, P.; Dąbrowski, W.


    In the paper we report on development of an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), called ARTROC, being part of a full-field X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) imaging system equipped with a standard three stage Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector of 10×10 cm2 area. The ARTROC consists of 64 independent channels, allowing for simultaneous recording of the amplitudes (energy sub-channel) and time stamps (timing sub-channel) of incoming signals. Thanks to the implemented token-based read out of derandomizing buffers, the ASIC also provides data sparsification and full zero suppression. Reconstruction of the hit positions is performed in an external data acquisition system by matching the time stamps of signals recorded in X- and Y-strips. The amplitude information is used for centre of gravity finding in clusters of signals on neighbouring strips belonging to the same detection events. The ASIC could work in one of six gain modes and one of two speed modes. In a slower mode the maximum count rate per channel is 105/s while in a faster mode it is three times higher. The ARTROC comprises also input protection circuits against possible random discharges inside active detector volume, so it can be used without any additional input components. The ASIC has been designed in 350 nm CMOS process. The basic functionality and parameters have been evaluated using the testability functions implemented in the ASIC design. The ASIC has been also tested in a fully equipped GEM detector set-up with X-rays source.

  7. Rapid screening of natually occurring radioactive nuclides({sup 2}'3{sup 8}U, {sup 232}Th) in raw materials and by-products samples using XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Young; Lim, Chung Sup [Radiation Biotechnology and Applied Radioiostope Science, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jong Myoung; Ji, Young Yong; Chung, Kun Ho; Lee, Wan No; Kang, Mun Ja [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Byung Uck [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    As new legislation has come into force implementing radiation safety management for the use of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), it is necessary to establish a rapid and accurate measurement technique. Measurement of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th using conventional methods encounter the most significant difficulties for pretreatment (e.g., purification, speciation, and dilution/enrichment) or require time-consuming processes. Therefore, in this study, the applicability of ED-XRF as a non-destructive and rapid screening method was validated for raw materials and by-product samples. A series of experiments was conducted to test the applicability for rapid screening of XRF measurement to determine activity of {sup 238}U and {sup 23{sup 2}}Th based on certified reference materials (e.g., soil, rock, phosphorus rock, bauxite, zircon, and coal ash) and NORM samples commercially used in Korea. Statistical methods were used to compare the analytical results of ED-XRF to those of certified values of certified reference materials (CRM) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results of the XRF measurement for {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th showed under 20% relative error and standard deviation. The results of the U-test were statistically significant except for the case of U in coal fly ash samples. In addition, analytical results of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th in the raw material and by-product samples using XRF and the analytical results of those using ICP-MS (R{sup 2}≥0.95) were consistent with each other. Thus, the analytical results rapidly derived using ED-XRF were fairly reliable. Based on the validation results, it can be concluded that the ED-XRF analysis may be applied to rapid screening of radioactivities ({sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th) in NORM samples.

  8. Heavy-metal contamination of soils in Saxony/Germany by foundry fumes and low-cost rapid analyses of contaminated soils by XRF (United States)

    Mucke, D.


    Heavy-metal contamination of soils in Saxony/Germany by foundry fumes and low-cost rapid analysis of contaminated soils by XRF Dieter Mucke, Rolf Kumann, Sebastian Baldauf GEOMONTAN Gesellschaft für Geologie und Bergbau mbH&Co.KG, Muldentalstrasse 56, 09603 Rothenfurth, Saxony/Germany For hundreds of years in the Ore Mountains between Bohemia and Saxony silver and other ores are produced and smelted. Sulphide- and sulpharsenide-ores needed to be roasted first. In doing so the sulphide sulphur was oxidised under formation of sulphur dioxide SO2 and arsenide conversed into elemental arsenic and arsenide trioxide As2O3 respectively. Also the metals lead, cadmium and zinc are components of hut smokes, in the field of nickel foundries also nickel. The contents of soils basically reflect the geogenic conditions, which are caused by decomposition- and relocation-effects of the mineralisations, in the area of foundries also with influences by with the hut smokes anthropogenic mobilised elements. The Saxonian Agency for Environment and Geology drafted in 1992 a Soil Investigation Program with the aim of investigation of the contamination of Saxonian soils with arsenic and toxic heavy metals. In order of this Agency GEOMONTAN investigated 1164 measuring points in the grid 4 * 4 km.soil profiles and extracted soil samples for analysis. In the result of the laboratory examinations the Agency edited the "Soil atlas of the Free State of Saxony". 27 elements, pH and PAK are shown in detailed maps and allow in whole Saxony the first assessment of the contamination of soils with arsenic and toxic heavy metals. Each of the investigated soil profiles represent an area of 16 km2. Already by the different use of the districts (agricultural, industrial, urban) restricts representative values. GEOMONTAN in the meantime used at the exploration of a copper deposit in Brandenburg/Germany with approx. 50,000 single tests at drill cores a very fast low-cost method: the X Ray fluorescence

  9. Ocular disorders in a petroleum industry in Nigeria. (United States)

    Omoti, A E; Waziri-Erameh, J M; Enock, M E


    To determine the ocular disorders in the petroleum industry in Warri, Nigeria. A clinic-based prospective study of the pattern of ocular disorders in workers of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation in Warri, Delta state of Nigeria was carried out over a 1-year period. Technical and non-technical workers were interviewed and examined using the Snellen's chart, pen-torch, direct ophthalmoscope, slit-lamp biomicroscope, Perkin's hand-held applanation tonometer, and the Kowa automatic visual field plotter where indicated. A total of 154 technical workers comprising 146 males (94.8%) and eight females (5.2%), and 116 non-technical workers comprising 90 males (77.6%) and 26 females (22.4%) were seen. There was no reported case of ocular trauma. Symptoms suggestive of ocular irritation were much more common in technical workers. Allergic conjunctivitis, pterygium, corneal abrasion, and foreign body on the cornea were significantly more common in technical workers Ppetroleum industry makes the technical workers more prone to allergic conjunctivitis, pterygium, corneal abrasion, and foreign body on the cornea. Protection goggles should be provided for all the technical workers.

  10. Study of Hand-Held Fire Extinguishers Aboard Civil Aviation Aircraft. (United States)


    cyanide (HCN), oxides of nitrogen (NO ), ammonia ( NH3 ), hydrogen suifide (H 2S), phosgene (COC12 ), and many other compounds. * . "From fires in...that the effective volume is up to 300 times that of the stored volume. Foam is an effective scrubber for fumes and smoke. Foam blankets over

  11. An Evaluation of the Feasibility of Using Hand-Held Computers for Training. (United States)


    Sinclair Microvision Flat TV. The lack of graphics is a considerable constraint on myriad teaching applications. Printer graphics are sometimes helpful, but...US Ofie: 50 Stanifo,’ Sirec-, Bcjs!or MassachuseMl MAC2󈧒 US4 Telephone 16171 742 4826 Photo shows a model of the Sinclair Microvision flat Screen...pocket TV which will be available during 1982. Designed to retail at around E50 the Microvision incoroorates an F:1 radio and will be able to receive

  12. Feasibility of using a hand-held device to characterize tendon tissue biomechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahand Sohirad

    Full Text Available To examine the feasibility of using the MyotonPRO digital palpation device in measuring the transverse stiffness of tendon tissue.Experimental study.The MyotonPRO was used to measure the stiffness and related properties of ballistics gel in comparison with an external materials testing system (PCB electronics. The device was then used to measure the same properties of avian Achilles tendons before and after the removal of the overlying skin and subcutaneous tissue. Next, the test-retest reliability of the Achilles and patellar tendons was determined in humans. Finally, the stiffness of the Achilles tendon was measured before and after competitive running races of varying distances (10, 21 and 42 km, total number of athletes analyzed = 66.The MyotonPRO demonstrated a high degree of consistency when testing ballistics gel with known viscoelastic properties. The presence of skin overlying the avian Achilles tendon had a statistically significant impact on stiffness (p<0.01 although this impact was of very small absolute magnitude (with skin; 728 Nm ±17 Nm, without skin; Nm 704 Nm ±7 Nm. In healthy adults of normal body mass index (BMI, the reliability of stiffness values was excellent both for the patellar tendon (ICC, 0.96 and the Achilles tendon (ICC,0.96. In the the field study, men had stiffer tendons than women (p<0.05, and the stiffness of the Achilles tendon tended to increase following running (p = 0.052.The MyotonPRO can reliably determine the transverse mechanical properties of tendon tissue. The measured values are influenced by the presence of overlying skin, however this does not appear to compromise the ability of the device to record physiologically and clinically relevant measurements.

  13. Performance evaluation of a hand-held, semiconductor (CdZnTe)-based gamma camera

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, A; Lee, J; Oka, T; Shizukuishi, K; Kikuchi, T; Inoue, T; Jimbo, M; Ryuo, H; Bickel, C


    We have designed and developed a small field of view gamma camera, the eZ SCOPE, based on use of a CdZnTe semiconductor. This device utilises proprietary signal processing technology and an interface to a computer-based imaging system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the eZ scope in comparison with currently employed gamma camera technology. The detector is a single wafer of 5-mm-thick CdZnTe that is divided into a 16 x 16 array (256 pixels). The sensitive area of the detector is a square of dimension 3.2 cm. Two parallel-hole collimators are provided with the system and have a matching (256 hole) pattern to the CdZnTe detector array: a low-energy, high-resolution parallel-hole (LEHR) collimator fabricated of lead and a low-energy, high-sensitivity parallel-hole (LEHS) collimator fabricated of tungsten. Performance measurements and the data analysis were done according to the procedures of the NEMA standard. We also studied the long-term stability of the system with continuous use...

  14. Real-time Identification System using Mobile Hand-held Devices: Mobile Biometrics Evaluation Framework (United States)


    operation Real-time searches against large databases (e.g. 10m irises ) are possible with modest CPU loads Acquisition of iris image requires on proprietary data formats – is a non-issue in most modern iris recognition systems. 3.1.4 Multiple biometrics Multiple biometric solutions...and civil use, allowing for use in face, finger, and iris deployments. Although a handful of vendors are capable of implementing multiple biometric

  15. Hand-held, mechanically cooled, radiation detection system for gamma-ray spectroscopy (United States)

    Burks, Morgan Thomas; Eckels, Joel Del


    In one embodiment, a radiation detection system is provided including a radiation detector and a first enclosure encapsulating the radiation detector, the first enclosure including a low-emissivity infra-red (IR) reflective coating used to thermally isolate the radiation detector. Additionally, a second enclosure encapsulating the first enclosure is included, the first enclosure being suspension mounted to the second enclosure. Further, a cooler capable of cooling the radiation detector is included. Still yet, a first cooling interface positioned on the second enclosure is included for coupling the cooler and the first enclosure. Furthermore, a second cooling interface positioned on the second enclosure and capable of coupling the first enclosure to a cooler separate from the radiation detection system is included. Other embodiments are also presented.

  16. 75 FR 27504 - Substantial Product Hazard List: Hand-Held Hair Dryers (United States)


    ... year. In 1990, the National Electrical Code (NEC) (Article 422-24, 1990 edition) instituted... standard. 15 U.S.C. 2064(j). Underwriters Laboratories (``UL'') Standard for Safety for Household Electric... protection provisions have been in effect since 1991. UL Standard for Safety for Commercial Electric Personal...

  17. Physician Use of Hand-Held Computers for Drug Information and Prescribing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Galt, Kimberly A; Siracuse, Mark V; Rule, Ann M; Clark, Bartholomew E; Taylor, Wendy


    ...) by primary care physicians for drug information access and prescribing. The instrument studied addressed human factor limitations, attitudes toward learning to use the PDA, and fear of losing either confidential information or the PDA itself...

  18. Motorists' use of hand held cell phones in New Zealand: an observational study. (United States)

    Townsend, Michael


    Unlike many similar countries, New Zealand has no specific legislation restricting the use of cell phones in vehicles. Several factors suggest that legislation may be introduced in the near future. This study provided a benchmark for current cell phone use among motorists. A total of 8,700 drivers of cars were observed for cell phone use as they passed a fixed location in Auckland. Cell phone use was double that of an Australian city, where cell phones are banned. Use of a cell phone while driving was similarly likely in male and female drivers.

  19. An improved hand-held four-detector gamma-probe for radioassisted oncological surgery

    CERN Document Server

    Dusi, W; Bollini, D; Moroni, C; Ricard, M


    The performance of an improved intraoperative gamma-probe for radioassisted oncological surgery is presented and discussed. The probe is based on a square array of four 5x5 mm sup 2 coplanar CdTe room temperature semiconductor detectors and each detector has an independent read out electronic chain, allowing an original handling of the signal. Therefore, the search for gamma-emission hot points may be carried out in two different, independent ways: (1) Finding out the position of the probe corresponding to the maximum value of the total counting rate, on the basis of a trial and error procedure (typical for the conventional probe; (2) Finding out the position of the probe where both the differences between the counting rate performed by orthogonal, adjacent halves of the array vanish (differential method). This makes the new probe sensitive to the bidimensional gradient of the gamma-ray flux, measured on the scanned plane. Furthermore, the algebraic sign of the difference indicates in which direction the prob...

  20. Development of hand-held nondestructive detection device for assessing meat freshness (United States)

    Wei, Wensong; Peng, Yankun; Qiao, Lu


    Meat freshness is directly related to the health of consumers, and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content is an important reference index for evaluating pork freshness. This paper attempted to measure TVB-N content for assessing pork meat freshness using a new self-developed portable and low cost detection device designed by ourselves basing on near infrared technique. The front-end part of this device was an integrated detection component containing a mini probe which was about 5cm in diameter circle. In the signal acquiring component, silicon photodiode detector was embedded in the center of light source in probe and spectral response range was 400-1100nm to receive diffuse light from pork meat surface in mini probe. The main circuits in this device included stabilized current supply circuit which was used to provide a stable power supply for each LED light source in probe and signal processing circuit which was utilized to complete signal amplification and A/D conversion, In addition, another vital function of the signal processing circuit was to analysis detection signals from mini probe in the detection component. For verifying this device performance, 58 pork samples with different freshness attributes and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) mathematical method and ratio data processing algorithm were employed to build pork TVB-N content prediction model, and comparing with results from raw data model, the correlation coefficient of prediction and validation of TVB-N were 0.8027 and 0.7291 respectively, and the accuracy of predicting pork freshness was about 78.6%. This work demonstrates that it has the potential in nondestructive detection of TVB-N content in pork meat using this device, which can simplify related instruments design structure and reduce their development cost in future.

  1. Measurement of Visual Reaction Times Using Hand-held Mobile Devices (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.; Arsintescu, Lucia; Flynn-Evans, Erin


    Modern mobile devices provide a convenient platform for collecting research data in the field. But,because the working of these devices is often cloaked behind multiple layers of proprietary system software, it can bedifficult to assess the accuracy of the data they produce, particularly in the case of timing. We have been collecting datain a simple visual reaction time experiment, as part of a fatigue testing protocol known as the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT). In this protocol, subjects run a 5-minute block consisting of a sequence of trials in which a visual stimulus appears after an unpredictable variable delay. The subject is required to tap the screen as soon as possible after the appearance of the stimulus. In order to validate the reaction times reported by our program, we had subjects perform the task while a high-speed video camera recorded both the display screen, and a side view of the finger (observed in a mirror). Simple image-processing methods were applied to determine the frames in which the stimulus appeared and disappeared, and in which the finger made and broke contact with the screen. The results demonstrate a systematic delay between the initial contact by the finger and the detection of the touch by the software, having a value of 80 +- 20 milliseconds.

  2. Intraoperative detection of radiolabeled compounds using a hand held gamma probe (United States)

    Ricard, Marcel


    Scintillation cameras in Nuclear Medicine allow external detection of cancerous lesions after administration of a specific radiopharmaceutical to the patient. In some particular cases the affinity of the tracer is sufficient to consider the use of an intraoperative probe which enables the surgeon to identify radioactive tissues. A radiopharmaceutical consists of a radioisotope bound to a carrier molecule. The radioactive emissions must represent certain criteria in terms of half-life and energy to be detected during an operation. In the field of intraoperative detection radionuclides like 99mTc, 111In, 125I and 131I fall into this category. Their energy, which ranges from some 10 to 364 keV, cannot be properly detected by a single type of detector. Two technologies have been developed to yield detectors which are handy and sufficiently sensitive: semiconductor CdTe or CdZnTe to detect low energies and scintillator CsI(Tl) for higher energies. Today the intraoperative detection has been evaluated in the case of several pathologies such as osteoid osteoma, colorectal cancer, neuroblastoma, reoperation of differentiated thyroid carcinoma and localization of sentinel node in breast cancer and cutaneous melanoma. Obviously, the results obtained are not comparable from one indication to the other. Nevertheless, the surgeons have noted a considerable advantage in using the intraoperative probe in the case of neuroblastoma and thyroid surgery, especially when the reoperation is difficult or the localizations are ectopic or unusual. As regards the sentinel node, this concept represents a major new opportunity in the field of intraoperative detection and the results actually reported in the literature demonstrate that, when it is detected, elective node excision renders the staging of the disease more accurate. In conclusion, intraoperative detection supplies the surgeon with additional knowledge to be used in correlation with the patient's medical history.

  3. Edgewood Biosensors Test Bed Hand-held and Man-Portable Edition (United States)


    performance  in an  International Organization for Standardization  ( ISO )  17025 ‐compliant laboratory and in operationally relevant real‐world settings...evaluated systems  in  both  an  ISO   17025   accredited  laboratory  setting  with  highly  skilled  scientists  as  well  as  in  a  field  environment...Candidate  technologies  were  evaluated  for  their  ability  to  detect  known  samples  in  an  ISO   17025   compliant  laboratory at ECBC  in order

  4. Evaluation of hand-held ion-mobility explosives vapor detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrows, T.A.; Thoma, P.J.


    Two types of ion-mobility detectors were evaluated in both laboratory and field tests. Laboratory test results show that these detectors are highly sensitive to dynamite and pistol powder and have good false-alarm agent rejection. Field tests of these two detectors revealed that they would detect dynamite and Ball-C-Propellent in free air. However, neither of the ion-mobility detectors would detect these explosives if the explosives were concealed.

  5. Clinical assessment of hip strength using a hand-held dynamometer is reliable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, K; Petersen, J; Magnusson, S P


    Hip strength assessment plays an important role in the clinical examination of the hip and groin region. The primary aim of this study was to examine the absolute test-retest measurement variation concerning standardized strength assessments of hip abduction (ABD), adduction (ADD), external...

  6. Appearance based Key-Shot Selection for a Hand Held Camera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alefs, B.G.; Dijk, J.


    Automatic selection of key-shots is an important step for video data processing. Depending on the purpose, key-shot selection provides user feed back on recorded data, storage reduction and viewpoint selection and it can be used for panoramic image stitching and 3D-reconstruction. In particular,

  7. Preoperative distraction in children: hand-held videogames vs clown therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Messina


    Full Text Available Anxiety in children undergoing surgery is characterized by feelings of tension, apprehension, nervousness and fear which may manifest differently. Postoperative behavioural changes such as nocturnal enuresis, feeding disorders, apathy, and sleep disturbances may stem from postoperative anxiety. Some Authors pointed out that over 60% of children undergoing surgery are prone to developing behavioural alterations 2 weeks after surgery. Variables such as age, temperament and anxiety both in children and parents are considered predictors of such changes.1 Studies were published describing how psycho-behavioural interventions based on play, learning and entertainment in preparing children for surgery, may reduce preoperative anxiety. Clown-therapy is applied in the most important paediatric facilities and has proved to diminish children’s emotional distress and sufferance, as well as consumption of both analgesics and sedatives and to facilitate the achievement of therapeutic goals. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of clown-therapy during the child’s hospital stay, with a view to optimizing treatment and care, preventing behavioural alterations and enhancing the child’s overall life quality.

  8. Comparison of the Retinomax hand-held autorefractor versus table-top autorefractor and retinoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Tuncer


    Full Text Available AIM:To compare noncycloplegic and cycloplegic results of Retinomax measurements with findings achieved after cycloplegia using table-top autorefractor and retinoscopy.METHODS: The study included 127 patients (mean age 96.7mo, range 21 to 221. Retinomax (Rmax (Nikon Inc., Japan was used to obtain noncycloplegic refraction. Under cycloplegia, refraction was measured with Rmax, table-top autorefractor (TTR (Nikon NRK 8000, Inc., Japan and retinoscopy. The values of sphere, spherical equivalent, cylinder and axis of cylinder were recorded for Rmax, TTR and retinoscopy in each eye. All results were analyzed statistically.RESULTS: The mean spheric values (SV, spherical equivalent values (SEV and cylindrical values (CV of the noncycloplegic Rmax (SV:0.64 D, SEV:0.65 D and CV:0.03 D, respectively were found to be significantly lower than cycloplegic TTR (1.43 D, 1.38 D and 0.3 D; P=0.012, P=0.011 and P=0.04, respectively and retinoscopy (1.34 D, 1.45 D and 0.23 D; P=0.04, P=0.002 and P=0.045, respectively. Mean cycloplegic SV, SEV, CV were not significantly different between Rmax and TTR, Rmax and retinoscopy, TTR and retinoscopy. Cycloplegic or noncycloplegic axis values were not different between any method.CONCLUSION: Rmax may be used successfully as a screening tool but may not be accurate enough for actual spectacle prescription. Cycloplegic Rmax measurements may be able to identify refractive error in children because of approximate results to retinoscopy.

