Sample records for hand-colored engraving hand-colored

  1. Dynamic analysis of a guided projectile during engraving process

    Tao XUE; Xiao-bing ZHANG; Dong-hua CUI


    The reliability of the electronic components inside a guided projectile is highly affected by the launch dynamics of guided projectile. The engraving process plays a crucial role on determining the ballistic performance and projectile stability. This paper analyzes the dynamic response of a guided projectile during the engraving process. By considering the projectile center of gravity moving during the engraving process, a dynamics model is established with the coupling of interior ballistic equations. The results detail the stress situation of a guided projectile band during its engraving process. Meanwhile, the axial dynamic response of projectile in the several milliseconds following the engraving process is also researched. To further explore how the different performance of the engraving band can affect the dynamics of guided projectile, this paper focuses on these two aspects:(a) the effects caused by the different band geometry;and (b) the effects caused by different band materials. The time domain and frequency domain responses show that the dynamics of the projectile are quite sensitive to the engraving band width. A material with a small modulus of elasticity is more stable than one with a high modulus of elasticity.

  2. Dynamic analysis of a guided projectile during engraving process

    Tao Xue


    Full Text Available The reliability of the electronic components inside a guided projectile is highly affected by the launch dynamics of guided projectile. The engraving process plays a crucial role on determining the ballistic performance and projectile stability. This paper analyzes the dynamic response of a guided projectile during the engraving process. By considering the projectile center of gravity moving during the engraving process, a dynamics model is established with the coupling of interior ballistic equations. The results detail the stress situation of a guided projectile band during its engraving process. Meanwhile, the axial dynamic response of projectile in the several milliseconds following the engraving process is also researched. To further explore how the different performance of the engraving band can affect the dynamics of guided projectile, this paper focuses on these two aspects: (a the effects caused by the different band geometry; and (b the effects caused by different band materials. The time domain and frequency domain responses show that the dynamics of the projectile are quite sensitive to the engraving band width. A material with a small modulus of elasticity is more stable than one with a high modulus of elasticity.

  3. Geometric plane shapes for computer-generated holographic engraving codes

    Augier, Ángel G.; Rabal, Héctor; Sánchez, Raúl B.


    We report a new theoretical and experimental study on hologravures, as holographic computer-generated laser-engravings. A geometric theory of images based on the general principles of light ray behaviour is shown. The models used are also applicable for similar engravings obtained by any non-laser method, and the solutions allow for the analysis of particular situations, not only in the case of light reflection mode, but also in transmission mode geometry. This approach is a novel perspective allowing the three-dimensional (3D) design of engraved images for specific ends. We prove theoretically that plane curves of very general geometric shapes can be used to encode image information onto a two-dimensional (2D) engraving, showing notable influence on the behaviour of reconstructed images that appears as an exciting investigation topic, extending its applications. Several cases of code using particular curvilinear shapes are experimentally studied. The computer-generated objects are coded by using the chosen curve type, and engraved by a laser on a plane surface of suitable material. All images are recovered optically by adequate illumination. The pseudoscopic or orthoscopic character of these images is considered, and an appropriate interpretation is presented.

  4. An Upper Palaeolithic engraved human bone associated with ritualistic cannibalism.

    Bello, Silvia M; Wallduck, Rosalind; Parfitt, Simon A; Stringer, Chris B


    Cut-marked and broken human bones are a recurrent feature of Magdalenian (~17-12,000 years BP, uncalibrated dates) European sites. Human remains at Gough's Cave (UK) have been modified as part of a Magdalenian mortuary ritual that combined the intensive processing of entire corpses to extract edible tissues and the modification of skulls to produce skull-cups. A human radius from Gough's Cave shows evidence of cut marks, percussion damage and human tooth marks, indicative of cannibalism, as well as a set of unusual zig-zagging incisions on the lateral side of the diaphysis. These latter incisions cannot be unambiguously associated with filleting of muscles. We compared the macro- and micro-morphological characteristics of these marks to over 300 filleting marks on human and non-human remains and to approximately 120 engraved incisions observed on two artefacts from Gough's Cave. The new macro- and micro-morphometric analyses of the marks, as well as further comparisons with French Middle Magdalenian engraved artefacts, suggest that these modifications are the result of intentional engraving. The engraved motif comfortably fits within a Magdalenian pattern of design; what is exceptional in this case, however, is the choice of raw material (human bone) and the cannibalistic context in which it was produced. The sequence of the manipulations suggests that the engraving was a purposeful component of the cannibalistic practice, implying a complex ritualistic funerary behaviour that has never before been recognized for the Palaeolithic period.

  5. U.S. Mint - Bureau of Engraving and Printing (BEP) Facilities

    Department of Homeland Security — United States Mint - Bureau of Engraving and Printing Facilities This dataset includes facilities of the United States Mint and facilities of the Bureau of Engraving...

  6. Chai Jianfang,an Outstanding Calligrapher,Engraver and Photographer



    In Ningxia,Chai Jianfang is admired by the people as an outstanding calligrapher.engraver and photographer.His works have been exhibited in the United States,Canade, Japan,the Republic of Korea,Singapore,Hongkong and Taiwan,winning praise from the viewers.A Friendship AmbassadorIn 1991,Chai Jianfang visited Japan’s Kashima,Mito.Nikko,Koga and Tokyo at the invitation of the Japanese art circles,and demonstrated his skills as a calligrapher and engraver on the spot.

  7. Rock Engravings and Sculptures of North Guwahati, Assam

    Dwipen Bezbaruah


    Full Text Available Evidences of rock engravings and sculptures, in Assam, are predominantly found to occur in the vicinity of the temples. Incidence of images of Gods and Goddesses, faunal and floral motif are invariably more. Apart from these, some geometric designs are also perceived. Such tangible archaeological heritages are considered important evidences for understanding the past in a more meaningful way. Therefore, it is pertinent to systematically document these sites and the remains before natural and anthropogenic obliteration. The objective of the present paper is to record and document the rock engravings and sculptures observed in the archaeological sites, namely Dirgheswari, Aswakranta, Manikarneswar, Rudreswar and Kanai Boroshi bowa of North Guwahati in Kamrup district, Assam, which are protected and preserved by the Directorate of Archaeology, Assam and to understand the archaeological context of the sites and their remains. The data for the present paper have been collected through field visit and Exploration was conducted in dry and winter season. The findings of the present work comprises of some sculptures of Ganesa, Yama, Sage, Kali, deities, bull without head, human figures, broken piece of a tiger, remains of door frame or pillar and shrines. Series of dot marks, cut marks, inscription, image of Shiva, foot impression, chess board, square, bow, signs, female figurine, and elephant engravings constitute the rock engravings observed in the area.

  8. A rock engraving made by Neanderthals in Gibraltar.

    Rodríguez-Vidal, Joaquín; d'Errico, Francesco; Giles Pacheco, Francisco; Blasco, Ruth; Rosell, Jordi; Jennings, Richard P; Queffelec, Alain; Finlayson, Geraldine; Fa, Darren A; Gutiérrez López, José María; Carrión, José S; Negro, Juan José; Finlayson, Stewart; Cáceres, Luís M; Bernal, Marco A; Fernández Jiménez, Santiago; Finlayson, Clive


    The production of purposely made painted or engraved designs on cave walls--a means of recording and transmitting symbolic codes in a durable manner--is recognized as a major cognitive step in human evolution. Considered exclusive to modern humans, this behavior has been used to argue in favor of significant cognitive differences between our direct ancestors and contemporary archaic hominins, including the Neanderthals. Here we present the first known example of an abstract pattern engraved by Neanderthals, from Gorham's Cave in Gibraltar. It consists of a deeply impressed cross-hatching carved into the bedrock of the cave that has remained covered by an undisturbed archaeological level containing Mousterian artifacts made by Neanderthals and is older than 39 cal kyr BP. Geochemical analysis of the epigenetic coating over the engravings and experimental replication show that the engraving was made before accumulation of the archaeological layers, and that most of the lines composing the design were made by repeatedly and carefully passing a pointed lithic tool into the grooves, excluding the possibility of an unintentional or utilitarian origin (e.g., food or fur processing). This discovery demonstrates the capacity of the Neanderthals for abstract thought and expression through the use of geometric forms.

  9. Winslow Homer the Illustrator: His Wood Engravings, 1857-1888.

    Johnson, Mark M.


    Explores the life and work of the artist, Winslow Homer, a 19th century painter and illustrator. Focuses on the exhibition, "Winslow Homer the Illustrator: His Wood Engravings, 1857-1888." Includes the itinerary for the exhibition and examples of his illustrations. (CMK)

  10. Giacomo Quarenghi engraver. An etching representing the Salara in Rome

    Piervaleriano Angelini


    Full Text Available In 2007, the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam acquired an engraving of the Italian architect and draftsman Giacomo Quarenghi (1744-1817 for its collection. This etching, mentioned by G.K. Nagler in his Neues Allgemeines Kunstler-Lexicon ... (twelfth volume, 1842, pp. 150-151, had gone missing and no copy of it had been found in modern times. It is presented with the title A view of Porta Salaria, in accordance with the subject that has been recognized in the drawing by Quarenghi in Album I-22 of the Public Library of Bergamo, and which can be considered the origin of the engraved image. The analysis of the etching, now in Amsterdam, has stimulated a careful evaluation of the subject of the view (both designed and engraved, allowing us to recognize it not as Porta Salaria, but The Salara in Rome, the ancient salt repository which once existed near S. Maria in Cosmedin. The study of the engraving of the Rijksmuseum, apart from the iconographic clarification, invites us to explore the little known topic concerning the direct, personal experience, albeit episodic, of Quarenghi with the medium of etching, and the meaning of this artistic practice for its author, and in the context of the culture of his time.

  11. Investigation and improvements of flatbed laser engravers and cutters

    Aichinger, J.; Hager, P.; Schuöcker, D.


    Besides the industrially widely-used galvanometer scanner for laser marking especially flatbed laser engravers and cutters are well established in graphic and design branches. Compared to the vector based technology of galvo-systems most of the laser engravers are based on pixel data produced out of graphic-or photo-programs and mainly engrave large scale areas such as signboards or printing plates. The human organ of sight is very sensitive to unwanted picture effects or distortions. In order to get rid of such disturbing effects a flat bed laser engraver of a technology leading company has been analyzed to find out these errors, identify possible causes and ways to eliminate them. In addition to this vector image processing and cutting of non metal sheets is also an important feature which could be improved by modifying the motion algorithms. During this investigation the whole laser machine was reduced to a model in MatLab including the laser source, motion system and material data.

  12. Pine Engraver, Ips pini, in the Western United States (FIDL)

    Sandra J. Kegley; R. Ladd Livingston; Kenneth E. Gibson


    The pine engraver, Ips pini (Say), is one of the most common and widely distributed bark beetles in North America. It occurs from southern Appalachia north to Maine and Quebec, westward across the northern United States and Canada, into the interior of Alaska, throughout the Pacific Coast States and the Rocky Mountain region, to northern Mexico. In the western United...

  13. From the Prehispanic Codices to the Engravings Inspirited by Poems

    Gabriela Toma


    Full Text Available This article debates the importance of shaping a community's identity and the artist's identity within one culture starting from the Prehispanic pictograms - where the sense allows itself to be discovered as the image is internalized, this double sense being similar to the reading of the works of Mexican artists Jose Guadalupe Posada, Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo similar to the engraving of the poems of Nichita Stanescu by Mircia Dumitrescu.

  14. From the Prehispanic Codices to the Engravings Inspirited by Poems


    This article debates the importance of shaping a community's identity and the artist's identity within one culture starting from the Prehispanic pictograms - where the sense allows itself to be discovered as the image is internalized, this double sense being similar to the reading of the works of Mexican artists Jose Guadalupe Posada, Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo similar to the engraving of the poems of Nichita Stanescu by Mircia Dumitrescu.

  15. Look,This Is A250-kilometer-long Ancient Artistic Corridor Of Rock Engravings

    郑茜; 赵薇; 李晓勤


    Chinese geographer Li Daoyuan was probably the first person,about 1:500 years ago ,to discover Helanshan rock engravings .In the fifth century, Li fraveled extensively throughout China to conduct geographical surveys. He discoverde the rock engrayings along the river bed of the Yellow River.He wrote about his discoveries in his Commentary on the Waterways Classics.Li is first known person to have recorded rock engravings.China,of course,was the first country known to record rock engravings.The 10,000rock engravings on the Helanshan Mountains have been designated world cultural heritage relics.

  16. Applications of Friction Stir Processing during Engraving of Soft Materials

    V. Kočović


    Full Text Available Friction stir processing has extensive application in many technological operations. Application area of friction stir processing can be extended to the processing of non-metallic materials, such as wood. The paper examines the friction stir processing contact between a specially designed hard and temperature-resistant rotating tool and workpiece which is made of wood. Interval of speed slip and temperature level under which the combustion occurs and carbonization layer of soft material was determined. The results of the research can be applied in technological process of wood engraving operations which may have significant technological and aesthetic effects.

  17. Research on a Novel Parallel Engraving Machine and its Key Technologies

    Zhang Shi-hui


    Full Text Available In order to compensate the disadvantages of conventional engraving machine and exert the advantages of parallel mechanism, a novel parallel engraving machine is presented and some key technologies are studied in this paper. Mechanism performances are analyzed in terms of the first and the second order influence coefficient matrix firstly. So the sizes of mechanism, which are better for all the performance indices of both kinematics and dynamics, can be confirmed and the restriction due to considering only the first order influence coefficient matrix in the past is broken through. Therefore, the theory basis for designing the mechanism size of novel engraving machine with better performances is provided. In addition, method for tool path planning and control technology for engraving force is also studied in the paper. The proposed algorithm for tool path planning on curved surface can be applied to arbitrary spacial curved surface in theory, control technology for engraving force based on fuzzy neural network(FNN has well adaptability to the changing environment. Research on teleoperation for parallel engraving machine based on B/S architecture resolves the key problems such as control mode, sharing mechanism for multiuser, real-time control for engraving job and real-time transmission for video information. Simulation results further show the feasibility and validity of the proposed methods.

  18. [Gaston Bachelard and Albert Flocon the meeting of a philosopher and an engraver].

    Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg


    The paper focuses on the collaboration between the philosopher of science Gaston Bachelard and the copper engraver Albert Flocon during the first decade after World War II. The exchange resulted in a number of books whose content is discussed.

  19. Depth Impact Control of an Electromagnetic Actuator for High Precision Engraving


    This document presents both the mechanical elements and the motion control of a novel three–axis metal engraving machine. The aim of this work is to improve the conventional high resolution engraving techniques that commonly use expensive piezoelectric actuators with reduced impact depth. Also, it is presented the depth impact control in open loop for an electromagnetic actuator (solenoid). A conical tool is fixed on the mobile part of the solenoid that moves toward the work piece when the so...

  20. Research on a Novel Parallel Engraving Machine and its Key Technologies

    Zhang Shi-hui; Kong Ling-fu


    In order to compensate the disadvantages of conventional engraving machine and exert the advantages of parallel mechanism, a novel parallel engraving machine is presented and some key technologies are studied in this paper. Mechanism performances are analyzed in terms of the first and the second order influence coefficient matrix firstly. So the sizes of mechanism, which are better for all the performance indices of both kinematics and dynamics, can be confirmed and the restriction due to con...

  1. A Novel Parallel Engraving Machine Based on 6-PUS Mechanism and Related Technologies

    Ling-fu, Kong; Shi-hui, Zhang


    A novel parallel engraving machine is proposed and its some key technologies are studied in this paper. Based on the confirming of mechanism type, a group of mechanisms are obtained by changing the sizes of engraving machine. Performance indices are analyzed by considering both the first and the second order influence coefficient matrix of different sample point in every mechanism's workspace, then mechanism's sizes better for both kinematics and dynamics are achieved, so the theory basis for...

  2. Ultrafast Laser Engraving Method to Fabricate Gravure Plate for Printed Metal-Mesh Touch Panel

    Weiyuan Chen


    Full Text Available In order to engrave gravure plate with fine lines structures, conventional art used lithography with dry/wet etching. Lithography with dry/wet etching method allows to engrave lines with smooth concave shape, but its disadvantages include difficulty in controlling aspect ratio, high and uniform in large size process, substrate material limitation due to etching solution availability, and process complexity. We developed ultra-fast laser technology to directly engrave a stainless plate, a gravure plate, to be used for fabricating 23 in. metal-mesh touch panel by gravure offset printing process. The technology employs high energy pulse to ablate materials from a substrate. Because the ultra-fast laser pulse duration is shorter than the energy dissipation time between material lattices, there is no heating issue during the ablation process. Therefore, no volcano-type protrusion on the engraved line edges occurs, leading to good printing quality. After laser engraving, we then reduce surface roughness of the gravure plate using electro-polishing process. Diamond like carbon (DLC coating layer is then added onto the surface to increase scratch resistance. We show that this procedure can fabricate gravure plate for gravure offset printing process with minimum printing linewidth 10.7 μm. A 23 in. metal-mesh pattern was printed using such gravure plate and fully functional touch panel was demonstrated in this work.

  3. Acoustic Emission Detection of Macro-Cracks on Engraving Tool Steel Inserts during the Injection Molding Cycle Using PZT Sensors

    Aleš Hančič


    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved monitoring system for the failure detection of engraving tool steel inserts during the injection molding cycle. This system uses acoustic emission PZT sensors mounted through acoustic waveguides on the engraving insert. We were thus able to clearly distinguish the defect through measured AE signals. Two engraving tool steel inserts were tested during the production of standard test specimens, each under the same processing conditions. By closely comparing the captured AE signals on both engraving inserts during the filling and packing stages, we were able to detect the presence of macro-cracks on one engraving insert. Gabor wavelet analysis was used for closer examination of the captured AE signals’ peak amplitudes during the filling and packing stages. The obtained results revealed that such a system could be used successfully as an improved tool for monitoring the integrity of an injection molding process.

  4. 31 CFR 605.1 - Conduct on Bureau of Engraving and Printing property.


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conduct on Bureau of Engraving and Printing property. 605.1 Section 605.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and..., unauthorized assembly, the creation of any hazard to persons or property, improper disposal of rubbish...

  5. [Jean Chièze (1898-1975), medical engraver and illustrator].

    Bouday, Etienne


    As an imaginative and sensitive woodcutter Jean Chièze illustrated more than 130 books and realised many draws, paintings and lithographs and about 2000 engravings. He took part in some editions about Rabelais, Hippocrates, Galen and Ambroise Paré.

  6. The discovery of an engraving near Mapungubwe that could have been used as an abacus

    J. F. Durand


    Full Text Available A rock engraving discovered near a Khami settlement near Mapungubwe may contribute to our knowledge about the mathematics of a people well known for their trade relations with people from the Middle East. The feature is described and an interpretation of its possible uses as an abacus and as a map is forwarded.

  7. Kinematic and Dynamic Analysis of New Polar Positioning System Dedicated to Mechatronic Laser Glass Engraving System

    Trochimczuk R.


    Full Text Available Analytical formulas describing the kinematics and dynamics of a multibody system of a new polar positioning system dedicated to mechatronic laser glass or other transparent dielectrics engraving system will be presented in this work. The analytical results will become in the later stages of the research the basis of numerical simulations. They will optimize the proposed solution of the positioning system.

  8. Homo erectus at Trinil on Java used shells for tool production and engraving

    Joordens, J.C.A.; d’Errico, F.; Wesselingh, F.P.; Munro, S.; Vos, de J.; Wallinga, J.; Ankjaergaard, C.; Reimann, T.; Wijbrans, J.R.; Kuiper, K.F.; Mücher, H.J.; Coqueugniot, H.; Prié, V.; Joosten, I.; Os, van B.; Schulp, A.S.; Panuel, M.; Haas, van der V.; Lustenhouwer, W.; Reijmer, J.J.G.; Roebroeks, W.


    The manufacture of geometric engravings is generally interpreted as indicative of modern cognition and behaviour1. Key questions in the debate on the origin of such behaviour are whether this innovation is restricted to Homo sapiens, and whether it has a uniquely African origin1. Here we report on a

  9. 29 CFR 779.368 - Printing and engraving establishments not recognized as retail.


    ... retail. 779.368 Section 779.368 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or... recognized as retail. (a) An establishment which is engaged in printing and engraving is not recognized as...

  10. Depth Impact Control of an Electromagnetic Actuator for High Precision Engraving

    E. Castillo–Castañeda


    Full Text Available This document presents both the mechanical elements and the motion control of a novel three–axis metal engraving machine. The aim of this work is to improve the conventional high resolution engraving techniques that commonly use expensive piezoelectric actuators with reduced impact depth. Also, it is presented the depth impact control in open loop for an electromagnetic actuator (solenoid. A conical tool is fixed on the mobile part of the solenoid that moves toward the work piece when the solenoid is energized. This novel machine performs micro–impacts of controlled depth on metallic flat surfaces and it can be also applied to high precision machining processes. The machine was experimentally tested on steel work pieces using scanned pictures.

  11. A master engraver Stefano della Bella; his style, works and aprroach to the Oriental image

    Semra Daşçı


    Full Text Available Stefano della Bella was one of the famous Italian printmaker in 17th century. He was apprenticed to a goldsmith but soon he began to turn his attention entirely towards engraving. He spent the majority of his prolific career working in Florence. He also spent a considerable time in study at Rome and went to Paris and the Netherlands. In the beginning of his artistic career he was under the influence of Jacques Callot’s style but later became enchanted by the Rembrandt’s prints. Rembrandt’s effect is also seen on Della Bella’s Orientalist figure studies. His style changed somewhat when he traveled to Paris and the Netherlands. He was a productive printmaker and left very numerous drawings and engravings about theatrical designs, landscapes and battle scenes. His productions over 1000 separate pieces are now in different museums and private collections all over the world. 

  12. On Qin-Dynasty Stone Engravings%秦代刻石探疑



    秦代刻石至今尚有一系列疑团未被解开,文章在前人研究成果的基础上,提出自己的观点:秦代刻石文应是多人创作的结果,而非李斯一人之功,并指出赵高也有参与创作的可能性;继而对秦代刻石的数量问题进行了简单的梳理,秦代刻石数量不是历来所说的五块、六块、七块、八块、九块,而至少是十三块,并指出《成山刻石》的存在,除此之外,又摘录出四块秦代刻石的相关记载。%There are still a lot of unsolved mysteries about Qin-Dynasty stone engravings.Based on the research results of the former scholars,it is proposed that Qin-Dynasty engravings should be done many people not LI Si alone.It is also believed that ZHAO Gao might have taken part in this work.Considering the quantity of the engravings,it is argued in this paper that it is not 5,6,7,8,or 9 in literature but 13 altogether with the evidence of "Chengshan Engravings" and extract about four pieces of Qin-Dynasty engravings.

  13. Hologravure as a computer-generated and laser engraved scratch hologram

    Augier, Ángel G.; Sánchez, Raúl B.


    We presented "hologravure" as the generalization of a scratch hologram, generated by computer from a three-dimensional (3D) model by using an appropriate software, and laser-drawing with a conventional engraver-laser system. For making this type of computer-generated hologram, neither diffractive optics, nor mask pattern or photo-reduction of a transparency onto a high resolution film plate is needed. The shape of a 3D virtual object is encoded in a two-dimensional (2D) multiple circular-scratch drawing. A computer program was created for generating the holograms. Hologravures representing several 3D models are engraved on different materials, and the quality of the lines traced by the CO 2 laser is considered. Sheets of acrylic, polycarbonate, glass and thermo-resistant pieces of acetate were tested. Reconstructed images of all this computer-generated and laser engraved holograms and also of computer assisted and hand-drawn scratch holograms, synthesized by means of the same software are shown.

  14. HOS cell adhesion on TiO2 nanotubes texturized by laser engraving

    Sandoval Amador, A.; Montañez Supelano, N. D.; Arias, A. M. Vera; Escobar Rivero, P.; Peña Ballesteros, D. Y.


    Due to its outstanding properties, the titanium and its alloys have been widely used in the dental and orthopaedic fields as biomaterials. The TiO2 nanotubes surface and the texturized process by laser engraving enables significantly accelerated osteoblast adhesion on the biomaterial. For this reason in this paper, the HOS cell responses on TiO2 nanotubes fabricated on Ti6Al4V alloy and texturized by laser engraving were evaluated. The test surfaces were carried out on smooth Ti6Al4V as control, TiO2 nanotubes (NT) and surfaces with micropoints obtained by laser engraving, with 1mm spacing (NTP1) and 0.5mm (NTP2). The results show that the texturized process enables decreases the contact angle thus improving wettability of the TiO2 nanotubes surface. The NTP1 and NTP2 surfaces show excellent cell adhesion and spreading on the surface, which is evident in epifluorescence microscopy images. Furthermore, the NTP1 and NTP2 surfaces improved the cell proliferation at 18% and 16% respectively in relation with NT surface, showing that the laser texturing improves cell response of TiO2 nanotubes.

  15. Fully digital controlled A.C. servo engraving machine based on DEC4DA

    Shu, Zhibing; Chen, Xianfeng; Zhang, Hairong; Huang, Yiqun; Yan, Caizhong


    A novel engraving machine (NUT-1A) is presented, in which fully digital controlled AC system based on DEC4DA was used to improve the machining precision and sensitivity. This engraving machine was constructed around AC servo motor with encoder, controlled by a servo motor control card - DEC4DA. As the upper unit of AC servo motor, DEC4DA was a numerical control generator, which received pulses form CPU by ISA bus, and these pulses were amplified and converted to drive AC servo actuator. This novel engraving machine can achieve a higher positioning accuracy of +/-0.01mm and positioning repetition of +/-0.005mm, and its resolution is 0.001mm/0.0001mm. Moreover, because of multi-closed loops were used in the system, the steady and transient performances are more excellent. This system ensures a much quicker current regulation in closed-loop operation, of acceleration and braking in both directions, as well as stable speed characteristics. Amplifier boards are protected against excessive current, excessive temperature and short circuiting of the motor supply cables.

  16. Restoration of obliterated engraved marks on steel surfaces by chemical etching reagent.

    Song, Qingfang


    Chemical etching technique is widely used for restoration of obliterated engraved marks on steel surface in the field of public security. The consumed thickness of steel surface during restoration process is considered as a major criterion for evaluating the efficiency of the chemical etching reagent. The thinner the consumed thickness, the higher the restoration efficiency. According to chemical principles, maintaining the continuous oxidative capabilities of etching reagents and increasing the kinetic rate difference of the reaction between the engraved and non-engraved area with the chemical etching reagent can effectively reduce the consumed steel thickness. The study employed steel surface from the engine case of motorcycle and the car frame of automobile. The chemical etching reagents are composed of nitric acid as the oxidizer, hydrofluoric acid as the coordination agent and mixed with glacial acetic acid or acetone as the solvents. Based on the performance evaluation of three different etching reagents, the one composed of HNO3, HF and acetone gave the best result.

  17. High-power diode laser marking and engraving of building materials

    Li, Lin; Lawrence, Jonathan; Spencer, Julian T.


    A Diomed 60W-cw high power diode laser (HPDL) has been used for the marking and engraving of various building materials, including; marble, granite, clay tiles, ceramic tiles, roof tiles, ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and clay bricks. Morphological and microstructural characteristics have been investigated. The basic mechanism of marking/engraving and the characteristics of the beam absorption are discussed. The effects of material texture, color and laser processing parameters are reported. The work shows that engraving depths of over 2 mm (0.75 mm for a single pass) can be achieved on marble substrates by thermal disintegration of CaCO3 into loose CaO powder and CO2 gas. Uniform amorphous glazed lines (1 - 3 mm line width) of a color different from the untreated materials can be generated on clay tiles, ceramic tiles, roof tiles, clay bricks and OPC by solidification phase formation after laser melting of these materials. Effects of atmospheric conditions, for instance using O2 and Ar gas shrouds, have been examined, with different colored marks being observed when different shroud gases are used. To demonstrate the practical worth of the process a UMIST crest has been marked on a ceramic tile using the system. Laser beam reflectivity is found to depend not only on material composition but also its color. Reflectivity has been found to range between 12% to 18% for the various construction materials used in the experiment, except for marble (grey) which showed over 27% reflectivity. Since the HPDL is a portable device, on-site application of these processing techniques can be realized, which would be either impossible or difficult when using other types of lasers.

  18. 120-150 ka human tooth and ivory engravings from Xinglongdong Cave, Three Gorges Region, South China

    GAO Xing; HUANG Wanbo; XU Ziqiang; MA Zhibang; J. W. Olsen


    Rich paleoanthropological materials were unearthed in primary context from the Xinglongdong Cave in Fengjie County, Chongqing, South China, including a human tooth, numerous mammalian fossils, some stone artifacts and a Stegodon tusk exhibiting intentional engravings. Based on biostratigraphic data and uranium series dating, the cave was utilized as a human shelter about 120000-150000 years ago. It is the first time that an archaic Homo sapiens fossil has been unearthed from the Three Gorges Region. Engravings on the Stegodon tusk appear in groups, making up simple and abstract images. It is the earliest known engravings created by human beings; it exhibits great potential for the study of the origin of art and the development of ancient cultures in south China and bears important implications for the origin of modern humans in East Asia.

  19. Fast production of microfluidic devices by CO2 laser engraving of wax-coated glass slides.

    da Costa, Eric T; Santos, Mauro F S; Jiao, Hong; do Lago, Claudimir L; Gutz, Ivano G R; Garcia, Carlos D


    Glass is one of the most convenient materials for the development of microfluidic devices. However, most fabrication protocols require long processing times and expensive facilities. As a convenient alternative, polymeric materials have been extensively used due their lower cost and versatility. Although CO2 laser ablation has been used for fast prototyping on polymeric materials, it cannot be applied to glass devices because the local heating causes thermal stress and results in extensive cracking. A few papers have shown the ablation of channels or thin holes (used as reservoirs) on glass but the process is still far away from yielding functional glass microfluidic devices. To address these shortcomings, this communication describes a simple method to engrave glass-based capillary electrophoresis devices using standard (1 mm-thick) microscope glass slides. The process uses a sacrificial layer of wax as heat sink and enables the development of both channels (with semicircular shape) and pass-through reservoirs. Although microscope images showed some small cracks around the channels (that became irrelevant after sealing the engraved glass layer to PDMS) the proposed strategy is a leap forward in the application of the technology to glass. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the approach, the separation of dopamine, catechol and uric acid was accomplished in less than 100 s.

  20. Laser Engraving Gulf Pearl Shell - Aiding the Reconstruction of the Lyre of Ur

    Rawcliffe, C.; Aston, M.; Lowings, A.; Sharp, M. C.; Watkins, Kenneth

    The Lyre of Ur was one of two bull's-headed harp instruments that British archaeologist Sir Leonard Woolley recovered from a mass grave during his highly publicised excavations of Ur's Royal Cemetery in the 1920s and 1930s in Iraq. Recreated unplayable models of the Lyre are held in Pennsylvania, London and, until recently before it was vandalised, the Baghdad Museum. It is believed that the original Lyre is approximately 4,750 years old. An attempt to recreate an authentic playable version is being spearheaded by Mr. A. Lowings of Stamford. The instrument is to be ornamented by a golden-sheeted bull's head and geometrically inlaid lapis lazuli as well as engraved gulf pearl shell plaques depicting Sumerian images, which are to be placed on the front of the lyre. Authentic cedar wood from Baghdad was used to create the main framework of the lyre. Due to the intricate designs required for the shell plaques, an investigation to laser engrave them was undertaken.

  1. Inter- and Intrapopulation Variation of the Pheromone, Ipsdienol Produced by Male Pine Engravers Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    D.R. Miller; J.H. Borden; K.N. Slessor


    We determined the chirality of ipsdienol in individual male pine engravers, Ips pini (Say), from New York, California, and two localities in British Columbia (BC). Both quantity and chirality of ipsdienol varied significantly between and within populations of I. pini . Beetles from California and southeastern BC produced...

  2. Composition of the bacterial community in the gut of the pine engraver, Ips pini (Say) (Coloptera) colonizing red pine

    Italo Jr. Delalibera; Archana Vasanthakumar; Benjamin J. Burwitz; Patrick D. Schloss; Kier D. Klepzig; Jo Handelsman; Kenneth F. Raffa


    The gut bacterial community of a bark beetle, the pine engraver Ips pini (Say), was characterized using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Bacteria from individual guts of larvae, pupae and adults were cultured and DNA was extracted from samples of pooled larval guts. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences amplified directly from the gut...

  3. Geodiversity "Engraved

    Vujičić, M. D.; Vasiljević, Dj. A.; Marković, S. B.; Lukić, T.; Basarin, B.


    Geoheritage is not merely a part of Earth's history; rather that it is also important part of the history of mankind. Geological features and landscape, as components of human surroundings, have strongly influenced our society from its beginnings - first cave-dwellers to modern-day civilization. It has also had great influence on human tradition, culture and religion. This paper will discuss the role of geodiversity as construction material for cultural and historical heritage with the case of possible connection of these natural and anthropogenic resources through successful and sustainable geotourism planning. Case study of Fru\\vska Gora Mountain, as potential destination with significant anthropogenic and natural values, will demonstrate the main idea of this research. Fru\\vska Gora Mountain is situated at the confluence of the Danube and Sava Rivers, in northern Serbia. It was proclaimed a National Park in 1960 with 25,525 ha of protected area due to its rich, rare and endangered biodiversity. Additionally, within the Park and wider area of Fru\\vska Gora, there are numerous historical and cultural monuments with almost 20 orthodox monasteries, built in 15th and 16th century and hidden in the woods, which earned this destination the epithet "the Holy Mountain" apropos Serbian Atos. Besides biodiversity, Fru\\vska Gora Mountain has rich geomorphologic significance, geological and pedological diversity with relatively small region that reflects very complicated geological evolution which formed a unique tectonic, lithological and stratigraphic mosaic. Numerous valuable and rare geosites makes this mountain a future geopark destination. As geotourism is relatively new trend and still unrecognised in Serbia, thus it is evidently urgent to inform visitors of other (cultural, historical, natural) sites about the existence of attractive geosites. Authors conducted research in order to identify construction material of certain monasteries and established that the most of it is exploited from quarries and pits in vicinity. For example, some of them were extracted from Rakovac limestone quarry or brickyards with significant loess and loess like sediments. All these localities are planned to be included in geo-trails of future geopark. The idea is to, beside interpretative panels, place information on cultural and historical heritage that was constructed from this geo-material. The likewise process would be provided through all human-made sites where panels would explain and promote geosites from where the material was brought. This would certainly bring mutual benefits and promotion that is in core of the initial geopark philosophy.

  4. HOS cell adhesion on Ti6Al4V surfaces texturized by laser engraving

    Sandoval Amador, A.; Carreño Garcia, H.; Escobar Rivero, P.; Peña Ballesteros, D. Y.; Estupiñán Duran, H. A.


    The cell adhesion of the implant is determinate by the chemical composition, topography, wettability, surface energy and biocompatibility of the biomaterial. In this work the interaction between human osteosarcoma HOS cells and textured Ti6Al4V surfaces were evaluated. Ti6Al4V surfaces were textured using a CO2 laser in order to obtain circular spots on the surfaces. Test surfaces were uncoated (C1) used as a control surface, and surfaces with points obtained by laser engraving, with 1mm spacing (C2) and 0.5mm (C3). The HOS cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium with 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% antibiotics. No cells toxicity after one month incubation time occurred. The increased cell adhesion and cell spreading was observed after 1, 3 and 5 days without significant differences between the sample surfaces (C2 and C3) and control (uncoated) at the end of the experiment.

  5. Facile and scalable disposable sensor based on laser engraved graphene for electrochemical detection of glucose

    Tehrani, Farshad; Bavarian, Behzad


    A novel and highly sensitive disposable glucose sensor strip was developed using direct laser engraved graphene (DLEG) decorated with pulse deposited copper nanocubes (CuNCs). The high reproducibility (96.8%), stability (97.4%) and low cost demonstrated by this 3-step fabrication method indicates that it could be used for high volume manufacturing of disposable glucose strips. The fabrication method also allows for a high degree of flexibility, allowing for control of the electrode size, design, and functionalization method. Additionally, the excellent selectivity and sensitivity (4,532.2 μA/mM.cm2), low detection limit (250 nM), and suitable linear range of 25 μM–4 mM, suggests that these sensors may be a great potential platform for glucose detection within the physiological range for tear, saliva, and/or sweat. PMID:27306706

  6. Restoration and Preservation of Engraved Limestone Blocks Discovered in Abu Mousa Excavation, Suez - Egypt

    Nabil A. Abd El-Tawab BADER


    Full Text Available A lot of engraved limestone blocks were discovered at Awlad Abu Musa (east of Suez, Egypt in 1995/2007 by Supreme Council of Antiquities. The stone blocks were seriously affected by archaeological environments during burial environment in agriculture land. They were covered with thick clay layer with soil particles that disfigured them and hid their inscriptions. Prior to the conservation intervention, the materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Chemical analyses of ground water and microbiological study. After the material characterization, the conservation and restoration of the stone blocks were carried out including cleaning, consolidation, reduction of salts, Re-jointing, restoration and completion of lost parts. After that the blocks were exhibited in Suez museum.

  7. Facile and scalable disposable sensor based on laser engraved graphene for electrochemical detection of glucose

    Tehrani, Farshad; Bavarian, Behzad


    A novel and highly sensitive disposable glucose sensor strip was developed using direct laser engraved graphene (DLEG) decorated with pulse deposited copper nanocubes (CuNCs). The high reproducibility (96.8%), stability (97.4%) and low cost demonstrated by this 3-step fabrication method indicates that it could be used for high volume manufacturing of disposable glucose strips. The fabrication method also allows for a high degree of flexibility, allowing for control of the electrode size, design, and functionalization method. Additionally, the excellent selectivity and sensitivity (4,532.2 μA/mM.cm2), low detection limit (250 nM), and suitable linear range of 25 μM-4 mM, suggests that these sensors may be a great potential platform for glucose detection within the physiological range for tear, saliva, and/or sweat.

  8. Che si conoscono al suo già detto segno: Vasari’s connoisseurship in the field of engravings

    Stefano Pierguidi


    Full Text Available In order to identify the paternity of Cinquecento engravings Vasari did not have sufficient critical tools in the absence of monograms or inscriptions. It was the “sign” (segno, the only element that allowed him to recognize the hand of an engraver. However, when those “signs” did not help him sufficiently, Vasari also sometimes suggested attributions based on the authorship of the inventions. In some of these cases he succeeded, probably only thanks to his eye and his knowledge of style, to identify the author of the inventions but, in other cases, he was misled by what his knowledge, without being able to judge those prints only by their style. The article intends to analyse this dynamic and to understand the operations at the origins of attribution’s mistakes.

  9. Calibration of ultra high speed laser engraving processes by correlating influencing variables including correlative evaluation with SEM and CLSM

    Bohrer, Markus; Vaupel, Matthias; Nirnberger, Robert; Weinberger, Bernhard


    Laser engraving is used for decades as a well-established process e. g. for the production of print and embossing forms for many goods in daily life, e. g. decorated cans and printed bank notes. Up to now it is more or less a so-called fire-and-forget process. From the original artist's plan to the digitization, then from the laser source itself (with electronic signals, RF and plasma discharge regarding CO2 lasers) to the behavior of the optical beam delivery — especially if an AOM is used — to the interaction of the laser beam with the material itself is a long process chain. The most recent results using CO2 lasers with AOMs and the research done with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) — as a set for correlative microscopy to evaluate the high speed engraving characteristics — are presented in this paper.

  10. A Unique Engraved Shale Pendant from the Site of Star Carr: the oldest Mesolithic art in Britain

    Nicky Milner


    Full Text Available In 2015 an engraved shale pendant was found during excavations at the Early Mesolithic site of Star Carr, UK. Engraved motifs on Mesolithic pendants are extremely rare, with the exception of amber pendants from southern Scandinavia. The artwork on the pendant is the earliest known Mesolithic art in Britain; the 'barbed line' motif is comparable to styles on the Continent, particularly in Denmark. When it was first uncovered the lines were barely visible but using a range of digital imaging techniques it has been possible to examine them in detail and determine the style of engraving as well as the order in which the lines might have been made. In addition, microwear and residue analyses were applied to examine whether the pendant showed signs that it had been strung or worn, and whether the lines had been made more visible through the application of pigments, as has been suggested for some Danish amber pendants. This approach of using multiple scientific and analytical techniques has not been used previously and provides a methodology for the examination of similar artefacts in the future.

  11. Narrow linewidth emissions from organic crystals with diffraction gratings engraved directly on their surface (Conference Presentation)

    Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Yamao, Takeshi; Hotta, Shu


    In combination with optical cavities, organic semiconductor crystals are powerful candidates for current-injected organic laser devices. For such cavities diffraction gratings are applicable. In common with external diffraction gratings made of dielectrics and oxides, built-in ones are effective for producing narrow linewidth emissions. However, direct fabrication of the diffraction gratings on the surfaces of the organic crystals is still challenging. In the present studies, we directly engraved one-dimensional (1D) diffraction gratings on the flat surfaces of organic semiconductor crystals by using focused ion beam (FIB) lithography, and shaped a distributed feedback resonator (DFB) structure. We chose as the organic semiconductor material 5,5'''''-diphenyl-2,2':5',2'':5'',2''':5''',2'''':5'''',2'''''-sexithiophene (P6T) from among thiophene/phenylene co-oligomers. We grew plate-like crystals of P6T in a vapor phase. The P6T crystals showed emissions with a maximum intensity around 630 nm. We laminated them on Si wafer substrates covered with 300-nm-thick silicon dioxide and 160-nm-thick Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layers. The AZO layer was used to prevent the crystals from being charged during the FIB lithography. We precisely controlled FIB process conditions and obtained the gratings having the equally-spaced 200 (400) grooves with the periods of 240 (200) nm. When we observed the emissions perpendicular to the grating grooves as well as parallel to the crystal surface under ultraviolet light from a mercury lamp, these crystals with the 1D diffraction gratings indicated narrowed emission peaks at 745 (670) nm. From the grating period and the emission peak position, we estimated an order of diffraction and an effective refractive index. We related the effective refractive index with a phase refractive index of the crystal and decided the optimum grating period to be 190 nm to produce the narrowed peak at 630 nm. We fabricated the diffraction grating having the optimum

  12. A laser-engraved glass duplicating the structure, mechanics and performance of natural nacre.

    Valashani, Seyed Mohammad Mirkhalaf; Barthelat, Francois


    Highly mineralized biological materials such as nacre (mother of pearl), tooth enamel or conch shell boast unique and attractive combinations of stiffness, strength and toughness. The structures of these biological materials and their associated mechanisms are now inspiring new types of advanced structural materials. However, despite significant efforts, no bottom up fabrication method could so far match biological materials in terms of microstructural organization and mechanical performance. Here we present a new 'top down' strategy to tackling this fabrication problem, which consists in carving weak interfaces within a brittle material using a laser engraving technique. We demonstrate the method by fabricating and testing borosilicate glasses containing nacre-like microstructures infiltrated with polyurethane. When deformed, these materials properly duplicate the mechanisms of natural nacre: combination of controlled sliding of the tablets, accompanied with geometric hardening, strain hardening and strain rate hardening. The nacre-like glass is composed of 93 volume % (vol%) glass, yet 700 times tougher and breaks at strains as high as 20%.

  13. Coordinated gene expression for pheromone biosynthesis in the pine engraver beetle, Ips pini (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Keeling, Christopher I.; Blomquist, Gary J.; Tittiger, Claus

    In several pine bark beetle species, phloem feeding induces aggregation pheromone production to coordinate a mass attack on the host tree. Male pine engraver beetles, Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), produce the monoterpenoid pheromone component ipsdienol de novo via the mevalonate pathway in the anterior midgut upon feeding. To understand how pheromone production is regulated in this tissue, we used quantitative real-time PCR to examine feeding-induced changes in gene expression of seven mevalonate pathway genes: acetoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, mevalonate 5-diphosphate decarboxylase, isopentenyl-diphosphate isomerase, geranyl-diphosphate synthase (GPPS), and farnesyl-diphosphate synthase (FPPS). In males, expression of all these genes significantly increased upon feeding. In females, the expression of the early mevalonate pathway genes (up to and including the isomerase) increased significantly, but the expression of the later genes (GPPS and FPPS) was unaffected or decreased upon feeding. Thus, feeding coordinately regulates expression of the mevalonate pathway genes necessary for pheromone biosynthesis in male, but not female, midguts. Furthermore, basal mRNA levels were 5- to 41-fold more abundant in male midguts compared to female midguts. This is the first report of coordinated regulation of mevalonate pathway genes in an invertebrate model consistent with their sex-specific role in de novo pheromone biosynthesis.

  14. Glass Imprint Templates by Spark Assisted Chemical Engraving for Microfabrication by Hot Embossing

    Lucas Abia Hof


    Full Text Available As the field of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS matures, new demands are being placed on the microfabrication of complex architectures in robust materials, such as hard plastics. Iterative design optimization in a timely manner—rapid prototyping—places challenges on template fabrication, for methods such as injection moulding and hot embossing. In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility of using spark assisted chemical engraving (SACE to produce micro patterned glass templates. The direct, write-based approach enabled the facile fabrication of smooth microfeatures with variations in all three-dimensions, which could be replicated by hot embossing different thermoplastics. As a proof of principle, we demonstrated the technique for a high glass transition temperature polycarbonate. Good fidelity over more than 10 cycles provides evidence that the approach is viable for rapid prototyping and has the potential to satisfy commercial-grade production at medium-level output volumes. Glass imprint templates showed no degradation after use, but care must be taken due to brittleness. The technique has the potential to advance microfabrication needs in academia and could be used by MEMS product developers.

  15. Engraving Simulation Based on ANSYS/LS-DYNA%基于ANSYS/LS-DYNA的弹带挤进过程仿真

    马帅; 张相炎; 游修东


    The finite element model of one large-caliber artil ery’ s engraving process is established based on the ANSYS/LS-DY-NA software, and the engraving resistance with engraving displacement changes is particularly studied in the engraving process. By exporting some graphics at critical, the whole belt deformation pattern of the engraving process is revealed and by the curves of some analytic model elements, the personal view on the erosion of rifling is put forward. Based on D'Alembert principle, the curves of accelerate and velocity and matlab are used to get the engraving resistance curve. By comparison with theoretical curve, the correctness of the calculation result is verified and ANSYS / LS-DYNA is showed to be a good tool for the study of engraving process.%基于ANSYS/LS-DYNA瞬态动力学分析软件,建立了某火炮挤进过程的有限元模型,重点研究挤进过程中挤进阻力随挤进行程的变化。通过输出关键时刻的图形,展示了整个挤进过程中弹带的变形规律,然后通过分析模型中某些单元的应力曲线,对膛线起始部的磨损提出了看法。利用仿真获得的加速度曲线和速度曲线,基于达朗贝尔原理,利用matlab对数据进行处理,得到了挤进阻力曲线,并与理论所得阻力曲线进行了对比,表明ANSYS/LS-DYNA是研究挤进过程的一个很好的工具。

  16. Dispersal of the spruce beetle, `dendroctonus rufipennis`, and the engraver beetle, `ips perturbatus`, in Alaska. Forest Service research paper

    Werner, R.A.; Holsten, E.H.


    Mark-release-recapture experiments were performed with spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) and Ips engraver beetles (Ips perturbatus (Eichhoff)) to determine distance and direction of dispersal. The recapture rate of beetles marked with fluorescent powder was extremely low. Most I. perturbatus beetles dispersed up to 30 m from their overwintering sites compared to most D. rufipennis, which dispersed from 90 to 300 m. Ips perturbatus beetles were caught up to 90 m and D. rufipennis up to 600 m from the point of release.

  17. 论现代刻字艺术的色彩美学%On Color Desthetics of Modern Engraving Art



    现代刻字是一门融汇多学科知识的艺术门类,比如色彩、构成、肌理等元素的运用都给其带来丰富多元的美学价值,拟将从色彩与情感、色阶与内容、和谐之色的重要意义等层面对现代刻字的色彩构成进行解析,从而为现代刻字艺术的创作提供一些有意义的思考。%Modern engraving art is a blend of multi-discipline knowledge , such as the use of color, formation , texture and other elements are brought to its abundant aesthetic value pluralism.From the aspects of color and emotion, color and content, har-monious color significance and other aspects of modern lettering color composition, the paper analyzed some meaningful thoughts for modern engraving art creation.

  18. Residence space/graphic space: engravings in the open air in the municipality of La Hinojosa (Cuenca

    Bueno Ramírez, Primitiva


    Full Text Available The work that now we present is based on the analysis of graphic designs, their location and their relationship to the environment, in the municipality of La Hinojosa Cuenca, a place where we have well documented occupations of the Copper and Bronze Ages. Our aim is to understand these engravings as part of the expressions of peninsular Schematic Art, in this case associated with an occupational context, and to provide elements for the comprehension of its message in a broader context that includes occupational contexts for other open aire engravings in the Iberian Peninsula.

    El trabajo que ahora presentamos se basa en el análisis de las grafías, su ubicación en el soporte y su relación con el entorno, en una zona concreta, el término de La Hinojosa, en Cuenca, lugar en el que tenemos bien documentadas ocupaciones calcolíticas y de la Edad del Bronce. Nuestra propuesta es la de comprender dichos grabados como una parte de las expresiones del Arte Esquemático peninsular, en este caso asociadas a un contexto habitacional y, a partir de ahí, aportar elementos para la comprensión de su "mensaje" desde una perspectiva más amplia que incluye otros contextos habitacionales para conjuntos de grabados al aire libre en la Península Ibérica.

  19. The influence of silhouette color and orientation on arrival and emergence of Ips pine engravers and their predators in loblolly pine

    R.A. Goyer; G.J. Lenhard; Brian L. Strom


    Insects that rely upon aggressive bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) for generating appropriate habitats (natural enemies and associated species) must respond to a variety of stimuli used by bark beetles, including semiochemical and visual cues. In the southeastern US, Ips engraver beetles are non-aggressive bark beetles that exploit both standing...

  20. A palaeolithic map from 13,660 calBP: engraved stone blocks from the Late Magdalenian in Abauntz Cave (Navarra, Spain).

    Utrilla, P; Mazo, C; Sopena, M C; Martínez-Bea, M; Domingo, R


    An engraved block from the cave of Abauntz is interpreted as a Magdalenian map in which the actual surrounding landscape, including mountains, rivers, and ponds, is represented. Some possible routes or avenues of access to different parts of the geography are also engraved on the landscape. The engraving seems to reproduce the meandering course of a river crossing the upper part of side A of the block, joined by two tributaries near two mountains. One of these is identical to the mountain that can be seen from the cave, with herds of ibex depicted on its hillsides, on both sides of the gorge in front of which the cave of Abauntz is strategically located. In the southern part of the gorge, there is a completely flat area where the watercourses slow down, forming meanders and flooding in springtime. The following elements are also represented on the block: tangles of concentric strokes and bundles of lines forming very marked meanders. In short, all of these engravings could be a sketch or a simple map of the area around the cave. It could represent the plan for a coming hunt or perhaps a narrative story of one that had already happened. This paper is provided in the context of recent discussions on early modern human capacities of spatial awareness, planning, and organized hunting.

  1. Diffraction efficiency enhancement of femtosecond laser-engraved diffraction gratings due to CO{sub 2} laser polishing

    Choi, Hun-Kook [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Deok; Sohn, Ik-Bu; Noh, Young-Chul; Lee, Yong-Tak [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin-Tae [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Ahsan, Shamim [Khulna University, Khulna (Bangladesh)


    This research demonstrates laser-assisted fabrication of high-efficiency diffraction gratings in fused-silica glass samples. Initially, femtosecond laser pulses are used to engrave diffraction gratings on the glass surfaces. Then, these micro-patterned glass samples undergo CO{sub 2} laser polishing process. unpolished diffraction gratings encoded in the glass samples show an overall diffraction efficiency of 18.1%. diffraction gratings imprinted on the glass samples and then polished four times by using a CO{sub 2} laser beam attain a diffraction efficiency of 32.7%. We also investigate the diffraction patterns of the diffraction gratings encoded on fused-silica glass surfaces. The proposed CO{sub 2} laser polishing technique shows great potential in patterning high-efficiency diffraction gratings on the surfaces of various transparent materials.

  2. Laser-engraved carbon nanotube paper for instilling high sensitivity, high stretchability, and high linearity in strain sensors

    Xin, Yangyang


    There is an increasing demand for strain sensors with high sensitivity and high stretchability for new applications such as robotics or wearable electronics. However, for the available technologies, the sensitivity of the sensors varies widely. These sensors are also highly nonlinear, making reliable measurement challenging. Here we introduce a new family of sensors composed of a laser-engraved carbon nanotube paper embedded in an elastomer. A roll-to-roll pressing of these sensors activates a pre-defined fragmentation process, which results in a well-controlled, fragmented microstructure. Such sensors are reproducible and durable and can attain ultrahigh sensitivity and high stretchability (with a gauge factor of over 4.2 × 10(4) at 150% strain). Moreover, they can attain high linearity from 0% to 15% and from 22% to 150% strain. They are good candidates for stretchable electronic applications that require high sensitivity and linearity at large strains.

  3. A Unique Assemblage of Engraved Plaquettes from Ein Qashish South, Jezreel Valley, Israel: Figurative and Non-Figurative Symbols of Late Pleistocene Hunters-Gatherers in the Levant

    Yaroshevich, Alla; Bar-Yosef, Ofer; Boaretto, Elisabeta; Caracuta, Valentina; Greenbaum, Noam; Porat, Naomi; Roskin, Joel


    Three engraved limestone plaquettes from the recently excavated Epipaleolithic open-air site Ein Qashish South in the Jezreel Valley, Israel comprise unique evidence for symbolic behavior of Late Pleistocene foragers in the Levant. The engravings, uncovered in Kebaran and Geometric Kebaran deposits (ca. 23ka and ca. 16.5ka BP), include the image of a bird—the first figurative representation known so far from a pre-Natufian Epipaleolithic—along with geometric motifs such as chevrons, crosshatchings and ladders. Some of the engravings closely resemble roughly contemporary European finds interpreted as "systems of notations" or "artificial memory systems"–records related to timing of seasonal resources and associated aggregation events of nomadic groups. Moreover, similarly looking signs and patterns are well known from the context of the local Natufian—a final Epipaleolithic culture of sedentary or semi-sedentary foragers who started practicing agriculture. The investigation of the engravings found in Ein Qashish South involves conceptualizations developed in studies of European and local parallels, a selection of ethnographic examples and preliminary microscopic observations of the plaquettes. This shows that the figurative and non-figurative images comprise a coherent assemblage of symbols that might have been applied in order to store, share and transmit information related to social and subsistence realms of mobile bands. It further suggests that the site functioned as a locality of groups' aggregation and indicates social complexity of pre-Natufian foragers in the Levant. While alterations in social and subsistence strategies can explain the varying frequency of image use characterizing different areas of the Late Pleistocene world—the apparent similarity in graphics and the mode of their application support the possibility that symbol-mediated behavior has a common and much earlier origin. PMID:27557110

  4. Suitability of pines and other conifers as hosts for the invasive Mediterranean pine engraver (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in North America.

    Lee, Jana C; Flint, Mary Louise; Seybold, Steven J


    The invasive Mediterranean pine engraver, Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), was detected in North America in 2004, and it is currently distributed in the southern Central Valley of California. It originates from the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, and Asia, and it reproduces on pines (Pinus spp.). To identify potentially vulnerable native and adventive hosts in North America, no-choice host range tests were conducted in the laboratory on 22 conifer species. The beetle reproduced on four pines from its native Eurasian range--Aleppo, Canary Island, Italian stone, and Scots pines; 11 native North American pines--eastern white, grey, jack, Jeffrey, loblolly, Monterey, ponderosa, red, Sierra lodgepole, singleleaf pinyon, and sugar pines; and four native nonpines--Douglas-fir, black and white spruce, and tamarack. Among nonpines, fewer progeny developed and they were of smaller size on Douglas-fir and tamarack, but sex ratios of progeny were nearly 1:1 on all hosts. Last, beetles did not develop on white fir, incense cedar, and coast redwood. With loblolly pine, the first new adults emerged 42 d after parental females were introduced into host logs at temperatures of 20-33 degrees C and 523.5 or 334.7 accumulated degree-days based on lower development thresholds of 13.6 or 18 degrees C, respectively.


    Martynova A. G.


    Full Text Available Virtuoso of prints, Mikhail Matorin, is undeservedly forgotten today both by ordinary spectators and by professional art critics. Twenty-five years of fruitful work of the artist have made a great contribution into the development of the domestic drawing. The album of linoleum prints called "Vyborg", created as a result of his staying on the finnish front in june 1944, takes up a special place in his creative work. Vyborg has attracted Matorin by the originality of its northern architectural landscape and the severe beauty of forms. The town was empty; it was left by Finnish residents. Bright sunny days of June with white nights even more emphasized the epic expressiveness of architectural ensembles of the city. Language of Matorin’s linocuts is sharp, clear and emotional. Sonority of strokes and rhythm of lines are in harmony with the noble colors. Matorin’s prints were made on the basis of front-line sketches. The color linocut printmaker used up to 12 boards, achieving the effect of real painting. Matorin’s engravings are remarkable for its special harmony of tones, terseness of colours. This article is aimed at the introduction into the scientific usage of russian artcriticism new unique artistic and history- cultural material, revealing features of creativity and way of life of the engraver, M.V.Matorin. The author for the first time in Russian art-criticism examines and gives an appreciation of the album of linoleum prints "Vyborg" (1944, which is a valuable documentary material

  6. A novel single-ended readout depth-of-interaction PET detector fabricated using sub-surface laser engraving

    Uchida, H.; Sakai, T.; Yamauchi, H.; Hakamata, K.; Shimizu, K.; Yamashita, T.


    We propose a novel scintillation detector design for positron emission tomography (PET), which has depth of interaction (DOI) capability and uses a single-ended readout scheme. The DOI detector contains a pair of crystal bars segmented using sub-surface laser engraving (SSLE). The two crystal bars are optically coupled to each other at their top segments and are coupled to two photo-sensors at their bottom segments. Initially, we evaluated the performance of different designs of single crystal bars coupled to photomultiplier tubes at both ends. We found that segmentation by SSLE results in superior performance compared to the conventional method. As the next step, we constructed a crystal unit composed of a 3  ×  3  ×  20 mm3 crystal bar pair, with each bar containing four layers segmented using the SSLE. We measured the DOI performance by changing the optical conditions for the crystal unit. Based on the experimental results, we then assessed the detector performance in terms of the DOI capability by evaluating the position error, energy resolution, and light collection efficiency for various crystal unit designs with different bar sizes and a different number of layers (four to seven layers). DOI encoding with small position error was achieved for crystal units composed of a 3  ×  3  ×  20 mm3 LYSO bar pair having up to seven layers, and with those composed of a 2  ×  2  ×  20 mm3 LYSO bar pair having up to six layers. The energy resolution of the segment in the seven-layer 3  ×  3  ×  20 mm3 crystal bar pair was 9.3%-15.5% for 662 keV gamma-rays, where the segments closer to the photo-sensors provided better energy resolution. SSLE provides high geometrical accuracy at low production cost due to the simplicity of the crystal assembly. Therefore, the proposed DOI detector is expected to be an attractive choice for practical small-bore PET systems dedicated to imaging of the brain

  7. Engraving machine tool CNC

    Moreira, André Filipe Leal


    Dissertação de mestrado em Engenharia Mecatrónica No panorama atual, as novas tecnologias aplicadas às máquinas ferramentas permitiram um desenvolvimento excecional. As máquinas CNC, Controlo Numérico Computadorizado, do inglês “computer numerical control”, vieram revolucionar a indústria, permitindo maior velocidade, repetibilidade e precisão. É pretendido nesta dissertação o desenvolvimento de uma máquina de comando numérico de pequenas dimensões. O projeto desenvolvido fo...

  8. 汉画中体育文化资源的整理与开发%On the Organization and Development of the P.E.Culture Resources in Nanyang Han Stone Engravings

    邓凤莲; 杨辉


    汉画像石中有与节日、祭祀相关的娱乐性和表演性,从军事训练和游戏中发展而来的竞技性,以保健养生为主要目的的健身性三类体育文化资源。汉画像石中的体育文化开发策略是“画像展示”、“专业表演”、“游客体验”和“产品开发”等;可分为“投壶运动”、“蹴鞠运动”、“射箭运动”、“马术和马球”、“汉代乐舞”和“导引养生”等六大园区设立“汉代体育文化乐园”。钩沉与考量蕴涵于汉画像石中丰富的体育文化资源,不仅有利于对汉画中体育文化资源的整理和保护性开发,而且为发展体育旅游文化产业、实现全民健身运动、构建和谐社会提供文化资源保障。%There are three categories of PE culture resources in Nanyang Han stone engravings, namely, entertainment and performance related with festivals and sacrifice , competition related with military training and games , and fitness.In general, the development strategy of the PE culture resources in Nanyang Han stone engravings should include engravings exhibition , professional performance , tourist experience , and product development .At the same time, Nanyang PE Culture Carnival of the Han Dynasty should be built , including shooting , kicking, arrow, horsing and polo , music and dance of the Han Dynasty , and fitness.Investigating the rich PE culture resources in the Han engravings can not only be helpful for the organization and protective development of the PE culture resources in Han engravings , but also provide culture resources guarantee for the development of Nanyang ’ s tourism and the realization of nationwide body-building campaign .

  9. 嵌入式SoC单片机在雕刻机数控系统中的应用%Engraving Machine NC Control System Based on Embedded SoC Microcontroller



    In view of the wide application of the engraving machine , an embedded SOC microcontroller con-trolled engraving machine is developed .It is of less production costs than the engraving machines based on PC or DSP.The control system block diagram with the C 8051F120 microcontroller as core processor is presented .The bas-ic theory of the line interpolation using point-by-point comparison method is discussed .The system software function is also introduced .Practical tests show that the carving accuracy is 0.01 mm.With fast carving speed , the design is of economic value .%将一台由嵌入式SoC单片机控制的雕刻机,与基于PC机或DSP的雕刻机数控系统相比,其是一种低成本的解决方案。在给出了以C8051 F120单片机为主控芯片的数控系统原理框图的基础上,进一步讨论了逐点比较法直线插补的基本原理,并对控制系统的主要软件功能作了说明。经测试运行,该系统雕刻精度达0.01 mm,且雕刻速度快,并具有一定的经济实用价值。

  10. Analysis on Engraving Art Feature of Yueyang Tower%名楼精饰雕镂生辉——试析岳阳楼雕饰艺术的特点



    The engraving art of Yueyang Tower characterized by its beauty and elegance realizes its aes-thetic pursuit of the unification of construction quality, form and color. Its interlacing contents of myth, history and fact, the sculpting techniques with various methods, material choosing and building impressed by nature and harmony, and the color performance full of grace and magnificence, are closely related to the distinctive geographical and cultural environments of Yueyang City and reflects the perfect combination of metro culture and engraving arts.%岳阳楼雕饰显示出以灵秀为主的特征,实现了建筑质、形、色相统一的审美追求.其神话、历史、现实交织的题材内容,多种手法并用的造型技法,自然亲和的材质选择与制作,华美端庄的色彩表现.是与岳阳独特的地理和人文环境紧密联系在一起的,且充分体现了地域文化与雕饰艺术的完美结合.

  11. An Identification of the Engraved Signs on the Kylinfoot-shaped Gold Ingots from the Han Tomb on Mt. Shuangru%山东长清双乳山汉墓麟趾金刻划符号的判识

    马书波; 王永波


    In the history of China, gold coins were used during and left over from the Han period in the greatest quantity. Among the finds the commonest are kylin-foot-shaped; and horse-hoof-shaped occur in a small number. Most of them bear engraved legends or stamped seals, and a number of non-character and non-numeral signs remain beyond understanding. The gold ingots from the Han tomb on Mt. Shuangru in Changqing largely have such engravings. In the author's opinion, these signs can be identified as weight marks without measure units based on the composition manner of numerical signs in remote antiquity and the fact that the gold ingots from Nanyaozhuang in Jiangsu Xuyi bear similar signs as well as weight marks with definite measure units. In the light of the composition manners of numerical signs, the weight marks under discussion can be included into two categories with six marking manners.This identification is of great significance to studying the monetary policy, the minting, use and measure of gold money, and the relationship of the central dynasty with the princedoms in the Han period.

  12. Pursum-Home of Engraving



    The three great sutra-printing houses in Tibdean-inhabited areas include the Potala Palace in the Lhasa area,Natang in the Xigaze area and Dege in the Kham region.For about a thousand years ,as the key

  13. Combined Engraving Process of C-Shaped Solid Armature in Electromagnetic Railgun%电磁轨道炮C型固体电枢坡膛段的装填方式研究

    张祎; 杨春霞; 栗保明


    为了满足电磁轨道炮对电枢和轨道间初始接触压力的要求,以小口径电磁轨道炮C型固体电枢的坡膛段装填过程为研究对象,在力学分析的基础上,采用有限元计算方法,对匀速装填、冲击装填以及组合装填3种方式进行了计算,并对电枢臂头部、中间和尾端单元的径向变形、应力和剪切应力随时间的变化进行了对比分析。分析结果表明,在同等条件下,采用组合装填方式可以明显地降低固体电枢在装填过程中受剪切破坏的程度,并有效地提高初始接触压力。研究结果表明,组合装填方式有利于提高电磁轨道炮的发射效率。%In order to meet the requirement for initial contact pressure between armature and rails of electromagnetic railgun, by taking the engraving process of C-shaped armature in small caliber electromagnetic railgun as the research object, three engraving modes including uniform loading,impact loading and combined loading are simulated by using finite element method based on the mechanical analysis,and then the changes of radial deformation,stress and shear stress of the elements in the armature arm are compared and analyzed. The results show that the combined loading can obviously decrease the degree of shearing damage during solid armature engraving process and, in addition, improve initial contact pressure effectively in the same condition. The research findings show that combined mode is beneficial to increase the launching efficiency of electromagnetic railgun.

  14. Single Chip Microcomputer Control System of Laser Engraving Machine with Membrane Resistance%薄膜电阻激光修刻机的单片机控制系统



    Membrane resistance is a core component of the potentiometer type Angle displacement sensor,directly affect the output of the sen-sor performance.High precision of angular displacement sensor membrane resistance requires precision carving.A laser carving machine con-sists of the mechanical noumenon,single chip microcomputer control part and the control software.We can use STC12C5410 SCM as the core design of laser membrane resistance engraving machine control system,is composed of single chip computer,stepping motor,laser and a number of cylinders,to control the workbench automatically fix the engraved and membrane resistance automatically feed,can achieve 0. 05 0.5% adjustable precision carving,repairing time velocity of every 1 to 2 minutes.%薄膜电阻是电位器式角位移传感器的核心构件,直接影响传感器的输出性能,高精度角位移传感器的薄膜电阻需要进行精密的修刻,激光修刻机包括机械本体、单片机控制部分和控制软件组成。采用 STC12C5410单片机为核心设计的薄膜电阻激光修刻机控制系统,由单片机、步进电机、激光器和若干辅件组成,来控制修刻工作台的自动修刻和薄膜电阻的自动进给,能实现0.050.5%可调节修刻精度,每个24分钟的修刻速度。

  15. 基于ZPETC的雕刻机直流伺服控制系统设计%Direct Current Servo Controller Design for Engraving Machine Based on Zero Phase Error Tracking Control

    张后来; 李红梅


    In order to improve tracking performance and orientation precision for an engraving machine, a zero phase error-tracking controller was firstly introduced for its DC servo control system. Due to the drawbacks such as sensitive dependence on the system's modeling error and parameters change for ZPETC, overcome them by making use of model identification, nonlinear friction compensation and disturbance observer's design. Based on abovementioned researches, a TMS320F2812 type DSP was adopted to design the DC servo control system comprised of ZPETC, PD controller and disturbance observer. Experiment results validate that the designed DC servo controller for the engraving machine has the merits of robust stability and anti-interference , nicer tracking performance and orientation precision.%为了提高雕刻机的跟踪性能和定位精度,首先在其直流伺服控制系统设计中引入了零相位误差跟踪控制器(ZPETC),然后通过模型辨识、非线性摩擦补偿及干扰观测器的设计来克服ZPETC存在的对系统建模误差和参数变化敏感的缺点.在上述研究的基础上,采用TMS320F2812型DSP设计了集ZPETC、PD控制器及干扰观测器一体的直流伺服控制系统.实验结果表明:为雕刻机所设计的直流伺服控制系统不仅有鲁棒性强和抗干扰能力强的特点,而且有良好的定位精度和跟踪性能.

  16. HeNe双频激光器频差的激光内雕赋值法%Laser-micro-engraving metho d to mo dify frequency difference of two-frequency HeNe lasers

    朱守深; 张书练; 刘维新; 牛海莎


    在精密测量领域, HeNe激光器是制造激光干涉仪的首选.但能够产生中频差4-40 MHz的双折射-塞曼双频HeNe激光器的频差是随机的,小到几百kHz,大到十几MHz.为了让频差能够满足制作双频激光干涉仪的要求,曾出现过弹性加力法、钻孔应力调节法等调整和频差赋值的方法.但这些方法在实际应用中都不是很理想.采用激光内雕法赋值频差,通过在激光器的平面输出镜内部雕刻出不同图案,使平面镜内部产生满足要求的相位延迟,达到为频差赋值的目的.激光内雕法有很多优点:不损害激光器,美观;功率损失小,出光强度可接近原始光强度;可反复赋值,频差在0-60 MHz范围内可调整;频差的稳定性好,采用稳频措施后频差的波动范围小于每小时10 kHz.%In the field of precision measurement, HeNe laser is the first choice for fabricating laser interferometer. But the frequency difference of Birefringence-Zeeman dual-frequency HeNe laser, which can produce a medium frequency difference of 4-40 MHz, is randomly from as small as hundreds of kHz to as large as a dozen of MHz. To meet the production requirements for frequency difference of dual-frequency laser interferometer, there are some methods such as elastic strength and hole-drilling stress adjustment. But in the practical application, these methods are not very satisfactory. Laser-micro-engraving method assigns frequency difference by engraving a pattern in the plane mirror, and causes the phase retardation to achieve the purpose of frequency difference assignment. Laser engraving technique has many advantages: harmless to the laser, beauty, low power loss. The output power is close to the original light intensity. The frequency difference can be repeatedly adjusted and is stable. By frequency stabilization, the frequency difference fluctuates in a range of less than 10 kHz per hour.

  17. Design of Three dimensional Photo Frame And Method of NC Engraving%个性化立体相框的设计及其数控雕刻方法

    谌鹏; 袁伟


    This paper introduces the methods of relief engraving based on image,threedimensional photo frame design and auto programming and the test of NC cutting simulation as wel as the operation process of NC cutting. The works not only are of the appearance of photo frame,but also the artistic feature of relief, and they are of the business potential on the market.%介绍了基于图像的浮雕雕刻原理,讨论了个性化立体相框的主要设计思路、自动编程方法和数控加工的仿真测试方法,提供了其数控加工的操作流程。作品具有相框的外观和浮雕的艺术特色,如将其投入市场应该具有一定的商业潜力。

  18. Linguistic Contact, Religious Interaction and Cultural Integration Between the Naxi and Tibetans-Annotations to the Mani Stones Engraved with Naxi Dongba Pictographs found in a Mani Stone Pile in Jiaqu Village, Muli County, Sichuan

    HE Jiquan


    The Mani stones bearing Naxi Dongba inscriptions were discovered in a pile of Mani stones most of which were inscribed with the Tibetan Mantra “Om Mani Padme Hhum” at the entrance to Jiaqu village in Muli County , Sichuan . These Dongba inscriptions can be regarded as hav-ing the most number of pictographs and the most complete content of all Dongba inscriptions carved on stone found up to now .Not only are these in-scriptions important local historical material , they are also important material for multi -disciplinary research, including philology , folklore study, reli-gious study, etc.They are particularly significant for studying the relationship between the Naxi and Tibetans, and especially for researching the rela-tionship among Bon , Buddhism , and Dongba reli-gions.This pile of Mani stones in Muli County consists of stones engraved with both Naxi Dongba pictographs and Tibetan .Most of the Tibetan in-scriptions are the six -word mantra “Om Mani Padme Hum”.There are three stones in the pile of stones engraved with Naxi Dongba pictographs .A complete translation for the the Dongba pictographs carved on these stones is as follow( in granting us) luck, wealth and nurture;( We) Beg ( you ) to have a kind and beautiful heart, throw away bad thoughts into hell; to pay back your kindness of dropping yak butter on our fore-heads, your kindness in creation of the world;( We ) Wish the stars in the sky will never drop down;to pay back your kindness for cultivating the lands;Seventy tillers, wish them not to be born in wrong places; Ninety shepherds, wish them not to fall into the enemy's hands. ( The spirit of the dead) will not stay in the hell, but get blessings from the god.” The Mani stone pile is representative of Tibet-an Buddhist culture , and the appearance of both Naxi Dongba pictographs and Tibetan inscriptions in a Mani stone pile at the same time is very rare . The author of this article suggests that this discov-ery is valuable for three

  19. Portable art in the Cantabrian Aurignacian. New contributions to provide a context of engraved bone of the Hornos de la Peña cave (San Felices de Buelna, Cantabria, Spain

    Tejero, José Miguel


    Full Text Available In their excavations at the cave of Hornos de la Peña (Cantabria at the beginning of the 20th century, H. Breuil, H. Obermaier and H. Alcalde del Río discovered the frontal bone of a horse engraved with a representation of that same animal. The excavators attributed the piece to the Aurignacian, but later studies have doubted whether it in fact belonged to that technocomplex. This doubt has arisen partly because until the stratigraphy at Hornos de la Peña has not been studied in detail and partly because the naturalistic character of the representation seemed to set it apart from the artistic conventions of the early Upper Palaeolithic of Cantabria. This article presents new information about the stratigraphy at the site obtained from a number of unpublished documents preserved in the archive of the Museo Arqueológico Nacional in Madrid, information that in our opinion supports an attribution of the piece to the Aurignacian.

    El hueso frontal de équido grabado con una representación de este mismo animal procedente de la Cueva de Hornos de la Peña (Cantabria, se recuperó a principios del pasado siglo XX en las excavaciones de H. Breuil, H. Obermaier y H. Alcalde del Río. A pesar de la atribución auriñaciense de sus excavadores, las diferentes publicaciones posteriores en que la pieza ha sido objeto de análisis, han mantenido siempre la duda de su pertenencia a este tecnocomplejo. A ello ha contribuido el hecho de que la estratigrafía de Hornos de la Peña no ha podido ser hasta el presente estudiada en profundidad, como también, muy probablemente, el carácter naturalista de su representación que parece alejarlo de los presupuestos artísticos del Paleolítico Superior inicial cantábrico. En este trabajo presentamos una serie de datos sobre la estratigrafía del yacimiento, obtenidos de diversos documentos inéditos conservados en el archivo del Museo Arqueológico Nacional de Madrid que, a nuestro juicio, corroboran la

  20. My culture is engraved on my tombstone

    Erdoğan Bada


    Full Text Available We, humans, mirror our cultural characteristics in death just as we do in life. This study focuses on the way the dead communicate with the living through their gravestones. For this, we surveyed, photographed and documented a plethora of gravestones affiliated to Shamanism, Taoism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, and conducted content analysis of thematized scripts on stones and objects left on graves for remembrance. Our findings suggest that each set of beliefs displays specific as well as common messages concerning the deceased and the society they belonged to. The study asserts that although we, ephemeral creatures, pass in our final hour, our gravestones keep transmitting our cultural identity from generation to generation with information regarding who and what we were.

  1. Ancient Engravings Found in Somerset Cave

    Ian; Turner; 陈晶晶



  2. Geometrías delicadas: Diseños grabados en cáscaras de huevo de Rheidae recuperados en la costa norte del Golfo San Matías, Río Negro Delicate Geometry: Engraved Designs In Rheidae Eggshells Recovered From The North Coast Of San Matías Gulf, Río Negro

    Dánae Fiore


    Full Text Available En este artículo se presentan los resultados obtenidos del análisis de 170 fragmentos de cáscaras de Rheidae decoradas recuperadas en superficie procedentes de varias localidades arqueológicas de la costa norte del Golfo San Matías (Río Negro. Se realiza una descripción y análisis de los diseños observados y se analizan las técnicas empleadas en la producción de los mismos. Para inferir dichas técnicas se realizaron observaciones microscópicas de todos los materiales arqueológicos, las cuales se complementaron con una breve serie experimental sistemática de marcas sobre un huevo de ñandú fresco usadas como criterios comparativos independientes. Se concluye que existe una tendencia que vincula la ejecución tecnológica de calidad alta/intermedia con la producción de a mayor variedad de clases de motivos y b varios de los motivos más complejos. Por último se compara el repertorio registrado en los fragmentos de cáscaras grabadas con los de otros materiales decorados de Patagonia, observándose destacadas similitudes con el de las placas líticas, piezas cerámicas y arte rupestre. Si bien no se afirma que todos ellos fueran contemporáneos, se sugiere que estos diseños habrían formado parte de un sistema supraregional de comunicación visual que excede el ámbito litoral norpatagónico.This paper presents the results of the analysis of 170 decorated eggshell fragments of Rheidae, surface finds recorded at several archaeological localities on the Northern shore of San Matías Gulf, Río Negro. A description and analysis of the designs and engraving techniques used in their creation is presented. In order to infer the decorative techniques, all the materials were subject to microscopic observations, complemented with a brief series of systematic experiments carried out on fresh American ostrich eggshell to obtain independent comparative criteria. It is concluded that there is a trend that links the high


    Sandeep Satapathy


    Full Text Available Gene imprinting has conduited the scope of our understanding of phenotypic expression and its corelation with constituent genotype. It is an epigenetic process that involves DNA methylation and histone modulation to attain monoallelic gene expression without altering the genetic sequences. A distinctive model of non-mendelian genetics, imprinting extends the control over expression of traits and selection of the allele that would direct the same, in a manner decided by the parent of origin. The constitutive existence of this imprinting even after gametogenesis, throughout the somatic development extends a clue for its regulatory hold on several heridetary traits. Several heridetary diseases like Cancers, Russell-Silver syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, Prader-Willi and Angelman Syndromes and Neurodegenration have shown to be a subsequent error in the genomic impriting process. So, understanding these epigenetic regulations can be a therapeutic strategy for disease modelling and especially targeting their patterns of heridetary inheritance.

  4. Dissolution of Droplets on a Substrate with Engraved Concentric Rings

    Encarnacion Escobar, Jose Manuel; Dietrich, Erik; Lv, Pengyu; Zandvliet, Harold; Zhang, Xuehua; Arscott, Steve; Lohse, Detlef; University of Twente Team; University of Lille Team; MCEC Team


    The nucleation of nano and micro sized drops and bubbles often occurs on catalytic surfaces lowering its efficiency. The contact angle hysteresis, which is a consequence of the pinning on heterogeneities of the surface, can dramatically affect the stability and lifetime of the drop. The stability of a surface bubble can, in fact, be theoretically calculated thanks to the assumption of the pinning of the bubble. Our experiments try to shed light on the understanding of the pinning of droplets caused by micro structures during their dissolution. It is possible to predict the depinning angle of a drying drop as a function of the geometry of the defect and the receding contact angle. Additionally, the jump from one defect to another happens fast but is not an immediate change. This dewetting happens showing the so called zipping behavior. We present quantitative data from experiments as well as the experimental techniques used, including confocal microscopy and the first analysis and comparison with the already existent theoretical models.

  5. 19 CFR 10.48 - Engravings, sculptures, etc.


    ... artist as evidence of their authenticity. In the absence of such a signature or mark, other evidence shall be required which will establish the authenticity of the work to the satisfaction of the...

  6. Lietiska etika uz personibu orienteta profesionalaja darbiba

    Nørgaard, Britta


    practice as existing in a field colored by several interests and values, each of them having an influence on this practice and each of them with different demands and values. Professional work focused on the citizen and the individual can be understood as on one hand colored by ideals as ethics...... cuts, and as a teacher and practitioner in the field for many years it is quite natural to see a certain non-simultaneity between values and views of the teacher and those of the students. I therefore see some cross-pressures exposing education to even more dilemmas related to applied ethics, and I try...... to illustrate these cross-pressures in this article, and at the end of the article I illustrate it with a figure. The question is among others to what degree education plays a role in developing what I consider as necessary professional ethics. My motivation for this article is my experience as a teacher trying...

  7. The traumatologist and the battlefield: the book that changed the history of traumatology.

    Di Matteo, Berardo; Tarabella, Vittorio; Filardo, Giuseppe; Viganò, Anna; Tomba, Patrizia; Marcacci, Maurilio


    This is a brief historical essay about the 16th century European military surgeon Hans von Gersdorff (approximately 1455 to 1529 in Strasbourg) and his epochal illustrated text, Feldbuch der Wundtartzney (Field Book of Surgery), the first manual of traumatology describing the treatment of battle injuries covering topics ranging from human anatomy to pharmacy, as a guide to field surgery, and explaining the use of surgical instruments developed by Gersdorff himself; for the first time in medical history, a precursor to scientific books for practitioners, this manual is a precious source of information, and it is illustrated by hand-colored woodcuts, attributed to distinguished German renaissance artist Hans Wechtlin; this combination of text and pictures made the Feldbuch a point of reference in the process of arriving at modern traumatology.

  8. Restoration of abraded and covered marks engraved in steel using active infrared thermography

    Quattrocchi, A.; Piccolo, Sebastiano; Montanini, R.


    by means of different manufacturing processes (laser, dot peen, impact, press and scribe). Optical excitation of the target surface has been achieved using pulse, lock-in and step heating. Raw infrared images were analysed with a dedicated image processing software originally developed in Matlab (TM......), exploiting several methods, which include thermographic signal reconstruction, guided filtering and logarithmic transformation....

  9. Niacin and heart disease prevention: Engraving its tombstone is a mistake.

    Superko, Harold Robert; Zhao, Xue-Qiao; Hodis, Howard N; Guyton, John R


    Niacin (nicotinic acid) has been used for primary and secondary coronary heart disease prevention for over 40 years. Until recently clinical trials incorporating niacin as part of an intervention strategy consistently demonstrated reduction in clinical events and lesion improvement, including ≥6% absolute mortality reduction. Two large clinical event trials in 2011 (Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome With Low HDL/High Triglycerides and Impact on Global Health Outcomes) and 2014 (Heart Protection Study 2-Treatment of HDL to Reduce the Incidence of Vascular Events) concluded that niacin added to statin therapy did not provide clinical event benefit over statin alone. This has prompted some individuals to call for an end to the use of niacin in statin-treated patients and the US Food and Drug Administration to halt marketing of statin/niacin combination tablets. There are significant differences between the earlier clinical trials that revealed cardiovascular benefit of niacin and the 2 trials that failed to demonstrate a benefit. These differences include dyslipidemia types, niacin formulation, dosing, and timing. In general, the patient population that benefits the most from incorporating niacin in their treatment regimen can be defined by elevations in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The niacin formulation and dose should be capable of achieving adequate lipoprotein change. Mealtime dosing of niacin, as opposed to bedtime dosing, may avoid a counter-regulatory hormone response, including catecholamines, because of altered fuel supply potentially leading to unexpected cardiovascular outcomes. Copyright © 2017 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Flow analysis from PIV in engraved champagne tasting glasses: flute versus coupe

    Beaumont, Fabien; Liger-Belair, Gérard; Polidori, Guillaume


    Glass shape, and especially its open aperture, is suspected to play an important role as concerns the kinetics of CO2 and flavor release during champagne tasting. In recent years, much interest has been devoted to depict each and every parameter involved in the release of gaseous CO2 from glasses poured with champagne. One cannot understand the bubbling and aromatic exhalation events in champagne tasting, however, without studying the flow-mixing mechanisms inside the glass. Indeed, a key assumption is that a causal link may exist between flow structures created in the wine due to bubble motion and the process of CO2 release and flavor exhalation. In the present work, two quite emblematic types of champagne drinking vessels are studied. The particle image velocimetry technique has been used in order to reveal the velocity field of the liquid due to the ascending bubble-driven flow for both glasses poured with champagne. The contribution of glass shape on the flow patterns and CO2 release in both glasses are discussed by the use of experimental results. The results show that the continuous flow of ascending bubbles strongly modifies the mixing and convection conditions of the surrounding liquid medium whose behavior is strongly glass shape dependent.

  11. The Antinous Braschi on Engraved Gems: An Intaglio by Giovanni Beltrami

    Hadrien J. Rambach


    Full Text Available Un grande quarzo citrino inciso è stato di recente venduto all’asta, in America, con una descrizione inesatta. Opera di Giovanni Beltrami (Cremona 1770-1854, questo intaglio rappresenta l’Antinoo Braschi. Le gemme incise raffiguranti Antinoo sono piuttosto comuni ma normalmente esse ritraggono il rilievo Albani, la statua capitolina o l’intaglio Marlborough. Il soggetto scelto per questo citrino inedito è, invece, insolito. L’Antinoo Braschi venne ritrovato nel 1793 andando ad arricchire le collezioni pontificie nel 1843. Esso fu molto apprezzato da Giuseppe Girometti (Roma, 1779-1851, che riprodusse il busto dell’Antinoo Braschi su numerosi cammei oggi conservati a Londra, in Vaticano e a Vienna. Anche Luigi Pichler (1773-1854 realizzò un intaglio, oggi perduto, con lo stesso soggetto. Mancando documenti d’archivio, si deve pensare che queste gemme fossero incise per coloro che effettuavano il Gran Tour intorno agli anni 1800-1830.

  12. Letters of the engraver Francesco Maria Gaetano Ghinghi (1689-1762 to Anton Francesco Gori

    Gabriella Tassinari


    Full Text Available Le lettere qui esaminate, conservate nella Biblioteca Marucelliana a Firenze, sono scritte da Napoli dal famoso incisore di pietre dure Francesco Maria Gaetano Ghinghi (1689-1762 al celebre erudito e antiquario Anton Francesco Gori. Esse sono ricche di interessanti notizie relative all’attività del Real Laboratorio delle Pietre Dure di Napoli, fondato nel 1737, di cui il Ghinghi fu il primo direttore, e coordinatore dell’équipe di artisti fiorentini che si erano trasferiti con lui. Il Ghinghi fornisce dati sulla circolazione di gemme a Napoli in quel periodo, sulle antichità di Ercolano (di cui il Gori fu uno dei primi a scrivere e sulla permanenza a Napoli di Antonio Pichler, capostipite di una illustre famiglia di incisori, che il Ghinghi conosceva bene, perché entrambi lavoravano per il noto collezionista di gemme Philipp von Stosch. Inoltre, in un quadro di scarsa disponibilità di calchi riproducenti gemme della collezione Farnese, acquista gran valore l’invio di tali impronte da parte del Ghinghi al Gori, che così aveva gemme non documentate altrimenti.

  13. Symbolic or utilitarian? Juggling interpretations of Neanderthal behavior: new inferences from the study of engraved stone surfaces.

    Peresani, Marco; Dallatorre, Stefania; Astuti, Paola; Dal Colle, Maurizio; Ziggiotti, Sara; Peretto, Carlo


    Different categories of finds reveal how Neanderthals have manifested at different moments behaviors not ascribable to the utilitarian sphere, but to the aesthetic or symbolic. When the majority of this evidence dates to the few millennia that preceded the spread of Anatomically Modern Humans in Europe, these are grounds to continue the debate regarding the emergence of complex behavior, seen as an autonomous phenomenon of Neanderthal man or as the result of contact with immigrant populations. Re-examination of pebbles or flaked stones, a large part of such evidence, using a rigorous technological and taphonomic approach integrated with experimental tests, has already revealed these materials to be insignificant or natural, rather than anthropic, in origin. The following work seeks to shed light on the uncertainty existing around those stones and lithic artefacts bearing surface lines and scratches; these are of doubtful anthropic origin, but have not, as yet, been definitively interpreted. Generally, these findings are occasional in Mousterian sites, and when they are recovered with an excellent degree of preservation, different methods and levels of observation can be used for investigating them. The case studies taken into account are three sites in north Italy, where the surfaces of pebbles and flakes reveal a variety of signs and modifications attributable to various utilitarian acts. Of these, preventive cleaning of flint nodules has not been excluded, even if the traces on some tools reveal intentionality and repetition of gestures applied to the construction of a curated artifact.

  14. Response of the engraver beetle, IPS perturbatus, to semiochemicals in white spruce stands of interior Alaska. Forest Service research paper

    Werner, R.A.


    Field tests on the efficacy of various scolytid bark beetle pheromones to attract Ips perturbatus (Eichhoff) were conducted from 1977 through 1992 in stands of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) in interior Alaska. Several pheromones attracted high numbers of I. perturbatus and species of the predator Thanasimus to baited funnel traps. Test results also indicated that attacks by I. perturbatus may be deferred by certain semiochemicals.

  15. 藏文传统雕版印刷源流考%Origin of Tibetan Traditional Engraving Typography




  16. Production and Quality Assessment of Instant Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.

    A.A. Abdalla


    Full Text Available In this study three baobab fruit pulp sam ples were obtained from three different locations (Kordofan,Blue Nile and Darfur and subjected to physicochemical analysis. In addition, Kordofan baobab which isavailable and highly acceptable by consumers was used to produce different types of spray dried powders. Thethree baobab samples showed the same protein, fat, Ca, P and color levels, but significantly (p# 0.05 differentfiber, total sugars, ascorbic acid, K and Fe contents. Spray drying significantly (p# 0.05 elevated fat, totalsugars, K and P contents as well as bulk density and pH, while significantly (p# 0.05 reduced moisture,protein, fiber, ash, ascorbic acid, Na, Ca and Fe contents. On the other hand color, reducing and non reducingsugars were not affected. Solubility of the sprayed powder was significantly (p# 0.05 reduced as a result oftreatment with gum Arabic, sugar and Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC. The spray dried powder obtainedfrom the pure extract of the pulp showed significantly (p# 0.05 better reconstitution properties (wetability,dispersibility and solubility in comparison to those prepared by addition of CMC or gum Arabic. The overallquality of the reconstituted drink prepared from the sprayed powder that produced from the pure 12% TSSextract (Ext pure proved to be significantly (p#0.05 better than that of the other products.

  17. The enchanted loom. [Book on evolution of intelligence

    Jastrow, R.


    The evolution of intelligence began with the movement of Crossopterygian fish onto land. The eventual appearance of large dinosaurs eliminated all but the smallest of mammalian creatures, with the survivors forced to move only nocturnally, when enhanced olfactory and aural faculties were favored and involved a larger grey matter/body mass ratio than possessed by the dinosaurs. Additionally, the mammals made comparisons between the inputs of various senses, implying the presence of significant memory capacity and an ability to abstract survival information. More complex behavior occurred with the advent of tree dwellers (forward-looking eyes), hands, color vision, and the ability to grip and manipulate objects. An extra pound of brain evolved in the human skull in less than a million years. The neural processes that can lead to an action by a creature with a brain are mimicked by the basic AND and OR gates in computers, which are rapidly approaching the circuit density of the human brain. It is suggested that humans will eventually produce computers of higher intelligence than people possess, and computer spacecraft, alive in an electronic sense, will travel outward to explore the universe.

  18. Involvement of flavanoids in beer color instability during storage.

    Callemien, Delphine; Collin, Sonia


    Besides Maillard reactions, structural rearrangements of flavan-3-ol monomers cause color changes in beer during storage. Acetone/water-soluble fractions (70/30, v/v) of three lager beers of the same batch, differently stabilized before bottling in glass or poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles, were monitored by normal-phase HPLC-ESI(-)-MS/MS over a 1-year period of storage at 20 degrees C. In parallel, beer color was monitored by the European Brewery Convention assay. The evolution of color was similar in the silica gel-filtered beer to that in identically bottled and stored poly(vinylpolypyrrolidone)-treated samples, despite the high flavanoid dimers content of the former. On the other hand, color evolved more rapidly in the PET bottle, suggesting a key role of oxygen. The kinetics was still increased in model media containing (+)-catechin, while no color was detected when normal-phase HPLC-fractionated dimers or trimers were investigated. (+)-Catechin emerged as the precursor of less polar products, characterized by a yellow-brown color. MS/MS enabled us to identify these products as issued from the oxidation and intramolecular additions of dehydrodicatechin B4. Similar structures were found in aged beers spiked with (+)-catechin. Beer storage in the absence of oxygen and at low temperature is recommended so as to minimize the synthesis of such pigments.

  19. Non-destructive analysis for the investigation of decomposition phenomena of historical manuscripts and prints

    Faubel, Werner; Staub, Susanne; Simon, Rolf; Heissler, Stefan; Pataki, Andrea; Banik, Gerhard


    As a contribution to the increasing efforts to preserve cultural heritage, historical books as well as illuminated manuscripts endangered by corrosive writing and printing materials or destructive coloring matters, non-destructive analytical methods are highly desirable enabling an in-situ examination of the surface status of an object. The development and application of a novel combination of non-destructive analytic methods based on (a) synchrotron radiation induced micro-X-ray fluorescence (SR-μXRF) and (b) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscope allows to investigate the state as well as the effectiveness of conservation procedures for historical manuscripts. Examples of measurements include (1) an iron gall ink manuscript of a historical memo on legal land description of the year 1769, (2) an original hand colored herbal of the years 1536/38 from the Senckenbergische Bibliothek, Frankfurt, and (3) the incunabula Johannes von Saaz: "Der Ackermann aus Boehmen" fated from 1463 and printed by Albrecht Pfister, Bamberg, owned by the Herzog August Bibliothek, Wolfenbuettel.

  20. Non-destructive analysis for the investigation of decomposition phenomena of historical manuscripts and prints

    Faubel, Werner [Institute for Technical Chemistry, Water-and Geotechnology Division, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Staub, Susanne [Institute for Synchrotron Radiation, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Simon, Rolf [Institute for Synchrotron Radiation, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)], E-mail:; Heissler, Stefan [Institute for Synchrotron Radiation, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Pataki, Andrea; Banik, Gerhard [State Academy of Art and Design Stuttgart, Department of Book and Paper Conservation , Hoehenstr. 16, 70736 Fellbach (Germany)


    As a contribution to the increasing efforts to preserve cultural heritage, historical books as well as illuminated manuscripts endangered by corrosive writing and printing materials or destructive coloring matters, non-destructive analytical methods are highly desirable enabling an in-situ examination of the surface status of an object. The development and application of a novel combination of non-destructive analytic methods based on (a) synchrotron radiation induced micro-X-ray fluorescence (SR-{mu}XRF) and (b) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscope allows to investigate the state as well as the effectiveness of conservation procedures for historical manuscripts. Examples of measurements include (1) an iron gall ink manuscript of a historical memo on legal land description of the year 1769, (2) an original hand colored herbal of the years 1536/38 from the Senckenbergische Bibliothek, Frankfurt, and (3) the incunabula Johannes von Saaz: 'Der Ackermann aus Boehmen' fated from 1463 and printed by Albrecht Pfister, Bamberg, owned by the Herzog August Bibliothek, Wolfenbuettel.

  1. "一次次洪峰曾从我心中淌过"——亲身经历的几件事%Memories engraved on mind




  2. Time Studies for Translation and Engraving of Tibetan Scripture in Qing Character%《清文全藏经》译刻起止时间研究




  3. La historia sacra del Santísimo Sacramento contra las heregias destos tiempos"An iconographic study of the engravings illustrating the work

    Calvo Portela, Juan Isaac


    Full Text Available En este artículo se hace un estudio iconográfico de las dos estampas que ilustran el libro del dominico fray Alonso de Ribera, La Historia Sacra del Santissimo Sacramento contra las heregias destos tiempos, editado por Luis Sánchez en Madrid en 1626. En dichas estampas se plasman dos aspectos que van a ser fundamentales de la religiosidad contrarreformista española del siglo XVII, la defensa a ultranza de la Eucaristía y la lucha contra la herejía. In this article is made an iconographic study of the two prints that illustrate the book of the Dominican Fray Alonso de Ribera, La Historia Sacra del Santissimo Sacramento contra las heregias destos tiempos, edited by Luis Sanchez in Madrid in 1626. In these prints are reflected two aspects that are going to be essential on the religiosity Spanish Counterreform of the seventeenth century, the stubborn defense of the Eucharist and the fight against heresy.

  4. On the Meaning of Zoroastrian Stone Engravings in Chinese History of Art%中国祆教画像石在艺术史上的意义




  5. CAD/CAM系统用于雕刻的 DNC功能开发%Development of DNC for CAD/CAM System in Engraving

    林碧; 谢明红


    由于雕刻加工的图案往往比较复杂,生成的加工代码较长,而数控系统自身的内存小,所以必须采用 DNC传输来实现其在线加工,通过对 DNC传输技术进行了深入的研究,给出了具体框架及实现流程.

  6. 论雕版印刷术原理发明于汉代%On the Theory That Engraving Typography Was Invented in the Han Dynasty




  7. 论版画技术语言与海德格尔"语言"观的内在一致性%On Internal Coincidence between Technological Language of Engraving and Language Ideas of Heideggers



    @@ 技术尺度影响和支配着人类生活的各个方面,亦在本质上把握了时代的脉搏.在人与版画艺术的关系中,凭借技术尺度的规定,艺术语言常以"概念化"的形态,成为版画制作技术的对象物.

  8. On How to Integrate the Creativity Ideas and Time-spirits in the Art of Engraving%版画艺术的创作思想与时代性




  9. A Non-Destructive Study of Printing Materials of an Imperial China Green Engraved Coiling Dragon Stamp%清代绿色蟠龙邮票印刷材料无损分析

    甘清; 季金鑫; 姚娜; 王纪刚; 周文华; 周忠; 施继龙


    利用超景深三维视频显微镜,激光显微共聚焦拉曼光谱仪和扫描电镜-能谱仪对一张清代绿色蟠龙邮票样品的纸张,油墨等印刷材料进行无损分析。结果表明,该样票采用手工雕刻凹版印刷,所用承印物为长纤维机制纸,未经过涂布,无水印,背胶;纸张填料中含有 Al,Si 等元素,推断纸张填料可能是高岭土(Al2 O3·2SiO2·2H2 O)之类的物质。绿色油墨包含了蓝色普鲁士蓝(Prussian Blue,Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3·14-16 H2 O)和黄色铬酸铅[Lead(Ⅱ)chromate,PbCrO4]颜料,根据印刷色彩学色料减色和色光加色理论分析,邮票样品呈现的绿色是由蓝色颜料普鲁士蓝和黄色颜料铬酸铅混合呈色的结果;油墨填料中含有 Na,Mg, S,Cl,K,Ca,V,Zn,Ba等元素,推断油墨填料为MgCO3,CaCO3,BaSO4等物质。上述三项技术联用,在邮票等纸质品的无损分析中具有广阔的应用前景。%Non-destructive measurement methods including video microscopy (VM),Raman spectrometer (RS),and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS)were employed to analyze the printing materials of a green curled-up dragon stamp sample from the late Qing Dynasty in terms of the paper and ink.The results indicated that the plate-making process of the sample belonged to handcrafted gravure while the slender and dense paper fiber with no coating,water-mark,or gumming.Elements of Al and Si were inspected in fillers of paper,therefore,it could be inferred that kaolin (Al2 O3 · 2SiO2·2H2O)wasthefillerofpaper.GreeninkwasmadeupofbluepigmentPrussianBlue(Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3·14-16H2O)and yellow pigment Lead(II)chromate(PbCrO4 ).According to theories of additive color and subtractive color,ink presented green color due to the effect of Prussian blue and Lead chromate mixed together.Elements of Na,Mg,S,Cl,K,Ca,V,Zn and Ba were measured from fillers of the ink and it could be inferred that MgCO3 ,BaSO4 ,CaCO3 and other substances might be con-tained in ink fillers.This study with three techniques mentioned above is viable and it has a broad application in non-destructive analysis of printing and paper-based artwork.

  10. Method of Relief Engraving Based on Image and Application of Auto Programming Software%基于图像的浮雕雕刻方法及其自动编程软件的应用




  11. Restudy of the Pictography on the Bronze Plate with Engraved Signs Un-earthed from Shizhaishan in Jinning, Yunnan%再论云南晋宁石寨山刻纹铜片上的图画文字



    一、石寨山第13号墓出土的刻纹铜片 1956年,云南省昆明市晋宁县石寨山古墓群第13号墓中出土了1块长方形铜片(石甲M13:67)[1]。该铜片下端已残缺,上端居中处有一圆形小孔。残长42厘米,小孔径约0.7厘米,上下宽度并不完全一致,上端宽12.9厘米,中间宽12.5厘米,下端宽12.6厘米,厚0.1厘米,表面镀锡,时代为西汉中期。

  12. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica


    This pair of MISR images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left is a conventional, true-color image from the downward-looking (nadir) camera. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data taken by the MISR forward 60-degree, nadir, and aftward 60-degree cameras, displayed in red, green, and blue colors, respectively. Color variations in the left (true-color) image highlight spectral differences. In the multi-angle composite, on the other hand, color variations act as a proxy for differences in the angular reflectance properties of the scene. In this representation, clouds show up as light purple. Blue to orange gradations on the surface indicate a transition in ice texture from smooth to rough. For example, the bright orange 'carrot-like' features are rough crevasses on the glacier's tongue. In the conventional nadir view, the blue ice labeled 'rough crevasses' and 'smooth blue ice' exhibit similar coloration, but the multi-angle composite reveals their different textures, with the smoother ice appearing dark purple instead of orange. This could be an indicator of different mechanisms by which this ice is exposed. The multi-angle view also reveals subtle roughness variations on the frozen sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay.To the left of the 'icebergs' label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of the label. These small icebergs are associated with dark streaks. Analysis of the illumination geometry suggests that these streaks are surface features, not shadows. Wind-driven motion and thinning of the sea ice in the vicinity of the icebergs is one possible explanation.Recently, Robert Bindschadler, a glaciologist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center discovered in Landsat 7 imagery a newly-formed crack traversing the Pine Island Glacier. This crack is

  13. To Impress The World



    @@ An Exhibition of Fine Works of Seal Engraving Art was held in the Cultural Center of the World Expo in Shanghai in mid-August. The exhibition was organized by the Chinese Academy of Seal Engraving of the Chinese Academy of Arts.

  14. 卖场(英文)



    Carved lacquer is one of China's traditional art forms.The technique involves the application of natural lacquer,either red or black,to a wooden surface,and then engraving delicate designs into the lacquer.Three things are required for high quality carved lacquer:Exquisite engraving,radiant luster and an elegant shape.

  15. 卖场(英文)



    Carved lacquer is one of China's traditional art forms.The technique involves the application of natural lacquer,either red or black,to a wooden surface,and then engraving delicate designs into the lacquer.Three things are required for high quality carved lacquer:Exquisite engraving,radiant luster,and an elegant shape.

  16. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 580 - Secure Printing Processes and Other Secure Processes


    ... an engraved plate meets the paper under extremely high pressure forcing the paper into the incisions... the production of bank-notes and other security documents whereby an engraved plate meets the paper under extremely high pressure forcing the paper into the incisions below the surface of the plate....

  17. The "Illustrated" Souls of Black Folk

    Du Bois, W. E. B.


    Richly illustrated, this special edition of Du Bois's seminal work includes historical woodcuts and engravings, photos and documents. Most of the photos, engravings, and documents are from the 19th and early 20th century and depict American slavery and its legacy, African-American life, and the prominent figures and events associated with the…

  18. 77 FR 64519 - Magnesium Elektron; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Orders To Aid Public Comment


    ... information such as costs, sales statistics, inventories, formulas, patterns, devices, manufacturing processes... Worldwide, Inc. (``Revere''). Under the terms of the proposed Consent Agreement, MEL is required to sell... Engraving, Inc. (``Universal Engraving''). In September 2007, MEL acquired the worldwide assets of...

  19. 晚明文人士大夫居士化的多元景观——以刻经、念佛、纵欲为例%BUDDHISTIC BEHAVIOUR DIVERSITY OF UTERATI IN THE LATE MING DYNASTY With Sutra Engraving,Buddha Praying,Eroticism Iidulging as an Example




  20. Experimental and theoretical study of Bragg-Fresnel focalizing optical systems engraved on multi layers interferential mirrors adapted to X and X-UV fields; Etude experimentale et theorique d`optiques focalisantes de type Bragg-Fresnel gravees sur des miroirs interferentiels multicouches adaptes aux domaines X et X-UV

    Idir, M.


    This work concerns the study of a particular type of X-ray focusing optics known as Bragg-Fresnel lenses, formed through ion-etching of multilayered structures. Using the Super-ACO (LURE/Orsay) synchrotron storage ring, we tested several Bragg-Fresnel lenses having either linear or elliptical geometries (producing a line or a point focus, respectively). Diffraction profiles were first obtained for the linear lenses ion-etched on W/Si multilayers of nano-metric period. The experimental results were compared with our theoretical predictions. We next proposed and tested a solution to the problem superposing the different diffraction orders in the focal plane, that of fabricating Bragg-Fresnel lenses with an off-axis configuration, first for the linear and then the elliptical geometry. An experimental application, for an off-axis elliptical lens produced a focused X-ray spot of 5 x 10 microns{sup 2} for the Super-ACO synchrotron source. The same lens also produced a 1/3-size X-ray image of a grid-like object at 1750 eV using the first and third diffraction orders. (author).

  1. 清水出芙蓉,天然去雕饰--论盛唐人对真态真情之美的追求%Out of Clear Water Lotus Engraved by Nature--On the People's Pursuit of Beauty in Unaffected Manner and Emotion in the Prime Tang Dynasty




  2. A Revolução Mexicana nas gravuras do Museu de Arte de Santa Catarina: entre aparição e nostalgia (Axe VI, Symposium 23)

    Pereira, Lucésia


    Pesquisa desenvolvida na Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina com recursos do CNPq.; The present article has the purpose to study a set of engravings donated in 1961 by the mexican president Adolfo Lopes Mateus to the then called Museu de Arte Moderna de Florianópolis. We have known by its authorship that part of the images of this set of engravings belongs to an specific history of engraving in Mexico, very representative of the production of TGP – Taller de Grafica Popular (Atelier of Pop...

  3. Linear Regression Based Real-Time Filtering

    Misel Batmend


    Full Text Available This paper introduces real time filtering method based on linear least squares fitted line. Method can be used in case that a filtered signal is linear. This constraint narrows a band of potential applications. Advantage over Kalman filter is that it is computationally less expensive. The paper further deals with application of introduced method on filtering data used to evaluate a position of engraved material with respect to engraving machine. The filter was implemented to the CNC engraving machine control system. Experiments showing its performance are included.

  4. In search of a representation of the Gavrinis megalithic tomb (Morbihan, France

    Serge Cassen


    Full Text Available Gavrinis, on the estuary of the river Vannes (Brittany, France, is known for the extraordinary abundance of engravings preserved on the monolithic wall pillars and capstone. Our objective is to re-qualify these representations using a new frame of reference, based on a new corpus of engraved signs, including their architectural context and position in the volume of the rock. Recording of the topographical, archaeological, petrographic and acoustic data of the cairn and the passage grave provides a representation of both architecture and engraved and painted signs

  5. Pocket gauge for checking insert clocking of multipin circular connectors

    Billmeyer, E.


    Prototype gauge has been constructed of heavy clear plastic with engraved degree lines, numerals, and alignment lines. With suitable modification, gauge can be mass produced. It could be marketed directly to users or to manufacturers of circular multipin connectors.

  6. Art on Rock


    With sprawling deserts and serene lakes, the natural wonders of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region have never failed totake the breath away from visitors. The areahas another major attraction, though: the Helan Mountain rock engravings.

  7. Los medallones pequeños del coro alto de la Sillería de la Catedral de Córdoba

    Navarrete Prieto, Benito


    Full Text Available Study about the engraving and drawing sources that Pedro Duque Cornejo used for the little medallions of the upper choir in the Choir-Stalls of the Cordoba Cathedral made between 1747-1757.No disponible

  8. The Blind Girl at the Holy Well - a Scene in the West of Ireland

    Burton, Frederic William (Irish painter and museum director, 1816-1900)


    Engraved by H. T. Ryall for the Royal Irish Art Union, 1840. Exhibited R.H.A., 1840, No. 257; The Irish Industrial Exhibition, 1853, No. 1001; Whitechapel Exhibition of Irish Art, London, 1913, No. 75,

  9. 1800 mechanical movements, devices and appliances

    Hiscox, Gardner D


    A fascinating compendium of early-20th-century mechanical devices, this expansive work ranges from basic levers to complex machinery. More than 1,800 engravings include simple illustrations and detailed cross-sections.

  10. Art on Rock

    HU YUE


    @@ With sprawling deserts and serene lakes, the natural wonders of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region have never failed to take the breath away from visitors. The area has another major attraction, though: the Helan Mountain rock engravings.

  11. Optical Systems For High Power Laser Beam Delivery

    Durville, Frederic M.; Cilia, D.


    During the pst fifteen years, pwerful lasers have been developed for industrial applications such as cutting, piercing, welding, engraving, etc... Convenient and reliable delivery systems are still needed to widen their field of application.

  12. Investigating the tool marks on oracle bones inscriptions from the Yinxu site (ca., 1319-1046 BC), Henan province, China.

    Zhao, Xiaolong; Tang, Jigen; Gu, Zhou; Shi, Jilong; Yang, Yimin; Wang, Changsui


    Oracle Bone Inscriptions in the Shang dynasty (1600-1046 BC) are the earliest well-developed writing forms of the Chinese character system, and their carving techniques have not been studied by tool marks analysis with microscopy. In this study, a digital microscope with three-dimensional surface reconstruction based on extended depth of focus technology was used to investigate tool marks on the surface of four pieces of oracle bones excavated at the eastern area of Huayuanzhuang, Yinxu site(ca., 1319-1046 BC), the last capital of the Shang dynasty, Henan province, China. The results show that there were two procedures to carve the characters on the analyzed tortoise shells. The first procedure was direct carving. The second was "outlining design," which means to engrave a formal character after engraving a draft with a pointed tool. Most of the strokes developed by an engraver do not overlap the smaller draft, which implies that the outlining design would be a sound way to avoid errors such as wrong and missing characters. The strokes of these characters have different shape at two ends and variations on width and depth of the grooves. Moreover, the bottom of the grooves is always rugged. Thus, the use of rotary wheel-cutting tools could be ruled out. In most cases, the starting points of the strokes are round or flat while the finishing points are always pointed. Moreover, the strokes should be engraved from top to bottom. When vertical or horizontal strokes had been engraved, the shell would be turned about 90 degrees to engrave the crossed strokes from top to bottom. There was no preferred order to engrave vertical or horizontal strokes. Since both sides of the grooves of the characters are neat and there exists no unorganized tool marks, then it is suggested that some sharp tools had been used for engraving characters on the shells. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:827-832, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Castle Ward, County Down

    Fisher, Jonathan


    Fisher was a painter and engraver in Ireland, working after the Dutch and Italian landscape painting tradition. He is best known by engravings after his designs, of which a large number were produced during his career.[notes from Irish Paintings in the `National Gallery of Ireland?, 2001]The present painting depicts Castle Ward in the distance, an 18th century dwelling famed for its mix of Classical and Gothic architecture.

  14. [Castleward from Strangford Lough

    Fisher, Jonathan


    Fisher was a painter and engraver in Ireland, working after the Dutch and Italian landscape painting tradition. He is best known by engravings after his designs, of which a large number were produced during his career.[notes from Irish Paintings in the `National Gallery of Ireland?, 2001] The house depicted in the present painting is believed to be Castle Ward of County Down, Northern Ireland. This 18th century dwelling is famed for its mix of Classical and Gothic architecture.

  15. Castleward, County Down

    Fisher, Jonathan


    Fisher was a painter and engraver in Ireland, working after the Dutch and Italian landscape painting tradition. He is best known by engravings after his designs, of which a large number were produced during his career.[notes from Irish Paintings in the `National Gallery of Ireland?, 2001]The house depicted in the present painting is Castle Ward, located in County Down, Northern Ireland. The 18th century house is famed for its mixture of Classical and Gothic styles.

  16. Iconografie “antiche” nella collezione di calchi di intagli e cammei di Antonio Berini ai Civici Musei di Storia ed Arte di Trieste

    Gabriella Tassinari


    Full Text Available Antonio Berini (Rome 1770-Milan 1861, famous gem-engraver, before 1804 decided to move from Rome to Milan, the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, where he lived, estemeed and praised; he was employed by the court and prestigious art patrons to engrave intaglios and cameos.A big collection of 114 plaster casts of intaglios and cameos made by Berini, without explanations, is now in the Civici Musei of Storia and Arte in Trieste, part of the bequest of Filippo Zamboni, cosmopolitan man of letters. These casts are a Berini’s very interesting “instrument of work”: in fact there are multiple casts and casts of works of other gem-engravers. Zamboni knew Berini very well; he writes that the artist was able to imitate ancient intaglios and cameos so perfectly that his engravings were mistakenly thought ancient. The subjects analysed in this article are common and often engraved by the artists of the second half of Eighteenth Century - first half of Nineteenth Century: the famous intaglio known as the Strozzi Medusa (reproduced by almost all engravers, Atena/Minerva/Roma’s head, Esculapio’s bust, Paride’s bust, gems depicting Famous Men, as Mecenate, Dante, Petrarca, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raffaello, Shakespeare, Alessandro Tassoni.