  9. Performance evaluation of a hand-held, semiconductor (CdZnTe)-based gamma camera. (United States)

    Abe, Aya; Takahashi, Nobukazu; Lee, Jin; Oka, Takashi; Shizukuishi, Kazuya; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Inoue, Tomio; Jimbo, Masao; Ryuo, Hideki; Bickel, Chris


    We have designed and developed a small field of view gamma camera, the eZ SCOPE, based on use of a CdZnTe semiconductor. This device utilises proprietary signal processing technology and an interface to a computer-based imaging system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the eZ scope in comparison with currently employed gamma camera technology. The detector is a single wafer of 5-mm-thick CdZnTe that is divided into a 16x16 array (256 pixels). The sensitive area of the detector is a square of dimension 3.2 cm. Two parallel-hole collimators are provided with the system and have a matching (256 hole) pattern to the CdZnTe detector array: a low-energy, high-resolution parallel-hole (LEHR) collimator fabricated of lead and a low-energy, high-sensitivity parallel-hole (LEHS) collimator fabricated of tungsten. Performance measurements and the data analysis were done according to the procedures of the NEMA standard. We also studied the long-term stability of the system with continuous use and variations in ambient temperature. Results were as follows. INTRINSIC ENERGY RESOLUTION: 8.6% FWHM at 141 keV.LINEARITY: There was excellent linearity between the observed photopeaks and the known gamma ray energies for the given isotopes. INTRINSIC SYSTEM UNIFORMITY: For the central field of view, the integral uniformity and the differential uniformity were, respectively, 1.6% and 1.3% with the LEHR collimator and 1.9% and 1.2% with the LEHS collimator. SYSTEM SPATIAL RESOLUTION: The FWHM measurements made at the surface of the collimator were 2.2 mm (LEHR) and 2.9 mm (LEHS).CONTRAST TEST: The average S/N ratios (i.e. counts in the irradiated pixel divided by counts in the surrounding pixels) for the inner ring pixels (8)/outer ring pixels (16) using the LEHS collimator and LEHR collimator were 3.2%/0.2% and 3.7%/0.3%, respectively. COUNT RATE CHARACTERISTICS: We could not determine the maximum count rate and the 20% loss count rate from these data because the plateau was not reached while using the solutions measured. SYSTEM SENSITIVITY: The average acquisitions were 11,052 cpm/MBq (LEHR) and 28,590 cpm/MBq (LEHS). TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE: The system displayed minimum corresponding shift in cps with temperature changes in the measured temperature range. We designed and developed a semiconductor-based gamma camera using CdZnTe. The basic performance of this camera compares favourably with the existing gamma camera technology that is deployed in the medical field today. The most significant differences include the spatial resolution, sensitivity, high count rate characteristics and energy resolution. We believe that this device will be of value for a number of clinical applications including sentinel node detection and radiopharmaceutical-guided surgery.

  10. Using High-Resolution Hand-Held Radiometers To Measure In-Situ Thermal Resistance (United States)

    Burch, Douglas M.; Krintz, Donald F.


    A field study was carried out to investigate the accuracy of using high-resolution radiometers to determine the in situ thermal resistance of building components having conventional residential construction. Two different types of radiometers were used to determine the thermal resistances of the walls of six test buildings located at the National Bureau of Standards. These radiometer thermal resistance measurements were compared to reference thermal resistance values determined from steady-state series resistance predictions, time-averaged heat-flow-sensor measurements, and guarded-hot-box measurements. When measurements were carried out 5 hours after sunset when the outdoor temperature was relatively steady and the heating plant was operated in a typical cyclic fashion, the following results were obtained: for lightweight wood-frame cavity walls, the radiometer procedures were found to distinguish wall thermal resistance 4.4 h.ft2- °F/Btu (0.77 m2•K/W) systematically higher than corresponding reference values. Such a discrimination will per-mit insulated and uninsulated walls to be distinguished. However, in the case of walls having large heat capacity (e.g., masonry and log), thermal storage effects produced large time lags between the outdoor diurnal temperature variation and the heat-flow response at the inside surface. This phenomenon caused radiometer thermal resistances to deviate substantially from corresponding reference values. This study recommends that the ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 101-1981 be modified requiring the heating plant to be operated in a typical cyclic fashion instead of being turned off prior to and during radiometer measurements.

  11. Use of Electronic Hand-held Devices for Collection of Savannah River Site Environmental Data - 13329

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marberry, Hugh [SRNS Savannah River Site 730-4B Room 3043 Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Moore, Winston [SRNS Savannah River Site 735B Room 116 Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)


    Savannah River Nuclear Solutions has begun using Xplore Tablet PC's to collect data in the field for soil samples, groundwater samples, air samples and round sheets at the Savannah River Site (SRS). EPA guidelines for groundwater sampling are incorporated into the application to ensure the sample technician follows the proper protocol. The sample technician is guided through the process for sampling and round sheet data collection by a series of menus and input boxes. Field measurements and well stabilization information are entered into the tablet for uploading into Environmental Restoration Data Management System (ERDMS). The process helps to eliminate input errors and provides data integrity. A soil sample technician has the ability to collect information about location of sample, field parameter, describe the soil sample, print bottle labels, and print chain of custody for the sample that they have collected. An air sample technician has the ability to provide flow, pressure, hours of operation, print bottle labels and chain of custody for samples they collect. Round sheets are collected using the information provided in the various procedures. The data are collected and uploaded into ERDMS. The equipment used is weather proof and hardened for the field use. Global Positioning System (GPS) capabilities are integrated into the applications to provide the location where samples were collected and to help sample technicians locate wells that are not visited often. (authors)

  12. Hand-held computers in healthcare: what software programs are available? (United States)

    Gillingham, Wayne; Holt, Alec; Gillies, John


    The technology sector of healthcare is entering a new evolutionary phase. The medical community has an obligation to the public to provide the safest, most effective healthcare possible. This is more achievable with the use of computer technology at the point of care, and small, portable devices could fulfil this role. A PriceWaterhouse Coopers 2001 survey on information technology in physician practices found that 60% of respondents say that physicians in their organisation use personal digital assistants (PDAs), compared with 26% in the 2000 technology survey. This trend is expected to continue to the point where these devices will have their position on a physician s desk next to the stethoscope. Once this electronic evolution occurs, doctors will be able to practice medicine with greater ease and safety. In our opinion, the new generation of PDA mobile devices will be the tools to enable a transformation of healthcare to a paperless, wireless world. This article focuses on uses of PDAs in healthcare, whether by the registrar, consultant, nurse, student, teacher, patient, medical or surgical director. Current PDA healthcare software is categorised and discussed in the following five groups: 1) reference/text book; 2) calculator; 3) patient management/logbook; 4) personal clinical/study notebook; 5) utility software.

  13. Preoperative distraction in children: hand-held videogames vs clown therapy. (United States)

    Messina, M; Molinaro, F; Meucci, D; Angotti, R; Giuntini, L; Cerchia, E; Bulotta, A L; Brandigi, E


    Anxiety in children undergoing surgery is characterized by feelings of tension, apprehension, nervousness and fear which may manifest differently. Postoperative behavioural changes such as nocturnal enuresis, feeding disorders, apathy, and sleep disturbances may stem from postoperative anxiety. Some Authors pointed out that over 60% of children undergoing surgery are prone to developing behavioural alterations 2 weeks after surgery. Variables such as age, temperament and anxiety both in children and parents are considered predictors of such changes.1 Studies were published describing how psycho-behavioural interventions based on play, learning and entertainment in preparing children for surgery, may reduce preoperative anxiety. Clown-therapy is applied in the most important paediatric facilities and has proved to diminish children's emotional distress and sufferance, as well as consumption of both analgesics and sedatives and to facilitate the achievement of therapeutic goals. The aim of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of clown-therapy during the child's hospital stay, with a view to optimizing treatment and care, preventing behavioural alterations and enhancing the child's overall life quality.

  14. Feasibility of a Hand-Held Integrating Dosimeter Using a Cadmium Telluride Detector (United States)


    and photons (in the X-ray and gamma ray energy span). Electronic dosimeters developed for nuclear reactor appli- cations are not satisfactory for...also be added the man-made component due to any nuclear reactors or thermoelectric generators on board the spacecraft. In all cases found in the [with flat (with linear (ft) (R/hr) extrap .] extrap .] extrap .] 19 0.0012 0.00338 0.00451 0.00585 13 0.0026 0.00698 0.00924 0.0121 9 0.0055 0.0148

  15. The Rosetta phone: a hand-held device for automatic translation of signs in natural images (United States)

    Jafri, Syed Ali Raza; Mikkilineni, Aravind K.; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.


    When traveling in a region where the local language is not written using the Roman alphabet, translating written text (e.g., documents, road signs, or placards) is a particularly difficult problem since the text cannot be easily entered into a translation device or searched using a dictionary. To address this problem, we are developing the "Rosetta Phone," a handheld device (e.g., PDA or mobile telephone) capable of acquiring a picture of the text, identifying the text within the image, and producing both an audible and a visual English interpretation of the text. We started with English, as a developement language, for which we achieved close to 100% accuracy in identifying and reading text. We then modified the system to be able to read and translate words written using the Arabic character set. We currently achieve approximately 95% accuracy in reading words from a small directory of town names.

  16. Panasonic HR-1800 Hand-Held Computer Solutions to Composite Materials Formulas. (United States)


    TR-83-4093 PROGRAM LISTING (Cont’d) I, : E-6 :PE*u3 D RINT 3 =U4---4*U3 gtr -BINf X𔃾)=U5-C4§U3 GS fQ :T SEXT *lJ 3 54A@ ;OSUB 6)i6’S2*U2J ,’-54 PLA... SEXT * 3’E6 ":W=X(ue) E:=E1*A(1i:E2:- * * :628800)E=6. ~.-- (33B4*A~ )2A QPmI 5 39 a@ G$=" T r4EH 310 1APUT p~~4 ~2’ -;C SUB 3800 ŗUCK!:4G (T’...u (?00

  17. Environmentally Sustainable Yellow Smoke Formulations for Use in the M194 Hand Held Signal (United States)


    airborne. As the assembly reaches its apex (an average height of ~725 feet), the burning of the delay element (5-6 seconds) then ignites an...presently used in M18 smoke grenade production. 4 Inhalation studies of SY33 as a smoke dye indicate that this compound is cleared from the lungs very

  18. Hand held analog television over WiMAX executed in SW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iancu, D.; Ye, H.; Senthilvelan, M.; Kotlyar, V.; Glossner, J.; Moudgill, M.; Agrawal, S.; Jinturkar, S.; Iancu, A.; Ramadurai, V.


    This paper describes a device capable of performing the following tasks: it samples and decodes the composite video analog TV signal, it encodes the resulting RGB data into a MPEG-4 stream and sends it over a WiMAX link. On the other end of the link a similar device receives the WiMAX signal, in

  19. A hand-held row-column addressed CMUT probe with integrated electronics for volumetric imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Mathias; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Beers, Christopher


    A 3 MHz, λ / 2-pitch 62+62 channel row-column addressed 2-D CMUT array designed to be mounted in a probe handle and connected to a commercial BK Medical scanner for real-time volumetric imaging is presented. It is mounted and wire-bonded on a flexible PCB, which is connected to two rigid PCBs...... coaxial cable that connects it to the ultrasound scanner, which supplies the probe with a 190 V DC bias voltage and up to ±75V AC excitation voltage. The probe was successfully connected to a BK3000 scanner and used as two decoupled 1-D phased arrays. Volumetric imaging was demonstrated using...

  20. Inter- and intrarater reliability of goniometry and hand held dynamometry for patients with subacromial impingement syndrome. (United States)

    Fieseler, Georg; Laudner, Kevin G; Irlenbusch, Lars; Meyer, Henrike; Schulze, Stephan; Delank, Karl-Stefan; Hermassi, Souhail; Bartels, Thomas; Schwesig, René


    The purpose of this study was to examine the intra- and interrater reliability of measuring shoulder range of motion (ROM) and strength among patients diagnosed with subacromial impingement syndrome (SAIS). Twenty-five patients (14 female patients; mean age, 60.4± 7.84 years) diagnosed with SAIS were assessed to determine the intrarater reliability for glenohumeral ROM. Twenty-five patients (16 female patients; mean age, 60.4± 7.80 years) and 76 asymptomatic volunteers (52 female volunteers; mean age, 29.4± 14.1 years) were assessed for interrater reliability. Dependent variables were active shoulder ROM and isometric strength. Intrarater reliability was fair-to-excellent for the SAIS patients (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC], 0.52-0.97; standard error of measurement [SEM], 4.4°-9.9° N; coefficient of variation [CV], 7.1%-44.9%). Based on the ICC, 11 of 12 parameters (92%) displayed an excellent reliability (ICC> 0.75). The interrater reliability showed fair-to-excellent results (SAIS patients: ICC, 0.13-0.98; SEM, 2.3°-8.8°; CV, 3.6%-37.0%; controls: ICC, 0.11-0.96; SEM, 3.0°-35.4°; CV, 5.6%-26.4%). In accordance with the intrarater reliability, glenohumeral adduction ROM was the only parameter with an ICC below 0.75 for both samples. Painful shoulder ROM in the SAIS patients showed no influence on the quality of reliability for measurement. Therefore, these protocols should be considered reliable assessment techniques in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of painful shoulder conditions such as SAIS.

  1. Hand-Held and Portable Devices for Oil Assessment: Commercial Technologies for Maintenance Activities (United States)


    Lubricity loss Non-Newtonian dysfunction PPrimarily a result of rheological changes PProperties: viscosity, goniometry , and tensiometry PTime-dependent...JOAP TSC Ease Selection factors for measurment types What are the easiest/cheapest properties to measure reliably (accurately, precisely) when using

  2. Accumulation of bone strontium measured by in vivo XRF in rats supplemented with strontium citrate and strontium ranelate. (United States)

    Wohl, Gregory R; Chettle, David R; Pejović-Milić, Ana; Druchok, Cheryl; Webber, Colin E; Adachi, Jonathan D; Beattie, Karen A


    Strontium ranelate is an approved pharmacotherapy for osteoporosis in Europe and Australia, but not in Canada or the United States. Strontium citrate, an alternative strontium salt, however, is available for purchase over-the-counter as a nutritional supplement. The effects of strontium citrate on bone are largely unknown. The study's objectives were 1) to quantify bone strontium accumulation in female Sprague Dawley rats administered strontium citrate (N=7) and compare these levels to rats administered strontium ranelate (N=6) and vehicle (N=6) over 8 weeks, and 2) to verify an in vivo X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) system for measurement of bone strontium in the rat. Daily doses of strontium citrate and strontium ranelate were determined with the intention to achieve equivalent amounts of elemental strontium. However, post-hoc analyses of each strontium compound conducted using energy dispersive spectrometry microanalysis revealed a higher elemental strontium concentration in strontium citrate than strontium ranelate. Bone strontium levels were measured at baseline and 8 weeks follow-up using a unique in vivo XRF technique previously used in humans. XRF measurements were validated against ex vivo measurements of bone strontium using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Weight gain in rats in all three groups was equivalent over the study duration. A two-way ANOVA was conducted to compare bone strontium levels amongst the three groups. Bone strontium levels in rats administered strontium citrate were significantly greater (p<0.05) than rats administered strontium ranelate and vehicle. ANCOVA analyses were performed with Sr dose as a covariate to account for differences in strontium dosing. The ANCOVA revealed differences in bone strontium levels between the strontium groups were not significant, but that bone strontium levels were still very significantly greater than vehicle. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparing the detection of iron-based pottery pigment on a carbon-coated sherd by SEM-EDS and by Micro-XRF-SEM. (United States)

    Pendleton, Michael W; Washburn, Dorothy K; Ellis, E Ann; Pendleton, Bonnie B


    The same sherd was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and a micro X-ray fluorescence tube attached to a scanning electron microscope (Micro-XRF-SEM) to compare the effectiveness of elemental detection of iron-based pigment. To enhance SEM-EDS mapping, the sherd was carbon coated. The carbon coating was not required to produce Micro-XRF-SEM maps but was applied to maintain an unbiased comparison between the systems. The Micro-XRF-SEM analysis was capable of lower limits of detection than that of the SEM-EDS system, and therefore the Micro-XRF-SEM system could produce elemental maps of elements not easily detected by SEM-EDS mapping systems. Because SEM-EDS and Micro-XRF-SEM have been used for imaging and chemical analysis of biological samples, this comparison of the detection systems should be useful to biologists, especially those involved in bone or tooth (hard tissue) analysis.

  4. Astrobiological Significance of Definitive Mineralogical Analysis of Martian Surface Samples Using the CheMin XRD/XRF Instrument (United States)

    Feldman, S. M.; Blake, D. F.; Sarrazin, P.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Vaniman, D. T.; Collins, S.


    The search for evidence of habitability, or of extant or extinct life on Mars, will initially be a search for evidence of past or present conditions supportive of life. The three key requirements for the emergence of life are thought to be liquid water; a suitable energy source; and chemical building blocks. CheMin is a miniaturized XRD/XRF (X-Ray diffraction / X-ray fluorescence) instrument which has been developed for definitive mineralogic analysis of soils and rocks on the Martian surface. The CheMin instrument can provide information that is highly relevant to each of these habitability requirements as summarized below.

  5. Cross calibration between XRF and ICP-MS for high spatial resolution analysis of ombrotrophic peat cores for palaeoclimatic studies. (United States)

    Poto, Luisa; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Crowhurst, Simon; Agostinelli, Claudio; Spolaor, Andrea; Cairns, Warren R L; Cozzi, Giulio; Barbante, Carlo


    Ombrotrophic peatlands are remarkable repositories of high-quality climatic signals because their only source of nutrients is precipitation. Although several analytical techniques are available for analysing inorganic components in peat samples, they generally provide only low-resolution data sets. Here we present a new analytical approach for producing high-resolution data on main and trace elements from ombrotrophic peat cores. Analyses were carried out on a 7-m-long peat core collected from Danta di Cadore, North-Eastern Italy (46° 34' 16″ N, 12° 29' 58″ E). Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ga, Sr, Y, Cd, Ba and Pb were detected at a resolution of 2.5 mm with a non-destructive X-ray fluorescence core scanner (XRF-CS). Calibration and quantification of the XRF-CS intensities was obtained using collision reaction cell inductively coupled plasma quadruple mass spectrometry (CRC-ICP-QMS). CRC-ICP-QMS measurements were carried out on discrete samples at a resolution of 1 cm, after dissolution of 150-mg aliquots with 9 ml HNO3 and 1 ml HF at 220 °C in a microwave system. We compare qualitative XRF-CS and quantitative CRC-ICP-MS data and, however the several sources of variability of the data, develop a robust statistical approach to determine the R (2) and the coefficient of a simple regression model together with confidence intervals. Perfect positive correlations were estimated for Cd, Cr, Pb, Sr, Ti and Zn; high positive correlations for Ba (0.8954), Y (0.7378), Fe (0.7349) and Cu (0.7028); while moderate positive correlations for Ga (0.5951) and Ca (0.5435). With our results, we demonstrate that XRF scanning techniques can be used, together with other well-established geochemical techniques (such as ICP-MS), to produce high-resolution (up to 2.5 mm) quantitative data from ombrotrophic peat bog cores.

  6. Atomic and Nuclear Analytical Methods XRF, Mössbauer, XPS, NAA and Ion-Beam Spectroscopic Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, H R


    This book is a blend of analytical methods based on the phenomenon of atomic and nuclear physics. It comprises comprehensive presentations about X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Mössbauer Spectroscopy (MS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Neutron- Activation Analysis (NAA), Particle Induced X-ray Emission Analysis (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering Analysis (RBS), Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD), Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission Analysis (PIGE), and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). These techniques are commonly applied in the fields of medicine, biology, environmental studies, archaeology or geology et al. and pursued in major international research laboratories.

  7. The application of XRF and PIXE in the analysis of rice shoot and compositional screening of genotypes (United States)

    Bado, S.; Padilla-Alvarez, R.; Migliori, A.; Forster, B. P.; Jaksic, M.; Diawara, Y.; Kaiser, R.; Laimer, M.


    The analytical performance of Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) techniques was assessed in the determination of fourteen elements (Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr) in plant samples. The quality of the results - in terms of accuracy, associated uncertainty and correlation between the two methods - was evaluated with regard to their usability for compositional classification of different rice genotypes with known tolerance levels to salinity stress. Plant uptake of essential elements was explored by Principal Component Analysis, which illuminated patterns between treatments (salt and control treatments) and across the rice genotypes tested.

  8. The application of XRF and PIXE in the analysis of rice shoot and compositional screening of genotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bado, S., E-mail: [Plant Breeding and Genetics Laboratory (PGBL), International Atomic Energy (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Padilla-Alvarez, R., E-mail: [Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna International Centre, PO Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Migliori, A. [Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna International Centre, PO Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Forster, B.P., E-mail: [Plant Breeding and Genetics Laboratory (PGBL), International Atomic Energy (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Jaksic, M., E-mail: [Institut Ruđer Bošković, Bijenička cesta 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Diawara, Y.; Kaiser, R. [Nuclear Science and Instrumentation Laboratory (NSIL), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna International Centre, PO Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Laimer, M., E-mail: [Plant Biotechnology Unit, Department of Biotechnology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Muthgasse 18, A 1190 Vienna (Austria)


    The analytical performance of Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) techniques was assessed in the determination of fourteen elements (Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr) in plant samples. The quality of the results – in terms of accuracy, associated uncertainty and correlation between the two methods – was evaluated with regard to their usability for compositional classification of different rice genotypes with known tolerance levels to salinity stress. Plant uptake of essential elements was explored by Principal Component Analysis, which illuminated patterns between treatments (salt and control treatments) and across the rice genotypes tested.

  9. Phytostabilization of Mining Soils By the Plant Anthyllis Vulneraria: A Micro-XRF and XAS Study (United States)

    Isaure, M. P.


    Mine tailings are typical highly metal contaminated areas with very scarce vegetation. They are affected by intensive rain and wind erosion processes, thus representing a source of environmental and health hazard. Due to their large area and high level of contamination, conventional remediation techniques are not appropriate, and phytostabilization has emerged as an alternative technique during the last decade. The legume plant Anthyllis vulneraria has been identified as a pionner plant to revegetalize mining sites from South of France where an experimental site has been set up for 10 years. Our objective was to clarify the role of Anthyllis vulneraria in the distribution and speciation of Cd and Zn in the soil. For that, we used a combination of micro X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) and micro X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure spectroscopy (μXANES) combined to Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). Results showed that the vegetation process had homogeneized the metal distribution in the soil compared to unvegetalized soil, and had decreased the Zn and Cd amount in the surface soil. Undisturbed cross-sections of soils showed that the top of the rhizosphere was highly enriched with organic matter after 10 years of vegetalization. Cd and Zn forms, mainly identified as CdCO3 and ZnCO3 in the unvegetalized soil, did not change significantly in the bulk rhizosphere but investigations at the micrometer scale allowed the identification of Cd and Zn organic phases in the upper part, probably related to the shoots decomposition, and thus to the organic matter recycling. At the close vicinity of the roots, some minor organic metallic forms were found whilst CdCO3 and ZnCO3 minerals were still present, thus highlighting the low direct impact of the roots in the soil. Finally, this study indicated that the direct impact of the plant on Cd and Zn speciation in the soil was weak, while an indirect effect resulting from shoots decomposition could be observed.

  10. Geochemical mapping in polluted floodplains using handheld XRF, geophysical imaging, and geostatistics (United States)

    Hošek, Michal; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Popelka, Jan; Kiss, Timea; Elznicová, Jitka; Faměra, Martin


    In the recent years researchers have enjoyed noticeable improvements of portable analytical and geophysical methods, which allow studying floodplain architecture and deciphering pollutant distribution more easily than ever before. Our area of interest was floodplain of the Ploučnice River, particularly a pollution hotspot in Boreček, severely impacted by U mining between the 1970s and late 1980s, in particular a "radioactive flood" in 1981. In the area, we used hand drill coring and in situ (field) analysis of so acquired sediments by handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF), which gave us information about depth profiles of pollutants (Ba, U, Zn) and the Al/Si and Zr/Rb ratios, i.e., proxies for sediment lithology. We found that spatial distribution of pollutants (control by depth and position in the floodplain) is apparently complex and discontinuous. In some places, contamination is buried by a couple decimetres of less polluted sediments, while in other places the peak pollution is near surface, apparently without a straightforward connection with the surface topography and the distance to the river channel. We thus examined the floodplain architecture, the internal structure of the floodplain using two geophysical methods. First of them, dipole electromagnetic profiling (DEMP, also denoted EMP, MP, or Slingram) quickly acquires average electric resistivity in top strata in selected areas, which was actually top 3 m with our particular instrument. Second, electric resistivity tomography (ERT) produces much more detailed information on resistivity with depth resolution of ca 0.5 m to the depth of ca 5 m in selected lines. ERT thus allows identifying boundaries of electric resistivity domains (sediment bodies) and DEMP their spatial distribution. Based on the obtained data, we divided the floodplain to five segments with specific topography, pollution characteristics, and electric resistivity. We suppose that those segments are lithogenetic floodplain

  11. Synchrotron radiation based STXM analysis and micro-XRF mapping of differential expression of extracellular thiol groups by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans grown on Fe(2+) and S(0). (United States)

    Xia, Jin-Lan; Liu, Hong-Chang; Nie, Zhen-Yuan; Peng, An-An; Zhen, Xiang-Jun; Yang, Yun; Zhang, Xiu-Li


    The differential expression of extracellular thiol groups by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans grown on substrates Fe(2+) and S(0) was investigated by using synchrotron radiation based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) imaging and microbeam X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) mapping. The extracellular thiol groups (SH) were first alkylated by iodoacetic acid forming Protein-SCH2COOH and then the P-SCH2COOH was marked by calcium ions forming P-SCH2COOCa. The STXM imaging and μ-XRF mapping of SH were based on analysis of SCH2COO-bonded Ca(2+). The results indicated that the thiol group content of A. ferrooxidans grown on S(0) is 3.88 times to that on Fe(2+). Combined with selective labeling of SH by Ca(2+), the STXM imaging and μ-XRF mapping provided an in situ and rapid analysis of differential expression of extracellular thiol groups. © 2013.

  12. Nuclear Fuel Assay through analysis of Uranium L-shell by Hybrid L-edge/XRF Densitometer using a Surrogate Material (United States)

    Park, Seunghoon; Joung, Sungyeop; Park, Jerry


    Assay of L-series of nuclear material solution is useful for determination of amount of nuclear materials and ratio of minor actinide in the materials. The hybrid system of energy dispersive X-ray absorption edge spectrometry, i.e. L-edge densitometry, and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry is one of the analysis methods. The hybrid L-edge/XRF densitometer can be a promising candidate for a portable and compact equipment due to advantage of using low energy X-ray beams without heavy shielding systems and liquid nitrogen cooling compared to hybrid K-edge/XRF densitometer. A prototype of the equipment was evaluated for feasibility ofthe nuclear material assay using a surrogate material (lead) to avoid radiation effects from nuclear materials. The uncertainty of L-edge and XRF characteristics of the sample material and volume effects was discussed in the article.

  13. Elemental classification of the tusks of dugong (Dugong dugong) by HH-XRF analysis and comparison with other species (United States)

    Nganvongpanit, Korakot; Buddhachat, Kittisak; Piboon, Promporn; Euppayo, Thippaporn; Kaewmong, Patcharaporn; Cherdsukjai, Phaothep; Kittiwatanawong, Kongkiat; Thitaram, Chatchote


    The elemental composition was investigated and applied for identifying the sex and habitat of dugongs, in addition to distinguishing dugong tusks and teeth from other animal wildlife materials such as Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) tusks and tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) canine teeth. A total of 43 dugong tusks, 60 dugong teeth, 40 dolphin teeth, 1 whale tooth, 40 Asian elephant tusks and 20 tiger canine teeth were included in the study. Elemental analyses were conducted using a handheld X-ray fluorescence analyzer (HH-XRF). There was no significant difference in the elemental composition of male and female dugong tusks, whereas the overall accuracy for identifying habitat (the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand) was high (88.1%). Dolphin teeth were able to be correctly predicted 100% of the time. Furthermore, we demonstrated a discrepancy in elemental composition among dugong tusks, Asian elephant tusks and tiger canine teeth, and provided a high correct prediction rate among these species of 98.2%. Here, we demonstrate the feasible use of HH-XRF for preliminary species classification and habitat determination prior to using more advanced techniques such as molecular biology.

  14. Metals in boat paint fragments from slipways, repair facilities and abandoned vessels: an evaluation using field portable XRF. (United States)

    Turner, Andrew; Comber, Sean; Rees, Aldous B; Gkiokas, Dimitrios; Solman, Kevin


    Paint flaking off abandoned vessels or generated during boat repair is hazardous to human health and wildlife. In this study, a means of screening paint fragments using a field portable-X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) spectrometer is described. The technique is capable of delivering rapid, surficial measurements of Ba, Cu, Pb and Zn down to concentrations less than 150 μg g(-1), and Sn and Cr to concentrations of a few hundred μg g(-1). Application of the technique to fragments collected from slipways, yards, hardstandings, abandoned boats and ships undergoing maintenance throughout the EU reveal highly variable concentrations of metals among samples from the same environment or from the same region of a given boat; in many cases, variability is also evident in different areas or on different surfaces of the same fragment. Of particular concern are elevated concentrations of substances that have been restricted or banned (e.g. Sn, an indicator of organotin, and up to concentrations of 40,000 μg g(-1), and Pb up to concentrations of 200,000 μg g(-1)). Although FP-XRF can rapidly screen samples whose composition and origin are unknown and can assist in instantaneous decision making, a full risk assessment will rely on additional analyses of the precise species (including organo-forms) of the metals present. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Elemental classification of the tusks of dugong (Dugong dugong) by HH-XRF analysis and comparison with other species. (United States)

    Nganvongpanit, Korakot; Buddhachat, Kittisak; Piboon, Promporn; Euppayo, Thippaporn; Kaewmong, Patcharaporn; Cherdsukjai, Phaothep; Kittiwatanawong, Kongkiat; Thitaram, Chatchote


    The elemental composition was investigated and applied for identifying the sex and habitat of dugongs, in addition to distinguishing dugong tusks and teeth from other animal wildlife materials such as Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) tusks and tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) canine teeth. A total of 43 dugong tusks, 60 dugong teeth, 40 dolphin teeth, 1 whale tooth, 40 Asian elephant tusks and 20 tiger canine teeth were included in the study. Elemental analyses were conducted using a handheld X-ray fluorescence analyzer (HH-XRF). There was no significant difference in the elemental composition of male and female dugong tusks, whereas the overall accuracy for identifying habitat (the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand) was high (88.1%). Dolphin teeth were able to be correctly predicted 100% of the time. Furthermore, we demonstrated a discrepancy in elemental composition among dugong tusks, Asian elephant tusks and tiger canine teeth, and provided a high correct prediction rate among these species of 98.2%. Here, we demonstrate the feasible use of HH-XRF for preliminary species classification and habitat determination prior to using more advanced techniques such as molecular biology.

  16. µ-XRF Analysis of Trace Elements in Lapis Lazuli-Forming Minerals for a Provenance Study. (United States)

    Angelici, Debora; Borghi, Alessandro; Chiarelli, Fabrizia; Cossio, Roberto; Gariani, Gianluca; Lo Giudice, Alessandro; Re, Alessandro; Pratesi, Giovanni; Vaggelli, Gloria


    This paper presents new developments on the provenance study of lapis lazuli started by our group in 2008: during the years a multi-technique approach has been exploited to obtain minero-petrographic characterization and creation of a database considering only rock samples of known provenance. Since the final aim of the study is to develop a method to analyze archeological findings and artworks made with lapis lazuli in a completely non-invasive way, ion beam analysis techniques were employed to trace the provenance of the raw material used for the production of artifacts. Continuing this goal and focusing the analysis on determination of more significant minero-chemical markers for the provenance study of trace elements in different minerals, the method was extended with the use of micro X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF), to test the potential of the technique for this application. The analyzes were focused on diopside and pyrite in lapis lazuli samples of known provenance (Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Siberia). In addition, µ-XRF data were compared with micro proton-induced X-ray emission (µ-PIXE) results to verify the agreement between the two databases and to compare the analytical performance of both techniques for this application.

  17. Estimation of trace metal elements in oral mucosa specimens by using SR-XRF, PIXE, and XAFS. (United States)

    Sugiyama, Tomoko; Uo, Motohiro; Wada, Takahiro; Omagari, Daisuke; Komiyama, Kazuo; Noguchi, Tadahide; Jinbu, Yoshinori; Kusama, Mikio


    The effects of dissolved elements from metal dental restorations are a major concern in lesions of the oral mucosa, and the evaluation of accumulated metal elements, especially their distribution and chemical state, is essential for determining the precise effects of trace metals. In this study, X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation (SR-XRF) and particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) were applied for distribution analysis of the trace metal elements contained in the oral mucosa, and the chemical states of the elements were estimated using X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis. Appropriate combination of these analysis techniques, particularly SR-XRF and PIXE, to visualize the distributions of the elements in the oral mucosa allowed for the observation and evaluation of accumulated metal ions and debris. Importantly, the analyses in this study could be carried out using conventional histopathological specimens without damaging the specimens. Therefore, this method would be applicable for the detection of accumulated trace metal elements in biopsy specimens from the oral mucosa.

  18. Elemental analysis of granite by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF). (United States)

    El-Taher, A


    The instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of granite samples collected from four locations in the Aswan area in South Egypt. The samples were prepared together with their standards and simultaneously irradiated in a neutron flux of 7×10(11)n/cm(2)s in the TRIGA Mainz research reactor. Gamma-ray spectra from an hyper-pure germanium detector were analyzed. The present study provides the basic data of elemental concentrations of granite rocks. The following elements have been determined Na, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Sc, Cr, Ti, Co, Zn, Ga, Rb, Zr, Nb, Sn, Ba, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th and U. The X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was used for comparison and to detect elements, which can be detected only by XRF such as F, S, Cl, Co, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and V. The data presented here are our contribution to understanding the elemental composition of the granite rocks. Because there are no existing databases for the elemental analysis of granite, our results are a start to establishing a database for the Egyptian granite. It is hoped that the data presented here will be useful to those dealing with geochemistry, granite chemistry and related fields. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The metamorphosis of supernova SN 2008D/XRF 080109: a link between supernovae and GRBs/hypernovae. (United States)

    Mazzali, Paolo A; Valenti, Stefano; Della Valle, Massimo; Chincarini, Guido; Sauer, Daniel N; Benetti, Stefano; Pian, Elena; Piran, Tsvi; D'Elia, Valerio; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Margutti, Raffaella; Pasotti, Francesco; Antonelli, L Angelo; Bufano, Filomena; Campana, Sergio; Cappellaro, Enrico; Covino, Stefano; D'Avanzo, Paolo; Fiore, Fabrizio; Fugazza, Dino; Gilmozzi, Roberto; Hunter, Deborah; Maguire, Kate; Maiorano, Elisabetta; Marziani, Paola; Masetti, Nicola; Mirabel, Felix; Navasardyan, Hripsime; Nomoto, Ken'ichi; Palazzi, Eliana; Pastorello, Andrea; Panagia, Nino; Pellizza, L J; Sari, Re'em; Smartt, Stephen; Tagliaferri, Gianpiero; Tanaka, Masaomi; Taubenberger, Stefan; Tominaga, Nozomu; Trundle, Carrie; Turatto, Massimo


    The only supernovae (SNe) to show gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) or early x-ray emission thus far are overenergetic, broad-lined type Ic SNe (hypernovae, HNe). Recently, SN 2008D has shown several unusual features: (i) weak x-ray flash (XRF), (ii) an early, narrow optical peak, (iii) disappearance of the broad lines typical of SN Ic HNe, and (iv) development of helium lines as in SNe Ib. Detailed analysis shows that SN 2008D was not a normal supernova: Its explosion energy (E approximately 6x10(51) erg) and ejected mass [ approximately 7 times the mass of the Sun (M(middle dot in circle))] are intermediate between normal SNe Ibc and HNe. We conclude that SN 2008D was originally a approximately 30 M(middle dot in circle) star. When it collapsed, a black hole formed and a weak, mildly relativistic jet was produced, which caused the XRF. SN 2008D is probably among the weakest explosions that produce relativistic jets. Inner engine activity appears to be present whenever massive stars collapse to black holes.

  20. Identification of New Lithic Clasts in Lunar Breccia 14305 by Micro-CT and Micro-XRF Analysis (United States)

    Zeigler, Ryan A.; Carpenter, Paul K.; Jolliff, Bradley L.


    From 1969 to 1972, Apollo astronauts collected 382 kg of rocks, soils, and core samples from six locations on the surface of the Moon. The samples were initially characterized, largely by binocular examination, in a custom-built facility at Johnson Space Center (JSC), and the samples have been curated at JSC ever since. Despite over 40 years of study, demand for samples remains high (500 subsamples per year are allocated to scientists around the world), particularly for plutonic (e.g., anorthosites, norites, etc.) and evolved (e.g., granites, KREEP basalts) lithologies. The reason for the prolonged interest is that as new scientists and new techniques examine the samples, our understanding of how the Moon, Earth, and other inner Solar System bodies formed and evolved continues to grow. Scientists continually clamor for new samples to test their emerging hypotheses. Although all of the large Apollo samples that are igneous rocks have been classified, many Apollo samples are complex polymict breccias that have previously yielded large (cm-sized) igneous clasts. In this work we present the initial efforts to use the non-destructive techniques of micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and micro x-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) to identify large lithic clasts in Apollo 14 polymict breccia sample 14305. The sample in this study is 14305,483, a 150 g slab of regolith breccia 14305 measuring 10x6x2 cm (Figure 1a). The sample was scanned at the University of Texas High-Resolution X-ray CT Facility on an Xradia MicroXCT scanner. Two adjacent overlapping volumes were acquired at 49.2 micrometer resolution and stitched together, resulting in 1766 slices. Each volume was acquired at 100 kV accelerating voltage and 98 mA beam current with a 1 mm CaF2 filter, with 2161 views gathered over 360deg at 3 seconds acquisition time per view. Micro-XRF analyses were done at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri on an EDAX Orbis PC micro-XRF instrument. Multiple scans were made at 40 k

  1. Industry Employment (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012


    This article illustrates projected employment change by industry and industry sector over 2010-20 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment for which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  2. Chemical characterization of archaeological ceramics fragments by X-ray ({mu}-XRF) micro fluorescence; Caracterizacao quimica de fragmentos ceramicos arqueologicos por microfluorescencia de raios X ({mu}-XRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Richard Maximiliano da Cunha e; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio Franco do [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Appoloni, Carlos Roberto [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil); Perez, Carlos Alberto [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)


    The concentrations of the inorganic chemical elements presents in archaeological ceramic samples and clay samples allows the study about the clay sources determination used in the ceramic production. The analyzed samples are fragments of Brazilian indigenous ceramic, found in the area of the city of Londrina, North of Parana, and they belong to the archaeological collection of the 'Padre Carlos Weiss' Historical Museum, of the State University of Londrina. The determination of the chemical elements in these fragments was performed by energy dispersive X-ray microfluorescence ({mu}-XRF), for being not destructive and multielementar. The analytic technique allowed the identification of the K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe minority elements, and the Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Rb trace elements. The cluster analysis for the method of the medium grouping was used, and it was obtained two different groups, taking to conclude that indigenous Tupiguaranis used two clay sources in the making of its ceramic. (author)

  3. Kinetics of elimination and distribution in blood and liver of biocompatible ferrofluids based on Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles: An EPR and XRF study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamarra, L.F. [Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo 05651-901 (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 05315-970 (Brazil)], E-mail:; Pontuschka, W.M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 05315-970 (Brazil); Amaro, E. [Instituto de Ensino e Pesquisa, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo 05651-901 (Brazil); Instituto de Radiologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 05403-001 (Brazil); Costa-Filho, A.J. [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos 13560-970 (Brazil); Brito, G.E.S. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 05315-970 (Brazil); Vieira, E.D. [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos 13560-970 (Brazil); Carneiro, S.M. [Laboratorio de Biologia Celular, Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo 05503-900 (Brazil); Escriba, D.M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 05315-970 (Brazil); Falleiros, A.M.F. [Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Estadual de Londrina 86051-990 (Brazil); Salvador, V.L. [Centro de aplicacoes e Lasers, IPEN, Sao Paulo 05508-000 (Brazil)


    In this study, we evaluated the biodistribution and the elimination kinetics of a biocompatible magnetic fluid, Endorem{sup TM}, based on dextran-coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles endovenously injected into Winstar rats. The iron content in blood and liver samples was recorded using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques. The EPR line intensity at g = 2.1 was found to be proportional to the concentration of magnetic nanoparticles and the best temperature for spectra acquisition was 298 K. Both EPR and XRF analysis indicated that the maximum concentration of iron in the liver occurred 95 min after the ferrofluid administration. The half-life of the magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) in the blood was (11.6 {+-} 0.6) min measured by EPR and (12.6 {+-} 0.6) min determined by XRF. These results indicate that both EPR and XRF are very useful and appropriate techniques for the study of kinetics of ferrofluid elimination and biodistribution after its administration into the organism.

  4. Monte Carlo simulation of an anthropometric phantom used for calibrating in vivo K-XRF spectroscopy measurements of stable lead in bone. (United States)

    Lodwick, Camille J; Spitz, Henry B


    An anthropometric surrogate (phantom) of the human leg was defined in the constructs of the Monte Carlo N Particle (MCNP) code to predict the response when used in calibrating K x-ray fluorescence (K-XRF) spectrometry measurements of stable lead in bone. The predicted response compared favorably with measurements using the anthropometric phantom containing a tibia with increasing stable lead content. These benchmark measurements confirmed the validity of a modified MCNP code to accurately simulate K-XRF spectrometry measurements of stable lead in bone. A second, cylindrical leg phantom was simulated to determine whether the shape of the calibration phantom is a significant factor in evaluating K-XRF performance. Simulations of the cylindrical and anthropometric calibration phantoms suggest that a cylindrical calibration standard overestimates lead content of a human leg up to 4%. A two-way analysis of variance determined that phantom shape is a statistically significant factor in predicting the K-XRF response. These results suggest that an anthropometric phantom provides a more accurate calibration standard compared to the conventional cylindrical shape, and that a cylindrical shape introduces a 4% positive bias in measured lead values.

  5. Nuclear Fuel Assay through analysis of Uranium L-shell by Hybrid L-edge/XRF Densitometer using a Surrogate Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Seunghoon


    A prototype of the equipment was evaluated for feasibility ofthe nuclear material assay using a surrogate material (lead to avoid radiation effects from nuclear materials. The uncertainty of L-edge and XRF characteristics of the sample material and volume effects was discussed in the article.

  6. MicroXRF tomographic visualization of zinc and iron in the zebrafish embryo at the onset of the hatching period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourassa, Daisy; Gleber, Sophie-Charlotte; Vogt, Stefan; Shin, Chong Hyun; Fahrni, Christoph J.


    Transition metals such as zinc, copper, and iron play key roles in cellular proliferation, cell differentiation, growth, and development. Over the past decade, advances in synchrotron X-ray fluorescence instrumentation presented new opportunities for the three-dimensional mapping of trace metal distributions within intact specimens. Taking advantage of microXRF tomography, we visualized the 3D distribution of zinc and iron in a zebrafish embryo at the onset of the hatching period. The reconstructed volumetric data revealed distinct differences in the elemental distributions, with zinc predominantly localized to the yolk and yolk extension, and iron to various regions of the brain as well as the myotome extending along the dorsal side of the embryo. The data set complements an earlier tomographic study of an embryo at the pharyngula stage (24 hpf), thus offering new insights into the trace metal distribution at key stages of embryonic development.

  7. Analysis of trace elements in scalp hair of healthy people, hyperplasia and breast cancer patients with XRF method (United States)

    Kolmogorov, Yuriy; Kovaleva, Valentina; Gonchar, Alexandr


    The possibilities of using the energy dispersion X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) and synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis (SRXFA) for the control of trace elements (TE) content in the hair of women with mammary hyperplasia and cancer are demonstrated. Ten hair samples were taken from 25- to 60-year-old women who have been operated for mammary cancer and from 23 patients under oncologist's observation on the occasion of hyperplastic process in the mammary gland (fibrocystous mastopathy). The results of the analyses of trace elements content in the hair of 52 practically healthy women were used as control. The results demonstrated that scalp hair of patients with oncological mammary pathology are characterized by the significant decrease of the concentration of selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), and by the increase of chromium (Cr). The Se deficit was more pronounced in patients with cancer than in those with hyperplasia (fiducial probability p<0.05)

  8. Nondestructive Analysis of Apollo Samples by Micro-CT and Micro-XRF Analysis: A PET Style Examination (United States)

    Zeigler, Ryan A.