  17. Fabrication of microfluidic devices: improvement of surface quality of CO2 laser machined poly(methylmethacrylate) polymer

    Mohammed, Mazher I.; Nazrul Hisham Zainal Alam, Muhd; Kouzani, Abbas; Gibson, Ian


    Laser engraving has considerable potential for the rapid and cost effective manufacturing of polymeric microfluidic devices. However, fabricated devices are hindered by relatively large surface roughness in the engraved areas, which can perturb smooth fluidic flow and can damage sensitive biological components. This effect is exacerbated when engraving at depths beyond the laser focal range, limiting the production of large aspect ratio devices such as microbioreactors. This work aims to overcome such manufacturing limitations and to realise more reproducible and defect free microfluidic channels and structures. We present a strategy of multiple engraving passes alongside solvent polymer reflow for shallow depth (500 µm) features. To examine the proposed methodologies, capillary action and bioreactor microfluidic devices were fabricated and evaluated. Results indicate that the multiple engraving technique could reproduce engraved microfluidic channels to depths between 50-470 µm, both rapidly (6-8 min) and with low average surface roughness (1.5-2.5 µm). The layer cutting approach was effective at manufacturing microfluidic devices with depths  <500 µm, rapidly (<1 min) and with low surface roughness. Ultimately, the proposed methodology is highly beneficial for the rapid development of polymer-based microfluidic devices.

  18. On the lost portrait of Galileo by the Tuscan painter Santi di Tito

    Molaro, Paolo


    We study here the first established image of Galileo from the engraving made by Giuseppe Calendi at the end of the eighteenth century after a lost portrait of 1601 by Santi di Tito. We show that the engraving cannot be an exact copy, as it contains several inaccuracies which are unlikely to have been present in the original painting. A recent claim of the discovery of the painting by Santi di Tito is examined, and some reasons for suspecting it to be a forgery are outlined. As an alternative, we suggest a connection between the engraving and a portrait attributed to Tintoretto (which is currently in the collection of the Padua Civic Museum). The engraving and the Padua painting look quite different but can be traced to a common origin if we assume that Calendi added the half body, copied the painting onto copper plate directly, and adjusted the shading slightly. In this way, several features and details of the engraving find a plausible explanation. Finally, we note a remarkable similarity between the Padua portrait and a figure included in a Cologne painting by Rubens dating to about 1602-1604, which was suggested by Huemer to be Galileo.

  19. Esculturas de équidos procedentes de la colección de Alhonoz (Puente-Genil, Córdoba

    Cuadrado, Emeterio


    Full Text Available This is a study of a group of reliefs and stone engravings made on sandstone plates, all from the Mesa de Luque (Córdoba. The discovery of these engravings raises the possibility that a new Iberian culture sanctuary existed near here.

    Se estudia un conjunto de relieves y grabados realizados en losas de arenisca procedentes de la Mesa de Luque (Córdoba. El hallazgo plantea la posible existencia de un nuevo santuario ibérico en las cercanías del lugar.

  20. Design and Realization of Uniform Fiber Bragg Grating Used in Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing Systems


    Relation of optical properties in a uniform fiber Bragg grating(FBG) with its grating parameters and the laser beam engraving conditions is analyzed. The principle and method for designing the uniform FBG used in dense wavelength division multiplexing(DWDM) system is given. By adopting the double exposure technique, with a uniform phase mask and Gaussian laser beam, the uniform FBG used in DWDM system is designed and engraved, whose bandwidth of the main reflection band is about 0.4nm and 0.7nm at -5dB and -25dB respectively.

  1. 「黒い獣」 : テッド・ヒューズの『カラス』

    木村, 恵子


    In 1957, with the invitation from engraver and sculptor Lenard Baskin tomake a book about his Crow, Ted Hughes wrote some poems to accompanyBaskin’s engravings. This experience inspired him to produce his own book aboutthe Crow entitled Crow: From the Life and Songs of the Crow (1970, 1972). Inwriting the book, Hughes drew on his own knowledge of mythology and folkloreabout the crow. In the 1960s, Hughes became especially interested in the myths ofNative Americans. In some of their myths, the...

  2. The 'Stolpersteine' and the Commemoration of Life, Death, and Government

    Östman, Lars

    of the victims. The Stolpersteine are made out of cement and with a ‘HIER WOHNTE’ engraved on the brass plate on top of the stone they indicate where the individual victim lived; name, day of birth and death as well as the victim’s fate is also engraved on the stone. The Stolpersteine are installed not only...... the integrity of the homes of current residents. The Stolpersteine wish to restore the victims’s dignity via the use of legal, ethical, and religious categories; hence, through the Stolpersteine the factual past seems to be normalized using the same principles from the state of law which the Third Reich...

  3. In search of a representation of the Gavrinis megalithic tomb (Morbihan, France)

    Serge Cassen; Laurent Lescop; Valentin Grimaud; Guirec Querré; Bruno Suner


    Gavrinis, on the estuary of the river Vannes (Brittany, France), is known for the extraordinary abundance of engravings preserved on the monolithic wall pillars and capstone. Our objective is to re-qualify these representations using a new frame of reference, based on a new corpus of engraved signs, including their architectural context and position in the volume of the rock. Recording of the topographical, archaeological, petrographic and acoustic data of the cairn and the passage grave prov...

  4. Los Moros de San Vítores cave (Medio Cudeyo). A new site of paleolithic rock art in Cantabria


    We are introducing a new example of Paleolithic art, recently discovered in the cave known as “Los Moros de San Vitores”. This example consists of dots and red patches located in the main entrance of the cave and a panel with four engraved animals and a kind of sign, situated on its last part All these engravings, with their great stylistic and formal similarities, belong to the Magdalenian period.

    Se presenta un nuevo conjunto parietal paleolítico descubierto recientemente...

  5. Archaeological Investigations at a Wisconsin Petroglyph Site

    Jack Steinbring


    Full Text Available Preliminary test excavations at the Hensler Petroglyph Site in East Central Wisconsin, U.S.A. have disclosed the remains of aboriginal engravings below Aeolian sediments dated to ca. 15,000 years B.P. The stratified deposits lying adjacent to an engraved panel, containing 35 pecked images, have yielded animal-like cobbles, some covered with red ochre, apparently picked for some esoteric use. The site itself has unusual natural shapes in the rock formation, along with acoustical properties, lightning strikes, a magnetic anomaly, and geographic prominence. Collectively these factors are thought to have attracted the ancient rock artists to the site.

  6. Symmetries in Images on Ancient Seals

    Sparavigna, Amelia


    In this paper, we discuss the presence of symmetries in images engraved on ancient seals, in particular on stamp seals. Mainly used to secure the containers from tampering and for owner's identification, these objects appeared during the 5th millennium BC in Mesopotamia. Usually the seals were engraved with simple images, suitable to communicate an immediate information. Rotational symmetries are already displayed by the most ancient stamp seals, whose images reach a quasi-perfect symmetry in their small circular or ovoid spaces. Bilateral symmetries are quite common in Egyptian scarab seals.

  7. Improvement of the surface finish obtained by laser ablation with a Nd: YAG laser on pre-ablated tool steel

    Steyn, J


    Full Text Available Surface finish is an important requirement for tool and die makers and remains a challenge with conventional machining technologies. Nd: YAG lasers have been utilised for many years in the area of laser marking, engraving and micro machining...

  8. Refugees and Forced Displacement: Challenges for the Military Planner


    James V. DeFronzo (Santa-Barabara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2006), 2:353. 121 Emma Lazarus’ poem, The New Colossus was written in 1883. It is engraved on a...refugees continued to trickle in. However, the evolving environmental crisis in the Gulf of Mexico quickly dominated the media and captured the

  9. Reward Merit with Praise.

    Andrews, Hans A.


    Describes the efforts of two educational institutions to reward teaching excellence using positive feedback rather than merit pay incentives. An Arizona district, drawing on Herzberg's motivation theories, offers highly individualized rewards ranging from computers to conference money, while an Illinois community college bestows engraved plaques…

  10. 31 CFR 601.2 - Description of paper.


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Description of paper. 601.2 Section... ENGRAVING AND PRINTING, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DISTINCTIVE PAPER FOR UNITED STATES CURRENCY AND OTHER SECURITIES § 601.2 Description of paper. The paper utilized in the printing of United States currency and...

  11. A Pedagogy of Sight: Microscopic Vision in Robert Hooke's "Micrographia"

    Jack, Jordynn


    Robert Hooke's "Micrographia" (1665) holds an important place in the history of scientific visual rhetoric. Hooke's accomplishment lies not only in a stunning array of engravings, but also in a "pedagogy of sight"--a rhetorical framework that instructs readers how to view images in accordance with an ideological or epistemic program. Hooke not…

  12. Stone sculptures of goddesses on the boats from Goa, west coast of India

    Gaur, A; Kerkar, R.

    goddess panels. A few sculptures reflect influence of folk art traditions in Goa. On the basis of lion figures in a few sculptured panels indicate that these boat motifs must have been engraved during the Kadamba period (10 th - 13 th) when Goa witnessed...

  13. 77 FR 59992 - Announcement of Humanities Medal Design Competition Under the America COMPETES Reauthorization...


    ... the idea of the humanities--the study of literature, philosophy, history, and other subjects--into a... medalist will be engraved here. ] b) Things to keep in mind as you draft a design: The medal hangs on a..., history, philosophy--need to be conveyed in the design of the medal. This may be done through a...

  14. Should Tobacco Sponsorship Of Education Be Banned?


    After the massive earthquake in Sichuan Province in May 2008, a primary school funded by a tobacco company was set up in the quake-stricken area. On the roof of the school building stands the signboard "Sichuan Tobacco Hope Primary School." A slogan engraved on another board reads, "Tobacco helps your success."

  15. Laser micro machining of medical devices.

    Rausch, Y


    Excimer and increasingly ultra-short-pulsed lasers are important tools in the creation of microstructures and nanostructures. Capabilities of the latest systems are described, which include drilling 30-microm diameter holes in 50 to 100 microm thick metal foils and subsurface engraving of transparent materials.

  16. 76 FR 64428 - Senior Executive Service; Combined Performance Review Board (PRB)


    ... Bureau of the Public Debt Senior Executive Service; Combined Performance Review Board (PRB) AGENCY... Board (PRB). SUMMARY: This notice announces the appointment of the members of the Combined Performance Review Board (PRB) for the Bureau of the Public Debt (BPD), the Bureau of Engraving and Printing...

  17. Union is Love's Wish

    van Asperen, H.


    Around 1587 the Haarlem engraver Jacob Matham executed a print series of the seven virtues and seven vices after designs by Hendrick Goltzius. Goltzius added an unusual element to the figure group of Charity: two boys embracing and kissing. In a slightly earlier printed version of the same subject t

  18. Charlie Soong and Wilmington



    IN front of the Fifth Avenue Methodist Church in Wilmington, North Carolina stands a monument erected. in 1944 which reveals an unusual historic connection with China. The engraved plaque states that Charlie Jones Soong, father of the famous Soong family of modern China, converted to Christianity in this church on November 7, 1880.

  19. Fundamental triangulation networks in Denmark

    Borre, Kai


    Academy of Sciences and Letters initiated a mapping project which should be based on the principle of triangulation. Eventually 24 maps were printed in varying scales, predominantly in 1:120 000. The last map was engraved in 1842. The Danish GradeMeasurement initiated remeasurements and redesign...

  20. 33 CFR 13.01-30 - Description of Silver Lifesaving Medal.


    ... encircled by the words: “United States of America”, in the upper half, and “Act of Congress, August 4, 1949”, in the lower half. On the reverse there appears a laurel wreath encircled by the words: “In testimony of heroic deeds in saving life from the perils of the water.” (b) Engraving: Before presentation, the...

  1. Parameters of calibration of the measurement system of {sup 222} Rn based in LR-115; Parametros de calibracion del sistema de medicion de {sup 222} Rn basado en LR-115

    Garcia, M.L.; Mireles, F.; Quirino, L.; Davila, I.; Lugo, F.; Pinedo, J.L. [CREN-UAZ, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Chavez, A. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail:


    Since the SSNTD technique (Solid State Nuclear Track Detection) it was discovered it has been used as passive method for the detection of subnuclear particles in great variety of fields of the science. The use of the technique in measurements of {sup 222} Rn in air have already been established implying better methodologies in the exhibition to the environment until their engraving and reading processes. The SSNTD technique is since a method by comparison since the material it can be used a single time, therefore it requires of calibration in one controlled radon atmosphere, using gauged standards. The objective of this work is to show the calibration of the devices used as radon monitors based on SSNTD. The material used as SSNTD is LR-115 Il. The standardization of the parameters used in the exhibition to radon in air, engraving and reading process, its are based on the response of the LR-115 Il, the one arrangement of the device, engraving speed and mainly the calibration factor. They are considered two types of monitors: Open camera and Closed camera, the difference among the calibration factors of both cameras is the percentage of the descendants of radon in the open camera. The standardized parameters are operation voltage of the counting system; temperature, time and concentration of the engraving solution; and thickness. (Author)

  2. 78 FR 771 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance


    .... Incorporated, HFAB sand HBUMP Manufacturing and Testing, Volt Workforce Solutions. 82,161 Remington Medical... Aluminum Hannibal, OH......... October 22, 2012. Corporation, I.C. Staffing Solutions LLC and Winans... Technologies, Eco Energy Solutions. 81,965 Melco Engraving, Inc...... Rochester Hills, MI.. 81,975...

  3. "Carved Silk" Masterpieces


    "Carved silk" originated during the Five Dynasties (907-960) period and gained great popularity during the Song Dynasty (960-1279). This particular style of weave, which features the same design on both sides, is clearly defined as if engraved with a knife. The distinct quality of the work led to the moniker "Carved Silk." The two most outstanding pieces of carved silk—

  4. The Introduction and Early Use of Lithography in the United States.

    Barnhill, Georgia B.

    This paper discusses the use of lithography in the United States in the early 1800s. Highlights include: the development of lithography in Germany between 1796 and 1798; early expectations for lithography; competition against the existing technology for the production of images--relief prints and copper-plate engravings; examples of 18th-century…

  5. Music Performed in the Triumphal Entry of the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand into Antwerp

    Grijp, L.P.; Knaap, A.C.; Putnam, M.


    In this essay we have looked at performative aspects of the triumphal entry of Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand into Antwerp (1635), especially music. We were confronted with the paradoxical situation that in the engravings of Pompa Introitus Ferdinandi practically no music is seen or mentioned, but

  6. Riotous Images: Representations of Joseph Priestley in British Prints during the French Revolution

    Clay, Richard


    This article focuses on printed images that were published in Britain during the 1790s, depicting the educationist, theologian, chemist, physicist, historian and philosopher Joseph Priestley (1733-1804). It is argued that such etchings and engravings are indicative of, and contributed to, the lifelong political and historical education of late…

  7. 33 CFR 13.01-25 - Description of Gold Lifesaving Medal.


    ... is encircled by the words: “United States of America”, in the upper half, and “Act of Congress...; the whole is encircled by the words: “In testimony of heroic deeds in saving life from the perils of the water.” (b) Engraving: Before presentation, the recipient's name shall be inscribed on the...

  8. 76 FR 69798 - Senior Executive Service; Departmental Performance Review Board


    ... Financing Richard L. Gregg, Fiscal Assistant Secretary Rosa G. Rios, Treasurer of the United States Nani Ann.... Lebryk, Commissioner, Financial Management Service Wanda J. Rogers, Deputy Commissioner, Financial.... Gardiner, Deputy Director, Bureau of Engraving and Printing Richard A. Peterson, Deputy Director, U.S....

  9. 77 FR 63417 - Senior Executive Service; Departmental Performance Review Board Members


    ... Secretary for Terrorist Financing Mark Mazur, Assistant Secretary for Tax Policy Richard L. Gregg, Fiscal..., Commissioner, Financial Management Service and Bureau of the Public Debt Wanda J. Rogers, Deputy Commissioner... Pamela J. Gardiner, Deputy Director, Bureau of Engraving and Printing Richard A. Peterson,...

  10. Reconstrucción virtual de la Estancia Jesuítica de Nuestra Señora de Belén (Calera de las Huérfanas

    Marcelo Payssé Álvarez


    Full Text Available The present project consists of the three-dimensional recreation of the Jesuitical Farm of Bethlehem, as it was approximately in 1790, including the topography, architecture, notable buildings, territory, equipment, etc., that allow tours across animations, stereoscopic images, layouts and engravings of the epoch, by means of immersive applications.

  11. 17 CFR Schedule A to Part 286 - Schedule A to Part 286


    ... to all obligations which are to be offered for cash (estimate, if necessary): Price to the public... connection with the initial distribution of the obligations to the public. ... engraving, and legal and accounting fees. The information may be given as subject to future...

  12. El grabado de la Peña del Cavalo Pintado

    Carmen Dolores FRANCO GONZÁLEZ


    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El trabajo preliminar sobre la roca con grabados rupestres denominado «Peña del Cavalo Pintado », localizada en la parroquia de Arcozelo, municipio de Gouveia, comarca de Guarda, Portugal, hay mostrado en su cumbre un cuadrúpedo grabado, realizado posiblemente por percusión y, a pesar de la erosión de la cumbre de la roca, se encuentra en muy bueno estado de conservación. Solamente un estudio más riguroso del grabado de la «Peña del Cavalo Pintado» para efectuar observaciones estilísticas comparativas, y es menester realizar una limpieza total de rocas cercanas para identificar con mayor seguridad a que estilo o ciclo artístico pertenece.ABSTRACT: The preliminary report about the Prehistoric rock art of the «Penedo do Cavalo Pintado», located near the village of Arcozelo, Gouveia, region of Guarda-Portugal, reveals in its top an engraved drawing of a quadruped, done probably by percussion. Regardless of the erosion at the top of the rock, the engraving is in a very good condition. It will be necessary a more detailed study of the engraving of the «Penedo do Cavalo Pintado», including the comparative stilistics observations and a total cleaning of the rocks in the vicinity, in order that, with a greater degree of accuracy, to determine the cronology of the engraving.

  13. Making waves: visualizing fluid flows

    Zweers, Wout; Zwart, Valerie; Bokhove, Onno


    We explore the visualization of violent wave dynamics and erosion by waves and jets in laser-cut reliefs, laser engravings, and three-dimensional printing. For this purpose we built table-top experiments to cast breaking waves, and also explored the creation of extreme or rogue waves in larger wave

  14. Observations on the effects of grooved surfaces on the interfacial torque in highly loaded rolling and sliding tests

    Janakiraman, Shravan; Klit, Peder; Jensen, Niels Steenfeldt;


    Some efforts have been undertaken to study the effects of grooved surfaces on the interfacial film thickness and torque between two contacting non-conformal surfaces under heavy loads. Transverse grooves of micrometer scale depth were engraved on polished, flat ring surfaces using established...... industrial methods like laser engraving and wire cutting. The grooved surfaces were then run against a polished flat surface at loads corresponding to high normal Hertzian pressures. Experiments were conducted to study the effects of the following parameters on the interfacial torque-groove depth, groove...... wavelength, load, inlet speed and slide-roll ratio. Experimental results were then justified, in certain cases, based on a multigrid model predicting the interfacial pressure and film thickness....

  15. Caspar Luyken’s illustrated bible among the Serbs and Bulgarians in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries

    Stošić Ljiljana


    Full Text Available The engraving of the Finding of Moses from Caspar Luyken’s Amsterdam (1694 and Nuremberg (1708 bibles served as a model for Teodor Kračun’s painting for the small iconostasis of the Orthodox cathedral in Sremski Karlovci (1780, for the Viennese printer J. G. Mansfeld’s frontispiece of Dositej Obradović’s Poem of the Deliverance of Serbia (1789 and for Dimitar Zograf ’s fresco in the vault of the exonarthex of the Rila Monastery (1843. Three different versions of the original copper engraving reveal how Luyken’s Bible was used in support of the cause of religious revival and national liberation of the Serbs and Bulgarians in the Habsburg and Ottoman empires respectively in the late eighteen century and the first half of the nineteenth.

  16. The research on signal-obtaining pattern for a new type of gyroscope

    LIU Jian-feng; YUAN Gan-nan; ZHAO Lei; ZHAO Shi-jun


    In this paper, a photoelectric signal obtained scheme via equator triangle pattern engraved on rotor is discussed and the mathematic model is deduced in the case which is deflexion between rotor axis and the coordinate frame of case. The deflexion error and coupling error under the situation are analyzed. Finally, three methods of engraving based on the spherical triangle pattern are presented. The error models of various methods are built up and the simulation curves are provided respectively. We have done the primary experiments on the surface of rotor using this method. It can be seen from the enlarged figures that the rim of the pattern is smooth and the demand of sensor resolution is satisfied by and large. The results of study supply reference for signal obtaining.

  17. Caylus, Winckelmann, and the art of “Persian” gems

    Melissa Eppihimer


    Full Text Available Although early modern European travellers and antiquarians frequently engaged with the ruins of Persepolis when contemplating Persian antiquity, the pioneering art historians of the eighteenth century turned to engraved gems for their studies of ancient Persian art. In the major published works of Anne-Claude-Phillipe, comte de Caylus and Johann Joachim Winckelmann, the so-called ‘Persian’ gems provided empirical evidence of the art of this lesser known corner of the ancient world. Unlike the Persepolis reliefs, which were known only through engravings, the gems were accessible in European collections, and hence they appealed to the working methods of these two men. The results of Caylus’ and Winckelmann’s studies of ‘Persian’ gems established Persia’s place in art history’s fundamental cultural hierarchy.

  18. Dating sediment deposits on Montalvanian carvings using EPR and TL methods

    Sastry, M.D.; Sullasi, Henry S.L. E-mail:; Camargo, Fabiola; Watanabe, Shigueo; Prous, Andre P.P.; Silva, Martha M.C


    About 30 years ago a rock shelter with engravings by early settlers was found at Montalvania, northern end of state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Lower part of engravings was covered with thin deposit of calcite mixed with quartz grains, due to occasional flood. This mixture of two minerals was dated by thermoluminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance using in both cases, additive method. The accumulated dose D{sub AC}, that is, natural radioactivity and cosmic rays radiation dose that induces TL and EPR signal intensity has been found to be around 50 Gy both by TL and EPR methods. The annual radiation dose rate was estimated to be about 1.027 mGy/a from knowledge of uranium, thorium and potassium content determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer system. The age of this calcite plus quartz deposits was estimated to be about 50 ka.

  19. Fatigue fracture of cutter blade made of high-speed steel

    Beata Letkowska


    Full Text Available The quality of the surface of cyclically loaded components is very important. Many observations confirm that the root cause of the micro cracks (causing the fatigue fracture are primarily a surface's defects appearing during production process. These surface defects can be also caused by engraving processes used to perform identification marks. This paper presents the failure analysis of broken blade of the cutter Ku 500VX. The blade was subject of standard metallographic examination, hardness measurements, fractography analysis and metallographic studies using stereoscopic, light and scanning electron microscopes. The damage of the blade was caused by changes of the structure (formation of the brittle micro dendritic structure that occurred during manual electric engraving process when the material was heated till its melting point. As a result the stresses occurred in surface what provided to micro cracking and to propagate the fatigue fracture. The origin of this fatigue fracture was in the place where the inscription was made.

  20. L’Arlequinade anglaise et la gravure satirique au XVIIIe siècle : Élaboration esthétique et détournement politique The English Harlequinade and The Satirical Print in the Eighteenth Century: Æsthetic Elaboration and Political Significance

    Marc Martinez


    Full Text Available In the satirical texts of the 1720s, the English pantomime and its emblematic figure, Harlequin, pandered to the xenophobic prejudices that stigmatised foreignness and at the same time fuelled the attacks of literary satirists who exposed the degeneracy of the national stage. The print market that was developing around the same period issued a series of satirical engravings that endlessly rework the æsthetic grievances of verbal satire and give concurrently to the figure of Harlequin a political significance. From being the satirical embodiment of a perverted theatrical taste, Harlequin becomes a grotesque metaphor of the figures and fixtures of political life. Alongside the ideological import, these prints reflect the aesthetic elaboration of contemporary graphic satire. While these engravings invite a mode of viewing that moves from the image to the printed word, they translate the stylistic strategies of verbal satire into graphic form and oscillate between the emblematic tradition and the mimetic mode.


    Riggs, Christina


    In 1821 Augustus Bozzi Granville FRS unwrapped and dissected an ancient Egyptian mummy, presenting the results of his examination to the Royal Society in 1825. He commissioned artist Henry Perry to draw the process in stages; these drawings were subsequently engraved by James Basire for publication in Philosophical Transactions. This article presents the original drawings for the first time, allowing comparison with their engravings. Taken together with Granville's accounts of the unwrapping of the mummy, the drawings demonstrate the significant role of illustration and other visual practices in anatomical argumentation in the early nineteenth century, as well as the prestige that commissioned illustrations lent to the performance and dissemination of scientific expertise. Moreover, the drawings include one of the key visual tropes of race science--a skull in left-facing profile, mapped with a facial angle--and thus indicate the early incorporation of Egyptian mummies into typologies of race.

  2. The Transformation of Printed Works towards the End of Colonial Times in Guadalajara


    This text focuses on the transformations that printed works in New Spain underwent during the last decades of the viceroyalty, as well as the first fifteen years of the independent Mexico. These changes were evident in the format size, number of pages, topics and genres, as shown by this case study. However, unlike the New Spanish capital, there was only one print shop working in Guadalajara, engraving did not evolve from xylography to copper, local authors were few and the production was dev...

  3. Gun Control Legislation


    issue for the 111th Congress has been gun trafficking and smuggling across the Southwest border from the United States to Mexico .4 Several...committees have held hearings on gun trafficking and smuggling across the Southwest border from the United States to Mexico . In the Consolidated...emerging technology by which a firearm’s serial number is engraved microscopically with a laser onto the breech face or firing pin of a firearm. When

  4. Welle tecnologia laser internationalization analysis US market


    Welle Laser is a Brazilian company that manufactures marking and engraving machines mainly for large-scale industry segments providing solutions that help increase productivity. Welle laser has 60% market share in Brazil and decided to go internationally in 2015, mainly to increase revenues and diversify business risks. Welle opened an office in Switzerland and celebrated a contract with a Mexican company to distribute their machines in Mexico. The next step for Welle is expanding its operati...

  5. The ’Arab Spring’: Investing in Durable Peace


    Lincoln profoundly remarked, ‘only the engraving on the character and competence of our cadets and our young officers counts towards fulfillment of our...Calderón of Mexico at Joint Press Conference’, March 3, 2011, president...calder-n- mexico -joint-press-confer. 13 Secretary of State Hillary R. Clinton, ‘Munich Security Conference Plenary Session Remarks’, Munich, Germany

  6. In articulo mortis : le portrait photographie post-mortem et le début de la presse illustré à l'Argentine, 1898-1913

    Guerra, Diego Fernando


    The subject of this thesis is the postmortem photographic portrait in Buenos Aires and, especially, its development in the context of the insertion of the photography in the early twentieth century massmedia. In this sense, the main objective of this work is to contribute to the knowledge of the relationship between death and visual representation in the beginning of the mass culture. The analysis of a heterogeneous corpus - the photographs, paintings, photo-engravings, cartoons, journalistic...

  7. Death and Memory in the Twenty-First Century

    Pitsillides, Stacey


    Technology has always played a key role in holding onto some of the precious experiences we collect over our relatively short lives, in order to pass them on to the next generation. This can even be linked to communication practices which pre-date language. The connection between external communal memory and symbolic meaning may even have already existed as a practice during Neanderthal times. This was enacted through the shaping or engraving of found objects, like shells. Over time these non...

  8. Medal Marriage Made in Heaven


    China will use jade in the medals for the Beijing Olympics in order to symbolize the nation’s culture On March 1,artisans at the Shanghai Mint were about to add the fin- ishing touch to 3,030 jade rings. These jade tings will be mounted on the reverse side of the medals to be pre- sented at the 2008 Beijing Olympics Games. A ring will encircle the Beijing Games em- blem engraved on metal in the center of each

  9. The Faces of Saturn: Images and Texts from Augustus through Dürer to Galileo

    Shank, M. H.


    This paper follows the thread(s) of Saturn in astrology and art from the Babylonians to Galileo, paying special attention to the planet's political importance from Augustus to the Medici and to its medical/psychological significance from Ficino through Dürer. In passing, I extend David Pingree's astrological interpretation of Dürer's Melencholia I and propose a very personal rationale for the engraving, namely as a memorial to his mother.

  10. Advanced Textile Laminates for Chemical Biological Protective Clothing


    and were subjected to thermal calendering using a 2-roller B. F. Perkins thermal bonder with a 260 line/inch engraved calender roller. The...bonding ofthe laminate, the SB PP is being subjected to a second calendering process. In the first method, two laminates were prepared with both having a...were subjected to thermal calendering using a 2-roller B. F. Perkins thermal bonder at The University of Tennessee Nonwovens Research Laboratory



    The illustrations for Tibetan sutras are coloured in two ways:in black and white or colours-the monotone illustrations accompanying Tibetan characters and usually engraved on woodblocks.The illustrations are often showed on the cover pages or two sides of the head pages of sutras; they are frequently displayed at two frames and in the middle of end pages.In this paper,I am going to introduce the

  12. Trends and Ontology of Artistic Practices of the Dorset Culture 800 BC - 1300 AD

    Hardenberg, Mari

    are represented in miniaturized portable portrayals depicting animal, human, and tool implements, along with utilitarian object pieces elaborated with incised ornamentation, including petroglyphs with various depictions of human-like face engravings. The images portrayed exhibit representations of different...... transmitted among the Dorset people over the course of time. The various portrayals of animal and human depictions along with ornamented utilitarian tools and miniature implements reflect an ontology that focused on relational manner where human, object, and animal worlds existed as reciprocal entities...

  13. “As a chief needs men, so men need a chief”

    Lambeau, Céline


    Since the eighteenth century, the role of the orchestra conductor has continuously evolved in step with changes in the social world. But the authority figure the conductor has represented since the historic greats remains deeply engraved in our collective imagination, at the risk of ordaining the conductor an ideal type figure—or sole figure of musical authority—and eclipsing the complexity and diversity of forms of power that exist in music groups today. Here, we will attempt to counter thi...

  14. A Contrastive Analysis of American Dream and China Dream

    王秀红; 郭玥


    As one part of social ideology, Country Dream not only deeply engraves in the people's heart but also continuously push-es the country forward. American Dream and China Dream are widely adored by its people respectively. This thesis is designated to unearth the differences between American Dream and China Dream. It is hoped that readers will develop a more objective under-standing of the two concepts.

  15. Unfolding Leonardo DA Vinci's Globe (ad 1504) to Reveal its Historical World Map

    Verhoeven, G. J.; Missinne, S. J.


    This paper reports in detail on the image-based modelling and unwrapping approach used to create a two-dimensional projected map of an astonishing ostrich egg globe from AD 1504. This miniature egg globe is not only the oldest extant engraved globe, but it is also the oldest post-Columbian globe of the world and the first ever to depict Newfoundland and many other territories. The intention of digitally recording the surface geometry and colour of this unique artefact was to portray the original layout of the world map used by the Florentine Renaissance artist to make this globe. In addition, it was expected to substantiate iconographical details, which are hard to study at its scale of 1:80,000,000. The ostrich egg globe is the prototype of the Lenox Globe kept at the New York Public Library. The latter is very beneficial to examine how the egg globe looked like before being glued together at its equator. On the other hand, unfolding the map engraved in the ostrich egg halves enables a more detailed study of the remarkable details visible on both globes, since the engravings on the quasi-white egg surface are much easier to discern than those of the highly reflective red copper Lenox Globe. Finally, a detailed study of the unwrapped 3D surface is essential to learn more about the world vision of its creator and the incredible efforts that went into making this globe. Thanks to some particular pictographic details as well as the way in which the engravings are applied (by a left-handed person), the globe artist can be identified as Leonardo da Vinci.




    [EN]b In this work, I have carried out a series of embossed engravements in order to study the behaviour of expressive effects in different types of matrices, within the framework of the Corpus Christi festivity in Valencia. This festival is extremely unique, as it combines different concepts, such as tradition, religion, legend, symbolism and popular culture, in a single celebration. This perfect combination of matrices enriches its artistics aspects in a simple manner, and the embossed engr...

  17. Aluminum alloy nanosecond vs femtosecond laser marking

    S Rusu; A Buzaianu; D G Galusca; L Ionel; D Ursescu


    Based on the lack of consistent literature publications that analyse the effects of laser marking for traceability on various materials, the present paper proposes a study of the influence of such radiation processing on an aluminum alloy, a vastly used material base within several industry fields. For the novelty impact, femtolaser marking has been carried out, besides the standard commercial nanosecond engraving. All the marks have been analysed using profilometry, overhead and cross-section SEM microscopy, respectively and EDAX measurements.

  18. The Digitalized Protection and Inheritance of the Woodblock Printing Called “Jinling Sutra Printing”

    Huaidong Ge


    Full Text Available Jinling Sutra Publishing House, a protection site for Chinese woodblock printing, is the inheritance organization for Chinese woodblock engraving and ink printing of the Chinese Buddhism classics. This paper, taking “Jinling Sutra Printing” as study object, introduced its carving and printing skills, and proposed that, by means of digital acquisition and storage technology, this intangible cultural heritage could be fully documented and presented through characters, pictures, audio, video and other information.

  19. The Digitalized Protection and Inheritance of the Woodblock Printing Called “Jinling Sutra Printing”

    Huaidong Ge; Shuyang Deng


    Jinling Sutra Publishing House, a protection site for Chinese woodblock printing, is the inheritance organization for Chinese woodblock engraving and ink printing of the Chinese Buddhism classics. This paper, taking “Jinling Sutra Printing” as study object, introduced its carving and printing skills, and proposed that, by means of digital acquisition and storage technology, this intangible cultural heritage could be fully documented and presented through characters, pictures, audio, video and...

  20. U.S. Southern Command Government Purchase Card Controls Need Improvement to Prevent Improper Purchases


    Comptroller and Staff Judge Advocate officials approved the request on September 28, 2011. Gift items purchased included 11 iPod Touch devices engraved...cardholder made the payment on September 29, 2011. The USSOUTHCOM Protocol Office received the iPods in November 2011 and stored them in the Consequently, the iPods were an unnecessary purchase because they did not meet the needs of the command during the fiscal year the purchase

  1. Huashan rock paintings and other simitar paintings


    China is one of the countries with the rechest rock paintings in the world. The Huashan rock paintings features color paintings, quite different from those in the North China areas where petroglyphs were created by engraving, chiseling,incising,or grinding,such as those in Inner Mongolia and Helan Mountains in Gansu.The rock paintings at Ulanchabu of Inner Mongolia are regarded as works of the Neolithic age,bronze age and iron age ,featuring mainly such grassland animals as

  2. Coherent optical ultrasound detection with rare-earth ion dopants

    Tay, Jian Wei; Longdell, Jevon


    We describe theoretical and experimental demonstration for optical detection of ultrasound using a spectral hole engraved in cryogenically cooled rare-earth ion doped solids. Our method utilizes the dispersion effects due to the spectral hole to perform phase to amplitude modulation conversion. Like previous approaches using spectral holes it has the advantage of detection with large \\'etendue. The method also has the benefit that high sensitivity can be obtained with moderate absorption contrast for the spectral holes.

  3. Drawings of fossils by Robert Hooke and Richard Waller

    Kusukawa, Sachiko


    The drawings of fossils by Robert Hooke and Richard Waller that were the basis of the engravings in Hooke's Posthumous works (1705) are published here for the first time. The drawings show that both Hooke and Waller were proficient draftsmen with a keen eye for the details of petrified objects. These drawings provided Hooke with a polemic edge in making the case for the organic origins of ‘figured stones’.

  4. Design and implementation of a control system for use of galvanometric scanners in laser micromachining applications

    Ülker, Gönenç; Ulker, Gonenc


    In the recent years, laser machining technology has been used widely in industrial applications usually with the aim of increasing the production capability of mass production lines - especially for fast marking, engraving type of applications where speed is an important concern - or manufacturing quality of a certain facility by increasing the level of accuracy in material processing applications such as drilling, cutting; or any scientific research oriented work where high precision machini...



    Studies of Historical Archives Written in Tibetan The historical archives in Tibetan language,particularly historical records, have a long history and are abundant.In accordance with the method of recording, the form of an archive varies in its use of characters,illustrations,language,and the art of engraving.By focusing on historical archives in Tibetan,Hua Lin(the author)

  6. Un ara dedicada a los dracones hallada en Saguntum (Valencia)

    Aranegui Gascó, Carmen; Hernández Hervás, Emilia


    Presentación de la primera dedicación votiva a los dragones de la epigrafía latina hispánica inscrita sobre una pequeña ara romana de Saguntum e hipótesis de interpretación de la misma. We present the first votive dedication to the dragons in the Hispanic Latin epigraphy, engraved on a small Roman altar found in Saguntum, and give some interpretations.


    G. J. Verhoeven


    Full Text Available This paper reports in detail on the image-based modelling and unwrapping approach used to create a two-dimensional projected map of an astonishing ostrich egg globe from AD 1504. This miniature egg globe is not only the oldest extant engraved globe, but it is also the oldest post-Columbian globe of the world and the first ever to depict Newfoundland and many other territories. The intention of digitally recording the surface geometry and colour of this unique artefact was to portray the original layout of the world map used by the Florentine Renaissance artist to make this globe. In addition, it was expected to substantiate iconographical details, which are hard to study at its scale of 1:80,000,000. The ostrich egg globe is the prototype of the Lenox Globe kept at the New York Public Library. The latter is very beneficial to examine how the egg globe looked like before being glued together at its equator. On the other hand, unfolding the map engraved in the ostrich egg halves enables a more detailed study of the remarkable details visible on both globes, since the engravings on the quasi-white egg surface are much easier to discern than those of the highly reflective red copper Lenox Globe. Finally, a detailed study of the unwrapped 3D surface is essential to learn more about the world vision of its creator and the incredible efforts that went into making this globe. Thanks to some particular pictographic details as well as the way in which the engravings are applied (by a left-handed person, the globe artist can be identified as Leonardo da Vinci.

  8. Maintenance Training Simulator Design and Acquisition.


    specification also permits the specification to be used in novel ways. For example, the ISD model specification can be used as a pre-TRRRM document to...Provide practice with novel variations in content and form of the basic material to be recalled. 11 115 j I CRITERIA ADJUST CONTROL DECISION LOGIC...plate containing the related series end item designation and the applicable system designation therein shall be engraved in neat, well-formed Gothic

  9. Cannon Wear and Erosion Science and Technology Objective Program (STO) 155-mm Projectile Rotating Band/Obturation for Extended Range


    differences may be due to the changes in the stainless steel material properties from welding and fabrication in addition to the limitations of the 1-D...models and body engraving models have been developed to aid in the design of new bands. Welding techniques and parameters for soft iron, nickel, MONEL...sticker test 21 TABLES 1 Candidate materials for rotating bands 7 2 Characterization of as- welded and fired bands 8 3 Mass properties

  10. Cost Management in a Tactical Environment: A Case Study of the 316th Expeditionary Support Command (ESC) in Iraq, 2007-2008


    After Action Review ACE Assistant to the Commander for the Enterprise AO Area of Operation BEP Bureau of Engraving and Printing BG Brigadier...supervised the execution of operational missions, measured the consumption of resources, and reviewed variances between what was planned and what actually...million in direct costs, and saved Soldiers’ lives by reducing supply convoys. By planning , executing, measuring, and reviewing the consumption of

  11. Micromachined glass apertures for artificial lipid bilayer formation in a microfluidic system

    Sandison, M.E.; Zagnoni, M.; Abu-Hantash, M.; Morgan, H


    The use of spark assisted chemical engraving (SACE) to produce glass apertures that are suitable for the formation of artificial bilayer lipid membranes is described. Prior to use, the glass apertures were rendered hydrophobic by a silanization process and were then incorporated into a simple microfluidic device. Successful bilayer lipid membrane (BLM) formation and the subsequent acquisition of single-channel recordings are demonstrated. Due to the simplicity and rapidity of the SACE process...

  12. High power CO2 laser development with AOM integration for ultra high-speed pulses

    Bohrer, Markus; Vaupel, Matthias; Nirnberger, Robert; Weinberger, Bernhard; Jamalieh, Murad


    There is a 500 billion USD world market for packaging expected to grow to a trillion in 2030. Austria plays an important role world wide for high speed laser engraving applications — especially when it comes to high end solutions. Such high end solutions are fundamental for the production of print forms for the packaging and decorating industry (e. g. cans). They are additionally used for security applications (e. g. for printing banknotes), for the textile printing industry and for creating embossing forms (e. g. for the production of dashboards in the automotive industry). High speed, high precision laser engraving needs laser resonators with very stable laser beams (400 - 800W) especially in combination with AOMs. Based upon a unique carbon fiber structure - stable within the sub-micrometer range - a new resonator has been developed, accompanied by most recent thermo-mechanical FEM calculations. The resulting beam is evaluated on an automated optical bench using hexapods, allowing to optimize the complete beam path with collimators and AOM. The major steps related to laser engraving of dry offset printing plates during the full workflow from the artists design to the printed result on an aluminum can is presented in this paper as well as laser characteristics, AOM integration and correlative CLSM and SEM investigation of the results.

  13. Raman identification of cuneiform tablet pigments: emphasis and colour technology in ancient Mesopotamian mid-third millennium.

    Chiriu, Daniele; Ricci, Pier Carlo; Carbonaro, Carlo Maria; Nadali, Davide; Polcaro, Andrea; Collins, Paul


    Cuneiform tablets tell the life and culture of Sumerian people in a sort of black and white tale because of the binary engraving technique. A leading question arises: did Mesopotamian people apply some kind of colour to decorate their tablets or to put emphasis on selected words? Some administrative and literary Sumerian cuneiform tablets of mid-third Millennium B.C. from the site of Kish (central Mesopotamia, modern Iraq) were dug up in twentieth-century and stored at the Ashmolean Museum of the Oxford University. Non-destructive micro-Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique to detect the presence of residual pigments eventually applied to the engraving signs. Yellow, orange, red and white pigments have been detected and a possible identification has been proposed in this work. In particular yellow pigments are identified as Crocoite (PbCrO4), Lead stannate (Pb2SnO4); red pigments - hematite (Fe2O3) and cuprite (Cu2O); White pigments - Lead carbonate (PbCO3), calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2), titanium dioxide (TiO2), gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O); orange pigment a composition of red and yellow compounds. These results suggest that Sumerian people invented a new editorial style, to overcome the binary logic of engraving process and catch the reader's eye by decorating cuneiform tablets. Finally, the coloured rendering of the tablet in their original view is proposed.

  14. Laser treatment of alumina-based ceramics using second harmonics of Q-switched Nd:YLF laser

    Rihakova, Lenka; Chmelickova, Hana; Hiklova, Helena


    This paper is dedicated to laser engraving and drilling process of the alumina ceramics. Both processes are characterized by exquisite features in comparison with conventional ones. The main benefits are high speed, high precision and good quality along with flexibility. Moreover ceramics are hardly processed by conventional methods due to their high hardness and brittleness. Analysis of Nd:YLF laser engraving alumina ceramics concerning the influence of parameters like output power, processing speed and number of runs on various mark characteristics was carried out. Mark width, mark depth and contrast were evaluated and it was found out that output power determines both mark depth and width. Higher power caused generation of deeper and wider marks characterized by high contrast. Processing speed controls the overlapping of spots and the laser-material interaction time, thus having impact on the mark depth and contrast. Laser drilling was examined in dependence of output power that had crucial effect on the hole depth not on diameter. The research clarified that high output powers are necessary for producing deep holes so as high output powers together with low processing speeds are the optimal parameters to get maximal mark width and depth with satisfactory quality during engraving. Samples were analyzed using confocal microscope and contact profilometer.

  15. MRC for compression of Blake Archive images

    Misic, Vladimir; Kraus, Kari; Eaves, Morris; Parker, Kevin J.; Buckley, Robert R.


    The William Blake Archive is part of an emerging class of electronic projects in the humanities that may be described as hypermedia archives. It provides structured access to high-quality electronic reproductions of rare and often unique primary source materials, in this case the work of poet and painter William Blake. Due to the extensive high frequency content of Blake's paintings (namely, colored engravings), they are not suitable for very efficient compression that meets both rate and distortion criteria at the same time. Resolving that problem, the authors utilized modified Mixed Raster Content (MRC) compression scheme -- originally developed for compression of compound documents -- for the compression of colored engravings. In this paper, for the first time, we have been able to demonstrate the successful use of the MRC compression approach for the compression of colored, engraved images. Additional, but not less important benefits of the MRC image representation for Blake scholars are presented: because the applied segmentation method can essentially lift the color overlay of an impression, it provides the student of Blake the unique opportunity to recreate the underlying copperplate image, model the artist's coloring process, and study them separately.

  16. Looking at the Camp: Paleolithic Depiction of a Hunter-Gatherer Campsite.

    Marcos García-Diez

    Full Text Available Landscapes and features of the everyday world were scarcely represented in Paleolithic art, especially those features associated with the human landscape (huts and campsites. On the contrary, other figurative motifs (especially animals and signs, traditionally linked to the magic or religious conceptions of these hunter-gatherer societies, are the predominant themes of Upper Paleolithic art. This paper seeks to present an engraved schist slab recently found in the Molí del Salt site (North-eastern Iberia and dated at the end of the Upper Paleolithic, ca. 13,800 years ago. This slab displays seven semicircular motifs that may be interpreted as the representation of dome-shaped huts. The analysis of individual motifs and the composition, as well as the ethnographic and archeological contextualization, suggests that this engraving is a naturalistic depiction of a hunter-gatherer campsite. Campsites can be considered the first human landscape, the first area of land whose visible features were entirely constructed by humans. Given the social meaning of campsites in hunter-gatherer life-styles, this engraving may be considered one of the first representations of the domestic and social space of a human group.

  17. Looking at the Camp: Paleolithic Depiction of a Hunter-Gatherer Campsite.

    García-Diez, Marcos; Vaquero, Manuel


    Landscapes and features of the everyday world were scarcely represented in Paleolithic art, especially those features associated with the human landscape (huts and campsites). On the contrary, other figurative motifs (especially animals) and signs, traditionally linked to the magic or religious conceptions of these hunter-gatherer societies, are the predominant themes of Upper Paleolithic art. This paper seeks to present an engraved schist slab recently found in the Molí del Salt site (North-eastern Iberia) and dated at the end of the Upper Paleolithic, ca. 13,800 years ago. This slab displays seven semicircular motifs that may be interpreted as the representation of dome-shaped huts. The analysis of individual motifs and the composition, as well as the ethnographic and archeological contextualization, suggests that this engraving is a naturalistic depiction of a hunter-gatherer campsite. Campsites can be considered the first human landscape, the first area of land whose visible features were entirely constructed by humans. Given the social meaning of campsites in hunter-gatherer life-styles, this engraving may be considered one of the first representations of the domestic and social space of a human group.

  18. Juan Valverde de Hamusco's unauthorized reproduction of a brain dissection by Andreas Vesalius.

    Lanska, Douglas J; Lanska, John R


    The objective of the present work is to examine images of the brain dissection by Flemish-born anatomist Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) as originally represented in the Fabrica (1543), and later copied without Vesalius' permission by Spanish anatomist Juan Valverde de Hamusco (c1525-c1587) in Historia de la composicion del cuerpo humano (1556). Illustrations of the brain dissection in the Fabrica were obtained in digital form, resized, and arranged in a comparable montage to that presented by Valverde. Computer manipulations were used to assess image correspondence. The Valverde illustrations are approximately half the size and are mirror images of those in the Fabrica, but otherwise show the same dissection stages, and identical transverse brain levels and structures. The Valverde illustrations lack shadowing and show minor variations in perspective and fine details (e.g., branching pattern of the middle meningeal artery) from those in the Fabrica. Craftsmen under the direction of Valverde copied the woodcut prints in the Fabrica in close but approximate form by freehand engraving onto copper plates. Differences in the sizes of the images, and in perspective and fine detail, preclude direct tracing of images as the means of copying. Because engravings are in effect "flipped over" to make further prints, subsequent prints made from Valverde's copperplate engravings are mirror images of the prints in Vesalius' Fabrica.

  19. Aproximación al estudio de las cadenas operativas del grabado sobre soporte pétreo: análisis tecnológico de una representación de équido del Magdaleniense Medio de la cueva de Las Caldas (Asturias, España

    Olivia RIVERO VILÁ


    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este estudio se presentan los resultados de los análisis microscópicos realizados sobre un canto grabado del Magdaleniense Medio de la cueva de Las Caldas (Asturias, España. La utilización de medios de examen como el Microscopio Electrónico de Barrido o el Microscopio Confocal de Campo Extendido nos ha permitido estudiar la tecnología del grabado en una representación de équido y reconstituir la cadena operativa seguida por el grabador paleolítico. Estos datos se han puesto en relación con el análisis estilístico y el estudio de obras similares en el Magdaleniense Cantábrico.ABSTRACT: In this paper we present the results of microscopic analysis performed on an engraved pebble from Middle Magdalenian of “Las Caldas” cave (Asturias, Spain. With the utilization of instruments like the Electronic Scanning Microscope and the Confocal Microscope field extended, we have been able to study the technology of engraving on a representation of Equidae and reconstitute the operational chain followed by the Paleolithic engraver. This data has been made in connection with the stylistic analysis and the study of similar works in Cantabrian Magdalenian.

  20. La pintura española de los siglos XVI y XVII en la producción impresa del Setecientos. Los grabados del MISAL de Antonio de Sancha (1780

    José Cesáreo López Plasencia


    Full Text Available En este artículo estudiamos siete grabados que ilustran un Misal editado en Madrid por el célebre impresor Antonio de Sancha (1780, perteneciente a la iglesia parroquial de Santiago Apóstol, de Realejo Alto (Tenerife. Estas obras fueron realizadas por el destacado grabador y pintor Juan Bernabé Palomino, y reproducen pinturas religiosas debidas a Juan de Juanes, Velázquez, Murillo y otros maestros de la pintura barroca española. Estos grabados constituyen una valiosa muestra de la alta calidad y dominio logrados por Palomino en sus trabajos.In this article we study seven engravings which illustrate a Mass book published by the famous printer Antonio de Sancha in Madrid (1780, a book that belongs to the Parish Church of Santiago Apóstol, in Realejo Alto (Tenerife. These works were carried out by the outstanding engraver and painter Juan Bernabé Palomino, and they represent religious paintings by Juan de Juanes, Velázquez, Murillo and other masters of Spanish baroque painting. These engravings are a valuable example of the high quality and mastery achieved by Palomino in his works.

  1. FAZENDINHA I: DESCOBERTA DE UM NOVO SÍTIO PRÉ-HISTÓRICO E DESCRIÇÃO PRELIMINAR DE SUAS INSCRIÇÕES RUPESTRES E PROBLEMAS DE CONSERVAÇÃO (Fazendinha I: Discovery of a New Prehistoric Site, Preliminary Description from its Rock Inscriptions, and Conservation Problems

    Luis Carlos Duarte Cavalcante


    Full Text Available O sítio arqueológico conhecido como Fazendinha I, descoberto em 2010, é um abrigo de arenito com inscrições pré-históricas, localizado na área rural de Piripiri, estado do Piauí, Brasil. O abrigo sob-rocha contém uma coleção excepcional de 141 pinturas rupestres e 65 gravuras rupestres. As pinturas rupestres consistem de grafismos geométricos abstratos, carimbos de mãos humanas, zoomorfos (lagartos e ornitomorfos, antropomorfos e fitomorfos, pintados predominantemente em diferentes tonalidades de vermelho, mas também em preto, alaranjado, vinho, púrpura-escuro e marrom-alaranjado. As gravuras rupestres (feitas por picotagem; algumas com acabamento por abrasão representam principalmente cúpules, mas também figuras abstratas e um lagarto (único animal gravado conhecido em todos os sítios pré-históricos da região arqueológica de Piripiri. A vasta maioria das gravuras foi também pintada. Além da elevada densidade de inscrições rupestres, há sobreposições e recorrências dos motivos pintados e gravados. Vegetação, fauna e estado de conservação das inscrições pré-históricas e do abrigo sob-rocha, são mencionados. ENGLISH: The archaeological site known as Fazendinha I, discovered in 2010, is a sandstone shelter with prehistoric inscriptions located in the rural area of Piripiri, in the state of Piauí, Brazil. The rockshelter contains an exceptional collection of 141 rock paintings and 65 rock engravings. The rock paintings consist of abstract geometric graphisms, human handprints, zoomorphs (lizards and ornithomorphs, anthropomorphs and phytomorphs, painted predominantly in different tonalities of red, but also in black, orangish, wine, dark-purple, and orangish brown. The rock engravings (made by pecking; some finished by abrading represent mainly cupules, but also abstract figures and a lizard (the only engraved animal known in all prehistoric sites of the archaeological region from Piripiri. The vast

  2. Acrylic-based Y-branch POF coupler for "do-it-yourself" next generation optical devices

    Ehsan, Abang Annuar; Shaari, Sahbudin; Abd Rahman, Mohd Kamil


    Optical devices are components which require sophisticated equipment and technically skilled manpower for device fabrication and assembling and most of the production costs are on the device assembly. However, the next generation optical components may not be devices assembled at the production line but it will be based on the concept of 'do-it yourself' optical devices. We proposed a simple low-cost acrylic-based Y-branch POF coupler which can be assembled easily by the end users themselves. The device is composed of three sections: an input POF waveguide, an intermediate adjustable hollow waveguide taper region and output POF waveguides. Low cost acrylic-based material has been used for the device material. A desktop high speed CNC engraver is utilized to produce the mold inserts used for the optical device. In addition to the engraved device structure, 4 holes are drilled at each corner to allow a top plate to be screwed on top and enclosed the device structure. Included with this POF coupler assembly kit will be the mold insert, top acrylic block, input and output POF fibers (cleaved and stripped with different stripping lengths) and connecting screws. The short POF fibers are inserted into the engraved slots at the input and output ports until the fibers are positioned just before or butt-coupled to each other. The assembling is completed when the top plate is positioned and the connecting screws are secured. The POF coupler has an average insertion loss of 5.8 +/- 0.1 dB, excess loss of 2.8 dB and a good coupling ratio of 1:1.

  3. The Draughtsman’s Contacts: Robert Seymour and the Humorous Periodical Press in the 1830s

    Brian Maidment


    Full Text Available Robert Seymour was celebrated enough in his day to become one of very few late Regency and early Victorian comic and satirical draughtsmen sufficiently visible to be traced through the magazines of the 1830s. His periodical contributions are, therefore, of considerable significance in trying to establish the patterns of work and maps of interconnected activity that were necessary to sustain the career of a jobbing draughtsman at this time. After contributing to Bell’s Life in London in the late 1820s, Seymour’s presence as a prolific magazine illustrator dates largely from the early 1830s. As well as a mass of jobbing illustrations that were produced for a remarkably diverse range of magazines. Seymour worked extensively for three significant and profusely illustrated magazines at this time — the Looking Glass, Figaro in London, and the Comic Magazine. The Looking Glass was published by Thomas McLean and sought to sustain an established tradition of political caricature through adapting it to a magazine format using the relatively new reprographic medium of lithography. Figaro in London was illustrated by vignette wood engravings, which were both vernacular and sophisticated at the same time. The Comic Magazine, another publication dependent on small wood-engraved images, sought to build on the growing popularity of song books and comic annuals. The diversity and prolixity of Seymour’s output at this time bears testimony to the extraordinary demands made on draughtsmen and engravers in the 1830s, and suggests something of the relentlessly innovative market place for humorous and satirical print at this time.

  4. Chronological Trends in Negev Rock Art: The Har Michia Petroglyphs as a Test Case

    Davida Eisenberg-Degen


    Full Text Available Negev rock art comprises a large and diverse corpus of motifs and compositions developed over the course of several millennia. As dating of specific elements is at present not possible, the rock art was analyzed statistically through the study of individual panels where internal sequences of engraving could be discerned. Examining the set of such individual sequences, larger scale reconstruction of engraving phases, sequences and patterns were recognized. Additional chronological markers, such as the presence of domestic camels or other chronologically diagnostic features, offer benchmarks for tying the general trends to more absolute frameworks. The reconstructed patterns reflect the long term history of the Negev and some of the most significant cultural and social transitions in the region are reflected visually through the rock art, notably a form of self-expression, a crucial complement to the historical sequences derived from sedentary peoples living farther north. For example the introduction of the domestic camel and its symbolic and economic significance is well evident in the rock art. Similarly, the emergence of Islam is expressed through the mark makers’ preference for "abstract" (non-figurative motifs. One motif found throughout all engraving phases, transcending the religious, political and economic structures of Negev society, is the “ibex”. Although Negev societies have all focused, to one degree or another, on sheep and goat pastoralism, these animals are rarely present in the Negev rock art and never as herds. Ibex, whose role in the diet and daily subsistence was minimal, was the most commonly depicted zoomorphic motif.

  5. Optical security features by using information carrier digital screening

    Koltai, Ferenc


    Jura is an Austrian-Hungarian company providing security printers with proprietary security printing design software, complete security printing pre=press systems (HW + SW), ultrahigh resolution image setters developed for security printing market, security features, developed by Jura for security printing in general, proprietary security features, destined for document personalization systems. In addition to supply such products Jura is providing its customers with full technical support, as integration, installation, training, hot-line remote and/or on-site support, service and maintenance worldwide. Research and development have always been in the focus of Jura's activity. Development and testing of new software, new security features are the most important parts of the work. Jura was the first on the world to release her Engraver Software enabling artist-engravers to create engraving-styled portraits digitally. This development, incompatibility with Jura's security design software package, enabled a full digital workflow for banknote origination. Jura made a lot of remarkable steps to develop security features also for Document Personalization. This development links the personal data with the photography of the document' holder by encoding personal data to the photography, invisibly for naked human eye, however, decodable by an appropriate decoding device. This feature exists also in machine-readable digital version. Experts of Jura started the research and development on digital screening 15 years ago for commercial printing and 10 years ago on special screens for security printing technologies. In very early stage of this development, when knowledge of creating each screen-dot individually in shape, form and position was acquired, the idea was born to use the screen dots as secondary data holder for encoded messages.

  6. A Novel Marking Reader for Progressive Addition Lenses Based on Gabor Holography.

    Perucho, Beatriz; Picazo-Bueno, José Angel; Micó, Vicente


    Progressive addition lenses (PALs) are marked with permanent engraved marks (PEMs) at standardized locations. Permanent engraved marks are very useful through the manufacturing and mounting processes, act as locator marks to re-ink the removable marks, and contain useful information about the PAL. However, PEMs are often faint and weak, obscured by scratches, partially occluded, and difficult to recognize on tinted lenses or with antireflection or scratch-resistant coatings. The aim of this article is to present a new generation of portable marking reader based on an extremely simplified concept for visualization and identification of PEMs in PALs. Permanent engraved marks on different PALs are visualized using classical Gabor holography as underlying principle. Gabor holography allows phase sample visualization with adjustable magnification and can be implemented in either classical or digital versions. Here, visual Gabor holography is used to provide a magnified defocused image of the PEMs onto a translucent visualization screen where the PEM is clearly identified. Different types of PALs (conventional, personalized, old and scratched, sunglasses, etc.) have been tested to visualize PEMs with the proposed marking reader. The PEMs are visible in every case, and variable magnification factor can be achieved simply moving up and down the PAL in the instrument. In addition, a second illumination wavelength is also tested, showing the applicability of this novel marking reader for different illuminations. A new concept of marking reader ophthalmic instrument has been presented and validated in the laboratory. The configuration involves only a commercial-grade laser diode and a visualization screen for PEM identification. The instrument is portable, economic, and easy to use, and it can be used for identifying patient's current PAL model and for marking removable PALs again or finding test points regardless of the age of the PAL, its scratches, tints, or coatings.

  7. La figura del xilógrafo en las revistas ilustradas del siglo XIX

    María Dolores Bastida de la Calle


    Full Text Available Hubo un cierto intervalo de tiempo en el siglo XIX, de 1840 a 1880 aproximadamente, en el que las condiciones técnicas y sociales propiciaron la aparición y el mantenimiento de un «arte menor», que involucró a dibujantes y grabadores: la ilustración de noticias en revistas de actualidad. En el artículo se pretende estudiar como la impresión barata y rápida de imágenes, tal como exigía este tipo de revistas, sólo se hizo posible mediante la técnica de xilografía a la testa, sobre duros tacos de boj cortado a contrafibra. Se enfatiza, por otra parte, la importancia del papel del xilógrafo en la estampa, y se estudia su trayectoria profesional, desde la singularidad de Thomas Bewick hasta la aparición del taller artesanal de los grandes semanarios, con su particular distribución del trabajo y variedad de instrumentos de grabación.There was certain period of time in the XIX century, from about 1840 to 1880, when social and technical conditions led to the flourishing of a minor art that involved illustrators as well as engravers: pictuhng news in graphic magazines. This paper briefly examines how the cheap and fast printing of both pictures and type, as required by popular magazines, was only made possibte through the relief wood engraving process, which used hard woodbox blocks cut across the grain. The paper further emphasizes the role played by the xylographer in the graphic press. and studies his professional evolution, from the work of Thomas Bewick until the appearance of engraving workshops at the newsweekiies, with their particular way of assigning tasks, and their variety of tools to carve the wood.

  8. The spaces of art: the design of panel and the articulation of landscape in Galician rock art

    Santos Estévez, Manuel


    Full Text Available This paper analyses open air rock engravings both as resources to create space in panels and as mechanisms for landscape construction. A series of models are defined, both in panels and in panel groups, that structure the space of art. We also highlight the importance of placement as an essential element in the understanding of open air rock art. Through the study of panels, we have discovered that the motifs apparently referring to the male -weapons, riding scenes and stags— are placed at the top of panels. At a second level of analysis, the groups of engraved rocks, those motifs appear on rocks located at points which stand out in the landscape. Finally we find a third level of analysis, the so called Systems of Groups of Engraved Rocks, formed by groups of petroglyphs delimiting Bronze Age territories.

    Se estudian los grabados rupestres al aire libre como un recurso para construir el espacio de los paneles y como forma de articular el paisaje. En los paneles y en las estaciones de arte rupestre se definen una serie de modelos que estructuran el espacio del arte. Se resalta también la importancia del emplazamiento como elemento fundamental para comprender el arte rupestre al aire libre. Así en el estudio de los paneles, los motivos, probablemente alusivos a lo masculino: armas, escenas de equitación y ciervos macho aparecen en la parte superior del panel. En un segundo nivel de análisis, en las estaciones son estos mismos motivos los que aparecen en emplazamientos más destacados en el paisaje. También se estudian los llamados Sistemas de Estaciones, formados por grupos de petroglifos que delimitan territorios en la Edad del Bronce.

  9. Arte rupestre paleolítico y postpaleolítico al aire libre en los Montes de Toledo occidentales (Toledo, Castilla - La Mancha, España: noticia preliminar

    Jesús F. JORDÁ PARDO


    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se dan a conocer en este trabajo los grabados y pinturas rupestres localizados recientemente en el extremo occidental de los Montes de Toledo (comarca toledana de La Jara en la vertiente meridional de la Cuenca del Tajo. Una primera zona, situada en el valle del río Huso, se desarrolla al aire libre sobre afloramientos de pizarras y en ella se localizan al menos dos conjuntos rupestres: uno caracterizado por grabados de trazo fino atribuidos al Paleolítico Superior y otro realizado mediante diversas técnicas de grabado con una cronología muy amplia desde la Prehistoria reciente hasta épocas históricas. La segunda zona corresponde al valle del río Gévalo y por el momento corresponde a un único gran abrigo desarrollado en cuarcitas en cuyas paredes aparecen pinturas rojas atribuibles a la Prehistoria reciente sobre las que se superponen grabados de trazo fino y repiqueteado con elementos claramente prehistóricos y otros con un marcado carácter histórico.ABSTRACT: This paper deals with rock art findings recently located on the Western edge of Toledo Mountains at the Southern slope of Tagus Basin. The first finding área, placed in the valley of the Huso River, is an open air rock art site on shale outcrop where two main groups of patterns may be seen: fine - line engravings from Upper Palaeolithic times as well as several motifs using various engraving techniques rahging a wider time span from later prehistoric ages to historical times. The second área lies in the valley of the Gévalo River and is a large quartzite rock shelter containing on his walls red paintings dated on Postpalaeolithic times that placed under engravings made using fine-line and beating techbiques both from prehistórica! and historical ages.

  10. Achado dunhas lousas con arte megalítico en Fonte Tourón Lalín, Pontevedra

    Cabrejas Domínguez, Elena


    Full Text Available In an archaeological context before a works execution took place (an electric half tension line, some engraved gravestones were found around the area of Fonte Touron, Council of Lalín. These gravestones have engravings representative of megalithism and nowadays they became boundary markers of the yards in which they are. The features of the engravings, besides the very shape of the stones and the context where other mounds are located, and above everything, the information provided by local neighbors that relate the stones of this mound to one set apart some years ago, points that they were part of a megalithic monument, and it is highly probable that they were the orthostats of a chamber.

    No contexto dos traballos arqueolóxicos previos á execución dunha obra (unha liña eléctrica de media tensión, localizáronse unhas lousas con gravados na zona de Fonte Tourón, en Lalín. Trátase dunhas lousas que presentan uns gravados de estilo propio do megalitismo e que agora forman parte dos lindes das fincas nas que se atopan. As características destes gravados, sumado á propia forma das pedras, a un contexto onde se localizan outras mámoas e sobre todo, á información dos veciños que vinculan estas pedras cunha mámoa desfeita fai uns anos, apuntan a que formaron parte dun monumento megalítico, e que moi probablemente se trata dos esteos dunha cámara.

  11. Manual of Military Decorations and Awards: DoD-Wide Performance and Valor Awards; Foreign Awards; Military Awards to Foreign Personnel and U.S. Public Health Service Officers; and Miscellaneous Information


    engraving the initials of the recipient. The button shall be available with pin-joint and safety-catch fastener or with pin and clutch-type fastener...Comanche and confederate tribes in Kansas, Colorado, Texas, New Mexico , and Indian Territory between 1867 and 1875. Modoc War in 1872 and 1873. Apaches...Arizona and New Mexico in 1885 and 1886. ENCLOSURE 3 67 DoDM 1348.33-V3, November 23, 2010 Sioux in South Dakota between November 1890 and January

  12. Towards printable robotics: Origami-inspired planar fabrication of three-dimensional mechanisms

    Onal, Cagdas; Wood, Robert J.; Rus, Daniela L.


    This work presents a technique which allows the application of 2-D fabrication methods to build 3-D robotic systems. The ability to print robots introduces a fast and low-cost fabrication method to modern, real-world robotic applications. To this end, we employ laser-engraved origami patterns to build a new class of robotic systems for mobility and manipulation. Origami is suitable for printable robotics as it uses only a flat sheet as the base structure for building complicated functional sh...

  13. An astrolabe attributed to Gerard Mercator, c. 1570

    Turner, Gerard L'E.; Dekker, Elly

    The Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza, Florence, Italy, possesses an astrolabe with five latitude plates that is now attributed to the Duisburg workshop of Gerard Mercator. Although it is known that Mercator made instruments, this is the first surviving example to be identified. Another latitude plate is shown to come from the workshop of the Florentine, Giovan Battista Giusti. A seventh plate, possibly engraved by Rumold Mercator, provides the only known Mercatorian polar stereographic projection. The role of Egnazio Danti, cosmographer to the Grand Duke of Tuscany, in the acquisition of the astrolabe in about 1570 is considered.

  14. Practical improvement of sundial in the late Joseon dynasty - Focusing on the Hoeng-pyo-ip-pyo-il-gu (elevation dial)

    Kim, Sang Hyuk; Ahn, Young Sook; Mihn, Byeong-Hee; Ham, Seon Young; Lee, Yong Sam


    Various kinds of sundials were manufactured during the Joseon dynasty Era. In early fifteenth century, Korean astronomers developed several types of sundials such as equatorial type, hemispherical one and so forth. After seventeenth century, horizontal sundials which was influenced by sinicized Western science. Yang-gyeong-gyu-il-ui is the altitude type sundial which has three plates and two of them were engraved with the time line. Hoeng-pyo-ip-pyo-il-gu is another type of sundial and it has only two time-line plates. We carried out the comparative study between Yang-gyeong-gyu-il-ui and Hoeng-pyo-ip-pyo-il-gu

  15. In Memory of Professor WANG Ying-Lai%怀念王应睐教授

    林其谁; 李伯良


    @@Professor WANG Ying-Lai,world-renowned biochemist and a member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,passed away at 19:10,May 5,2001 resulting from an incurable disease.Since then,the Chinese Communist Party has lost an outstanding member struggling all his life for the development of science in China.The scientific communities in China have lost an outstanding scientist enjoying world prestige.His colleagues and students have lost a valuable friend and good teacher.Today,although he has left us,his scientific achievement and noble morality will be engraved on our mind forever.

  16. Two incrusted medieval swords from Zbaszyn, Lubusz voivodship

    Głosek, Marian


    Full Text Available This paper presents two interesting medieval swords that can be dated between the end of the 12th century to the beginning of the 14th century AD. Both display, engraved in the fuller, inscriptions in silver and copper inlay, one of them a Latin text, the other heraldic symbols.

    Se presentan dos espadas medievales fechables entre finales del S. XII y principios del XIV, decoradas con damasquinados en plata y aleación de cobre. Una presenta un texto latino y mativos ornamentales; la otra, elementos heráldicos.

  17. [On an unknown edition of the Reprobación de supersticiones by the master Pedro Ciruelo].

    Mateo Ripoll, Verónica


    The aim of the article is the analysis and description of one of the editions of the well-known Reprobación de supersticiones by the master Pedro Ciruelo. To be exact, it is the first edition, as we will demonstrate through the text, which was undiscovered until now. We proceed to the description of a copy kept at the library of the Diocesan Seminary of San Miguel de Orihuela. In addition to the more formal aspects, the evolution and development of the author, printer and engraver are extremely important for dating this printed work.

  18. Traditional facial tattoos disrupt face recognition processes.

    Buttle, Heather; East, Julie


    Factors that are important to successful face recognition, such as features, configuration, and pigmentation/reflectance, are all subject to change when a face has been engraved with ink markings. Here we show that the application of facial tattoos, in the form of spiral patterns (typically associated with the Maori tradition of a Moko), disrupts face recognition to a similar extent as face inversion, with recognition accuracy little better than chance performance (2AFC). These results indicate that facial tattoos can severely disrupt our ability to recognise a face that previously did not have the pattern.

  19. On the Origin of the Dragon Image on the Plate from Shilovka Burial Mound

    Liphanov Nicolay А.


    The author of the article analyzes an unique image of two opposed dragons engraved on a bone plate discovered in 1992 at barrow No.1 of Shilovka burial mound located on the right bank of the Volga river in Ulyanovsk Oblast (the excavations were conducted by R.S. Bagautdinov). The burial mound is related to the cattle breeding population of late 7th century. The article considers different hypotheses concerning the origin of these dragon images in the artistic traditions of various regions: Ch...

  20. Essais préliminaires d'un enduit hydraulique pour couche de roulement à longue durée de vie

    DE LARRARD, F; Garcin, F.; F. Hammoum; Travers, F.


    Dans le cadre d'un programme de recherche international, le LCPC propose une solution technique innovante intitulée " Enduit hydraulique fibré gravillonné (EHFG) ". Il s'agit d'essayer de développer une technique de couche de roulement à longue durée de vie, consistant à étaler, sur une couche de liaison bitumineuse, une couche de mortier fibré à ultra-hautes performances, dans laquelle des gravillons à forte résistance au polissage seraient engravés. Au stade actuel, on a vérifié que ce maté...

  1. Ultra-thin plasmonic color filters incorporating free-standing resonant membrane waveguides with high transmission efficiency

    Wang, Jiaxing; Fan, Qingbin; Zhang, Si; Zhang, Zijie; Zhang, Hui; Liang, Yuzhang; Cao, Xun; Xu, Ting


    We propose an ultra-thin plasmonic color filtering device based on subwavelength metal grating engraved on a dielectric membrane waveguide without substrate. As experiments demonstrate, the fabricated free-standing plasmonic color filters have more than 70% transmission efficiency at different resonant wavelengths in the visible spectral region and are capable of generating arbitrary colors. Experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical calculations. These artificial nanostructured color filtering devices may find potential applications in high resolution color imaging and sensing systems.

  2. Get a grip on physics

    Gribbin, John


    What do Newton's falling apple and the moon's orbit have in common? How does relativity theory apply to everyday life, what's a quantum leap, and why is Schrödinger's cat inside that box? The answers lie within your grasp! John Gribbin, a physicist and author of bestselling popular-science books, offers down-to-earth discussions of technical topics. Playful engravings and cartoons illustrate his imaginative accounts of the workings of string theory, black holes, superfluidity, and other cosmic oddities. Readers of all ages will appreciate these memorable explanations of the laws of physics and

  3. Spatial-temporal modeling of forest gaps generated by colonization from below- and above-ground beetle species

    Zhu, J.; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl; Møller, Jesper

    Studies of forest declines are important, because they both reduce timber production and aect successional trajectories of landscapes and ecosystems. Of partic- ular interest is the decline of red pines which is characterized by expanding areas of dead and chlorotic trees in plantations throughout...... among red turpentine beetle coloniza- tion, pine engraver bark beetle colonization, and mortality of red pine trees, while accounting for correlation across space and over time. For statistical inference, we adopt a Bayesian hierarchical model and devise Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms for obtaining...

  4. A Short-Barrelled 105-mm Howitzer for Interior Ballistic Studies


    PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJECT, TASK AREA 4 WORK UNIT NUMBERS US Army Ballistic Research Laboratory ATTN: DRDAR-BLI 1L162618AH80 Aberdeen Proving Ground...P )A b f where Pb = Pressure acting on base of the projectile Pf = Engraving and resistive pressure and A = Cross-sectional area of the bore; w...Army Armament R&D Command ATTN: DRDAR-SCA, L. Stiefel B. Brodman DRDAR-LCB-I, D. Spring DRDAR-LCE, R. Walker DRDAR-LCU-CT E. Barrieres R

  5. Impacts of March 11


    @@ Feng: The world-shocking September 11 terrorist attacks occurred in the United States in 2001, and two and a half years late the world saw panic-stricken terrorist attacks of the same kind in Spain. Ever since then March 11 has become another day that is engraved on the mind of the people all over the world. The terrorist event in Madrid has not only produced great impact on Spain and other European nations as well as on the common people, but also spurred the European nations to reflect on a series of important issues and to make some adjustments of their policies.

  6. Three-dimension direct writing TiO{sub 2} crystalline patterns in Bi-free glass using femtosecond laser

    Zhou, Peng; Ma, Hongliang; Du, Yingying; Han, Yongmei; Lu, Bo; Zhong, Minjian [Shanghai University, Department of Physics, Shanghai (China)


    Crystalline TiO{sub 2} was induced three dimensionally inside Bi-free glass sample by an 800 nm, 250-kHz femtosecond laser irradiation. Micro-Raman spectra analysis indicated that the laser-induced crystals in the focal point of the laser beam were monophase TiO{sub 2} rutile. Continuous crystalline lines were written through moving the focal point of the laser beam inside the glass. The results demonstrate that this technique is a convenient method to engrave three-dimensional patterns of crystals for fabricating integrated optical devices in transparent materials. (orig.)

  7. Modelos iconográficos y espaciales en el Job de Quevedo

    Nider, V. (Valentina)


    Los resultados del estudio sobre la iconografía de Job en el XVII y sobre todo el examen de los grabados incluidos en la princeps de los Commentariorum in Iob de Pineda (1598), utilizados por Quevedo en la Constancia y paciencia del Santo Job destacan la interpretación típicamente barroca de Job como figura de Cristo y memento mori. Job’s iconography in the XVIIth Century and in particular the engraves included in the princeps of Commentariorum in Iob by the Jesuit Juan de Pineda (1598), a...

  8. Slanted annular aperture arrays as enhanced-transmission metamaterials: Excitation of the plasmonic transverse electromagnetic guided mode

    Ndao, Abdoulaye; Salut, Roland; Baida, Fadi I., E-mail: [Département d' Optique P.M. Duffieux, Institut FEMTO-ST, UMR 6174 CNRS, Université de Franche–Comté, 25030 Besançon Cedex (France); Belkhir, Abderrahmane [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Université Mouloud Mammeri, Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria)


    We present here the fabrication and the optical characterization of slanted annular aperture arrays engraved into silver film. An experimental enhanced transmission based on the excitation of the cutoff-less plasmonic guided mode of the nano-waveguides (the transmission electron microscopy mode) is demonstrated and agrees well with the theoretical predicted results. By the way, even if it is less efficient (70% → 20%), an enhanced transmission can occur at larger wavelength value (720 nm–930 nm) compared to conventional annular aperture arrays structure by correctly setting the metal thickness.

  9. [Tatoos, piercing: body art? Body damage? Debasement of the body or return to a primitive way of life?].

    Grognard, C


    Tatoos and piercing, though they might appear as something like a trend, if not a craze, remain for a majority minority and even fringe practices. For the adolescent, questing for his identity (no more a child, not yet an adult), the tegmental sign is a way of engraving in the flesh dramatic events of his existence. The body mark is a search for independence, a symbolic attainment of self-reliance, a way of severing the umbilical cord and of asserting oneself. In face of a life no longer under control, the body is an object at hand, on which self-will is almost unbridled... These body modifications testify to change.

  10. The advances and characteristics of high-power diode laser materials processing

    Li, Lin


    This paper presents a review of the direct applications of high-power diode lasers for materials processing including soldering, surface modification (hardening, cladding, glazing and wetting modifications), welding, scribing, sheet metal bending, marking, engraving, paint stripping, powder sintering, synthesis, brazing and machining. The specific advantages and disadvantages of diode laser materials processing are compared with CO 2, Nd:YAG and excimer lasers. An effort is made to identify the fundamental differences in their beam/material interaction characteristics and materials behaviour. Also an appraisal of the future prospects of the high-power diode lasers for materials processing is given.

  11. Legal requirements and guidelines for the control of harmful laser generated particles, vapours and gases

    Horsey, John


    This paper is a review of the Health and Safety laws and guidelines relating to laser generated emissions into the workplace and outside environment with emphasis on the differences between legal requirements and guideline advice. The types and nature of contaminants released by various laser processes (i.e. cutting, coding, engraving, marking etc) are discussed, together with the best methods for controlling them to within legal exposure limits. A brief description of the main extract air filtration techniques, including the principles of particulate removal and the action of activated carbon for gas/vapour/odour filtration, is given.

  12. DSP-based multi-purpose control system for laser processing

    U Tong-Hyok; ZHANG Guo-shun; XU Bao-zhong; GANG Bei; LI Cheng; WANG Meng


    A DSP-based control system for laser processing that enables the motion of laser beam in two dimensions,and the control of its power with PC or without PC is discussed. The operation and implementation of the control system along with the rapid processing of image data are presented. The purpose of the control system is to operate the laser equipments in such a manner that various programmable laser control signals are available for vector and bitmap processing of characters and pictures. This control system makes the laser processing more intelligent and flexible and can be used for welding, marking and engraving by lasers.

  13. Design, Fabrication and Properties of the Multimode Polymer Planar 1 x 2 Y Optical Splitter

    V. Prajzler


    Full Text Available We report about design, fabrication and measurement of the properties of multimode 1 x 2 optical planar power splitter. The splitters were designed with help of OptiCAD software using ray tracing method. The dimensions of the splitters were then optimized for connecting standard Plastic Optical Fiber. Norland Optical Adhesives glues were used as optical waveguide layers and the design structures were completed by CNC engraving on Poly(methyl methacrylate or Poly(methylmethacrylimide substrate. The devices have the insertion loss around 7.6 dB at 650 nm and the coupling ratio was 52:48.

  14. Representations of the cinaedus in Roman art: Evidence of "gay" subculture?

    Clarke, John R


    Whereas analysis of ancient Roman texts reveals signs of a possible homosexual subculture, their interpretation is difficult. This article analyzes the content and context of visual representations of male-male intercourse, including wall paintings at Pompeii, a silver cup, and an engraved agate gemstone. Whether presenting negative stereotypes (Tavern of Salvius, Pompeii; Suburban Baths, Pompeii), or positive ones (Warren Cup, British Museum; Leiden gemstone), these representations reveal the presence of well-developed social attitudes toward the practice ofmale-male sex and the practitioners themselves.

  15. Kim C. Sturgess. Shakespeare and the American Nation.

    Jean‑Louis Claret


    Full Text Available The front page of Kim C Sturgess’s recent book entitled Shakespeare and the American Nation is particularly mind‑teasing insofar as it represents the famous Droeshout engraving of the bard (it illustrated the front‑page of the 1623 edition of Shakespeare’s works standing out against a background that superimposes the head of the Statue of Liberty on the spangled banner. The starting point of Sturgess’s 234‑page demonstration endorsed by Cambridge University Press is a paradox that the Britis...

  16. John Singleton Copley and the World of Prints

    Jules David Prown


    Full Text Available John Singleton Copley (1738–1815 is known for his painted portraits of colonial Americans (oils, pastels, and miniatures and his English history pictures, but the relationship between Copley and prints is relatively obscure. Yet he was involved with prints throughout his career and beyond, from his earliest exposure to art in the Boston studio of his stepfather to the sale four years after his death of his collection of around 1,125 prints by and after old master and contemporary artists, and many engravings after his own paintings.

  17. The Marian Illustrations of the Legend of Montserrat

    Alarcón, Concepción


    Full Text Available The books telling the story of Montserrat used to contain illustrative engravings. Montserrat presents us with a special case, because this monastery holds an uninterrupted record of illustrated texts or of texts with engraved images from the miniatures of the Llibre Vermell and the first fruits of the printing press to the 19th century. Admittedly, in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries the books exhibit the engravings on the cover or within the first sheets; it is only in the 19th century that illustrations appear inserted in the text so as to make the story more agreeable. The images intensify the value of texts, since illustrations can help us understand the written word and may suggest other readings of the corresponding passages, clearer and more precise. Illustrations in the books on the history of a monastery are but a part of a larger set of ideas, projects and self-service which the Church aims at the reader. Furthermore, the iconographic models of the Virgin Mary and the Mountain are of great interest for the history of engraving and of the Catalan and Spanish devotions.

    Los libros en que se contaba la historia de Montserrat contenían estampas que los ilustraban. Montserrat es un caso inusual, porque posee un registro ininterrumpido de textos ilustrados o acompañados con imágenes grabadas, desde el Llibre Vermell y los primeros momentos de la imprenta hasta el siglo XIX. Bien es cierto que en los libros de los siglos XVI, XVII y XVIII sólo se colocan los grabados en la portada o en las primeras hojas; Hasta el siglo XIX no encontramos un tipo de ilustración insertada en el interior del texto amenizando la historia. Las imágenes intensifican el valor de los textos, porque nos ayudan a comprenderlos y a la vez sugieren nuevas lecturas, más precisas y claras. Las ilustraciones de los libros de historia de un santuario forman parte de todo un enjambre de

  18. Nicolas Andry de Bois-Regard (Lyon 1658-Paris 1742): the inventor of the word "orthopaedics" and the father of parasitology.

    Kohler, Remi


    This is an historical essay about Nicolas Andry, a French medical doctor (Lyon 1658-Paris 1742) who wrote in 1741 the famous book called "L'orthopedie", which was soon after translated into English (1742) "Orthopaedia or the art of correcting and preventing deformities in children". His life and works are detailed as the containment of the book composed of two volumes and many engravings (the crooked tree has become the symbol of numerous orthopaedic societies around the world). A discussion of semantics (ORTHO-PEDIE) and evolution of the meaning of this word is also discussed.

  19. A nafion coated capacitive humidity sensor on a flexible PET substrate

    Sapsanis, Christos


    This paper reports a simple and low-cost technique for fabricating low-power capacitive humidity sensors without the use of a cleanroom environment. A maskless laser engraving system was utilized to fabricate two different gold electrode structures, interdigitated electrodes and Hilbert\\'s fifth-order fractal. The capacitive structures were implemented on a flexible PET substrate. The usage of Nafion, a well-known polymer for its hydrophilic properties as a sensing film, was attempted on the PET and outperformed the current efforts in flexible substrates. Its humidity sensing properties were evaluated in an automated gas setup with a relative humidity (RH %) ranging from 15% to 95 %.

  20. Instability and Transition on the HIFiRE-5 in a Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel


    intervals. The bumps are spaced about 1 mm from one another and are roughly 0.2 mm high. See Section 6.3.5 for discussion of the effect of the orange-peel...finish through microscope at 40× mag- nification. Left side of image shows a ruler with 1/64-in. (0.397-mm) engravings. Individual bumps have ≈ 1-mm...coaxial thermocouples. Schmidt-Boelter gauges consist of a series of thermocouple junctions on either side of an insulating wafer . The temperature

  1. Sibudu Cave, KwaZulu-Natal: Background to the excavations of middle stone age and iron age occupations

    Wadley, L


    Full Text Available Mouth in South Africa. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 27. Henshilwood C. and Sealy J. (1997). Bone artefacts from the Middle Stone Age at Blombos Cave, southern Cape, South Africa. Curr. Anthropol. 38, 890–895. 28. Henshilwood C.S., d’Errico F... C.S., d’Errico F., Yates R., Jacobs Z., Tribolo C., Duller G.A.T., Mercier N., Sealy J.C., Valladas H., Watts I. and Wintle A.G. (2002). Emergence of modern human behaviour: Middle Stone Age engravings from South Africa. Science 295, 1278...

  2. Brother Peter of Jesus at Purgatory: rewrites of a historiographyc passage

    Joan Mahiques Climent


    Full Text Available The second volume of the Reforma de los descalzos (Madrid, 1655 of Brother Francis of St. Mary relates that Brother Peter of Jesus, while dying in Bellpuig because of the plague, appeared to a companion in Lleida to say he was in Purgatory. From different printed works and engravings published from 1681 to 1724, we study the relationship between texts and images representing this episode. We also edit two versions written by Brother John of St. Joseph (1642-1718, whose autographs are preserved in mss. 990 and 991 of the University of Barcelona Library.




    Dear degyi, Number two arrived-it looks good-it looks normal Tibet again after all that NEWS NEWS NEWS we had last week about Lhasa.I haven't read it yet-just turning the pages to get first impression. I like the clear printing pictures of mountains Tibetan areas,Tibetan horse,Tibetan sheep grazing at foot of mountains,Tibetan girls in out of this world Tibetan dresses,Tibetan town under Heaven, Kyirong men,rope bridge with streamers.Tibetan history engraved in rock; I like beer-but I don't like beer tac...

  4. Cnaeus Sentius Felix: la straordinaria ascesa di un mercante forestiero a Ostia tra I e II secolo d.C. (CIL XIV, 409

    Simone Ciambelli


    Full Text Available Sentius Felix was an important merchant, who lived between the end of the I and the beginning of the II century A.D. in Ostia. All we know about him come from a problematic inscription (CIL XIV, 409, engraved on his funerary altar commissioned by his adopted son. The exegesis of this complex document could explain the important phenomenon of social rise of plebs media in the specific milieu of Ostia. In fact, Felix succeeded to enter in the local élite. Moreover, the new explanation of the above quoted text could help us to reconsider the role of the middle class during the early empire.

  5. 500th Anniversary of Gerard Mercator's Birth

    Ivka Kljajić


    Full Text Available Mercator was a geographer, mathematician, astronomer, globe producer, constructor of scientific instruments, copper engraver, cartographer, surveryor and publisher. The conformal cylindrical projection was named the Mercator projection after him. The normal aspect Mercator projection is especially important in navigation because rhumb lines are mapped as straight lines in that projection. The transverse Mercator projection is used in official cartography of many countries. The Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM projection is in military use (NATO. In addition, Mercator was the first to use the term atlas for a map collection.

  6. Octopus-like suction cups: from natural to artificial solutions.

    Tramacere, F; Follador, M; Pugno, N M; Mazzolai, B


    Octopus suckers are able to attach to all nonporous surfaces and generate a very strong attachment force. The well-known attachment features of this animal result from the softness of the sucker tissues and the surface morphology of the portion of the sucker that is in contact with objects or substrates. Unlike artificial suction cups, octopus suckers are characterized by a series of radial grooves that increase the area subjected to pressure reduction during attachment. In this study, we constructed artificial suction cups with different surface geometries and tested their attachment performances using a pull-off setup. First, smooth suction cups were obtained for casting; then, sucker surfaces were engraved with a laser cutter. As expected, for all the tested cases, the engraving treatment enhanced the attachment performance of the elastomeric suction cups compared with that of the smooth versions. Moreover, the results indicated that the surface geometry with the best attachment performance was the geometry most similar to octopus sucker morphology. The results obtained in this work can be utilized to design artificial suction cups with higher wet attachment performance.

  7. Archaeometric study on minting dies produced under papal rule in Ferrara

    Monticelli, Cecilia; Balbo, Andrea; Vaccaro, Carmela; Gulinelli, Maria Teresa; Garagnani, Gian Luca


    In the Civic Museum of Palazzo Schifanoia in Ferrara, a collection of 1104 coin striking tools is stored. Among these, eight steel dies produced from the 2nd decade of the seventeenth to the half of the eighteenth century, representative of the whole period of activity of the papal mint in Ferrara, have been chosen and studied. In that period, while important innovations in the coin minting technique were introduced in Europe, Ferrara declined from the rank of ducal mint to that of peripheral minting center of the highly centralized Papal States. The dies have been characterized by metallographic, chemical, and microhardness investigations. The results suggest that the dies were obtained by a manual smithing technique consisting in hammer hot forging. The die quality improved with time. In fact, in the period 1619-1622, a hardening treatment for the engraved die end consisting in a simple local carburization coexisted with a more efficient production method, based on the application of a proper final heat treatment. This treatment induced a graded microstructure from the engraved end, with a hard martensitic or bainitic structure, to the opposite end, with a tough ferritic/pearlitic structure. From 1675 onward, the latter production method was applied on all the studied dies. The chemical analysis of the alloys suggest that they were likely obtained from iron ores with a common provenance, while the analysis of the slag inclusions suggests the adoption of a direct method of ironmaking throughout the activity period of the mint.

  8. Bruxas e índias filhas de Saturno: arte, bruxaria e canibalismo Witches and indian women, daughters of Saturn: arts, witchcraft and cannibalism

    Yobenj Aucardo Chicangana-Bayona


    Full Text Available O artigo indaga pela representação da mulher nas pinturas e gravuras sobre a bruxaria dos séculos XVI e XVII, procurando estabelecer uma tipologia iconográfica e percorrendo a construção de estigmas negativos imputados no corpo feminino e na sua degradação natural. O texto, apoiado em fontes visuais como pinturas e gravuras, principalmente da Renascença alemã, demonstra como as índias do Novo Mundo foram associadas com as bruxas da Europa e com o deus clássico Saturno, através do mito do canibalismo.The article inquires into the representation of women in the paintings and engravings about witchcraft in the XVI-XVII centuries, trying to establish an iconographic typology and covering the construction of negative stigmas attributed to the feminine body and its natural degradation. Through the support of visual sources such as paintings and engravings, mainly from the German Renaissance, the text demonstrates how the Indian women of the New World were associated to the witches of Europe and with the classic god Saturn, through the myth of cannibalism.

  9. Fabricating Aluminum Bronze Rotating Band for Large-Caliber Projectiles by High Velocity Arc Spraying

    Wu, Bin; Fang, Ling-hui; Chen, Xiao-lei; Zou, Zhi-qiang; Yu, Xu-hua; Chen, Gang


    The necessity of finding new rotating band materials and developing corresponding joining technologies for large-caliber projectiles has been revealed by the recent increase in the ballistic performance of high loads. In this paper, aluminum bronze coatings were fabricated by the high velocity arc spraying (HVAS) technique. Microstructure and microhardness of the prepared coatings were investigated. Ring-on-disk dry sliding wear tests were conducted in an ambient condition to examine the tribological behavior of the coatings. Quasi-static engraving processes of rotating bands made of as-sprayed aluminum bronze coating and bulk copper were studied using rate-controlled push test methodology on an MTS 810 Material Testing System. The results show that the as-sprayed aluminum bronze coatings have a dense microstructure with porosity of about 1.6%. Meanwhile, the as-sprayed coating presents a higher microhardness than pure copper. The friction coefficient of coatings is about 0.2-0.3 in the steady state. Tribological mechanisms of the as-sprayed coatings were discussed. The engraving test results show that the aluminum bronze rotating band presents high bonding strength and good plasticity. The HVAS aluminum bronze coating should be a possible substitute for the state-of-the-art copper rotating band.

  10. Influence of femtosecond laser marking on the corrosion resistance of stainless steels

    Valette, S. [Universite Jean Monnet, LTSI, 10 rue Barrouin, F42000 Saint Etienne (France)]. E-mail:; Steyer, P. [INSA de Lyon, LPCI, 20 Av. A. Einstein, F69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Richard, L. [Ecole des Mines de St. Etienne, Centre CIS, 158 cours Fauriel, F42000 Saint Etienne (France); Forest, B. [Ecole des Mines de St. Etienne, Centre CIS, 158 cours Fauriel, F42000 Saint Etienne (France); Donnet, C. [Universite Jean Monnet, LTSI, 10 rue Barrouin, F42000 Saint Etienne (France); Audouard, E. [Universite Jean Monnet, LTSI, 10 rue Barrouin, F42000 Saint Etienne (France)


    Marking is of prime importance in the field of biomaterials to allow the identification of surgical tools as well as prostheses. Nowadays, marking is often achieved by means of laser beam, which may modify the characteristics of the treated surfaces. The use of laser devices delivering nanosecond pulses is known to induce dramatic corrosion degradations during sterilization or decontamination processes of the biomaterials. The aim of the present study is to investigate the ability of femtosecond (pulse duration in the 10{sup -15} s range) laser treatments to avoid preferential corrosion processes of the marked areas, in order to extend the durability and the reliability of biomaterials. Experiments have been performed on martensitic Z30C13 and austenitic 316L stainless steels. Electrochemical measurements (cyclic polarization curves) were carried out to determine the passive state of samples before and after engraving, their corrosion rate and their susceptibility to localized corrosion. Further protracted immersion tests were also carried out to evaluate the natural long-term degradation of engraved parts. The electrochemical behavior is then explained on the basis of surface characterizations. Femtosecond laser marking is shown to provide an electrochemical ennoblement. Moreover, the chemical composition is not affected so that the passive character of both stainless steels is maintained, even improved if we consider the susceptibility to localized corrosion.

  11. Goethe in the Hall and His Journeys in Printed Rome

    Victor Plahte Tschudi


    Full Text Available The article focuses on graphic reproductions in Johann Wolfgang von Goethe’s 'Italian Journey'. This travel account gives a clear sense of how important prints were as part of Goethe’s education and preparation for the encounter with classical Roman monuments. As the text itself was edited and rewritten thirty to forty years after the journey itself, however, prints also became crucial in the attempt to remember that journey. In other words, the author of the 'Journey', in contrast to the youthful traveler, no longer sees engravings of Rome, but Rome through engravings. The discussion takes as a point of departure Goethe’s vast collection of prints, still kept in Weimar. Measured up against the references in the travel journal, prints not only reflected his impression of monuments, but also structured those impressions, as the elderly man looks back and reassembles his memories to make an official account of his life. However, it is too easy to ascribe this reliance on prints to a fading memory — on the contrary. As he grows into old age, Goethe’s idea of graphic reproduction evolves in parallel with his increasingly refined theories of nature. His growing preference for prints depicted as ruins reflects the aging author’s own sense of change and transformation.

  12. The Body as Language and Expression of the Indigenous Australian Cultural Identity

    Dolors Soriano


    Full Text Available In the Indigenous Australian oral culture, Tradition and Law are transmitted orally – through songs, tales, legends, etc. – and by visual expressions – engravings and drawings made on rocks, on the ground, on material objects, on bark and on the human body–. Drawings and engravings transform the surface on which they are made from profane to sacred, since they are the transmitters of cultural myths and beliefs, generation after generation. The body, one of the supports of visual expression, actively participates in the transmission of myths, relegating the design to a secondary place. The most important thing is the transmission of the myth and not the way it is transmitted, or the result. The mythological narrative or legend surpasses the aesthetic line of vision. This paper intends to expose the primacy of the use of the body -- human or not–, as a transmitter of the myths and history of the Indigenous Australian culture. In this way the body speaks a non-oral language full of symbolism and meaning.

  13. Two-layer Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) with passive capillary valves for mHealth medical diagnostics.

    Balsam, Joshua; Bruck, Hugh Alan; Rasooly, Avraham


    There is a new potential to address needs for medical diagnostics in Point-of-Care (PoC) applications using mHealth (Mobile computing, medical sensors, and communications technologies for health care), a mHealth based lab test will require a LOC to perform clinical analysis. In this work, we describe the design of a simple Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) platform for mHealth medical diagnostics. The LOC utilizes a passive capillary valve with no moving parts for fluid control using channels with very low aspect ratios cross sections (i.e., channel width ≫ height) achieved through transitions in the channel geometry via that arrest capillary flow. Using a CO2 laser in raster engraving mode, we have designed and fabricated an eight-channel LOC for fluorescence signal detection fabricated by engraving and combining just two polymer layers. Each of the LOC channels is capable of mixing two reagents (e.g., enzyme and substrate) for various assays. For mHealth detection, we used a mobile CCD detector equipped with LED multispectral illumination in the red, green, blue, and white range. This technology enables the development of low-cost LOC platforms for mHealth whose fabrication is compatible with standard industrial plastic fabrication processes to enable mass production of mHealth diagnostic devices, which may broaden the use of LOCs in PoC applications, especially in global health settings.

  14. 《梅花喜神谱》题跋研究%An Analysis of the Postscript of Plum blossom and Lucky Gold Portraits Collecting

    张卿; 吕三川


    Plum blossom and Lucky Gold is regarded as the earliest wood engraving portraits collecting in China which without doubt constitutes Chinese first specialized wood engraving portraits collecting that describes various kinds of plum blossom. As portraits were popularly known as the Lucky gold in Song Dynasty,therefore comes into its being the name of Plum blossom and Lucky Gold which merits vast circulation among men of literatures as well as artists. The postscript of Plum blossom and Lucky Gold portraits collecting by Writer Huang Pi-lie of Qing Dynasty can be regarded as rectifying, replenishing and interpreting the its text,which is of certain research value.%《梅花喜神谱》可以称为中国最早的木刻图籍,当然也是中国第一部专门描绘梅花不同姿态的木刻画谱。因宋时俗称画像为喜神,故名《梅花喜神谱》,在文人画家中广泛流传,清代文人黄丕烈《梅花喜神谱》题跋可以视为对画论文本内容的修正、补充及考释,具有一定研究价值。


    Florin Fodorean


    Full Text Available In the following, we would like to present and describe a very interesting map, engraved in the XVIIth or at the end of the XVIth century by a famous Dutch cartographer, engraver, and publisher: Pieter van der Keere (Petrus Kaerius. Born in Ghent in 1571, Van der Keere (1571-1646 developed his business in Amsterdam at the end of the XVIth century. The map described in our article is entitled Vetus Descriptio Daciarum nec non Moesiarum. The document is important for the history of cartography because it enable us to identify and comment upon the level of knowledge of Van der Keere about a region not so familiar to him. In fact, the map reflects a medieval version of the map of Ptolemy. This period is connected to the rediscovery of Ptolemy. Besides data from the famous work of the geographer born in Alexandria, Van der Keere included some interesting notations and details which reflect the middle Ages conceptions or geographical features invented in this period.

  16. [Seed, youth, the land is fertile and the moment, unique!: it is not Neruda, but Gandulfo, the surgeon].

    Zalaquett, Ricardo


    The second and definitive edition of "Crepusculario", the first book of Pablo Neruda, is dedicated by the poet "To Juan Gandulfo, this book of other times, Pablo". Juan Gandulfo, died tragically, at a very young age, in 1931. Juan Gandulfo, remembered in Neruda's memoirs, as the most formidable leader of the Anarchist movement of that time and that engraved in wood the cover and all the illustrations of the first edition of Crepusculario, published in 1923. Neruda qualified these as the "most impressive engravings made by a man that nobody relates to artistic creation". Juan Gandulfo, as a medical student, made the color illustrations used to teach biology and histology by Professor Juan Noe. Juan Gandulfo wrote more than one hundred articles in the magazine "Claridad", pertaining to the Student Federation of Chile. Juan Gandulfo was consequent with his writings and went to jail twice as a student leader and fought a duel for a woman. Later on, with the same vehemence, he dedicated himself to the care of children in the Arriaran Hospital and to teach general surgery at the San Vicente Hospital, but fate truncated his career at the age of 36. This essay is an homage to this man, in the centennial of Pablo Neruda's birth.

  17. Surface-plasmon-enhanced photoluminescence of quantum dots based on open-ring nanostructure array

    Kannegulla, Akash; Liu, Ye; Cheng, Li-Jing


    Enhanced photoluminescence (PL) of quantum dots (QD) in visible range using plasmonic nanostructures has potential to advance several photonic applications. The enhancement effect is, however, limited by the light coupling efficiency to the nanostructures. Here we demonstrate experimentally a new open-ring nanostructure (ORN) array 100 nm engraved into a 200 nm thick silver thin film to maximize light absorption and, hence, PL enhancement at a broadband spectral range. The structure is different from the traditional isolated or through-hole split-ring structures. Theoretical calculations based on FDTD method show that the absorption peak wavelength can be adjusted by their period and dimension. A broadband absorption of about 60% was measured at the peak wavelength of 550 nm. The emission spectrum of CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots was chosen to match the absorption band of the ORN array to enhance its PL. The engraved silver ORN array was fabricated on a silver thin film deposited on a silicon substrate using focus ion beam (FIB) patterning. The device was characterized by using a thin layer of QD water dispersion formed between the ORN substrate and a cover glass. The experimental results show the enhanced PL for the QD with emission spectrum overlapping the absorption band of ORN substrate and quantum efficiency increases from 50% to 70%. The ORN silver substrate with high absorption over a broadband spectrum enables the PL enhancement and will benefit applications in biosensing, wavelength tunable filters, and imaging.

  18. Evaluation of the parietal graphic motifs from El Forcón Cave (A Fueba, Huesca: New Perspectives on the Palaeolithic Art in the Southern slope of the Central Pyrenees



    Full Text Available In 1976, a team led from the Museum of Huesca conducted a series of archaeological works in El Forcón Cave (San Juan de Toledo, A Fueba, Huesca. In addition to the recovery of several materials and prehistoric tools in a completely disturbed context, it was discovered the existence of parietal anthropic engravings. After the discovery of the Palaeolithic parietal site of Fuente del Trucho, also on the southern  slope of the Central Pyrenees, and joined to the formal similarity of the El Forcón engravings with other Franco-Cantabrian ensembles, a Palaeolithic chronology was proposed for the ‘parietal art’ of this site. Since then, the scientific literature has included this ensemble in the inventory of cave art. Recently, we undertook a study of the graphical device –unrevised since its first publication–, to assess its potential and the arguments to establish a chronology. In this paper we discuss the evidence found and present the conclusions of the study. The most relevant is that the arguments do not support a Palaeolithic –or even a Prehistoric– chronology for the parietal motifs.

  19. Infrared Camera Analysis of Laser Hardening

    J. Tesar


    Full Text Available The improvement of surface properties such as laser hardening becomes very important in present manufacturing. Resulting laser hardening depth and surface hardness can be affected by changes in optical properties of material surface, that is, by absorptivity that gives the ratio between absorbed energy and incident laser energy. The surface changes on tested sample of steel block were made by engraving laser with different scanning velocity and repetition frequency. During the laser hardening the process was observed by infrared (IR camera system that measures infrared radiation from the heated sample and depicts it in a form of temperature field. The images from the IR camera of the sample are shown, and maximal temperatures of all engraved areas are evaluated and compared. The surface hardness was measured, and the hardening depth was estimated from the measured hardness profile in the sample cross-section. The correlation between reached temperature, surface hardness, and hardening depth is shown. The highest and the lowest temperatures correspond to the lowest/highest hardness and the highest/lowest hardening depth.

  20. Paleolithic rock art in Hornos de la Peña cave (Cantabria: new data about the outside ensemble

    Olivia RIVERO VILÁ


    Full Text Available Hornos de la Peña was one of the caves discovered at the beginnings of XXth century in the Cantabrian region, comprised in the classic work «Les Cavernes de la Région Cantabrique» (1911. As for the other caves studied in this work, the cave has not been re-studied again, only some punctual researches which did not supply the original. Recently, a partial revision of the parietal figures has been undertaken. This study applies the most recent methodologies of rock art research and has allowed to the authors to identify three complete three-lineal engraved hinds who previously had been interpreted as nonfigurative outlines, and another one located inside. In the present paper we demonstrate the importance of the finding and its implications for the knowledge of the graphical activity of the cavity and for the Cantabrian region artistic research. The finding of the engraved hind located in the dark side of the cave, first of these characteristics, is specially interesting, because allowed us to reaffirm the correlation between the formal schemes of outside ensemble and some representations located in the deep zones of the caves.

  1. Image analysis of Renaissance copperplate prints

    Hedges, S. Blair


    From the fifteenth to the nineteenth centuries, prints were a common form of visual communication, analogous to photographs. Copperplate prints have many finely engraved black lines which were used to create the illusion of continuous tone. Line densities generally are 100-2000 lines per square centimeter and a print can contain more than a million total engraved lines 20-300 micrometers in width. Because hundreds to thousands of prints were made from a single copperplate over decades, variation among prints can have historical value. The largest variation is plate-related, which is the thinning of lines over successive editions as a result of plate polishing to remove time-accumulated corrosion. Thinning can be quantified with image analysis and used to date undated prints and books containing prints. Print-related variation, such as over-inking of the print, is a smaller but significant source. Image-related variation can introduce bias if images were differentially illuminated or not in focus, but improved imaging technology can limit this variation. The Print Index, the percentage of an area composed of lines, is proposed as a primary measure of variation. Statistical methods also are proposed for comparing and identifying prints in the context of a print database.

  2. Off surface matrix based on-chip electrochemical biosensor platform for protein biomarker detection in undiluted serum.

    Arya, Sunil K; Kongsuphol, Patthara; Park, Mi Kyoung


    The manuscript describes a concept of using off surface matrix modified with capturing biomolecule for on-chip electrochemical biosensing. 3D matrix made by laser engraving of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) sheet as off surface matrix was integrated in very close vicinity of the electrode surface. Laser engraving and holes in PMMA along with spacing from surface provide fluidic channel and incubation chamber. Covalent binding of capturing biomolecule (anti-TNF-α antibody) on off-surface matrix was achieved via azide group activity of 4-fluoro-3-nitro-azidobenzene (FNAB), which act as cross-linker and further covalently binds to anti-TNF-α antibody via thermal reaction. Anti-TNF-α/FNAB/PMMA matrix was then integrated over comb structured gold electrode array based sensor chip. Separate surface modification followed by integration of sensor helped to prevent the sensor chip surface from fouling during functionalization. Nonspecific binding was prevented using starting block T20 (PBS). Results for estimating protein biomarker (TNF-α) in undiluted serum using Anti-TNF-α/FNAB/PMMA/Au reveal that system can detect TNF-α in 100pg/ml to 100ng/ml range with high sensitivity of 119nA/(ng/ml), with negligible interference from serum proteins and other cytokines. Thus, use of off surface matrix may provide the opportunity to electrochemically sense biomarkers sensitively to ng/ml range with negligible nonspecific binding and false signal in undiluted serum.

  3. Hybrid soft-lithography/laser machined microchips for the parallel generation of droplets.

    Muluneh, M; Issadore, D


    Microfluidic chips have been developed to generate droplets and microparticles with control over size, shape, and composition not possible using conventional methods. However, it has remained a challenge to scale-up production for practical applications due to the inherently limited throughput of micro-scale devices. To address this problem, we have developed a self-contained microchip that integrates many (N = 512) micro-scale droplet makers. This 3 × 3 cm(2) PDMS microchip consists of a two-dimensional array of 32 × 16 flow-focusing droplet makers, a network of flow channels that connect them, and only two inputs and one output. The key innovation of this technology is the hybrid use of both soft-lithography and direct laser-micromachining. The microscale resolution of soft lithography is used to fabricate flow-focusing droplet makers that can produce small and precisely defined droplets. Deeply engraved (h ≈ 500 μm) laser-machined channels are utilized to supply each of the droplet makers with its oil phase, aqueous phase, and access to an output channel. The engraved channels' low hydrodynamic resistance ensures that each droplet maker is driven with the same flow rates for highly uniform droplet formation. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, water droplets (d ≈ 80 μm) were generated in hexadecane on both 8 × 1 and 32 × 16 geometries.

  4. Formation of plano-convex micro-lens array in fused silica glass using CO2 laser assisted reshaping technique

    Sohn, Ik-Bu; Yoo, Dongyoon; Noh, Young-Chul; Ahsan, Md Shamim; Sung, Jae-Hee; Lee, Seong-Ku


    We report on fabricating high-fill-factor plano-convex spherical and square micro-lens arrays on fused silica glass surface using CO2 laser assisted reshaping technique. Initially, periodic micro-pillars have been encoded on the glass surface by means of a femtosecond laser beam. Afterwards, the micro-pillars are polished several times by irradiating a CO2 laser beam on top of the micro-pillars. Consequently, spherical micro-lens array with micro-lens size of 50 um x 50 um and square micro-lens array with micro-lens size of 100 um x 100 um are formed on fused silica glass surface. We also study the intensity distribution of light passed through the spherical micro-lens array engraved glass sample. The simulation result shows that, the focal length of the spherical micro-lens array is 35 um. Furthermore, we investigate the optical properties of the micro-lens array engraved glass samples. The proposed CO2 laser based reshaping technique is simple and fast that shows promises in fabrication arrays of smooth mic...

  5. Dynamic photopatterning of cells in situ by Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium ortho-vanadate laser

    Deka, Gitanjal; Okano, Kazunori; Kao, Fu-Jen


    Cellular micropattering has been increasingly adopted in quantitative biological experiments. A Q-switched pulsed neodymium-doped yttrium ortho-vanadate (Nd) laser directed in-situ microfabrication technique for cell patterning is presented. A platform is designed uniquely to achieve laser ablation. The platform is comprised of thin gold coating over a glass surface that functions as a thermal transducer and is over-layered by a cell repellant polymer layer. Micropatterns are engraved on the platform, subsequently exposing specific cell adhesive micro-domains by ablating the gold-polymer coating photothermally. Experimental results indicate that the proposed approach is applicable under culture conditions, viable toward cells, and has a higher engraving speed. Possible uses in arraying isolated single cells on the platform are also shown. Additionally, based on those micro-patterns, dynamic cellular morphological changes and migrational speed in response to geometrical barriers are studied to demonstrate the potential applications of the proposed approach. Our results further demonstrate that cells in narrower geometry had elongated shapes and higher migrational speed than those in wider geometry. Importantly, the proposed approach will provide a valuable reference for efforts to study single cell dynamics and cellular migration related processes for areas such as cell division, wound healing, and cancer invasion.


    MENG Li-li


    The exploitation and utilization of the tour resources of tournament athletics, including skiling, boat sail-ing, archery, ice engraving, snow engraving, has become a new trend of the development of Chinese tourism. Due tothe unique cold climate and superior geographic location, Harbin is a promising city for developing tour resources of tourna-ment athletics. Based on the analysis of the superiority and peculiarity of Harbin, the speculation on development of tourresources of tournament athletics in Harbin is proposed as follows: 1 ) Harbin should develop its special tour resources oftournament athletics associated with needs of market; 2) Harbin should take the advantages of rich resources and devel-op ice and snow entertainment in winter and travel for sight-seeing and spending summer; 3 ) the adjustment of the layoutof ice and snow resources should be based on the idea of taking Harbin as the center and all-side opening at the largcscale in the way of radiation; 4) tourism should be developed by the combined efforts of various departments to make feasi-ble plan, and the organizers should pay much attention to ensuring the safety of tourists.

  7. [Diprosopus triophthalmus. From ancient terracotta sculptures to spiral computer tomographic reconstruction].

    Sokiranski, R; Pirsig, W; Nerlich, A


    A still-born male fetus from the 19th century, fixed in formalin and presenting as diprosopia triophthalmica, was analysed by helical computer tomography and virtually reconstructed without damage. This rare, incomplete, symmetrical duplication of the face on a single head with three eyes, two noses and two mouths develops in the first 3 weeks of gestation and is a subset of the category of conjoined twins with unknown underlying etiology. Spiral computer tomography of fixed tissue demonstrated in the more than 100 year old specimen that virtual reconstruction can be performed in nearly the same way as in patients (contrast medium application not possible). The radiological reconstruction of the Munich fetus, here confined to head and neck data, is the basis for comparison with a number of imaging procedures of the last 3000 years. Starting with some Neolithic Mesoamerican ceramics, the "Pretty Ladies of Tlatilco", diprosopia triophthalmica was also depicted on engravings of the 16th and 17th century A.D. by artists as well as by the anatomist Soemmering and his engraver Berndt in the 18th century. Our modern spiral computer tomography confirms the ability of our ancestors to depict diprosopia triophthalmica in paintings and sculptures with a high level of natural precision.

  8. Engineering model for ultrafast laser microprocessing

    Audouard, E.; Mottay, E.