    An integral part of any sample return mission is the initial description and classification of returned samples by the preliminary examination team (PET). The goal of a PET is to characterize and classify the returned samples, making this information available to the general research community who can then conduct more in-depth studies on the samples. A PET strives to minimize the impact their work has on the sample suite, which often limits the PET work to largely visual measurements and observations like optical microscopy. More modern techniques can also be utilized by future PET to nondestructively characterize astromaterials in a more rigorous way. Here we present our recent analyses of Apollo samples 14321 and 14305 by micro-CT and micro-XRF (respectively), assess the potential for discovery of "new" Apollo samples for scientific study, and evaluate the usefulness of these techniques in future PET efforts.

  9. Experimental study for the feasibility of using hard x-rays for micro-XRF analysis of multilayered metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Polese


    Full Text Available Application of polycapillary optical systems to improve a spatial resolution for the μ-XRF analysis by focusing a primary x-ray beam and/or by collecting fluorescence emission is well known. The challenge is to optimize them in combination with x-ray source for exciting K-lines above 20 keV that could allow characterization of many materials composed by heavy elements. To pursue this goal, preliminary studies on possible polycapillary lens employment in thickness determination for multilayer metal materials will be presented in this work. In this paper, the results of first attempts of integrating PyMCA with Monte Carlo simulation code (XMI-MSIM that takes into account the secondary fluorescence effects on quantitative analysis of homogeneous matrices, in particular, metal alloys, are presented.

  10. The suitability of XRF analysis for compositional classification of archaeological ceramic fabric: A comparison with a previous NAA study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, R. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Laboratorio de Analisis Quimico, Calle 30 no. 502, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail:; Espen, P. van [University of Antwerp (Belgium); Torres, P.P. Godo [Centro de Antropologia, Havana (Cuba)


    The main drawbacks of EDXRF techniques, restricting its more frequent use for the specific purpose of compositional analysis of archaeological ceramic fabric, have been the insufficient sensitivity to determine some important elements (like Cr, REE, among others), a somewhat worse precision and the inability to perform standard-less quantitative procedures in the absence of suitable certified reference materials (CRM) for ceramic fabric. This paper presents the advantages of combining two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence methods for fast and non-destructive analysis of ceramic fabric with increased sensitivity. Selective polarized excitation using secondary targets (EDPXRF) and radioisotope excitation (R-XRF) using a {sup 241}Am source. The analytical performance of the methods was evaluated by analyzing several CRM of sediment type, and the fitness for the purpose of compositional classification was compared with that obtained by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in a previous study of Cuban aborigine pottery.

  11. Trace elemental analysis of school chalk using energy dispersive X-ray florescence spectroscopy (ED-XRF) (United States)

    Maruthi, Y. A.; Das, N. Lakshmana; Ramprasad, S.; Ram, S. S.; Sudarshan, M.


    The present studies focus the quantitative analysis of elements in school chalk to ensure the safety of its use. The elements like Calcium (Ca), Aluminum (Al), Iron (Fe), Silicon (Si) and Chromium (Cr) were analyzed from settled chalk dust samples collected from five classrooms (CD-1) and also from another set of unused chalk samples collected from local market (CD-2) using Energy Dispersive X-Ray florescence(ED-XRF) spectroscopy. Presence of these elements in significant concentrations in school chalk confirmed that, it is an irritant and occupational hazard. It is suggested to use protective equipments like filtered mask for mouth, nose and chalk holders. This study also suggested using the advanced mode of techniques like Digital boards, marker boards and power point presentations to mitigate the occupational hazard for classroom chalk

  12. Evaluation of Rock Powdering Methods to Obtain Fine-grained Samples for CHEMIN, a Combined XRD/XRF Instrument (United States)

    Chipera, S. J.; Vaniman, D. T.; Bish, D. L.; Sarrazin, P.; Feldman, S.; Blake, D. F.; Bearman, G.; Bar-Cohen, Y.


    A miniature XRD/XRF (X-ray diffraction / X-ray fluorescence) instrument, CHEMIN, is currently being developed for definitive mineralogic analysis of soils and rocks on Mars. One of the technical issues that must be addressed to enable remote XRD analysis is how best to obtain a representative sample powder for analysis. For powder XRD analyses, it is beneficial to have a fine-grained sample to reduce preferred orientation effects and to provide a statistically significant number of crystallites to the X-ray beam. Although a two-dimensional detector as used in the CHEMIN instrument will produce good results even with poorly prepared powder, the quality of the data will improve and the time required for data collection will be reduced if the sample is fine-grained and randomly oriented. A variety of methods have been proposed for XRD sample preparation. Chipera et al. presented grain size distributions and XRD results from powders generated with an Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC) currently being developed at JPL. The USDC was shown to be an effective instrument for sampling rock to produce powder suitable for XRD. In this paper, we compare powder prepared using the USDC with powder obtained with a miniaturized rock crusher developed at JPL and with powder obtained with a rotary tungsten carbide bit to powders obtained from a laboratory bench-scale Retsch mill (provides benchmark mineralogical data). These comparisons will allow assessment of the suitability of these methods for analysis by an XRD/XRF instrument such as CHEMIN.

  13. Industrial Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer


    Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally).......Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally)....

  14. Industrial bronchitis (United States)

    ... this page: // Industrial bronchitis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Industrial bronchitis is swelling (inflammation) of the large airways ...

  15. Kunststofverwerkende industrie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijssen PHM; Duesmann HB; Poel P van der; Koot JE


    This document on plastics processing industry has been published within the SPIN project. In this project information has been collected on industrial plants or industrial processes to afford support to governmental policy on emission reduction. This document contains information on the processes,

  16. Industrial Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund


    Industrial waste is waste from industrial production and manufacturing. Industry covers many industrial sectors and within each sector large variations are found in terms of which raw materials are used, which production technology is used and which products are produced. Available data on unit...... generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing industrial waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. In addition part...... of the industrial waste may in periods, depending on market opportunities and prices, be traded as secondary rawmaterials. Production-specificwaste from primary production, for example steel slag, is not included in the current presentation. In some countries industries must be approved or licensed and as part...

  17. Kunststofverwerkende industrie


    Eijssen PHM; Duesmann HB; van der Poel P; Koot JE


    This document on plastics processing industry has been published within the SPIN project. In this project information has been collected on industrial plants or industrial processes to afford support to governmental policy on emission reduction. This document contains information on the processes, emission sources, emissions to air and water, waste, emission factors, use of energy and energy factors, emission reduction, energy conservation, research on clean technology and standards and licen...

  18. Characterization of tannery sludge from the leather industry of Franca industrial district, SP, Brazil; Caracterizacao de um lodo de cromo proveniente da industria de couro do distrito industrial de Franca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambi, M.M.; Toffoli, S.M., E-mail: [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Departamento de Engenharia Metalurgica


    The industry of leather manufacture generates large quantities of solid leather waste with characteristics of high-polluting and hazardous conditions. Among these wastes, stands out the wet blue leather (chromed leather scraps), and the tanning sludge and secondary sludge generated in the processes of effluents treatment. These wastes contain Cr(III), which, under oxidizing conditions, can turn into Cr (VI), which is highly toxic. However, these wastes are a potential source of chromium oxide (traditional industrial pigment), which could be used by the glass and ceramic enamel industries. In this study, a preliminary characterization of a chromium sludge from the industrial district of Franca-SP was conducted. X-ray diffraction (XRD), chemical (XRF) and thermal (DTA / TG) analyses were used to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of this solid waste. The potential of using this material as an available and cheap pigment for the manufacture of enamels and glass is discussed. (author)

  19. Determination and correlation of spatial distribution of trace elements in normal and neoplastic breast tissues evaluated by {mu}-XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, M.P.; Oliveira, M.A.; Poletti, M.E. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP),Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)


    Full text: Some trace elements, naturally present in breast tissues, participate in a large number of biological processes, which include among others, activation or inhibition of enzymatic reactions and changes on cell membranes permeability, suggesting that these elements may influence carcinogenic processes. Thus, knowledge of the amounts of these elements and their spatial distribution in normal and neoplastic tissues may help in understanding the role of these elements in the carcinogenic process and tumor progression of breast cancers. Concentrations of trace elements like Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn, previously studied at LNLS using TXRF and conventional XRF, were elevated in neoplastic breast tissues compared to normal tissues. In this study we determined the spatial distribution of these elements in normal and neoplastic breast tissues using {mu}-XRF technique. We analyzed 22 samples of normal and neoplastic breast tissues (malignant and benign) obtained from paraffin blocks available for study at the Department of Pathology HC-FMRP/USP. From the blocks, a small fraction of material was removed and subjected to histological sections of 60 {mu}m thick made with a microtome. The slices where placed in holder samples and covered with ultralen film. Tissue samples were irradiated with a white beam of synchrotron radiation. The samples were positioned at 45 degrees with respect to the incident beam on a table with 3 freedom degrees (x, y and z), allowing independent positioning of the sample in these directions. The white beam was collimated by a 20 {mu}m microcapillary and samples were fully scanned. At each step, a spectrum was detected for 10 s. The fluorescence emitted by elements present in the sample was detected by a Si (Li) detector with 165 eV at 5.9 keV energy resolution, placed at 90 deg with respect to the incident beam. Results reveal that trace elements Ca-Zn and Fe-Cu could to be correlated in malignant breast tissues. Quantitative results, achieved by


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY. N. Aniekwu. Civil Engineering Department,. University of Benin,. Benin City. Nigeria. ABSTRACT. This paper deals with safety in the Nigerian construction industry. Three aspects of safety were identified as paramount in the study and include accident causations, accident prevention and the.

  1. Leonardo da Vinci's drapery studies: characterization of lead white pigments by μ-XRD and 2D scanning XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Victor; Calligaro, Thomas [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, C2RMF, Paris (France); PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech-CNRS, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris, UMR8247, Paris (France); Pichon, Laurent; Mottin, Bruno [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, C2RMF, Paris (France); Wallez, Gilles [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech-CNRS, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris, UMR8247, Paris (France); Sorbonne University, UPMC Univ., Paris 06 (France)


    This work focuses on the composition and microstructure of the lead white pigment employed in a set of paintworks, using a combination of μ-XRD and 2D scanning XRF, directly applied on five drapery studies attributed to Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) and conserved in the Departement des Arts Graphiques, Musee du Louvre and in the Musee des Beaux-Arts de Rennes. Trace elements present in the composition as well as in the lead white highlights were imaged by 2D scanning XRF. Mineral phases were determined in a fully noninvasive way using a special μ-XRD diffractometer. Phase proportions were estimated by Rietveld refinement. The analytical results obtained will contribute to differentiate lead white qualities and to highlight the artist's technique. (orig.)

  2. Innovative instrumentation for mineralogical and elemental analyses of solid extraterrestrial surfaces: The Backscatter Moessbauer Spectrometer/X Ray Fluorescence analyzer (BaMS/XRF) (United States)

    Shelfer, T. D.; Morris, Richard V.; Nguyen, T.; Agresti, D. G.; Wills, E. L.


    We have developed a four-detector research-grade backscatter Moessbauer spectrometer (BaMS) instrument with low resolution x-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) capability. A flight-qualified instrument based on this design would be suitable for use on missions to the surfaces of solid solar-system objects (Moon, Mars, asteroids, etc.). Target specifications for the flight instrument are as follows: mass less than 500 g; volumes less than 300 cu cm; and power less than 2 W. The BaMS/XRF instrument would provide data on the oxidation state of iron and its distribution among iron-bearing mineralogies and elemental composition information. This data is a primary concern for the characterization of extraterrestrial surface materials.

  3. ‘Slag_Fun’ – A New Tool for Archaeometallurgy: Development of an Analytical (PED-XRF Method for Iron-Rich Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Alexander Veldhuijzen


    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a new analytical tool for bulk chemical analysis of iron-rich archaeometallurgical remains by Polarising Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence ((PED-XRF. Prompted by the ongoing archaeological and archaeometric analyses of early first millennium BC iron smelting and smithing finds from Tell Hammeh (az-Zarqa, Jordan, the creation of this tool has already benefited several studies on iron-rich slag, of widely varying provenance as well as age (Anguilano 2002; Chirikure 2002; Ige and Rehren 2003; Stanway 2003. Following an explanation of the archaeological background and importance of the Hammeh finds, the paper describes the technical foundations of XRF analysis and the design, development and application of the "slag_fun" calibration method.

  4. Industry honoured

    CERN Multimedia


    CERN has organised a day to thank industry for its exceptional contributions to the LHC project. Lucio Rossi addresses CERN’s industrial partners in the Main Auditorium.The LHC inauguration provided an opportunity for CERN to thank all those who have contributed to transforming this technological dream into reality. Industry has been a major player in this adventure. Over the last decade it has lent its support to CERN’s teams and participating institutes in developing, building and assembling the machine, its experiments and the computing infrastructure. CERN involved its industrial partners in the LHC inauguration by organising a special industry prize-giving day on 20 October. Over 70 firms accepted the invitation. The firms not only made fundamental contributions to the project, but some have also supported LHC events in 2008 and the inauguration ceremony through generous donations, which have been coordinated by Carmen Dell’Erba, who is responsible for secu...

  5. Industrial garnet (United States)

    Olson, D.W.


    The state of the global industrial garnet industry in 1999 is discussed. Industrial garnet mined in the U.S., which accounts for approximately one-third of the world's total, is usually a solid-solution of almandine and pyrope. The U.S. is the largest consumer of industrial garnet, using an estimated 47,800 st in 1999 as an abrasive and as a filtration medium in the petroleum industry, filtration plants, aircraft and motor vehicle manufacture, shipbuilding, wood furniture finishing operations, electronic component manufacture, ceramics manufacture, and glass production. Prices for crude concentrates ranged from approximately $50 to $110/st and refined garnet from $50 to $215/st in 1999, depending on type, source, quantity purchased, quality, and application.

  6. pXRF analyses of Louise Herreshoff's paintings in relation to CdS and other pigment degradation issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uffelman, Erich S.; Barisas, Derek A.G. [Washington and Lee University, Department of Chemistry, Lexington, VA (United States); Hobbs, Patricia A. [Washington and Lee University, University Collections of Art and History, Lexington, VA (United States); Mass, Jennifer L. [Winterthur Museum, Scientific Research and Analysis Laboratory, Conservation Department, Winterthur, DE (United States)


    Portable X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (pXRF) was used to survey 33 works in Washington and Lee University's collection of Louise Herreshoff's paintings. This work was done both to support a condition assessment of the paintings and their pigments and to determine which paintings might be appropriate for further study in the context of ongoing key synchrotron research into the degradation mechanisms of cadmium sulfide yellow pigment (CdS). (orig.)

  7. Semimicroanalysis of silicate minerals by means of XRF thin layer method. Determination of selected chromatic elements - V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurczyk, J.; Buhl, F.; Sitko, R.; Fabis, M.; Czaja, M. [Silesian University, Katowice (Poland)


    50 mg of powdered silicate mineral is spread on a substrate, dissolved in a concentrated hydrofluoric acid and dried under the infrared heater; a sample is then protected with a mylar film. Statistical parameters of XRF detection limits for 50 mg samples: V(3-6 ppm), Cr(3-6 ppm), Mn(25 ppm), Fe(4-5 ppm), Co(2-7 ppm). 13 refs, 1 fig., 12 tabs.

  8. Portable XRF as a valuable device for preliminary in situ pigment investigation of wooden inventory in the Trski Vrh Church in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desnica, V. [R. Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Academy of Fine Arts, Laboratory for Science and Technology in Art, Department for Conservation and Restoration, Zagreb (Croatia); Skaric, K.; Mudronja, D.; Pavlicic, M.; Peranic, I. [Croatian Conservation Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Jembrih-Simbuerger, D.; Schreiner, M. [Academy of Fine Arts, Institute of Science and Technology in Art, Vienna (Austria); Fazinic, S.; Jaksic, M. [R. Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia)


    The aim of this work was the investigation of pigments from the painted wooden inventory of the pilgrimage church of Saint Mary of Jerusalem in Trski Vrh - one of the most beautiful late-baroque sacral ensembles in Croatia. Being an object of high relevance for the national cultural heritage, an extensive research on the wooden polychromy was undertaken in order to work out a proposal for a conservation treatment. It consists mainly of two painted and gilded layers (the original one from the 18th century and a later one from 1903), partly overpainted during periodic conservation treatments in the past. The approach was to carry out extensive preliminary in situ pigment investigations using a portable XRF (X-ray fluorescence) device, and only the problems not resolved by this method on site were further analyzed using sophisticated laboratory equipment. Therefore, the XRF results acted as a valuable guideline for subsequent targeted sampling actions, thus minimizing the sampling damage. Important questions not answered by XRF (identification of organic pigments, ultramarine, etc.) were subsequently resolved using additional ex situ laboratory methods, primarily {mu}-PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission) at the nuclear microprobe of the Rudjer Boskovic accelerator facility as well as {mu}-Raman spectroscopy at the Institute of the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna. It is shown that by the combination of these often complementary methods a thorough characterization of each pigment can be obtained, allowing for a proper strategy of the conservation treatment. (orig.)

  9. XRD-XRF-ICP-GC/MS analytical system in ecochemical assessment for utilisation of carboniferous wastes from Silesian Coal Basin (Poland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Bzowski; K. Bojarska


    Examination of wastes aimed at evaluation of their usefulness for utilisation needs applying modern chemical testing methods. The XRD-XRF-ICP-GC/MS set of test methods constitutes an integrated testing system enabling ecochemical examination of wastes. As far as the problem of time-consuming operations is concerned, the offered system fits in a market-oriented field of activity of accredited chemical laboratories. Within a reasonable period of time, it allows to obtain information about mineralogical and chemical properties of wastes. It provides full range of information beginning from mineral composition (XRD) through chemical composition including the number of elements and organic compounds (XRF-ICP-GC/MS) up to the contents relating to the amounts of ingredients, both organic and inorganic in the leaching tests (ICP-GC/MS). The XRD-XRF-ICP-GC/MS testing system proves to be of particular importance in obtaining reliable results enabling to perform precise assessment (from ecochemical point of view) of wastes to evaluate their usefulness for utilisation in building materials, in civil engineering and reclamation works. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Analysis of heterogeneous gallstones using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF). (United States)

    Jaswal, Brij Bir S; Kumar, Vinay; Sharma, Jitendra; Rai, Pradeep K; Gondal, Mohammed A; Gondal, Bilal; Singh, Vivek K


    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging analytical technique with numerous advantages such as rapidity, multi-elemental analysis, no specific sample preparation requirements, non-destructiveness, and versatility. It has been proven to be a robust elemental analysis tool attracting interest because of being applied to a wide range of materials including biomaterials. In this paper, we have performed spectroscopic studies on gallstones which are heterogeneous in nature using LIBS and wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) techniques. It has been observed that the presence and relative concentrations of trace elements in different kind of gallstones (cholesterol and pigment gallstones) can easily be determined using LIBS technique. From the experiments carried out on gallstones for trace elemental mapping and detection, it was found that LIBS is a robust tool for such biomedical applications. The stone samples studied in the present paper were classified using the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. WD-XRF spectroscopy has been applied for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of major and trace elements present in the gallstone which was compared with the LIBS data. The results obtained in the present paper show interesting prospects for LIBS and WD-XRF to study cholelithiasis better.

  11. Spatial distribution of metals in soil samples from Zona da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil using XRF technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Zahily Herrero; Santos Junior, Jose Araujo dos; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos; Menezes, Romulo Simoes Cezar; Santos, Josineide Marques do Nascimento; Bezerra, Jairo Dias; Damascena, Kennedy Francys Rodrigues, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias. Departamento de Energia Nuclear; Alvarez, Juan Reinaldo Estevez, E-mail: [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Havana (Cuba); Silva, Edvane Borges da, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Nucleo de Biologia; Franca, Elvis Joacir de; Farias, Emerson Emiliano Gualberto de, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Silva, Alberto Antonio da, E-mail: [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Barreiros, PE (Brazil)


    Soil contamination is today one of the most important environmental issues for society. In the past, soil pollution was not considered as important as air and water contamination, because this was more difficult to be controlled, becoming an important topic in studies of environmental protection worldwide. Based on this, this paper provides information on the determination of metals in soil samples collected in Zona da Mata, Pernambuco, Brazil, where normally the application of pesticides, insecticides and other agricultural additives are used in a disorderly manner and without control. A total of 24 sampling points were monitored. The analysis of Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Pb, Ti, La, Al, Si and P were performed using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence. In order to assess the development of analytical method, inorganic Certified Reference Materials (IAEA-SOIL-7 and SRM 2709) were analyzed. In each sampling site, the geoaccumulation index were calculated to estimate the level of metal contamination in the soil, this was made taking into account the resolution 460 of the National Environmental Council (CONAMA in Portuguese). The elemental distribution patterns obtained for each metal were associated with different pollution sources. This assessment provides an initial description of pollution levels presented by metals in soils from several areas of Zona da Mata, providing quantitative evidence and demonstrating the need to improve the regulation of agricultural and industrial activities. (author)

  12. Educational x-ray experiments and XRF measurements with a portable setup adapted for the characterization of cultural heritage objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sianoudis, I [Department of Physics Chemistry and Material Technology, Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of Athens, Ag. Spyridonos 12210 Egaleo (Greece); Drakaki, E [Department of Physics, NTUA, Athens 15780 (Greece); Hein, A [Institute of Materials Science, N.C.S.R. Demokritos, 15 310 Aghia Paraskevi (Greece)], E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:


    It is common to modify valuable, sophisticated equipment, originally acquired for other purposes, to adapt it for the needs of educational experiments, with great didactic effectiveness. The present project concerns a setup developed from components of a portable system for energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF). Two educational modules have been developed on the basis of this setup. Module 1 comprises a series of x-ray laboratory exercises investigating basic principles, such as the verification of Moseley's law, Compton's law and the Lambert-Beer law. Module 2 concerns the calibration of the XRF with reference materials, aiming to get quantitative measurements of the elemental composition of objects of cultural interest. The application of the calibrated experimental setup is demonstrated with indicative measurements of metal objects and pigments of wall paintings, in order to discuss their spectra, and their qualitative and quantitative analyses. The setup and the applied experiments are designed as an educational package of laboratory exercises on the one hand for students in natural sciences, and on the other for the education of students who will work in the field of cultural heritage, such as conservation science or archaeological science.

  13. Speciation of Cu in a Contaminated Agricultural Soil Measured By XAFS, Mu-XAFS, And Mu-XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strawn, D.G.; Baker, L.L.