    Ultrafast laser micro-machining relies on complex laser-matter interaction processes, leading to a virtually athermal laser ablation. The development of industrial ultrafast laser applications benefits from a better understanding of these processes. To this end, a number of sophisticated scientific models have been developed, providing valuable insights in the physics of the interaction. Yet, from an engineering point of view, they are often difficult to use, and require a number of adjustable parameters. We present a simple engineering model for ultrafast laser processing, applied in various real life applications: percussion drilling, line engraving, and non normal incidence trepanning. The model requires only two global parameters. Analytical results are derived for single pulse percussion drilling or simple pass engraving. Simple assumptions allow to predict the effect of non normal incident beams to obtain key parameters for trepanning drilling. The model is compared to experimental data on stainless steel with a wide range of laser characteristics (time duration, repetition rate, pulse energy) and machining conditions (sample or beam speed). Ablation depth and volume ablation rate are modeled for pulse durations from 100 fs to 1 ps. Trepanning time of 5.4 s with a conicity of 0.15° is obtained for a hole of 900 μm depth and 100 μm diameter.

  9. El grafismo rupestre paleolítico de la cueva de El Mirón (Ramales de la Victoria, Cantabria, España: una propuesta para su datación estratigráfica

    García Díez, Marcos


    Full Text Available This article describes the rock art discovered in El Mirón Cave (Cantabria, Spain during the course of excavations directed by LGS and MGM since 1996. The art consists of engravings: most are apparently non-representational in their currest condition, but there is one image of a horse and another of a possible bison. The engravings are all located at the rear of the large, sunlit vestibule of the cave, in intimate relationship with human habitation deposits. The horse and associated linear engravings on the cave wall can be attributed to the earlymiddle Magdalenian on the basis of style and practicable height above occupation surfaces of those periods. More precisely datable, two series of linear engravings on a large block can be assigned to the Lower Cantabrian Magdalenian, a period well-endowed with works of portable art, such as engraved scapulae, both at El Mirón and in many other regional sites. The block fell from the cave wall, its outer surface landing on Level 110, which is 14C-dated to 16,130 ± 250 and 16,520 ± 40 BP. Then the flat inner surface of the block was engraved. Next, the block and the engravings were progressively covered over by sediments pertaining to Middle, Upper and Terminal Magdalenian levels 14C-dated between ca. 14,500- 12,000 BP. In sum, the art discovered to date in El Mirón can be attributed to the early and middle Magdalenian period, although the site itself was inhabited by humans from at least late Middle Paleolithic through Medieval times. This article concludes by placing the Mirón parietal art within the context of the numerous other (but less-well dated cave art manifestations in the river Asón basin of eastern Cantabria, including such notable sites as Venta de la Perra, Covalanas, La Haza and Cullalvera.

    Este artículo describe el arte parietal descubierto en la Cueva de El Mirón (Cantabria, España en el curso de las excavaciones dirigidas en el yacimiento por MGM y LGS desde 1996. El

  10. L’étude microtopographique et la visualisation 3D dans l’analyse de gravures préhistoriques – L’exemple des pierres gravées de La Marche

    Nicolas Mélard


    Full Text Available L’étude de pierres gravées préhistoriques pose depuis longtemps des problèmes de déchiffrement des motifs et de décodage des traces. La recherche archéologique se sert de plus en plus de moyens d’investigation empruntés des sciences naturelles tels la microscopie et plus récemment le relevé et la visualisation 3D. L’application de la microtopographie a permis d’appréhender de manière plus complète les pierres gravées de La Marche en ajoutant des éléments de compréhension en termes de composition et de construction des motifs (chronologie et morphologie des traits ainsi qu’en termes de technologie (gestes et démarches des graveurs préhistoriques. De plus, il a été possible d’obtenir des informations sur l’histoire des supports avant et après la gravure (choix des matières premières, caractérisation des usures,….The main difficulty in studying the engraved stones of the upper Paléolthic period is the decipherment and the understanding of the various overlapping traces on the surfaces. Scientific research in paleolithic art is trying since more than 20 years to use modern laboritory devises and techniques like the Scanning Electron Microscope and more recently the 3D scanning. For the engraved stones of the site of La Marche have been studied by 3D microtopography as a complementary technique. This non destructif protocole made a new approach of engraving technology and motif composition possible (chronology of the lines, traces morphology etc.. This leads to better understanging of the techniques and gestures used by prehistoric artists. Moreover studies of this type can give more informations obout the function and the history of the stones in a prehistoric rockshelter and by this way the role of theses stones in the life of the magdaleanian hunter-gatherer communities.

  11. Arte rupestre paleolítico en el yacimiento solutrense de La Cueva de Ambrosio (Vélez-Blanco, Almeria

    Ripoll Lopez, Sergio


    Full Text Available In the solutrean site o[ La Cueva de Ambrosio several engraved and painted figures dated on the Upper palaeolithic, have been found during the field works of[ 1992 and 1994. In the panel I we have identified an excellent representation of a horse, a bird, one bovidae and another protome of a horse. Below this surface there are many red ochre wallpaintings covered by a calcitic path and for the time being we are unable to give any interpretation for it. In the second panel we have discovered one splendid red painted horse, two more engraved horses and a little head of one other black painted horse. There are many engraved lines and pictural rests that must be studied in the future. The exceptionality of this discovery is that we can interrelate perfectly these rock art paintings with the archaeological levels clearly defined chronologically and culturally (ca. 16000 B.P., Upper Solutrean and Final Solutrean from the same site.

    En el yacimiento solutrense de La Cueva de Ambrosio se han encontrado durante las campañas de 1992 y 1994 un conjunto de representaciones artísticas parietales pintadas y grabadas del Paleolítico Superior. Entre los grabados del panel I, se ha descifrado una excelente silueta de caballo, una representación de ave, unos protomos de bóvido y de caballo, así como otros trazos todavía no interpretados. En la parte inferior del panel existen pinturas, poco visibles a causa de una colada calcítica y de momento no es posible interpretar ninguna representación figurativa. En el panel II se han identificado un espléndido caballo pintado en ocre rojo, otros dos caballos grabados, un protomos de caballo pintado en negro y gran cantidad de líneas incisas en trazo múltiple, así como otros restos pictóricos todavía por identificar. La excepcionalidad del hallazgo reside en el hecho de poder interrelacionar perfectamente estas muestras de arte con los niveles arqueol

  12. Recriar o espaço de voz do poeta: a memória entre dois mundos

    Joseilda de Sousa Diniz


    Full Text Available Poet, singer, reciter, engraver, who, after a tragic illness in the vocal cords became a researcher and a writer, José Alves Sobrinho was one of the main nomad poetsingers on Northeast Brazil. His name is linked to a period deemed the golden age of Brazilian cantoria and brings a privileged testimony of this effervescent moment, marked by the transition to new technologies of information. Deeply embedded in these changing times, where the sung word loses progressively space to the printed one, José Alves knew, cleverly, recreate a space of dialogue between the letter and the poem. Following his intellectual and artistic trajectory, we can realize the creative ability of this poet and his pears, in the sense of recreating the needed possibilities to the maintenance, spreading, adaptation and survival of his art.

  13. Fundamental triangulation networks in Denmark

    Borre Kai


    Full Text Available The first triangulation activity on Danish ground was carried out by the astronomer Tycho Brahe who resided on the island Hven. He wanted to determine the longitude difference of his observatory Uraniborg to Copenhagen. A by-product was a map of his island made in 1579. In 1761 the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters initiated a mapping project which should be based on the principle of triangulation. Eventually 24 maps were printed in varying scales, predominantly in 1:120 000. The last map was engraved in 1842. The Danish GradeMeasurement initiated remeasurements and redesign of the fundamental triangulation network. This network served scientific as well as cartographic purposes in more than a century. Only in the 1960s all triangulation sides were measured electronically. A combined least-squares adjustment followed in the 1970s

  14. Cutting of nonmetallic materials using Nd:YAG laser beam

    Bashir Ahmed Tahir; Rashid Ahmed; M. G. B. Ashiq; Afaq Ahmed; M. A. Saeed


    This study deals with Nd:YAG laser cutting nonmetallic materials,which is one of the most important and popular industrial applications of laser.The main theme is to evaluate the effects of Nd:YAG laser beam power besides work piece scanning speed.For approximate cutting depth,a theoretical study is conducted in terms of material property and cutting speed.Results show a nonlinear relation between the cutting depth and input energy.There is no significant effect of speed on cutting depth with the speed being larger than 30 mm/s.An extra energy is utilized in the deep cutting.It is inferred that as the laser power increases,cutting depth increases.The experimental outcomes are in good agreement with theoretical results.This analysis will provide a guideline for laser-based industry to select a suitable laser for cutting,scribing,trimming,engraving,and marking nonmetallic materials.

  15. Palabra, imagen y poder. Iconografía de las Casas Capitulares sevillanas para las fiestas de proclamación de Carlos IV

    Carmen Montoya Rodríguez


    Full Text Available Las fiestas en honor a Carlos IV serán en Sevilla las últimas que se celebren según el esquema heredado del Barroco. En 1789 hay signos inequívocos de que ese modelo festivo y ese orden iconográfico están perdiendo vigencia en favor de un planteamiento ilustrado. Los rabados y las narraciones de las celebraciones son discursos de poder en manos de las autoridades que aspiran a modificar la imagen tradicionalista de su ciudad.The parties in Charles IV’s honour were the last ones celebrated following the pattern inherited from the Baroque. In 1789 there were unequivocal/unambiguous signs revealing that that festive model and iconographic order were going out of use in favour of an enlightened approach. The engravings and narrations of the celebrations are a discourse of power in the hands of the authorities aiming to modify the traditionalist image of their city.


    Lawson, Ian


    This paper investigates the way in which Robert Hooke constructed his microscopical observations. His Micrographia is justifiably famous for its detailed engravings, which communicated Hooke's observations of tiny nature to his readers, but less attention has been paid to how he went about making the observations themselves. In this paper I explore the relationship between the materiality of his instrument and the epistemic images he produced. Behind the pictures lies an array of hidden materials, and the craft knowledge it took to manipulate them. By investigating the often counter-theoretical and conflicting practices of his ingenious microscope use, I demonstrate the way in which Hooke crafted the microworld for his readers, giving insight into how early modern microscopy was understood by its practitioners and audience.

  17. La imagen de la mujer en el Semanario Pintoresco Español

    Palomo, María del Pilar


    Full Text Available The first seven years of Semanario Pintoresco, under Mesonero Romanos, have been reviewed. The image of women portrayed in its texts and engravings has been used to determine the idea of the ideal women reader the magazine projects: the family mother, in a city context and with a conservative mindset. She is contrasted with the heroine of novels and plays in Mesonero’s antiromantic ideas.Se han revisado los siete primeros años del Semanario, los dirigidos por Mesonero Romanos. A través de textos y grabados se llega a la imagen femenina que en ellos aparece, y se puede determinar la idea de lectora ideal que se plasma en la revista: la madre de familia, de contexto ciudadano y clase social de mentalidad conservadora. A ella se opone la heroína de novelas y dramas, en la línea antirromántica del propio Mesonero.

  18. Transits of Venus and Mercury as muses

    Tobin, William


    Transits of Venus and Mercury have inspired artistic creation of all kinds. After having been the first to witness a Venusian transit, in 1639, Jeremiah Horrocks expressed his feelings in poetry. Production has subsequently widened to include songs, short stories, novels, novellas, sermons, theatre, film, engravings, paintings, photography, medals, sculpture, stained glass, cartoons, stamps, music, opera, flower arrangements, and food and drink. Transit creations are reviewed, with emphasis on the English- and French-speaking worlds. It is found that transits of Mercury inspire much less creation than those of Venus, despite being much more frequent, and arguably of no less astronomical significance. It is suggested that this is primarily due to the mythological associations of Venus with sex and love, which are more powerful and gripping than Mercury's mythological role as a messenger and protector of traders and thieves. The lesson for those presenting the night sky to the public is that sex sells.

  19. Adoration of Virgin Mary Attended by Two St. Johns in Wawel Cathedral Collection

    Magdalena Piwocka


    Full Text Available There is a canvas (98,5 x 222,5cm in the Wawel Cathedral that is not connected with any existing or historically documented altars inside the church (il. 1-3. Owing to its shape it has so far been considered to have been a predella, which - taking into account its size and proportions - seems rather unlikely. It may have been the top of the middle part of a retable, possibly in an altar dedicated to the two St. Johns. The painting presents the Virgin Mary with the Child seated under a canopy, attended by the two Saints, adored by kneeling angels with censers in their hands. A graphic model of the scene has been found; it is an engraving by Jan Sadeler (1550-1600 based on a design by Hans von Aachen (1552-1615, released in Munich in 1589 (il. 4. In Albertina, in Vienna, a working copy of the graphic made by Hans von Aachen has been preserved (il. 5 as well as a composition sketch by the same artist at the Herzog Anton Ulrich-Museum in Braunschweig. An inscription on the drawing from 1589 reads: POENA ET PROEMIVM; there are also quotations from psalms and a dedication to Phillip Wilhelm (1576-1598, bishop of Regenzburg in 1589, later cardinal (1596, son of a Bavarian ruler Wilhelm V Wittelsbach (1548-1626. The young hierarch got it in the year of his consecration as a bishop. A pendant to it is the plate by Jan Sadeler of 1590, after Peter Candid (1548-1628, which was dedicated to Phillip Wilhelm’s younger brother - Ferdinand (1577-1650, later bishop of Cologne. The engraving also shows St. Mary with the Child in the company of St. Stephen and St. Laurence. Both works coincide with the artistic activity of Jan Sadeler and Hans von Achen in Munich, where they were summoned by Wilhelm V, and represent strictly planned art created for his court. Another painted version of Sadeler’s engraving was found in a Polish private collection. This is a small, good painting on panel, faithfully reproducing physiognomy and inscriptions known from the

  20. Three-dimensional volume containing multiple two-dimensional information patterns

    Nakayama, Hirotaka; Shiraki, Atsushi; Hirayama, Ryuji; Masuda, Nobuyuki; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Ito, Tomoyoshi


    We have developed an algorithm for recording multiple gradated two-dimensional projection patterns in a single three-dimensional object. When a single pattern is observed, information from the other patterns can be treated as background noise. The proposed algorithm has two important features: the number of patterns that can be recorded is theoretically infinite and no meaningful information can be seen outside of the projection directions. We confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm by performing numerical simulations of two laser crystals: an octagonal prism that contained four patterns in four projection directions and a dodecahedron that contained six patterns in six directions. We also fabricated and demonstrated an actual prototype laser crystal from a glass cube engraved by a laser beam. This algorithm has applications in various fields, including media art, digital signage, and encryption technology.

  1. Exo/Astrobiology in Europe

    Brack, André; Horneck, Gerda; Wynn-Williams, David


    The question of the chemical origins of life is engraved in the European scientific patrimony as it can be traced back to the pioneer ideas of Charles Darwin, Louis Pasteur, and more recently to Alexander Oparin. During the last decades, the European community of origin of life scientists has organized seven out of the twelve International Conferences on the Origins of Life held since 1957. This community contributed also to enlarge the field of research to the study of life in extreme environments and to the search for extraterrestrial life, i.e. exobiology in its classical definition or astrobiology if one uses a more NASA-inspired terminology. The present paper aims to describe the European science background in exo/astrobiology as well as the project of a European Network of Exo/Astrobiology.

  2. Overcoming the brittleness of glass through bio-inspiration and micro-architecture

    Mirkhalaf, M.; Dastjerdi, A. Khayer; Barthelat, F.


    Highly mineralized natural materials such as teeth or mollusk shells boast unusual combinations of stiffness, strength and toughness currently unmatched by engineering materials. While high mineral contents provide stiffness and hardness, these materials also contain weaker interfaces with intricate architectures, which can channel propagating cracks into toughening configurations. Here we report the implementation of these features into glass, using a laser engraving technique. Three-dimensional arrays of laser-generated microcracks can deflect and guide larger incoming cracks, following the concept of ‘stamp holes’. Jigsaw-like interfaces, infiltrated with polyurethane, furthermore channel cracks into interlocking configurations and pullout mechanisms, significantly enhancing energy dissipation and toughness. Compared with standard glass, which has no microstructure and is brittle, our bio-inspired glass displays built-in mechanisms that make it more deformable and 200 times tougher. This bio-inspired approach, based on carefully architectured interfaces, provides a new pathway to toughening glasses, ceramics or other hard and brittle materials.

  3. [The endemic goitre in figurative arts].

    Giampalmo, A


    For the past fifteen years the author has been collecting photografic documentation of works of figurative arts (graffiti, mosiac, engravings, paintings and sculptures) made at different times and places, in which he found mostly unintentional display of diseases or deformities that would be clearly identified in nosography in the light of today's knowledge. In this study the author intends to illustrate briefly different cases on endemic goitre - whose representation is particularly frequent in figurative arts - in chronological order, beginning with the most ancient ones and focussing on Italian portraying of the Nativity and the Passion of Christ, where the most striking infirmities and disabilities were mirrored and commonly accepted. This study whose interest lies between a scientific and a humanistic one has also importance in the field of art, and especially in relevant philological research which is of particular importance to us pathologists. At last it contribute to establish the epidemiology of some diseases and the knowledge of historical and geographical pathology.

  4. Les regalia au crible de la caricature du XVIe au XVIIIe siècle Regalia as seen in caricatures from the 16th to 18th century

    Annie Duprat


    Full Text Available Cet article a pour objet de montrer comment les attributs de la monarchie, les regalia, sont employés de façon dépréciative dans les images polémiques et les caricatures depuis le xvie siècle. À travers l’exemple de trois rois de France (Henri III, Louis XIV et Louis XVI s’ébauche une histoire de la propagande en images.The purpose of this article is to show how the attributes of the monarchy, also named regalia, are used in a negative way in polemical images and caricatures since the sixteenth century. These engravings represent an important part of the history of propaganda in France. They will be discussed through the analysis of three examples: Henry III, Louis XIV and Louis XVI.

  5. Die Salomonische Säulenordnung. Eine unkonventionelle Erfindung und ihre historischen Umstände

    Günther, Hubertus


    Full Text Available As early as 1549, i.e. 50 years before Villalpando's famous Ezechiel commentary was published, Jacques Androuet Ducerceau introduced the Salomonic Order in his Exempla arcuum, a series of engravings in which the Salomonic Order is even presented as a part of a canon of orders. For the first time, the article draws attention to this hitherto neglected early example. The author analyses Ducerceau's canon within the broader context of renaissance theories of architecture, treatises on the columnar order, and conceptions of the origins of good or artful architecture, some of which can be traced back to medieval positions. Furthermore, it is argued that the dismissal of the italic orders in favor of the Salomonic order by Ducerceau and others is inextricably linked to the increasing nationalist tendencies of the renaissance.

  6. Analysis of signal-obtaining error factor of sensor in gyro

    LIU Jian-feng; YUAN Gan-nan; ZHAO Shi-jun


    The digital signal-obtaining for gyroscope is given. The single optic-fiber sensor via modulating intensity of light is used as measuring component . The influence on static transmission properties resulting from the special working environment (e.g. cryogenic and vacuum) ,the measure error because of the reflector shape of rotor,the abnormity of facula from sensor caused by the existence of engraving error,and the fixing error of sensor and the error of machine tool's initial lignment are investigated. The mathematic model in every condition is founded, the simulation and relative experiments are done and the outcome is analyzed. The mathematic model and method of compensating technology are studied and some relative experiments are made. The result of study is useful to improvement of the signal-obtaining system.

  7. Identifying subassemblies by ultrasound to prevent fuel handling error in sodium fast reactors: First test performed in water

    Paumel, Kevin; Lhuillier, Christian [CEA, DEN, Nuclear Technology Department, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, (France)


    Identifying subassemblies by ultrasound is a method that is being considered to prevent handling errors in sodium fast reactors. It is based on the reading of a code (aligned notches) engraved on the subassembly head by an emitting/receiving ultrasonic sensor. This reading is carried out in sodium with high temperature transducers. The resulting one-dimensional C-scan can be likened to a binary code expressing the subassembly type and number. The first test performed in water investigated two parameters: width and depth of the notches. The code remained legible for notches as thin as 1.6 mm wide. The impact of the depth seems minor in the range under investigation. (authors)

  8. One-step patterning of hollow microstructures in paper by laser cutting to create microfluidic analytical devices.

    Nie, Jinfang; Liang, Yuanzhi; Zhang, Yun; Le, Shangwang; Li, Dunnan; Zhang, Songbai


    In this paper, we report a simple, low-cost method for rapid, highly reproductive fabrication of paper-based microfluidics by using a commercially available, minitype CO(2) laser cutting/engraving machine. This method involves only one operation of cutting a piece of paper by laser according to a predesigned pattern. The hollow microstructures formed in the paper are used as the 'hydrophobic barriers' to define the hydrophilic flowing paths. A typical paper device on a 4 cm × 4 cm piece of paper can be fabricated within ∼7-20 s; it is ready for use once the cutting process is finished. The main fabrication parameters such as the applied current and cutting rate of the laser were optimized. The fabrication resolution and multiplexed analytical capability of the hollow microstructure-patterned paper were also characterized.

  9. Stele-menhir of Los Llanos (Castillo de Bayuela, Toledo



    Full Text Available We present the finding, in the township of Castillo de Bayuela (Toledo of a granitic stone block with an antropomorphic figure engraved in it with schematic character. The piece lacks of an archaeological context, is difficult assigning it a precise chronology. Presumably it is a stele-menhir that we analyze it within the geographical area of the set in the Middle Tagus Basin and San Vicente Mountains.We suggest some interpretations and hypothesis about the posible dating and meaning while we are conscious that there are some constraints arising from the scant knowledge and rare documentation of that geographical zone. We can only with puntual findings and references wich can not allow definitive conclusions to be drawn on its chronology and function. However we believe the analysis of available data for this piece support the proposal for a partnership on the stele-menhirs and the funeral structures for the geografical area analyzed.

  10. 坡膛结构变化对火炮内弹道性能影响的研究%Study on Influence of Bore Structure on Gun's Interior Ballistic Performances

    孙河洋; 马吉胜; 李伟; 生龙波; 吴大林; 刘海平


    Considered the coupling effects of classical interior ballistic equations and band' s engraving process, the solution of interior ballistic equations was taken as the boundary condition of the simulation for engraving process, and the results of the simulation were taken as (he initial conditions for the interior ballistic equations in the next step iteratively. A coupled constitutive model considered visco-plasticity and ductile damage and based on continuum damage mechanics was introduced to simulate the band' s damage process. The Von Mises yield criterion, Johnson-Cook hardening model and Johnson-Cook fracture strain model were adopted, and the model considered large strain, high strain-rate, thermal softening and damage evolution. The model was implemented in the explicit finite element code by using VUMAT subroutine of Abaqus\\Explicit module. The band' s engraving processes of two different bore structures were simulated, and the influences of different engraving conditions on the stress state of the band were analyzed. The effects of band' s stress state and bore structure on the interior ballistic performances were pointed out. It is very useful for the design of bore structure.%考虑了经典内弹道方程组和弹带挤进过程的耦合效应,以内弹道方程组的解作为弹带挤进过程数值模拟的力边界条件,同时以数值模拟的结果作为内弹道方程组下一增量步计算的初始条件.引入了Lemaitre提出的基于连续损伤介质力学的考虑粘塑性及韧性损伤耦合效应的本构模型来模拟弹带材料的损伤失效过程,采用了Von Mises屈服准则、Johnson-Cook硬化模型及Johnson-Cook失效模型,考虑了大应变、高应变率、温度软化作用、初始损伤及累计损伤失效效应,并借助一种高效的时间积分方法通过Abaqus\Explicit模块的材料子程序接口VUMAT将其引入到显式非线性有限元软件中,借助显式非线性有限元算法对两种坡膛结构

  11. Computer aided virtual manufacturing using Creo parametric easy to learn step by step guide

    Kanife, Paul Obiora


    Providing a step-by-step guide for the implementation of virtual manufacturing using Creo Parametric software (formerly known as Pro-Engineer), this book creates an engaging and interactive learning experience for manufacturing engineering students. Featuring graphic illustrations of simulation processes and operations, and written in accessible English to promote user-friendliness, the book covers key topics in the field including: the engraving machining process, face milling, profile milling, surface milling, volume rough milling, expert machining, electric discharge machining (EDM), and area turning using the lathe machining process. Maximising reader insights into how to simulate material removal processes, and how to generate cutter location data and G-codes data, this valuable resource equips undergraduate, postgraduate, BTech and HND students in the fields of manufacturing engineering, computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided engineering (CAE) with transferable skills and knowledge. This book is...

  12. High quality broadband spatial reflections of slow Rayleigh surface acoustic waves modulated by a graded grooved surface

    Xu, Yanlong


    We report high quality broadband spatial reflections of Rayleigh surface acoustic waves (SAWs) through a graded grooved surface. High quality means that no wave is allowed to transmit and the incident wave is nearly all reflected to the input side. The graded grooved surface is structured by drilling one dimensional array of graded grooves with increased depths on a flat surface. We investigate SAW dispersion relations, wave field distribution at several typical SAW wavelengths, and time evolution of a Gaussian pulse through the graded grooved surface. Results show that the input broadband Rayleigh SAWs can be slowed, spatially enhanced and stopped, and finally reflected to the input side. The study suggests that engraving the flat surface can be used as an efficient and economical way to manipulate Rayleigh SAWs, which has potential application in novel SAW devices such as filters, reflectors, sensors, energy harvesters, and diodes.

  13. 牛仔面料的染整加工%Dyeing and finishing of denim fabric



    介绍了牛仔面料和成衣的印染深加工和后整理,包括拔染印花、风格涂层整理、丝光免烫整理工艺、成衣涂料染色、激光刻蚀和立体压皱整理.介绍了各整理工艺的处方和流程,并指出了工艺中的注意事项.%Dyeing and finishing processes of denim fabric and garments are introduced, including discharge printing, coating finishing, mercerizing and easy-care finishing, pigment garment dyeing, laser engraving and 3-dimensional crease memory finishing. Recipes and procedures of finishing processes are discussed, and precautions are put forward.

  14. Tablet Keiti: Does it Contain Astronomical Instructions?

    Wieczorek, Rafal


    consists of 9 to 11 conserved glyphs, among which we find two moon glyphs. Moon glyphs can be engraved in two forms: facing right (encoded as 040) and facing left (041). In Keiti's alpha sequence we encounter right and left facing moon glyphs at seemingly random intervals. However, closer examination...... tablet Mamari”. In the four lines of this tablet, also known as rongorongo text C, we encounter 30 moon glyphs arranged in a pattern that mirrors the Rapa Nui lunar calendar as recorded by early Western visitors. This presentation argues that yet another rongorongo item – tablet Keiti, also known as text...... of moon glyphs in the alpha sequence shows that they are arranged in a pattern that can be interpreted as a list of ten months, whose length varies between 29 and 30 days, thus approximating the natural length of 29,5 days per month....

  15. Integrated opto-microfluidics platforms in lithium niobate crystals for sensing applications

    Bettella, G.; Pozza, G.; Zaltron, A.; Ciampolillo, M. V.; Argiolas, N.; Sada, C.; Chauvet, M.; Guichardaz, B.


    In micro-analytical chemistry and biology applications, droplet microfluidic technology holds great promise for efficient lab-on-chip systems where higher levels of integration of different stages on the same platform is constantly addressed. The possibility of integration of opto-microfluidic functionalities in lithium niobate (LiNbO3) crystals is presented. Microfluidic channels were directly engraved in a LiNbO3 substrate by precision saw cutting, and illuminated by optical waveguides integrated on the same substrate. The morphological characterization of the microfluidic channel and the optical response of the coupled optical waveguide were tested. In particular, the results indicate that the optical properties of the constituents dispersed in the fluid flowing in the microfluidic channel can be monitored in situ, opening to new compact optical sensor prototypes based on droplets generation and optical analysis of the relative constituents.

  16. Enhancement of photoacoustic detection of inhomogeneities in polymers

    Grondona, P; Iriarte, D I; Pomarico, J A; Ranea-Sandoval, Héctor F; Bilmes, G M


    We report a series of experiments on laser pulsed photoacoustic excitationin turbid polymer samples addressed to evaluate the sound speed in the samples and the presence of inhomogeneities in the bulk. We describe a system which allows the direct measurement of the speed of the detected waves by engraving the surface of the piece under study with a fiduciary pattern of black lines. We also describe how this pattern helps to enhance the sensitivity for the detection of an inhomogeneity in the bulk. These two facts are useful for studies in soft matter systems including, perhaps, biological samples. We have performed an experimental analysis on Grilon(R) samples in different situations and we show the limitations of the method.

  17. [Félicien Rops: medicine, doctors, and his diseases (part one)].

    Dorchy, H


    Félicien Rops was among the 19th-century's finest draughtsmen and Belgium's most sulphurous artist. Rops was born in Namur in 1833. He began to study law at the Free University of Brussels in 1851, joined a rowdy circle of students and began drawing the kind of caricatures and sharp satirical lithographs that would later gain him open-armed acceptance in the artistic and literary circles in Paris. As draughtsman and engraver, Rops has illustrated medical subjects such as "The massage", "Speculum", "Experimental medicine" "My gout". Rops was also a prolific letter-writer. In his correspondence, he spoke about his real or imaginary diseases: measles, gout, typhoid fever and typhus, congestion of the lung, phosphatous diabetes, nervous break-down, congestion of the brain, ocular injury, cardiac insufficiency. Rops' illnesses are discussed according to the medical knowledge at the time of Rops and to those of nowadays.

  18. Lithium Niobate Micromachining for the Fabrication of Microfluidic Droplet Generators

    Giacomo Bettella


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the first microfluidic junctions for droplet generation directly engraved on lithium niobate crystals by micromachining techniques, preparatory to a fully integrated opto-microfluidics lab-on-chip system. In particular, laser ablation technique and the mechanical micromachining technique are exploited to realise microfluidic channels in T- and cross junction configurations. The quality of both lateral and bottom surfaces of the channels are therefore compared together with a detailed study of their roughness measured by means of atomic force microscopy in order to evaluate the final performance achievable in an optofluidic device. Finally, the microfluidics performances of these water-in-oil droplets generators are investigated depending on these micromachining techniques, with particular focus on a wide range of droplet generation rates.

  19. A PMMA Passive Micromixer with Three-Dimensional Tortuous Mixing Chamber

    He Zhang; XiaoWei Liu; JiaLu Tang; XiaoWei Han; Li Tian


    In this paper, we design and fabricate a novel three⁃dimensional passive⁃micro⁃mixer by using Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). The mixer is fabricated by using ultra⁃precision engraving machine and bonded by an organic solvent fumigation bonding method. The mixer combines two fluid streams into a mixing chamber integrated with T⁃shaped pre⁃mixing and six tortuous shaped mixing elements. We have employed three⁃dimensional numerical simulations to evaluate the mixing efficiency. The simulation results indicate, under inlet fluid pressure p = 10 ( Pa ) , compared to the planar serpentine mixer and tortuous mixer, the concentration fluctuation range at the outlet diagonal reduce to 48% and 71�6% respectively. And the mixing concentration variances also show that the mixing efficiency has a significant increase. We characterize the device by using visualization microscope, and the results are consistent with the simulation data. The device demonstrates the promising capabilities for micro total analysis system integration.

  20. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    Tan Derui


    Full Text Available In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast iron, ductile cast iron, brass, cupronickel alloy (Packtong, etc. According to their surface decorative techniques they can be devided into gem inlay, gilding, gold and silver inlay, copper inlay, engraved decoration, surface tin-enrichment, mother-of-pearl inlay, burnished works with gold or silver inlay, surface coloring and cloisonné enamel, etc.

  1. Pulsed Laser Processing of Paper Materials

    Schechtel, Florian; Reg, Yvonne; Zimmermann, Maik; Stocker, Thomas; Knorr, Fabian; Mann, Vincent; Roth, Stephan; Schmidt, Michael

    At present the trends in paper and packaging industries are the personalization of products and the use of novel high-tech materials. Laser processes as non-contact and flexible techniques seem to be the obvious choice to address those developments. In this paper we present a basic understanding of the occurring mechanisms of laser based engraving of different paper and paperboard materials, using a picosecond laser source at 1064 nm. The influences on the beam-paper-interaction of grammage, the composition of the paper matrix, as well as the paper inherent cellulose fibers were investigated. Here the ablation threshold of commercially available paper was determined and a matrix ablation effect under the 1064 nm radiation observed. These results were characterized and qualified mainly by means of laser scanning microscope (LSM) micrographs in combination with color-space analytics.

  2. Praxis política en y en torno a Retrato de la Lozana andaluza de Francisco Delicado

    María Cecilia Pavón


    Full Text Available Retrato de la Lozana andaluza written by Francisco Delicado presents a peculiar relation between word and image. To begin with, this is done through the introduction of engravings which accompany each Mamotreto (Chapter, and then through the use of a narrative procedure that we may call “audiovisual technique”. Moreover, the transposition of History to films and to television during the 20th Century is added to this complex relation. The purpose of this work is to lay the theoretical foundations to analyse the relations between textual and iconic discourse within the framework of key concepts from Georges Didi-Huberman´s theory, such as “writing in exile”, “montage”, “deconstruction” and “re-montage” and to specify the implications of the political praxis in and around Retrato de la Lozana andaluza

  3. Particle manipulation with acoustic vortex beam induced by a brass plate with spiral shape structure

    Wang, Tian; Ke, Manzhu; Li, Weiping; Yang, Qian; Qiu, Chunyin; Liu, Zhengyou


    In this work, we give direct demonstration of acoustic radiation force and acoustic torque on particles exerted by an acoustic vortex beam, which is realized by an acoustic artificial structure plate instead of traditional transducer arrays. First, the first order acoustic vortex beam, which has the distinctive features of a linear and continuous phase variation from -π to π around its propagation axis and a magnitude null at its core, is obtained through one single acoustic source incident upon a structured brass plate with Archimedean spiral grating engraved on the back surface. Second, annular self-patterning of polystyrene particles with a radius of 90 μm is realized in the gradient field of this acoustic vortex beam. In addition, we further exhibit acoustic angular momentum transfer to an acoustic absorptive matter, which is verified by a millimeter-sized polylactic acid disk self-rotating in water in the acoustic field of the generated vortex beam.

  4. Spatio-temporal electrical stimuli shape behavior of an embodied cortical network in a goal-directed learning task

    Bakkum, Douglas J.; Chao, Zenas C.; Potter, Steve M.


    We developed an adaptive training algorithm, whereby an in vitro neocortical network learned to modulate its dynamics and achieve pre-determined activity states within tens of minutes through the application of patterned training stimuli using a multi-electrode array. A priori knowledge of functional connectivity was not necessary. Instead, effective training sequences were continuously discovered and refined based on real-time feedback of performance. The short-term neural dynamics in response to training became engraved in the network, requiring progressively fewer training stimuli to achieve successful behavior in a movement task. After 2 h of training, plasticity remained significantly greater than the baseline for 80 min (p-value disorders by gradually shaping functional connectivity. Corrections were made to this article on 27 August 2008. Changes were made to affiliation 3, and to figure 2. The corrected electronic version is identical to the print version.

  5. 6DOF optical tracking system using afocal optics for image guided surgery

    Chae You Seong


    Full Text Available Image guided surgery using medical robots is becoming popular these days. For image guided surgery, a tracking system is required to provide 6DOF information of patient coordinate, surgical instruments and medical robots used in surgery. To provide 6DOF information, a marker has to be attached to the target. However, it is hard to use many markers all together because the markers will take too much space in the surgical area. The tracking system proposed in this study utilizes down sized markers compared to traditional markers by using micro-engraved data-coded pattern with a lens instead of using geometrically specified marker spheres as a tracking target. A tracking system is developed that has a measurement area of 1m to 2.5m from the tracking system. Experiment has been done for surgical navigation using the proposed tracking system and a medical robot.

  6. White and Breitborde's French Paleolithic Collections of the Logan Museum of Anthropology. 1992. Logan Museum Bulletin (new series

    Paul Thacker


    Full Text Available At some point in their training, most Paleolithic archaeologists succumb to the almost spiritual pull of the French Perigord and undertake the pilgrimage. While today's prehistorians visit numerous French museums and are able to purchase a spectrum of teaching aids from artifact replicas to CD-ROM images of rockshelter exca­vations, the situation facing Alonzo Pond and George Collie in the early 1920's was quite different. During the seminal years of Beloit College's Department of Anthropology, Pond and Collie acquired over 20,000 Pale­olithic artifacts from both a network of professional and amateur archaeologists in France, and limited excava­ tion projects. This collection, consisting of stone artifacts, bone tools, worked shell, antler, and ivory, and even engraved plaquettes and Azillian pebbles, is the subject of French Paleolithic Collections of the Logan Museum of Anthropology.

  7. Award for the best CMS thesis


    The 2002 CMS PhD Thesis Award for has been presented to Giacomo Luca Bruno for his thesis defended at the University of Pavia in Italy and entitled "The RPC detectors and the muon system for the CMS experiment at the LHC". His work was supervised by Sergio P. Ratti from the University of Pavia. Since April 2002, Giacomo has been employed as a research fellow by CERN's EP Division. He continues to work on CMS in the areas of data acquisition and physics reconstruction and selection. Last Monday he received a commemorative engraved plaque from Lorenzo Foà, chairman of the CMS Collaboration Board. He will also receive expenses paid to an international physics conference to present his thesis results. Giacomo Luca Bruno with Lorenzo Foà

  8. Automated inspection of intaglio plate measurement for U.S. currency

    Grimsley, Max; Hess, James E.; Poulsen, Mark; Rankin, Ken; Curtis, David; Bayer, Donald


    The United States Bureau of Engraving and Printing (BEP) is tasked with the function of producing billions of banknotes each year to be used by the general public throughout the world. Individual notes must maintain uniform consistency for both security features and print quality. The quality control process necessary to assure the uniform nature of United States currency requires a significant multi-tiered approach. Based on innovative opto-electronic techniques, individual security features are examined as a critical element during each phase of the production process. Print quality standards must also be strictly maintained and monitored to assure the uniformity of the most popular printed item in the world. This presentation describes the approach and some of the techniques developed and implemented within the BEP to carry out the necessary monitoring and control of the quality of intaglio currency printing plates.

  9. Lost Cities, Recovered Cities: Technology in the Service of the Past

    José Antonio Fernández Ruiz


    Full Text Available Cities are living entities that change almost daily but its people are aware of it. They forget the state before the great changes and people become accustomed to the new urban image. In a hundred years a city can completely change its appearance and even its essence. This is the case of Granada, where its historic center was heavily modified during the nineteenth century. These changes have been studied by a project analyzing and virtually rebuilding the historic city. The work ranges from the Rey Chico, below the Alhambra palace, to Puerta Real, restoring the image of the city around 1831, based on the engravings and descriptions of romantic travelers, on the previous alignments and transformations in old pictures.

  10. Experiments in photography as the tool of art history, no. 1: William Stirling’s Annals of the Artists of Spain (1848

    Hilary Macartney


    Full Text Available William Stirling’s Annals of the Artists of Spain (1848 appeared at a key moment in the emergence of art history as an academic discipline. It was the first scholarly history of Spanish art in English, and was well illustrated with engravings. But there was also an additional volume of Talbotype photographic illustrations. Photography, like art history, was still in its infancy, and William Henry Fox Talbot had only recently invented the negative-positive process which allowed multiple photographic images to be produced. The experimental supplementary volume, of which only 50 copies were printed, meant that the Annals became the first photographically illustrated book on art. The new process had many limitations, including chemical instability. Fading began immediately, and Stirling himself regarded the volume as a failed experiment. Nevertheless, it pointed the way in the use of photography, and photographically illustrated books, as essential tools of art history.


    Patricia Peruzzo


    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is analyze the changes occurred in the practices of the society point of view using images from pictorial and different techniques of engraving and trying, also, to understand how after the advent of photography in the second quarter of the nineteenth century, changes occurs in the visual schemes present in this society. It is well know, with the spread of photography as art, has changed people's relationship with the images, not only in artistic and aesthetic prisms, but in social, cultural and political. This work traces a panorama of photograph trajectory and explicit its relationship to art and education, based in Boris Kossoy and Rosalind Krauss theory’s, seeking to draw a historical-cultural panorama of photography, and also with François Soulages when it comes to aesthetic research on photography. This work use Cerqueira and Barros propositions to think about the relationship between photography and education.

  12. A Starry Diamond in a Veil of Light: Artistic and Literary Suggestions of a Comet

    Gasperini, A.; Galli, D.


    Donati's Comet, discovered in Florence on June 2, 1858, was one of the most spectacular astronomical events of the nineteenth century. It could be seen with the naked eye during September and October 1858, when it reached its highest splendour. The sight of the comet, with its bright nucleus and its long, curved tail, inspired paintings, watercolors, engravings, and sketches by artists such as William Dyce, Samuel Palmer, and William Turner of Oxford. Donati's Comet is mentioned in the works of several contemporary writers and poets (Hawthorne, Dickens, Hardy, and Verne), and in the diaries of explorers and travelers all around the world. Long-lasting traces of the impression left by Donati's Comet are found in many forms of popular art and literature (ladies' magazines, children's books, collection cards, and advertisements) until the beginning of the twentieth century. This paper focuses on a few examples of this fascination, emphasizing the connections among the astronomical event and the artistic sensibility of the period.

  13. Aluminum microstructures on anodic alumina for aluminum wiring boards.

    Jha, Himendra; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Sakairi, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Hideaki


    The paper demonstrates simple methods for the fabrication of aluminum microstructures on the anodic oxide film of aluminum. The aluminum sheets were first engraved (patterned) either by laser beam or by embossing to form deep grooves on the surface. One side of the sheet was then anodized, blocking the other side by using polymer mask to form the anodic alumina. Because of the lower thickness at the bottom part of the grooves, the part was completely anodized before the complete oxidation of the other parts. Such selectively complete anodizing resulted in the patterns of metallic aluminum on anodic alumina. Using the technique, we fabricated microstructures such as line patterns and a simple wiring circuit-board-like structure on the anodic alumina. The aluminum microstructures fabricated by the techniques were embedded in anodic alumina/aluminum sheet, and this technique is promising for applications in electronic packaging and devices.

  14. The Representation of the Hungarian Towns in Domenico Zenoi's and Paolo Forlani's Cartographic Work

    Béla Szalai


    Full Text Available In the mid-16th century Venice was the European center of cartography. The two most distinguished representatives of the Venetian school of cartography, which included their close collaborators, Natale Bonifacio and Martin Rota Kolunic from Šibenik in Dalmatia, were Domenico Zenoi and Paolo Forlani. The study deals with their cartographic and publishing activity, their relationship and rivalry within the context of the Venetian cartographic production and analyzes in detail their engravings of the Hungarian towns at the time of the Ottoman conquests, including the siege and the fall of the fortress Sziget during the command of Nikola Šubić Zrinyi. The analysis is based on the five extant copies of Zenoi's and Forlani's collections of views, two of which have been unknown until discovered by the author in the Budapest National Library.Keywords: Cartography; Venice; Zenoi; Forlani; Hungarian towns; Ottoman conquests

  15. The world of medicine depicted by Francisco de Goya. A tribute to the Goyescas.

    Tainmont, J


    During his long life (1746-1828), Goya had many opportunities to meet patients and physicians. He saw, drew and engraved portraits of all kinds of physicians. He depicted sick persons, injured men and the disabled. He visited hospitals, praising those who tried to relieve suffering; he denounced charlatans and acclaimed the martyrs of science. Obsessed by the mouth and everything it expresses, Goya depicted himself without clemency, as a deaf man and as a patient. The deafness of the painter usually gave his work the characteristics of a nightmare. However, his depiction of medicine was also a metaphor of the struggle against the unhappiness of ordinary people, the arrogance of false scientists, the privileges of the nobility and the tyranny of the Inquisition.

  16. Quality controls and security features for U.S. currency and postage stamps

    Grimsley, Max; Hess, James E.; Poulsen, Mark; Rankin, Ken; Curtis, David


    The US Bureau of Engraving and Printing produces over 9 billion Federal Reserve notes per year. Each note must maintain unfirm consistency for both security features and print quality. The quality control process necessary to assure the uniform nature of US currency requires a significant multi-tiered approach. Based on innovative optoelectronic techniques, individual security features are examined as a critical element during each phase of the production process. Print quality standards must also be strictly maintained and monitored to assure the uniformity of the most popular printed item in the world. This presentation describes the approach and some of the techniques developed and implemented in-house to carry out the necessary monitoring and control.

  17. Raman Investigation of Precious Jewelry Collections Preserved in Paolo Orsi Regional Museum (Siracusa, Sicily) Using Portable Equipment.

    Barone, Germana; Mazzoleni, Paolo; Raneri, Simona; Jehlička, Jan; Vandenabeele, Peter; Lottici, Pier Paolo; Lamagna, Gioconda; Manenti, Angela Maria; Bersani, Danilo


    This work is a part of a large scientific project aimed at highlighting the potential of portable Raman equipment in characterizing jewelry materials preserved in museums, carried out in collaboration with gemologists and archeologists. In detail, we report the results of a measurement campaign performed for the study of gems and jewels preserved in the well-known Medagliere section at the Paolo Orsi Regional Museum of Siracusa (Sicily). The studied materials consist of exquisite examples of engraved loose gems and really rare examples of Hellenistic-Roman jewels, mainly coming from relevant Sicilian archaeological sites. Portable Raman measurements have been carried out using two instruments equipped with different excitation wavelengths. The obtained results have allowed for a complete characterization of the studied gemological materials, also suggesting sometimes misclassification for some valuable objects and gems.

  18. Rational selection of substrates to improve color intensity and uniformity on microfluidic paper-based analytical devices.

    Evans, Elizabeth; Gabriel, Ellen Flávia Moreira; Coltro, Wendell Karlos Tomazelli; Garcia, Carlos D


    A systematic investigation was conducted to study the effect of paper type on the analytical performance of a series of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) fabricated using a CO2 laser engraver. Samples included three different grades of Whatman chromatography paper, and three grades of Whatman filter paper. According to the data collected and the characterization performed, different papers offer a wide range of flow rate, thickness, and pore size. After optimizing the channel widths on the μPAD, the focus of this study was directed towards the color intensity and color uniformity formed during a colorimetric enzymatic reaction. According to the results herein described, the type of paper and the volume of reagents dispensed in each detection zone can determine the color intensity and uniformity. Therefore, the objective of this communication is to provide rational guidelines for the selection of paper substrates for the fabrication of μPADs.

  19. [Study on carving workers of Chong xiu zheng he jing shi zheng lei bei yong ben cao (Revised Prepared Materia Medica Classified under Syndromes in Zhenghe Period) published by Huiming Xuan (Huiming Sanctum)].

    Liang, Fei; Li, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-Xian


    The ancient carving workers have made a great contribution to the xylographic printing art in ancient China, so the studies on them are significant for a survey of ancient Chinese printing history, and for the identification of ancient Chinese books edition. Zheng lei ben cao published by Huiming Xuan (Huiming Sanctum) in the Jin and Yuan dynasties, which is the earliest extant edition of Zhenghe version system of Zheng lei ben cao and has important literature value. Thirty carving workers were involved in its printing process. On the whole, these workers had a relatively high technique and completed a remarkably fine work. In addition to lettering, 28 persons of them also made a total of 536 pages with 900 exquisite engraving illustrations on Chinese materia medica included in this book. Because of the high levels on carving, this precious book has been the representative of Pingshui edition, which has a great reputation but has very few works now.

  20. Law and Literature: a theoretical perspective

    Lorenzo Zolezzi Ibárcena


    Full Text Available While most of the Law and Literature books and articles stress from the beginning the distinction between Law in Literature and Law as Literature, my approach is from the standpoint of Law teaching. A course on Law and Literature will help the students not only to write better, but it may convey the students facts that surround the work of the formal legal systemas the human condition or the legal culture, as well as a legal perspective thatis, so to speak, engraved in the human mind. The so-called didactic school is treated and criticized. The distinction between Law in Literature and Law as Literature cuts across the whole work.

  1. Selling pictures: the illustrated auction catalogue

    Elizabeth Pergam


    Full Text Available This essay is based upon a survey of reproductions in auction catalogues – from their first appearance in the early eighteenth century until their more consistent use in the second decade of the twentieth century. Examining the role of these illustrations sheds light on how auctions functioned; it was not just the works of art that were traded, but knowledge about those works of art became currency to be exchanged. In contrast to the high end engravings and photographs of luxury illustrated art books, reproductions in auction catalogues – publications produced as ephemeral marketing tools – were of noticeably lower quality. This study of the status of reproductions, therefore, investigates the evolving understanding of art knowledge, both aesthetic and economic, and the interdependence of the market and connoisseurship.

  2. Open Air Rock Art Between Alva and Ceira Rivers: a Voyage Through Mining, Trading, Transhumance Routes and the Orientation in the Landscape

    Pimenta, F.; Ribeiro, N.; Smith, A.; Joaquinito, A.; Pereira, S.; Tirapicos, L.


    Open air rock carvings, the object of the present study, were artistic expressions made by the itinerant shepherds, miners, traders and the resident populations along trading and transhumance routes and nearby areas. These rock art sites were used as markers to denote routes or territorial claims and in some cases may have been associated with ritual celebrations. In this paper we will present the results of the analysis of the orientations in the landscape of 688 engraved outcrops, distributed in 11 mountainous areas between the Alva and Ceira rivers. We will discuss possible solsticial markers and will address a possible relationship between the orientation of the podomorph carvings with the Summer Full Moon or Alpha Centauri.

  3. An Ever-Fixed Mark? On the Symbolic Coping With the Fragility of Partner Relationships by Means of Padlocking

    Kai-Olaf Maiwald


    Full Text Available "Padlocking" is a quite recent phenomenon observable in many major cities in Europe and throughout the world. Couples engrave their initials or names on a padlock, fix it in a public place, preferably bridges, and throw the keys away. Locations like the Hohenzollern Bridge in Cologne, Germany, have become a hotspot for this practice, with thousands and thousands of padlocks covering the grids of the banisters. But what kind of practice is it that we are dealing with here? With an objective-hermeneutic approach, the symbolic meaning of the "love lock" and the practice involved is disclosed. Compared to common, legal practices of institutionalizing couple relationships, padlocking seems to explicitly accommodate the fragility of romantic attachments. In this, it is an attempt to perpetuate the feeling of being in love. URN:

  4. Rock Art of the Howz-Māhy Region in Central Iran

    Ebrahim Karimi Mobarakabadi


    Full Text Available Howz-Māhy is a region located in the center of Iran, where a considerable number of petroglyphs can be found in two sites, at Ghārā-Tepe I and II. Ghārā-Tepe I is the largest site and includes a variety of depictions, especially geometric markings. In addition, various depictions can be found throughout the region situated on isolated cliffs and stones on the edge of an ancient pool. The most common image is of ibexes. There are also several other kinds of representations that show animals, humans, geometric markings, and so on, which can be found on panels. Despite difficulties for dating the petroglyphs of Iran, microerosion analysis should be applicable for dating the engravings of Howz-Māhy, especially in Ghārā-Tepe I.

  5. A Guerra-Revista da sombra da Grande Guerra

    Maria Idalina Resina Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Published between 1926 and 1932, A GUERRA-REVISTA (“THE WAR-MAGAZINE” was due to the interest of the Combatants League of the Great War by the soldiers who returned sick and helpless to the national soil and partially to the homage of the dead. The call for attention to the “heroes” was made through texts and beautiful engravings (which have already been studied. Among the texts I have been interested especially in those of greater literary quality, in which the poems predominate, although some narratives in prose also have it, and some theatre plays. The verses are grouped in several ways, giving the whole an interesting variety and registering multiple tones. I also paid special attention to the enthusiastic presentation of the magazine and to the sorrow caused by the forced farewell.

  6. Intraocular lens employed for cataract surgery

    Roszkowska, A. M.; Torrisi, L.


    The aim of this paper is to illustrate the techniques of cataract surgery with implantation of intraocular lenses and some physical properties of the used materials. The new technology, coupled with extensive experience and the studied cases, permits to increase the standardization and accuracy of the engravings, by reducing the use and handling of surgical instruments inside the eye. At present it is possible to replace the cataract with crystalline lenses based on biopolymers such as PMMA, silicone, acrylic hydrophilic and hydrophobic acrylic. These materials are increasingly able to replace the natural lens and to ensure the fully functional of the eye. The role of femtosecond lasers in cataract surgery, to assist or replace several aspects of the manual cataract surgery, are discussed.

  7. The Discovery of Infrared Rings in the Planetary Nebula NGC 1514 During the WISE All-Sky Survey

    Ressler, Michael E; Wachter, Stefanie; Hoard, D W; Mainzer, Amy K; Wright, Edward L; 10.1088/0004-6256/140/6/1882


    We report the discovery of a pair of infrared, axisymmetric rings in the planetary nebula NGC 1514 during the course of the WISE all-sky mid-infrared survey. Similar structures are seen at visible wavelengths in objects such as the "Engraved Hourglass Nebula" (MyCn 18) and the "Southern Crab Nebula" (Hen 2-104). However, in NGC 1514 we see only a single pair of rings and they are easily observed only in the mid-infrared. These rings are roughly 0.2 pc in diameter, are separated by 0.05 pc, and are dominated by dust emission with a characteristic temperature of 160 K. We compare the morphology and color of the rings to the other nebular structures seen at visible, far-infrared, and radio wavelengths, and close with a discussion of a physical model and formation scenario for NGC 1514.

  8. Photo Animation Brings Scientists Back to Life in the Classroom

    Lara K. Goudsouzian


    Full Text Available In biology textbooks and in lecture slides, it is customary to describe the significance of a historical scientific experiment alongside a still photograph of the scientist who performed the work.  This method communicates information about the scientists' works, but can be a dry method to describe an exciting and dynamic historical individual.  I have developed a method to animate still photographs and engravings of historical scientists and narrate them in the first person.  This method is rapid, inexpensive, and does not require more than average technical ability.  The animated historical scientists directly address the students to educate them about their own personal lives, struggles, and achievements.

  9. Do Apolo de Belvedere ao guerreiro tupinambá: etnografia e convenções renascentistas From Belvedere's Apollo to the Tupinambá warrior: ethnography and renaissance conventions

    Yobenj Aucardo Chicangana-Bayona


    Full Text Available O artigo começa com a apresentação da Coleção Grandes Viagens iniciada por Theodoro de Bry (1528-1598, para em sua segunda parte, analisar o alcance etnográfico e a aplicação da teoria da arte renascentista nas gravuras da Americae Tertia Pars (1592 sobre os índios Tupinambá.The article begins with the presentation of Theodore de Bry's (1528-1598 Great Voyages Collection, and, in the second part, analyzes its ethnographic scope and the application of Renaissance art theory used in the Americae Tertia Pars (1592 engravings of the Tupinambá indians.

  10. Ecdótica e iconografía: reflexiones sobre el arte de editar textos con imágenes

    María Mercedes Rodríguez Temperley


    Full Text Available On account of the incorporation of the iconographic corpus in our critical edition of the five Castilian printed books (XVI century of the Juan de Mandevilla (2011 Libro de las maravillas del mundo, we realized the convenience of reproducing and studying the images which accompany the textes in the Middle Ages and the first decades of printing. To consider the xilographic variants in the critical apparatus, to drive the filiation of miniatures and engravings, to relate the printer’s work through their utilization of determined images and to study the symbolism that keeps the iconic language, become an objective more necessary every time. By means of examples taken from diverse editions of texts illustrated with images, we propound to reflect on this matter, not so much debated up to now

  11. Magick, Mayhem, and Mavericks: The Spirited History of Physical Chemistry (Cathy Cobb)

    Truman Schwartz, A.


    To be sure, errors such as these will not interfere with the ability of a non-expert reader to form a generally accurate picture of the development of physical chemistry. However, it is unfortunate to allow such carelessness to compromise an otherwise interesting and well-intentioned book. It is nicely illustrated with photographs and reproductions of engravings by Albrecht Dürer and others, and each of the 31 brief chapters is introduced by an epigraph. The illustrations and epigraphs are not all equally apt, but they dress up the book. All in all, this is a near miss. It will annoy many physical chemists, but that fact might recommend it to other readers.

  12. Cutaneous cut sign: A clue to self inflicted carving on the body by sharp object

    Vipul Namdeorao Ambade


    Full Text Available Suicide notes are usually written with pen or marker on a paper, notebook, wall or mirror. However, suicide notes written on one’s own body is very rare, and suicide note engraved with some metallic object on the body has not been reported yet. In the present suicidal death, the victim while carving some letters on the left arm with a razor had an incidental cut on right thumb. This incidental cut on the palm may be referred as “cutaneous cut sign” which gives a clue that the carving on the body with a sharp object was written by the victim himself. It also provides an additional importance of examination of palm for the presence of supportive evidences.

  13. Metschnikowia cf. typographi and other pathogens from the bark beetle Ips sexdentatus - Prevalence, histological and ultrastructural evidence, and molecular characterization

    Kleespies, Regina G; Lim, Young Woon; Tkaczuk, Cezary


    Ips sexdentatus (six-spined engraver beetle) from Austria and Poland were dissected and examined for the presence of pathogens. Specimens collected in Austria were found to contain the ascomycetous fungus Metschnikowia cf. typographi. Infection rates ranged from 3.6% to 26.8% at different...... collection sites. M. cf. typographi infected midguts were investigated by histological, ultrastructural and molecular techniques. Extraordinary ultrastructural details are shown, such as ascospores with bilateral flattened flanks resembling alar rims at both sides of their attenuating tube-like ends....... The eugregarine Gregarina typographi was diagnosed most frequently. Infection rates of all I. sexdentatus specimens ranged from 21.4% to 71.9% in Austria and 54.1% to 68.8% in Poland. Other entomopathogenic protists, bacteria, or viruses were not detected....

  14. Evaluation of Voids on Shrink PVC Film by Varying Gravure Process Variables

    Akshay Vijay Joshi


    Full Text Available Gravure is one of the widely used processes for printing on shrink films, the reason being its consistency for longer runs. However, printing these shrink films comes with new challenges. The presence of gels, black specks and other contaminations in these films do not allow the surrounding area to print resulting in print void. The occurrence of this defect in a considerable amount or size on the area of interest leads to the rejection of printed stock that involves wastage of inks, solvents and time. The research involves the investigation of the effect of gravure process variables on minimization of print voids in Shrink PVC film. The gravure process variables viz. viscosity, pressure, speed and hardness were identified for laser engraved cylinder. It was found that Hardness had a significant impact on minimizing the voids while Viscosity-Hardness interaction was important. The results showed reduction in void area with lower viscosity, higher pressure, lower speed and higher hardness.


    Paolo Magrini


    Full Text Available A new species of Trechus from the Oromia Province (Ethiopia is described in the present note. This new taxon shows some peculiar characters, such as a much swollen abdomen of pseudophysiogastric aspect, a feature shared by other high altitude Trechinae, as for instance Queinnectrechus Deuve, 1992 from Asia. The integuments are glabrous; the antennae are short; the pronotum is larger than long, with regularly rounded sides and hind angles; the elytrae are short and rounded (pseudophysiogastric with the first six striae well engraved, on the third of them two discal foveolate setae are well visible. The aedeagus is big and stout, abruptly narrowing at the tip (in lateral view, with a small botton slanting upwards; the copulatory piece is big and well sclerified, triangular, with a more or less sharpened tip. Well recognizable for the “pseudophysiogastric” aspect, Trechus (Trechus ericalis n.sp. belongs to the bipartitus group.

  16. “The Little UN”Where the Official Language Is Chinese



    Celebrated as the "Little UN," in 40 years the Beijing Language and Culture University (BLCU) has trained some 60,000 international students from 167 countries. As the only international university in China teaching Chinese language and culture to foreign students, it has more foreign students than Chinese. Korean students have formed a Korean community in a district near the university, where they rent apartments and stage their own activities.There is a special Ten-thousand-country Wall inside the campus, on which are engraved the names of foreign students' countries. Even though the university is flooded with different peoples, languages and cultures, all speak Chinese as well as the natives. In the Little UN,Chinese is the official language.

  17. Use of lasers in the furniture industry

    Wieloch, Grzegorz; Pohl, Piotr


    One of the ways of using laser in industry is its usage in loss treatment of wood and composite wood products. In the furniture industry the above mentioned machining is used in such technological processes in which tool machining (sawing, molding) is not economical or even possible. These processes are mainly curvilinear cutting of layer materials like veneers, plywood, and face layers and thicker materials like particleboards, fiberboards, and lumber- core panels. Wide usage has also been achieved in heat treatment in wood for decoration. It can be calcinating designs, engraving them, blackening of parts of surfaces, or changing of anatomic characteristics of wood tissue. Nevertheless laser usage in recliner cutting seems at present causeless.

  18. Spatial-temporal modeling of forest gaps generated by colonization from below- and above-ground bark beetle species

    Zhu, Jun; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl; Møller, Jesper


    Studies of forest declines are important, because they both reduce timber production and affect successional trajectories of landscapes and ecosystems. Of particular interest is the decline of red pines, which is characterized by expanding areas of dead and chlorotic trees in plantations throughout...... red turpentine beetle colonization, pine engraver bark beetle colonization, and mortality of red pine trees while accounting for correlation across space and over time. We extend traditional Markov random-field models to include temporal terms and multiple-response variables aimed at developing...... a suitable set of statistical models for addressing the scientific questions about the forest ecosystem under study. For statistical inference, we adopt a Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach and devise Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms for obtaining the posterior distributions of model parameters...

  19. [Between 100 and 200 years before the microbiome…].

    Cribier, B


    Before the era of microbiote, our ancestors patiently discovered, described and cultivated pathogens, including those responsible for dermatoses. The very well known ectoparasites were represented in the earliest books on cutaneous diseases at the end of XVIII(th) century and the first half of the XIX(th) century. Fungi were discovered in the 1840s, rapidly followed by numerous bacteria, including those causing tuberculosis and lepra. This article is illustrated by images that often showed for the first time parasites and bacteria in books dedicated to cutaneous diseases. Engravings and photographs from the books of Willan, Rayer and Hardy show accurate images of pathogens. Microscopic images can also be found in the textbooks of Simon, Leloir, Sabouraud, Unna and many others. Darier himself believed that "Darier's disease" was due to a parasite, which explains why he named his disease "Vegetant follicular psorospermosis". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. The first published chart of the Andromeda Nebula, 1667

    Gingerich, Owen


    The Parisian astronomer Ismaél Bullialdus (1605-1694) is known for his planetary tables (Astronomia philolaica, 1645) based on a geometrical approximation to the Keplerian ellipse, and for his long correspondence with the Danzig astronomer Johannes Hevelius and with Christiaan Huygens. Bullialdus became interested in the nascent study of variable stars, and in 1667 published a small pamphlet with two contributions, one on Mira Ceti and the other on the nebula in Andromeda. He found a manuscript portraying the nebula with the date 1428, and because Tycho Brahe never mentioned a nebula in Andromeda, Bullialdus conjectured that this object was a variable that had disappeared in the intervening era. “We conclude this since this conglomeration was observed neither by Hipparchus nor anyone else in antiquity, nor in the previous age by Tycho, nor in the age of our forefathers like Bayer.” His publication included a handsome engraving of the image of Andromeda and the position of the nebula, its first printed chart. I recently acquired a copy of this rare pamphlet, Ad astronomos monita duo, and realized that the image matched a manuscript now in the Gotha Research Library, a 15th-century Latin version based on the work of the tenth-century Islamic astronomer, al-Sufi. The manuscript does not carry the name of al-Sufi, and hence Bullialdus had no real clue about its origin or its date of composition. Paul Kunitzsch (The Arabs and the Stars, 1989, Article XI, “The Astronomer Abu ’l-Husayn al-Sufi”) has identified a group of eight “Latin al-Sufi” manuscripts from this period, scattered in European libraries, but only the one now in Gotha is an exact match to Bullialdus’ engraving. The al-Sufi manuscript was given to the Gotha Library in 1798 by Duke Ernst II of Saxonia-Gotha-Altenburg, who must have acquired it from France sometime in the 18th century.

  1. Resiliency of an Interior Ponderosa Pine Forest to Bark Beetle Infestations Following Fuel-Reduction and Forest-Restoration Treatments

    Christopher J. Fettig


    Full Text Available Mechanical thinning and the application of prescribed fire are commonly used to restore fire-adapted forest ecosystems in the Western United States. During a 10-year period, we monitored the effects of fuel-reduction and forest-restoration treatments on levels of tree mortality in an interior ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forest in California. Twelve experimental plots, ranging in size from 77–144 ha, were established to create two distinct forest structural types: mid-seral stage (low structural diversity; LoD and late-seral stage (high structural diversity; HiD. Following harvesting, half of each plot was treated with prescribed fire (B. A total of 16,473 trees (8.7% of all trees died during the 10-year period. Mortality was primarily attributed to bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae (10,655 trees, specifically fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis LeConte, mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, western pine beetle, D. brevicomis LeConte, pine engraver, Ips pini (Say, and, to a much lesser extent, Jeffrey pine beetle, D. jeffreyi Hopkins. Trees of all ages and size classes were killed, but mortality was concentrated in the smaller-diameter classes (19–29.2 and 29.3–39.3 cm at 1.37 m in height. Most mortality occurred three to five years following prescribed burns. Higher levels of bark beetle-caused tree mortality were observed on LoD + B (8.7% than LoD (4.2%. The application of these and other results to the   management of interior P. ponderosa forests are discussed, with an emphasis on the maintenance of large trees.

  2. Dramatic Advance in Quality in Flexographic Printing

    Jochen Richter


    Full Text Available The enormous changes in flexography printing in recent years concerning the printing quality achievable cannot generally be ascribed to a single revolutionary invention, but are the result of continuous developments to the complete system. Thus the direct drive technology in all machine types and its associated advantages in terms of printing length corrections has become established since drupa 2000. The race for ever finer raster rolls has also been completed to the benefit of improvements in bowl geometry and in ceramic surfaces. Clearly improved colour transfer behaviour has become feasible as a result. In a closely intermeshed system such as flexography printing this naturally has to have an effect on the printing colours used. Further improvements in bonding agents and pigment concentrations now allow users to print ever thinner colour layers while maintaining all of the required authenticities.Furthermore, it has become possible to reduce additional disturbing characteristics in the UV colour area, such as the unpleasant odour. While the digital imaging of printing plates has primarily been improved in terms of economic efficiency by the use of up to eight parallel laser beams, extreme improvements in the system are noticeable especially in the area of directly engraved printing moulds. Whereas many still dismissed directly engraved polymer plates at the last drupa as a laboratory system, the first installation was recently placed on the market a mere three years later. A further noteworthy innovation of recent years that has reached market maturity is thin sleeve technology, which combines the advantages of a photopolymer plate with a round imaged printing mould. There are no high sleeve costs for each printing mould, except for one-off cost for an adapter sleeve. To conclude, it can be said that although flexography printing has experienced many new features in the time between drupa 2000 and today, it still has enormous potential for

  3. Entre Agostino Carracci y Veronese: apuntes sobre el aprendizaje italiano de Francisco de Herrera «el Mozo»

    Fernández-Santos Ortiz-Iribas, Jorge


    Full Text Available The presence in Rome of Francisco de Herrera «the Younger» (1627-1685 was based until now solely on Palomino's biographical account and on stylistic evidence. Ten engraved decorative cartouches attributed to the artist (only two of which were already known, establish Herrera's sojourn in Rome to around 1649. They also shed light on his activities as an engraver, a previously unknown facet of his artistic production. Likewise, they attest to Herrera's stylistic evolution from virtual imitation of his father's (Herrera «the Elder » manner to one that becomes clearly personal under the influence of the Roman milieu. Mid-seventeenth century Rome may be also responsible for Herrera's nuanced and complex neo-Venetianism, a trait that sets him apart from his contemporaries in Spain.

    La presencia de Francisco de Herrera «el Mozo» (1627-1685 en Roma se apoyaba, hasta ahora, sobre la sola base del relato de Palomino y por el propio estilo del pintor. La atribución de diez orlas ornamentales (ocho de ellas inéditas a este artista nos permite establecer su estancia romana en torno a 1649, a la vez que testimonian sobre una faceta —el grabado calcográfico— hasta ahora desconocida de la actividad de Herrera. También dan fe de la evolución del propio Herrera desde una casi total mimesis del estilo paterno hasta unas maneras ya claramente personales, influidas por el medio romano. De la Roma de mediados del siglo XVII debió de datar también el peculiar neo-venecianismo de Herrera que, por su riqueza de matices, lo singulariza con respecto a sus contemporáneos españoles.

  4. On astronomical drawing [1846

    Smyth, Charles Piazzi

    Reprinted from the Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society 15, 1846, pp. 71-82. With annotations and illustrations added by Klaus Hentschel. The activities of the Astronomer Royal for Scotland, Charles Piazzi Smyth (1819-1900), include the triangulation of South African districts, landscape painting, day-to-day or tourist sketching, the engraving and lithographing of prominent architectural sites, the documentary photography of the Egyptian pyramids or the Tenerife Dragon tree, and `instant photographs' of the clouds above his retirement home in Clova, Ripon. His colorful records of the aurora polaris, and solar and terrestrial spectra all profited from his trained eye and his subtle mastery of the pen and the brush. As his paper on astronomical drawing, which we chose to reproduce in this volume, amply demonstrates, he was conversant in most of the print technology repertoire that the 19th century had to offer, and carefully selected the one most appropriate to each sujet. For instance, he chose mezzotint for the plates illustrating Maclear's observations of Halley's comet in 1835/36, so as to achieve a ``rich profundity of shadows, the deep obscurity of which is admirably adapted to reproduce those fine effects of chiaroscuro frequently found in works where the quantity of dark greatly predominates.'' The same expertise with which he tried to emulate Rembrandt's chiaroscuro effects he applied to assessing William and John Herschel's illustrations of nebulae, which appeared in print between 1811 and 1834. William Herschel's positive engraving, made partly by stippling and partly by a coarse mezzotint, receives sharp admonishment because of the visible ruled crossed lines in the background and the fact that ``the objects, which are also generally too light, [have] a much better definition than they really possess.'' On the other hand, John Herschel's illustration of nebulae and star clusters, given in negative, ``in which the lights are the darkest part of the

  5. SU-C-16A-07: Sculpting Isodose Lines: Design of An Internally Shielded Tandem for Cervical Cancer Brachytherapy

    Zhang, M; Yue, N; Zou, J [Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Mo, X [21st Century Oncology, Madison, WI (United States)


    Purpose: With the prescription method moving from point A to 3D volume based in cervical cancer HDR brachytherapy, the traditional pear-shaped isodose lines are desired to be sculptured to conform to the irregular shaped target. The standard single channel tandem cannot generate asymmetric isodose lines. Most of the directionally shielded sources proposed in literature are challenging to manufacture and operate. In this study, we proposed a novel internally shielded tandem applicator design which gave users more freedom to manipulate isodose lines while planning. Methods: The proposed tandem design has one centrally located lead cylindrical rod of 8 mm in diameter serving as the internal shield. Multiple source channels with the diameter of 2 mm are evenly spaced and engraved on the central cylindrical rod. The overall diameter of the tandem with polymer encapsulation was kept to be 10 mm. Various number of channels and engraving depths have been tested in the design process. Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit was used for dose calculation assuming a Varian VS2000 source was placed inside the applicator. A Monte Carlo based planning system has been developed in-house to generate brachytherapy plans. Test plans by using this internally shielded tandem were generated for 3 clinical cases. Results: Water phantom results shown the dose distribution from a VS2000 source in the tandem was strongly distorted towards one direction due to the presence of shielding material. Conformal plans with asymmetric isodose distributions around the tandem can be generated by optimizing dwell times in different channels. Conclusion: An effective and easy-to-use internally shielded tandem was developed. It gave user the freedom to sculpt isodose lines to generate conformal plans for cervical cancer brachytherapy.

  6. Una tibia con ciervas grabadas de la Cueva de La Cuelga. Cangas de Onís, Asturias.



    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Las excavaciones que se están realizando en la cueva de la Güelga (Asturias, Norte de España han ofrecido varios niveles del Paleolítico Superior. En el nivel 3 de la Zona A, clasificado como Magdaleniense Inferior Cantábrico, datado en 14.020 ±130 BP, se encontró un fragmento de tibia de ciervo con tres ciervas grabadas mediante trazo único y profundo. Una de las figuras (Cierva «A» tiene sus paralelos en similares grabados de Altamira y Castillo, del Magdaleniense sin arpones. Las otras ciervas («B y C», se realizaron en un estilo característico del Magdaleniense con arpones. Esta convivencia de estilos en una pieza bien datada permite algunas reflexiones críticas sobre la identificación rígida de estilos con determinados períodos en el estudio del arte mueble y rupestre del Paleolítico Superior.ABSTRACT: In the course of excavations at the cave of La Güelga (Asturias, northern Spain, with strata belonging to the Upper Palaeolithic, a decorated fragment of tibia or deer was found in the level 3 of zone A, culturally assigned to the Cantabrian Lower Magdalenian. Three heads of hind were engraved on the bone with a single, deep outline. One of the hinds («A» is similar in style to the engravings of Altamira and Castillo, chronologically assigned to the Magdalenian with no harpoons, while the style of the other two (hinds «B» and «C» is characteristic of the Magdalenian with harpoons. The coexistence of both styles in the same bone piece is an outstanding evidence against the usually rigid identification of styles and chronological periods in the study of Upper Palaeolithic art.

  7. Monumental megalithic burial and rock art tell a new story about the Levant Intermediate Bronze "Dark Ages".

    Sharon, Gonen; Barash, Alon; Eisenberg-Degen, Davida; Grosman, Leore; Oron, Maya; Berger, Uri


    The Intermediate Bronze Age (IB) in the Southern Levant (ca. 2350-2000 BCE) is known as the "Dark Ages," following the collapse of Early Bronze urban society and predating the establishment of the Middle Bronze cities. The absence of significant settlements and monumental building has led to the reconstruction of IB social organization as that of nomadic, tribal society inhabiting rural villages with no central governmental system. Excavation in the Shamir Dolmen Field (comprising over 400 dolmens) on the western foothills of the Golan Heights was carried out following the discovery of rock art engravings on the ceiling of the central chamber inside one of the largest dolmens ever recorded in the Levant. Excavation of this multi-chambered dolmen, covered by a basalt capstone weighing some 50 tons, revealed a secondary multi-burial (of both adults and children) rarely described in a dolmen context in the Golan. Engraved into the rock ceiling above the multi-burial is a panel of 14 forms composed of a vertical line and downturned arc motif. 3D-scanning by structured-light technology was used to sharpen the forms and revealed the technique employed to create them. Building of the Shamir dolmens required a tremendous amount of labor, architectural mastery, and complex socio-economic organization well beyond the capacity of small, rural nomadic groups. The monumental megalithic burial of the Shamir dolmens indicates a hierarchical, complex, non-urban governmental system. This new evidence supports a growing body of recent criticism stemming from new discoveries and approaches that calls for rethinking our views of the Levantine IB "Dark Ages."

  8. The Soundscapes of Henry Mayhew Urban Ethnography and Technologies of Transcription

    Helen Groth


    Full Text Available Contemporary reviewers of London Labour and the London Poor were quick to label as inauthentic both the engraved re-mediations of John Beard’s daguerreotype portraits and Henry Mayhew’s transcription of the voices of London’s street habitués. Mayhew’s literal mediations of patter, slang and speech rhythms were the subject of particular scrutiny.  As one critic acerbically observed: ‘The photographs no doubt are accurate enough, but those dialogues smell of the footlights.’  Such criticisms strike at the core of Mayhew’s commitment to the technologies of faithful mimesis and the mediation of an authentic experience of the everyday lives of London’s wandering tribes.  Sound bites of characteristic speech serve as titles for many of the engraved reproductions of John Beard’s daguerreotypes reinforcing the analogy between visual and textual modes of transcription.  Likewise Mayhew insists that his various re-enactments of the multi-sensorial experience of elbowing through London’s crowded marketplaces and streets are ‘unvarnished’ transparent mediations of its various sounds and voices.  Central to Mayhew’s enterprise is the commitment to recording and capturing a dying way of life.  Now silenced voices are captured and remediated to ‘shock’ and teach through the ‘heart’ to use Mayhew’s terminology.  This paper will reconsider Mayhew’s investment in the power of sympathetic communication in the context of broader transformations in mid-nineteenth century conceptions of the media as a conduit for information rather than as a mechanism of persuasion.

  9. 白裤瑶看鬼杀畜祭“大老爷”习俗刻录的上古史%Worshipping "the Great Master" with Killed Animal by the Yaozu of White Trousers Carved in the Ancient History



    The tradition of offering sacrifice to "the Great Master" with killed animal by the Yaozu of White Trousers is a compound image of the ancient people under the adverse living conditiol~, which has been engraved and remained on the bronze wares of the Shang and Zhou Dynasties in the forms of gluttonous lines and tiger-eating human. Killing animals to worship ghosts is a primitive legacy in the historical progress of the ancient time for the primitive people to release ailment and disaster, improve their diet and strengthen their constitution, pay attention to the individual and unify the collective, civilize the mass and spread the advanced productive patterns. All these social and historical scenes were engraved on those bronze wares about organizing and civilizing the collective humanity ranging from the Period of the Yellow Emperor to the Dynasties of Xia, Shang and Zhou.%白裤瑶祭“大老爷”习俗是上古人类恶劣生存环境的复合影像,是商周青铜器饕餮纹与虎食人卣的原型遗存。杀畜祭鬼解除病痛灾难,是上古时期人类改善饮食强健体质、关注个体凝聚群体、教化人群推行先进生衍模式的进化历程的原始遗存,刻录着上古黄帝时期延续至夏商周王朝组织教化人类群体的社会历史场景。

  10. The origins of the plebs Sanctae Agathae. Inscriptions lost and rediscovered on the history of Santhià in the Early Middle Ages

    Marco Aimone


    Full Text Available Two fragments of white marble are embedded in the apsis’ wall outside the parish church of St. Agatha in Santhià (near Vercelli, in Piedmont: the first one is engraved with the final part of a dedicatory inscription to a martyr by a clergyman named Vvalpertus (or Alpertus; the second one is a part of a small pillar or a lintel coming from a presbytery enclosure, and is decorated with a motif of intertwined gallons. The inscription stayed in the middle of a pluteus bordered by a carved frame, of which only a part of the lower band survives: the letters and the style of the decorations allow a chronology within the 8th century, while the fragment of pillar is to be traced back to a period between the 8th and the first half of the 9th. Of special interest are the Lombard onomastic of the dedicator and, in the final surviving text, the “signature” of a sculptor, which is present in a second inscription of Lombard age found in Piedmont, adorned with carved decorations as well. The analysis of these artefacts - hitherto unpublished - offered the opportunity to restudy two other inscriptions once existing in the church of St. Agatha, long lost and of uncertain authenticity: all these data allow various deductions about the history of Santhià over the centuries of the early Middle ages, the presence of a clergy in the countryside of the diocese of Vercelli, and the work of sculptors and engravers active between the 8th and 9th century in an area between Lombardy, Piedmont, Liguria and Provence, labelled in the past under the unifying name of “bottega delle Alpi Marittime”.

  11. Self-aliquoting micro-grooves in combination with laser ablation-ICP-mass spectrometry for the analysis of challenging liquids: quantification of lead in whole blood.

    Nischkauer, Winfried; Vanhaecke, Frank; Limbeck, Andreas


    We present a technique for the fast screening of the lead concentration in whole blood samples using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The whole blood sample is deposited on a polymeric surface and wiped across a set of micro-grooves previously engraved into the surface. The engraving of the micro-grooves was accomplished with the same laser system used for LA-ICP-MS analysis. In each groove, a part of the liquid blood is trapped, and thus, the sample is divided into sub-aliquots. These aliquots dry quasi instantly and are then investigated by means of LA-ICP-MS. For quantification, external calibration against aqueous standard solutions was relied on, with iron as an internal standard to account for varying volumes of the sample aliquots. The (208)Pb/(57)Fe nuclide ratio used for quantification was obtained via a data treatment protocol so far only used in the context of isotope ratio determination involving transient signals. The method presented here was shown to provide reliable results for Recipe ClinChek® Whole Blood Control levels I-III (nos. 8840-8842), with a repeatability of typically 3 % relative standard deviation (n = 6, for Pb at 442 μg L(-1)). Spiked and non-spiked real whole blood was analysed as well, and the results were compared with those obtained via dilution and sectorfield ICP-MS. A good agreement between both methods was observed. The detection limit (3 s) for lead in whole blood was established to be 10 μg L(-1) for the laser ablation method presented here. Graphical Abstract Micro-grooves are filled with whole blood, dried, and analyzed by laser ablation ICP-mass spectrometry. Notice that the laser moves in perpendicular direction with regard to the micro-grooves.

  12. Los grabados y pinturas rupestres de la cueva de El Rincón, en el contexto artístico del desfiladero del río Carranza (Bizkaia-Cantabria



    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La cueva de El Rincón, inmediata a las de Venta de la Perra y El Polvorín, forma parte del grupo de cavidades con manifestaciones parietales paleolíticas del desfiladero del río Carranza. El conjunto rupestre localizado recientemente es tan pequeño como diverso: cuenta con grabados lineales exteriores y, en zonas centrales o de fondo, con tres figuras animales grabadas y algunos motivos pintados en rojo, resto de representaciones desvaídas o, acaso, simples manchas de color. Una figura de ciervo herido facilita algunos paralelos, tanto en lo referido a su construcción y a la perspectiva empleada en las extremidades, como a la morfología inusual del venablo. El estudio que presentamos permite establecer una estrecha vinculación con el arte premagdaleniense de otras cuevas de ese mismo entorno, y facilita una discusión actualizada sobre la modificación temporal en la perspectiva de las representaciones animales durante el Paleolítico superior.ABSTRACT: The Rincón cave, immediate to those of Venta de la Perra and Polvorín, is part of the wide group of cavities with Palaeolithic parietal art of the narrow pass of the Carranza river. The rock art has been located recently and it is as small as diverse: it has external lineal engravings and, in central or background areas, three recorded engraving animals and some paintings in red, maybe rest of faded representations or, simple colour stains. A figure of wounded deer facilitates some parallel referred to its construction and the perspective used in the extremities, or to the unusual morphology of the weapon. This study allows to establish a narrow linking with the premagdalenian art of other caves nearby, and facilitates an up-to-date discussion on the temporary modification in the perspective in animal representations during the Upper Palaeolithic.

  13. Osmanlı Mühür Sanatı Ve Klasik Türk Şiirinde Mühür The Ottoman Art Of Seals And Seals In The Classical Turkish Poetry

    Semra TUNÇ


    Full Text Available Seals are inscriptions, coats of arms or stamps and theirtypography engraved on hard substances in place of signatures. Havingbeen used in Mesopotamia, Egypt, Iran and Anatolia throughouthistory, seals have been engraved on minerals such as silver, brass,iron, bronze and notably gold, or gems such as emerald, amethyst,onyx, turquoise, pebble, garnet, cornelian, and pearl. The inscriptionson seals were engraved in reverse order so that they could be correctlyread when they were put on paper and they were used after they weredipped in soot or ink. Names, titles, verses from the Quran, couplets aswell as flowers and ivy figures were engraved on seals as decoration.There are seals on which 8 to 10 words were inscribed in an area of 1centimeter. Seal making was recognized as an art in its own right in theOttoman Empire. Seal masters had to excel in one or more of thecalligraphic styles like sulus, ta’lîk, nesih, rik’a and reyhanî. Moreover,engraving of inscriptions on a hard object in aesthetic manner inreverse order and so big as to be read was a job that required greatskill, patience and attention. Therefore, seal masters would engravetheir names in one corner of the seal in fine inscription.The job of engraving seals was called engraving and those whoengaged in this job were called engravers or seal makers. Engraving wasconsidered a prestigious profession in the Ottoman society becausethose who engaged in this profession were qualified people with artisticskills and they were reliable people never involved in fraudulent deeds.Moreover, the fact that seals were used in all official and privatebusinesses, that they were important in social life and that sultansfavored this art so much so that some sultans like Mahmoud 2ndengraved seals themselves raised the prestige of the profession.Seals are classified as imperial seal, personal seals, foundationseals and official seals on the basis of their purpose of use and the persons who will use them

  14. 基于特征的大型快速成型样件的数据分块技术%Study on Data Segmentation Technique of Large Rapid Prototyping Workpiece Based on Features

    刘鑫; 范伟


    针对在新产品的开发过程中,由于快速成型设备工作台成型尺寸的限制,对于类似摩托车覆盖件等大型快速成型样件的加工难题.本文分析了快速成型技术和精密雕刻技术在加工过程中的优缺点,提出在摩托车覆盖件的开发过程中,用精雕机和快速成型机结合的方法来进行新产品样件的制作,并且运用基于特征的数据分块技术,对大型样件进行合理的分块,再分别加工后拼合的方法来解决大型快速成型样件无法一次成型的难题,从而加快新产品开发的速度,降低开发成本,实现模型的快速制造.最后以某新型摩托车覆盖件的样件制作为例,阐述了该方法在新产品开发中的具体应用.%Because of the small workbench molding size of rapid prototyping equipment, the processing of large rapid prototyping samples is a problem during the new product development process, for example, motorcycle covering. The relative merits of accuracy engraving technique and rapid prototyping technique during processing are discussed. The method combining accuracy engraving machine and rapid prototyping machine to processing new motorcycle cover samples is proposed. And the surface data segmentation technique based on features is adopt to divide the large rapid prototyping sample reasonably, and then the small parts are collaged after respectively processing, so the problem of large rapid prototyping sample cannot once molding is solved. The speed of new product development is accelerated. The cost of new product development is decreased. And the rapid manufacturing is realized. This method has been applied to the processing of new motorcycle cover samples and the application method is expounded.

  15. Aperture datate negli edifici delle zone montane: una tradizione da indagare / Dated openings in the buildings of mountainous areas: a tradition to be investigated

    Anna Boato


    Full Text Available Tiziano Mannoni osservava come fosse frequente trovare date incise sui portali delle case di abitazione delle zone alpine e appenniniche, quasi si trattasse di una tradizione specifica dei paesi di montagna. Non sappiamo se e in quale misura tale affermazione corrisponda al vero, ma non vi è dubbio che in molti abitati di montagna la tradizione di scolpire nella pietra la data della costruzione sia assai diffusa. Il catalogo informatico delle aperture redatto da Mannoni e da altri membri dell’Istituto di Storia della Cultura Materiale a partire dagli anni ‘80 del secolo scorso permette di tracciare una prima mappa di tale fenomeno che, seppure non sistematica e non esaustiva, fornisce alcuni dati quantitativi e spunti di riflessione. L’articolo non ha la pretesa di spiegare le ragioni sociali e culturali che hanno indotto molte popolazioni a lasciare una traccia materiale della propria storia, ma intende proporre all’attenzione dei lettori questa interessante tradizione e fornire alcune ipotesi di lavoro. Tiziano Mannoni observed how frequently dates were engraved on the doorways and windows (normally made by stone of the houses built in the Alps and in the Apennines mountains. In his opinion, this tradition was specific of the mountains region. We don’t know whether and to what extent this statement can be generalised, but it cannot be denied that in several mountainous areas the tradition of engraving the construction date in stone is extremely common. Thanks to the digital catalogue of apertures compiled by Tiziano Mannoni and by other members of the Institute for the History of Material Culture (ISCUM since the 1980s, it is possible to outline a map of this phenomenon, which provides interesting and thought provoking quantitative data, even if it is not yet systematic and exhaustive. The present article does not seek to explain the social and cultural reasons that led many populations to leave a material trace of their history

  16. Assessing forest vulnerability and the potential distribution of pine beetles under current and future climate scenarios in the Interior West of the US

    Evangelista, P.H.; Kumar, S.; Stohlgren, T.J.; Young, N.E.


    The aim of our study was to estimate forest vulnerability and potential distribution of three bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) under current and projected climate conditions for 2020 and 2050. Our study focused on the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), western pine beetle (Dendroctonus brevicomis), and pine engraver (Ips pini). This study was conducted across eight states in the Interior West of the US covering approximately 2.2millionkm2 and encompassing about 95% of the Rocky Mountains in the contiguous US. Our analyses relied on aerial surveys of bark beetle outbreaks that occurred between 1991 and 2008. Occurrence points for each species were generated within polygons created from the aerial surveys. Current and projected climate scenarios were acquired from the WorldClim database and represented by 19 bioclimatic variables. We used Maxent modeling technique fit with occurrence points and current climate data to model potential beetle distributions and forest vulnerability. Three available climate models, each having two emission scenarios, were modeled independently and results averaged to produce two predictions for 2020 and two predictions for 2050 for each analysis. Environmental parameters defined by current climate models were then used to predict conditions under future climate scenarios, and changes in different species' ranges were calculated. Our results suggested that the potential distribution for bark beetles under current climate conditions is extensive, which coincides with infestation trends observed in the last decade. Our results predicted that suitable habitats for the mountain pine beetle and pine engraver beetle will stabilize or decrease under future climate conditions, while habitat for the western pine beetle will continue to increase over time. The greatest increase in habitat area was for the western pine beetle, where one climate model predicted a 27% increase by 2050. In contrast, the predicted habitat of the

  17. Primeras evidencias de arte mueble paleolítico en el sur de Portugal

    Simón Vallejo, María D.


    Full Text Available This paper presents the first evidence for Palaeolithic portable art in Southern Portugal. This include two plaques, dated between 20,500 and 19,500 BP from Solutrean levels from the site of Vale Boi, Western Algarve (Portugal. One of the pieces is a small engraved schist plaque (14,6 × 8,1 mm with abstract lines on one side. The other artefact is an 8 × 5 cm schist plaque. One side is an oxide natural deposit, used to produce dye; the other side has three aurochs and a probable cervid. Stilistic information and the engraving sequence indicate probably production by a single artist. The stylistic characteristics are in full agreement withi those from late Gravettian and early Solutrean art known from Valencia, Andalucia (Spain and the Côa valley (Portugal, thus confirming the absolute AMS dates from the Vale Boi Levels.

    En este trabajo presentamos la primera evidencia de arte mueble paleolítico en el sur de Portugal: dos plaquetas de pizarra procedentes de niveles solutrenses del yacimiento de Vale Boi, zona occidental del Algarve (Portugal. La primera de las piezas es una pequeña placa (14,6 × 8,1 mm que presenta sobre una de sus caras un ideomorfo grabado. La segunda (8 × 5 cm cuenta con una superficie ocupada por óxido de hierro natural de color amarillento, tiene claros indicios de extracción de mineral para producir colorantes. En la superficie opuesta han sido grabados tres uros y una posible cierva. El estilo y secuencia de los grabados apuntan a un solo artista. Las características estilísticas de los zoomorfos concuerdan bien con los rasgos comunes del arte del ciclo Gravetiense final y Solutrense antiguo del País Valenciano, Andalucía y Valle de Côa (Portugal. Esta afinidad sintoniza asimismo con las fechas AMS de los niveles solutrenses de Vale Boi, datados entre ca. 20.500 y 19.500 BP.

  18. Techniques for Revealing 3d Hidden Archeological Features: Morphological Residual Models as Virtual-Polynomial Texture Maps

    Pires, H.; Martínez Rubio, J.; Elorza Arana, A.


    The recent developments in 3D scanning technologies are not been accompanied by visualization interfaces. We are still using the same types of visual codes as when maps and drawings were made by hand. The available information in 3D scanning data sets is not being fully exploited by current visualization techniques. In this paper we present recent developments regarding the use of 3D scanning data sets for revealing invisible information from archaeological sites. These sites are affected by a common problem, decay processes, such as erosion, that never ceases its action and endangers the persistence of last vestiges of some peoples and cultures. Rock art engravings, or epigraphical inscriptions, are among the most affected by these processes because they are, due to their one nature, carved at the surface of rocks often exposed to climatic agents. The study and interpretation of these motifs and texts is strongly conditioned by the degree of conservation of the imprints left by our ancestors. Every single detail in the remaining carvings can make a huge difference in the conclusions taken by specialists. We have selected two case-studies severely affected by erosion to present the results of the on-going work dedicated to explore in new ways the information contained in 3D scanning data sets. A new method for depicting subtle morphological features in the surface of objects or sites has been developed. It allows to contrast human patterns still present at the surface but invisible to naked eye or by any other archaeological inspection technique. It was called Morphological Residual Model (MRM) because of its ability to contrast the shallowest morphological details, to which we refer as residuals, contained in the wider forms of the backdrop. Afterwards, we have simulated the process of building Polynomial Texture Maps - a widespread technique that as been contributing to archaeological studies for some years - in a 3D virtual environment using the results of MRM

  19. Orientalist discourse in media texts

    Necla Mora


    Full Text Available By placing itself at the center of the world with a Eurocentric point of view, the West exploits other countries and communities through inflicting cultural change and transformation on them either from within via colonialist movements or from outside via “Orientalist” discourses in line with its imperialist objectives.The West has fictionalized the “image of the Orient” in terms of science by making use of social sciences like anthropology, history and philology and launched an intensive propaganda which covers literature, painting, cinema and other fields of art in order to actualize this fiction. Accordingly, the image of the Orient – which has been built firstly in terms of science then socially – has been engraved into the collective memory of both the Westerner and the Easterner.The internalized “Orientalist” point of view and discourse cause the Westerner to see and perceive the Easterner with the image formed in his/her memory while looking at them. The Easterner represents and expresses himself/herself from the eyes of the Westerner and with the image which the Westerner fictionalized for him/her. Hence, in order to gain acceptance from the West, the East tries to shape itself into the “Orientalist” mold which the Westerner fictionalized for it.Artists, intellectuals, writers and media professionals, who embrace and internalize the stereotypical hegemonic-driven “Orientalist” discourse of the Westerner and who rank among the elite group, reflect their internalized “Orientalist” discourse on their own actions. This condition causes the “Orientalist” clichés to be engraved in the memory of the society; causes the society to view itself with an “Orientalist” point of view and perceive itself with the clichés of the Westerner. Consequently, the second ring of the hegemony is reproduced by the symbolic elites who represent the power/authority within the country.The “Orientalist” discourse, which is

  20. Advances in lenticular lens arrays for visual display

    Johnson, R. Barry; Jacobsen, Gary A.


    Lenticular lens arrays are widely used in the printed display industry and in specialized applications of electronic displays. In general, lenticular arrays can create from interlaced printed images such visual effects as 3-D, animation, flips, morph, zoom, or various combinations. The use of these typically cylindrical lens arrays for this purpose began in the late 1920's. The lenses comprise a front surface having a spherical crosssection and a flat rear surface upon where the material to be displayed is proximately located. The principal limitation to the resultant image quality for current technology lenticular lenses is spherical aberration. This limitation causes the lenticular lens arrays to be generally thick (0.5 mm) and not easily wrapped around such items as cans or bottles. The objectives of this research effort were to develop a realistic analytical model, to significantly improve the image quality, to develop the tooling necessary to fabricate lenticular lens array extrusion cylinders, and to develop enhanced fabrication technology for the extrusion cylinder. It was determined that the most viable cross-sectional shape for the lenticular lenses is elliptical. This shape dramatically improves the image quality. The relationship between the lens radius, conic constant, material refractive index, and thickness will be discussed. A significant challenge was to fabricate a diamond-cutting tool having the proper elliptical shape. Both true elliptical and pseudo-elliptical diamond tools were designed and fabricated. The plastic sheets extruded can be quite thin (< 0.25 mm) and, consequently, can be wrapped around cans and the like. Fabrication of the lenticular engraved extrusion cylinder required remarkable development considering the large physical size and weight of the cylinder, and the tight mechanical tolerances associated with the lenticular lens molds cut into the cylinder's surface. The development of the cutting tool and the lenticular engraved


    Sergio Ripoll López


    Full Text Available Durante las campañas de 1992 y 1994 se encontraron en el yacimiento solutrense de La Cueva de Ambrosio (Vélez-Blanco, Almería, España un conjunto de representaciones artísticas parietales pintadas y grabadas del Paleolítico superior. Entre los grabados del panel I, se ha descifrado una excelente silueta de caballo, una representación de ave, unos protomos de bóvido y de caballo, así como otros trazos todavía no interpretados. En la parte inferior del panel existen pinturas, poco visibles a causa de una colada calcítica y de momento no es posible interpretar ninguna representación figurativa. En el panel II se han identificado un total de 25 figuras tanto grabadas como pintadas. La excepcionalidad del hallazgo reside en el hecho de poder interrelacionar perfectamente estas muestras de arte con los niveles arqueológicos claramente definidos desde el punto de vista cultural y cronoestratigráfico (ca. 20000 BP Solutrense medio y Solutrense superior del mismo yacimiento.In the solutrean site of La Cueva de Ambrosio (Vélez-Blanco, Almería, Spain several engraved and painted figures dated on the Upper Palaeolithic, have been found during the field works of 1992 and 1994. In The panel I we have identified an excellent representation of a horse, a bird, one bovidae and another protome of a horse. Below this surface there are many red ochre wall paintings covered by a calcitic speleotheme and for the time being we are unable to give any interpretation for it. In the second panel we have discovered more tone splendid red painted horse, two more enngraved horses and a little head of one other black painted horse. There are many engraved lines and pictural rests that must be studied in the future. The exceptionality of this discovery is that we can interrelate perfectly these rock art paintings with the archaeological levels clearly defined chronologically and culturally (ca. 20000 BP, Middle Solutrean and Upper Solutrean from the same site.

  2. Modification of 3D milling machine to 3D printer

    Halamíček, Lukáš


    Tato práce se zabývá přestavbou gravírovací frézky na 3D tiskárnu. V první části se práce zabývá možnými technologiemi 3D tisku a možností jejich využití u přestavby. Dále jsou popsány a vybrány vhodné součásti pro přestavbu. V další části je realizováno řízení ohřevu podložky, trysky a řízení posuvu drátu pomocí softwaru TwinCat od společnosti Beckhoff na průmyslovém počítači. Výsledkem práce by měla být oživená 3D tiskárna. This thesis deals with rebuilding of engraving machine to 3D pri...

  3. 陶瓷零件快速成形机研制及产品加工%The study of the ceramic parts rapid prototyping machine and products processing

    高东强; 张菲


    详细介绍了经济型陶瓷零件快速成形机的组成、工作原理及主要结构,并将该设计制造成实体样机.利用Pro/E三维实体造型软件和分层技术对“D”字建模并进行分层处理等,将处理的数据输入控制设备,并将实体样机与啄木鸟DX3017型雕刻机相结合,最后加工制造陶瓷零件“D”.%It discusses the components, work principle and main structure of the ceramic parts rapid prototyping machine in detail, and the physical machine is made according to the design. The model of "D"is established by Pro/E, and stratified according to stratifaction technology. The data is input to the control device, and then combine the physical machine and Woodpecker DX3017 engraving machine, ceramic part "D" is produced finally.

  4. Nuclear traces on solids and concentration measurements of intramural radon; Trazas nucleares en solidos y mediciones de concentracion de radon intramuros

    Meza L, C. D.; Zendejaz L, B. E.; Vazquez L, C. [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional No. 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J. I. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)], e-mail:


    The Department of Energy, the Environmental Protection Agency of United States and the European Community, have dedicated very important resources to study and analysis of intramural radon, its effects in public health and on remediation and control actions, trying to obtain lower levels. In Mexico have been organized intramural radon research programs by several institutions. With the proposal to contribute to intramural radon knowledge and its concentration levels in our country, the Dosimetry Applications Project of Physics Institute of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, in collaboration with the Physics Department of Research and Advanced Studies Center, have developed the methodology for intramural radon measurement by nuclear traces on solids. In this work a passive detector is presented for radiation measurement, using polycarbonate (C R-39) as sensitive material to particles alpha, as well as the protocols for the chemical engraving, the automatic reading system and calibration procedures. The results obtained are presented with this method in houses, buildings and work places. These results were compared with other, obtained with dynamic systems and other methodologies used by another research groups. These comparisons have achieve to take a high reliability in our measurements. (Author)

  5. An image analyzer system for the analysis of nuclear traces; Un sistema analizador de imagenes para el analisis de trazas nucleares

    Cuapio O, A


    Inside the project of nuclear traces and its application techniques to be applied in the detection of nuclear reactions of low section (non detectable by conventional methods), in the study of accidental and personal neutron dosemeters, and other but, are developed. All these studies are based on the fact that the charged particles leave latent traces of dielectric that if its are engraved with appropriate chemical solutions its are revealed until becoming visible to the optical microscope. From the analysis of the different trace forms, it is possible to obtain information of the characteristic parameters of the incident particles (charge, mass and energy). Of the density of traces it is possible to obtain information of the flow of the incident radiation and consequently of the received dose. For carry out this analysis has been designed and coupled different systems, that it has allowed the solution of diverse outlined problems. Notwithstanding it has been detected that to make but versatile this activity is necessary to have an Image Analyzer System that allow us to digitize, to process and to display the images with more rapidity. The present document, presents the proposal to carry out the acquisition of the necessary components for to assembling an Image Analyzing System, like support to the mentioned project. (Author)

  6. The agrarian reform, between memory and forgetfulness

    Ingrid Hall


    Full Text Available Although the Peruvian Agrarian Reform has been a mayor event for the peasant communities of Peru, especially in the Andes, it is barely evoked. It is the case of the community of Llanchu, located in the region of Cusco y in the Province of Calca, even if it has born thanks to the reform. In this paper we will analyse the way people refers to the agrarian reform. We will show that discourses about the past are socially controlled as any other kind of speech in that society. We will also discuss the way this past is engraved in the society and its territory. The ancient categories former to the reform are then still in use today even if they are expressed in new words. We will finally discuss the fact that the forgetfulness of the reform makes this community appear like a long-date one. The main question raised here is “what is supposed to be a peasant community today in the Peruvian Andes?” Is that so important to show a social unity and a historical continuity? This point is especially crucial today, as those populations entered in a process of ethnicization.

  7. Humeaneyes (“one particular shade of blue”

    Angela Coventry


    Full Text Available Grey-blue eyes and a fixed look: Is he a philosopher or a dumb ox? Hume’s eyes and face are trifle which can lead us into some curiosities connected with his life and writings. Looking through Hume’s eyes, we can outline the scholars’ propensity to describe the (painted face of their favourite philosopher and spread upon it their reading of his work. We can ask questions about portraits and resemblance as a standard of beauty. We can survey the eighteenth-century sentiments on physiognomy, and the paradox of the “fat philosopher”, at once, both clumsy and refined. We can inquire into Hume’s use of physiognomic descriptions, his account of corpulence and his own vacant look. We can observe how far Ramsay’s theory of a just graceful resemblance was put into practice in the dispute between Rousseau and Hume, and how the portraits were part of it. We can outline the role the eyes play in the body of Hume’s work. Finally, we can recall his aversion to “the prefixing a Print of the Author” and remember that the picture which he deemed “the likest”, as well as “the best Likeness”, has now disappeared. Yet, there remains something which is still engraved.

  8. Complementary Split-Ring Resonator-Loaded Microfluidic Ethanol Chemical Sensor

    Ahmed Salim


    Full Text Available In this paper, a complementary split-ring resonator (CSRR-loaded patch is proposed as a microfluidic ethanol chemical sensor. The primary objective of this chemical sensor is to detect ethanol’s concentration. First, two tightly coupled concentric CSRRs loaded on a patch are realized on a Rogers RT/Duroid 5870 substrate, and then a microfluidic channel engraved on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS is integrated for ethanol chemical sensor applications. The resonant frequency of the structure before loading the microfluidic channel is 4.72 GHz. After loading the microfluidic channel, the 550 MHz shift in the resonant frequency is ascribed to the dielectric perturbation phenomenon when the ethanol concentration is varied from 0% to 100%. In order to assess the sensitivity range of our proposed sensor, various concentrations of ethanol are tested and analyzed. Our proposed sensor exhibits repeatability and successfully detects 10% ethanol as verified by the measurement set-up. It has created headway to a miniaturized, non-contact, low-cost, reliable, reusable, and easily fabricated design using extremely small liquid volumes.

  9. The Psychological Roots of Creativity in Messages Left by Leonardo da Vinci, Giorgio Vasari, and a Neanderthal Troglodyte

    Antonio Cassella


    Full Text Available The perfect memory that informs our local autistic facet is insufficient to deal with the unforeseen change that challenges our nonlocal artistic facet. The loss of quantum nonlocality leads autistics to fail tests rooted in overcoming the less-than-perfect ambiguity that elicits our creativity. The psychological structure by which perfect memory and less-than-perfect creativity empower each other remains in darkness. This article broaches the hypothesis that Leonardo da Vinci envisioned the union of local perfection and nonlocal less-than-perfection, and that he hid his insight in the Adoration of the Magi. Leonardo’s knowledge - expressed here as the logos heuristic—guides a psychological interpretation of the smile of Mona Lisa; of the four avatars of the Vitruvian Man; of the recognition and location of Leonardo’s unknown painting Natività; of the exact location of his lost work, Battaglia di Anghiari; and of a 39,000-year-old abstract engraving in Gorham’s cave at Gibraltar. Logos can be used to single out local, nonlocal computing, and their alliance in pursuing a humanistic path to progress.

  10. Pre-Hispanic Sanctuaries in the Canary Islands

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    Cultural astronomy studies in the Canarian archipelago now have a tradition spanning two decades. The statistical relevance of astronomical implications for a certain number of sites and the spectacular character of some of the astronomical hierophanies discovered - with low probability of having been produced by chance in most cases - clearly points to an intentionality in the astronomical relationships discovered so far. All these arguments strongly suggest that tracking the movement of the celestial bodies was an important consideration in the erection and purpose of many pre-Hispanic sanctuaries. The alignment of footprint engravings at Montaña Tindaya, and the major lunistice moonrise at Roque Nublo and the summer solstice sunset at Teide, as observed from the sacred sites of Bentaiga and Gamona, respectively, may also be catalogued as outstanding examples of the strong relationship between astronomy and landscape in ancient Canary Islands culture. The recently discovered light-and-shadow effects at Risco Caído will also be briefly discussed.

  11. The evolution of the Faculty of Language from a Chomskyan perspective: bridging linguistics and biology.

    Longa, Victor Manuel


    While language was traditionally considered a purely cultural trait, the advent of Noam Chomsky's Generative Grammar in the second half of the twentieth century dramatically challenged that view. According to that theory, language is an innate feature, part of the human biological endowment. If language is indeed innate, it had to biologically evolve. This review has two main objectives: firstly, it characterizes from a Chomskyan perspective the evolutionary processes by which language could have come into being. Secondly, it proposes a new method for interpreting the archaeological record that radically differs from the usual types of evidence Paleoanthropology has concentrated on when dealing with language evolution: while archaeological remains have usually been regarded from the view of the behavior they could be associated with, the paper will consider archaeological remains from the view of the computational processes and capabilities at work for their production. This computational approach, illustrated with a computational analysis of prehistoric geometric engravings, will be used to challenge the usual generative thinking on language evolution, based on the high specificity of language. The paper argues that the biological machinery of language is neither specifically linguistic nor specifically human, although language itself can still be considered a species-specific innate trait. From such a view, language would be one of the consequences of a slight modification operated on an ancestral architecture shared with vertebrates.

  12. Reflection of Crusade Ideas in Medieval Art of 12* and 13* Centuries with Special Emphasis on Crusade Motives in Polish Art

    Katarzyna Kabulak


    Full Text Available Literary inheritance of the Middle Ages has always been an invaluable source for researchers o f this epoch. It is the most valuable word for us. It needs to be mentioned, however, that a medieval recipient of literature was doubtlessly a member of a small elite. Few could claim to possess the ability to read and write. What appealed to the masses was an image – the most influential carrier of ideas. Wall paintings, sculptures, portals at the entrance to churches, coins with iconography best appealed to imagination. Symbolic representations affected the senses. “Pictorial system of communication played a role much more important for societies of the past than contemporary Polish historical literature acknowledges.” Touching upon a subject as vast as the crusade movement and the idea of fighting for every piece o f the Holy Land, one cannot let any information that was engraved or painted go unnoticed. Art, along site historical information, shows us a huge amount of propaganda material. Tiny details, the quality of outcome, the nicety of presentation are of no importance;what counts are the contents of depictions and the message. Art was therefore an educational factor used to show a certain model, in our considerations an ideal model, o f a Christ’s knight. The idea of crusades, both the Jerusalem crusade and the one broadly understood as a war against paganism, was also propagated through art.

  13. Phtotography: intertextualities and hybridisms Fotografia: intertextualidades e hibridismos

    Fernando Cury de Tacca


    Full Text Available This article addresses the intertextualities of photography and cinema, the literature, the engraving and Internet. It seeks to organize the photograph starting from its relations and hybridism with other arts and media. When we understand the intertextual aspect of photography in various moments of its history, we move forward in understanding its intersection with science, the arts and media, existing relations since the origins of photography with impact in current times. Este artigo aborda intertextualidades da fotografia com o cinema, a literatura, a gravura e a internet. Busca-se organizar o pensamento fotográfico a partir de suas relações e hibridismos com outras artes e meios de comunicação. Ao entendermos o aspecto intertextual da fotografia em vários momentos de sua história caminhamos no entendimento de sua intersecção com a ciência, as artes e os meios de comunicação, relações presentes desde a origem da fotografia e com desdobramentos nos dias atuais.

  14. The Final Days of Paracas in Cerro del Gentil, Chincha Valley, Peru


    This article describes and analyzes a highly significant archaeological context discovered in a late Paracas (400–200 BCE) sunken patio in the monumental platform mound of Cerro Gentil, located in the Chincha Valley, Peru. This patio area was used for several centuries for ritual activities, including large-scale feasting and other public gatherings. At one point late in this historical sequence people deposited a great deal of objects in what is demonstrably a single historical event. This was quickly followed by a series of minor events stratigraphically immediately above this larger event. This entire ritual process included the consumption of liquids and food, and involved the offering of whole pottery, pottery fragments, botanical remains, bone, lithics, baskets, pyro-engraved gourds, mummies, and other objects. We interpret these events as an “abandonment ceremony” or “termination ritual” during the late Paracas period, one that may have lasted for weeks or even months. The subsequent Topará occupation at the site (ca. 200 BCE- AD 100) involved the architectural enhancement of the mound area, but the pattern of use of the patio itself ended. Such a termination ritual signals a reorganization in the regional political structure of Paracas society. PMID:27144824

  15. Grating Loaded Cantilevers for Displacement Measurements

    Karademir, Ertugrul; Olcum, Selim; Atalar, Abdullah; Aydinli, Atilla


    A cantilever with a grating coupler engraved on its tip is used for measuring displacement. The coupled light in the cantilever is guided to a single mode optical waveguide defined at the base of the cantilever. The grating period is 550 nm and is fabricated on a SOI wafer using nanoimprint lithography. The waveguide and the cantilever are defined by an RIE and cantilevers released by KOH and HF solutions. Light with 1550 nm wavelength, is directed onto the grating coupler and detected at the cleaved end of the SOI waveguide. The angle of incidence is controlled by a motorized rotary stage. Light couples into the waveguide at a characteristic angle with a full width at half maximum of approximately 6.9 mrads translating into a Q factor of 87.5. The displacement sensitivity is measured by driving the cantilever with a frequency controlled piezoelectric element. The modulation of the light at the waveguide output is lock-in detected by a biased infrared detector. The resulting 43%mrad-1 sensitivity can be increased with further optimization.

  16. Saharan Rock Art: Local Dynamics and Wider Perspectives

    Marina Gallinaro


    Full Text Available Rock art is the best known evidence of the Saharan fragile heritage. Thousands of engraved and painted artworks dot boulders and cliffs in open-air sites, as well as the rock walls of rockshelters and caves located in the main massifs. Since its pioneering discovery in the late 19th century, rock art captured the imagination of travellers and scholars, representing for a long time the main aim of research in the area. Chronology, meaning and connections between the different recognized artistic provinces are still to be fully understood. The central massifs, and in particular the "cultural province" encompassing Tadrart Acacus and Tassili n’Ajer, played and still play a key role in this scenario. Recent analytical and contextual analyses of rock art contexts seem to open new perspectives. Tadrart Acacus, for the richness and variability of artworks, for the huge archaeological data known, and for its proximity to other important areas with rock art (Tassili n’Ajjer, Algerian Tadrart and Messak massifs is an ideal context to analyze the artworks in their environmental and social-cultural context, and to define connections between cultural local dynamics and wider regional perspectives.

  17. Acrylic-based 1×2 Y-Branch POF coupler with high index contrast waveguide taper

    Ehsan, A. A.; Abd Rahman, M. K.


    An acrylic-based 1x2 Y-Branch POF coupler consists of input POF waveguide, a middle high index contrast waveguide taper and output POF waveguides has been developed. The optical device is based on a 1x2 Y-branch coupler design with a middle high index contrast waveguide taper. Device modeling has been performed using non-sequential ray tracing with an insertion loss of 4.68 dB and coupling ratio of 50:50. Low cost acrylic material has been used for the device substrate. This middle waveguide taper region is constructed on the acrylic block itself without using any additional optical waveguiding medium injected into the engraved taper region. Fabrication of the devices is done by producing the device structures on an acrylic block using high speed CNC machining tool. Input and output POF fibers are inserted in to this device structure in such a way that they are passively aligned to the middle waveguide taper structure. The measured insertion loss is 7.5 dB and with a splitting ratio of 50:50.