    Contamination of agricultural soils with Cu as a result of fungicide application and spills threatens environmental quality and reduces soil quality for crop growth. In this paper advanced spectroscopic and microscopic methods were used to elucidate the Cu speciation in a calcareous soil contaminated since the 1940s. Microscopically focused synchrotron-based XRF ({mu}-SXRF) was used to map the elemental distribution in the soils. Results indicated that most of the Cu was not associated with metal oxides, silicates, phosphates, or carbonates. Bulk and microscopically focused X-absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra indicated that the Cu in the soil was predominantly Cu adsorbed on soil organic matter (SOM). Interpretation of the fitting results suggests that the Cu is complexed to SOM via bidentate inner-sphere coordination with carboxyl or amine ligands. Results presented in this paper provide detailed information on the molecular coordination of Cu in a contaminated soil. Such information is critical for understanding the long-term fate and best management practices for Cu in the environment.

  14. Detection of trace metallic elements in oral lichenoid contact lesions using SR-XRF, PIXE, and XAFS. (United States)

    Sugiyama, Tomoko; Uo, Motohiro; Wada, Takahiro; Omagari, Daisuke; Komiyama, Kazuo; Miyazaki, Serika; Numako, Chiya; Noguchi, Tadahide; Jinbu, Yoshinori; Kusama, Mikio; Mori, Yoshiyuki


    Oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral lichenoid contact lesions (OLCL) are chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous reactions with a risk of malignant transformation that alter the epithelium. OLP and OLCL have similar clinical and histopathological features and it is difficult to distinguish one from the other. Metallic restorations are suspected to generate OLCLs. Trace metal analysis of OLCL specimens may facilitate the discrimination of symptoms and identification of causative metallic restorations. The purpose of this study was to assess OLCL tissue samples for the prevalence of metallic elements derived from dental restorations, and to discriminate OLCL from OLP by using synchrotron radiation-excited X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-XRF), particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). Typical elements of dental materials were detected in the OLCL, whereas no obvious element accumulation was detected in OLP and negative control specimens. The origin of the detected metallic elements was presumed to be dental alloys through erosion. Therefore, our findings support the feasibility of providing supporting information to distinguish OLCL from OLP by using elemental analysis.

  15. Industrial pioneers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, J.


    With their knowledge of metallurgy, mechanics and thermodynamics, mechanical engineers had to give shape to the industrial revolution in the Netherlands 150 years ago. This revolution only slowly gathered momentum, however, especially in comparison with England.

  16. Industrial Lubricants (United States)

    Kajdas, C.; Karpińska, A.; Kulczycki, A.

    'Industrial lubricant' gaseous, liquid and solid products cover many applications. A new systems analysis approach is used combining heterogeneous catalysis and tribochemistry. Bearing lubricant applications are discussed in terms of the bearing film thickness and tribological regimes, for liquid and solid lubricants. Compressor and vacuum pump lubricant applications are described. The various classes of hydraulic fluids for industrial applications are explained. The properties, applications and selection of various industrial lubricants for different gears are described. Steam and industrial gas turbine lubricant formulations are discussed and the effects of their degradation products, particularly for valves and filters, are presented. Metalworking lubricant applications are divided into cutting and forming operations and their actions are described. Speciality applications such as process, textile, food-grade, slideway, cylinder and wire rope lubricants are explained.

  17. Industry-academic partnerships: an approach to accelerate innovation. (United States)

    Chen, Jennwood; Pickett, Timothy; Langell, Ashley; Trane, Ashley; Charlesworth, Brian; Loken, Kris; Lombardo, Sarah; Langell, John T


    Biotechnology companies are process-driven organizations and often struggle with their ability to innovate. Universities, on the other hand, thrive on discovery and variation as a source of innovation. As such, properly structured academic-industry partnerships in medical technology development may enhance and accelerate innovation. Through joint industry-academic efforts, our objective was to develop a technology aimed at global cervical cancer prevention. Our Center for Medical Innovation assembled a multidisciplinary team of students, surgical residents, and clinical faculty to enter in the University of Utah's annual Bench-to-Bedside competition. Bench-to-Bedside is a university program centered on medical innovation. Teams are given access to university resources and are provided $500.00 for prototype development. Participation by team members are on a volunteer basis. Our industry partner presented the validated need and business mentorship. The team studied the therapeutic landscape, environmental constraints, and used simulation to understand human factors design and usage requirements. A physical device was manufactured by first creating a digital image (SOLIDWORKS 3D CAD). Then, using a 3-dimensional printer (Stratasys Objet30 Prime 3D printer), the image was translated into a physical object. Tissue burn depth analysis was performed on raw chicken breasts warmed to room temperature. Varying combinations of time and temperature were tested, and burn depth and diameter were measured 30 min after each trial. An arithmetic mean was calculated for each corresponding time and temperature combination. User comprehension of operation and sterilization was tested via a participant validation study. Clinical obstetricians and gynecologists were given explicit instructions on usage details and then asked to operate the device. Participant behaviors and questions were recorded. Our efforts resulted in a functional battery-powered hand-held thermocoagulation

  18. Industrial diamond (United States)

    Olson, D.W.


    Estimated 2012 world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.45 billion carats. During 2012, natural industrial diamonds were produced in at least 20 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond was produced in at least 12 countries. About 99 percent of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in Belarus, China, Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States. During 2012, China was the world’s leading producer of synthetic industrial diamond followed by the United States and Russia. In 2012, the two U.S. synthetic producers, one in Pennsylvania and the other in Ohio, had an estimated output of 103 million carats, valued at about $70.6 million. This was an estimated 43.7 million carats of synthetic diamond bort, grit, and dust and powder with a value of $14.5 million combined with an estimated 59.7 million carats of synthetic diamond stone with a value of $56.1 million. Also in 2012, nine U.S. firms manufactured polycrystalline diamond (PCD) from synthetic diamond grit and powder. The United States government does not collect or maintain data for either domestic PCD producers or domestic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond producers for quantity or value of annual production. Current trade and consumption quantity data are not available for PCD or for CVD diamond. For these reasons, PCD and CVD diamond are not included in the industrial diamond quantitative data reported here.

  19. Evaluation of photon irradiation treatment upon calcium content of ribs of Wistar rats using micro-XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parreiras Nogueira, Liebert; Barroso, Regina Cely; Pereira de Almeida, Andre; Braz, Delson; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de; Salata, Camila; Andrade, Cherley Borba; Silva, Claudia Marcello da [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory / COPPE / UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Physics Institute / State University of Rio de Janeiro, 20550-900, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory / COPPE / UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Laboratory of Radiological Sciences / State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)


    Therapeutic doses of radiation have been shown to have deleterious consequences on bone health. Among the treatment strategies used for breast cancer treatment, the most used are radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Radiotherapy may be given to destroy the cancer cells using high-dose x-rays. Protocols vary considerably, but generally whole body irradiation totals from 10 to 15 Gy, whereas local therapy totals from 40 to 70 Gy. In clinical practice, the quantitative evaluation of bone tissue relies on measurements of bone mineral density values, which are closely associated with the risk of osteoporotic fracture. Improved survivorship rates of cancer patients receiving radiotherapy increase the importance of understanding the mechanisms and long-term effects of radiation-induced bone loss. In this work, we investigated the variation on calcium distribution in ribs of female Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) submitted to photon irradiation with a single dose of 20 Gy. The determination of the calcium distribution was performed using synchrotron radiation microfluorescence (SR-{mu}XRF) at the X-ray Fluorescence beamline at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). Animals were irradiated using the linear accelerator Varian registered (CLINAC 2100) at the University Centre for Cancer Control of the State University of Rio de Janeiro (CUCC/UERJ). The total dose delivered was 20 Gy. The animals were about three months old and weighting about 200g. They were distributed into two groups (seven per group): control (did not receive any treatment) and irradiated (submitted to irradiation procedure) groups. Results showed that calcium content decreased within the dorsal ribs of rats submitted to radiotherapy in comparison to the control group.

  20. Evaluation of photon irradiation treatment upon calcium content of ribs of Wistar rats using micro-XRF (United States)

    Nogueira, Liebert Parreiras; Barroso, Regina Cély; de Almeida, André Pereira; Braz, Delson; de Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; Salata, Camila; Andrade, Cherley Borba; da Silva, Claudia Marcello


    Therapeutic doses of radiation have been shown to have deleterious consequences on bone health. Among the treatment strategies used for breast cancer treatment, the most used are radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Radiotherapy may be given to destroy the cancer cells using high-dose x-rays. Protocols vary considerably, but generally whole body irradiation totals from 10 to 15 Gy, whereas local therapy totals from 40 to 70 Gy. In clinical practice, the quantitative evaluation of bone tissue relies on measurements of bone mineral density values, which are closely associated with the risk of osteoporotic fracture. Improved survivorship rates of cancer patients receiving radiotherapy increase the importance of understanding the mechanisms and long-term effects of radiation-induced bone loss. In this work, we investigated the variation on calcium distribution in ribs of female Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) submitted to photon irradiation with a single dose of 20 Gy. The determination of the calcium distribution was performed using synchrotron radiation microfluorescence (SR-μXRF) at the X-ray Fluorescence beamline at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). Animals were irradiated using the linear accelerator Varian® (CLINAC 2100) at the University Centre for Cancer Control of the State University of Rio de Janeiro (CUCC/UERJ). The total dose delivered was 20 Gy. The animals were about three months old and weighting about 200g. They were distributed into two groups (seven per group): control (did not receive any treatment) and irradiated (submitted to irradiation procedure) groups. Results showed that calcium content decreased within the dorsal ribs of rats submitted to radiotherapy in comparison to the control group.

  1. Calcium distribution in ribs of wistar rats after photon irradiation treatment for breast cancer using micro-XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, L.P.; Almeida, A.P.; Braz, D. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Barroso, R.C.; Almeida, C.E. de; Salata, C.; Andrade, C.B.V.; Silva, C.M. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Full text: Therapeutic doses of radiation have been shown to have deleterious consequences on bone health. Among the treatment strategies used for breast cancer treatment, the most used are radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Radiotherapy may be given to destroy the cancer cells using high-dose x-rays. Protocols vary considerably, but generally whole body irradiation totals from 10 to 15 Gy, whereas local therapy totals from 40 to 70 Gy. In clinical practice, the quantitative evaluation of bone tissue relies on measurements of bone mineral density values, which are closely associated with the risk of osteoporotic fracture. Improved survivorship rates of cancer patients receiving radiotherapy increase the importance of understanding the mechanisms and long-term effects of radiation-induced bone loss. In this work, we investigated the variation on calcium distribution in ribs of female Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) submitted to photon irradiation with a single dose of 20 Gy. The determination of the calcium distribution was performed using synchrotron radiation micro fluorescence (SR-{mu}XRF) at the X-ray Fluorescence beamline at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). Animals were irradiated using the linear accelerator Varian (CLINAC 2100) at the University Centre for Cancer Control of the State University of Rio de Janeiro (CUCC/UERJ). The total dose delivered was 20 Gy. The animals were about three months old and weighting about 200g. They were distributed into two groups (seven per group): control (did not receive any treatment) and irradiated (submitted to irradiation procedure) groups. Results showed that calcium content decreased within the dorsal ribs of rats submitted to radiotherapy in comparison to the control group. (author)

  2. Industry Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Angie Ngoc; Jeppesen, Søren


    regulation and greater industry pressure with regard to quality and safety of products than to labour standards in both sectors. Most factories in the TGF sector assembled products for global supply chains and were under pressure by industry norms, while most companies in the FBP sector produced......This chapter draws on a study investigating what corporate social responsibility (CSR) means to Vietnam’s small- and medium-size enterprise (SME) owner/managers and workers, using Scott’s three-pillar (norms, regulation, cognition) institutional framework. The findings are based on factory visits...... for the domestic market and were subjected to greater state regulation. Moreover, contributing critical perspectives to Scott’s framework, we found an overlap between the normative and the regulatory, and between the cognitive and the industry norms, which reveals how institutional and cultural pressures...

  3. Industrious Landscaping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brichet, Nathalia Sofie; Hastrup, Frida


    This article offers a history of landscaping at Søby brown coal beds – a former mining site in western Denmark. Exploring this industrial landscape through a series of projects that have made different natural resources appear, we argue that what is even recognized as resources shifts over time...... according to radically different and unpredictable agendas. Natural resources emerge as feats of particular political and historical landscape configurations, rather than fixed dormant sediments waiting to be exploited. This indicates that the Søby landscape is fundamentally volatile, as its resourcefulness...... has been seen interchangeably to rest with brown coal business, inexpensive estates for do-it-yourself people, pasture for grazing, and recreational forest, among other things. We discuss these rifts in landscaping, motivated by what we refer to as industriousness, to show that in an industrial site...

  4. Fiabilidad industrial


    Griful Ponsati, Eulàlia


    El presente libro ha sido escrito y editado para los estudios de segundo ciclo de Ingeniería de Organización Industrial que se imparten en la ETSEIT de la UPC. La materia de fiabilidad que se imparte en este texto es una introducción a las técnicas estadísticas para resolver cuestiones de fiabilidad industrial. Se estudian distintos modelos probabilísticos del tiempo de vida y se presentan distintas formas de recabar información y de estimar, en cada caso, la fiabilidad de los componentes y s...

  5. Industrious Landscaping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brichet, Nathalia Sofie; Hastrup, Frida


    has been seen interchangeably to rest with brown coal business, inexpensive estates for do-it-yourself people, pasture for grazing, and recreational forest, among other things. We discuss these rifts in landscaping, motivated by what we refer to as industriousness, to show that in an industrial site...... analysis of shifting landscape projects and has an essential methodological corollary, namely that fieldwork must be improvisational, situated, and humble. Rather than finding the ‘right’ field materials for a canonical landscape history of Søby, we develop a method of ‘dustballing’ – being blown here...

  6. Industrial Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer


    the focus of operations management from managing the own organization to continuously developing and managing a network of external and internal resources forming a production system. This perspective may be called managing an “extraprise” rather than an “enterprise.” It should be noted that “an industrial...... network” should not be seen as an organizational form but as a perspective that can be used to enrich one's understanding of organizations. The industrial network perspective has three basic building blocks: actors, resources, and activities. The three building blocks and their relations constitute...

  7. Creative Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Pareja-Eastaway


    Full Text Available This journal welcomes contributions exploring the intrinsic features of the field of creative industries and activities of entrepreneurs who use creativity as the basis of their work; analyses of literature concerning evolutionary developments in companies and their adaptations linked to the management of creativity; and, finally, reviews of books in cutting-edge research on the evolution of the creative enterprise.

  8. Fermentation Industry. (United States)

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.


    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  9. Feasibility of measuring arsenic and selenium in human skin using in vivo x-ray fluorescence (XRF)--a comparison of methods. (United States)

    Shehab, H; Desouza, E D; O'Meara, J; Pejović-Milić, A; Chettle, D R; Fleming, D E B; McNeill, F E


    In recent years, in vivo measurement systems of arsenic in skin by K-shell x-ray fluorescence (XRF) have been developed, including one which was applied in a pilot study of human subjects. Improved tube-based approaches suggest the method can be further exploited for in vivo studies. Recently, it has been suggested that selenium deficiency is correlated with arsenic toxicity. A non-invasive measurement of both elements could therefore be of potential interest. The main aim of this current study was to evaluate and compare the performance of an upgraded portable XRF system and an advanced version of the benchtop XRF system for both selenium and arsenic. This evaluation was performed in terms of arsenic and selenium Kα detection limits for a 4W gold anode Olympus InnovX Delta portable analyzer (40 kVp) in polyester resin skin-mimicking phantoms. Unlike the polychromatic source earlier reported in the literature, the benchtop tube-based technique involves monochromatic excitation (25 W silver anode, manufactured by x-ray optics, XOS) and a higher throughput detector type. Use of a single exciting energy allows for a lower in vivo dose delivered and superior signal-noise ratio. For the portable XRF method, arsenic and selenium minimum detection limits (MDLs) of 0.59  ±  0.03 ppm and 0.75  ±  0.02 ppm respectively were found for 1 min measurement times. The MDLs for arsenic and selenium using the benchtop system were found to be 0.35  ±  0.01 ppm and 0.670  ±  0.004 ppm respectively for 30 min measurement times. In terms of a figure of merit (FOM), allowing for dose as well as MDL, the benchtop system was found to be superior for arsenic and the two systems were equivalent, within error, for selenium. We shall discuss the performance and possible improvements of each system, their ease of use and potential for field application.

  10. Industrial vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ole


    This dissertation is concerned with the introduction of vision-based application s in the ship building industry. The industrial research project is divided into a natural seq uence of developments, from basic theoretical projective image generation via CAD and subpixel analysis to a description...... is present ed, and the variability of the parameters is examined and described. The concept of using CAD together with vision information is based on the fact that all items processed at OSS have an associated complete 3D CAD model that is accessible at all production states. This concept gives numerous...... possibilities for using vision in applications which otherwise would be very difficult to automate. The requirement for low tolerances in production is, despite the huge dimensions of the items involved, extreme. This fact makes great demands on the ability to do robust sub pixel estimation. A new method based...

  11. Change in Localizations of Arsenic in Rice Grains After Cooking with High Arsenic Waters - µXRF and XANES studies (United States)

    Datta, S.; Ryan, B.; Kumar, N.; Bortz, T.; Bolen, Z. T.


    Threats of Arsenic (As) through food uptake, via consumption of rice, is a potential pathway that presents a concern not only for the millions of inhabitants who reside in river valleys and irrigate their soil with contaminated water, but the global rice market as well. This study focuses on high As rice from India and Bangladesh grown in such soils, and the effect of boiling rice with As-contaminated water in preparation for dietary intake. Husked and unhusked rice grains were boiled with >500 µg/L As-bearing water from the field to simulate local cooking methods. The resulting cooked water was analyzed using iCAP low limit detection via ICP-MS to understand the changes in dissolved elemental concentrations before and after cooking, and HPLC was introduced to measure for changes in As speciation in the waters. Using spectroscopic methods such as µXRF mapping associated with µXANES, distribution/localization and speciation changes of As in rice grains were identified. Further, with Linear Combination Fitting (LCF) of XANES spectra utilizing relevant reference compounds (As-S, AsIII, AsV, MMA and DMA), organic and inorganic As species were able to be mapped within rice grains. The results for uncooked/raw grains showed that predominantly As-S combined with AsIII and AsV accounted for 90% of speciation in most samples, localized in areas such as the outer aleurone layer. When analyzing cooked rice grains, the speciation appears to be an unidentified As species while the best LCF shows between 63-93% of As as MMA. Arsenic was found less localized throughout the cooked grains but rather heterogeneously distributed when compared to the uncooked/raw samples. The analyses of boiled/cooked water resulted in a significant decrease in dissolved As post-cooking (90%), but a subsequent increase in elements such as K, La, Li, Mo, Na, Ni, and Zr was observed; As-V was shown to be the main in-As species in the cooked water. The impact that this study portrays is consuming rice

  12. Biotechnology Industry (United States)


    ACRONYM(S) 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release ; distribution unlimited run research labs, bioreactors and manufacturing facilities affect all the companies involved. Aside from industry giants such as Monsanto or...chemical-based resources used in manufacturing processes (fuel, plastics and textiles ). The US is the world leader in GM crop production. In 2003 eleven

  13. Microgravity Cell Counter: A Simple Hand-held Low-cost Device for In-flight WBC/Differential Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spaceflight results in adverse health effects on the human body.   These effects may result in increased clinical risk to crewmembers participating in...

  14. A Review of the Quantification and Classification of Pigmented Skin Lesions: From Dedicated to Hand-Held Devices. (United States)

    Filho, Mercedes; Ma, Zhen; Tavares, João Manuel R S


    In recent years, the incidence of skin cancer cases has risen, worldwide, mainly due to the prolonged exposure to harmful ultraviolet radiation. Concurrently, the computer-assisted medical diagnosis of skin cancer has undergone major advances, through an improvement in the instrument and detection technology, and the development of algorithms to process the information. Moreover, because there has been an increased need to store medical data, for monitoring, comparative and assisted-learning purposes, algorithms for data processing and storage have also become more efficient in handling the increase of data. In addition, the potential use of common mobile devices to register high-resolution images of skin lesions has also fueled the need to create real-time processing algorithms that may provide a likelihood for the development of malignancy. This last possibility allows even non-specialists to monitor and follow-up suspected skin cancer cases. In this review, we present the major steps in the pre-processing, processing and post-processing of skin lesion images, with a particular emphasis on the quantification and classification of pigmented skin lesions. We further review and outline the future challenges for the creation of minimum-feature, automated and real-time algorithms for the detection of skin cancer from images acquired via common mobile devices.

  15. Prototype Scale Development of an Environmentally Benign Yellow Smoke Hand-Held Signal Formulation Based on Solvent Yellow 33 (United States)


    ammunition , signal flares, and training simulators contain once popular chemicals that are now scrutinized by environmental regulators.1−4 In order to...for each formulation. The top and inner core surfaces of each pellet were coated with a thin layer of thermite -based igniter slurry (composed of 33.0

  16. The influence of hand-held information and communication technology on visitor perceptions of risk and risk-related behavior (United States)

    Steven R. Martin; Kristen Pope


    As devices like personal locator beacons become more readily available, more visitors may bring them into wilderness and use them to request rescues and may develop unrealistic expectations of rescue. In an exploratory study in 2009, 235 overnight visitors to the King Range Wilderness in California completed a written survey. Of the respondents, 40 percent considered...