  18. Euler force actuation mechanism for siphon valving in compact disk-like microfluidic chips.

    Deng, Yongbo; Fan, Jianhua; Zhou, Song; Zhou, Teng; Wu, Junfeng; Li, Yin; Liu, Zhenyu; Xuan, Ming; Wu, Yihui


    Based on the Euler force induced by the acceleration of compact disk (CD)-like microfluidic chip, this paper presents a novel actuation mechanism for siphon valving. At the preliminary stage of acceleration, the Euler force in the tangential direction of CD-like chip takes the primary place compared with the centrifugal force to function as the actuation of the flow, which fills the siphon and actuates the siphon valving. The Euler force actuation mechanism is demonstrated by the numerical solution of the phase-field based mathematical model for the flow in siphon valve. In addition, experimental validation is implemented in the polymethylmethacrylate-based CD-like microfluidic chip manufactured using CO2 laser engraving technique. To prove the application of the proposed Euler force actuation mechanism, whole blood separation and plasma extraction has been conducted using the Euler force actuated siphon valving. The newly introduced actuation mechanism overcomes the dependence on hydrophilic capillary filling of siphon by avoiding external manipulation or surface treatments of polymeric material. The sacrifice for highly integrated processing in pneumatic pumping technique is also prevented by excluding the volume-occupied compressed air chamber.

  19. Performance assessment of a remotely readable graphite oxide (GO)-based tamper-evident seal

    Cattaneo, Alessandro; Marchi, Alexandria N.; Bossert, Jason A.; Dumont, Joseph H.; Gupta, Gautam; Mascareñas, David D. L.


    Tamper-evident seals are commonly used for non-proliferation applications. A properly engineered tamper-evident seal enables the detection of unauthorized access to a protected item or a secured zone. Tamper-evident seals must be susceptible to malicious attacks. These attacks should cause irreversible and detectable damage to the seals. At the same time, tamper-evident seals must demonstrate robustness to environmental changes in order to minimize false-positive and false-negative rates under real operating conditions. The architecture of the tamper-evident seal presented in this paper features a compressive sampling (CS) acquisition scheme, which provides the seal with a means for self- authentication and self-state of health awareness. The CS acquisition scheme is implemented using a micro-controller unit (MCU) and an array of resistors engraved on a graphite oxide (GO) film. CS enables compression and encryption of messages sent from the seal to the remote reader in a non-bit sensitive fashion. As already demonstrated in our previous work through the development of a simulation framework, the CS non-bit sensitive property ensures satisfactory reconstruction of the encrypted messages sent back to the reader when the resistance values of the resistor array are simultaneously affected by modest changes. This work investigates the resistive behavior of the reduced GO film to changes in temperature and humidity when tested in an environmental chamber. The goal is to characterize the humidity and temperature range for reliable operation of a GO-based seal.

  20. When ancestral heritage is a source of discomfort: culture, pre-object relatedness, and self-alienation.

    Kradin, Richard L


    The ancestral claims on an individual can evoke mental conflict when they involve separating from an ethnic group whose beliefs and customs are devalued by the dominant culture. However, these claims are engraved on the psyche early in development by caretakers to the level of pre-object relatedness, where contents and affect tones are implicit and may be unavailable for later psychoanalytical interventions. In addition, as the anthropologist Clifford Geertz notes, one's culture of origin precedes the development of psyche and creates its own set of claims that must be renegotiated when one encounters a different domain of cultural symbols, a confrontation that can produce psychological dissonance and self-alienation. In this paper, three cases are examined in which mental conflicts were evoked by attempts at divesting ancestral claims in response to conscious efforts to assimilate into the dominant culture. These patients suffered from separation guilt and unstable self-esteem and reported dream imagery suggesting psychological imbalance. The requirement to carefully delineate the ancestral claims on psyche as well as those contents and affects that may not be accessible to therapeutic intervention is emphasized, and the importance of compromise and acceptance with respect to the psychological demands of the unconscious are considered.

  1. Allocation of Fishing Harvest Rights in Iceland and Norway - the Development since 1990

    Helgi Grétarsson


    Full Text Available Unlike most western countries, marine fisheries in Iceland and Norway is still of some national significance. For more than two decades now, the two countries have managed their fisheries with complicated quota systems. The main rules of these two systems are explained in the article. However, the main purpose of the article is to describe how harvest rights in the two countries have been allocated since 1990. In both countries the principle of grandfathering the harvest rights has prevailed, i.e., the initial allocation has protected the professional interest of those that have already participated in the fisheries. Despite this, rules on the matter have not been engraved in stone since they have been dynamic and contingent on various amendments by the legislature and government. Basic rules on allocation have been stipulated in acts in Iceland, while in Norway they have mostly been based on regulations. Since harvest rights are transferable in Iceland, this, in principle, should make the harvest rights better protected than in Norway. However, when the matter is scrutinized, it becomes clear that the Icelandic parliament has in fact reallocated harvest rights on a recurrent basis. In Norway, rules on allocation of harvest rights have been relatively stable. This can be partly explained by the fact that the most important stakeholders in the Norwegian fisheries have in practice had important say on how the harvest rights have been allocated.

  2. Vision Servo Motion Control and Error Analysis of a Coplanar XXY Stage for Image Alignment Motion

    Hau-Wei Lee


    Full Text Available In recent years, as there is demand for smart mobile phones with touch panels, the alignment/compensation system of alignment stage with vision servo control has also increased. Due to the fact that the traditional stacked-type XYθ stage has cumulative errors of assembly and it is heavy, it has been gradually replaced by the coplanar stage characterized by three actuators on the same plane with three degrees of freedom. The simplest image alignment mode uses two cameras as the equipments for feedback control, and the work piece is placed on the working stage. The work piece is usually engraved/marked. After the cameras capture images and when the position of the mark in the camera is obtained by image processing, the mark can be moved to the designated position in the camera by moving the stage and using alignment algorithm. This study used a coplanar XXY stage with 1 μm positioning resolution. Due to the fact that the resolution of the camera is about 3.75 μm per pixel, thus a subpixel technology is used, and the linear and angular alignment repeatability of the alignment system can achieve 1 μm and 5 arcsec, respectively. The visual servo motion control for alignment motion is completed within 1 second using the coplanar XXY stage.

  3. 采用CATIA V5的曲面文字数控雕刻%CNC machining carving processing of surface text based on CATIA V5



    探讨了采用CATIA V5软件在FANUC四轴数控加工中心上进行曲面刻字的方法,包括曲面文字的CAD建模及CAM雕刻,并将软件生成的刀具轨迹G代码传输至FANUC数控加工中心,实现了曲面文字的雕刻.该方法提高了曲面文字雕刻的精度,同时扩展了数控加工中心的产品加工范围,实现了数控加工中心的“一机多用”.%A four-axis CNC machining carving method in the hemisphere surface parts by CATIA V5 is recommended,including CAD modeling & CAM carving machining in the hemisphere surface. The reasonable CNC program was transmitted to the FANUC CNC machine,and realized the actual engraving processing of the surface. The method both enhanced the quality of the parts also expanded the product range of the CNC machine.

  4. Creating an Online Exhibit in a First-Year Seminar: “Luxury Objects in the Age of Marie Antoinette”

    Janie Vanpée


    Full Text Available How can students arrive at a closer understanding of the material culture that shaped the lives of the French aristocracy and nascent bourgeoisie of late eighteenth-century France? This is one of the challenges that students face in the first-year seminar, Re-Membering Marie Antoinette, as they study the multiple and conflicting ways that Marie Antoinette was and has been represented in biographies, portraits, memoirs, fiction, film, fashion, plays and pornographic pamphlets, records of her trial in 1793, and the spaces and activies that shaped her daily life. This article focuses on a series of scaffolded assignments that lead students to imagine what Marie Antoinette’s daily life might have been like by exploring the material culture of the period through the objects, decor, and activities depicted in Moreau le Jeune’s series of engravings, Le Monument du Costume, and the craftsmanship, labor, and social practices they entail as described in Diderot and d’Alembert’s Encyclopédie.

  5. 高清三维凹凸釉面砖的研制%Development of Concavo-convex Glazed Tile with High-Definition 3D Decorative Pattern

    余国明; 王贵生; 李少平; 王勇


    The 3D roller printing technology was developed for high-definition decoration of engraved glazed tile. The influences of moulding process, grain composition of powder, and performance of glaze and ink on the decoration were investigated. High-definition texture resembling natural stone was achieved on the concavo-convex surface of glazed tile under the optimized processing conditions.%采用高清三维胶辊印刷技术进行凹凸釉面砖装饰,探讨了釉面砖成型工艺、粉料颗粒级配、釉料和印油性能等工艺因素对凹凸釉面砖三维胶辊印花装饰效果的影响,通过相关工艺参数优化,实现凹凸釉面砖表面高清的石材天然纹理的印刷效果.

  6. Information and Communication Technologies – and Culturally Sensitive Systems

    Nancy Michail


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the perceptions of Egyptian minority groups in relation to internet information technology with which they feel empowered to protect, affirm and communicate their oppressed existence, on local and global dimensions. The research employs qualitative methods and interpretive analysis, to focus on the use of Internet information technology tools by Egyptian minority groups, in particular, their online platforms and chat rooms, and the related issues associated with these practices and usages. The paper argues that cyberspace is used by specific minority groups in Egypt as a "gateway to freedom" in which it constitutes an ally to establish newly founded cyber identities that aide them to exercise their basic human rights of freedom of thought, speech and expression. The paper thus examines cyberspace a medium or tool for the carrying out of information exchange without the traditional fear of politics and power that is deeply engraved in the roots of the Egyptian culture. In this way, these minority groups are analysed as the newly conceived human information systems (HIS residing on Internet information technology and infrastructure. The paper proposes an adaptive and culturally sensitive model of human information systems as well as human information systems development life cycle (HISDLC to aid in establishing effective processes of information exchange and creation, hence assisting in the emancipation of conflicting parties residing in Egypt, elsewhere in the Middle East and globally.

  7. On the Origin of the Dragon Image on the Plate from Shilovka Burial Mound

    Liphanov Nicolay А.


    Full Text Available The author of the article analyzes an unique image of two opposed dragons engraved on a bone plate discovered in 1992 at barrow No.1 of Shilovka burial mound located on the right bank of the Volga river in Ulyanovsk Oblast (the excavations were conducted by R.S. Bagautdinov. The burial mound is related to the cattle breeding population of late 7th century. The article considers different hypotheses concerning the origin of these dragon images in the artistic traditions of various regions: China (A.V. Komar, D.G. Savinov, B. Totev, Pelevina, Central Asia (V.G. Kotov, V.E. Flyorova, India (N.A. Fonyakova. According to the author, this image has no apparent iconographic parallels in the traditions of these regions. Such analogues are found in the art of the Mediterranean where the ancient images of various mythological creatures exist alongside the image of the sea dragon “ketos” which later became part of the Christian tradition. The appearance of this monster in the images of the first half – middle of the 1st millennium A.D. is practically identical to the dragons from Shilovka burial mound. According to the author, certain impact on the formation of the considered dragon image was made by Iranian art.

  8. [Professor Hernán Alessandri, M.D.: his legacy for the new generations of physicians].

    Rosson M, Sebastian


    Professor Alessandri died in 1980. We started our residency in Internal Medicine about 30 years later. Considering the profound changes our society has witnessed, including medical practice, I would like to approach the meaning of his work for our generation. It is not the Father's figure nor his Aura what inspires us today. Neither is his personality nor his shape. His universality comes from his transcendent image as a teacher. Today's teachers live rough times, their social status has changed, their professional requirements have grown exponentially, they have to adapt to social phenomena like the Internet and multiculturalism. Being a teacher nowadays demands to be a multifaceted expert. Things have changed since Professor Alessandri made rounds with his patients. But a deeper look allows us to understand that everything returns to where it started: professional deontology of the teacher, never fading but transcendent. We know that Doctor Alessandri had the natural gift to keep faithful to that code with consistency and perseverance. He excelled with integrity in every aspect including professional betterment, constructive work for his institution, collegiality, a warm relationship with students and a model of social values. Beyond virtues and personal defects he will keep on being the mould in which present teachers should be formed, engraved in their souls and in the subconscious of students that seek to learn.

  9. A neural model for chronic pain and pain relief by extracorporeal shock wave treatment.

    Wess, Othmar J


    The paper develops a new theory of chronic pain and pain relief by extracorporeal shock wave treatment. Chronic pain without underlying anatomical disorder is looked at as a pathological control function of memory. Conditioned reflexes are considered to be engraved memory traces linking sensory input of afferent signals with motor response of efferent signals. This feature can be described by associative memory functions of the nervous system. Some conditioned reflexes may cause inappropriate or pathological reactions. Consequently, a circulus vitiosus of pain sensation and muscle and/or vessel contraction is generated when pain becomes chronic (pain spiral). The key feature is a dedicated engram responsible for a pathological (painful) reaction. The pain memory may be explained by the concept of a holographic memory model published by several authors. According to this model it is shown how nervous systems may generate and recall memory contents. The paper shows how extracorporeal shock wave treatment may reorganize pathologic memory traces, thus giving cause to real and permanent pain relief. In a generalized manner, the idea of associative memory functions may help in the understanding of conditioning as a learning process and explain extracorporeal shock wave application as an efficient treatment concept for chronic pain. This concept may open the door for new treatment approaches to chronic pain and several other disorders of the nervous system.

  10. Ashoka : el gran soberano del Imperio Maurya

    María Teresa Román López


    Full Text Available Ashoka (268-239 a.C. fue el tercer monarca de la dinastía Maurya. Sus edictos y las inscripciones grabadas en rocas o pilares ubicados en varias partes de su reino nos familiarizan no solamente con la personalidad de uno de los gobernantes más importantes de la historia de la India, sino también con los acontecimientos de su reinado. Acaso el más conocido de ellos sea su conversión al budismo. Promovió la labor misionera budista, que rebasó las fronteras extendiéndose por otros países, sobre todo por el sudeste asiático.Ashoka (268-239 a. C. was the third King of the Maurya dinasty. His edicts and the inscriptions engraved on the rocks or pilars placed in several parts of his reign show as not only the personality of one of the most important goberning in the Indian History, but also the events of his Kingdom. Perhaps the most known of them is his conversión to Budism: The prometed the budish missionary labor that crossed the frontiers to another countryes, overcoat througt the Asían south east.

  11. The main work of astronomer Christoph Scheiner SJ "Rosa Ursina sive Sol" - a summary.

    Daxecker, F.


    Christoph Scheiner was born on 25 July 1573 or 1575 in Markt Wald near Mindelheim in the Bavarian part of Swabia. He died on 18 July 1650. In Rome he wrote his main work Rosa Ursina sive Sol and had it printed with the help of a patron, Duke Paulus Jordanus II of Bracciano. The ducal family bore a rose, likened to the Sun in Scheiner's book, on its coat of arms. Rosa Ursina is divided into four volumes. In volume I Scheiner tackles the issue of who was first to discover the sunspots; he also proves that Galilei made errors of observation. Volume II shows illustrations of telescopes, projection methods and the helioscope and compares the optics of a telescope with that of the human eye. In volume III, observations on sunspots are illustrated by 70 copper engravings by David Widemann. Volume IV consists of two parts. The first part again deals with the phenomena of the Sun, such as sunspots and prominences, its period of revolution of 27 days, and the tilt of its axis; the second part is a collection of passages and quotations from the Scriptures, from Church Fathers and philosophers, all designed to prove that Scheiner's interpretation of the geocentric system conformed to Catholic doctrine.

  12. Fabrication of thermal-resistant gratings for high-temperature measurements using geometric phase analysis

    Zhang, Q.; Liu, Z.; Xie, H.; Ma, K.; Wu, L.


    Grating fabrication techniques are crucial to the success of grating-based deformation measurement methods because the quality of the grating will directly affect the measurement results. Deformation measurements at high temperatures entail heating and, perhaps, oxidize the grating. The contrast of the grating lines may change during the heating process. Thus, the thermal-resistant capability of the grating becomes a point of great concern before taking measurements. This study proposes a method that combines a laser-engraving technique with the processes of particle spraying and sintering for fabricating thermal-resistant gratings. The grating fabrication technique is introduced and discussed in detail. A numerical simulation with a geometric phase analysis (GPA) is performed for a homogeneous deformation case. Then, the selection scheme of the grating pitch is suggested. The validity of the proposed technique is verified by fabricating a thermal-resistant grating on a ZrO2 specimen and measuring its thermal strain at high temperatures (up to 1300 °C). Images of the grating before and after deformation are used to obtain the thermal-strain field by GPA and to compare the results with well-established reference data. The experimental results indicate that this proposed technique is feasible and will offer good prospects for further applications.

  13. Huellas que no se borran. Ruptura y desdoblamiento psíquico en tres obras de Luisa Valenzuela

    María Teresa, Medeiros-Lichem


    Full Text Available The emotional rupture caused by experiences of repression, displacement and exile originates a dislocation in the identity of the subject which often leads into a schizophrenic search for a new identity.  In the process of adaptation to the new condition the characters often unfold into split subjects which cause them to act irrationally.This essay will explore the psychic transformations suffered by characters in their efforts to reconstitute a coherent and stable self in three works by Luisa Valenzuela: Novela negra con argentinos (1990, “Tiempo de retorno” (2008, and Realidad nacional desde la cama (1990. Her characters are split between the external reality and a repressed trauma, a situation where Memory and the wish to erase an unspeakable past strive to arouse into the surface of consciousness. Valenzuela’s protagonists are driven by the hidden desire to reach the Secret of their desolation. The true re-encounter and reconstitution of the Self will only be possible after the recognition of the indelible traces engraved in the collective Memory. 

  14. Boring in response to bark and phloem extracts from North American trees does not explain host acceptance behavior of Orthotomicus erosus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae).

    Walter, Abigail J; Kells, Stephen A; Venette, Robert C; Seybold, Steven J


    When invasive herbivorous insects encounter novel plant species, they must determine whether the novel plants are hosts. The Mediterranean pine engraver, Orthotomicus erosus (Wollaston), an exotic bark beetle poised to expand its range in North America, accepts hosts after contacting the bark. To test the hypothesis that O. erosus accepts hosts on the basis of gustatory cues, we prepared bark and phloem extracts from logs of four North American tree species that we had used in previous host acceptance experiments. Water, methanol, and hexane extracts of red pine, tamarack, balsam fir, and paper birch were presented alone and in combination on a neutral filter paper substrate in a section of a plastic drinking straw. Boring behavior in response to the three-extract combinations differed from the pattern of acceptance previously observed among species when the beetles were in contact with the bark surface. Only the aqueous extracts of tamarack, Larix laricina, increased the initiation and the extent of boring by O. erosus on the filter paper substrate. We conclude that the effects of extracted chemicals do not match the behavior of the beetles observed when penetrating excised bark and phloem discs, indicating that host selection by O. erosus may not be predictable from bark and phloem chemistry alone. Instead, host acceptance may be determined by nongustatory stimuli or by a combination of stimuli including gustatory and nongustatory cues.

  15. Research on Manufacturing Technology Based on Machine Vision

    HU Zhanqi; ZHENG Kuijing


    The concept of machine vision based manufacturing technology is proposed first, and the key algorithms used in two-dimensional and three-dimensional machining are discussed in detail. Machining information can be derived from the binary images and gray picture after processing and transforming the picture. Contour and the parallel cutting method about two-dimensional machining are proposed. Polygon approximating algorithm is used to cutting the profile of the workpiece. Fill Scanning algorithm used to machining inner part of a pocket. The improved Shape From Shading method with adaptive pre-processing is adopted to reconstruct the three-dimensional model. Layer cutting method is adopted for three-dimensional machining. The tool path is then gotten from the model, and NC code is formed subsequently. The model can be machined conveniently by the lathe, milling machine or engraver. Some examples are given to demonstrate the results of ImageCAM system, which is developed by the author to implement the algorithms previously mentioned.

  16. Study on Cultural Connotations of Rural Tourism Product in Frontier Ethnic Regions%释论边疆民族地区乡村旅游商品文化内涵

    张东强; 李海燕; 王国强


    s:Rural tourism commodities engraving an unforgettable journey with the tourists as regional carrier of culture,and reflecting the special cultural origins of tourist destinations. With the frontier ethnic regions as a case,and analysising cultural connotations of rural tourism product development from culture source, illustration,cultural value and development strategy. Based on this study,it is suggested that comprehensive development strategy with“production,learning,research,and marketing”for rural tourism product development.%乡村旅游商品作为地域文化的载体,镌刻着旅游者一段难忘的旅途,反映着旅游目的地特殊的文化渊源。该文以边疆民族地区为研究区域,对乡村旅游商品研发的文化内涵做稀释、例释、解码和编制,提出“产-学-研-销”的综合开发策略。

  17. Recreating Galileo's 1609 Discovery of Lunar Mountains

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Needham, Paul S.; Wright, Ernest T.; Gingerich, Owen


    The question of exactly which lunar features persuaded Galileo that there were mountains on the moon has not yet been definitively answered; Galileo was famously more interested in the concepts rather than the topographic mapping in his drawings and the eventual engravings. Since the pioneering work of Ewen Whitaker on trying to identify which specific lunar-terminator features were those that Galileo identified as mountains on the moon in his 1609 observations reported in his Sidereus Nuncius (Venice, 1610), and since the important work on the sequence of Galileo's observations by Owen Gingerich (see "The Mystery of the Missing 2" in Galilaeana IX, 2010, in which he concludes that "the Florentine bifolium sheet [with Galileo's watercolor images] is Galileo's source for the reworked lunar diagrams in Sidereus Nuncius"), there have been advances in lunar topographical measurements that should advance the discussion. In particular, one of us (E.T.W.) at the Scientific Visualization Studio of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has used laser-topography from NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter to recreate what Galileo would have seen over a sequence of dates in late November and early December 1609, and provided animations both at native resolution and at the degraded resolution that Galileo would have observed with his telescope. The Japanese Kaguya spacecraft also provides modern laser-mapped topographical maps.

  18. Out of Africa: modern human origins special feature: additional evidence on the use of personal ornaments in the Middle Paleolithic of North Africa.

    d'Errico, Francesco; Vanhaeren, Marian; Barton, Nick; Bouzouggar, Abdeljalil; Mienis, Henk; Richter, Daniel; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; McPherron, Shannon P; Lozouet, Pierre


    Recent investigations into the origins of symbolism indicate that personal ornaments in the form of perforated marine shell beads were used in the Near East, North Africa, and SubSaharan Africa at least 35 ka earlier than any personal ornaments in Europe. Together with instances of pigment use, engravings, and formal bone tools, personal ornaments are used to support an early emergence of behavioral modernity in Africa, associated with the origin of our species and significantly predating the timing for its dispersal out of Africa. Criticisms have been leveled at the low numbers of recovered shells, the lack of secure dating evidence, and the fact that documented examples were not deliberately shaped. In this paper, we report on 25 additional shell beads from four Moroccan Middle Paleolithic sites. We review their stratigraphic and chronological contexts and address the issue of these shells having been deliberately modified and used. We detail the results of comparative analyses of modern, fossil, and archaeological assemblages and microscopic examinations of the Moroccan material. We conclude that Nassarius shells were consistently used for personal ornamentation in this region at the end of the last interglacial. Absence of ornaments at Middle Paleolithic sites postdating Marine Isotope Stage 5 raises the question of the possible role of climatic changes in the disappearance of this hallmark of symbolic behavior before its reinvention 40 ka ago. Our results suggest that further inquiry is necessary into the mechanisms of cultural transmission within early Homo sapiens populations.

  19. 唐小雁塔南、北门楣题记及相关问题考



    On the lintels of the south and north entrances of the bottom story of the Small Wild Goose Pagoda of the Tang Dynasty, there are 31 inscriptions of the Ming Dynasty. These well-preserved inscriptions engraved on the stone lintels recorded large amounts of messages related to the historical ifgures of the Ming Dynasty. The contents of these inscriptions are mainly travels, as well as notes on events, all of which are the witnesses of the history of the scholars, literati and ofifcials visiting the Small Wild Goose Pagoda. The people related to these inscriptions are mostly natives of the Guanzhong region, and foreign ofifcials are also seen;many of them are famous or preeminent people at that time.%小雁塔底层南、北门楣上共刻有明代题记31处,这些保存较为完好的石刻题记中记载有大量明代历史人物的相关信息。题材主要为游记,兼有记事,是明代文人雅士、政要官吏游览小雁塔的历史见证。题记中所涉及人物多为关中人士,又有外籍官员,不少为当时显赫一时或颇有声望的知名人士。

  20. Enhancement of photoacoustic detection of inhomogeneities in polymers

    P. Grondona


    Full Text Available We report a series of experiments on laser pulsed photoacoustic excitationin turbid polymer samples addressed to evaluate the sound speed inthe samples and the presence of inhomogeneities in the bulk. We describea system which allows the direct measurement of the speed of the detectedwaves by engraving the surface of the piece under study with a fiduciarypattern of black lines..We also describe how this pattern helps toenhance the sensitivity for the detection of an inhomogeneity in the bulk. These two facts are useful for studies in soft matter systems including, perhaps, biological samples. We have performed an experimental analysis on Grilon® samples in differentsituations and we show the limitations of the method. Received: 7 December 2012, Accepted: 19 June 2013; Reviewed by: V. Lakshminarayanan, Waterloo University, Canada; Edited by: J. J. Niemela; DOI: as: P. Grondona, H. O. Di Rocco, D. I. Iriarte, J. A. Pomarico, H. F. Ranea-Sandoval, G. M. Bilmes, Papers in Physics 5, 050005 (2013

  1. Nuevo examen de los grabados paleolíticos de El Pendo (Cantabria, España. Consideraciones sobre las aves del arte paleolítico de la Península Ibérica

    García Díez, Marcos


    Full Text Available Birds are very scarce in Palaeolithic rock art. Since 1907 figures of razorbill and raptors (probably vulture have been described at the end of the Pendo cave, both attributed to an Upper Palaeolithic origin (from Aurignacian to Lower Magdalenian, depending on the authors. The new revision of the group of engravings shows the presence of an unambiguous bird, but the morphology of the figure did not permit its precise taxonomic identification. The work also presents a revision of the birds known in Iberian Palaeolithic rock art.

    La presencia de aves en el repertorio iconográfico del arte rupestre paleolítico es muy escasa. Desde 1907 se vienen describiendo unas figuras de alca y de rapaz (probablemente buitre en la parte final de la cueva de El Pendo. Los autores las asignan a un momento antiguo, desde el Auriñaciense hasta el Magdaleniense inferior. Una nueva lectura del conjunto de grabados permite apuntar la presencia inequívoca de una imagen de ave, sin características que permitan su identificación taxonómica precisa. El trabajo revisa, además, las imágenes de aves conocidas en el arte rupestre paleolítico de la Península Ibérica.

  2. Estudio preliminar de los grabados rupestres de la Cueva del Moro (Tarifa, Cádiz y el arte paleolítico del Campo de Gibraltar

    Mas Cornellà, Martí


    Full Text Available The spring of 1995 marked (he discovery of (he Cave of the Moro with a grout of horse engravings of undoubted Upper Palaeolithic date. The numerous other finds that have been made in recent years in the zone of the Campo de Gibraltar suggest that it is an area of great importance. Both the rock art and the material culture evidence, in the open air or in rock shelters, has continually increasing potential for study. Furthermore this group of sites represents the most southern Palaeolithic rock art in Europe.

    En la primavera de 1995 se produjo el descubrimiento de la Cueva del Moro con un conjunto de figuraciones grabadas de équidos con. una filiación superopaleolítica indudable. Los numerosos hallazgos que se están produciendo desde hace unos años en la zona del Campo de Gibraltar nos indican que se trata de una área con una gran importancia y expectativas de estudio. Los hallazgos, tanto de arte rupestre como de cultura material, en estaciones al aire libre o en abrigos rocosos completan un panorama cada día más prometedor. Además este nuevo conjunto representa el arte rupestre paleolítico más meridional de Europa.

  3. An Interface Stretching-Diffusion Model for Mixing-Limited Reactions During Convective Mixing

    Hidalgo, J. J.; Dentz, M.; Cabeza, Y.; Carrera, J.


    We study the behavior of mixing-limited dissolution reactions under the unstable flow conditions caused by a Rayleigh-Bénard convective instability in a two fluids system. The reactions produce a dissolution pattern that follows the ascending fluids's interface where the largest concentration gradients and maximum mixing are found. Contrary to other chemical systems, the mixing history engraved by the dissolution does not map out the fingering geometry of the unstable flow. The temporal scaling of the mixing Χ and the reaction rate r are explained by a stretching-diffusion model of the interface between the fluids. The model accurately reproduces the three observed regimes: a diffusive regime at which Χ, r ~ t-1/2; a convective regime of at which the interface contracts to the Batchelor scale resulting in a constant Χf and r independent of the Rayleigh number; and an attenuated convection regime in which Χ and r decay faster than diffusion as t-3/2 and t-1, respectevely, because of the decompression of the interface and weakened reactions caused by the accumulation of dissolved fluid below the interface.

  4. The Stephen H. Long Expedition (1819?1820), Titian R. Peale?s field illustrations, and the lost holotypes of the North American shrews Sorex brevicaudus Say and Sorex parvus Say (Mammalia: Soricidae) from the Philadelphia Museum

    Woodman, N.


    While encamped for the winter of 1819?1820 at Engineer Cantonment along the Missouri River in present-day eastern Nebraska, members of Major Stephen Harriman Long?s Expedition to the Rocky Mountains collected a number of animals that were previously unknown. Among the mammals were two soricids that were subsequently described by Thomas Say as Sorex brevicaudus (Northern Short-tailed Shrew, Blarina brevicauda) and Sorex parvus (Least Shrew, Cryptotis parvus). The holotypes of these species were deposited and placed on public exhibit in the Philadelphia Museum, the predominant North American systematic collection of the early nineteenth century. Like most private museums of that era, the Philadelphia Museum eventually went out of business, and its collections were dispersed and, for the most part, lost. Fortunately, Titian R. Peale made a detailed field sketch of the two specimens soon after their capture and subsequently executed a watercolor based on that sketch. In addition, an engraving of the holotypes was published in the decade following the discovery of the two species. Illustrations of holotypes are taxonomically useful when they depict diagnostic characters of species. They take on added taxonomic significance in the absence of the holotypes. In the cases of Sorex brevicaudus and Sorex parvus, pictures provide strong confirmation of the taxonomic identities of these two species, as well as recording the early history of the specimens.

  5. The Encounter of the Emblematic Tradition with Optics. The Anamorphic Elephant of Simon Vouet.

    Gómez López, Susana


    In his excellent work Anamorphoses ou perspectives curieuses (1955), Baltrusaitis concluded the chapter on catoptric anamorphosis with an allusion to the small engraving by Hans Tröschel (1585-1628) after Simon Vouet's drawing Eight satyrs observing an elephant reflected on a cylinder, the first known representation of a cylindrical anamorphosis made in Europe. This paper explores the Baroque intellectual and artistic context in which Vouet made his drawing, attempting to answer two central sets of questions. Firstly, why did Vouet make this image? For what purpose did he ideate such a curious image? Was it commissioned or did Vouet intend to offer it to someone? And if so, to whom? A reconstruction of this story leads me to conclude that the cylindrical anamorphosis was conceived as an emblem for Prince Maurice of Savoy. Secondly, how did what was originally the project for a sophisticated emblem give rise in Paris, after the return of Vouet from Italy in 1627, to the geometrical study of catoptrical anamorphosis? Through the study of this case, I hope to show that in early modern science the emblematic tradition was not only linked to natural history, but that insofar as it was a central feature of Baroque culture, it seeped into other branches of scientific inquiry, in this case the development of catoptrical anamorphosis. Vouet's image is also a good example of how the visual and artistic poetics of the baroque were closely linked--to the point of being inseparable--with the scientific developments of the period.

  6. Creating compact and microscale features in paper-based devices by laser cutting.

    Mahmud, Md Almostasim; Blondeel, Eric J M; Kaddoura, Moufeed; MacDonald, Brendan D


    In this work we describe a fabrication method to create compact and microscale features in paper-based microfluidic devices using a CO2 laser cutting/engraving machine. Using this method we are able to produce the smallest features with the narrowest barriers yet reported for paper-based microfluidic devices. The method uses foil backed paper as the base material and yields inexpensive paper-based devices capable of using small fluid sample volumes and thus small reagent volumes, which is also suitable for mass production. The laser parameters (power and laser head speed) were adjusted to minimize the width of hydrophobic barriers and we were able to create barriers with a width of 39 ± 15 μm that were capable of preventing cross-barrier bleeding. We generated channels with a width of 128 ± 30 μm, which we found to be the physical limit for small features in the chromatography paper we used. We demonstrate how miniaturizing of paper-based microfluidic devices enables eight tests on a single bioassay device using only 2 μL of sample fluid volume.

  7. Caert-Thresoor

    Mirko Husak


    Full Text Available Caert-Thresoor is a Dutch journal about the history of cartography which has been published four times a year since 1982. The journal is in Dutch, with abstract in English. It is available in printed and digital form (PDF up to volume 3 in 2010 (URL1. The Dutch–English journal website is nice and clearly designed with all important data about the journal: Caert-Thresoor published by the Barent Langenes Foundation is the only journal published in the Netherlands devoted to the history of cartography. The articles concern various aspects of historical cartography, such as plans of towns, fortifications and gardens, developments in styles of decoration and activities of individual mapmakers, engravers and publishers. The journal also features contributions on Dutch map collections and announcements of findings of unusual items. Readers of Caert-Thresoor are frequently informed about new literature, facsimiles and exhibitions. First published in 1982, Caert-Thresoor is nowadays published four times a year. The journal has about 650 subscribers, mainly in the Netherlands. Generally, each issue contains two or three articles, reviews, news and announcements ('Varia Cartographica' and listings of new literature and facsimiles. The journal is published in Dutch, with English summaries.

  8. Scraps and Sketches: Miscellaneity, Commodity Culture and Comic Prints, 1820-40

    Brian Maidment


    Full Text Available This essay considers the emergent significance in the 1820s and 1830s of the market for engraved or lithographed images intended for use in albums and scrapbooks. Part of a wider development of the consumer culture for prints, scraps were a characteristic product in publishers' attempts to find a more varied and profitable market for their products. Largely derided by scholarly historians as trivial representatives of the debased and vulgar tastes consequent upon the democratization of the print market in the second quarter of the nineteenth century, the market in scraps nonetheless offers an important insight into the ways in which visual culture adapted to change in this period. In particular, scraps drew women more extensively into the market place for prints, and were crucial in the development of an illustrated periodical literature. After offering a brief overview of the scraps trade and some description of the ways in which images were assembled and deployed in albums, this essay goes on to consider the reasons for the lowly critical reputation of scraps in an attempt to reinsert this genre more adequately into the historical narrative of print culture.

  9. The first cities of the world in a bird’s-eye view

    Oana Popescu


    Full Text Available The paper presents an overall view of the first cities of the world which are considered to be the origin of urbanization, as they are reflected in historical bird’s-eye views and maps, on one hand, and in aerial views, obtained using modern technologies such as aerial photogrammetry, on the other hand. Historical bird’s-eye views of ancient cities, having a more artistic style rather than a technical one and requiring thousands of hours to be created, have been replaced nowadays with aerial photography allowing realistic representations. The paper illustrates several bird’s-eye views and maps created between the 16th and 18th centuries by famous engravers in order to picture well-known cities, referring at the same time to modern digital techniques that are used today to map, visualise, analyse and manage remains of ancient cities. The use of new research methods in archaeology, such as aerial photogrammetry, high resolution satellite imagery, UAVs, GIS and GPS techniques combined with classical surface or sub-surface survey tools is being exemplified in the case of 5 cities, origin of urbanization, constituted in the first 4 millenniums BC.

  10. Comparison of Features between Watermark Woodblock Printing and Traditional Chinese Painting-A Case Study of Painting of Jieziyuan%饾版水印木版画与中国画图像特质的比较∗--以《芥子园画传》作品为例

    周保平; 张彩霞


    饾版水印木版画的图像通过水印技术,以木板为媒介呈现中国画的线条与墨色,使得饾版图像与线条、镌刻与印刷、审美趣味与艺术价值判断呈现出新的美学价值。构建饾版水印木版画图像与中国画图像,其在饾版的线痕迹与水墨线条,墨色与水墨积染、水墨意境等艺术语言在美学思想上的既有联系又有区别。%Watermark woodblock printings, which reflect the line and ink of traditional Chinese paintings, are ima⁃ges engraved with the medium of woodblock and hand printed on the wet rice paper. The separation and cutting of im⁃ages and lines, carving and printing, aesthetic tastes and art evaluation demonstrate the new aesthetic value. The sim⁃ilarities and differences in aesthetics between watermark woodblock printing and traditional Chinese painting are in⁃cluded in the use of line and ink and the pursuit of artistic conception.

  11. [The disfigured men represented by the great painters (O. Dix - G. Grosz - R. Freida.) Disfiguration in the history of art].

    Fischer, Louis-Paul; Méroc, Nicolas; Frapat, Jean; Chauvin, Frédéric; Rousset, Chantal


    Sophie Delaporte's book, Philippe Paillard's, Chantal Roussels's novels and Dupeyron's movie underline the difficulties of repairing physical and moral sufferings of the "disfigured men" wounded during the Great War. Beside medical and technical didactic aimed drawings the exhibition of wasted, mutilated or out of repair faces remains little known. In France, Germany or Great Britain there are many artists who took part in war. Among the artists the French painter Raphael Freida and some German expressionists like Otto Dix, Max Beckmann or George Grosz are the most famous. Their works are often confidential, set apart in the museums and showed in rare exhibitions in Great Britain and the United States of America. The sight of ruined faces inspired such horror that the artists depicted it only exceptionally and with discretion, before 1914. Without doubt it is the fear of touching the privacy of the face which is a part of the human identity. There are no "disfigured men" in the countless religious paintings of torture, neither in the Disasters of Warfrom painters or engravers like Goya or Jacques Callot.

  12. Self-field effects on critical current density and current-voltage characteristics in superconducting YBaCuO thick films

    Hernandez, A.D.; Hart, C.; Martinez, C.M.; Ares, O. [Superconductivity Lab, IMRE-University of Havana, Vedado 10400, Havana (Cuba)


    The self-field and percolative influences on transport measurements of polycrystalline bridges engraved on YBaCuO thick film have been investigated. A maximum in the dependence of the critical current density on cross-sectional area of the bridge (A = 0.003 mm{sup 2}-0.3 mm{sup 2}) has been found experimentally, in samples with low critical current densities (J{sub c}<50 A cm{sup -2}). The result of the measurements are in agreement with Mulet and coworkers, who have predicted that, under certain conditions, the self-field effects on transport measurements are negligible and the J{sub c} dependence on the sample dimensions is determined by the percolative character of the transport current. Self-field influences have also been observed in current-voltage characteristics, which have been analysed using the Ambegaokar-Halperin phase-slip theory. By allowing the noise parameter ({gamma}) to change with temperature, magnetic field and transport current, adequate agreement between theoretical and experimental current-voltage characteristics has been obtained. The dependence of the noise parameter with the transport current is demonstrated to be related with the self-field. (author)

  13. Evaluation of the efficacy of titanium plates as denture markers under various heat sources and pressure - An in vitro study

    Suganya Srinivasan


    Full Text Available Introduction: Denture Markers are used as one of the main identifying aid in mass disasters. Dental description of missing person in mass disasters plays a vital role in forensic research. Difficulties arise when the teeth are missing. In such situation the prosthodontic identification (ID of replaced teeth becomes the priority. Till recently, there was no development of denture marker that could withstand massive fire accidents. Aim: To determine the use of titanium chips with identity code engraved on it as denture markers that could withstand high temperature and pressure. Materials and Methods: Wax patterns were fabricated with identity code moulded on a rubber stamp. It was invested and casted with titanium. Titanium chips were inserted into the polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA block and subjected to various heat treatments. Results: There was no loss of identity when subjected to 1,500°C overnight but only residues left under pressure of 200 kg/cm 3 . Conclusion: The literature recommends the metallic denture markers in order to withstand the post morten assaults. Titanium denture markers could be a preferred option as it can withstand high temperatures under pressure also.

  14. Development of educational image databases and e-books for medical physics training.

    Tabakov, S; Roberts, V C; Jonsson, B-A; Ljungberg, M; Lewis, C A; Wirestam, R; Strand, S-E; Lamm, I-L; Milano, F; Simmons, A; Deane, C; Goss, D; Aitken, V; Noel, A; Giraud, J-Y; Sherriff, S; Smith, P; Clarke, G; Almqvist, M; Jansson, T


    Medical physics education and training requires the use of extensive imaging material and specific explanations. These requirements provide an excellent background for application of e-Learning. The EU projects Consortia EMERALD and EMIT developed five volumes of such materials, now used in 65 countries. EMERALD developed e-Learning materials in three areas of medical physics (X-ray diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy). EMIT developed e-Learning materials in two further areas: ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. This paper describes the development of these e-Learning materials (consisting of e-books and educational image databases). The e-books include tasks helping studying of various equipment and methods. The text of these PDF e-books is hyperlinked with respective images. The e-books are used through the readers' own Internet browser. Each Image Database (IDB) includes a browser, which displays hundreds of images of equipment, block diagrams and graphs, image quality examples, artefacts, etc. Both the e-books and IDB are engraved on five separate CD-ROMs. Demo of these materials can be taken from

  15. History of evolution of the concept of medical ethics.

    Majumdar, Sisir K


    "Time present and time past are both perhaps present in time future and time future contained in time past".--Thomas Steams Eliot (1888-1965), Noble Literature Laureate, 1948. History and evolution of the concept of Medical Ethics is the classical example of this poetic expression. Virtually, every human society has some forces of myth to explain the origin of morality. Indian ethics was philosophical from its very birth. In the Vedas (1500 B.C.), ethics was an integral aspect of philosophical and religious speculation about the nature of reality. The Vedas says how people ought to live and is the oldest philosophical literature in the world. It was the first account of philosophical ethics in human history. The old Testament of (c. 200 B.C.) the Hebrew Bible (Greek--ta biblia--"the books") gives account of God giving the Ten Commandments--the oral and written Law engraved on tablets of Stone to Moses around 13th century B.C. on Mount Sinai (Arabic--Gebel Musa) the Mountain near the tip of the Sinai Peninsula in West Asia.

  16. 地域文化视野下的城市设计探析%Study on the Design of the City from the Perspective of Regional Culture



    The regional culture mainly refers to the integrat-ion of a culture with a certain geographical environment, and is a unique culture engraved with regional brand. The author, ba-sed on an overview of regional culture, further explored the st-rategies optimizing city design from its perspective, hoping to provide some valuable reference for the improvement of city design and optimization.%地域文化,主要指文化在一定的地域环境中与环境相融合,并刻上地域烙印的一种独特的文化。笔者在概述地域文化的基础上,进一步对其视野下优化城市设计的策略进行了探究,希望以此为城市设计的优化与完善提供一些具有价值性的参考依据。

  17. Volume XIII: The tertiary insects of North America

    Scudder, Samuel H.


    That creatures so minute and fragile as insects, creatures which can so feebly withstand the changing seasons as to live, so to speak, but a moment, are to be found fossil, engraved, as it were, upon the rocks or embedded in their hard mass, will never cease to be a surprise to those unfamiliar with the fact. "So fragile," says Quinet, "so easy to crush, you would readily believe the insect one of the latest beings produced by nature, one of those which has least resisted the action of time; that its type, its genera, its forms, must have been ground to powder a thousand times, annihilated by the revolutions of the globe, and perpetually thrown into the crucible. For where is its defense? Of what value its antennae, its shield, its wings of gauze, against the commotions and the tempests which change the surface of the earth? When the mountains themselves are overthrown and the seas uplifted, when the giants of structure, the mighty quadrupeds, change form and habit under the pressure of circumstances, will the insect withstand them? Is it it which will display most character in nature? Yes! The universe flings itself against a gnat. Where will it find refuge? In its very diminutiveness, its nothingness."

  18. Achievement of low parasitic resistance in Ge n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor using an embedded TiN-source/drain structure

    Nagatomi, Y.; Tateyama, T.; Tanaka, S.; Yamamoto, K.; Wang, D.; Nakashima, H.


    We investigated the source/drain (S/D) parasitic resistance (R P) of a Ge n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (n-MOSFET) with TiN-S/D. The R P was as high as ∼1400 Ω, which is attributed to a very thin amorphous interlayer (a-IL) at a TiN/Ge interface. To solve this problem, n-MOSFETs with an embedded S/D structure were fabricated, of which the S/D was formed by the etching of a Ge layer using 0.03%-H2O2 solution followed by TiN sputter deposition. The electrical performances were investigated for devices with etching depths in the range of 2–22 nm. The devices with etching depths of 2–5 nm did not work. The devices with etching depths of 12–15 nm showed a quite normal transistor operation, and the R P was as low as ∼130 Ω, which is comparable to that of a p-MOSFET with PtGe-S/D. However, R Ps of the devices with etching depths of ∼22 nm was considerably high. The reason for these results is discussed on the basis of an a-IL formation at the sidewall of the engraved S/D region.

  19. Digital Rebirth of the Greatest Church of Cluny Maior Ecclesia: from Optronic Surveys to Real Time Use of the Digital Model

    Landrieu, J.; Père, C.; Rollier, J.; Castandet, S.; Schotte, G.


    Our multidisciplinary team has virtually reconstructed the greatest church of the Romanesque period in Europe. The third church of the Abbey of Cluny (12th c.) has been destroyed after the French Revolution, leaving only 8% of the building standing. Many documents have been studied, to include the latest archaeological knowledge in the virtual model. Most remains have been scanned for CAD restitution. The mock-up of the church needed 1600 different numerical files, including the scanned pieces and the anastylosis of a Romanesque portal, a Gothic façade and a mosaic pavement. We faced various difficulties to assemble the different elements of the huge building, and to include the digitized parts. Our workflow consisted in generating geometrical shapes of the church, enriched with metadata such as texture, material... The whole mock up was finally exported to dedicated software to run the rendering step. Our work consisted in creating a whole database of 3D models as well as 2D sources (plans, engravings, pictures...) accessible by the scientific community. The scientific perspectives focus on a representation in virtual immersion of the grand church at scale 1 and an access to the digital mock-up through Augmented Reality.

  20. A Researchon Ancient Chromaticity Printing in China%中国古代套色印刷考略



    The ancient chromaticity printing in China was another breakthrough after the invention of block printing and movable type printing. The ancient chromaticity printing began with watercolour block printing, which is one of the major printings that has upgraded chromaticity printing to an unprecedented degree. Engraving in this method is not only colorful and chromatic but also displays intensity of colors. The embossing printing makes the presswork exquisite aesthetic, which is one hundred and fifty years earlier than the thermograph in Germany.%套色印刷是中国古代继雕版印刷、活字印刷之后又一重大技术突破,“饾版”的发明开创了古代套色版画的先河,所印刷的版画不仅色彩绚丽,精美鲜艳,且能表现画面的深浅浓度,把套色技术提高到前所未有的程度。“拱版”技术的创新使印刷品更为美观精致,它比18世纪中叶德国第一次应用凹凸印刷技术要早150多年。

  1. Rapid synthesis of three-dimensional network structure CuO as binder-free anode for high-rate sodium ion battery

    Chen, Chengcheng; Dong, Yanying; Li, Songyue; Jiang, Zhuohan; Wang, Yijing; Jiao, Lifang; Yuan, Huatang


    We report on the preparation of the three dimensional (3D) network structure CuO by rapid and facile engraving method and their application as high rate anode for sodium ion battery. The CuO is rapidly synthesized by in-situ etched and oxidated the specified Cu foils within 15 min. It shows the 3D network architecture with flower-like nanosheets connected by nanowires, which provides the porous structure, short ion diffusion pathway and collaborative electronic transmission. Furthermore, the etched CuO can be directly used as anode for sodium ion battery without polymer additions or conductive agents. The electrodes exhibit excellent electrochemical performance with a high capacity of 680 mAh·g-1 at 50 mA g-1 and a reversible capacity of 280 mAh·g-1 at 1000 mA g-1. In addition, the electrochemical reaction and detail charge/discharge process are carefully explored to discover the conversion reaction routes and the recession reason. Thus, the 3D network structure CuO might open an insight for transition-metal oxides as energy storage materials.

  2. Dentistry to the rescue of missing children: A review

    Nitika Vij


    Full Text Available Today's society is becoming increasingly unsafe for children: we frequently hear about new incidents of missing children, which lead to emotional trauma for the loved ones and expose systemic failures of law and order. Parents can take extra precautions to ensure the safety of their children by educating them about ways to protect themselves and keep important records of the child such as updated color photographs, fingerprints, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA samples, etc., handy. However, in spite of all efforts, the problem of missing children still remains. Developments in the field of dentistry have empowered dentists with various tools and techniques to play a pivotal role in tracing a missing child. One such tool is Toothprints, a patented arch-shaped thermoplastic dental impression wafer developed by Dr. David Tesini, a paediatric dentist from Massachusetts. Toothprints enables a unique identification of the missing children not only through the bite impression but also through salivary DNA. Besides the use of Toothprints, a dentist can assist investigating agencies in identifying the missing children in multiple ways, including postmortem dental profiling, labeled dental fixtures, DNA extraction from teeth, and serial number engraving on the children's teeth. More importantly, all these tools cause minimal inconvenience to the individual, making a dentist's role in tracking a missing child even more significant. Thus, the simple discipline of maintaining timely dental records with the help of their dentists can save potential hassles for the parents in the future.

  3. El empleo de armamento como elemento de aporte cronológico al arte rupestre postpaleolítico del Cerro de San Isidro (Domingo García, Segovia = The Use of Weapons as an Element of Chronological Contribution the Post-Paleolithic Rock Art in the Cerro...

    Hipólito Pecci Tenrero


    Full Text Available La dificultad que entraña el establecimiento de una horquilla cronológica, más o menos determinada, para ubicar la estación de arte rupestre postpaleolítico de Domingo García (Segovia en una época concreta, pues hasta el momento las técnicas empleadas para el estudio de los centenares de grabados son infructuosas, ha hecho que se lleve a cabo un análisis interno de las imágenes que se exhiben portando algún tipo de arma, en busca de información que pueda arrojar luz sobre el período aproximado en que fueron esculpidas en los paneles de los afloramientos rocosos.Since it is difficult to establish a precise chronological range, in order to place in a particular period station rock art post-Paleolithic Domingo García (Segovia, Spain, and so far the techniques used to study hundreds of engravings have not borne fruit, it has made it conducted an internal analysis of the images that can carry some sort of weapon, looking for information that could shed light on the approximate period in which were carved panels rocky outcrops.

  4. CMS Thesis Award


    The 2003 CMS thesis award was presented to Riccardo Ranieri on 15 March for his Ph.D. thesis "Trigger Selection of WH → μ ν b bbar with CMS" where 'WH → μ ν b bbar' represents the associated production of the W boson and the Higgs boson and their subsequent decays. Riccardo received his Ph.D. from the University of Florence and was supervised by Carlo Civinini. In total nine thesis were nominated for the award, which was judged on originality, impact within the field of high energy physics, impact within CMS and clarity of writing. Gregory Snow, secretary of the awarding committee, explains why Riccardo's thesis was chosen, ‘‘The search for the Higgs boson is one of the main physics goals of CMS. Riccardo's thesis helps the experiment to formulate the strategy which will be used in that search.'' Lorenzo Foà, Chairperson of the CMS Collaboration Board, presented Riccardo with an commemorative engraved plaque. He will also receive the opportunity to...

  5. Arte mueble paleolítico en el interior peninsular: la cueva de Maltravieso (Cáceres, España

    García-Díez, Marcos


    Full Text Available We present a bone decorated with engraved straight and parallel lines, recovered in the level I in the Sala de Las Chimeneas at Maltravieso cave, dated at 17840 ± 90 BP and 17930 ± 100 BP. The motif has similarities with other Peninsula and Pyrenaean evidence Iberian, which has an extensive chronology throughout the Upper Paleolithic. The iconographic and compositional similarities and the spatial relationship with the cave’s rock art allow us to relate chronologically both graphics, and interpret them as an integrated part of the same symbolic structure. This evidence fills a geographic gap of portable art in the interior of the Iberian Peninsula.

    Se presenta una pieza ósea grabada con líneas rectilíneas y paralelas recuperada en el nivel A de la Sala de las Chimeneas de la cueva de Maltravieso, datado en 17840 ± 90 BP y 17930 ± 100 BP. El tema muestra paralelos temáticos con piezas peninsulares y pirenaicas, que abarcan una dilatada cronología a lo largo del Paleolítico superior. La similitud iconográfica y compositiva, y la vinculación espacial del soporte decorado con una parte del arte rupestre de la cavidad, permiten relacionar cronológicamente ambos grafismos y considerarlos como parte integrada de una misma estructura simbólica. Esta evidencia completa un vacío geográfico de arte mueble en el interior peninsular.

  6. Laser micro-structuring of surfaces for applications in materials and biomedical science

    Sarzyński, Antoni; Marczak, Jan; Strzelec, Marek; Rycyk, Antoni; CzyŻ, Krzysztof; Chmielewska, Danuta


    Laser radiation is used, among others, for surface treatment of various materials. At the Institute of Optoelectronics, under the direction of the late Professor Jan Marczak, a number of works in the field of laser materials processing were performed. Among them special recognition deserves flagship work of Professor Jan Marczak: implementation in Poland laser cleaning method of artworks. Another big project involved the direct method of laser interference lithography. These two projects have already been widely discussed in many national and international scientific conferences. They will also be discussed at SLT2016. In addition to these two projects in the Laboratory of Lasers Applications many other works have been carried out, some of which will be separately presented at the SLT2016 Conference. These included laser decorating of ceramics and glass (three projects completed in cooperation with the Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials), interference structuring medical implants (together with the Warsaw University of Technology), testing the adhesion of thin layers (project implemented together with IFTR PAS), structuring layers of DLC for growing endothelial cells (together with IMMS PAS), engraving glass for microfluidic applications, metal marking, sapphire cutting and finally the production of microsieves for separating of blood cells.

  7. Gli incisori alla corte di Zoppino

    Giorgia Atzeni


    Full Text Available L’impresa editoriale di Nicolò Aristotele dei Rossi, detto lo Zoppino, attivo a Venezia dal 1505 al 1544, è emblematica di una svolta epocale in cui il volgare scritto, la nuova lingua letteraria, apre le porte della cultura a un folto pubblico. La scelta di ornare i volumi con le illustrazioni rende il prodotto zoppiniano vincente nel mercato editoriale lagunare. Dallo spoglio dei titoli figurati emerge il suo rapporto privilegiato con un gran numero di xilografi tale da configurare l’esistenza di un vero e proprio atelier al suo servizio. The publishing feat of Nicolò Aristotele dei Rossi, said the Zoppino, active in Venice from 1505 to 1544, is emblematic of a turning point where the vulgar writing, new literary language opens the doors of culture to a large audience the appropriate choice to adorn books with illustrations makes the product successful in the publishing lagoon’s market. The study about the illustrated titles shows that he forge privileged relationships with a big number of wood engravers that we can speak of a real atelier at his service.

  8. On the Female Body Politics of Atwood' s Novels%玛格丽特·阿特伍德小说中的女性身体政治



    Atwood's novels reflect the female body politics which is micro-politics of female gender. The op- pression of women is rooted in male' s domination of female body. Female body is passive object of the patriar- chal gaze, engraved and admonition. However, female body which is not silent and humble does not show only a purely internal and physical nature as the patriarchal culture. Women often resist the patriarchal power yielding on the silent but powerful body. The awakening and struggle of the female body reflect the awakening of women consciousness.%阿特伍德的小说体现了女性的身体政治这一微观的性别政治:女性受压迫的根源在于男性对女性身体的统治。女性身体是父权制凝视、铭刻与规训的被动客体。但女性身体并非父权制文化所建构的那样表现为纯粹内在性和肉体性,并非沉默的,卑贱的。女性常借助无声而有力的身体来抵抗父权制权力。女性身体的觉醒和抗争体现了女性主体意识的觉醒。

  9. Miniaturized flow system based on enzyme modified PMMA microreactor for amperometric determination of glucose.

    Cerdeira Ferreira, Luís Marcos; da Costa, Eric Tavares; do Lago, Claudimir Lucio; Angnes, Lúcio


    This paper describes the development of a microfluidic system having as main component an enzymatic reactor constituted by a microchannel assembled in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrate connected to an amperometric detector. A CO2 laser engraving machine was used to make the channels, which in sequence were thermally sealed. The internal surfaces of the microchannels were chemically modified with polyethyleneimine (PEI), which showed good effectiveness for the immobilization of the glucose oxidase enzyme using glutaraldehyde as crosslinking agent, producing a very effective microreactor for the detection of glucose. The hydrogen peroxide generated by the enzymatic reaction was detected in an electrochemical flow cell localized outside of the reactor using a platinum disk as the working electrode. The proposed system was applied to the differential amperometric determination of glucose content in soft drinks showing good repeatability (DPR=1.72%, n=50), low detection limit (1.40×10(-6)molL(-1)), high sampling frequency (calculated as 345 samples h(-1)), and relatively good stability for long-term use. The results were in close agreement with those obtained by the classical spectrophotometric method utilized to quantify glucose in biological fluids.

  10. Using 3D Microscopy to Analyze Experimental Cut Marks on Animal Bones Produced with Different Stone Tools

    Erika Moretti


    Full Text Available This study uses a combination of digital microscopic analysis and experimental archaeology to assess stone tool cut marks on animal bones. We used two un-retouched flint flakes and two burins to inflict cut marks on fresh, boiled, and dry ungulate  bones. The experiment produced three series of three engravings on each bone with each of the experimental tools. The first series involved one single stroke; the second, two strokes in the same direction; and the third, multiple strokes using a to-and-fro movement. We analyzed the striations using a Hirox 3D digital microscope (KH-7700 and collected metric and profile data on the morphology of the cut marks. In order to describe the shape of each cross section, we calculated the ratio between the breadth at the top and the breadth at the floor of cut marks. Preliminary results show that both the tool type and the method of creating the cut mark influence the shape of the resulting groove. In our experiment, morphological parameters can be used to differentiate between marks produced using un-retouched flint flakes and those produced using burins. However, neither morphological nor morphometric analysis allows us to identify the mechanical motion used to produce the cuts, nor the state of the bone (fresh, boiled, or dry at the moment of marking. 

  11. The Natyasastra and Indian Cinema: A Study of the Rasa Theory as a Cornerstone for Indian Aesthetics

    Alisha Ibkar


    Full Text Available Bharata Muni(200B.C, the Indian performance theorist and philosopher, is credited with the formulation of the ultimate text of performing arts as well the rasa theory and is aptly celebrated as the father of Indian performative arts. Bharata(trans.1995 in Natyasastra has strongly argued that the ultimate sensation depends upon the emotion felt by the audience (as guided by the actors performance. Bharata believes that the relevant representation of the durable psychological states acts a stimulus in evoking in the spectator a verisimilitude of other psychological states that is then known as a Sentiment or Rasa. The role of the eight rasas is quite central to Indian cinema and its structure. It not only works to drive the plot and accentuate the behaviour of the characters, its function is deeply engraved in the basic storyline. Taking up the example of Bollywood, in this paper I would try to argue that every aspect Indian cinema comprising the performance of the actors, the technique of acting, the music, sangeet, background score and even the emotions produced by the audience, is based on Rasa and the aesthetic principles of Natyasastra.

  12. La inscripción medieval de la estela romana de Dombellas (Soria: su razonable relación con la leyenda de Muño Sancho de Finojosa = The Medieval Inscription on the Roman Stele Found in Dombellas (Soria And its Probable Relation to the Legend of ....

    Marisol Encinas Manchado


    Full Text Available La estela de Dombellas, conservada en el Museo Numantino (Soria, es una pieza romana reutilizada en la Edad Media para grabar una inscripción. Después de un largo proceso de análisis y lectura, teniendo en cuenta las letras conservadas, el sentido del texto, el lugar del hallazgo de la pieza y la cronología del epígrafe (principios del s. XII, planteamos que es razonable su relación con la leyenda de Muño Sancho de Finojosa, cuya plasmación escrita más antigua conservada hasta ahora se remontaba al s. XIII.The stele found in Dombellas, kept in Museo Numantino (Soria is a Roman object which was re-used during the Middle Ages to engrave an inscription. Having researched and studied the possibilities and taking into account the preserved letters, the sense of the text, the place where the object was found and the chronology of the inscription (early 12th century, its relation with the Muño Sancho de Finojosa legend seems more than likely. The oldest written record of this legend known and preserved thus far dates back to XIIIth century. 

  13. Redesigning U.S. currency

    Ferguson, Thomas A.; Church, Sara E.


    The first new design of United States currency in over 60 years will soon be issued. Its issuance will be the culmination of a 6-year effort to make U.S. currency more secure against widely available advanced reprographic technology. The cooperative effort was directed by the Advanced Counterfeit Deterrence (ACD) Steering Committee, with executive representatives from the Federal Reserve System (FRS), U.S. Secret Service (USSS), Bureau of Engraving and Printing (BEP) and Treasury Department. A task force of technical experts from each agency carried out the necessary evaluations. The overall strategy to determine the new design and new features applied a comprehensive, synergistic approach to target each type of currency user and each type of counterfeiting. To maximize objectivity yet expedite final selection, deterrent and detection technologies were evaluated through several parallel channels. These efforts included an open request for feature samples through the Commerce Business Daily, in-house testing of each feature, independent evaluation by the National Research Council, in-house design development and survey of world currencies. Recommendations were submitted by the Steering Committee to the Treasury Secretary for concept approval, announced in July 1994. Beginning in 1996, new designs will be issued by denomination approximately one per year, starting with the $100 bill. Future new design efforts will include input from the recently founded Securities Technology Institute (STI) at Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory. Input will include evaluation of existing features, development of new techniques and adversarial analysis.

  14. Durability of switchable QR code carriers under hydrolytic and photolytic conditions

    Ecker, Melanie; Pretsch, Thorsten


    Following a guest diffusion approach, the surface of a shape memory poly(ester urethane) (PEU) was either black or blue colored. Bowtie-shaped quick response (QR) code carriers were then obtained from laser engraving and cutting, before thermo-mechanical functionalization (programming) was applied to stabilize the PEU in a thermo-responsive (switchable) state. The stability of the dye within the polymer surface and long-term functionality of the polymer were investigated against UVA and hydrolytic ageing. Spectrophotometric investigations verified UVA ageing-related color shifts from black to yellow-brownish and blue to petrol-greenish whereas hydrolytically aged samples changed from black to greenish and blue to light blue. In the case of UVA ageing, color changes were accompanied by dye decolorization, whereas hydrolytic ageing led to contrast declines due to dye diffusion. The Michelson contrast could be identified as an effective tool to follow ageing-related contrast changes between surface-dyed and laser-ablated (undyed) polymer regions. As soon as the Michelson contrast fell below a crucial value of 0.1 due to ageing, the QR code was no longer decipherable with a scanning device. Remarkably, the PEU information carrier base material could even then be adequately fixed and recovered. Hence, the surface contrast turned out to be the decisive parameter for QR code carrier applicability.

  15. Photographs of Sculpture: Greek Slave’s ‘complex polyphony’, 1847–77

    Patrizia Di Bello


    Full Text Available This article explores some of the representations, iterations, and appearances of Hiram Powers’s 'Greek Slave' in London in the decades after its first exhibition in 1845, years in which a variety of new ‘engines of the fine arts’ were fuelling a widening market for art objects of all kinds, and popular culture could turn statues into celebrities appearing everywhere — exhibitions, photographers’ studios, newspapers, 'tableau-vivant' shows, even confectionery shops. The article’s focus is on how sculpture was used in the reception and understanding of photography as a new medium of reproduction, and how the materiality of specific photographic ‘objects’ — daguerreotypes, paper prints, and stereographs — interacted with that of sculpture to affect the viewer, at a time when sculptural objects themselves blurred the boundaries between original and reproduction. The article ends with an analysis of stereoscopic cards of 'Greek Slave', as the first photographic reproductions that could really compete with wood engravings and statuettes in the dissemination and circulation of statues, arguing for their pleasurable interactivity as key to their success.

  16. Elevating Mallarmé’s Shipwreck

    David Dernie


    Full Text Available This paper discusses collage as a means to explore spatial ideas. It concerns the practice of drawing-as-research, the spatiality of drawing and the nature of paper. It questions the homogeneity of digital tools in contemporary practice. It is introduced with a discussion of architectural representation and space with a historical trajectory. It questions an understanding of space-as-geometry and discusses the potential role of non-perspectival drawings and non-digital drawing in current practice. The collage studies focus on the late nineteenth century. Working in the tradition of the collage novel, and with original engravings from the popular French newspaper Le Grande Illustré (1904, the collages work with the thematic structure and spatiality of Stéphane Mallarmé’s revolutionary poem Un Coup de Dés written a few years earlier. In this paper, the spatial and thematic content of Mallarmé’s poem are visualized for the first time. The conclusions of this study concern the role of non-digital drawings in the profession, and the potential of creative “paper technologies” to engage the material imagination at the early stages of a design process. It opens new ground as a study of the spatiality of text, the relationship between dramaturgy and architecture and on the nature of topological drawings.

  17. Le cinéma est-il bachelardien? hypothèse théoriques autour de la matière (et des images

    Éric Thouvenel


    Full Text Available Either in his epistemological or "poetic" writings, Gaston Bachelard has almost never referred to the cinema – of which he was contemporary –, unlike other artistic practices, more valued, such as painting or engraving. Where, exceptionally, he mentions the device that produces moving images, this is called as a foil or a negative model, also like his theoretical "opponent" Henri Bergson. This text offers from this "missed encounter" between Bachelard and films to re-examine the relation of the philosopher with the material, either in the books on the four elements and in the epistemological works like Le matérialisme rationnel and Les intuitions atomistiques. Indeed, cinema is an ambiguous art: deeply material in its main relationship with the real and, at the same time, secured by its mode of production (recording and presentification (projection of the images, an immaterial dimension that is now accelerating. By his constant attention to the tangible presence of things, to the qualities of material, to the fundamental relationship between the eye and the hand in a perspective even more phenomenological, Bachelard's thinking help to think the material dimension of motion pictures, often underestimated or simply removed. Conversely, the cinema has been accustomed us to original forms of perception (the blur, the fade, the overprinting, the slow or accelerated motion, which can explain certain aspect of philosopher’s thinking, which have been very few convened.

  18. Rupestral painting in the superior gallery of Altxerri cave (Aia, Gipuzkoa

    Jesús ALTUNA


    Full Text Available We describe new details of a complex figure made with red paint in a superior gallery of Altxerri cave. The head of a bison with a corniform motif stands out among other strokes of difficult interpretation. This collection of paintings has no correlation with the numerous engravings and black paintings of the main gallery of this cave. There is no access to this superior gallery from the main gallery of the cave so the Paleolithic artist would have gained access through another entry from the mountain that is unknown in the present. Near the collection of paintings described there is a bison vertebra stuck by its spinous apophysis in a crack on the rock. The C14 dating of the vertebra has not been possible due to the lack of collagen in the sample. Underneath this figure, tarsal remains of two individuals of Rupicapra rupicapra were found dated 34195 ± 1235 y 29940 ± 745 BP. The contemporaneity of the remains and the figure cannot be established.

  19. Visualization of permanent marks in progressive addition lenses by digital in-line holography

    Perucho, Beatriz; Micó, Vicente


    A critical issue in the production of ophthalmic lenses is to guarantee the correct centering and alignment throughout the manufacturing and mounting processes. Aimed to that, progressive addition lenses (PALs) incorporate permanent marks at standardized locations at the lens. Those marks are engraved upon the surface and provide the model identification and addition power of the PAL, as well as to serve as locator marks to re-ink the removable marks again if necessary. Although the permanent marks should be visible by simple visual inspection, those marks are often faint and weak on new lenses providing low contrast, obscured by scratches on older lenses, and partially occluded and difficult to recognize on tinted or anti-reflection coated lenses. In this contribution, we present an extremely simple visualization system for permanent marks in PALs based on digital in-line holography. Light emitted by a superluminescent diode (SLD) is used to illuminate the PAL which is placed just before a digital (CCD) sensor. Thus, the CCD records an in-line hologram incoming from the diffracted wavefront provided by the PAL. As a result, it is possible to recover an in-focus image of the PAL inspected region by means of classical holographic tools applied in the digital domain. This numerical process involves digital recording of the in-line hologram, numerical back propagation to the PAL plane, and some digital processing to reduce noise and present a high quality final image. Preliminary experimental results are provided showing the applicability of the proposed method.

  20. A New Type of Inscribed Copper Plate from Indus Valley (Harappan Civilisation

    Vasant Shinde


    Full Text Available A group of nine Indus Valley copper plates (c. 2600–2000 BC, discovered from private collections in Pakistan, appear to be of an important type not previously described. The plates are significantly larger and more robust than those comprising the corpus of known copper plates or tablets, and most significantly differ in being inscribed with mirrored characters. One of the plates bears 34 characters, which is the longest known single Indus script inscription. Examination of the plates with x-ray fluorescence (XRF spectrophotometry indicates metal compositions, including arsenical copper, consistent with Indus Valley technology. Microscopy of the metal surface and internal structure reveals detail such as pitting, microcrystalline structure, and corrosion, consistent with ancient cast copper artifacts. Given the relative fineness of the engraving, it is hypothesised that the copper plates were not used as seals, but have characteristics consistent with use in copper plate printing. As such, it is possible that these copper plates are by far the earliest known printing devices, being at least 4000 years old.

  1. Hunting the Extinct Steppe Bison (Bison priscus Mitochondrial Genome in the Trois-Freres Paleolithic Painted Cave.

    Marie-Claude Marsolier-Kergoat

    Full Text Available Despite the abundance of fossil remains for the extinct steppe bison (Bison priscus, an animal that was painted and engraved in numerous European Paleolithic caves, a complete mitochondrial genome sequence has never been obtained for this species. In the present study we collected bone samples from a sector of the Trois-Frères Paleolithic cave (Ariège, France that formerly functioned as a pitfall and was sealed before the end of the Pleistocene. Screening the DNA content of the samples collected from the ground surface revealed their contamination by Bos DNA. However, a 19,000-year-old rib collected on a rock apart the pathway delineated for modern visitors was devoid of such contaminants and reproducibly yielded Bison priscus DNA. High-throughput shotgun sequencing combined with conventional PCR analysis of the rib DNA extract enabled to reconstruct a complete mitochondrial genome sequence of 16,318 bp for the extinct steppe bison with a 10.4-fold coverage. Phylogenetic analyses robustly established the position of the Bison priscus mitochondrial genome as basal to the clade delineated by the genomes of the modern American Bison bison. The extinct steppe bison sequence, which exhibits 93 specific polymorphisms as compared to the published Bison bison mitochondrial genomes, provides an additional resource for the study of Bovinae specimens. Moreover this study of ancient DNA delineates a new research pathway for the analysis of the Magdalenian Trois-Frères cave.

  2. Establishing the archaeo-metallurgic ornamentation process of an axe from the bronze age by OM, SEM-EDX, and micro-FTIR.

    Sandu, Ioan Gabriel; Tencariu, Felix-Adrian; Vornicu, Diana-Măriuca; Sandu, Andrei Victor; Vornicu, Andreea; Vasilache, Viorica; Sandu, Ion


    Our article presents the results of the analyses we performed by corroborating the Optical Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Xray Analysis and micro Fourier Transformed InfraRed Analysis techniques to identify the archaeo-metallurgic casting and ornamentation procedure of a decorated disk-butted axe, which was discovered recently east of the Carpathian mountains, in the Moldavian Plateau. There are few known axes of that type found (A1, according to the usual typologies), as they are specific to the Middle Bronze Age period west of the Carpathians-the Wietenberg, Suciu de Sus, and Otomani-Füzesabony cultures. The experimental data on the item under study revealed the fact that after casting it in molds made from porous silicone-based stone, the object was coated with a thin layer, by immersing it in a lightly fusible tin alloy, whose main alloy component was copper and arsenic and iron as secondary components. After refining the shiny white layer, they applied a beautiful decoration pattern made by incision and engraving. This battle axe was an indication of higher status, such items usually being owned by community leaders. This important fact proves that the ancient metallurgic craftsmen were able to elaborate and manufacture various alloys from which they made beautiful objects and it also offers a new insight into the social and symbolic function of certain antique bronze items.

  3. Sliding rocks on Racetrack Playa, Death Valley National Park: first observation of rocks in motion.

    Norris, Richard D; Norris, James M; Lorenz, Ralph D; Ray, Jib; Jackson, Brian


    The engraved trails of rocks on the nearly flat, dry mud surface of Racetrack Playa, Death Valley National Park, have excited speculation about the movement mechanism since the 1940s. Rock movement has been variously attributed to high winds, liquid water, ice, or ice flotation, but has not been previously observed in action. We recorded the first direct scientific observation of rock movements using GPS-instrumented rocks and photography, in conjunction with a weather station and time-lapse cameras. The largest observed rock movement involved > 60 rocks on December 20, 2013 and some instrumented rocks moved up to 224 m between December 2013 and January 2014 in multiple move events. In contrast with previous hypotheses of powerful winds or thick ice floating rocks off the playa surface, the process of rock movement that we have observed occurs when the thin, 3 to 6 mm, "windowpane" ice sheet covering the playa pool begins to melt in late morning sun and breaks up under light winds of -4-5 m/s. Floating ice panels 10 s of meters in size push multiple rocks at low speeds of 2-5 m/min. along trajectories determined by the direction and velocity of the wind as well as that of the water flowing under the ice.

  4. The handedness of historiated spiral columns.

    Couzin, Robert


    Trajan's Column in Rome (AD 113) was the model for a modest number of other spiral columns decorated with figural, narrative imagery from antiquity to the present day. Most of these wind upwards to the right, often with a congruent spiral staircase within. A brief introductory consideration of antique screw direction in mechanical devices and fluted columns suggests that the former may have been affected by the handedness of designers and the latter by a preference for symmetry. However, for the historiated columns that are the main focus of this article, the determining factor was likely script direction. The manner in which this operated is considered, as well as competing mechanisms that might explain exceptions. A related phenomenon is the reversal of the spiral in a non-trivial number of reproductions of the antique columns, from Roman coinage to Renaissance and baroque drawings and engravings. Finally, the consistent inattention in academic literature to the spiral direction of historiated columns and the repeated publication of erroneous earlier reproductions warrants further consideration.

  5. Development of an objective method for the comparison of fired projectiles using an air pistol as a template.

    Hamzah, Noor Hazfalinda


    The ability to objectify ballistic evidence is a challenge faced by firearms examiners around the world. A number of researchers are trying to improve bullet-identification systems to address deficiencies detailed within the National Academy of Science report (2009). More recently focus has turned to making use of more sophisticated imaging modalities to view entire regions of the projectile and the development of automated systems for the comparison of the topographical surfaces recorded. Projectiles from a newly bought air pistol with 0.177 calibre pellets (unjacketed), fired series of 609 pellets were examined using an optical microscope. A mathematical methodology was developed to pre-process the resultant topographical maps generating point data for comparison, analysed using the principal component analysis (PCA). In most cases limited to reasonable success was achieved. The objective method still requires an operator to identify the Land Engraved Areas to be scanned, however the mathematical alignments were objectively achieved. The PCA results illustrated that the striation marks were neither exclusive nor specific to the LEA regions but rather crossed over regions. This study also proves that a single weapon does not necessarily leave identical marks of projectiles on its surface.

  6. Micromachining of semiconductor by femtosecond laser for integrated circuit defect analysis

    Halbwax, M. [Laboratoire LP3 CNRS UMR 6182, Parc Scientifique et Technologique de Luminy, Case 917, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13009 Marseille (France); Sarnet, T. [Laboratoire LP3 CNRS UMR 6182, Parc Scientifique et Technologique de Luminy, Case 917, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13009 Marseille (France)], E-mail:; Hermann, J.; Delaporte, Ph.; Sentis, M. [Laboratoire LP3 CNRS UMR 6182, Parc Scientifique et Technologique de Luminy, Case 917, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13009 Marseille (France); Fares, L.; Haller, G. [STMicroelectronics, 190 Avenue Celestin Coq, ZI, 13106 Rousset Cedex (France)


    The latest International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) has highlighted the detection and analysis of defects in Integrated Circuits (IC) as a major challenge faced by the semiconductor industry. Advanced tools used today for defect cross sectioning include dual beams (focused ion- and electron-beam technologies) with resolution down to the sub-Angstrom level. However ion milling an IC with a FIB is time consuming because of the need to open wide cavities in front of the cross-sections that need to be analyzed. Therefore the use of a femtosecond laser as a tool for direct material removal is discussed in this paper. Experiments were performed on IC structures to reveal the different layers of fabrication: selective or total ablation can occur depending on the laser energy density, without delamination of the layers. Different laser irradiation conditions like pressure (air, vacuum), polarization, beam shaping, and scanning parameters have been used to produce different types of cavities. The femtosecond laser engraving of silicon-based structures could be useful for cross-sectioning devices but also for other applications like direct-write lithography, photomask repair, maskless implantation or reverse engineering/restructuring.

  7. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Neolithic slate plaques from the southwestern Iberian Peninsula are not genealogical recording systems.

    Daniel García Rivero

    Full Text Available Prehistoric material culture proposed to be symbolic in nature has been the object of considerable archaeological work from diverse theoretical perspectives, yet rarely are methodological tools used to test the interpretations. The lack of testing is often justified by invoking the opinion that the slippery nature of past human symbolism cannot easily be tackled by the scientific method. One such case, from the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, involves engraved stone plaques from megalithic funerary monuments dating ca. 3,500-2,750 B.C. (calibrated age. One widely accepted proposal is that the plaques are ancient mnemonic devices that record genealogies. The analysis reported here demonstrates that this is not the case, even when the most supportive data and techniques are used. Rather, we suspect there was a common ideological background to the use of plaques that overlay the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, with little or no geographic patterning. This would entail a cultural system in which plaque design was based on a fundamental core idea, with a number of mutable and variable elements surrounding it.

  8. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Neolithic slate plaques from the southwestern Iberian Peninsula are not genealogical recording systems.

    García Rivero, Daniel; O'Brien, Michael J


    Prehistoric material culture proposed to be symbolic in nature has been the object of considerable archaeological work from diverse theoretical perspectives, yet rarely are methodological tools used to test the interpretations. The lack of testing is often justified by invoking the opinion that the slippery nature of past human symbolism cannot easily be tackled by the scientific method. One such case, from the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, involves engraved stone plaques from megalithic funerary monuments dating ca. 3,500-2,750 B.C. (calibrated age). One widely accepted proposal is that the plaques are ancient mnemonic devices that record genealogies. The analysis reported here demonstrates that this is not the case, even when the most supportive data and techniques are used. Rather, we suspect there was a common ideological background to the use of plaques that overlay the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, with little or no geographic patterning. This would entail a cultural system in which plaque design was based on a fundamental core idea, with a number of mutable and variable elements surrounding it.

  9. Megaliths in the basin of the Tejo River: restoration and consolidation of megalithic monuments in Alcántara (Cáceres

    Bueno Ramírez, Primitiva


    Full Text Available We present the first results of the excavation of megaliths in the municipality of Alcántara (Cáceres, aimed to their consolidation and restoration. They are built of slate and possess materials and engravings that indicate the existence of exchange net works in this sector of the Tejo, which is traditionally interpreted as marginal and practically depopulated in the IV and III millennium b. C. Of note is the presence of a grave with plain Bell Beaker pottery, vessel and bowl dished omphalos base, and sheet metal.

    Se dan a conocer los primeros resultados de la excavación de dólmenes en el término de Alcántara (Cáceres, con el objeto de su consolidación y restauración. Se trata de arquitecturas en pizarra con el interés de poseer grabados megalíticos y materiales que indican la existencia de redes de intercambio en este sector del Tajo, tradicionalmente interpretado como marginal y prácticamente deshabitado en el transcurso del IV y III milenio a.C. Destaca la presencia de un ajuar campaniforme liso con vaso, cuenco con umbo y laminita metálica.

  10. A Left Handed Compliment: A newly discovered, early nineteenth-century lithograph by John Lewis Marks.

    McManus, I C; Snowman, Janet


    A newly discovered, early nineteenth-century lithograph by John Lewis Marks (b. ca. 1795-1796, d. ca. 1857-1861), entitled A Left Handed Compliment, is described. In this humorous print a young boy is using his left hand to draw the face of an elderly woman who is his grandmother, and she is shocked at the boy's suggestion that he will, “just see if I can't touch off your old Phizog left handed”. The source of the joke about the left-handed compliment is obscure, but more than likely it is sexual in origin. Glued to the verso of the print are early versions of two prints by Robert Seymour (1798-1836), the illustrator of Dickens' Pickwick Papers, suggesting a possible link between Marks and Seymour. From the hatch patterns on the Seymour engravings, it appears that Seymour may himself have been left-handed and perhaps therefore the butt of the joke. An alternative possibility is that Phizog is a reference to Dickens' later illustrator whose pseudonym was Phiz. It is also just conceivable that the young boy is Marks's own young son, Jacob. The print can be placed in the context of a scatological English vernacular humour that extends from Shakespeare through to Donald McGill and into the present day.

  11. A 36,000-Year-Old Volcanic Eruption Depicted in the Chauvet-Pont d'Arc Cave (Ardèche, France)?

    Nomade, Sébastien; Genty, Dominique; Sasco, Romain; Scao, Vincent; Féruglio, Valérie; Baffier, Dominique; Guillou, Hervé; Bourdier, Camille; Valladas, Hélène; Reigner, Edouard; Debard, Evelyne; Pastre, Jean-François; Geneste, Jean-Michel


    Among the paintings and engravings found in the Chauvet-Pont d'Arc cave (Ardèche, France), several peculiar spray-shape signs have been previously described in the Megaloceros Gallery. Here we document the occurrence of strombolian volcanic activity located 35 km northwest of the cave, and visible from the hills above the cave entrance. The volcanic eruptions were dated, using 40Ar/39Ar, between 29 ± 10 ka and 35 ± 8 ka (2σ), which overlaps with the 14C AMS and thermoluminescence ages of the first Aurignacian occupations of the cave in the Megaloceros Gallery. Our work provides the first evidence of an intense volcanic activity between 40 and 30 ka in the Bas-Vivarais region, and it is very likely that Humans living in the Ardèche river area witnessed one or several eruptions. We propose that the spray-shape signs found in the Chauvet-Pont d'Arc cave could be the oldest known depiction of a volcanic eruption, predating by more than 34 ka the description by Pliny the Younger of the Vesuvius eruption (AD 79) and by 28 ka the Çatalhöyük mural discovered in central Turkey.

  12. Reading, writing, drawing and making in the 18th-century instrument trade

    Dr Florence Grant


    Full Text Available When George Adams assembled a large collection of philosophical instruments for King George III in the early 1760s, he drew on a variety of printed books as sources of experiments and instrument designs. Most important of these was Mathematical Elements of Natural Philosophy by the Dutch mathematician and philosopher Willem ’s Gravesande, whose own collection of instruments is now in the Museum Boerhaave in Leiden. Papers in the Science Museum archives reveal the specific practices through which Adams used books such as Mathematical Elements in the course of his business. These techniques included commonplacing, a widespread method for organising information in the early-modern period; and physically cutting and pasting fragments from engraved illustrations into new drawings, as part of the process of design. These practices connected mobile print with local networks of production. They fundamentally shaped the group of instruments Adams made for George III, and constitute a material link between two important collections of 18th-century instruments: those of ’s Gravesande in Leiden, and those of George III at the Science Museum in London.

  13. Retratos de Españoles ilustres con un epítome de sus vidas. Orígenes y gestación de una empresa ilustrada

    Molina, Álvaro


    Full Text Available Published from the early 1790s in order to celebrate the memory of the great heroes of the nation, the Españoles ilustres series is one of the most ambitious projects of the Age of Enlightenment in the field of engraving. This article provides unpublished documentation and new information regarding the conception of the project, the international references that served as models and the complete dating of the sales for the various installments of the series.Publicada a partir de la década de los años noventa con el fin de celebrar la memoria de los grandes héroes de la nación, la colección de Retratos de Españoles ilustres es una de las empresas al servicio del grabado más ambiciosas del siglo de las Luces. Este artículo aporta documentación inédita y nuevas noticias respecto a su concepción, los referentes internacionales que le sirvieron como modelo y la datación de la venta de todos los cuadernos de la serie.

  14. Ulva Lactuca

    Cristina Peri Rossi


    Full Text Available She looked loathingly at the spoon. It was a metal spoon, dark, with a small engraving on its handle – a sharp taste. “Open your mouth, slowly, eaaaasy, like a little birdie in its nest,” he said, bringing the spoon to her mouth. He hated spoons; they had seemed despicable little things since he was small. Why did he now find himself having to wield it, full of soup, having to usher it now into this young child’s mouth, as his parents had done to him, as surely as his parents’ parents had also done? If they even had spoons then, if some fool had already invented them. He had to find himself an encyclopedia and figure out when the first spoon had been forged; he had to get his hands on an encyclopedia, a source of infinite knowledge by which he might survive. Spoon: A piece of silverware with a concave scoop at its end; typically used for carrying liquids to the mouth.


    J. Landrieu


    Full Text Available Our multidisciplinary team has virtually reconstructed the greatest church of the Romanesque period in Europe. The third church of the Abbey of Cluny (12th c. has been destroyed after the French Revolution, leaving only 8% of the building standing. Many documents have been studied, to include the latest archaeological knowledge in the virtual model. Most remains have been scanned for CAD restitution. The mock-up of the church needed 1600 different numerical files, including the scanned pieces and the anastylosis of a Romanesque portal, a Gothic façade and a mosaic pavement. We faced various difficulties to assemble the different elements of the huge building, and to include the digitized parts. Our workflow consisted in generating geometrical shapes of the church, enriched with metadata such as texture, material... The whole mock up was finally exported to dedicated software to run the rendering step. Our work consisted in creating a whole database of 3D models as well as 2D sources (plans, engravings, pictures... accessible by the scientific community. The scientific perspectives focus on a representation in virtual immersion of the grand church at scale 1 and an access to the digital mock-up through Augmented Reality.

  16. Rock Art at the Pleistocene/Holocene Boundary in Eastern South America

    Neves, Walter A.; Araujo, Astolfo G. M.; Bernardo, Danilo V.; Kipnis, Renato; Feathers, James K.


    Background Most investigations regarding the First Americans have primarily focused on four themes: when the New World was settled by humans; where they came from; how many migrations or colonization pulses from elsewhere were involved in the process; and what kinds of subsistence patterns and material culture they developed during the first millennia of colonization. Little is known, however, about the symbolic world of the first humans who settled the New World, because artistic manifestations either as rock-art, ornaments, and portable art objects dated to the Pleistocene/Holocene transition are exceedingly rare in the Americas. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report a pecked anthropomorphic figure engraved in the bedrock of Lapa do Santo, an archaeological site located in Central Brazil. The horizontal projection of the radiocarbon ages obtained at the north profile suggests a minimum age of 9,370±40 BP, (cal BP 10,700 to 10,500) for the petroglyph that is further supported by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates from sediment in the same stratigraphic unit, located between two ages from 11.7±0.8 ka BP to 9.9±0.7 ka BP. Conclusions These data allow us to suggest that the anthropomorphic figure is the oldest reliably dated figurative petroglyph ever found in the New World, indicating that cultural variability during the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary in South America was not restricted to stone tools and subsistence, but also encompassed the symbolic dimension. PMID:22384187

  17. The Ethics and Aesthetics of Architecture: The Anglican Reception of Roman Baroque Churches

    Anne-Francoise Morel


    Full Text Available For Anglican travellers in Italy, Rome had an ambiguous status. It was the seat both of high culture and of ‘superstitious’ Roman Catholic practices, including art and architecture. These extremes culminated in church buildings. This article studies the perception and reaction of English travellers in Rome towards architecture of the Roman Catholic Church and its influence on English church architecture. It will reveal the church building as an aesthetic object, in addition to possessing religious qualities, through the analysis of printed travelogues and engravings that circulated amongst the English Grand Tour travellers. By analyzing the travelogue discourse — with particular attention to descriptions of specific church buildings and any intentional omissions in these descriptions — and examining the relationship between these discourses and contemporary English aesthetic theories, I will demonstrate how a certain appreciation for Roman Baroque church architecture was made acceptable and could even inspire the design of English church architecture. As will become clear, the process of travel included the separation of moral and artistic values in aesthetic appreciation. This separation made the cultural transfer between Italy and England possible in the 17th and early 18th centuries.

  18. The nitrous oxide "dream" of Cora Gray: a dental anesthesia story of 1884.

    Christen, Arden G; Christen, Joan A


    In the September 1884 issue of Frank Leslie's Popular Monthly magazine, a fictional dramatic short story was published concerning the dental use of nitrous oxide. Entitled, "Cora Gray," it was written by the well-known American journalist and poet John Whittaker Watson (1815-1848), who authored hundreds of sentimental, tragic and dramatic poems, serials and stories concerning the destitute lives and deaths of downtrodden young women of that time. His greatest poetic effort, "Beautiful Snow," (1869) tells of a young prostitute who freezes to death in a snow bank. Watson, born in New York City, was educated at the University of New York, where he studied medicine. He also developed and used his skills as an engraver, journalist and writer. Watson obviously based his imaginative narrative on his medical knowledge of nitrous oxide and its physical and psychological side effects when inhaled. The story centers around the dreamlike romantic experiences of a 19-year-old female dental patient while she is under the effects of this gas. It explicitly depicts the administration of nitrous oxide and the resulting erotic visions and hallucinations that the young patient experiences. We make reference to other cautionary scientific writings from the late 1800s, in order to point out and clarify the potentially negative repercussions of nitrous oxide when administered to female dental patients without the presence of a third party. The ethics and propriety of anesthesia administration remain as perennial questions in dentistry to this day.

  19. [In Process Citation].

    Krafft, Fritz


    Analysing all the surviving reports and mentions of the supposed unicorn discovered in the year 1663 near Quedlinburg, this paper replies to the question: "Who reconstructed the skeleton of the unicorn from a find of bones, O. von Guericke or G. W. Leibniz?" and diagnoses that neither of them did so. The author of the first report with a figure was Johannes Meyer, astronomer and treasurer of the Abbes Superior of Quedlinburg; and his German text had been translated by both partly in different ways (Guericke's Experimenta nova, printed in 1672 and used by Leibniz; Leibniz's Protogaea, first printed posthumously in 1749). Discovery, excavation, salvage and reconstruction of the unicorn were ascribed to Guericke only by Othenio Abel (for the first time in 1918 and thereafter on many occasions) without indicating any source for that. His story of the supposed discovery since then has been embellished with a lot of imagination further and further. However, Leibniz himself wrote in his Protogaea, that a figure of the unicorn skeleton (which Guericke does not reproduce) had been sent to him together with a report (by J. Meyer from Quedlinburg); and this figure he and his engraver Nicholas Seeländer 'corrected' and completed in accordance with their own imagination of a unicorn's build in 1716 to illustrate the Protogaea (M. B. Valentini printed a copy of Meyer's original in 1704).

  20. Small parts: Crisóstomo Martínez (1638-1694), bone histology, and the visual making of body wholeness.

    Valverde, Nuria


    The Valencian engraver Crisóstomo Martínez (ca. 1638-1694) arrived in Paris in July 1687, commissioned to create an anatomical atlas. Impressed by Govard Bidloo's Anatomia humani corporis (1685), Martínez decided to make a comparable work on osteology. His unpublished atlas of anatomy was exceptional in its choice of topic, its quality, and its overall visual approach. Martínez's work revolves around the dissolving effects of microscopic study on the traditional understanding of the connections between parts and whole. Underlying his investigation into the most effective composition of an anatomical atlas was the idea of the self-organizing and complex nature of the body as itself a composition, an idea rooted in the way observation and judgment, the seen and the unseen, and notions about collections and communities were connected in the vanitas culture. This essay explores the links between Martínez's work and the cultures of a time in which observation and interpretation of the processes of death, decay, and fragmentation played a primary role in defining a common human nature around which notions of destiny could be articulated.

  1. „Meir Ezofowicz” w cyklu ilustracji Andriollego

    Małgorzata Imperowicz-Jurczak


    Full Text Available The article concentrates on the issues of the cycle of illustrations by Elwiro Michał Andriolli in Eliza Orzeszkowa’s Meir Ezofowicz as a work of art of the second half of the 19th century, an excellent inter-semiotic translation of literature into the “image rhetoric”, and an example of a turn in the artistic work style – from romanticism, preferred by the artist, to social realism. Wood engravings were made by the graphic artist with both artistry and kindliness towards the author and the subject matter of the novel. Andriolli’s thorough artistic interpretation fills in the book’s unsaid parts, highlights the meanings that the writer was not allowed to touch upon in the novel because of the censorship, e.g. he showed the centuries-old relationships between the Jews and the Polish in the context of the loss of statehood. In the cycle, the graphic artist recorded the collective portrait of the Jewish community, depicted their cultural richness and internal problems (concerning economy, religion and identity.

  2. Hunting the Extinct Steppe Bison (Bison priscus) Mitochondrial Genome in the Trois-Frères Paleolithic Painted Cave.

    Marsolier-Kergoat, Marie-Claude; Palacio, Pauline; Berthonaud, Véronique; Maksud, Frédéric; Stafford, Thomas; Bégouën, Robert; Elalouf, Jean-Marc


    Despite the abundance of fossil remains for the extinct steppe bison (Bison priscus), an animal that was painted and engraved in numerous European Paleolithic caves, a complete mitochondrial genome sequence has never been obtained for this species. In the present study we collected bone samples from a sector of the Trois-Frères Paleolithic cave (Ariège, France) that formerly functioned as a pitfall and was sealed before the end of the Pleistocene. Screening the DNA content of the samples collected from the ground surface revealed their contamination by Bos DNA. However, a 19,000-year-old rib collected on a rock apart the pathway delineated for modern visitors was devoid of such contaminants and reproducibly yielded Bison priscus DNA. High-throughput shotgun sequencing combined with conventional PCR analysis of the rib DNA extract enabled to reconstruct a complete mitochondrial genome sequence of 16,318 bp for the extinct steppe bison with a 10.4-fold coverage. Phylogenetic analyses robustly established the position of the Bison priscus mitochondrial genome as basal to the clade delineated by the genomes of the modern American Bison bison. The extinct steppe bison sequence, which exhibits 93 specific polymorphisms as compared to the published Bison bison mitochondrial genomes, provides an additional resource for the study of Bovinae specimens. Moreover this study of ancient DNA delineates a new research pathway for the analysis of the Magdalenian Trois-Frères cave.

  3. Stefano Mozzi Scolari «stampadore e miniatore di stampe di rame» in 17th century Venice: life, activity and successors

    Alessia Giachery


    Full Text Available Born around Brescia around 1612, Stefano Mozzi Scolari was active in Venice between 1644 and 1687 as printer. He was among the firsts to devote his activity entirely to illustrated editions. It is possible to distinguish three fields of his activity: the reproduction of already published copperplates, mainly geographical; the collaboration with Giacomo Piccini and Giovanni Merlo as editor and printer of images commissioned by himself; the one as printer of images drawn by himself. Scolari’s enterprise had two specific features, such as the reproduction of already existing works –more favourable for his printer shop- and the production of images from the city life and the contemporary events. Geographically, his professional activity developed in Venice around the parish church of San Zulian, where he also probably had lived since 1642. He was an active member of the guilds “dei Pittori” between 1660 and 1683 and regular participant in the Capitoli della Scuola del Santissimo Sacramento of San Zulian between 1660 and 1691. The analysis of his three wills provides with several information regarding his family and his professional acquaintances. His personal condition results as that of a well-off craftsman, owner of a printer shop but not more. He died in 1691. Three years before his death, he wrote, together with Francesco Busetto and Giacomo Zini, the inventory of the bookshop of Giovanni Battista Scalvinoni. Further archival records confirm that his nephew, Stephan, was active in the same area as trader of engravings.

  4. Bridge and steel structures. Wind resistant design and vibration control; Kyoryo kokozobutsu. Taifu seishin gijutsu no kojo wo mezashite

    Miyazaki, M.; Takeuchi, T.; Saito, Y.; Kazama, K. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper describes the wind resistant design and vibration control of bridges. For the long span bridges, vibration by wind is worried due to their flexible structures. Wind tunnel tests are conducted, and the shape of bridges is modified on the basis of the test results. On the other hand, tuned mass dampers (TMDs) are often used during the construction with footing for a short period. For the passive TMD which is a general pendulum type, the number of vibration frequency can be variable by changing the position of spring and damper. The restitutive force can be obtained for the vertical Vibration using lever-type weight damper and spring. For the Active TMD, the weight of lever-type damper is driven by the servo-motor using rack pinion. An optimum regulator is used for the control. Sufficient damping performance was obtained by applying this to the main tower, which depended on the gain and vibration amplitude. An aerodynamic damper is used for the vibration of cables by the wind. Especially, the rain vibration is a problem, which is due to the interaction of rain flow and wind. To solve this problem, a U-engrave cable has been developed for preventing the formation of rainwater flow channels on the cable surface. 9 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. [Ella-cross, a Scanian amulet].

    Björnberg, Alf; Tegner, Eva


    An Ella-cross is an amulet of a special type dated back to the period of the late 1700s to the early 1800s, stemming from the Scania region in Sweden, the southernmost part of the country. It has not before been studied systematically. The investigation reported here concerned 125 crosses of this type, most of them from various institutions in Scania. The amulets are for the most part quite similar in appearance, consisting of a thin round silver plate 2 - 4 centimeters in diameter on which a cross with four arms of equal length, usually of the anchor type, is engraved, together with a Jesus monogram (IHS and I.N.R.I.) and a plea for "help", lettered in the spelling of the time. An Ella-cross was worn under one's clothing in direct contact with the skin throughout one's life, following its wearer into the grave. It was to protect one from Ellen's diseases (caused by the Neck, an evil water spirit) and also from misfortune and evil.

  6. Simulation of abrasive water jet cutting process: Part 1. Unit event approach

    Lebar, Andrej; Junkar, Mihael


    Abrasive water jet (AWJ) machined surfaces exhibit the texture typical of machining with high energy density beam processing technologies. It has a superior surface quality in the upper region and rough surface in the lower zone with pronounced texture marks called striations. The nature of the mechanisms involved in the domain of AWJ machining is still not well understood but is essential for AWJ control improvement. In this paper, the development of an AWJ machining simulation is reported on. It is based on an AWJ process unit event, which in this case represents the impact of a particular abrasive grain. The geometrical characteristics of the unit event are measured on a physical model of the AWJ process. The measured dependences and the proposed model relations are then implemented in the AWJ machining process simulation. The obtained results are in good agreement in the engraving regime of AWJ machining. To expand the validity of the simulation further, a cellular automata approach is explored in the second part of the paper.

  7. The Final Days of Paracas in Cerro del Gentil, Chincha Valley, Peru.

    Henry Tantaleán

    Full Text Available This article describes and analyzes a highly significant archaeological context discovered in a late Paracas (400-200 BCE sunken patio in the monumental platform mound of Cerro Gentil, located in the Chincha Valley, Peru. This patio area was used for several centuries for ritual activities, including large-scale feasting and other public gatherings. At one point late in this historical sequence people deposited a great deal of objects in what is demonstrably a single historical event. This was quickly followed by a series of minor events stratigraphically immediately above this larger event. This entire ritual process included the consumption of liquids and food, and involved the offering of whole pottery, pottery fragments, botanical remains, bone, lithics, baskets, pyro-engraved gourds, mummies, and other objects. We interpret these events as an "abandonment ceremony" or "termination ritual" during the late Paracas period, one that may have lasted for weeks or even months. The subsequent Topará occupation at the site (ca. 200 BCE- AD 100 involved the architectural enhancement of the mound area, but the pattern of use of the patio itself ended. Such a termination ritual signals a reorganization in the regional political structure of Paracas society.

  8. Development of high-capacity U-type pulse tube cryocoolers for a cold optics system in space applications

    Dang, H. Z.; Li, S. S.; Wang, L. B.; Yang, K. X.; Shen, W. B.; Wu, Y. N.


    A robust U-type pulse tube cryocooler has been developed to replace the heavy and cumbersome passive radiator system for cooling the cold optics component of a sophisticated infrared sensors system used in a weather satellite. The U-type other than coaxial arrangement is chosen to obtain a robust and simple system, and also to avoid the potential loss introduced by the possible mismatch of the temperature profiles of pulse tube and regenerator as well. Besides the conventional integral "U"-shaped cold tip, a novel detachable two-half cold head is designed to enhance cooling performance. Some fine grooves are engraved in the cold head using electro discharge machining technology, which can not only increase the heat transfer area, but also serve as a straightener for the turbulence introduced by the flow reversal. The cooler is powered by a 7.5 cc dual opposed piston compressor and the overall weight is less than 11 kg. It can lift over 8.0W of heat at 150K with 87 W of electric input power and at 310 K of reject temperature. The design considers, experimental results, and performance analyses are presented.

  9. Fabrication of thermal-resistant gratings for high-temperature measurements using geometric phase analysis.

    Zhang, Q; Liu, Z; Xie, H; Ma, K; Wu, L


    Grating fabrication techniques are crucial to the success of grating-based deformation measurement methods because the quality of the grating will directly affect the measurement results. Deformation measurements at high temperatures entail heating and, perhaps, oxidize the grating. The contrast of the grating lines may change during the heating process. Thus, the thermal-resistant capability of the grating becomes a point of great concern before taking measurements. This study proposes a method that combines a laser-engraving technique with the processes of particle spraying and sintering for fabricating thermal-resistant gratings. The grating fabrication technique is introduced and discussed in detail. A numerical simulation with a geometric phase analysis (GPA) is performed for a homogeneous deformation case. Then, the selection scheme of the grating pitch is suggested. The validity of the proposed technique is verified by fabricating a thermal-resistant grating on a ZrO2 specimen and measuring its thermal strain at high temperatures (up to 1300 °C). Images of the grating before and after deformation are used to obtain the thermal-strain field by GPA and to compare the results with well-established reference data. The experimental results indicate that this proposed technique is feasible and will offer good prospects for further applications.

  10. Application of digital radiography in the analysis of cultural heritage

    Oiveira, Davi F.; Calza, Cristiane; Rocha, Henrique S.; Nascimento, Joseilson R.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear


    The scientific examination of artworks has gained increasing interest in the last years, allowing the characterization of materials and techniques employed by the artists. This analysis can be extremely valuable to conservation and restoration treatments. However, the fact that every artworks is a unique piece emphasizes the necessity of working with non-destructive techniques. Although radiography has been used in the technical examination of museum objects for many decades, digital radiography is rapidly becoming a preferred modality for this essential tool in the advanced examination of works of art. The ability to electronically combine images from the large painting into a single composite image file was extremely valuable and results in higher quality images than those achieved with conventional radiography. These images can be also processed and improved using adequate software. Additional advantages of digital radiography include the possibility of an almost immediate analysis of the results, use of an only recording film and absence of chemical processing. Radiographic imaging can be applied to the analysis of virtually all media including paintings, sculptures, woodworks, engravings, etc. This paper reports some case studies of the use of digital radiography in the study of paintings and sculptures, showing the feasibility and advantages of this technique for this kind of purpose. The radiographic images revealed the conservation state of the analyzed objects and various details of its execution in order to assist recently restoration processes. (author)

  11. The collaboration of Antoine and Marie-Anne Lavoisier and the first measurements of human oxygen consumption.

    West, John B


    Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) was one of the most eminent scientists of the late 18th century. He is often referred to as the father of chemistry, in part because of his book Elementary Treatise on Chemistry. In addition he was a major figure in respiratory physiology, being the first person to recognize the true nature of oxygen, elucidating the similarities between respiration and combustion, and making the first measurements of human oxygen consumption under various conditions. Less well known are the contributions made by his wife, Marie-Anne Lavoisier. However, she was responsible for drawings of the experiments on oxygen consumption when the French revolution was imminent. These are of great interest because written descriptions are not available. Possible interpretations of the experiments are given here. In addition, her translations from English to French of papers by Priestley and others were critical in Lavoisier's demolition of the erroneous phlogiston theory. She also provided the engravings for her husband's textbook, thus documenting the extensive new equipment that he developed. In addition she undertook editorial work, for example in preparing his posthumous memoirs. The scientific collaboration of this husband-wife team is perhaps unique among the giants of respiratory physiology.

  12. Firefly: an optical lithographic system for the fabrication of holographic security labels

    Calderón, Jorge; Rincón, Oscar; Amézquita, Ricardo; Pulido, Iván.; Amézquita, Sebastián.; Bernal, Andrés.; Romero, Luis; Agudelo, Viviana


    This paper introduces Firefly, an optical lithography origination system that has been developed to produce holographic masters of high quality. This mask-less lithography system has a resolution of 418 nm half-pitch, and generates holographic masters with the optical characteristics required for security applications of level 1 (visual verification), level 2 (pocket reader verification) and level 3 (forensic verification). The holographic master constitutes the main core of the manufacturing process of security holographic labels used for the authentication of products and documents worldwide. Additionally, the Firefly is equipped with a software tool that allows for the hologram design from graphic formats stored in bitmaps. The software is capable of generating and configuring basic optical effects such as animation and color, as well as effects of high complexity such as Fresnel lenses, engraves and encrypted images, among others. The Firefly technology gathers together optical lithography, digital image processing and the most advanced control systems, making possible a competitive equipment that challenges the best technologies in the industry of holographic generation around the world. In this paper, a general description of the origination system is provided as well as some examples of its capabilities.

  13. The Societal History of Translation in Iran: the Relation between the Cultural History of Iran and its Historical Culture

    R. Gransayeh


    Full Text Available In this article, we declare the preliminary approaches of translation in Iran's history, includes some results of a research about translation trends in Iran’s cultural history, in order to understand any probable relation between the assumed approaches and the socio-cultural changes, in which there is two major historical periods, the ancient Iran and the Islamic cultural period. Then the probable relation between translation approaches and socio-cultural changes has been considered and conceptually used as an index for understanding the social functions of translation in those periods, and also finding out any socio-historical role of translation in the cultural history of Iran. The concept of “translation” in this article has been used in two different, but related conceptual meaning: the first one considers translation as the process of rendering words or texts from one language into another, the second approaches includes any reading and re-reading of a culture by another culture, as an intercultural process. Methodologically, older periods have been studied by pursuing the relations between transitional engravings, scripts and monuments. The newer periods have been studied through historical reports. The final conclusion proposes two different functions of translation; it seems that translation in the ancient period is an inner cultural trait; and in the Islamic era seems to function more as a “necessity for intercultural communications”, and also as a way to provide basic needs for constructing a trans-cultural society.

  14. Loan Documentation of the Ancient Rome Imperial Alimentary Fund (Tabula «Veleia»

    Michael N. Saiko


    Full Text Available The mortgage contracts engraved on the bronze plaques found in the Italian region Veleia and called Tabula «Veleia» are in the focus of investigation of the present paper. These are the agreements between authorities of the Imperial alimentary fund in Gallia Cispadana and Liguria and land owners of Veleia, Placentia, Luca, Parma and Libarna about granting loans on land lending. Money got on interest payments were directed towards orphans and poor parents free-born children support till their adulthood. Tabula «Veleia» contains 52 loan contracts, 15 of which are translated into Russian in full, others are given in brief. The structure and content of these mortgages are determined and some mistakes in calculations are found in the documents and some publications. The land domain size the square of which ranges from some dozens jugerum till more than 1000 jugerum is analyzed. The attention is also paid to the owners’ estates consisted of separate manors the square of which ranged within considerable limits (from 2 till 490 jugerum and their names are studied. It is determined that the manors’ names which end with «anus» belonged to the Roman names, others – to the Celt-Ligurian. Tabula «Veleia» allows becoming more familiar with finance and credit documents and the conclusions made on the basis of its analysis promote the deep insight in the social-economic relations of Ancient Rome.

  15. How the Myth was Born:Harriet Tubman,the Black Moses%神话的诞生:“黑人摩西”哈丽雅特·塔布曼



    作为自我解放的南方逃奴和“地下铁路”运动的地方代理,哈丽亚特·塔布曼不仅以其被压迫种族救赎者的形象镌刻于美国黑人的群体记忆当中,同时也逐渐升华为整个美利坚民族的英雄符号,且历久不衰。本文认为,塔布曼的这种“神话化”现象是由黑人种族被压抑已久的内在渴望、塔布曼的个人传奇以及地下铁路运动的理想主义特质这三种力量汇合所造就的结果。%Harriet Tubman,a former southern runaway slave and later a local agent of Underground Railroad,was not only deeply engraved in the African American memories as the redeemer of the oppressed race,but was also gradually reincarnated into the heroic symbol of whole American nation. This article holds that the phenomenon of Tubman’s deification was due to three forces,namely,the long oppressed inner hunger of the black race,the personal legend of Tubman,and the idealistic na-ture of Underground Railroad.

  16. Innovation et système des brevets aux États-Unis : un modèle en question(s Innovation and the U.S. Patent System: A model questioned

    Martine Azuelos


    Full Text Available In an effort to promote economic growth by stimulating innovation, the Founding Fathers engraved the concept of patent in the Constitution of the United States by granting Congress the power “to promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries.” This article focuses first on the origins of the inclusion of this reference to intellectual/industrial property rights in the U.S. Constitution and its enduring influence on the U.S. patent system in the 19th and 20th centuries. It also stresses the impact of this patent system on the development of innovation in the U.S. during this period, and its influence on industrial property protection systems developed abroad. Last but not least, it shows that the advent of globalisation and the knowledge economy have recently led to a questioning of the model, both in the U.S. and abroad.


    Banu Hatice Gurcum


    Full Text Available Innovative technologies have become the most widespread rapid and flexible technique of cutting, welding, printing and coloring in fashion and textile sectors in a very short time. Laser systems as the most common used innovative technology engrave, cut, form, print, shade appropriated formatted drawings and sketches as well as they provide reliable placements for the lay out plans and precision cutting and the production sector rapid and qualified. The practical applications and conveniences that innovative Technologies employ, influence design process, designers can design in a more creative, rapid, precise and effective manner. Although design is a context where technology is effective, the style, mood and the background of the designer is still important. Designers while making innovative studies should take the advantage of the developing technologies in experimental processes and should combine technological opportunities with aesthetics. Textile designer as in all other domains of design, should harmonise with the change and should define his/her style with the innovative Technologies in an innovative manner and renew him/herself all the time. This study aims to classify laser cutting technology applications available in textile and fashion sector as well as to present the laser technology as a means of process, product, material innovation and explains the contributions of laser systems to creativity.

  18. El universo de Einstein: 1905 - annus mirabilis - 2005

    Gangui, Alejandro


    Year 2005 was the World Year of Physics, and it was commemorated worldwide as the 100th anniversary of Albert Einstein's legendary works in which the foundations of at least three areas of modern physics were laid: statistical mechanics, quantum mechanics and special relativity. These works turned year 1905 in what deservedly was called the "miraculous year" (annus mirabilis) of Einstein. However, the influence of this great mind was not limited to science. As it is well known, his fingerprint remains engraved in many aspects of our daily life. Because of that, in this work we have tried to cover almost all the subjects in which Einstein was involved during the last century and, of course, try and reveal the future projection his actions will have in this new century that has just begun. Among the subjects covered in the volume one can find the possible connection between Einstein and the artistic vanguard movement, his religiosity, his days in Argentina, the Nobel Prize, the Einstein-Freud correspondence, hi...

  19. Spanish Prints from the Peninsular War: Propaganda, Commemoration and Testimony Estampas españolas de la Guerra de la Independencia: propaganda, conmemoración y testimonio

    José Manuel MATILLA


    Full Text Available Prints were a remarkable propaganda instrument during the Peninsular War. Since the mid 18th century the State had been encouraging the development of engraving and this favoured the existence of printmakers who satisfied the requirements of the market during these years. This market can be tracked thanks to the advertisements published in the periodical press. Production revolved around satire, portraits and narrative representations. As opposed to these mainly propagandistic prints, Francisco de Goya’s Disasters of War constitute a counterpoint in which the author offers a critical and personal point of view.Las estampas constituyeron un notable instrumento de propaganda durante la Guerra de la Independencia. La labor que el Estado había desarrollado desde mediados del siglo XVIII para el fomento del grabado favoreció la existencia de grabadores que satisficieron la demanda del mercado en estos años. Un mercado que es posible seguir gracias a los anuncios insertados en la prensa periódica. Sátiras, retratos y representaciones narrativas constituyen los tres ejes alrededor de los que gira esta producción. Frente a estas estampas de función eminentemente propagandística, los Desastres de la guerra de Francisco de Goya constituyen un contrapunto en el que el autor ofrece una visión crítica y personal.

  20. 基于EON的虚拟实验系统研究%Research on virtual experiment system based on EON

    戴军; 杨南粤; 陈华竣


    设计并实现了基于EON软件的虚拟实验系统.虚拟实验是虚拟现实技术在教育方面的重要应用,EONStudio是模块化多用途的三维交互式仿真软件开发工具.提出了实现虚拟实验系统的具体方案及技术路线,运用三维建模技术和交互式虚拟现实设计软件—EON Studio,构建了虚拟系统的结构和组成模块,完成了“激光内雕机”这个虚拟实验系统的各构件的交互和整体的集成.%The virtual experiment system is designed and implemented. The virtual experiment is an important application of the virtual reality technology in education, and EON Studio is the simulation software development tool of modular multi-purpose interactive 3D. The concrete scheme and technical route to implement the virtual experiment education system are proposed. With the three-dimensional modeling techniques and interactive virtual reality design software (EON Studio), the structure and composition of modules of the virtual experiment system are constructed, and the interaction and integration of the virtual experiment education system of "laser engraving machine "are completed.