  17. Human Effectiveness and Risk Characterization of Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) and Pelargonic Acid Vanillylamide (PAVA or Nonivamide) Hand-Held Devices (United States)


    and calcium from the activation of the “vanilloid receptor” also leads to rapid cellular damage and eventual cell death by osmosis and calcium... osmosis and calcium-dependent proteases. Capsaicin-induced acute biological effects are due to the release of bioactive substances (substance Examples of such foods include “tuna salad,” “sausage cooked with peppers,” and “ potato salad.” c. If the food indicated that it was “hot” such

  18. Hand-Held EMI Sensor Combined with Inertial Positioning for Cued UXO Discrimination - APG Standardized UXO Test Site (United States)


    each flag location, the system was swept side-to-side to cover an area comparable to the wooden template previously used with the TEM-HH. 5.2 SITE...batteries, and a wireless tablet computer to control the system. The SAINT system consists of an embedded acquisition computer and an IMU contained...TEM-HH acquisition from the wireless tablet computer. Because there was no synchronization between the two systems, the operator’s would start them


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erandaru Erandaru


    Full Text Available Baudrillard merupakan salah satu tokoh dalam filsafat postmodern yang mengkritik kehadiran media dunia maya dalam budaya hidup manusia saat ini. Baudrillard melontarkan pendapat bahwa interaksi manusia dengan media tersebut tidak membawa manfaat. Lebih jauh lagi dia mengkhawatirkan bahwa masyarakat dapat menjadi obyek bagi media. kemampuan media tersebut untuk membentuk dunia impian yang dapat menarik masyarakat untuk semakin menjauh dari kehidupan nyata. Perkembangan terakhir dalam teknologi virtual telah memungkinkan kehadirannya secara luas di pasar dan dalam jangkaun daya beli konsumen melalui aplikasi augmented reality. Aplikasi dengan konsep untuk memungkinkan pengguna melihat dunia maya terintegrasi ke dalam dunia nyata. Suatu pendekatan yang berbeda dibandingkan dengan aplikasi yang menggunakan teknologi virtual reality pada umumnya yang berusaha untuk menghadirkan pengguna ke dalam dunia maya. Bukannya semakin menarik pengguna menjauh dari dunia nyata, aplikasi augmented reality justru semakin menarik pengguna untuk berinteraksi dengan dunia nyata. Walaupun masih terlalu dini untuk mengetahui seberapa jauh dampak teknologi augmented reality bagi masyarakat, pemahaman terhadap kritik yang dilontarkan oleh Baudrillard setidaknya mampu memberikan wawasan bagi pelaku desain media dalam memanfaatkan teknologi augmented reality dan menerapkannya sedemikian hingga membantu dalam meningkatkan wawasan dan kepedulian masyarakat terhadap dunia nyata. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Baudrillard is one of postmodernist theorists that criticize the unreality of the culture which we live in. He suggests that human interactions with virtual reality media and unreal technologies, achieve nothing; He even fears that society will fall prey to these media subjectivity. The virtual reality media capability to produce simulated reality could mislead society into voluntary detachment with the real world. The latest development in virtual technology has made it available within the consumer market in the form of augmented reality application. An application based on a concept that merges virtual data within the physical environment, a different approach compared to common virtual reality technology where user is immersed within a virtual environment. Instead of detachment, augmented reality offers attachment with reality. While it is still too early to study augmented reality technology’s impact on society, a study on Baudrillard’s critiques will nevertheless gives a valuable insight on how designers could make use of augmented reality technology to shape society with a sense of consciousness of the real world. Keywords: Baudrillard, augmented reality applications.

  20. Analysis of Performance Resulting from the Design of Selected Hand-Held Input Control Devices and Visual Displays


    Spencer, Ronald Allen


    Since the introduction of graphical user interfaces (GUI), input control devices have become an integral part of desktop computing. When interfacing with GUIs, these input control devices have become the human's primary means of communicating with the computer. Although there have been a number of experiments conducted on pointing devices for desktop machine, there is little research on pointing devices for wearable computer technology. This is surprising because pointing devices are a maj...

  1. An Architecture for Analysis and Collection of RF Signals Used by Hand-Held Devices in Computer Communications (United States)


    Clipping verse Web Browsing. (From Ref. [1]) ............................ 6 Figure I-3. Front Diagram of a Wireless Terminal. (From Ref. [3...terminal also supports audio. 7 Figure I-3. Front Diagram of a Wireless Terminal. (From Ref. [3...for Palm V, Handspring and HP Jornada is one example of a CDPD service. Similar wireless applications can be accessed, however a comparison and

  2. Human Effectiveness and Risk Characterization of Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) and Pelargonic Acid Vanillylamide (PAVA or Nonivamide) Hand-Held Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haber, Lynne; Nance, Patricia; Maier, Andrew; Price, Paul; Olajos, Eugene J; Bickford, Larry; McConnell, Maureen; Klauenberg, B. J


    .... This HERC reflects the results from a three-workshop process with sequential workshops held for data gathering and sharing, peer consultation, and independent external review of the HERC document...

  3. Cellphone-based hand-held microplate reader for point-of-care ELISA testing (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Berg, Brandon; Cortazar, Bingen; Tseng, Derek; Ozkan, Haydar; Feng, Steve; Wei, Qingshan; Chan, Raymond Y.; Burbano, Jordi; Farooqui, Qamar; Lewinski, Michael; Di Carlo, Dino; Garner, Omai B.; Ozcan, Aydogan


    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a microplate format has been a gold standard first-line clinical test for diagnosis of various diseases including infectious diseases. However, this technology requires a relatively large and expensive multi-well scanning spectrophotometer to read and quantify the signal from each well, hindering its implementation in resource-limited-settings. Here, we demonstrate a cost-effective and handheld smartphone-based colorimetric microplate reader for rapid digitization and quantification of immunoserology-related ELISA tests in a conventional 96-well plate format at the point of care (POC). This device consists of a bundle of 96 optical fibers to collect the transmitted light from each well of the microplate and direct all the transmission signals from the wells onto the camera of the mobile-phone. Captured images are then transmitted to a remote server through a custom-designed app, and both quantitative and qualitative diagnostic results are returned back to the user within ~1 minute per 96-well plate by using a machine learning algorithm. We tested this mobile-phone based micro-plate reader in a clinical microbiology lab using FDA-approved mumps IgG, measles IgG, and herpes simplex virus IgG (HSV-1 and HSV-2) ELISA tests on 1138 remnant patient samples (roughly 50% training and 50% testing), and achieved an overall accuracy of ~99% or higher for each ELISA test. This handheld and cost-effective platform could be immediately useful for large-scale vaccination monitoring in low-infrastructure settings, and also for other high-throughput disease screening applications at POC.

  4. Sharp Infrared Eyes The Journey of QWIPs from Concept to Large Inexpensive Sensitive Arrays in Hand-held Infrared Cameras (United States)

    Gunapala, Sarath; Sundaram, Mani; Liu, Joun; Bandara, Sumith


    One of the simplest device realizations of the classic particle-in-a-box problem of basic quantum mechanics is the Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (QWIP). Optimization of the detector design and material growth and processing has culminated in the realization of a camera with a large (256x256 pixel) focal plane array of QWIPs which can see at 8.5 mu m, holding forth great promise for a variety of applications in the 6-25 mu m wavelength range.

  5. Four High-Visibility Enforcement Demonstration Waves in Connecticut and New York Reduce Hand-Held Phone Use (United States)


    The National Highway Traffic : Safety Administration initiated : distracted driving demonstration : programs in two communities : to test whether a high-visibility : enforcement (HVE) model could : reduce two specific instances : of distracted drivin...

  6. A Novel Hand-Held Optical Imager with Real-Time Co-Registration Facilities Towards Diagnostic Mammography (United States)

    2012-01-01 Color versions of one or more of the f gures in this paper are available online at Digital Object Identifie 10.1109...from mammography, US, or palpation . The device was used to measure the physiological character- istics of the tumor prior to chemotherapy. This was

  7. Investigation of the aerosols produced by a high-speed, hand-held grinder using various substrates. (United States)

    Zimmer, Anthony T; Maynard, Andrew D


    Mechanical processes such as grinding are classically thought to form micrometer scale aerosols through abrasion and attrition. High-speed grinding has been used as the basis for testing the hypothesis that ultrafine particles do not form a substantial component of mechanically generated aerosols. A wide variety of grinding substrates were selected for evaluation to represent the broad spectrum of materials available. To characterize the particle size distribution over particle sizes ranging from 4.2 nm to 20.5 microm, the aerosol-laden air collected from an enclosed chamber was split and directed to three aerosol instruments operated in parallel. Transmission electron microscope samples of the various grinding substrates were also collected. The results demonstrate that ultrafine particles do have the potential to form a significant component of a grinding aerosol for a number of substrates. It appears that the ultrafine aerosols were formed by the following processes: (i) from within the grinding motor, (ii) from the combustion of amenable grinding substrates and (iii) from volatilization of amenable grinding materials at the grinding wheel/substrate interface.

  8. Hand-held EMI Sensor for Cued UXO Discrimination Man-Portable EMI Array for UXO Detection and Discrimination (United States)


    proficiently conduct. The successful transition of the TEMTADS 5x5 array data quality control (QC)/analysis process to the Geosoft Oasis montaj ...the Geosoft Oasis montaj environment provides a clear pathway for resolving these issues. A final implementation issue is that a clear path to

  9. Detection of Staphylococcus Aureus Enterotoxin A and B Genes with PCR-EIA and a Hand-Held Electrochemical Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aitichou, Mohamed; Henkins, Robert; Sultana, Afroz M; Ulrich, Robert G; Ibrahim, M. S


    ... S. aureus DNA, and genomic DNA from Alcaligens, Bacillus, Bacteroides, Bordetella, Burkholderia, Clostridium, Comanonas, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Escherichia, Francisella, Haemophilus, Klebsiella...

  10. Effect of emitted wavelength and light guide type on irradiance discrepancies in hand-held dental curing radiometers. (United States)

    Kameyama, Atsushi; Haruyama, Akiko; Asami, Masako; Takahashi, Toshiyuki


    The purpose of this study was to determine any discrepancies in the outputs of five commercial dental radiometers and also to evaluate the accuracy of these devices using a laboratory-grade spectroradiometer. The power densities of 12 different curing light sources were repeatedly measured for a total of five times using each radiometer in a random order. The emission spectra of all of the curing light sources were also measured using the spectroradiometer, and the integral value of each spectrum was calculated to determine the genuine power densities, which were then compared to the displayed power densities measured by the dental radiometers. The displayed values of power density were various and were dependent on the brand of radiometer, and this may be because each radiometer has a different wavelength sensitivity. These results cast doubt upon the accuracy of commercially available dental radiometers.

  11. Detection of Incipient Thermal Damage in Carbon Fiber-Bismaleimide Composites using Hand-Held FTIR (Preprint) (United States)


    work. 14. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) Bismaleimide (BMI) resins are gaining popularity as matrix materials in carbon fiber composites, especially ...BMI) resins are gaining popularity as matrix materials in carbon fiber composites, especially in high temperature applications, due to their very...address the unique challenges they present. An especially interesting problem in composite NDE/NDI is damage caused by thermal exposure. After visual

  12. Elemental composition study of heavy metal (Ni, Cu, Zn) in riverbank soil by electrokinetic-assisted phytoremediation using XRF and SEM/EDX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamari, Suhailly [Faculty of Science, Technology and Human Development, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) (Malaysia); Embong, Zaidi [Faculty of Science, Technology and Human Development, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) and Research Center for Soft Soils (RECESS), Office of Research, Innovation, Commercialization and Consultancy Management - ORRIC, Universiti Tun Hussein (Malaysia); Bakar, Ismail [Research Center for Soft Soils (RECESS), Office of Research, Innovation, Commercialization and Consultancy Management (ORRIC), Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia -UTHM, 86400 Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)


    Electrokinetic (EK)-assisted phytoremediation is one of the methods that have a big potential in enhancing the ability of plant uptake in soils remediation process. This research was conducted to investigate the difference in elemental composition concentration of riverbank soil and the change of pH between pre- and post-phytoremediation under the following condition: 1) control or as-receive sample; 2) Dieffenbachia spp plant with EK system (a pair of EK electrodes connected to a direct current (DC) power supply). After the electrodes were connected to a magnitude of 6V/cm{sup −1} electric field for 4 hours/day, the soil and plant samples were analyzed using and X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRF) and Scanning Electron Microscope / Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM/EDX). The SEM/EDX analysis showed that concentration of elemental composition (Ni, Cu and Zn) in post-phytoremediation plant powder samples had increase while elemental concentrations in the post-phytoremediation soil samples were decreased. XRF analysis presented a variation in soil elemental composition concentration from anode to cathode where the concentration near anode region increased while decreased near the cathode region. A significant changes in soil pH were obtained where the soil pH increase in cathode region while decrease in anode region. The results reveal that the assistance of EK in phytoremediation process has increase the efficiency of plant uptake.

  13. Development and Applications of a Laboratory Micro X-ray Fluorescence (μXRF) Spectrometer Using Monochromatic Excitation for Quantitative Elemental Analysis. (United States)

    Garrevoet, Jan; Vekemans, Bart; Bauters, Stephen; Demey, Arne; Vincze, Laszlo


    The analytical characterization and an application example of a novel laboratory X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) microprobe is presented, which combines monochromatic, focused X-ray beam excitation with a high-performance silicon drift detector (SDD) and two-dimensional/three-dimensional (2D/3D) scanning capability. Because of the monochromatic excitation, below the (multiple) Compton/Rayleigh scattering peak region, the XRF spectra obtained by this laboratory spectrometer has similarly high peak-to-background ratios as those which can be obtained at synchrotron sources. However, the flux density difference between the proposed laboratory instrument and current synchrotron end stations is on the order of several orders of magnitude. As a result, sub-ppm minimum detection limits (MDL) for transition metals are obtained for a variety of sample matrices. The monochromatic excitation also allows for the efficient use of an iterative Monte Carlo simulation algorithm to obtain quantitative information on the analyzed samples. The analytical characteristics of this instrument and quantitative results, in combination with an iterative reverse Monte Carlo simulation algorithm, will be demonstrated using measurements conducted on an iron-containing meteorite.

  14. Développement expérimental d'une ligne PIXE-XRF pour les matériaux du patrimoine (United States)

    Bertrand, L.; Calligaro, T.; Dran, J.-C.; Dubus, M.; Guerra, M. F.; Moignard, B.; Pichon, L.; Salomon, J.; Walter, P.


    L'analyse élémentaire d'objets d'art ou d'archéologie exige l'emploi de méthodes non destructives possédant une sensibilité suffisante- pour les éléments traces. La méthode PIXE (acronyme pour Particle Induced X-ray Emission) satisfait à cette condition tout en se heurtant à deux contraintes majeures : le risque de détérioration de matériaux sensibles tels que les matériaux organiques et la faible sensibilité pour l'analyse d'impuretés légères dans les matrices lourdes. Nous avons développé une nouvelle ligne expérimentale sur l'accélérateur de particules du Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France, permettant de s'affranchir de ces deux limitations en recourant à une variante de la fluorescence des rayons X, dénommée PIXE-XRF (XRF pour X-Ray Fluorescence). L'extraction à l'air du faisceau permet une souplesse du dispositif nettement améliorée.

  15. Mineralogical In-situ Investigation of Acid-Sulfate Samples from the Rio Tinto River, Spain, with a Portable XRD/XRF Instrument (United States)

    Sarrazin, P.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Fernandez-Remolar, D.; Amils, R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Blake, D.; Bish, D. L.


    A field campaign was organized in September 2006 by Centro de Astobiologica (Spain) and Washington University (St Louis, USA) for the geological study of the Rio Tinto river bed sediments using a suite of in-situ instruments comprising an ASD reflectance spectrometer, an emission spectrometer, panoramic and close-up color imaging cameras, a life detection system and NASA's CheMin 4 XRD/XRF prototype. The primary objectives of the field campaign were to study the geology of the site and test the potential of the instrument suite in an astrobiological investigation context for future Mars surface robotic missions. The results of the overall campaign will be presented elsewhere. This paper focuses on the results of the XRD/XRF instrument deployment. The specific objectives of the CheMin 4 prototype in Rio Tinto were to 1) characterize the mineralogy of efflorescent salts in their native environments; 2) analyze the mineralogy of salts and oxides from the modern environment to terraces formed earlier as part of the Rio Tinto evaporative system; and 3) map the transition from hematite-dominated terraces to the mixed goethite/salt-bearing terraces where biosignatures are best preserved.

  16. Use of an Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer to Obtain Sample Powder for CHEMIN, a Combined XRD/XRF Instrument (United States)

    Chipera, S. J.; Bish, D. L.; Vaniman, D. T.; Sherrit, S.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Sarrazin, P.; Blake, D. F.


    A miniature CHEMIN XRD/XRF (X-Ray Diffraction/X-Ray Fluourescence) instrument is currently being developed for definitive mineralogic analysis of soils and rocks on Mars. One of the technical issues that must be addressed in order to enable XRD analysis on an extraterrestrial body is how best to obtain a representative sample powder for analysis. For XRD powder diffraction analyses, it is beneficial to have a fine-grained sample to reduce preferred orientation effects and to provide a statistically significant number of crystallites to the X-ray beam. Although a 2-dimensional detector as used in the CHEMIN instrument will produce good results with poorly prepared powders, the quality of the data will improve if the sample is fine-grained and randomly oriented. An Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC) currently being developed at JPL is an effective mechanism of sampling rock to produce cores and powdered cuttings. It requires low axial load (XRF spectrometer such as CHEMIN, powders obtained from the JPL ultrasonic drill were analyzed and the results were compared to carefully prepared powders obtained using a laboratory bench scale Retsch mill.

  17. Synchrotron micro-XRF and micro-XANES confirmation of the uptake and translocation of TiO₂ nanoparticles in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants. (United States)

    Servin, Alia D; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Hernandez-Viezcas, Jose A; Diaz, Baltazar Corral; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L


    Advances in nanotechnology have raised concerns about possible effects of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in the environment, especially in terrestrial plants. In this research, the impacts of TiO(2) nanoparticles (NPs) were evaluated in hydroponically grown cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants. Seven day old seedlings were treated with TiO(2) NPs at concentrations varying from 0 to 4000 mg L(-1). At harvest, the size of roots and shoots were measured. In addition, micro X- ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy (micro-XAS), respectively, were used to track the presence and chemical speciation of Ti within plant tissues. Results showed that at all concentrations, TiO(2) significantly increased root length (average >300%). By using micro-XRF it was found that Ti was transported from the roots to the leaf trichomes, suggesting that trichomes are possible sink or excretory system for the Ti. The micro-XANES spectra showed that the absorbed Ti was present as TiO(2) within the cucumber tissues, demonstrating that the TiO(2) NPs were not biotransformed.

  18. Elemental and structural analysis of silicon forms in herbal drugs using silicon-29 MAS NMR and WD-XRF spectroscopic methods. (United States)

    Pajchel, L; Nykiel, P; Kolodziejski, W


    The objective of this work was to study concentration of silicon and its structural forms present in herbal drugs. Equisetum arvense and Urtica dioica L. from teapot bags, dietary supplements (tablets and capsules) containing those herbs, dry extract obtained from a teapot bag of E. arvense, and samples of the latter herb harvested in wild habitat over four months were studied using wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WD-XRF) and high-resolution solid-state (29)Si NMR. The highest concentration of Si, ca. 27mg/g, was found in the herbal material from the teapot bags containing E. arvense. The Si content in natural E. arvense (whole plants) increased from May to August by ca. 7mg/g, reaching value 26mg/g. Three different silicon forms were detected in the studied herbal samples: Si(OSi)4 (Q(4)), Si(OH)(OSi)3 (Q(3)) and Si(OH)2(OSi)2 (Q(2)). Those sites were populated in E. arvense in the following order: Q(4)≫Q(3)>Q(2). A dramatic, ca. 50-fold decrease of the Si concentration during the infusion process was observed. The infusion process and the subsequent drying procedure augmented population of the Q(4) sites at the cost of the Q(2) sites. The WD-XRF and (29)Si NMR methods occurred useful and complementary in the study of herbal materials. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Industry X.0 : Reimaging industrial development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zachar, H


    Full Text Available This presentation discusses how Industry X.0 is steadily rising in importance to industry executives. A framework for Industry X.0, as well as several focus areas, are supplied....

  20. Industry X.0 : Reimaging industrial development.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zachar, H


    Full Text Available This presentation discusses how Industry X.0 is steadily rising in importance to industry executives. A framework for Industry X.0, as well as several focus areas, are supplied....

  1. Training industry needs & Technology Industry needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemke, Roland; Kuula, Timo; Helin, Kaj; Wild, Fridolin


    This deliverable joins D1.1 (User Industry Needs) and D1.2 (Technology Industry Needs and Affordances) and reports on the outcomes of Tasks T1.1 (Training Industry Assessment) and T1.2 (Technology Industry Assessment). We merged the deliverables for the following reasons: For readability ease we

  2. Industrial radiographies

    CERN Multimedia


    The Radiation Protection group wishes to remind CERN staff responsible for contractors performing X-ray inspections on the CERN sites that the firms must apply the legislation in force in their country of origin, in particular with regard to the prevention of risks relating to ionizing radiation. Industrial radiography firms called on to work on the CERN sites must also comply with the rules laid down in CERN's Radiation Safety Manual and be registered in the relevant CERN database. Since CERN is responsible for safety on its own site, a number of additional rules have been laid down for this kind of work, as set out in Radiation Protection Procedure PRP30 The CERN Staff Member responsible for the contract shall register the company and issue notification that an X-ray inspection is to be performed via the web interface at the following address:

  3. Piet Mondrian’s Broadway Boogie Woogie : non invasive analysis using macro X-ray fluorescence mapping (MA-XRF) and multivariate curve resolution-alternating least square (MCR-ALS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, A; Albertson, C.; McGlinchey, C.; Dik, J.


    Piet Mondrian’s Broadway Boogie Woogie (1942–1943) was examined using Macro X-Ray Fluorescence mapping (MA-XRF) to help characterize the artist’s materials and understand his creative process as well as the current condition issues of the painting. The presence and distribution of key chemical

  4. Jackson Pollock’s Number 1A, 1948 : a non-invasive study using macro-x-ray fluorescence mapping (MA-XRF) and multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, A; Coddington, J; Van der Snickt, G; van Driel, B.A.; McGlinchey, C.; Dahlberg, D.; Janssens, K; Dik, J.


    Jackson Pollock’s Number 1A, 1948 painting was investigated using in situ scanning macro-x-ray fluorescence mapping (MA-XRF) to help characterize the artist’s materials and his creative process. A multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) approach was used to examine the

  5. Økologisk risikovurdering af de genmodificerede raps MS8, RF3 og MS8xRF3 i anmeldelse til markedsføring under Forordning 1829/2003/EF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Strandberg, Morten Tune


    AU-Biosciences konklusioner vedr. den økologiske risikovurdering af de genmodificerede raps Ms8, Rf3 og Ms8xRf3 i Danmark. Den genmodificerede rapshybrid, Ms8xRf3, adskiller sig kun fra konventionel raps ved at have indsat gener der gør planten tolerant over for sprøjtning med herbicidet glufosinat...... og ved at være delvis han-steril. GM-rapsen søges kun godkendt til import for anvendelse til fødevarer såsom oliefremstilling til human konsum, men ikke til dyrkning. AU-Bioscience anser for sandsynligt at Ms8, Rf3 og Ms8xRf3-rapsen og dens gener kan blive spredt i forbindelse med distribution eller...... vilde slægtninge af raps, mest sandsynligt agerkål. Konsekvenserne for plante- og dyrelivet ved selv en betydelig spredning af Ms8xRf3 til naturnære områder og landbrugsområder må dog vurderes at være små og begrænsede til de dyrkningsarealer, hvor der anvendes glufosinat. AU-Bioscience vurderer samlet...

  6. A ~600 kyr duration Early Pleistocene record from the West Turkana (Kenya) HSPDP drill site: elemental XRF variability to reconstruct climate change in Turkana Boy's backyard (United States)

    Stockhecke, M.; Beck, C. C.; Brown, E. T.; Cohen, A.; Deino, A. L.; Feibel, C. S.; Sier, M.


    Outcrops in the Kenyan and Ethiopian rift valleys document repeated occurrences of freshwater lakes and wooded landscapes over the past 4 million years at locations that are currently seasonally-dry savanna. Studies of the rich fossil records, in combination with outcropping lacustrine sequences, led to major breakthroughs in our knowledge of driving factors in human evolution. However, study of continuous drill core from ancient lake basins provides a basis for to unravel East African climate dynamics in an unseen fashion. The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP), and the related Olorgesailie Drilling Project, recovered ~2 km of drill core since 2012. A major project goal is characterization of East African paleoclimate in order to evaluate its impact on hominin evolution. XRF core scanning data provide a means of evaluating records of past environmental conditions continuously and at high resolution. However, the HSPDP records contain complex lithologies reflecting repeated episodes of inundation and desiccation of the lake basins. Nevertheless, careful data evaluation based on detailed lithostratigraphy, which includes smear-slide microscopic analyses and X-radiographic images, allows disentanglement of complex signals and robust identification of continuous sequences for any cyclostratigraphic and statistical analysis. At the HSPDP Turkana Basin site a 175.6 m-long core the covers the Early Pleistocene time window during which hominids first expanded out of Africa and marine records document reorganization of tropical climate and the development of the strong Walker circulation. This drill site carries particular interest as it is located in only 2.5 km from the location of one of the most complete hominin skeletons ever recovered (Turkana Boy). Here we present a methodological approach to address the highly variable lithostratigraphy of the East African records to establish comprehensive and environmentally meaningful paleoclimate timeseries

  7. Use of tourmaline as a potential petrogenetic indicator in the determination of host magma: CRS, XRD and PED-XRF methods. (United States)

    Gullu, Bahattin; Kadioglu, Yusuf Kagan


    Tourmaline defines a group of complex borosilicate forms as accessory mineral in igneous and metamorphic rocks and they act an important role in the interpretation of the chemical composition changes of the composition of the host fluid of the magma. The variety of tourmaline can be identified by using optical microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and by determining its chemical composition through Polarized Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (PED-XRF) methods. However, microscopic investigations and XRD analyses are not quite adequate for detailed determination of tourmaline sub-groups. In addition, the use of chemical composition of tourmaline as a strict indicator of geochemical processes might be a misleading method. In this study, variable tourmaline crystals were collected from three different pegmatitic occurrences in Behrekdag, Yozgat and Karakaya granitic bodies of Central Anatolia to identify their chemical properties through Confocal Raman Spectroscopy (CRS), PED-XRF and XRD analyses. The confocal Raman spectrometry of collected tourmalines from the Behrekdag, Yozgat and Karakaya granites are in the compositions of schorl, schorl and elbaite respectively. The dominant compositional groups of these tourmalines are in the form of schorl. Raman shift values of tourmalines revealed four bands centered at almost 1050, 750, 400 and 300cm -1 . The first group of the band arises from SiO stretching, the second from BO stretching and the other two belong to bending modes of OBO and BOAl with symmetrical deformation of SiOSi. The strongest spectra near 360cm -1 should belong to the bonding of AlO. As a result, the confocal Raman studies are more sensitive for identification of tourmaline subgroup compositions and have a quite important in the explaining source of the magma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The presence of mercury selenide in various tissues of the striped dolphin: evidence from μ-XRF-XRD and XAFS analyses. (United States)

    Nakazawa, Emiko; Ikemoto, Tokutaka; Hokura, Akiko; Terada, Yasuko; Kunito, Takashi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Nakai, Izumi


    Marine mammals accumulate mercury in their tissues at high concentration and detoxify by forming mercury selenide (HgSe, tiemannite) mainly in the liver. We investigated the possibility of formation of HgSe in various tissues (liver, kidney, lung, spleen, pancreas, muscle and brain) other than the liver of the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba). We applied a combination method of micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) imaging and micro-X-ray diffraction (μ-XRD) using a synchrotron radiation X-ray microbeam to analyze the tissue samples directly with minimal sample preparation. By this method, many accumulation points for Hg and Se on a micron scale were found in thin sections of the spleen and liver tissue and consequently, the XRF spectra and the XRD pattern of the hot spots confirmed the presence of tiemannite, HgSe. On the other hand, the insoluble fractions after enzyme digestion of the nuclear and mitochondrial fractions of all tissues were subjected to X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis. XAFS analysis confirmed the presence of HgSe in all the tissues examined (liver, kidney, lung, spleen, pancreas, muscle and brain) of the striped dolphin. The presence of HgSe in all the tissues examined suggests that Se would be involved in the detoxification process of Hg in various tissues other than the liver. This contribution seems to be large especially in the liver and spleen but relatively small in the kidney, pancreas and brain, because the proportion of insoluble fraction containing HgSe was lower in these tissues (25 to 46%). This is the first report on the presence of tiemannite HgSe in various tissues of marine mammals.

  9. A feasibility study to determine the potential of in vivo detection of gadolinium by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) following gadolinium-based contrast-enhanced MRI. (United States)

    Mostafaei, F; McNeill, F E; Chettle, D R; Noseworthy, M D


    The feasibility of using a (109)Cd γ-ray induced K x-ray fluorescence (K-XRF) system for the in vivo detection of gadolinium (Gd) in bone has been investigated. The K-XRF bone measurement system employs an array of four detectors, and is normally used for the non-invasive study of bone lead levels. The system was used to measure bone simulating phantoms doped with varying levels of gadolinium and fixed amounts of sodium (Na), chlorine (Cl) and calcium (Ca). The detection limits for bare bone phantoms, using a source of activity 0.17 GBq, were determined to be 3.9 ppm and 6.5 ppm (µg Gd per gram phantom) for the Kα1 and Kα2 Gd x-ray peaks, respectively. This leads to an overall detection limit of 3.3 ppm (µg Gd per gram phantom). Layers of plastic were used to simulate overlying soft tissue and this permitted prediction of a detection limit, using the current strength of our radioisotope source, of 6.1 ppm to 8.6 ppm (µg Gd per gram phantom) for fingers with 2-4 mm of overlying tissue. With a new source of activity 5 GBq, we predict that this system could achieve a detection limit of 4-5.6 µg Gd g(-1) Ca. This is within the range of levels (2-30 µg Gd g(-1) Ca) previously found in the bone of patients receiving Gd based contrast imaging agents. The technique is promising and warrants further investigation.

  10. Stability of mineral fibres in contact with human cell cultures. An in situ μXANES, μXRD and XRF iron mapping study. (United States)

    Pollastri, Simone; Gualtieri, Alessandro F; Vigliaturo, Ruggero; Ignatyev, Konstantin; Strafella, Elisabetta; Pugnaloni, Armanda; Croce, Alessandro


    Relevant mineral fibres of social and economic importance (chrysotile UICC, crocidolite UICC and a fibrous erionite from Jersey, Nevada, USA) were put in contact with cultured diploid human non-tumorigenic bronchial epithelial (Beas2B) and pleural transformed mesothelial (MeT5A) cells to test their cytotoxicity. Slides of each sample at different contact times up to 96 h were studied in situ using synchrotron XRF, μ-XRD and μ-XAS (I18 beamline, Diamond Light Source, UK) and TEM investigations. XRF maps of samples treated for 96 h evidenced that iron is still present within the chrysotile and crocidolite fibres and retained at the surface of the erionite fibres, indicating its null to minor mobilization in contact with cell media; this picture was confirmed by the results of XANES pre-edge analyses. μ-XRD and TEM data indicate greater morphological and crystallinity modifications occurring in chrysotile, whereas crocidolite and erionite show to be resistant in the biological environment. The contact of chrysotile with the cell cultures seems to lead to earlier amorphization, interpreted as the first dissolution step of these fibres. The formation of such silica-rich fibre skeleton may prompt the production of HO in synergy with surface iron species and could indicate that chrysotile may be much more reactive and cytotoxic in vitro in the (very) short term whereas the activity of crocidolite and erionite would be much more sluggish but persistent in the long term. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Ecological industry chain designing of making paper industry: turning pollution industry into ecological industry]. (United States)

    Yin, Qi; Piao, Hefu; Liu, Bingyue


    This paper gave a definition of ecological industry chain of renewal resources, and according to this definition designed the ecological industry chain of paper making industry of China; presented a basic principle of designing and ecological industry chain of renewal resources and five necessary conditions to establish an ecological industry chain of renewal resources, i.e. imitating the ecological closed-circuit system, increasing stock of renewal resources, getting benefits from resource productivity, developing long-run social demand and engaging in systematic innovation. It was found that the ecological industry chain of paper making industry was a representative example of ecological industry chain of renewal resources. The ecological industry chain of paper making industry solved three difficult constrain problems and offered an effective way to change the paper making industry of China from pollution industry into ecological industry.

  12. Perbandingan Karakteristik Lempung Kasongan dan Godean Sebagai Bahan Baku Industri Gerabah Kasongan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Winarno


    Full Text Available Kasongan adalah salah satu sentra industri keramik dan gerabah di Yogyakarta yang terletak di Desa Bangunjiwo, Kecamatan Kasihan, Kabupaten Bantul. Pada saat ini industri keramik dan gerabah Kasongan mengalami kesulitan bahan baku lempung dikarenakan cadangan lempung di Desa Bangunjiwo yang selama ini digunakan semakin berkurang jumlahnya. Berdasarkan studi pustaka diketahui bahwa di Godean terdapat cadangan lempung, sehingga perlu diteliti apakah bisa digunakan sebagai bahan baku dalam industri keramik dan gerabah. Metode yang digunakan untuk menguji karakteristik lempung tersebut adalah dengan analisis XRD, XRF, analisis tingkat kecerahan, analisis ukuran butir dan pengujian pembuatan gerabah dari lempung tersebut. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan mineral lempung penyusun lempung Bangunjiwo adalah kaolinit dan haloisit, sedangkan di Godean terususun atas kaolinit, haloisit dan smektit. Dalam pengujian pembuatan gerabah dengan lempung dari kedua daerah tersebut menunjukkan perbedaan hasil, dimana lempung dari Godean menghasilkan gerabah yang tidak menyerupai ciri khas gerabah Kasongan yang berwarna merah terang. Dengan demikian lempung dari Godean tidak bisa digunakan sebagai pengganti bahan baku industri gerabah Kasongan. [Title: The Characteristic Comparison of Kasongan Clay and Godean Clay as Raw Material in Kasongan pottery Industry] Kasongan is the center of ceramics and pottery industry in Yogyakarta,located in Bangunjiwo village, Kasihan District, Bantul Regency. Nowadays, the ceramics and pottery industry is difficult to find the raw material because of the decrease of the Bangunjiwo clay deposit. Based on literature review, there are clay deposits found in Godean which can be observed their characteristics as basic commodity in the ceramics and pottery industry. The methods apllied in this research are XRD and XRF analysis,brightness analysis, grain size analysis and making pottery from those clays.The result of the research shows that the

  13. Study of selection and purification of Brazilian bentonite clay by elutriation: a XRF, SEM and Rietveld analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Alves


    Full Text Available Abstract Clays obtained from nature have a lot of impurities. Therefore, for best using of these materials, it is necessary its selection and purification. Thus, the aim of this work is to separate and to purify the smectite fractions using water as a solvent at a low flux mixed with a bentonite clay extracted from a mine in Vitória da Conquista - Bahia / Brazil. For this a separation method of fractions of expandable clays based on the Stokes' Law was applied - this process is called elutriation, in order to ensure and to expand possible industrial applications of this material. The samples were characterized by analysis of X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. The Rietveld method enabled the quantification of main phase minerals: montmorillonite, kaolinite, nontronite and quartz, reaching 85% in mass of montmorillonite phase at the end of the process. Results showed that the method used was efficient to remove almost all quartz, carbonates and organic matter from the sample. It was also observed a monomodal grain size distribution of elutriated materials with thinner grains, around (18.1 ± 1.8 μm at the end of the process. It has been concluded that the method developed and applied showed promising characters to be applied to elutriate kilograms of clays and could be used in industrial scale.

  14. Study of selection and purification of Brazilian bentonite clay by elutriation: a XRF, SEM and Rietveld analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, J.L.; Zanini, A.E.; Souza, M.E. de; Nascimento, M.L.F., E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA/PROTEC/PEI), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Quimica


    Clays obtained from nature have a lot of impurities. Therefore, for best using of these materials, it is necessary its selection and purification. Thus, the aim of this work is to separate and to purify the smectite fractions using water as a solvent at a low flux mixed with a bentonite clay extracted from a mine in Vitoria da Conquista - Bahia / Brazil. For this a separation method of fractions of expandable clays based on the Stokes' Law was applied - this process is called elutriation, in order to ensure and to expand possible industrial applications of this material. The samples were characterized by analysis of X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. The Rietveld method enabled the quantification of main phase minerals: montmorillonite, kaolinite, nontronite and quartz, reaching 85% in mass of montmorillonite phase at the end of the process. Results showed that the method used was efficient to remove almost all quartz, carbonates and organic matter from the sample. It was also observed a monomodal grain size distribution of elutriated materials with thinner grains, around (18.1 ± 1.8) μm at the end of the process. It has been concluded that the method developed and applied showed promising characters to be applied to elutriate kilograms of clays and could be used in industrial scale. (author)

  15. Chemicals Industry Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).

  16. Electronics Industry Study Report: Semiconductors and Defense Electronics (United States)


    Armamento y Material de Defensa y Seguridad ), Madrid, Spain ANIEL (Asociación Nacional de Industrias Electrónicas y de Telecomunicaciones), Madrid...quickly escalating with expected double- digit growth in 352003. o semiconductor consumers that increasingly tend to operate with razor-thin...thing.” Also, expanding use of Personal Digital Assistants and other hand- helds will generate a market for advanced chips. Ultimately, semiconductors

  17. Methodology to detect and quantify the presence of recycled PET in bottle-grade PET blends: mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) and X-ray fluorescence; Metodologia para detectar e quantificar a presenca do PET reciclado em misturas de PET grau-garrafa: espectrometria de massas (MALDI-MS) e fluorescencia de raios-X (XRF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romao, Wanderson; Franco, Marcos F.; Gozzo, Fabio C.; Iglesias, Amadeu H.; Sanvido, Gustavo B.; Eberlin, Marcos N.; Bueno, Maria I.M.S.; Maretto, Danilo A.; Poppi, Ronei J.; Paoli, Marco-Aurelio de, E-mail: wromao@iqm.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)


    New methodologies were developed to detect and to quantify the presence of the bottle-grade post-consumption PET (PET{sub pc}-btg) in the bottle-grade virgin PET (PET{sub v}-btg), preventing frauds and illegal uses of recycled PET{sub pc}-btg. MALDI-MS results together with PCA (principal component analysis) was used to classify the samples into several groups: intrinsic viscosity changes; processed and not submitted to some industrial process; wt % PET{sub pc}-btg in the PET{sub v}-btg; synthesis process change (manufacturer). From these results, it was possible to create a calibration model, that differentiated between PET{sub v}-btg and PET{sub pc}-btg resins. XRF results show that some manufacturers use one or more catalysts for PET{sub v}-btg synthesis, where our prediction model is valid only when the studied resin is known. We observed also that the Fe concentration in PET increase in as a function of the recycling process. Therefore, this variable could be used, in the future work, to create chemometric models including a higher number of variables. (author)

  18. Uranium Speciation As a Function of Depth in Contaminated Hanford Sediments - A Micro-XRF, Micro-XRD, and Micro- And Bulk-XAFS Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, David M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Zachara, John M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Brown, Gordon E. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)


    Processing ponds at the Hanford, Washington Area 300 site were used for storing basic sodium aluminate and acidic U(VI)-Cu(II)-containing waste from 1943 to 1975. One result of this use is a groundwater plume containing elevated levels of U and Cu beneath the dry ponds and adjacent to the Columbia River. We have used synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) imaging, micro-X-ray absorption fine structure (μXANES) spectroscopy, and micro-X-ray diffraction (μXRD) techniques combined with bulk U LIII-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy to determine the distribution and speciation of U and Cu through the vadose and groundwater zones beneath North Processing Pond #2 (NPP2). Sediment samples were collected from the vadose zone (8’ and 12’ depths), and a sample from the groundwater zone was collected just below the water table (12’-14’ depth). μXRF imaging revealed two major U occurrences within the vadose and groundwater zones: (1) low to moderate concentrations of U(VI) associated with mineral surfaces (particularly chlorite), and (2) high concentration U(VI)-containing micron-sized particles associated with surface coatings on grains of muscovite and chlorite. These U(VI) hot spots are frequently spatially correlated with Cu(II) hot spots. In the groundwater zone, these particles were identified as the copper-uranyl-silicate cuprosklodowskite and the cupper-uranyl-phosphate metatorbernite. In contrast, the U-Cu-containing particles are X-ray amorphous in the vadose zone. Fits of U LIII-edge XAFS spectra by linear-combination fitting indicate that U speciation consists of ~ 75% uranyl sorbed to clays and ~25% metatorbernite-like X-ray amorphous U-Cu-phosphates (8’ depth); nearly 100% sorbed uranyl (12’ depth); and ~70% sorbed uranyl and ~30% cuprosklodowskite/metatorbernite (ground water zone). These findings suggest that the dissolution of U(VI)-Cu(II)-bearing solids as well as the desorption of U(VI), mainly from

  19. Synthesis and characterization of 1-Methyl-3-Methoxysilyl Propyl Imidazolium Chloride - mesoporous silica composite as adsorbent for dehydration in industrial processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lievano, Javier F. Plata; Diaz, Luz A. Carreno, E-mail: [Universidad Industrial de Santander (Colombia)


    Ionic liquid - mesoporous silica composite was synthesized as a new adsorbent for dehydration in industrial processes. An ionic liquid (IL) with proved dehydration properties has been covalently anchored to mesoporous silica. The parameters of the synthesis were studied to produce a solid and stable composite. The material was then characterized by SEM, BET, FTIR, NMR, Raman, XRD, XRF, MALDI and LDI confirming the presence of a covalent bond between the ionic liquid and the solid matrix. Evaluations have shown that the material kept the IL dehydration property. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Kamil


    Full Text Available In 2008, the Department of Commerce of the Republic of Indonesia has launched a creative economic development documents interpreted the 2025 Indonesia became the starting point and guide the development of the creative economy in Indonesia. With the existence of this document, the industry and its stakeholders or other stakeholders can readily develop the creative economy in Indonesia. Economic development in the direction of the creative industries is one manifestation of optimism aspiration to support the Master Plan for the Acceleration and Expansion of Indonesia's Economic Development in realizing the vision of Indonesia are being developed nation. The main objective of this study is the first to analyze the role of the creative industries in Indonesia for labor, value added and productivity, secondly, to analyze the performance trend of the creative industries sector, and third, to analyze the factors affecting the performance of the creative industries sector in Indonesia. Under Indonesia Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC and codes 151-372 (manufacturing industries category identified 18 industry groups belonging to the creative industries, showed that the performance of the national creative industries has been relatively high (in terms of trend analysis of the performance of the industrial creative. Furthermore, regression analysis of panel data (econometrics indicates that company size (SIZE, wages for workers (WAGE and the content of local inputs (LOCAL has a significant impact on the performance of Indonesia's creative industry. Meanwhile, the concentration ratio (CR4 no consequences but have koresi significantly positive effect on the performance of Indonesia’s creative industry.

  1. Økologisk risikovurdering af de genmodificerede raps MS8, RF3 og MS8xRF3 i anmeldelse til markedsføring under Forordning 1829/2003/EF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Strandberg, Morten Tune; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov


    vilde slægtninge af raps, mest sandsynligt agerkål. Konsekvenserne for plante- og dyrelivet ved selv en betydelig spredning af Ms8xRf3 til naturnære områder og landbrugsområder må dog vurderes at være små og begrænsede til de dyrkningsarealer, hvor der anvendes glufosinat. AU-Bioscience vurderer samlet......, at der ikke kan forventes væsentlige uønskede økologiske konsekvenser for dyre- og plantelivet ved markedsføring af Ms8, Rf3 og Ms8xRf3-rapsen til andre formål end dyrkning. Der bør dog foretages en overvågning af eventuel utilsigtet spredning af levende frø af GM-rapsen ved importstederne og langs...

  2. ED-XRF spectrometric analysis of comparative elemental composition of in vivo and in vitro roots of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees-a multi-medicinal herb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behera, P.R., E-mail: [Plant Cell and Tissue culture Facility, Post-Graduate Department of Botany, Utkal University, Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar 751004, Orissa (India); Plant Biotechnology Lab, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology (CSIR), Bhubaneswar 751013, Orissa (India); Nayak, P., E-mail: [Plant Cell and Tissue culture Facility, Post-Graduate Department of Botany, Utkal University, Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar 751004, Orissa (India); Plant Biotechnology Lab, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology (CSIR), Bhubaneswar 751013, Orissa (India); Barik, D.P., E-mail: [Plant Cell and Tissue culture Facility, Post-Graduate Department of Botany, Utkal University, Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar 751004, Orissa (India); Rautray, T.R., E-mail: [Ion Beam Laboratory, Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar 751013, Orissa (India); Thirunavoukkarasu, M., E-mail: [Plant Biotechnology Lab, Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology (CSIR), Bhubaneswar 751013, Orissa (India); Chand, P.K., E-mail: [Plant Cell and Tissue culture Facility, Post-Graduate Department of Botany, Utkal University, Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar 751004, Orissa (India)


    The multi-elemental composition of in vitro-proliferated root tissues of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees was compared with that of the naturally grown in vivo plants. Trace elements namely Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr and Pb in addition to two macro-elements K and Ca were identified and quantified in root tissues of both sources using the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) technique. ED-XRF analysis was performed using Mo K X-rays generated from a secondary molybdenum target. The elemental content of in vitro roots was found to be at par with that of naturally grown plants of the same species. This opens up a possibility of exploiting in vitro root cultures as a viable, alternative and renewable source of phytochemicals of relevance, besides providing a means for conservation of the valuable natural resources.

  3. Measurement of L-XRF cross-sections and Coster–Kronig enhancement factors for {sup 62}Sm at excitation energies 6.8, 7.4 and 8 KeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, R., E-mail: [Department of Physics, HCTM Technical Campus, Kaithal, Haryana 136027 (India); Rani, A., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University P.G. College Kurukshetra, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana 136119 (India); Singh, R.M. [Department of Physics, Ch. Devi Lal University, Sirsa, Haryana 125055 (India); Tiwari, M.K.; Singh, A.K. [X-ray Optics Section, Indus Synchrotron Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India)


    Highlights: • L XRF production cross-sections for {sup 62}Sm at excitation energies 6.8, 7.4 and 8 KeV were measured. • Synchrotron radiations with Peltier cooled Si(Li) detector was employed. • Experimental L XRF cross sections are in good agreement with the theoretical estimations of Puri’s data. • The present study was also carried out to examine the effect of Coster - Kronig transitions on L XRF cross section. • The measured enhancement factors are found to be smaller than the theoretical estimations. - Abstract: L{sub ℓ}, L{sub α} and L{sub β} XRF production cross-sections were measured for {sup 62}Sm at excitation energies i.e. 6.8 KeV, 7.4 KeV and 8 KeV using synchrotron radiations. Experimental measurements were also carried out to examine the effect of Coster–Kronig transitions (non-radiative transitions) on fluorescence cross section for the L{sub i} (i = 1, 2, 3) X-ray lines. The experimental cross-sections with greater accuracy and better signal to noise ratio can be measured using a polarized monoenergetic excitation beam and a high resolution detector system. A Peltier cooled vortex solid state detector with energy resolution of 138 eV at 5.959 keV X-ray was employed. Experimentally measured cross-sections have been compared with the theoretical predictions with the data of M.O. Krause [J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 8 (1979) 307], J.L. Campbell [At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 85 (2003) 291] and S. Puri et al. [X-Ray Spectrom. 22 (1993) 358]. The measured enhancement factors were found to be smaller than the theoretically calculated values.

  4. Comparative EPMA and μ-XRF methods for mapping micro-scale distribution of iodine in biocarbonates of the Callovian-Oxfordian clayey formation at Bure, Eastern part of the Paris Basin


    Lerouge, Catherine; Claret, Francis; Denecke, M. A.; Wille, Guillaume; Falkenberg, G.; Ramboz, Claire; Bény, Claire; Giffaut, Eric; Schäfer, T.; Gaucher, Eric C.; Tournassat, Christophe


    International audience; A pluridisciplinary approach was used to define iodine immobilization mechanisms by biocarbonates in a natural marine carbonate-bearing clayey formation. For this purpose, different techniques of observation (optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), cathodoluminescence (CL)) and of analyses (infrared spectrometry (IR), electron microprobe (EPMA), spatially resolved synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) and X-ray diffraction (μ-XRD)) were performed...

  5. Comparative EPMA and μ-XRF methods for mapping micro-scale distribution of iodine in biocarbonates of the Callovian-Oxfordian clayey formation at Bure, Eastern part of the Paris Basin (United States)

    Lerouge, C.; Claret, F.; Denecke, M. A.; Wille, G.; Falkenberg, G.; Ramboz, C.; Beny, C.; Giffaut, E.; Schäfer, T.; Gaucher, E. C.; Tournassat, C.

    A pluridisciplinary approach was used to define iodine immobilization mechanisms by biocarbonates in a natural marine carbonate-bearing clayey formation. For this purpose, different techniques of observation (optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), cathodoluminescence (CL)) and of analyses (infrared spectrometry (IR), electron microprobe (EPMA), spatially resolved synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) and X-ray diffraction (μ-XRD)) were performed on two entire and centimeter-sized carbonate shells of the Callovian-Oxfordian (160 Ma) clayey formation from the ANDRA (French Radioactive Waste Management Agency) Underground Research Laboratory (Meuse/Haute Marne, France), in the Eastern part of the Paris Basin. Combined (SEM, CL, IR and μ-XRD) data indicates that the biostructure of the Rhynchonella shell is relatively well-preserved but bio-aragonite slowly transforms into calcite, whereas the bivalve shell is entirely recrystallized into diagenetic calcite and celestite. EPMA and μ-XRF data show bioaccumulation of iodine in carbonate shells, confirming previous work on present-day mollusks. EPMA analyses give evidence of iodine content up to 1200 ppm in the preserved Rhynchonella shell and up to 2000 ppm in recrystallized bivalve shell. μ-XRF elemental mapping shows that iodine is more homogeneously distributed in bio-calcite of the Rhynchonella shell than in recrystallized calcite of the bivalve shell, suggesting a loss of iodine during re-crystallization processes, but not a total exclusion of iodine from the carbonate structure. Combined EPMA data and μ-XRF elemental maps do not give evidence of any correlation between the iodine location and the distribution of other elements.

  6. Automotive Industry in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wad, Peter; Govindaraju, V.G.R. Chandran


    This paper explains the evolution and assesses the development of the Malaysian automotive industry within the premise of infant industry and trade protection framework as well as extended arguments of infant industry using a global value chain perspective. The Malaysian automotive industry expan...

  7. Visualizing the 17th century underpainting in Portrait of an Old Man by Rembrandt van Rijn using synchrotron-based scanning macro-XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfeld, Matthias; Janssens, Koen [University of Antwerp, Department of Chemistry, Antwerpen (Belgium); Siddons, D.P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, National Synchrotron Light Source, Upton, NY (United States); Dik, Joris [Delft University of Technology, Department of Materials Science, Delft (Netherlands); Woll, Arthur [Cornell University, Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Ithaca, NY (United States); Kirkham, Robin [CSIRO, Materials Science and Engineering, Clayton, VIC (Australia); Wetering, Ernst van de [Rembrandt Research Project, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    In 17th century Old Master Paintings, the underpainting generally refers to the first sketch of a composition. The underpainting is applied to a prepared ground using a monochrome, brown oil paint to roughly indicate light, shade and contours. So far, methods to visualize the underpainting - other than in localized cross-sections - have been very limited. Neither infrared reflectography nor neutron induced autoradiography have proven to be practical, adequate visualization tools. Thus, although of fundamental interest in the understanding of a painting's genesis, the underpainting has virtually escaped all imaging efforts. In this contribution we will show that 17th century underpainting may consist of a highly heterogeneous mixture of pigments, including copper pigments. We suggest that this brown pigment mixture is actually the recycled left-over of a palette scraping. With copper as the heaviest exclusive elemental component, we will hence show in a case study on a Portrait of an Old Man attributed to Rembrandt van Rijn how scanning macro-XRF can be used to efficiently visualize the underpainting below the surface painting and how this information can contribute to the discussion of the painting's authenticity. (orig.)

  8. A comparative study of PIXE and XRF corrected by Gamma-Ray Transmission for the non-destructive characterization of a gilded roman railing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega-Feliu, I., E-mail: iofeliu@us.e [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison, 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Moreno-Suarez, A.I. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison, 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Gomez-Tubio, B. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison, 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Aplicada III, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Ager, F.J. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison, 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Respaldiza, M.A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Avd. Thomas A. Edison, 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Garcia-Dils, S. [Departamento de Historia Antigua, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Rodriguez-Gutierrez, O. [Departamento de Prehistoria y Arqueologia, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)


    Several fragments of a gilded railing were found in the archaeological excavations carried out in Ecija (Spain), among the remains of a collapsed temple. The alloy composition and the gilding procedure used for its manufacture are of interest for a complete archaeological knowledge of the artefact. The common use of IBA techniques directly on the objects for their analysis is not possible due to the thick corroded patinas that they exhibit due to the burial environment. However, non-destructive analyses of a few selected fragments have been done using PIXE and XRF techniques in combination with Gamma-Ray Transmission. Indeed, as was previously shown , bronze objects can be characterized in a completely non-destructive way using the combination of these techniques. This work, shows the applicability of that method to artefacts made of leaded copper alloy, which is the case of samples studied, for which some problems could arise from the lead segregations present in these kind of alloys. We have found that this railing contains low amounts of Sn and Sb, and that the gilding was most probably obtained using a gold leaf.

  9. Analysis of 19th century ceramic fragments excavated from Pirenópolis (Goiás, Brazil) using FT-IR, Raman, XRF and SEM. (United States)

    Freitas, Renato P; Coelho, Filipe A; Felix, Valter S; Pereira, Marcelo O; de Souza, Marcos André Torres; Anjos, Marcelino J


    This study used Raman, FT-IR and XRF spectroscopy and SEM to analyze ceramic fragments dating from the 19th century, excavated from an old farm in the municipality of Pirenópolis, Goiás, Brazil. The results show that the samples were produced in an open oven at a firing temperature below 500°C, using raw materials including kaolinite, hematite, magnetite, quartz, microcline, albite, anhydrite, calcite, illite, orthoclase and MnO 2 . Although the analyses showed similarities in the manufacturing process and the presence of many minerals was common in all samples, multivariate statistical methods (PCA) allowed a more detailed assessment of similarities and differences in the mineral composition of the samples. The results of the PCA showed that the samples excavated in one of the slave quarters (senzalas) group with those excavated at the farmhouse, where the landowner lived, which indicates a paternalistic attitude towards captives, including the sharing of ceramic materials of everyday use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Synchrotron-based ν-XRF mapping and μ-FTIR microscopy enable to look into the fate and effects of tattoo pigments in human skin. (United States)

    Schreiver, Ines; Hesse, Bernhard; Seim, Christian; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Villanova, Julie; Laux, Peter; Dreiack, Nadine; Penning, Randolf; Tucoulou, Remi; Cotte, Marine; Luch, Andreas


    The increasing prevalence of tattoos provoked safety concerns with respect to particle distribution and effects inside the human body. We used skin and lymphatic tissues from human corpses to address local biokinetics by means of synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques at both the micro (μ) and nano (ν) scale. Additional advanced mass spectrometry-based methodology enabled to demonstrate simultaneous transport of organic pigments, heavy metals and titanium dioxide from skin to regional lymph nodes. Among these compounds, organic pigments displayed the broadest size range with smallest species preferentially reaching the lymph nodes. Using synchrotron μ-FTIR analysis we were also able to detect ultrastructural changes of the tissue adjacent to tattoo particles through altered amide I α-helix to β-sheet protein ratios and elevated lipid contents. Altogether we report strong evidence for both migration and long-term deposition of toxic elements and tattoo pigments as well as for conformational alterations of biomolecules that likely contribute to cutaneous inflammation and other adversities upon tattooing.

  11. Identification of the chemical form of sulfur compounds in the Japanese pink coral (Corallium elatius) skeleton using μ-XRF/XAS speciation mapping. (United States)

    Tamenori, Yusuke; Yoshimura, Toshihiro; Luan, Nguyen Trong; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Atsushi; Kawahata, Hodaka; Iwasaki, Nozomu


    The distributions and chemical forms of sulfur compounds in the skeleton of Japanese pink coral (Corallium elatius) were investigated using X-ray spectroscopic techniques combined with micro-focused soft X-ray radiation. Microscopic X-ray fluorescence/soft X-ray photoabsorption (μ-XRF/XAS) speciation mapping clarified that sulfate is the primary species in the coral skeleton, with minor amounts of organic sulfur, whereas both sulfate and organic sulfur coexist in coenenchyme. Analysis of the post-edge region of the XAS spectra confirmed that sulfate ions in the coral skeleton are mainly in the form of gypsum-like inorganic sulfate substituting for the carbonate ions in the calcite skeleton. The sulfate concentration was negatively correlated with the magnesium concentration and positively correlated with that of phosphorus. Speciation mapping of sulfate in the coral skeleton showed clear fluctuations with sulfate concentrations being higher at dark bands, whereas the small amount of organic sulfur had unclear dark/bright bands. These results suggest that the little organic sulfur that is present is contained in the organic matter embedded in the biocrystal of coral skeleton. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. In vivo and in situ synchrotron radiation-based μ-XRF reveals elemental distributions during the early attachment phase of barnacle larvae and juvenile barnacles. (United States)

    Senkbeil, Tobias; Mohamed, Tawheed; Simon, Rolf; Batchelor, David; Di Fino, Alessio; Aldred, Nick; Clare, Anthony S; Rosenhahn, Axel


    Barnacles are able to establish stable surface contacts and adhere underwater. While the composition of adult barnacle cement has been intensively studied, far less is known about the composition of the cement of the settlement-stage cypris larva. The main challenge in studying the adhesives used by these larvae is the small quantity of material available for analysis, being on the order of nanograms. In this work, we applied, for the first time, synchrotron radiation-based μ-X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-μ-XRF) for in vivo and in situ analysis of young barnacles and barnacle cyprids. To obtain biologically relevant information relating to the body tissues, adhesives, and shell of the organisms, an in situ sample environment was developed to allow direct microprobe investigation of hydrated specimens without pretreatment of the samples. In 8-day-old juvenile barnacles (Balanus improvisus), the junctions between the six plates forming the shell wall showed elevated concentrations of calcium, potassium, bromine, strontium, and manganese. Confocal measurements allowed elemental characterization of the adhesive interface of recently attached cyprids (Balanus amphitrite), and substantiated the accumulation of bromine both at the point of initial attachment as well as within the cyprid carapace. In situ measurements of the cyprid cement established the presence of bromine, chlorine, iodine, sulfur, copper, iron, zinc, selenium, and nickel for both species. The previously unrecognized presence of bromine, iron, and selenium in the cyprid permanent adhesive will hopefully inspire further biochemical investigations of the function of these substances.

  13. The Use of Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Technology in Unraveling the Eruptive History of the San Francisco Volcanic Field, Arizona (United States)

    Young, Kelsey E.; Evans, C. A.; Hodges, K. V.


    While traditional geologic mapping includes the examination of structural relationships between rock units in the field, more advanced technology now enables us to simultaneously collect and combine analytical datasets with field observations. Information about tectonomagmatic processes can be gleaned from these combined data products. Historically, construction of multi-layered field maps that include sample data has been accomplished serially (first map and collect samples, analyze samples, combine data, and finally, readjust maps and conclusions about geologic history based on combined data sets). New instruments that can be used in the field, such as a handheld xray fluorescence (XRF) unit, are now available. Targeted use of such instruments enables geologists to collect preliminary geochemical data while in the field so that they can optimize scientific data return from each field traverse. Our study tests the application of this technology and projects the benefits gained by real-time geochemical data in the field. The integrated data set produces a richer geologic map and facilitates a stronger contextual picture for field geologists when collecting field observations and samples for future laboratory work. Real-time geochemical data on samples also provide valuable insight regarding sampling decisions by the field geologist

  14. Portable Raman, DRIFTS, and XRF Analysis to Diagnose the Conservation State of Two Wall Painting Panels from Pompeii Deposited in the Naples National Archaeological Museum (Italy). (United States)

    Madariaga, Juan Manuel; Maguregui, Maite; Castro, Kepa; Knuutinen, Ulla; Martínez-Arkarazo, Irantzu


    This work presents a methodology that combines spectroscopic speciation, performed through portable Raman spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (ED-XRF) working in situ, and thermodynamic speciation to diagnose the environmental impacts, induced by past and current events, on two wall painting panels (Nos. 9103 and 9255) extracted more than 150 years ago from the walls of a Pompeian house (Marcus Lucretius House, Regio IX, Insula 3, House 5/24) and deposited in the Naples National Archaeological Museum (MANN). The results show a severe chemical attack of the acid gases that can be explained only by the action of H2S during and just after the eruption of the Vesuvius volcano, that expelled a high concentration of sulfur gases. This fact can be considered as the most important process impacting the wall painting panels deposited in the museum, while the rain-wash processes and the colonization of microorganisms have not been observed in contrast to the impacts shown by the wall paintings left outside in the archaeological site of Pompeii. Moreover, the systematic presence of lead traces and strontium in both wall paintings suggests their presence as impurities of the calcite mortars (intonacco) or calcite binder of these particular fresco Pompeian murals. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Evidence for molecular antagonistic mechanism between mercury and selenium in rice (Oryza sativa L.): A combined study using 1, 2-dimensional electrophoresis and SR-XRF techniques. (United States)

    Li, Yunyun; Li, Hong; Li, Yu-Feng; Zhao, Jiating; Guo, Jingxia; Wang, Ru; Li, Bai; Zhang, Zhiyong; Gao, Yuxi


    Mercury (Hg) is a hazardous chemical in the environment and can accumulate in the food chain. Selenium (Se) is a necessary element for human health and has antagonistic effects on Hg toxicity. In this work, we investigated the effect of Se on Hg containing and Hg-responsive proteins in rice using 1, 2-dimensional electrophoresis combined with SR-XRF techniques. Two weeks old rice seedlings were exposed to Hg and/or Se compounds. After 21days proteins in the rice roots were separated by electrophoresis and their metal contents were determined by X-ray fluorescence to identify Hg and Se responsive biomolecules. The results show that under Hg stress alone Hg is bound to proteins with molecular weights of 15-25kDa. With the addition of Se, a new Hg-containing protein band in the 55-70kDa range was also found, while the content of Hg in the 15-25kDa proteins decreased. Ten and nine new protein spots were identified after adding Se to inorganic Hg and methylmercury exposed roots, respectively. Adding Se regulates the abundance of proteins associated with carbohydrate and energy metabolism, stress response, cell cycle, and DNA replication indicating that these proteins mediate the antagonism of Se against Hg toxicity. This study helps us to better understand the molecular mechanism of Hg tolerance as well as the molecular antagonism between Hg and Se in rice plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Glasses obtained from industrial wastes; Vidros obtidos a partir de residuos industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortoluzzi, D.; Oliveira Fillho, J.; Uggioni, E. [Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciuma, SC (Brazil). Curso de Engenharia de Materiais; Bernardin, A.M., E-mail: [Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (SENAI), Tijucas, SC (Brazil). Tecnologia em Ceramica


    This paper deals with the study of the vitrification mechanism as an inertization method for industrial wastes contaminated with heavy metals. Ashes from coal (thermoelectric), wastes from mining (fluorite and feldspar) and plating residue were used to compose vitreous systems planed by mixture design. The chemical composition of the wastes was determined by XRF and the formulations were melted at 1450 deg C for 2h using 10%wt of CaCO{sub 3} (fluxing agent). The glasses were poured into a mold and annealed (600 deg C). The characteristic temperatures were determined by thermal analysis (DTA, air, 20 deg C/min) and the mechanical behavior by Vickers microhardness. As a result, the melting temperature is strongly dependent on silica content of each glass, and the fluorite residue, being composed mainly by silica, strongly affects Tm. The microhardness of all glasses is mainly affected by the plating residue due to the high iron and zinc content of this waste. (author)

  17. 78 FR 62970 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment... (United States)


    ... revisions to the definitions of showerhead and hand-held showerhead; removal of body sprays from the... to certification reporting requirements for both of these products. These proposed rulemakings serve... rule adds rounding instructions for certification reporting requirements for measures of water use for...

  18. Destructive versus non-destructive methods for geochemical analyses of ceramic artifacts: comparison of portable XRF and ICP-MS data on Bronze Age ceramics from Failaka Island (Kuwait) and Bahrain (United States)

    Stremtan, Ciprian; Ashkanani, Hasan; Tykot, Robert H.


    The study of bi-phase (i.e. matrix and clasts) geochemical composition of ceramic artifacts is a very powerful tool in fingerprinting the raw materials used by ancient manufacturers (clay sources, tempering materials, coloring agents, etc.), as well as in understanding the physical parameters of the manufacturing techniques. Reliable datasets often require the deployment of destructive techniques that will irremediably damage the artifact. Recent advances in portable X-ray fluorescence instrumentation (pXRF) allow for quick measurements of a range of chemical elements that not too long ago were available only through complicated and often destructive means of analytical chemistry (instrumental neutron activation analysis - INAA, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry - ICP-MS, direct coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy - DCP-OES etc.). In this contribution we present a comparison of datasets acquired by means of pXRF, DCP-OES, and ICP-MS on Bronze Age ceramics from Failaka Island (Kuwait) and Bahrain. The samples chosen for this study are fine grained, with very well sorted mineral components, and lack any visible organic material fragments. The sample preparation for ICP-MS and DCP-OES analyses was carried out on powdered samples, by using LiBO2 flux fusion and Ge (for the DCP-OES) and In (for ICP-MS) were used as internal standards. The measurements were calibrated against certified reference materials ranging from shales to rhyolites (SGR-1, SDo-1, JA-2, and JR-1) and performed at Univerity of South Florida's Center for Geochemical Analyses. The analytical errors for major elements was smaller than 5 %, while for selected trace elements the error was usually smaller than 3 %. The same set of elements was measured on the same samples at University of South Florida's Anthropology Department using a pXRF device equipped with obsidian filter. Each sample was measured three times and the values were averaged. Two certified reference materials (NIST-612

  19. The World Oil Industry (United States)

    Rand, Christopher T.


    America's domestic petroleum industry and the international industry have been dominated by seven major firms. Although production costs decreased, sale prices soared with developing political-corporate interrelationships. (MR)

  20. Historicism and Industry Emergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsch, David; Moeen, Mahka; Wadhwani, Dan


    Management and organization scholars have increasingly turned to historical sources to examine the emergence and evolution of industries over time. This scholarship has typically used historical evidence as observations for testing theoretically relevant processes of industry emergence. In this c...